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Sample records for late lumen loss

  1. Lumen Maintenance and Light Loss Factors: Consequences of Current Design Practices for LED's

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, Michael P.

    2013-09-17

    Synopsis: Light loss factors are used to help lighting systems meet quantitative design criteria throughout the life of the installation, but they also influence energy use. As the light sources currently being specified continue to evolve, it is necessary to reevaluate the methods used in calculating light loss factors, as well as carefully consider the consequences of different product performance attributes. Because of the unique operating characteristics of LEDs and lack of a comprehensive lifetime rating—as well as the problematic relationship between lifetime and lumen maintenance—determining an appropriate lamp lumen depreciation (LLD) factor for LED products is difficult. As a result, a unique solution has been advocated: when quantity of light is an important design consideration, the IES recommends using an LLD of not greater than 0.70. This method deviates from the typical practice for conventional sources of using the ratio of mean to initial lumen output, and can misrepresent actual performance, increase energy use, and inhibit comparisons between products. This paper discusses the complications related to LLD and LEDs, compares the performance of conventional and LED products, and examines alternatives to a maximum LLD of 0.70 for LEDs.

  2. The relationship between lumenal and limiting membranes in swollen late endocytic compartments formed after wortmannin treatment or sucrose accumulation.

    PubMed

    Bright, N A; Lindsay, M R; Stewart, A; Luzio, J P

    2001-09-01

    Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy were used to evaluate the formation of swollen endosomes in NRK cells after treatment with wortmannin or sucrose and to study the relationship between lumenal and limiting membrane. Both treatments resulted in the formation of two populations of swollen late endocytic vacuoles, positive for lysosomal glycoproteins or cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptors, but those induced by wortmannin were characterised by time-dependent accumulation of lumenal vesicles, whereas those induced by sucrose uptake did not accumulate lumenal vesicles. In both cases, the distribution of the late endosomal marker, lysobisphosphatidic acid, remained unchanged and was present within the lumen of the swollen vacuoles. Consumption of plasma membrane and peripheral early endosomes, and the appearance of transferrin receptors in swollen late endosomes, indicated that continued membrane influx from early endocytic compartments, together with inhibition of membrane traffic out of the swollen compartments, is sufficient to account for the observed phenotype of cells treated with wortmannin. The accumulation of organelles with the characteristic morphology of endocytic carrier vesicles in cells that have taken up sucrose offers an explanation for the paucity of lumenal vesicles in swollen sucrosomes. Our data suggest that in fibroblast cells the swollen endosome phenotype induced by wortmannin is a consequence of endocytic membrane influx, coupled with the failure to recycle membrane to other cellular destinations, and not the inhibition of multivesicular body biogenesis. PMID:11555417

  3. Formation of the peroxisome lumen is abolished by loss of Pichia pastoris Pas7p, a zinc-binding integral membrane protein of the peroxisome.

    PubMed Central

    Kalish, J E; Theda, C; Morrell, J C; Berg, J M; Gould, S J

    1995-01-01

    We have cloned and sequenced PAS7, a gene required for peroxisome assembly in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The product of this gene, Pas7p, is a member of the C3HC4 superfamily of zinc-binding proteins. Point mutations that alter conserved residues of the C3HC4 motif abolish PAS7 activity and reduce zinc binding, suggesting that Pas7p binds zinc in vivo and that zinc binding is essential for PAS7 function. As with most pas mutants, pas7 cells exhibit a pronounced deficiency in import of peroxisomal matrix proteins that contain either the type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS1) or the type 2 PTS (PTS2). However, while other yeast and mammalian pas mutants accumulate ovoid, vesicular peroxisomal intermediates, loss of Pas7p leads to accumulation of membrane sheets and vesicles which lack a recognizable lumen. Thus, Pas7p appears to be essential for protein translocation into peroxisomes as well as formation of the lumen of the organelle. Consistent with these data, we find that Pas7p is an integral peroxisomal membrane protein which is entirely resistant to exogenous protease and thus appears to reside completely within the peroxisome. Our observations suggest that the function of Pas7p defines a previously unrecognized step in peroxisome assembly: formation of the peroxisome lumen. Furthermore, because the peroxisomal intermediates in the pas7 delta mutant proliferate in response to peroxisome-inducing environmental conditions, we conclude that Pas7p is not required for peroxisome proliferation. PMID:7565793

  4. Appetite Loss and Neurocognitive Deficits in Late-Life Depression

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Guy G.; McQuoid, Douglas R.; Steffens, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Examine association of appetite loss symptoms to neurocognitive performance in late-life depression (LLD). Methods Cross-sectional data from individuals aged 60+ with Major Depressive Disorder (N =322). Participants received clinical assessment of depression and neuropsychological testing. Factor analysis was used to characterize depression symptom factors, and composite scales were developed for episodic memory, psychomotor executive functions, verbal fluency, and working memory span. Results Factor analysis produced a five-factor solution: (1) Anhedonia/Sadness, (2) Suicidality/Guilt, (3) Appetite/Weight Loss, (4) Sleep Disturbance, and (5) Anxiety/Tension. In separate multivariate models for each neurocognitive domain and including all 5 depression factors, higher appetite-loss-related symptoms were associated with lower performance in episodic memory, psychomotor executive functions, and verbal fluency; results were significant with covariates of age, education, race, sex, age of depression onset, and illness burden. No other depression factors were associated with neurocognitive performance in these models. In an additional set of models, the Appetite factor mediated the association between global depression severity and neurocognitive performance. Discussion A factor of appetite and weight loss symptoms in LLD was uniquely associated with neurocognitive performance, in contrast to lack of association among other depression symptom factors. Conclusion Cognitive deficits are a major adverse outcome of LLD, and prominent appetite loss during acute depression may be a marker for these deficits, independent of overall depression severity. Research is needed to understand the mechanisms that may explain this association, and how it is related to the cognitive and symptomatic course of LLD. PMID:25315155

  5. Measuring Meaning: Searching for and Making Sense of Spousal Loss in Late-Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Rachel A.; Neimeyer, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Despite much recent theorizing, evidence regarding the temporal relationship of sense-making to adjustment following bereavement remains relatively sparse. This study examined the role of searching for and making sense of loss in late-life spousal bereavement, using prospective, longitudinal data from the Changing Lives of Older Couples (CLOC)…

  6. Observations and theory of mass loss in late-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, L.

    1981-01-01

    The presented review is mainly concerned with the ubiquitous mass loss which occurs during most of a star's existence as a cool giant or supergiant. Observations of mass loss are considered, taking into account wind components and kinematics, and the temperature structure of cool winds. Theories of mass loss are examined, giving attention to radiation pressure on dust, radiation pressure in Lyman alpha, and magnetic wave-driven winds. It is pointed out that the study of mass loss from late-type stars appears to be entering a promising new phase. In this phase, the behavior of cool giants and supergiants is considered from a solar perspective, a perspective which contains important implications concerning the nature of solar activity.

  7. Late-onset MNGIE without peripheral neuropathy due to incomplete loss of thymidine phosphorylase activity.

    PubMed

    Massa, Roberto; Tessa, Alessandra; Margollicci, Maria; Micheli, Vanna; Romigi, Andrea; Tozzi, Giulia; Terracciano, Chiara; Piemonte, Fiorella; Bernardi, Giorgio; Santorelli, Filippo M

    2009-12-01

    Mitochondrial NeuroGastroIntestinal Encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe gastrointestinal dysmotility, cachexia, peripheral neuropathy, ptosis, ophthalmoplegia, and leukoencephalopathy with early onset and severe prognosis. Mutations in the TYMP/ECGF1 gene cause a loss of thymidine phosphorylase catalytic activity, disrupting the homeostasis of intramitochondrial nucleotide pool. We report a woman with a very late onset of MNGIE, lacking peripheral neuropathy. Thymidine phosphorylase activity was markedly reduced in cultured fibroblasts, but only mildly reduced in buffy coat, where the defect is usually detected, and plasma thymidine was mildly increased compared to typical MNGIE patients. TYMP/ECGF1 analysis detected two heterozygous mutations, including a novel missense mutation. These findings indicate that a partial loss of thymidine phosphorylase activity may induce a late-onset and incomplete MNGIE phenotype. PMID:19853446

  8. The role of dust in mass loss from late-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.

    1986-01-01

    It is noted that, in almost all late-type stars with measured mass loss rates, there is sufficient momentum in the radiation to dominate the dynamics. The opacity of the material is sufficiently great to render radiation pressure important; the dust forms close enough to the central star for radiation pressure to account for the observed outflow velocities. Pulsations appear to be important in raising the material far enough above the photosphere for grains to condense.

  9. Measuring Meaning: Searching For and Making Sense of Spousal Loss in Late-Life

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Rachel A.; Neimeyer, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Despite much recent theorizing, evidence regarding the temporal relationship of sense-making to adjustment following bereavement remains relatively sparse. This study examined the role of searching for and making sense of loss in late-life spousal bereavement, using prospective, longitudinal data from the Changing Lives of Older Couples1 (CLOC) project (N=250). Searching at 6 and 18 months post-loss predicted both contemporaneous and subsequent grief. Sense-making was not related to grief for this sample. In contrast, sense-making at 6 months and 18 months predicted positive affect at 48 months, while searching had no prospective effect on this outcome. Searching at 6 months predicted depression at 18 months. Results are interpreted in terms of meaning-oriented theories of bereavement and processes promoting both adaptive and maladaptive outcomes. PMID:24482851

  10. On the method of lumens.

    PubMed

    Shera, Christopher A

    2014-12-01

    Parent and Allen [(2007). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 122, 918-931] introduced the "method of lumens" to compute the plane-wave reflectance in a duct terminated with a nonuniform impedance. The method involves splitting the duct into multiple, fictitious subducts (lumens), solving for the reflectance in each subduct, and then combining the results. The method of lumens has considerable intuitive appeal and is easily implemented in the time domain. Previously applied only in a complex acoustical setting where proper evaluation is difficult (i.e., in a model of the ear canal and tympanic membrane), the method is tested here by using it to compute the reflectance from an area constriction in an infinite lossless duct considered in the long-wavelength limit. Neither the original formulation of the method-shown here to violate energy conservation except when the termination impedance is uniform-nor a reformulation consistent with basic physical constraints yields the correct solution to this textbook problem in acoustics. The results are generalized and the nature of the errors illuminated. PMID:25480060

  11. Do Afterlife Beliefs Affect Psychological Adjustment to Late-Life Spousal Loss?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We explore whether beliefs about the existence and nature of an afterlife affect 5 psychological symptoms (anxiety, anger, depression, intrusive thoughts, and yearning) among recently bereaved older spouses. Method. We conduct multivariate regression analyses using data from the Changing Lives of Older Couples (CLOC), a prospective study of spousal loss. The CLOC obtained data from bereaved persons prior to loss and both 6 and 18 months postloss. All analyses are adjusted for health, sociodemographic characteristics, and preloss marital quality. Results. Bleak or uncertain views about the afterlife are associated with multiple aspects of distress postloss. Uncertainty about the existence of an afterlife is associated with elevated intrusive thoughts, a symptom similar to posttraumatic distress. Widowed persons who do not expect to be reunited with loved ones in the afterlife report significantly more depressive symptoms, anger, and intrusive thoughts at both 6 and 18 months postloss. Discussion. Beliefs in an afterlife may be maladaptive for coping with late-life spousal loss, particularly if one is uncertain about its existence or holds a pessimistic view of what the afterlife entails. Our findings are broadly consistent with recent work suggesting that “continuing bonds” with the decedent may not be adaptive for older bereaved spouses. PMID:23811692

  12. Applying Interpersonal Psychotherapy to Bereavement-Related Depression Following Loss of a Spouse in Late Life

    PubMed Central

    MILLER, MARK D.; FRANK, ELLEN; CORNES, CLEON; IMBER, STANLEY D.; ANDERSON, BARBARA; EHRENPREIS, LIN; MALLOY, JULIE; SILBERMAN, REBECCA; WOLFSON, LEE; ZALTMAN, JEAN; REYNOLDS, CHARLES F.

    1994-01-01

    The efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) as a treatment for outpatients with major depression has been documented in several controlled trials. Recently, IPT has been adapted specifically for depression in late life. The authors report on their experience in applying IPT to geriatric patients whose depression is temporally linked to the loss of their spouses. Detailed treatment techniques are illustrated with case vignettes. Preliminary treatment outcomes are presented for 6 subjects who showed a mean change on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression from 18.5 ± 2.3 SD to 7.2 ± 4.6 after an average of 17 weekly IPT sessions. IPT appears to be an effective short-term treatment for bereavement-related depression in elderly subjects. PMID:22700188

  13. SPH Simulations of Volatiles Loss from Icy Satellites During a Late Heavy Bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Movshovitz, N.; Nimmo, F.; Korycansky, D.; Asphaug, E. I.; Owen, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    The present day ice-to-silicate ratio in satellites of the outer solar system can be used to constrain dynamical models of solar system formation [1]. The reason is that a period of intense impact activity after formation of the planets, implied by some dynamical models [2,3,4], could have resulted in significant mass loss, of ice preferentially, from these satellites. The location of Jovian and Saturnian satellites inside the gravity well of these giant planets implies high impact velocities, perhaps as high as 30 km/s [5]. Combined with small satellite masses, a Late Heavy Bombardment may well lead to a significant fraction of a satellite's mass ejected. In a previous study, Nimmo and Korycansky [1] calculate, using a scaling law for vaporization of ice from craters [6], the total expected ice loss from satellites of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus. They find that many satellites should have lost significant fractions (>10%) of their water ice. As many of these satellites do not appear to be significantly depleted in volatiles, this raises questions about the timing or intensity of a late heavy bombardment. (See also [4]). But this conclusion depends on some key assumptions regarding the distribution of impactor sizes and velocities, and, critically, the expected mass loss during a single impact. Here we compare predictions of impact-driven mass loss using direct hydrodynamical simulations of the relevant impact events, with the scaling law originally developed for cratering by small impactors [6]. The main advantage of this approach is that we can consider impacts between comparably sized bodies, where a cratering scaling law does not strictly apply. Another advantage of a direct hydro simulation is that we can track escaping mass, rather than vapor production. This is most significant for lower velocity impacts, typical of accretion [7,8]. This method should also be less sensitive to the choice of equation of state. To resolve preferential ice loss during impacts

  14. FUV Spectra of Evolved Late-K and M Stars: Mass Loss Revisited and Stellar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Graham M.

    2002-01-01

    This is the final report for the FUSE Cycle 1 program A100: FUV Spectra of Evolved Late-K and M Stars: Mass Loss revisited and Stellar Activity. Targets alpha TrA (K3 II) and gamma Cru (M3 III) were originally assigned 25 ksec each, to be observed in the medium aperture. Once the in-flight performance and telescope alignment problems were known, the observations were reprogrammed to optimized the scientific return of the program. Alpha TrA was scheduled for 25 ksec observations in both the medium and large apertures. The principle aim of this program was to measure the stellar FUV line and continuum emission, in order to estimate the photoionization radiation field and to determine the level of stellar activity through the fluxes in the collisionally excited high temperature diagnostics: C III 977Angstroms and O VI 1032,1038Angstrom doublet. The medium aperture observations were obtained successfully while the large aperture observations were thought by Johns Hopkins University (JHU)to be lost to satellite problems. There was insufficient signal-to- noise in the medium aperture short wavelength Sic channels to do quantitative science.

  15. Relationship between Angiographic Late Loss and 5-Year Clinical Outcome after Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Young-June; Shin, Sanghoon; Kim, Byeong-Keuk; Kim, Jung-Sun; Shin, Dong-Ho; Ko, Young-Guk; Choi, Donghoon; Jang, Yangsoo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Currently, insufficient data exist to evaluate the relationship between angiographic late loss (LL) and long-term clinical outcome after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation. In this study, we hypothesized that angiographic LL between 0.3 and 0.6 mm correlate with favorable long-term clinical outcomes. Materials and Methods Patients were enrolled in the present study if they had undergone both DES implantation in single coronary vessel and a subsequent follow-up angiogram (n=634). These individuals were then subdivided into three groups based on their relative angiographic LL: group I (angiographic LL <0.3 mm, n=378), group II (angiographic LL between 0.3 and 0.6 mm, n=124), and group III (angiographic LL >0.6 mm, n=134). During a 5-year follow-up period, all subjects were tracked for critical events, defined as any cause of death or myocardial infarction, which were then compared among the three groups. Results Mean follow-up duration was 63.0±10.0 months. Critical events occurred in 25 subjects in group I (6.6%), 5 in group II (4.0%), and 17 in group III (12.7%), (p=0.020; group I vs. group II, p=0.293; group II vs. group III, p=0.013). In a subsequent multivariate logistic regression analysis, chronic renal failure [odds ratio (OR)=3.29, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.48-7.31, p=0.003] and long lesion length, defined as lesion length >28 mm (OR=1.88, 95% CI: 1.02-3.46, p=0.042) were independent predictors of long-term critical events. Conclusion This retrospective analysis fails to demonstrate that post-DES implantation angiographic LL between 0.3 and 0.6 mm is protective against future critical events. PMID:23225797

  16. Redox regulation in the thylakoid lumen.

    PubMed

    Kang, Zhen-Hui; Wang, Gui-Xue

    2016-03-15

    Higher plants need to balance the efficiency of light energy absorption and dissipative photo-protection when exposed to fluctuations in light quantity and quality. This aim is partially realized through redox regulation within the chloroplast, which occurs in all chloroplast compartments except the envelope intermembrane space. In contrast to the chloroplast stroma, less attention has been paid to the thylakoid lumen, an inner, continuous space enclosed by the thylakoid membrane in which redox regulation is also essential for photosystem biogenesis and function. This sub-organelle compartment contains at least 80 lumenal proteins, more than 30 of which are known to contain disulfide bonds. Thioredoxins (Trx) in the chloroplast stroma are photo-reduced in the light, transferring reducing power to the proteins in the thylakoid membrane and ultimately the lumen through a trans-thylakoid membrane-reduced, equivalent pathway. The discovery of lumenal thiol oxidoreductase highlights the importance of the redox regulation network in the lumen for controlling disulfide bond formation, which is responsible for protein activity and folding and even plays a role in photo-protection. In addition, many lumenal members involved in photosystem assembly and non-photochemical quenching are likely required for reduction and/or oxidation to maintain their proper efficiency upon changes in light intensity. In light of recent findings, this review summarizes the multiple redox processes that occur in the thylakoid lumen in great detail, highlighting the essential auxiliary roles of lumenal proteins under fluctuating light conditions. PMID:26812087

  17. Modelling Wheat Growth and Yield Losses from Late Epidemics of Foliar Diseases using Loss of Green Leaf Area per Layer and Pre-anthesis Reserves

    PubMed Central

    Bancal, Marie-Odile; Robert, Corinne; Ney, Bertrand

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Crop protection strategies, based on preventing quantitative crop losses rather than pest outbreaks, are being developed as a promising way to reduce fungicide use. The Bastiaans' model was applied to winter wheat crops (Triticum aestivum) affected by leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) and Septoria tritici blotch (STB; Mycosphaerella graminicola) under a range of crop management conditions. This study examined (a) whether green leaf area per layer accurately accounts for growth loss; and (b) whether from growth loss it is possible to derive yield loss accurately and simply. Methods Over 5 years of field experiments, numerous green leaf area dynamics were analysed during the post-anthesis period on wheat crops using natural aerial epidemics of leaf rust and STB. Key Results When radiation use efficiency (RUE) was derived from bulk green leaf area index (GLAI), RUEbulk was hardly accurate and exhibited large variations among diseased wheat crops, thus extending outside the biological range. In contrast, when RUE was derived from GLAI loss per layer, RUElayer was a more accurate calculation and fell within the biological range. In one situation out of 13, no significant shift in the RUElayer of diseased crops vs. healthy crops was observed. A single linear relationship linked yield to post-anthesis accumulated growth for all treatments. Its slope, not different from 1, suggests that the allocation of post-anthesis photosynthates to grains was not affected by the late occurring diseases under study. The mobilization of pre-anthesis reserves completely accounted for the intercept value. Conclusions The results strongly suggest that a simple model based on green leaf area per layer and pre-anthesis reserves can predict both growth and yield of wheat suffering from late epidemics of foliar diseases over a range of crop practices. It could help in better understanding how crop structure and reserve management contribute to tolerance of wheat genotypes to

  18. Longitudinal Development of Phonology and Morphology in Children with Late-Identified Mild-Moderate Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Mary Pat; McCleary, Elizabeth; Putman, Coille; Tyler-Krings, Amy; Hoover, Brenda; Stelmachowicz, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Objective Studies of language development in children with mild-moderate hearing loss are relatively rare. Longitudinal studies of children with late-identified hearing loss have not been conducted, and they are relevant for determining how a period of unaided mild-moderate hearing loss impacts development. In recent years, newborn hearing screening programs have effectively reduced the ages of identification for most children with permanent hearing loss. However, some children continue to be identified late and research is needed to guide management decisions. Further, studies of this group may help to discern if language normalizes following intervention, and/or if certain aspects of language might be vulnerable to persistent delays. The current study examines the impact of late identification and reduced audibility on speech and language outcomes via a longitudinal study of four children with mild-moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Design Longitudinal outcomes of four children with late-identified mild-moderate sensorinueral hearing loss were studied using standardized measures and language sampling procedures, from at or near the point of identification (28 – 41 months) through 84 months of age. The children with hearing loss were compared to ten age-matched children with normal hearing on a majority of the measures through 60 months of age. Spontaneous language samples were collected from mother-child interaction sessions, recorded at consistent intervals in a laboratory-based play setting. Transcripts were analyzed using computer-based procedures (Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts) and the Index of Productive Syntax. Possible influences of audibility were explored by examining the onset and productive use of a set of verb tense markers, and by monitoring the children’s accuracy in use of morphological endings. Phonological samples at baseline were transcribed and analyzed using Computerized Profiling. Results At entry to the study, the four

  19. Evolved Late-Type Star FUV Spectra: Mass Loss and Fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Graham M.

    2005-01-01

    This proposal was for a detailed analysis of the far ultraviolet (FUV) photoionizing radiation that provides crucial input physics for mass loss studies, e.g., observations of the flux below 10448, allow us to constrain the Ca II/Ca III balance and make significant progress beyond previous optical studies on stellar mass loss and circumstellar photochemistry. Our targets selection provided good spectral-type coverage required to help unravel the Ca II/Ca III balance as the mass-loss rates increase by over three orders of magnitude from K5 III to M5 III. We also explored the relationship between the FUV radiation field and other UV diagnostics to allow us to empirically estimate the FUV radiation field for the vast majority of stars which are too faint to be observed with FUSE, and to improve upon their uncertain mass-loss rates.

  20. Case Studies Illustrating Focal Alzheimer's, Fluent Aphasia, Late-Onset Memory Loss, and Rapid Dementia.

    PubMed

    Camsari, Gamze Balci; Murray, Melissa E; Graff-Radford, Neill R

    2016-08-01

    Many dementia subtypes have more shared signs and symptoms than defining ones. We review 8 cases with 4 overlapping syndromes and demonstrate how to distinguish the cases. These include focal cortical presentations of Alzheimer's disease (AD; posterior cortical atrophy and corticobasal syndrome [CBS]), fluent aphasia (semantic dementia and logopenic aphasia), late-onset slowly progressive dementia (hippocampal sclerosis and limbic predominant AD) and rapidly progressive dementia (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and limbic encephalitis). Recognizing the different syndromes can help the clinician to improve their diagnostic skills, leading to improved patient outcomes by early and accurate diagnosis, prompt treatment, and appropriate counseling and guidance. PMID:27445249

  1. Psychosocial Adaptations to Dual Sensory Loss in Middle and Late Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Mark; Bally, Scott J.

    2007-01-01

    Concurrent losses of hearing and vision function, or dual sensory loss, affect a large number of individuals of all ages and particularly older adults. Dual sensory loss may present at any age as a result of genetic defect, accident, injury, disease, or environmental insult; however, most persons develop this condition as a result of age-related disease processes that rarely result in total deafness or blindness. This condition has wide-ranging implications for physical and psychological functioning and quality of life. In this article, we review the prevalence and causes of dual impairment and its effects on functioning for both individuals affected and their families. We examine psychosocial coping and adaptation to this condition using biopsychosocial–spiritual and ecological models and discuss various strategies for coping and adaptation. The impact of larger societal forces on psychosocial adaptation is presented, followed by recommendations for how rehabilitation and other professionals can meet the challenge of dual sensory loss that awaits us with the aging of the population. PMID:18003870

  2. Psychosocial adaptations to dual sensory loss in middle and late adulthood.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Mark; Bally, Scott J

    2007-12-01

    Concurrent losses of hearing and vision function, or dual sensory loss, affect a large number of individuals of all ages and particularly older adults. Dual sensory loss may present at any age as a result of genetic defect, accident, injury, disease, or environmental insult; however, most persons develop this condition as a result of age-related disease processes that rarely result in total deafness or blindness. This condition has wide-ranging implications for physical and psychological functioning and quality of life. In this article, we review the prevalence and causes of dual impairment and its effects on functioning for both individuals affected and their families. We examine psychosocial coping and adaptation to this condition using biopsychosocial-spiritual and ecological models and discuss various strategies for coping and adaptation. The impact of larger societal forces on psychosocial adaptation is presented, followed by recommendations for how rehabilitation and other professionals can meet the challenge of dual sensory loss that awaits us with the aging of the population. PMID:18003870

  3. Factors influencing the late phase of recovery after bone mineral density loss in allogeneic stem cell transplantation survivors.

    PubMed

    Anandi, P; Jain, N A; Tian, X; Wu, C O; Pophali, P A; Koklanaris, E; Ito, S; Savani, B N; Barrett, J; Battiwalla, M

    2016-08-01

    Accelerated bone mineral density loss (BMDL) occurs early after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) and is related to factors such as steroids and chronic GvHD. In order to understand the natural history of BMDL of SCT in the longer term, we evaluated a longitudinal cohort of 148 survivors with a median follow-up of 12 years (range 3-22 years). All women received hormone replacement therapy, and routine calcium/vitamin D supplementation was recommended but ∼50% of patients still had suboptimal vitamin D levels and bisphosphonates were rarely utilized. BMD significantly improved from 5 to 20+ years but the femoral neck and forearm remained vulnerable sites. Younger age, higher pretransplant body mass index (BMI) and increment in BMI post transplant were significantly associated with increased BMD and protected against osteopenia/osteoporosis. These findings support consideration of BMD loss in SCT survivors in two phases, an early phase of BMD loss (3-5 years) followed by a later phase of BMD recovery, with different protective and aggravating factors. Treatment- and transplant-related factors (such as steroids, immunosuppressives, chronic GvHD, vitamin D) are known to impact the early phase of BMD loss but age and BMI are more influential in the late phase of BMD recovery. PMID:27042843

  4. Stellar model chromospheres. VI - Empirical estimates of the chromospheric radiative losses of late-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsky, J. L.; Ayres, T. R.

    1978-01-01

    A method is developed for estimating the nonradiative heating of stellar chromospheres by measuring the net radiative losses in strong Fraunhofer line cores. This method is applied to observations of the Mg II resonance lines in a sample of 32 stars including the sun. At most a small dependence of chromospheric nonradiative heating on stellar surface gravity is found, which is contrary to the large effect predicted by recent calculations based on acoustic-heating theories.

  5. Small mammal diversity loss in response to late-Pleistocene climatic change.

    PubMed

    Blois, Jessica L; McGuire, Jenny L; Hadly, Elizabeth A

    2010-06-10

    Communities have been shaped in numerous ways by past climatic change; this process continues today. At the end of the Pleistocene epoch about 11,700 years ago, North American communities were substantially altered by the interplay of two events. The climate shifted from the cold, arid Last Glacial Maximum to the warm, mesic Holocene interglacial, causing many mammal species to shift their geographic distributions substantially. Populations were further stressed as humans arrived on the continent. The resulting megafaunal extinction event, in which 70 of the roughly 220 largest mammals in North America (32%) became extinct, has received much attention. However, responses of small mammals to events at the end of the Pleistocene have been much less studied, despite the sensitivity of these animals to current and future environmental change. Here we examine community changes in small mammals in northern California during the last 'natural' global warming event at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition and show that even though no small mammals in the local community became extinct, species losses and gains, combined with changes in abundance, caused declines in both the evenness and richness of communities. Modern mammalian communities are thus depauperate not only as a result of megafaunal extinctions at the end of the Pleistocene but also because of diversity loss among small mammals. Our results suggest that across future landscapes there will be some unanticipated effects of global change on diversity: restructuring of small mammal communities, significant loss of richness, and perhaps the rising dominance of native 'weedy' species. PMID:20495547

  6. Late-onset MNGIE due to partial loss of thymidine phosphorylase activity.

    PubMed

    Martí, Ramon; Verschuuren, Jan J G M; Buchman, Alan; Hirano, Ikuo; Tadesse, Saba; van Kuilenburg, André B P; van Gennip, Albert H; Poorthuis, Ben J H M; Hirano, Michio

    2005-10-01

    Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is caused by mutations in the gene encoding thymidine phosphorylase (TP). All MNGIE patients have had severe loss of TP function and prominent plasma accumulations of the TP substrates thymidine (dThd) and deoxyuridine (dUrd). Here, we report for the first time to our knowledge three MNGIE patients with later onset, milder phenotype, and less severe TP dysfunction, compared with typical MNGIE patients. This report demonstrates a direct relationship between the biochemical defects and clinical phenotypes in MNGIE and supports the notion that reduction of dThd and dUrd accumulation or TP replacement could be useful therapy for MNGIE. PMID:16178026

  7. Familial Cushing's disease with severe weight loss occurring in late childhood.

    PubMed

    Cameron, F J; Warne, G L

    1997-02-01

    We describe a rare case of familial Cushing's disease occurring in a 7-year-old boy, and 19 years of follow up. Our patient first presented soon after his maternal aunt had been treated for Cushing's disease. The clinical presentation was made complicated by the development of an intercurrent eating disorder resembling anorexia nervosa. This resulted in marked weight loss, and even though serum and urinary cortisol levels were elevated, many of the clinical stigmata of Cushing's disease were absent. Eating disorders are relatively uncommon in boys, and in this case there was an organic cause for the abnormal behaviour. This case shows, furthermore, that even the obesity of Cushing's disease can be overcome by the combination of diet and exercise. PMID:9069050

  8. Functional lumen imaging of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Lottrup, Christian; Gregersen, Hans; Liao, Donghua; Fynne, Lotte; Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum; Krogh, Klaus; Regan, Julie; Kunwald, Peter; McMahon, Barry P

    2015-10-01

    This nonsystematic review aims to describe recent developments in the use of functional lumen imaging in the gastrointestinal tract stimulated by the introduction of the functional lumen imaging probe. When ingested food in liquid and solid form is transported along the gastrointestinal tract, sphincters provide an important role in the flow and control of these contents. Inadequate function of sphincters is the basis of many gastrointestinal diseases. Despite this, traditional methods of sphincter diagnosis and measurement such as fluoroscopy, manometry, and the barostat are limited in what they can tell us. It has long been thought that measurement of sphincter function through resistance to distension is a better approach, now more commonly known as distensibility testing. The functional lumen imaging probe is the first medical measurement device that purports in a practical way to provide geometric profiling and measurement of distensibility in sphincters. With use of impedance planimetry, an axial series of cross-sectional areas and pressure in a catheter-mounted allantoid bag are used for the calculation of distensibility parameters. The technique has been trialed in many valvular areas of the gastrointestinal tract, including the upper esophageal sphincter, the esophagogastric junction, and the anorectal region. It has shown potential in the biomechanical assessment of sphincter function and characterization of swallowing disorders, gastroesophageal reflux disease, eosinophilic esophagitis, achalasia, and fecal incontinence. From this early work, the functional lumen imaging technique has the potential to contribute to a better and more physiological understanding of narrowing regions in the gastrointestinal tract in general and sphincters in particular. PMID:25980822

  9. Actin remodeling by Nck regulates endothelial lumen formation.

    PubMed

    Chaki, Sankar P; Barhoumi, Rola; Rivera, Gonzalo M

    2015-09-01

    Multiple angiogenic cues modulate phosphotyrosine signaling to promote vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Despite its functional and clinical importance, how vascular cells integrate phosphotyrosine-dependent signaling to elicit cytoskeletal changes required for endothelial morphogenesis remains poorly understood. The family of Nck adaptors couples phosphotyrosine signals with actin dynamics and therefore is well positioned to orchestrate cellular processes required in vascular formation and remodeling. Culture of endothelial cells in three-dimensional collagen matrices in the presence of VEGF stimulation was combined with molecular genetics, optical imaging, and biochemistry to show that Nck-dependent actin remodeling promotes endothelial cell elongation and proper organization of VE-cadherin intercellular junctions. Major morphogenetic defects caused by abrogation of Nck signaling included loss of endothelial apical-basal polarity and impaired lumenization. Time-lapse imaging using a Förster resonance energy transfer biosensor, immunostaining with phospho-specific antibodies, and GST pull-down assays showed that Nck determines spatiotemporal patterns of Cdc42/aPKC activation during endothelial morphogenesis. Our results demonstrate that Nck acts as an important hub integrating angiogenic cues with cytoskeletal changes that enable endothelial apical-basal polarization and lumen formation. These findings point to Nck as an emergent target for effective antiangiogenic therapy. PMID:26157164

  10. Actin remodeling by Nck regulates endothelial lumen formation

    PubMed Central

    Chaki, Sankar P.; Barhoumi, Rola; Rivera, Gonzalo M.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple angiogenic cues modulate phosphotyrosine signaling to promote vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Despite its functional and clinical importance, how vascular cells integrate phosphotyrosine-dependent signaling to elicit cytoskeletal changes required for endothelial morphogenesis remains poorly understood. The family of Nck adaptors couples phosphotyrosine signals with actin dynamics and therefore is well positioned to orchestrate cellular processes required in vascular formation and remodeling. Culture of endothelial cells in three-dimensional collagen matrices in the presence of VEGF stimulation was combined with molecular genetics, optical imaging, and biochemistry to show that Nck-dependent actin remodeling promotes endothelial cell elongation and proper organization of VE-cadherin intercellular junctions. Major morphogenetic defects caused by abrogation of Nck signaling included loss of endothelial apical-basal polarity and impaired lumenization. Time-lapse imaging using a Förster resonance energy transfer biosensor, immunostaining with phospho-specific antibodies, and GST pull-down assays showed that Nck determines spatiotemporal patterns of Cdc42/aPKC activation during endothelial morphogenesis. Our results demonstrate that Nck acts as an important hub integrating angiogenic cues with cytoskeletal changes that enable endothelial apical-basal polarization and lumen formation. These findings point to Nck as an emergent target for effective antiangiogenic therapy. PMID:26157164

  11. 21 CFR 880.5570 - Hypodermic single lumen needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5570 Hypodermic single lumen needle. (a) Identification. A hypodermic single lumen... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hypodermic single lumen needle. 880.5570...

  12. 21 CFR 880.5570 - Hypodermic single lumen needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5570 Hypodermic single lumen needle. (a) Identification. A hypodermic single lumen... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hypodermic single lumen needle. 880.5570...

  13. 21 CFR 880.5570 - Hypodermic single lumen needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5570 Hypodermic single lumen needle. (a) Identification. A hypodermic single lumen... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hypodermic single lumen needle. 880.5570...

  14. 21 CFR 880.5570 - Hypodermic single lumen needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5570 Hypodermic single lumen needle. (a) Identification. A hypodermic single lumen... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hypodermic single lumen needle. 880.5570...

  15. Loss of the RNA-binding protein TACO1 causes late-onset mitochondrial dysfunction in mice.

    PubMed

    Richman, Tara R; Spåhr, Henrik; Ermer, Judith A; Davies, Stefan M K; Viola, Helena M; Bates, Kristyn A; Papadimitriou, John; Hool, Livia C; Rodger, Jennifer; Larsson, Nils-Göran; Rackham, Oliver; Filipovska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    The recognition and translation of mammalian mitochondrial mRNAs are poorly understood. To gain further insights into these processes in vivo, we characterized mice with a missense mutation that causes loss of the translational activator of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (TACO1). We report that TACO1 is not required for embryonic survival, although the mutant mice have substantially reduced COXI protein, causing an isolated complex IV deficiency. We show that TACO1 specifically binds the mt-Co1 mRNA and is required for translation of COXI through its association with the mitochondrial ribosome. We determined the atomic structure of TACO1, revealing three domains in the shape of a hook with a tunnel between domains 1 and 3. Mutations in the positively charged domain 1 reduce RNA binding by TACO1. The Taco1 mutant mice develop a late-onset visual impairment, motor dysfunction and cardiac hypertrophy and thus provide a useful model for future treatment trials for mitochondrial disease. PMID:27319982

  16. Loss of the RNA-binding protein TACO1 causes late-onset mitochondrial dysfunction in mice

    PubMed Central

    Richman, Tara R.; Spåhr, Henrik; Ermer, Judith A.; Davies, Stefan M. K.; Viola, Helena M.; Bates, Kristyn A.; Papadimitriou, John; Hool, Livia C.; Rodger, Jennifer; Larsson, Nils-Göran; Rackham, Oliver; Filipovska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    The recognition and translation of mammalian mitochondrial mRNAs are poorly understood. To gain further insights into these processes in vivo, we characterized mice with a missense mutation that causes loss of the translational activator of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (TACO1). We report that TACO1 is not required for embryonic survival, although the mutant mice have substantially reduced COXI protein, causing an isolated complex IV deficiency. We show that TACO1 specifically binds the mt-Co1 mRNA and is required for translation of COXI through its association with the mitochondrial ribosome. We determined the atomic structure of TACO1, revealing three domains in the shape of a hook with a tunnel between domains 1 and 3. Mutations in the positively charged domain 1 reduce RNA binding by TACO1. The Taco1 mutant mice develop a late-onset visual impairment, motor dysfunction and cardiac hypertrophy and thus provide a useful model for future treatment trials for mitochondrial disease. PMID:27319982

  17. Copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity is prevalent and a late event in the pathogenesis of FLT3/ITD AML.

    PubMed

    Stirewalt, D L; Pogosova-Agadjanyan, E L; Tsuchiya, K; Joaquin, J; Meshinchi, S

    2014-01-01

    Patients with high FLT3 internal tandem duplication allelic ratios (FLT3/ITD-ARs) have a poor prognosis. Single-nucleotide polymorphism/comparative genomic hybridization, single-cell PCR and colony-forming assays were used to evaluate genotypic evolution of high FLT3/ITD-ARs in 85 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Microarrays were used to examine molecular pathways disrupted in leukemic blasts with high FLT3/ITD-ARs. Copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (CN-LOH) was identified at the FLT3 locus in diagnostic samples with high FLT3/ITD-ARs (N=11), but not in samples with low FLT3/ITD-ARs (N=24), FLT3-activating loop mutations (N=11) or wild-type FLT3 (N=39). Single-cell assays showed that homozygous FLT3/ITD genotype was present in subsets of leukemic blasts at diagnosis but became the dominant clone at relapse. Less differentiated CD34(+)/CD33(-) progenitor colonies were heterozygous for FLT3/ITD, whereas more differentiated CD34(+)/CD33(+) progenitor colonies were homozygous for FLT3/ITD. Expression profiling revealed that samples harboring high FLT3/ITD-ARs aberrantly expressed genes within the recombination/DNA repair pathway. Thus, the development of CN-LOH at the FLT3 locus, which results in high FLT3/ITD-ARs, likely represents a late genomic event that occurs after the acquisition of the FLT3/ITD. Although the etiology underlying the development of CN-LOH remains to be clarified, the disruption in recombination/DNA repair pathway, which is present before the development of LOH, may have a role. PMID:24786392

  18. Copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity is prevalent and a late event in the pathogenesis of FLT3/ITD AML

    PubMed Central

    Stirewalt, D L; Pogosova-Agadjanyan, E L; Tsuchiya, K; Joaquin, J; Meshinchi, S

    2014-01-01

    Patients with high FLT3 internal tandem duplication allelic ratios (FLT3/ITD-ARs) have a poor prognosis. Single-nucleotide polymorphism/comparative genomic hybridization, single-cell PCR and colony-forming assays were used to evaluate genotypic evolution of high FLT3/ITD-ARs in 85 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Microarrays were used to examine molecular pathways disrupted in leukemic blasts with high FLT3/ITD-ARs. Copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (CN-LOH) was identified at the FLT3 locus in diagnostic samples with high FLT3/ITD-ARs (N=11), but not in samples with low FLT3/ITD-ARs (N=24), FLT3-activating loop mutations (N=11) or wild-type FLT3 (N=39). Single-cell assays showed that homozygous FLT3/ITD genotype was present in subsets of leukemic blasts at diagnosis but became the dominant clone at relapse. Less differentiated CD34+/CD33− progenitor colonies were heterozygous for FLT3/ITD, whereas more differentiated CD34+/CD33+ progenitor colonies were homozygous for FLT3/ITD. Expression profiling revealed that samples harboring high FLT3/ITD-ARs aberrantly expressed genes within the recombination/DNA repair pathway. Thus, the development of CN-LOH at the FLT3 locus, which results in high FLT3/ITD-ARs, likely represents a late genomic event that occurs after the acquisition of the FLT3/ITD. Although the etiology underlying the development of CN-LOH remains to be clarified, the disruption in recombination/DNA repair pathway, which is present before the development of LOH, may have a role. PMID:24786392

  19. Pulling together: Tissue-generated forces that drive lumen morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Navis, Adam; Nelson, Celeste M

    2016-07-01

    Mechanical interactions are essential for bending and shaping tissues during morphogenesis. A common feature of nearly all internal organs is the formation of a tubular network consisting of an epithelium that surrounds a central lumen. Lumen formation during organogenesis requires precisely coordinated mechanical and biochemical interactions. Whereas many genetic regulators of lumen formation have been identified, relatively little is known about the mechanical cues that drive lumen morphogenesis. Lumens can be shaped by a variety of physical behaviors including wrapping a sheet of cells around a hollow core, rearranging cells to expose a lumenal cavity, or elongating a tube via cell migration, though many of the details underlying these movements remain poorly understood. It is essential to define how forces generated by individual cells cooperate to produce the tissue-level forces that drive organogenesis. Transduction of mechanical forces relies on several conserved processes including the contraction of cytoskeletal networks or expansion of lumens through increased fluid pressure. The morphogenetic events that drive lumen formation serve as a model for similar mechanical processes occurring throughout development. To understand how lumenal networks arise, it will be essential to investigate how biochemical and mechanical processes integrate to generate complex structures from comparatively simple interactions. PMID:26778757

  20. Alk1 controls arterial endothelial cell migration in lumenized vessels.

    PubMed

    Rochon, Elizabeth R; Menon, Prahlad G; Roman, Beth L

    2016-07-15

    Heterozygous loss of the arterial-specific TGFβ type I receptor, activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1; ACVRL1), causes hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). HHT is characterized by development of fragile, direct connections between arteries and veins, or arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). However, how decreased ALK1 signaling leads to AVMs is unknown. To understand the cellular mis-steps that cause AVMs, we assessed endothelial cell behavior in alk1-deficient zebrafish embryos, which develop cranial AVMs. Our data demonstrate that alk1 loss has no effect on arterial endothelial cell proliferation but alters arterial endothelial cell migration within lumenized vessels. In wild-type embryos, alk1-positive cranial arterial endothelial cells generally migrate towards the heart, against the direction of blood flow, with some cells incorporating into endocardium. In alk1-deficient embryos, migration against flow is dampened and migration in the direction of flow is enhanced. Altered migration results in decreased endothelial cell number in arterial segments proximal to the heart and increased endothelial cell number in arterial segments distal to the heart. We speculate that the consequent increase in distal arterial caliber and hemodynamic load precipitates the flow-dependent development of downstream AVMs. PMID:27287800

  1. Polarized Protein Transport and Lumen Formation During Epithelial Tissue Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Blasky, Alex J.; Mangan, Anthony; Prekeris, Rytis

    2015-01-01

    One of the major challenges in biology is to explain how complex tissues and organs arise from the collective action of individual polarized cells. The best-studied model of this process is the cross talk between individual epithelial cells during their polarization to form the multicellular epithelial lumen during tissue morphogenesis. Multiple mechanisms of apical lumen formation have been proposed. Some epithelial lumens form from preexisting polarized epithelial structures. However, de novo lumen formation from nonpolarized cells has recently emerged as an important driver of epithelial tissue morphogenesis, especially during the formation of small epithelial tubule networks. In this review, we discuss the latest findings regarding the mechanisms and regulation of de novo lumen formation in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26359775

  2. Loss of FANCC function is associated with failure to inhibit late firing replication origins after DNA cross-linking

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, Randall A.; Gingras, Helene; Hockenbery, David M. . E-mail: dhockenb@fhcrc.org

    2007-07-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) cells are abnormally sensitive to DNA cross-linking agents with increased levels of apoptosis and chromosomal instability. Defects in eight FA complementation groups inhibit monoubiquitination of FANCD2, and subsequent recruitment of FANCD2 to DNA damage and S-phase-associated nuclear foci. The specific functional defect in repair or response to DNA damage in FA cells remains unknown. Damage-resistant DNA synthesis is present 2.5-5 h after cross-linker treatment of FANCC, FANCA and FANCD2-deficient cells. Analysis of the size distribution of labeled DNA replication strands revealed that diepoxybutane treatment suppressed labeling of early but not late-firing replicons in FANCC-deficient cells. In contrast, normal responses to ionizing radiation were observed in FANCC-deficient cells. Absence of this late S-phase response in FANCC-deficient cells leads to activation of secondary checkpoint responses.

  3. Higher nigrostriatal dopamine neuron loss in early than late onset Parkinson's disease?--a [99mTc]-TRODAT-1 SPECT study.

    PubMed

    Shih, Ming Chi; Franco de Andrade, Luiz Augusto; Amaro, Edson; Felicio, Andre Carvalho; Ferraz, Henrique Ballalai; Wagner, Jairo; Hoexter, Marcelo Queiroz; Lin, Li Fu; Fu, Ying Kai; Mari, Jair Jesus; Tufik, Sergio; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca

    2007-04-30

    Early-onset Parkinson's disease (EOPD) is distinct from the classic late-onset PD (LOPD) because of its slower disease progression. The aim of this study was to compare dopamine neuronal loss in EOPD with that of LOPD with the same disease duration, through dopamine transporter (DAT) estimation. Fourteen patients, seven EOPD (<50 years) and seven LOPD, matched for disease duration were scanned with [(99m)Tc]-TRODAT-1-SPECT (INER-Taiwan), and were assessed with standard PD scales. EOPD patients had 34% lower striatal DAT binding potential (BP) compared with that of LOPD patients (BP = 0.29 +/- 0.12, BP = 0.44 +/- 0.12, P < 0.02) with similar PD severity. These results suggest that EOPD patients have greater dopamine density loss than LOPD patients without motor-symptom worsening. PMID:17290452

  4. Apoptosis in Early Salivary Gland Duct Morphogenesis and Lumen Formation.

    PubMed

    Teshima, T H N; Wells, K L; Lourenço, S V; Tucker, A S

    2016-03-01

    Salivary glands are essential for the maintenance of oral health by providing lubrication and antimicrobial protection to the mucosal and tooth surfaces. Saliva is modified and delivered to the oral cavity by a complex multifunctional ductal system. During development, these ducts form as solid tubes, which undergo cavitation to create lumens. Apoptosis has been suggested to play a role in this cavitation process along with changes in cell polarity. Here, we show that apoptosis occurs from the very earliest stages of mouse salivary gland development, much earlier than previously reported. Apoptotic cells were observed in the center of the first epithelial stalk at early-stage embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) according to both TUNEL staining and cleaved caspase 3 immunofluorescence. The presumptive lumen space was highlighted by the colocalization of a predictive lumen marker, cytokeratin 7. At E14.5, as lumens start to form throughout the glands, apoptotic expression decreased while cytokeratin 7 remained positive. In vitro inhibition of all caspases in E12.5 and E13.5 salivary glands resulted in wider ducts, as compared with the controls, and a defect in lumen formation. In contrast, no such defect in lumen formation was observed at E14.5. Our data indicate that apoptosis is involved during early stages of gland formation (E12.5 onward) and appears important for shaping the forming ducts. PMID:26628486

  5. The actomyosin machinery is required for Drosophila retinal lumen formation.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jing; Mahato, Simpla; Zelhof, Andrew C

    2014-09-01

    Multicellular tubes consist of polarized cells wrapped around a central lumen and are essential structures underlying many developmental and physiological functions. In Drosophila compound eyes, each ommatidium forms a luminal matrix, the inter-rhabdomeral space, to shape and separate the key phototransduction organelles, the rhabdomeres, for proper visual perception. In an enhancer screen to define mechanisms of retina lumen formation, we identified Actin5C as a key molecule. Our results demonstrate that the disruption of lumen formation upon the reduction of Actin5C is not linked to any discernible defect in microvillus formation, the rhabdomere terminal web (RTW), or the overall morphogenesis and basal extension of the rhabdomere. Second, the failure of proper lumen formation is not the result of previously identified processes of retinal lumen formation: Prominin localization, expansion of the apical membrane, or secretion of the luminal matrix. Rather, the phenotype observed with Actin5C is phenocopied upon the decrease of the individual components of non-muscle myosin II (MyoII) and its upstream activators. In photoreceptor cells MyoII localizes to the base of the rhabdomeres, overlapping with the actin filaments of the RTW. Consistent with the well-established roll of actomyosin-mediated cellular contraction, reduction of MyoII results in reduced distance between apical membranes as measured by a decrease in lumen diameter. Together, our results indicate the actomyosin machinery coordinates with the localization of apical membrane components and the secretion of an extracellular matrix to overcome apical membrane adhesion to initiate and expand the retinal lumen. PMID:25233220

  6. The Interaction Between Late-Stage Stellar Mass Loss and the Hot Interstellar Medium in Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parriott, Joel Richard

    Stellar mass loss is thought to be the dominant source of hot gas in elliptical galaxies, but calculations have yet to accurately treat the processes by which this mass loss enters the interstellar medium. The details of this interaction have direct implications for resolving several important disagreements between X-ray observations and the standard cooling flow model, and we suggest a mechanism for the interaction which could help to mitigate these disagreements. We test this new picture by conducting a series of highly accurate two dimensional numerical hydrodynamic simulations of the complex interaction between the stellar ejecta and the surrounding hot medium. We develop a distributed memory parallel processing version of the original Piecewise Parabolic Method (PPM) serial code using a portable message passing standard (MPI). Performance tests of this code on a Cray T3E and IBM SP2 show it to have a parallel efficiency of 80%-90% at N=32 processors despite its heavy data communication load. The results of our simulations, which sample a representative phase-space of the ambient gas density (n~10-3 cm-3) and the stellar velocity through this ambient medium (σ1D~200 km/s), show a reduction in the heating efficiency compared to the standard model. In this model, there is a 100% efficient and instantaneous thermalization of the stellar mass loss, to the local velocity dispersion temperature, by the contact discontinuity and bow shock established as the hot gas flows past the stellar outflow. We find that these shocks are not the primary heating mechanism; rather, the ambient flow imparts momentum to the stellar ejecta to push it into a wake behind the star, which is where the bulk of the heating is done by large amplitude Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in the flow that mix the cold (T<105 K) stellar material with the hotter (T=3×106 K) ambient gas. Although this mixing is sufficient to eventually heat and merge all of the ejecta in the adiabatic case, the

  7. Effects of cumulative stressful and acute variation episodes of farm climate conditions on late embryo/early fetal loss in high producing dairy cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santolaria, Pilar; López-Gatius, Fernando; García-Ispierto, Irina; Bech-Sàbat, Gregori; Angulo, Eduardo; Carretero, Teresa; Sánchez-Nadal, Jóse Antonio; Yániz, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible relationships between farm climate conditions, recorded from day 0 to day 40 post-artificial insemination (AI), and late embryo/early fetal loss in high producing dairy cows. Pregnancy was diagnosed by rectal ultrasonography between 28 and 34 days post-AI. Fetal loss was registered when a further 80- to 86-day diagnosis proved negative. Climate variables such as air temperature and relative humidity (RH) were monitored in the cubicles area for each 30-min period. Temperature-humidity indices (THI); cumulative stressful values and episodes of acute change (defined as the mean daily value 1.2 times higher or lower than the mean daily values of the 10 previous days) of the climate variables were calculated. The data were derived from 759 cows in one herd. A total of 692 pregnancies (91.2%) carried singletons and 67 (8.8%) carried twins. No triplets were recorded. Pregnancy loss was recorded in 6.7% (51/759) of pregnancies: 5.6% (39/692) in single and 17.9% (12/67) in twin pregnancies. Using logistic regression procedures, a one-unit increase in the daily cumulative number of hours for the THI values higher than 85 during days 11-20 of gestation caused a 1.57-fold increase in the pregnancy loss, whereas the likelihood of fetal loss increased by a factor of 1.16 for each additional episode of acute variation for the maximum THI values during gestation days 0-40. THI values higher than 85 and episodes of acute variation for the maximum THI values were only recorded during the warm and cool periods, respectively. The presence of twins led to a 3.98-fold increase in pregnancy loss. In conclusion, our findings show that cumulative stressful and episodes of acute variation of climatic conditions can compromise the success of gestation during both the cool and warm periods of the year. Twin pregnancy was confirmed as a main factor associated with pregnancy loss.

  8. Establishment of a neuroepithelial barrier by Claudin5a is essential for zebrafish brain ventricular lumen expansion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingjing; Piontek, Jörg; Wolburg, Hartwig; Piehl, Christian; Liss, Martin; Otten, Cécile; Christ, Annabel; Willnow, Thomas E.; Blasig, Ingolf E.; Abdelilah-Seyfried, Salim

    2010-01-01

    Lumen expansion driven by hydrostatic pressure occurs during many morphogenetic processes. Although it is well established that members of the Claudin family of transmembrane tight junction proteins determine paracellular tightness within epithelial/endothelial barrier systems, functional evidence for their role in the morphogenesis of lumenized organs has been scarce. Here, we identify Claudin5a as a core component of an early cerebral-ventricular barrier system that is required for ventricular lumen expansion in the zebrafish embryonic brain before the establishment of the embryonic blood–brain barrier. Loss of Claudin5a or expression of a tight junction-opening Claudin5a mutant reduces brain ventricular volume expansion without disrupting the polarized organization of the neuroepithelium. Perfusion experiments with the electron-dense small molecule lanthanum nitrate reveal that paracellular tightness of the cerebral-ventricular barrier decreases upon loss of Claudin5a. Genetic analyses show that the apical neuroepithelial localization of Claudin5a depends on epithelial cell polarity and provide evidence for concerted activities between Claudin5a and Na+,K+-ATPase during luminal expansion of brain ventricles. These data establish an essential role of a barrier-forming Claudin in ventricular lumen expansion, thereby contributing to brain morphogenesis. PMID:20080584

  9. Staccato/Unc-13-4 controls secretory lysosome-mediated lumen fusion during epithelial tube anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Caviglia, Sara; Brankatschk, Marko; Fischer, Elisabeth J; Eaton, Suzanne; Luschnig, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    A crucial yet ill-defined step during the development of tubular networks, such as the vasculature, is the formation of connections (anastomoses) between pre-existing lumenized tubes. By studying tracheal tube anastomosis in Drosophila melanogaster, we uncovered a key role of secretory lysosome-related organelle (LRO) trafficking in lumen fusion. We identified the conserved calcium-binding protein Unc-13-4/Staccato (Stac) and the GTPase Rab39 as critical regulators of this process. Stac and Rab39 accumulate on dynamic vesicles, which form exclusively in fusion tip cells, move in a dynein-dependent manner, and contain late-endosomal, lysosomal, and SNARE components characteristic of LROs. The GTPase Arl3 is necessary and sufficient for Stac LRO formation and promotes Stac-dependent intracellular fusion of juxtaposed apical plasma membranes, thereby forming a transcellular lumen. Concomitantly, calcium is released locally from ER exit sites and apical membrane-associated calcium increases. We propose that calcium-dependent focused activation of LRO exocytosis restricts lumen fusion to appropriate domains within tip cells. PMID:27323327

  10. Evaluation of an improved technique for lumen path definition and lumen segmentation of atherosclerotic vessels in CT angiography.

    PubMed

    van Velsen, Evert F S; Niessen, Wiro J; de Weert, Thomas T; de Monyé, Cécile; van der Lugt, Aad; Meijering, Erik; Stokking, Rik

    2007-07-01

    Vessel image analysis is crucial when considering therapeutical options for (cardio-) vascular diseases. Our method, VAMPIRE (Vascular Analysis using Multiscale Paths Inferred from Ridges and Edges), involves two parts: a user defines a start- and endpoint upon which a lumen path is automatically defined, and which is used for initialization; the automatic segmentation of the vessel lumen on computed tomographic angiography (CTA) images. Both parts are based on the detection of vessel-like structures by analyzing intensity, edge, and ridge information. A multi-observer evaluation study was performed to compare VAMPIRE with a conventional method on the CTA data of 15 patients with carotid artery stenosis. In addition to the start- and endpoint, the two radiologists required on average 2.5 (SD: 1.9) additional points to define a lumen path when using the conventional method, and 0.1 (SD: 0.3) when using VAMPIRE. The segmentation results were quantitatively evaluated using Similarity Indices, which were slightly lower between VAMPIRE and the two radiologists (respectively 0.90 and 0.88) compared with the Similarity Index between the radiologists (0.92). The evaluation shows that the improved definition of a lumen path requires minimal user interaction, and that using this path as initialization leads to good automatic lumen segmentation results. PMID:17077978

  11. Spectral Imaging for Intracranial Stents and Stent Lumen

    PubMed Central

    Chen, David Yen-Ting; Chen, Chi-Jen; Hsu, Hui-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Application of computed tomography for monitoring intracranial stents is limited because of stent-related artifacts. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of gemstone spectral imaging on the intracranial stent and stent lumen. Materials and Methods In vitro, we scanned Enterprise stent phantom and a stent–cheese complex using the gemstone spectral imaging protocol. Follow-up gemstone spectral images of 15 consecutive patients with placement of Enterprise from January 2013 to September 2014 were also retrospectively reviewed. We used 70-keV, 140-keV, iodine (water), iodine (calcium), and iodine (hydroxyapatite) images to evaluate their effect on the intracranial stent and stent lumen. Two regions of interest were individually placed in stent lumen and adjacent brain tissue. Contrast-to-noise ratio was measured to determine image quality. The maximal diameter of stent markers was also measured to evaluate stent-related artifact. Two radiologists independently graded the visibility of the lumen at the maker location by using a 4-point scale. The mean of grading score, contrast/noise ratio and maximal diameter of stent markers were compared among all modes. All results were analyzed by SPSS version 20. Results In vitro, iodine (water) images decreased metallic artifact of stent makers to the greatest degree. The most areas of cheese were observed on iodine (water) images. In vivo, iodine (water) images had the smallest average diameter of stent markers (0.33 ± 0.17mm; P < .05) and showed the highest mean grading score (2.94 ± 0.94; P < .05) and contrast/noise ratio of in-stent lumen (160.03 ±37.79; P < .05) among all the modes. Conclusion Iodine (water) images can help reduce stent-related artifacts of Enterprise and enhance contrast of in-stent lumen. Spectral imaging may be considered a noninvasive modality for following-up patients with in-stent stenosis. PMID:26731534

  12. Loss of IL-17-producing CD8 T cells during late chronic stage of pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Pragati; Kwa, Suefen; Velu, Vijayakumar; Amara, Rama Rao

    2011-01-15

    Progressive disease caused by pathogenic SIV/HIV infections is marked by systemic hyperimmune activation, immune dysregulation, and profound depletion of CD4(+) T cells in lymphoid and gastrointestinal mucosal tissues. IL-17 is important for protective immunity against extracellular bacterial infections at mucosa and for maintenance of mucosal barrier. Although IL-17-secreting CD4 (Th17) and CD8 (Tc17) T cells have been reported, very little is known about the latter subset for any infectious disease. In this study, we characterized the anatomical distribution, phenotype, and functional quality of Tc17 and Th17 cells in healthy (SIV-) and SIV+ rhesus macaques. In healthy macaques, Tc17 and Th17 cells were present in all lymphoid and gastrointestinal tissues studied with predominance in small intestine. About 50% of these cells coexpressed TNF-α and IL-2. Notably, ∼50% of Tc17 cells also expressed the co-inhibitory molecule CTLA-4, and only a minority (<20%) expressed granzyme B suggesting that these cells possess more of a regulatory than cytotoxic phenotype. After SIV infection, unlike Th17 cells, Tc17 cells were not depleted during the acute phase of infection. However, the frequency of Tc17 cells in SIV-infected macaques with AIDS was lower compared with that in healthy macaques demonstrating the loss of these cells during end-stage disease. Antiretroviral therapy partially restored the frequency of Tc17 and Th17 cells in the colorectal mucosa. Depletion of Tc17 cells was not observed in colorectal mucosa of chronically infected SIV+ sooty mangabeys. In conclusion, our results suggest a role for Tc17 cells in regulating disease progression during pathogenic SIV infection. PMID:21148794

  13. 21 CFR 880.5570 - Hypodermic single lumen needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hypodermic single lumen needle. 880.5570 Section 880.5570 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5570 Hypodermic...

  14. Toxin Pores Endocytosed During Plasma Membrane Repair Traffic into the Lumen of MVBs for Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Corrotte, Matthias; Fernandes, Maria Cecilia; Tam, Christina; Andrews, Norma W.

    2012-01-01

    Cells permeabilized by the bacterial pore-forming toxin streptolysin O (SLO) reseal their plasma membrane in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Resealing involves Ca2+-dependent exocytosis of lysosomes, release of acid sphingomyelinase and rapid formation of endosomes that carry the transmembrane pores into the cell. The intracellular fate of the toxin-carrying endocytic vesicles, however, is still unknown. Here, we show that SLO pores removed from the plasma membrane by endocytosis are sorted into the lumen of lysosomes, where they are degraded. SLO-permeabilized cells contain elevated numbers of total endosomes, which increase gradually in size while transitioning from endosomes with flat clathrin coats to large multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Under conditions that allow endocytosis and plasma membrane repair, SLO is rapidly ubiquitinated and gradually degraded, in a process sensitive to inhibitors of lysosomal hydrolysis but not of proteasomes. The endosomes induced by SLO permeabilization become increasingly acidified and promote SLO degradation under normal conditions, but not in cells silenced for expression of Vps24, an ESCRT-III complex component required for the release of intraluminal vesicles into MVBs. Thus, cells dispose of SLO transmembrane pores by ubiquitination/ESCRT-dependent sorting into the lumen of late endosomes/lysosomes. PMID:22212686

  15. Spontaneous CNV in a Novel Mutant Mouse Is Associated With Early VEGF-A–Driven Angiogenesis and Late-Stage Focal Edema, Neural Cell Loss, and Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Norihiro; Lundh von Leithner, Pete; Izumi-Nagai, Kanako; Hosking, Brett; Chang, Bo; Hurd, Ron; Adamson, Peter; Adamis, Anthony P.; Foxton, Richard H.; Ng, Yin Shan; Shima, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Characterization of a mouse model of spontaneous choroidal neovascularization (sCNV) and its effect on retinal architecture and function. Methods. The sCNV mouse phenotype was characterized by using fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO), optical coherence tomography (OCT), ERG, immunostaining, biochemistry, and electron microscopy. A role for VEGF-A signaling in sCNV was investigated by using neutralizing antibodies and a role for macrophages explored by cell-depletion studies. Results. The sCNV starts between postnatal day 10 and 15 (P10–P15), increasing in number and severity causing RPE disruption and dysfunction. Various morphological methods confirmed the choroidal origin and subretinal position of the angiogenic vessels. At approximately P25, vessels were present in the outer retina with instances of anastomosis of some sCNV lesions with the retinal vasculature. The number of CNV lesions was significantly decreased by systemic blockade of the VEGF-A pathway. Choroidal neovascularization size also was significantly modulated by reducing the number of lesion-associated macrophages. Later stages of sCNV were associated with edema, neuronal loss, and dysfunction. Conclusions. The sCNV mouse is a new model for the study of both early and late events associated with choroidal neovascularization. Pharmacological reduction in sCNV with VEGF-A antagonists and an anti-inflammatory strategy suggests the model may be useful for investigating novel targets for treating human ocular neovascular disease. PMID:24845632

  16. Evaluation framework for carotid bifurcation lumen segmentation and stenosis grading.

    PubMed

    Hameeteman, K; Zuluaga, M A; Freiman, M; Joskowicz, L; Cuisenaire, O; Valencia, L Flórez; Gülsün, M A; Krissian, K; Mille, J; Wong, W C K; Orkisz, M; Tek, H; Hoyos, M Hernández; Benmansour, F; Chung, A C S; Rozie, S; van Gils, M; van den Borne, L; Sosna, J; Berman, P; Cohen, N; Douek, P C; Sánchez, I; Aissat, M; Schaap, M; Metz, C T; Krestin, G P; van der Lugt, A; Niessen, W J; van Walsum, T

    2011-08-01

    This paper describes an evaluation framework that allows a standardized and objective quantitative comparison of carotid artery lumen segmentation and stenosis grading algorithms. We describe the data repository comprising 56 multi-center, multi-vendor CTA datasets, their acquisition, the creation of the reference standard and the evaluation measures. This framework has been introduced at the MICCAI 2009 workshop 3D Segmentation in the Clinic: A Grand Challenge III, and we compare the results of eight teams that participated. These results show that automated segmentation of the vessel lumen is possible with a precision that is comparable to manual annotation. The framework is open for new submissions through the website http://cls2009.bigr.nl. PMID:21419689

  17. Automated coronary CT angiography plaque-lumen segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, Harvey E.; Krishnan, Karthik; Napel, Sandy; Rubin, Geoffrey D.; Turner, Wesley D.; Avila, Ricardo S.

    2009-02-01

    We are investigating the feasibility of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system to assist radiologists in diagnosing coronary artery disease in ECG gated cardiac multi-detector CT scans having calcified plaque. Coronary artery stenosis analysis is challenging if calcified plaque or the iodinated blood pool hides viable lumen. The research described herein provides an improved presentation to the radiologist by removing obscuring calcified plaque and blood pool. The algorithm derives a Gaussian estimate of the point spread function (PSF) of the scanner responsible for plaque blooming by fitting measured CTA image profiles. An initial estimate of the extent of calcified plaque is obtained from the image evidence using a simple threshold. The Gaussian PSF estimate is then convolved with the initial plaque estimate to obtain an estimate of the extent of the blooming artifact and this plaque blooming image is subtracted from the CT image to obtain an image largely free of obscuring plaque. In a separate step, the obscuring blood pool is suppressed using morphological operations and adaptive region growing. After processing by our algorithm, we are able to project the segmented plaque-free lumen to form synthetic angiograms free from obstruction. We can also analyze the coronary arteries with vessel tracking and centerline extraction to produce cross sectional images for measuring lumen stenosis. As an additional aid to radiologists, we also produce plots of calcified plaque and lumen cross-sectional area along selected blood vessels. The method was validated using digital phantoms and actual patient data, including in one case, a validation against the results of a catheter angiogram.

  18. The newly identified yeast GRD genes are required for retention of late-Golgi membrane proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Nothwehr, S F; Bryant, N J; Stevens, T H

    1996-01-01

    Processing of A-ALP, a late-Golgi membrane protein constructed by fusing the cytosolic domain of dipeptidyl aminopeptidase A to the transmembrane and lumenal domains of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serves as a convenient assay for loss of retention of late-Golgi membrane proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, a large group of novel grd (for Golgi retention defective) yeast mutants, representing 18 complementation groups, were identified on the basis of their mislocalization of A-ALP to the vacuole, where it was proteolytically processed and thus became enzymatically activated. All of the grd mutants exhibited significant mislocalization of A-ALP, as measured by determining the kinetics of A-ALP processing and by analyzing its PMID:8649377

  19. Trapping characteristic of halloysite lumen for methyl orange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao; Yan, Hua; Pei, Zhenzhao; Wu, Junyong; Li, Rongrong; Jin, Yanxian; Zhao, Jie

    2015-08-01

    The interaction of clay minerals and dyes is an area of great interest especially in the development of novel adsorbents. In this report, we demonstrated interaction of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) and an anionic dye, methyl orange (MO), through a electrostatic attraction. Halloysite lumen has a trapping characteristic for methyl orange, which is mainly determined by the positively charged nature of the inner surface of HNTs. XRD results confirmed that intercalation of methyl orange into HNTs did not occur. SEM-EDS and photostability results showed that MO molecules were primarily in HNTs lumen. Adsorption isotherm studies revealed an interesting phenomenon, i.e., a sudden increase of adsorption capacity occurred in the initial dye concentration of about 75 mg/L, which was just the dye concentration corresponding to the onset of dye oligomer formation. This suggested dye aggregation state had a decisive influence to the adsorption behavior of MO on the halloysite. BET results demonstrated at low and high dye concentrations, single MO molecule and aggregation of several dimers through hydrophobic interaction, interacted with Al-OH2+ sites on the inner wall, respectively. Desorption experiments showed that MO in HNTs can be completely removed with deionized water, indicating halloysite is a low-cost and efficient adsorbent for anionic dye.

  20. Miniaturized Self-Expanding Drug-Eluting Stent in Small Coronary Arteries: Late Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Flavio Roberto Azevedo; Mattos, Luiz Alberto Piva e; Abizaid, Alexandre; Abizaid, Andrea S.; Costa, J. Ribamar; Costa, Ricardo; Staico, Rodolfo; Botelho, Roberto; Sousa, J. Eduardo; Sousa, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Background Small vessels represent a risk factor for restenosis in percutaneous coronary angioplasty (PCA). The Sparrow® self-expanding drug-eluting stent, which has a lower profile than the current systems, has never been tested in this scenario. Objectives To evaluate the late effectiveness of the Sparrow® drug-eluting stent, regarding in-stent late lumen loss (LLL). Methods Patients with ischemia, symptomatic or documented, were submitted to PCA in vessels with reference diameter < 2.75 mm, divided into two groups regarding Sparrow® stent type: group 1: Sparrow® drug-eluting stent (DES), group 2: Sparrow® bare metal stent (BMS). Clinical follow-up duration was 12 months. Evaluation using quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) was performed immediately and at 8 months. A decrease of over 65% of in-stent LLL with DES was estimated to calculate sample size. IBM® SPSS software, release 19 (Chicago, Illinois, USA) was used for the statistical analysis. Results A total of 24 patients were randomized, 12 in each group. The DES and BMS groups were similar in age (63.25 ± 10.01 vs. 64.58 ± 11.54, p = 0.765), male gender (58.3% vs. 33.3%, p = 0.412), risk factors and all angiographs aspects. Immediate results were satisfactory in both groups. At 8 months in-stent late lumen loss was significantly lower in DES than in BMS group (DES vs. BMS 0.25 ± 0.16 0.97 ± 0.76, p = 0.008). Conclusion In small-vessel PCA, the Sparrow® DES determined significant reduction in in-stent LLL, when compared to Sparrow® BMS. PMID:24100691

  1. Comparison of a modified double-lumen endotracheal tube with a single-lumen tube with enclosed bronchial blocker.

    PubMed

    Campos, J H; Reasoner, D K; Moyers, J R

    1996-12-01

    This study compared the modified BronchoCath double-lumen endotracheal tube with the Univent bronchial blocker to determine whether there were objective advantages of one over the other during anesthesia with one-lung ventilation (OLV). Forty patients having either thoracic or esophageal procedures were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Twenty patients received a left-side modified BronchoCath double-lumen tube (DLT), and 20 received a Univent tube with a bronchial blocker. The following were studied: 1) time required to position each tube until satisfactory placement was achieved; 2) number of times that the fiberoptic bronchoscope was required; 3) frequency of malpositions after initial placement with fiberoptic bronchoscopy; 4) time required until lung collapse; 5) surgical exposure ranked by surgeons blinded to type of tube used; and 6) cost of tubes per case. No differences were found in: 1) time required to position each tube (DLT 6.2 +/- 3.1 versus Univent 5.4 +/- 4.5 min [mean +/- SD]); 2) number of bronchoscopies per patient (DLT median 2, range 1-3 versus Univent median 3, range 2-5); or 3) time to lung collapse (DLT 7.1 +/- 5.4 versus Univent 12.3 +/- 10.5 min). The frequency of malposition was significantly lower for the DLT (5) compared to the Univent (15) (P < 0.003). Blinded evaluations by surgeons indicated that 18/20 DLT provided excellent exposure compared to 15/20 for the Univent group (P = not significant). We conclude that in spite of the greater frequency of malposition seen with the Univent, once position was corrected adequate surgical exposure was provided. In the Univent group the incidence of malposition and cost involved were both sufficiently greater that we cannot find cost/ efficacy justification for routine use of this device. PMID:8942598

  2. Effects of rumen-protected methionine on plasma amino acid concentrations during a period of weight loss for late gestating beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study determined changes in plasma amino acid concentration in late-gestating (beginning 58 ± 1.02 d prior to calving), primiparous, winter-grazing range heifers receiving wheat middling based supplement without (CON) or with rumen-protected methionine (MET) to provide 15 g DL- MET each day. Pl...

  3. Synergy of cell–cell repulsion and vacuolation in a computational model of lumen formation

    PubMed Central

    Boas, Sonja E. M.; Merks, Roeland M. H.

    2014-01-01

    A key step in blood vessel development (angiogenesis) is lumen formation: the hollowing of vessels for blood perfusion. Two alternative lumen formation mechanisms are suggested to function in different types of blood vessels. The vacuolation mechanism is suggested for lumen formation in small vessels by coalescence of intracellular vacuoles, a view that was extended to extracellular lumen formation by exocytosis of vacuoles. The cell–cell repulsion mechanism is suggested to initiate extracellular lumen formation in large vessels by active repulsion of adjacent cells, and active cell shape changes extend the lumen. We used an agent-based computer model, based on the cellular Potts model, to compare and study both mechanisms separately and combined. An extensive sensitivity analysis shows that each of the mechanisms on its own can produce lumens in a narrow region of parameter space. However, combining both mechanisms makes lumen formation much more robust to the values of the parameters, suggesting that the mechanisms may work synergistically and operate in parallel, rather than in different vessel types. PMID:24430123

  4. HARVESTING OF LEUKOCYTES FROM INTESTINAL LUMEN IN MURINE GIARDIASIS AND PRELIMINARY CHARACTERIZATION OF THESE CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aims of the study were to develop a method for harvesting leukocytes from the mouse small intestinal lumen and to identify leukocytes which enter the intestinal lumen of mice infected with Giardia muris. Giardia-infected and uninfected BALB/c mice were anesthetized, and the s...

  5. Atomic force microscopy study of the secretory granule lumen.

    PubMed Central

    Parpura, V; Fernandez, J M

    1996-01-01

    We have used an atomic force microscope to study the mechanical properties of the matrix found in the lumen of secretory granules isolated from mast cells. The matrices were insoluble and had an average height of 474 +/- 197 nm. The volume of these matrices increased reversibly about tenfold by decreasing the valency of the bathing external cation (La3+ < Ca2+ < Na+). The elastic (Young's) modulus was found to decrease by about 100-fold (4.3 MPa in La3+ to 37 kPa in Na+) upon a tenfold increase in the matrix volume. A swollen granule matrix had an elastic modulus similar to that of gelatin in water. The elastic modulus was inversely related to the change in the volume of the matrix, following a relationship similar to that predicted for the elasticity of weakly cross-linked polymers. Our results show that the matrix of these secretory granules have the mechanical properties of weak ion exchange resins, lending strong support to an ion exchange mechanism for the storage and release of cationic secretory products. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 9 PMID:8913576

  6. Development of a Double Lumen Cannula for a Percutaneous RVAD

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongfang; Jones, Cameron; Ballard-Croft, Cherry; Zhao, Ju; Zhao, Guangfeng; Topaz, Stephen; Zwischenberger, Joseph B.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives were to design/fabricate a double lumen cannula (DLC) for a percutaneous RVAD (pRVAD), and to test the feasibility/performance of this pRVAD system. A 27 Fr DLC prototype was made and tested in 6 adult sheep. The pRVAD DLC was inserted into the right jugular vein, advanced through the superior vena cava (SVC)-right atrium (RA)-right ventricle (RV), and ended in the pulmonary artery (PA). A CentriMag pump and optional gas exchanger were connected to the DLC. Blood was withdrawn from RA, pumped through gas exchanger, and perfused PA. Maximal pumping flow was maintained for 2 hours. The pRVAD DLC was successfully deployed in all 6 sheep. In first 3 sheep, maximal average pumping flow was below 3 l/min because the DLC was advanced too far with drainage opening against RA side wall. In last 3 sheep with well positioned DLC, average maximal flow was above 3.5 l/min. The gas exchanger provided up to 230 ml/min CO2 removal and 174 ml/min O2 transfer. Our DLC-based pRVAD system is feasible for percutaneous right heart and respiratory assistance through a single cannulation. The pRVAD DLC can easily be placed prophylactically during LVAD implantation and removed as needed without additional open chest procedures. PMID:25851314

  7. Atherosclerotic carotid lumen segmentation in combined B-mode and contrast enhanced ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkus, Zeynettin; Carvalho, Diego D. B.; Klein, Stefan; van den Oord, Stijn C. H.; Schinkel, Arend F. L.; de Jong, Nico; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.; Bosch, Johan G.

    2014-03-01

    Patients with carotid atherosclerotic plaques carry an increased risk of cardiovascular events such as stroke. Ultrasound has been employed as a standard for diagnosis of carotid atherosclerosis. To assess atherosclerosis, the intima contour of the carotid artery lumen should be accurately outlined. For this purpose, we use simultaneously acquired side-by-side longitudinal contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and B-mode ultrasound (BMUS) images and exploit the information in the two imaging modalities for accurate lumen segmentation. First, nonrigid motion compensation is performed on both BMUS and CEUS image sequences, followed by averaging over the 150 time frames to produce an image with improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). After that, we segment the lumen from these images using a novel method based on dynamic programming which uses the joint histogram of the CEUS and BMUS pair of images to distinguish between background, lumen, tissue and artifacts. Finally, the obtained lumen contour in the improved-SNR mean image is transformed back to each time frame of the original image sequence. Validation was done by comparing manual lumen segmentations of two independent observers with automated lumen segmentations in the improved-SNR images of 9 carotid arteries from 7 patients. The root mean square error between the two observers was 0.17+/-0.10mm and between automated and average of manual segmentation of two observers was 0.19+/-0.06mm. In conclusion, we present a robust and accurate carotid lumen segmentation method which overcomes the complexity of anatomical structures, noise in the lumen, artifacts and echolucent plaques by exploiting the information in this combined imaging modality.

  8. Lumen Maintenance Testing of the Philips 60-Watt Replacement Lamp L Prize Entry

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Kelly L.; Hafen, Ryan P.; Hathaway, John E.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes testing conducted to evaluate the Philips' L Prize award winning 60-watt LED replacement product's ability to meet the lifetime/lumen maintenance requirement of the competition, which was: "having 70 percent of the lumen value under subparagraph (A) [producing a luminous flux greater than 900 lumens] exceeding 25,000 hours under typical conditions expected in residential use." A custom test apparatus was designed and constructed for this testing and a statistical approach was developed for use in evaluating the test results. This will be the only publicly available, third-party data set of long-term LED product operation.

  9. Peri/Epicellular Protein Disulfide Isomerase Sustains Vascular Lumen Caliber Through an Anticonstrictive Remodeling Effect.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Leonardo Y; Araújo, Haniel A; Hironaka, Gustavo K; Araujo, Thaís L S; Takimura, Celso K; Rodriguez, Andres I; Casagrande, Annelise S; Gutierrez, Paulo S; Lemos-Neto, Pedro Alves; Laurindo, Francisco R M

    2016-03-01

    Whole-vessel remodeling critically determines lumen caliber in vascular (patho)physiology, and it is reportedly redox-dependent. We hypothesized that the cell-surface pool of the endoplasmic reticulum redox chaperone protein disulfide isomerase-A1 (peri/epicellular=pecPDI), which is known to support thrombosis, also regulates disease-associated vascular architecture. In human coronary atheromas, PDI expression inversely correlated with constrictive remodeling and plaque stability. In a rabbit iliac artery overdistension model, there was unusually high PDI upregulation (≈25-fold versus basal, 14 days postinjury), involving both intracellular and pecPDI. PecPDI neutralization with distinct anti-PDI antibodies did not enhance endoplasmic reticulum stress or apoptosis. In vivo pecPDI neutralization with PDI antibody-containing perivascular gel from days 12 to 14 post injury promoted 25% decrease in the maximally dilated arteriographic vascular caliber. There was corresponding whole-vessel circumference loss using optical coherence tomography without change in neointima, which indicates constrictive remodeling. This was accompanied by decreased hydrogen peroxide generation. Constrictive remodeling was corroborated by marked changes in collagen organization, that is, switching from circumferential to radial fiber orientation and to a more rigid fiber type. The cytoskeleton architecture was also disrupted; there was a loss of stress fiber coherent organization and a switch from thin to medium thickness actin fibers, all leading to impaired viscoelastic ductility. Total and PDI-associated expressions of β1-integrin, and levels of reduced cell-surface β1-integrin, were diminished after PDI antibody treatment, implicating β1-integrin as a likely pecPDI target during vessel repair. Indeed, focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation, a downstream β1-integrin effector, was decreased by PDI antibody. Thus, the upregulated pecPDI pool tunes matrix/cytoskeleton reshaping to

  10. Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Colonizing the Lumen of the Chicken Intestine Grows Slowly and Upregulates a Unique Set of Virulence and Metabolism Genes▿

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, P. C.; Watson, M.; Hulme, S.; Jones, M. A.; Lovell, M.; Berchieri, A.; Young, J.; Bumstead, N.; Barrow, P.

    2011-01-01

    The pattern of global gene expression in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteria harvested from the chicken intestinal lumen (cecum) was compared with that of a late-log-phase LB broth culture using a whole-genome microarray. Levels of transcription, translation, and cell division in vivo were lower than those in vitro. S. Typhimurium appeared to be using carbon sources, such as propionate, 1,2-propanediol, and ethanolamine, in addition to melibiose and ascorbate, the latter possibly transformed to d-xylulose. Amino acid starvation appeared to be a factor during colonization. Bacteria in the lumen were non- or weakly motile and nonchemotactic but showed upregulation of a number of fimbrial and Salmonella pathogenicity island 3 (SPI-3) and 5 genes, suggesting a close physical association with the host during colonization. S. Typhimurium bacteria harvested from the cecal mucosa showed an expression profile similar to that of bacteria from the intestinal lumen, except that levels of transcription, translation, and cell division were higher and glucose may also have been used as a carbon source. PMID:21768276

  11. Bonfils assisted double lumen endobronchial tube placement in an anticipated difficult airway

    PubMed Central

    Subramani, Sudhakar; Poopalalingam, Ruban

    2014-01-01

    The role of various airway adjuncts in the management of difficult airway has been described in the literature. Bonfils rigid fiberscope is one of the airway assist devices widely used for endotracheal intubation in the individuals with cervical instability warranting limited neck movements. With our experience in the utilization of Bonfils for single lumen endotracheal tube placement, we are increasingly using for double lumen endobronchial (DLT) intubation as well. We would like to describe our experience in the use of Bonfils for DLT placement and outline the merits and limitations of the other suitable airway assist devices in this report. The double lumen tube has to be modified by decreasing the length of DLT to accommodate the Bonfils fiberscope and this is applicable only in certain type of double lumen tubes for e.g. Bronchocath. PMID:25425788

  12. Experience with a triple-lumen catheter for autologous stem-cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Verity, Ryan; Burbridge, Brent

    2016-06-01

    We relate our experience with the Cook (Cook Medial Inc., Bloomington, IN, USA), triple-lumen hyperalimentation (HAS) catheter for treatment related to autologous stem-cell transplant. Nineteen HAS catheters were implanted in the right jugular vein, and tunneled to the right anterior chest wall, under imaging guidance. Retrospectively, we reviewed each catheter. Three patient's experienced "ballooning" of the middle (white) lumen of the HAS catheter during routine use. We assessed, time in situ, follow-up imaging, chemotherapy regimen, possibility of systemic or device infection, tissue pathology of the patient's malignancy, and other factors to attempt to determine if there were any associations that could explain the catheter lumen failure. After this pilot study of the HAS-catheter in these 19 patients, we discontinued use of this device at our facility due to mechanical problems of ballooned and obstructed middle lumens. There was no obvious cause, or association, detected to explain the ballooning identified. PMID:27257462

  13. The alternative splicing factor Nova2 regulates vascular development and lumen formation.

    PubMed

    Giampietro, Costanza; Deflorian, Gianluca; Gallo, Stefania; Di Matteo, Anna; Pradella, Davide; Bonomi, Serena; Belloni, Elisa; Nyqvist, Daniel; Quaranta, Valeria; Confalonieri, Stefano; Bertalot, Giovanni; Orsenigo, Fabrizio; Pisati, Federica; Ferrero, Elisabetta; Biamonti, Giuseppe; Fredrickx, Evelien; Taveggia, Carla; Wyatt, Chris D R; Irimia, Manuel; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Blencowe, Benjamin J; Dejana, Elisabetta; Ghigna, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Vascular lumen formation is a fundamental step during angiogenesis; yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that neural and vascular systems share common anatomical, functional and molecular similarities. Here we show that the organization of endothelial lumen is controlled at the post-transcriptional level by the alternative splicing (AS) regulator Nova2, which was previously considered to be neural cell-specific. Nova2 is expressed during angiogenesis and its depletion disrupts vascular lumen formation in vivo. Similarly, Nova2 depletion in cultured endothelial cells (ECs) impairs the apical distribution and the downstream signalling of the Par polarity complex, resulting in altered EC polarity, a process required for vascular lumen formation. These defects are linked to AS changes of Nova2 target exons affecting the Par complex and its regulators. Collectively, our results reveal that Nova2 functions as an AS regulator in angiogenesis and is a novel member of the 'angioneurins' family. PMID:26446569

  14. Biogeography of the Intestinal Mucosal and Lumenal Microbiome in the Rhesus Macaque

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Koji; Oh, Keunyoung; Ren, Boyu; Tickle, Timothy L.; Franzosa, Eric A.; Wachtman, Lynn M.; Miller, Andrew D.; Westmoreland, Susan V.; Mansfield, Keith G.; Vallender, Eric J.; Miller, Gregory M.; Rowlett, James K.; Gevers, Dirk; Huttenhower, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Summary The gut microbiome is widely studied by fecal sampling, but the extent to which stool reflects the commensal composition at intestinal sites is poorly understood. We investigated this relationship in rhesus macaques by 16S sequencing feces and paired lumenal and mucosal samples from 10 sites distal to the jejunum. Stool composition correlated highly with the colonic lumen and mucosa, and moderately with the distal small intestine. The mucosal microbiota varied most based on location and was enriched in oxygen-tolerant taxa (e.g. Helicobacter, Treponema), while the lumenal microbiota showed inter-individual variation and obligate anaerobe enrichment (e.g. Firmicutes). This mucosal and lumenal community variability corresponded to functional differences, such as nutrient availability. Additionally, Helicobacter, Faecalibacterium, and Lactobacillus levels in stool were highly predictive of their abundance at most other gut sites. These results quantify the composition and biogeographic relationships between gut microbial communities in macaques and support fecal sampling for translational studies. PMID:25732063

  15. X-ray-induced P-selectin localization to the lumen of tumor blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Hallahan, D E; Staba-Hogan, M J; Virudachalam, S; Kolchinsky, A

    1998-11-15

    P-selectin is a cell adhesion molecule that is sequestered in Weibel-Palade storage reservoirs within the vascular endothelium and alpha granules in platelets. P-selectin is rapidly translocated to the vascular lumen after tissue injury to initiate the adhesion and activation of platelets and leukocytes. We studied the histological pattern of P-selectin expression in irradiated tumor blood vessels. We observed that P-selectin was localized within the endothelium of tumor vessels prior to treatment. At 1-6 h following irradiation, P-selectin was mobilized to the lumen of blood vessels. To determine whether radiation-induced vascular lumen localization of P-selectin was tumor type specific or species specific, we studied tumors in rats, C3H mice, C57BL6 mice, and nude mice. P-selectin localization to the vascular lumen was present in all tumors and all species studied. Irradiated intracranial gliomas showed P-selectin localization to the vascular lumen within 1 h, whereas blood vessels in normal brain showed no P-selectin staining in the endothelium and no localization to the irradiated vascular lumen. Radiation-induced P-selectin localization to the vascular lumen increased in time-dependent manner, until 24 h after irradiation. P-selectin in platelets may account for the time-dependent increase in staining within the vascular lumen after irradiation. We therefore used immunohistochemistry for platelet antigen GP-IIIa to differentiate between endothelial and platelet localization of P-selectin. We found that GP-IIIa staining was not present at 1 h after irradiation, but it increased at 6 and 24 h. P-selectin localization to the vascular lumen at 6-24 h was, in part, associated with platelet aggregation. These findings indicate that radiation-induced P-selectin staining in the vascular lumen of neoplasms is associated with aggregation of platelets. Radiation-induced localization of P-selectin to the vascular lumen is specific to the microvasculature of malignant

  16. Job Loss, Unemployment and the Incidence of Hazardous Drinking during the Late 2000s Recession in Europe among Adults Aged 50–64 Years

    PubMed Central

    Bosque-Prous, Marina; Espelt, Albert; Sordo, Luis; Guitart, Anna M.; Brugal, M. Teresa; Bravo, Maria J.

    2015-01-01

    Background To estimate the incidence of hazardous drinking in middle-aged people during an economic recession and ascertain whether individual job loss and contextual changes in unemployment influence the incidence rate in that period. Methods Longitudinal study based on two waves of the SHARE project (Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe). Individuals aged 50–64 years from 11 European countries, who were not hazardous drinkers at baseline (n = 7,615), were selected for this study. We estimated the cumulative incidence of hazardous drinking (≥40g and ≥20g of pure alcohol on average in men and women, respectively) between 2006 and 2012. Furthermore, in the statistical analysis, multilevel Poisson regression models with robust variance were fitted and obtained Risk Ratios (RR) and their 95% Confidence Intervals (95%CI). Results Over a 6-year period, 505 subjects became hazardous drinkers, with cumulative incidence of 6.6 per 100 persons between 2006 and 2012 (95%CI:6.1–7.2). Age [RR = 1.02 (95%CI:1.00–1.04)] and becoming unemployed [RR = 1.55 (95%CI:1.08–2.23)] were independently associated with higher risk of becoming a hazardous drinker. Conversely, having poorer self-perceived health was associated with lower risk of becoming a hazardous drinker [RR = 0.75 (95%CI:0.60–0.95)]. At country-level, an increase in the unemployment rate during the study period [RR = 1.32 (95%CI:1.17–1.50)] and greater increases in the household disposable income [RR = 0.97 (95%CI:0.95–0.99)] were associated with risk of becoming a hazardous drinker. Conclusions Job loss among middle-aged individuals during the economic recession was positively associated with becoming a hazardous drinker. Changes in country-level variables were also related to this drinking pattern. PMID:26445239

  17. Uplift rates from a new high-density GPS network in Palmer Land indicate significant late Holocene ice loss in the southwestern Weddell Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolstencroft, Martin; King, Matt A.; Whitehouse, Pippa L.; Bentley, Michael J.; Nield, Grace A.; King, Edward C.; McMillan, Malcolm; Shepherd, Andrew; Barletta, Valentina; Bordoni, Andrea; Riva, Riccardo E. M.; Didova, Olga; Gunter, Brian C.

    2015-10-01

    The measurement of ongoing ice-mass loss and associated melt water contribution to sea-level change from regions such as West Antarctica is dependent on a combination of remote sensing methods. A key method, the measurement of changes in Earth's gravity via the GRACE satellite mission, requires a potentially large correction to account for the isostatic response of the solid Earth to ice-load changes since the Last Glacial Maximum. In this study, we combine glacial isostatic adjustment modelling with a new GPS dataset of solid Earth deformation for the southern Antarctic Peninsula to test the current understanding of ice history in this region. A sufficiently complete history of past ice-load change is required for glacial isostatic adjustment models to accurately predict the spatial variation of ongoing solid Earth deformation, once the independently-constrained effects of present-day ice mass loss have been accounted for. Comparisons between the GPS data and glacial isostatic adjustment model predictions reveal a substantial misfit. The misfit is localized on the southwestern Weddell Sea, where current ice models under-predict uplift rates by approximately 2 mm yr-1. This under-prediction suggests that either the retreat of the ice sheet grounding line in this region occurred significantly later in the Holocene than currently assumed, or that the region previously hosted more ice than currently assumed. This finding demonstrates the need for further fieldwork to obtain direct constraints on the timing of Holocene grounding line retreat in the southwestern Weddell Sea and that GRACE estimates of ice sheet mass balance will be unreliable in this region until this is resolved.

  18. Blood flow drives lumen formation by inverse membrane blebbing during angiogenesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gebala, Véronique; Collins, Russell; Geudens, Ilse; Phng, Li-Kun; Gerhardt, Holger

    2016-04-01

    How vascular tubes build, maintain and adapt continuously perfused lumens to meet local metabolic needs remains poorly understood. Recent studies showed that blood flow itself plays a critical role in the remodelling of vascular networks, and suggested it is also required for the lumenization of new vascular connections. However, it is still unknown how haemodynamic forces contribute to the formation of new vascular lumens during blood vessel morphogenesis. Here we report that blood flow drives lumen expansion during sprouting angiogenesis in vivo by inducing spherical deformations of the apical membrane of endothelial cells, in a process that we have termed inverse blebbing. We show that endothelial cells react to these membrane intrusions by local and transient recruitment and contraction of actomyosin, and that this mechanism is required for single, unidirectional lumen expansion in angiogenic sprouts. Our work identifies inverse membrane blebbing as a cellular response to high external pressure. We show that in the case of blood vessels such membrane dynamics can drive local cell shape changes required for global tissue morphogenesis, shedding light on a pressure-driven mechanism of lumen formation in vertebrates. PMID:26928868

  19. Induction of Lumen Formation in a Three-dimensional Model of Mammary Morphogenesis by Transcriptional Regulator ID4: ROLE OF CaMK2D IN THE EPIGENETIC REGULATION OF ID4 GENE EXPRESSION.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tung; Shively, John E

    2016-08-01

    Concomitant loss of lumen formation and cell adhesion protein CEACAM1 is a hallmark feature of breast cancer. In a three-dimensional culture model, transfection of CEACAM1 into MCF7 breast cells can restore lumen formation by an unknown mechanism. ID4, a transcriptional regulator lacking a DNA binding domain, is highly up-regulated in CEACAM1-transfected MCF7 cells, and when down-regulated with RNAi, abrogates lumen formation. Conversely, when MCF7 cells, which fail to form lumena in a three-dimensional culture, are transfected with ID4, lumen formation is restored, demonstrating that ID4 may substitute for CEACAM1. After showing the ID4 promoter is hypermethylated in MCF7 cells but hypomethylated in MCF/CEACAM1 cells, ID4 expression was induced in MCF7 cells by agents affecting chromatin remodeling and methylation. Mechanistically, CaMK2D was up-regulated in CEACAM1-transfected cells, effecting phosphorylation of HDAC4 and its sequestration in the cytoplasm by the adaptor protein 14-3-3. CaMK2D also phosphorylates CEACAM1 on its cytoplasmic domain and mutation of these phosphorylation sites abrogates lumen formation. Thus, CEACAM1 is able to maintain the active transcription of ID4 by an epigenetic mechanism involving HDAC4 and CaMK2D, and the same kinase enables lumen formation by CEACAM1. Because ID4 can replace CEACAM1 in parental MCF7 cells, it must act downstream from CEACAM1 by inhibiting the activity of other transcription factors that would otherwise prevent lumen formation. This overall mechanism may be operative in other cancers, such as colon and prostate, where the down-regulation of CEACAM1 is observed. PMID:27302061

  20. Late endosomes: sorting and partitioning in multivesicular bodies.

    PubMed

    Piper, R C; Luzio, J P

    2001-09-01

    Late endosomes, which have the morphological characteristics of multivesicular bodies, have received relatively little attention in comparison with early endosomes and lysosomes. Recent work in mammalian and yeast cells has given insights into their structure and function, including the generation of their multivesicular morphology. Lipid partitioning to create microdomains enriched in specific lipids is observed in late endosomes, with some lumenal vesicles enriched in lysobisphosphatidic acid and others in phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Sorting of membrane proteins into the lumenal vesicles may occur because of the properties of their trans-membrane domains, or as a result of tagging with ubiquitin. Yeast class E Vps proteins and their mammalian orthologs are the best candidates to make up the protein machinery that controls inward budding, a process that starts in early endosomes. Late endosomes are able to undergo homotypic fusion events and also heterotypic fusion with lysosomes, a process that delivers endocytosed macromolecules for proteolytic degradation. PMID:11555415

  1. Comparison of Ergot Alkaloid Biosynthesis Gene Clusters in Claviceps Species Indicates Loss of Late Pathway Steps in Evolution of C. fusiformis▿

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Nicole; Wilson, Ella V.; Machado, Caroline; Schardl, Christopher L.; Tudzynski, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The grass parasites Claviceps purpurea and Claviceps fusiformis produce ergot alkaloids (EA) in planta and in submerged culture. Whereas EA synthesis (EAS) in C. purpurea proceeds via clavine intermediates to lysergic acid and the complex ergopeptines, C. fusiformis produces only agroclavine and elymoclavine. In C. purpurea the EAS gene (EAS) cluster includes dmaW (encoding the first pathway step), cloA (elymoclavine oxidation to lysergic acid), and the lpsA/lpsB genes (ergopeptine formation). We analyzed the corresponding C. fusiformis EAS cluster to investigate the evolutionary basis for chemotypic differences between the Claviceps species. Other than three peptide synthetase genes (lpsC and the tandem paralogues lpsA1 and lpsA2), homologues of all C. purpurea EAS genes were identified in C. fusiformis, including homologues of lpsB and cloA, which in C. purpurea encode enzymes for steps after clavine synthesis. Rearrangement of the cluster was evident around lpsB, which is truncated in C. fusiformis. This and several frameshift mutations render CflpsB a pseudogene (CflpsBΨ). No obvious inactivating mutation was identified in CfcloA. All C. fusiformis EAS genes, including CflpsBΨ and CfcloA, were expressed in culture. Cross-complementation analyses demonstrated that CfcloA and CflpsBΨ were expressed in C. purpurea but did not encode functional enzymes. In contrast, CpcloA catalyzed lysergic acid biosynthesis in C. fusiformis, indicating that C. fusiformis terminates its EAS pathway at elymoclavine because the cloA gene product is inactive. We propose that the C. fusiformis EAS cluster evolved from a more complete cluster by loss of some lps genes and by rearrangements and mutations inactivating lpsB and cloA. PMID:17720822

  2. Molecular mechanisms controlling vascular lumen formation in three-dimensional extracellular matrices.

    PubMed

    Sacharidou, Anastasia; Stratman, Amber N; Davis, George E

    2012-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made toward a molecular understanding of how cells form lumen and tube structures in three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrices (ECM). This progress has occurred through work performed with endothelial and epithelial cell models using both in vitro and in vivo approaches. Despite the apparent similarities between endothelial and epithelial cell lumen and tube formation mechanisms, there are clear distinctions that directly relate to their functional differences. This review will focus on endothelial cell (EC) lumen formation mechanisms which control blood vessel formation during development and postnatal life. Of great interest is that an EC lumen signaling complex has been identified which controls human EC lumen and tube formation in 3D matrices and which coordinates integrin-ECM contacts, cell surface proteolysis, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and cell polarity. This complex consists of the collagen-binding integrin α2β1, the collagen-degrading membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), junction adhesion molecule (Jam)C, JamB, polarity proteins Par3 and Par6b, and the Rho GTPase Cdc42-GTP. These interacting proteins are necessary to stimulate 3D matrix-specific signaling events (including activation of protein kinase cascades that regulate the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons) to control the formation of EC lumens and tube networks. Also, EC lumen formation is directly coupled to the generation of vascular guidance tunnels, enzymatically generated ECM conduits that facilitate EC tube remodeling and maturation. Mural cells such as pericytes are recruited along EC tubes within these tunnel spaces to control ECM remodeling events resulting in vascular basement membrane matrix assembly, a key step in tube maturation and stabilization. PMID:21997121

  3. Antioxidant defenses in caterpillars: role of the ascorbate-recycling system in the midgut lumen.

    PubMed

    Barbehenn, R V; Bumgarner, S L; Roosen, E F; Martin, M M

    2001-04-01

    This study demonstrates that an ascorbate-recycling system in the midgut lumen can act as an effective antioxidant defense in caterpillars that feed on prooxidant-rich foods. In tannin-sensitive larvae of the forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria (Lasiocampidae), ingested tannic acid is oxidized in the midgut lumen, generating significant quantities of peroxides, including hydrogen peroxide, which readily diffuses across cell membranes and is a powerful cytotoxin. By contrast, in the tannin-tolerant larvae of the white-marked tussock moth, Orgyia leucostigma (Lymantriidae), tannic acid oxidation and the generation of peroxides are suppressed. The superior defense of O. leucostigma against oxidative stress imposed by the oxidation of ingested polyphenols can be explained by the presence of higher concentrations of ascorbate and glutathione in the midgut lumen. In O. leucostigma at least 50% of the ingested ascorbate present in the anterior midgut is still present in the posterior midgut, whereas in M. disstria, only 10% of the ascorbate is present in the posterior half of the midgut. We propose that the maintenance of higher levels of ascorbate in the midgut lumen of O. leucostigma than in M. disstria is explained by the secretion of glutathione into the midgut lumen by O. leucostigma, thereby forming a complete ascorbate-recycling system. The concentration of glutathione in the midgut lumen of O. leucostigma is 3.5-fold higher than in M. disstria and more than double the concentration in the diet. Our results emphasize the importance of a defensive strategy in herbivorous insects based on the maintenance of conditions in the gut lumen that reduce or eliminate the potential prooxidant behavior of ingested phenols. PMID:11166299

  4. Detachment-induced autophagy during anoikis and lumen formation in epithelial acini.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Jayanta

    2008-04-01

    The individual units (called acini) comprising glandular epithelium possess a hollow lumen that is filled in early epithelial cancers. While investigating the generation of this hollow lumen using an in vitro three-dimensional (3D) epithelial cell culture model, we observed extensive autophagy in dying cells during lumen formation, and thus, proposed that excessive self-eating may promote cell death in the lumen. However, we now reassess this hypothesis. Because cells in the lumen die due to extracellular matrix (ECM) deprivation (anoikis), we tested if autophagy is regulated by ECM detachment. We discovered that detachment strongly induces autophagy in epithelial cells, even when apoptosis is inhibited by Bcl-2 expression. RNAi-mediated depletion of autophagy-related (ATG) genes inhibits detachment-induced autophagy, resulting in increased apoptosis and reduced clonogenic recovery following anoikis. Similarly, during 3D morphogenesis, ATG-depletion enhances luminal apoptosis and fails to elicit long-term luminal survival and filling, even when combined with apoptotic inhibition. Thus, autophagy promotes epithelial cell survival during anoikis. These results broach the possibility that autophagy contributes to the survival of tumor cells lacking appropriate matrix contact, either during early carcinoma formation or in the later stages of dissemination and metastasis. PMID:18196957

  5. Anion translocation through an Slc26 transporter mediates lumen expansion during tubulogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wei; Nies, Florian; Feuer, Anja; Bočina, Ivana; Oliver, Dominik; Jiang, Di

    2013-01-01

    Lumen formation is a critical event in biological tube formation, yet its molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Specifically, how lumen expansion is coordinated with other processes of tubulogenesis is not well known, and the role of membrane transporters in tubulogenesis during development has not been adequately addressed. Here we identify a solute carrier 26 (Slc26) family protein as an essential regulator of tubulogenesis using the notochord of the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis as a model. Ci-Slc26aα is indispensable for lumen formation and expansion, but not for apical/luminal membrane formation and lumen connection. Ci-Slc26aα acts as an anion transporter, mediating the electrogenic exchange of sulfate or oxalate for chloride or bicarbonate and electroneutral chloride:bicarbonate exchange. Mutant rescue assays show that this transport activity is essential for Ci-Slc26aα’s in vivo function. Our work reveals the consequences and relationships of several key processes in lumen formation, and establishes an in vivo assay for studying the molecular basis of the transport properties of SLC26 family transporters and their related diseases. PMID:23980138

  6. Cell confinement controls centrosome positioning and lumen initiation during epithelial morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Fraticelli, Alejo E.; Auzan, Muriel; Alonso, Miguel A.; Bornens, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial organ morphogenesis involves sequential acquisition of apicobasal polarity by epithelial cells and development of a functional lumen. In vivo, cells perceive signals from components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), such as laminin and collagens, as well as sense physical conditions, such as matrix stiffness and cell confinement. Alteration of the mechanical properties of the ECM has been shown to promote cell migration and invasion in cancer cells, but the effects on epithelial morphogenesis have not been characterized. We analyzed the effects of cell confinement on lumen morphogenesis using a novel, micropatterned, three-dimensional (3D) Madin-Darby canine kidney cell culture method. We show that cell confinement, by controlling cell spreading, limits peripheral actin contractility and promotes centrosome positioning and lumen initiation after the first cell division. In addition, peripheral actin contractility is mediated by master kinase Par-4/LKB1 via the RhoA–Rho kinase–myosin II pathway, and inhibition of this pathway restores lumen initiation in minimally confined cells. We conclude that cell confinement controls nuclear–centrosomal orientation and lumen initiation during 3D epithelial morphogenesis. PMID:22965908

  7. Long-term lumen depreciation behavior and failure modes of multi-die array LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayawardena, Asiri; Marcus, Daniel; Prugue, Ximena; Narendran, Nadarajah

    2013-09-01

    One of the main advantages of multi-die array light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is their high flux density. However, a challenge for using such a product in lighting fixture applications is the heat density and the need for thermal management to keep the junction temperatures of all the dies low for long-term reliable performance. Ten multi-die LED array samples for each product from four different manufacturers were subjected to lumen maintenance testing (as described in IES-LM-80-08), and their resulting lumen depreciation and failure modes were studied. The products were tested at the maximum case (or pin) temperature reported by the respective manufacturer by appropriately powering the LEDs. In addition, three samples for each product from two different manufacturers were subjected to rapid thermal cycling, and the resulting lumen depreciation and failure modes were studied. The results showed that the exponential lumen decay model using long-term lumen maintenance data as recommended in IES TM-21 does not fit for all package types. The failure of a string of dies and single die failure in a string were observed in some of the packages.

  8. Surgical removal of intra-aortic balloon catheter with fractured nitinol central lumen: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hikosaka, Takato; Ito, Kazuki; Takuji, Tanabe; Zen, Kan; Adachi, Yoshihiko; Kato, Shyuji; Azuma, Akihiro; Sugihara, Hiroki; Nakagawa, Masao

    2002-04-01

    A 73-year-old woman suffering from septic shock was given circulatory assistance by intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP). Eleven hours later, pumping stopped abruptly and blood reflux was observed in the intra-aortic balloon catheter (IABC). We removed it and inserted another IABC; 3.5 h later, pumping stopped again and blood reflux was seen. Removal of the IABC was attempted, as the systolic aortic pressure remained above 100 mmHg, but there was resistance during the removal and as a result 7.5cm of the catheter from the tip remained inside the vessel. Fluoroscopy indicated that the metal tube that formed the central lumen in the balloon was fractured, and that its edge had perforated the femoral artery. The balloon was then removed surgically. Fracture of the metal tube and balloon perforation were confirmed in both the damaged IABCs. Postoperative computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging indicated a highly severe posterior-anterior bend in the patient's aorta. A vessel model similar to the aorta in this case was made and a reproducibility test was conducted; the central lumen fractured within 3 h and under a microscope the profile of the fractured test lumen was similar to the one in the clinical case. These findings suggest that placing a pumping IABC in a bending aorta causes fracture of the central lumen from fatigue failure because the central lumen is under excessive stress. PMID:11954961

  9. 3D segmentation of the true and false lumens on CT aortic dissection images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetnaci, Nawel; Łubniewski, Paweł; Miguel, Bruno; Lohou, Christophe

    2013-03-01

    Our works are related to aortic dissections which are a medical emergency and can quickly lead to death. In this paper, we want to retrieve in CT images the false and the true lumens which are aortic dissection features. Our aim is to provide a 3D view of the lumens that we can difficultly obtain either by volume rendering or by another visualization tool which only directly gives the outer contour of the aorta; or by other segmentation methods because they mainly directly segment either only the outer contour of the aorta or other connected arteries and organs both. In our work, we need to segment the two lumens separately; this segmentation will allow us to: distinguish them automatically, facilitate the landing of the aortic prosthesis, propose a virtual 3d navigation and do quantitative analysis. We chose to segment these data by using a deformable model based on the fast marching method. In the classical fast marching approach, a speed function is used to control the front propagation of a deforming curve. The speed function is only based on the image gradient. In our CT images, due to the low resolution, with the fast marching the front propagates from a lumen to the other; therefore, the gradient data is insufficient to have accurate segmentation results. In the paper, we have adapted the fast marching method more particularly by modifying the speed function and we succeed in segmenting the two lumens separately.

  10. Automatic Lumen Detection on Longitudinal Ultrasound B-Mode Images of the Carotid Using Phase Symmetry.

    PubMed

    Rouco, José; Azevedo, Elsa; Campilho, Aurélio

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a method that improves the performance of previous approaches for the automatic detection of the common carotid artery (CCA) lumen centerline on longitudinal B-mode ultrasound images. We propose to detect several lumen centerline candidates using local symmetry analysis based on local phase information of dark structures at an appropriate scale. These candidates are analyzed with selection mechanisms that use symmetry, contrast or intensity features in combination with position-based heuristics. Several experimental results are provided to evaluate the robustness and performance of the proposed method in comparison with previous approaches. These results lead to the conclusion that our proposal is robust to noise, lumen artifacts, contrast variations and that is able to deal with the presence of CCA-like structures, significantly improving the performance of our previous approach, from 87.5% ± 0.7% of correct detections to 98.3% ± 0.3% in a set of 200 images. PMID:27005631

  11. Formin-mediated actin polymerization at endothelial junctions is required for vessel lumen formation and stabilization.

    PubMed

    Phng, Li-Kun; Gebala, Véronique; Bentley, Katie; Philippides, Andrew; Wacker, Andrin; Mathivet, Thomas; Sauteur, Loïc; Stanchi, Fabio; Belting, Heinz-Georg; Affolter, Markus; Gerhardt, Holger

    2015-01-12

    During blood vessel formation, endothelial cells (ECs) establish cell-cell junctions and rearrange to form multicellular tubes. Here, we show that during lumen formation, the actin nucleator and elongation factor, formin-like 3 (fmnl3), localizes to EC junctions, where filamentous actin (F-actin) cables assemble. Fluorescent actin reporters and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments in zebrafish embryos identified a pool of dynamic F-actin with high turnover at EC junctions in vessels. Knockdown of fmnl3 expression, chemical inhibition of formin function, and expression of dominant-negative fmnl3 revealed that formin activity maintains a stable F-actin content at EC junctions by continual polymerization of F-actin cables. Reduced actin polymerization leads to destabilized endothelial junctions and consequently to failure in blood vessel lumenization and lumen instability. Our findings highlight the importance of formin activity in blood vessel morphogenesis. PMID:25584798

  12. Automatic Lumen Detection on Longitudinal Ultrasound B-Mode Images of the Carotid Using Phase Symmetry

    PubMed Central

    Rouco, José; Azevedo, Elsa; Campilho, Aurélio

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a method that improves the performance of previous approaches for the automatic detection of the common carotid artery (CCA) lumen centerline on longitudinal B-mode ultrasound images. We propose to detect several lumen centerline candidates using local symmetry analysis based on local phase information of dark structures at an appropriate scale. These candidates are analyzed with selection mechanisms that use symmetry, contrast or intensity features in combination with position-based heuristics. Several experimental results are provided to evaluate the robustness and performance of the proposed method in comparison with previous approaches. These results lead to the conclusion that our proposal is robust to noise, lumen artifacts, contrast variations and that is able to deal with the presence of CCA-like structures, significantly improving the performance of our previous approach, from 87.5%±0.7% of correct detections to 98.3%±0.3% in a set of 200 images. PMID:27005631

  13. Engineered Microvessels with Strong Alignment and High Lumen Density Via Cell-Induced Fibrin Gel Compaction and Interstitial Flow

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Kristen T.; Dries-Devlin, Jessica L.

    2014-01-01

    The development of engineered microvessels with clinically relevant characteristics is a critical step toward the creation of engineered myocardium. Alignment is one such characteristic that must be achieved, as it both mimics native capillary beds and provides natural inlet and outlet sides for perfusion. A second characteristic that is currently deficient is cross-sectional lumen density, typically under 100 lumens/mm2; the equivalent value for human myocardium is 2000 lumens/mm2. Therefore, this study examined the effects of gel compaction and interstitial flow on microvessel alignment and lumen density. Strong microvessel alignment was achieved via mechanically constrained cell-induced fibrin gel compaction following vasculogenesis, and high lumen density (650 lumens/mm2) was achieved by the subsequent application of low levels of interstitial flow. Low interstitial flow also conferred microvessel barrier function. PMID:24083839

  14. Hemodynamic evaluation of the Avalon Elite bi-caval dual lumen cannulae.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Feng; Lu, Chiajung K; Palanzo, David; Baer, Larry D; Myers, John L; Undar, Akif

    2011-11-01

    In previous studies, we have evaluated the hemodynamic properties of selected oxygenators, pumps (centrifugal and roller), and single lumen cannulae. Because the dual lumen cannulae are widely used in veno-venous extracorporeal life support (ECLS) and are receiving popularity due to their advantages over the single lumen cannulae, we evaluated the flow ranges and pressure drops of three different sizes of Avalon Elite dual lumen cannulae (13Fr, 16Fr, and 19Fr) in a simulated neonatal ECLS circuit primed with human blood. The experimental ECLS circuit was composed of a RotaFlow centrifugal pump, a Capiox BabyRX05 oxygenator, 3 ft of 1/4-in venous and arterial line tubing, an Avalon Elite dual lumen cannula, and a soft reservoir as a pseudo-right atrium. All experiments were conducted at 37°C using an HCU 30 heater-cooling unit and with human blood at a hematocrit of 36%. The blood pressure in the pseudo-right atrium was continuously monitored and maintained at 4-5 mm Hg. For each cannula, pump flow rates and pressures at both the arterial and venous sides were recorded at revolutions per minute (RPMs) from 1750 to 3750 in 250 intervals. For each RPM, six data sets were recorded for a total of 162 data sets. The total volume of the system was 300 mL. The flow range for the 13Fr, 16Fr, and 19Fr cannulae were from 228 to 762 mL/min, 478 to 1254 mL/min, and 635 to 1754 mL/min, respectively. The pressure drops at the arterial side were higher than the venous side at all tested conditions except at 1750 rpm for the 19Fr cannula. The results of this study showed the flow ranges and the pressure drops of three different sized dual lumen cannulae using human blood, which is more applicable in clinical settings compared with evaluations using water. PMID:21899572

  15. Late paternities.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jean

    2007-06-01

    Late paternities are frequent. Very often these couples ask for medically assisted procreation. In general, it is considered that the couple should not be treated differently from the couple where the father is younger. Recent studies show a certain number of specific risks linked to the late paternities. Doctors and society do not act in the same way towards men and women: a 'sensible age' for women to no longer attempt pregnancy has been set in many countries at 42 years of age, whereas men aged 80 can benefit from IVF attempts and be reimbursed by the state or insurance companies. This is an obvious inequity. PMID:17579995

  16. Dosimetric considerations and early clinical experience of accelerated partial breast irradiation using multi-lumen applicators in the setting of breast augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Akhtari, Mani; Pino, Ramiro; Scarboro, Sarah B.; Bass, Barbara L.; Miltenburg, Darlene M.; Butler, E. Brian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is an accepted treatment option in breast-conserving therapy for early stage breast cancer. However, data regarding outcomes of patients treated with multi-lumen catheter systems who have existing breast implants is limited. The purpose of this study was to report treatment parameters, outcomes, and possible dosimetric correlation with cosmetic outcome for this population of patients at our institution. Material and methods We report the treatment and outcome of seven consecutive patients with existing breast implants and early stage breast cancer who were treated between 2009 and 2013 using APBI following lumpectomy. All patients were treated twice per day for five days to a total dose of 34 Gy using a high-dose-rate 192Ir source. Cosmetic outcomes were evaluated using the Harvard breast cosmesis scale, and late toxicities were reported using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) late radiation morbidity schema. Results After a mean follow-up of 32 months, all patients have remained cancer free. Six out of seven patients had an excellent or good cosmetic outcome. There were no grade 3 or 4 late toxicities. The average total breast implant volume was 279.3 cc, received an average mean dose of 12.1 Gy, and a maximum dose of 234.1 Gy. The average percentage of breast implant volume receiving 50%, 75%, 100%, 150%, and 200% of the prescribed dose was 15.6%, 7.03%, 4.6%, 1.58%, and 0.46%, respectively. Absolute volume of breast implants receiving more than 50% of prescribed dose correlated with worse cosmetic outcomes. Conclusions Accelerated partial breast irradiation using a multi-lumen applicator in patients with existing breast implants can safely be performed with promising early clinical results. The presence of the implant did not compromise the ability to achieve dosimetric criteria; however, dose to the implant and the irradiated implant volume may be related with worse cosmetic outcomes. PMID:26816499

  17. Pak1 Regulates the Orientation of Apical Polarization and Lumen Formation by Distinct Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Jos; ter Beest, Martin B.; Zegers, Mirjam M.

    2012-01-01

    The development of the basic architecture of branching tubules enclosing a central lumen that characterizes most epithelial organs crucially depends on the apico-basolateral polarization of epithelial cells. Signals from the extracellular matrix control the orientation of the apical surface, so that it faces the lumen interior, opposite to cell-matrix adhesion sites. This orientation of the apical surface is thought to be intrinsically linked to the formation of single lumens. We previously demonstrated in three-dimensional cyst cultures of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells that signaling by β1 integrins regulates the orientation of the apical surface, via a mechanism that depends on the activity of the small GTPase Rac1. Here, we investigated whether the Rac1 effector Pak1 is a downstream effector in this pathway. Expression of constitutive active Pak1 phenocopies the effect of β1 integrin inhibition in that it misorients the apical surface and induces a multilumen phenotype. The misorientation of apical surfaces depends on the interaction of active Pak1 with PIX proteins and is linked to defects in basement membrane assembly. In contrast, the multilumen phenotype was independent of PIX and the basement membrane. Therefore, Pak1 likely regulates apical polarization and lumen formation by two distinct pathways. PMID:22815903

  18. Extracellular matrix scaffolding guides lumen elongation by inducing anisotropic intercellular mechanical tension.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiushi; Zhang, Yue; Pluchon, Perrine; Robens, Jeffrey; Herr, Keira; Mercade, Myriam; Thiery, Jean-Paul; Yu, Hanry; Viasnoff, Virgile

    2016-03-01

    The de novo formation of secretory lumens plays an important role during organogenesis. It involves the establishment of a cellular apical pole and the elongation of luminal cavities. The molecular parameters controlling cell polarization have been heavily scrutinized. In particular, signalling from the extracellular matrix (ECM) proved essential to the proper localization of the apical pole by directed protein transport. However, little is known about the regulation of the shape and the directional development of lumen into tubes. We demonstrate that the spatial scaffolding of cells by ECM can control tube shapes and can direct their elongation. We developed a minimal organ approach comprising of hepatocyte doublets cultured in artificial microniches to precisely control the spatial organization of cellular adhesions in three dimensions. This approach revealed a mechanism by which the spatial repartition of integrin-based adhesion can elicit an anisotropic intercellular mechanical stress guiding the osmotically driven elongation of lumens in the direction of minimal tension. This mechanical guidance accounts for the different morphologies of lumen in various microenvironmental conditions. PMID:26878396

  19. Analysis of proteome dynamics inside the silk gland lumen of Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zhaoming; Zhao, Ping; Zhang, Yan; Song, Qianru; Zhang, Xiaolu; Guo, Pengchao; Wang, Dandan; Xia, Qingyou

    2016-01-01

    The silk gland is the only organ where silk proteins are synthesized and secreted in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Silk proteins are stored in the lumen of the silk gland for around eight days during the fifth instar. Determining their dynamic changes is helpful for clarifying the secretion mechanism of silk proteins. Here, we identified the proteome in the silk gland lumen using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, and demonstrated its changes during two key stages. From day 5 of the fifth instar to day 1 of wandering, the abundances of fibroins, sericins, seroins, and proteins of unknown functions increased significantly in different compartments of the silk gland lumen. As a result, these accumulated proteins constituted the major cocoon components. In contrast, the abundances of enzymes and extracellular matrix proteins decreased in the silk gland lumen, suggesting that they were not the structural constituents of silk. Twenty-five enzymes may be involved in the regulation of hormone metabolism for proper silk gland function. In addition, the metabolism of other non-proteinous components such as chitin and pigment were also discussed in this study. PMID:27102218

  20. The alternative splicing factor Nova2 regulates vascular development and lumen formation

    PubMed Central

    Giampietro, Costanza; Deflorian, Gianluca; Gallo, Stefania; Di Matteo, Anna; Pradella, Davide; Bonomi, Serena; Belloni, Elisa; Nyqvist, Daniel; Quaranta, Valeria; Confalonieri, Stefano; Bertalot, Giovanni; Orsenigo, Fabrizio; Pisati, Federica; Ferrero, Elisabetta; Biamonti, Giuseppe; Fredrickx, Evelien; Taveggia, Carla; Wyatt, Chris D. R.; Irimia, Manuel; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Blencowe, Benjamin J.; Dejana, Elisabetta; Ghigna, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Vascular lumen formation is a fundamental step during angiogenesis; yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that neural and vascular systems share common anatomical, functional and molecular similarities. Here we show that the organization of endothelial lumen is controlled at the post-transcriptional level by the alternative splicing (AS) regulator Nova2, which was previously considered to be neural cell-specific. Nova2 is expressed during angiogenesis and its depletion disrupts vascular lumen formation in vivo. Similarly, Nova2 depletion in cultured endothelial cells (ECs) impairs the apical distribution and the downstream signalling of the Par polarity complex, resulting in altered EC polarity, a process required for vascular lumen formation. These defects are linked to AS changes of Nova2 target exons affecting the Par complex and its regulators. Collectively, our results reveal that Nova2 functions as an AS regulator in angiogenesis and is a novel member of the ‘angioneurins' family. PMID:26446569

  1. Minimization of lumen depreciation in LED lamps using thermal transient behavior analysis and design optimizations.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Nisa

    2016-02-10

    We expansively investigate thermal behaviors of various general-purpose light-emitting diode (LED) lamps and apply our measured results, validated by simulation, to establish lamp design rules for optimizing their optical and thermal properties. These design rules provide the means to minimize lumen depreciation over time by minimizing the periods for lamps to reach thermal steady-state while maintaining their high luminous efficacy and omnidirectional light distribution capability. While it is well known that minimizing the junction temperature of an LED leads to a longer lifetime and an increased lumen output, our study demonstrates, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that it is also important to minimize the time it takes to reach thermal equilibrium because doing so minimizes lumen depreciation and enhances light output and color stability during operation. Specifically, we have found that, in addition to inadequate heat-sink fin areas for a lamp configuration, LEDs mounted on multiple boards, as opposed to a single board, lead to longer periods for reaching thermal equilibrium contributing to larger lumen depreciation. PMID:26906393

  2. Analysis of proteome dynamics inside the silk gland lumen of Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhaoming; Zhao, Ping; Zhang, Yan; Song, Qianru; Zhang, Xiaolu; Guo, Pengchao; Wang, Dandan; Xia, Qingyou

    2016-01-01

    The silk gland is the only organ where silk proteins are synthesized and secreted in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Silk proteins are stored in the lumen of the silk gland for around eight days during the fifth instar. Determining their dynamic changes is helpful for clarifying the secretion mechanism of silk proteins. Here, we identified the proteome in the silk gland lumen using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and demonstrated its changes during two key stages. From day 5 of the fifth instar to day 1 of wandering, the abundances of fibroins, sericins, seroins, and proteins of unknown functions increased significantly in different compartments of the silk gland lumen. As a result, these accumulated proteins constituted the major cocoon components. In contrast, the abundances of enzymes and extracellular matrix proteins decreased in the silk gland lumen, suggesting that they were not the structural constituents of silk. Twenty-five enzymes may be involved in the regulation of hormone metabolism for proper silk gland function. In addition, the metabolism of other non-proteinous components such as chitin and pigment were also discussed in this study. PMID:27102218

  3. Lumen Formation Is an Intrinsic Property of Isolated Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Kenichiro; Shao, Yue; Townshend, Ryan F.; Tsai, Yu-Hwai; DeLong, Cynthia J.; Lopez, Shawn A.; Gayen, Srimonta; Freddo, Andrew M.; Chue, Deming J.; Thomas, Dennis J.; Spence, Jason R.; Margolis, Benjamin; Kalantry, Sundeep; Fu, Jianping; O’Shea, K. Sue; Gumucio, Deborah L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary We demonstrate that dissociated human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are intrinsically programmed to form lumens. PSCs form two-cell cysts with a shared apical domain within 20 hr of plating; these cysts collapse to form monolayers after 5 days. Expression of pluripotency markers is maintained throughout this time. In two-cell cysts, an apical domain, marked by EZRIN and atypical PKCζ, is surrounded by apically targeted organelles (early endosomes and Golgi). Molecularly, actin polymerization, regulated by ARP2/3 and mammalian diaphanous-related formin 1 (MDIA), promotes lumen formation, whereas actin contraction, mediated by MYOSIN-II, inhibits this process. Finally, we show that lumenal shape can be manipulated in bioengineered micro-wells. Since lumen formation is an indispensable step in early mammalian development, this system can provide a powerful model for investigation of this process in a controlled environment. Overall, our data establish that lumenogenesis is a fundamental cell biological property of human PSCs. PMID:26626176

  4. Lumen formation by epithelial cell lines in response to collagen overlay: a morphogenetic model in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, H.G.; Farson, D.A.; Bissel, M.J.

    1982-08-01

    Two cells lines--Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and normal murine mammary gland (NMuMG)--growing as monolayers on collagen gels were overlaid with another collagen gel. The cells responded to the overlay by undergoing reorganization resulting in the creation of lumina. MDCK cells formed lumina that coalesced to form large cavities comparable in size with a tubule. NMuMG cells formed clusters surrounding small lumina, which appeared similar to acini of glandular tissue. The characteristic arrangements, described here by light and electron microscopy, resembled the morphology of the tissues of cell line origin. MDCK cells, grown in the presence of serum, formed lumina whether or not serum was removed at the time of overlay, whereas NMuMG cells required either a nondialyzable component of serum or hormonal supplements in serum-free defined media. Lumen formation was delayed by MDCK cells in the presence of the glutamine analog 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine, but this compound did not affect NMuMG lumen formation. In both cell lines, lumen formation was unaffected by the absence of sulfate, the presence of an inhibitor of sulfate glycosaminoglycan synthesis, or an inhibitor of collagen synthesis. DNA synthesis accompanied lumen formation but was not required.

  5. Pulmonary effects of expiratory-assisted small-lumen ventilation during upper airway obstruction in pigs.

    PubMed

    Ziebart, A; Garcia-Bardon, A; Kamuf, J; Thomas, R; Liu, T; Schad, A; Duenges, B; David, M; Hartmann, E K

    2015-10-01

    Novel devices for small-lumen ventilation may enable effective inspiration and expiratory ventilation assistance despite airway obstruction. In this study, we investigated a porcine model of complete upper airway obstruction. After ethical approval, we randomly assigned 13 anaesthetised pigs either to small-lumen ventilation following airway obstruction (n = 8) for 30 min, or to volume-controlled ventilation (sham setting, n = 5). Small-lumen ventilation enabled adequate gas exchange over 30 min. One animal died as a result of a tension pneumothorax in this setting. Redistribution of ventilation from dorsal to central compartments and significant impairment of the distribution of ventilation/perfusion occurred. Histopathology demonstrated considerable lung injury, predominantly through differences in the dorsal dependent lung regions. Small-lumen ventilation maintained adequate gas exchange in a porcine airway obstruction model. The use of this technique for 30 min by inexperienced clinicians was associated with considerable end-expiratory collapse leading to lung injury, and may also carry the risk of severe injury. PMID:26179167

  6. Lumen Segmentation in Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Using Backscattering Tracked and Initialized Random Walks.

    PubMed

    Guha Roy, Abhijit; Conjeti, Sailesh; Carlier, Stéphane G; Dutta, Pranab K; Kastrati, Adnan; Laine, Andrew F; Navab, Nassir; Katouzian, Amin; Sheet, Debdoot

    2016-03-01

    Intravascular imaging using ultrasound or optical coherence tomography (OCT) is predominantly used to adjunct clinical information in interventional cardiology. OCT provides high-resolution images for detailed investigation of atherosclerosis-induced thickening of the lumen wall resulting in arterial blockage and triggering acute coronary events. However, the stochastic uncertainty of speckles limits effective visual investigation over large volume of pullback data, and clinicians are challenged by their inability to investigate subtle variations in the lumen topology associated with plaque vulnerability and onset of necrosis. This paper presents a lumen segmentation method using OCT imaging physics-based graph representation of signals and random walks image segmentation approaches. The edge weights in the graph are assigned incorporating OCT signal attenuation physics models. Optical backscattering maxima is tracked along each A-scan of OCT and is subsequently refined using global graylevel statistics and used for initializing seeds for the random walks image segmentation. Accuracy of lumen versus tunica segmentation has been measured on 15 in vitro and 6 in vivo pullbacks, each with 150-200 frames using 1) Cohen's kappa coefficient (0.9786 ±0.0061) measured with respect to cardiologist's annotation and 2) divergence of histogram of the segments computed with Kullback-Leibler (5.17 ±2.39) and Bhattacharya measures (0.56 ±0.28). High segmentation accuracy and consistency substantiates the characteristics of this method to reliably segment lumen across pullbacks in the presence of vulnerability cues and necrotic pool and has a deterministic finite time-complexity. This paper in general also illustrates the development of methods and framework for tissue classification and segmentation incorporating cues of tissue-energy interaction physics in imaging. PMID:25700476

  7. Ezetimibe Promotes Brush Border Membrane-to-Lumen Cholesterol Efflux in the Small Intestine.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Takanari; Inoue, Ikuo; Takenaka, Yasuhiro; Ono, Hiraku; Katayama, Shigehiro; Awata, Takuya; Murakoshi, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    Ezetimibe inhibits Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1), an apical membrane cholesterol transporter of enterocytes, thereby reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption. This treatment also increases extrahepatic reverse cholesterol transport via an undefined mechanism. To explore this, we employed a trans-intestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE) assay, which directly detects circulation-to-intestinal lumen 3H-cholesterol transit in a cannulated jejunal segment, and found an increase of TICE by 45%. To examine whether such increase in efflux occurs at the intestinal brush border membrane(BBM)-level, we performed luminal perfusion assays, similar to TICE but the jejunal wall was labelled with orally-given 3H-cholesterol, and determined elevated BBM-to-lumen cholesterol efflux by 3.5-fold with ezetimibe. Such increased efflux probably promotes circulation-to-lumen cholesterol transit eventually; thus increases TICE. Next, we wondered how inhibition of NPC1L1, an influx transporter, resulted in increased efflux. When we traced orally-given 3H-cholesterol in mice, we found that lumen-to-BBM 3H-cholesterol transit was rapid and less sensitive to ezetimibe treatment. Comparison of the efflux and fractional cholesterol absorption revealed an inverse correlation, indicating the efflux as an opposite-regulatory factor for cholesterol absorption efficiency and counteracting to the naturally-occurring rapid cholesterol influx to the BBM. These suggest that the ezetimibe-stimulated increased efflux is crucial in reducing cholesterol absorption. Ezetimibe-induced increase in cholesterol efflux was approximately 2.5-fold greater in mice having endogenous ATP-binding cassette G5/G8 heterodimer, the major sterol efflux transporter of enterocytes, than the knockout counterparts, suggesting that the heterodimer confers additional rapid BBM-to-lumen cholesterol efflux in response to NPC1L1 inhibition. The observed framework for intestinal cholesterol fluxes may provide ways to modulate the flux

  8. Ezetimibe Promotes Brush Border Membrane-to-Lumen Cholesterol Efflux in the Small Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Takanari; Inoue, Ikuo; Takenaka, Yasuhiro; Ono, Hiraku; Katayama, Shigehiro; Awata, Takuya; Murakoshi, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    Ezetimibe inhibits Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1), an apical membrane cholesterol transporter of enterocytes, thereby reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption. This treatment also increases extrahepatic reverse cholesterol transport via an undefined mechanism. To explore this, we employed a trans-intestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE) assay, which directly detects circulation-to-intestinal lumen 3H-cholesterol transit in a cannulated jejunal segment, and found an increase of TICE by 45%. To examine whether such increase in efflux occurs at the intestinal brush border membrane(BBM)-level, we performed luminal perfusion assays, similar to TICE but the jejunal wall was labelled with orally-given 3H-cholesterol, and determined elevated BBM-to-lumen cholesterol efflux by 3.5-fold with ezetimibe. Such increased efflux probably promotes circulation-to-lumen cholesterol transit eventually; thus increases TICE. Next, we wondered how inhibition of NPC1L1, an influx transporter, resulted in increased efflux. When we traced orally-given 3H-cholesterol in mice, we found that lumen-to-BBM 3H-cholesterol transit was rapid and less sensitive to ezetimibe treatment. Comparison of the efflux and fractional cholesterol absorption revealed an inverse correlation, indicating the efflux as an opposite-regulatory factor for cholesterol absorption efficiency and counteracting to the naturally-occurring rapid cholesterol influx to the BBM. These suggest that the ezetimibe-stimulated increased efflux is crucial in reducing cholesterol absorption. Ezetimibe-induced increase in cholesterol efflux was approximately 2.5-fold greater in mice having endogenous ATP-binding cassette G5/G8 heterodimer, the major sterol efflux transporter of enterocytes, than the knockout counterparts, suggesting that the heterodimer confers additional rapid BBM-to-lumen cholesterol efflux in response to NPC1L1 inhibition. The observed framework for intestinal cholesterol fluxes may provide ways to modulate the flux

  9. Technical note: comparison between two tracing methods with ultrasonography to determine lumen area of the caudal artery in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Doppler ultrasonography has potential use in studying the effects of ergot alkaloids on vascular circulation in cattle. Accurate and precise measurement of artery lumen area is critical in quantifying vasoconstriction responses to ergot alkaloids and other toxins. Lumen area can be determined by...

  10. Initial experience with dual-lumen balloon catheter injection for preoperative Onyx embolization of skull base paragangliomas.

    PubMed

    Ladner, Travis R; He, Lucy; Davis, Brandon J; Yang, George L; Wanna, George B; Mocco, J

    2016-06-01

    OBJECT Paragangliomas are highly vascular head and neck tumors for which preoperative embolization is often considered to facilitate resection. The authors evaluated their initial experience using a dual-lumen balloon to facilitate preoperative embolization in 5 consecutive patients who underwent preoperative transarterial Onyx embolization assisted by the Scepter dual-lumen balloon catheter between 2012 and 2014. OBJECT The authors reviewed the demographic and clinical records of 5 patients who underwent Scepter-assisted Onyx embolization of a paraganglioma followed by resection between 2012 and 2014. Descriptive statistics of clinical outcomes were assessed. RESULTS Five patients (4 with a jugular and 1 with a vagal paraganglioma) were identified. Three paragangliomas were embolized in a single session, and each of the other 2 were completed in 3 staged sessions. The mean volume of Onyx used was 14.3 ml (range 6-30 ml). Twenty-seven vessels were selectively catheterized for embolization. All patients required selective embolization via multiple vessels. Two patients required sacrifice of parent vessels (1 petrocavernous internal carotid artery and 1 vertebral artery) after successful balloon test occlusion. One patient underwent embolization with Onyx-18 alone, 2 with Onyx-34 alone, and 1 with Onyx-18 and -34. In each case, migration of Onyx was achieved within the tumor parenchyma. The mean time between embolization and resection was 3.8 days (range 1-8 days). Gross-total resection was achieved in 3 (60%) patients, and the other 2 patients had minimal residual tumor. The mean estimated blood loss during the resections was 556 ml (range 200-850 ml). The mean postoperative hematocrit level change was -17.3%. Two patients required blood transfusions. One patient, who underwent extensive tumor penetration with Onyx, developed a temporary partial cranial nerve VII palsy that resolved to House-Brackmann Grade I (out of VI) at the 6-month follow-up. One patient

  11. Comparison of the single-lumen endotracheal tube and double-lumen endobronchial tube used in minimally invasive cardiac surgery for the fast track protocol

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Young; Je, Hyung Gon; Kim, Tae Kyun; Kim, Hye Jin; Ahn, Ji Hye; Park, Soon Ji

    2016-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS) has been more commonly performed due to the reduced amount of bleeding and transfusion and length of hospital stay. We investigated the feasibility of performing MICS using single-lumen endotracheal tube (SLT). Methods We conducted a retrospective review of clinical data of 112 patients who underwent MICS between July 2012 and March 2015. The patients underwent MICS using a SLT or a double lumen endotracheal tube (DLT). The duration of intensive care unit (ICU) stay and mechanical ventilation were recorded and analyzed. Results Of the 96 patients, 50 were intubated with a SLT and 46 were intubated with a DLT. Anesthetic induction to skin incision time, surgical time and total anesthetic time were significant decreased in the SLT group (P<0.05). However, there was no difference in the duration of ICU stay and mechanical ventilation, and the incidence of extubation in operation room between the two groups. Conclusions Comparing with insertion of a SLT, insertion of a DLT provided equivalent duration of ICU stay and mechanical ventilation after the MICS. Therefore, the type of inserted endotracheal tube would not influence on failure of the fast track protocol and insertion of a SLT is feasible and could be an alternative method to a DLT. PMID:27162650

  12. Venovenous extracorporeal life support in neonates using a double lumen catheter.

    PubMed

    Anderson, H L; Otsu, T; Chapman, R A; Barlett, R H

    1989-01-01

    After satisfactory development and testing of a polyurethane 14 Fr double lumen catheter, we used this device for venovenous extracorporeal life support in neonates who had respiratory failure. This catheter was designed for single site cannulation of the internal jugular vein, thereby sparing the carotid artery from ligation. Cannulation was successful in 17 of 21 neonates, with 15 successful venovenous runs, whereas 2 of the 17 patients were converted to venoarterial bypass because of inadequate support. Oxygenation and CO2 removal were adequate in the remaining patients. Average time on bypass was 111 hours. All 15 patients survived, and exploration of the cannulation site for bleeding was required in three patients. Preoxygenator pressure, recirculation of oxygenated blood, and hemolysis were all within acceptable levels during each run. Venovenous extracorporeal life support with the double lumen catheter can replace venoarterial access in most cases of neonatal respiratory failure. PMID:2574593

  13. Endosomes Derived from Clathrin-Independent Endocytosis Serve as Precursors for Endothelial Lumen Formation

    PubMed Central

    Porat-Shliom, Natalie; Weigert, Roberto; Donaldson, Julie G.

    2013-01-01

    Clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE) is a form of bulk plasma membrane (PM) endocytosis that allows cells to sample and evaluate PM composition. Once in endosomes, the internalized proteins and lipids can be recycled back to the PM or delivered to lysosomes for degradation. Endosomes arising from CIE contain lipid and signaling molecules suggesting that they might be involved in important biological processes. During vasculogenesis, new blood vessels are formed from precursor cells in a process involving internalization and accumulation of endocytic vesicles. Here, we found that CIE has a role in endothelial lumen formation. Specifically, we found that human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) utilize CIE for internalization of distinct cargo molecules and that in three-dimensional cultures CIE membranes are delivered to the newly formed lumen. PMID:24282620

  14. IL-17A promotes protective IgA responses and expression of other potential effectors against the lumen-dwelling enteric parasite Giardia.

    PubMed

    Dann, Sara M; Manthey, Carolin F; Le, Christine; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Gima, Lauren; Abrahim, Andrew; Cao, Anthony T; Hanson, Elaine M; Kolls, Jay K; Raz, Eyal; Cong, Yingzi; Eckmann, Lars

    2015-09-01

    Giardia lamblia is a leading protozoan cause of diarrheal disease worldwide. It colonizes the lumen and epithelial surface of the small intestine, but does not invade the mucosa. Acute infection causes only minimal mucosal inflammation. Effective immune defenses exist, yet their identity and mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Interleukin (IL)-17A has emerged as an important cytokine involved in inflammation and antimicrobial defense against bacterial pathogens at mucosal surfaces. In this study, we demonstrate that IL-17A has a crucial function in host defense against Giardia infection. Using murine infection models with G. muris and G. lamblia, we observed marked and selective induction of intestinal IL-17A with peak expression after 2 weeks. Th17 cells in the lamina propria and innate immune cells in the epithelial compartment of the small intestine were responsible for the IL-17A response. Experiments in gene-targeted mice revealed that the cytokine, and its cognate receptor IL-17RA, were required for eradication of the parasite. The actions of the cytokine were mediated by hematopoietic cells, and were required for the transport of IgA into the intestinal lumen, since IL-17A deficiency led to marked reduction of fecal IgA levels, as well as for increased intestinal expression of several other potential effectors, including β-defensin 1 and resistin-like molecule β. In contrast, intestinal hypermotility, another major antigiardial defense mechanism, was not impacted by IL-17A loss. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that IL-17A and IL-17 receptor signaling are essential for intestinal defense against the important lumen-dwelling intestinal parasite Giardia. PMID:26071205

  15. Physical human lumen carotid reconstruction: life-size models by rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pili, Piero; Murgia, Fabrizio; Pusceddu, Gabriella; Franzoni, Gregorio; Tuveri, Massimiliano

    2003-05-01

    Rapid Prototyping (RP) is a technique used in industry for manufacturing prototypes. Its capability to physically reproduce geometrical complex shapes is getting increasing interest in many fields of medicine. In the field of vascular surgery, replicas of artery lumen have utility in complex cases or when standard imaging is felt to be equivocal. Replicas can also facilitate experimental studies of computational vascular fluid-dynamics permitting in-vitro reproductions of blood flow in living subjects before and after surgery. The VIrtual VAscular (VIVA) project at CRS4, developed a system able to process three-dimensional (3D) datasets extracted from a Computer Tomography (CT) apparatus, visualize them, reconstruct the geometry of arteries of specific patients, and simulate blood flow in them. In this paper, the applicability of RP techniques to VIVA's real size replicas of an autoptic carotid vessel lumen is presented and an overview of the RP based system developed is provided. The techniques used in our prototype are discussed and experimental results for the creation of a human carotid lumen replica are analyzed. We discuss in detail the pipeline of manufacturing process: 3D geometric reconstruction from segmented points, geometry tessellation, STL (Stereo Lithography format) conversion. Moreover we illustrate some technical details of the specific RP technique used to build the lumen replicas, which is called Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM), the materials used for prototypes, throughput time and costs of the FDM models realized. The system is totally based on open-source software. This enables us to control each step of the pipeline, from data acquisition to STL export file. In this context, we present main sources of error encountered during all manufacturing process stages.

  16. Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED PAR38 Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, Michael P.

    2014-12-01

    The lumen depreciation and color shift of 38 different lamps (32 LED, 2 CFL, 1 ceramic metal halide [CMH], 3 halogen) were monitored in a specially developed automated long-term test apparatus (ALTA2) for nearly 14,000 hours. Five samples of each lamp model were tested, with measurements recorded on a weekly basis. The lamps were operated continuously at a target ambient temperature between 44°C and 45°C.

  17. Automatic coronary lumen segmentation with partial volume modeling improves lesions' hemodynamic significance assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freiman, M.; Lamash, Y.; Gilboa, G.; Nickisch, H.; Prevrhal, S.; Schmitt, H.; Vembar, M.; Goshen, L.

    2016-03-01

    The determination of hemodynamic significance of coronary artery lesions from cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) based on blood flow simulations has the potential to improve CCTA's specificity, thus resulting in improved clinical decision making. Accurate coronary lumen segmentation required for flow simulation is challenging due to several factors. Specifically, the partial-volume effect (PVE) in small-diameter lumina may result in overestimation of the lumen diameter that can lead to an erroneous hemodynamic significance assessment. In this work, we present a coronary artery segmentation algorithm tailored specifically for flow simulations by accounting for the PVE. Our algorithm detects lumen regions that may be subject to the PVE by analyzing the intensity values along the coronary centerline and integrates this information into a machine-learning based graph min-cut segmentation framework to obtain accurate coronary lumen segmentations. We demonstrate the improvement in hemodynamic significance assessment achieved by accounting for the PVE in the automatic segmentation of 91 coronary artery lesions from 85 patients. We compare hemodynamic significance assessments by means of fractional flow reserve (FFR) resulting from simulations on 3D models generated by our segmentation algorithm with and without accounting for the PVE. By accounting for the PVE we improved the area under the ROC curve for detecting hemodynamically significant CAD by 29% (N=91, 0.85 vs. 0.66, p<0.05, Delong's test) with invasive FFR threshold of 0.8 as the reference standard. Our algorithm has the potential to facilitate non-invasive hemodynamic significance assessment of coronary lesions.

  18. The Fast and Easy Way for Double-Lumen Tube Intubation: Individual Angle-Modification

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jeong Jin; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Kang, Se Hee; Kim, Eunhee; Lee, Sangmin M.; Cho, Jong Ho; Kim, Hong Kwan

    2016-01-01

    To find the faster and easier way than the existing intubating technique for double-lumen tube, we modified the angle of double-lumen tube according to an individual’s upper airway anatomy and compared the time needed and the number of attempts for successful intubation between individually angle-modified and non-modified double-lumen tubes. Adult patients undergoing elective thoracic surgery were randomly allocated in either non-angle-modified (Group N, n = 54) or angle-modified (Group M, n = 54) groups. During mask ventilation in the sniffing position, angle-modification was performed in Group M as follows: the distal tip of the tube was placed at the level of the cricoid cartilage and the shaft was bent at the intersection of the oral and pharyngeal axes estimated from the patient’s surface anatomy. The time needed and the number of attempts for successful intubation and Cormack and Lehane (C-L) grade were recorded. Overall median intubation time (sec) was significantly shorter in Group M than in Group N [10.2 vs. 15.1, P<0.001]. In addition, Group M showed the shorter median intubation time (sec) in C-L grades I-III [8.2 vs. 11.1 in C-L grade I, (P = 0.003), 10.3 vs. 15.3 in II, (P = 0.001), and 11.8 vs. 27.9 in III, (P<0.001), respectively]. Moreover, all intubation was successfully performed at the first attempt in patients with C-L grades I-III in Group M (P = 0.027). Our study showed an individual angle-modification would be useful for the fast and easy intubation of double-lumen tube in patients with C-L grades I-III. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02190032 PMID:27537372

  19. Lumen-apposing covered self-expanding metal stent for management of benign gastrointestinal strictures

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Shounak; Buttar, Navtej S.; Gostout, Christopher; Levy, Michael J.; Martin, John; Petersen, Bret; Topazian, Mark; Wong Kee Song, Louis M.; Abu Dayyeh, Barham K.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) are safe and effective for endoscopic management of malignant gastrointestinal strictures, but there is limited experience with their use in refractory benign strictures. We assessed the use of a new lumen-apposing covered SEMS for the management of benign gastrointestinal strictures. Methods: A single-center case-series of five patients who underwent lumen-apposing covered SEMS placement for benign gastrointestinal strictures. Results: Three patients had a benign gastroduodenal stricture, one had a distal colonic anastomotic stricture, and one with complete gastrojejunal anastomotic stenosis underwent endoscopic creation of a new gastrojejunostomy. None of the patients developed any immediate or delayed stent-related adverse events. In two patients, the stents were left in place indefinitely. Stents were removed from the other three patients with successful resolution of their symptoms during follow-up. Conclusion: Lumen-apposing, fully covered SEMS appear to be safe and effective for management of selected benign gastrointestinal strictures. PMID:26793793

  20. A physics-based intravascular ultrasound image reconstruction method for lumen segmentation.

    PubMed

    Mendizabal-Ruiz, Gerardo; Kakadiaris, Ioannis A

    2016-08-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) refers to the medical imaging technique consisting of a miniaturized ultrasound transducer located at the tip of a catheter that can be introduced in the blood vessels providing high-resolution, cross-sectional images of their interior. Current methods for the generation of an IVUS image reconstruction from radio frequency (RF) data do not account for the physics involved in the interaction between the IVUS ultrasound signal and the tissues of the vessel. In this paper, we present a novel method to generate an IVUS image reconstruction based on the use of a scattering model that considers the tissues of the vessel as a distribution of three-dimensional point scatterers. We evaluated the impact of employing the proposed IVUS image reconstruction method in the segmentation of the lumen/wall interface on 40MHz IVUS data using an existing automatic lumen segmentation method. We compared the results with those obtained using the B-mode reconstruction on 600 randomly selected frames from twelve pullback sequences acquired from rabbit aortas and different arteries of swine. Our results indicate the feasibility of employing the proposed IVUS image reconstruction for the segmentation of the lumen. PMID:27235803

  1. Clathrin and AP-1 regulate apical polarity and lumen formation during C. elegans tubulogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongjie; Kim, Ahlee; Abraham, Nessy; Khan, Liakot A.; Hall, David H.; Fleming, John T.; Gobel, Verena

    2012-01-01

    Clathrin coats vesicles in all eukaryotic cells and has a well-defined role in endocytosis, moving molecules away from the plasma membrane. Its function on routes towards the plasma membrane was only recently appreciated and is thought to be limited to basolateral transport. Here, an unbiased RNAi-based tubulogenesis screen identifies a role of clathrin (CHC-1) and its AP-1 adaptor in apical polarity during de novo lumenal membrane biogenesis in the C. elegans intestine. We show that CHC-1/AP-1-mediated polarized transport intersects with a sphingolipid-dependent apical sorting process. Depleting each presumed trafficking component mislocalizes the same set of apical membrane molecules basolaterally, including the polarity regulator PAR-6, and generates ectopic lateral lumens. GFP::CHC-1 and BODIPY-ceramide vesicles associate perinuclearly and assemble asymmetrically at polarized plasma membrane domains in a co-dependent and AP-1-dependent manner. Based on these findings, we propose a trafficking pathway for apical membrane polarity and lumen morphogenesis that implies: (1) a clathrin/AP-1 function on an apically directed transport route; and (2) the convergence of this route with a sphingolipid-dependent apical trafficking path. PMID:22535410

  2. Automated Framework for Detecting Lumen and Media-Adventitia Borders in Intravascular Ultrasound Images.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhifan; Hau, William Kongto; Lu, Minhua; Huang, Wenhua; Zhang, Heye; Wu, Wanqing; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2015-07-01

    An automated framework for detecting lumen and media-adventitia borders in intravascular ultrasound images was developed on the basis of an adaptive region-growing method and an unsupervised clustering method. To demonstrate the capability of the framework, linear regression, Bland-Altman analysis and distance analysis were used to quantitatively investigate the correlation, agreement and spatial distance, respectively, between our detected borders and manually traced borders in 337 intravascular ultrasound images in vivo acquired from six patients. The results of these investigations revealed good correlation (r = 0.99), good agreement (>96.82% of results within the 95% confidence interval) and small average distance errors (lumen border: 0.08 mm, media-adventitia border: 0.10 mm) between the borders generated by the automated framework and the manual tracing method. The proposed framework was found to be effective in detecting lumen and media-adventitia borders in intravascular ultrasound images, indicating its potential for use in routine studies of vascular disease. PMID:25922134

  3. Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Hearing Loss What is Hearing Loss? Hearing loss is a common problem caused by ... sec Click to watch this video Types of Hearing Loss Hearing loss comes in many forms. It can ...

  4. Regulation by a TGFβ-ROCK-actomyosin axis secures a non-linear lumen expansion that is essential for tubulogenesis.

    PubMed

    Denker, Elsa; Sehring, Ivonne M; Dong, Bo; Audisso, Julien; Mathiesen, Birthe; Jiang, Di

    2015-05-01

    Regulation of lumen growth is crucial to ensure the correct morphology, dimensions and function of a tubular structure. How this is controlled is still poorly understood. During Ciona intestinalis notochord tubulogenesis, single extracellular lumen pockets grow between pairs of cells and eventually fuse into a continuous tube. Here, we show that lumen growth exhibits a lag phase, during which the luminal membranes continue to grow but the expansion of the apical/lateral junction pauses for ∼30 min. Inhibition of non-muscle myosin II activity abolishes this lag phase and accelerates expansion of the junction, resulting in the formation of narrower lumen pockets partially fusing into a tube of reduced size. Disruption of actin dynamics, conversely, causes a reversal of apical/lateral junction expansion, leading to a dramatic conversion of extracellular lumen pockets to intracellular vacuoles and a tubulogenesis arrest. The onset of the lag phase is correlated with a de novo accumulation of actin that forms a contractile ring at the apical/lateral junctions. This actin ring actively restricts the opening of the lumen in the transverse plane, allowing sufficient time for lumen growth via an osmotic process along the longitudinal dimension. The dynamics of lumen formation is controlled by the TGFβ pathway and ROCK activity. Our findings reveal a TGFβ-ROCK-actomyosin contractility axis that coordinates lumen growth, which is powered by the dynamics of luminal osmolarity. The regulatory system may function like a sensor/checkpoint that responds to the change of luminal pressure and fine-tunes actomyosin contractility to effect proper tubulogenesis. PMID:25834020

  5. Limiting the Number of Lumens in Peripherally Inserted Central Catheters to Improve Outcomes and Reduce Cost: A Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Ratz, David; Hofer, Timothy; Flanders, Scott A; Saint, Sanjay; Chopra, Vineet

    2016-07-01

    BACKGROUND The number of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) lumens is associated with thrombotic and infectious complications. Because multilumen PICCs are not necessary in all patients, policies that limit their use may improve safety and cost. OBJECTIVE To design a simulation-based analysis to estimate outcomes and cost associated with a policy that encourages single-lumen PICC use. METHODS Model inputs, including risk of complications and costs associated with single- and multilumen PICCs, were obtained from available literature and a multihospital collaborative quality improvement project. Cost savings and reduction in central line-associated bloodstream infection and deep vein thrombosis events from institution of a single-lumen PICC default policy were reported. RESULTS According to our model, a hospital that places 1,000 PICCs per year (25% of which are single-lumen and 75% multilumen) experiences annual PICC-related maintenance and complication costs of $1,228,598 (95% CI, $1,053,175-$1,430,958). In such facilities, every 5% increase in single-lumen PICC use would prevent 0.5 PICC-related central line-associated bloodstream infections and 0.5 PICC-related deep vein thrombosis events, while saving $23,500. Moving from 25% to 50% single-lumen PICC utilization would result in total savings of $119,283 (95% CI, $74,030-$184,170) per year. Regardless of baseline prevalence, a single-lumen default PICC policy would be associated with approximately 10% cost savings. Findings remained robust in multiway sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSION Hospital policies that limit the number of PICC lumens may enhance patient safety and reduce healthcare costs. Studies measuring intended and unintended consequences of this approach, followed by rapid adoption, appear necessary. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:811-817. PMID:27033138

  6. Branched stent-grafts deployed in the true and false lumen to exclude a post dissecting thoracoabdominal aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Bertoglio, Luca; Marone, Enrico M; Civilini, Efrem; Cambiaghi, Tommaso; Mascia, Daniele; Chiesa, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this case report was to present an endovascular treatment of a residual post-dissection Crawford type III thoracoabdominal aneurysm (TAA). A 60-year-old man, who had suffered from acute type B aortic dissection (TBAD) 8 years ago and had already been treated for both descending thoracic and infrarenal aortic aneurysm with open repair, presented with a 61mm post-dissection TAA. The aneurysm was successfully excluded with a staged fully endovascular procedure by employing two multibranched custom-made stent grafts deployed into the false lumen. The first stent-graft with a proximal monobranch was created to perfuse the right renal artery via the true lumen. The latter, with a triple branch design, was meant to perfuse the visceral arteries and left renal artery arising from the false lumen. Available branched custom-made stent-grafts for the treatment of degenerative TAA can be employed also in post TBAD aneurysms so as to simplify the procedure. The branched stent-grafts could be deployed within an enlarged false lumen provided that a suitable distal landing zone is available as well as that the visceral vessels can be perfused from the false lumen. A proximal branch for perfusing one of the lumens of the dissection from the proximal tear can be an alternative solution to creating neofenestrations. PMID:26337013

  7. Contura Multi-Lumen Balloon Breast Brachytherapy Catheter: Comparative Dosimetric Findings of a Phase 4 Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, Douglas W.; Vicini, Frank A.; Julian, Thomas B.; Cuttino, Laurie W.; Mukhopadhyay, Nitai D.

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Final dosimetric findings of a completed, multi-institutional phase 4 registry trial using the Contura Multi-Lumen Balloon (MLB) breast brachytherapy catheter to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in patients with early-stage breast cancer are presented. Methods and Materials: Three dosimetric plans with identical target coverage were generated for each patient for comparison: multilumen multidwell (MLMD); central-lumen multidwell (CLMD); and central-lumen single-dwell (CLSD) loading of the Contura catheter. For this study, a successful treatment plan achieved ideal dosimetric goals and included the following: ≥95% of the prescribed dose (PD) covering ≥95% of the target volume (TV); maximum skin dose ≤125% of the PD; maximum rib dose ≤145% of the PD; and V150 ≤50 cc and V200 ≤10 cc. Results: Between January 2008 and February 2011, 23 institutions participated. A total of 318 patients were available for dosimetric review. Using the Contura MLB, all dosimetric criteria were met in 78.93% of cases planned with MLMD versus 55.38% with the CLMD versus 37.66% with the CLSD (P≤.0001). Evaluating all patients with the full range of skin to balloon distance represented, median maximum skin dose was reduced by 12% and median maximum rib dose by 13.9% when using MLMD-based dosimetric plans compared to CLSD. The dosimetric benefit of MLMD was further demonstrated in the subgroup of patients where skin thickness was <5 mm, where MLMD use allowed a 38% reduction in median maximum skin dose over CLSD. For patients with rib distance <5 mm, the median maximum rib dose reduction was 27%. Conclusions: Use of the Contura MLB catheter produced statistically significant improvements in dosimetric capabilities between CLSD and CLMD treatments. This device approach demonstrates the ability not only to overcome the barriers of limited skin thickness and close rib proximity, but to consistently achieve a higher standard of dosimetric planning goals.

  8. Two Automated Techniques for Carotid Lumen Diameter Measurement: Regional versus Boundary Approaches.

    PubMed

    Araki, Tadashi; Kumar, P Krishna; Suri, Harman S; Ikeda, Nobutaka; Gupta, Ajay; Saba, Luca; Rajan, Jeny; Lavra, Francesco; Sharma, Aditya M; Shafique, Shoaib; Nicolaides, Andrew; Laird, John R; Suri, Jasjit S

    2016-07-01

    The degree of stenosis in the carotid artery can be predicted using automated carotid lumen diameter (LD) measured from B-mode ultrasound images. Systolic velocity-based methods for measurement of LD are subjective. With the advancement of high resolution imaging, image-based methods have started to emerge. However, they require robust image analysis for accurate LD measurement. This paper presents two different algorithms for automated segmentation of the lumen borders in carotid ultrasound images. Both algorithms are modeled as a two stage process. Stage one consists of a global-based model using scale-space framework for the extraction of the region of interest. This stage is common to both algorithms. Stage two is modeled using a local-based strategy that extracts the lumen interfaces. At this stage, the algorithm-1 is modeled as a region-based strategy using a classification framework, whereas the algorithm-2 is modeled as a boundary-based approach that uses the level set framework. Two sets of databases (DB), Japan DB (JDB) (202 patients, 404 images) and Hong Kong DB (HKDB) (50 patients, 300 images) were used in this study. Two trained neuroradiologists performed manual LD tracings. The mean automated LD measured was 6.35 ± 0.95 mm for JDB and 6.20 ± 1.35 mm for HKDB. The precision-of-merit was: 97.4 % and 98.0 % w.r.t to two manual tracings for JDB and 99.7 % and 97.9 % w.r.t to two manual tracings for HKDB. Statistical tests such as ANOVA, Chi-Squared, T-test, and Mann-Whitney test were conducted to show the stability and reliability of the automated techniques. PMID:27299355

  9. Characteristic transport of lactoferrin from the intestinal lumen into the bile via the blood in piglets.

    PubMed

    Harada, E; Itoh, Y; Sitizyo, K; Takeuchi, T; Araki, Y; Kitagawa, H

    1999-11-01

    Lactoferrin is a major iron-binding protein in milk from several species, such as humans, monkeys, mice and sows. Using neonatal and weaner piglets, the characteristic transfer of lactoferrin from intestinal lumen into bile via the circulation was investigated. Bovine lactoferrin (1 or 3 g/kg body weight) was infused into the stomach through a polyethylene tube or into the duodenum through a duodenal catheter over 5 min. Peripheral blood and bile samples were collected after the infusion. Lactoferrin absorbed into plasma and bile were assayed quantitatively by double-antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and homogeneity of bovine lactoferrin in plasma and bile was identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting methods. Morphological investigation was carried out according to the peroxidase anti-peroxidase method. Following oral administration in neonatal pigs, bovine lactoferrin appeared in the blood circulation and reached a peak level after 2 h. It was confirmed immunohistochemically that lactoferrin was transported by endocytosis via the epithelial cells. Lactoferrin absorbed into the blood was also detected in the bile and reached a peak value 12 h after oral administration. Transportation of lactoferrin from the intestinal lumen into the bile via the bloodstream was also observed in weaner piglets. Lactoferrin transported into plasma and bile was confirmed to be the same substance as administrated lactoferrin by electrophoresis and immunoblotting methods. Lactoferrin transported into bile was re-absorbed into the blood in neonatal pigs. These results demonstrate that lactoferrin contained in milk is transported into the circulation from the intestinal lumen and excreted into the bile, suggesting the possibility of entero-hepatic circulation of lactoferrin in neonatal pigs. PMID:10665381

  10. Peptidyl prolyl cis-trans-isomerase activity associated with the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed Central

    Bose, S; Freedman, R B

    1994-01-01

    Peptidyl prolyl cis-trans-isomerase (PPI) activity was detected in microsomal fractions from bovine and rat liver. Extensive washing, proteinase and sonication treatments indicated that although some of this activity was due to adsorbed cytosolic enzymes, there was also an active but latent microsomal PPI activity. Density-gradient subfractionation indicated that activity was associated with vesicles derived from both the rough and the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER), suggesting that the activity was located within the ER lumen. The luminal PPI activity was inhibited by cyclosporin A and was active towards an unfolded protein substrate as well as towards the standard peptide substrate. PMID:8010971

  11. The microbiota mediates pathogen clearance from the gut lumen after non-typhoidal Salmonella diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Endt, Kathrin; Stecher, Bärbel; Chaffron, Samuel; Slack, Emma; Tchitchek, Nicolas; Benecke, Arndt; Van Maele, Laurye; Sirard, Jean-Claude; Mueller, Andreas J; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Macpherson, Andrew J; Strugnell, Richard; von Mering, Christian; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2010-01-01

    Many enteropathogenic bacteria target the mammalian gut. The mechanisms protecting the host from infection are poorly understood. We have studied the protective functions of secretory antibodies (sIgA) and the microbiota, using a mouse model for S. typhimurium diarrhea. This pathogen is a common cause of diarrhea in humans world-wide. S. typhimurium (S. tm(att), sseD) causes a self-limiting gut infection in streptomycin-treated mice. After 40 days, all animals had overcome the disease, developed a sIgA response, and most had cleared the pathogen from the gut lumen. sIgA limited pathogen access to the mucosal surface and protected from gut inflammation in challenge infections. This protection was O-antigen specific, as demonstrated with pathogens lacking the S. typhimurium O-antigen (wbaP, S. enteritidis) and sIgA-deficient mice (TCRβ(-/-)δ(-/-), J(H) (-/-), IgA(-/-), pIgR(-/-)). Surprisingly, sIgA-deficiency did not affect the kinetics of pathogen clearance from the gut lumen. Instead, this was mediated by the microbiota. This was confirmed using 'L-mice' which harbor a low complexity gut flora, lack colonization resistance and develop a normal sIgA response, but fail to clear S. tm(att) from the gut lumen. In these mice, pathogen clearance was achieved by transferring a normal complex microbiota. Thus, besides colonization resistance ( = pathogen blockage by an intact microbiota), the microbiota mediates a second, novel protective function, i.e. pathogen clearance. Here, the normal microbiota re-grows from a state of depletion and disturbed composition and gradually clears even very high pathogen loads from the gut lumen, a site inaccessible to most "classical" immune effector mechanisms. In conclusion, sIgA and microbiota serve complementary protective functions. The microbiota confers colonization resistance and mediates pathogen clearance in primary infections, while sIgA protects from disease if the host re-encounters the same pathogen. This has

  12. The Cohen flexitip endobronchial blocker: an alternative to a double lumen tube.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Edmond

    2005-12-01

    One-lung ventilation (OLV) is usually achieved by the use of a double-lumen tubes (DLTs). With increasing need for use of OLV for video-assisted thoracoscopic procedures, the limitations of traditional DLT's, including difficult insertion and positioning, have become evident. This has led to renewed interest in devising alternative methods of achieving lung separation, such as the Univent tube or Arndt endobronchial blocker. This report describes the technical features and clinical use of a new tip-deflecting endobronchial blocker. PMID:16301278

  13. MRI of the Coronary vasculature: Imaging the Lumen, Wall and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Kai; Carr, James C.

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of coronary artery disease (CAD) are gradual thickening of the coronary walls and narrowing of the vascular lumen due to the built-up of atherosclerosis plaques. Those morphological changes can be noninvasively detected by coronary MRI/MRA. In addition, functional changes, such as coronary wall distensibility and flow changes may also be evaluated with MRI. However, the application of current MRI/MRA techniques is limited in clinical practice due to several adverse technical and physiological factors, such as cardiac motion and respiratory motion. Many technical innovations have been adopted to address those problems from multiple aspects. PMID:25726999

  14. Growth factor induced proliferation, migration, and lumen formation of rat endometrial epithelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Rashedul; Yamagami, Kazuki; Yoshii, Yuka; Yamauchi, Nobuhiko

    2016-06-17

    Endometrial modulation is essential for the preservation of normal uterine physiology, and this modulation is driven by a number of growth factors. The present study investigated the mitogenic, motogenic, and morphogenic effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on rat endometrial epithelial (REE) cells. The REE cells were isolated and cultured and then characterized based on their morphology and their expression of epithelial cell markers. The MTT assay revealed that EGF and HGF induce proliferation of REE cells. Consistent with increased proliferation, we found that the cell cycle regulatory factor Cyclin D1 was also upregulated upon EGF and HGF addition. REE cell migration was prompted by EGF, as observed with the Oris Cell Migration Assay. The morphogenic impact of growth factors on REE cells was studied in a three-dimensional BD Matrigel cell culture system, wherein these growth factors also increased the frequency of lumen formation. In summary, we show that EGF and HGF have a stimulatory effect on REE cells, promoting proliferation, cell migration, and lumen formation. Our findings provide important insights that further the understanding of endometrial regeneration and its regulation. PMID:26946922

  15. Changes in pulmonary arterial wall mechanical properties and lumenal architecture with induced vascular remodeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molthen, Robert C.; Heinrich, Amy E.; Haworth, Steven T.; Dawson, Christopher A.

    2004-04-01

    To explore and quantify pulmonary arterial remodeling we used various methods including micro-CT, high-resolution 3-dimensional x-ray imaging, to examine the structure and function of intact pulmonary vessels in isolated rat lungs. The rat is commonly used as an animal model for studies of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and the accompanying vascular remodeling, where vascular remodeling has been defined primarily by changes in the vessel wall composition in response to hypertension inducing stimuli such as chronic hypoxic exposure (CHE) or monocrotaline (MCT) injection. Little information has been provided as to how such changes affect the vessel wall mechanical properties or the lumenal architecture of the pulmonary arterial system that actually account for the hemodynamic consequences of the remodeling. In addition, although the link between primary forms of pulmonary hypertension and inherited genetics is well established, the role that genetic coding plays in hemodynamics and vascular remodeling is not. Therefore, we are utilizing Fawn-Hooded (FH), Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Brown Norway (BN)rat strains along with unique imaging methods to parameterize both vessel distensibility and lumenal morphometry using a principal pulmonary arterial pathway analysis based on self-consistency. We have found for the hypoxia model, in addition to decreased body weight, increased hematocrit, increased right ventricular hypertrophy, the distensibility of the pulmonary arteries is shown to decrease significantly in the presence of remodeling.

  16. Differential Translocation of Host Cellular Materials into the Chlamydia trachomatis Inclusion Lumen during Chemical Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Kokes, Marcela; Valdivia, Raphael H.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis manipulates host cellular pathways to ensure its proliferation and survival. Translocation of host materials into the pathogenic vacuole (termed ‘inclusion’) may facilitate nutrient acquisition and various organelles have been observed within the inclusion, including lipid droplets, peroxisomes, multivesicular body components, and membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). However, few of these processes have been documented in living cells. Here, we survey the localization of a broad panel of subcellular elements and find ER, mitochondria, and inclusion membranes within the inclusion lumen of fixed cells. However, we see little evidence of intraluminal localization of these organelles in live inclusions. Using time-lapse video microscopy we document ER marker translocation into the inclusion lumen during chemical fixation. These intra-inclusion ER elements resist a variety of post-fixation manipulations and are detectable via immunofluorescence microscopy. We speculate that the localization of a subset of organelles may be exaggerated during fixation. Finally, we find similar structures within the pathogenic vacuole of Coxiella burnetti infected cells, suggesting that fixation-induced translocation of cellular materials may occur into the vacuole of a range of intracellular pathogens. PMID:26426122

  17. The Mother Centriole Appendage Protein Cenexin Modulates Lumen Formation through Spindle Orientation.

    PubMed

    Hung, Hui-Fang; Hehnly, Heidi; Doxsey, Stephen

    2016-03-21

    Establishing apical-basal polarity is instrumental in the functional shaping of a solitary lumen within an acinus. By exploiting micropatterned slides, wound healing assays, and three-dimensional culture systems, we identified a mother centriole subdistal appendage protein, cenexin, as a critical player in symmetric lumen expansion through the control of microtubule organization. In this regard, cenexin was required for both centrosome positioning in interphase cells and proper spindle orientation during mitosis. In contrast, the essential mother centriole distal appendage protein CEP164 did not play a role in either process, demonstrating the specificity of subdistal appendages for these events. Importantly, upon closer examination we found that cenexin depletion decreased astral microtubule length, disrupted astral microtubule minus-end organization, and increased levels of the polarity protein NuMA at the cell cortex. Interestingly, spindle misorientation and NuMA mislocalization were reversed by treatment with a low dose of the microtubule-stabilizing agent paclitaxel. Taken together, these results suggest that cenexin modulates microtubule organization and stability to mediate spindle orientation. PMID:26948879

  18. Videolaryngoscopes for placement of double lumen tubes: Is it time to say goodbye to direct view?

    PubMed Central

    El-Tahan, MR

    2016-01-01

    The advances in thoracic procedures require optimum lung separation to provide adequate room for surgical access. This can be achieved using either a double-lumen tube (DLT) or a bronchial blocker (BB). Most thoracic anesthesiologists prefer the use of DLT. However, lung separation in patients with potential difficult airway can be achieved using either BB through a single lumen tube or placement of a DLT over a tube exchanger or a fiberoptic bronchoscope. Numerous videolaryngoscopes (VL) have been introduced offering both optical and video options to visualize the glottis. Many studies reported improved glottis visualization and easier DLT intubation in patients with normal and potential difficult airway. However, these studies have a wide diversity of outcomes, which may be attributed to the differences in their designs and the prior experience of the operators in using the different devices. In the present review, we present the main outcomes of the available publications, which have addressed the use of VL-guided DLT intubation. Currently, there is enough evidence supporting using VL for DLT intubation in patients with predicted and unanticipated difficult airway. In conclusion, the use of VL could offer an effective method of DLT placement for lung separation in patients with the potential difficult airway. PMID:27051377

  19. Cingulin and actin mediate midbody-dependent apical lumen formation during polarization of epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Mangan, Anthony J.; Sietsema, Daniel V.; Li, Dongying; Moore, Jeffrey K.; Citi, Sandra; Prekeris, Rytis

    2016-01-01

    Coordinated polarization of epithelial cells is a key step during morphogenesis that leads to the formation of an apical lumen. Rab11 and its interacting protein FIP5 are necessary for the targeting of apical endosomes to the midbody and apical membrane initiation site (AMIS) during lumenogenesis. However, the machinery that mediates AMIS establishment and FIP5-endosome targeting remains unknown. Here we identify a FIP5-interacting protein, Cingulin, which localizes to the AMIS and functions as a tether mediating FIP5-endosome targeting. We analysed the machinery mediating AMIS recruitment to the midbody and determined that both branched actin and microtubules are required for establishing the site of the nascent lumen. We demonstrate that the Rac1-WAVE/Scar complex mediates Cingulin recruitment to the AMIS by inducing branched actin formation, and that Cingulin directly binds to microtubule C-terminal tails through electrostatic interactions. We propose a new mechanism for apical endosome targeting and AMIS formation around the midbody during epithelial lumenogenesis. PMID:27484926

  20. Quantitative analysis for lumen and media-adventitia border detection in intravascular ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ling; Yu, Daoyin; Chen, Xiaodong; An, Zhiyong

    2008-12-01

    Therosclerosis causes partial or total obstruction of human arteries. Early quantitative analysis and accurate assessment of plaque position and volume are essential for the selection of the appropriate treatment. Several imaging techniques can be used for the estimation of the severity of the disease in vivo. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is a commonly used diagnostic tool, which provides real-time visualization of plaque morphology and detection of typical plaque components, such as calcium, quantification of plaque eccentricity and wall thickness. In this paper, we firstly used a spatio-temporal filter to reduce the effect of speckles and enhance the image. Then we translated the problem of image segmentation to the problem of the minimum resolution of energy function. using an improved deformable models, we detected the border of lumen and media-adventitia in sequential intravascular ultrasound frames, and optimized it by dynamic programming. Finally, through the identification of the internal and external elastic lamina and the plaque-lumen interface, we figured out the parameter of plaque load, maximal and minimal diameters of the internal and external elastic lamina and so on. The obtained results demonstrate that our method is statistically accurate, reproducible, and capable to identify the regions of interest in sequences of IVUS frames.

  1. A mutation within the transmembrane domain of melanosomal protein Silver (Pmel17) changes lumenal fragment interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kuliawat, Regina; Santambrogio, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Melanocytes synthesize and store melanin within tissue-specific organelles, the melanosomes. Melanin deposition takes place along fibrils found within these organelles and fibril formation is known to depend on trafficking of the membrane glycoprotein Silver/Pmel17. However, correctly targeted, full-length Silver/Pmel17 cannot form fibers. Proteolytic processing in endosomal compartments and the generation of a lumenal Mα fragment that is incorporated into amyloid-like structures is also essential. Dominant White (DWhite), a mutant form of Silver/Pmel17 first described in chicken, causes disorganized fibers and severe hypopigmentation due to melanocyte death. Surprisingly, the DWhite mutation is an insertion of three amino acids into the transmembrane domain; the DWhite-Mα fragment is unaffected. To determine the functional importance of the transmembrane domain in organized fibril assembly, we investigated membrane trafficking and multimerization of Silver/Pmel17/DWhite proteins. We demonstrate that the DWhite mutation changes lipid interactions and disulfide bond-mediated associations of lumenal domains. Thus, partitioning into membrane microdomains and effects on conformation explain how the transmembrane region may contribute to the structural integrity of Silver/Pmel17 oligomers or influence toxic, amyloidogenic properties. PMID:19679373

  2. "Nonclassical" secretion of annexin A2 to the lumenal side of the enterocyte brush border membrane.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, E Michael; van Deurs, Bo; Hansen, Gert H

    2003-12-16

    Annexin A2 is a member of the annexin family of Ca(2+)-dependent lipid binding proteins and believed to be engaged in membrane transport processes in a number of cell types. In small intestinal enterocytes, we localized annexin A2 to the brush border region, where it was found mainly on the lumenal side of the microvilli, showing an apical secretion by a "nonclassical" mechanism. In addition, annexin A2 was associated with surface-connected, deep apical tubules in the apical terminal web region and with an underlying pleiomorphic, tubulo-vesicular compartment (subapical compartment/multivesicular bodies). By subcellular fractionation, the 36 kDa full-length form of annexin A2 was approximately equally distributed between the Mg(2+)-precipitated fraction (containing intracellular and basolateral membranes) and the microvillar membrane fraction. In addition, a 33 kDa molecular form of annexin A2 was seen in the latter fraction that could be generated from the full-length annexin A2 by digestion with trypsin. Taken together, the results suggest that annexin A2 acts in exocytic apical membrane trafficking and is proteolytically cleaved in situ by pancreatic proteinases once it has become externalized to the lumenal side of the brush border membrane. On the basis of its well-known membrane fusogenic properties, we propose a model for the nonclassical membrane translocation of annexin A2. PMID:14661980

  3. Growth factor induced proliferation, migration, and lumen formation of rat endometrial epithelial cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    ISLAM, Md. Rashedul; YAMAGAMI, Kazuki; YOSHII, Yuka; YAMAUCHI, Nobuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial modulation is essential for the preservation of normal uterine physiology, and this modulation is driven by a number of growth factors. The present study investigated the mitogenic, motogenic, and morphogenic effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on rat endometrial epithelial (REE) cells. The REE cells were isolated and cultured and then characterized based on their morphology and their expression of epithelial cell markers. The MTT assay revealed that EGF and HGF induce proliferation of REE cells. Consistent with increased proliferation, we found that the cell cycle regulatory factor Cyclin D1 was also upregulated upon EGF and HGF addition. REE cell migration was prompted by EGF, as observed with the Oris Cell Migration Assay. The morphogenic impact of growth factors on REE cells was studied in a three-dimensional BD Matrigel cell culture system, wherein these growth factors also increased the frequency of lumen formation. In summary, we show that EGF and HGF have a stimulatory effect on REE cells, promoting proliferation, cell migration, and lumen formation. Our findings provide important insights that further the understanding of endometrial regeneration and its regulation. PMID:26946922

  4. A lumen detection-based intestinal direction vector acquisition method for wireless endoscopy systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Xie, Xiang; Li, Guolin; Yin, Zheng; Wang, Zhihua

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for acquiring an intestinal direction vector (IDV) based on a single static wireless endoscopic image. The IDV can be used for navigation of wireless capsule endoscopy, and for multicamera microball system, this information can help to select cameras to capture images of the region of interest. Our proposal is based on lumen detection, which involves Bayer-format downsample, adaptive threshold segmentation, and radial texture detection. Then, an IDV calculation method with only one single static image by modeling the small intestine and image capture process is put forward. The performance of the proposed method is verified with experiments based on real digestive tract images and the microball demo system. The lumen detection method achieves 95.5% precision and 98.1% sensitivity. The experimental results in pig intestine show that the error of IDV is limited by a sphere with center (-0.00629, 0.00097, 0.00061) and radius 0.085. PMID:25361496

  5. Lumenal gating mechanism revealed in calcium pump crystal structures with phosphate analogues.

    PubMed

    Toyoshima, Chikashi; Nomura, Hiromi; Tsuda, Takeo

    2004-11-18

    P-type ion transporting ATPases are ATP-powered ion pumps that establish ion concentration gradients across biological membranes. Transfer of bound cations to the lumenal or extracellular side occurs while the ATPase is phosphorylated. Here we report at 2.3 A resolution the structure of the calcium-ATPase of skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum, a representative P-type ATPase that is crystallized in the absence of Ca2+ but in the presence of magnesium fluoride, a stable phosphate analogue. This and other crystal structures determined previously provide atomic models for all four principal states in the reaction cycle. These structures show that the three cytoplasmic domains rearrange to move six out of ten transmembrane helices, thereby changing the affinity of the Ca2+-binding sites and the gating of the ion pathway. Release of ADP triggers the opening of the lumenal gate and release of phosphate its closure, effected mainly through movement of the A-domain, the actuator of transmembrane gates. PMID:15448704

  6. Cingulin and actin mediate midbody-dependent apical lumen formation during polarization of epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mangan, Anthony J; Sietsema, Daniel V; Li, Dongying; Moore, Jeffrey K; Citi, Sandra; Prekeris, Rytis

    2016-01-01

    Coordinated polarization of epithelial cells is a key step during morphogenesis that leads to the formation of an apical lumen. Rab11 and its interacting protein FIP5 are necessary for the targeting of apical endosomes to the midbody and apical membrane initiation site (AMIS) during lumenogenesis. However, the machinery that mediates AMIS establishment and FIP5-endosome targeting remains unknown. Here we identify a FIP5-interacting protein, Cingulin, which localizes to the AMIS and functions as a tether mediating FIP5-endosome targeting. We analysed the machinery mediating AMIS recruitment to the midbody and determined that both branched actin and microtubules are required for establishing the site of the nascent lumen. We demonstrate that the Rac1-WAVE/Scar complex mediates Cingulin recruitment to the AMIS by inducing branched actin formation, and that Cingulin directly binds to microtubule C-terminal tails through electrostatic interactions. We propose a new mechanism for apical endosome targeting and AMIS formation around the midbody during epithelial lumenogenesis. PMID:27484926

  7. Comparison between MDCT and Grayscale IVUS in a Quantitative Analysis of Coronary Lumen in Segments with or without Atherosclerotic Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Falcão, João L. A. A.; Falcão, Breno A. A.; Gurudevan, Swaminatha V.; Campos, Carlos M.; Silva, Expedito R.; Kalil-Filho, Roberto; Rochitte, Carlos E.; Shiozaki, Afonso A.; Coelho-Filho, Otavio R.; Lemos, Pedro A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice MDCT in comparison with IVUS has been poorly described and is mainly restricted to reports analyzing segments with documented atherosclerotic plaques. Objectives We compared 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with gray scale intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) for the evaluation of coronary lumen dimensions in the context of a comprehensive analysis, including segments with absent or mild disease. Methods The 64-slice MDCT was performed within 72 h before the IVUS imaging, which was obtained for at least one coronary, regardless of the presence of luminal stenosis at angiography. A total of 21 patients were included, with 70 imaged vessels (total length 114.6 ± 38.3 mm per patient). A coronary plaque was diagnosed in segments with plaque burden > 40%. Results At patient, vessel, and segment levels, average lumen area, minimal lumen area, and minimal lumen diameter were highly correlated between IVUS and 64-slice MDCT (p < 0.01). However, 64-slice MDCT tended to underestimate the lumen size with a relatively wide dispersion of the differences. The comparison between 64-slice MDCT and IVUS lumen measurements was not substantially affected by the presence or absence of an underlying plaque. In addition, 64-slice MDCT showed good global accuracy for the detection of IVUS parameters associated with flow-limiting lesions. Conclusions In a comprehensive, multi-territory, and whole-artery analysis, the assessment of coronary lumen by 64-slice MDCT compared with coronary IVUS showed a good overall diagnostic ability, regardless of the presence or absence of underlying atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:25993595

  8. Combined coronary lumen and vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging with i-T2prep: influence of nitroglycerin.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Tarique; Henningsson, Markus; Butzbach, Britta; Lossnitzer, Dirk; Greil, Gerald F; Andia, Marcelo E; Botnar, Rene M

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that sublingual nitroglycerin (NTG) improves image quality of coronary lumen magnetic resonance angiography. Our aim was to investigate the influence of NTG on coronary lumen and vessel wall image quality using a combined, single sequence approach (i-T2prep), which is able to image both within the known time frame of action of NTG. Ten healthy volunteers underwent right coronary artery lumen and vessel wall imaging using the i-T2prep sequence before and after administration of NTG. Image quality was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. Diameter, length and wall thickness were also measured using dedicated semi-automatic software. NTG induced coronary vasodilatation (lumen diameter increased from 2.16 ± 0.32 to 2.52 ± 0.59 mm; p = 0.036). As a result, visualized lumen length (9.8 ± 2.6 to 11.4 ± 3.3 cm; p = 0.025) and qualitative lumen image quality (median 3 (interquartile range 2-3.25) vs. median 3 (interquartile range 3-4); p = 0.046) both improved. Vessel wall imaging also demonstrated a significant improvement in vessel wall sharpness after NTG (24.8 vs. 27.3 %; p = 0.036). This study demonstrates the benefits of NTG for coronary lumen and vessel wall imaging using a combined sequence, i-T2prep. The methodology described here has great potential for future pathophysiological studies. PMID:25200588

  9. Retention of NMDA receptor NR2 subunits in the lumen of endoplasmic reticulum in targeted NR1 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Fukaya, Masahiro; Kato, Akira; Lovett, Chanel; Tonegawa, Susumu; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2003-01-01

    Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, and the N-methyl-d-aspartate-selective glutamate receptor (NR) consisting of the NR1 subunit and an NR2 or NR3 subunit plays crucial roles in synaptic transmission, plasticity, and learning and memory. By using a knockout mouse strain, in which the NR1 gene deletion is primarily targeted to the CA1 pyramidal cells of the hippocampus, we investigated the in vivo effect of the loss of the NR1 subunit on the cellular expression and intracellular distribution of the NR2 subunits. The NR1 gene deletion had no apparent effect on the levels of NR2A or NR2B mRNA but led to severe reductions of NR2A and NR2B protein in dendrites of CA1 pyramidal cells. This reduced dendritic distribution of the NR2 subunits accompanied their robust accumulation in perikarya, where they were condensed in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum as electron-dense granules. These granules were also observed in CA1 pyramidal cells of the control mice but they were much fewer and contained no detectable levels of the NR2 subunit. The effect of the NR1 knockout on intracellular localization of the NR2 subunits was specific in that no such effect was observed for the GluR1 and PSD-95, two other major postsynaptic proteins. These results suggest that the NR1 subunit plays a crucial role in the release of the NR2 subunit from the endoplasmic reticulum in hippocampal pyramidal cells in vivo, and when the NR1 subunit is unavailable, the NR2 subunits are retained and aggregate into intracisternal granules. PMID:12676993

  10. Localization of lysobisphosphatidic acid-rich membrane domains in late endosomes.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, T; Startchev, K; Whitney, A J; Gruenber, J

    2001-03-01

    Late endosomes accumulate internal membranes within the lumen of the organelle. These internal membranes are enriched in the late endosome specific phospholipid, lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA). The organization of LBPA-rich membrane domains is not well characterized. Using an LBPA-specific monoclonal antibody (6C4), we show that these membrane domains are not accessible from the cytoplasm. Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we also show that 6C4 only binds sonicated, but not intact, late endosomes, presumably reflecting the release of internal membranes upon endosome rupture. PMID:11347897

  11. Dual-Lumen Chest Port Infection Rates in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bos, Aaron Ahmed, Osman; Jilani, Danial; Giger, Maryellen; Funaki, Brian S.; Zangan, Steven M.

    2015-06-15

    PurposeThe aim of this study was to investigate dual-lumen chest port infection rates in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) compared to those with other malignancies (non-HNC).Materials and MethodsAn IRB-approved retrospective study was performed on 1,094 consecutive chest ports placed over a 2-year period. Patients with poor follow-up (n = 53), no oncologic history (n = 13), or single-lumen ports (n = 183) were excluded yielding a study population of 845 patients. The electronic medical records were queried for demographic information, data regarding ports and infections, and imaging review.ResultsHNC patients experienced more infections (42 vs. 30), an increased infection rate per 1,000 catheter days (0.68 vs. 0.21), and more early infections within 30 days compared to non-HNC patients (10 vs. 6) (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.02, respectively). An existing tracheostomy at the time of port placement was associated with infection in the HNC group (p = 0.02) but was not an independent risk factor for infection in the study population overall (p = 0.06). There was a significant difference in age, male gender, and right-sided ports between the HNC and non-HNC groups (p < 0.01, p < 0.001, and p = 0.01), although these were not found to be independent risk factors for infection (p = 0.32, p = 0.76, p = 0.16).ConclusionHNC patients are at increased risk for infection of dual-lumen chest ports placed via a jugular approach compared to patients with other malignancies. Tracheostomy is associated with infection in HNC patients but is not an independent risk factor for infection in the oncologic population as a whole.

  12. New Dual Lumen Self-Expanding Catheter Design Requiring Less Suction.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Sayed, Saad; von Segesser, Ludwig-Karl

    2016-01-01

    Contribution of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (v-v ECMO) to gas transfer is flow dependent. Catheter design is a key factor for optimal pressure/flow rate relationship. This study was designed for the assessment of a new self-expanding dual lumen catheter design versus the current standard. Outlet pressure/flow rate and inlet pressure/flow rate for a new Smart catheter with self-expanding dual lumen design constricted to 27 F with 5 mm long constrictor corresponding to the percutaneous path versus Avalon 27 F catheter (control) were compared on a flow bench with a Biomedicus centrifugal pump. Flow, pump inlet pressure and outlet pressure were determined at 500, 1,000, 1,500, 2,000, and 2,500 revolutions per minute (RPM). At 500 RPM and with a 5 mm long constrictor (1,000; 1,500; 2,000; and 2,500 RPM), catheter outlet pressure values were -0.13 ± 0.07 mm Hg (-2.55 ± 0.06; -7.38 ± 0.14; -15.03 ± 0.44; -26.46 ± 0.39) for self-expanding versus -2.93 ± 0.23* (-10.60 ± 0.14; -22.74 ± 0.34; -38.43 ± 0.41; -58.25 ± 0.40)*: p < 0.0001* for control. The flow values were 0.61 ± 0.01 L/min (1.64 ± 0.03, 2.78 ± 0.02; 4.07 ± 0.04; 5.37 ± 0.02) for self-expanding versus 1.13 ± 0.06*; (2.19 ± 0.04; 3.30 ± 0.03; 4.30 ± 0.03; 5.30 ± 0.03)*: p < 0.0001* for control. The corresponding catheter inlet flow rates of the self-expanding catheter were slightly more than that of the control. For the given setup, our evaluation demonstrated that the new dual lumen self-expanding catheter requires lower catheter outlet pressures for higher flows as compared to the current standard. PMID:27045970

  13. Effective Bolus Dose of Sufentanil to Attenuate Cardiovascular Responses in Laryngoscopic Double-Lumen Endobronchial Intubation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Byung-Hee; Lee, Yong-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Background Sufentanil is a potent opioid analgesic frequently used in clinical anesthesia. Double-lumen endobronchial intubation induces profound cardiovascular responses in comparison with ordinary endotracheal intubation because of the larger tube diameter and direct irritation of the carina. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the effective bolus dose of sufentanil to attenuate hemodynamic changes in response to laryngoscopic double-lumen endobronchial intubation. Patients and Methods We randomly assigned 72 patients aged 18 - 65 years and with an American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status of 1 or 2 to one of four sufentanil dose groups: NS, S0.1, S0.2, or S0.3. The respective doses for the groups were as follows: normal saline, 0.1 mcg/kg of sufentanil, 0.2 mcg/kg of sufentanil, and 0.3 mcg/kg of sufentanil. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded during the pre-anesthesia period at baseline, pre-intubation, immediate post-intubation, and every minute during 5 minutes after intubation. Results Baseline mean arterial pressures in the NS, S0.1, S0.2, and S0.3 groups were 89.8 ± 12.1, 89.2 ± 10.9, 88.8 ± 13.6, and 90.7 ± 11.1, respectively. At immediate post-intubation, the mean arterial pressures in the NS, S0.1, S0.2, and S0.3 groups were 129.7 ± 14.7, 120.7 ± 14.2, 120.8 ± 17.2, and 96.7 ± 10.4, respectively. At immediate post-intubation, the mean arterial pressure in the NS, S0.1, and S0.2 groups significantly increased from baseline (P < 0.001), but the S0.3 group showed no difference. In the time point comparison at immediate post- intubation, the S0.3 group had a significantly lower mean arterial pressure than did the NS, S0.1, and S0.2 groups (P < 0.001). Conclusions We found that 0.3 mcg/kg of sufentanil attenuates cardiovascular responses to double-lumen endobronchial intubation without adverse effects. PMID:27252903

  14. Infrared Observations of Late Type Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, K. M.

    1977-01-01

    Substantive mass loss resulting in appreciable circumstellar dust envelopes is common in late-type stars. The evolutionary history and physical state of a cool star determine the chemistry within the outer stellar atmosphere mirrored by the molecular and particulate material present in the envelope. The observational consequences of this debris determined by moderate spectral resolution infrared spectrophotometry are reviewed. Significant information is provided by observations of the emergent energy flux of both the cool stellar photosphere and of the circumstellar dust envelope. The observation suggests that mass-loss occurs to some degree throughout late stellar evolutionary phases and that occasional periods of high mass loss are not uncommon.

  15. Use of single-lumen tube for minimally invasive and hybrid esophagectomies with prone thoracoscopic dissection: case series.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manila; Uppal, Rajeev; Chaudhary, Kapil; Javed, Amit; Aggarwal, Anil

    2016-09-01

    Minimally invasive and hybrid minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) is a technically challenging procedure. Anesthesia for the same is equally challenging due to special requirements of the video-assisted thoracoscopic technique used and shared operative and respiratory fields. Standard ventilatory strategy for this kind of surgery has been 1-lung ventilation with the help of a double-lumen tube. Prone positioning for thoracoscopic dissection facilitates gravity-dependant collapse of the operative side lung induced by a unilateral capnothorax, thus making the use of single-lumen endotracheal tube a feasible option for this surgery. We report our experience of 10 consecutive cases of minimally invasive esophagectomy conducted in prone position at our center and the use of single-lumen endotracheal tube for ventilation. PMID:27555209

  16. Measurement of ciliary flow generated on the surface of tracheal lumen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyota, Koki; Ueno, Hironori; Ishikawa, Takuji; Numayama-Tsuruta, Keiko; Imai, Yohsuke; Omori, Toshihiro; Yamaguchi, Takami

    2012-11-01

    Although we consistently take air with virus and bacteria, these harmful substances are trapped on the surface of tracheal lumen and transported toward larynx from the trachea and bronchi by effective ciliary motion and swallowed it (clearance function). However, the 3-dimensional flow field generated by inhomogeneously distributed ciliary cells are largely unknown. In this study, we first succeeded to measure the ciliated cells' density by staining actin of the epithelial cells and tubulin of the cilia, respectively. Second, we analyzed the ciliary motion by labeling the tip of cilia with fluorescent particles, and tracking their movements to understand the mechanism of the flow generation. Last, in order to clarify the flow field induced by the ciliary motion, we measured the motion of tracer particles on the surface of tracheal epithelial cells by a confocal micro-PTV system. The results show that the mean velocity and the velocity disturbance decayed rapidly as the height from the epithelial cells were increased.

  17. Prediction of L70 lumen maintenance and chromaticity for LEDs using extended Kalman filter models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lall, Pradeep; Wei, Junchao; Davis, Lynn

    2013-09-01

    Solid-state lighting (SSL) luminaires containing light emitting diodes (LEDs) have the potential of seeing excessive temperatures during operation or during transportation and storage. Presently, the TM-21 test standard is used to predict the L70 life of SSL Luminaires from LM-80 test data. The underlying TM-21 Arrhenius Model is based on population averages, may not capture the failure physics in presence of multiple failure mechanisms, and does not predict the chromaticity shift. In this paper, Kalman Filter (KF) and Extended Kalman Filters (EKF) have been used to develop models for 70-percent Lumen Maintenance Life Prediction and chromaticity shift for a LEDs used in SSL luminaires. Ten-thousand hour LM-80 test data for various LEDs have been used for model development.

  18. Preparation of stroma, thylakoid membrane, and lumen fractions from Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplasts for proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Hall, Michael; Mishra, Yogesh; Schröder, Wolfgang P

    2011-01-01

    For many studies regarding important chloroplast processes such as oxygenic photosynthesis, fractionation of the total chloroplast proteome is a necessary first step. Here, we describe a method for isolating the stromal, the thylakoid membrane, and the thylakoid lumen subchloroplast fractions from Arabidopsis thaliana leaf material. All three fractions can be isolated sequentially from the same plant material in a single day preparation. The isolated fractions are suitable for various proteomic analyses such as simple mapping studies or for more complex experiments such as differential expression analysis using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) or mass spectrometry (MS)-based techniques. Besides this, the obtained fractions can also be used for many other purposes such as immunological assays, enzymatic activity assays, and studies of protein complexes by native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (native-PAGE). PMID:21863445

  19. A patient-specific study of type-B aortic dissection: evaluation of true-false lumen blood exchange

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aortic dissection is a severe pathological condition in which blood penetrates between layers of the aortic wall and creates a duplicate channel – the false lumen. This considerable change on the aortic morphology alters hemodynamic features dramatically and, in the case of rupture, induces markedly high rates of morbidity and mortality. Methods In this study, we establish a patient-specific computational model and simulate the pulsatile blood flow within the dissected aorta. The k-ω SST turbulence model is employed to represent the flow and finite volume method is applied for numerical solutions. Our emphasis is on flow exchange between true and false lumen during the cardiac cycle and on quantifying the flow across specific passages. Loading distributions including pressure and wall shear stress have also been investigated and results of direct simulations are compared with solutions employing appropriate turbulence models. Results Our results indicate that (i) high velocities occur at the periphery of the entries; (ii) for the case studied, approximately 40% of the blood flow passes the false lumen during a heartbeat cycle; (iii) higher pressures are found at the outer wall of the dissection, which may induce further dilation of the pseudo-lumen; (iv) highest wall shear stresses occur around the entries, perhaps indicating the vulnerability of this region to further splitting; and (v) laminar simulations with adequately fine mesh resolutions, especially refined near the walls, can capture similar flow patterns to the (coarser mesh) turbulent results, although the absolute magnitudes computed are in general smaller. Conclusions The patient-specific model of aortic dissection provides detailed flow information of blood transport within the true and false lumen and quantifies the loading distributions over the aorta and dissection walls. This contributes to evaluating potential thrombotic behavior in the false lumen and is pivotal in guiding

  20. Correction of lumen contrast-enhancement influence on non-calcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque quantification on CT.

    PubMed

    Kristanto, Wisnumurti; Tuncay, Volkan; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; van Ooijen, Peter M A; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2015-02-01

    Lumen contrast-enhancement influences non-calcified atherosclerotic plaque Hounsfield-unit (HU) values in computed tomography (CT). This study aimed to construct and validate an algorithm to correct for this influence. Three coronary vessel phantoms with 1, 2, and 4 mm circular hollow lumina; with normal and plaque-infested walls were scanned simultaneously in oil using a dual-source CT scanner. Scanning was repeated as the lumina were alternately filled with water and four contrast solutions (100-400 HU, at 100 HU intervals). Images were reconstructed at 0.4 mm x-y pixel size. Pixel-by-pixel comparisons of contrast-enhanced and non-contrast-enhanced images confirmed exponential declining patterns in lumen contrast-enhancement influence on wall HU-values from the lumen border (y = Ae(-λx) + c). The median difference of the inside and outside 2-pixel radius part of the contrast-enhanced coronary phantom wall to the reference (non-contrast-enhanced images) was 45 and 2 HU, respectively. Based on the lumen contrast-enhancement influence patterns, a generalized correction algorithm was formulated. Application of the generalized correction algorithm to the inside 2-pixel radius part of the wall reduced the median difference to the reference to 4 HU. In conclusion, lumen contrast-enhancement influence on the vessel wall can be defined by an exponential approximation, allowing correction of the CT density of the vessel wall closest to the lumen. With this correction, a more accurate determination of vessel wall composition can be made. PMID:25326412

  1. Endovascular treatment of a traumatic dural arteriovenous fistula of the superior sagittal sinus using dual lumen balloon microcatheter.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yihao; Niu, Yin; Zhu, Gang; Chen, Zhi

    2016-04-01

    Dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVFs) induced by trauma in the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) are rare and difficult to treat because of their unique midline location, multiplicity of arterial feeders, and critical venous drainage. We report a case of an endovascular treatment using dual lumen balloon microcatheter on a patient with post-traumatic SSS DAVF. By the use of dual lumen Scepter balloon microcatheter, proximal Onyx reflux was prevented. In this case, complete embolization of the DAVFs was achieved and the outcome of the patient was fairly good. PMID:27094527

  2. Mass loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Leo

    1987-01-01

    Observational evidence for mass loss from cool stars is reviewed. Spectra line profiles are used for the derivation of mass-loss rates with the aid of the equation of continuity. This equation implies steady mass loss with spherical symmetry. Data from binary stars, Mira variables, and red giants in globular clusters are examined. Silicate emission is discussed as a useful indicator of mass loss in the middle infrared spectra. The use of thermal millimeter-wave radiation, Very Large Array (VLA) measurement of radio emission, and OH/IR masers are discussed as a tool for mass loss measurement. Evidence for nonsteady mass loss is also reviewed.

  3. Upregulation of TSHR, TTF-1, and PAX8 in Nodular Goiter Is Associated with Iodine Deficiency in the Follicular Lumen

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lijun; Liang, Bo; Cai, Huiyao; Cai, Qingyan; Shi, Yaxiong

    2016-01-01

    Objective. It has been testified that iodine regulates thyroid function by controlling thyroid-restricted genes expression and is closely related to diffuse goiter and thyroid dysfunction. However, the effects of follicular lumen iodine, the main form of iodine reserve in the body, on thyroid-restricted genes in nodular goiter are poorly understood. In this study, correlations between follicular lumen iodine and the expressions of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), its transcription factors TTF-1, and PAX8 in nodular goiter were investigated. Patients. In this study, 30 resection specimens clinically histopathologically confirmed to have nodular goiter and 30 normal thyroid specimens from adjacent tissues of nodular goiter are used. Measurement. Western blot immunohistochemistry was performed to assay TSHR, TTF-1, and PAX8 in thyrocytes of nodular goiter as well as in extranodular normal thyroid tissues. Meanwhile, follicular lumen iodine of both nodular goiter and extranodular normal thyroid tissues was detected as well. Results. The TSHR, TTF-1, and PAX8 in nodular goiter were significantly higher than those in the controls. The iodine content in nodular goiter was significantly lower than those in control tissues. Conclusion. Upregulation of TSHR, TTF-1, and PAX8 is associated with low follicular lumen iodine content in nodular goiter. PMID:27525008

  4. A Rac/Cdc42 exchange factor complex promotes formation of lateral filopodia and blood vessel lumen morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Sabu; Scarcia, Margherita; Bagshaw, Richard D.; McMahon, Kathryn; Grant, Gary; Harvey, Tracey; Yeo, Maggie; Esteves, Filomena O.G.; Thygesen, Helene H.; Jones, Pamela F.; Speirs, Valerie; Hanby, Andrew M.; Selby, Peter J.; Lorger, Mihaela; Dear, T. Neil; Pawson, Tony; Marshall, Christopher J.; Mavria, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    During angiogenesis, Rho-GTPases influence endothelial cell migration and cell–cell adhesion; however it is not known whether they control formation of vessel lumens, which are essential for blood flow. Here, using an organotypic system that recapitulates distinct stages of VEGF-dependent angiogenesis, we show that lumen formation requires early cytoskeletal remodelling and lateral cell–cell contacts, mediated through the RAC1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) DOCK4 (dedicator of cytokinesis 4). DOCK4 signalling is necessary for lateral filopodial protrusions and tubule remodelling prior to lumen formation, whereas proximal, tip filopodia persist in the absence of DOCK4. VEGF-dependent Rac activation via DOCK4 is necessary for CDC42 activation to signal filopodia formation and depends on the activation of RHOG through the RHOG GEF, SGEF. VEGF promotes interaction of DOCK4 with the CDC42 GEF DOCK9. These studies identify a novel Rho-family GTPase activation cascade for the formation of endothelial cell filopodial protrusions necessary for tubule remodelling, thereby influencing subsequent stages of lumen morphogenesis. PMID:26129894

  5. COMPARISON OF RAPID METHODS FOR THE EXTRACTION OF BACTERIAL DNA FROM COLONIC AND CECAL LUMEN CONTENTS OF THE PIG

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasing use of DNA methodologies to study the microflora of the pig gastrointestinal tract requires an efficient recovery of bacterial DNA from intestinal samples. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine which extraction methods are most effective for colonic and cecal lumen sampl...

  6. PP2A regulatory subunit Bα controls endothelial contractility and vessel lumen integrity via regulation of HDAC7.

    PubMed

    Martin, Maud; Geudens, Ilse; Bruyr, Jonathan; Potente, Michael; Bleuart, Anouk; Lebrun, Marielle; Simonis, Nicolas; Deroanne, Christophe; Twizere, Jean-Claude; Soubeyran, Philippe; Peixoto, Paul; Mottet, Denis; Janssens, Veerle; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Claes, Filip; Carmeliet, Peter; Kettmann, Richard; Gerhardt, Holger; Dequiedt, Franck

    2013-09-11

    To supply tissues with nutrients and oxygen, the cardiovascular system forms a seamless, hierarchically branched, network of lumenized tubes. Here, we show that maintenance of patent vessel lumens requires the Bα regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Deficiency of Bα in zebrafish precludes vascular lumen stabilization resulting in perfusion defects. Similarly, inactivation of PP2A-Bα in cultured ECs induces tubulogenesis failure due to alteration of cytoskeleton dynamics, actomyosin contractility and maturation of cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) contacts. Mechanistically, we show that PP2A-Bα controls the activity of HDAC7, an essential transcriptional regulator of vascular stability. In the absence of PP2A-Bα, transcriptional repression by HDAC7 is abrogated leading to enhanced expression of the cytoskeleton adaptor protein ArgBP2. ArgBP2 hyperactivates RhoA causing inadequate rearrangements of the EC actomyosin cytoskeleton. This study unravels the first specific role for a PP2A holoenzyme in development: the PP2A-Bα/HDAC7/ArgBP2 axis maintains vascular lumens by balancing endothelial cytoskeletal dynamics and cell-matrix adhesion. PMID:23955003

  7. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... may cause hair loss in women. If your hair loss has occurred gradually with advancing age, FOLLICULAR DEGENERATION may be the cause. Post-pregnancy hormone changes usually reverse themselves without any treatment. While follicular degeneration cannot ...

  8. CALiPER Exploratory Study: Accounting for Uncertainty in Lumen Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, Rolf; Paget, Maria L.; Richman, Eric E.

    2011-03-31

    With a well-defined and shared understanding of uncertainty in lumen measurements, testing laboratories can better evaluate their processes, contributing to greater consistency and credibility of lighting testing a key component of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Commercially Available LED Product Evaluation and Reporting (CALiPER) program. Reliable lighting testing is a crucial underlying factor contributing toward the success of many energy-efficient lighting efforts, such as the DOE GATEWAY demonstrations, Lighting Facts Label, ENERGY STAR® energy efficient lighting programs, and many others. Uncertainty in measurements is inherent to all testing methodologies, including photometric and other lighting-related testing. Uncertainty exists for all equipment, processes, and systems of measurement in individual as well as combined ways. A major issue with testing and the resulting accuracy of the tests is the uncertainty of the complete process. Individual equipment uncertainties are typically identified, but their relative value in practice and their combined value with other equipment and processes in the same test are elusive concepts, particularly for complex types of testing such as photometry. The total combined uncertainty of a measurement result is important for repeatable and comparative measurements for light emitting diode (LED) products in comparison with other technologies as well as competing products. This study provides a detailed and step-by-step method for determining uncertainty in lumen measurements, working closely with related standards efforts and key industry experts. This report uses the structure proposed in the Guide to Uncertainty Measurements (GUM) for evaluating and expressing uncertainty in measurements. The steps of the procedure are described and a spreadsheet format adapted for integrating sphere and goniophotometric uncertainty measurements is provided for entering parameters, ordering the information, calculating intermediate

  9. Outer atmospheres of late-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsky, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Recent observational results concerning chromospheres and coronae in late-type stars are described. In particular, it is indicated where in the cool half of the HR diagram chromospheres, transition regions, coronae, and large mass loss occur and what the important parameters determining the energy balance of these layers are. The chromospheric modelling process is summarized and models of the late-type supergiants Beta Dra, Epsilon Gem, and Alpha Ori recently computed by Basri and Linsky (1980) are detailed.

  10. IV Administered Gadodiamide Enters the Lumen of the Prostatic Glands: X-Ray Fluorescence Microscopy Examination of a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Mustafi, Devkumar; Gleber, Sophie-Charlotte; Ward, Jesse; Dougherty, Urszula; Zamora, Marta; Markiewicz, Erica; Binder, David C.; Antic, Tatjana; Vogt, Stefan; Karczmar, Gregory S.; Oto, Aytekin

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) has become a standard component of multiparametric protocols for MRI examination of the prostate, and its use is incorporated into current guidelines for prostate MRI examination. Analysis of DCE-MRI data for the prostate is usually based on the distribution of gadolinium-based agents, such as gadodiamide, into two well-mixed compartments, and it assumes that gadodiamide does not enter into the glandular lumen. However, this assumption has not been directly tested. The purpose of this study was to use x-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) imaging in situ to measure the concentration of gadodiamide in the epithelia and lumens of the prostate of healthy mice after IV injection of the contrast agent. MATERIALS AND METHODS Six C57Bl6 male mice (age, 28 weeks) were sacrificed 10 minutes after IV injection of gadodiamide (0.13 mmol/kg), and three mice were sacrificed after saline injection. Prostate tissue samples obtained from each mouse were harvested and frozen; 7-µm-thick slices were sectioned for XFM imaging, and adjacent 5-µm-thick slices were sectioned for H and E staining. Elemental concentrations were determined from XFM images. RESULTS A mean (± SD) baseline concentration of gadolinium of 0.01 ± 0.01 mM was determined from XFM measurements of prostatic tissue samples when no gadodiamide was administered, and it was used to determine the measurement error. When gadodiamide was added, the mean concentrations of gadolinium in the epithelia and lumens in 32 prostatic glands from six mice were 1.00 ± 0.13 and 0.36 ± 0.09 mM, respectively. CONCLUSION Our data suggest that IV administration of gadodiamide results in uptake of contrast agent by the glandular lumens of the mouse prostate. We were able to quantitatively determine gadodiamide distributions in mouse prostatic epithelia and lumens. PMID:26295667

  11. Improving accuracy in coronary lumen segmentation via explicit calcium exclusion, learning-based ray detection and surface optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugauer, Felix; Zhang, Jingdan; Zheng, Yefeng; Hornegger, Joachim; Kelm, B. Michael

    2014-03-01

    Invasive cardiac angiography (catheterization) is still the standard in clinical practice for diagnosing coronary artery disease (CAD) but it involves a high amount of risk and cost. New generations of CT scanners can acquire high-quality images of coronary arteries which allow for an accurate identification and delineation of stenoses. Recently, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation has been applied to coronary blood flow using geometric lumen models extracted from CT angiography (CTA). The computed pressure drop at stenoses proved to be indicative for ischemia-causing lesions, leading to non-invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) derived from CTA. Since the diagnostic value of non-invasive procedures for diagnosing CAD relies on an accurate extraction of the lumen, a precise segmentation of the coronary arteries is crucial. As manual segmentation is tedious, time-consuming and subjective, automatic procedures are desirable. We present a novel fully-automatic method to accurately segment the lumen of coronary arteries in the presence of calcified and non-calcified plaque. Our segmentation framework is based on three main steps: boundary detection, calcium exclusion and surface optimization. A learning-based boundary detector enables a robust lumen contour detection via dense ray-casting. The exclusion of calcified plaque is assured through a novel calcium exclusion technique which allows us to accurately capture stenoses of diseased arteries. The boundary detection results are incorporated into a closed set formulation whose minimization yields an optimized lumen surface. On standardized tests with clinical data, a segmentation accuracy is achieved which is comparable to clinical experts and superior to current automatic methods.

  12. Influence of a Double-Lumen Extension Tube on Drug Delivery: Examples of Isosorbide Dinitrate and Diazepam

    PubMed Central

    Maiguy-Foinard, Aurélie; Blanchemain, Nicolas; Barthélémy, Christine; Odou, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Plastic materials such as polyurethane (PUR), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) are widely used in double-lumen extension tubing. The purposes of our study were to 1) compare in vitro drug delivery through the double extension tubes available on the market 2) assess the plastic properties of PUR in infusion devices and their impact on drug delivery. Methods The study compared eight double-lumen extension tubes in PUR, co-extruded (PE/PVC) plastic and plasticised PVC from different manufacturers. Isosorbide dinitrate and diazepam were used as model compounds to evaluate their sorption on the internal surface of the infusion device. Control experiments were performed using norepinephrine known not to absorb to plastics. Drug concentrations delivered at the egress of extension tubes were determined over time by an analytical spectrophotometric UV-Vis method. The main characteristics of plastics were also determined. Results Significant differences in the sorption phenomenon were observed among the eight double-lumen extension tubes and between pairs of extension tubes. Mean concentrations of isosorbide dinitrate delivered at the egress of double-lumen extension tubes after a 150-minute infusion (mean values ± standard deviation in percentage of the initial concentrations in the prepared syringes) ranged between 80.53 ± 1.66 (one of the PUR tubes) and 92.84 ± 2.73 (PE/PVC tube). The same parameters measured during diazepam infusion ranged between 48.58 ± 2.88 (one of the PUR tubes) and 85.06 ± 3.94 (PE/PVC tube). The double-lumen extension tubes in PUR were either thermosetting (resin) or thermoplastic according to reference. Conclusions Clinicians must be aware of potential drug interactions with extension tube materials and so must consider their nature as well as the sterilisation method used before selecting an infusion device. PMID:27153224

  13. A mathematical method for the 3D analysis of rotating deformable systems applied on lumen-forming MDCK cell aggregates.

    PubMed

    Marmaras, Anastasios; Berge, Ulrich; Ferrari, Aldo; Kurtcuoglu, Vartan; Poulikakos, Dimos; Kroschewski, Ruth

    2010-04-01

    Cell motility contributes to the formation of organs and tissues, into which multiple cells self-organize. However such mammalian cellular motilities are not characterized in a quantitative manner and the systemic consequences are thus unknown. A mathematical tool to decipher cell motility, accounting for changes in cell shape, within a three-dimensional (3D) cell system was missing. We report here such a tool, usable on segmented images reporting the outline of clusters (cells) and allowing the time-resolved 3D analysis of circular motility of these as parts of a system (cell aggregate). Our method can analyze circular motility in sub-cellular, cellular, multi-cellular, and also non-cellular systems for which time-resolved segmented cluster outlines are available. To exemplify, we characterized the circular motility of lumen-initiating MDCK cell aggregates, embedded in extracellular matrix. We show that the organization of the major surrounding matrix fibers was not significantly affected during this cohort rotation. Using our developed tool, we discovered two classes of circular motion, rotation and random walk, organized in three behavior patterns during lumen initiation. As rotational movements were more rapid than random walk and as both could continue during lumen initiation, we conclude that neither the class nor the rate of motion regulates lumen initiation. We thus reveal a high degree of plasticity during a developmentally critical cell polarization step, indicating that lumen initiation is a robust process. However, motility rates decreased with increasing cell number, previously shown to correlate with epithelial polarization, suggesting that migratory polarization is converted into epithelial polarization during aggregate development. PMID:20183868

  14. Rap1 integrates tissue polarity, lumen formation, and tumorigenicpotential in human breast epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, Masahiko; Nelson, Celeste M.; Myers, Connie A.; Bissell,Mina J.

    2006-09-29

    Maintenance of apico-basal polarity in normal breast epithelial acini requires a balance between cell proliferation, cell death, and proper cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix signaling. Aberrations in any of these processes can disrupt tissue architecture and initiate tumor formation. Here we show that the small GTPase Rap1 is a crucial element in organizing acinar structure and inducing lumen formation. Rap1 activity in malignant HMT-3522 T4-2 cells is appreciably higher than in S1 cells, their non-malignant counterparts. Expression of dominant-negative Rap1 resulted in phenotypic reversion of T4-2 cells, led to formation of acinar structures with correct apico-basal polarity, and dramatically reduced tumor incidence despite the persistence of genomic abnormalities. The resulting acini contained prominent central lumina not observed when other reverting agents were used. Conversely, expression of dominant-active Rap1 in T4-2 cells inhibited phenotypic reversion and led to increased invasiveness and tumorigenicity. Thus, Rap1 acts as a central regulator of breast architecture, with normal levels of activation instructing apical polarity during acinar morphogenesis, and increased activation inducing tumor formation and progression to malignancy.

  15. Epithelial organization and cyst lumen expansion require efficient Sec13-Sec31-driven secretion.

    PubMed

    Townley, Anna K; Schmidt, Katy; Hodgson, Lorna; Stephens, David J

    2012-02-01

    Epithelial morphogenesis is directed by interactions with the underlying extracellular matrix. Secretion of collagen and other matrix components requires efficient coat complex II (COPII) vesicle formation at the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, we show that suppression of the outer layer COPII component, Sec13, in zebrafish embryos results in a disorganized gut epithelium. In human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2), Sec13 depletion causes defective epithelial polarity and organization on permeable supports. Defects are seen in the ability of cells to adhere to the substrate, form a monolayer and form intercellular junctions. When embedded in a three-dimensional matrix, Sec13-depleted Caco-2 cells form cysts but, unlike controls, are defective in lumen expansion. Incorporation of primary fibroblasts within the three-dimensional culture substantially restores normal morphogenesis. We conclude that efficient COPII-dependent secretion, notably assembly of Sec13-Sec31, is required to drive epithelial morphogenesis in both two- and three-dimensional cultures in vitro, as well as in vivo. Our results provide insight into the role of COPII in epithelial morphogenesis and have implications for the interpretation of epithelial polarity and organization assays in cell culture. PMID:22331354

  16. Distensibility of the Esophagogastric Junction Assessed with the Functional Lumen Imaging Probe (FLIP™) in Achalasia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pandolfino, John E.; de Ruigh, Annemijn; Nicodème, Frédéric; Xiao, Yinglian; Boris, Lubomyr; Kahrilas, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP), measures esophagogastric junction (EGJ) distensibility (cross sectional area/luminal pressure) during volume-controlled distension. The aim of this study was to apply this tool to the assessment of the EGJ in untreated and treated achalasia patients and to compare EGJ distensibility with other diagnostic tools utilized in managing achalasia. Methods Findings from FLIP, high-resolution manometry (HRM), timed barium esophagram, and symptom assessment by Eckardt Score (ES) were compared in 54 achalasia patients (23 untreated, 31 treated). Twenty healthy volunteers underwent FLIP as a comparator group. The EGJ distensibility index (EGJ-DI) was defined at the ‘waist’ of the FLIP bag during volumetric distension, expressed in mm2/mmHg. The ES was used to gauge treatment outcome: good response < 3 or poor response ≥ 3. Key Results Of the 31 treated patients, 17 had good and 14 poor treatment response. The EGJ-DI was significantly different among groups, greatest in the control subjects and least in the untreated patients; patients with good treatment response had significantly greater EGJ-DI than untreated or patients with poor response. The correlations between EGJ-DI and ES and integrated relaxation pressure on HRM were significant. Conclusion The FLIP provided a useful measure of EGJ distensibility in achalasia patients that correlated with symptom severity. The measurement of EGJ distensibility was complementary to existing tests suggesting a potentially important role in the clinical management of achalasia. PMID:23413801

  17. High-resolution intracranial vessel wall imaging: imaging beyond the lumen.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Matthew D; Yuan, Chun; Rutman, Aaron; Tirschwell, David L; Palagallo, Gerald; Gandhi, Dheeraj; Sekhar, Laligam N; Mossa-Basha, Mahmud

    2016-06-01

    Accurate and timely diagnosis of intracranial vasculopathies is important due to significant risk of morbidity with delayed and/or incorrect diagnosis both from the disease process as well as inappropriate therapies. Conventional vascular imaging techniques for analysis of intracranial vascular disease provide limited information since they only identify changes to the vessel lumen. New advanced MR intracranial vessel wall imaging (IVW) techniques can allow direct characterisation of the vessel wall. These techniques can advance diagnostic accuracy and may potentially improve patient outcomes by better guided treatment decisions in comparison to previously available invasive and non-invasive techniques. While neuroradiological expertise is invaluable in accurate examination interpretation, clinician familiarity with the application and findings of the various vasculopathies on IVW can help guide diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making. This review article provides a brief overview of the technical aspects of IVW and discusses the IVW findings of various intracranial vasculopathies, differentiating characteristics and indications for when this technique can be beneficial in patient management. PMID:26746187

  18. Development of a Double-Lumen Cannula for a Percutaneous RVAD.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongfang; Jones, Cameron; Ballard-Croft, Cherry; Zhao, Ju; Zhao, Guangfeng; Topaz, Stephen; Zwischenberger, Joseph B

    2015-01-01

    The objectives were to design/fabricate a double-lumen cannula (DLC) for a percutaneous right ventricular assist device (pRVAD) and to test the feasibility/performance of this pRVAD system. A 27 Fr DLC prototype was made and tested in six adult sheep. The pRVAD DLC was inserted into the right jugular vein; advanced through the superior vena cava, the right atrium (RA), the right ventricle (RV); ending in the pulmonary artery (PA). A CentriMag pump and optional gas exchanger were connected to the DLC. Blood was withdrawn from RA, pumped through gas exchanger, and perfused PA. Maximal pumping flow was maintained for 2 hours. The pRVAD DLC was successfully deployed in all six sheep. In first three sheep, maximal average pumping flow was less than 3 L/min because the DLC was advanced too far with drainage opening against RA side wall. In last three sheep with well-positioned DLC, average maximal flow was more than 3.5 L/min. The gas exchanger provided up to 230 ml/min CO2 removal and 174 ml/min O2 transfer. Our DLC-based pRVAD system is feasible for percutaneous right heart and respiratory assistance through a single cannulation. The pRVAD DLC can be easily placed prophylactically during left ventricular assist device implantation and removed as needed without additional open chest procedures. PMID:25851314

  19. A corrosive oesophageal burn model in rats: Double-lumen central venous catheter usage

    PubMed Central

    Bakan, Vedat; Çıralık, Harun; Kartal, Seyfi

    2015-01-01

    Background: We aimed to create a new and less invasive experimental corrosive oesophageal burn model using a catheter without a gastric puncture (gastrotomy). Materials and Methods: We conducted the study with two groups composed of 8 male rats. The experimental oesophageal burn was established by the application of 10% sodium hydroxide to the distal oesophagus under a pressure of 20 cmH2O, via 5-F double-lumen central venous catheter without a gastrotomy. The control group was given 0.9% sodium chloride. All rats were killed 24 h after administration of NaOH or 0.9% NaCl. Histologic damage to oesophageal tissue was scored by a single pathologist blind to groups. Results: The rats in the control group were observed to have no pathological changes. Corrosive oesophagitis (tissue congestion, oedema, inflammation, ulcer and necrosis) was observed in rats exposed to NaOH. Conclusion: We believe that an experimental corrosive oesophageal burn can safely be created under same hydrostatic pressure without a gastric puncture using this model. PMID:26712289

  20. Microembolism after Endovascular Treatment of Unruptured Cerebral Aneurysms: Reduction of its Incidence by Microcatheter Lumen Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Yoon; Park, Jung Cheol; Kim, Jae Kyun; Sung, Yu Sub; Park, Eun Suk; Kwak, Jae Hyuk; Choi, Choong-Gon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Diffusion-weighted MR images (DWI) obtained after endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms frequently show multiple high-signal intensity (HSI) dots. The purpose of this study was to see whether we could reduce their incidence after embolization of unruptured cerebral aneurysms by modification of our coiling technique, which involves the deliberate aspiration of the microcatheter lumen right after delivery of each detachable coil into the aneurysm sac. Materials and Methods From January 2011 to June 2011, all 71 patients with unruptured cerebral aneurysms were treated using various endovascular methods. During the earlier period, 37 patients were treated using our conventional embolization technique (conventional period). Then 34 patients were treated with a modified coiling technique (modified period). DWI was obtained on the following day. We compared the occurrence of any DWI HSI lesions and the presence of the symptomatic lesions during the two time periods. Results The incidence of the DWI HSI lesions differed significantly at 89.2% (33/37) during the conventional period and 26.5% (9/34) during the modified period (p < 0.0001). The incidence of symptomatic lesions differed between the two periods (29.7% during the conventional period vs. 2.9% during the modified period, p < 0.003). Conclusion Aspiration of the inner content of the microcatheter right after detachable coil delivery was helpful for the reduction of the incidence of microembolisms after endovascular coil embolization for the treatment of unruptured cerebral aneurysms. PMID:26389009

  1. Using Taguchi method to design LED lamp for zonal lumen density requirement of ENERGY STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jen-Lung; Chen, Yi-Yung; Whang, Allen Jong-Woei; Ma, Chi-Tang

    2011-10-01

    In recent trend, LED begins to replace traditional light sources since it has many advantages, such as long lifespan, low power consumption, environmentally mercury-free, broad color gamut, and so on. According to the zonal lumen density requirement of ENERGY STAR, we design a triangular-prism structure for LED light tube. The optical structure of the current LED light tubes consists of the array of LED and the semi-cylindrical diffuser in which the intensity distribution of LED is based on Lambertian and the characteristics of diffuser are BTDF: 63%, transmission: 27%, and absorption: 10%. We design the triangular-prism structure at the both sides of the semi-circular diffuser to control the wide-angle light and use the Taguchi method to optimize the parameters of the structure that will control the 10.41% of total flux to light the area between 90 degree and 135 degree and to avoid the total internal reflection. According to the optical simulation results, the 89.59% of total flux is within 90 degree and the 10.41% of total flux is between 90 degree and 135 degree that match with the Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Criteria V. 1.1 of ENERGY STAR.

  2. Intracellular lumen formation in Drosophila proceeds via a novel subcellular compartment.

    PubMed

    Nikolova, Linda S; Metzstein, Mark M

    2015-11-15

    Cellular tubes have diverse morphologies, including multicellular, unicellular and subcellular architectures. Subcellular tubes are found prominently within the vertebrate vasculature, the insect breathing system and the nematode excretory apparatus, but how such tubes form is poorly understood. To characterize the cellular mechanisms of subcellular tube formation, we have refined methods of high pressure freezing/freeze substitution to prepare Drosophila larvae for transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis. Using our methods, we have found that subcellular tube formation may proceed through a previously undescribed multimembrane intermediate composed of vesicles bound within a novel subcellular compartment. We have also developed correlative light/TEM procedures to identify labeled cells in TEM-fixed larval samples. Using this technique, we have found that Vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) and the V-ATPase regulator Rabconnectin-3 are required for subcellular tube formation, probably in a step resolving the intermediate compartment into a mature lumen. In general, our ultrastructural analysis methods could be useful for a wide range of cellular investigations in Drosophila larvae. PMID:26428009

  3. ERAD and protein import defects in a sec61 mutant lacking ER-lumenal loop 7

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Sec61 channel mediates protein translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane during secretory protein biogenesis, and likely also during export of misfolded proteins for ER-associated degradation (ERAD). The mechanisms of channel opening for the different modes of translocation are not understood so far, but the position of the large ER-lumenal loop 7 of Sec61p suggests a decisive role. Results We show here that the Y345H mutation in L7 which causes diabetes in the mouse displays no ER import defects in yeast, but a delay in misfolded protein export. A complete deletion of L7 in Sec61p resulted in viable, cold- and tunicamycin-hypersensitive yeast cells with strong defects in posttranslational protein import of soluble proteins into the ER, and in ERAD of soluble substrates. Membrane protein ERAD was only moderately slower in sec61∆L7 than in wildtype cells. Although Sec61∆L7 channels were unstable in detergent, co-translational protein integration into the ER membrane, proteasome binding to Sec61∆L7 channels, and formation of hetero-heptameric Sec complexes were not affected. Conclusions We conclude that L7 of Sec61p is required for initiation of posttranslational soluble protein import into and misfolded soluble protein export from the ER, suggesting a key role for L7 in transverse gating of the Sec61 channel. PMID:24314051

  4. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided gastrojejunostomy with a lumen-apposing metal stent: a multicenter, international experience

    PubMed Central

    Tyberg, Amy; Perez-Miranda, Manuel; Sanchez-Ocaña, Ramon; Peñas, Irene; de la Serna, Carlos; Shah, Janak; Binmoeller, Kenneth; Gaidhane, Monica; Grimm, Ian; Baron, Todd; Kahaleh, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Surgical gastrojejunostomy and enteral self-expanding metal stents are efficacious for the management of gastric outlet obstruction but limited by high complication rates and short-term efficacy. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided gastrojejunostomy (EUS-GJ) is a novel alternative option. Patients and methods: Patients who underwent EUS-GJ between March 2014 and September 2015 as part of a prospective multicenter registry at four academic centers in two countries were included. Technical success was defined as successful placement of a gastrojejunal lumen-apposing metal stent. Clinical success was defined as the ability of the patient to tolerate an oral diet. Post-procedural adverse events were recorded. Results: The study included 26 patients, of whom 11 (42 %) were male. Technical success was achieved in 24 patients (92 %). Clinical success was achieved in 22 patients (85 %). Of the 4 patients in whom clinical success was not achieved, 2 had persistent nausea and vomiting despite a patent EUS-GJ and required enteral feeding for nutrition, 1 died before the initiation of an oral diet, and 1 underwent surgery for suspected perforation. Adverse events, including peritonitis, bleeding, and surgery, occurred in 3 patients (11.5 %). Conclusion: EUS-GJ is an emerging procedure that has efficacy and safety comparable with those of current therapies and should hold a place as a new minimally invasive option for patients with gastric outlet obstruction. Clinical trial identification number: NCT01522573 PMID:27004243

  5. Intravascular ultrasound-based analysis of factors affecting minimum lumen area in coronary artery intermediate lesions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Wei-Min; Wang, Zhao; Li, Qi; Liu, Chuan-Fen; Ma, Yu-Liang; Lu, Ming-Yu; Zhao, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify clinical characteristics associated with the minimum lumen area (MLA) of proximal or middle intermediate lesions in the left anterior descending (LAD) artery, and to develop a model to predict MLA. Methods We retrospectively analyzed demographic data, medical history, and intravascular ultrasound findings for 90 patients with intermediate lesions in the LAD artery. Linear regression was used to identify factors affecting MLA, and multiple regression was used to develop a model for predicting MLA. Results Age, number of lesions, and diabetes mellitus correlated significantly with MLA of proximal or middle intermediate lesions. A regression model for predicting MLA (mm2) was derived from the data: 7.00 − 0.05 × (age) − 0.50 × (number of lesions). A cut-off value of 3.1 mm2 was proposed for deciding when to perform percutaneous coronary intervention. Conclusion This model for predicting MLA of proximal or middle intermediate lesions in the LAD artery showed high accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, indicating good diagnostic potential. PMID:27168744

  6. Dose Modification Factor Analysis of Multi-Lumen Brachytherapy Applicator with Monte Carlo Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Eric Alan

    Multi-lumen applicators like the Contura (SenoRx, Inc.) are used in partial breast irradiation (PBI) brachytherapy in instances where asymmetric dose distributions are desired, for example, when the applicator surface-to-skin thickness is small (<7mm). In these instances, the air outside the patient and the lung act as a poor scattering medium, scattering less dose back into the breast tissue which affects the dose distribution. Many commercial treatment planning systems do not correct for tissue heterogeneity, which results in inaccuracies in the planned dose distribution. This deviation has been quantified as the dose modification factor (DMF), equal to the ratio of the dose rate at 1cm beyond the applicator surface, with homogenous medium, to the dose rate at 1cm with heterogeneous medium. This investigation intends to model the Contura applicator with the Monte Carlo N-Particle code (MCNP, Los Alamos National Labs), determine a DMF through simulation, and correlate to previous measurements. Taking all geometrical considerations into account, an accurate model of the Contura balloon applicator was created in MCNP. This model was used to run simulations of symmetric and asymmetric plans. The dose modification factor was found to be dependent on the simulated water phantom geometry, with cuboid geometry yielding a max DMF of 1.0664. The same measurements taken using a spherical geometry water phantom gave a DMF of 1.1221. It was also seen that the difference in DMF between symmetric and asymmetric plans using the Contura applicator is minimal.

  7. Effect of resistant starch on genotoxin-induced apoptosis, colonic epithelium, and lumenal contents in rats.

    PubMed

    Le Leu, Richard K; Brown, Ian L; Hu, Ying; Young, Graeme P

    2003-08-01

    The effect of different doses of a type-2 resistant starch (RS) in the form of high amylose cornstarch (HAS) on the intralumenal environment and the acute-apoptotic response to a genotoxic carcinogen (AARGC) in the colon was assessed to determine if changes in lumenal conditions were associated with an enhanced apoptotic response to DNA damage. The control diet was a modified form of the AIN-76 diet containing fully digestible starch but no dietary fibre. HAS was added to the control diet at the expense of digestible starch to give 10% HAS, 20% HAS and 30% HAS. Rats were fed the different experimental diets for a period of 4 weeks, after which a single injection of azoxymethane was given to induce DNA damage in the colonic epithelium; 6 h later AARGC was measured. Other measures included fecal and cecal short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and pH, and cell proliferation in the colonic epithelium. In HAS-supplemented rats, fermentation events were significantly increased in both cecum and feces. There was a progressive decrease in pH in both the cecum and feces as the amount of HAS in the diet increased. SCFA concentrations, including butyrate, were significantly elevated by HAS with higher levels being observed in the cecum than in the feces. There was a significant increase in colonic AARGC with HAS doses of 20 and 30% (P < 0.01) but not with 10% HAS. Cell proliferation was not affected by any dose of HAS. Correlations with AARGC, independent of dietary group, were seen for fecal SCFAs and pH, suggesting that fermentation events, might explain the effect of RS on AARGC. Altering amounts of dietary RS changes fermentative activity in the colon. Increased RS is associated with enhanced AARGC. Changes in amount of fermentable substrate are capable of changing the biological response to DNA damage. PMID:12807738

  8. Differential distribution of protein kinases along the crypt-to-lumen regions of rat colonic epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, B; Fraser, G M; Levy, J; Sharoni, Y; Guberman, R; Krawiec, J; Lamprecht, S A

    1988-01-01

    The activity of cAMP-dependent and cAMP-independent protein kinases, a class of enzymes involved in the regulation of cell proliferation was measured in rat colonic epithelium. Sequential cell populations harvested by a stepwise scraping technique from colonic crypt regions were identified by histology and incorporation of [3H]-thymidine into DNA. cAMP-independent phosphorylation of casein, in the presence of [gamma-32P]ATP, was markedly suppressed by quercetin, a bioflavonoid known to inhibit G-type casein kinase, protein kinase-C and tyrosine protein kinase. Conversely, the cyclic nucleotide regulatable form requiring histone as substrate was responsive to the action of the heat stable protein kinase inhibitor. The protein kinase species were characterised and partially purified by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in colonic cytosols (pmol 32P/min/mg protein, means (SE)) increased from 129.4 (15.9) in superficial cell populations to 238.5 (31.4) in lower crypt cell fractions (p less than 0.01). Colonic cAMP-independent protein kinase activity increased from 87.3 (15.6) in surface cell preparations to 178.1 (30.0) in lower crypt cell populations (p less than 0.02). A comparable activity gradient was observed in membrane fractions. The activity gradient persisted when the results were expressed as a function of cellular DNA. These findings indicate that protein kinases display a defined topological segregation along the colonic crypt regions and that during migration to the lumen colonic cells attenuate enzyme signals supposedly related to tissue growth. PMID:2848753

  9. Some mice feature 5th pharyngeal arch arteries and double-lumen aortic arch malformations.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Stefan H; Weninger, Wolfgang J

    2012-01-01

    A 5th pair of pharyngeal arch arteries (PAAs) has never been identified with certainty in mice. Murines in general are considered to not develop a 5th pair. If true, the significance of the mouse as a model for researching the genesis of malformations of the great intrathoracic arteries is limited. We aimed to investigate whether mouse embryos develop a 5th pair of PAAs and to identify malformations known to be caused by defective remodelling of the 5th PAAs. We employed the high-resolution episcopic microscopy method for creating digital volume data and three-dimensional (3D) computer models of the great intrathoracic arteries of 30 mouse embryos from days 12-12.5 post conception and 180 mouse fetuses from days 14.5 and 15.5 post conception. The 3D models of the fetuses were screened for the presence of a double-lumen aortic arch malformation. We identified such a malformation in 1 fetus. The 3D models of the embryos were analysed for the presence of 5th PAAs. Six of the 30 embryos (20%) showed a 5th PAA bilaterally, and an additional 9 (30%) showed a 5th PAA unilaterally. Our results prove that some mice do develop a 5th pair of PAAs. They also show that malformations which occur rarely in humans and result from defective remodelling of the left 5th PAA can be identified in mice as well. Thus, the mouse does represent an excellent model for researching the mechanisms driving PAA remodelling and the genesis of malformations of the great intrathoracic arteries. PMID:22287557

  10. Computer modeling of gastric parietal cell: significance of canalicular space, gland lumen, and variable canalicular [K+].

    PubMed

    Crothers, James M; Forte, John G; Machen, Terry E

    2016-05-01

    A computer model, constructed for evaluation of integrated functioning of cellular components involved in acid secretion by the gastric parietal cell, has provided new interpretations of older experimental evidence, showing the functional significance of a canalicular space separated from a mucosal bath by a gland lumen and also shedding light on basolateral Cl(-) transport. The model shows 1) changes in levels of parietal cell secretion (with stimulation or H-K-ATPase inhibitors) result mainly from changes in electrochemical driving forces for apical K(+) and Cl(-) efflux, as canalicular [K(+)] ([K(+)]can) increases or decreases with changes in apical H(+)/K(+) exchange rate; 2) H-K-ATPase inhibition in frog gastric mucosa would increase [K(+)]can similarly with low or high mucosal [K(+)], depolarizing apical membrane voltage similarly, so electrogenic H(+) pumping is not indicated by inhibition causing similar increase in transepithelial potential difference (Vt) with 4 and 80 mM mucosal K(+); 3) decreased H(+) secretion during strongly mucosal-positive voltage clamping is consistent with an electroneutral H-K-ATPase being inhibited by greatly decreased [K(+)]can (Michaelis-Menten mechanism); 4) slow initial change ("long time-constant transient") in current or Vt with clamping of Vt or current involves slow change in [K(+)]can; 5) the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) symporter (NKCC) is likely to have a significant role in Cl(-) influx, despite evidence that it is not necessary for acid secretion; and 6) relative contributions of Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger (AE2) and NKCC to Cl(-) influx would differ greatly between resting and stimulated states, possibly explaining reported differences in physiological characteristics of stimulated open-circuit Cl(-) secretion (≈H(+)) and resting short-circuit Cl(-) secretion (>H(+)). PMID:26847387

  11. Optimal prediction of carotid intraplaque hemorrhage using clinical and lumen imaging markers

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Michael S.; Hinckley, Peter J.; Treiman, Scott M.; Kim, Seong-Eun; Stoddard, Gregory J.; Parker, Dennis L.; Treiman, Gerald S.; McNally, J. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Purpose MRI detects intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) with high accuracy using the magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo (MPRAGE) sequence. Still, MRI is not readily available for all patients, and many receive CTA instead. Our goal was to determine essential clinical and lumen imaging predictors of IPH as indicators of its presence and clues to its pathogenesis. Methods In this retrospective cross sectional study, patients undergoing stroke workup with MRI/MRA underwent carotid IPH imaging. A total of 726 carotid plaques were analyzed, excluding vessels with non-carotid stroke sources (420), occlusions (7), or near-occlusions (3). Potential carotid imaging predictors of IPH included percent diameter and mm stenosis, plaque thickness, ulceration, and intraluminal thrombus. Clinical predictors were recorded and a multivariable logistic regression model was fitted. Backward-elimination was used to determine essential IPH predictors with a threshold two-sided p<.10. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was also performed. Results Predictors of carotid IPH included plaque thickness (odds ratio, OR=2.20, p<.001), mm stenosis (OR=0.46, p<.001), ulceration (OR=4.25, p=.020), age (OR=1.11, p=.001) and male sex (OR=3.23, p=.077). The final model discriminatory value was excellent (area under the curve, AUC=0.932). This was significantly higher than models using only plaque thickness (AUC=0.881), mm stenosis (AUC=0.830) or ulceration (AUC=0.715) p<.001. Conclusions Optimal discrimination of carotid IPH requires information on plaque thickness, mm stenosis, ulceration, age and male sex. These factors predict IPH with high discriminatory power, and may provide clues to the pathogenesis of IPH. This model could be used to predict the presence of IPH when MRI is contraindicated. PMID:26338923

  12. Safety and Complications of Double-Lumen Tunnelled Cuffed Central Venous Dialysis Catheters

    PubMed Central

    Hamid, Rana S.; Kakaria, Anupam K.; Khan, Saif A.; Mohammed, Saja; Al-Sukaiti, Rashid; Al-Riyami, Dawood; Al-Mula Abed, Yasser W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess the technical success, safety and immediate and delayed complications of double-lumen tunnelled cuffed central venous catheters (TVCs) at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Muscat, Oman. Methods: This retrospective study took place between January 2012 and October 2013. The clinical records and radiological data of all patients who underwent ultrasound- and fluoroscopy-guided TVC placement at SQUH during the study period were reviewed. Demographic data and information regarding catheter placement, technical success and peri- and post-procedure complications (such as catheter-related infections or thrombosis) were collected. Results: A total of 204 TVCs were placed in 161 patients. Of these, 68 were female (42.2%) and 93 were male (57.8%). The mean age of the patients was 54.4 ± 17.3 years. The most common reason for catheter placement was the initiation of dialysis (63.4%). A total of 203 procedures were technically successful (99.5%). The right internal jugular vein was the most common site of catheter placement (74.9%). Mild haemorrhage which resolved spontaneously occurred in 11 cases (5.4%). No other complications were observed. Subsequent follow-up data was available for 132 catheters (65.0%); of these, thrombosis-related catheter malfunction was observed in 22 cases (16.7%) and catheter-related infection in 29 cases (22.0%). Conclusion: Radiological-guided placement of tunnelled haemodialysis catheters can be performed safely with excellent technical success. The success rate of catheter insertion at SQUH was favourable in comparison with other studies reported in the literature. PMID:26629377

  13. A Paired Membrane Umbrella Double Lumen Cannula Assures Consistent Cavopulmonary Assistance in a Fontan Sheep Model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongfang; Gao, Guodong; Plunkett, Mark; Zhao, Guangfeng; Topaz, Stephen; Ballard-Croft, Cherry; Zwischenberger, Joseph B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The AvalonElite™ double lumen cannula (DLC) can provide effective cavopulmonary assistance (CPA) in a Fontan (TCPC) sheep model, but it requires strict alignment. The objective was to fabricate and test a newly designed paired umbrellas DLC without alignment requirement. Methods The paired membrane umbrellas were designed on the DLC to bracket infusion blood flow toward the pulmonary artery. Two umbrellas were attached, one 4 cm above and one 4 cm below infusion opening. Umbrellas were temporarily wrapped and glued to DLC body to facilitate insertion. A TCPC mock loop was used to test CPA performance and reliability with DLC rotation and displacement. The paired umbrella DLC was also tested in a TCPC adult sheep model (n=6). Results The bench test showed up to 4.5 l/min pumping flow and about 90% pumping flow efficiency at 360° rotation and 8 cm displacement of DLC. The TCPC model with compromised hemodynamics was successfully created in all 6 sheep. The CPA DLC with paired umbrellas was smoothly inserted into SVC and extracardiac conduit in all sheep. At 3.5–4.0 l/min pump flow, the sABP and CVP returned to normal baseline and remained stable throughout 90 min experiment, demonstrating effective CPA support. DLC Rotation and displacement did not affect performance. Autopsy revealed well opened and positioned paired umbrellas, and DLCs were easily removed from RJV. Conclusions Our DLC with paired umbrellas is easy to insert and remove. The paired umbrellas eliminated the strict alignment requirement and assured consistent CPA performance. (245 Words) PMID:24930609

  14. Maximizing lumen output of LEDs for automotive exterior signal lighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conn, Lawrence G.

    2003-07-01

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) operated at relatively low currents when first used for automotive exterior signal lighting. These devices were generally the 3 mm or 5 mm LEDs that were lighted with an input current of no more than 30 milliamperers per LED. Generally these LEDs were used in center high mounted stop lamps or side marker lamps. In most cases the center high mounted stop lamps required 30 to 70 of these low powered devices depending on LED type, location on the vehicle and customer requirements. Today LEDs are being used for not only the center high mounted stop lamp, but literally all exterior automotive signal lamps. These LEDs are exceedingly brighter than the 3 mm or the 5 mm devices were. These brighter devices require the use of fewer LEDs per lamp function, but at the expense of requiring higher drive currents thus generating more heat. It is this heat generation that creates an issue that must be addressed by the lamp designer. The heat being generated by the latest generation of LED devices must be removed to ensure that the device maintains it capabilities to efficiently generate light. To enable the LED to operate efficiently certain factors of the LED must remain unchanged as it is operated over the life of the lamp in an automotive application. Two factors that must experience little or no change are the lumen output of the LED and the emitted color. The heat issue must be analyzed and eliminated or controlled when utilizing the newest "high power," high current devices in an automotive exterior signal lamp. The scope of this paper will identify the parameters that must be controlled to minimize the heat generated by the chip such that the light output of these latest "high power" LEDs is maximized and maintained.

  15. Glycolysis-associated enzymes existing in the follicular lumen of the thyroid may interfere with energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huibin; Shi, Yaxiong; Cai, Huiyao; Liang, Bo; Duan, Honghong; Cai, Qingyan

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis and storage of the thyroid hormone precursor, thyroglobulin (TG), occurs within the follicular lumen of the thyroid and the TG is then absorbed into cells for further processing before release into the blood. However, the mechanism of energy metabolism in the follicular lumen of the thyroid remains unknown. In the present study, the three dimensional structure of thyroid follicles was constructed using a primary culture of swine cells and the follicular protein was identified via matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Three glycolysis-associated enzymes, enolase, pyruvate kinase and phosphoglyceraldehyde dehydrogenase were identified in addition to TG. These results support the hypothesis that anaerobic glycolysis of glucose exists in the follicle and supports energy consumption for hormone synthesis. PMID:27602210

  16. Percutaneous Selective Embolectomy using a Fogarty Thru-Lumen Catheter for Pancreas Graft Thrombosis: A Case Report

    SciTech Connect

    Izaki, Kenta Yamaguchi, Masato; Matsumoto, Ippei; Shinzeki, Makoto; Ku, Yonson; Sugimura, Kazuro; Sugimoto, Koji

    2011-06-15

    A 57-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus underwent simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation. The pancreaticoduodenal graft was implanted in the right iliac fossa. The donor's portal vein was anastomosed to the recipient's inferior vena cava (IVC). Seven days after the surgery, a thrombus was detected in the graft veins. Percutaneous thrombolysis was immediately performed; however, venous congestion was still present. We therefore attempted selective embolectomy using a Fogarty Thru-Lumen Catheter. Thrombi were directed from the graft veins toward the IVC and captured in the IVC filter with complete elimination of the thrombus without any major complications. We present our technique for the successful treatment of pancreas graft thrombosis within a short time period by percutaneous selective embolectomy using a Fogarty Thru-Lumen Catheter.

  17. Fluid dynamic study in a femoral artery branch casting of man with upstream main lumen curvature for steady flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y. I.; Back, L. H.; Back, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    An in-vitro, steady flow investigation was conducted in a hollow, transparent vascular replica of the profunda femoris branch of man for a range of physiological flow conditions. The replica casting tested was obtained from a human cadaver and indicated some plague formation along the main lumen and branch. The flow visualization observations and measured pressure distributions indicated the highly three-dimensional flow characteristics with arterial curvature and branching, and the important role of centrifugal effects in fluid transport mechanisms.

  18. Lethal coronary air embolism caused by the removal of a double-lumen hemodialysis catheter: a case report

    PubMed Central

    An, Dong Ai; Choi, Hyun Jung; Kim, Tae Hee; Pin, Jung Woo; Ko, Dong Chan

    2016-01-01

    Coronary air embolism is a rare event. We report a case in which an acute myocardial infarction occurred in the region supplied by the right coronary artery after the removal of a double-lumen hemodialysis catheter. Emergent coronary angiography revealed air bubbles obstructing the mid-segment of the right coronary artery with slow flow phenomenon distally. The patient expired due to myocardial infarction. PMID:27274379

  19. Carcinoma cells induce lumen filling and EMT in epithelial cells through soluble E-cadherin-mediated activation of EGFR.

    PubMed

    Patil, Pratima U; D'Ambrosio, Julia; Inge, Landon J; Mason, Robert W; Rajasekaran, Ayyappan K

    2015-12-01

    In epithelial cancers, carcinoma cells coexist with normal cells. Although it is known that the tumor microenvironment (TME) plays a pivotal role in cancer progression, it is not completely understood how the tumor influences adjacent normal epithelial cells. In this study, a three-dimensional co-culture system comprising non-transformed epithelial cells (MDCK) and transformed carcinoma cells (MSV-MDCK) was used to demonstrate that carcinoma cells sequentially induce preneoplastic lumen filling and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in epithelial cysts. MMP-9 secreted by carcinoma cells cleaves cellular E-cadherin (encoded by CDH1) from epithelial cells to generate soluble E-cadherin (sE-cad), a pro-oncogenic protein. We show that sE-cad induces EGFR activation, resulting in lumen filling in MDCK cysts. Long-term sE-cad treatment induced EMT. sE-cad caused lumen filling by induction of the ERK signaling pathway and triggered EMT through the sustained activation of the AKT pathway. Although it is known that sE-cad induces MMP-9 release and consequent EGFR activation in tumor cells, our results, for the first time, demonstrate that carcinoma cells can induce sE-cad shedding in adjacent epithelial cells, which leads to EGFR activation and the eventual transdifferentiation of the normal epithelial cells. PMID:26483386

  20. Rab35 GTPase couples cell division with initiation of epithelial apico-basal polarity and lumen opening

    PubMed Central

    Klinkert, Kerstin; Rocancourt, Murielle; Houdusse, Anne; Echard, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Establishment and maintenance of apico-basal polarity in epithelial organs must be tightly coupled with cell division, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Using 3D cultures of renal MDCK cells (cysts), we found that the Rab35 GTPase plays a crucial role in polarity initiation and apical lumen positioning during the first cell division of cyst development. At the molecular level, Rab35 physically couples cytokinesis with the initiation of apico-basal polarity by tethering intracellular vesicles containing key apical determinants at the cleavage site. These vesicles transport aPKC, Cdc42, Crumbs3 and the lumen-promoting factor Podocalyxin, and are tethered through a direct interaction between Rab35 and the cytoplasmic tail of Podocalyxin. Consequently, Rab35 inactivation leads to complete inversion of apico-basal polarity in 3D cysts. This novel and unconventional mode of Rab-dependent vesicle targeting provides a simple mechanism for triggering both initiation of apico-basal polarity and lumen opening at the centre of cysts. PMID:27040773

  1. Semi-automatic 3D segmentation of carotid lumen in contrast-enhanced computed tomography angiography images.

    PubMed

    Hemmati, Hamidreza; Kamli-Asl, Alireza; Talebpour, Alireza; Shirani, Shapour

    2015-12-01

    The atherosclerosis disease is one of the major causes of the death in the world. Atherosclerosis refers to the hardening and narrowing of the arteries by plaques. Carotid stenosis is a narrowing or constriction of carotid artery lumen usually caused by atherosclerosis. Carotid artery stenosis can increase risk of brain stroke. Contrast-enhanced Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) is a minimally invasive method for imaging and quantification of the carotid plaques. Manual segmentation of carotid lumen in CTA images is a tedious and time consuming procedure which is subjected to observer variability. As a result, there is a strong and growing demand for developing computer-aided carotid segmentation procedures. In this study, a novel method is presented for carotid artery lumen segmentation in CTA data. First, the mean shift smoothing is used for uniformity enhancement of gray levels. Then with the help of three seed points, the centerlines of the arteries are extracted by a 3D Hessian based fast marching shortest path algorithm. Finally, a 3D Level set function is performed for segmentation. Results on 14 CTA volumes data show 85% of Dice similarity and 0.42 mm of mean absolute surface distance measures. Evaluation shows that the proposed method requires minimal user intervention, low dependence to gray levels changes in artery path, resistance to extreme changes in carotid diameter and carotid branch locations. The proposed method has high accuracy and can be used in qualitative and quantitative evaluation. PMID:26429385

  2. Rab35 GTPase couples cell division with initiation of epithelial apico-basal polarity and lumen opening.

    PubMed

    Klinkert, Kerstin; Rocancourt, Murielle; Houdusse, Anne; Echard, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Establishment and maintenance of apico-basal polarity in epithelial organs must be tightly coupled with cell division, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Using 3D cultures of renal MDCK cells (cysts), we found that the Rab35 GTPase plays a crucial role in polarity initiation and apical lumen positioning during the first cell division of cyst development. At the molecular level, Rab35 physically couples cytokinesis with the initiation of apico-basal polarity by tethering intracellular vesicles containing key apical determinants at the cleavage site. These vesicles transport aPKC, Cdc42, Crumbs3 and the lumen-promoting factor Podocalyxin, and are tethered through a direct interaction between Rab35 and the cytoplasmic tail of Podocalyxin. Consequently, Rab35 inactivation leads to complete inversion of apico-basal polarity in 3D cysts. This novel and unconventional mode of Rab-dependent vesicle targeting provides a simple mechanism for triggering both initiation of apico-basal polarity and lumen opening at the centre of cysts. PMID:27040773

  3. Serial analysis of lumen geometry and hemodynamics in human arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis using magnetic resonance imaging and computational fluid dynamics

    PubMed Central

    He, Yong; Terry, Christi M.; Nguyen, Cuong; Berceli, Scott A.; Shiu, Yan-Ting E.; Cheung, Alfred K.

    2014-01-01

    The arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the preferred form of vascular access for maintenance hemodialysis, but it often fails to mature to become clinically usable, likely due to aberrant hemodynamic forces. A robust pipeline for serial assessment of hemodynamic parameters and subsequent lumen cross-sectional area changes has been developed and applied to a data set from contrast-free MRI of a dialysis patient’s AVF collected over a period of months after AVF creation surgery. Black-blood MRI yielded images of AVF lumen geometry, while cine phase-contrast MRI provided volumetric flow rates at the in-flow and out-flow locations. Lumen geometry and flow rates were used as inputs for computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling to provide serial wall shear stress (WSS), WSS gradient, and oscillatory shear index profiles. The serial AVF lumen geometries were co-registered at 1-mm intervals using respective lumen centerlines, with the anastomosis as an anatomical landmark. Lumen enlargement was limited at the vein region near the anastomosis and a downstream vein valve, potentially attributed to a physical inhibition of wall expansion at those sites. This work is the first serial and detail study of lumen and hemodynamic changes in human AVF using MRI and CFD. This novel protocol will be used for a multicenter prospective study to identify critical hemodynamic factors that contribute to AVF maturation failure. PMID:23122945

  4. Late running is not too late against Alzheimer's pathology.

    PubMed

    Herring, Arne; Münster, Yvonne; Metzdorf, Judith; Bolczek, Bastien; Krüssel, Sarah; Krieter, David; Yavuz, Ilkay; Karim, Fro; Roggendorf, Constanze; Stang, Anthony; Wang, Yachao; Hermann, Dirk M; Teuber-Hanselmann, Sarah; Keyvani, Kathy

    2016-10-01

    In the last decade a vast number of animal studies have produced overwhelming evidence that exercise not only compensates for memory loss by increasing brain plasticity and cognitive reserve but also directly counteracts Alzheimer-like pathology when provided before disease onset or in early disease stages. But so far, there is little knowledge about therapeutic effects of training when started in advanced disease stages. In the present study we show that following seven months of sedentary life style five months of wheel running, started four months after disease onset was still able to mitigate at least some aspects of the full-blown Alzheimer's pathology in TgCRND8 mice. Late running had mild but significant effects on structural plasticity by increasing the dendritic complexity. It further reduced beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaque burden and enhanced Aβ clearance across the blood-brain barrier, along with attenuating microgliosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and autophagy deficits, resulting in better memory performance and less agitation. However, unlike early exercise, late running did not affect abnormal amyloid precursor protein metabolism, tau pathology, or angiogenesis. These results allow concluding that it is never too late to counteract Alzheimer's disease with physical training but the earlier the intervention starts, the more pronounced is the therapeutic potential. PMID:27312772

  5. IV Administered Gadodiamide Enters the Lumen of the Prostatic Glands: X-Ray Fluorescence Microscopy Examination of a Mouse Model

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mustafi, Devkumar; Gleber, Sophie-Charlotte; Ward, Jesse; Dougherty, Urszula; Zamora, Marta; Markiewicz, Erica; Binder, David C.; Antic, Tatjana; Vogt, Stefan; Karczmar, Gregory S.; et al

    2015-09-01

    In our objective, we descibe how dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) has become a standard component of multiparametric protocols for MRI examination of the prostate, and its use is incorporated into current guidelines for prostate MRI examination. Analysis of DCE-MRI data for the prostate is usually based on the distribution of gadolinium-based agents, such as gadodiamide, into two well-mixed compartments, and it assumes that gadodiamide does not enter into the glandular lumen. However, this assumption has not been directly tested. The purpose of this study was to use x-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) imaging in situ to measure the concentration of gadodiamidemore » in the epithelia and lumens of the prostate of healthy mice after IV injection of the contrast agent. For our materials and methods, six C57Bl6 male mice (age, 28 weeks) were sacrificed 10 minutes after IV injection of gadodiamide (0.13 mmol/kg), and three mice were sacrificed after saline injection. Prostate tissue samples obtained from each mouse were harvested and frozen; 7-μm-thick slices were sectioned for XFM imaging, and adjacent 5-μm-thick slices were sectioned for H and E staining. Elemental concentrations were determined from XFM images. Our results show mean (± SD) baseline concentration of gadolinium of 0.01 ± 0.01 mM was determined from XFM measurements of prostatic tissue samples when no gadodiamide was administered, and it was used to determine the measurement error. When gadodiamide was added, the mean concentrations of gadolinium in the epithelia and lumens in 32 prostatic glands from six mice were 1.00 ± 0.13 and 0.36 ± 0.09 mM, respectively. In conclusion, our data suggest that IV administration of gadodiamide results in uptake of contrast agent by the glandular lumens of the mouse prostate. We were able to quantitatively determine gadodiamide distributions in mouse prostatic epithelia and lumens.« less

  6. Scribble is required for normal epithelial cell-cell contacts and lumen morphogenesis in the mammalian lung.

    PubMed

    Yates, Laura L; Schnatwinkel, Carsten; Hazelwood, Lee; Chessum, Lauren; Paudyal, Anju; Hilton, Helen; Romero, M Rosario; Wilde, Jonathan; Bogani, Debora; Sanderson, Jeremy; Formstone, Caroline; Murdoch, Jennifer N; Niswander, Lee A; Greenfield, Andy; Dean, Charlotte H

    2013-01-15

    During lung development, proper epithelial cell arrangements are critical for the formation of an arborized network of tubes. Each tube requires a lumen, the diameter of which must be tightly regulated to enable optimal lung function. Lung branching and lumen morphogenesis require close epithelial cell-cell contacts that are maintained as a result of adherens junctions, tight junctions and by intact apical-basal (A/B) polarity. However, the molecular mechanisms that maintain epithelial cohesion and lumen diameter in the mammalian lung are unknown. Here we show that Scribble, a protein implicated in planar cell polarity (PCP) signalling, is necessary for normal lung morphogenesis. Lungs of the Scrib mouse mutant Circletail (Crc) are abnormally shaped with fewer airways, and these airways often lack a visible, 'open' lumen. Mechanistically we show that Scrib genetically interacts with the core PCP gene Vangl2 in the developing lung and that the distribution of PCP pathway proteins and Rho mediated cytoskeletal modification is perturbed in Scrib(Crc/Crc) lungs. However A/B polarity, which is disrupted in Drosophila Scrib mutants, is largely unaffected. Notably, we find that Scrib mediates functions not attributed to other PCP proteins in the lung. Specifically, Scrib localises to both adherens and tight junctions of lung epithelia and knockdown of Scrib in lung explants and organotypic cultures leads to reduced cohesion of lung epithelial cells. Live imaging of Scrib knockdown lungs shows that Scrib does not affect bud bifurcation, as previously shown for the PCP protein Celsr1, but is required to maintain epithelial cohesion. To understand the mechanism leading to reduced cell-cell association, we show that Scrib associates with β-catenin in embryonic lung and the sub-cellular distribution of adherens and tight junction proteins is perturbed in mutant lung epithelia. Our data reveal that Scrib is required for normal lung epithelial organisation and lumen

  7. IV Administered Gadodiamide Enters the Lumen of the Prostatic Glands: X-Ray Fluorescence Microscopy Examination of a Mouse Model

    SciTech Connect

    Mustafi, Devkumar; Gleber, Sophie-Charlotte; Ward, Jesse; Dougherty, Urszula; Zamora, Marta; Markiewicz, Erica; Binder, David C.; Antic, Tatjana; Vogt, Stefan; Karczmar, Gregory S.; Oto, Aytekin

    2015-09-01

    In our objective, we descibe how dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) has become a standard component of multiparametric protocols for MRI examination of the prostate, and its use is incorporated into current guidelines for prostate MRI examination. Analysis of DCE-MRI data for the prostate is usually based on the distribution of gadolinium-based agents, such as gadodiamide, into two well-mixed compartments, and it assumes that gadodiamide does not enter into the glandular lumen. However, this assumption has not been directly tested. The purpose of this study was to use x-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) imaging in situ to measure the concentration of gadodiamide in the epithelia and lumens of the prostate of healthy mice after IV injection of the contrast agent. For our materials and methods, six C57Bl6 male mice (age, 28 weeks) were sacrificed 10 minutes after IV injection of gadodiamide (0.13 mmol/kg), and three mice were sacrificed after saline injection. Prostate tissue samples obtained from each mouse were harvested and frozen; 7-μm-thick slices were sectioned for XFM imaging, and adjacent 5-μm-thick slices were sectioned for H and E staining. Elemental concentrations were determined from XFM images. Our results show mean (± SD) baseline concentration of gadolinium of 0.01 ± 0.01 mM was determined from XFM measurements of prostatic tissue samples when no gadodiamide was administered, and it was used to determine the measurement error. When gadodiamide was added, the mean concentrations of gadolinium in the epithelia and lumens in 32 prostatic glands from six mice were 1.00 ± 0.13 and 0.36 ± 0.09 mM, respectively. In conclusion, our data suggest that IV administration of gadodiamide results in uptake of contrast agent by the glandular lumens of the mouse prostate. We were able to quantitatively determine gadodiamide distributions in mouse prostatic epithelia and lumens.

  8. Memory loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... usually include asking questions of family members and friends. For this reason, they should come to the appointment. Medical history questions may include: Type of memory loss, such as short-term or long-term ...

  9. Hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... that is applied to the scalp to stimulate hair growth. Other medicines, such as hormones, may be prescribed to decrease hair loss and promote hair growth. Drugs such as finasteride and dutasteride can be ...

  10. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Common baldness" usually means male-pattern baldness, or permanent-pattern baldness. It is also called androgenetic alopecia. ... will grow back normally. However, scarring can cause permanent hair loss. Hot oil hair treatments or chemicals ...

  11. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... are stress, a low protein diet, a family history, or poor nutrition. Treatment for hair loss depends on the cause. In some cases, treating the underlying cause will correct the problem. Other treatments include medicines and hair restoration.

  12. Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Devices Can Help? Hearing aids. Hearing aids are electronic, battery-run devices that make sounds louder. There ... to turn up the volume. Cochlear implants. These electronic devices are for people with severe hearing loss. ...

  13. Relationships between defoliation by late leaf spot and yield in new runner-type peanut cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early and late leaf spot caused by Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum, respectively, can cause severe losses on susceptible peanut (Arachis hypogaea) cultivars. Losses are primarily due to loss of peg integrity and loss of mature pods when peanut plants are inverted. Losses to bo...

  14. Coping and Late-Deafness: An Examination of Two Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Jill M.; Kashubeck-West, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the psychometric properties of two measures of coping in a sample of individuals with acquired hearing loss, specifically late-deafness. Methods: Using a quantitative descriptive design, coping of participants (N = 277) with late-deafness was measured to examine the reliability and validity of the Ways of Coping Questionnaire…

  15. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-12-31

    This CALiPER report examines lumen depreciation and color shift of 17 different A lamps in steady-state conditions (15 LED, 1 CFL, 1 halogen). The goal of this investigation was to examine the long-term performance of complete LED lamps relative to benchmark halogen and CFL lamps—in this case, A lamps emitting approximately 800 lumens operated continuously at a relatively high ambient temperature of 45°C.

  16. Mechanism of phosphorylation in the lumen of the Golgi apparatus. Translocation of adenosine 5'-triphosphate into Golgi vesicles from rat liver and mammary gland

    SciTech Connect

    Capasso, J.M.; Keenan, T.W.; Abeijon, C.; Hirschberg, C.B.

    1989-03-25

    The occurrence of phosphorylated secretory proteins such as caseins and vitellogenin and the recent characterization of phosphorylated proteoglycans, in the xylose and protein core, has raised the question of where in the cell and how this phosphorylation occurs. Previous studies have described a casein kinase activity in the lumen of the Golgi apparatus and this organelle as the site of xylose addition to the protein core of proteoglycans. We now report the translocation in vitro of ATP into the lumen of rat liver and mammary gland Golgi vesicles which are sealed and have the same membrane topographical orientation as in vivo. The entire ATP molecule was translocated into the lumen of the Golgi vesicles; this was established by using ATP radiolabeled with tritium in the adenine and gamma-/sup 32/P. Translocation was temperature dependent and saturable, with an apparent Km of 0.9 microM and Vmax of 58 pmol/mg protein/min. Preliminary evidence suggests that translocation of ATP into the vesicles' lumen is coupled to exit of AMP from the lumen. Following translocation of ATP into the lumen of the vesicles, proteins were phosphorylated.

  17. Prediction of Lumen Output and Chromaticity Shift in LEDs Using Kalman Filter and Extended Kalman Filter Based Models

    SciTech Connect

    Lall, Pradeep; Wei, Junchao; Davis, J Lynn

    2014-06-24

    Abstract— Solid-state lighting (SSL) luminaires containing light emitting diodes (LEDs) have the potential of seeing excessive temperatures when being transported across country or being stored in non-climate controlled warehouses. They are also being used in outdoor applications in desert environments that see little or no humidity but will experience extremely high temperatures during the day. This makes it important to increase our understanding of what effects high temperature exposure for a prolonged period of time will have on the usability and survivability of these devices. Traditional light sources “burn out” at end-of-life. For an incandescent bulb, the lamp life is defined by B50 life. However, the LEDs have no filament to “burn”. The LEDs continually degrade and the light output decreases eventually below useful levels causing failure. Presently, the TM-21 test standard is used to predict the L70 life of LEDs from LM-80 test data. Several failure mechanisms may be active in a LED at a single time causing lumen depreciation. The underlying TM-21 Model may not capture the failure physics in presence of multiple failure mechanisms. Correlation of lumen maintenance with underlying physics of degradation at system-level is needed. In this paper, Kalman Filter (KF) and Extended Kalman Filters (EKF) have been used to develop a 70-percent Lumen Maintenance Life Prediction Model for LEDs used in SSL luminaires. Ten-thousand hour LM-80 test data for various LEDs have been used for model development. System state at each future time has been computed based on the state space at preceding time step, system dynamics matrix, control vector, control matrix, measurement matrix, measured vector, process noise and measurement noise. The future state of the lumen depreciation has been estimated based on a second order Kalman Filter model and a Bayesian Framework. Life prediction of L70 life for the LEDs used in SSL luminaires from KF and EKF based models have

  18. Fluid dynamic study in a femoral artery branch casting of man with upstream main lumen curvature for steady flow.

    PubMed

    Back, M R; Cho, Y I; Back, L H

    1985-08-01

    An in-vitro, steady flow investigation was conducted in a hollow, transparent vascular replica of the profunda femoris branch of man for a range of physiological flow conditions. The replica casting tested was obtained from a human cadaver and indicated some plaque formation along the main lumen and branch. The flow visualization observations and measured pressure distributions indicated the highly three-dimensional flow characteristics with arterial curvature and branching, and the important role of centrifugal effects in fluid transport mechanisms. PMID:4046565

  19. 3D time-lapse analysis of Rab11/FIP5 complex: spatiotemporal dynamics during apical lumen formation.

    PubMed

    Mangan, Anthony; Prekeris, Rytis

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent imaging of fixed cells grown in two-dimensional (2D) cultures is one of the most widely used techniques for observing protein localization and distribution within cells. Although this technique can also be applied to polarized epithelial cells that form three-dimensional (3D) cysts when grown in a Matrigel matrix suspension, there are still significant limitations in imaging cells fixed at a particular point in time. Here, we describe the use of 3D time-lapse imaging of live cells to observe the dynamics of apical membrane initiation site (AMIS) formation and lumen expansion in polarized epithelial cells. PMID:25800842

  20. miRNA-342 Regulates CEACAM1-induced Lumen Formation in a Three-dimensional Model of Mammary Gland Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chunyue; Nguyen, Tung; Shively, John E

    2016-08-01

    Lumen formation of breast epithelium is rapidly lost during tumorigenesis along with expression of cell adhesion molecule CEACAM1. CEACAM1 induces lumena in a three-dimensional culture of MCF7/CEACAM1 cells that otherwise fail to form lumena. We hypothesized miRNAs may be involved because >400 genes were up- or down-regulated in MCF7/CEACAM1 cells and miRNAs may modify global expression patterns. Comparative analysis of miRNA expression in MCF7 versus MCF7/CEACAM1 cells revealed two miRNAs significantly down-regulated (hsa-miR-30a-3p by 6.73-fold and hsa-miR-342-5p by 5.68-fold). Location of miR-342 within an intron of the EVL gene, hypermethylated and involved in tumorigenesis, suggested that miR-342 overexpression may block lumen formation. In fact, overexpression of miR-342 in MCF7/CEACAM1 cells significantly blocked lumen formation (p < 0.001). ID4, a dominant-negative inhibitor of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, up-regulated in MCF7/CEACAM1 cells, down-regulated in breast cancer, and containing a miR-342 binding site, was tested as a potential target of miR-342. The ratio of ID4 to miR-342 increased from 1:2 in MCF7 cells to 30:1 in MCF7/CEACAM1 cells and a miR-342 inhibitor was able to induce 3'-UTR ID4 reporter activity in MCF7 cells. Because 5-methylcytosine methyltransferase DNMT1 is also a potential target of miR-342, we inhibited miR-342 in MCF7 cells and found DNMT1 was up-regulated with no change in EVL expression, suggesting that miR-342 regulates DNMT1 expression but DNMT1 does not affect the EVL expression in these cells. We conclude that the regulation of lumen formation by miR-342 involves at least two of its known targets, namely ID4 and DNMT1. PMID:27302063

  1. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... psychosocial impact of hair loss have found patients’ self-esteem, body image and self-confidence to be negatively ... 1-2 Known psychosocial complications include depression, low self-esteem, altered self-image, and less frequent and enjoyable ...

  2. Complications in late pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Meguerdichian, David

    2012-11-01

    Complications of late pregnancy are managed infrequently in the emergency department and, thus, can pose a challenge when the emergency physician encounters acute presentations. An expert understanding of the anatomic and physiologic changes and possible complications of late pregnancy is vital to ensure proper evaluation and care for both mother and fetus. This article focuses on the late pregnancy issues that the emergency physician will face, from the bleeding and instability of abruptio placentae to the wide spectrum of complications and management strategies encountered with preterm labor. PMID:23137403

  3. Pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Gail Erlick

    2014-01-01

    Women who lose desired pregnancies by miscarriage, stillbirth, or genetic termination are at risk of suffering from grief, anxiety, guilt and self-blame that may even present in subsequent pregnancies. It is important to find effective means of helping women deal with these losses. The approach to stillbirth has shifted from immediately removing the child from the mother to encouraging the parents to view and hold the baby. This approach has been questioned as possibly causing persistent anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. Women who miscarry are currently encouraged to find ways to memorialise the lost fetus. Couples who decide to terminate a pregnancy after discovering a defect may deal not only with sadness but also guilt. Immediate crisis intervention and follow-up care should be available, recognising that individual women may experience different reactions and their specific post-loss needs must be assessed. PMID:24047642

  4. Beam loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanGinneken, A.; Edwards, D.; Harrison, M.

    1989-04-01

    This paper presents results from simulations of beam losses during the operation of a superconducting accelerator. The calculations use a combination of hadron/electromagnetic cascade plus elastic scattering codes with accelerator tracking routines. These calculations have been used in conjunction with the design of the Fermilab Tevatron. First accelerator geometry is described. The rest of the paper discusses a detailed attempt to simulate a fast extraction cycle, essentially in chronological order. Beginning with an unperturbed beam, the simulation generates proton phase-space distributions incident on the electrostatic septum. These interact either elastically or inelastically with the septum wires, and the products of these interactions are traced through the machine. Where these leave the accelerator, energy deposition levels in the magnets are calculated together with the projected response of the beam-loss monitors in this region. Finally, results of the calculation are compared with experimental data. (AIP)

  5. True-false lumen segmentation of aortic dissection using multi-scale wavelet analysis and generative-discriminative model matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Noah; Tek, Huseyin; Laine, Andrew F.

    2008-03-01

    Computer aided diagnosis in the medical image domain requires sophisticated probabilistic models to formulate quantitative behavior in image space. In the diagnostic process detailed knowledge of model performance with respect to accuracy, variability, and uncertainty is crucial. This challenge has lead to the fusion of two successful learning schools namely generative and discriminative learning. In this paper, we propose a generative-discriminative learning approach to predict object boundaries in medical image datasets. In our approach, we perform probabilistic model matching of both modeling domains to fuse into the prediction step appearance and structural information of the object of interest while exploiting the strength of both learning paradigms. In particular, we apply our method to the task of true-false lumen segmentation of aortic dissections an acute disease that requires automated quantification for assisted medical diagnosis. We report empirical results for true-false lumen discrimination of aortic dissection segmentation showing superior behavior of the hybrid generative-discriminative approach over their non hybrid generative counterpart.

  6. COMPARISON OF FLUOROSCOPY AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY FOR TRACHEAL LUMEN DIAMETER MEASUREMENT AND DETERMINATION OF INTRALUMINAL STENT SIZE IN HEALTHY DOGS.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jackie M; Krebs, Ingar A; Riedesel, Elizabeth A; Zhao, Qianqian

    2016-05-01

    Tracheal collapse is a progressive airway disease that can ultimately result in complete airway obstruction. Intraluminal tracheal stents are a minimally invasive and viable treatment for tracheal collapse once the disease becomes refractory to medical management. Intraluminal stent size is chosen based on the maximum measured tracheal diameter during maximum inflation. The purpose of this prospective, cross-sectional study was to compare tracheal lumen diameter measurements and subsequent selected stent size using both fluoroscopy and CT and to evaluate inter- and intraobserver variability of the measurements. Seventeen healthy Beagles were anesthetized and imaged with fluoroscopy and CT with positive pressure ventilation to 20 cm H2 O. Fluoroscopic and CT maximum tracheal diameters were measured by three readers. Three individual measurements were made at eight predetermined tracheal sites for dorsoventral (height) and laterolateral (width) dimensions. Tracheal diameters and stent sizes (based on the maximum tracheal diameter + 10%) were analyzed using a linear mixed model. CT tracheal lumen diameters were larger compared to fluoroscopy at all locations (P-value < 0.0001). When comparing modalities, fluoroscopic and CT stent sizes were statistically different. Greater overall variation in tracheal diameter measurement (height or width) existed for fluoroscopy compared to CT, both within and among observers. The greater tracheal diameter measured with CT and lower measurement variability has clinical significance, as this may be the imaging modality of choice for appropriate stent selection to minimize complications in veterinary patients. PMID:26784924

  7. Conversion of Percutaneous Cholecystostomy to Internal Transmural Gallbladder Drainage Using an Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided, Lumen-Apposing Metal Stent.

    PubMed

    Law, Ryan; Grimm, Ian S; Stavas, Joseph M; Baron, Todd H

    2016-03-01

    Patients with acute cholecystitis sometimes require placement of percutaneous cholecystostomy catheters, either as a bridge to surgery or as primary therapy. In patients who cannot undergo surgery, subsequent removal of the catheter can lead to recurrence of cholecystitis, whereas leaving the drain in place can cause adverse events. We investigated internalization of percutaneous cholecystostomy drainage catheters, using endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided placement of lumen-apposing metal stents (LAMS) as an alternative treatment strategy. Seven patients (median age, 57 years; 6 men) underwent EUS-guided cholecystoenterostomy for internalization of gallbladder drainage with EUS-guided placement of a 10- or 15-mm LAMS. All had initially been treated with placement of a percutaneous cholecystostomy catheter for cholecystitis and were later deemed unfit for cholecystectomy. Technical success was achieved in all patients in 1 endoscopic session, with subsequent removal of all percutaneous drains. Two patients required placement of self-expandable metal stents within the LAMS to successfully bridge the gallbladder and gastrointestinal lumen. No adverse events occurred after a median follow-up of 2.5 months. EUS-guided cholecystoenterostomy using a LAMS is therefore a viable option for internal gallbladder drainage in patients who have a percutaneous cholecystostomy catheter and are poor candidates for cholecystectomy. PMID:26528802

  8. Some properties of the walls of metaxylem vessels of maize roots, including tests of the wettability of their lumenal wall surfaces

    PubMed Central

    McCully, Margaret; Canny, Martin; Baker, Adam; Miller, Celia

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Since the proposal of the cohesion theory there has been a paradox that the lumenal surface of vessels is rich in hydrophobic lignin, while tension in the rising sap requires adhesion to a hydrophilic surface. This study sought to characterize the strength of that adhesion in maize (Zea mays), the wettability of the vessel surface, and to reconcile this with its histochemical and physical nature. Methods Wettability was assessed by emptying the maize root vessels of sap, perfusing them with either water or oil, and examining the adhesion (as revealed by contact angles) of the two liquids to vessel walls by cryo-scanning electron microscopy. The phobicity of the lumenal surface was also assessed histochemically with hydrophilic and hydrophobic probes. Key Results Pit borders in the lumen-facing vessel wall surface were wetted by both sap/water and oil. The attraction for oil was weaker: water could replace oil but not vice versa. Pit apertures repelled oil and were strongly stained by hydrophilic probes. Pit chambers were probably hydrophilic. Oil never entered the pits. When vessels were emptied and cryo-fixed immediately, pit chambers facing away from the vessels were always sap-filled. Pit chambers facing vessel lumens were either sap- or gas-filled. Sap from adjoining tracheary elements entering empty vessels accumulated on the lumenal surface in hemispherical drops, which spread out with decreasing contact angles to fill the lumen. Conclusions The vessel lumenal surface has a dual nature, namely a mosaic of hydrophilic and hydrophobic patches at the micrometre scale, with hydrophilic predominating. A key role is shown, for the first time, of overarching borders of pits in determining the dual nature of the surface. In gas-filled (embolized) vessels they are hydrophobic. When wetted by sap (vessels refilling or full) they are hydrophilic. A hypothesis is proposed to explain the switch between the two states. PMID:24709790

  9. A Novel Device for True Lumen Re-Entry After Subintimal Recanalization of Superficial Femoral Arteries: First-in-Man Experience and Technical Description

    SciTech Connect

    Airoldi, Flavio Faglia, Ezio Losa, Sergio Tavano, Davide; Latib, Azeem; Mantero, Manuela Lanza, Gaetano Clerici, Giacomo

    2011-02-15

    Subintimal angioplasty (SAP) is frequently performed for the treatment of critical limb ischemia (CLI) and has been recognized as an effective technique for these patients. Nevertheless, this approach is limited by the lack of controlled re-entry into the true lumen of the target vessel. We describe a novel device for true lumen re-entry after subintimal recanalization of superficial femoral arteries (SFA). We report our experience with six patients treated between April 2009 and January 2010 with a novel system designed to facilitate true lumen re-entry. The device was advanced by ipsilateral antegrade approach through a 6-French sheath. Successful reaccess into the true lumen was obtained in five of six patients without complications. The patient in whom the reaccess to the true lumen was not possible underwent successful bypass surgery. At 30 days follow-up, the SFA was patent in all patients according to echo-Doppler examination. Our preliminary experience indicates that this novel re-entry device increases the success rate of percutaneous revascularization of chronically occluded SFA.

  10. [Successful double-lumen endotracheal tube exchange with a soft-tipped extra firm exchange catheter in a patient with severe subcutaneous emphysema].

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kaori; Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Ishio, Junichi; Nakano, Shoko; Tatsumi, Shinichi; Minami, Toshiaki

    2014-07-01

    We report a case of successful double-lumen endotracheal tube exchange with a soft-tipped extra firm exchange catheter in a patient with severe subcutaneous emphysema. A 70-year-old man underwent right lower lobectomy for primary lung cancer under general anesthesia. He developed pneumothorax on postoperative day (POD) 14, which led to subcutaneous emphysema. An emergent operation was performed on POD20 to close the pulmonary fistula under general anesthesia with a single-lumen endotracheal tube and bronchial blocker. Subcutaneous emphysema became worse and pharyngeal emphysema was also suspected; re-operation to close the pulmonary or bronchial fistula was planned. We decided to place a double-lumen tube to precisely detect the fistula. Under the guide of a Pentax-AWS Airwayscope, the single-lumen endotracheal tube was exchanged uneventfully to a 35 Fr double-lumen endotracheal tube with a 110 cm soft-tipped extra firm exchange catheter. The fistula was detected by a leak test and the operation was performed uneventfully, leading to improvement of subcutaneous emphysema. PMID:25098141

  11. Impact of hemodynamics on lumen boundary displacements in abdominal aortic aneurysms by means of dynamic computed tomography and computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Piccinelli, Marina; Vergara, Christian; Antiga, Luca; Forzenigo, Laura; Biondetti, Pietro; Domanin, Maurizio

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present work is to quantitatively assess the three-dimensional distributions of the displacements experienced during the cardiac cycle by the luminal boundary of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and to correlate them with the local bulk hemodynamics. Ten patients were acquired by means of time resolved computed tomography, and each patient-specific vascular morphology was reconstructed for all available time frames. The AAA lumen boundary motion was tracked, and the lumen boundary displacements (LBD) computed for each time frame. The intra-aneurysm hemodynamic quantities, specifically wall shear stress (WSS), were evaluated with computational fluid dynamics simulations. Co-localization of LBD and WSS distributions was evaluated by means of Pearson correlation coefficient. A clear anisotropic distribution of LBD was evidenced in both space and time; a combination of AAA lumen boundary inward- and outward-directed motions was assessed. A co-localization between largest outward LBD and high WSS was demonstrated supporting the hypothesis of a mechanistic relationship between anisotropic displacement and hemodynamic forces related to the impingement of the blood on the lumen boundary. The presence of anisotropic displacement of the AAA lumen boundary and their link to hemodynamic forces have been assessed, highlighting a new possible role for hemodynamics in the study of AAA progression. PMID:23446648

  12. Late-term abortion.

    PubMed

    Epner, J E; Jonas, H S; Seckinger, D L

    1998-08-26

    Recent proposed federal legislation banning certain abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, would modify the US Criminal Code such that physicians performing these procedures would be liable for monetary and statutory damages. Clarification of medical procedures is important because some of the procedures used to induce abortion prior to viability are identical or similar to postviability procedures. This article reviews the scientific and medical information on late-term abortion and late-term abortion techniques and includes data on the prevalence of late-term abortion, abortion-related mortality and morbidity rates, and legal issues regarding fetal viability and the balance of maternal and fetal interests. According to enacted American Medical Association (AMA) policy, the use of appropriate medical terminology is critical in defining late-term abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, which is a variant of but distinct from dilatation and evacuation. The AMA recommends that the intact dilatation and extraction procedure not be used unless alternative procedures pose materially greater risk to the woman and that abortions not be performed in the third trimester except in cases of serious fetal anomalies incompatible with life. Major medical societies are urged to collaborate on clinical guidelines on late-term abortion techniques and circumstances that conform to standards of good medical practice. More research on the advantages and disadvantages of specific abortion procedures would help physicians make informed choices about specific abortion procedures. Expanded ongoing data surveillance systems estimating the prevalence of abortion are also needed. PMID:9728645

  13. A modified technique to improve the outcome of intubation with a left-sided double-lumen endobronchial tube

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of a video-assisted laryngoscope (VL) has been shown to reduce the time to achieve intubation with a double-lumen endobronchial tube (DLT). As the blade of the VL is curved differently to a standard laryngoscope, the DLT must be angled into a hockey stick shape to fit properly. We conducted a study to establish which direction of angulation was best to facilitate correct positioning of the DLT when using a VL. Methods We enrolled patients scheduled for thoracic surgery who required intubation with a DLT. They were prospectively randomized into one of two groups: those intubated with a DLT angled to conceal the tracheal orifice (the tracheal orifice-covered, TOC) group or the tracheal orifice-exposed (TOE) group. The composite primary outcome measures were time taken to intubate and the frequency of first-time success. The time taken to intubate was divided into: T1, the time from mouth opening to visualization of the vocal cords with the VL; and T2, the time taken to advance the DLT through the cords until its tip lay within the trachea and three carbon dioxide waveforms had been detected by capnography. The hemodynamic responses to intubation and intubation-related adverse events were also recorded. Results Sixty-six patients completed the study, with 33 in each group. Total intubation time was significantly shorter in the TOC group (mean 30.6 ± standard deviation 2.7 seconds versus 38.7 ± 3.3 seconds, p <0.0001). T2 was also significantly shorter in the TOC group than the TOE group (27.2 ± 2.5 seconds versus 34.9 ± 3.0 seconds, p <0.0001). The severity of hoarseness on the first postoperative day and sore throat on the fourth postoperative day were significantly lower in the TOC group than the TOE group (p = 0.02 and <0.0001, respectively). The hemodynamic responses to intubation were broadly similar between the groups. Conclusion When placing a left-sided DLT using a VL, angling the bronchial lumen to a hockey stick

  14. LATE ACUTE REJECTION IN LIVER TRANSPLANT: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    NACIF, Lucas Souto; PINHEIRO, Rafael Soares; PÉCORA, Rafael Antônio de Arruda; DUCATTI, Liliana; ROCHA-SANTOS, Vinicius; ANDRAUS, Wellington; D'ALBUQUERQUE, Luiz Carneiro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Late acute rejection leads to worse patient and graft survival after liver transplantation. Aim: To analyze the reported results published in recent years by leading transplant centers in evaluating late acute rejection and update the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of liver transplantation. Method: Systematic literature review through Medline-PubMed database with headings related to late acute rejection in articles published until November 2013 was done. Were analyzed demographics, immunosuppression, rejection, infection and graft and patient survival rates. Results: Late acute rejection in liver transplantation showed poor results mainly regarding patient and graft survival. Almost all of these cohort studies were retrospective and descriptive. The incidence of late acute rejection varied from 7-40% in these studies. Late acute rejection was one cause for graft loss and resulted in different outcomes with worse patient and graft survival after liver transplant. Late acute rejection has been variably defined and may be a cause of chronic rejection with worse prognosis. Late acute rejection occurs during a period in which the goal is to maintain lower immunosuppression after liver transplantation. Conclusion: The current articles show the importance of late acute rejection. The real benefit is based on early diagnosis and adequate treatment at the onset until late follow up after liver transplantation. PMID:26537150

  15. Lateness to School Remediation Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugwuegbulam, Charles N.; Ibrahim, Haj. Naheed

    2015-01-01

    Primary and secondary school in Nigeria encourage punctuality to school yet a good number of the learners came late to school. This is especially true in the case of day students. Learners who come late to school are usually punished in one way or the other yet the lateness to school phenomenon still persist. Lateness to school behaviour affects…

  16. Late Mitochondrial Acquisition, Really?

    PubMed Central

    Degli Esposti, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a timely critique of a recent Nature paper by Pittis and Gabaldón that has suggested a late origin of mitochondria in eukaryote evolution. It shows that the inferred ancestry of many mitochondrial proteins has been incorrectly assigned by Pittis and Gabaldón to bacteria other than the aerobic proteobacteria from which the ancestor of mitochondria originates, thereby questioning the validity of their suggestion that mitochondrial acquisition may be a late event in eukaryote evolution. The analysis and approach presented here may guide future studies to resolve the true ancestry of mitochondria. PMID:27289097

  17. Use of the frozen elephant trunk technique in complicated chronic dissection with porcelain aorta and visceral arteries originating from different lumens.

    PubMed

    Zembala, Michal O; Irimie, Vadim; Urbanski, Paul P

    2016-04-01

    A rare case of aortic arch aneurysm combined with chronic aortic dissection is reported. Because the visceral arteries originated from different, equivalently perfused lumens and the descending aorta was circumferentially calcified (porcelain aorta) limiting the possibilities of anastomosing, careful planning of the surgical strategy was of utmost importance. The complex surgery consisted of ascending and total arch replacement using the 'frozen elephant trunk' technique with Thoraflex™ Hybrid Prosthesis (Vascutek, Terumo, Inchinnan, Scotland); however, before insertion of the stent graft, an angioscopic resection of the dissection membrane in the proximal part of the descending aorta was carried out to ensure a complete expansion of the distal edge of the stent within the entire common lumen of the aorta and unimpaired distal flow in both lumens below the stent graft. The surgery and the postoperative course were uneventful. PMID:27002017

  18. Comparison of neointimal coverage and extra-stent lumen between sirolimus and everolimus-eluting stent using optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Oda, Takamasa; Okamura, Takayuki; Yamada, Jutaro; Miyagi, Naoto; Uehara, Hiroki; Nao, Tomoko; Tateishi, Hiroki; Maeda, Takao; Nakamura, Takeshi; Shiraishi, Kohzoh; Nakashima, Tadamitsu; Nishimura, Shigehiko; Miura, Toshiro; Matsuzaki, Masunori; Yano, Masafumi

    2016-04-01

    The external lumen of a stent [defined as extra-stent lumen (ESL)] assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT) may be related to the risk of thrombus formation after sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) implantation. An everolimus-eluting stent (EES) might provide relatively minimal inflammatory reaction and appropriate neointimal coverage. The purpose of this study was to compare the neointimal thickness and ESL between SES and EES. Patients who underwent OCT examination more than 7 months after either SES or EES implantation were enrolled. Stent area (SA), lumen area (LA), neointimal area (NIA) and neointimal thickness (NIT) of each strut were measured at 1-mm intervals between stented segments. The area, angle (summation per cross-section) and depth (maximum distance from adjacent vessel surface to the outline of stent) of ESL were analyzed. A total of 49 lesions were included (SES n = 20, EES n = 29). Mean follow-up period was 11 months. A total of 998 cross-sections and 9874 struts were analyzed. There were no differences in stent area, lumen area and neointimal area (SA: 6.01 ± 1.60 vs. 6.02 ± 1.40 mm(2), p = 0.572, LA: 5.37 ± 1.52 vs. 5.29 ± 1.34 mm(2), p = 0.692, NIA: 0.64 ± 0.49 vs. 0.72 ± 0.37 mm(2), p = 0.493). Mean NIT of SES and EES were 0.11 ± 0.05 and 0.10 ± 0.05 mm, respectively (p = 0.367). Conversely, area, angle and depth of ESL in SES group were significantly greater than those in EES group (0.20 ± 0.39 vs. 0.03 ± 0.09 mm(2), p < 0.001, 56.2 ± 59.1° vs. 20.1 ± 41.9°, p < 0.001, 0.10 ± 0.09 vs. 0.03 ± 0.03 mm, p < 0.001). OCT showed that the efficacy of neointimal growth suppression is similar between SES and EES, whereas the adverse vascular response after EES implantation is smaller than that after SES implantation. PMID:25614415

  19. Positive charges of translocating polypeptide chain retrieve an upstream marginal hydrophobic segment from the endoplasmic reticulum lumen to the translocon.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Hidenobu; Kida, Yuichiro; Hagiwara, Masatoshi; Morimoto, Fumiko; Sakaguchi, Masao

    2010-06-15

    Positively charged amino acid residues are well recognized topology determinants of membrane proteins. They contribute to the stop-translocation of a polypeptide translocating through the translocon and to determine the orientation of signal sequences penetrating the membrane. Here we analyzed the function of these positively charged residues during stop-translocation in vitro. Surprisingly, the positive charges facilitated membrane spanning of a marginally hydrophobic segment, even when separated from the hydrophobic segment by 70 residues. In this case, the hydrophobic segment was exposed to the lumen, and then the downstream positive charges triggered the segment to slide back into the membrane. The marginally hydrophobic segment spanned the membrane, but maintained access to the water environment. The positive charges not only fix the hydrophobic segment in the membrane at its flanking position, but also have a much more dynamic action than previously realized. PMID:20427573

  20. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage using a lumen-apposing self-expanding metal stent: a case series.

    PubMed

    Brückner, Stefan; Arlt, Alexander; Hampe, Jochen

    2015-09-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) might be an alternative to percutaneous or transpapillary biliary drainage in unresectable pancreatic or biliary cancer. A lumen-apposing, fully covered, self-expanding metal stent, which creates a sealed transluminal conduit between the biliary and gastrointestinal tract may offer advantages over conventional plastic and metal stents. In this retrospective, observational, open-label case study, five patients underwent EUS-BD for obstructive jaundice in pancreatic cancer (n = 4) or distal cholangiocarcinoma (n = 1). Technical and functional success was achieved in all patients without complications. The development of specialized stent and delivery systems may render EUS-BD an effective and safe alternative to percutaneous or transpapillary approaches. PMID:26021309

  1. Double-lumen tube intubation using video laryngoscopy causes a milder cardiovascular response compared to classic direct laryngoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Tian, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether there is a clinically relevant difference between the circulatory responses to double-lumen tube intubation (DLTI) with the GlideScope video laryngoscope versus the Macintosh direct laryngoscope. Methods: Eighty adult patients requiring double-lumen tubes for thoracic surgery were randomly and equally allocated to either a Macintosh direct laryngoscope group (DL group, n = 40) or a Glide Scope video laryngoscope group (GS group, n = 40). DLTI was performed after airway evaluations and induction of anesthesia. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded before induction (baseline values), immediately before intubation (post-induction values), at intubation and after intubation. Rate-pressure-product (RPP), and the areas under SBP- and HR-time curves were calculated. All data obtained by the two devices were compared. Results: After laryngoscope insertion, SBP of DL and GS groups changed significantly differently (13.1% vs. 4.6%, P< 0.001), while HR changed similarly (17.2% vs. 14.6%, P = 0.074). One minute after intubation, both SBP and HR significantly increased in both groups (SBP: 11.6% vs. 11.9%; HR: 18.4% vs. 10.8%), but there were no significant differences between the two groups. RPP significantly increased in both groups after laryngoscope insertion (32.6%, P=0.001; 18.2%, P=0.002), and there was a significant difference between the two groups (P =0.001). Throughout intubation, the areas under SBP-time curves had a significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.042), while those under HR-time curves did not differ significantly (P=0.06). Conclusion: The intubation response was most significant upon laryngoscope insertion during the whole intubation process. The GlideScope video laryngoscope induced milder circulatory fluctuations than the Macintosh direct laryngoscope did, suggesting that DLTI using video laryngoscopy can help reduce the cardiovascular response to intubation. PMID:27022341

  2. Prolonged Residence Time of a Noncovalent Molecular Adapter, β-Cyclodextrin, within the Lumen of Mutant α-Hemolysin Pores

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Li-Qun; Cheley, Stephen; Bayley, Hagan

    2001-01-01

    Noncovalent molecular adapters, such as cyclodextrins, act as binding sites for channel blockers when lodged in the lumen of the α-hemolysin (αHL) pore, thereby offering a basis for the detection of a variety of organic molecules with αHL as a sensor element. β-Cyclodextrin (βCD) resides in the wild-type αHL pore for several hundred microseconds. The residence time can be extended to several milliseconds by the manipulation of pH and transmembrane potential. Here, we describe mutant homoheptameric αHL pores that are capable of accommodating βCD for tens of seconds. The mutants were obtained by site-directed mutagenesis at position 113, which is a residue that lies near a constriction in the lumen of the transmembrane β barrel, and fall into two classes. Members of the tight-binding class, M113D, M113N, M113V, M113H, M113F and M113Y, bind βCD ∼104-fold more avidly than the remaining αHL pores, including WT-αHL. The lower Kd values of these mutants are dominated by reduced values of koff. The major effect of the mutations is most likely a remodeling of the binding site for βCD in the vicinity of position 113. In addition, there is a smaller voltage-sensitive component of the binding, which is also affected by the residue at 113 and may result from transport of the neutral βCD molecule by electroosmotic flow. The mutant pores for which the dwell time of βCD is prolonged can serve as improved components for stochastic sensors. PMID:11696607

  3. Evaluation of alternatives for dysfunctional double lumen central venous catheters using a two-compartmental mathematical model for different solutes.

    PubMed

    Van Canneyt, Koen; Van Biesen, Wim; Vanholder, Raymond; Segers, Patrick; Verdonck, Pascal; Eloot, Sunny

    2013-01-01

    Double lumen (DL) central venous catheters (CVC) often suffer from thrombosis, fibrin sheet formation, and/or suction towards the vessel wall, resulting in insufficient blood flow during hemodialysis. Reversing the catheter connection often restores blood flows, but will lead to higher recirculation. Single lumen (SL) CVCs have often fewer flow problems, but they inherently have some degree of recirculation. To assist bedside clinical decision making on optimal catheter application, we investigated mathematically the differences in dialysis adequacy using different modes of access with CVCs.
A mathematical model was developed to calculate reduction ratio (RR) and total solute removal (TSR) of urea, methylguanidine (MG), beta-2-microglobulin (β2M), and phosphate (P) during different dialysis scenarios: 4-h dialysis with a well-functioning DL CVC (DL-normal, blood flow QB 350 ml/min), dysfunctional DL CVC (DL-low flow, QB 250), reversed DL CVC (DL-reversed, QB 350, recirculation 
R = 10%) and 12 Fr SL CVC (effective QB 273). 
With DL-normal as reference, urea RR was decreased by 3.5% (DL-reversed), 13.0% (SL), and 15.6% (DL-low flow), while urea TSR was decreased by 3.3% (DL-reversed), 13.2% (SL), and 13.5% (DL-low flow). The same trend was found for MG and P. However, β2M RR decreased only 1.5% with SL CVC although TSR decrease was 17.2%, while RR decreased 21.1% with DL-low flow although TSR decrease was only 4.9%.
In the case of dysfunctional DL CVCs, reversing the catheter connection and restoring the blood flow did not impair TSR, with 10% recirculation. The SL CVC showed suboptimal TSR results that were similar to those of the dysfunctional DL CVC. PMID:23280082

  4. Rapid weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... loss-rapid weight loss; Overweight-rapid weight loss; Obesity-rapid weight loss; Diet-rapid weight loss ... for people who have health problems because of obesity. For these people, losing a lot of weight ...

  5. Memory loss.

    PubMed

    Flicker, Leon A; Ford, Andrew H; Beer, Christopher D; Almeida, Osvaldo P

    2012-02-01

    Most older people with memory loss do not have dementia. Those with mild cognitive impairment are at increased risk of progressing to dementia, but no tests have been shown to enhance the accuracy of assessing this risk. Although no intervention has been convincingly shown to prevent dementia, data from cohort studies and randomised controlled trials are compelling in indicating that physical activity and treatment of hypertension decrease the risk of dementia. There is no evidence that pharmaceutical treatment will benefit people with mild cognitive impairment. In people with Alzheimer's disease, treatment with a cholinesterase inhibitor or memantine (an N-methyl- D-aspartate receptor antagonist) may provide symptomatic relief and enhance quality of life, but does not appear to alter progression of the illness. Non-pharmacological strategies are recommended as first-line treatments for behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, which are common in Alzheimer's disease. Atypical antipsychotics have modest benefit in reducing agitation and psychotic symptoms but increase the risk of cardiovascular events. The role of antidepressants in managing depressive symptoms in patients with mild cognitive impairment is uncertain and may increase the risk of delirium and falls. PMID:22304604

  6. Late Babylonian Astrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, John M.

    The last five centuries BC saw the development of several new forms of astrology in Babylonia. Key to these new astrological techniques was the invention of the zodiac in about 400 BC. These new forms of astrology include personal horoscopes, astral medicine, and the exploitation of geometrical relationships between the position of heavenly bodies. Several Late Babylonian astrological doctrines were later adopted within Greek astrology.

  7. Evidence for a plasma-accessible carbonic anhydrase in the lumen of salmon heart that may enhance oxygen delivery to the myocardium.

    PubMed

    Alderman, Sarah L; Harter, Till S; Wilson, Jonathan M; Supuran, Claudiu T; Farrell, Anthony P; Brauner, Colin J

    2016-03-01

    Oxygen supply to the heart of most teleosts, including salmonids, relies in part or in whole on oxygen-depleted venous blood. Given that plasma-accessible carbonic anhydrase (CA) in red muscle of rainbow trout has recently been shown to facilitate oxygen unloading from arterial blood under certain physiological conditions, we tested the hypothesis that plasma-accessible CA is present in the lumen of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) hearts, and may therefore assist in the luminal oxygen supply to the spongy myocardium, which has no coronary circulation. We demonstrate a widespread distribution of CA throughout the heart chambers, including lumen-facing cells in the atrium, and confirm that the membrane-bound isoform ca4 is expressed in the atrium and ventricle of the heart. Further, we confirm that CA catalytic activity is available to blood in the atrial lumen using a modified electrometric ΔpH assay in intact atria in combination with either a membrane-impermeable CA inhibitor or specific cleavage of the Ca4 membrane anchor. Combined, these results support our hypothesis of the presence of an enhanced oxygen delivery system in the lumen of a salmonid heart, which could help support oxygen delivery when the oxygen content of venous blood becomes greatly reduced, such as after burst exercise and during environmental hypoxia. PMID:26936639

  8. Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation with a bicaval dual-lumen catheter in a SynCardia total artificial heart patient.

    PubMed

    Spiliopoulos, Sotirios; Dogan, Guenes; Guersoy, Dilek; Serrano, Maria Rosario; Koerfer, Reiner; Tenderich, Gero

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a 55 years old caucasian male patient with cardiogenic shock due to an extended myocardial infarction who underwent SynCardia Total Artificial Heart implantation and veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation with a bicaval dual-lumen cannula for the treatment of adult respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:23915497

  9. Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation with a bicaval dual-lumen catheter in a SynCardia total artificial heart patient

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a 55 years old caucasian male patient with cardiogenic shock due to an extended myocardial infarction who underwent SynCardia Total Artificial Heart implantation and veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation with a bicaval dual-lumen cannula for the treatment of adult respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:23915497

  10. CALiPER Report 20.4: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED PAR38 Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-12-30

    This CALiPER report focuses on lumen maintenance, chromaticity maintenance, and catastrophic failure in 32 of the Series 20 LED PAR38 lamps and 8 benchmark lamps, which were monitored for nearly 14,000 hours at ambient temperatures between 44°C and 45°C.

  11. Ultrastructural features of the differentiating thyroid primordium in the sand lizard (Lacerta agilis L.) from the differentiation of the cellular cords to the formation of the follicular lumen.

    PubMed

    Rupik, Weronika; Kowalska, Magdalena; Swadźba, Elwira; Maślak, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The differentiation of the thyroid primordium of lacertilian species is poorly understood. The present study reports on the ultrastructural analysis of the developing thyroid primordium in the sand lizard (Lacerta agilis) during the early stages of differentiation. The early thyroid primordium of sand lizard embryos was composed of cellular cords that contained single cells with a giant lipid droplet, which were eliminated by specific autophagy (lipophagy). The follicular lumens at the periphery of the primordium differentiated even before the division of the cellular cords. When the single cells within the cords started to die through paraptosis, the adjacent cells started to polarise and junctional complexes began to form around them. After polarisation and clearing up after the formation of the lumens, the cellular cords divided into definitive follicles. The cellular cords in the central part of the primordium started to differentiate later than those at the periphery. The cellular cords divided into presumptive follicles first and only later differentiated into definitive follicles. During this process, a population of centrally located cells was removed through apoptosis to form the lumen. Although the follicular lumen in sand lizard embryos is differentiated by cavitation similar to that in the grass snake, there were very important differences during the early stages of the differentiation of the cellular cords and the formation of the thyroid follicles. PMID:26966051

  12. Late effects of radiotherapy on oral mucosa in humans.

    PubMed

    Handschel, J; Sunderkötter, C; Kruse-Lösler, B; Prott, F J; Meyer, U; Piffko, J; Joos, U

    2001-04-01

    In order to gain further understanding of the late effects of radiotherapy on oral mucosa, we analysed the histomorphological alterations, the cell populations in the subepithelial tissue, and the endothelial expression pattern of different adhesion molecules. Biopsies were taken from patients before irradiation, directly after 60 Gy, and 6-12 months after radiotherapy. Besides the histomorphological evaluation of the vessels, the endothelial expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin was determined as well as the distribution of LFA-1-, Mac-1-, VLA-4-, RM3/1-, 27E10- and 25F9-bearing cells in the subepithelial tissue. The expression of ICAM-1 was downregulated after radiotherapy, whereas the percentage of LFA-1- and VLA-4-bearing cells increased. VCAM-1 remained at low levels. The subepithelial infiltration was still dominated by RM3/1-positive macrophages. The number of vessels decreased, while the lumen of the remaining vessels increased. In conclusion, the late effects of radiotherapy are characterized by a decreased number of blood vessels and by significantly different expression patterns of the adhesion molecules studied, and of integrins and macrophage subpopulations, compared to the conditions before irradiation and directly after irradiation with 60 Gy. PMID:11347662

  13. The Lumenal Loop M672-P707 of the Menkes Protein (ATP7A) Transfers Copper to Peptidylglycine Monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Otoikhian, Adenike; Barry, Amanda N.; Mayfield, Mary; Nilges, Mark; Huang, Yiping; Lutsenko, Svetlana; Blackburn, Ninian J.

    2012-01-01

    Copper transfer to cuproproteins located in vesicular compartments of the secretory pathway depends on activity of the copper translocating ATPase (ATP7A or ATP7B) but the mechanism of transfer is largely unexplored. Copper-ATPase ATP7A is unique in having a sequence rich in histidine and methionine residues located on the lumenal side of the membrane. The corresponding fragment binds Cu(I) when expressed as a chimera with a scaffold protein, and mutations or deletions of His and/or Met residues in its sequence inhibit dephosphorylation of the ATPase, a catalytic step associated with copper release. Here we present evidence for a potential role of this lumenal region of ATP7A in copper transfer to cuproenzymes. Both Cu(II) and Cu(I) forms were investigated since the form in which copper is transferred to acceptor proteins is currently unknown. Analysis of Cu(II) using EPR demonstrated that at Cu:P ratios below 1:1, 15N-substituted protein had Cu(II) bound by 4 His residues, but this coordination changed as the Cu(II) to protein ratio increased towards 2:1. XAS confirmed this coordination via analysis of the intensity of outer-shell scattering from imidazole residues. The Cu(II) complexes could be reduced to their Cu(I) counterparts by ascorbate, but here again, as shown by EXAFS and XANES spectroscopy, the coordination was dependent on copper loading. At low copper Cu(I) was bound by a mixed ligand set of His + Met while at higher ratios His coordination predominated. The copper-loaded loop was able to transfer either Cu(II) or Cu(I) to peptidylglycine monooxygenase in the presence of chelating resin, generating catalytically active enzyme in a process that appeared to involve direct interaction between the two partners. The variation of coordination with copper loading suggests copper-dependent conformational change which in turn could act as a signal for regulating copper release by the ATPase pump. PMID:22577880

  14. The lumenal loop M672-P707 of the Menkes protein (ATP7A) transfers copper to peptidylglycine monooxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Otoikhian, Adenike; Barry, Amanda N.; Mayfield, Mary; Nilges, Mark; Huang, Yiping; Lutsenko, Svetlana; Blackburn, Ninian

    2012-05-14

    Copper transfer to cuproproteins located in vesicular compartments of the secretory pathway depends on activity of the copper translocating ATPase (ATP7A or ATP7B) but the mechanism of transfer is largely unexplored. Copper-ATPase ATP7A is unique in having a sequence rich in histidine and methionine residues located on the lumenal side of the membrane. The corresponding fragment binds Cu(I) when expressed as a chimera with a scaffold protein, and mutations or deletions of His and/or Met residues in its sequence inhibit dephosphorylation of the ATPase, a catalytic step associated with copper release. Here we present evidence for a potential role of this lumenal region of ATP7A in copper transfer to cuproenzymes. Both Cu(II) and Cu(I) forms were investigated since the form in which copper is transferred to acceptor proteins is currently unknown. Analysis of Cu(II) using EPR demonstrated that at Cu:P ratios below 1:1, 15N-substituted protein had Cu(II) bound by 4 His residues, but this coordination changed as the Cu(II) to protein ratio increased towards 2:1. XAS confirmed this coordination via analysis of the intensity of outer-shell scattering from imidazole residues. The Cu(II) complexes could be reduced to their Cu(I) counterparts by ascorbate, but here again, as shown by EXAFS and XANES spectroscopy, the coordination was dependent on copper loading. At low copper Cu(I) was bound by a mixed ligand set of His + Met while at higher ratios His coordination predominated. The copper-loaded loop was able to transfer either Cu(II) or Cu(I) to peptidylglycine monooxygenase in the presence of chelating resin, generating catalytically active enzyme in a process that appeared to involve direct interaction between the two partners. The variation of coordination with copper loading suggests copper-dependent conformational change which in turn could act as a signal for regulating copper release by the ATPase pump.

  15. Lumenal loop M672-P707 of the Menkes protein (ATP7A) transfers copper to peptidylglycine monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Otoikhian, Adenike; Barry, Amanda N; Mayfield, Mary; Nilges, Mark; Huang, Yiping; Lutsenko, Svetlana; Blackburn, Ninian J

    2012-06-27

    Copper transfer to cuproproteins located in vesicular compartments of the secretory pathway depends on activity of the copper-translocating ATPase (ATP7A), but the mechanism of transfer is largely unexplored. Copper-ATPase ATP7A is unique in having a sequence rich in histidine and methionine residues located on the lumenal side of the membrane. The corresponding fragment binds Cu(I) when expressed as a chimera with a scaffold protein, and mutations or deletions of His and/or Met residues in its sequence inhibit dephosphorylation of the ATPase, a catalytic step associated with copper release. Here we present evidence for a potential role of this lumenal region of ATP7A in copper transfer to cuproenzymes. Both Cu(II) and Cu(I) forms were investigated since the form in which copper is transferred to acceptor proteins is currently unknown. Analysis of Cu(II) using EPR demonstrated that at Cu:P ratios below 1:1 (15)N-substituted protein had Cu(II) bound by 4 His residues, but this coordination changed as the Cu(II) to protein ratio increased toward 2:1. XAS confirmed this coordination via analysis of the intensity of outer-shell scattering from imidazole residues. The Cu(II) complexes could be reduced to their Cu(I) counterparts by ascorbate, but here again, as shown by EXAFS and XANES spectroscopy, the coordination was dependent on copper loading. At low copper Cu(I) was bound by a mixed ligand set of His + Met, whereas at higher ratios His coordination predominated. The copper-loaded loop was able to transfer either Cu(II) or Cu(I) to peptidylglycine monooxygenase in the presence of chelating resin, generating catalytically active enzyme in a process that appeared to involve direct interaction between the two partners. The variation of coordination with copper loading suggests copper-dependent conformational change which in turn could act as a signal for regulating copper release by the ATPase pump. PMID:22577880

  16. Late B Star X-Ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Frederick M.

    The most basic conclusion to be drawn from the EINSTEIN stellar X-ray observations was that all stars are X-ray sources - except the late-B and early- to mid-A stars. While this is still true in general, observations with the ROSAT X-ray observatory have shown that young late-B/early-A stars, those in and near regions of star formation, are often bright X-ray sources. It is not yet clear why (or, indeed, whether) young B-A stars are often X-ray sources. We request time on the IUE to observe a sample of these stars. We will compare the line profiles against B star models against archival spectra, looking for evidence of mass loss or mass inflows, as well as evidence of transition region gas. Detection of the latter will prove that the B stars are indeed X-ray sources.

  17. An Assessment of the Intestinal Lumen as a Site for Intervention in Reducing Body Burdens of Organochlorine Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Jandacek, Ronald J.; Genuis, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Many individuals maintain a persistent body burden of organochlorine compounds (OCs) as well as other lipophilic compounds, largely as a result of airborne and dietary exposures. Ingested OCs are typically absorbed from the small intestine along with dietary lipids. Once in the body, stored OCs can mobilize from adipose tissue storage sites and, along with circulating OCs, are delivered into the small intestine via hepatic processing and biliary transport. Retained OCs are also transported into both the large and small intestinal lumen via non-biliary mechanisms involving both secretion and desquamation from enterocytes. OCs and some other toxicants can be reabsorbed from the intestine, however, they take part in enterohepatic circulation(EHC). While dietary fat facilitates the absorption of OCs from the small intestine, it has little effect on OCs within the large intestine. Non-absorbable dietary fats and fat absorption inhibitors, however, can reduce the re-absorption of OCs and other lipophiles involved in EHC and may enhance the secretion of these compounds into the large intestine—thereby hastening their elimination. Clinical studies are currently underway to determine the efficacy of using non-absorbable fats and inhibitors of fat absorption in facilitating the elimination of persistent body burdens of OCs and other lipophilic human contaminants. PMID:23476122

  18. Clues to the mechanism of cholesterol transfer from the structure of NPC1 middle lumenal domain bound to NPC2.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaochun; Saha, Piyali; Li, Jian; Blobel, Günter; Pfeffer, Suzanne R

    2016-09-01

    Export of LDL-derived cholesterol from lysosomes requires the cooperation of the integral membrane protein Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) and a soluble protein, Niemann-Pick C2 (NPC2). Mutations in the genes encoding these proteins lead to Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC). NPC2 binds to NPC1's second (middle), lumenally oriented domain (MLD) and transfers cholesterol to NPC1's N-terminal domain (NTD). Here, we report the 2.4-Å resolution crystal structure of a complex of human NPC1-MLD and NPC2 bearing bound cholesterol-3-O-sulfate. NPC1-MLD uses two protruding loops to bind NPC2, analogous to its interaction with the primed Ebola virus glycoprotein. Docking of the NPC1-NPC2 complex onto the full-length NPC1 structure reveals a direct cholesterol transfer tunnel between NPC2 and NTD cholesterol binding pockets, supporting the "hydrophobic hand-off" cholesterol transfer model. PMID:27551080

  19. Laser-driven short-duration heating angioplasty: chronic artery lumen patency and histology in porcine iliac artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazaki, Natsumi; Kunio, Mie; Naruse, Sho; Arai, Tsunenori; Sakurada, Masami

    2012-02-01

    We proposed a short-duration heating balloon angioplasty. We designed a prototype short-duration heating balloon catheter that can heat artery media to 60-70°C within 15-25 s with a combination of laser-driven heat generation and continuous fluid irrigation in the balloon. The purpose of this study was to investigate chronic artery lumen patency as well as histological alteration of artery wall after the short-duration heating balloon dilatation with porcine healthy iliac artery. The short-term heating balloon dilated sites were angiographically patent in acute (1 hour) and in chronic phases (1 and 4 weeks). One week after the dilatation, smooth muscle cells (SMCs) density in the artery media measured from H&E-stained specimens was approx. 20% lower than that in the reference artery. One and four weeks after the dilatations, normal structure of artery adventitia was maintained without any incidence of thermal injury. Normal lamellar structure of the artery media was also maintained. We found that the localized heating restricted to artery media by the short-duration heating could maintain adventitial function and artery normal structure in chronic phase.

  20. An assessment of the intestinal lumen as a site for intervention in reducing body burdens of organochlorine compounds.

    PubMed

    Jandacek, Ronald J; Genuis, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Many individuals maintain a persistent body burden of organochlorine compounds (OCs) as well as other lipophilic compounds, largely as a result of airborne and dietary exposures. Ingested OCs are typically absorbed from the small intestine along with dietary lipids. Once in the body, stored OCs can mobilize from adipose tissue storage sites and, along with circulating OCs, are delivered into the small intestine via hepatic processing and biliary transport. Retained OCs are also transported into both the large and small intestinal lumen via non-biliary mechanisms involving both secretion and desquamation from enterocytes. OCs and some other toxicants can be reabsorbed from the intestine, however, they take part in enterohepatic circulation(EHC). While dietary fat facilitates the absorption of OCs from the small intestine, it has little effect on OCs within the large intestine. Non-absorbable dietary fats and fat absorption inhibitors, however, can reduce the re-absorption of OCs and other lipophiles involved in EHC and may enhance the secretion of these compounds into the large intestine--thereby hastening their elimination. Clinical studies are currently underway to determine the efficacy of using non-absorbable fats and inhibitors of fat absorption in facilitating the elimination of persistent body burdens of OCs and other lipophilic human contaminants. PMID:23476122

  1. Artificial ubiquitylation is sufficient for sorting of a plasma membrane ATPase to the vacuolar lumen of Arabidopsis cells.

    PubMed

    Herberth, Stefanie; Shahriari, Mojgan; Bruderek, Michael; Hessner, Florian; Müller, Britta; Hülskamp, Martin; Schellmann, Swen

    2012-07-01

    Sorting of transmembrane proteins into the inner vesicles of multivesicular bodies for subsequent delivery to the vacuole/lysosome can be induced by attachment of a single ubiquitin or K63-linked ubiquitin chains to the cytosolic portion of the cargo in yeast and mammals. In plants, large efforts have been undertaken to elucidate the mechanisms of vacuolar trafficking of soluble proteins. Sorting of transmembrane proteins, by contrast, is still largely unexplored. As a proof of principle, that ubiquitin is involved in vacuolar sorting in plants we show that a translational fusion of a single ubiquitin to the Arabidopsis plasma membrane ATPase PMA-EGFP is sufficient to induce its endocytosis and sorting into the vacuolar lumen. Sorting of the artificial reporter is not dependent on ubiquitin chain formation, but involves ubiquitin's hydrophobic patch and can be inhibited by coexpression of a dominant-negative version of the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) related protein AtSKD1 (SUPPRESSOR OF K+ TRANSPORT GROWTH DEFECT1). Our results suggest that ubiquitin can in principle act as vacuolar sorting signal in plants. PMID:22258747

  2. Principal curves for lumen center extraction and flow channel width estimation in 3-D arterial networks: theory, algorithm, and validation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wilbur C K; So, Ronald W K; Chung, Albert C S

    2012-04-01

    We present an energy-minimization-based framework for locating the centerline and estimating the width of tubelike objects from their structural network with a nonparametric model. The nonparametric representation promotes simple modeling of nested branches and n -way furcations, i.e., structures that abound in an arterial network, e.g., a cerebrovascular circulation. Our method is capable of extracting the entire vascular tree from an angiogram in a single execution with a proper initialization. A succinct initial model from the user with arterial network inlets, outlets, and branching points is sufficient for complex vasculature. The novel method is based upon the theory of principal curves. In this paper, theoretical extension to grayscale angiography is discussed, and an algorithm to find an arterial network as principal curves is also described. Quantitative validation on a number of simulated data sets, synthetic volumes of 19 BrainWeb vascular models, and 32 Rotterdam Coronary Artery volumes was conducted. We compared the algorithm to a state-of-the-art method and further tested it on two clinical data sets. Our algorithmic outputs-lumen centers and flow channel widths-are important to various medical and clinical applications, e.g., vasculature segmentation, registration and visualization, virtual angioscopy, and vascular atlas formation and population study. PMID:22167625

  3. Enlarged Parent Artery Lumen at Aneurysmal-Neck Segment in Wide-Necked Distal Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong Won; Woo, Jung Min; Lim, Ok Kyun; Jo, Ye-eun; Kim, Jae Kyun; Kim, Eun Sang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Hypothesizing that the parent artery (PA) diameter of the aneurysm-neck segment is larger than those of normal segments, especially in wide-necked aneurysm cases, we conducted 3D angiographic analyses in wide-necked aneurysm cases focusing on the luminal morphologic change of the PA. Materials and Methods Under the approval of local IRB, we enrolled 26 patients with distal internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms, which were treated with stent assisted coiling. The PA diameters along the centerline were measured at 6 points with built-in software by two observers. Those 6 points were P1 and P2 proximally, P3 and P4 at the aneurysm ostium margins, and P5 and P6 distally. We performed an ANOVA test and a Bonferroni method for post hoc analyses. Linear regression analysis was performed to find any morphologic influencing factors. Results There were 20 distal ICA aneurysms out of 26 consecutive cases after exclusion. The differences in diameter at each point were statistically significant (p<0.0001). On post hoc analyses, the difference between P4 and P5 was significant both in maximum and mean PA diameters (p<0.0001 and p<0.001, respectively). Multivariate analyses failed to reveal any morphological influencing factor. Conclusion PAs harboring a wide-necked aneurysm requiring stent assistance for coiling showed significant enlargement of the lumen, especially at the distal transition segment of the aneurysm ostium and the PA. PMID:26389011

  4. Vision Loss, Sudden

    MedlinePlus

    ... of age-related macular degeneration. Spotlight on Aging: Vision Loss in Older People Most commonly, vision loss ... Some Causes and Features of Sudden Loss of Vision Cause Common Features* Tests Sudden loss of vision ...

  5. Late embryogenesis abundant proteins

    PubMed Central

    Olvera-Carrillo, Yadira; Reyes, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins accumulate at the onset of seed desiccation and in response to water deficit in vegetative plant tissues. The typical LEA proteins are highly hydrophilic and intrinsically unstructured. They have been classified in different families, each one showing distinctive conserved motifs. In this manuscript we present and discuss some of the recent findings regarding their role in plant adaptation to water deficit, as well as those concerning to their possible function, and how it can be related to their intrinsic structural flexibility. PMID:21447997

  6. Late Washing efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, M.F.

    1992-08-31

    Interim Waste Technology has demonstrated the Late Washing concept on the Experimental Laboratory Filter (ELF) at TNX. In two tests, washing reduced the [NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}] from 0.08 M to approximately 0.01 M on slurries with 2 year equivalent radiation exposures and 9.5 wt. % solids. For both washes, the [NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}] decreased at rates near theoretical for a constant volume stirred vessel, indicating approximately l00% washing efficiency. Permeate flux was greater than 0.05 gpm/ft{sup 2} for both washes at a transmembrane pressure of 50 psi and flow velocity of 9 ft/sec.

  7. Hair loss in women.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Martínez, Francisco M

    2009-03-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a clinical problem that is becoming more common in women. Female alopecia with androgen increase is called female androgenetic alopecia (FAGA) and without androgen increase is called female pattern hair loss. The clinical picture of typical FAGA begins with a specific "diffuse loss of hair from the parietal or frontovertical areas with an intact frontal hairline." Ludwig called this process "rarefaction." In Ludwig's classification of hair loss in women, progressive type of FAGA, 3 patterns were described: grade I or minimal, grade II or moderate, and grade III or severe. Ludwig also described female androgenetic alopecia with male pattern (FAGA.M) that should be subclassified according to Ebling's or Hamilton-Norwood's classification. FAGA.M may be present in 4 conditions: persistent adrenarche syndrome, alopecia caused by an adrenal or an ovarian tumor, posthysterectomy, and as an involutive alopecia. A more recent classification (Olsen's classification of FPHL) proposes 2 types: early- and late-onset with or without excess of androgens in each. The diagnosis of FPHL is made by clinical history, clinical examination, wash test, dermoscopy, trichoscan, trichograms and laboratory test, especially androgenic determinations. Topical treatment of FPHL is with minoxidil, 2-5% twice daily. When FPHL is associated with high levels of androgens, systemic antiandrogenic therapy is needed. Persistent adrenarche syndrome (adrenal SAHA) and alopecia of adrenal hyperandrogenism is treated with adrenal suppression and antiandrogens. Adrenal suppression is achieved with glucocorticosteroids. Antiandrogens therapy includes cyproterone acetate, drospirenone, spironolactone, flutamide, and finasteride. Excess release of ovarian androgens (ovarian SAHA) and alopecia of ovarian hyperandrogenism is treated with ovarian suppression and antiandrogens. Ovarian suppression includes the use of contraceptives containing an estrogen, ethinylestradiol, and a

  8. [Late postcontusion secondary glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Chiseliţă, D; Vancea, P; Filiman, O; Brănişteanu, D; Bredetean, M; Poiata, I

    1995-01-01

    The investigation of 33 patients with late postcontusional glaucoma subjected to surgery and followed up for 25 +/- 8.24 months has revealed: the interval accident-surgery is shorter in the close-angle combined forms; the essential mechanisms responsible for glaucoma occurrence are: the alteration of trabecular meshwork (for open-angle glaucoma) and pupillary block (for close angle glaucoma); simple cases required antiglaucoma surgery (trabeculectomy, peripheral iridectomy) and the mixed ones required combined (trabeculectomy, lens extraction, lens implant) or sequential surgeries (antiglaucoma surgery, vitrectomy etc); the glaucomatous process was stopped in 83.4% of the open-angle glaucoma cases and progressed in 23.5% of the close-angle glaucoma cases; the functional improvements post antiglaucoma surgery combined with removal of opacities are lessened by the higher frequency of severe per- and post-operative complication. PMID:7654676

  9. Plastic Response of Tracheids in Pinus pinaster in a Water-Limited Environment: Adjusting Lumen Size instead of Wall Thickness.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ana; Nabais, Cristina; Vieira, Joana; Rossi, Sergio; Campelo, Filipe

    2015-01-01

    The formation of wood results from cambial activity and its anatomical properties reflect the variability of environmental conditions during the growing season. Recently, it was found that wood density variations in conifers growing under cold-limited environment result from the adjustment of cell wall thickness (CWT) to temperature. Additionally, it is known that intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) are formed in response to precipitation after the summer drought. Although IADFs are frequent in Mediterranean conifers no study has yet been conducted to determine if these structures result from the adjustment of lumen diameter (LD) or CWT to soil water availability. Our main objective is to investigate the intra-ring variation of wood anatomical features (LD and CWT) in Pinus pinaster Ait. growing under a water-limited environment. We compared the tracheidograms of LD and CWT for the years 2010-2013 in P. pinaster growing in the west coast of Portugal. Our results suggest a close association between LD and soil moisture content along the growing season, reinforcing the role of water availability in determining tracheid size. Compared with CWT, LD showed a higher intra- and inter-annual variability suggesting its strong adjustment value to variations in water availability. The formation of a latewood IADF appears to be predisposed by higher rates of cell production in spring and triggered by early autumn precipitation. Our findings reinforce the crucial role of water availability on cambial activity and wood formation in Mediterranean conifers, and emphasize the high plasticity of wood anatomical features under Mediterranean climate. PMID:26305893

  10. The effect of serum on the secretion of radiolabeled mucous macromolecules into the lumen of the cat trachea

    SciTech Connect

    Peatfield, A.C.; Hall, R.L.; Richardson, P.S.; Jeffery, P.K.

    1982-02-01

    We studied the effect of placing serum within a segment of trachea on secretion into its lumen in the cat. A segment of cervical trachea was isolated from the rest of the airway in situ. Secretions were radiolabeled biosynthetically by the administration of two radiolabeled precursors: (35S)sodium sulphate and (3H)glucose. Autologous serum placed in the segment at a dilution of 1 in 8 increased the output of radiolabeled macromolecules: (35S) by 80% and (3H) by 159% (p less than 0.001). At a dilution of 1 in 24, serum still increased the output of both isotopes. At dilutions of 1 in 48 and 1 in 80 the increases were significant for (35S) but not for (3H). Heating the serum to 90 degrees C diminished its effects. Fractionating the serum by dialysis and gel filtration showed that the components of molecular weight less than about 13,000 daltons had no effect on secretion, whereas three higher molecular weight fractions all increased secretion. Two alien proteins (horseradish peroxidase and bovine serum albumin) stimulated secretion but a large molecular weight carbohydrate (carboxymethyl cellulose) did not. Atropine and propranolol, at doses that greatly reduced the effect of parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve activity, did not diminish the effects of serum, which therefore appeared to be independent of nerve activity. Gel filtration of the secretions elicited by serum showed that the predominant component was excluded even by Sepharose CL-2B and thus had a high molecular weight. We conclude that there are several components of serum that promote the secretion of mucus glycoproteins into the cat trachea. The relevance of these findings to diseases of human airways is considered.

  11. Association of Cry1Ac Toxin Resistance in Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) with Increased Alkaline Phosphatase Levels in the Midgut Lumen

    PubMed Central

    Caccia, Silvia; Moar, William J.; Chandrashekhar, Jayadevi; Oppert, Cris; Anilkumar, Konasale J.; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis

    2012-01-01

    Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin was characterized in a population of Helicoverpa zea larvae previously shown not to have an alteration in toxin binding as the primary resistance mechanism to this toxin. Cry1Ac-selected larvae (AR1) were resistant to protoxins and toxins of Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and the corresponding modified proteins lacking helix α-1 (Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod). When comparing brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) prepared from susceptible (LC) and AR1 larval midguts, there were only negligible differences in overall Cry1Ac toxin binding, though AR1 had 18% reversible binding, in contrast to LC, in which all binding was irreversible. However, no differences were detected in Cry1Ac-induced pore formation activity in BBMVs from both strains. Enzymatic activities of two putative Cry1Ac receptors (aminopeptidase N [APN] and alkaline phosphatase [ALP]) were significantly reduced (2-fold and 3-fold, respectively) in BBMVs from AR1 compared to LC larvae. These reductions corresponded to reduced protein levels in midgut luminal contents only in the case of ALP, with an almost 10-fold increase in specific ALP activity in midgut fluids from AR1 compared to LC larvae. Partially purified H. zea ALP bound Cry1Ac toxin in ligand blots and competed with Cry1Ac toxin for BBMV binding. Based on these results, we suggest the existence of at least one mechanism of resistance to Cry1A toxins in H. zea involving binding of Cry1Ac toxin to an ALP receptor in the larval midgut lumen of resistant larvae. PMID:22685140

  12. Association of Cry1Ac toxin resistance in Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) with increased alkaline phosphatase levels in the midgut lumen.

    PubMed

    Caccia, Silvia; Moar, William J; Chandrashekhar, Jayadevi; Oppert, Cris; Anilkumar, Konasale J; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Ferré, Juan

    2012-08-01

    Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin was characterized in a population of Helicoverpa zea larvae previously shown not to have an alteration in toxin binding as the primary resistance mechanism to this toxin. Cry1Ac-selected larvae (AR1) were resistant to protoxins and toxins of Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and the corresponding modified proteins lacking helix α-1 (Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod). When comparing brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) prepared from susceptible (LC) and AR1 larval midguts, there were only negligible differences in overall Cry1Ac toxin binding, though AR1 had 18% reversible binding, in contrast to LC, in which all binding was irreversible. However, no differences were detected in Cry1Ac-induced pore formation activity in BBMVs from both strains. Enzymatic activities of two putative Cry1Ac receptors (aminopeptidase N [APN] and alkaline phosphatase [ALP]) were significantly reduced (2-fold and 3-fold, respectively) in BBMVs from AR1 compared to LC larvae. These reductions corresponded to reduced protein levels in midgut luminal contents only in the case of ALP, with an almost 10-fold increase in specific ALP activity in midgut fluids from AR1 compared to LC larvae. Partially purified H. zea ALP bound Cry1Ac toxin in ligand blots and competed with Cry1Ac toxin for BBMV binding. Based on these results, we suggest the existence of at least one mechanism of resistance to Cry1A toxins in H. zea involving binding of Cry1Ac toxin to an ALP receptor in the larval midgut lumen of resistant larvae. PMID:22685140

  13. A region within a lumenal loop of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ycf1p directs proteolytic processing and substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Mason, Deborah L; Mallampalli, Monica P; Huyer, Gregory; Michaelis, Susan

    2003-06-01

    Ycf1p, a member of the yeast multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) subfamily of ATP-binding cassette proteins, is a vacuolar membrane transporter that confers resistance to a variety of toxic substances such as cadmium and arsenite. Ycf1p undergoes a PEP4-dependent processing event to yield N- and C-terminal cleavage products that remain associated with one another. In the present study, we sought to determine whether proteolytic cleavage is required for Ycf1p activity. We have identified a unique region within lumenal loop 6 of Ycf1p, designated the loop 6 insertion (L6(ins)), which appears to be necessary and sufficient for proteolytic cleavage, since L6(ins) can promote processing when moved to new locations in Ycf1p or into a related transporter, Bpt1p. Surprisingly, mutational results indicate that proteolytic processing is not essential for Ycf1p transport activity. Instead, the L6(ins) appears to regulate substrate specificity of Ycf1p, since certain mutations in this region lower cellular cadmium resistance with a concomitant gain in arsenite resistance. Although some of these L6(ins) mutations block processing, there is no correlation between processing and substrate specificity. The activity profiles of the Ycf1p L6(ins) mutants are dramatically affected by the strain background in which they are expressed, raising the possibility that another cellular component may functionally impact Ycf1p activity. A candidate component may be a new full-length MRP-type transporter (NFT1), reported in the Saccharomyces Genome Database as two adjacent open reading frames, YKR103w and YKR104w, but which we show here is present in most Saccharomyces strains as a single open reading frame. PMID:12796304

  14. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study RRL3.2 Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, Michael P.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.; Tucker, Joseph C.

    2014-12-01

    The lumen depreciation and color shift of 17 different A lamps (15 LED, 1 CFL, 1 halogen) was monitored in the automated long-term test apparatus (ALTA) for more than 7,500 hours. Ten samples of each lamp model were tested, with measurements recorded on a weekly basis. The lamps were operated continuously at an ambient temperature of 45°C (-1°C). Importantly, the steady-state test conditions were not optimized for inducing catastrophic failure for any of the lamp technologies—to which thermal cycling is a strong contributor— and are not typical of normal use patterns—which usually include off periods where the lamp cools down. Further, the test conditions differ from those used in standardized long-term test methods (i.e., IES LM-80, IES LM-84), so the results should not be directly compared. On the other hand, the test conditions are similar to those used by ENERGY STAR (when elevated temperature testing is called for). Likewise, the conditions and assumptions used by manufacturers to generated lifetime claims may vary; the CALiPER long-term data is informative, but cannot necessarily be used to discredit manufacturer claims. The test method used for this investigation should be interpreted as one more focused on the long-term effects of elevated temperature operation, at an ambient temperature that is not uncommon in luminaires. On average, the lumen maintenance of the LED lamps monitored in the ALTA was better than benchmark lamps, but there was considerable variation from lamp model to lamp model. While three lamp models had average lumen maintenance above 99% at the end of the study period, two products had average lumen maintenance below 65%, constituting a parametric failure. These two products, along with a third, also exhibited substantial color shift, another form of parametric failure. While none of the LED lamps exhibited catastrophic failure—and all of the benchmarks did—the early degradation of performance is concerning, especially with a

  15. DOE Final report [A genetic analysis of the lumenal proteins of the PSII O{sub 2} evolving complex of cyanobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Louis A.

    2001-03-01

    The primary objectives of this proposal were a better understanding of the structure and function of the Mn-stabilizing (MSP) in two cyanobacteria, Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 and Cyanothece sp. ATCC51142. In addition, the author was interested in analysis of the other cyanobacteria lumenal PSII proteins, cyt c{sub 550} and the 12 kDa protein. The experimentation involved analysis of targeted random mutagenesis of the genes encoding the three proteins, especially in psbO, the gene encoding MSP. This required mutant screening with a digital imaging spectrometer. Knockout mutants of the other two lumenal proteins in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 were also constructed. In addition, photosynthetic O{sub 2} evolution in Cyanothece sp. ATCC51142, a nitrogen-fixing strain that regulates the activity of nitrogenase and photosynthesis in a temporal fashion, was analyzed.

  16. Joint segmentation of lumen and outer wall from femoral artery MR images: Towards 3D imaging measurements of peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Ukwatta, Eranga; Yuan, Jing; Qiu, Wu; Rajchl, Martin; Chiu, Bernard; Fenster, Aaron

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) measurements of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) plaque burden extracted from fast black-blood magnetic resonance (MR) images have shown to be more predictive of clinical outcomes than PAD stenosis measurements. To this end, accurate segmentation of the femoral artery lumen and outer wall is required for generating volumetric measurements of PAD plaque burden. Here, we propose a semi-automated algorithm to jointly segment the femoral artery lumen and outer wall surfaces from 3D black-blood MR images, which are reoriented and reconstructed along the medial axis of the femoral artery to obtain improved spatial coherence between slices of the long, thin femoral artery and to reduce computation time. The developed segmentation algorithm enforces two priors in a global optimization manner: the spatial consistency between the adjacent 2D slices and the anatomical region order between the femoral artery lumen and outer wall surfaces. The formulated combinatorial optimization problem for segmentation is solved globally and exactly by means of convex relaxation using a coupled continuous max-flow (CCMF) model, which is a dual formulation to the convex relaxed optimization problem. In addition, the CCMF model directly derives an efficient duality-based algorithm based on the modern multiplier augmented optimization scheme, which has been implemented on a GPU for fast computation. The computed segmentations from the developed algorithm were compared to manual delineations from experts using 20 black-blood MR images. The developed algorithm yielded both high accuracy (Dice similarity coefficients ≥ 87% for both the lumen and outer wall surfaces) and high reproducibility (intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.95 for generating vessel wall area), while outperforming the state-of-the-art method in terms of computational time by a factor of ≈ 20. PMID:26387053

  17. Gamma radiation-sterilized, triple-lumen catheters coated with a low concentration of chlorhexidine were not efficacious at preventing catheter infections in intensive care unit patients.

    PubMed Central

    Sherertz, R J; Heard, S O; Raad, I I; Gentry, L; Bowton, D; Scuderi, P; Hu, J; Carruth, W; Satishchandra, B; Pepe, J; Mosenthal, A; Burke, T; Dupuis, J

    1996-01-01

    In a randomized, double-blind trial, gamma radiation-sterilized, chlorhexidine-coated triple-lumen catheters were compared with uncoated control catheters for their ability to prevent catheter infection in 254 intensive care unit patients. The chlorhexidine coating was not efficacious, and a rabbit model demonstrated that reduction of chlorhexidine activity by gamma radiation sterilization was the likely explanation for the failure. PMID:8878569

  18. Hearing Loss in Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, John W.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses hearing loss in adults. It begins with an explanation of the anatomy of the ear and then explains the three types of hearing loss: conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss, and mixed conductive-sensorineural hearing loss. Tinnitus, hearing aids, and cochlear implants are also addressed. (CR)

  19. Very Late Photometry of SN 2011fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerzendorf, W. E.; Taubenberger, S.; Seitenzahl, I. R.; Ruiter, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Type Ia supernova SN 2011fe is one of the closest supernovae of the past decades. Due to its proximity and low dust extinction, this object provides a very rare opportunity to study the extremely late time evolution (>900 days) of thermonuclear supernovae. In this Letter, we present our photometric data of SN 2011fe taken at an unprecedented late epoch of ≈930 days with GMOS-N mounted on the Gemini North telescope (g = 23.43 ± 0.28, r = 24.14 ± 0.14, i = 23.91 ± 0.18, and z = 23.90 ± 0.17) to study the energy production and retention in the ejecta of SN 2011fe. Together with previous measurements by other groups, our result suggests that the optical supernova light curve can still be explained by the full thermalization of the decay positrons of 56Co. This is in spite of theoretical predicted effects (e.g., infrared catastrophe, positron escape, and dust) that advocate a substantial energy redistribution and/or loss via various processes that result in a more rapid dimming at these very late epochs.

  20. VERY LATE PHOTOMETRY OF SN 2011fe

    SciTech Connect

    Kerzendorf, W. E.; Taubenberger, S.; Seitenzahl, I. R.; Ruiter, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Type Ia supernova SN 2011fe is one of the closest supernovae of the past decades. Due to its proximity and low dust extinction, this object provides a very rare opportunity to study the extremely late time evolution (>900 days) of thermonuclear supernovae. In this Letter, we present our photometric data of SN 2011fe taken at an unprecedented late epoch of ≈930 days with GMOS-N mounted on the Gemini North telescope (g = 23.43 ± 0.28, r = 24.14 ± 0.14, i = 23.91 ± 0.18, and z = 23.90 ± 0.17) to study the energy production and retention in the ejecta of SN 2011fe. Together with previous measurements by other groups, our result suggests that the optical supernova light curve can still be explained by the full thermalization of the decay positrons of {sup 56}Co. This is in spite of theoretical predicted effects (e.g., infrared catastrophe, positron escape, and dust) that advocate a substantial energy redistribution and/or loss via various processes that result in a more rapid dimming at these very late epochs.

  1. Modeling of the N-terminal Section and the Lumenal Loop of Trimeric Light Harvesting Complex II (LHCII) by Using EPR.

    PubMed

    Fehr, Niklas; Dietz, Carsten; Polyhach, Yevhen; von Hagens, Tona; Jeschke, Gunnar; Paulsen, Harald

    2015-10-23

    The major light harvesting complex II (LHCII) of green plants plays a key role in the absorption of sunlight, the regulation of photosynthesis, and in preventing photodamage by excess light. The latter two functions are thought to involve the lumenal loop and the N-terminal domain. Their structure and mobility in an aqueous environment are only partially known. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has been used to measure the structure of these hydrophilic protein domains in detergent-solubilized LHCII. A new technique is introduced to prepare LHCII trimers in which only one monomer is spin-labeled. These heterogeneous trimers allow to measure intra-molecular distances within one LHCII monomer in the context of a trimer by using double electron-electron resonance (DEER). These data together with data from electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) allowed to model the N-terminal protein section, which has not been resolved in current crystal structures, and the lumenal loop domain. The N-terminal domain covers only a restricted area above the superhelix in LHCII, which is consistent with the "Velcro" hypothesis to explain thylakoid grana stacking (Standfuss, J., van Terwisscha Scheltinga, A. C., Lamborghini, M., and Kühlbrandt, W. (2005) EMBO J. 24, 919-928). The conformation of the lumenal loop domain is surprisingly different between LHCII monomers and trimers but not between complexes with and without neoxanthin bound. PMID:26316535

  2. Living with Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Living with Hearing Loss Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Fast Facts There are two main types of hearing loss. Permanent hearing loss (called sensorineural) usually involves damage ...

  3. Early Pregnancy Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... is called early pregnancy loss , miscarriage , or spontaneous abortion . How common is early pregnancy loss? Early pregnancy ... testes that can fertilize a female egg. Spontaneous Abortion: The medical term for early pregnancy loss. Trimester: ...

  4. Living with vision loss

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes - vision loss; Retinopathy - vision loss; Low vision; Blindness - vision loss ... Low vision is a visual disability. Wearing regular glasses or contacts does not help. People with low vision have ...

  5. Survival potential of Phytophthora infestans in relation to environmental factors and late blight occurrence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato is an important crop globally and late blight (Phytophthora infestans) often results in severe crop loss. The cost for late blight control can be in excess of $210 million in the United States. We utilized a non-parametric density distribution analysis of local temperature (Temp) and relative...

  6. Predicting late-season emergence for improved giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) management in Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variable late-season seedling emergence makes it difficult to know the optimum time to implement giant ragweed control and avoid crop yield loss in Ohio. Current giant ragweed seedling emergence models do not account for late-season emergence patterns characteristic of the eastern U.S. Corn Belt. Ou...

  7. Late-season corn measurements to assess soil residual nitrate and nitrogen management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of corn (Zea mays L.) nitrogen (N) management and soil residual nitrate (NO3-N) late in the growing season could provide important management information for subsequent small grain crops and about potential NO3-N loss. Our objective was to evaluate the ability of several late-season corn...

  8. Modeling late Paleozoic glaciation

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, T.J.; Baum, S.K. )

    1992-06-01

    Late Paleozoic glaciation on Gondwana is associated with changes in geography, solar luminosity, and estimated CO{sub 2} levels. To assess the relative importance of these boundary conditions, the authors conducted a suite of climate model simulations for the periods before, during, and after peak mid-Carboniferous ({approximately}300 Ma) glaciation (340, 300, and 255 and 225 Ma, respectively). Orbital insolation values favorable for glaciation and interglaciation were used for each time interval. Results indicate that changes in geography cause significant changes in snow area, but the temporal trend is not consistent with the geologic record for glaciation. Combined CO{sub 2}-plus-geography changes yield the best agreement with observations. In addition, interglacial orbital configurations result in almost ice-free conditions for the glacial interval at 300 Ma, at a time of low CO{sub 2}. The large simulated glacial-interglacial snowline fluctuations for Permian-Carboniferous time may explain cyclothem fluctuations at these times. Overall, results support the importance of the CO{sub 2} paradigm, but also indicate that a fuller understanding of past climate change requires consideration of paleogeographic, luminosity, and orbital insolation changes.

  9. Treatment of childhood cancers: late effects.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    In France, about 1 in 1000 young adults aged 20 to 30 years is a survivor of childhood cancer and is thus faced with late effects of their cancer and its treatment (radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy). What are the late effects of childhood cancer therapy? A systematic review by the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) provides useful information based on European and North American data. Cancer treatments can have many long-term consequences that depend on the drugs and doses used, radiation therapy protocols and irradiated organs, and age at the time of treatment. Cytotoxic drugs and radiation can both cause infertility. Abdominopelvic radiation therapy in girls has been linked to an increased risk of premature delivery and other complications of pregnancy. No increase in birth defects has been reported among children born to childhood cancer survivors. Anthracyclines and radiation therapy can cause cardiomyopathy. Neck irradiation can lead to thyroid disorders, and cranial irradiation to growth retardation. Chemotherapy can cause osteonecrosis and loss of bone density, but without an increased risk of fracture. The risk of cognitive impairment and structural abnormalities of the brain is higher when the child is younger or receives a high cumulative dose of cranial irradiation or total irradiation dosage. Some cytotoxic drugs can damage the kidneys. Cranial radiation therapy can cause long-term neuroendocrine disorders and growth disorders, especially when the dose exceeds 18 Gy. Cytotoxic drugs (alkylating agents, etoposide, etc.) and radiation therapy can cause second cancers of a different histological type. One analysis of second cancers showed a median time to onset of 7 years for solid tumours and 2.5 years for lymphoma and leukaemia. Better knowledge of the late effects of childhood cancer therapy can help orient the choice of treatment towards less harmful options or, if necessary, implement measures aimed at preventing late adverse

  10. Early and Late Onset Sepsis in Late Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Moran, Cassandra; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Cotten, C. Michael; Clark, Reese H.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Smith, P. Brian

    2009-01-01

    Background Preterm birth is increasing worldwide, and late preterm births, which comprise more than 70% of all preterm births, account for much of the increase. Early and late onset sepsis results in significant mortality in extremely preterm infants, but little is known about sepsis outcomes in late preterm infants. Methods This is an observational cohort study of infants < 121 days of age (119,130 infants less than or equal to 3 days of life and 106,142 infants between 4 and 120 days of life) with estimated gestational age at birth between 34 and 36 weeks, admitted to 248 neonatal intensive care units in the United States between 1996 and 2007. Results During the study period, the cumulative incidence of early and late onset sepsis was 4.42 and 6.30 episodes per 1000 admissions, respectively. Gram-positive organisms caused the majority of early and late onset sepsis episodes. Infants with early onset sepsis caused by Gram-negative rods and infants with late onset sepsis were more likely to die than their peers with sterile blood cultures (OR 4.39, 95% CI 1.71–11.23, P=0.002; and OR 3.37, 95% CI 2.35–4.84, P<0.001, respectively). Conclusion Late preterm infants demonstrate specific infection rates, pathogen distribution, and mortality associated with early and late onset sepsis. The results of this study are generalizable to late preterm infants admitted to the special care nursery or neonatal intensive care unit. PMID:19953725

  11. Mass loss from warm giants: Magnetic effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullan, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    Among warm giant stars, rapid mass loss sets in along a well defined velocity dividing line (VDL). Hot corona also disappear close to the VDL and thermal pressure cannot drive the observed rapid mass loss in these stars. The VDL may be associated with magnetic fields changing from closed to open. Such a change is consistent with the lack of X-rays from late-type giants. A magnetic transition locus based on Pneuman's work on helmet streamer stability agrees well with the empirical VDL. The change from closed to open fields not only makes rapid mass loss possible, but also contributes to energizing the mass loss in the form of discrete bubbles.

  12. Insights from nurse leaders to optimize retaining late career nurses.

    PubMed

    Jeffs, Lianne; Nincic, Vera; Hayes, Laureen; Jerome, Danielle; Malecki, Victoria

    2014-09-01

    In an effort to stem the loss of Ontario's late career nurses, the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care introduced the Late Career Nurse Initiative (LCNI) to implement a 0.20 full-time equivalent reduction of physically or psychologically demanding duties of nurses aged 55 or over and repurposing this time to enriching and less demanding activities. Fifty-nine nurse leaders were interviewed to explore their perceptions associated with implementing the LCNI in their respective organizations. Following a qualitative directed content analysis approach, three themes emerged: (1) having a strategic approach, (2) leveraging staff expertise and (3) securing organizational support. PMID:25676079

  13. Hair loss in women.

    PubMed

    Harfmann, Katya L; Bechtel, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    Hair loss is a common cause of morbidity for many women. As a key member of the woman's health care team, the obstetrician/gynecologist may be the first person to evaluate the complaint of hair loss. Common types of nonscarring hair loss, including female pattern hair loss and telogen effluvium, may be diagnosed and managed by the obstetrician/gynecologist. A systematic approach to diagnosis and management of these common forms of hair loss is presented. PMID:25517757

  14. Helping the Habitually Late Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Jerry

    1978-01-01

    The author gives three major reasons for a student being habitually late to class: resistance, disorganization, or unavoidable schedule conflicts. He makes specific suggestions to teachers for dealing with the disorganized and resistant latecomers. (SJL)

  15. Late Blooming or Language Problem?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Late Blooming or Language Problem? Parents are smart. They listen to their ... or not their child is developing speech and language at a normal rate. If parents think that ...

  16. Concentration polarization effects on the macromolecular transport in the presence of non-uniform magnetic field: A numerical study using a lumen-wall model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadpourfard, M.; Aminfar, H.; Khajeh, K.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, the concentration polarization phenomena in a two dimensional tube under steady state conditions containing ferrofluid (blood and 4 vol% Fe3O4) is reported in the presence of non-uniform magnetic field. Lumen-wall model has been used for solving the mass transport equation. Hemodynamics parameters such as flow rate, viscosity, wall shear stress (WSS) and the macromolecules surface concentration which accumulate on the blood vessel wall, influenced the formation and progression of atherosclerosis disease. Effective parameters on the low density lipoprotein (LDL) surface concentration (LSC) such as: the wall filtration velocity, inlet Reynolds number and WSS under applied non-uniform magnetic field have been examined.

  17. Case Report: Double lumen tube insertion in a morbidly obese patient through the non-channelled blade of the King Vision ™ videolaryngoscope

    PubMed Central

    El-Tahan, Mohamed; Doyle, D. John; Khidr, Alaa M; Hassieb, Ahmed G

    2014-01-01

    We describe the insertion of the double lumen endobronchial tube (DLT) using a non-channeled standard blade of the King Vision TM videolaryngoscope for one lung ventilation (OLV) in a morbidly obese patient with a predicted difficult airway, severe restrictive pulmonary function, asthma, and hypertension. The patient was scheduled for a video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy. The stylet of the DLT was bent to fit the natural curve of the #3 non-channeled blade of the King Vision ™ videolaryngoscope. We conclude that the use of King Vision ™ videolaryngoscope could offer an effective method of DLT placement for OLV. PMID:25309730

  18. [A Case of Differential Lung Ventilation Using a Double-lumen Endotracheal Tube for Tracheostomy Prior to Lung Surgery in a Patient with Congenital Laryngeal Web].

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Shinji; Okabe, Tadashi; Kadowaki, Noriyoshi; Sakamoto, Atsuhiro

    2015-11-01

    A 71-year-old male with left lung cancer was scheduled for endoscopic lung surgery under general anesthesia. During a preoperative examination, the patient had hoarseness and was diagnosed with congenital laryngeal web. Differential lung ventilation was needed throughout the surgery, but the opening orifice of the laryngeal web was estimated to be too small for intubation. Therefore, we performed a tracheostomy one week before surgery, for which a double-lumen endotracheal tube was used during differential lung ventilation. Under general anesthesia, the lung surgery was successfully completed, and the patient did not have any postoperative complications. PMID:26689069

  19. Late effects from hadron therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Blakely, Eleanor A.; Chang, Polly Y.

    2004-06-01

    Successful cancer patient survival and local tumor control from hadron radiotherapy warrant a discussion of potential secondary late effects from the radiation. The study of late-appearing clinical effects from particle beams of protons, carbon, or heavier ions is a relatively new field with few data. However, new clinical information is available from pioneer hadron radiotherapy programs in the USA, Japan, Germany and Switzerland. This paper will review available data on late tissue effects from particle radiation exposures, and discuss its importance to the future of hadron therapy. Potential late radiation effects are associated with irradiated normal tissue volumes at risk that in many cases can be reduced with hadron therapy. However, normal tissues present within hadron treatment volumes can demonstrate enhanced responses compared to conventional modes of therapy. Late endpoints of concern include induction of secondary cancers, cataract, fibrosis, neurodegeneration, vascular damage, and immunological, endocrine and hereditary effects. Low-dose tissue effects at tumor margins need further study, and there is need for more acute molecular studies underlying late effects of hadron therapy.

  20. Prevalence and factors associated with late HIV diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Dai, Se-Ying; Liu, Jin-Ji; Fan, Yin-Guang; Shan, Gui-Su; Zhang, Hong-Bo; Li, Ming-Qiang; Ye, Dong-Qing

    2015-06-01

    While highly active antiretroviral therapy has been successful in delaying progression into AIDS, late HIV diagnosis remains a major contributor to the mortality and morbidity of AIDS. An epidemiological study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and factors of late diagnosis and the characteristics of those individuals with late diagnosis in Liuzhou city. Patients with late diagnosis were defined as either those who were diagnosed with AIDS at the time of HIV diagnosis or as those who developed AIDS no more than 1 year after HIV diagnosis. Of 899 participants, 72.6% had a late diagnosis. Common characteristics of those who experienced late diagnosis included older participants, those who were unexpectedly diagnosed while seeking other medical attention, participants who believed they could not acquire HIV from their regular heterosexual partners, those who never considered getting tested for HIV, and patients with unexplained weight loss, angular cheilitis, or prolonged fever prior to HIV diagnosis. On the other hand, those participants who were diagnosed via testing at compulsory rehabilitation centers and those whose annual household income was greater than 30,000 Yuan were less likely to be diagnosed late. These results suggested that late HIV diagnosis is common in Liuzhou city, and it is essential to promote appropriate strategies to detect HIV infections earlier. Strategies that require HIV/AIDS patients to notify their spouse/sexual-partners about their HIV-positive results within one month and start provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling in medical facilities are beneficial to earlier HIV diagnosis. PMID:25758129

  1. Microvascular pathology in late-life depression.

    PubMed

    Santos, Micaela; Xekardaki, Aikaterini; Kövari, Enikö; Gold, Gabriel; Bouras, Constantin; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon

    2012-11-15

    Since the era of Gaupp who introduced the concept of atheroscletic depressive disorder, the concept of late-life depression has been correlated with cerebrovascular comorbidities, microvascular lesions, frontal cortical and subcortical gray and white matter hyperintensities. The predominant neuropsychological deficits concern the domains of planning, organization and abstraction, with executive dysfunction being the predominant finding. MRI studies reveal a higher prevalence of white matter lesions in elderly patients with depression. Molecular mechanisms underlying the disease still remain unclear. Hyperhomocysteinemia has been associated with depression through its toxicity to neurons and blood vessels. Endothelial dysfunction is another possible mechanism referring to the loss of vasodilatation capacity. Inflammatory phenomena, such as increased peripheral leucocytes, elevated CRP and cytokine levels, could play a role in endothelial dysfunction. In this review we will briefly combine findings from neurobiological, epidemiological, structural and post-mortem data. A more complex model in late-life depression combining different modalities could be an elucidating approach to the disease's etiopathogeny in the future. PMID:22687957

  2. Turbo code carrier synchronization losses (Radio Losses)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shanibayati, Shervin; Kinman, Peter; Tadjpour, Layla

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the radio loss results for (8920,1/3), (8920,1/6), (1783,1/3) and (1784,1/6) codes are presented. These radio losses were calculated through simulations for a range of data rates. These simulations included both suppressed carrier modulation and residual carrier modulation cases. The radio losses were calculated for a frame error rate of 3 x 10^-4 for (8920,1/3) and (8920,1/6) codes and 3 frame error rate of 6 x 10^-5 for (1764,1/3) and (1784,1/6) codes. The simulations for the residual carrier case were run for loop signal to noise ratios of 13dB, 15dB and 17dB with a loop bandwidth of 10Hz. The simulations for the suppressed carrier case were run for a loop of signal to noise ratio of 17dB. The results of these simulations indicate that the radio losses for turbo codes are low enough to warrant their use in deep space links (maximum of 1dB loss at 17dB loop signal to noise ratio for residual carrier and 1.3dB loss at 17dB loop signal to noise ratio for suppressed carrier at high data rates). Furthermore, these results indicate that by normalizing the radio losses for frame size, loop bandwidth and the loop signal to noise ratio, a single curve could be used for calculating the radio loss for any given data rate at any given loop signal to noise ratio.

  3. Nutritional Aspects of Late Eating and Night Eating.

    PubMed

    Gallant, Annette; Lundgren, Jennifer; Drapeau, Vicky

    2014-03-01

    The timing of food intake has been investigated as a novel factor in the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of obesity. Indeed, consuming a large proportion of food later in the day and into the night has been associated with higher body weight and may even impair weight loss. The diet quality of late-eaters may be a factor involved in these relationships. Moreover, the nutritional characteristics of the foods consumed during the night may negatively affect metabolic and circadian rhythms that are required for optimal health. This review will first examine the diet quality of late-eaters and describe common foods consumed as nocturnal snacks. Second, this review will briefly acknowledge the potential adverse metabolic and circadian effects of consuming certain foods very late in the evening or during the night. PMID:26626471

  4. Weight-loss medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000346.htm Weight-loss medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Several weight-loss medicines are available. Ask your health care provider ...

  5. Weight Loss & Acute Porphyria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sale You are here Home Diet and Nutrition Weight loss & acute Porphyria Being overweight is a particular problem ... one of these diseases before they enter a weight-loss program. Also, they should not participate in a ...

  6. Living with hearing loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000360.htm Living with hearing loss To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. If you are living with hearing loss, you know that it takes extra effort to ...

  7. Hearing Loss: Screening Newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Hearing Loss Screening Newborns Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table of ... of newborns in the U.S. are screened for hearing loss before they leave the hospital. Research improves the ...

  8. Loss and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwer, Ken

    2002-01-01

    The author recounts his experiences of the loss of the QuickTOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) spacecraft, for which he was project manager. He draws from the launch failure lessons on leadership, coping with loss and maintaining morale.

  9. Photovoltaic array loss mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, Charles

    1986-01-01

    Loss mechanisms which come into play when solar cell modules are mounted in arrays are identified. Losses can occur either from a reduction in the array electrical performance or with nonoptimal extraction of power from the array. Electrical performance degradation is caused by electrical mismatch, transmission losses from cell surface soiling and steep angle of reflectance, and electrical losses from field wiring resistance and the voltage drop across blocking diodes. The second type of loss, concerned with the operating points of the array, can involve nonoptimal load impedance and limiting the operating envelope of the array to specific ranges of voltage and current. Each of the loss mechanisms are discussed and average energy losses expected from soiling, steep reflectance angles and circuit losses are calculated.

  10. Genetics of Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Latin America Information For... Media Policy Makers Genetics of Hearing Loss Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... of hearing loss in babies is due to genetic causes. There are also a number of things ...

  11. Genes and Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Genes and Hearing Loss Genes and Hearing Loss Patient ... mutation may only have dystopia canthorum. How Do Genes Work? Genes are a road map for the ...

  12. Vision loss and hearing loss in painting and musical composition.

    PubMed

    Marmor, Michael F

    2014-07-01

    This article considers the impact of vision and hearing loss on great painters and musical composers. The visual work of Mary Cassatt, Georgia O'Keeffe, Edgar Degas, and Claude Monet all showed alterations as their vision failed. In contrast, Gabriel Fauré, Bedřich Smetana, and Ludwig von Beethoven wrote many of their best compositions while totally deaf, and Georg Friedrich Handel and Frederick Delius struggled to compose late in life when they lost their vision (although their hearing remained excellent). There are 2 major distinctions between the role of vision and hearing for these artistic disciplines. First, there is a surrogate means of "hearing" music, through the musical score, which allows composers to write and edit music while totally deaf. The greatest problem with deafness for a skilled composer is interference from internal noise (tinnitus). There is no surrogate for vision to allow a painter to work when the subject is a blur or the colors on the canvas cannot be distinguished. Second, although the appreciation of art is visual and that of music is auditory, the transcription of both art and musical composition is visual. Thus, visual loss does pose a problem for a composer accustomed to working with good sight, because it disrupts habitual methods of writing and editing music. PMID:24565744

  13. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    MedlinePlus

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org

  14. Hearing loss in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckey, J. C. Jr; Musiek, F. E.; Kline-Schoder, R.; Clark, J. C.; Hart, S.; Havelka, J.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Temporary and, in some cases, permanent hearing loss has been documented after long-duration spaceflights. METHODS: We examined all existing published data on hearing loss after space missions to characterize the losses. RESULTS: Data from Russian missions suggest that the hearing loss, when it occurs, affects mainly mid to high frequencies and that using hearing protection often might prevent the loss. Several significant questions remain about hearing loss in space. While the hearing loss has been presumed to be noise-induced, no clear link has been established between noise exposure and hearing loss during spaceflight. In one documented case of temporary hearing loss from the Shuttle-Mir program, the pattern of loss was atypical for a noise-induced loss. Continuous noise levels that have been measured on the Mir and previous space stations, while above engineering standards, are not at levels usually associated with hearing loss in ground-based studies (which have usually been limited to 8-10 h exposure periods). Attempts to measure hearing in space using threshold-based audiograms have been unsuccessful in both the American and Russian programs due to noise interference with the measurements. CONCLUSIONS: The existing data highlight the need for reliable monitoring of both hearing and noise in long-duration spaceflight.

  15. The Greatest Generation Meets Its Greatest Challenge: Vision Loss and Depression in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Coleen

    2005-01-01

    Having lived through the Great Depression and World War II, older adults now face the challenge of vision loss in record numbers. Depression is closely associated with functional loss and social isolation in late-life vision loss. The principles of assisting those who are aging will also benefit those who are aging with a visual impairment. They…

  16. Translational fusion and redirection to thylakoid lumen as strategies to improve the accumulation of a camelid antibody fragment in transplastomic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Lentz, Ezequiel M; Garaicoechea, Lorena; Alfano, E Federico; Parreño, Viviana; Wigdorovitz, Andrés; Bravo-Almonacid, Fernando F

    2012-08-01

    Fragments from camelid single-chain antibodies known as VHHs or nanobodies represent a valuable tool in diagnostics, investigation and passive immunity therapy. Here, we explored different strategies to improve the accumulation of a neutralizing VHH antibody against rotavirus in tobacco transplastomic plants. First, we attempted to express the VHH in the chloroplast stroma and then two alternative strategies were carried out to improve the expression levels: expression as a translational fusion to the β-glucuronidase enzyme (GUS-E-VHH), and redirection of the VHH into the thylakoid lumen (pep-VHH). Every attempt to produce transplastomic plants expressing the VHH in the stroma was futile. The transgene turned out to be unstable and the presence of the VHH protein was almost undetectable. Although pep-VHH plants also presented some of the aforementioned problems, higher accumulation of the nanobody was observed (2-3% of the total soluble proteins). The use of β-glucuronidase as a partner protein turned out to be a successful strategy and expression levels reached 3% of the total soluble proteins. The functionality of the VHHs produced by pep-VHH and GUS-E-VHH plants was studied and compared with that of the antibody produced in Escherichia coli. This work contributes to optimizing the expression of VHH in transplastomic plants. Recombinant proteins could be obtained either by accumulation in the thylakoid lumen or as a fusion protein with β-glucuronidase, and both strategies allow for further optimization. PMID:22526499

  17. Study of the Mn-binding sites in photosystem II using antibodies raised against lumenal regions of the D1 and D2 reaction center proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Dalmasso, E.A.

    1992-04-01

    The experiments discussed in this thesis focus on identifying the protein segments or specific amino acids which provide ligands to the Mn cluster of photosystem II (PS II). This Mn cluster plays a central role in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PS II. The Mn cluster is thought to be bound by lumenal regions of the PS II reaction center proteins known as D1 and D2. First, several peptides were synthesized which correspond to specific lumenal segments of the D1 and D2 proteins. Next, polyclonal antibodies were successfully elicited using three of these peptides. The peptides recognized by these antibodies correspond to protein segments of the spinach reaction center proteins: Ile-321 to Ala-344 of D1 (D1-a), Asp-319 to Arg-334 of D1 (D1-b), and Val-300 to Asn-319 of D2 (D2-a). These antibodies were then used in assays which were developed to structurally or functionally probe the potential Mn-binding regions of the D1 and D2 proteins.

  18. Endobronchial hemorrhage after intubation with double-lumen endotracheal tube in a patient with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura for minimally invasive cardiac surgery: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Young; Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Kim, Nam Won

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS) requires lung isolation. Lung isolation is usually achieved with double-lumen endotracheal tube (DLT). Patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) have an increased risk of bleeding events. We suspected endobronchial hemorrhage after exchange of DLT during induction of anesthesia for replacement of mitral valve in a 62-year-old man with a known ITP. The MICS was stopped and bronchial artery embolization was performed in the angiographic room. In the present case, in order to reduce the risk of bronchial arterial injury in ITP patient we intubated with single lumen endotracheal tube. Lung isolation led to achievement of intermittent total lung deflation. Based on the results, we recommend a high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and platelet transfusion prior to cardiac surgery in patients with ITP to increase platelet count. Moreover, it is proposed that in order to clear the vision during the operation, ventilation can be held or made intermittent both prior to cardiopulmonary bypass or at its conclusion to permit exposure. PMID:24567815

  19. Mechanisms for nitrite loss from the stomach.

    PubMed

    Licht, W R; Schultz, D S; Fox, J G; Tannenbaum, S R; Deen, W M

    1986-10-01

    Nitrite loss from the stomach was studied using dogs equipped with Thomas cannulas for direct access to the stomach lumen. Solutions containing sodium nitrite and non-absorbable volume marker (polyethylene glycol, PEG) were infused into the stomach, and samples were taken over 60 min to determine the concentration of 'total nitrite' (including NO2-, HNO2 and other species in equilibrium with NO2-) and rate of dilution of the stomach contents as a function of time. Changes in stomach volume were also measured. Nitrite loss was found to be very rapid, with total nitrite concentrations declining to less than half the initial levels in 10 min. The decay in total nitrite concentrations was due predominantly to gastric absorption, with small additional contributions from dilution of the stomach contents (inferred from PEG concentrations) and chemical reactions (from in vitro kinetic data). Results for initial nitrite concentrations varying over a range of 0.15-4.5 mM showed absorption to be first order in total nitrite. The permeability-area product for nitrite absorption (PA) was about 0.6 l/h, and was unaffected by the addition of 1 mM SCN- or Cl-. All of these results are consistent with nitrite absorption in the form of NO2- or HNO2. Buffering the infusate with HCO3- to increase luminal pH from approximately 2 to 7 caused a three-fold reduction in the apparent value of PA. When pentagastrin was used to stimulate acid secretion, nitrite absorption was only half as fast as when acid secretion was inhibited with cimetidine, or when no drug was given. This effect could not be explained by variations in luminal pH, and suggests that acid secretion either decreases PA or is accompanied by active secretion of nitrite. Based on these data, a mathematical model was developed to stimulate the physical and chemical factors governing nitrite concentrations in the stomach. PMID:3757171

  20. Evolution by gene loss.

    PubMed

    Albalat, Ricard; Cañestro, Cristian

    2016-07-01

    The recent increase in genomic data is revealing an unexpected perspective of gene loss as a pervasive source of genetic variation that can cause adaptive phenotypic diversity. This novel perspective of gene loss is raising new fundamental questions. How relevant has gene loss been in the divergence of phyla? How do genes change from being essential to dispensable and finally to being lost? Is gene loss mostly neutral, or can it be an effective way of adaptation? These questions are addressed, and insights are discussed from genomic studies of gene loss in populations and their relevance in evolutionary biology and biomedicine. PMID:27087500

  1. Ecological impacts of the late Quaternary megaherbivore extinctions.

    PubMed

    Gill, Jacquelyn L

    2014-03-01

    As a result of the late Quaternary megafaunal extinctions (50,000-10,000 before present (BP)), most continents today are depauperate of megaherbivores. These extinctions were time-transgressive, size- and taxonomically selective, and were caused by climate change, human hunting, or both. The surviving megaherbivores often act as ecological keystones, which was likely true in the past. In spite of this and extensive research on the causes of the Late Quaternary Extinctions, the long-term ecological consequences of the loss of the Pleistocene megafauna remained unknown until recently, due to difficulties in linking changes in flora and fauna in paleorecords. The quantification of Sporormiella and other dung fungi have recently allowed for explicit tests of the ecological consequences of megafaunal extirpations in the fossil pollen record. In this paper, I review the impacts of the loss of keystone megaherbivores on vegetation in several paleorecords. A growing number of studies support the hypothesis that the loss of the Pleistocene megafauna resulted in cascading effects on plant community composition, vegetation structure and ecosystem function, including increased fire activity, novel communities and shifts in biomes. Holocene biota thus exist outside the broader evolutionary context of the Cenozoic, and the Late Quaternary Extinctions represent a regime shift for surviving plant and animal species. PMID:24649488

  2. Mass loss in red giants and supergiants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanner, F.

    1975-01-01

    The circumstellar envelopes surrounding late-type giants and supergiants were studied using high resolution, photoelectric scans of strong optical resonance lines. A method for extracting the circumstellar from the stellar components of the lines allowed a quantitative determination of the physical conditions in the envelopes and the rates of mass loss at various positions in the red giant region of the HR diagram. The observed strengthening of the circumstellar spectrum with increasing luminosity and later spectral type is probably caused by an increase in the mass of the envelopes. The mass loss rate for individual stars is proportional to the visual luminosity; high rates for the supergiants suggest that mass loss is important in their evolution. The bulk of the mass return to the interstellar medium in the red giant region comes from the normal giants, at a rate comparable to that of planetary nebulae.

  3. Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss; Prognostic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Arjun, Dass; Neha, Goel; Surinder K, Singhal; Ravi, Kapoor

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is a frightening and frustrating symptom for the patient as well as the physician. Prognosis is affected by multiple factors including duration of hearing loss, presence of associated vertigo and tinnitus, and co-morbidities such as hypertension and diabetes. Materials and Methods: Forty subjects presenting to our department with features of sudden hearing loss were included in the study. Detailed otological history and examination, serial audiometric findings and course of disease were studied. Results: Subjects presenting late (in older age), having associated vertigo, hypertension and diabetes had a significantly lower rate of recovery. Conclusion: Only 60–65% of patients experiencing SSNHL recover within a period of 1 month; this rate is further affected by presence of multiple prognostic indicators. PMID:26568939

  4. Fibroproliferative response to urothelial failure obliterates the ureter lumen in a mouse model of prenatal congenital obstructive nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Amanda J; Polgar, Noemi; Napoli, Josephine A; Lui, Vanessa H; Tamashiro, Kadee-Kalia; Fujimoto, Brent A; Thompson, Karen S; Fogelgren, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Congenital obstructive nephropathy (CON) is the most prevalent cause of pediatric chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. The ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) region, where the renal pelvis transitions to the ureter, is the most commonly obstructed site in CON. The underlying causes of congenital UPJ obstructions remain poorly understood, especially when they occur in utero, in part due to the lack of genetic animal models. We previously showed that conditional inactivation of Sec10, a central subunit of the exocyst complex, in the epithelial cells of the ureter and renal collecting system resulted in late gestational bilateral UPJ obstructions with neonatal anuria and death. In this study, we show that without Sec10, the urothelial progenitor cells that line the ureter fail to differentiate into superficial cells, which are responsible for producing uroplakin plaques on the luminal surface. These Sec10-knockout urothelial cells undergo cell death by E17.5 and the urothelial barrier becomes leaky to luminal fluid. Also at E17.5, we measured increased expression of TGFβ1 and genes associated with myofibroblast activation, with evidence of stromal remodeling. Our findings support the model that a defective urothelial barrier allows urine to induce a fibrotic wound healing mechanism, which may contribute to human prenatal UPJ obstructions. PMID:27511831

  5. Fibroproliferative response to urothelial failure obliterates the ureter lumen in a mouse model of prenatal congenital obstructive nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Amanda J.; Polgar, Noemi; Napoli, Josephine A.; Lui, Vanessa H.; Tamashiro, Kadee-Kalia; Fujimoto, Brent A.; Thompson, Karen S.; Fogelgren, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Congenital obstructive nephropathy (CON) is the most prevalent cause of pediatric chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. The ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) region, where the renal pelvis transitions to the ureter, is the most commonly obstructed site in CON. The underlying causes of congenital UPJ obstructions remain poorly understood, especially when they occur in utero, in part due to the lack of genetic animal models. We previously showed that conditional inactivation of Sec10, a central subunit of the exocyst complex, in the epithelial cells of the ureter and renal collecting system resulted in late gestational bilateral UPJ obstructions with neonatal anuria and death. In this study, we show that without Sec10, the urothelial progenitor cells that line the ureter fail to differentiate into superficial cells, which are responsible for producing uroplakin plaques on the luminal surface. These Sec10-knockout urothelial cells undergo cell death by E17.5 and the urothelial barrier becomes leaky to luminal fluid. Also at E17.5, we measured increased expression of TGFβ1 and genes associated with myofibroblast activation, with evidence of stromal remodeling. Our findings support the model that a defective urothelial barrier allows urine to induce a fibrotic wound healing mechanism, which may contribute to human prenatal UPJ obstructions. PMID:27511831

  6. Late-Notice HIE Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hejduk, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Provide a response to MOWG action item 1410-01: Analyze close approaches which have required mission team action on short notice. Determine why the approaches were identified later in the process than most other events. Method: Performed an analysis to determine whether there is any correlation between late notice event identification and space weather, sparse tracking, or high drag objects, which would allow preventive action to be taken Examined specific late notice events identified by missions as problematic to try to identify root cause and attempt to relate them to the correlation analysis.

  7. Late Silurian plutons in Yucatan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, M. B.; Walker, J. Douglas

    1996-08-01

    U-Pb measurements of zircons from two composite plutons in the Maya Mountains of the Yucatan Block (Belize) give Late Silurian ages. Zircons from one of the five compositional phases of the Mountain Pine Ridge pluton yield an age of 418±3.6 Ma. A second compositional phase gives a minimum age of 404 Ma, and zircons from a third phase, although plagued with high common Pb, yield ages consistent with the other two. Zircons from one compositional phase of the Hummingbird-Mullins River pluton indicate an age of about 410-420 Ma. These data demonstrate that two of the three Maya Mountains plutons residing among the strata of the Late Pennsylvanian through Permian Santa Rosa Group are older than that sedimentation. Although the third pluton was not dated, both the similarity of sedimentary facies patterns adjacent to it to those adjacent to one of the plutons dated as Late Silurian and a published single Rb-Sr age of 428 ± 41 Ma suggest this third pluton also was emergent during Santa Rosa deposition. Thus the new U/Pb dates and other data suggest that all three Maya Mountains plutons pre-date Late Carboniferous sedimentation and that none intrude the Santa Rosa Group. Although very uniform ages of about 230 Ma amongst all plutons, derived from abundant earlier dating by the K-Ar system, led to the conclusion that intrusion mostly had occurred in the Late Triassic, the U-Pb ages (obtained from the same sites as the K-Ar dates) demonstrate that the K-Ar ages do not derive from a Late Triassic intrusive episode. The K-Ar dates probably are a signature of the rifting associated with Pangean breakup and formation of the Gulf of Mexico. In a reconstructed Pangea, the position of the Maya Mountains Late Silurian plutons suggests that the Late Silurian Acadian-Caledonian orogen of eastern North America extended through the region of the future Gulf of Mexico. Finally, the U-Pb ages of the Maya Mountains plutons are the same as those of a group of shocked zircons found in the

  8. Mechanism Research on Melting Loss of Coppery Tuyere Small Sleeve in Blast Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Jian-Liang; Ning, Xiao-Jun; Wei, Guang-Yun; Chen, Yu-Ting

    2016-01-01

    The tuyere small sleeve in blast furnace works under poor conditions. The abnormal damage of it will severely affect the performance of the blast furnace, thus it should be replaced during the damping down period. So it is of great significance that we study and reduce the burnout of tuyere small sleeve. Melting loss is one case of its burnout. This paper studied the reasons of tuyere small sleeve's melting loss, through computational simulation and microscopic analysis of the melting section. The research shows that the temperature of coppery tuyere small sleeve is well distributed when there is no limescale in the lumen, and the temperature increases with the thickness of limescale. In addition, the interruption of circulating water does great harm to the tuyere small sleeve. The melting loss of tuyere small sleeve is caused by iron-slag erosion, with the occurrence of the melt metallurgical bonding and diffusion metallurgical combination.

  9. Functional Visual Loss

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Beau B; Newman, Nancy J

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Neurologists frequently evaluate patients complaining of vision loss, especially when the patient has been examined by an ophthalmologist who has found no ocular disease. A significant proportion of patients presenting to the neurologist with visual complaints will have non-organic or functional visual loss. While there are examination techniques which can aid in the detection and diagnosis of functional visual loss, the frequency with which functional visual loss occurs concomitantly with organic disease warrants substantial caution on the part of the clinician. Furthermore, purely functional visual loss is never a diagnosis of exclusion, and must be supported by positive findings on examination that demonstrate normal visual function. The relationship of true psychological disease and functional visual loss is unclear and most patients respond well to simple reassurance. PMID:20638000

  10. Drugs and hair loss.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mansi; Harrison, Shannon; Sinclair, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss is a common complaint, both in men and women, and use of prescription medications is widespread. When there is a temporal association between the onset of hair loss and commencement of a medication, the medication is commonly thought to have caused the hair loss. However, hair loss and in particular telogen effluvium may occur in response to a number of triggers including fever, hemorrhage, severe illness, stress, and childbirth, and a thorough exclusion of these potential confounders is necessary before the hair loss can be blamed on the medication. Certain medications are known to cause hair loss by a variety of mechanisms including anagen arrest, telogen effluvium, or accentuation of androgenetic alopecia by androgens. PMID:23159177

  11. Early and Late Retirement Exits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brougham, Ruby R.; Walsh, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study proposes that personal need fulfillment (relatedness, generativity, identity, growth, and finances) predicts early and late retirement intentions. The personal needs of 160 full-time older employees were measured by personal goals, job satisfactions, job characteristics, and intrinsic motivation. Results suggest that the personal…

  12. Planetary science: Ubiquitous late veneer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenan, James

    2012-09-01

    Iron-loving elements are thought to have been added to Mars, Earth and the Moon after core formation. An analysis of meteorites formed in the first two to three million years of Solar System history suggests that a similar late veneer was added elsewhere too.

  13. Late onset globoid cell leukodystrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, R P; Petronas, N; Barton, N W

    1991-01-01

    A 29 year old male with onset of globoid cell leukodystrophy at age 14 is described. This is the first case of enzymatically confirmed globoid cell leukodystrophy with onset of symptoms after the age of ten. This patient is unique because of the late onset and slow progression and extends the clinical spectrum of globoid cell leukodystrophy. Images PMID:1800646

  14. LATE-AGE ONSET SCLERODERMA

    PubMed Central

    Manno, Rebecca L.; Wigley, Fredrick M.; Gelber, Allan C.; Hummers, Laura K.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although patients who develop scleroderma (SSc) later in life (≥ 65 years) may express the entire clinical spectrum of disease, we hypothesize that patients with late-age onset incur a different risk for specific organ manifestations of disease compared to those with younger-age onset SSc. METHODS In total, 2300 SSc patients were evaluated between 1990–2009 and reviewed from a university-based Scleroderma Center cohort. Demographic profile, SSc subtype, autoantibody status, Medsger severity scores, pulmonary function tests, echocardiography, and right heart catheterization parameters were compared between late-age versus younger-age onset patients. RESULTS Overall, 2084 (91%) patients developed SSc prior to age 65; whereas 216 (9%) were ≥65 years. Late-age onset patients had a significantly higher proportion of anti-centromere antibodies (42% vs 27%; p=0.001) compared to younger-age onset. Risk of pulmonary hypertension (OR 1.77; 95%CI 1.00, 3.12), muscle weakness (OR 1.85; 95%CI 1.30, 2.64), renal impairment (OR 2.83; 95%CI 1.98, 4.04) and cardiac disease (OR 2.69; 95%CI 1.92, 3.78) was greater among those with late-age onset SSc; although risk of digital ischemia (OR 0.64; 95%CI 0.47, 0.86) was reduced. The cumulative incidence of pulmonary hypertension at 5 years was greater among those with late-age (9%) compared to younger-age (2.5%) onset SSc (log-rank, p<0.001). CONCLUSION These findings suggest that older SSc patients are at greater risk for pulmonary hypertension, renal impairment, cardiac disease, and muscle weakness. Awareness of the distinct risk for specific organ manifestations in SSc, in particular pulmonary hypertension, should guide the care of older SSc patients whose disease begins after age 65 years. PMID:21685299

  15. Optimization of late blight and bacterial wilt management in potato production systems in the highland tropics of Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Late blight and bacterial wilt are two formidable disease constraints on potato and account for significant losses in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).In this chapter, various management techniques for late blight and bacterial wilt diseases are highlighted and discussed with examples drawn from diverse res...

  16. Late Pleistocene and Holocene mammal extinctions on continental Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faith, J. Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the cause of late Quaternary mammal extinctions is the subject of intense debate spanning the fields of archeology and paleontology. In the global context, the losses on continental Africa have received little attention and are poorly understood. This study aims to inspire new discussion of African extinctions through a review of the extinct species and the chronology and possible causes of those extinctions. There are at least 24 large mammal (> 5 kg) species known to have disappeared from continental Africa during the late Pleistocene or Holocene, indicating a much greater taxonomic breadth than previously recognized. Among the better sampled taxa, these losses are restricted to the terminal Pleistocene and early Holocene, between 13,000 and 6000 yrs ago. The African extinctions preferentially affected species that are grazers or prefer grasslands. Where good terrestrial paleoenvironmental records are present, extinctions are associated with changes in the availability, productivity, or structure of grassland habitats, suggesting that environmental changes played a decisive role in the losses. In the broader evolutionary context, these extinctions represent recent examples of selective taxonomic winnowing characterized by the loss of grassland specialists and the establishment of large mammal communities composed of more ecologically flexible taxa over the last million years. There is little reason to believe that humans played an important role in African extinctions.

  17. [Successful double-lumen tube insertion using Pentax-AWS Airwayscope with an infant-sized intlock in a rheumatoid arthritis patient with restricted mouth opening and head tilting].

    PubMed

    Ono, Naomi; Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Nakano, Shoko; Kuwamura, Ayumu; Tatsumi, Shinichi; Minami, Toshiaki

    2014-04-01

    Successful tracheal intubation with a double-lumen tube was achieved using Pentax-AWS Airwayscope (AWS) with an infant-size Intlock in a patient with restricted mouth opening and head tilting. A 78-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis was scheduled for extended thymectomy under general anesthesia, with anticipated difficult airway. Sufficient mask ventilation with the jaw-thrust maneuver was achieved. The laryngoscopic view was defined as grade III (Cormack & Lehane's classification)with Macintosh laryngoscope. The AWS with an infant-size Intlock facilitated visualization of the glottis, leading to a successful placement of a 32-Fr double-lumen tube under the guidance of the AWS image. Double-lumen tube insertion assisted by the AWS with an infant-size Intlock may be useful for difficult airway management in patients with restricted mouth opening and head tilting. PMID:24783604

  18. Nϵ-lysine acetylation in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum: A way to regulate autophagy and maintain protein homeostasis in the secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yajing; Puglielli, Luigi

    2016-06-01

    The Nϵ-lysine acetylation of cargo proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) requires a membrane transporter (SLC33A1) and 2 acetyltransferases (NAT8B and NAT8). The ER acetylation machinery regulates the homeostatic balance between quality control/efficiency of the secretory pathway and autophagy-mediated disposal of toxic protein aggregates. We recently reported that the autophagy pathway that acts downstream of the ER acetylation machinery specifically targets protein aggregates that form within the secretory pathway. Genetic and biochemical manipulation of ER acetylation in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease is able to restore normal proteostasis and rescue the disease phenotype. Here we summarize these findings and offer an overview of the ER-acetylation machinery. PMID:27124586

  19. Energy losses in switches

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, T.H.; Seamen, J.F.; Jobe, D.O.

    1993-07-01

    The authors experiments show energy losses between 2 and 10 times that of the resistive time predictions. The experiments used hydrogen, helium, air, nitrogen, SF{sub 6} polyethylene, and water for the switching dielectric. Previously underestimated switch losses have caused over predicting the accelerator outputs. Accurate estimation of these losses is now necessary for new high-efficiency pulsed power devices where the switching losses constitute the major portion of the total energy loss. They found that the switch energy losses scale as (V{sub peak}I{sub peak}){sup 1.1846}. When using this scaling, the energy losses in any of the tested dielectrics are almost the same. This relationship is valid for several orders of magnitude and suggested a theoretical basis for these results. Currents up to .65 MA, with voltages to 3 MV were applied to various gaps during these experiments. The authors data and the developed theory indicates that the switch power loss continues for a much longer time than the resistive time, with peak power loss generally occurring at peak current in a ranging discharge instead of the early current time. All of the experiments were circuit code modeled after developing a new switch loss version based on the theory. The circuit code predicts switch energy loss and peak currents as a function of time. During analysis of the data they noticed slight constant offsets between the theory and data that depended on the dielectric. They modified the plasma conductivity for each tested dielectric to lessen this offset.

  20. AtFKBP16-1, a chloroplast lumenal immunophilin, mediates response to photosynthetic stress by regulating PsaL stability

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Min Sook; You, Young Nim; Park, Hyun Ji; Lee, Sang Sook; Aigen, Fu; Luan, Sheng; Ahn, Jun Cheul; Cho, Hye Sun

    2014-01-01

    Arabidopsis contains 16 putative chloroplast lumen-targeted immunophilins (IMMs). Proteomic analysis has enabled the subcellular localization of IMMs experimentally, but the exact biological and physiological roles of most luminal IMMs remain to be discovered. FK506-binding protein (FKBP) 16-1, one of the lumenal IMMs containing poorly conserved amino acid residues for peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase) activity, was shown to play a possible role in chloroplast biogenesis in Arabidopsis, and was also found to interact with PsaL in wheat. In this study, further evidence is provided for the notion that Arabidopsis FKBP16-1 (AtFKBP16-1) is transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally regulated by environmental stresses including high light (HL) intensity, and that overexpression of AtFKBP16-1 plants exhibited increased photosynthetic stress tolerance. A blue native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis/two-dimensional (BN-PAGE/2-D) analysis revealed that the increase of AtFKBP16-1 affected the levels of photosystem I (PSI)-light harvesting complex I (LHCI) and PSI-LHCI-light harvesting complex II (LHCII) supercomplex, and consequently enhanced tolerance under conditions of HL stress. In addition, plants overexpressing AtFKBP16-1 showed increased accumulation of PsaL protein and enhanced drought tolerance. Using a protease protection assay, AtFKBP16-1 protein was found to have a role in PsaL stability. The AtPsaL levels also responded to abiotic stresses derived from drought, and from methyl viologen stresses in wild-type plants. Taken together, these results suggest that AtFKBP16-1 plays a role in the acclimation of plants under photosynthetic stress conditions, probably by regulating PsaL stability. PMID:24124981

  1. Intravascular ultrasound imaging of the coronary arteries: an in vitro evaluation of measurement of area of the lumen and atheroma characterisation

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Mark H; Simpson, Iain A; Katritsis, Demosthenes; Davies, Michael J; Ward, David E

    1992-01-01

    Objective—To assess the accuracy of measurement of area of the lumen, and sensitivity, and specificity of detection of atheroma in coronary arteries in vitro with a commercially available 20 MHz intravascular ultrasound system. Setting—A teaching hospital department of cardiology with the support of the department of cardiovascular pathology. Procedure—10 segments of coronary artery were removed from cadaver hearts. Intravascular ultrasound imaging was performed at fixed levels and the vessels were then sectioned and photographed before histological preparation. An independent blinded observer measured luminal area and assessed the presence of atheroma on the intravascular ultrasound images of 76 vessel sections (304 quadrants). The sensitivity and specificity of detection of atheroma was assessed in comparison with the histologically prepared sections. Luminal areas from intravascular ultrasound, photographs of cross sections of the vessels and histological sections were compared with the technique of limits of agreement. Results—Overall 36% of the 304 quadrants studied histologically had identifiable atheroma. Intravascular ultrasound sensitivity for atheroma was 0·593 and the specificity was 0·839. The positive predictive value was 0·674, and the relative risk 3·139. Values for area of the vessel lumen were on average 9·4 mm2 (confidence interval (CI) 8·6–10·2 mm2) larger than those measured from photographs and 10·7 (CI 9·8–11·6 mm2) larger than those measured from the histological sections. Conclusions—The intravascular ultrasound system assessed in this study significantly overestimated coronary vessel luminal area and had low sensitivity and specificity for detection of atheroma. Improvements in image resolution are required before this system can provide useful information on coronary artery size and morphology. PMID:1389758

  2. The 1.7 Å resolution structure of At2g44920, a pentapeptide-repeat protein in the thylakoid lumen of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ni, Shuisong; McGookey, Michael E; Tinch, Stuart L; Jones, Alisha N; Jayaraman, Seetharaman; Tong, Liang; Kennedy, Michael A

    2011-12-01

    At2g44920 belongs to a diverse family (Pfam PF00805) of pentapeptide-repeat proteins (PRPs) that are present in all known organisms except yeast. PRPs contain at least eight tandem-repeating sequences of five amino acids with an approximate consensus sequence (STAV)(D/N)(L/F)(S/T/R)(X). Recent crystal structures show that PRPs adopt a highly regular four-sided right-handed β-helical structure consisting mainly of type II and type IV β-turns, sometimes referred to as a repeated five-residue (or Rfr) fold. Among sequenced genomes, PRP genes are most abundant in cyanobacteria, leading to speculation that PRPs play an important role in the unique lifestyle of photosynthetic cyanobacteria. Despite the recent structural characterization of several cyanobacterial PRPs, most of their functions remain unknown. Plants, whose chloroplasts are of cyanobacterial origin, have only four PRP genes in their genomes. At2g44920 is one of three PRPs located in the thylakoid lumen. Here, the crystal structure of a double methionine mutant of residues 81-224 of At2g44920, the naturally processed fragment of one of its full-length isoforms, is reported at 1.7 Å resolution. The structure of At2g44920 consists of the characteristic Rfr fold with five uninterrupted coils made up of 25 pentapeptide repeats and α-helical elements capping both termini. A disulfide bridge links the two α-helices with a conserved loop between the helical elements at its C-terminus. This structure represents the first structure of a PRP protein whose subcellular location has been experimentally confirmed to be the thylakoid lumen in a plant species. PMID:22139148

  3. Automated airway evaluation system for multi-slice computed tomography using airway lumen diameter, airway wall thickness and broncho-arterial ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odry, Benjamin L.; Kiraly, Atilla P.; Novak, Carol L.; Naidich, David P.; Lerallut, Jean-Francois

    2006-03-01

    Pulmonary diseases such as bronchiectasis, asthma, and emphysema are characterized by abnormalities in airway dimensions. Multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) has become one of the primary means to depict these abnormalities, as the availability of high-resolution near-isotropic data makes it possible to evaluate airways at oblique angles to the scanner plane. However, currently, clinical evaluation of airways is typically limited to subjective visual inspection only: systematic evaluation of the airways to take advantage of high-resolution data has not proved practical without automation. We present an automated method to quantitatively evaluate airway lumen diameter, wall thickness and broncho-arterial ratios. In addition, our method provides 3D visualization of these values, graphically illustrating the location and extent of disease. Our algorithm begins by automatic airway segmentation to extract paths to the distal airways, and to create a map of airway diameters. Normally, airway diameters decrease as paths progress distally; failure to taper indicates abnormal dilatation. Our approach monitors airway lumen diameters along each airway path in order to detect abnormal profiles, allowing even subtle degrees of pathologic dilatation to be identified. Our method also systematically computes the broncho-arterial ratio at every terminal branch of the tree model, as a ratio above 1 indicates potentially abnormal bronchial dilatation. Finally, the airway wall thickness is computed at corresponding locations. These measurements are used to highlight abnormal branches for closer inspection, and can be summed to compute a quantitative global score for the entire airway tree, allowing reproducible longitudinal assessment of disease severity. Preliminary tests on patients diagnosed with bronchiectasis demonstrated rapid identification of lack of tapering, which also was confirmed by corresponding demonstration of elevated broncho-arterial ratios.

  4. The 1.7 Å resolution structure of At2g44920, a pentapeptide-repeat protein in the thylakoid lumen of Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, Shuisong; McGookey, Michael E.; Tinch, Stuart L.; Jones, Alisha N.; Jayaraman, Seetharaman; Tong, Liang; Kennedy, Michael A.

    2012-01-09

    At2g44920 belongs to a diverse family (Pfam PF00805) of pentapeptide-repeat proteins (PRPs) that are present in all known organisms except yeast. PRPs contain at least eight tandem-repeating sequences of five amino acids with an approximate consensus sequence (STAV)(D/N)(L/F)(S/T/R)(X). Recent crystal structures show that PRPs adopt a highly regular four-sided right-handed {beta}-helical structure consisting mainly of type II and type IV {beta}-turns, sometimes referred to as a repeated five-residue (or Rfr) fold. Among sequenced genomes, PRP genes are most abundant in cyanobacteria, leading to speculation that PRPs play an important role in the unique lifestyle of photosynthetic cyanobacteria. Despite the recent structural characterization of several cyanobacterial PRPs, most of their functions remain unknown. Plants, whose chloroplasts are of cyanobacterial origin, have only four PRP genes in their genomes. At2g44920 is one of three PRPs located in the thylakoid lumen. Here, the crystal structure of a double methionine mutant of residues 81-224 of At2g44920, the naturally processed fragment of one of its full-length isoforms, is reported at 1.7 {angstrom} resolution. The structure of At2g44920 consists of the characteristic Rfr fold with five uninterrupted coils made up of 25 pentapeptide repeats and {alpha}-helical elements capping both termini. A disulfide bridge links the two {alpha}-helices with a conserved loop between the helical elements at its C-terminus. This structure represents the first structure of a PRP protein whose subcellular location has been experimentally confirmed to be the thylakoid lumen in a plant species.

  5. Pediatric Cochlear Implantation: Why Do Children Receive Implants Late?

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Julia; Whittingham, JoAnne

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Early cochlear implantation has been widely promoted for children who derive inadequate benefit from conventional acoustic amplification. Universal newborn hearing screening has led to earlier identification and intervention, including cochlear implantation in much of the world. The purpose of this study was to examine age and time to cochlear implantation and to understand the factors that affected late cochlear implantation in children who received cochlear implants. Design: In this population-based study, data were examined for all children who underwent cochlear implant surgery in one region of Canada from 2002 to 2013. Clinical characteristics were collected prospectively as part of a larger project examining outcomes from newborn hearing screening. For this study, audiologic details including age and severity of hearing loss at diagnosis, age at cochlear implant candidacy, and age at cochlear implantation were documented. Additional detailed medical chart information was extracted to identify the factors associated with late implantation for children who received cochlear implants more than 12 months after confirmation of hearing loss. Results: The median age of diagnosis of permanent hearing loss for 187 children was 12.6 (interquartile range: 5.5, 21.7) months, and the age of cochlear implantation over the 12-year period was highly variable with a median age of 36.2 (interquartile range: 21.4, 71.3) months. A total of 118 (63.1%) received their first implant more than 12 months after confirmation of hearing loss. Detailed analysis of clinical profiles for these 118 children revealed that late implantation could be accounted for primarily by progressive hearing loss (52.5%), complex medical conditions (16.9%), family indecision (9.3%), geographical location (5.9%), and other miscellaneous known (6.8%) and unknown factors (8.5%). Conclusions: This study confirms that despite the trend toward earlier implantation, a substantial number of children

  6. Magnetic Resonance Studies of Proton Loss from Carotenoid Radical Cations

    SciTech Connect

    Kispert, Lowell D; Focsan, A Ligia; Konovalova, Tatyana A; Lawrence, Jesse; Bowman, Michael K; Dixon, David A; Molnar, Peter; Deli, Jozsef

    2007-06-11

    Carotenoids, intrinsic components of reaction centers and pigment-protein complexes in photosynthetic membranes, play a photoprotective role and serve as a secondary electron donor. Before optimum use of carotenoids can be made in artificial photosynthetic systems, their robust nature in living materials requires extensive characterization of their electron transfer, radical trapping ability, stability, structure in and on various hosts, and photochemical behavior. Pulsed ENDOR and 2D-HYSCORE studies combined with DFT calculations reveal that photo-oxidation of natural zeaxanthin (I) and violaxanthin (II) on silica-alumina produces not only the carotenoid radical cations (Car•+) but also neutral radicals (#Car•) by proton loss from the methyl groups at positions 5 or 5', and possibly 9 or 9' and 13 or 13'. Notably, the proton loss favored in I at the 5 position by DFT calculations, is unfavorable in II due to the epoxide at the 5, 6 position. DFT calculations predict the isotropic methyl proton couplings of 8-10 MHz for Car•+ which agree with the ENDOR for carotenoid α-conjugated radical cations. Large α-proton hyperfine coupling constants (>10 MHz) determined from HYSCORE are assigned from the DFT calculations to neutral carotenoid radicals. Proton loss upon photolysis was also examined as a function of carotenoid polarity [Lycopene (III) versus 8'-apo-β-caroten-8'-al (IV)]; hydrogen bonding [Lutein (V) versus III]; host [silica-alumina versus MCM-41 molecular sieve]; and substituted metal in MCM-41. Loss of H+ from the 5(5'), 9(9') or 13(13') methyl positions has importance in photoprotection. Photoprotection involves nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) in which 1Ch1* decays via energy transfer to the carotenoid which returns to the ground state by thermal dissipation; or via electron transfer to form a charge transfer state (I •+…Chl•-), lower in energy than 1Chl*. Formation of I •+ results in bond lengthening, a mechanism for nonradiative energy

  7. Plate Tectonics in the Late Paleozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domeier, Mat; Torsvik, Trond

    2014-05-01

    As the chronicle of plate motions through time, paleogeography is fundamental to our understanding of plate tectonics and its role in shaping the geology of the present-day. To properly appreciate the history of tectonics—and its influence on the deep Earth and climate—it is imperative to seek an accurate and global model of paleogeography. However, owing to the incessant loss of oceanic lithosphere through subduction, the paleogeographic reconstruction of 'full-plates' (including oceanic lithosphere) becomes increasingly challenging with age. Prior to 150 Ma ~60% of the lithosphere is missing and reconstructions are developed without explicit regard for oceanic lithosphere or plate tectonic principles; in effect, reflecting the earlier mobilistic paradigm of continental drift. Although these 'continental' reconstructions have been immensely useful, the next-generation of mantle models requires global plate kinematic descriptions with full-plate reconstructions. Moreover, in disregarding (or only loosely applying) plate tectonic rules, continental reconstructions fail to take advantage of a wealth of additional information in the form of practical constraints. Following a series of new developments, both in geodynamic theory and analytical tools, it is now feasible to construct full-plate models that lend themselves to testing by the wider Earth-science community. Such a model is presented here for the late Paleozoic (410-250 Ma). Although we expect this model to be particularly useful for numerical mantle modeling, we hope that it can also serve as a general framework for understanding late Paleozoic tectonics, one on which future improvements can be built and further tested.

  8. Hearing Loss and Cytomegalovirus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Melvin

    1997-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus is the most common cause of congenital virally induced hearing loss. Maternal infection is most often asymptomatic as is the infection in the newborn. Hearing loss occurs in both clinically apparent infection and in the asymptomatic infection. Current methods of detection, treatment, and prevention and research efforts are…

  9. Hereditary Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, LenhAnh P.; Grundfast, Kenneth M.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses inheritance patterns in hearing loss, epidemiology, clues to genetic causes, locating genes that cause hereditary disorders, genes related to hearing loss disorders in individuals with Usher syndrome, Waardenburg syndrome, Treacher-Collins syndrome, Branchio-oto-renal and Pendred syndromes, and the significance of finding…

  10. Anthocyanins and weight loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review evaluated the available scientific literature relative to anthocyanins and weight loss and/or obesity with mention of other effects of anthocyanins on pathologies that are closely related to obesity. Although there is considerable popular press concerning anthocyanins and weight loss, th...

  11. CEBAF beam loss accounting

    SciTech Connect

    Ursic, R.; Mahoney, K.; Hovater, C.; Hutton, A.; Sinclair, C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a beam loss accounting system for the CEBAF electron accelerator. This system samples the beam curent throughout the beam path and measures the beam current accurately. Personnel Safety and Machine Protection systems use this system to turn off the beam when hazardous beam losses occur.

  12. Understanding Rural Population Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGranahan, David A.; Beale, Calvin L.

    2002-01-01

    A quarter of nonmetro counties lost population in the 1990s, but population loss was not related to poverty rate or low educational levels, perhaps because low-skill workers can no longer expect better wages in urban areas. Population loss was related to low population density and remoteness (which decrease access to services), lack of natural…

  13. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Help! It's Hair Loss! KidsHealth > For Kids > Help! It's Hair Loss! Print A A A Text Size ... part above the skin, is dead. (That's why it doesn't hurt to get a haircut!) This ...

  14. Understanding Grief & Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Judith

    1995-01-01

    Although death is the one certainty in life, death or the grieving process is rarely discussed. Grief includes physical, emotional, spiritual, and psychological reactions to loss, and is not limited to feelings about death. Grief can be the response to loss of home or country, separation or displacement, and changes resulting from new life stages.…

  15. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight through diet and exercise or have serious health problems caused by obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the ...

  16. When does MMR loss occur during HNPCC progression?

    PubMed

    Shibata, Darryl

    2006-01-01

    Inactivation of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is the hallmark of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) and sporadic colorectal cancers with microsatellite instability (MSI+). MMR loss results in a markedly elevated mutation rate, and many MS mutations are found in MSI+ cancers. In theory, it is possible to estimate the interval between MMR loss and cancer removal by counting numbers of cancer MS mutations--the more MS mutations, the longer the intervals since MMR loss. Using this somatic molecular clock approach, MMR loss is estimated to precede transformation (clonal expansion) and likely occurs in normal appearing colon. Surprising, ages at MMR loss are more consistent with MMR loss as a relatively late event during progression to MSI+ cancer. PMID:17192057

  17. Dorsal finger joint soft tissue loss: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Bervar, M

    2003-01-01

    This article brings our experience, standpoints and management guidelines for early reconstruction of traumatic soft tissue loss on the dorsal aspect of the finger joints, with the aim of preserving acceptable late functional ability of the hand. Two interesting and unusual cases of reconstruction are presented. PMID:14989334

  18. [Inner Ear Hearing Loss].

    PubMed

    Hesse, G

    2016-06-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most dominant handicaps in modern societies, which additionally very often is not realized or not admitted. About one quarter of the general population suffers from inner ear hearing loss and is therefore restricted in communicational skills. Demographic factors like increasing age play an important role as well as environmental influences and an increasing sound and noise exposure especially in leisure activities. Thus borders between a "classical" presbyacusis - if it ever existed - and envirionmentally induced hearing loss disappear. Today restrictions in hearing ability develop earlier in age but at the same time they are detected and diagnosed earlier. This paper can eventually enlighten the wide field of inner ear hearing loss only fragmentarily; therefore mainly new research, findings and developments are reviewed. The first part discusses new aspects of diagnostics of inner ear hearing loss and different etiologies. PMID:27259171

  19. Acute loss of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Tristán, Bekinschtein; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Manes, Facundo

    2015-01-01

    Acute loss of consciousness poses a fascinating scenario for theoretical and clinical research. This chapter introduces a simple yet powerful framework to investigate altered states of consciousness. We then explore the different disorders of consciousness that result from acute brain injury, and techniques used in the acute phase to predict clinical outcome in different patient populations in light of models of acute loss of consciousness. We further delve into post-traumatic amnesia as a model for predicting cognitive sequels following acute loss of consciousness. We approach the study of acute loss of consciousness from a theoretical and clinical perspective to conclude that clinicians in acute care centers must incorporate new measurements and techniques besides the classic coma scales in order to assess their patients with loss of consciousness. PMID:25702218

  20. Hearing Loss and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Hearing Loss and Older Adults On this page: What is ... about hearing loss and older adults? What is hearing loss? Hearing loss is a sudden or gradual decrease ...

  1. Late Onset Clozapine Induced Agranulocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Velayudhan, Rajmohan; Kakkan, Sushil

    2014-01-01

    Agranulocytosis is defined as an absolute neutrophil count less than 100/mm3 in association with infectious disease. The risk of agranulocytosis is 0.38% of all clozapine treated cases and there is a relatively lesser incidence in Indian population. The risk of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis and neutropenia is highest in the first 6 months and higher in the initial 18 months after the onset of treatment. There have been very few reports of neutropenia and agranulocytosis after this period. There have so far been no reports of late onset clozapine induced agranulocytosis has been reported from India. A case of late onset clozapine induced agranulocytosis with possible mechanism of the same is reported. PMID:25336778

  2. Climatic basis for sluggish macroevolution during the late Paleozoic ice age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Matthew G.

    2005-05-01

    Rates of origination and extinction for marine invertebrates fell at the onset of the late Paleozoic ice age in late Mississippian time and remained low until glaciation ended in middle Permian time. Through the use of a database of stratigraphic and geographic occurrences of brachiopod genera, these macroevolutionary changes are traced to the loss of genera with narrow latitudinal ranges, which had intrinsically high turnover rates, at the onset of glaciation in late Viséan time. When glaciation waned in late Sakmarian time, narrowly distributed genera rebounded abruptly and restored the global fauna to its pre ice-age configuration. Because narrowly distributed brachiopod genera had dominated tropical diversity, the major biotic effects of the late Paleozoic ice age were felt at low latitudes. The climatic regime of this ice age thus altered the marine ecosystem to one characterized by broadly adapted, long-lived genera.

  3. Late wash cross-flow filter organic balance

    SciTech Connect

    Baich, M.A.

    1992-11-16

    A recent DOE-Savannah River review of the results and data from the Late Washing Crossflow Fitter assessment identified the fate of biphenyl as a concern in the Late Washing material balance. The concern arose because after the late washing operation only about 40% of the biphenyl remained in the irradiated precipitate and analyses of the spent wash water stream did not account for the missing biphenyl [2]. This document summarizes the results of subsequent filtration studies on the behavior and fate of all known organic precipitate feed components including biphenyl. The study employed a statistically designed material balance across a laboratory crossflow fitter. Data from two separate experiments are presented here. Results of the first study indicated no statistically significant loss of biphenyl, diphenylmercury, 0-terphenyl, diphenylamine, or aniline. Results did indicate minor losses of phenylboric acid, M-terphenyl, P-terphenyl, and a significant production of phenol, believed to be due to the way in which the experiment was performed. A second experiment demonstrated no statistically significant lose of any of the organic compounds.

  4. Synchroneity of climatic change and extinctions in the Late Triassic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simms, Michael J.; Ruffell, Alastair H.

    1989-03-01

    Although the Late Triassic was a time of widespread aridity, evidence exists for a significant increase in rainfall during the middle to late Carnian. Upper Triassic playa-lake sediments were interrupted by late Carnian fluviatile sandstones with erosive bases and high kao-linite/illite ratios. There was also an increase in the clastic component of marine sequences during this interval. Middle and upper Carnian marine carbonates show an extreme depletion in δ13C values, consistent with increased fresh-water influx. Large-scale karstic phenomena in limestone areas subaerially exposed during the Late Triassic are a further indication of increased rainfall. Important faunal and floral changes occurred during the Carnian-Norian interval; marine invertebrate turnover was greatest at the lower/middle Carnian boundary, and terrestrial extinctions were concentrated at the Carnian/Norian boundary. The cause of this Carnian pluvial episode may have been related to the rifting of Pangea, through disruption of atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns, eustatic changes, or the effects of volcanism associated with rifting. A change in surface ocean temperature, salinity or pH, or habitat loss may have caused the decline of many shallow-marine invertebrates at the start of the middle Carnian; a return to arid conditions at the Carnian/Norian boundary would account for the turnover among terrestrial vertebrates and plants.

  5. Serial gray scale intravascular ultrasound findings in late drug-eluting stent restenosis.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Diaa A; Mintz, Gary S; Sanidas, Elias; Rusinova, Reni; Weisz, Giora; Leon, Martin B; Moses, Jeffery W; Stone, Gregg W; Maehara, Akiko

    2013-03-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to assess the gray scale intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) findings that might be associated with late drug-eluting stent restenosis. The study included 47 patients (54 lesions) who had undergone either baseline IVUS-guided stent implantation or IVUS-guided repeat stenting to treat in-stent restenosis and then had IVUS follow-up data for ≥1.5 years afterward without any intervening procedures. The left anterior descending artery was the culprit in 59% of cases, and 50% of the lesions were at bifurcation sites. Quantitative and qualitative IVUS analyses showed a decreased minimum lumen area at follow-up from 6.0 ± 1.8 to 3.8 ± 1.4 mm(2) (p <0.0001) that was mainly due to neointimal hyperplasia with chronic stent recoil (defined as a >15% decrease in minimum stent area) in only 2 lesions and stent fracture in only 5 lesions. Calcified neointima appeared in 12 lesions, mostly in the form of macrocalcification, and was associated with increased calcium both behind the stent and in the reference segment. In conclusion, late drug-eluting stent restenosis showed neointimal calcification in 20% of cases, and chronic stent recoil was rare. PMID:23273714

  6. Early and late assessment of stenosis geometry after coronary arterial stenting.

    PubMed

    Puel, J; Juilliere, Y; Bertrand, M E; Rickards, A F; Sigwart, U; Serruys, P W

    1988-03-01

    Early and late modifications of stenosis geometry after stenting of coronary arteries were assessed. Morphologic changes were evaluated by quantitative coronary angiography (automated edge-detection) and theoretical pressure drop across the dilated and stented stenosis was calculated from the Poiseuille formula, with turbulent resistances assuming a coronary blood flow of 1 or 3 ml/s. Eleven patients (ages 41 to 69 years, mean 55) were studied before and after angioplasty, and immediately after stent implantation. The stented coronary artery was the left anterior descending artery in 9 patients and the left circumflex in 2. Following stent implantation, an additional increase in minimal luminal cross-sectional area of the dilated vessel was observed, suggesting that the self-expanding stainless-steel endoprosthesis used had a dilating function in addition to its stenting role. Repeat angiography in 6 patients 3 months after stent implantation showed a decrease in the minimal luminal cross-sectional area without a significant change in theoretic pressure decrease. This slight reduction in vessel caliber had no hemodynamically significant repercussions. Thus, stenting of coronary arteries following dilatation is a potentially valuable technique for preventing both abrupt closure and late reduction in lumen diameter. PMID:2964192

  7. Information about the Late Effects of Polio

    MedlinePlus

    ... health professionals Handbook on the Late Effects of Poliomyelitis for Physicians and Survivors Late Effects of Polio ... Contact info@post-polio.org. Remember POLIO? Polio (poliomyelitis or infantile paralysis) triggers memories of closed swimming ...

  8. Iron losses in sweat

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, M.; Magnusson, B.; Persson, H.; Hallberg, L.

    1986-03-01

    The losses of iron in whole body cell-free sweat were determined in eleven healthy men. A new experimental design was used with a very careful cleaning procedure of the skin and repeated consecutive sampling periods of sweat in a sauna. The purpose was to achieve a steady state of sweat iron losses with minimal influence from iron originating from desquamated cells and iron contaminating the skin. A steady state was reached in the third sauna period (second sweat sampling period). Iron loss was directly related to the volume of sweat lost and amounted to 22.5 micrograms iron/l sweat. The findings indicate that iron is a physiological constituent of sweat and derived not only from contamination. Present results imply that variations in the amount of sweat lost will have only a marginal effect on the variation in total body iron losses.

  9. Medications for Memory Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... memory loss, confusion, and problems with thinking and reasoning) of Alzheimer's disease. As Alzheimer’s progresses, brain cells ... the latest Alzheimer's medications available today, and the clinical trials that may bring us closer to new ...

  10. Blindness and vision loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye ( chemical burns or sports injuries) Diabetes Glaucoma Macular degeneration The type of partial vision loss may differ, ... tunnel vision and missing areas of vision With macular degeneration, the side vision is normal but the central ...

  11. Living with vision loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... EH, Katz PR, Malone ML, eds. Practice of Geriatrics . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap ... Shega JW. Vision loss. In: Wachtel TJ, ed. Geriatric Clinical Advisor: Instant diagnosis and treatment . Philadelphia, PA: ...

  12. Living with Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Living with Hearing Loss Past Issues / Fall 2008 ... the United States suffer some form of disordered communication. The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication ...

  13. Prizes for weight loss.

    PubMed Central

    Englberger, L.

    1999-01-01

    A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health. PMID:10063662

  14. Occupational hearing loss

    MedlinePlus

    Over time, repeated exposure to loud noise and music can cause hearing loss. Sounds above 80 decibels ( ... Airline ground maintenance Construction Farming Jobs involving loud music or machinery In the U.S., laws regulate the ...

  15. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... loss surgery (especially gastric bypass). Doctors call this "dumping syndrome." It can cause nausea, weakness, sweating, cramping, ... high-sugar or high-fat foods can make dumping worse. Patients need to be careful about what ...

  16. Weight loss - unintentional

    MedlinePlus

    ... of laxatives Other causes such as: Eating disorders, anorexia nervosa that have not been diagnosed yet Diabetes that ... do not know the reason. You have other symptoms along with the weight loss.

  17. Muscle function loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... nervous system that cause muscle function loss include: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, or Lou Gehrig's disease) Bell's palsy Botulism ... of recent progress. Curr Opin Rheum Read More Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Botulism Broken bone Guillain-Barré syndrome Muscle cramps ...

  18. Hearing loss - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... to sounds through play. These tests, known as visual response audiometry and play audiometry, can better determine ... the cause of hearing loss. Treatment may include: Speech therapy Learning sign language Cochlear implant (for those ...

  19. Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Maggie; Heman-Ackah, Selena E.; Shaikh, Jamil A.

    2011-01-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is commonly encountered in audiologic and otolaryngologic practice. SSNHL is most commonly defined as sensorineural hearing loss of 30dB or greater over at least three contiguous audiometric frequencies occurring within a 72-hr period. Although the differential for SSNHL is vast, for the majority of patients an etiologic factor is not identified. Treatment for SSNHL of known etiology is directed toward that agent, with poor hearing outcomes characteristic for discoverable etiologies that cause inner ear hair cell loss. Steroid therapy is the current mainstay of treatment of idiopathic SSNHL in the United States. The prognosis for hearing recovery for idiopathic SSNHL is dependent on a number of factors including the severity of hearing loss, age, presence of vertigo, and shape of the audiogram. PMID:21606048

  20. Hearing loss and music

    MedlinePlus

    ... iPod or MP3 Player The small ear bud style headphones (inserted into the ears) do not block ... Hearing Loss. National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. NIH Pub. No. 14-4233. Updated: March ...

  1. Bone Loss in IBD

    MedlinePlus

    ... DENSITY? Although bone seems as hard as a rock, it’s actually living tissue. Throughout your life, old ... available Bone Loss (.pdf) File: 290 KB 733 Third Avenue, Suite 510, New York, NY 10017 | 800- ...

  2. Understanding Grief and Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other common behaviors include restlessness and excessive activity. Religion and spirituality Grief and loss may also cause ... The grieving person’s age and gender The life history of the person who is grieving, including previous ...

  3. Coping with Memory Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... either using computerized axial tomography (CAT) scans or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) – can help to identify strokes and tumors, which can sometimes cause memory loss. “The goal is to rule out factors ...

  4. An In-vitro Comparison of Force Loss of Orthodontic Non-Latex Elastics

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Shiva; Tabatabaie, Atusa Rahnama; Hajizadeh, Fatemeh; Ardekani, Alireza Haerian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The amount and consistency of the applied forces to the tooth are important factors in tooth movements; therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the initial force and the force loss of three brands of elastics in 24 hours. Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro study sixty non-latex elastics (3/16 medium) from three companies (Forestadent, Dentaurum and Ortho Technology) were randomly selected. Two static tests were performed, the first in a dry environment to evaluate the initial force and the other performed in a wet environment (artificial saliva) to evaluate the force loss in 24 hours. The Universal testing machine measured the forces after stretching the elastics to three times the lumen diameter. Data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA, One-way ANOVA, Tukey-HSD, Paired samples test, and one sample test. Results: The difference between the brands was significant (p=0.002). Force loss was observed in all samples; 4–7.5% force loss occurred after one hour and 19–38% force loss occurred after 24 hours. The average initial force of Forestadent and Ortho Technology was significantly higher than marketed forces (p<0.001), but the initial force of Dentaurum elastics was similar to the marketed force. Conclusion: The force loss over 24 hours time period was Forestadent>Dentaurum>Ortho-Technology. According to the initial force and force loss percentage it is suggested to replace the non-latex elastics several times a day. PMID:24910671

  5. Heat Loss Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Infrared scanning devices are being used to produce images that show, by color or black-and-white shading differences, which buildings and homes are losing heat to the outdoors, and how much. Heat loss surveys done by Texas Instruments, Daedalus Enterprises, Inc. and other companies have growing acceptance of their services among industrial firms, utilities, local governments, and state and federal agencies interested in promoting heat loss awareness and inspiring corrective actions.

  6. Late blight – Is resistance futile?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article will provide an overview of late blight resistance research that has been done within the USDA/ARS and the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The article is meant to be an informative look at the history of late blight resistance and the ability of the late blight pathogen to overcome res...

  7. 24 CFR 241.1105 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Late charges. 241.1105 Section 241...-Eligibility Requirements § 241.1105 Late charges. The note and security instrument may provide for the lender's collection of a late charge, not to exceed 2 cents for each dollar of each payment to interest...

  8. 24 CFR 242.38 - Late charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Late charge. 242.38 Section 242.38... FOR HOSPITALS Mortgage Requirements § 242.38 Late charge. The mortgage may provide for the collection by the mortgagee of a late charge in accordance with terms, conditions, and standards of HUD for...

  9. 24 CFR 235.1216 - Late charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Late charge. 235.1216 Section 235... § 235.1216 Late charge. The mortgage may provide for the collection by the mortgagee of a late charge... date upon which payment is due. Such charge shall not be included in the assistance payment....

  10. 12 CFR 560.33 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Late charges. 560.33 Section 560.33 Banks and... Investment Powers for Federal Savings Associations § 560.33 Late charges. A Federal savings association may include in a home loan contract a provision authorizing the imposition of a late charge with respect...

  11. 12 CFR 560.33 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Late charges. 560.33 Section 560.33 Banks and... Investment Powers for Federal Savings Associations § 560.33 Late charges. A Federal savings association may include in a home loan contract a provision authorizing the imposition of a late charge with respect...

  12. 24 CFR 200.88 - Late charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Late charge. 200.88 Section 200.88... Requirements for Existing Projects Mortgage Provisions § 200.88 Late charge. The mortgage may provide for the collection by the mortgagee of a late charge in accordance with terms, conditions and standards of...

  13. 24 CFR 241.1105 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Late charges. 241.1105 Section 241...-Eligibility Requirements § 241.1105 Late charges. The note and security instrument may provide for the lender's collection of a late charge, not to exceed 2 cents for each dollar of each payment to interest...

  14. 24 CFR 200.88 - Late charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Late charge. 200.88 Section 200.88... Requirements for Existing Projects Mortgage Provisions § 200.88 Late charge. The mortgage may provide for the collection by the mortgagee of a late charge in accordance with terms, conditions and standards of...

  15. 24 CFR 235.1216 - Late charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Late charge. 235.1216 Section 235... § 235.1216 Late charge. The mortgage may provide for the collection by the mortgagee of a late charge... date upon which payment is due. Such charge shall not be included in the assistance payment....

  16. 50 CFR 600.1015 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Late charges. 600.1015 Section 600.1015... charges. The late charge to fish buyers for fee payment, collection, deposit, and/or disbursement shall be..., deposited, and/or disbursed. The full late charge shall apply to the fee for each month or portion of...

  17. 24 CFR 242.38 - Late charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Late charge. 242.38 Section 242.38... FOR HOSPITALS Mortgage Requirements § 242.38 Late charge. The mortgage may provide for the collection by the mortgagee of a late charge in accordance with terms, conditions, and standards of HUD for...

  18. Constraints and Facilitators to Friendships in Late Late Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Colleen L.; Troll, Lillian E.

    1994-01-01

    Analyzed friendship patterns of individuals aged 85+ years, 77% of whom were women. Despite high levels of disability and loss of age peers, majority were in frequent contact with friends and still had close friend. Over 31 months, predictors of friendship involvement changed. At Time 1, mood was most important; at Time 3, increased disability was…

  19. Early and late neonatal septicaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Placzek, M M; Whitelaw, A

    1983-01-01

    Between 1979 and 1982 we reviewed 1000 consecutive admissions to the neonatal intensive care unit of this hospital. Sixty five infants had positive blood cultures. Mortality was 70% among 17 infants who had septicaemia in the first 48 hours of life and for whom appropriate treatment may have been too late because of difficulties of early diagnosis. In the remaining 48 infants mortality was 12%, septicaemia occurred later, and was associated with Staphylococcus epidermidis (56%) and with the presence of an intravascular catheter (50%). PMID:6625634

  20. Soft coincidence in late acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Campo, Sergio del; Herrera, Ramon; Pavon, Diego

    2005-06-15

    We study the coincidence problem of late cosmic acceleration by assuming that the present ratio between dark matter and dark energy is a slowly varying function of the scale factor. As the dark energy component we consider two different candidates, first a quintessence scalar field, and then a tachyon field. In either case analytical solutions for the scale factor, the field, and the potential are derived. Both models show a good fit to the recent magnitude-redshift supernovae data. However, the likelihood contours disfavor the tachyon field model as it seems to prefer a excessively high value for the matter component.

  1. The late endosome/lysosome-anchored p18-mTORC1 pathway controls terminal maturation of lysosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Yusuke; Nada, Shigeyuki; Mori, Shunsuke; Soma-Nagae, Taeko; Oneyama, Chitose; Okada, Masato

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p18 is a membrane adaptor that anchors mTORC1 to late endosomes/lysosomes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the role of the p18-mTORC1 pathway in lysosome biogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The loss of p18 causes accumulation of intact late endosomes by arresting lysosome maturation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of mTORC1 activity with rapamycin phenocopies the defects of p18 loss. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The p18-mTORC1 pathway plays crucial roles in the terminal maturation of lysosomes. -- Abstract: The late endosome/lysosome membrane adaptor p18 (or LAMTOR1) serves as an anchor for the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and is required for its activation on lysosomes. The loss of p18 causes severe defects in cell growth as well as endosome dynamics, including membrane protein transport and lysosome biogenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects on lysosome biogenesis remain unknown. Here, we show that the p18-mTORC1 pathway is crucial for terminal maturation of lysosomes. The loss of p18 causes aberrant intracellular distribution and abnormal sizes of late endosomes/lysosomes and an accumulation of late endosome specific components, including Rab7, RagC, and LAMP1; this suggests that intact late endosomes accumulate in the absence of p18. These defects are phenocopied by inhibiting mTORC1 activity with rapamycin. Loss of p18 also suppresses the integration of late endosomes and lysosomes, resulting in the defective degradation of tracer proteins. These results suggest that the p18-mTORC1 pathway plays crucial roles in the late stages of lysosomal maturation, potentially in late endosome-lysosome fusion, which is required for processing of various macromolecules.

  2. Late Relapse of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, Matthew J; Feldman, Darren R; Carver, Brett S; Sheinfeld, Joel

    2015-08-01

    Germ cell tumors of the testis have an overall survival rate greater than 90% as a result of a successful multidisciplinary approach to management. Late relapse affects a subset of patients however, and tends to be chemorefractory and the overall prognosis is poor. Surgery is the mainstay in management of late relapse but salvage chemotherapy can be successful. In this review, the clinical presentation and detection of late relapse, clinical outcomes, and predictors of survival in late relapse and the importance of a multidisciplinary treatment approach for successful management of late relapse are discussed. PMID:26216823

  3. Pregnancy loss: French clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Huchon, C; Deffieux, X; Beucher, G; Capmas, P; Carcopino, X; Costedoat-Chalumeau, N; Delabaere, A; Gallot, V; Iraola, E; Lavoue, V; Legendre, G; Lejeune-Saada, V; Leveque, J; Nedellec, S; Nizard, J; Quibel, T; Subtil, D; Vialard, F; Lemery, D

    2016-06-01

    In intrauterine pregnancies of uncertain viability with a gestational sac without a yolk sac (with a mean of three orthogonal transvaginal ultrasound measurements <25mm), the suspected pregnancy loss should only be confirmed after a follow-up scan at least 14 days later shows no embryo with cardiac activity (Grade C). In intrauterine pregnancies of uncertain viability with an embryo <7mm on transvaginal ultrasound, the suspected pregnancy loss should only be confirmed after a follow-up scan at least 7 days later (Grade C). In pregnancies of unknown location after transvaginal ultrasound (i.e. not visible in the uterus), a threshold of at least 3510IU/l for the serum human chorionic gonadotrophin assay is recommended; above that level, a viable intrauterine pregnancy can be ruled out (Grade C). Postponing conception after an early miscarriage in women who want a new pregnancy is not recommended (Grade A). A work-up for women with recurrent pregnancy loss should include the following: diabetes (Grade A), antiphospholipid syndrome (Grade A), hypothyroidism with anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) and anti-thyroglobulin (anti-Tg) antibodies (Grade A), vitamin deficiencies (B9, B12) (Grade C), hyperhomocysteinaemia (Grade C), hyperprolactinaemia (Grade B), diminished ovarian reserve (Grade C), and a uterine malformation or an acquired uterine abnormality amenable to surgical treatment (Grade C). The treatment options recommended for women with a missed early miscarriage are vacuum aspiration (Grade A) or misoprostol (Grade B); and the treatment options recommended for women with an incomplete early miscarriage are vacuum aspiration (Grade A) or expectant management (Grade A). In the absence of both chorioamnionitis and rupture of the membranes, women with a threatened late miscarriage and an open cervix, with or without protrusion of the amniotic sac into the vagina, should receive McDonald cerclage, tocolysis with indomethacin, and antibiotics (Grade C). Among women

  4. Losses in Ferroelectric Materials

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Shujun; Jiang, Wenhua; Cao, Wenwu

    2015-01-01

    Ferroelectric materials are the best dielectric and piezoelectric materials known today. Since the discovery of barium titanate in the 1940s, lead zirconate titanate ceramics in the 1950s and relaxor-PT single crystals (such as lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate and lead zinc niobate-lead titanate) in the 1980s and 1990s, perovskite ferroelectric materials have been the dominating piezoelectric materials for electromechanical devices, and are widely used in sensors, actuators and ultrasonic transducers. Energy losses (or energy dissipation) in ferroelectrics are one of the most critical issues for high power devices, such as therapeutic ultrasonic transducers, large displacement actuators, SONAR projectors, and high frequency medical imaging transducers. The losses of ferroelectric materials have three distinct types, i.e., elastic, piezoelectric and dielectric losses. People have been investigating the mechanisms of these losses and are trying hard to control and minimize them so as to reduce performance degradation in electromechanical devices. There are impressive progresses made in the past several decades on this topic, but some confusions still exist. Therefore, a systematic review to define related concepts and clear up confusions is urgently in need. With this objective in mind, we provide here a comprehensive review on the energy losses in ferroelectrics, including related mechanisms, characterization techniques and collections of published data on many ferroelectric materials to provide a useful resource for interested scientists and engineers to design electromechanical devices and to gain a global perspective on the complex physical phenomena involved. More importantly, based on the analysis of available information, we proposed a general theoretical model to describe the inherent relationships among elastic, dielectric, piezoelectric and mechanical losses. For multi-domain ferroelectric single crystals and ceramics, intrinsic and extrinsic energy

  5. Fluid-loss control

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, C.W.; Trittipo, B.L. ); Hutchinson, B.H. )

    1989-08-01

    Acid fluid loss is extremely difficult to control and is generally considered to be the major factor limiting the effectiveness of acid fracturing treatments. Chemical erosion of fracture faces and the development of wormholes are largely responsible for the reduced efficiency of acid fracturing fluids. The creation of acid wormholes increases the effective area from which leakoff occurs, thus reducing the acid hydraulic efficiency. Once wormholes form, most acid fluid loss originates from these wormholes rather than penetrating uniformly into the fracture face. Methods of acid fluid-loss control are discussed and evaluated with an improved fluid-loss test procedure. This procedure uses limestone cores of sufficient length to contain wormhole growth. Studies demonstrate that if wormhole growth can be controlled, acid fluid loss approaches that of nonreactive fluids. An improved acid fracturing fluid having unique rheological characteristics is described. This acid has a low initial viscosity but temporarily becomes extremely viscous during leakoff. This high leakoff viscosity blocks wormhole development and prevents acid entry into natural fractures. After the treatment, spent-acid viscosity declines rapidly to ensure easier cleanup.

  6. The Neuropathology of Late-Onset Friedreich’s Ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Morral, Jennifer A.; McComb, Rodney D.; Feustel, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA) affects very young persons. In a large series, the mean ages of onset and death were 11 and 38 years, respectively. The clinical spectrum of FRDA has expanded after genetic confirmation of the mutation became a routine laboratory test. The main cause of death in juvenile-onset FRDA is cardiomyopathy whereas patients with late-onset are more likely to succumb to neurological disability or an intercurrent illness. Many patients with early onset now survive for 20 years or longer. This study made a systematic comparison of the neuropathology in 14 patients with juvenile onset and long survival, and five patients with late onset and long survival. Mean ages of onset (± standard deviation) were 10±5 and 28± 13 years, respectively. Disease durations were 33±11 and 47±11 years, respectively. Cross-sectional areas of the thoracic spinal cord were greatly reduced from the normal state but did not differ between the two groups. Similarly, the neurons of dorsal root ganglia were significantly reduced in size in both juvenile- and late-onset cases of FRDA. The dentate nucleus showed severe loss of neurons as well as modification and destruction of corticonuclear terminals in all FRDA patients. Delayed atrophy of the dentate nucleus is the likely cause of the ataxic phenotype of FRDA in late-onset cases, but the reason for the delay is unknown. Frataxin levels in the dentate nucleus of two patients with late onset were similar to those of seven patients with juvenile onset. PMID:21128039

  7. Economic losses due to catastrophes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-04-01

    Worldwide economic loss due to catastrophic events added up to US140 billion in 2013, with insured losses adding up to 45 billion, according to a report by the insurance provider Swiss Re. Though these numbers are down from 196 billion in economic losses and 81 billion in insurance losses in 2012, Swiss Re reports an upward trend in losses.

  8. Sleep Loss and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Norah S.; Meier-Ewert, Hans K.; Haack, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Controlled, experimental studies on the effects of acute sleep loss in humans have shown that mediators of inflammation are altered by sleep loss. Elevations in these mediators have been found to occur in healthy, rigorously screened individuals undergoing experimental vigils of more than 24 hours, and have also been seen in response to various durations of sleep restricted to between 25 and 50% of a normal 8 hour sleep amount. While these altered profiles represent small changes, such sub-clinical shifts in basal inflammatory cytokines are known to be associated with the future development of metabolic syndrome disease in healthy, asymptomatic individuals. Although the mechanism of this altered inflammatory status in humans undergoing experimental sleep loss is unknown, it is likely that autonomic activation and metabolic changes play key roles. PMID:21112025

  9. Perioperative visual loss.

    PubMed

    Kla, Koffi M; Lee, Lorri A

    2016-03-01

    Perioperative visual loss is an infrequent, devastating complication associated with spine surgery, most commonly from ischemic optic neuropathy. Current research and expert opinion indicate that it is associated with procedures that create elevated venous pressure in the head for prolonged periods of time. The largest case-control study on ischemic optic neuropathy associated with spine surgery found six independent and significant risk factors including male sex, obesity, Wilson frame use, longer operative times, greater blood loss, and a lower colloid to crystalloid ratio in the non-blood fluid administration. The American Society of Anesthesiologists developed a practice advisory for the prevention of this complication. In this setting, it is advisable to avoid significant physiologic and hemodynamic perturbations as much as possible, given the uncertainty of the pathophysiology. Because prevention of this complication cannot be guaranteed, consent for perioperative visual loss should be strongly considered in patients at high risk for this complication. PMID:27036604

  10. Congenital sensorineural hearing loss

    SciTech Connect

    Mafee, M.F.; Selis, J.E.; Yannias, D.A.; Valvassori, G.E.; Pruzansky, S.; Applebaum, E.L.; Capek, V.

    1984-02-01

    The ears of 47 selected patients with congenital sensorineural hearing loss were examined with complex-motion tomography. The patients were divided into 3 general categories: those with a recognized syndrome, those with sensorineural hearing loss unrelated to any known syndrome, and those with microtia. A great variety of inner ear anomalies was detected, but rarely were these characteristic of a particular clinical entity. The most common finding was the Mondini malformation or one of its variants. Isolated dysplasia of the internal auditory canal or the vestibular aqueduct may be responsible for sensorineural hearing loss in some patients. Patients with microtia may also have severe inner ear abnormalities despite the fact that the outer and inner ears develop embryologically from completely separate systems.

  11. Female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Ioannides, Dimitrios; Lazaridou, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss, or female pattern androgenetic alopecia, is a nonscarring alopecia with a multi-factorial etiology that mostly affects postmenopausal women and is characterized by a reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp. The clinical picture is characterized by a diffuse rarefaction of scalp hair over the mid-frontal scalp and a more-or-less intact frontal hairline without any signs of inflammation or scarring. Although the disease poses only a cosmetic concern, it is chronic and may have a significant negative psychological impact on the affected person. The aim of treating female pattern hair loss is to reduce hair loss and, to a certain extent, succeed in promoting hair regrowth. Various treatment methods are available, but it remains unclear which are the most effective. Early initiation of treatment and the combination of various modalities seem to be more efficacious than monotherapy. PMID:26370643

  12. Anoctamin 6 is localized in the primary cilium of renal tubular cells and is involved in apoptosis-dependent cyst lumen formation

    PubMed Central

    Forschbach, V; Goppelt-Struebe, M; Kunzelmann, K; Schreiber, R; Piedagnel, R; Kraus, A; Eckardt, K-U; Buchholz, B

    2015-01-01

    Primary cilia are antenna-like structures projected from the apical surface of various mammalian cells including renal tubular cells. Functional or structural defects of the cilium lead to systemic disorders comprising polycystic kidneys as a key feature. Here we show that anoctamin 6 (ANO6), a member of the anoctamin chloride channel family, is localized in the primary cilium of renal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. ANO6 was not essential for cilia formation and had no effect on in vitro cyst expansion. However, knockdown of ANO6 impaired cyst lumen formation of MDCK cells in three-dimensional culture. In the absence of ANO6, apoptosis was reduced and epithelial cells were incompletely removed from the center of cell aggregates, which form in the early phase of cystogenesis. In line with these data, we show that ANO6 is highly expressed in apoptotic cyst epithelial cells of human polycystic kidneys. These data identify ANO6 as a cilium-associated protein and suggest its functional relevance in cyst formation. PMID:26448322

  13. An awake double lumen endotracheal tube intubation using the Clarus Video System in a patient with an epiglottic cyst: a case report.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyungseok; Lee, Gunn; Ha, Seung-Il; Song, Jun-Gol

    2014-02-01

    A 54-year-old male patient was scheduled for an elective pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy combined with video-assisted thoracic surgery at our hospital. This patient had a history of intubation failure in other institutions due to an epiglottic cyst. An airway assessment of the patient was normal. A preoperative laryngoscopy revealed a bulging epiglottic mass covering most of the epiglottis and occupying most of the pharyngeal space. The patient was administered intravenous midazolam 1 mg, fentanyl 50 µg, and glycopyrrolate 0.2 mg. A bilateral superior laryngeal nerve block was then performed with 2% lidocaine 2 ml on each side. A 10% lidocaine spray was applied on to the oropharynx. After preoxygenation with 100% oxygen over 10 minutes, a rigid fiberscope with an optical stylet loaded with a 37 Fr double lumen endotracheal tube was inserted orally and passed into the glottic aperture. The patient was fully awakened after surgical procedure and was transferred to the recovery room after extubation. PMID:24624275

  14. Non-Newtonian effects of blood on LDL transport inside the arterial lumen and across multi-layered arterial wall with and without stenosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deyranlou, Amin; Niazmand, Hamid; Sadeghi, Mahmood-Reza; Mesri, Yaser

    2016-06-01

    Blood non-Newtonian behavior on low-density lipoproteins (LDL) accumulation is analyzed numerically, while fluid-multilayered arteries are adopted for nonstenotic and 30%-60% symmetrical stenosed models. Present model considers non-Newtonian effects inside the lumen and within arterial layers simultaneously, which has not been examined in previous studies. Navier-Stokes equations are solved along with the mass transport convection-diffusion equations and Darcy’s model for species transport inside the luminal flow and across wall layers, respectively. Carreau model for the luminal flow and the modified Darcy equation for the power-law fluid within arterial layers are employed to model blood rheological characteristics, appropriately. Results indicate that in large arteries with relatively high Reynolds number Newtonian model estimates LDL concentration patterns well enough, however, this model seriously incompetent for regions with low WSS. Moreover, Newtonian model for plasma underestimates LDL concentration especially on luminal surface and across arterial wall. Therefore, applying non-Newtonian model seems essential for reaching to a more accurate estimation of LDL distribution in the artery. Finally, blood flow inside constricted arteries demonstrates that LDL concentration patterns along the stenoses inside the luminal flow and across arterial layers are strongly influenced as compared to the nonstenotic arteries. Additionally, among four stenosis severity grades, 40% stenosis is prone to more LDL accumulation along the post-stenotic regions.

  15. Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation using a double-lumen bi-caval cannula for severe respiratory failure post total artificial heart implantation.

    PubMed

    Miessau, J; Yang, Q; Unai, S; Entwistle, J W C; Cavarocchi, N C; Hirose, H

    2015-07-01

    We report a unique utilization of a double-lumen, bi-caval Avalon cannula for veno-venous (VV) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) during placement of a total artificial heart (TAH, SynCardia, Tucson, AZ). A 22-year-old female with post-partum cardiomyopathy was rescued on veno-arterial (VA) ECMO because of cardiogenic shock. The inability to wean ECMO necessitated implantation of the TAH as a bridge to transplant. In addition, the patient continued to have respiratory failure and concomitant VV ECMO was planned with the implant. During TAH implantation, the Avalon cannula was placed percutaneously from the right internal jugular vein into the inferior vena cava (IVC) under direct vision while the right atrium was open. During VV ECMO support, adequate flows on both ECMO and TAH were maintained without adverse events. VV ECMO was discontinued, without reopening the chest, once the patient's respiratory failure improved. However, the patient subsequently developed a profound respiratory acidosis and required VV ECMO for CO2 removal. The Avalon cannula was placed in the femoral vein to avoid accessing the internal jugular vein and risking damage to the TAH. The patient's oxygenation eventually improved and the cannula was removed at the bedside. The patient was supported for 22 days on VV ECMO and successfully weaned from the ventilator prior to her orthotropic heart transplantation. PMID:25239275

  16. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided choledochoduodenostomy with a lumen-apposing, self-expandable fully covered metal stent for palliative biliary drainage.

    PubMed

    French, Joshua Blake; Coe, Adam Wesley; Pawa, Rishi

    2016-04-01

    In addition to the poor prognosis associated with pancreatic adenocarcinoma, it can also lead to several other conditions including obstructive jaundice that can affect a patient's quality of life. This is a major concern in non-operative patients where palliation is considered the main therapeutic goal. Traditionally, there are several ways to pursue palliative biliary drainage including endoscopic methods, a variety of surgical procedures, and percutaneous techniques. Generally, endoscopic methods such as endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with transpapillary stent placement are considered first-line therapies. Unfortunately, ERCP is not always possible due to several potential reasons. Although endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary puncture has been well described for several years, there are limitations to its usefulness in biliary drainage, in part due to complication concerns. However, more recently a lumen-apposing, self-expandable fully covered metal stent has been employed for such situations. We describe two cases in which this type of stent was used in patients for palliative biliary drainage in pancreatic adenocarcinoma where standard ERCP was not feasible. In both cases, stent deployment was successful without immediate complications related to the procedure or the stent. Furthermore, the main goal of these therapies was palliation and in both cases the patient chose this procedure for quality of life reasons. In the future, randomized trials are needed to better define the long-term effectiveness and safety of these stents compared to more standard therapies. PMID:26956721

  17. Diunsaturated Aldehyde, trans,trans-2,4-Decadienal in the Intestinal Lumen Suppresses Gastric Emptying through Serotonin Signaling in Rats.

    PubMed

    Hira, Tohru; Yahagi, Asuka; Nishimura, Saki; Sakaino, Masayoshi; Yamashita, Takatoshi; Hara, Hiroshi

    2015-09-23

    We recently demonstrated that a diunsaturated aldehyde, trans,trans-2,4-decadienal (2,4-decadienal), potently stimulated secretion of cholecystokinin in the enteroendocrine cell line. Gut hormones such as cholecystokinin and serotonin play critical roles in reducing postprandial gastric emptying. In the present study, we first demonstrated that oral administration of 2,4-decadienal (50-100 mg/kg) reduced gastric emptying rate in rats, assessed by both the acetaminophen absorption test and the phenol red recovery method. In contrast, saturated aldehyde, alcohol, and fatty acids having the same chain length as 2,4-decadienal did not affect the gastric emptying rate. Duodenal administration of 2,4-decadienal potently reduced gastric emptying rate, but intraperitoneal administration did not. Furthermore, the gastric inhibitory effect of 2,4-decadienal was attenuated by treatment with a serotonin receptor antagonist. These results demonstrated that 2,4-decadienal in the small intestinal lumen has a potent inhibitory effect on gastric emptying, possibly through stimulation of the serotonin-producing enteroendocrine cells. PMID:26322627

  18. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided placement of the lumen-apposing self-expandable metallic stent for gallbladder drainage: a promising technique

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Rashmee; Ona, Mel A.; Papafragkakis, Charilaos; Anand, Sury; Duddempudi, Sushil

    2016-01-01

    Acute cholecystitis and other clinical problems requiring gallbladder removal or drainage have conventionally been treated with surgery, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or percutaneous transhepatic drainage of the gallbladder and/or extrahepatic bile duct. Patients unable to undergo these procedures due to functional status or anatomical anomalies are candidates for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided gallbladder drainage with stent placement. The aim of this review was to evaluate the technical feasibility and efficacy of EUS-guided placement of the recently developed lumen-apposing self-expandable metallic stent (LASEMS). A literature review was performed to identify the studies describing this technique. In this review article we have summarized case series or reports describing EUS-guided LASEMS placement. The indications, techniques, limitations and complications reported are discussed. A total of 78 patients were included across all studies described thus far in the literature. Studies have reported near 100% technical and clinical success rates in selected cases. No major complications were reported. EUS-guided gallbladder drainage and LASEMS placement can be a safe and effective alternative approach in the management of selected patients. PMID:27065728

  19. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided placement of the lumen-apposing self-expandable metallic stent for gallbladder drainage: a promising technique.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rashmee; Ona, Mel A; Papafragkakis, Charilaos; Anand, Sury; Duddempudi, Sushil

    2016-01-01

    Acute cholecystitis and other clinical problems requiring gallbladder removal or drainage have conventionally been treated with surgery, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or percutaneous transhepatic drainage of the gallbladder and/or extrahepatic bile duct. Patients unable to undergo these procedures due to functional status or anatomical anomalies are candidates for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided gallbladder drainage with stent placement. The aim of this review was to evaluate the technical feasibility and efficacy of EUS-guided placement of the recently developed lumen-apposing self-expandable metallic stent (LASEMS). A literature review was performed to identify the studies describing this technique. In this review article we have summarized case series or reports describing EUS-guided LASEMS placement. The indications, techniques, limitations and complications reported are discussed. A total of 78 patients were included across all studies described thus far in the literature. Studies have reported near 100% technical and clinical success rates in selected cases. No major complications were reported. EUS-guided gallbladder drainage and LASEMS placement can be a safe and effective alternative approach in the management of selected patients. PMID:27065728

  20. Confocal observation of hydrophilic and lipophilic photosensitizers in endothelial cells, lumen of the vessels, interstitium, and tumor cells using the chicken chorioallantoic membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueck, Angelika C.; Akguen, Nermin; Heckelsmiller, K.; Beck, Gerd C.; Genze, Felicitas; Steiner, Rudolf W.

    1998-05-01

    The dynamic behavior of lipophilic and hydrophilic sensitizers in cell cultures and non animal in vivo systems with varying incubation but also during the photodynamic therapy will be summarized within the presentation. As an appropriate in vivo system we used the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of fertilized eggs, which served as a substrate for tumor cells. Because the CAM is a transparent membrane it is possible to view individual blood vessels and to examine tumor cells as well as structural changes of the supplying vasculature. To adapt this system to high magnification microscopy, we established a new technique for in vivo observation of the CAM tissue. This technique enables online investigations of alterations at cellular level induced by drugs with confocal laser scanning microscopy. The localization of the drugs with clinical importance was observed after different application times in the lumen of the vessels, the endothelial cells and the tumor cells. In addition light induced subcellular Ca2+-changes were observed and correlated with the photodynamic process.

  1. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  2. Avoiding personal data loss.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, B P

    1999-01-01

    The potential personal, financial, emotional, and professional costs associated with the loss of data stored in personal computing devices are difficult to appreciate a priori. Because of the potentially devastating consequences of significant data loss, it behooves all clinicians to take personal responsibility in securing their data, whether or not this responsibility is nominally assumed by Information Systems (IS) professionals. There are a variety of straightforward, easily implemented approaches that can be used to help secure personal data, including investigating IS department policies, following proper backing-up procedures, observing reasonable security precautions, keeping digital media current, and establishing a process for executing these approaches. PMID:10725050

  3. Volumetric Muscle Loss.

    PubMed

    Pollot, Beth E; Corona, Benjamin T

    2016-01-01

    Volumetric muscle loss (VML) injury is prevalent in severe extremity trauma and is an emerging focus area among orthopedic and regenerative medicine fields. VML injuries are the result of an abrupt, frank loss of tissue and therefore of different etiology from other standard rodent injury models to include eccentric contraction, ischemia reperfusion, crush, and freeze injury. The current focus of many VML-related research efforts is to regenerate the lost muscle tissue and thereby improve muscle strength. Herein, we describe a VML model in the anterior compartment of the hindlimb that is permissible to repeated neuromuscular strength assessments and is validated in mouse, rat, and pig. PMID:27492162

  4. Amiodarone impairs trafficking through late endosomes inducing a Niemann-Pick C-like phenotype.

    PubMed

    Piccoli, Elena; Nadai, Matteo; Caretta, Carla Mucignat; Bergonzini, Valeria; Del Vecchio, Claudia; Ha, Huy Riem; Bigler, Laurent; Dal Zoppo, Daniele; Faggin, Elisabetta; Pettenazzo, Andrea; Orlando, Rocco; Salata, Cristiano; Calistri, Arianna; Palù, Giorgio; Baritussio, Aldo

    2011-11-01

    Patients treated with amiodarone accumulate lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA), also known as bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate, in airway secretions and develop in different tissues vacuoles and inclusion bodies thought to originate from endosomes. To clarify the origin of these changes, we studied in vitro the effects of amiodarone on endosomal activities like transferrin recycling, Shiga toxin processing, ESCRT-dependent lentivirus budding, fluid phase endocytosis, proteolysis and exosome secretion. Furthermore, since the accumulation of LBPA might point to a broader disturbance in lipid homeostasis, we studied the effect of amiodarone on the distribution of LBPA, unesterified cholesterol, sphingomyelin and glycosphyngolipids. Amiodarone analogues were also studied, including the recently developed derivative dronedarone. We found that amiodarone does not affect early endosomal activities, like transferrin recycling, Shiga toxin processing and lentivirus budding. Amiodarone, instead, interferes with late compartments of the endocytic pathway, blocking the progression of fluid phase endocytosis and causing fusion of organelles, collapse of lumenal structures, accumulation of undegraded substrates and amassing of different types of lipids. Not all late endocytic compartments are affected, since exosome secretion is spared. These changes recall the Niemann-Pick type-C phenotype (NPC), but originate by a different mechanism, since, differently from NPC, they are not alleviated by cholesterol removal. Studies with analogues indicate that basic pKa and high water-solubility at acidic pH are crucial requirements for the interference with late endosomes/lysosomes and that, in this respect, dronedarone is at least as potent as amiodarone. These findings may have relevance in fields unrelated to rhythm control. PMID:21878321

  5. FUEL EFFICIENT GALAXIES: SUSTAINING STAR FORMATION WITH STELLAR MASS LOSS

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, Samuel N.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2011-06-10

    We examine the importance of secular stellar mass loss for fueling ongoing star formation in disk galaxies during the late stages of their evolution. For a galaxy of a given stellar mass, we calculate the total mass loss rate of its entire stellar population using star formation histories derived from the observed evolution of the M{sub *}-star formation rate (SFR) relation, along with the predictions of standard stellar evolution models for stellar mass loss for a variety of initial stellar mass functions. Our model shows that recycled gas from stellar mass loss can provide most or all of the fuel required to sustain the current level of star formation in late-type galaxies. Stellar mass loss can therefore remove the tension between the low gas infall rates that are derived from observations and the relatively rapid star formation occurring in disk galaxies. For galaxies where cold gas infall rates have been estimated, we demonstrate explicitly that stellar mass loss can account for most of the deficit between their SFR and infall rate.

  6. Deafness and Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This brief overview provides information on the definition, incidence, and characteristics of children with hearing impairments and deafness. The federal definitions of hearing impairment and deafness are provided. The different types of hearing loss are noted, including: (1) conductive (caused by diseases or obstructions in the outer or middle…

  7. Autism and Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenhall, Ulf; Nordin, Viviann; Sandstrom, Mikael; Ahlsen, Gunilla; Gillberg, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    Children and adolescents (N=199) with autistic disorder were audiologically evaluated. Mild to moderate hearing loss was diagnosed in 7.9 percent, with deafness diagnosed in 3.5 percent of all cases, which represented a prevalence considerably above that in the general population and comparable to the prevalence found in populations with mental…

  8. Pedagogical Reflections on Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stearns, Clio

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the idea of loss in relation to elementary education. The goal is to show the importance of teachers attending to their students' individual experience and, in particular, to the ways schools can make children feel lost or found. The article relies primarily on classroom narratives, focusing heavily on stories about one…

  9. Summer Reading Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mraz, Maryann; Rasinski, Timothy V.

    2007-01-01

    Summer reading loss is a documented reality for many students. It is often of greatest concern for those who are already at risk, who typically have limited access to reading materials at home and whose parents or caregivers may be reluctant or unsure of how to help. By raising parents' awareness of the importance of supporting their children's…

  10. Cascadia's Staggering Losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Vogt, B.

    2001-05-01

    Recent worldwide earthquakes have resulted in staggering losses. The Northridge, California; Kobe, Japan; Loma Prieta, California; Izmit, Turkey; Chi-Chi, Taiwan; and Bhuj, India earthquakes, which range from magnitudes 6.7 to 7.7, have all occurred near populated areas. These earthquakes have resulted in estimated losses between \\3 and \\300 billion, with tens to tens of thousands of fatalities. Subduction zones are capable of producing the largest earthquakes. The 1939 M7.8 Chilean, the 1960 M9.5 Chilean, the 1964 M9.2 Alaskan, the 1970 M7.8 Peruvian, the 1985 M7.9 Mexico City and the 2001 M7.7 Bhuj earthquakes are damaging subduction zone quakes. The Cascadia fault zone poses a tremendous hazard in the Pacific Northwest due to the ground shaking and tsunami inundation hazards combined with the population. To address the Cascadia subduction zone threat, the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries conducted a preliminary statewide loss study. The 1998 Oregon study incorporated a M8.5 quake, the influence of near surface soil effects and default building, social and economic data available in FEMA's HAZUS97 software. Direct financial losses are projected at over \\$12 billion. Casualties are estimated at about 13,000. Over 5,000 of the casualties are estimated to result in fatalities from hazards relating to tsunamis and unreinforced masonry buildings.

  11. Loss and damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huq, Saleemul; Roberts, Erin; Fenton, Adrian

    2013-11-01

    Loss and damage is a relative newcomer to the climate change agenda. It has the potential to reinvigorate existing mitigation and adaptation efforts, but this will ultimately require leadership from developed countries and enhanced understanding of several key issues, such as limits to adaptation.

  12. Crop damage caused by Powdery Mildew on Hop and its relationship to late season management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew of hop (Podosphaera macularis) may cause economic loss due to reductions in cone yield and quality. Quantitative estimates of crop damage from powdery mildew remain poorly characterised, especially the effect of late season disease management on crop yield and quality. Field studies i...

  13. Late Glacial and Late Holocene Paleohydrology of Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aichner, B.; Feakins, S. J.; Mischke, S.; Herzschuh, U.; Liu, X.; Rajabov, I.; Wang, Y.; Heinecke, L.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study is to deepen the understanding of past climatological, ecological and hydrological changes in Central Asia, by means of organic geochemical proxies and in close cooperation with other work groups providing biological and sedimentological data. We analysed an 8 m sediment core from Lake Karakuli, a small open freshwater lake situated at an altitude of 3,657 m between the massifs of Muztagh Ata (7,546 m) and Kongur Shan (7,719 m) in western China. Additional work is in progress on a 12 m core derived from Lake Karakul in Tajikistan, a large closed saline lake situated in a tectonic graben structure at an altitude of 3,928 m. The distance between the two lakes is 130 km and basal ages of the cores are ca. 4.7 ka BP (China) and ca. 27 ka BP (Tajikistan). The lake catchments may be classified as alpine steppe to alpine deserts with mean annual temperature of ca. 0 °C and mean annual precipitation of ca. 100 mm, respectively. Summer precipitation, associated with the Indian monsoon, accounts for <30% of the annual total, whereas most precipitation is supplied by mid-latitude Westerlies between March and May. In the small Chinese lake long-chain fatty acids (FAs) were mainly attributed to terrestrial sources by compound-specific carbon isotopic analyses. In contrast δ13C values up to -14‰ for abundant mid-chain FAs suggest aquatic origins in the large Lake Karakul. Hydrogen isotopic variability is ca. 15‰ in the mid-Holocene record and ca. 60‰ in the first data derived from the Late Glacial record. In the latter, the most pronounced change from higher to lower δD-values of aquatic biomarkers is tentatively interpreted as change from arid to more humid conditions at the Late Glacial to Holocene transition. Since in Central Asia isotopic variability of precipitation mainly correlates with temperature, we interpret high resolution δD data of terrestrial long-chain FAs in the younger core to mainly reflect mid-Holocene temperature variations

  14. Respiratory consequences of late preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Pike, Katharine C; Lucas, Jane S A

    2015-06-01

    In developed countries most preterm births occur between 34 and 37 weeks' gestation. Deliveries during this 'late preterm' period are increasing and, since even mild prematurity is now recognised to be associated with adverse health outcomes, this presents healthcare challenges. Respiratory problems associated with late preterm birth include neonatal respiratory distress, severe RSV infection and childhood wheezing. Late preterm birth prematurely interrupts in utero lung development and is associated with maternal and early life factors which adversely affect the developing respiratory system. This review considers 1) mechanisms underlying the association between late preterm birth and impaired respiratory development, 2) respiratory morbidity associated with late preterm birth, particularly long-term outcomes, and 3) interventions which might protect respiratory development by addressing risk factors affecting the late preterm population, including maternal smoking, early life growth restriction and vulnerability to viral infection. PMID:25554628

  15. Hearing Loss in Children: Types of Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... the ear to the brain so that our brain pathways are part of our hearing. There are four types of hearing loss: Conductive Hearing Loss Hearing loss caused by something that stops sounds from getting through the outer or middle ear. This type of hearing loss can often ...

  16. Evolutionary transition of dental formula in Late Cretaceous eutherian mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averianov, Alexander O.; Archibald, J. David

    2015-10-01

    Kulbeckia kulbecke, stem placental mammal from the Late Cretaceous of Uzbekistan, shows a transitional stage of evolution in the dental formula from five to four premolars. A non-replaced dP3/dp3 may occur as individual variation. In other specimens, the lower premolars are crowded with no space for development of dp3. As is evident from the CT scanning of one juvenile specimen, the development of dp3 started in a late ontogenetic stage and was confined to the pulp cavity of the developing p2. This dp3 would have been resorbed in a later ontogenetic stage, as the roots of p2 formed. The initial stage of reduction of the third premolar can be traced to stem therians ( Juramaia and Eomaia), which have both dP3 and P3 present in the adult dentition. Further delay in the development of dP3/dp3 led to the loss of the permanent P3/p3 (a possible synapomorphy for Eutheria). The dP3/dp3 was present during most of the adult stages in the Late Cretaceous stem placentals Zhelestidae and Gypsonictops. This tooth is totally absent in basal taxa of Placentalia, which normally have at most four premolars.

  17. Late Reduction Textures in Almahata Sitta Ureilite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrin, J. S.; Le, L.; Zolensky, M. E.; Ito, M.; Jenniskens, P.; Shaddad, M. H.

    2009-01-01

    The Almahata Sitta ureilite, derived from asteroid 2008 TC3, consists of many individual fragments recovered from the Nubian dessert strewn field [1]. Like most ureilites, it contains abundant carbon and exhibits examples of disequilibrium textures that record a late reduction event accompanied by rapid cooling (tens of degC/h) from high temperatures (1150-1300 C). Variations in Fe/Mg of silicate minerals are accompanied by variations in Fe/Mn, indicating loss of Fe into metal [2]. In coarser-grained fragments of Almahata Sitta, olivine exhibits irregular high mg# rims in contact with networks of interstitial metal 5- 20 microns in typical thickness. This is a common ureilite texture thought to be driven by the reaction of graphite to a CO gas phase and the concurrent reduction of FeO in olivine to Fe metal, with excess silica going primarily into pyroxene (2MgFeSiO4 + C approaches MgSiO4 + MgSiO3 + 2Fe + CO) [3, see also 4,5,6]. Other fragments of Almahata Sitta exhibit anomalous textures such as fine grain size, high porosity, and abundant graphite. Within these fragments pyroxene locally exhibits high-mg# rims in contact with metal and a discreet silica phase, suggesting that the reduction mechanism MgFeSi2O6 + C approaches MgSiO3 + Fe + SiO2 + CO. Metals in Almahata Sitta are particularly unaltered in comparison to ureilite finds. Variations in minor and trace element composition of this metal might partly result from localized dilution as iron is supplied by reduction of silicates.

  18. Clinical Course and Outcomes of Late Kidney Allograft Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Zakharov, Vadym; Ksenofontova, Anna; Onishchenko, Eugene; Golubova, Tatyana; Kichatyi, Sergey; Zakharova, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study is provided to increase the efficiency of the treatment of kidney transplant recipients by predicting the development of the late allotransplant dysfunction. Methods. 330 patients who have lived for more than one year with functioning kidney allograft were evaluated. To predict the subsequent duration of the well-functioning of allotransplant the prognostic significance of 15 baseline clinical and sociodemographic characteristics on the results of the survey one year after transplantation was investigated. The result was considered to be positive in constructing the regression prognostication model if recipient lived more than 3 years from the time of transplantation. Results. It was established that more late start of renal allograft dysfunction after transplantation correlates with the more time it takes till complete loss of allograft function. Creatinine and hemoglobin blood concentration and the level of proteinuria one year after transplantation within created mathematical model allow predicting the loss of kidney transplant function three years after the transplantation. Patients with kidney transplant dysfunction are advised to renew the program hemodialysis upon reaching plasma creatinine concentration 0.5–0.7 mmol/L. Conclusion. Values of creatinine, hemoglobin, and proteinuria one year after transplantation can be used for subsequent prognostication of kidney transplant function. PMID:27478631

  19. Winds in late-type stars - Mechanisms of mass outflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsky, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The four basic mechanisms that have been proposed for explaining the acceleration of winds in late-type stars are thermal pressure gradients, radiation pressure on circumstellar dust grains, momentum addition by Alfven waves, and momentum addition by periodic shock waves. Recent work in applying these mechanisms to stars is reviewed, with consideration given to whether these mechanisms can work, even in principle, and whether they are consistent with recent ultraviolet and X-ray data from the IUE and Einstein spacecraft. It is noted that thermally driven winds are likely important for late-type dwarfs, where the mass loss rates are small, and perhaps also in G giants and supergiants, but they cannot operate alone in the K and M giants and supergiants. It is thought that radiatively driven winds are probably unimportant for all cool stars, even the M supergiants with dusty circumstellar envelopes. In principle, Alfven waves can accelerate winds to high speeds so long as the field lines are initially open or forced open by some mechanism, but detailed calculations are needed. It is noted that, for the Miras and semiregular variable supergiants, periodic shock waves provide a simple way of producing rapid mass loss.

  20. Adolescent pregnancy and loss.

    PubMed

    Bright, P D

    1987-01-01

    Adolescents have a perinatal and infant mortality rate two times as high as that found in the adult population, and yet few have investigated the characteristics of adolescent grief over pregnancy loss. The mourning response of adolescents appears to differ from that of older females: adult signs of depression are either nonexistent or fleeting. Adolescents who are having difficulties moving away from dependence on their mothers may become pregnant in order to demonstrate a semblance of adulthood and also to circumvent the depression common to this phase of development. When reproductive loss occurs, two outcomes often are seen: mother-daughter conflict concerning independence accelerates, which, in turn, provides the impetus for re-impregnation soon afterward. Since pregnancy interferes with mourning, the adolescent may not be able to bond with subsequent children, thus continuing the mother-child conflict into another generation. PMID:3649521

  1. Individual Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Dau, Torsten; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; Andersen, Ture; Poulsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    It is well-established that hearing loss does not only lead to a reduction of hearing sensitivity. Large individual differences are typically observed among listeners with hearing impairment in a wide range of suprathreshold auditory measures. In many cases, audiometric thresholds cannot fully account for such individual differences, which make it challenging to find adequate compensation strategies in hearing devices. How to characterize, model, and compensate for individual hearing loss were the main topics of the fifth International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research (ISAAR), held in Nyborg, Denmark, in August 2015. The following collection of papers results from some of the work that was presented and discussed at the symposium. PMID:27566802

  2. Induction of arginase II by intestinal epithelium promotes the uptake of L-arginine from the lumen of C. parvum infected porcine ileum

    PubMed Central

    Gookin, Jody L.; Stauffer, Stephen H.; Coccaro, Maria R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine the specific transport system activities and expression of transporter genes responsible for uptake of L-arginine from the lumen of normal and C. parvum infected neonatal porcine ileum and the influence of L-arginine catabolic pathways on L-arginine uptake. Methods Intact sheets of ileal mucosa from control and C. parvum infected neonatal piglets were mounted in Ussing chambers and the uptake of 14C-L-arginine was determined under initial rate conditions and in the presence of transport system-selective inhibitors. Epithelial expression of L-arginine transporter genes was quantified by real time RT-PCR. L-arginine catabolic enzyme expression was examined by immunoblotting epithelial lysates for arginase I and II. The role of intracellular catabolism in promoting uptake of L-arginine was determined by pharmacological inhibition of NOS and arginase activities. Results C. parvum infected ileum transported L-arginine at rates equivalent to uninfected epithelium despite profound villous atrophy. This was attributed to enhanced uptake of L-arginine by individual epithelial cells in the infection. There were no differences in L-arginine transport system activities (y+ and B0,+) or level of transporter gene expression (CAT-1, CAT-2A, and ATB0,+) between uninfected and C. parvum infected epithelial cells. However, infected epithelia had induced expression of the L-arginine hydrolytic enzyme arginase II and lower concentrations of L-arginine. Further, transport of L-arginine by the infected epithelium was significantly inhibited by pharmacological blockade of arginase. Conclusions Intracellular catabolism by arginase II, the induction of which has not been previously described for intestinal epithelium, facilitates uptake of L-arginine by infected epithelium using transport systems that do not differ from that of uninfected cells. Induction of arginase II may limit NO synthesis by competing with NOS for utilization of L-arginine or promote use of L

  3. Optimal effect-site concentration of remifentanil for preventing cough during removal of the double-lumen endotracheal tube from sevoflurane-remifentanil anesthesia: A prospective clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sook Young; Yoo, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Yeop; Kim, Dae Hee; Lee, Jung Dong; Rho, Go Un; Park, Hyungbae; Park, Sung Yong

    2016-06-01

    Opioids are used as a treatment for coughing. Recent studies have reported an antitussive effect of remifentanil during recovery from general anesthesia by suppressed coughing. The coughing reflex may differ throughout the respiratory tract from the larynx to the bronchi. But the proper dose of remifentanil to prevent cough during double-lumen tube (DLT) extubation is unknown.Twenty-five ASA physical status 1 and 2 patients, 20 to 65 years of age who were undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic lung surgery requiring 1-lung ventilation were enrolled. The effective effect-site concentration (Ce) of remifentanil for 50% and 95% of patients (EC50 and EC95) for preventing cough was determined using the isotonic regression method with a bootstrapping approach, following the Dixon up-and-down method. Recovery profiles and hemodynamic values after anesthesia were compared between patients with cough and patients without cough.EC50 and EC95 of remifentanil was 1.670 ng/mL [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.393-1.806] and 2.275 ng/mL (95% CI 1.950-2.263), respectively. There were no differences in recovery profiles and hemodynamic values after anesthesia between patients with/without cough. No patients suffered respiratory complications during the emergence period.Remifentanil can be a safe and reliable method of cough prevention during emergence from sevoflurane anesthesia after thoracic surgery requiring DLT. EC50 and EC95 of remifentanil that suppresses coughing is 1.670 and 2.275 ng/mL, respectively. PMID:27310976

  4. Diagnosis of Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Federation of the Deaf, Rome (Italy).

    Seven conference papers from the U.S.S.R., India, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia consider the diagnosis of hearing loss. They are "Examination of Hearing of Children, Aged from 2 to 5, by Means of Playing Audiometry" by A. P. Kossacheva, "A Study of the Etiology and Pattern of Deafness in a School for the Deaf in Madras, South India" by Y.…

  5. Rotation and Mass Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owocki, S.

    2008-06-01

    Stellar rotation can play an important role in structuring and enhancing the mass loss from massive stars. Initial 1D models focussed on the expected centrifugal enhancement of the line-driven mass flux from the equator of a rotating star, but the review here emphasizes that the loss of centrifugal support away from the stellar surface actually limits the steady mass flux to just the point-star CAK value, with models near critical rotation characterized by a slow, subcritical acceleration. Recent suggestions that such slow outflows might have high enough density to explain disks in Be or B[e] stars are examined in the context of 2D simulations of the ``Wind Compressed Disk'' (WCD) paradigm, together with a review of the tendency for poleward components of the line-driving force to inhibit WCD formation. When one accounts for equatorial gravity darkening, the net tendency is in fact for the relatively bright regions at higher latitude to drive a faster, denser ``bipolar'' outflow. I discuss the potential relevance for the bipolar form of nebulae from LBV stars like η Carinae, but emphasize that, since the large mass loss associated with the eruption of eta Carinae's Homunculus would heavily saturate line-driving, explaining its bipolar form requires development of analogous models for continuum-driven mass loss. I conclude with a discussion of how radiation seems inherently ill-suited to supporting or driving a geometrically thin, but optically thick disk or disk outflow. The disks inferred in Be and B[e] stars may instead be centrifugally ejected, with radiation inducing an ablation flow from the disk surface, and thus perhaps playing a greater role in destroying (rather than creating) an orbiting, circumstellar disk.

  6. Noise and Hearing Loss Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... SafeInSound Noise and Hearing Loss on the NIOSH Science Blog Smartphone Sound Apps Music-induced Hearing Loss ... SafeInSound Noise and Hearing Loss on the NIOSH Science Blog Smartphone Sound Apps Music-induced Hearing Loss ...

  7. Hair loss in children.

    PubMed

    Alves, Rubina; Grimalt, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    Hair diseases represent frequent complaints in dermatology clinics, and they can be caused by a number of conditions reflected by specific diagnoses. Hair loss is not uncommon in the pediatric group, but its patterns in this group are different from those seen in adults. Additionally, in children, these disorders can have psychological effects that can interfere with growth and development. Hair is easily accessible for examination, and dermatologists are in the enviable situation of being able to study many disorders using simple diagnostic techniques. To fully understand hair loss during childhood, a basic comprehension of normal hair growth is necessary. Knowledge of the normal range and variation observed in the hair of children further enhances its assessment. This chapter has been written in an attempt to facilitate the diagnostic process during daily practice by helping to distinguish between acquired and congenital hair diseases. It can sometimes be difficult to differentiate between abnormality and normality in neonatal hair aspects. Management of hair disorders can be quite a daunting task for the attending physician and mandates a holistic approach to the patient. Some hair disturbances have no effective treatment, and for others, no single treatment is 100% successful. If no effective treatment for a hair loss disease exists, a cosmetic approach is important. PMID:26370644

  8. Mate loss in winter and mallard reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lercel, B.A.; Kaminski, R.M.; Cox, R.R., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) frequently pair during winter, and duck hunting seasons have been extended until the end of January in several southern states in the Mississippi Flyway. Therefore, we simulated dissolution of pair bonds from natural or hunting mortality by removing mates of wild-strain, captive, yearling female mallards in late January 1996 and early February 1997 to test if mate loss in winter would affect subsequent pair formation and reproductive performance. Most (97%) widowed females paired again. Nesting and incubation frequencies, nest-initiation date, days between first and second nests, and egg mass did not differ (P > 0.126) between widowed and control (i.e., no mate loss experienced) females in 1996 and 1997. In 1997, widowed females laid 1.91 fewer eggs in first nests (P = 0.014) and 3.75 fewer viable eggs in second nests (P = 0.056). Computer simulations with a mallard productivity model (incorporating default parameters [i.e., average environmental conditions]) indicated that the observed decreased clutch size of first nests, fewer viable eggs in second nests, and these factors combined had potential to decrease recruitment rates of yearling female mallards 9%, 12%, and 20%. Our results indicate that winter mate loss could reduce reproductive performance by yearling female mallards in some years. We suggest caution regarding extending duck hunting seasons in winter without concurrent evaluations of harvest and demographics of mallard and other duck populations.

  9. Characterization of Airborne Nanoparticle Loss in Sampling Tubing.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Candace Su-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Airborne nanoparticle release has been studied extensively lately using a variety of instruments and nanoparticle loss data for the instrument sampling tubes were required. This study used real-time measurements to characterize particle losses. Particle concentrations were measured by Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS). Electrically conductive and Tygon sampling tubes 7.7 mm I.D. and 2.0, 4.9, 7.0, and 8.4 m long, were used to analyze particle losses. Two different sources of nearly steady-state particles-atmospheric nanoparticles (maximum concentration of 4,000-6,000 particle/cm(3)) and nebulizer-generated salt aerosols (maximum concentration of 14,000-16,000 particle/cm(3))-were utilized. For all test conditions, a reduction in particle number concentration was observed and found to be proportional to tube length for particle diameter (dp) less than 40 nm. A maximum loss up to 30% was found for the longest tube length (8.4 m) at particle size of approximately 8 nm. For particles from 40 to 400 nm, the losses were less than 3%. Measured particle losses were greater than predicted by theory for the smallest particles. The two types of tubing showed similar particle losses for both test aerosols. Particle losses were low for dp greater than 40 nm, and for all particle sizes when the tube length was less than 2 m. PMID:25746064

  10. Assessing the record and causes of Late Triassic extinctions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanner, L.H.; Lucas, S.G.; Chapman, M.G.

    2004-01-01

    Accelerated biotic turnover during the Late Triassic has led to the perception of an end-Triassic mass extinction event, now regarded as one of the "big five" extinctions. Close examination of the fossil record reveals that many groups thought to be affected severely by this event, such as ammonoids, bivalves and conodonts, instead were in decline throughout the Late Triassic, and that other groups were relatively unaffected or subject to only regional effects. Explanations for the biotic turnover have included both gradualistic and catastrophic mechanisms. Regression during the Rhaetian, with consequent habitat loss, is compatible with the disappearance of some marine faunal groups, but may be regional, not global in scale, and cannot explain apparent synchronous decline in the terrestrial realm. Gradual, widespread aridification of the Pangaean supercontinent could explain a decline in terrestrial diversity during the Late Triassic. Although evidence for an impact precisely at the boundary is lacking, the presence of impact structures with Late Triassic ages suggests the possibility of bolide impact-induced environmental degradation prior to the end-Triassic. Widespread eruptions of flood basalts of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) were synchronous with or slightly postdate the system boundary; emissions of CO2 and SO2 during these eruptions were substantial, but the contradictory evidence for the environmental effects of outgassing of these lavas remains to be resolved. A substantial excursion in the marine carbon-isotope record of both carbonate and organic matter suggests a significant disturbance of the global carbon cycle at the system boundary. Release of methane hydrates from seafloor sediments is a possible cause for this isotope excursion, although the triggering mechanism and climatic effects of such a release remain uncertain. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Reproducibility of serial optical coherence tomography measurements for lumen area and plaque components in humans (The CLI-VAR [Centro per la Lotta Contro l'Infarto-variability] II study).

    PubMed

    Paoletti, Giulia; Marco, Valeria; Romagnoli, Enrico; Gatto, Laura; Fedele, Silvio; Mangiameli, Andrea; Ramazzotti, Vito; Castriota, Fausto; Di Vito, Luca; Ricciardi, Andrea; Prati, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Frequency-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) is a promising intracoronary imaging technique to study atherosclerosis. Indeed, its unprecedented spatial resolution allows the assessment of fibrous cap thickness, lipid pool and features of plaque vulnerability. Aim of this study was to determine the reproducibility of the in vivo FD-OCT measurements of lumen area and plaque components in serial studies. Twenty-six patients undergoing FD-OCT assessment of intermediate lesion during coronary angiography were included in this study. FD-OCT pullbacks were acquired twice from the same coronary segment at interval of 5 min without additional intervention and analyzed off-line at an independent imaging core laboratory. Lumen diameter (LD), lumen area (LA), fibrous cap (FC) thickness and lipid pool (LP) arc extension measurements were compared in 440 matched frames. Both the per-segment and per-frame analyses showed excellent correlation coefficients for the inter-pullback comparisons for all parameters explored (R > 0.95 and p < 0.001 in all cases). Accordingly, the Bland-Altman estimates of bias showed non-significant differences in the inter-pullback comparisons at all levels. Per-frame analysis showed a slightly variations of LA in 45.8% of cases with changes greater than 2% likely related to different phases of cardiac cycle. Nevertheless, nor FC thickness or circumferential arc of LP were affected by LA changes during serial FD-OCT acquisition. This study showed an excellent reproducibility of lumen and plaque component measurements obtained with FD-OCT in vivo. Thus, this intracoronary imaging technique could be used to assess atherosclerosis progression and describe accurate plaque evolution in repeated serial studies. PMID:26585751

  12. [Successful One-lung Ventilation with a Right-sided Double-lumen Tube in a Patient with a Right Upper Tracheal Bronchus, who Underwent Left Pneumonectomy for Left Hilar Lung Cancer].

    PubMed

    Kawagoe, Izumi; Kohchiyama, Tsukasa; Hayashida, Masakazu; Satoh, Daizoh; Suzuki, Kenji; Inada, Eiichi

    2016-06-01

    A 60-year-old male patient with left hilar lung cancer was scheduled to undergo left pneumonectomy or left sleeve lower lobectomy. Preoperative computer tomographic and bronchoscopic examinations revealed that the bronchus (B1) to the right apical segment (S1) was a tracheal bronchus (TB) originating from the trachea approximately 10 mm above the carina. Because the left main bronchus was to be dissected, a right-sided double-lumen tube (DLT) was selected to completely protect the right lung from spillage of secretions or cancer cells from the left lung. The right-sided DLT was placed so as to fit its lateral opening of the bronchial lumen to normal upper branches (B2, B3), while sacrificing ventilation of S1 with an abnormal branch (B1). However, one-lung ventilation (OLV) of the right lung could not be achieved, since a gas leakage from the opened tracheal lumen occurred, most probably due to intra-lobar micro-airway communications between S1 and S2/S3. The DLT was withdrawn until the blue bronchial cuff occluded the orifice of the TB (B1). Although the upper half of the blue bronchial cuff appeared above the tracheal carina, OLV through the two bronchial lumen openings could be achieved due to a specific, slanted doughnut shape of the blue bronchial cuff and the location of the abnormal branch (B1) approximate to the carina. Left pneumonectomy using successful OLV was completed safely without hypoxemia or hypercapnea. Our experience indicates that management of OLV for patients with a thoracheal bronchus needs special considerations of the exact location of the TB and intra-lobar micro-airway communications, in addition to types of scheduled surgical procedures. PMID:27483653

  13. 37 CFR 385.4 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 385.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS RATES AND TERMS... AND DISTRIBUTING OF PHYSICAL AND DIGITAL PHONORECORDS Physical Phonorecord Deliveries, Permanent Digital Downloads and Ringtones § 385.4 Late payments. A Licensee shall pay a late fee of 1.5% per...

  14. 37 CFR 385.4 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 385.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS RATES AND TERMS... AND DISTRIBUTING OF PHYSICAL AND DIGITAL PHONORECORDS Physical Phonorecord Deliveries, Permanent Digital Downloads and Ringtones § 385.4 Late payments. A Licensee shall pay a late fee of 1.5% per...

  15. 37 CFR 385.4 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 385.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS RATES AND TERMS... AND DISTRIBUTING OF PHYSICAL AND DIGITAL PHONORECORDS Physical Phonorecord Deliveries, Permanent Digital Downloads and Ringtones § 385.4 Late payments. A Licensee shall pay a late fee of 1.5% per...

  16. 37 CFR 385.4 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 385.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS RATES AND TERMS... AND DISTRIBUTING OF PHYSICAL AND DIGITAL PHONORECORDS Physical Phonorecord Deliveries, Permanent Digital Downloads and Ringtones § 385.4 Late payments. A Licensee shall pay a late fee of 1.5% per...

  17. Late Registration: May It Rest in Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Banion, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Almost every institution of higher education engages in late registration. But evidence is mounting that the practice, originally intended to keep the doors of opportunity open for students as long as possible, wreaks havoc on the ability of colleges to achieve the goals of the emerging completion agenda. Despite best intentions, late registration…

  18. 16 CFR 444.4 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Late charges. 444.4 Section 444.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES CREDIT PRACTICES § 444.4 Late charges. (a) In... any deliquency charge on a payment, which payment is otherwise a full payment for the...

  19. 12 CFR 535.4 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Late charges. 535.4 Section 535.4 Banks and.... until 7-1-2010) § 535.4 Late charges. (a) In connection with collecting a debt arising out of an... delinquency charge on a payment, which payment is otherwise a full payment for the applicable period and...

  20. 24 CFR 203.25 - Late charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Late charge. 203.25 Section 203.25 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF... charge. The mortgage may provide for the collection by the mortgagee of a late charge, not to exceed...

  1. 24 CFR 203.25 - Late charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Late charge. 203.25 Section 203.25 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF... charge. The mortgage may provide for the collection by the mortgagee of a late charge, not to exceed...

  2. 16 CFR 444.4 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Late charges. 444.4 Section 444.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES CREDIT PRACTICES § 444.4 Late charges. (a) In... any deliquency charge on a payment, which payment is otherwise a full payment for the...

  3. 12 CFR 706.4 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Late charges. 706.4 Section 706.4 Banks and... OR PRACTICES § 706.4 Late charges. (a) In connection with collecting a debt arising out of an... indirectly, to levy or collect any delinquency charge on a payment, which payment is otherwise a full...

  4. 37 CFR 385.4 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 385.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS RATES AND TERMS... AND DISTRIBUTING OF PHYSICAL AND DIGITAL PHONORECORDS Physical Phonorecord Deliveries, Permanent Digital Downloads and Ringtones § 385.4 Late payments. A Licensee shall pay a late fee of 1.5% per...

  5. Cycads: Fossil evidence of late paleozoic origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mamay, S.H.

    1969-01-01

    Plant fossils from Lower Permian strata of the southwestern United States have been interpreted as cycadalean megasporophylls. They are evidently descended from spermopterid elements of the Pennsylvanian Taeniopteris complex; thus the known fossil history of the cycads is extended from the Late Triassic into the late Paleozoic. Possible implications of the Permian fossils toward evolution of the angiosperm carpel are considered.

  6. 30 CFR 218.54 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Late payments. 218.54 Section 218.54 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT COLLECTION OF MONIES AND PROVISION FOR GEOTHERMAL CREDITS AND INCENTIVES Oil and Gas, General § 218.54 Late...

  7. Late-onset offending: fact or fiction.

    PubMed

    Wiecko, Filip M

    2014-01-01

    This research focuses on a detailed exploration of late-onset offending. Using the National Youth Survey, this work seeks to answer three questions. First, is late-onset offending a real phenomenon? Second, if late onset does exist, is the evidence for it conditioned by how we define crime and delinquency? Finally, is late-onset offending an artifact of measurement methodology? Most literature evidencing late onset relies on official police contact and arrest data. Propensity or control theories in general posit that late onset should not exist. Propensity, namely self-control, should be instilled early in life and if absent, results in early initiation into crime and delinquency. Research in developmental psychology seems to support this notion. The findings from this study indicate that late-onset offending is almost nonexistent when self-reported measures are used leading one to conclude that contemporary evidence for late-onset is heavily conditioned by how we measure crime and delinquency. A comprehensive discussion includes future directions for research, and implications for theory development and methodology. PMID:23014937

  8. Loss-Aversion or Loss-Attention: The Impact of Losses on Cognitive Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yechiam, Eldad; Hochman, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Losses were found to improve cognitive performance, and this has been commonly explained by increased weighting of losses compared to gains (i.e., loss aversion). We examine whether effects of losses on performance could be modulated by two alternative processes: an attentional effect leading to increased sensitivity to task incentives; and a…

  9. Female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Singal, Archana; Sonthalia, Sidharth; Verma, Prashant

    2013-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients. PMID:23974580

  10. Arctic ozone loss

    SciTech Connect

    Zurer, P.S.

    1989-03-06

    Scientists have returned from the first comprehensive probe of the Arctic stratosphere with unexpectedly dire results: The winter atmosphere in the north polar region is loaded with the same destructive chlorine compounds that cause the Antarctic ozone hole. Atmospheric researchers who only a few weeks ago were comforted by the thought that the warmer Northern Hemisphere is strongly protected from the processes that lead to massive losses of ozone during spring in Antarctica now see very little standing in the way of an Arctic ozone hole.

  11. Loss of vascular fibrinolytic activity following irradiation of the liver - an aspect of late radiation damage

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, B.W.; Bicher, H.I.; Johnson, R.J.

    1983-09-01

    The vascular fibrinolytic activity, known to originate from the endothelium, was studied histochemically by fibrinolysis autography in liver samples from beagles exposed to radiation treatment. Eighteen to thirty months prior to sacrifice, six dogs received x irradiation (4600 rad in 5 weeks) and three dogs received x irradiation plus aspirin (1 g/kg). Two dogs served as untreated controls. Control livers showed extensive fibrinolytic activity related to large and small vascular structures. The vascular fibrinolytic activity had been lost from all vessels except the major portal branches in five irradiated livers and was severaly diminished in three. One irradiated liver appeared to possess normal fibrinolytic activity.

  12. Hearing Loss Tied to Bigger Medical Bills for Late Middle-Aged

    MedlinePlus

    ... at the Medical University of South Carolina, in Charleston. The researchers said more study is needed to ... the views of MedlinePlus, the National Library of Medicine, the National Institutes of Health, the U.S. Department ...

  13. REVIEW paper: mare reproductive loss syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, M M; Bernard, W V; Riddle, T W; Latimer, C R; Fitzgerald, T D; Harrison, L R

    2008-09-01

    An epidemic of early fetal loss (EFL), late fetal loss (LFL), fibrinous pericarditis, and unilateral uveitis which occurred during the spring of 2001, are together now known as the mare reproductive loss syndrome (MRLS). A similar epidemic with less intensity was reported during the same period of time from southern Ohio, West Virginia, and Tennessee. The same syndrome with lesser intensity recurred in 2002. The estimated economic loss from the syndrome in 2001 and 2002 together was approximately $500 million. Both EFL and LFL were characterized by the absence of specific clinical signs in aborting mares. Nonhemolytic Streptococcus spp. and Actinobacillus spp. accounted for 65% of the organisms isolated from fetuses submitted for a postmortem during the MRLS period in 2001 and 2002. The pathologic findings in fetoplacental units of LFL included bronchopneumonia and funisitis, and there were no findings in EFL. Epidemiologic studies conducted in 2001 suggested an association between the presences of eastern tent caterpillars (ETC) in pastures with MRLS. Experimental studies in pregnant mares by exposure to ETC, or administration by stomach tube or with feed material, reproduced EFL and LFL. Similar experimental studies in mouse, rats, and goats with ETC were unsuccessful. Currently, 2 hypotheses are proposed for MRLS. One hypothesis proposes that an ETC-related toxin with secondary opportunistic bacterial invasion of the fetus leads to MRLS. The second hypothesis suggests that a breach of gastrointestinal mucosal integrity by hairs of ETC leads to a bacteremia and results in MRLS. In 2004, a similar equine abortion storm was reported from Australia and caterpillar exposure was identified as a risk factor for the abortion. In 2006, the syndrome was observed in Florida and New Jersey. PMID:18725479

  14. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type) B) The “Christmas tree pattern” where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Results: The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. Conclusions: The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation. PMID:24719635

  15. Dealing with our losses.

    PubMed

    Mount, B M

    1986-07-01

    The repeated losses experienced by a clinical oncologist may constitute a significant source of personal stress. Studies documenting high stress levels on oncology services and the prevalence among physicians of alcoholism, cirrhosis, suicide, and marital discord lend urgency to the need to examine etiologic factors, clinical manifestations, and strategies for the management of job-related stress. Significant etiologic factors include death as an existential fact emphasizing our finite nature, the cumulative grief associated with repeated unresolved losses, the pressure of a health care system fueled by the medical information explosion, the inability to achieve the idealistic goals embraced by holistic medical care, stresses inherent in working as a "team," and an undermined context of meaning as an outcome of treatment failures. Clinical manifestations of stress are reviewed as an aid to early diagnosis. Strategies useful in the prevention and management of stress include the encouragement of increased awareness of stress in self and colleagues, the clarification of appropriate goals and priorities, encouragement of appropriate limit setting, the mobilization of collaborative input, the clarification of team roles and organizational patterns, the establishment of team support meetings and favorable working conditions, exercise, and the clarification and working through of previously unresolved personal psychodynamic issues. Differences between the work-related stress involved in clinical oncology as compared with hospice care are examined. PMID:3723168

  16. [Progressive hearing loss].

    PubMed

    Reiss, M; Reiss, G

    2000-01-01

    Progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is defined as hearing loss of unknown etiology with fairly high-speed progression. Its diagnostic criteria consist of the following: that it is 1) progressive, 2) with bilateral involvement, and 3) of unknown etiology. Due to recent advances in diagnostics, imaging and management, SNHL has gained much interest from otologists in the last few years. They provide new insight into the physiology and pathophysiology of hearing. SNHL which is sudden in onset, fluctuating, and/or progressive complicates medical management, hearing aid selection, and individualized educational planning for a hearing-impaired patient. Existing hypotheses on the etiology of SNHL are judged on experimental, clinical, laboratory and radiological evidence. Cardiovascular and rheologic diseases, hereditary disorders, immunological phenomena, infections, environmental causes like noise, ototoxic drugs and industrial substances and systemic maladies must be included in the diagnostic reflections. Potential concepts of treatment include rheologic medications and corticosteroids. Hearing aids and timely cochlear implant operation are further possible forms of treatment. PMID:10893764

  17. Comparison of a tube-holder (Rescuefix) versus tape-tying for minimizing double-lumen tube displacement during lateral positioning in thoracic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Sung Hye; Kang, Su Hwang; Kim, Jong Hae; Ryu, Taeha; Kim, Baek Jin; Jung, Jin Yong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Double-lumen endotracheal tubes (DLTs) are often displaced during change from the supine to the lateral decubitus position. The aim of this study was to determine whether Rescuefix, a recently developed tube-holder device, is more effective than the traditional tape-tying method for tube security during lateral positioning. Methods: Patients were randomly assigned to a Rescuefix (R) group (n = 22) or a tape (T) group (n = 22). After intubation with a left-sided DLT and adjustment of the appropriate DLT position using a fiberoptic bronchoscope, the DLT was fixed firmly at the side of the mouth by either Rescuefix or Durapore tape. “Tracheal depth” (from the tracheal carina to the elbow connector of the DLT) and “bronchial depth” (from the left bronchial carina to the elbow connector of the DLT) were measured in the supine position using the fiberoptic bronchoscope. After positional change, tracheal and bronchial depths were measured as described above. As the primary endpoint, displacement of the DLT during positional change was evaluated by obtaining the difference in depths measured when the patient was in the supine and lateral decubitus positions. In addition, after lateral positioning of the patient, any requirement for repositioning the DLT was recorded. Results: After lateral positioning, there were no significant differences in changes in tracheal and bronchial depths between the groups (tracheal depth 6.1 ± 4.4 mm [R group] and 9.1 ± 5.6 mm [T group], P = 0.058; bronchial depth 6.5 ± 4.4 mm [R group], and 8.5 ± 4.6 mm [T group], P = 0.132). Although the amount of change in tracheal and bronchial depths was not different between the groups, the need to reposition the DLT was significantly lower in the R group than in the T group (32% vs 68%, P = 0.016). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that use of Rescuefix did not reduce the amount of DLT displacement, but it did significantly

  18. Late-Glacial to Late-holocene Shifts in Global Precipitation Delta(sup 18)O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasechko, S.; Lechler, A.; Pausata, F.S.R.; Fawcett, P.J.; Gleeson, T.; Cendon, D.I.; Galewsky, J.; LeGrande, A. N.; Risi, C.; Sharp, Z. D.; Welker, J. M.; Werner, M.; Yoshimura, K.

    2015-01-01

    Reconstructions of Quaternary climate are often based on the isotopic content of paleo-precipitation preserved in proxy records. While many paleo-precipitation isotope records are available, few studies have synthesized these dispersed records to explore spatial patterns of late-glacial precipitation delta(sup 18)O. Here we present a synthesis of 86 globally distributed groundwater (n 59), cave calcite (n 15) and ice core (n 12) isotope records spanning the late-glacial (defined as 50,000 to 20,000 years ago) to the late-Holocene (within the past 5000 years). We show that precipitation delta(sup 18)O changes from the late-glacial to the late-Holocene range from -7.1% (delta(sup 18)O(late-Holocene) > delta(sup 18)O(late-glacial) to +1.7% (delta(sup 18)O(late-glacial) > delta(sup 18)O(late-Holocene), with the majority (77) of records having lower late-glacial delta(sup 18)O than late-Holocene delta(sup 18)O values. High-magnitude, negative precipitation delta(sup 18)O shifts are common at high latitudes, high altitudes and continental interiors.

  19. Late Cenozoic intraplate faulting in eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaahmadi, Abbas; Rosenbaum, Gideon

    2014-12-01

    The intensity and tectonic origin of late Cenozoic intraplate deformation in eastern Australia is relatively poorly understood. Here we show that Cenozoic volcanic rocks in southeast Queensland have been deformed by numerous faults. Using gridded aeromagnetic data and field observations, structural investigations were conducted on these faults. Results show that faults have mainly undergone strike-slip movement with a reverse component, displacing Cenozoic volcanic rocks ranging in ages from ˜31 to ˜21 Ma. These ages imply that faulting must have occurred after the late Oligocene. Late Cenozoic deformation has mostly occurred due to the reactivation of major faults, which were active during episodes of basin formation in the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous and later during the opening of the Tasman and Coral Seas from the Late Cretaceous to the early Eocene. The wrench reactivation of major faults in the late Cenozoic also gave rise to the occurrence of brittle subsidiary reverse strike-slip faults that affected Cenozoic volcanic rocks. Intraplate transpressional deformation possibly resulted from far-field stresses transmitted from the collisional zones at the northeast and southeast boundaries of the Australian plate during the late Oligocene-early Miocene and from the late Miocene to the Pliocene. These events have resulted in the hitherto unrecognized reactivation of faults in eastern Australia.

  20. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Noise-Induced Hearing Loss On this page: What is noise-induced hearing ... additional information about NIHL? What is noise-induced hearing loss? Every day, we experience sound in our environment, ...

  1. Hair Loss in New Moms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video library Find a dermatologist Hair loss in new moms Many new moms see noticeable hair loss ... regain normal fullness even earlier. Dermatologists’ tips for new mothers If the excessive hair shedding bothers you, ...

  2. Loss of a child - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Child death - resources; Resources - loss of a child ... The following organizations are good resources for information on the loss of a child: The Compassionate Friends -- www.compassionatefriends.org Bereaved Parents of the USA -- www.bereavedparentsusa. ...

  3. Coping with cancer - hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    Alopecia ... after fast-growing cells. While chemo can cause hair loss all over your body, radiation only affects the ... Hair loss usually happens 1 to 3 weeks after the first chemo or radiation treatment. The hair on ...

  4. Pet Loss: Implications for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharkin, Bruce S.; Bahrick, Audrey S.

    1990-01-01

    Attempts to increase awareness of counselors about topic of pet loss. Discusses how counselors can be actively involved through practice, consultation, and research to help people deal with emotional impact of pet loss. (Author/NB)

  5. Coping with cancer -- hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000914.htm Coping with cancer - hair loss To use the sharing features on this ... lose your hair. Why Cancer Treatments can Cause Hair Loss Many chemotherapy drugs attack fast-growing cells. ...

  6. Alleles that modulate late life hearing in genetically heterogeneous mice

    PubMed Central

    Schacht, Jochen; Altschuler, Richard; Burke, David T.; Chen, Shu; Dolan, David; Galecki, Andrzej T.; Kohrman, David; Miller, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    A genetically heterogeneous population of mice was tested for hearing at 8, 18 and 22 months by auditory brainstem response (ABR), and genotyped at 128 markers to identify loci that modulate late life hearing loss. Half of the test mice were exposed to noise for 2 hr at age 20 months. Polymorphisms affecting hearing at 18 months were noted on chromosomes 2, 3, 7, 10, and 15. Most of these loci had effects only on responses to 48 kHz stimuli, but a subset also influenced the ABR at lower frequencies. Loci on chromosomes 4, 10, 12, and 14 had significant effects on hearing at 22 months in noise-exposed mice, and loci on chromosomes 10 and 11 had effects on mice not exposed to noise. Outer hair cell loss was modulated by polymorphisms on chromosomes 10, 11, 12, 17, and 19. Resistance to age-related hearing loss is thus modulated by a set of genetic effects, some age-specific, some frequency specific, some dependent on prior exposure to noise, and some of which compromise survival of cochlear hair cells. PMID:22305187

  7. Magnesium emission variability among late-type giant stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullan, D. J.; Stencel, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Profiles of the Mg II h and k emission features in the spectra of 21 late-type giant stars were obtained. Emission strengths were separately measured in the shortward (S) and longward (L) components. Variations in total emission intensity (S + L) can be interpreted as evidence for variations in the rate of mechanical energy deposition in the chromosphere. Mass loss processes in the corona/outer atmosphere may be strong enough to affect the ratio of S/L: thus, rapid mass loss causes S/L to be less than unity. Rapid mass loss is likely caused by deposition of mechanical energy by stellar wind. Variations in S/L are a measure of variations in the rate of mechanical energy deposition in the corona/outer atmosphere. The stellar sample variations were divided into four classes: (1) variations in S/L; (2) variations in the circumstellar absorption components; (3) variations in the total flux; and (4) no evidence for variations found on the time scales used.

  8. Mass Loss from Betelgeuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, A. M. S.

    2013-05-01

    Betelgeuse is just starting to produce a wind which is thick enough to form dust. However, the grains seem to coalesce at much greater distances than those in "dust-driven" winds from later-stage AGB and RSG stars. Is the mass loss mechanism different, and how will it evolve? We know a great deal about the kinematics of the more evolved winds, thanks to sub-au imaging using masers, and easily-resolved CO shells, but Betelgeuse is a much fainter target, only resolved with great difficulty (although ALMA will change that). On the other hand, Betelgeuse was the first star other than the Sun to be imaged in detail in the radio as well as optical. Radio studies from the photosphere to the astropause will reveal: How is mass lost from the stellar surface? In what form is this returned to the ISM? These results could even help to answer: How will Betelgeuse evolve in the next few millennia?

  9. 757 Path Loss Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, Kent; Huffman, Mitch; Eppic, Brian; White, Harrison

    2005-01-01

    Path Loss Measurements were obtained on three (3) GPS equipped 757 aircraft. Systems measured were Marker Beacon, LOC, VOR, VHF (3), Glide Slope, ATC (2), DME (2), TCAS, and GPS. This data will provide the basis for assessing the EMI (Electromagnetic Interference) safety margins of comm/nav (communication and navigation) systems to portable electronic device emissions. These Portable Electronic Devices (PEDs) include all devices operated in or around the aircraft by crews, passengers, servicing personnel, as well as the general public in the airport terminals. EMI assessment capability is an important step in determining if one system-wide PED EMI policy is appropriate. This data may also be used comparatively with theoretical analysis and computer modeling data sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and others.

  10. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Balance › Breast Cancer and Bone Loss Fact Sheet Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July, 2010 Download PDFs English ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  11. Hypnotherapy in Weight Loss Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Gordon; Friesen, John

    1986-01-01

    Investigated effects of hypnosis as a treatment for weight loss among women. The primary hypothesis that hypnosis is an effective treatment for weight loss was confirmed, but seven concomitant variables and the use of audiotapes were not significant contributors to weight loss. (Author/ABB)

  12. Loss-aversion or loss-attention: the impact of losses on cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Yechiam, Eldad; Hochman, Guy

    2013-03-01

    Losses were found to improve cognitive performance, and this has been commonly explained by increased weighting of losses compared to gains (i.e., loss aversion). We examine whether effects of losses on performance could be modulated by two alternative processes: an attentional effect leading to increased sensitivity to task incentives; and a contrast-related effect. Empirical data from five studies show that losses improve performance even when the enhanced performance runs counter to the predictions of loss aversion. In Study 1-3 we show that in various settings, when an advantageous option produces large gains and small losses, participants select this alternative at a higher rate than when it does not produce losses. Consistent with the joint influence of attention and contrast-related processes, this effect is smaller when a disadvantageous alternative produces the losses. In Studies 4 and 5 we find a positive effect on performance even with no contrast effects (when a similar loss is added to all alternatives). These findings indicate that both attention and contrast-based processes are implicated in the effect of losses on performance, and that a positive effect of losses on performance is not tantamount to loss aversion. PMID:23334108

  13. Comparison of leukocyte excretion and blood loss in inflammatory disease of the bowel.

    PubMed Central

    Teahon, K; Bjarnason, I

    1993-01-01

    Clinical relapse of inflammatory bowel disease is characterised by increased neutrophil migration into the intestine. The site of the neutrophil chemoattractant(s), whether luminal or mucosal, may be important since, on contact with a chemoattractant, neutrophils cause indiscriminate damage to their immediate surroundings by generating reactive oxygen species and by lysosomal enzyme release. If this happens within the mucosa, inflammation should correlate significantly with tissue damage as assessed by bleeding, but if it occurs within the intestinal lumen, the inflammation would be disproportionately greater than the bleeding such as is seen in classical exudation. Intestinal inflammation and bleeding were quantitated with the simultaneous use of indium-111 labelled neutrophils (four day faecal excretion of indium-111) and chromium-51 labelled red cells in patients with ulcerative colitis (n = 12), Crohn's disease (n = 15), and NSAID induced enteropathy (n = 34). Intestinal inflammation and blood loss correlated significantly (Spearman) in patients with ulcerative colitis (20.3% v 6.5 ml/d (median) r: 0.85, p < 0.001) and NSAiD enteropathy (1.6% v 1.9 ml/d, r: 0.60, p < 0.01) but not in Crohn's disease (17.0% v 2.1 ml/d, r: 0.38, p > 0.1). For a given indium-111 excretion, patients with ulcerative colitis had significantly greater (p < 0.01) blood loss than patients with Crohn's disease. These results suggest that the predominant site of neutrophil chemoattractants may be within the mucosa in ulcerative colitis and NSAID enteropathy and within the lumen in Crohn's disease. PMID:8244139

  14. SDO Sees Late Phase in Solar Flares

    NASA Video Gallery

    On May 5, 2010, shortly after the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) began normal operation, the sun erupted with numerous coronal loops and flares. Many of these showed a previously unseen "late pha...

  15. Late Endovascular Pulmonary Artery Band Migration.

    PubMed

    Luciani, Giovanni Battista; Lucchese, Gianluca; Hoxha, Stiljan; Torre, Salvatore; Treviso, Oscar; Faggian, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Here reported is an unusual case of pulmonary artery band migration with serendipitous clinical presentation late after neonatal palliation of single ventricle with aortic arch hypoplasia. The diagnostic and therapeutic implications are discussed. PMID:26694278

  16. Late Amazonian Glaciations in Utopia Planitia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinski, G. R.; Capitan, R. D.; Kerrigan, M.; Barry, N.; Blain, S.

    2012-03-01

    We present evidence from western Utopia Planitia, including lineated valley fill and lobate debris aprons, for widespread glaciations over a large expanse of the northern plains and dichotomy boundary during Late Amazonian times.

  17. Loss mechanisms in polyimide waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalczyk, T.C.; Kosc, T.; Singer, K.D. ); Cahill, P.A.; Seager, C.H.; Meinhardt, M.B. ); Beuhler, A.J.; Wargowski, D.A. )

    1994-08-15

    Waveguide losses in thin film polyimides using waveguide loss spectroscopy and photothermal deflection spectroscopy as a function of cure cycle and structure were studied. Fluorinated sidegroups on the polyimide backbone lead to decreases in birefringence and absorption. The primary waveguide loss mechanism is absorption, not scattering. Waveguide losses as low as 0.4 dB/cm at 800 nm have been measured. Losses as low as 0.3 dB/cm at 1300 nm can be inferred from the photothermal deflection spectroscopy.

  18. Losses in polycrystalline silicon waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foresi, J. S.; Black, M. R.; Agarwal, A. M.; Kimerling, L. C.

    1996-04-01

    The losses of polycrystalline silicon (polySi) waveguides clad by SiO2 are measured by the cutback technique. We report losses of 34 dB/cm at a wavelength of 1.55 μm in waveguides fabricated from chemical mechanical polished polySi deposited at 625 °C. These losses are two orders of magnitude lower than reported absorption measurements for polySi. Waveguides fabricated from unpolished polySi deposited at 625 °C exhibit losses of 77 dB/cm. We find good agreement between calculated and measured losses due to surface scattering.

  19. Very Late Bare Metal Stent Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Soto Herrera, Mariana; Restrepo, José A.; Felipe Buitrago, Andrés; Gómez Mejía, Mabel; Díaz, Jesús H.

    2013-01-01

    Very late stent thrombosis is a rare and not-well-understood complication after bare metal stent implantation. It usually presents as an ST elevation acute coronary syndrome and it is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Pathophysiologic mechanisms are not well defined; nevertheless, recent studies have proposed a neoatherosclerotic process as the triggering mechanism. We present the case of a patient with bare metal very late stent thrombosis 12 years after implantation. PMID:24829831

  20. 12 CFR 706.4 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Late charges. 706.4 Section 706.4 Banks and.... until 7-1-10) § 706.4 Late charges. (a) In connection with collecting a debt arising out of an extension... indirectly, to levy or collect any delinquency charge on a payment, which payment is otherwise a full...