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1

Composition of Colostrum from Dairy Heifers Exposed to High Air Temperatures During Late Pregnancy and the Early Postpartum Period1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of heat stress on composition of colostrum from primiparous cows dur- ing late pregnancy and the early postpartum period. Two groups of 6 Holstein heifers were utilized. During the last 3 wk of pregnancy and during the first 36 h after calving, one group was exposed to thermal com- fort (temperature-humidity index = 65); the

A. Nardone; N. Lacetera; U. Bernabucci; B. Ronchi

1997-01-01

2

Clinicopathological spectrum of late postpartum renal failure; two contrasting cases.  

PubMed Central

The clinical and renal biopsy findings from two patients in whom renal functional abnormalities developed in the late postpartum period are described. Both biopsies showed fibrin deposition in the renal vasculature, in one case marked and in the other mild. The patient with the more severely damaged kidney subsequently died, and the other is alive but with evidence of slowly progressing renal damage. The clinicopathological spectrum and pathogenesis of late postpartum renal failure are discussed. Images PMID:777031

Ford, P M; Levison, D A; Down, P F; McConnell, J B

1976-01-01

3

[Endocrinopathies during the postpartum period. Management].  

PubMed

The various endocrinopathies that may occur during the postpartum period are described. The most important and common is gestational and pre-gestational diabetes, but other less common, and also very important ones, are mentioned such as hypopituitarism (Sheehan's syndrome and lymphocytic hypophysitis) and thyroid disorders, pre-existing (hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism), or postpartum onset (postpartum thyroiditis and Graves' disease). After describing their characteristics, the emphasis is placed on the proper management of these endocrine diseases, some of them which exclusively appear during the postpartum period. PMID:24837528

Gallo-Vallejo, J L; Gallo-Vallejo, F J

2015-03-01

4

Hormones and cognitive functioning during late pregnancy and postpartum: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

This longitudinal study investigated the possible influence of estradiol (E?), progesterone (P), testosterone (T), cortisol (CORT), and prolactin (PRL) levels on cognitive functioning during late pregnancy and the early postpartum period. The performance of 55 pregnant women on a battery of neuropsychological tests, tested once during the third trimester of pregnancy and once during the early postpartum period, was compared with that of 21 nonpregnant controls matched for age and education. Women in the pregnancy group had significantly lower scores than the controls during both the pre- and postpartum visits on tasks of verbal recall and processing speed. CORT levels were significantly associated, in an inverted-U function, with verbal recall scores at both the pregnancy and at postpartum periods and with spatial abilities at postpartum only. During pregnancy, PRL levels were associated in both a linear and an inverted-U function with scores on tests of paragraph recall and in a linear function with scores on tests of executive function. At postpartum, E? and CORT were negatively associated in a linear fashion with attention scores. These findings provide new evidence that fluctuating hormone levels during late pregnancy and early postpartum may modulate selected cognitive abilities. PMID:21928875

Henry, Jessica F; Sherwin, Barbara B

2012-02-01

5

Comfort with motherhood in late pregnancy facilitates maternal role attainment in early postpartum.  

PubMed

Quality of life, comfort, and wellbeing during pregnancy are essential for every country in the world. Pregnancy is considered a preparation period for becoming a mother. Maternal role development, including confidence and satisfaction as a mother, is important in the transition to motherhood. Negative psychosocial affect, such as increased anxiety and distress, during pregnancy adversely influences the childbirth experience and childcare, which contributes to postpartum depression. However, the impact of positive feelings on the maternal role development remains unclear. Therefore, the study purpose was to clarify the relationship between comfort in late pregnancy and maternal role attainment and childcare during early postpartum. We designed a descriptive, longitudinal, correlational study by using the Prenatal Comfort Scale, the Postpartum Maternal Role Confidence Scale, and the Postpartum Maternal Satisfaction Scale. Among 339 participants who had received care at a university hospital located in Sendai city in Japan, 215 subjects completed the longitudinal study by answering a questionnaire for the respective Scale late in their pregnancy or during early postpartum. The subjects consisted of 114 primipara (32.0 ± 5.4 years) and 101 multipara (33.4 ± 4.9 years). In primipara, comfort with motherhood was significantly correlated with maternal confidence regarding knowledge and childcare skills and maternal satisfaction. In multipara, comfort in late pregnancy was related to maternal confidence and satisfaction. Positive affect was related to maternal confidence and maternal satisfaction in early postpartum. Therefore, a prenatal nursing intervention helps women become more comfortable with impending motherhood, thereby promoting maternal role attainment after delivery. PMID:25744529

Nakamura, Yasuka; Takeishi, Yoko; Ito, Naoko; Ito, Mizuki; Atogami, Fumi; Yoshizawa, Toyoko

2015-01-01

6

Perinatal Stress, Fatigue, Depressive Symptoms, and Immune Modulation in Late Pregnancy and One Month Postpartum  

PubMed Central

Stress and fatigue are common complaints of pregnant and postpartum women as is depression. These symptoms may be related to immunomodulation. However, few studies have examined these relationships. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among stress, fatigue, depression, and cytokines as markers of immune modulation in prenatal and postpartum women. Women completed questionnaires and gave blood samples during late pregnancy and again at 4–6 weeks postpartum. Blood was analyzed for cytokines as measures of immune modulation. Stress, fatigue, and depression were experienced at moderately high levels, with higher levels of fatigue and depression in the postpartum but higher stress in the prenatal period. Levels of several cytokines were increased in the postpartum over the prenatal period. Stress and depression were related in the prenatal period and stress, depression, and fatigue were related in the postpartum. While various cytokines were related to each other in both periods, only stress was related to MIP-1?, a cytokine that may be important for childbirth processes. More studies, especially longitudinal and interventional studies, are needed to increase our knowledge about etiology, patterns, symptoms, factors, and management of maternal distress. The search for reliable biomarkers for at-risk mothers remains a priority. PMID:24587741

Cheng, C. Y.; Pickler, R. H.

2014-01-01

7

Can we identify mothers at risk for postpartum depression in the immediate postpartum period using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Postpartum depression is a major health issue for many women around the world with well-documented negative health consequences for the mother, child and family. While research has demonstrated the amenability of postpartum depression to treatment, there is preliminary evidence suggesting maternal mood in the immediate postpartum period may be predictive of postpartum depression such that secondary preventive interventions may

Cindy-Lee Dennis

2004-01-01

8

Ovarian follicular activity during late gestation and postpartum in guanaco (Lama guanicoe).  

PubMed

This study evaluated ovarian activity in late gestation and post-partum in guanacos in captivity. Follicular dynamics was monitored every second day from 40 days before and other 40 after delivery by transrectal sonography and by plasma steroids concentrations. Seven out of eight (87.5%) of gestating females presented ovarian follicular activity under progesterone levels >3 nmol/l with maximum follicular size of 8.42 ± 0.83 mm from days 23 to 1 before delivery. After delivery, all females have follicular wave development from day 0 to 38, with larger follicular size and longer follicular wave phases and interwave interval when compared with pre-partum data. During post-partum period, there was a close relationship between follicle size and estradiol-17? concentration, with r = 0.69 at the beginning of growth phase and r = 0.86 in association with the largest dominant follicle. Plasma estradiol-17? concentration varied from 11.92 to 198.55 pmol/l. Plasma estrone sulfate, free estrone and progesterone returned to baseline concentrations during peripartal period and remained basal thereafter. The results described follicular activity during late gestation and early post-partum period. These findings provide relevant information to understand physiological changes occurring during this reproductive key period in seasonal breeders with long gestation duration as New and Old World camelids. PMID:25528969

Riveros, J L; Schuler, G; Urquieta, B; Hoffmann, B; Bonacic, C

2015-02-01

9

Intrauterine device insertion in the postpartum period: A systematic review.  

PubMed

Abstract Objectives Given new research on postpartum placement of levonorgestrel and copper intrauterine devices (IUDs), our objective was to update a prior systematic review of the safety and expulsion rates of postpartum IUDs. Methods We searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, LILACS, POPLINE, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases for articles between the database inception until July 2013. We included studies that compared IUD insertion time intervals and routes during the postpartum period. We used standard abstract forms and the United States Preventive Services Task Force grading system to summarise and assess the quality of the evidence. Results We included 18 articles. New evidence suggests that a levonorgestrel releasing-intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) insertion within 48 hours of delivery is safe. Postplacental insertion and insertion between 10 minutes and 48 hours after delivery result in higher expulsion rates than insertion 4 to 6 weeks postpartum, or non-postpartum insertion. Insertion at the time of caesarean section is associated with lower expulsion rates than postplacental insertion at the time of vaginal delivery. Conclusions This review supports the evidence that insertion of an intrauterine contraceptive within the first 48 hours of vaginal or caesarean delivery is safe. Expulsion rates should be further studied in larger randomised controlled trials. PMID:25397890

Sonalkar, Sarita; Kapp, Nathalie

2015-02-01

10

[Acute pancreatitis in the post-partum period. Apropos of 3 cases].  

PubMed

Acute pancreatitis and pregnancy is a rare and serious combination that poses difficult diagnostic and therapeutic problems. Three cases of acute pancreatitis occurred in the post-partum period. Based on these cases and a literature review, we analyzed the different aspects of this interesting association. Biliary origin is particularly evident. Acute pancreatitis after delivery is a serious problem compared to other forms of acute pancreatitis. Late diagnosis caused by circumstances of happening contribute to the severity at least partially. PMID:8763574

El Mansari, O; Zentar, A; Mejdane, A; Touiti, D; Nazih, M; Janati, M I; Taobane, A; Moulay, I

1996-05-01

11

Is difficult childbirth related to postpartum maternal outcomes in the early postpartum period?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unplanned, adverse events during labor or delivery may generate a negative response during the early postpartum period, resulting\\u000a in disruption of usual functioning and mood. High levels of maternal depressive symptoms are associated with parenting, infant\\u000a attachment, behavioral problems and cognition (Beck 2002). The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of adverse events in labor or delivery

Diane F. Hunker; Thelma E. Patrick; Susan A. Albrecht; Katherine L. Wisner

2009-01-01

12

Treatment of psychosis and mania in the postpartum period.  

PubMed

Postpartum psychosis is a severe disorder that warrants acute clinical intervention. Little is known, however, about what interventions are most effective. The authors present treatment response and remission outcomes at 9 months postpartum using a four-step algorithm in patients with first-onset psychosis or mania in the postpartum period. Treatment involved the structured sequential administration of benzodiazepines, antipsychotics, lithium, and ECT. The outcome of clinical remission was examined in 64 women consecutively admitted for postpartum psychosis. Remission was defined as the absence of psychotic, manic, and severe depressive symptoms for at least 1 week. Women who remitted on antipsychotic monotherapy were advised to continue this treatment as maintenance therapy, and women who required both antipsychotics and lithium to achieve remission were maintained on lithium monotherapy. Relapse was defined as the occurrence of any mood or psychotic episode fulfilling DSM-IV-TR criteria. Using this treatment algorithm, the authors observed that nearly all patients (98.4%) achieved complete remission within the first three steps. None of the patients required ECT. At 9 months postpartum, sustained remission was observed in 79.7%. Patients treated with lithium had a significantly lower rate of relapse compared with those treated with antipsychotic monotherapy. Multiparity and nonaffective psychosis were identified as risk factors for relapse. The authors conclude that a structured treatment algorithm with the sequential addition of benzodiazepines, antipsychotics, and lithium may result in high rates of remission in patients with first-onset postpartum psychosis and that lithium maintenance may be most beneficial for relapse prevention. PMID:25640930

Bergink, Veerle; Burgerhout, Karin M; Koorengevel, Kathelijne M; Kamperman, Astrid M; Hoogendijk, Witte J; Lambregtse-van den Berg, Mijke P; Kushner, Steven A

2015-02-01

13

Is insomnia in late pregnancy a risk factor for postpartum depression\\/depressive symptomatology?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present work was to investigate if insomnia in late pregnancy is a risk factor for postpartum depressive symptomatology\\/postpartum depression (PPD). 581 women in their last trimester of pregnancy answered questions\\/questionnaires about lifetime history of insomnia, current sleep perception, current mood and depressive symptomatology. They were interviewed with the Portuguese version of the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic

Mariana Marques; Sandra Bos; Maria João Soares; Berta Maia; Ana Telma Pereira; José Valente; Ana Allen Gomes; António Macedo; Maria Helena Azevedo

2011-01-01

14

Management of gallstone pancreatitis during pregnancy and the postpartum period.  

PubMed

In a 22 year study, 21 women had acute pancreatitis develop during pregnancy (11 women) or within six weeks post partum (ten women). Gallstones were the cause of the pancreatitis in all. Operation during the acute attack of pancreatitis was required in only two. Acute pancreatitis subsided in the remaining 19 patients; they were operated upon during the second trimester or the early postpartum period. During pregnancy, surgical treatment for gallstone pancreatitis should consist of cholecystectomy and exploration of the common bile duct without operative cholangiography. During the postpartum period, operative cholangiography is used to determine whether or not exploration of the common bile duct is necessary. Acute pancreatitis associated with pregnancy is "gallstone" pancreatitis; there is no evidence that pregnancy is a specific etiologic factor in pancreatitis. As opposed to nonoperative treatment of symptomatic gallstone pancreatitis in pregnancy, which is accompanied by maternal morbidity or fetal mortality, surgical treatment during the optimal time of the second trimester or early postpartum period was associated with no maternal morbidity or fetal mortality and no recurrent pancreatitis. PMID:2711296

Block, P; Kelly, T R

1989-05-01

15

[Oxytocin and maternal stress during the post-partum period].  

PubMed

Oxytocin is required for lactation by promoting milk expulsion. Oxytocin has also been reported to exert a positive role in social attachment. The postpartum period has been shown to be crucial for maternal behavior initiation, and required self-trust reinforcement. However, this period is also remarkable for the high risk exposure of either psychic or physical stress. A negative impact on young mother is suspected, both in the short, medium or long term, which can even be deleterious for child-mother relationships. During lactation in female rats and sheep, oxytocin production has been proved to decrease stress-induced hormonal changes and later consequences. In human beings, only the first hour after breast-feeding seems to protect against physical or psychic stress. Oxytocin improves the stress-induced response by reducing the ACTH and cortisol secretion thus representing a potential therapeutic pathway in post-partum pathologies such as depression. Thus, this review of recent literature about oxytocin and stress during post-partum period, leads to the assumption that oxytocin, at the moment of installation of breastfeeding, acts not only on the physiological condition, but also on the psychic condition of the mother. PMID:16840912

Boutet, C; Vercueil, L; Schelstraete, C; Buffin, A; Legros, J J

2006-06-01

16

First-time fathers and stressors in the postpartum period.  

PubMed

The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the everyday stressors of first-time fathers during the postpartum period and to begin the process of establishing reliability and validity for the use of the Everyday Stressors Index with a sample of first-time fathers. A convenience sample of 19 participants included first-time fathers ranging in age from 18 to 45 years and mostly living in medium-sized cities. The results indicated that factors such as a feeling of not having enough time for too many responsibilities, financial issues, and concerns about the health of the child and other family member(s) were sources of stress. However, with the exception of slight differences in the ranking, everyday stressors among first-time fathers closely resembled previously reported stressors of first-time mothers. Although the sample was small and the results nongeneralizable, these findings suggest that educational efforts by health-care professionals could beneficially be directed toward fathers as well as mothers throughout the prenatal and postpartum periods. Policy implications for nursing and new directions for future research are discussed. PMID:17273429

Pollock, Melissa Amanti; Amankwaa, Linda C; Amankwaa, Adansi A

2005-01-01

17

Problem-Solving Appraisal and the Prediction of Depression during Pregnancy and in the Postpartum Period.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested hypothesis that higher levels of positive affect and lower levels of negative affect would predict depression during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. Analysis of 100 women indicated that women at risk for depression during pregnancy and in the postpartum period may exhibit heightened negative moods and a dearth of positive affective…

Elliott, Timothy R.; And Others

1996-01-01

18

The Prevalence and Risk Factors of Paternal Depression from the Antenatal to the Postpartum Period and the Relationships between Antenatal and Postpartum Depression among Fathers in Hong Kong  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Despite the fact that maternal perinatal mental health problems have been extensively studied and addressed to be a significant health problem, the literature on paternal perinatal mental health problems is relatively scarce. The present study aims at determining the prevalence of paternal perinatal depression and identifying the risk factors and the relationship between antenatal and postpartum depression. Methodology. 622 expectant fathers were recruited from regional maternal clinics. The expectant fathers were assessed using standardized and validated psychological instruments on 3 time points including early pregnancy, late pregnancy, and six weeks postpartum. Results. Results showed that a significant proportion of expectant fathers manifested depressive symptoms during the perinatal period. Paternal antenatal depression could significantly predict higher level of paternal postpartum depression. Psychosocial risk factors were consistently associated with paternal depression in different time points. Conclusions. The present study points to the need for greater research and clinical attention to paternal depression given that it is a highly prevalent problem and could be detrimental to their spouse and children development. The present findings contribute to theoretical basis of the prevalence and risk factors of paternal perinatal depression and have implications of the design of effective identification, prevention, and interventions of these clinical problems. PMID:24600517

Koh, Y. W.; Chui, C. Y.; Tang, C. S. K.; Lee, A. M.

2014-01-01

19

Successful Intra-Arterial Thrombolysis for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Immediate Postpartum Period: Case Report  

SciTech Connect

Stroke in pregnancy and the puerperium is a rare but potentially devastating event. We present the case of a previously healthy woman who underwent a cesarean delivery and experienced a middle cerebral artery thrombosis in the immediate postpartum period that was subsequently lysed with intra-arterial urokinase. The patient made a complete neurologic recovery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of successful intra-arterial thrombolysis for ischemic stroke in the postpartum period.

Mendez, Jose C. [Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Department of Neuroradiology (Spain)], E-mail: jmendezce@hotmail.com; Masjuan, J.; Garcia, N.; Lecinana, M. de [Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Department of Neurology (Spain)

2008-01-15

20

A Counselor's Primer on Postpartum Depression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that women are particularly vulnerable to depression during the postpartum period. Distinguishes postpartum depression from normal postpartum adjustment, postpartum blues, and postpartum psychosis. Describes biological, psychodynamic, and diathesis-stress perspectives on postpartum depression. Encourages counselors to fashion individualized…

Pfost, Karen S.; And Others

1990-01-01

21

Social support during the postpartum period: Mothers’ views on needs, expectations, and mobilization of support  

PubMed Central

Objectives Research has indicated that social support is a major buffer of postpartum depression. Yet little is known concerning women’s perceptions on social support during the postpartum period. The objective of this study was to explore postpartum women’s views and experiences with social support following childbirth. Methods Four focus groups were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of women (n=33) in a large urban teaching hospital in New York City. Participants had completed participation in a postpartum depression randomized trial and were 6 to 12 months postpartum. Data transcripts were reviewed and analyzed for themes. Results The main themes identified in the focus group discussions were mother’s major needs and challenges postpartum, social support expectations and providers of support, how mothers mobilize support, and barriers to mobilizing support. Women across all groups identified receipt of instrumental support as essential to their physical and emotional recovery. Support from partners and families was expected and many women believed this support should be provided without asking. Racial/ethnic differences existed in the way women from different groups mobilized support from their support networks. Conclusions Instrumental support plays a significant role in meeting women’s basic needs during the postpartum period. In addition, women’s expectations surrounding support can have an impact on their ability to mobilize support among their social networks. The results of this study suggest that identifying support needs and expectations of new mothers is important for mothers’ recovery after childbirth. Future postpartum depression prevention efforts should integrate a strong focus on social support. PMID:22581378

Negron, Rennie; Martin, Anika; Almog, Meital; Balbierz, Amy; Howell, Elizabeth A.

2012-01-01

22

Smoking cessation intervention for pregnant women: a call for extension to the postpartum period.  

PubMed

The association between smoking during pregnancy and adverse maternal/neonatal health outcomes is widely acknowledged, and recent health care reform has filled a much-needed gap by extending prenatal smoking cessation intervention coverage to all pregnant women on Medicaid. While more extensive coverage will improve quit rates during pregnancy, there continues to be a need to address high relapse rates in the postpartum period for both the insured and the uninsured. Smoking during the postpartum period exposes infants directly and indirectly to negative health effects, and has additional costs to mothers and society. Approximately 80% of women who quit smoking during pregnancy relapse in the first year postpartum, highlighting a need for effective continuing care that supports them through the challenging postpartum period when stress is high and motivations to stay quit may change. Existing relapse prevention interventions, typically delivered during pregnancy, have been found to be of little benefit during the postpartum period, suggesting the need for a more formal continuing care approach. Phone-based protocols are promising because they address the need for flexible access, and are known to be effective at increasing quit rates and sustained cessation. PMID:21710186

Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H

2012-07-01

23

Heart rate variability biofeedback intervention for reduction of psychological stress during the early postpartum period.  

PubMed

This study examined the effectiveness of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback intervention for reduction of psychological stress in women in the early postpartum period. On postpartum day 4, 55 healthy subjects received a brief explanation about HRV biofeedback using a portable device. Among them, 25 mothers who agreed to implement HRV biofeedback at home were grouped as the biofeedback group, and other 30 mothers were grouped as the control group. At 1 month postpartum, there was a significant decrease in total Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score (P < 0.001) in the biofeedback group; this change was brought about mainly by decreases in items related to anxiety or difficulty sleeping. There was also a significant increase in standard deviation of the normal heartbeat interval (P < 0.01) of the resting HRV measures in the biofeedback group after adjusting for potential covariates. In conclusion, postpartum women who implemented HRV biofeedback after delivery were relatively free from anxiety and complained less of difficulties sleeping at 1 month postpartum. Although the positive effects of HRV biofeedback may be partly attributable to intervention effects, due to its clinical outcome, HRV biofeedback appears to be recommendable for many postpartum women as a feasible health-promoting measure after childbirth. PMID:25239433

Kudo, Naoko; Shinohara, Hitomi; Kodama, Hideya

2014-12-01

24

Female genital mutilation (FGM) management during pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a traditional practice with serious health consequences to women that is still practiced in 28 countries with approximately 2 million girls exposed to the practice annually. The complications of FGM cause suffering to the woman all her life. Pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period are particularly important as there is increased risk of mortality and

H Rushwan

2000-01-01

25

Management of Toxoplasmic Retinochoroiditis during Pregnancy, Postpartum Period and Lactation: Clinical Observations  

PubMed Central

Background During pregnancy and labor, the immune response is physiologically impaired and women are more susceptible to infections. Since many drugs may have potentially adverse effects on the fetus and newborn, less aggressive treatment regimens should be considered in pregnant and lactating patients. The aim of our study was to present the management of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis during pregnancy, postpartum period, and lactation. Material/Methods A retrospective study was undertaken of the clinical records of 24 women during pregnancy, postpartum period, and lactation who were referred in the years 1994–2014 to the Department of Zoonoses and Tropical Diseases or the Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Warsaw for toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. The diagnosis was based on the typical ophthalmoscopic picture, confirmed by serological testing using an ELISA method. Results A total of 28 attacks of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis were observed in 24 patients during pregnancy, postpartum period, and lactation. The choice of treatment was guided by the character and location of the inflammatory lesion and the gestational age. Topical (steroidal/nonsteroidal eye drops) and systemic treatments with spiramycin or azithromycin, Fansidar (pyrimethamine 25 mg/sulfadoxine 500 mg), and prednisone were used. Conclusions Management of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis during pregnancy, postpartum period, or lactation must be individualized and guided by the gestational age and location of the active lesion. Women of childbearing age with toxoplasma ocular lesions should be informed by their doctors about possible active recurrences during pregnancy and followed carefully by an ophthalmologist when pregnant. PMID:25711713

Brydak-Godowska, Joanna; Moneta-Wielgo?, Joanna; K?cik, Dariusz; Borkowski, Piotr Karol

2015-01-01

26

Management of Toxoplasmic Retinochoroiditis during Pregnancy, Postpartum Period and Lactation: Clinical Observations.  

PubMed

Background During pregnancy and labor, the immune response is physiologically impaired and women are more susceptible to infections. Since many drugs may have potentially adverse effects on the fetus and newborn, less aggressive treatment regimens should be considered in pregnant and lactating patients. The aim of our study was to present the management of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis during pregnancy, postpartum period, and lactation. Material and Methods A retrospective study was undertaken of the clinical records of 24 women during pregnancy, postpartum period, and lactation who were referred in the years 1994-2014 to the Department of Zoonoses and Tropical Diseases or the Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Warsaw for toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. The diagnosis was based on the typical ophthalmoscopic picture, confirmed by serological testing using an ELISA method. Results A total of 28 attacks of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis were observed in 24 patients during pregnancy, postpartum period, and lactation. The choice of treatment was guided by the character and location of the inflammatory lesion and the gestational age. Topical (steroidal/nonsteroidal eye drops) and systemic treatments with spiramycin or azithromycin, Fansidar (pyrimethamine 25 mg/sulfadoxine 500 mg), and prednisone were used. Conclusions Management of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis during pregnancy, postpartum period, or lactation must be individualized and guided by the gestational age and location of the active lesion. Women of childbearing age with toxoplasma ocular lesions should be informed by their doctors about possible active recurrences during pregnancy and followed carefully by an ophthalmologist when pregnant. PMID:25711713

Brydak-Godowska, Joanna; Moneta-Wielgo?, Joanna; K?cik, Dariusz; Borkowski, Piotr Karol

2015-01-01

27

The Plasticity of Human Maternal Brain: Longitudinal Changes in Brain Anatomy During the Early Postpartum Period  

PubMed Central

Animal studies suggest that structural changes occur in the maternal brain during the early postpartum period in regions such as the hypothalamus, amygdala, parietal lobe, and prefrontal cortex and such changes are related to the expression of maternal behaviors. In an attempt to explore this in humans, we conducted a prospective longitudinal study to examine gray matter changes using voxel-based morphometry on high resolution magnetic resonance images of mothers’ brains at two time points: 2–4 weeks postpartum and 3–4 months postpartum. Comparing gray matter volumes across these two time points, we found increases in gray matter volume of the prefrontal cortex, parietal lobes, and midbrain areas. Increased gray matter volume in the midbrain including the hypothalamus, substantia nigra, and amygdala was associated with maternal positive perception of her baby. These results suggest that the first months of motherhood in humans are accompanied by structural changes in brain regions implicated in maternal motivation and behaviors. PMID:20939669

Kim, Pilyoung; Leckman, James F.; Mayes, Linda C.; Feldman, Ruth; Wang, Xin; Swain, James E.

2015-01-01

28

Postpartum Mood Disorders  

PubMed Central

Adjusting to the role of mother, a creative and joyous change for most women, combines with simultaneous physiological and psychological changes to develop into psychiatric problems in some women. Three common syndromes during the postpartum period are postpartum blues, postpartum depression, and postpartum psychosis. Any postpartum condition should be diagnosed rapidly to prevent short- and long-term disorders. PMID:21221273

Misri, Shaila; Burgmann, Allan J.F.

1992-01-01

29

Course and predictors of maternal eating disorders in the postpartum period  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate course and predictors of eating disorders in the postpartum period. Method A total of 77,807 women, participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), completed questionnaires during pregnancy including items covering DSM-IV criteria for pre-pregnancy anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS-P), and binge eating disorder (BED). Additional questionnaires were completed at 18 and 36 months postpartum. Results Proportions of women remitting at 18 months and 36 months postpartum were 50% and 59% for AN, 39% and 30% for BN, 46% and 57% for EDNOS-P, and 45% and 42% for BED, respectively. However, disordered eating persisted in a substantial proportion of women meeting criteria for either full or subthreshold eating disorders. BN during pregnancy increased the risk for continuation of BN. BMI and psychological distress were significantly associated with course of BED. Discussion This is the first large-scale population-based study on course of eating disorders in the postpartum period. The results indicated that disordered eating persists in a substantial proportion of women with pre-pregnancy eating disorders. Health care professionals working with women in this phase of life need to pay specific attention to eating disorder symptoms and behaviors. PMID:23307499

Knoph, Cecilie; Holle, Ann Von; Zerwas, Stephanie; Torgersen, Leila; Tambs, Kristian; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Bulik, Cynthia M; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

2012-01-01

30

Effects of different anesthesia protocols on lactation in the postpartum period  

PubMed Central

Objective Many factors can influence the secretion of breast milk. Cesarean section is a risk factor for late onset of breastfeeding. Material and Methods In our study, we compared the lactation process by mothers who underwent elective cesarean section under general anesthesia, spinal anesthesia, epidural anesthesia, and normal birth; 84 patients between 18–40 years of age with a risk of ASA I–II were included. Randomly patients were divided into four groups: group G (general anesthesia, n:21), group S (spinal anesthesia, n:21), group E (epidural anesthesia, n:21), and group V (vaginal birth, without anesthesia, n:21). Oxytocin and prolactin values of all patients before and after operation or birth were recorded. In addition the initiation time of lactation after delivery or cesarean section were recorded. Results In all groups, there were no significant differences among hormone levels in the prepartum period (p=0.350). Prolactin levels in group G (p=0.011) and oxytocin levels in group V (p=0.012) in the postpartum period were significantly higher than in the other groups. The start of lactation was significantly delayed in group G (p=0.003). Conclusion We consider that the onset time of lactation is delayed in patients undergoing cesarean section with general anesthesia when compared with patients who undergo cesarean section with spinal and epidural anesthesia and with patients who undergo normal vaginal birth. Because of the delay of awakening and recovery of cognitive functions in general anesthesia, communication between the mother and the newborn is delayed and so is the lactation. PMID:25584032

Kutlucan, Leyla; Seker, ?lknur S.; Demiraran, Yavuz; Ersoy, Özlem; Karagöz, ?brahim; Sezen, Gülbin; Köse, Seyit Ali

2014-01-01

31

Maintenance of smoking cessation in the postpartum period: which interventions work best in the long-term?  

PubMed

Smoking during pregnancy has been linked to a variety of adverse outcomes for both maternal and child health. Decades of studies have sought to increase cessation antepartum and reduce relapse postpartum. A number of effective interventions exist to significantly reduce smoking rates during pregnancy; however, less is known about how to prevent relapse in the postpartum period. This review investigates interventions to prevent relapse in the long-term postpartum period. We focus specifically on nonspontaneous quitters (individuals who quit smoking as a result of an external intervention) to reveal differences in long-term response to interventions for this population compared to spontaneous quitters. A systematic literature search yielded 32 relevant studies of pharmacological, behavioral, and incentives-based interventions. Results were compiled, analyzed, and compared in order to evaluate success factors in maintaining cessation postpartum. Though intervention groups showed consistently higher quit rates during pregnancy than control groups, none of the intervention types were effective at preventing relapse in the longer-term postpartum period. One study maintained significantly higher abstinence in the longer-term period postpartum using a mix of behavioral and incentives strategies. Additional research in this area is needed to identify optimal intervention strategies to reduce long-term postpartum relapse, particularly for nonspontaneous quitters. PMID:23812798

Su, Anny; Buttenheim, Alison M

2014-04-01

32

Do Pregnancy, Postpartum Period and Lactation Predispose to Recurrent Toxoplasmic Retinochoroiditis?  

PubMed Central

Backgrund The aim of the study was a statistical analysis of the possible effects of pregnancy, postpartum period, and lactation on increased risk for reactivation of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. Material/Methods A retrospective study was undertaken of the clinical records of 661 patients referred with the diagnosis of acute toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis to the Department of Zoonoses and Tropical Diseases, Medical University of Warsaw and to the Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Warsaw in the years 1994–2014. This group of inpatients consisted of 213 women of child-bearing age (18 to 40 years). Reactivation of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis was observed in 24 women aged 15 to 39 years who were pregnant, in the postpartum period, or lactating. To compare the rate of the relapses in pregnant/lactating patients vs. non-pregnant/non-lactating patients, the Fisher exact test was used. Calculations were performed with WinPepi software (Abramson JH (2004) WINPEPI (PEPI-for-Windows) for epidemiologists. Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations, 2005, 1: 6). Results A total of 28 reactivations of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis were observed (16 episodes in pregnancy, 4 in the postpartum period, and 8 during lactation) in 24 women aged 15 to 39 years. In 3 women, multiple episodes were reported (in early pregnancy and the postpartum period in 2 women, and during 2 pregnancies and lactation in 1 woman). Statistical analysis showed that the risk of an episode of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis is 7.4-fold higher in pregnancy compared to the non-pregnant/non-lactating women (p<0.0001). Conclusions Women of childbearing age with toxoplasma ocular lesions should be informed by their doctors about possible active recurrences during pregnancy and should be followed carefully by an ophthalmologist when pregnant. PMID:25703198

Brydak-Godowska, Joanna; Borkowski, Piotr Karol; Rabczenko, Daniel; Moneta-Wielgo?, Joanna; K?cik, Dariusz

2015-01-01

33

Postpartum responses of dairy cows supplemented with n-3 fatty acids for different durations during the peripartal period.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different durations of n-3 supplementation during the peripartal period on production and reproduction performance of Holstein dairy cows. Thirty-two Holstein dry cows (16 multiparous and 16 primiparous) were blocked within parity for similar expected calving dates 8 wk before calving. Cows within blocks were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 treatments: (1) control without n-3 fatty acid (FA) supplementation during the dry period; (2) n-3 FA supplementation during the whole dry period (8 wk); and (3) n-3 FA supplementation during the early dry period (first 5 wk; far-off), or (4) n-3 FA supplementation during the late dry period (last 3 wk; close-up). All cows received the same diet without n-3 FA after calving for the first 6 wk of lactation. Ovaries of each cow were examined 10, 17, 24, and 34 d from calving (calving=d 0) by transrectal ultrasonography to determine follicular development. Blood samples were collected at 14-d intervals starting on the first day of the dry period (8 wk before expected calving) to determine plasma concentrations of glucose, ?-hydroxybutyrate, nonesterified fatty acids, urea N, aspartate aminotransferase, and insulin. Blood samples were also collected on d 1, 10, 17, 24, 31, and 38 postpartum for determination of progesterone concentration. Milk yield was recorded daily throughout the experiment and samples were taken twice weekly (Monday and Thursday mornings) for analysis of fat, protein, and lactose. Yields of milk and 4% fat-corrected milk and milk composition were similar among treatments except for fat proportion, which tended to be lower in cows that were fed n-3 FA throughout the dry period. We observed no differences among treatments for plasma concentrations of metabolites and hormones. The cows that were fed in the 3 n-3 FA treatments had larger ovulatory follicles compared with those fed the controlled diet. Treatments did not differ significantly in terms of the number of days open, day to first service, or number of services per pregnancy. In conclusion, n-3 FA supplementation throughout the dry period or in the early or late prepartal period had no carryover reproductive postpartum benefits and no effect on the production of Holstein dairy cows. PMID:25064653

Badiei, A; Aliverdilou, A; Amanlou, H; Beheshti, M; Dirandeh, E; Masoumi, R; Moosakhani, F; Petit, H V

2014-10-01

34

Plasma patterns of biologically and immunologically active luteinizing hormone during late gestation and early postpartum in the bovine  

E-print Network

PLASMA PATTERNS OF BIOLOGICALLY AND IMMUNOLOGICALLY ACTIVE LUTEINIZING HORMONE DURING LATE GESTATION AND EARLY POSTPARTUM IN THE BOVINE A Thesis GARY DUANE WEESNER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A k M University in partial... IN THE BOVINE A Thesis by GARY DUANE WEESNER Approved as to style and content by: PG Harms (Chairman of committee) DW Forrest (member) Tsu sur (member) GC Smith (Head of Department) August i986 ABSTRACT Plasma Patterns of Biologically...

Weesner, Gary Duane

1986-01-01

35

Effect of ovulatory follicle size and estradiol supplementation during the preovulatory period on pregnancy rates in postpartum beef cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In postpartum beef cows, GnRH-induced ovulation of small dominant follicles decreased pregnancy rates and increased late embryonic/fetal mortality; however, ovulatory follicle size had no apparent effect on the establishment or maintenance of pregnancy when ovulation occurred spontaneously. Further...

36

Postpartum Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... Sections Symptoms Multimedia Table Index In This Topic Women's Health Issues Postdelivery Period Postpartum Infections Back to Top ... Older People's Health Issues Skin Disorders Special Subjects Women's Health Issues Chapters in Women's Health Issues Biology of ...

37

Source of F series prostaglandins during the early postpartum period in cattle.  

PubMed

In vivo and in vitro studies were conducted to determine the contribution of the bovine uterus to concentrations of 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGFM) in peripheral plasma of postpartum cows. In Experiment 1, cows were assigned to three groups: untreated control (n = 4), hysterectomy following a manually induced prolapse of the uterus (n = 5) and sham operation (n = 3: prolapse of the uterus and replacement). Surgery was performed within 8 h of parturition, and blood samples collected frequently on the day of surgery and once (0800 h) or twice (0800 and 1700 h) daily from Day 1 to Day 15 postpartum. Following hysterectomy, PGFM concentrations decreased precipitously, became essentially undetectable by 5 h, and remained so for the rest of the experimental period. In contrast (P less than 0.01), PGFM concentrations, which remained elevated during the day of surgery in the sham-operated group, peaked on Day 2 (sham-operated group: 1339 pg/ml) or Day 3 (untreated control: 2143 pg/ml), and declined to a basal concentration between Days 10 to 15. In Experiment 2, in vitro metabolism of tritiated arachidonic acid ([3H] AA: 10 microCi) and production of PGF2 alpha and PGFM were studied in explants of early postpartum intrauterine tissues (myometrium, caruncle and intercaruncular endometrium). Extracts of [3H] AA metabolites released into the incubation medium were separated on Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Metabolites of [3H] AA, having the same chromatographic mobility as PGF2 alpha, PGFM and PGE2, were detected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6440602

Guilbault, L A; Thatcher, W W; Drost, M; Hopkins, S M

1984-12-01

38

An Assessment of Maternal Quality of Life in the Postpartum Period in Southern Brazil: A Comparison of Two Questionnaires  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To assess maternal quality of life (QoL) during the postpartum period and to compare the performance of two QoL questionnaires across a sample of 101 women in southern Brazil. To our knowledge, this is the first study that measures maternal quality of life during the postpartum period in Brazil. INTRODUCTION There is limited information about postpartum maternal quality of life in Brazil. The are no Portuguese versions of instruments specifically designed to measure quality of life during the postpartum period. METHODS Research participants completed the Portuguese version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-Bref (WHOQOL-BREF) and Multicultural Quality of Life Index (MQLI) questionnaires. The correlations between the MQLI and the discrete areas of WHOQOL-BREF were examined using Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficients. RESULTS We report a significant correlation between the global MQLI and the four domains of the WHOQOL-BREF scores (p < 0.01). An analysis of variance revealed a significant difference in mean scores in the Psychological and Environment domains according to different socio-economic strata: F (3, 97) = 3.81, p = 0.012 and F (3, 97) = 4.03, p = 0.01, respectively. DISCUSSION The WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire may be more sensitive than the MQLI in detecting the impact of socioeconomic status on the QoL of postpartum women. CONCLUSION The sample of postpartum women evaluated in this study presented favorable QoL scores according to both the MQLI and WHOQOL-BREF questionnaires. Our results also indicate that the WHOQOL-BREF and the MQLI questionnaires have a significant correlation in terms of their assessments of postpartum mothers. PMID:19690658

Zubaran, Carlos; Foresti, Katia; Schumacher, Marina Verdi; Muller, Lucia Cristina; Amoretti, Aline Luz

2009-01-01

39

Biomarkers From Late Pregnancy to 6 Weeks Postpartum in HIV-Infected Women Who Continue Versus Discontinue Antiretroviral Therapy After Delivery  

PubMed Central

Background Women who use antiretroviral therapy (ART) solely for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV discontinue postpartum. We hypothesized that women discontinuing ART by 6 weeks postpartum (“discontinuers”) would have elevated postpartum inflammatory biomarker levels relative to women remaining on ART postpartum (“continuers”). Methods Data from HIV-infected pregnant women enrolled in the International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials Group P1025 with CD4 counts >350 cells per cubic millimeter before initiating ART or first pregnancy CD4 counts >400 cells per cubic millimeter after starting ART and with available stored plasma samples at >20 weeks of gestation, delivery, and 6 weeks postpartum were analyzed. Plasma samples were tested for highly sensitive C-reactive protein, D-dimer, and interleukin-6. We used longitudinal linear spline regression to model biomarkers over time. Results Data from 128 women (65 continuers and 63 discontinuers) were analyzed. All biomarkers increased from late pregnancy to delivery, then decreased postpartum (slopes different from 0, P < 0.001). Continuers had a steeper decrease in log D-dimer between delivery and 6 weeks postpartum than discontinuers (P = 0.002). Conclusions In contrast to results from treatment interruption studies in adults, both ART continuers and ART discontinuers had significant decreases in the levels of D-dimer, highly sensitive C-reactive protein, or interleukin-6 postpartum. Continuation was associated with a more rapid decline in D-dimer levels compared with discontinuation. PMID:23714738

Hoffman, Risa M.; Leister, Erin; Kacanek, Deborah; Shapiro, David E.; Read, Jennifer S.; Bryson, Yvonne; Currier, Judith S.

2013-01-01

40

Oxytocin in the medial prefrontal cortex regulates maternal care, maternal aggression and anxiety during the postpartum period  

PubMed Central

The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) acts on a widespread network of brain regions to regulate numerous behavioral adaptations during the postpartum period including maternal care, maternal aggression, and anxiety. In the present study, we examined whether this network also includes the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We found that bilateral infusion of a highly specific oxytocin receptor antagonist (OTR-A) into the prelimbic (PL) region of the mPFC increased anxiety-like behavior in postpartum, but not virgin, females. In addition, OTR blockade in the postpartum mPFC impaired maternal care behaviors and enhanced maternal aggression. Overall, these results suggest that OT in the mPFC modulates maternal care and aggression, as well as anxiety-like behavior, during the postpartum period. Although the relationship among these behaviors is complicated and further investigation is required to refine our understanding of OT actions in the maternal mPFC, these data nonetheless provide new insights into neural circuitry of OT-mediated postpartum behaviors. PMID:25147513

Sabihi, Sara; Dong, Shirley M.; Durosko, Nicole E.; Leuner, Benedetta

2014-01-01

41

Efficacy of Enhanced HIV Counseling for Risk Reduction during Pregnancy and in the Postpartum Period: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Pregnancy and the postpartum period present important intervention opportunities. Counseling can leverage the motivation women have during this time to change behaviors that may negatively affect their health and the heath of their infants. Methods Pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in South Africa were randomly allocated to treatment (n?=?733) and control arms (n?=?747). Treatment arm participants received enhanced HIV pre- and post-test counseling, legal support and access to support groups at baseline, which occurred at the first antenatal visit, and then six and ten weeks postpartum. Control arm participants received standard HIV testing and counseling (HTC) and two postpartum attention control sessions. Outcomes were incidence of sexually transmitted infection (STI) by 14 weeks postpartum and past 30-day inconsistent condom use at 14 weeks and 9 months postpartum. Results There were no intervention effects on incident STIs for either HIV-negative (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 1.01, 95% CI 0.71–1.44) or HIV-positive participants (aRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.61–1.23). The intervention was associated with a 28% decrease in risk of past 30-day inconsistent condom use at nine-months among HIV-negative women (aRR 0.72,95% CI 0.59–0.88), but did not affect inconsistent condom use among HIV-positive women (aRR1.08; 95% CI 0.67–1.75). Discussion An enhanced counseling intervention during pregnancy and the postpartum period can lead to reductions in inconsistent condom use among HIV-negative women. Results underscore the importance of the counseling that accompanies HIV HTC. More work is needed to understand how to promote and sustain risk reduction among HIV-positive women. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01683461 PMID:24824050

Maman, Suzanne; Moodley, Dhayendre; McNaughton-Reyes, Heathe Luz; Groves, Allison K.; Kagee, Ashraf; Moodley, Prashini

2014-01-01

42

Measurement issues in postpartum depression part 1: Anxiety as a feature of postpartum depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a We investigated the contribution of anxiety symptoms to scores on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) between\\u000a 36 weeks gestation and 16 weeks postpartum in 150 women. The 3-item anxiety subscale of the EPDS accounted for 47% of the\\u000a total score in late pregnancy, and 38% of the total score in the postpartum period. Two categories of anxiety were

L. E. Ross; S. E. Gilbert Evans; E. M. Sellers; M. K. Romach

2003-01-01

43

Endogenous CNS Expression of Neurotensin and Neurotensin Receptors Is Altered during the Postpartum Period in Outbred Mice  

PubMed Central

Neurotensin (NT) is a neuropeptide identical in mice and humans that is produced and released in many CNS regions associated with maternal behavior. NT has been linked to aspects of maternal care and previous studies have indirectly suggested that endogenous NT signaling is altered in the postpartum period. In the present study, we directly examine whether NT and its receptors exhibit altered gene expression in maternal relative to virgin outbred mice using real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) across multiple brain regions. We also examine NT protein levels using anti-NT antibodies and immunohistochemistry in specific brain regions. In the medial preoptic area (MPOA), which is critical for maternal behaviors, mRNA of NT and NT receptor 3 (Sort1) were significantly up-regulated in postpartum mice compared to virgins. NT mRNA was also elevated in postpartum females in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis dorsal. However, in the lateral septum, NT mRNA was down-regulated in postpartum females. In the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), Ntsr1 expression was down-regulated in postpartum females. Neurotensin receptor 2 (Ntsr2) expression was not altered in any brain region tested. In terms of protein expression, NT immunohistochemistry results indicated that NT labeling was elevated in the postpartum brain in the MPOA, lateral hypothalamus, and two subregions of PVN. Together, these findings indicate that endogenous changes occur in NT and its receptors across multiple brain regions, and these likely support the emergence of some maternal behaviors. PMID:24416154

Driessen, Terri M.; Zhao, Changjiu; Whittlinger, Anna; Williams, Horecia; Gammie, Stephen C.

2014-01-01

44

Blood Metabolite Profiles in Cycling and Non-cycling Friesian-Sanga Cross-bred Cows Grazing Natural Pasture During the Post-partum Period.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of plasma concentrations of the metabolic hormones [Growth hormone (GH), insulin and insulin-like growth factor -I (IGF-I)] and nutritional metabolites (Glucose, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinine) on the resumption of post-partum ovarian activity in sixteen Friesian-Sanga cows grazing extensively on native grassland. Blood samples were taken from cows from week 1 to 16 post-partum. Cows were classified as having resumed ovarian activity when a plasma progesterone concentration of ? 1.0 ng/ml was recorded for two consecutive weekly samples. Based on the resumption of ovarian activity, cows were classified as early-cycling, late-cycling or non-cycling. The concentrations of the metabolic hormones were measured from week 1 to 10, while those of the nutritional metabolites were measured during week 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 during the study period. The concentrations of the metabolic hormones, GH and insulin were similar (p > 0.05) in the three ovarian activity groups, likewise the concentrations of the nutritional metabolites, glucose, total protein, globulin, urea and creatinine. Plasma IGF-I concentration was higher (p < 0.001) in early-cycling (18.7 ± 0.74 ng/ml) than in late-cycling (12.4 ± 0.75 ng/ml) and non-cycling (10.4 ± 0.91 ng/ml) cows. Plasma cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in early-cycling (1.94 ± 0.15 mmol/l) compared with late-cycling (2.48 ± 0.12 mmol/l) and non-cycling (2.61 ± 0.11 mmol/l) cows. For plasma albumin concentrations, the levels recorded for early-cycling cows were higher (40.7 ± 2.85 g/l) than in late-cycling (34.4 ± 1.97 g/l) and non-cycling (33.6 ± 2.66) cows. The results suggest that cows with lower plasma concentrations of IGF-I and albumin, but higher plasma cholesterol concentrations were at risk of delayed resumption of post-partum ovarian activity. PMID:25683608

Obese, F Y; MacCarthy, C; Osei-Amponsah, R; Ayizanga, R A; Damptey, J K

2015-04-01

45

Effect of Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period on Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy Among HIV-Infected Women Established on Treatment.  

PubMed

: Among women who become pregnant after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), few data describe the effect of pregnancy and postpartum on adherence. We conducted a retrospective clinical cohort study among therapy-naive women (age, 18-45 years) initiating HAART in Johannesburg, South Africa. Among 7510 women in our analysis, 896 experienced a pregnancy after starting HAART. Compared with nonpregnant periods of follow-up, there was an increased risk of nonadherence during the postpartum period (weighted risk ratio: 1.46, 95% confidence interval: 1.17 to 1.82) but not during pregnancy itself (weighted risk ratio: 0.95, 95% confidence interval: 0.78 to 1.17). PMID:25559590

Henegar, Cassidy E; Westreich, Daniel J; Maskew, Mhairi; Miller, William C; Brookhart, M Alan; Van Rie, Annelies

2015-04-01

46

Postpartum Sterilization  

MedlinePLUS

... of a baby. What is the most common method of postpartum sterilization? The method used most often ... is postpartum sterilization? • What is the most common method of postpartum sterilization? • When is postpartum sterilization performed? • ...

47

Fractional excretion of electrolytes during pre- and postpartum periods in cows.  

PubMed

In this study, fractional excretions (Fe) of sodium (Na), potassium (K), chloride (Cl), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (PO4) were examined with the aim to demonstrate interactions between fractional excretions of these electrolytes within each period and relate them to electrolyte metabolism in clinically normal cows at different stages of lactation and dry period. The material of this study consisted of 20 clinically healthy Holstein-Friesian cows of the same age and milk yield. Blood and urine samples were collected on 190-200th, 240-250th and 270-280th days of pregnancy and on days 1-7th, 35-45th and 75-85th after calving, altogether 6 times. An increase was observed in FeCa and FeMg during the transition from the lactation to the dry period (p < 0.05), and a decrease in FeCa (p < 0.05), FeMg (p < 0.01) in the 2nd month of the dry period. FePO4 and FeMg, respectively, increased on levels of p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, while FeCa decreased on a level of p < 0.05 after gestation compared to the level before gestation. FeNa and FeK showed a decrease of p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively, between the 1st and 2nd months of the dry period, while after gestation this value showed an increase in FeNa (p < 0.05) and FeK (p < 0.01). FeCl increased significantly (p < 0.05) only from postpartum to the 1st month of lactation. There was a strong positive correlation between FeNa and FeCl in all of the periods. It was concluded that there were significant changes in the Fe of Na, K, Cl, Ca, PO4 and Mg before parturition and during lactation; these changes could have an important role in assessing renal function and electrolyte balance. PMID:14680064

Uluta?, B; Ozlem, M B; Uluta?, Pinar Alkim; Eren, V; Pa?a, S

2003-01-01

48

HPV clearance in postpartum period of HIV-positive and negative women: a prospective follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Background HPV persistence is a key determinant of cervical carcinogenesis. The influence of postpartum on HPV clearance has been debated. This study aimed to assess HPV clearance in later pregnancy and postpartum among HIV-positive and negative women. Methods We conducted a follow-up study with 151 HPV-positive women coinfected with HIV, in 2007–2010. After baseline assessment, all women were retested for HPV infection using PCR in later pregnancy and after delivery. Multivariable logistic regressions assessed the putative association of covariates with HPV status in between each one of the successive visits. Results Seventy-one women (47%) have eliminated HPV between the baseline visit and their second or third visits. HIV-positive women took a significantly longer time (7.0?±?3.8 months) to clear HPV, compared to those not infected by HIV (5.9?±?3.0 months). HPV clearance was significantly more likely to take place after delivery than during pregnancy (84.5% x 15.5%). Conclusions Both HIV-positive and negative women presented a significant reduction in HPV infection during the postpartum period. HIV-positive status was found to be associated with a longer period of time to clear HPV infection in pregnant women. PMID:24289532

2013-01-01

49

Food deprivation and restriction during late gestation affects the sexual behavior of postpartum female meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus.  

PubMed

In many species of small mammals, including meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, females come into postpartum estrus (PPE) within 12-24 h of giving birth, allowing them to mate and become pregnant while raising the current litter. PPE females show increases in attractivity, proceptivity, and receptivity, the three components of sexual behavior, relative to females not in PPE. Several studies have shown that food deprivation and restriction reduce attractivity, proceptivity, and receptivity of females not in PPE. We tested the hypothesis that food deprivation and restriction during late gestation causes deficits and decreases the attractivity, proceptivity, and receptivity of females when they enter PPE. Our data support the hypothesis. On day 1 of lactation, females that were food deprived and food restricted produced scent marks that were significantly less attractive as those produced by control PPE females. Food deprivation but not food restriction caused females to no longer display significant preferences for the scent marks of males over those of females (proceptivity). Food deprivation and food restriction were sufficient to induce females to become significantly less sexually receptive than control females. Eleven of 12 control PPE females mated, 4 of 12 food-restricted females mated, and 3 of 12 food-deprived females mated. Dams facing food deprivation or restriction during late gestation may have to balance the benefits of mating during PPE with the increased costs associated with getting pregnant while they are lactating. PMID:24415820

Sabau, Ramona M; Ferkin, Michael H

2013-01-01

50

Relaxin and progesterone during pregnancy and the post-partum period in association with live and stillborn calves in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to validate a relaxin and progesterone RIA for use in bottlenose dolphins, and quantify and characterize both hormones in extracts of placental tissue and serum collected during pregnancy and the post-partum period, and compare the results between dolphins with live and stillborn calves. In Experiment 1, validation of a heterologous relaxin and progesterone RIA involved specific displacement of antibody-bound radiolabeled human relaxin or progesterone in response to increasing volumes of pooled pregnant dolphin serum and amounts of respective hormone standards added to a fixed volume of serum. The displacement curves were considered parallel and additive relative to respective standard curves. In Experiment 2, immunoreactive relaxin and progesterone were detected in placental extracts and, in corresponding serum samples, concentrations of both hormones were higher during the pre-partum than post-partum periods. Circulatory concentrations of progesterone decreased (P < 0.05) from relatively high concentrations during early and mid-pregnancy to intermediate concentrations by late pregnancy (month effect, P < 0.0001) in dolphins with live births, whereas, in dolphins with stillbirths, the decrease in progesterone began earlier (month-by-birth status interaction, P < 0.007); mean concentrations were lower at mid- (37%, P < 0.06) and late (25%) pregnancy. Temporally, relaxin increased (P < 0.05) progressively from relatively low concentrations during early pregnancy to high concentrations during late pregnancy (month effect, P < 0.0001) and was not different between birth statuses (birth status effect, P = 0.76; month-by-birth status interaction, P = 0.17). Even though the interaction did not reach significance, mean relaxin concentrations were 42%, 29%, and 34% lower at early, mid-, and late pregnancy, respectively, in dolphins with stillbirths than in those with live births. In conclusion, the pregnancy-specific increase in serum concentrations of relaxin and lower concentrations of both relaxin and progesterone in association with stillbirths suggest the potential for relaxin to be used diagnostically to determine pregnancy status, and one or both hormones to be used to assess placental function, and, perhaps, fetal well-being in bottlenose dolphins and other cetaceans. PMID:21156178

Bergfelt, Don R; Steinetz, Bernard G; Lasano, Salamia; West, Kristi L; Campbell, Michelle; Adams, Gregg P

2011-02-01

51

Factor Structure of the Japanese Version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in the Postpartum Period  

PubMed Central

Background The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is a widely used screening tool for postpartum depression (PPD). Although the reliability and validity of EPDS in Japanese has been confirmed and the prevalence of PPD is found to be about the same as Western countries, the factor structure of the Japanese version of EPDS has not been elucidated yet. Methods 690 Japanese mothers completed all items of the EPDS at 1 month postpartum. We divided them randomly into two sample sets. The first sample set (n?=?345) was used for exploratory factor analysis, and the second sample set was used (n?=?345) for confirmatory factor analysis. Results The result of exploratory factor analysis indicated a three-factor model consisting of anxiety, depression and anhedonia. The results of confirmatory factor analysis suggested that the anxiety and anhedonia factors existed for EPDS in a sample of Japanese women at 1 month postpartum. The depression factor varies by the models of acceptable fit. Conclusions We examined EPDS scores. As a result, “anxiety” and “anhedonia” exist for EPDS among postpartum women in Japan as already reported in Western countries. Cross-cultural research is needed for future research. PMID:25089523

Kubota, Chika; Okada, Takashi; Aleksic, Branko; Nakamura, Yukako; Kunimoto, Shohko; Morikawa, Mako; Shiino, Tomoko; Tamaji, Ai; Ohoka, Harue; Banno, Naomi; Morita, Tokiko; Murase, Satomi; Goto, Setsuko; Kanai, Atsuko; Masuda, Tomoko; Ando, Masahiko; Ozaki, Norio

2014-01-01

52

Christianity and Korean Higher Education in the Late Choson Period  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines particular aspects of higher education during the late Korean Choson period with descriptive analysis. The context of Roman Catholicism and Protestantism between the early 18th and the late 19th centuries is presented. Also examined is Christian higher education during these two centuries. The impact of Christianity on Korean…

Lee, Jeong-Kyu

2002-01-01

53

Ruptured uterine artery pseudoaneurysm: an overlooked cause of late postpartum haemorrhage.  

PubMed

We report an exceptional case of secondary postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) twenty days after cesarean delivery, resulting from a ruptured uterine artery pseudoaneurysm (UAP). The diagnosis was initially confounded by a septic shock necessitating inotropic support in the intensive care unit. Intense vaginal bleeding occurred eleven days after uterine curettage. Doppler ultrasound showed an anechoic focus in the inferior part of the uterus with turbulent flow. Bilateral internal iliac artery angiograms revealed a left uterine artery pseudoaneurysm that was successfully embolized. UAP is a rare cause of unexplained PPH that requires a high index of suspicion for diagnosis. This first report in the anesthesia literature serves to focus our awareness on its possible occurrence, and gives track to its management. Pitfalls in UAP diagnostic are highlighted (delayed presentation, possibility of spontaneous hemostasis, and lack of typical findings on colour Doppler sonography in hypotensive patients). These pitfalls may further be confounded by a concomitant sepsis. Angiography and selective uterine artery embolization is the treatment of choice. PMID:24605417

Kulkarni, S S; Teoh, W H L; Sia, A T H; Nair, S

2013-01-01

54

Postpartum depression  

MedlinePLUS

Depression - postpartum; Postnatal depression; Postpartum psychological reactions ... The exact causes of postpartum depression are unknown. Changes in hormone levels during and after pregnancy may affect a woman’s mood. Many non-hormonal factors may also ...

55

The vaginal microbiome during pregnancy and the postpartum period in a European population.  

PubMed

The composition and structure of the pregnancy vaginal microbiome may influence susceptibility to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Studies on the pregnant vaginal microbiome have largely been limited to Northern American populations. Using MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, we characterised the vaginal microbiota of a mixed British cohort of women (n = 42) who experienced uncomplicated term delivery and who were sampled longitudinally throughout pregnancy (8-12, 20-22, 28-30 and 34-36 weeks gestation) and 6 weeks postpartum. We show that vaginal microbiome composition dramatically changes postpartum to become less Lactobacillus spp. dominant with increased alpha-diversity irrespective of the community structure during pregnancy and independent of ethnicity. While the pregnancy vaginal microbiome was characteristically dominated by Lactobacillus spp. and low alpha-diversity, unlike Northern American populations, a significant number of pregnant women this British population had a L. jensenii-dominated microbiome characterised by low alpha-diversity. L. jensenii was predominantly observed in women of Asian and Caucasian ethnicity whereas L. gasseri was absent in samples from Black women. This study reveals new insights into biogeographical and ethnic effects upon the pregnancy and postpartum vaginal microbiome and has important implications for future studies exploring relationships between the vaginal microbiome, host health and pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25758319

MacIntyre, David A; Chandiramani, Manju; Lee, Yun S; Kindinger, Lindsay; Smith, Ann; Angelopoulos, Nicos; Lehne, Benjamin; Arulkumaran, Shankari; Brown, Richard; Teoh, Tiong Ghee; Holmes, Elaine; Nicoholson, Jeremy K; Marchesi, Julian R; Bennett, Phillip R

2015-01-01

56

The vaginal microbiome during pregnancy and the postpartum period in a European population  

PubMed Central

The composition and structure of the pregnancy vaginal microbiome may influence susceptibility to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Studies on the pregnant vaginal microbiome have largely been limited to Northern American populations. Using MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, we characterised the vaginal microbiota of a mixed British cohort of women (n = 42) who experienced uncomplicated term delivery and who were sampled longitudinally throughout pregnancy (8–12, 20–22, 28–30 and 34–36 weeks gestation) and 6 weeks postpartum. We show that vaginal microbiome composition dramatically changes postpartum to become less Lactobacillus spp. dominant with increased alpha-diversity irrespective of the community structure during pregnancy and independent of ethnicity. While the pregnancy vaginal microbiome was characteristically dominated by Lactobacillus spp. and low alpha-diversity, unlike Northern American populations, a significant number of pregnant women this British population had a L. jensenii-dominated microbiome characterised by low alpha-diversity. L. jensenii was predominantly observed in women of Asian and Caucasian ethnicity whereas L. gasseri was absent in samples from Black women. This study reveals new insights into biogeographical and ethnic effects upon the pregnancy and postpartum vaginal microbiome and has important implications for future studies exploring relationships between the vaginal microbiome, host health and pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25758319

MacIntyre, David A.; Chandiramani, Manju; Lee, Yun S.; Kindinger, Lindsay; Smith, Ann; Angelopoulos, Nicos; Lehne, Benjamin; Arulkumaran, Shankari; Brown, Richard; Teoh, Tiong Ghee; Holmes, Elaine; Nicoholson, Jeremy K.; Marchesi, Julian R.; Bennett, Phillip R.

2015-01-01

57

Evaluation of the French Version of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support During the Postpartum Period.  

PubMed

In the presence of physical and psychological disturbances in the postpartum period, perceived social support is often regarded as a protective factor in women's mental health. This work evaluates the psychometric properties of the French version of a questionnaire widely used internationally to measure perceived social support, which has not been yet validated in French: the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). This study collected data from 148 women (30.5 ± 5.12 years) who agreed to complete the MSPSS and a scale assessing symptoms of postpartum depression (Edinburgh Post-Natal Depression Scale, EPDS) 1 and 4 months after childbirth. The results confirm the original three-factor structure of the scale. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients are excellent. The total scale score is correlated with all three dimensions and a significantly negative correlation is found between MSPSS and EPDS. The results suggest that the French tool has generally good internal reliability. The MSPSS can provide useful data helping to identify French-speaking people at risk for negative feelings (e.g., mood disorders of perinatal period). PMID:25366102

Denis, A; Callahan, S; Bouvard, M

2014-11-01

58

The effect of dry period duration and dietary energy density on milk production, bioenergetic status, and postpartum ovarian function in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows.  

PubMed

Following parturition, it is typical for dairy cows to enter a period of negative energy balance and body condition loss to support mammary milk synthesis; this is associated with compromised reproductive performance. Alternative management strategies during the prepartum (dry) and early postpartum periods may ameliorate this loss. Forty mature Holstein-Friesian cows were assigned to 1 of 2 dry period treatments [standard 8-wk dry period (SDP) or no planned dry period (NDP)] and 1 of 2 dietary energy density treatments [standard TMR (STMR) or high-quality TMR (HTMR)]. Milk yield during wk 1 to 12 postpartum was reduced in cows assigned to the NDP treatment. Energy balance and body condition score (BCS) during wk 1 to 4 postpartum were increased in cows assigned to the NDP treatment compared with the cows assigned to the SDP treatment, and BCS increased from wk 5 to 12 postpartum in the NDP cows compared with the SDP cows. During the first 12 wk postpartum, cows assigned to the HTMR diet had greater milk yield and reduced milk fat concentration compared with the cows assigned the STMR diet. The BCS was greater from wk 5 to 12 postpartum in HTMR cows compared with STMR cows. During the period from wk -3 to +3 relative to parturition, circulating concentrations of insulin, glucose, and IGF-I were greater in cows in the NDP treatment compared with cows in the SDP treatment. Cows assigned to the HTMR diet had greater circulating insulin and glucose concentrations compared with the STMR cows from wk -3 to +3 relative to parturition. The first postpartum ovulation occurred earlier for cows in the NDP treatment compared with cows in the SDP treatment (16.9 vs. 24.8 d postpartum. Cows assigned to the STMR diet tended to have a higher conception rate to first service compared with cows assigned to the HTMR diet. Energy balance and metabolic status can be improved by either eliminating the dry period or by feeding a higher energy diet, but effects on the reproductive axis appear to be different. PMID:19923604

de Feu, M A; Evans, A C O; Lonergan, P; Butler, S T

2009-12-01

59

Acute pancreatitis occurring in the early postpartum period: a case report.  

PubMed

We report a case of acute pancreatitis, which occurred after delivery in a woman who had an uneventful course of pregnancy and parturition. A 17-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our department because of nausea and vomiting two hours after delivery, followed by severe abdominal and back pain. On admission, in addition to elevated serum and urine amylase, plain computed tomography demonstrated a swollen pancreas and high density in the peripancreatic lesion with a large amount of ascites, suggesting the presence of an inflammation of the pancreas as well as peripancreatic lesion. Accompanied by subsiding abdominal and back pain, serum amylase concentration gradually decreased and returned to a normal level on the 11th postpartum day. Acute pancreatitis must be kept in mind when evaluating patients presenting with abdominal pain after delivery. PMID:12951894

Fukami, Tatsuya; Chaen, Hideto; Imura, Hiroshi; Sudou, Kenji; Eguchi, Fuyuki

2003-01-01

60

Non-invasive endocrine monitoring of ovarian and adrenal activity in chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) females during pregnancy, parturition and early post-partum period.  

PubMed

The chinchilla is a rodent that bears one of the finest and most valuable pelts in the world. The wild counterpart is, however, almost extinct because of a drastic past and ongoing population decline. The present work was developed to increase our knowledge of the reproductive physiology of pregnancy and post-partum estrus in the chinchilla, characterizing the endocrine patterns of urinary progesterone, estradiol, LH and cortisol metabolites throughout gestation and post-partum estrus and estimating the ovulation timing at post-partum estrus. Longitudinal urine samples were collected once per week throughout pregnancy and analyzed for creatinine, cortisol, LH, estrogen and progesterone metabolite concentrations. To indirectly determine the ovulation timing at post-partum estrus, a second experiment was performed using pregnant females subjected to a post-partum in vivo fertilization scheme. Urinary progestagen metabolites increased above baseline levels in early pregnancy between weeks-8 and -11 respectively to parturition, and slightly declined at parturition time. Urinary estrogens showed rising levels throughout mid- and late pregnancy (weeks-9 to -6 and a further increase at week-5 to parturition) and decreased in a stepwise manner after parturition, returning to baseline levels two weeks thereafter. Cortisol metabolite levels were relatively constant throughout pregnancy with a tendency for higher levels in the last third of gestation and after the pups' birth. Parturition was associated with dramatic reductions in urinary concentrations of sex steroids (especially progestagens). Observations in breeding farms indicated that the females that resulted in a second pregnancy after mating, did so on the second day after parturition. These data were in agreement with an LH peak detected 24h after parturition. Urinary steroid hormone patterns of estrogen and progestagen metabolites provided valuable information on endocrine events during pregnancy and after parturition in the chinchilla. Results presented in this study enhance our understanding of natural reproductive dynamics in the chinchilla and support empirical observations of breeders that post-partum ovulation occurs ?48h after parturition. PMID:25712434

Mastromonaco, Gabriela F; Cantarelli, Verónica I; Galeano, María G; Bourguignon, Nadia S; Gilman, Christine; Ponzio, Marina F

2015-03-01

61

Language Acquisition in Late Critical Period: A Case Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies carried out to support the existence of a critical period for language acquisition have concentrated mainly on the case of being in total deprivation from language contact, and in particular deprivation from auditory input in the entire time span before puberty. While arguing for a useful distinction between early and late critical…

Gheitury, Amer; Sahraee, Ahmad Hosein; Hoseini, Maryam

2012-01-01

62

THE VEGETATION HISTORY OF SNOWDONIA SINCE THE LATE GLACIAL PERIOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snowdonia has one of the most intensely studied pollen records in Britain. It has, therefore, been possible to provide a detailed description of all of the major vegetation types that developed since the last ice age. The account extends from the late glacial period (some 12,000 years BP), when pioneer plants were struggling to colonise the newly exposed, barren landscapes,

PETER RHIND; BARBARA JONES

63

Macular capillary blood flow velocity by blue-field entoptoscopy in diabetic and healthy women during pregnancy and the postpartum period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. To study macular capillary blood flow velocity in diabetic and healthy women during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Methods. A prospective study of 46 pregnant women with insulin-dependent diabetes and 11 healthy pregnant women was performed. Macular capillary blood flow velocity was measured by blue-field entoptic simulation. Diabetic retinopathy was graded from colour fundus photographs. Results. In diabetic women,

Sirpa Loukovaara; Risto Kaaja; Ilkka Immonen

2002-01-01

64

Postpartum Blood Clots  

MedlinePLUS

... Sections Symptoms Multimedia Table Index In This Topic Women's Health Issues Postdelivery Period Postpartum Blood Clots Symptoms Diagnosis ... Older People's Health Issues Skin Disorders Special Subjects Women's Health Issues Chapters in Women's Health Issues Biology of ...

65

Mental health of HIV-seropositive women during pregnancy and postpartum period: a comprehensive literature review.  

PubMed

With growing numbers of HIV-seropositive (HIV+) women of child-bearing age and increased access to effective clinical protocols for preventing mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV, mental health-related factors have become increasingly relevant due to their potential to affect the women's quality of life, obstetric outcomes and risk of MTCT. This review synthesizes evidence from 53 peer-reviewed publications examining mental health-related variables in pregnant and postpartum HIV+ women. The presentation of results is organized by the level of socioeconomic resources in the countries where studies were conducted (i.e., high-, middle-, and low-income countries). It is concluded that psychiatric symptoms, particularly depression, and mental health vulnerabilities (e.g., inadequate coping skills) are widespread among pregnant HIV+ women globally and have a potential to affect psychological well-being, quality of life and salient clinical outcomes. The current body of evidence provides rationale for developing and evaluating clinical and structural interventions aimed at improving mental health outcomes and their clinical correlates in pregnant HIV+ women. PMID:24584458

Kapetanovic, Suad; Dass-Brailsford, Priscilla; Nora, Diana; Talisman, Nicholas

2014-06-01

66

Postpartum Depression  

MedlinePLUS

... do not need treatment. The symptoms of postpartum depression last longer and are more severe. You may ... treatment right away, often in the hospital. Postpartum depression can begin anytime within the first year after ...

67

Grant Title: WOMEN'S MENTAL HEALTH DURING PREGNANCY AND THE POSTPARTUM PERIOD (R01, Funding Opportunity Number: R01: PA-12-216. R21: PA-12-215. CFDA Number(s): 93.242, 93.279, 93.865.  

E-print Network

Grant Title: WOMEN'S MENTAL HEALTH DURING PREGNANCY AND THE POSTPARTUM PERIOD (R01, R21) Funding in relation to pregnancy and the postpartum period. Release and Expiration: Release Date: June 21, 2012 during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Priority areas include basic and clinical neuroscience

Farritor, Shane

68

Abydos in the Late Period: an epigraphic and prosopographic study  

E-print Network

10 (1924) 252-3. 14. See below, p.22. 15. M.CA, v. 16. Mariette 1 s explanation is refuted by the subsequent discovery of hundreds of tombs of all periods; Late Period brick vaulted tombs in particular were dug to a great depth - see 'v1 .M... .F. Petrie, The 'lbmbs of the Courtiers (abbreviated !Q), (London 1925) 2, and­ CA II, 31. It is noteworthy that Mariette makes absolutely no reference to stratification in the cemetery. 13 pole du Nord', has scarcely been touched,. since later excavators...

Leahy, Michael Anthony

1978-02-07

69

High HIV incidence in the postpartum period sustains vertical transmission in settings with generalized epidemics: a cohort study in Southern Mozambique  

PubMed Central

Introduction Acute infection with HIV in the postpartum period results in a high risk of vertical transmission through breastfeeding. A study was done to determine the HIV incidence rate and associated risk factors among postpartum women in Southern Mozambique, where HIV prevalence among pregnant women is 21%. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted in six rural health facilities in Gaza and Maputo provinces from March 2008 to July 2011. A total of 1221 women who were HIV-negative on testing at delivery or within two months postpartum were recruited and followed until 18 months postpartum. HIV testing, collection of dried blood spot samples and administration of a structured questionnaire to women were performed every three months. Infant testing by DNA-PCR was done as soon as possible after identification of a new infection in women. HIV incidence was estimated, and potential risk factors at baseline were compared using Poisson regression. Results Data from 957 women were analyzed with follow-up after the enrolment visit, with a median follow-up of 18.2 months. The HIV incidence in postpartum women is estimated at 3.20/100 women-years (95% CI: 2.30–4.46), with the highest rate among 18- to 19-year-olds (4.92 per 100 women-years; 95% CI: 2.65–9.15). Of the new infections, 14 (34%) were identified during the first six months postpartum, 11 (27%) between 6 and 12 months and 16 (39%) between 12 and 18 months postpartum. Risk factors for incident HIV infection include young age, low number of children, higher education level of the woman's partner and having had sex with someone other than one's partner. The vertical transmission was 21% (95% CI: 5–36) among newly infected women. Conclusions Incidence of HIV is high among breastfeeding women in Southern Mozambique, contributing to increasing numbers of HIV-infected infants. Comprehensive primary prevention strategies targeting women of reproductive age, particularly pregnant and postpartum women and their partners, will be crucial for the elimination of paediatric AIDS in Africa. PMID:24629842

De Schacht, Caroline; Mabunda, Nédio; Ferreira, Orlando C; Ismael, Nália; Calú, Nurbai; Santos, Iolanda; Hoffman, Heather J; Alons, Catharina; Guay, Laura; Jani, Ilesh V

2014-01-01

70

Associations between resumption of postpartum ovarian activity, uterine health and concentrations of metabolites and acute phase proteins during the transition period in Holstein cows.  

PubMed

The resumption of ovarian activity, uterine health, severity of the negative energy balance and the synthesis of inflammatory mediators during the transition period in dairy cows are interrelated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the resumption of postpartum ovarian activity and the percentage of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells in endometrial cytology, lipid mobilization and the secretion of acute phase proteins. For this study, 20 multiparous Holstein cows were used. Blood samples that were collected from 21d before calving to 44d in milk (DIM) were analyzed for serum glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin, haptoglobin, albumin, paraoxonase and progesterone. Endometrial cytology was performed at 37±2DIM to evaluate the percentage of PMN cells in the uterine flushing. Cows were divided into two groups: (1) ovulatory cows (n=12), which returned to ovarian activity by 44±2DIM; and (2) anovulatory cows (n=8), which did not resume ovarian activity during this period. Ovulatory cows had a lower (P=0.05) percentage of PMN cells in endometrial cytology than anovulatory cows (26.3±8.3% vs. 53.4±16.9%, respectively). Ovulatory cows had higher serum albumin during the pre- (P=0.03) and postpartum periods (P=0.01), and tended to have lower haptoglobin concentrations in the prepartum period (P=0.07) and higher paraoxonase activity in the postpartum period (P=0.09). In conclusion, cows that resumed ovarian activity early in the postpartum period had higher albumin concentrations in the peripartum period, which were associated with a lower percentage of uterine PMN cells. PMID:24444884

Krause, Ana Rita T; Pfeifer, Luiz F M; Montagner, Paula; Weschenfelder, Marina M; Schwegler, Elizabeth; Lima, Márcio E; Xavier, Eduardo G; Brauner, Cassio C; Schmitt, Eduardo; Del Pino, Francisco A B; Martins, Charles F; Corrêa, Marcio N; Schneider, Augusto

2014-02-01

71

[Neurologic disorders in the late period following terminal states].  

PubMed

The dynamics of the psychoneurological status f 70 patients who had experienced clinical death (17 patients), massive blood loss with prolonged hypotension (30 patients), and terminal eclampsia (23 patients) was studied. In 71% of the patients various late psychoneurological disorders were revealed. Distribution of these disorders according to the WHO classification is presented. It has been found that the psychoneurological disorders of this kind may either: a) gradually disappear, b) stabilize, or c) progress. In 42% of the patients new psychoneurological disorders appeared in the late period: such a deterioration became manifest 3 to 5 months after the terminal state sustained. The discovered incompleteness of the compensation processes points to a necessity of developing a rehabilitation program. PMID:484148

Alekseeva, G V

1979-01-01

72

Endogenous release of prostaglandin F?[a?lpha] during the postpartum period and its relationship with resumption of ovarian activity in mature Brahman cows  

E-print Network

) concentrations during the early postpartum period comparing with non-suckled cows (Short et al. , 1972; Randel, 1976. ). Allowing calves to suckle their dams only once a d for 30 to 60 minutes, increased conception rates and decreased the interval to first... factors such as heterosis (Sagebiel et al. , 1969), birth weight (Laster et al. , 1973), sire breed (Laster et al. , 1973), calf sex (Bellows et al. , 1971), age of the dam, (Bellows et al. , 1971), dam breed (Sagebiel et al. , 1969...

Velez, Juan Santiago

1991-01-01

73

Postpartum Depression  

MedlinePLUS

What are the postpartum blues? About 2–3 days after childbirth, some women begin to feel depressed, anxious, and upset. They may feel angry with ... a baby These feelings, often called the postpartum blues , may come and go in the first few ...

74

Postpartum Coronary Vasospasm with Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Acute myocardial infarction during pregnancy or the postpartum period is rare. We report a case of a 39-year-old postpartum woman who developed non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction due to severe diffuse coronary vasospasm. To our knowledge, this is the first case of angiographically evidenced coronary vasospasm, in a postpartum woman, with resistance to intracoronary nitroglycerin. PMID:25105029

Koneru, Jayanth; Alattar, Fadi; Alqaqa, Ashraf; Virk, Hirtaj; Shamoon, Fayez; Bikkina, Mahesh

2014-01-01

75

Postpartum Period: Emotions  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... loss Dealing with grief Research Research grants Infant health research Prematurity research Birth defects research Professionals Info for your patients Medical resources Professional education Perinatal Statistics Scholarships and grants Advocacy Federal Advocacy ...

76

Postpartum Period: Physical Changes  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... register. I'm interested in: Pregnancy Baby growth & care Research Volunteer opportunities Advocacy in government For health ... acid During your pregnancy Your pregnant body Prenatal care Eating and nutrition Physical activity Emotional and life ...

77

Postpartum Period: Vaginal Bleeding  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... cesarean (c-section) wound infection is caused when bacteria get inside the incision (cut) from a c- ... care provider makes in your belly and uterus. Bacteria can cause the cut to get infected. Signs ...

78

Postpartum Depression  

MedlinePLUS

... How is postpartum depression different from the “baby blues”? The “baby blues” is a term used to describe the feelings ... about, or tired from, providing that care. Baby blues, which affects up to 80 percent of mothers, ...

79

Postpartum Depression  

MedlinePLUS

... many people may realize. It's important for new mothers — and those who love them — to understand the ... for help. With the proper support and treatment, mothers who are experiencing any degree of postpartum depression ...

80

Short term post-partum heat stress in dairy cows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since many dairy cows calve during late summer, the objective was to determine if heat stress immediately post-partum would (1) alter metabolism, thus, increasing susceptibility to metabolic disorders, (2) affect lactation and/or (3) affect reproduction. Forty four cows, calving during late summer, were paired with one member of each pair stressed (HS) for the first 10 post-partum days in a hot barn. Controls (CC) were kept in a cooled section of the barn. Plasma drawn weekly for 7 weeks was analyzed in an autoanalyzer for calcium, inor. phosphorus, protein, glucose and cholesterol and by radioimmunoassay for cortisol and progesterone. Ovaries and uteri were palpated weekly. Rectal temperatures were significant higher for HS during the first 10 post-partum days. No significant effects on plasma constituents were observed during the 10-day treatment period. For the 7-week period, glucose and cholesterol were lower in HS, as were cyclic peaks of progesterone and cortisol. Both calcium and inorganic phosphorus remained clinically low for the 7 weeks, but no treatment effects were seen. Uteri of HS involuted more rapidly than the CC. Treatment did not affect reproductive efficiency. Lactation milk yields did not differ, but milk fat percent was lower in HS. Heat stress immediately post-partum altered lipid metabolism, but the animal's compensatory mechanisms prevented reduction in milk production or reproductive efficiency.

Fuquay, J. W.; Chapin, L. T.; Brown, W. H.

1980-06-01

81

Negative energy balance and hepatic gene expression patterns in high-yielding dairy cows during the early postpartum period: a global approach  

PubMed Central

In high-yielding dairy cows the liver undergoes extensive physiological and biochemical changes during the early postpartum period in an effort to re-establish metabolic homeostasis and to counteract the adverse effects of negative energy balance (NEB). These adaptations are likely to be mediated by significant alterations in hepatic gene expression. To gain new insights into these events an energy balance model was created using differential feeding and milking regimes to produce two groups of cows with either a mild (MNEB) or severe NEB (SNEB) status. Cows were slaughtered and liver tissues collected on days 6–7 of the first follicular wave postpartum. Using an Affymetrix 23k oligonucleotide bovine array to determine global gene expression in hepatic tissue of these cows, we found a total of 416 genes (189 up- and 227 downregulated) to be altered by SNEB. Network analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that SNEB was associated with widespread changes in gene expression classified into 36 gene networks including those associated with lipid metabolism, connective tissue development and function, cell signaling, cell cycle, and metabolic diseases, the three most significant of which are discussed in detail. SNEB cows displayed reduced expression of transcription activators and signal transducers that regulate the expression of genes and gene networks associated with cell signaling and tissue repair. These alterations are linked with increased expression of abnormal cell cycle and cellular proliferation associated pathways. This study provides new information and insights on the effect of SNEB on gene expression in high-yielding Holstein Friesian dairy cows in the early postpartum period. PMID:20716645

McCarthy, S. D.; Waters, S. M.; Kenny, D. A.; Diskin, M. G.; Fitzpatrick, R.; Patton, J.; Wathes, D. C.

2010-01-01

82

Effects of feeding dry glycerol to primiparous Holstein dairy cows on follicular development, reproductive performance and metabolic parameters related to fertility during the early post-partum period.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of dry glycerol supplementation on follicular growth, post-partum interval to first ovulation, concentration of serum metabolites and hormones related to fertility, body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) in primiparous Holstein dairy cows. Sixty primiparous Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to two groups (control: n = 30 and glycerol supplemented: n = 30). Dry glycerol (250 g/day/cow) was fed as a top dressing to the common lactating total mixed ration (TMR) from parturition to 21 days post-partum. Ovaries were examined four times using ultrasonography on days 13, 19, 25 and 36 post-partum to determine ovarian follicular growth. Concentration of serum metabolites and hormones was determined weekly. Body condition score was evaluated weekly from weeks 1 to 5 after parturition, and BWs were recorded three times on days 1, 11 and 21 during the experimental period. The cows fed dry glycerol had more large follicles (p < 0.0001) and corpora lutea (CL) (p = 0.02) compared with the control cows. Days to the first ovulation (p = 0.06), days to first oestrus (p = 0.05), services per conception (p = 0.06) and days open (p = 0.004) were positively affected by dry glycerol supplementation. Serum concentration of glucose and insulin was higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p = 0.1; p = 0.06, respectively). Feeding glycerol had no effect on mean serum concentrations of ?-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acids and IGF-1 during the experimental period. However, significant differences were observed at concentration of BHBA and IGF-1 (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively) between two groups on day 21 after calving. The cows in the glycerol-fed group had higher serum progesterone concentrations on days 33 (p = 0.007) and 36 (p = 0.004) after calving. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1-5 after calving compared with the control cows (0.34 vs 0.41 BCS). In week 13 post-partum, the proportion of cycling cows was 83.3 and 69.9% for those which received supplemented or non-supplemented diet, respectively. These results demonstrated that feeding dry glycerol as a glucogenic supply may be useful to improve negative energy balance and reproductive efficiency in young cows which calve with high requirement of energy. PMID:23772805

Karami-Shabankareh, H; Kafilzadeh, F; Piri, V; Mohammadi, H

2013-12-01

83

How much does Low Socioeconomic Status Increase the Risk of Prenatal and Postpartum Depressive Symptoms in First Time Mothers?  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine socioeconomic status (SES) as a risk factor for depressive symptoms in late pregnancy and the early postpartum period. A secondary objective was to determine whether SES was a specific risk factor for elevated postpartum depressive symptoms beyond its contribution to prenatal depressive symptoms. Design Quantitative, secondary analysis, repeated measures, descriptive design. Setting Participants were recruited from paid childbirth classes serving upper middle class women and Medicaid-funded hospitals serving low-income clients in Northern California. Participants A sample of 198 first time mothers was assessed for depressive symptoms in their third trimester of pregnancy and at one, two, and three months postpartum. Main Outcome Measure Depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) Scale. Results Low SES was associated with increased depressive symptoms in late pregnancy and at 2 and 3 months, but not at 1 month postpartum. Women with four SES risk factors (low monthly income, less than a college education, unmarried, unemployed) were 11 times more likely than women with no SES risk factors to have clinically elevated depression scores at 3 months postpartum, even after controlling for the level of prenatal depressive symptoms. Conclusion Although new mothers from all SES strata are at risk for postpartum depression, SES factors including low education, low income, being unmarried, and being unemployed increased the risk of developing postpartum depressive symptoms in this sample. PMID:20133153

Goyal, Deepika; Gay, Caryl; Lee, Kathryn A.

2009-01-01

84

Neutrophil Functions and Cytokines Expression Profile in Buffaloes with Impending Postpartum Reproductive Disorders  

PubMed Central

The study was conducted to correlate the periparturient immune status in terms of neutrophil functions and cytokine expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture with impending postpartum reproductive disorders in buffaloes. Forty pregnant buffaloes were observed for occurrence of postpartum reproductive disorders (PRD), i.e., metritis, endometritis and delayed uterine involution etc., during one week prepartum to four weeks postpartum period. A representative number (n = 6) of buffaloes that did not develop any PRD were included in group I (healthy, control), while the animals which experienced PRD were assigned into group II (PRD, n = 8). The blood samples were collected at weekly interval from one week prepartum to four weeks postpartum period considering the day of calving as ‘d 0’. Differential leucocytes counts, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production activity in isolated neutrophils and the mRNA expression profile of cytokines i.e., IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-? in PBMC culture were studied in all the samples. A higher total leucocytes, neutrophil and band cells count along with impaired neutrophil functions i.e., lowered level of production of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide before parturition and during early postpartum period were observed in buffaloes developing PRD. Further, a lower expression of IL-2, IFN-? and IL-4 mRNA in PBMC culture was observed at calving in buffaloes that subsequently developed PRD at later postpartum. Thus, suppression in neutrophil function and cytokine expression at prepartum to early postpartum period predisposes the buffaloes to develop postpartum reproductive disorders. Hence, monitoring of neutrophils function and cytokine expression profile would be effective to predict certain reproductive disorders at late pregnancy or immediately after parturition in buffaloes. In future, this may be a novel approach for determining suitable management and therapeutic decisions for prevention of commonly occurring reproductive disorders in farm animals. PMID:25049724

Patra, Manas Kumar; Kumar, Harendra; Nandi, Sukdeb

2013-01-01

85

Postpartum Ovarian Vein Thrombosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Ovarian vein thrombosis (OVT) is a rare but potentially serious postpartum complication, which occurs in 0.05% to 0.18% of pregnancies and is diagnosed on the right side in 80% to 90% of the cases. Case Report: A 32-year-old woman presented at 15 days postpartum to our emergency department with severe abdominal pain, fever, and abdominal distension. Abdominal examination revealed right lower quadrant pain with rebound tenderness. The plain abdominal radiography evidenced a diffuse fecal stasis; abdominal ultrasound showed the presence of free fluid in the Douglas’ pouch and between small bowel loops. Diagnosis of acute appendicitis was made. The patient immediately underwent explorative laparoscopy; at surgery, a woody tumoration consistent with right ovarian vein thrombosis was found. Laparoscopic ultrasound confirmed the diagnosis. Anticoagulation therapy and antibiotics were instituted. CT-scan confirmed the presence of thrombosis up to the vena cava. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 4. At 1-month follow-up, she remained stable and symptom free. Discussion: Even though postpartum ovarian vein thrombosis is rare, recognition and treatment is needed to institute adequate therapy and avoid potential serious sequelae. The diagnosis can be established by ultrasound, CT scan, and MRI examinations, although, as in the case described, the limitation of ultrasound includes obscuration of the gonadic vein by overlying bowel gas. Conclusion: OVT should be considered in any woman in the postpartum period with lower abdominal pain, fever, and leucocytosis. PMID:21902992

Romano, Nicola; Bimbi, Marco; Lorenzetti, Luca; Pietrasanta, Dario; Goletti, Orlando

2011-01-01

86

Saturated fat supplementation interacts with dietary forage neutral detergent fiber content during the immediate postpartum and carryover periods in Holstein cows: Production responses and digestibility of nutrients.  

PubMed

Forty-eight multiparous cows were used in a randomized complete block design experiment with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the interaction between a highly saturated free FA supplement (SFFA) and dietary forage neutral detergent fiber (fNDF) content on production responses and nutrient digestibility of dairy cows in the postpartum period. Treatment diets were offered from 1 to 29d postpartum (postpartum period; PP) and contained 20 or 26% fNDF (50:50 corn silage:alfalfa silage and hay, dry matter basis) and 0 or 2% SFFA [Energy Booster 100 (Milk Specialties Global, Eden Prairie, MN); 96.1% FA: 46.2% C18:0 and 37.0% C16:0]. From 30 to 71d postpartum (carryover period), a common diet (~23% fNDF, 0% SFFA) was offered to all cows to evaluate carryover effects of the treatment diets early in lactation. During the PP, higher fNDF decreased dry matter intake (DMI) by 2.0 kg/d, whereas SFFA supplementation increased it by 1.4kg/d. In addition, high fNDF with 0% SFFA decreased DMI compared with the other diets and this difference increased throughout the PP. Treatments did not affect 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield during the PP but did during the carryover period when SFFA supplementation decreased 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield for the low-fNDF diet (51.1 vs. 58.7kg/d), but not for the high-fNDF diet (58.5 vs. 58.0kg/d). During the PP, lower fNDF and SFFA supplementation decreased body condition score loss. A tendency for an interaction between fNDF and SFFA indicated that low fNDF with 2% SFFA decreased body condition score loss compared with the other diets (-0.49 vs. -0.89). During the PP, lower fNDF and 2% SFFA supplementation decreased feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk/DMI) by 0.30 and 0.23 units, respectively. The low-fNDF diet with 2% SFFA decreased feed efficiency compared with other diets early in the PP, but this difference decreased over time. Supplementation of SFFA in the PP favored energy partitioning to body reserves and limited DMI depression for the high-fNDF diet, which might allow higher-fNDF diets to be fed to cows in the PP. However, SFFA supplemented in the low-fNDF diet during the PP affected production negatively in the carryover period. Dietary fNDF and SFFA interacted, affecting performance in the PP with carryover effects when cows were fed a common diet in early lactation. PMID:25726102

Piantoni, P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S

2015-05-01

87

Massive bleeding from ectopic varices in the postpartum period: rare but serious complication in women with portal hypertension.  

PubMed

Portal hypertension (PHT) often leads to collateralization of blood flow through variceal vessels that shunt blood from the portal to the systemic circulation. Life-threatening bleeding from esophageal and ectopic varices often complicates severe PHT. Increase in PHT occurs during the last stages of the second trimester of pregnancy and is associated with increased risk of PHT bleeding in the later stages of pregnancy. In this report, we present two rare cases of pregnant women with PHT, who had postpartum bleeding from very uncommon sites. The first had a rupture of an intra-abdominal varix and the second had two episodes of bleeding from abdominal wall varices, after two emergent cesarean sections, in two consecutive pregnancies. On the basis of a literature review, we constructed an algorithm that includes instructions on how to handle women with PHT during the various stages of pregnancy and labor. PMID:19190497

Rosenfeld, Hadas; Hochner-Celnikier, Drorit; Ackerman, Zvi

2009-09-01

88

ASSOCIATIONS AMONG CIRCULATING CONCENTRATIONS OF IGF-1 AND GH DURING THE POSTPARTUM PERIOD WITH RESUMPTION OF ESTRUS, CALF WEIGHTS, AND MILK PRODUCTION IN MATURE CROSSBRED COWS FED VARYING LEVELS OF ENERGY INTAKE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Circulating concentrations of IGF-1 and GH fluctuate in response to nutritional status. Objectives of this study were to evaluate usefulness of circulating profiles of IGF-1 and GH during the postpartum period as predictors of capacity to resume estrus and level of production (milk and calf growth)...

89

Origin of the cataclysmic Late Heavy Bombardment period of the terrestrialplanets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The petrology record on the Moon suggests that a cataclysmic spike in the cratering rate occurred ~700 million years after the planets formed; this event is known as the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB). Planetary formation theories cannot naturally account for an intense period of planetesimal bombardment so late in Solar System history. Several models have been proposed to explain a

R. Gomes; H. F. Levison; K. Tsiganis; A. Morbidelli

2005-01-01

90

Origin of the cataclysmic Late Heavy Bombardment period of the terrestrial planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The petrology record on the Moon suggests that a cataclysmic spike in the cratering rate occurred ,700 million years after the planets formed1; this event is known as the Late Heavy Bombard- ment (LHB). Planetary formation theories cannot naturally account for an intense period of planetesimal bombardment so late in Solar System history2. Several models have been proposed to explain

R. Gomes; H. F. Levison; K. Tsiganis; A. Morbidelli

1998-01-01

91

Higher postpartum hepatic triacylglycerol concentrations in dairy cows with free rather than restricted access to feed during the dry period are associated with lower activities of hepatic glycerolphosphate acyltransferase.  

PubMed

We investigated the activities of hepatic glycerolipid synthesizing enzymes during postpartum fatty liver development in 10 high-producing dairy cows that had free access to feed during the dry period; a parallel group of 8 control cows was fed according to recommended energy requirements. After calving, both test and control cows had free access to feed. In the period of 10-14 wk before calving, voluntary dry matter intake of the test cows was 20.6 kg/d (SEM 0.42); the restricted control cows received 7 kg/d. Postpartum triacylglycerol concentrations in liver biopsies were one- to twofold higher in the test than in the control cows. The higher plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations after parturition in the test vs. the control group were probably caused by a more negative energy balance in the test cows, which was associated with a slightly lower postpartum dry matter intake. After calving, hepatic mitochondrial glycerolphosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) activities were significantly lower in the test than in the restricted control cows. A low GPAT activity may divert fatty acids from esterification to beta-oxidation to protect the hepatocytes against further accumulation of triacylglycerols. The activities of hepatic phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, diacylglycerol acyltransferase, and cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase were not different in the two groups. This study indicates that in cows given free instead of restricted access to feed during the dry period have a postpartum hepatic triacylglycerol accumulation that is mainly determined by a raised hepatic uptake of plasma NEFA. PMID:8558328

Van den Top, A M; Geelen, M J; Wensing, T; Wentink, G H; Van 't Klooster, A T; Beynen, A C

1996-01-01

92

Postpartum Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)  

MedlinePLUS

Frequently Asked Questions Depression During Pregnancy & Postpartum Anxiety During Pregnancy & Postpartum Pregnancy or Postpartum OCD Postpartum Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Bipolar Mood Disorders Postpartum Psychosis Useful ...

93

Prevalence and risk factors of diastasis recti abdominis from late pregnancy to 6 months postpartum, and relationship with lumbo-pelvic pain.  

PubMed

Diastasis recti abdominis (DRA) is an impairment characterized by a midline separation of the rectus abdominis muscles along the linea alba. It has its onset during pregnancy and the first weeks following childbirth. There is scant knowledge on both prevalence and risk factors for development of the condition. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of DRA at gestational week 35 and three timepoints postpartum, possible risk factors, and the relationship between DRA and lumbo-pelvic pain. Ultrasound images of inter rectus distance (IRD) were recorded in 84 healthy primiparous women, at three locations on the linea alba. The IRD was measured at: gestational week 35 and 6-8, 12-14, and 24-26 weeks postpartum. Diagnosis of DRA was defined as 16 mm at 2 cm below the umbilicus. Independent sample t-test and binary logistic regression was used to assess differences and risk factors in women with and without DRA and women with and without lumbo-pelvic pain. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The prevalence of DRA decreased from 100% at gestational week 35-39% at 6 months postpartum. No statistically significant differences were found in prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), weight gain, baby's birth weight or abdominal circumference between women with and without DRA at 6 months postpartum. Women with DRA at 6 months postpartum were not more likely to report lumbo-pelvic pain than women without DRA. DRA is prevalent at 6 months postpartum, but is not linked with lumbo-pelvic pain. PMID:25282439

Fernandes da Mota, Patrícia Gonçalves; Pascoal, Augusto Gil Brites Andrade; Carita, Ana Isabel Andrade Dinis; Bø, Kari

2015-02-01

94

Csarienne et troubles gnito-sexuels du post-partum Cesarean and postpartum genito-sexual disorders  

E-print Network

. Perineal tear is a risk factor for dyspareunia in the immediate post-partum period. Sexual dysfunction may utilisé les termes (sexual function OR sexual dysfunction) AND (pregnancy OR delivery OR cesarean) pourTitre Césarienne et troubles génito-sexuels du post-partum Cesarean and postpartum genito-sexual

Boyer, Edmond

95

Effect of PGF2? and GnRH on the reproductive performance of postpartum dairy cows subjected to synchronization of ovulation and timed artificial insemination during the warm or cold periods of the year.  

PubMed

This study was designed to evaluate the reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows (Holstein Friesian) after the injection of PGF2? analogue on Day 15 postpartum, and GnRH analogue on Day 23 after artificial insemination (AI) with Presynch (two injections of PGF2?, administered 14 days apart starting at 30-35 days postpartum) + Ovsynch-based (GnRH-7 days-PGF2?-2 days-GnRH-16-20 hours-timed artificial insemination) treatments, during the warm and cold periods of the year. All the cows (n = 313) were assigned to one of the four groups including: M1 (n = 72) in which the cows were treated with PGF2? on Day 15 postpartum + Presynch-Ovsynch + GnRH on Day 23 post-AI; M2 (n = 41) in which the cows received PGF2? on Day 15 postpartum + Presynch-Ovsynch; M3 (n = 100) including the cows that got Presynch-Ovsynch; and control group (n = 100) including the cows that were not treated and were inseminated at natural estrus. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed 28 to 35 days post-insemination by means of ultrasound. The results showed that treatment with PGF2? on Day 15 postpartum significantly decreased the days to conception and the number of services per conception (P < 0.01) and it also improved the first service conception rate (P < 0.1) only in cows that were treated with M2 protocol. Whereas, the days to first service was not influenced by the treatment of PGF2? on Day 15 postpartum (P > 0.05). In contrast, administration of GnRH on Day 23 post-AI increased the days to conception and the number of service per conception (P < 0.01) and tended to decrease the first service conception rate (P < 0.1) in cows that were treated with M1 compared with M2 protocol. Therefore, it was concluded that Presynch-Ovsynch protocol could be more reproductive and beneficial when a single treatment with PGF2? was administered at 15 days postpartum (15 days after the PGF2?, Presynch-Ovsynch protocol was initiated). Interestingly, the administration of a GnRH agonist on Day 23 post-AI not only did not improve the reproductive performance of the cows receiving first postpartum timed artificial insemination after Presynch-Ovsynch protocol but also reduced that. PMID:24934375

Akbarabadi, M Afsari; Shabankareh, H Karami; Abdolmohammadi, A; Shahsavari, M H

2014-08-01

96

Influence of interpersonal violence on maternal anxiety, depression, stress and parenting morale in the early postpartum: a community based pregnancy cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Research has shown that exposure to interpersonal violence is associated with poorer mental health outcomes. Understanding the impact of interpersonal violence on mental health in the early postpartum period has important implications for parenting, child development, and delivery of health services. The objective of the present study was to determine the impact of interpersonal violence on depression, anxiety, stress, and parenting morale in the early postpartum. Methods Women participating in a community-based prospective cohort study (n?=?1319) completed questionnaires prior to 25 weeks gestation, between 34–36 weeks gestation, and at 4 months postpartum. Women were asked about current and past abuse at the late pregnancy data collection time point. Postpartum depression, anxiety, stress, and parenting morale were assessed at 4 months postpartum using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the Spielberger State Anxiety Index, the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale, and the Parenting Morale Index, respectively. The relationship between interpersonal violence and postpartum psychosocial health status was examined using Chi-square analysis (p?postpartum, while both child maltreatment and intimate partner violence were associated with low parenting morale. Interpersonal violence did not have an independent effect on anxiety or stress in the postpartum. Conclusion The most robust relationships were seen for the influence of child maltreatment on postpartum depression and low parenting morale. By identifying women at risk for depression and low parenting morale, screening and treatment in the prenatal period could have far-reaching effects on postpartum mental health thus benefiting new mothers and their families in the long term. PMID:23241428

2012-01-01

97

Origin of the cataclysmic Late Heavy Bombardment period of the terrestrial planets  

E-print Network

Origin of the cataclysmic Late Heavy Bombardment period of the terrestrial planets R. Gomes1,2 , H that a cataclysmic spike in the cratering rate occurred ,700 million years after the planets formed1 ; this event of the giant planets, which occurred after a long quiescent period. During this burst of migration

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

98

Working and short-term memories are impaired in postpartum depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPostpartum depression affects parents of newborns. Major depression causes cognitive prejudice. Nothing is known about memory impairment in those affected of postpartum depression. This study has a purpose to assess working and short-term memories during the postpartum period in mothers and fathers in the city of Pelotas, RS, Brazil and also to correlate the changes in memory with postpartum depression,

Laura Sigaran Pio de Almeida; Karen Jansen; Cristiano André Köhler; Ricardo Tavares Pinheiro; Ricardo Azevedo da Silva; Juliana Sartori Bonini

99

Low Omega-3 Index in Pregnancy Is a Possible Biological Risk Factor for Postpartum Depression  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is a common disorder affecting 10–15% women in the postpartum period. Postpartum depression can disrupt early mother-infant interaction, and constitutes a risk factor for early child development. Recently, attention has been drawn to the hypothesis that a low intake of seafood in pregnancy can be a risk factor for postpartum depression. Seafood is a unique dietary source of the marine omega-3 fatty acids and is a natural part of a healthy balanced diet that is especially important during pregnancy. Methods In a community based prospective cohort in a municipality in Western Norway, we investigated both nutritional and psychological risk factors for postpartum depression. The source population was all women who were pregnant within the period November 2009 - June 2011. The fatty acid status in red blood cells was assessed in the 28th gestation week and participants were screened for postpartum depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) three months after delivery. The aim of the present study was to investigate if a low omega-3 index in pregnancy is a possible risk factor for postpartum depression. Results In a simple regression model, the omega-3 index was associated with the EPDS score in a nonlinear inverse manner with an R square of 19. Thus, the low omega-3 index explained 19% of the variance in the EPDS score. The DPA content, DHA content, omega-3 index, omega-3/omega-6 ratio, total HUFA score, and the omega-3 HUFA score were all inversely correlated with the EPDS score. The EPDS scores of participants in the lowest omega-3 index quartile were significantly different to the three other omega-3 index quartiles. Conclusion In this study population, a low omega-3 index in late pregnancy was associated with higher depression score three months postpartum. PMID:23844041

Markhus, Maria Wik; Skotheim, Siv; Graff, Ingvild Eide; Frøyland, Livar; Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Malde, Marian Kjellevold

2013-01-01

100

Rates of change and chronolgical problems during the late-glacial period  

SciTech Connect

Results of high-resolution AMS {sup 14}C dating of terrestrial plant macrofossils from late-glacial and early-Holocene lake deposits in Switzerland show three periods with constant radiocarbon ages. These plateaux of constant age occur at 12700, 10000, and 9500 y BP. A comparison of this radiocarbon chronology with a varve chronology documents discrepancies between the sidereal and the radiocarbon time-scale for the late-glacial period. The age-plateaux and the time-scale discrepancies have a significant impact on the estimation of rates of change during this period; estimates of rates of change can be very misleading if calculated on the basis of radiocarbon ages. This is illustrated by an example of estimated rates of late-glacial and early Holocene palynological change in Switzerland. 33 refs., 6 figs.

Lotter, A.F.; Sturm, M. [EAWAG-ETH, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Ammann, B. [Universitaet Bern (Switzerland)

1992-01-01

101

Use of Postpartum Care: Predictors and Barriers  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to identify actual and perceived barriers to postpartum care among a probability sample of women who gave birth in Los Angeles County, California in 2007. Survey data from the 2007 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) study (N = 4,075) were used to identify predictors and barriers to postpartum care use. The LAMB study was a cross-sectional, population-based study that examined maternal and child health outcomes during the preconception, prenatal, and postpartum periods. Multivariable analyses identified low income, being separated/divorced and never married, trying hard to get pregnant or trying to prevent pregnancy, Medi-Cal insurance holders, and lack of prenatal care to be risk factors of postpartum care nonuse, while Hispanic ethnicity was protective. The most commonly reported barriers to postpartum care use were feeling fine, being too busy with the baby, having other things going on, and a lack of need. Findings from this study can inform the development of interventions targeting subgroups at risk for not obtaining postpartum care. Community education and improved access to care can further increase the acceptability of postpartum visits and contribute to improvements in women's health. Postpartum care can serve as a gateway to engage underserved populations in the continuum of women's health care. PMID:24693433

DiBari, Jessica N.; Yu, Stella M.; Chao, Shin M.; Lu, Michael C.

2014-01-01

102

Use of postpartum care: predictors and barriers.  

PubMed

This study aimed to identify actual and perceived barriers to postpartum care among a probability sample of women who gave birth in Los Angeles County, California in 2007. Survey data from the 2007 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) study (N = 4,075) were used to identify predictors and barriers to postpartum care use. The LAMB study was a cross-sectional, population-based study that examined maternal and child health outcomes during the preconception, prenatal, and postpartum periods. Multivariable analyses identified low income, being separated/divorced and never married, trying hard to get pregnant or trying to prevent pregnancy, Medi-Cal insurance holders, and lack of prenatal care to be risk factors of postpartum care nonuse, while Hispanic ethnicity was protective. The most commonly reported barriers to postpartum care use were feeling fine, being too busy with the baby, having other things going on, and a lack of need. Findings from this study can inform the development of interventions targeting subgroups at risk for not obtaining postpartum care. Community education and improved access to care can further increase the acceptability of postpartum visits and contribute to improvements in women's health. Postpartum care can serve as a gateway to engage underserved populations in the continuum of women's health care. PMID:24693433

DiBari, Jessica N; Yu, Stella M; Chao, Shin M; Lu, Michael C

2014-01-01

103

Postpartum Depression Action Plan  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Postpartum Depression | Postpartum Depression Action Plan Patient __________________________ Physician/NP/PA __________________ Clinic ____________________________ Phone Number ____________________ Choose one area and add other areas as you begin ...

104

Fifty cases of late prosthetic valve endocarditis: improvement in prognosis over a 15 year period  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical course, prognostic factors, and management of 50 cases of late prosthetic valve endocarditis, occurring more than two months after valve replacement, were reviewed. Twenty nine cases that presented from 1971 to 1980 were compared with 21 cases that presented from 1981 to 1985. Apart from an appreciable decrease in the frequency of neurological complications between the first period

C Leport; J L Vilde; F Bricaire; A Cohen; B Pangon; C Gaudebout; P E Valere

1987-01-01

105

Chronic Gestational Stress Leads to Depressive-Like Behavior and Compromises Medial Prefrontal Cortex Structure and Function during the Postpartum Period  

PubMed Central

Postpartum depression, which affects approximately 15% of new mothers, is associated with impaired mother-infant interactions and deficits in cognitive function. Exposure to stress during pregnancy is a major risk factor for postpartum depression. However, little is known about the neural consequences of gestational stress. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a brain region that has been linked to stress, cognition, maternal care, and mood disorders including postpartum depression. Here we examined the effects of chronic gestational stress on mPFC function and whether these effects might be linked to structural modifications in the mPFC. We found that in postpartum rats, chronic gestational stress resulted in maternal care deficits, increased depressive-like behavior, and impaired performance on an attentional set shifting task that relies on the mPFC. Furthermore, exposure to chronic stress during pregnancy reduced dendritic spine density on mPFC pyramidal neurons and altered spine morphology. Taken together, these findings suggest that pregnancy stress may contribute to postpartum mental illness and its associated symptoms by compromising structural plasticity in the mPFC. PMID:24594708

Leuner, Benedetta; Fredericks, Peter J.; Nealer, Connor; Albin-Brooks, Christopher

2014-01-01

106

Postpartum Depression: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Occurring in about 12 percent of postpartum women, postpartum depression has been focus of considerable research. Variables that have been correlated with postpartum depression range from biological causes, to lack of social support, to relationship with husband, to attributional styles, to psychodynamic explanations. There is need for more…

Albright, Angela

1993-01-01

107

Pharmacotherapy of postpartum psychosis.  

PubMed

The term postpartum psychosis (PP) is not a discrete nosological entity but rather, refers to a group of heterogeneous disorders that share the common features of the presence of psychosis and onset of symptoms during the postpartum period. Although there remains a debate regarding its diagnostic status, PP is generally considered as belonging to the bipolar spectrum. The prognosis for the individual episodes is considered generally favourable but it is a potentially serious illness due to the increased risk of suicide and infanticide. Furthermore, puerperal and non-puerperal recurrences are quite common. There is paucity of controlled trials in the acute and prophylactic treatment of PP and the data are limited largely to the use of lithium and oestrogen. Strategies for the clinical management of PP should include early identification of women at risk; close monitoring of mood state during pregnancy, prompt recognition of impending psychosis and aggressive pharmacotherapy. In general, treatment for PP is essentially the same as for similar non-puerperal episodes. PMID:14521476

Sharma, Verinder

2003-10-01

108

Review of screening instruments for postpartum depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper presents a review and discussion of eight self-report measures used to assess for depressive symptoms in the postpartum period. Because postpartum depression is a significant mental health problem, there is a need for reliable and valid screening instruments. Published psychometric data (e.g., reliability, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, concurrent validity) of each self-report instrument are presented and

R. C. Boyd; H. N. Le; R. Somberg

2005-01-01

109

Esophageal motility changes in acute and late periods of caustic esophageal burns and their relation to prognosis in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Purpose: Esophageal burns as a result of accidental swallowing of caustic material are seen frequently in children. Severe motor function disorders of the esophagus after caustic burns are already reported covering the late periods. The aim of this study was to detect, follow, and report the clinical results of esophageal motility changes in acute as well as the late periods

Oktay Mutaf

2002-01-01

110

Care of postpartum adolescents.  

PubMed

An Adolescent Postpartum Care Plan is presented, based on the developmental knowledge that adolescence is a time of great physical, social, and cognitive change. Part of a larger plan developed for use by nurses who care for postpartum adolescents delivering through the Rochester Adolescent Maternity Program at the University of Rochester Medical Center, the care plan becomes a part of the patient's permanent record following delivery. To develop a relationship with the younger mother, it is important to remain nonjudgmental. This may mean that the nurse needs to move beyond her own feelings about teen pregnancy and to get to know the young woman individual. As many teenagers find it difficult to talk spontaneously, they need help from a sensitive nurse to express their feelings. In addition to questioning the young mother about her labor, delivery, and postpartum experiences, the nurse should learn about the young mother's life at home and the father of the baby. As the latter may be a particularly sensitive area, it should be approached with care. The nurse must assess the adolescent and her infant and observe the young mother interacting with her child. The intellectual and cognitive limitations of the adolescent must be considered if patient teaching is to be effective. A young mother who does not have the self control or attention span necessary to sit through an hour-long class on infant care may benefit from a hands-on, 1-to-1 teaching session with her nurse. Such teaching with a live infant is particularly effective with young mothers as is a small group class. To deliver both effective teaching and nursing care, it is essential to know how far the adolescent has progressed in her own development. The late adolescent often can be treated like an adult in terms of how she is expected to care for her infant and respond to patient teaching. The early and mid-adolescent may behave differently, calling for both different expectations and a different teaching style. A chart outlines the patient care plan, identifying the nursing diagnosis/patient problem, expected outcomes and goals, and nursing interventions. It is important that the nurse discuss contraceptive planning with the young mother as soon after delivery as possible. The best starting point is to question the teen as to what she knows about contraception and her experience with the various methods. It can be helpful to follow up birth control instruction with a simple handout that describes how to use a particular contraceptive method and explains the danger signals, the side effects, and where to call for help in case of any problems. PMID:3097445

Fullar, S A

1986-01-01

111

Postpartum Period: Discomfort and Recovery  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... register. I'm interested in: Pregnancy Baby growth & care Research Volunteer opportunities Advocacy in government For health ... acid During your pregnancy Your pregnant body Prenatal care Eating and nutrition Physical activity Emotional and life ...

112

Sleep Disturbance and Neurobehavioral Performance among Postpartum Women  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Sleep disturbances cause neurobehavioral performance and daytime functioning impairments. Postpartum women experience high levels of sleep disturbance. Thus, the study objective was to describe and explore the relation between neurobehavioral performance and sleep among women during the early postpartum period. Design: Longitudinal field-based study. Participants: There were 70 primiparous women and nine nulliparous women in a control group. Interventions: None. Methods and Results: During their first 12 postpartum weeks, 70 primiparous women wore continuous wrist actigraphy to objectively monitor their sleep. Each morning they self-administered the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) to index their neurobehavioral performance. Nine nulliparous women in a control group underwent the same protocol for 12 continuous weeks. Postpartum PVT mean reciprocal (1/RT) reaction time did not differ from that of women in the control group at postpartum week 2, but then worsened over time. Postpartum slowest 10% 1/RT PVT reaction time was significantly worse than that of women in the control group at all weeks. Despite improvements in postpartum sleep, neurobehavioral performance continued to worsen from week 2 through the end of the study. Across the first 12 postpartum weeks, PVT measures were more frequently associated with percent sleep compared with total sleep time, highlighting the deleterious consequences of sleep disruption on maternal daytime functioning throughout the early postpartum period. Conclusions: Worsened maternal neurobehavioral performance across the first 12 postpartum weeks may have been influenced by the cumulative effects of sleep disturbance. These results can inform future work to identify the particular sleep profiles that could be primary intervention targets to improve daytime functioning among postpartum women, and indicate need for further research on the effectiveness of family leave policies. The time when postpartum women return to control-level daytime functioning is unknown. Citation: Insana SP; Williams KB; Montgomery-Downs HE. Sleep disturbance and neurobehavioral performance among postpartum women. SLEEP 2013;36(1):73–81. PMID:23288973

Insana, Salvatore P.; Williams, Kayla B.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.

2013-01-01

113

Challenges Faced by New Mothers in the Early Postpartum Period: An Analysis of Comment Data from the 2000 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To identify challenges that women face 2–9 months postpartum using qualitative data gathered by the Pregnancy Risk Assessment\\u000a Monitoring System (PRAMS). Methods PRAMS is an on-going population-based surveillance system that collects self-reported information on maternal behaviors and\\u000a experiences before, during, and after the birth of a live infant. We analyzed free text comment data from women in 10 states\\u000a who

Sarojini Kanotra; Denise D’Angelo; Tanya M. Phares; Brian Morrow; Wanda D. Barfield; Amy Lansky

2007-01-01

114

Rotation periods for nearby, mid-to-late M dwarfs estimated from the MEarth Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of M dwarfs' rotation is essential to understanding the generation of their magnetic fields and the mechanism by which they lose angular momentum. It is also important for characterizing the environment of planets that might orbit them. The most direct way to infer rotation periods is from variations in stars' brightnesses as dark spots rotate in and out of view. Most rotation periods estimated prior to this decade are the result of dedicated photometric studies. If care is taken to preserve astrophysical variability and limit systematics, transiting planet surveys generate the high-cadence monitoring required to estimate stellar rotation periods. While targeted surveys of clusters have provided data at young ages, observations of field M dwarfs are required to constrain their late-term evolution. Rotation periods of the smallest stars are also needed: the Kepler mission produced exquisite light curves of several thousand cool dwarfs, but field stars below 0.3 solar masses are not well-represented in the sample. The MEarth Project is a transiting planet survey targeting mid-to-late M dwarfs within 33 parsecs; it provides a unique data set for exploring rotation in a large sample of fully convective stars. We present a catalog of rotation periods for these stars. Our measurements are particularly useful because many of the MEarth targets have parallaxes, multi-wavelength photometry, and optical and near-infrared spectra. We present our methods for estimating rotation periods and quantifying our uncertainties, and discuss our results in the context of other surveys.The MEarth project gratefully acknowledges funding from the David and Lucile Packard Fellowship for Science and Engineering, the National Science Foundation under grants AST-0807690, AST-1109468, and AST-1004488, and the John Templeton Foundation

Newton, Elisabeth R.; Irwin, Jonathan; Charbonneau, David; Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.; Dittmann, Jason

2015-01-01

115

Hematological and serum biochemical values in pregnant and postpartum females of the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus).  

PubMed

The hematological and serum biochemical values of a total of 18 pregnant female squirrel monkeys were determined during the pre- and postpartum period. Pregnancy was determined by abdominal palpation in adult females cohabiting with robust males. The mean body weight of the pregnant females gradually increased toward parturition and dramatically decreased at parturition due to delivery of the infant monkey. The red blood cell count, hematocrit and hemoglobin levels diminished toward parturition and then increased to their normal levels by week 6 after delivery. The Wintrobe constant, MCHC, did not fluctuate, but MCH and MCV values increased in late pregnancy and the early nursing periods. The mean white blood cell count varied between 65.8 and 87.3 (x 10(2)/mm3) during the experimental periods. The mean serum total cholesterol concentration and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase activity were lower in the pregnant group during the mid- and late gestation stage than in nonpregnant and nursing females. The mean serum total protein and albumin values were lower in pregnant females than in the controls. Alkaline phosphatase activity increased in late pregnancy and the nursing periods. Since the pregnant females examined gave birth to healthy newborn monkeys and nursed them normally, the hematological and serum biochemical measurements should represent the physiological values for squirrel monkeys during pregnancy and the postpartum period. PMID:8689579

Suzuki, T; Suzuki, N; Shimoda, K; Nagasawa, H

1996-01-01

116

Management of Postpartum Depression  

PubMed Central

Postpartum depression, now termed peripartum depression by the DSM-V, is one of the most common complications in the postpartum period and has potentially significant negative consequences for mothers and their families. This article highlights common clinical challenges in the treatment of peripartum depression and reviews the evidence for currently available treatment options. Psychotherapy is the first-line treatment options for women with mild-to-moderate peripartum depression. Antidepressant medication in combination with therapy is recommended for women with moderate-to-severe depression. While pooled case reports and small controlled studies have demonstrated undetectable infant serum levels and no short-term adverse events in infants of mothers breastfeeding while taking sertraline (Zoloft) and paroxetine (Paxil), further research is needed including larger samples and long-term follow-up of infants exposed to antidepressants via breastfeeding with control for maternal depression. Pharmacological treatment recommendations in women who are lactating must include discussion with the patient regarding the benefits of breastfeeding, risks of antidepressant use during lactation and risks of untreated illness. There is a growing evidence base for non-pharmacological interventions including repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) which may offer an attractive option for women who wish to continue to breastfeed and are concerned about exposure of medication to their infant. Among severe cases of peripartum depression with psychosis referral to a psychiatrist or psychiatric APRN is warranted. Suicidal or homicidal ideation with a desire, intent or plan to harm oneself or anyone one else, including the infant, is a psychiatric emergency, and an evaluation by a mental health professional should be conducted immediately. Peripartum depression treatment research is limited by small samples sizes and few controlled studies. Much work is still needed to better understand which treatments women prefer and are the most effective in ameliorating the symptoms and disease burden associated with peripartum depression. PMID:24131708

Guille, Constance; Newman, Roger; Fryml, Leah D.; Lifton, Clay K.; Epperson, C. Neill

2013-01-01

117

Coastal Maya Obsidian Trade in the Late Postclassic to Early Colonial Period: The View From San Pedro, Ambergris Caye, Belize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although substantial work has been done to reconstruct ancient Maya coastal trade from the Late Preclassic through the Early Postclassic periods (400 BC–AD 1200), relatively little is known about trade activity along the Caribbean Coast in Late Postclassic and Early Colonial times (ca. AD 1400 to 1700). By focusing on obsidian artifacts from the site of San Pedro on Ambergris

W. James Stemp; Elizabeth Graham; Jessica Goulet

2011-01-01

118

Psychiatric consultation to the postpartum mother.  

PubMed

The immediate postpartum period is a time of acute vulnerability to mental illness, which presents unique challenges for the psychiatric consultant. Because the postpartum hospital stay is typically brief, the consultant must have a working knowledge of postpartum physiology and the myriad forms of mental illness that may emerge in this vulnerable time, in order to quickly make a diagnosis and formulate a treatment plan. This review aims to characterize the most common reasons for postpartum consultation, review postpartum physiology and psychiatric conditions, and propose an evidence-based, practical approach to treatment. A literature search using the terms "postpartum," "obstetric," "consultation," and "psychiatry" yielded six studies that identified reasons for psychiatric consultation to the obstetrics and gynecology services. These studies informed the structure of the article such that we review the most common reasons for consultation and how to approach each issue. The most common reason for consultation is past psychiatric history, often in the absence of current symptoms. For each clinical situation, including depression, adverse birth events, and psychosis, we present a differential diagnosis, as well as risk factors, clinical signs, and recommended treatment. PMID:25764006

Anderson, Eleanor A; Kim, Deborah R

2015-04-01

119

Factors Influencing Physical Activity among Postpartum Iranian Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Postpartum women are a population at risk for sedentary living. Physical activity (PA) prior to pregnancy may be effective in predicting similar behaviour in the postpartum period. Objective: To test a composite version of the extended transtheoretical model (TTM) by adding "past behaviour" in order to predict PA behaviour…

Roozbahani, Nasrin; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Eftekhar Ardabili, Hassan; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

2014-01-01

120

Postpartum depression: A comparison of screening and routine clinical evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study compared the efficacy of routine clinical evaluation with that of screening with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale for the detection of postpartum depression in a residency training program practice. Study Design: Three hundred ninety-one patients during a period of 1 year were assigned according to delivery date to screening for postpartum depression with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression

Grace G. Evins; James P. Theofrastous; Shelley L. Galvin

2000-01-01

121

Risk factors for postpartum ovarian cysts and their spontaneous recovery or persistence in lactating dairy cows.  

PubMed

Cystic ovarian disease is a major cause of reproductive failure and economic loss for the dairy industry. Many cysts that develop during the early postpartum period regress spontaneously. However, it is difficult to decide at what point it would be more cost effective to treat ovarian cysts than to wait for spontaneous recovery. The objective of this study was to analyze risk factors for the development of the ovarian cystic condition during early and late postpartum, and for its persistence or recovery during the pre-service period in lactating dairy cows. Using multiple logistic regression, we analyzed data derived from 873 lactating dairy cows from a single herd. An ovarian cyst was diagnosed if it was possible to observe a single follicular structure with an antrum diameter > or = 25 mm in the absence of a corpus luteum in three sonograms performed at 7-day intervals. The cystic condition was denoted as early if the cyst was diagnosed 43-49 days postpartum, and late if detected 57-63-day postpartum. Spontaneous cyst regression before 60-day postpartum was regarded as early cystic recovery. For the early cystic group, there were no significant effects of lactation number, body condition score on prepartum Day 60, at parturition or on postpartum Day 30, or of body condition loss from parturition to 30-day postpartum. Cows calving in summer were 2.6 times more likely to develop ovarian cysts than those giving birth in winter. The risk of having a cyst was 1.9 times higher in cows with an abnormal puerperium. A 1-kg increase in milk yield raised the risk of cysts by a factor of 1.05. A 1-unit increase in body condition score (scale from 1 to 5) from prepartum Day 60 to parturition increased the risk of cyst development 8.4 times. Milk production and lactation number were negatively correlated with spontaneous early cyst recovery. A 1-kg decrease in milk production increased the probability of cyst recovery by a factor of 1.06, and a 1-unit drop in lactation number was associated with a 1.4-fold increased probability of cyst recovery. For the late cystic group, there were no significant effects of abnormal puerperium and body score data, except for a prepartum change in body score. Calving season (Odds ratio: 2.3), lactation number (Odds ratio: 1.36), increased milk production (Odds ratio: 1.05) and increased body condition score during the prepartum period (Odds ratio: 4.3) were all related to an increased risk of ovarian cysts. The probability of having a late cyst was 36.6 times greater in cows with early cysts. These findings suggest that it would be profitable to treat multiparous cows having cysts very early in the postpartum period, while treatment of primiparous cows should be delayed, at least until the end of the pre-service period, to provide the opportunity for spontaneous recovery. PMID:12374132

López-Gatius, F; Santolaria, P; Yániz, J; Fenech, M; López-Béjar, M

2002-11-01

122

Postpartum Depression and Child Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Only recently has the research on postpartum depression dealt with the disorder's effects on child development. This book explores the impact of postpartum depression on mother-infant interaction and child development, its treatment, and postpartum psychosis. The chapters are: (1) "The Nature of Postpartum Depressive Disorders" (Michael O'Hara);…

Murray, Lynne, Ed.; Cooper, Peter J., Ed.

123

Cluster Subtypes Appropriate for Preventing Postpartum Smoking Relapse  

PubMed Central

Objective While the majority of women quit smoking either before or during pregnancy, 60 to 80% relapse in the postpartum period. The objective of this research was to examine postpartum women who quit smoking during their pregnancies and to determine the predictive factors for relapse in the postpartum period by identifying different subgroups that predict risk of relapse. Method One hundred forty four postpartum women who were abstinent at the time of delivery were recruited. Data regarding the Acquisition Stage of Change, Decisional Balance and Situational Temptations to Smoke were assessed in the immediate postpartum period. Based on their intention to remain abstinent, 121 women identified in the acquisition-Precontemplation (aPC) group comprised the study sample. Smoking status was assessed again at 2-months postpartum Results A cluster analysis was performed to idenitfy subgroups of the acquisition-Precontemplation (aPC) group. Four subgroups were identified and were labeled Most Protected, Ambivalent, Risk Denial, and High Risk. Logistic regression was performed to establish external validity of the clusters. The clusters and exclusive breastfeeding were the only statistically significant variables associated with relapse at 2-months postpartum. Conclusions The results confirmed the clusters identified in previous prevention research with both adolescents and postpartum women, The cluster profiles can serve to guide the development of a tailored intervention program. PMID:22136873

Simonelli, Mary Colleen; Velicer, Wayne F

2011-01-01

124

Discovery of a short-necked sauropod dinosaur from the Late Jurassic period of Patagonia.  

PubMed

Sauropod dinosaurs are one of the most conspicuous groups of Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrates. They show general trends towards an overall increase in size and elongation of the neck, by means of considerable elongation of the length of individual vertebrae and a cervical vertebra count that, in some cases, increases to 19 (ref. 1). The long neck is a particular hallmark of sauropod dinosaurs and is usually regarded as a key feeding adaptation. Here we describe a new dicraeosaurid sauropod, from the latest Jurassic period of Patagonia, that has a particularly short neck. With a neck that is about 40% shorter than in other known dicraeosaurs, this taxon demonstrates a trend opposite to that seen in most sauropods and indicates that the ecology of dicraeosaurids might have differed considerably from that of other sauropods. The new taxon indicates that there was a rapid radiation and dispersal of dicraeosaurids in the Late Jurassic of the Southern Hemisphere, after the separation of Gondwana from the northern continents by the late Middle Jurassic. PMID:15931221

Rauhut, Oliver W M; Remes, Kristian; Fechner, Regina; Cladera, Gerardo; Puerta, Pablo

2005-06-01

125

Postpartum Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections that are diagnosed during the postpartum period (defined as the 3 months after delivery). Study Design: This was a retrospective cohort study of women delivered of infants at ?28 weeks of gestation at an urban hospital from 1992 through 1998, including each woman's first delivery

Barbara E. Mahon; Marc B. Rosenman; Marilyn F. Graham; J. Dennis Fortenberry

2002-01-01

126

Giant Thyroid Abscess Related to Postpartum Brucella Infection  

PubMed Central

Thyroid gland infection, although rare, may be a life threatening disease. Thyroid abscess, arising from acute suppurative thyroiditis (AST), is a rare clinic condition depending on widespread use of antibiotics. Infection may involve one or both lobes and abscess formation may not be apparent until late stage of the progress of illness. Thyroid left lobe is more often affected than the right one. Brucellosis, especially obvious in endemic areas, is a widely seen zoonosis around the world. Although brucella infection can affect many organs through various complications, thyroid gland infection is rare. We aimed to present ultrasonography (USG) and magnetic resonance images (MRI) of a case with an acute thyroiditis which rapidly developed and grew fast on the left half of the neck during the first postpartum month. As far as we know from literature reviewing, our case is the first case report of a thyroid abscess arising from brucella infection which is developed in first postpartum period with images of ultrasonography and MRI. PMID:25861492

Akdemir, Zülküf; Karaman, Erbil; Akdeniz, Hüseyin; Alptekin, Cem

2015-01-01

127

The correlation between postpartum depression and health status.  

PubMed

To investigate a purported correlation between postpartum depression and self-rated maternal general health status in a sample of mothers in Southern Brazil. As part of this process, the Personal Health Scale (PHS), a self-rated health status measure, was tested for the first time among postpartum women. Research volunteers completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders (SCID), the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), the PHS, the Postpartum Depression Screening Scale (PDSS), and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Correlation coefficients were computed among the scores of the health status questionnaires and the postnatal depression scales. Bivariate linear regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the prediction of scores of postnatal depression scales having the scores of health status questionnaires as predictors. Significant correlations among both health status questionnaires and both postnatal screening tools attest to a significant interconnection between the expression of depressive symptoms and maternal health status in the postpartum period. The health status measures predicted the scores of postpartum depression scales. This study demonstrates that both general health questionnaires and postpartum depressive rating scales are useful tools for detecting depressive phenomena in postpartum women. The association between self-rated health measures and postpartum depression may be even more significant in the context of socioeconomic deprivation. PMID:19693658

Zubaran, Carlos; Foresti, Katia; Schumacher, Marina Verdi; Amoretti, Aline Luz; Thorell, Mariana Rossi; Müller, Lúcia Cristina

2010-09-01

128

Maternal Postpartum Role Collapse as a Theory of Postpartum Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development of a theory of maternal postpartum role collapse. The influences of traditional role theory and symbolic interactionism are presented. The development of the maternal postpartum role collapse theory emerged from the study of postpartum depression among African-American women (Amankwaa, 2000).…

Amankwaa, Linda Clark

2005-01-01

129

Comparative Efficacy of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item Scale and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale as Screening Tools for Generalized Anxiety Disorder in Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period  

PubMed Central

Objective: About 24.1% of pregnant women suffer from at least 1 anxiety disorder, 8.5% of whom suffer specifically from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). GAD is often associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). During the perinatal period, the presence of physical and somatic symptoms often makes differentiation between depression and anxiety more challenging. To date, no screening tools have been developed to detect GAD in the perinatal population. We investigated the psychometric properties of the GAD 7-item Scale (GAD-7) as a screening tool for GAD in pregnant and postpartum women. Methods: Two hundred and forty perinatal women (n = 155 pregnant and n = 85 postpartum) referred for psychiatric consultation were enrolled. On the day of initial assessment, all women completed the GAD-7 and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition–based diagnoses were made by experienced psychiatrists. Scores from the GAD-7 and EPDS were compared with the clinical diagnoses to evaluate the psychometric properties of the GAD-7 and EPDS when used as a screening tool for GAD. Results: The GAD-7 yielded a sensitivity of 61.3% and specificity of 72.7% at an optimal cut-off score of 13. Compared with the EPDS and the EPDS-3A subscale, the GAD-7 displayed greater accuracy and specificity over a greater range of cut-off scores and more accurately identified GAD in patients with comorbid MDD. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the GAD-7 represents a clinically useful scale for the detection of GAD in perinatal women. PMID:25161068

Simpson, William; Glazer, Melanie; Michalski, Natalie; Steiner, Meir; Frey, Benicio N

2014-01-01

130

Effect of previous miscarriage on depressive symptoms during subsequent pregnancy and postpartum in the first baby study.  

PubMed

Our objective was to test the hypothesis that nulliparous women with a history of miscarriage have an increased risk of depression during late pregnancy, and at 1, 6, and 12 months postpartum compared to women without a history of miscarriage. We conducted secondary analysis of a longitudinal cohort study, the First Baby Study, and compared 448 pregnant women with a history of miscarriage to 2,343 pregnant women without a history of miscarriage on risk of probable depression (score >12 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale). Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios at each time point and generalized estimating equations were used to obtain estimates in longitudinal analysis. Women with a history of miscarriage were not more likely than woman without a history of miscarriage to score in the probable depression range during the third trimester or at 6 or 12 months postpartum but were more likely at 1 month postpartum, after adjustment for sociodemographic factors (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.03-2.69). Women with a history of miscarriage may be more vulnerable to depression during the first month postpartum than women without prior miscarriage, but this effect does not appear to persist beyond this time period. We support the promotion of awareness surrounding this issue and recommend that research is planned to identify risk factors that may position a woman with a history of miscarriage to be at higher risk for depression. PMID:24894728

Bicking Kinsey, Cara; Baptiste-Roberts, Kesha; Zhu, Junjia; Kjerulff, Kristen H

2015-02-01

131

Locally applied simvastatin improves fracture healing at late period in osteoporotic rat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

effect of simvastatin locally applied from a bioactive polymer coating of implants on osteoporotic fracture healing at late period. Methods:Femur fracture model was established on normal or osteotoporotic mature female SD rats, intramedullary stabilization was achieved with uncoated titanium Kirschnerwires in normal rats(group A),with polymer-only coated vs. polymer plus simvastatin coated titanium Kirschner wires in osteoporotic rats(group B and C, respectively).Femurs were harvested after 12 weeks, and underwent radiographic and histologic analysis, as well as immunohistochemical evaluation for BMP-2 expression. Results:Radiographic results demonstrated progressed callus in the simvastatin-treated groups compared to the uncoated group.The histologic analysis revealed a significantly processed callus with irregular-shaped newly formed bone trabeculae in simvastatin-treated group. Immunohistochemical evaluation showed markedly higher expression levels of B:MP-2 in simvastatin-treated group.Conclusions: The present study revealed a improved fracture healing under local application of simvastatin in osteoporotic rat,which might partially from upregulation of the B:MP-2 expression at fractured site.

Tian, Faming; Zhang, Liu; Kang, Yuchuan; Zhang, Junshan; Ao, Jiao; Yang, Fang

132

The Wandering Indian Plate and Its Changing Biogeography During the Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary Period  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Palaeobiogeographic analysis of Indian tetrapods during the Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary time has recognized that both vicariance\\u000a and geodispersal have played important roles in producing biogeographic congruence. The biogeographic patterns show oscillating\\u000a cycles of geodispersal (Late Cretaceous), followed by congruent episodes of vicariance and geodispersal (Early Eocene), followed\\u000a by another geodispersal event (Middle Eocene). New biogeographic synthesis suggests that the Late

Sankar Chatterjee; Christopher Scotese

2010-01-01

133

Unstable sleep and higher sympathetic activity during late-sleep periods of rats: implication for late-sleep-related higher cardiovascular events.  

PubMed

We proposed that the higher incidence of sleep fragmentation, sympathovagal imbalance and baroreceptor reflex impairment during quiet sleep may play a critical role in late-sleep-related cardiovascular events. Polysomnographic recording was performed through wireless transmission using freely moving Wistar-Kyoto rats over 24 h. The low-frequency power of arterial pressure variability was quantified to provide an index of vascular sympathetic activity. Spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity was assessed by slope of arterial pressure-RR linear regression. As compared with early-light period (Zeitgeber time 0-6 h), rats during the late-light period (Zeitgeber time 6-12 h) showed lower accumulated quiet sleep time and higher paradoxical sleep time; furthermore, during quiet sleep, the rats showed a lower ?% of electroencephalogram, more incidents of interruptions, higher ?% and higher ?% of electroencephalogram, raised low-frequency power of arterial pressure variability value and lower baroreflex sensitivity parameters. During the light period, low-frequency power of arterial pressure variability during quiet sleep had a negative correlation with accumulated quiet sleep time and ?% of electroencephalogram, while it also had a positive correlation with ?% and ?% of electroencephalogram and interruption events. However, late-sleep-related raised sympathetic activity and sleep fragmentation diminished when an ?1-adrenoceptor antagonist was given to the rats. Our results suggest that the higher incidence of sleep fragmentation and sympathovagal imbalance during quiet sleep may play a critical role in late-sleep-related cardiovascular events. Such sleep fragmentation is coincident with an impairment of baroreflex sensitivity, and is mediated via ?1-adernoceptors. PMID:22957846

Kuo, Terry B J; Lai, Chun-Ting; Chen, Chun-Yu; Lee, Guo-She; Yang, Cheryl C H

2013-02-01

134

Ecosystem responses during Late Glacial period recorded in the sediments of Lake ?ukie (East Poland)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objectives of this study was to reconstruct climate impact on the functioning of Lake ?ukie and its catchment (??czna W?odawa Lake District, East European Plain) during Late Glacial period. In order to reconstruct climatic fluctuations and corresponding ecosystem responses, we analysed lake sediments for pollen, subfossil Cladocera, plant macrofossils and chemical composition of the sediment. Of these, plant macrofossils and Cladocera were used to infer minimum and mean July temperatures and ordination analysis was used to examine biotic community shifts. Multiproxy analyses of late-glacial sediments of Lake ?ukie clearly show that the main driver of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems as well as geomorphological processes in the catchment was climate variation. The history of the lake initiated during the Older Dryas. In that period, ??czna W?odawa Lake District was covered by open habitats dominated by grasses (Poaceae), humid sites were occupied by tundra plant communities with less clubmoss (Selaginella selaginoides), dry sites by dominated by steppe-like vegetation with light-demanding species such as Helianthemum, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, and juniper bushes (Juniperus). Cold climate limited the growth and development of organisms in the lake, Cladocera community species composition was poor, with only few species present there all the time. During this time period, permafrost was still present in the ground limiting infiltration of rainwater and causing high erosion in the catchment area. Surface runoff is confirmed by the presence of sclerotia of Cenococcum geophilum and high terrigenous silica content. The warming of the early Allerød caused a remarkable change in the natural environment of this area. This is in accordance with the temperature rise reconstructed with the use of plant macrofossils though the Cladocera reconstruction did not recorded the rise than. This temperature increase resulted in turnover of vegetation in the catchment of Lake ?ukie, pioneer birch-pine forests dominated, later replaced by pine-birch forests. Consequently this limited the erosion. The results of all proxy suggest the water-lever rise in lake ?ukie. The Younger Dryas cooling in the region began about 12 630 14C years BP and recorded in significant drop in temperature reconstructed with plant macrofossils and Cladocera. The cooling resulted in a decline of forest communities and development of open habitats with grasses (Poaceae), Artemisia, and Chenopodiaceae), as well as juniper thickets (Juniperus) At the end of the Younger Dryas, plant communities changed, the non-arborescent pollen declined, while pollen of trees (especially Pinus) became more abundant. This change was more abruptly reflected in Cladocera and aquatic pollen results and is probably related to gradual climate warming. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute ICLEA (Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis) funded by the Helmholtz Association, projects UMO-2011/01/B/ST10/07367 and N N306 036436 founded by National Science Center, Poland.

Zawiska, Izabela; S?owi?ski, Micha?; Correa-Metrio, Alex; Obremska, Milena; Luoto, Tomi; Nevalainen, Liisa; Woszczyk, Micha?; Milecka, Krystyna

2014-05-01

135

Responses of serum neurotrophic factors to exercise in pregnant and postpartum women.  

PubMed

It was recently shown in humans that exercise affects the neurotrophic factors known to function as neurogenesis regulators. No data related to exercise and pregnancy, however, is yet available. Thus, we investigated the effects of acute exercise on pregnant women during late pregnancy and women postpartum, on the serum concentration of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), prolactin (PRL) and cortisol (COR). Twenty women with uncomplicated pregnancies underwent a graded submaximal exercise test during pregnancy (weeks 32-36 of gestation; T(1)) and postpartum (10-12 weeks after childbirth; T(2)). On two of these test days the women carried out an intensifying exercise test (25 W steps) on a cycle ergometer until a heart rate of 150 bpm was reached. Blood samples were taken in the rest period before beginning the exercise, immediately at the end of the exercise and after recovery periods of 5 and 10 min, respectively. Basal maternal IGF-1, PRL and COR were found to be higher during T(1) (p<.01), while the BDNF was higher during T(2) (p=.00). VEGF was not detectable in the serum of the pregnant women. During T(2), VEGF, which was found to be within the normal range before exercise, was at a higher level after exercise (p<.01). Exercise increased the BDNF and IGF-1 during T(1) and T(2) (p<.01). This study also shows that exercise increases the serum concentrations of IGF-1 and BDNF during pregnancy and postpartum as well as VEGF postpartum. Thus, exercise might be a beneficial lifestyle factor with therapeutic/public health implications i.e. with regard to maternal mood and cognitive performance. PMID:20692101

Vega, Sandra Rojas; Kleinert, Jens; Sulprizio, Marion; Hollmann, Wildor; Bloch, Wilhelm; Strüder, Heiko K

2011-02-01

136

A Sensitive Period for Language in the Visual Cortex: Distinct Patterns of Plasticity in Congenitally versus Late Blind Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent evidence suggests that blindness enables visual circuits to contribute to language processing. We examined whether this dramatic functional plasticity has a sensitive period. BOLD fMRI signal was measured in congenitally blind, late blind (blindness onset 9-years-old or later) and sighted participants while they performed a sentence…

Bedny, Marina; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Dravida, Swethasri; Saxe, Rebecca

2012-01-01

137

Steroid concentrations in antepartum and postpartum saliva: normative values in women and correlations with serum  

PubMed Central

Background Saliva has been advocated as an alternative to serum or plasma for steroid monitoring. Little normative information is available concerning expected concentrations of the major reproductive steroids in saliva during pregnancy and the extended postpartum. Methods Matched serum and saliva specimens controlled for time of day and collected less than 30?minutes apart were obtained in 28 women with normal singleton pregnancies between 32 and 38?weeks of gestation and in 43 women during the first six months postpartum. Concentrations of six steroids (estriol, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone) were quantified in saliva by enzyme immunoassay. Results For most of the steroids examined, concentrations in antepartum saliva showed linear increases near end of gestation, suggesting an increase in the bioavailable hormone component. Observed concentrations were in agreement with the limited data available from previous reports. Modal concentrations of the ovarian steroids were undetectable in postpartum saliva and, when detectable in individual women, approximated early follicular phase values. Only low to moderate correlations between the serum and salivary concentrations were found, suggesting that during the peripartum period saliva provides information that is not redundant to serum. Conclusions Low correlations in the late antepartum may be due to differential rates of change in the total and bioavailable fractions of the circulating steroid in the final weeks of the third trimester as a consequence of dynamic changes in carrier proteins such as corticosteroid binding globulin. PMID:23575245

2013-01-01

138

Competence and Responsiveness in Mothers of Late Preterm Infants Versus Term Infants  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare maternal competence and responsiveness in mothers of late preterm infants (LPIs) with mothers of full-term infants. Design A nonexperimental repeated-measures design was used to compare maternal competence and responsiveness in two groups of postpartum mothers and the relationship of the theoretical antecedents to these outcomes. Setting Urban academic medical center. Participants Mothers of late preterm infants (34–36, 6/7-weeks gestation) and mothers of term infants (?37-weeks gestation), including primiparas and multiparas. Data were collected after delivery during the postpartum hospital stay and again at 6-weeks postpartum. Methods Descriptive and inferential analysis. Results A total of 70 mothers completed both data collection periods: 49 term mothers and 21 LPI mothers. There were no differences between the two groups related to their perception of competence or responsiveness at delivery or 6-weeks postpartum. At 6-weeks postpartum, none of the assessed factors in the model was significantly related to competence or responsiveness. Conclusions The results, which may have been limited by small sample size, demonstrated no difference in the perceptions of LPI and term mothers related to competence or responsiveness. Maternal stress and support were significantly related to other factors in the model of maternal competence and responsiveness. PMID:23601024

Baker, Brenda; McGrath, Jacqueline M.; Pickler, Rita; Jallo, Nancy; Cohen, Stephen

2013-01-01

139

Impact of forced separation policy on incarcerated postpartum mothers.  

PubMed

The number of incarcerated women in the United States is steadily increasing with 9% giving birth while serving time. Mothers and babies are routinely separated immediately and during most of the postpartum period. This qualitative study examines the impact of this policy by exploring the nature and meaning of the mother-infant bonding experience when the mothers know separation is coming. Twelve incarcerated postpartum mothers were interviewed during the early postpartum period about their antepartum and postpartum relationships with their babies. Qualitative data analysis produced four relational themes: (a) "a love connection," (b) "everything was great until I birthed," (c) "feeling empty and missing a part of me," and (d) "I don't try to think too far in advance." Results of this qualitative study provide information to professionals exploring gender-sensitive prison policies for the growing female population. PMID:20022914

Chambers, Angelina N

2009-08-01

140

Stress response in postpartum women with and without obsessive–compulsive symptoms: an fMRI study  

PubMed Central

Background During the postpartum period, some women might be under a considerable amount of stress and at increased risk for onset or exacerbation of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Little is known about the stress response correlates during the postpartum period and in patients with OCD. This study aimed to examine the cerebral, psychologic and endocrine correlates of the stress response in patients with OCD and during the postpartum period. Methods Women with postpartum OCD, healthy postpartum women and healthy mothers past the postpartum period underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while facing a reliable psychosocial stressor (the Montreal Imaging Stress Task). Stress-related psychologic and endocrine responses (i.e., cortisol) were obtained. Results We enrolled 12 women with postpartum OCD, 16 healthy postpartum women and 11 healthy mothers past the postpartum period in our study. Compared with healthy postpartum counterparts, postpartum women with OCD had a heightened self-reported and endocrine stress response associated with a distinct brain activation pattern in response to psychosocial stress involving the orbitofrontal and temporal cortices. Moreover, compared with mothers assessed in a period of time beyond the postpartum period, healthy postpartum women did not differ in psychologic and cortisol response to stress, but recruited different brain regions, such as the dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex, during exposure to stress. Limitations Potential confounding factors, such as medication use, breastfeeding, parity and personality factors, may have modulated the stress-related endocrine response and could not be assessed in this study. Conclusion Obsessive–compulsive disorder and the postpartum period differentially influence the brain circuitry underlying psychosocial stress as well as the psychologic and endocrine responses. PMID:22122779

Lord, Catherine; Steiner, Meir; Soares, Claudio N.; Carew, Caitlin L.; Hall, Geoffrey B.

2012-01-01

141

Depression and anxiety among postpartum and adoptive mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Similar to biological mothers during the postpartum period, women who adopt children experience increased stress and life\\u000a changes that may put them at risk for developing depression and anxiety. The purpose of the current study was to compare levels\\u000a of depression and anxiety symptoms between postpartum and adoptive women and, among adoptive women, to examine associations\\u000a between specific stressors and

Sarah L. Mott; Crystal Edler Schiller; Jenny Gringer Richards; Michael W. O’Hara; Scott Stuart

2011-01-01

142

Obstetric, somatic, and demographic risk factors for postpartum depressive symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To identify and test the predictive power of potential independent risk factors of postpartum depressive symptoms during pregnancy and the perinatal period.Methods:We conducted a case-control study where 132 women with postpartum depressive symptoms were selected as an index group and 264 women without depressive symptoms as a control group. Data related to sociodemographic status, medical, gynecologic, and obstetric history, pregnancy,

Ann Josefsson; Lisbeth Angelsiöö; Göran Berg; Carl-Magnus Ekström; Christina Gunnervik; Conny Nordin; Gunilla Sydsjö

2002-01-01

143

Postpartum bonding: the role of perinatal depression, anxiety and maternal-fetal bonding during pregnancy.  

PubMed

Adverse effects of perinatal depression on the mother-child interaction are well documented; however, the influence of maternal-fetal bonding during pregnancy on postpartum bonding has not been clearly identified. The subject of this study was to investigate prospectively the influence of maternal-fetal bonding and perinatal symptoms of anxiety and depression on postpartum mother-infant bonding. Data from 80 women were analyzed for associations of symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as maternal bonding during pregnancy to maternal bonding in the postpartum period using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Pregnancy Related Anxiety Questionnaire (PRAQ-R), the Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale (MFAS) and the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ-16). Maternal education, MFAS, PRAQ-R, EPDS and STAI-T significantly correlated with the PBQ-16. In the final regression model, MFAS and EPDS postpartum remained significant predictors of postpartum bonding and explained 20.8 % of the variance. The results support the hypothesized negative relationship between maternal-fetal bonding and postpartum maternal bonding impairment as well as the role of postpartum depressive symptoms. Early identification of bonding impairment during pregnancy and postpartum depression in mothers plays an important role for the prevention of potential bonding impairment in the early postpartum period. PMID:25088531

Dubber, S; Reck, C; Müller, M; Gawlik, S

2015-04-01

144

Epidemiological characteristics and predictors of late presentation of HIV infection in Barcelona (Spain) during the period 2001-2009  

PubMed Central

Background Early diagnosis of HIV infection can prevent morbidity and mortality as well as reduce HIV transmission. The aim of the present study was to assess prevalence, describe trends and identify factors associated with late presentation of HIV infection in Barcelona (Spain) during the period 2001-09. Methods Demographic and epidemiological characteristics of cases reported to the Barcelona HIV surveillance system were analysed. Late presentation was defined for individuals with a CD4 count below 350 cells/ml upon HIV diagnosis or diagnosis of AIDS within 3 months of HIV diagnosis. Multivariate logistic regression were used to identify predictors of late presentation. Results Of the 2,938 newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals, 2,507 (85,3%) had either a CD4 cell count or an AIDS diagnosis available. A total of 1,139 (55.6%) of the 2,507 studied cases over these nine years were late presenters varying from 48% among men who have sex with men to 70% among heterosexual men. The proportion of late presentation was 62.7% in 2001-2003, 51.9% in 2004-2005, 52.6% in 2006-2007 and 52.1% in 2008-2009. A decrease over time only was observed between 2001-2003 and 2004-2005 (p = 0.001) but remained constant thereafter (p = 0.9). Independent risk factors for late presentation were older age at diagnosis (p < 0.0001), use of injected drugs by men (p < 0.0001), being a heterosexual men (p < 0.0001), and being born in South America (p < 0.0001) or sub-Saharan Africa (p = 0.002). Conclusion Late presentation of HIV is still too frequent in all transmission groups in spite of a strong commitment with HIV prevention in our city. It is necessary to develop interventions that increase HIV testing and facilitate earlier entry into HIV care. PMID:21729332

2011-01-01

145

Wood resources in north-west Portugal: their availability and use from the late Bronze Age to the Roman period  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of archaeological charcoal is used to reconstruct the wood resources in north-west Portugal from the late Bronze\\u000a Age to the Roman period. In this paper, the results obtained from 12 sites are considered, and their implications for interpreting\\u000a historical human behaviour towards the natural environment and vegetation are discussed. The results indicate a similar kind\\u000a of exploitation of

Isabel Figueiral

1996-01-01

146

Use of regenerating clearcuts by late-successional bird species and their young during the post-fledging period  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1995 to 1999, we mist-netted birds in regenerating clearcuts within a primarily forested landscape of West Virginia and Virginia to determine the extent that both resident and migrant birds and their young use this type of early-successional habitat during the post-fledging period. Our primary objective was to document whether or not birds typically considered mature or late-successional forest breeders

Matthew R. Marshall; Jennifer A. DeCecco; Alan B. Williams; George A. Gale; Robert J. Cooper

2003-01-01

147

Unmet Social Support for Healthy Behaviors Among Overweight and Obese Postpartum Women: Results from the Active Mothers Postpartum Study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background In the United States, about two thirds of women of reproductive age are overweight or obese. Postpartum is a transitional period. Life changes during this time can put mothers under high levels of stress when interpersonal support is inadequate. This study sought to explore predictors of unmet social support (support inadequacy) for healthy behaviors among postpartum women who were overweight or obese before pregnancy. Methods Potential predictors of unmet social support for healthy behaviors were derived from baseline and 6-month postpartum data from the Active Mothers Postpartum (AMP) study. The Postpartum Support Questionnaire queried three dimensions of social support: (1) informational support, (2) emotional support, and (3) instrumental support. The main outcome, the overall Unmet Social Support Score (USSS), was the sum of the differences between the perceived need of support and perceived receipt of support in all three dimensions. Subscores were defined for each of the three support dimensions. Results One hundred ninety women completed the 6-month Postpartum Support Questionnaire. Depression (p=0.018), unmarried status (p=0.049), and postpartum weight gain (p=0.003) were crude predictors for the overall USSS. After controlling for covariates, depression (p=0.009) and living with a spouse (p=0.040) were significant predictors for overall USSS. In adjusted analysis, depression remained a significant predictor for unmet emotional (p=0.035) and instrumental (p=0.001) social support. Conclusions Certain psychosocial factors predict support inadequacy expectations among postpartum women. Targeting the factors related to unmet social support may be a helpful way to promote healthy behaviors among overweight postpartum women. PMID:21916619

Brouwer, Rebecca J.N.; Carter-Edwards, Lori; Østbye, Truls

2011-01-01

148

Eclipses in the Middle East from the Late Medieval Islamic Period to the Early Modern Period. Part 1: The observation of six lunar eclipses from the Late Medieval Islamic Period  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the analysis of data obtained from observations of two sets of three lunar eclipses in the Late Medieval Islamic Period. The first trio consists of the lunar eclipses of 7 March 1262, 7 April 1270 and 24 January 1274, observed by Muḥy? al-D?n al-Maghrib?; from the Maragha Observatory (in north-western Iran), and the second includes those of 2 June and 26 November 1406, and 22 May 1407, observed by Jamsh?d Ghiy?th al-D?n al-K?sh? from K?sh?n (in central Iran). The results are that al-Maghrib?'s values for the magnitudes of these eclipses agree excellently with modern data, and his values for the times when the maximum phases occurred agree to within five minutes with modern values. Al-K?sh?'s values for the times of the maximum phases show a rather larger divergence from modern data, varying from about ten minutes to about one hour. The errors in all six values both astronomers computed from their own solar parameters for the longitude of the Sun at the instant of the opposition of the Moon to the Sun in these eclipses remain below ten minutes of arc. The motivation for doing these observations was to measure the lunar epicycle radius r in the Ptolemaic model. Al-Maghrib? achieved r = 5;12 and al-K?sh? r ? 5;17,1 in terms of the radius of an orbit of R = 60 arbitrary units. It is argued that comparing with modern theory, neither of these two medieval values can be considered an improvement on Ptolemy's value of r = 5;15.

Mozaffari, S. Mohammad

2013-11-01

149

Acute myocardial infarction in early postpartum.  

PubMed

We present a case of acute anterior myocardial infarction in a breastfeeding woman, 10 days after delivery. The presumed cause was proximal left anterior artery vasospasm, induced by a combination of smoking a first cigarette in the early morning and salbutamol inhalation, in the particular context of peripartum. We discuss briefly the epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of myocardial infarction related to pregnancy and the postpartum period. PMID:22998003

De Vuyst, Elke; Preumont, Nicolas; Renard, Marc

2012-08-01

150

Postpartum ovarian activity in suckled and milked buffaloes.  

PubMed

Postpartum ovarian activity in suckled and milked buffaloes was investigated. 70 buffaloes were alotted at random to either a suckled group or a milked group. 60 days after calving the 1st ovulation was detected in 52.4 and 69.1% of suckled and milked animals, respectively. After a postparturient period of 3 months, corresponding figures for the 2 respective groups were 76.2 and 90.5%. The percentage of animals with postpartum ovulation interval (PPOI) of more than 3 months was 23.8% for sucklers and 9.5% for milkers. Average PPOI length for suckled and milked animals was significantly different (p less than .01, 87 vs. 51 days, respectively). Percentages of animals that came into heat 2 months after calving were 19.1% for sucklers and 31% for milkers. 90 days' postpartum, 35.1% of sucklers and 66.7% of milkers showed their 1st estrus. 61.9% of nursed animals and 33.3% of the milked animals came into heat after a long postpartum estrous interval (PPEI) of more than 3 months. Average PPEI length for sucklers was significantly different from that for milkers (131.5 vs. 77.9 days, p less than .01). PPEI lengths for primipara and pluripara were 108.6 and 100.8 days, respectively. These data show that suckling in buffaloes delayed the 1st postpartum ovulation and lengthened the period of time to the 1st postpartum heat. PMID:950068

El-Foulya, M A; Kotby, E A; El-Sobhy, H E

1976-02-01

151

[Post-partum blues and depression].  

PubMed

Post-partum time is an eventful period with modifications of somatic but also biological and psychological status of women, leading to increased risk of anxious and depressive disorders. Diagnosis of post-partum blues (PPB) or post-partum depression (PPD) is sometimes difficult. PPB is usually benign; thus a punctual help is usually sufficient. A severe or long duration PPB is associated with an increased risk of PPD which has to be taken into account. PPD can be difficult to diagnose because of multiple clinical forms and specially variations in intensity. During prenatal period, the aim is to look for women who are at risk for PPB or PPD. So it is necessary that the different practitioners can exchange informations. A treatment of PPD is essential because it has an important impact on mother and child's health. General practitioner involves from prenatal period (deflection of risk factors) to the diagnosis, the look out and the following of mothers and children in collaboration with obstetric, pediatric and psychiatric teams. PMID:19462870

Jalenques, Isabelle; Legrand, Guillaume

2009-04-20

152

Does ?-hydroxybutyrate concentration influence conception date in young postpartum range beef cows?  

PubMed

Cows in negative energy balance after calving often have reduced reproductive performance, which is mediated by metabolic signals. The objective of these studies was to determine the association of serum metabolites, days to first postpartum ovulation, milk production, cow BW change, BCS, and calf performance with conception date in spring-calving 2- and 3-yr-old beef cows grazing native range. In Exp. 1, cows were classified by conception date in a 60-d breeding season as early (EARLY; conceived in first 15 d of breeding) or late conception (LATE; conceived during the last 45 d of breeding). Beginning on d 35 postpartum, blood samples were collected twice per week for serum metabolite analysis and progesterone analysis to estimate days to resumption of estrous cycles. As a chute-side measure of nutrient status and glucose sufficiency, whole-blood ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations were measured 14 ± 2 d before breeding. In Exp. 2, cows were classified by subsequent calving date resulting from a 55 ± 2 d breeding season as conceiving either early (EARLY; conceived in first 15 d of breeding) or late (LATE; conceived during the remaining breeding season). Blood samples were collected in 2 periods, 30 ± 4 d before calving and 14 ± 3 d before the initiation of breeding, to determine circulating concentrations of IGF-I and BHB. In Exp. 1, BHB and serum glucose concentrations were less (P ? 0.04) in EARLY cows than LATE cows. Serum insulin concentrations were greater (P = 0.03) in EARLY cows relative to LATE cows. Milk production and composition did not differ (P ? 0.24) by conception date groups. In Exp. 2, cow age × sample period × conception date interaction (P < 0.01) occurred for serum BHB concentrations. Serum BHB concentrations were similar (P > 0.10) for 2-yr-old cows (in greater nutritional plane compared with Exp. 1) regardless of their conception date classification and sampling period. However, precalving serum BHB concentrations were greater (P < 0.01) for LATE than EARLY in 3-yr-old cows with no difference (P = 0.86) at prebreeding. Serum IGF-1 concentrations were greater (P < 0.01) for EARLY cows relative to LATE cows at precalving and prebreeding. This study indicates that blood BHB concentrations during times of metabolic dysfunctions may provide a more sensitive indicator of energy status than body condition, predicting rebreeding competence in young beef cows as measured by interval from calving to conception. PMID:23478827

Mulliniks, J T; Kemp, M E; Endecott, R L; Cox, S H; Roberts, A J; Waterman, R C; Geary, T W; Scholljegerdes, E J; Petersen, M K

2013-06-01

153

A Cross-Sectional Analytic Study of Postpartum Health Care Service Utilization in the Philippines  

PubMed Central

Background The maternal mortality ratio in the Philippines remains high; thus, it will be difficult to achieve the Millennium Development Goals 5 by 2015. Approximately two-thirds of all maternal deaths occur during the postpartum period. Therefore, we conducted the present study to examine the current state of postpartum health care service utilization in the Philippines, and identify challenges to accessing postpartum care. Methods A questionnaire and knowledge test were distributed to postpartum women in the Philippines. The questionnaire collected demographical characteristics and information about their utilization of health care services during pregnancy and the postpartum period. The knowledge test consisted of 11 questions regarding 6 topics related to possible physical and mental symptoms after delivery. Sixty-four questionnaires and knowledge tests were analyzed. Results The mean time of first postpartum health care visit was 5.1±5.2 days after delivery. Postpartum utilization of health care services was significantly correlated with delivery location (P<0.01). Women who delivered at home had a lower rate of postpartum health care service utilization than women who delivered at medical facilities. The majority of participants scored low on the knowledge test. Conclusion We found inadequate postpartum health care service utilization, especially for women who delivered at home. Our results also suggest that postpartum women lack knowledge about postpartum health concerns. In the Philippines, Barangay health workers may play a role in educating postpartum women regarding health care service utilization to improve their knowledge of possible concerns and their overall utilization of health care services. PMID:24465626

Yamashita, Tadashi; Suplido, Sherri Ann; Ladines-Llave, Cecilia; Tanaka, Yuko; Senba, Naomi; Matsuo, Hiroya

2014-01-01

154

Depression and anxiety among postpartum and adoptive mothers.  

PubMed

Similar to biological mothers during the postpartum period, women who adopt children experience increased stress and life changes that may put them at risk for developing depression and anxiety. The purpose of the current study was to compare levels of depression and anxiety symptoms between postpartum and adoptive women and, among adoptive women, to examine associations between specific stressors and depressive symptoms. Data from adoptive mothers (n?=?147), recruited from Holt International, were compared to existing data from postpartum women (n?=?147). Differences in the level of depression and anxiety symptoms as measured by the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms among postpartum and adoptive women were examined. Associations between specific stressors and depressive symptoms were examined among adoptive mothers. Postpartum and adoptive women had comparable levels of depressive symptoms, but adoptive women reported greater well-being and less anxiety than postpartum women. Stressors (e.g., sleep deprivation, history of infertility, past psychological disorder, and less marital satisfaction) were all significantly associated with depressive symptoms among adoptive women. The level of depressive symptoms was not significantly different between the two groups. In contrast, adoptive women experienced significantly fewer symptoms of anxiety and experienced greater well-being. Additionally, adoptive mothers experienced more depressive symptoms during the year following adoption when the stressors were present. Thus, women with these characteristics should be routinely screened for depression and anxiety. PMID:21725836

Mott, Sarah L; Schiller, Crystal Edler; Richards, Jenny Gringer; O'Hara, Michael W; Stuart, Scott

2011-08-01

155

Postpartum Depression Causes and Correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of explanations have been suggested to explain postpartum depression in women, including biological, psychological, social and cultural forces (Fossey, Papiernik & Bydlowski, 1987; O'Hara & Swain, 1996). This paper goes beyond biological explanations to explore psychosocial influences such as the cultural experience of giving birth, maternal expectations and the role of social support. Postpartum depression rates in Germany

Tracie Merritt; Sara Kuppin; Michelle Wolper; Bruce B. Downs

156

Postpartum depression in primiparous parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated the hypothesis that postpartum depression is a function of disruption of parents' prepartum functioning by the subsequent demands of infant caretaking. 78 primiparous middle SES married couples (mean age 25.5 yrs) completed a battery of questionnaires, including the Beck Depression Inventory, at 8 wks prepartum and 8 wks postpartum, assessing indicators of stress related to childcare. Results indicate that

A. Kathleen Atkinson; Annette U. Rickel

1984-01-01

157

Developmental Profile of Infants Born to Mothers with Postpartum Depression and Anxiety: A Comparative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Postpartum period is associated with higher rates for depression, blues and psychosis. Anxiety is also significant. These disorders may have serious implications in the cognitive development of the infant. There is relative lack of data in this area. So we tried to estimate postpartum anxiety and depression in a group of women and…

Kalita, Kamal Narayan

2010-01-01

158

Lower sexual interest in postpartum women: Relationship to amygdala activation and intranasal oxytocin  

E-print Network

oxytocin Heather A. Rupp a, , Thomas W. James b , Ellen D. Ketterson c , Dale R. Sengelaub b , Beate Ditzen 18 October 2012 Keywords: Postpartum Amygdala Sexual desire Oxytocin During the postpartum period oxytocin administration. To test this, we measured amygdala activation using fMRI in response to sexually

James, Thomas

159

Predictors of the Longitudinal Course of Postpartum Depression Following Interpersonal Psychotherapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: We examined the course and predictors of postpartum depression in the 18 months following interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT). Method: We enrolled 120 community women with major depression in a 12-week randomized trial of individual IPT during the postpartum period (O'Hara, Stuart, Gorman, & Wenzel, 2000). At 6, 12, and 18 months…

Nylen, Kimberly J.; O'Hara, Michael W.; Brock, Rebecca; Moel, Joy; Gorman, Laura; Stuart, Scott

2010-01-01

160

Timing and Variability of Postpartum Sleep in Relation to Daytime Performance  

PubMed Central

Postpartum women have highly disturbed sleep, also known as sleep fragmentation. Fragmentation extends their total sleep period, also disrupting sleep timing. A stable and earlier sleep period among non-postpartum populations are related to better performance, physical health, and mental health. However, sleep timing has not been examined among postpartum women who are also vulnerable to daytime impairment. The study objective was to examine how the timing and regularity of sleep during the early postpartum period are related to daytime functioning across postpartum weeks 2-13. In this field-based study, 71 primiparous women wore an actigraph, a small wrist-worn device that monitors sleep and sleep timing, for the 12-week study period. Mothers self-administered a 5-minute psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) each morning to evaluate the number of >500ms response lapses. They also completed a Morningness-Eveningness scale at the beginning of the study to identify chronotype. After controlling for maternal age, earlier sleep timing was associated with significantly fewer PVT lapses at postpartum weeks 9,12; a more stable sleep midpoint was associated with significantly fewer PVT lapses at postpartum weeks 2,5-13. Earlier sleep midpoints were related to more stable sleep midpoints at postpartum week 2 and a morning-type chronotype. An earlier sleep midpoint was also associated with a reduced slope of worsening PVT lapses across weeks. Across the first 12 postpartum weeks, women with earlier or more stable sleep periods had less daytime impairment than women with later or more variable sleep midpoints. Postpartum women with earlier sleep midpoints also showed less severe decrements in performance across time, which has been attributed to cumulative impacts of sleep disturbance. These data suggest the sleep period, in addition to sleep duration and fragmentation, should be more closely examined, particularly among vulnerable women, as it may affect the neurobehavioral performance of new mothers. PMID:24041725

McBean, Amanda L.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.

2013-01-01

161

Proteins and enzymes in uterine lavage fluid of postpartum and nonparturient mares.  

PubMed

Uterine lavage fluids from postpartum and nonparturient mares were compared to determine when the normal secretory capacity of the postpartum uterus is restored. Lavage fluids were obtained from cyclic nonparturient mares on the second, fourth or fifth day of oestrus, and 3, 8, or 14 days after ovulation (seven mares/sampling day). Twelve intact postpartum mares were sampled 1 to 28 days postpartum (group A: 1, 6, 12 and 20; group B: 2, 8, 14 and 24; group C: 4, 10, 16 and 28 days postpartum; four mares/group). Three ovariectomized (OVX) postpartum mares were sampled as mares in group C. Samples were analysed for neutrophils, bacteria, total protein concentration, proteolytic and antiproteolytic activities and for various lysosomal enzyme activities. In nonparturient mares, activities of acid phosphatase, beta-glucuronidase (B-Gase), and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) in uterine lavage fluids were significantly higher in mid- and late-dioestrus than in mid- to late-oestrus (p < 0.05). Lysozyme concentration, trypsin-inhibitor capacity (TIC), and plasmin activity were below the detection limit in nonparturient mares. One to four days postpartum, total protein, acid phosphatase, B-Gase, and NAGase were high but declined rapidly thereafter. Lysozyme and plasmin activities were high 1 to 6 days postpartum. TIC peaked around day 6 postpartum. On day 16 postpartum, acid phosphatase, B-Gase, and NAGase, being progesterone-dependent, tended to be higher in intact mares than in OVX ones (p < 0.1). Total protein and lysozyme concentrations, TIC, and B-Gase (p < 0.01) and acid phosphatase (p < 0.05) activities were significantly higher in parturient mares during postpartum oestrus than in oestrous nonparturient mares. High total protein concentration and TIC, and detectable lysozyme and plasmin activities during postpartum oestrus were associated with uterine inflammation. During dioestrus, differences between postpartum and nonparturient mares were not statistically significant and suggested that the endometrium of postpartum mares had resumed its normal secretory capacity by this time. PMID:12354177

Reilas, T; Katila, T

2002-10-01

162

Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, vitamin A and vitamin E levels and resumption of postpartum ovarian activity in dairy cows.  

PubMed

Vitamins with antioxidative functions are commonly used as supplements to improve fertility in dairy cows. However, according to field test results uncertainty exists about the effect of these vitamins, especially in vitamin A and vitamin E, on ovarian functional activity. This study was performed to reveal the physiological characteristics of cows receiving enough feed and the ovaries of which were activated in the early postpartum period. Six of 12 primiparous cows showing the corpus luteum on 25 to 27 days after parturition were classified as early responders (PER); the remaining six were classified as late responders (PLR). Among 11 multiparous cows, nine were early responders (MER), and the remaining two were late responders (MLR). Plasma concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in the PER were lower than those in the PLR (P<0.01). The ratio of plasma all-trans-retinol to intake ?-tocopherol or ?-carotene were increased in the following order: MERlate responders. These may have been associated with the availability of vitamins or energy balance. Thus, we suggest the possibility that the cows which were able to utilize antioxidants and energy from the feed efficiently may have earlier resumption of ovaries postpartum. PMID:24506096

Aoki, Mari; Ohshita, Tomoko; Aoki, Yasuhiro; Sakaguchi, Minoru

2014-05-01

163

Possible Late Holocene equatorial palaeoclimate record based upon soils spanning the Medieval Warm Period and  

E-print Network

Period, to wetter conditions associated with the Little Ice Age. Pre-wetland sediments are floodplain: Department of Geology, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798-7354, United States. Tel.: +1 254 710 2361; fax: +1 Wetland and floodplain soils in the East African Rift of Kenya provide a record of changing palaeoclimate

164

[Effects of the periodical spread of rinderpest on famine, epidemic, and tiger disasters in the late 17th Century].  

PubMed

This study clarifies the causes of the repetitive occurrences of such phenomena as rinderpest, epidemic, famine, and tiger disasters recorded in the Joseon Dynasty Chronicle and the Seungjeongwon Journals in the period of great catastrophe, the late 17th century in which the great Gyeongsin famine (1670~1671) and the great Eulbyeong famine (1695~1696) occurred, from the perspective that they were biological exchanges caused by the new arrival of rinderpest in the early 17th century. It is an objection to the achievements by existing studies which suggest that the great catastrophes occurring in the late 17th century are evidence of phenomena in a little ice age. First of all, rinderpest has had influence on East Asia as it had been spread from certain areas in Machuria in May 1636 through Joseon, where it raged throughout the nation, and then to the west part of Japan. The new arrival of rinderpest was indigenized in Joseon, where it was localized and spread periodically while it was adjusted to changes in the population of cattle with immunity in accordance with their life spans and reproduction rates. As the new rinderpest, which showed high pathogenicity in the early 17th century, was indigenized with its high mortality and continued until the late 17th century, it broke out periodically in general. Contrastively, epidemics like smallpox and measles that were indigenized as routine ones had occurred constantly from far past times. As a result, the rinderpest, which tried a new indigenization, and the human epidemics, which had been already indigenized long ago, were unexpectedly overlapped in their breakout, and hence great changes were noticed in the aspects of the human casualty due to epidemics. The outbreak of rinderpest resulted in famine due to lack of farming cattle, and the famine caused epidemics among people. The casualty of the human population due to the epidemics in turn led to negligence of farming cattle, which constituted factors that triggered rage and epidemics of rinderpest. The more the number of sources of infection and hosts with low immunity increased, the more lost human resources and farming cattle were lost, which led to a great famine. The periodic outbreak of the rinderpester along with the routine prevalence of various epidemics in the 17thcentury also had influenced on domestic and wild animals. Due to these phenomenon, full-fledged famines occurred that were incomparable with earlier ones. The number of domestic animals that were neglected by people who, faced with famines, were not able to take care of them was increased, and this might have brought about the rage of epidemics like rinderpest in domestic animals like cattle. The great Gyeongsin and Eulbyeong famines due to reoccurrence of the rinderpest in the late 17th century linked rinderpester, epidemics and great famines so that they interacted with each other. Furthermore, the recurring cycle of epidemics-famines-rinderpest-great famines constituted a great cycle with synergy, which resulted in eco-economic-historical great catastrophes accompanied by large scale casualties. Therefore, the Gyeongsin and Eulbyeong famines occurring in the late 17th century can be treated as events caused by the repetition of various periodic disastrous factors generated in 1670~1671 and in 1695~1696 respectively, and particularly as phenomena caused by biological exchanges based on rinderpester., rather than as little ice age phenomena due to relatively long term temperature lowering. PMID:24804681

Kim, Dong Jin; Yoo, Han Sang; Lee, Hang

2014-04-01

165

Vegetation-induced warming of high-latitude regions during the Late Cretaceous period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modelling studies of pre-Quaternary (>2 million years ago) climate implicate atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations1, land elevation2 and land-sea distribution3-5 as important factors influencing global climate change over geological timescales. But during times of global warmth, such as the Cretaceous period and Eocene epoch, there are large discrepancies between model simulations of high-latitude and continental-interior temperatures and those indicated by palaeotemperature

Bette L. Otto-Bliesner; Garland R. Upchurch

1997-01-01

166

Maternal expectations of postpartum social support: validation of the postpartum social support questionnaire during pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Thirteen percent of women experience postpartum depression. Prenatal screening for anticipated postpartum social support, a postpartum depression risk factor, may allow for early intervention. We sought to validate use of a modified version of the Postpartum Social Support Questionnaire (PSSQ) in pregnant women at increased risk for postpartum depression. Factor analysis using orthogonal varimax rotation was used. The modified PSSQ, administered during pregnancy, yields similar loading patterns as observed in postpartum administration of the original PSSQ. PMID:22588510

Miller, Angela M.; Hogue, Carol J.; Knight, Bettina T.; Stowe, Zachary N.; Newport, D. Jeffrey

2015-01-01

167

Is Shade Beneficial for Mediterranean Shrubs Experiencing Periods of Extreme Drought and Late-winter Frosts?  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Plants are naturally exposed to multiple, frequently interactive stress factors, most of which are becoming more severe due to global change. Established plants have been reported to facilitate the establishment of juvenile plants, but net effects of plant–plant interactions are difficult to assess due to complex interactions among environmental factors. An investigation was carried out in order to determine how two dominant evergreen shrubs (Quercus ilex and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) co-occurring in continental, Mediterranean habitats respond to multiple abiotic stresses and whether the shaded understorey conditions ameliorate the negative effects of drought and winter frosts on the physiology of leaves. Methods Microclimate and ecophysiology of sun and shade plants were studied at a continental plateau in central Spain during 2004–2005, with 2005 being one of the driest and hottest years on record; several late-winter frosts also occurred in 2005. Key Results Daytime air temperature and vapour pressure deficit were lower in the shade than in the sun, but soil moisture was also lower in the shade during the spring and summer of 2005, and night-time temperatures were higher in the shade. Water potential, photochemical efficiency, light-saturated photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and leaf 13C composition differed between sun and shade individuals throughout the seasons, but differences were species specific. Shade was beneficial for leaf-level physiology in Q. ilex during winter, detrimental during spring for both species, and of little consequence in summer. Conclusions The results suggest that beneficial effects of shade can be eclipsed by reduced soil moisture during dry years, which are expected to be more frequent in the most likely climate change scenarios for the Mediterranean region. PMID:18819947

Valladares, Fernando; Zaragoza-Castells, Joana; Sánchez-Gómez, David; Matesanz, Silvia; Alonso, Beatriz; Portsmuth, Angelika; Delgado, Antonio; Atkin, Owen K.

2008-01-01

168

Prospective Study on the Association between Harm Avoidance and Postpartum Depressive State in a Maternal Cohort of Japanese Women  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies have displayed increased interest in examining the relationship between personality traits and the onset, treatment response patterns, and relapse of depression. This study aimed to examine whether or not harm avoidance (HA) was a risk factor for postpartum depression measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the state dependency of HA. Methods Pregnant women (n=460; mean age 31.9±4.2 years) who participated in a prenatal program completed the EPDS as a measure of depressive state and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) as a measure of HA during three periods: early pregnancy (T1), late pregnancy (around 36 weeks), and 1 month postpartum (T2). Changes in EPDS and HA scores from T1 to T2 were compared between the non depressive (ND) group and the postpartum depressive (PD) group. Results There was no significant difference in the level of HA between the ND and PD groups at T1. In the ND group, EPDS and HA scores did not change significantly from T1 to T2. In the PD group, both scores increased significantly from T1 to T2 (EPDS, p<0.0001; HA, p<0.048). In the ND and PD groups, a significant positive correlation was observed in changes in EPDS and HA scores from T1 to T2 (r=0.31, p=0.002). Conclusions These results suggest that HA cannot be considered a risk factor for the development of postpartum depression measured by EPDS. Furthermore, HA may be state dependent. PMID:22506046

Okada, Takashi; Murase, Satomi; Aleksic, Branko; Hayakawa, Norika; Shiino, Tomoko; Nakamura, Yukako; Tamaji, Ai; Ishikawa, Naoko; Ohoka, Harue; Usui, Hinako; Banno, Naomi; Morita, Tokiko; Goto, Setsuko; Kanai, Atsuko; Masuda, Tomoko; Ozaki, Norio

2012-01-01

169

Antiretroviral Adherence During Pregnancy and Postpartum in Latin America  

PubMed Central

Abstract Adherence to antiretrovirals by pregnant women (and postpartum women if breastfeeding) is crucial to effectively decrease maternal viral load and decrease the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Our objectives were to describe self-reported adherence to antiretrovirals during the antepartum (after 22 weeks of pregnancy) and postpartum periods (6–12 weeks and 6 months), and identify predictors of adherence among HIV-infected women enrolled and followed in a prospective cohort study from June 2008 to June 2010 at multiple sites in Latin America. Adherence was evaluated using the number of missed and expected doses during the 3 days before the study visit. At the pre-delivery visit, 340 of 376 women (90%) reported perfect adherence. This rate significantly decreased by 6–12 weeks (171/214 [80%]) and 6 months postpartum (163/199 [82%], p<0.01). The odds for less than perfect adherence at the pre-delivery visit was significantly higher for pregnant women with current tobacco use (odds ratio [OR]=2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.46–6.14; p=0.0029). At 6–12 weeks postpartum, the probability of non-perfect adherence increased by 6% for each 1 year increase in age (OR=1.06, 95% CI: 1.00–1.12, p=0.0497). At 6 months postpartum, the odds of nonperfect adherence was higher for those who were currently using alcohol (OR=3.04, 95% CI: 1.34–6.90; p=0.0079). Although a self-report measure of adherence based on only 3 days may lead to overestimation of actual adherence over time, women with perfect adherence had lower viral loads and higher CD4 counts. Adherence to antiretrovirals decreased significantly postpartum. Interventions should target women at high risk for lower adherence during pregnancy and postpartum, including tobacco and alcohol users. PMID:22663185

Harris, D. Robert; Kakehasi, Fabiana; Haberer, Jessica E.; Cahn, Pedro; Losso, Marcelo; Teles, Elizabete; Pilotto, Jose H.; Hofer, Cristina B.; Read, Jennifer S.

2012-01-01

170

Postpartum Depression: An Interactional View.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Postpartum depression is conceptualized as a predictable developmental, family crisis, which occurs when the natural difficulties of childbirth are benignly mishandled. Tactics are illustrated for interdicting maladaptive interpersonal spirals, including normalizing conflicting complaints; reframing depression as positive but costly; regulating…

Kraus, Mary Ann; Redman, E. Scott

1986-01-01

171

[Assessment of bronchopulmonary immunity status for Mayak PA workers at the late period after prolonged exposure].  

PubMed

Samples of induced sputum from 187 individuals were used to estimate the bronchopulmonary immunity status after a prolonged radiation exposure (120 individuals who are the Mayak main plant workers were exposed to combined internal a-radiation due to incorporated plutonium (239Pu) and external y-radiation during their career). The control group included 67 Ozersk residents of a corresponding age and gender, without any occupational exposure, who were examined at the same period. The immune system is the most important component in homeostasis. In occupational workers, the status of the systemic and bronchopulmonary immunity after 30-55 years of career was estimated by the level of regulatory proteins in the samples of blood and the induced sputum supernatant stored at low temperatures in freezers of the Radiobiological human tissue Repository, SUBI (interleukins IL-1beta, IFN-gamma, IL-12+p70, IL-15, IL-17A and growth factors EGF, TGF-beta1, FGF and PDGF-AA), as well as by the content of effector and regulatory lymphocytes in blood. After the examination period, each registrant was provided with dosimetry data: 239Pu body burden was from 0.03 kBq to 11.89 kBq, the absorbed dose to the lung from incorporated radionuclide - from 0.01 Gy to 1.38 Gy, and accumulated doses of external y-radiation during the occupational career - from 0.02 Gy to 7.91 Gy. In the case of the prolonged combined radiation, the tensioned mode of immunity cell link functioning and the increase of activated lymphocyte forms were detected. Comparison of correlation coefficients between the content oflymphocytes, the level ofinterleukins and growth factors and the dose load allowed us to find relation of these ratios to the type of exposure, Pu body burden, the absorbed 239Pu dose to the lung and the accumulated external dose. The reduced concentration of the main growth factors in the group of Mayak workers is the evidence for the declined control function of proteins and immunodeficiency. The analysis of the regulatory proteins content in blood and sputum following occupational exposure allowed us to find specific features of the protein expression in support of the local and systemic immune homeostasis. PMID:23516889

Pavlova, O S; Kirillova, E N; Luk'ianova, T V; Oslina, D S; Ryzhov, V P

2012-01-01

172

[Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm: an unusual cause of postpartum hemorrhage].  

PubMed

Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication of cesarean section. It can lead to severe postpartum hemorrhage. We report three cases of pseudoaneurysm diagnosed late after cesarean delivery, one followed by hemorrhagic shock. Ultrasound may point to the diagnosis, but arteriography of uterine arteries is decisive for the diagnosis. Selective artery embolization is recommended for treatment. Main advantages are complete occlusion of the pseudoaneurysm and fertility preservation. PMID:24656739

Delesalle, C; Dolley, P; Beucher, G; Dreyfus, M; Benoist, G

2015-01-01

173

Effect of Indigenous Herbs on Growth, Blood Metabolites and Carcass Characteristics in the Late Fattening Period of Hanwoo Steers  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of indigenous herbal supplements on growth, blood metabolites and carcass characteristics in the late fattening period of Hanwoo steers. In a 6 month feeding trial, thirty Hanwoo steers (647±32 kg) were allotted to one of 5 treatment groups, control (basal diet contained lasalocid), licorice, clove, turmeric and silymarin, with six steers per pen. All groups received ad libitum concentrate and 1 kg rice straw/animal/d throughout the feeding trial. Blood samples were collected at the beginning, middle, and the end of the experiment and the steers were slaughtered at the end. Blood glucose, triglyceride, total protein, and albumin concentrations were higher in the turmeric treatment compared with other treatments. Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations were highest (p<0.003 and p = 0.071, respectively) in steers treated with silymarin. Alanine aminotransferase activity was lower (p<0.06) for licorice and silymarin compared with the control group. There were no alterations in serum aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glutamyltransferase activities as a consequence of herb treatments (p = 0.203 and 0.135, respectively). Final body weight, body weight gain, average dairy gain and dry matter intake were not significantly different among treatments. Yield grade, marbling score and quality grade were higher for silymarin group than those of the control group (p<0.05). Therefore, the results suggest that silymarin can be used an effective dietary supplement as an alternative to antibiotic feed additive and a productivity enhancer, providing safe and more consumer acceptable alternative to synthetic compounds during the late fattening period of steers. PMID:25049742

Kim, D. H.; Kim, K. H.; Nam, I. S.; Lee, S. S.; Choi, C. W.; Kim, W. Y.; Kwon, E. G.; Lee, K. Y.; Lee, M. J.; Oh, Y. K.

2013-01-01

174

Prevalence and characteristics of postpartum thyroid dysfunction in Tehran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the prevalence of postpartum thyroiditis (PPT), one of the autoimmune disorders of the thyroid which usually occurs in women in the first year after parturition. PPT presents with periods of transient thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism, in many cases resulting in permanent hypothyroidism. Design: The study involved 1040 mothers who had contacted five health centers in Tehran for vaccination

H B Shahbazian; F Sarvghadi; F Azizi

2001-01-01

175

Phenotypical variability of post-partum reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome  

PubMed Central

Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is recognized increasingly as a complication of the postpartum period. Our series of four cases illustrates its phenotypical variability, summarizes the diagnostic work-up, and outlines potential treatment strategies for this usually benign but sometimes disabling and life-threatening disease. PMID:21577330

Matosevic, Benjamin; Furtner, Martin; Knoflach, Michael; Schmidauer, Christoph; Wille, Georg; Gotwald, Thaddaeus; Kiechl, Stefan; Willeit, Johann

2010-01-01

176

Effects of a prenatal teaching program on postpartum regeneration of the pubococcygeal muscle.  

PubMed

A quasi-experimental design was used to compare postpartum perineometer readings of an experimental group of 32 women receiving a prenatal teaching program for the use of Kegel exercises with a control group of 30 women for whom the instructional program was omitted. All subjects received postpartum instruction from a pre-existing program presented by hospital staff. Significantly higher mean postpartum perineometer readings (t = 4.07; P less than .01) were found for the experimental group than for the control group, which supported the hypothesis that women who are offered the prenatal program for the use of Kegel exercises during the third trimester of pregnancy and are instructed on Kegel exercises by the staff during the hospitalized postpartum period will have significantly higher readings on the perineometer at the postpartum visit than those women for whom the prenatal program is omitted. PMID:6558247

Henderson, J S

1983-01-01

177

Estudio Parto: postpartum diabetes prevention program for hispanic women with abnormal glucose tolerance in pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial – study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes and obesity have reached epidemic proportions in the U.S. with rates consistently higher among Hispanics as compared to non-Hispanic whites. Among Hispanic women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), 50% will go on to develop type 2 diabetes within 5?years of the index pregnancy. Although randomised controlled trials among adults with impaired glucose tolerance have shown that diet and physical activity reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes, such programs have not been tested in high-risk postpartum women. The overall goal of this randomised controlled trial is to test the efficacy of a culturally and linguistically modified, individually-tailored lifestyle intervention to reduce risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease among postpartum Hispanic women with a history of abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy. Methods/Design Hispanic pregnant women who screen positive for GDM will be recruited and randomly assigned to a Lifestyle Intervention (n?=?150) or a Health & Wellness (control) Intervention (n?=?150). Multimodal contacts (i.e., in-person, telephone, and mailed materials) will be used to deliver the intervention from late pregnancy (29?weeks gestation) to 12?months postpartum. Targets of the intervention are to achieve Institute of Medicine Guidelines for postpartum weight loss; American Congress of Obstetrician and Gynecologist guidelines for physical activity; and American Diabetes Association guidelines for diet. The intervention draws from Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model and addresses the specific cultural and environmental challenges faced by low-income Hispanic women. Assessments will be conducted at enrollment, and at 6-weeks, 6-months, and 12-months postpartum by trained bicultural and bilingual personnel blinded to the intervention arm. Efficacy will be assessed via postpartum weight loss and biomarkers of insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk. Changes in physical activity and diet will be measured via 7-day actigraph data and three unannounced 24-hour dietary recalls at each assessment time period. Discussion Hispanic women are the fastest growing minority group in the U.S. and have the highest rates of sedentary behavior and postpartum diabetes after a diagnosis of GDM. This randomised trial uses a high-reach, low-cost strategy that can readily be translated into clinical practice in underserved and minority populations. Trial registration NCT01679210 PMID:24606590

2014-01-01

178

Rock-inhabiting fungi originated during periods of dry climate in the late Devonian and middle Triassic.  

PubMed

Non-lichenized rock-inhabiting fungi (RIF) are slow-growing melanized ascomycetes colonizing rock surfaces in arid environments. They possess adaptations, which allow them to tolerate extreme abiotic conditions, such as high UV radiations and extreme temperatures. They belong to two separate lineages, one consisting in the sister classes Dothideomycetes and Arthoniomycetes (Dothideomyceta), and the other consisting in the order Chaetothyriales (Eurotiomycetes). Because RIF often form early diverging groups in Chaetothyriales and Dothideomyceta, the ancestors of these two lineages were suggested to most likely be rock-inhabitants. The lineage of RIF related to the Chaetothyriales shows a much narrower phylogenetic spectrum than the lineage of RIF related to Dothideomyceta, suggesting a much more ancient origin for the latter. Our study aims at investigating the times of origin of RIF using a relaxed clock model and several fossil and secondary calibrations. Our results show that the RIF in Dothideomyceta evolved in the late Devonian, much earlier than the RIF in Chaetothyriales, which originated in the middle Triassic. The origin of the chaetothyrialean RIF correlates well with a period of recovery after the Permian-Triassic mass extinction and an expansion of arid landmasses. The period preceding the diversification of the RIF related to Dothideomyceta (Silurian--Devonian) is also characterized by large arid landmasses, but temperatures were much cooler than during the Triassic. The paleoclimate record provides a good explanation for the diversification of fungi subjected to abiotic stresses and adapted to life on rock surfaces in nutrient-poor habitats. PMID:21944211

Gueidan, Cécile; Ruibal, Constantino; de Hoog, G S; Schneider, Harald

2011-10-01

179

Dynamics of Late Quaternary North African humid periods documented in the clay mineral record of central Aegean Sea sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ratio between the clay minerals kaolinite and chlorite has been investigated in high resolution in a late Quaternary sediment core from the central Aegean Sea. The record spans the last ca. 105 ka. The kaolinite/chlorite ratio was used to reconstruct the fine-grained aeolian dust influx from the North African deserts, mainly derived from desiccated lake depressions. It therewith can be used as a proxy for wind activity, aridity and vegetation cover in the source area. The data document three major humid phases in North Africa bracketing the formation of sapropel layers S4, S3 and S1. They occur at > 105-95 ka, 83.5-72 ka and 14-2 ka. The first two phases are characterised by relatively abrupt lower and upper boundaries suggesting a non-linear response of vegetation to precipitation, with critical hydrological thresholds. In contrast, the onset and termination of the last humid period were more gradual. Highest kaolinite/chlorite ratios indicating strongest aeolian transport and aridity occur during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5b, at ca. 95-84 ka. The long-term decrease in kaolinite/chlorite ratios during the last glacial period indicates a gradual decline of deflatable lake sediments in the source areas.

Ehrmann, Werner; Seidel, Martin; Schmiedl, Gerhard

2013-08-01

180

Postpartum and Depression Status are Associated With Lower [11C]raclopride BPND in Reproductive-Age Women  

PubMed Central

The early postpartum period is associated with increased risk for affective and psychotic disorders. Because maternal dopaminergic reward system function is altered with perinatal status, dopaminergic system dysregulation may be an important mechanism of postpartum psychiatric disorders. Subjects included were non-postpartum healthy (n=13), postpartum healthy (n=13), non-postpartum unipolar depressed (n=10), non-postpartum bipolar depressed (n=7), postpartum unipolar (n=13), and postpartum bipolar depressed (n=7) women. Subjects underwent 60?min of [11C]raclopride–positron emission tomography imaging to determine the nondisplaceable striatal D2/3 receptor binding potential (BPND). Postpartum status and unipolar depression were associated with lower striatal D2/3 receptor BPND in the whole striatum (p=0.05 and p=0.02, respectively) that reached a maximum of 7–8% in anteroventral striatum for postpartum status (p=0.02). Unipolar depression showed a nonsignificant trend toward being associated with 5% lower BPND in dorsal striatum (p=0.06). D2/3 receptor BPND did not differ significantly between unipolar depressed and healthy postpartum women or between bipolar and healthy subjects; however, D2/3 receptor BPND was higher in dorsal striatal regions in bipolar relative to unipolar depressives (p=0.02). In conclusion, lower striatal D2/3 receptor BPND in postpartum and unipolar depressed women, primarily in ventral striatum, and higher dorsal striatal D2/3 receptor BPND in bipolar relative to unipolar depressives reveal a potential role for the dopamine (DA) system in the physiology of these states. Further studies delineating the mechanisms underlying these differences in D2/3 receptor BPND, including study of DA system responsivity to rewarding stimuli, and increasing power to assess unipolar vs bipolar-related differences, are needed to better understand the affective role of the DA system in postpartum and depressed women. PMID:22257897

Moses-Kolko, Eydie L; Price, Julie C; Wisner, Katherine L; Hanusa, Barbara H; Meltzer, Carolyn C; Berga, Sarah L; Grace, Anthony A; di Scalea, Teresa Lanza; Kaye, Walter H; Becker, Carl; Drevets, Wayne C

2012-01-01

181

Tips for Postpartum Dads and Partners  

MedlinePLUS

... you know? A new mother might not recognize depression or anxiety because she is tired, overwhelmed, or simply adjusting to life with a baby. Tips for Postpartum Dads and Partners Pregnancy and postpartum mood and ...

182

Postpartum Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... to life with a baby. Postpartum Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Approximately 1-6% of women experience postpartum post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following childbirth. Most often, this illness ...

183

Etiology and treatment of postpartum depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the risk factors, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of postpartum depression. Postpartum depression\\u000a is common and occurs in up to 18% of newly delivered mothers. Though the hormonal changes occurring after childbirth are believed\\u000a to play a role in postpartum depression, no hormonal etiology has been identified. Estrogen appears somewhat helpful for postpartum\\u000a depression, but its use is

Deborah Lynne Flores; Victoria C. Hendrick

2002-01-01

184

Plants used during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum healthcare in Lao PDR: A comparative study of the Brou, Saek and Kry ethnic groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In many Southeast Asian cultures the activities and diet during the postpartum period are culturally dictated and a period of confinement is observed. Plants play an important role in recovery during the postpartum period in diet, traditional medicine, steam bath and mother roasting (where mother and child placed on a bed above a brazier with charcoal embers on which

Hugo de Boer; Vichith Lamxay

2009-01-01

185

Determinants of postpartum anemia among women from a rural population in southern India  

PubMed Central

Background Even though the problem of anemia during pregnancy has been adequately emphasized, very little attention has been paid to postpartum anemia. The objective of the current study was to estimate the mean change in maternal hemoglobin from 36 weeks’ gestation to 6 weeks postpartum and to identify the factors associated with anemia during the postpartum period among women in a rural development block in Tamil Nadu, India. Methods Ninety-three pregnant women were interviewed using a structured questionnaire at 36 weeks’ gestation and then at 2 and 6 weeks postpartum. Blood samples were collected from the participants at 36 weeks’ gestation and at 6 weeks postpartum. Paired t-tests assessing the difference in mean hemoglobin prepartum and postpartum, univariate analysis, and multiple logistic regression to identify factors associated with postpartum anemia were done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 12 for Microsoft Windows software. Results The proportion of study subjects who were anemic (hemoglobin <11 g/dL) at 36 weeks’ gestation was 26.8% and at 6 weeks postpartum was 47.3% (hemoglobin <12 g/dL). The mean hemoglobin at 36–38 weeks’ gestation was 11.70±1.43 g/dL and at 6 weeks postpartum was 12.10±1.27 g/dL. Anemia at 36 weeks’ gestation (odds ratio [OR] 10.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.37–42.34), heavy blood loss perceived by the mother during delivery (OR 12.91, 95% CI 2.01–61.25), younger maternal age (<21 years, OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.28–23.86), and inadequate iron supplementation during the postpartum period (OR 3.53, 95% CI 1.18–11.37) were identified as significant factors associated with anemia at 6 weeks postpartum. Conclusion Anemia during the third trimester of pregnancy, heavy bleeding perceived by the mother during delivery, younger maternal age, and inadequate iron supplementation during the postpartum period were associated with postpartum anemia. PMID:24748821

Rakesh, PS; Gopichandran, Vijayaprasad; Jamkhandi, Dimple; Manjunath, Krishna; George, Kuryan; Prasad, Jasmin

2014-01-01

186

Efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Postpartum Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Postpartum depression causes women great suffering and has negative consequences for their social relationships and for the development of their in- fants. Research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of psy- chotherapy for postpartum depression. Methods: A total of 120 postpartum women meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depression were recruited from the community and randomly assigned to 12 weeks

Michael W. O'Hara; Scott Stuart; Laura L. Gorman; Amy Wenzel

2000-01-01

187

Revision of the Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postpartum depression has been described as a thief that steals motherhood. Early recognition is one of the major challenges with this devastating mood disorder. This article describes a revised version of the Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory (PDPI) based on the results of an updated meta-analysis. This revised inventory consists of 13 risk factors related to postpartum depression. Guide questions for

Cheryl Tatano Beck

2002-01-01

188

Nonpsychotic Postpartum Depression Among Adolescent Mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the extent to which childbearing increases vulnerability to clinical depression and depressive symptomatology among primiparous adolescent girls (ages 14 to 18). Childbearing Ss (n = 128) were assessed during pregnancy, 6 weeks postpartum, and 1 year postpartum. Matched nonchildbearing Ss (n = 114) were assessed at corresponding time points. Six weeks postpartum, 6% of the childbearing adolescents

Beth R. Troutman; Carolyn E. Cutrona

1990-01-01

189

Seafood consumption, the DHA content of mothers’ milk and prevalence rates of postpartum depression: a cross-national, ecological analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Mothers selectively transfer docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to their fetuses to support optimal neurological development during pregnancy. Without sufficient dietary intake, mothers become depleted of DHA and may increase their risk of suffering major depressive symptoms in the postpartum period. We postulated that the DHA content of mothers’ milk and seafood consumption would both predict prevalence rates of postpartum depression

Joseph R. Hibbeln

2002-01-01

190

Postpartum Depression, Marital Dysfunction, and Infant Outcome: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

This longitudinal study explores the relationship of postpartum depression (PPD) and marital dysfunction on infant outcomes from birth to 2 1/2 years of age among middle-class, postpartum women. Participants were recruited during the prenatal period. Twelve mothers completed the study throughout a 2 1/2-year period. Questionnaires, semistructured interviews, and observations were used to collect data. Content analysis of the interviews (Morse & Field, 1995) was conducted and thematic patterns were identified. Clinical PPD and marital dysfunction (defined as little or no support or closeness, or verbal, emotional or physical abuse) characterized nearly one in three mothers. Four themes describing the women's postpartum progression were identified: stress, isolation, resentment, and eventual adjustment by creating a new normal. No major developmental delays or behavioral problems were found among the infants. Eight of the 12 mothers who were initially identified as breastfeeding nursed their infants for 6–18 months. Regardless of financial and educational advantages, mothers in the study experienced depression and marital dysfunction. These findings support other studies that confirm the lack of association of PPD with social class or marital status. Childbirth educators and other health care professionals are encouraged to continue providing expectant families with anticipatory education and community resources in order to increase awareness of mental health and marital risks during the postpartum transition. PMID:17273318

Roux, Gayle; Anderson, Cheryl; Roan, Chris

2002-01-01

191

Proxy records of Late Holocene climate events in the eastern United States: Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are conducting a multiproxy, regional reconstruction of climate variability during the last two millennia including the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) and Little Ice Age (LIA) in eastern North America. Pollen, benthic foraminifers, ostracodes, and other proxies were analyzed from high-resolution sampling of continuous sedimentary records from lakes, wetlands, and estuaries in Florida, North Carolina, Chesapeake Bay, and Lake Champlain. These records document multi-decadal changes in vegetation, temperature, precipitation, and estuarine salinity across a latitudinal transect. During both the MWP and LIA, decreased precipitation altered plant community composition and distribution in the southeastern United States, and the LIA triggered threshold changes in vegetation that persisted until anthropogenic land-cover change overwhelmed the climate signature. In the mid-Atlantic region, progressively cooler and wetter late Holocene springs culminated in a cool, wet LIA; this trend correlates with observed oceanic changes. Trend analysis of the data suggest that inter-regional correlation of multi-decadal and centennial-scale Holocene climate events will be forthcoming.

Willard, D. A.; Cronin, T. M.; Hayo, K. M.

2006-12-01

192

Postpartum depression in adolescent mothers: an integrative review of the literature.  

PubMed

Research on adolescent mothers has revealed increasing rates of depressive symptoms in the postpartum period. This review integrated 12 research-based articles to provide a better understanding of depression among adolescent mothers in the first year postpartum. The results revealed that more family conflict, fewer social supports, and low self-esteem all were associated with increased rates of depressive symptoms in adolescent mothers during the first postpartum year. To prevent adverse outcomes associated with depression, it is important that nurse practitioners working with these families screen adolescent mothers for depression and refer them for treatment as needed. PMID:17825726

Reid, Vanessa; Meadows-Oliver, Mikki

2007-01-01

193

Periodization  

PubMed Central

Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982

Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

2010-01-01

194

Tuberculosis in Pregnant and Postpartum Women: Epidemiology, Management, and Research Gaps  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis is most common during a woman's reproductive years and is a major cause of maternal–child mortality. National guidelines for screening and management vary widely owing to insufficient data. In this article, we review the available data on (1) the global burden of tuberculosis in women of reproductive age; (2) how pregnancy and the postpartum period affect the course of tuberculosis; (3) how to screen and diagnose pregnant and postpartum women for active and latent tuberculosis; (4) the management of active and latent tuberculosis in pregnancy and the postpartum period, including the safety of tuberculosis medications; and (5) infant outcomes. We also include data on HIV/tuberculosis coinfection and drug-resistant tuberculosis. Finally, we highlight research gaps in tuberculosis in pregnant and postpartum women. PMID:22942202

Mathad, Jyoti S.; Gupta, Amita

2012-01-01

195

Periodicity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In thinking about a title for this chapter, the word periodicity came to mind. I was sure this had some kind of pop culture reference. After discussing this with my wife, we figured I was thinking of synchronicity, which is a reference to music by the band, The Police. Looking the word Periodicity up on the internet, I found that I was, in fact, a science geek and had not made a hip reference. Periodicity refers mainly to the Periodic Table, which is a focus of this chapter. No music, just science.

William C. Robertson, Ph.D.

2007-01-01

196

Postpartum cardiomyopathy: a diagnostic dilemma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postpartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is the development of heart failure in the last month of pregnancy or within 5 months after delivery without an identifiable cause in a previously healthy female. It is a rare condition, which carries a high maternal mortality. We describe the case of a 35-year-old South Asian woman who presented with dyspnoea, fatiguability, peripheral oedema and abdominal

H. A. Khwaja; S. S. Khwaja; M. Fakhry; S. Al-Awdah

197

Postpartum Adjustment in Primiparous Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the framework of the social stress and behavioral theories of depression, this study investigated the hypothesis that postpartum depression is a function of disruption of parents' prepartum functioning by the subsequent demands of infant caretaking. Seventy-eight primiparous married couples (N=156, 78 men and 78 women) volunteered to…

Atkinson, A. Kathleen; Rickel, Annette U.

198

Adolescent Motherhood and Postpartum Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescent mothers undergo unique personal and social challenges that may contribute to postpartum functioning. In this exploratory investigation completed within a risk and resilience framework, 149 adolescent mothers, ages 15 to 19, who participated in school-based teen parents' programs, completed measures of parental stress (social isolation…

Birkeland, Robyn; Thompson, J. Kevin; Phares, Vicky

2005-01-01

199

Principals in Late Career: Toward a Conceptualization of Principals’ Tasks and Experiences in the Pre-Retirement Period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To fill the gap in theoretical and empirical knowledge on late career in principalship, the aim of this study was to explore the career experiences, needs, and behaviors of principals at this stage. Research method: Life history and semistructured interviews were conducted with 20 late-career principals, 20 schoolteachers, and 10 supervisors. The analysis followed the principles of qualitative research.

Izhar Oplatka

2010-01-01

200

Principals in Late Career: Toward a Conceptualization of Principals' Tasks and Experiences in the Pre-Retirement Period  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To fill the gap in theoretical and empirical knowledge on late career in principalship, the aim of this study was to explore the career experiences, needs, and behaviors of principals at this stage. Research method: Life history and semistructured interviews were conducted with 20 late-career principals, 20 schoolteachers, and 10…

Oplatka, Izhar

2010-01-01

201

Traditions and plant use during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum recovery by the Kry ethnic group in Lao PDR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Activities and diet during the postpartum period are culturally dictated in many Southeast Asian cultures, and a period of\\u000a confinement is observed. Plants play an important role in recovery during the postpartum period in diet and traditional medicine.\\u000a Little is known of the Kry, a small ethnic group whose language was recently described, concerning its traditions and use\\u000a of plants

Vichith Lamxay; Hugo J de Boer; Lars Björk

2011-01-01

202

The dialectic in becoming a mother: experiencing a postpartum phenomenon.  

PubMed

In this study of the phenomenon of the postpartum period grounded theory methodology was used to investigate the experiences of first-time mothers during the first three months following their deliveries. The sample consisted of 12 primipara women and 3 multipara women. The data were generated by using unstructured interviews and field notes. Each woman was interviewed twice, the first time between 2 and 3 weeks postpartum, and the second time between 10 and 12 weeks postpartum. The final data for analysis consisted of: data generated through interviews, field notes, and the narratives of four mothers found in the non-fiction literature. Constant comparative analysis resulted in the generation of four categories and corresponding subcategories. These were: (1) Giving of Self; (2) Redefining Self; (3) Redefining Relationships; and (4) Redefining Professional Goals. The categories were not mutually exclusive. All the categories converged to provide support for the core variable 'Dialectic in Becoming a Mother'. The dialectic perspective demonstrated that, in becoming mothers, the women experienced transition, contradictions, tensions and transformations. A theoretical model was developed to show relationships among these major concepts. The findings of this study will be useful in effecting change in the provision of care to postpartum women and their families. PMID:8578045

Sethi, S

1995-01-01

203

Longitudinal Change in Sleep and Daytime Sleepiness in Postpartum Women  

PubMed Central

Sleep disruption strongly influences daytime functioning; resultant sleepiness is recognised as a contributing risk-factor for individuals performing critical and dangerous tasks. While the relationship between sleep and sleepiness has been heavily investigated in the vulnerable sub-populations of shift workers and patients with sleep disorders, postpartum women have been comparatively overlooked. Thirty-three healthy, postpartum women recorded every episode of sleep and wake each day during postpartum weeks 6, 12 and 18. Although repeated measures analysis revealed there was no significant difference in the amount of nocturnal sleep and frequency of night-time wakings, there was a significant reduction in sleep disruption, due to fewer minutes of wake after sleep onset. Subjective sleepiness was measured each day using the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale; at the two earlier time points this was significantly correlated with sleep quality but not to sleep quantity. Epworth Sleepiness Scores significantly reduced over time; however, during week 18 over 50% of participants were still experiencing excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Score ?12). Results have implications for health care providers and policy makers. Health care providers designing interventions to address sleepiness in new mothers should take into account the dynamic changes to sleep and sleepiness during this initial postpartum period. Policy makers developing regulations for parental leave entitlements should take into consideration the high prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness experienced by new mothers, ensuring enough opportunity for daytime sleepiness to diminish to a manageable level prior to reengagement in the workforce. PMID:25078950

Filtness, Ashleigh J.; MacKenzie, Janelle; Armstrong, Kerry

2014-01-01

204

Immigrant women's perspective on prenatal and postpartum care: systematic review.  

PubMed

Female migration represents a major public health challenge faced today because its heterogeneity and gender issues placing immigrant women among the most vulnerable and at-risk group. To identify and analyze studies dealing with immigrant women's perspectives with prenatal and postpartum health care. A systematic literature review was conducted to assess studies published between 2000 and 2010 using Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, EMBASE, PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. The studies explored the relation between socio-demographic characteristics of immigrant women participants and its impact on the main factors identified as influencing prenatal and postpartum care, characterizing the manifested knowledge and behaviors expressed and describing the women's experience with health care services and the incidence of postpartum depression symptoms. The less favorable socio-economic status of migrant women participants seems to have been influential in the quality of health service in prenatal and postpartum periods. The language barrier was the main negative factor interfering with communication between women and health professionals, followed by health care professionals' lack of cultural sensitivity, leading to women's reluctance in using health services. PMID:24052479

Santiago, Maria da Conceição F; Figueiredo, Maria Henriqueta

2015-02-01

205

Your Postpartum Checkup  

MedlinePLUS

... Frequently Asked Questions Can I get pregnant while breastfeeding? Yes. Breastfeeding may decrease the odds of getting pregnant by ... the return of a woman's menstrual period. However, breastfeeding does not prevent pregnancy, even if the mother ...

206

Uranium and molybdenum isotope evidence for an episode of widespread ocean oxygenation during the late Ediacaran Period  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve estimates of the extent of ocean oxygenation during the late Ediacaran Period, we measured the U and Mo isotope compositions of euxinic (anoxic and sulfidic) organic-rich mudrocks (ORM) of Member IV, upper Doushantuo Formation, South China. The average ?238U of most samples is 0.24 ± 0.16‰ (2SD; relative to standard CRM145), which is slightly higher than the average ?238U of 0.02 ± 0.12‰ for restricted Black Sea (deep-water Unit I) euxinic sediments and is similar to a modeled ?238U value of 0.2‰ for open ocean euxinic sediments in the modern well-oxygenated oceans. Because 238U is preferentially removed to euxinic sediments compared to 235U, expanded ocean anoxia will deplete seawater of 238U relative to 235U, ultimately leading to deposition of ORM with low ?238U. Hence, the high ?238U of Member IV ORM points to a common occurrence of extensive ocean oxygenation ca. 560 to 551 Myr ago. The Mo isotope composition of sediments deposited from strongly euxinic bottom waters ([H2S]aq >11 ?M) either directly records the global seawater Mo isotope composition (if Mo removal from deep waters is quantitative) or represents a minimum value for seawater (if Mo removal is not quantitative). Near the top of Member IV, ?98Mo approaches the modern seawater value of 2.34 ± 0.10‰. High ?98Mo points to widespread ocean oxygenation because the preferential removal of isotopically light Mo to sediments occurs to a greater extent in O2-rich compared to O2-deficient marine environments. However, the ?98Mo value for most Member IV ORM is near 0‰ (relative to standard NIST SRM 3134 = 0.25‰), suggesting extensive anoxia. The low ?98Mo is at odds with the high Mo concentrations of Member IV ORM, which suggest a large seawater Mo inventory in well-oxygenated oceans, and the high ?238U. Hence, we propose that the low ?98Mo of most Member IV ORM was fractionated from contemporaneous seawater. Possible mechanisms driving this isotope fractionation include: (1) inadequate dissolved sulfide for quantitative thiomolybdate formation and capture of a seawater-like ?98Mo signature in sediments or (2) delivery of isotopically light Mo to sediments via a particulate Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide shuttle. A compilation of Mo isotope data from euxinic ORM suggests that there were transient episodes of extensive ocean oxygenation that break up intervals of less oxygenated oceans during late Neoproterozoic and early Paleozoic time. Hence, Member IV does not capture irreversible deep ocean oxygenation. Instead, complex ocean redox variations likely marked the transition from O2-deficient Proterozoic oceans to widely oxygenated later Phanerozoic oceans.

Kendall, Brian; Komiya, Tsuyoshi; Lyons, Timothy W.; Bates, Steve M.; Gordon, Gwyneth W.; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Jiang, Ganqing; Creaser, Robert A.; Xiao, Shuhai; McFadden, Kathleen; Sawaki, Yusuke; Tahata, Miyuki; Shu, Degan; Han, Jian; Li, Yong; Chu, Xuelei; Anbar, Ariel D.

2015-05-01

207

Sleep and Quality of Life in Pregnancyand Postpartum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep fragmentation and disruption during the normal physiological changes of pregnancy are as significant as some medical\\u000a diseases. Sleep disorders during pregnancy are an even further complication. These changes, which persist not only over the\\u000a course of the pregnancy, but also into the postpartum period, are significant enough to affect quality of life. Measures specific\\u000a to the quality of life

Magdie Kohn; Brian James Murray

208

Psychosocial correlates of prepartum and postpartum depressed mood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of the present study was to delineate the influence of maternal stress, social support and coping styles on depressed mood during pregnancy and the early postpartum period. Methods: Beginning in the third month of pregnancy, data on numerous variables including daily stress (Hassles), state-anxiety (STAI-state), pregnancy-specific stress (PEQ) and depressed mood (DACL) were collected monthly. In each

Deborah Da Costa; Julie Larouche; Maria Dritsa; William Brender

2000-01-01

209

The Effect of Mode of Delivery on Postpartum Sexual Functioning in Primiparous Women  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the effect of mode of delivery on postpartum sexual functioning in primiparous women. Methods In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 150 primiparous women in postpartum period, who attended the family planning or vaccination clinics, were enrolled for the study. Eighty-one had vaginal delivery with episiotomy and 69 had experienced cesarean section. Sexual function was evaluated by the Female Sexual Function Index within 3 and 6 months postpartum. Results About 29% in vaginal delivery group and 37% in cesarean delivery group had resumed their sexual intercourses four weeks after delivery (p=0.280).There were no significant differences between mode of delivery and sexual functioning, including desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain. Conclusion The present study showed that postpartum sexual functioning was not associated with the type of delivery. PMID:25170409

Dabiri, Fatemeh; Yabandeh, Asieh Pormehr; Shahi, Arefeh; Kamjoo, Azita; Teshnizi, Saeed Hosseini

2014-01-01

210

A Review of Postpartum Psychosis  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective is to provide an overview of the clinical features, prognosis, differential diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of postpartum psychosis. Methods The authors searched Medline (1966–2005), PsycInfo (1974–2005), Toxnet, and PubMed databases using the key words postpartum psychosis, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, organic psychosis, pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, and electroconvulsive therapy. A clinical case is used to facilitate the discussion. Results The onset of puerperal psychosis occurs in the first 1–4 weeks after childbirth. The data suggest that postpartum psychosis is an overt presentation of bipolar disorder that is timed to coincide with tremendous hormonal shifts after delivery. The patient develops frank psychosis, cognitive impairment, and grossly disorganized behavior that represent a complete change from previous functioning. These perturbations, in combination with lapsed insight into her illness and symptoms, can lead to devastating consequences in which the safety and well-being of the affected mother and her offspring are jeopardized. Therefore, careful and repeated assessment of the mothers’ symptoms, safety, and functional capacity is imperative. Treatment is dictated by the underlying diagnosis, bipolar disorder, and guided by the symptom acuity, patient’s response to past treatments, drug tolerability, and breastfeeding preference. The somatic therapies include antimanic agents, atypical antipsychotic medications, and ECT. Estrogen prophylaxis remains purely investigational. Conclusions The rapid and accurate diagnosis of postpartum psychosis is essential to expedite appropriate treatment and to allow for quick, full recovery, prevention of future episodes, and reduction of risk to the mother and her children and family. PMID:16724884

SIT, DOROTHY; ROTHSCHILD, ANTHONY J.; WISNER, KATHERINE L.

2011-01-01

211

Postpartum Depression - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Postpartum Depression - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Marshallese ( ...

212

Sociodemographic, Perinatal, Behavioral, and Psychosocial Predictors of Weight Retention at 3 and 12 months Postpartum  

PubMed Central

Postpartum weight retention plays an important role in the pathway leading to obesity among women of childbearing age. The objective of this study was to examine predictors of moderate (1–10 pounds) and high (>10 pounds) postpartum weight retention using data from a prospective pregnancy cohort that followed women into the postpartum period; n=688 and 550 women at 3 and 12 months, respectively. Analysis included descriptive statistics and predictive modeling using log-binomial techniques. The average weight retained at 3 and 12 months postpartum in this population was 9.4 lbs (SD=11.4) and 5.7 lbs (SD=13.2) respectively. At 3- months postpartum, prepregnancy weight, gestational weight gain, and hours slept during the night were associated with moderate or high weight retention while having an infant hospitalized after going home and scoring in the upper 75th percentile of the eating attitudes test were associated only with high weight retention. At 12- months postpartum, prepregnancy weight, gestational weight gain and maternal education were associated with moderate weight retention and gestational weight gain, maternal age, race, employment status, and having an infant hospitalized at birth were associated with high weight retention. The results of this study illustrate the importance of prepregnancy weight and gestational weight gain in predicting postpartum weight retention. Furthermore, given the lack of successful intervention studies that exist to date to help women lose weight in the postpartum period, the results of this study may help to inform future interventions that focus on such aspects as hours of sleep, dealing with stress associated with a hospitalized infant, and non-clinical eating disorder symptomatology. PMID:20035283

Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Herring, Amy H.; Carrier, Kathryn; Evenson, Kelly R.; Dole, Nancy; Deierlein, Andrea

2010-01-01

213

Critical period for adverse effects on development of reproductive system in male offspring of rats given di- n-butyl phthalate during late pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the susceptible days for the adverse effects of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) on development of reproductive system in male offspring following maternal administration on successive 3-day period during late pregnancy. Pregnant rats were given DBP by gastric intubation at 1000 or 1500 mg\\/kg on days 12–14 or 18–20 of pregnancy or at 500,

Makoto Ema; Emiko Miyawaki; Kunio Kawashima

2000-01-01

214

Possible Late Holocene equatorial palaeoclimate record based upon soils spanning the Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age, Loboi Plain, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Wetland and,floodplain soils in the East African Rift of Kenya provide,a record of changing,palaeoclimate,and palaeohydrology,compatible with climate records for the mid-Holocene through the late Holocene Medieval Warm,Period (~AD 800–1270) and Little Ice Age (~AD 1270–1850), documented previously in nearby lacustrine sites. Soils forming from volcaniclastic source materials in both Loboi Swamp and laterally adjacent Kesubo Marsh, two wetland systems

Steven G. Driese; Gail M. Ashleysupbs; Zheng-Hua Li; Victoria C. Hover; R. Bernhart Owen

2004-01-01

215

Possible Late Holocene equatorial palaeoclimate record based upon soils spanning the Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age, Loboi Plain, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetland and floodplain soils in the East African Rift of Kenya provide a record of changing palaeoclimate and palaeohydrology compatible with climate records for the mid-Holocene through the late Holocene Medieval Warm Period (?AD 800–1270) and Little Ice Age (?AD 1270–1850), documented previously in nearby lacustrine sites. Soils forming from volcaniclastic source materials in both Loboi Swamp and laterally adjacent

Steven G. Driese; Gail M. Ashley; Zheng-Hua Li; Victoria C. Hover; R. Bernhart Owen

2004-01-01

216

Differentially Expressed MicroRNAs in Postpartum Breast Cancer in Hispanic Women  

PubMed Central

The risk of breast cancer transiently increases immediately following pregnancy; peaking between 3-7 years. The biology that underlies this risk window and the effect on the natural history of the disease is unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that have been shown to be dysregulated in breast cancer. We conducted miRNA profiling of 56 tumors from a case series of multiparous Hispanic women and assessed the pattern of expression by time since last full-term pregnancy. A data-driven splitting analysis on the pattern of 355 miRNAs separated the case series into two groups: a) an early group representing women diagnosed with breast cancer ? 5.2 years postpartum (n = 12), and b) a late group representing women diagnosed with breast cancer ? 5.3 years postpartum (n = 44). We identified 15 miRNAs with significant differential expression between the early and late postpartum groups; 60% of these miRNAs are encoded on the X chromosome. Ten miRNAs had a two-fold or higher difference in expression with miR-138, miR-660, miR-31, miR-135b, miR-17, miR-454, and miR-934 overexpressed in the early versus the late group; while miR-892a, miR-199a-5p, and miR-542-5p were underexpressed in the early versus the late postpartum group. The DNA methylation of three out of five tested miRNAs (miR-31, miR-135b, and miR-138) was lower in the early versus late postpartum group, and negatively correlated with miRNA expression. Here we show that miRNAs are differentially expressed and differentially methylated between tumors of the early versus late postpartum, suggesting that potential differences in epigenetic dysfunction may be operative in postpartum breast cancers. PMID:25875827

Futscher, Bernard W.; Hu, Chengcheng; Komenaka, Ian K.; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes; Gutierrez-Millan, Luis Enrique; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Thompson, Patricia A.; Martinez, Maria Elena

2015-01-01

217

The effect of health and nutrition education intervention on women's postpartum beliefs and practices: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background 'Sitting month' is the Chinese tradition for postpartum customs. Available studies indicate that some of the traditional postpartum practices are potentially harmful for women's health. However, no intervention study aiming at postpartum practices has been performed. In this paper we evaluated the effect of a health and nutrition education intervention, which focused on improving postpartum dietary quality and optimal health behaviors. Methods The study design was a randomized controlled trial conducted in both urban and rural area of Hubei between August 2003 and June 2004. A total of 302 women who attended the antenatal clinic during the third trimester with an uncomplicated pregnancy were recruited. Women randomized to the education intervention group in both urban and rural area received two two-hour prenatal education sessions and four postpartum counseling visits. Control group women received usual health care during pregnancy and postpartum period. Women were followed up until 42 days postpartum. Outcome measures were nutrition and health knowledge, dietary behavior, health behavior and health problems during the postpartum period. Results Women in the intervention groups exhibited significantly greater improvement in overall dietary behaviors such as consumption of fruits, vegetables, soybean and soybean products as well as nutrition and health knowledge than those in the control groups. Significantly more women in the intervention groups give up the traditional behavior taboos. The incidence of constipation, leg cramp or joint pain and prolonged lochia rubra was significantly lower in the intervention groups as compared with the control groups. Conclusion The study shows that health and nutrition education intervention enable the women take away some of the unhealthy traditional postpartum practices and decrease the prevalence of postpartum health problems. The intervention has potential for adaptation and development to large-scale implementation. Trial registration number klACTRN12607000549426 PMID:19183504

Liu, Nian; Mao, Limei; Sun, Xiufa; Liu, Liegang; Yao, Ping; Chen, Banghua

2009-01-01

218

Combining photogrammetry and laser scanning for the recording and modelling of the Late Intermediate Period site of  

E-print Network

for archaeological analysis. Ó 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: 3D modelling; Laser scanningCombining photogrammetry and laser scanning for the recording and modelling of the Late This paper describes the 3D modelling of Pinchango Alto, Peru, based on a combination of image and range data

219

Relic Late Pleistocene fluvial forms as geomorphic archives indicating periods of high climatic runoff over the East European Plain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In water balance estimations within palaeoenvironmental studies river runoff is estimated as the difference between precipitation and evapotranspiration. The other technique is numerical modeling using general circulation models. Both approaches fail to recognize epochs of extremely high surface runoff characteristic for the Pleistocene cold epochs and recorded in geomorphic outcomes of this runoff. We have studied two kinds of such archives that have wide spatial coverage over the East European Plain (EEP). 1. Post-LGM large palaeochannels (macromeanders) in river valleys with channel width and meander wavelength 5-15 times as great as that of modern rivers. Massive measurements of their parameters and application of specially constructed transfer function provided estimations of palaeo-runoff from large river basins: in the Black Sea and Caspian Sea catchments it carried from 2.2 (Kama River) to 3.1 (Don, Dnieper Rivers) times as great as modern runoff. High runoff lasted long enough to provide formation of 2-3 generations of macromeanders characteristic for many valleys. Macromeanders were radiocarbon dated at 6 sites over EEP in the range 13-19 cal ka BP, but it is not clear whether high runoff was characteristic for the entire period or it performed during short isolated epochs within this interval. Therefore, it is not clear to what exact time palaeohydrological estimations should be attributed. 2. Dendritic and parallel systems of gentle hollows clearly designated in vegetation-free areas south from 55-57ºN. Distinctive spatial patterns and full integration into water transportation through modern fluvial landscapes provides interpretation of these hollow systems as partially or totally buried networks of small dry valleys (balkas). It is supported by revelation of buried incisions up to 10 m deep by coring and trenching across hollows. Ancient erosion network demonstrates erosion density much higher and Horton's "belt of no erosion" much narrower and therefore exhibits much abundant surface runoff than those at present. Dating of buried balkas has until recent times been based either on pollen spectra from peat deposits (in central EEP), or on stratigraphy of paleosoils found in the bottom of paleoforms (in southern EEP). Both markers point at Eemian (MIS 5e) age of their stabilization and therefore pre-Eemian (late MIS 6?) age of incision. However first attempt of OSL dating gave the contradictory result of filling of a 6-m deep balka by slopewash sediments during 80-70 ka BP. Questionable is the >30-ka delay between the soil formation in the balka bottom and start of its filling. It may mean either post-Eemian age of the soil, which would be unfortunate for the regional soil stratigraphy, or insufficient sensitivity of local quartz at ages close to Eemian. The conclusion is that geomorphic evidences make unique palaeohydrological archives that document changes not recorded in other types of palaeoenvironmental data, but they suffer from uncertainties and low resolution of dating. This presentation contributes to RFBR Projects 14-05-00119 and 14-05-00146.

Panin, Andrei; Belyaev, Yury; Eremenko, Ekaterina; Sidorchuk, Alexei

2014-05-01

220

Randomized controlled trial to prevent postpartum depression in adolescent mothers  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the effect of an interpersonally-oriented intervention on reducing the risk of postpartum depression in primiparous adolescents. Study design Randomized controlled trial of 106 pregnant primiparous adolescents who were 17 years old or younger at their first prenatal visit. Participants were randomized to the intervention (n=54) or the attention and dose-matched control program (n=52). Each program included 5 sessions delivered during the prenatal period. To assess for the primary outcome, depression at 6-weeks, 3-months and 6-months after delivery, a structured diagnostic interview was administered. Results Participants included Hispanic (53%), non-Hispanic black (17%) and non-Hispanic white (16%) adolescents. The overall rate of depression in the intervention group (12.5%) was lower than the control group (25%) with a HR 0.44 (95% CI 0.17–1.15) at 6 months postpartum. Conclusion An intervention delivered during the prenatal period has the potential to reduce the risk for postpartum depression in primiparous adolescent mothers. PMID:23313720

Phipps, Maureen G.; Raker, Christina A.; Jocelyn, Crystal F.; Zlotnick, Caron

2015-01-01

221

Paternal postpartum depression: what health care providers should know.  

PubMed

Paternal postpartum depression (PPD) is a clinically significant problem for families that is currently underscreened, underdiagnosed, and undertreated. Maternal PPD is a well-known condition and has been extensively researched. In comparison, PPD in fathers and its potential effects on the family are not widely recognized. Studies have shown the importance of optimal mental health in fathers during the postpartum period. Negative effects of paternal PPD affect marital/partner relationships, infant bonding, and child development. To promote optimal health for parents and children, pediatric nurse practitioners must stay up to date on this topic. This article discusses the relationship of paternal PPD to maternal PPD; the consequences, signs, and symptoms; and the pediatric nurse practitioner's role in assessing and managing paternal PPD. PMID:23182851

Musser, Anna K; Ahmed, Azza H; Foli, Karen J; Coddington, Jennifer A

2013-01-01

222

Impetigo herpetiformis with postpartum flare-up: a case report.  

PubMed

Impetigo herpetiformis is a rare dermatosis of pregnancy with typical onset during the last trimester of pregnancy and rapid resolution during the postpartum period. It is still a matter of debate whether it is a variant of pustular psoriasis or a separate entity. We report a case of impetigo herpetiformis with an earlier onset during the second trimester of pregnancy (G4 P2) and an atypical postpartum flare-up. Even though the case is not new per se, it reveals the natural course of this rare disease because the condition was neglected and given no oral treatment throughout the entire pregnancy. Consequently, the patient had a premature delivery with premature rupture of membranes, placental insufficiency, and intrauterine growth retardation. PMID:19588063

Roth, M-M; Feier, V; Cristodor, P; Moguelet, P

2009-06-01

223

Early Postpartum Pharmacokinetics of Lopinavir Initiated Intrapartum in Thai Women ? †  

PubMed Central

Lopinavir (LPV) exposure is reduced during the third trimester of pregnancy. We report the pharmacokinetics of standard LPV-ritonavir dosing (400/100 mg twice daily) in the immediate and early postpartum period when initiated during labor. In 16 human immunodeficiency virus-infected Thai women, the median (range) LPV area under the concentration-time curve and maximum and minimum concentrations in plasma were 99.7 (66.1 to 180.5) ?g·h/ml, 11.2 (8.0 to 17.5) ?g/ml, and 4.6 (1.7 to 12.5) ?g/ml, respectively, at 41 (12 to 74) h after delivery. All of the women attained adequate LPV levels through 30 days postpartum. No serious adverse events were reported. PMID:19237646

Cressey, Tim R.; Van Dyke, Russell; Jourdain, Gonzague; Puthanakit, Thanyawee; Roongpisuthipong, Anuvat; Achalapong, Jullapong; Yuthavisuthi, Prapap; Prommas, Sinart; Chotivanich, Nantasak; Maupin, Robert; Smith, Elizabeth; Shapiro, David E.; Mirochnick, Mark

2009-01-01

224

The palaeoclimatic significance of Eurasian Giant Salamanders (Cryptobranchidae: Zaissanurus, Andrias) - indications for elevated humidity in Central Asia during global warm periods (Eocene, late Oligocene warming, Miocene Climate Optimum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryptobranchids represent a group of large sized (up to 1.8 m) tailed amphibians known since the Middle Jurassic (Gao & Shubin 2003). Two species are living today in eastern Eurasia: Andrias davidianus (China) and A. japonicus (Japan). Cenozoic Eurasian fossil giant salamanders are known with two genera and two or three species from over 30 localities, ranging from the Late Eocene to the Early Pliocene (Böhme & Ilg 2003). The Late Eocene species Zaissanurus beliajevae is restricted to the Central Asian Zaissan Basin (SE-Kazakhstan, 50°N, 85°E), whereas the Late Oligocene to Early Pliocene species Andrias scheuchzeri is distributed from Central Europe to the Zaissan Basin. In the latter basin the species occur during two periods; the latest Oligocene and the late Early to early Middle Miocene (Chkhikvadse 1982). Andrias scheuchzeri is osteological indistinguishable from both recent species, indicating a similar ecology (Westfahl 1958). To investigate the palaeoclimatic significance of giant salamanders we analyzed the climate within the present-day distribution area and at selected fossil localities with independent palaeoclimate record. Our results indicate that fossil and recent Andrias species occur in humid areas where the mean annual precipitation reach over 900 mm (900 - 1.300 mm). As a working hypothesis (assuming a similar ecology of Andrias and Zaissanurus) we interpret occurrences of both fossil Eurasian giant salamanders as indicative for humid palaeoclimatic conditions. Based on this assumption the Late Eocene, the latest Oligocene (late Oligocene warming) and the late Early to early Middle Miocene (Miocene Climatic Optimum) of Central Asia (Zaissan Basin) are periods of elevated humidity, suggesting a direct (positive) relationship between global climate and Central Asian humidity evolution. Böhme M., Ilg A. 2003: fosFARbase, www.wahre-staerke.com/ Chkhikvadze V.M. 1982. On the finding of fossil Cryptobranchidae in the USSR and Mongolia. Vertebrata Hungarica, 21: 63-67. Gao K.-Q., Shubin N.H. 2003. Earliest known crown-group Salamanders. Nature, 422: 424-428. Westphal F. 1958. Die Tertiären und rezenten Eurasiatischen Riesensalamander. Palaeontolographica Abt. A, 110: 20-92.

Vasilyan, Davit; Böhme, Madelaine; Winklhofer, Michael

2010-05-01

225

Endocrine and metabolic mechanisms linking postpartum glucose with early embryonic and foetal development in dairy cows.  

PubMed

Milk and milk solids production per cow is increasing annually in dairy systems. Peak milk production is in early lactation when the uterus and ovary are recovering from the previous pregnancy. The competing processes of milk production and restoration of reproductive function can be at odds, particularly if unique homeorhetic mechanisms that typify early lactation become imbalanced and cows experience metabolic disease. Homeorhesis leads to an increase in the synthesis of glucose that is irreversibly lost to milk lactose. Irreversible loss of glucose during lactation can invoke an endocrine and metabolic state that impinges upon postpartum uterine health, oestrous cyclicity and subsequent establishment of pregnancy. The first 30 days postpartum may be most critical in terms of the impact that metabolites and metabolic hormones have on reproduction. Depressed immune function caused in part by the postpartum metabolic profile leads to a failure in uterine involution and uterine disease. Oestrous cyclicity (interval to first ovulation and subsequent periodicity) is affected by the same hormones and metabolites that control postpartum immune function. Slower growth of the embryo or foetus perhaps explained by the unique metabolic profile during lactation may predispose cows to pregnancy loss. Understanding homeorhetic mechanisms that involve glucose and collectively affect postpartum uterine health, oestrous cyclicity and the establishment of pregnancy should lead to methods to improve postpartum fertility in dairy cows. PMID:24679333

Lucy, M C; Butler, S T; Garverick, H A

2014-05-01

226

Effects of lactation on bone mineral content in healthy postpartum women  

SciTech Connect

Bone mineral contents were estimated by dual photon absorptiometry of the lumbar spine (L2-L4) and single photon absorptiometry of the mid- and distal radius in 19 healthy women on their second postpartum day and at 6 months postpartum. All bone mineral measurements were performed by one technician, and the single and dual photon absorptiometry results were read by one observer. Daily oral calcium intakes were estimated from dietary histories obtained by a dietitian. Twelve women who breast-fed exclusively throughout the first 6 months postpartum were compared with seven formula-feeding women who did not breast-feed or who breast-fed for less than 3 months postpartum. No differences were found in age, parity, height, weight, or daily calcium intake between the breast- and formula-feeding women. Breast-feeding women had a significant decrease (averaging 6.5%) in bone mineral of the lumbar spine at 6 months postpartum as compared with 2 days postpartum (1.14 +/- 0.03 versus 1.22 +/- 0.03 g/cm2, mean +/- SEM; P less than .001), whereas no significant change occurred in the formula-feeding women at 6 months (1.24 +/- 0.03 versus 1.26 +/- 0.04 g/cm2). At 6 months postpartum, the breast-feeding women had a significantly lower mean bone mineral content of the lumbar spine than did formula-feeding women (P less than .05). No significant changes were noted in bone mineral content of the mid- or distal radius in either group of women during the period of evaluation. We conclude that during the first 6 months postpartum, breast-feeding is associated with bone mineral loss from the lumbar spine, but not from the mid- or distal radius.

Hayslip, C.C.; Klein, T.A.; Wray, H.L.; Duncan, W.E.

1989-04-01

227

Antidepressant-like effects of omega-3 fatty acids in postpartum model of depression in rats.  

PubMed

Postpartum depression (PPD) is a psychiatric disorder that occurs in 10-15% of childbearing women. It is hypothesized that omega-3 fatty acids, which are components of fish oil, may attenuate depression symptoms. In order to examine this hypothesis, the animal model of postpartum depression was established in the present study. Ovariectomized female rats underwent hormone-simulated pregnancy (HSP) regimen and received progesterone and estradiol benzoate or vehicle for 23 days, mimicking the actual rat's pregnancy. The days after hormone termination were considered as the postpartum period. Forced feeding of menhaden fish oil, as a source of omega-3, with three doses of 1, 3, and 9g/kg/d, fluoxetine 15mg/kg/d, and distilled water 2ml/d per rat started in five postpartum-induced and one vehicle group on postpartum day 1 and continued for 15 consecutive days. On postpartum day 15, all groups were tested in the forced swimming test (FST) and open field test (OFT), followed by a biochemical assay. Results showed that the postpartum-induced rats not treated with menhaden fish oil, exhibited an increase in immobility time seen in FST, hippocampal concentration of corticosterone and plasmatic level of corticosterone, and pro-inflammatory cytokines. These depression-related effects were attenuated by supplementation of menhaden fish oil with doses of 3 and 9g/kg. Moreover, results of rats supplemented with menhaden fish oil were comparable to rats treated with the clinically effective antidepressant, fluoxetine. Taken together, these results suggest that menhaden fish oil, rich in omega-3, exerts beneficial effect on postpartum depression and decreases the biomarkers related to depression such as corticosterone and pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:24867329

Arbabi, Leila; Baharuldin, Mohamad Taufik Hidayat; Moklas, Mohamad Aris Mohamad; Fakurazi, Sharida; Muhammad, Sani Ismaila

2014-09-01

228

Associations between Maternal Childhood Maltreatment and Psychopathology and Aggression during Pregnancy and Postpartum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study examines the association between maternal childhood maltreatment and psychopathology and aggression in intimate relationships during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Method: Forty-four pregnant women who were recruited from an obstetric clinic and local advertising periodical completed questionnaires about childhood…

Lang, Ariel J.; Rodgers, Carie S.; Lebeck, Meredith M.

2006-01-01

229

Intimate partner abuse before and during pregnancy as risk factors for postpartum mental health problems  

PubMed Central

Background Although research has established the profound effects that intimate partner abuse can have on postpartum mental health, little is known regarding how this association may change as a function of the timing and type of abuse. This study examined associations of psychological, physical and sexual abuse experienced as adults before and during pregnancy with symptoms of postpartum mental health problems in a non-clinical sample of women. Methods English-speaking mothers aged 18 years and older in the metropolitan area of a large, Western Canadian city were recruited to participate in a study of women’s health after pregnancy. The study was advertised in hospitals, local newspapers, community venues, and relevant websites. One-hundred women completed standardized, self-report questionnaires during semi-structured interviews conducted by female research assistants at approximately 2 months postpartum. In addition to questions about their general health and well-being, participants answered questions about their experiences of intimate partner abuse and about their mental health during the postpartum period. Results Almost two-thirds (61.0%) of women reported postpartum mental health symptoms above normal levels, with 47.0% reporting symptoms at moderate or higher levels. The majority reported some form of intimate partner abuse before pregnancy (84.0%) and more than two-thirds (70.0%), during pregnancy; however, the abuse was typically minor in nature. Multivariate models revealed that women who experienced intimate partner abuse—whether before or during pregnancy—reported higher levels of postpartum mental health problems; however, associations differed as a function of the timing and type of abuse, as well as specific mental health symptoms. Multivariate models also showed that as the number of types of intimate partner abuse experienced increased, so did the negative effects on postpartum mental health. Conclusions Results of this study provide further evidence that intimate partner abuse is a risk factor for postpartum mental health problems. They also underscore the complex risks and needs associated with intimate partner abuse among postpartum women and support the use of integrated approaches to treating postpartum mental health problems. Future efforts should focus on the extent to which strategies designed to reduce intimate partner abuse also improve postpartum mental health and vice versus. PMID:24708777

2014-01-01

230

Pregnancy massage reduces prematurity, low birthweight and postpartum depression.  

PubMed

Pregnant women diagnosed with major depression were given 12 weeks of twice per week massage therapy by their significant other or only standard treatment as a control group. The massage therapy group women versus the control group women not only had reduced depression by the end of the therapy period, but they also had reduced depression and cortisol levels during the postpartum period. Their newborns were also less likely to be born prematurely and low birthweight, and they had lower cortisol levels and performed better on the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment habituation, orientation and motor scales. PMID:19646762

Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Deeds, Osvelia; Figueiredo, Barbara

2009-12-01

231

A natural model of behavioral depression in postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).  

PubMed

Postpartum depression (PPD) is a modified form of major depressive disorders (MDD) that can exert profound negative effects on both mothers and infants than MDD. Within the postpartum period, both mothers and infants are susceptible; but because PPD typically occurs for short durations and has moderate symptoms, there exists challenges in exploring and addressing the underlying cause of the depression. This fact highlights the need for relevant animal models. In the present study, postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) living in breeding groups were observed for typical depressive behavior. The huddle posture behavior was utilized as an indicator of behavioral depression postpartum (BDP) as it has been established as the core depressive-like behavior in primates. Monkeys were divided into two groups: A BDP group (n=6), which were found to spend more time huddling over the first two weeks postpartum than other individuals that formed a non-depression control group (n=4). The two groups were then further analyzed for locomotive activity, stressful events, hair cortisol levels and for maternal interactive behaviors. No differences were found between the BDP and control groups in locomotive activity, in the frequencies of stressful events experienced and in hair cortisol levels. These findings suggested that the postpartum depression witnessed in the monkeys was not related to external factors other than puerperium period. Interestingly, the BDP monkeys displayed an abnormal maternal relationship consisting of increased infant grooming. Taken together, these findings suggest that the adult female cynomolgus monkeys provide a natural model of behavioral postpartum depression that holds a number of advantages over commonly used rodent systems in PPD modeling. The cynomolgus monkeys have a highly-organized social hierarchy and reproductive characteristics without seasonal restriction-similar to humans-as well as much greater homology to humans than rodents. As such, this model may provide a greater translational efficiency and research platform for systematically investigating the etiology, treatment, prevention of PPD. PMID:24866487

Chu, Xun-Xun; Dominic Rizak, Joshua; Yang, Shang-Chuan; Wang, Jian-Hong; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Hu, Xin-Tian

2014-05-01

232

The views of mothers and GPs about postpartum care in Australian general practice  

PubMed Central

Background The postpartum period is a time of increased morbidity for mothers and infants under 12 months, yet is an under-researched area of primary care. Despite a relatively clear framework for involving general practitioners (GPs) in antenatal care, the structure of maternity service provision in some Australian jurisdictions has resulted in highly variable roles of general practice in routine postpartum care. This study aimed to investigate the views and experiences of mothers and GPs about postpartum care in general practice. Methods This was a qualitative study of mothers and GPs in rural, regional and metropolitan areas of Queensland, Australia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 88 mothers and six general practitioners between September 2010 and February 2012. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed thematically and compared across groups. Results Three main themes emerged: The relationship between the mother and GP; practice management; and GP visits. This paper focuses on the theme GP visits and its subthemes: recommendations for GP visits; scope of practice; and content of a routine visit. Recommendations about GP visits given to mothers varied by birthing sector, obstetric provider and model of maternity care resulting in confusion amongst mothers about the timing and role of GPs in routine postpartum care. Similarly, GPs voiced concerns about a lack of consistent guidelines for their involvement in routine postpartum care. Although ideally placed to provide primary care to mothers and their infants in the postpartum period, the lack of consistent guidelines for the role of GPs is of concern to both the GPs and early parenting women. Conclusion General practice is an important source of postpartum care for mothers and provides a basis for ongoing support for the family. More consistent guidelines and better coordination with other care providers would benefit both mothers and GPs. PMID:24066802

2013-01-01

233

Postpartum acute renal failure: a multicenter study of risk factors in patients admitted to ICU  

PubMed Central

Background Even in developed countries, severe specific pregnancy complications may occur in the immediate postpartum period and require admission to the ICU. The characteristics and risk factors of acute renal failure (ARF) induced by these complications and their treatments are not well known. Methods We performed a retrospective multicenter study in three intensive care departments linked to level III maternity wards in the north of France. All patients admitted to ICU for postpartum complications over a 5-year period (2008 to 2012) were included. Clinical and biological data, delivery characteristics, type of complications, and treatments were compared by univariate and multivariate analyses according to the occurrence and severity of ARF. Results One hundred eighty-two patients admitted to ICU for postpartum complications were included in the study. Sixty-eight patients (37%) developed an ARF: 49 with a low or medium severity and 19 with a severe ARF requiring renal replacement therapy. Hemolysis, elevated liver enzyme, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome on its own (p = 0.047) or combined with postpartum haemorrhage (p = 0.003), previous treatment by hyperoncotic albumin infusion (p = 0.001) and blockade of fibrinolysis by tranexamic acid (p = 0.03), was associated with secondary ARF. By multivariate analysis, the only independent factors were the association of HELLP syndrome with postpartum haemorrhage and the use of hyperoncotic albumin infusion. Conclusions HELLP syndrome associated with postpartum haemorrhage induces a high risk of ARF in the complicated postpartum setting. A particular attention should be given to treatments that could worsen the kidney function in that situation. PMID:25593752

2014-01-01

234

Weight Concerns, Mood, and Postpartum Smoking Relapse  

PubMed Central

Background The majority of women who quit smoking as a result of pregnancy will resume smoking during the first 6 months postpartum. Evidence suggests that changes in depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and concerns about weight may relate to postpartum smoking relapse. Purpose This study was designed to prospectively evaluate the relationship of mood and weight concerns to postpartum smoking among women who quit smoking during pregnancy. Methods Pregnant women who had quit smoking (N = 183) were recruited between February 2003 and November 2006. Women completed assessments of mood (depressive symptoms, perceived stress, positive and negative affect) and weight concerns during the third trimester of pregnancy, and at 6, 12, and 24 weeks postpartum. Self-reported smoking status was verified by expired-air carbon monoxide and salivary cotinine at each assessment. Cox regression analyses in which mood and weight concerns were treated as time dependent covariates were conducted in 2007 and 2009. Results By 24 weeks postpartum, 65% of women had resumed smoking. Smoking-related weight concerns increased risk of relapse, and positive affect and self-efficacy for weight management without smoking decreased risk of relapse postpartum. Moreover, after controlling for variables previously related to postpartum relapse, weight concerns remained significantly related to smoking relapse. Conclusions Smoking-related weight concerns and positive affect increase the likelihood that a woman will resume smoking postpartum. Moreover, weight concerns appear to be salient even in the context of other factors shown to affect postpartum smoking. This study suggests that interventions may need to address women’s weight concerns and mood to help sustain smoking abstinence after childbirth. PMID:20837285

Levine, Michele D.; Marcus, Marsha D.; Kalarchian, Melissa A.; Houck, Patricia R.; Cheng, Yu

2010-01-01

235

Oxytocin in Pregnancy and the Postpartum: Relations to Labor and Its Management  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine variations in endogenous oxytocin levels in pregnancy and postpartum state. We also explored the associations between delivery variables and oxytocin levels. A final sample of 272 mothers in their first trimester of pregnancy was included for the study. Blood samples were drawn during the first trimester and third trimester of pregnancy and at 8?weeks postpartum. Socio-demographic data were collected at each time point and medical files were consulted for delivery details. In most women, levels of circulating oxytocin increased from the first to third trimester of pregnancy followed by a decrease in the postpartum period. Oxytocin levels varied considerably between individuals, ranging from 50?pg/mL to over 2000?pg/mL. Parity was the main predictor of oxytocin levels in the third trimester of pregnancy and of oxytocin level changes from the first to the third trimester of pregnancy. Oxytocin levels in the third trimester of pregnancy predicted a self-reported negative labor experience and increased the chances of having an epidural. Intrapartum exogenous oxytocin was positively associated with levels of oxytocin during the postpartum period. Our exploratory results suggest that circulating oxytocin levels during the third trimester of pregnancy may predict the type of labor a woman will experience. More importantly, the quantity of intrapartum exogenous oxytocin administered during labor predicted plasma oxytocin levels 2?months postpartum, suggesting a possible long-term effect of this routine intervention, the consequences of which are largely unknown. PMID:24479112

Prevost, Marie; Zelkowitz, Phyllis; Tulandi, Togas; Hayton, Barbara; Feeley, Nancy; Carter, C. Sue; Joseph, Lawrence; Pournajafi-Nazarloo, Hossein; Yong Ping, Erin; Abenhaim, Haim; Gold, Ian

2014-01-01

236

Haootia quadriformis n. gen., n. sp., interpreted as a muscular cnidarian impression from the Late Ediacaran period (approx. 560 Ma).  

PubMed

Muscle tissue is a fundamentally eumetazoan attribute. The oldest evidence for fossilized muscular tissue before the Early Cambrian has hitherto remained moot, being reliant upon indirect evidence in the form of Late Ediacaran ichnofossils. We here report a candidate muscle-bearing organism, Haootia quadriformis n. gen., n. sp., from approximately 560 Ma strata in Newfoundland, Canada. This taxon exhibits sediment moulds of twisted, superimposed fibrous bundles arranged quadrilaterally, extending into four prominent bifurcating corner branches. Haootia is distinct from all previously published contemporaneous Ediacaran macrofossils in its symmetrically fibrous, rather than frondose, architecture. Its bundled fibres, morphology, and taphonomy compare well with the muscle fibres of fossil and extant Cnidaria, particularly the benthic Staurozoa. Haootia quadriformis thus potentially provides the earliest body fossil evidence for both metazoan musculature, and for Eumetazoa, in the geological record. PMID:25165764

Liu, Alexander G; Matthews, Jack J; Menon, Latha R; McIlroy, Duncan; Brasier, Martin D

2014-10-22

237

Antenatal psychosocial risk factors associated with adverse postpartum family outcomes.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine the strength of the association between antenatal psychosocial risk factors and adverse postpartum outcomes in the family, such as assault of women by their partner, child abuse, postpartum depression, marital dysfunction and physical illness. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Cinahl, Famli, Psych Abstracts and the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials were searched from relevant articles published from Jan. 1, 1980, to Dec. 31, 1993, with the use of MeSH terms "depression, involutional," "child abuse," "child neglect," "domestic violence," "family," "marital adjustment," "family health," "newborn health," "child health," "physical illness," "social support," "psychosocial risk," "prediction," "risk factors," "obstetrics" and "prenatal care." Further articles were identified from bibliographies. STUDY SELECTION: Of the 370 articles identified through the search, 118 were included for review. Studies were included if they examined the association between psychosocial risk factors and the outcomes of interest. Articles were excluded if they were reviews of poor quality or they had one or more of the following features: insufficient description of the sample, a high attrition rate, a lack of standardized outcome measures, outcomes other than the ones of interest or results that had already been reported in a previous study. DATA EXTRACTION: The strength of evidence of each study was evaluated. On the basis of the evidence, each risk factor was assigned a rating of the strength of its association with each of the postpartum outcomes. The ratings were class A (good evidence of association), class B (fair evidence) and class C (no clear evidence). Of the 129 antenatal psychosocial risk factors studied, 15 were found to have a class A association with at least one of the postpartum outcomes. DATA SYNTHESIS: Child abuse and abuse of the mother by her partner were most strongly correlated (class A evidence) with a history of lack of social support, recent life stressors, psychiatric disturbance in the mother and an unwanted pregnancy. Child abuse was also strongly associated with a history of childhood violence in the mother or her partner, previous child abuse by the mother's partner, a poor relationship between the mother and her parents, low self-esteem in the mother and lack of attendance at prenatal classes. Postpartum abuse of the mother was also associated with a history of abuse of the mother, prenatal care not started until the third trimester and alcohol or drug abuse by the mother or her partner (class A evidence). Child abuse had a fair (class B) association with poor marital adjustment or satisfaction, current or past abuse of the mother and alcohol or drug abuse by the mother or her partner. There was class B evidence supporting an association between abuse of the mother and poor marital adjustment, traditional sex-role expectations, a history of childhood violence in the mother or her partner and low self-esteem in the mother. Postpartum depression was most strongly associated with poor marital adjustment, recent life stressors, antepartum depression (class A evidence), but was also associated with lack of social support, abuse of the mother and a history of psychiatric disorder in the mother (class B evidence). Marital dysfunction was associated with poor marital adjustment before the birth and traditional sex-role expectations (class A evidence), and physical illness was correlated with recent life stressors (class B evidence). CONCLUSIONS: Psychosocial risk factors during the antenatal period may herald postpartum morbidity. Research is required to determine whether detection of these risk factors may lead to interventions that improve postpartum family outcomes. PMID:8634957

Wilson, L M; Reid, A J; Midmer, D K; Biringer, A; Carroll, J C; Stewart, D E

1996-01-01

238

Traditions and plant use during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum recovery by the Kry ethnic group in Lao PDR  

PubMed Central

Background Activities and diet during the postpartum period are culturally dictated in many Southeast Asian cultures, and a period of confinement is observed. Plants play an important role in recovery during the postpartum period in diet and traditional medicine. Little is known of the Kry, a small ethnic group whose language was recently described, concerning its traditions and use of plants during pregnancy, parturition, postpartum recovery and infant healthcare. This research aims to study those traditions and identify medicinal plant use. Methods Data were collected in the 3 different Kry villages in Khammouane province, Lao PDR, through group and individual interviews with women by female interviewers. Results A total of 49 different plant species are used in women's healthcare. Plant use is culturally different from the neighboring Brou and Saek ethnic groups. Menstruation, delivery and postpartum recovery take place in separate, purpose-built, huts and a complex system of spatial restrictions is observed. Conclusions Traditions surrounding childbirth are diverse and have been strictly observed, but are undergoing a shift towards those from neighboring ethnic groups, the Brou and Saek. Medicinal plant use to facilitate childbirth, alleviate menstruation problems, assist recovery after miscarriage, mitigate postpartum haemorrhage, aid postpartum recovery, and for use in infant care, is more common than previously reported (49 species instead of 14). The wealth of novel insights into plant use and preparation will help to understand culturally important practices such as traditional delivery, spatial taboos, confinement and dietary restrictions, and their potential in modern healthcare. PMID:21569234

2011-01-01

239

The Late K-type Binary V1104 Her Near the Short-period End of Contact Binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

V1104 Her is a newly discovered periodic variable with EW type variability. With an orbital period that is extremely short for a contact binary, it was found to have almost the latest K spectral type. To study its properties and nature, two new sets of multi-color light curves were analyzed with the Wilson–Devinney code. Photometric solutions reveal that the system is a W-type shallow contact binary with a mass ratio of 1/q={{M}1}/{{M}2}=0.63+/- 0.01 and a degree of contact of about f=15%+/- 2%. The real parameter uncertainties may be from three to five times larger, depending on the required confidence. Combining the newly determined times of minimum light, some of which were reprocessed from initial data, in conjunction with others published, the period variation is investigated in detail. Different methods of curve fitting were used, based on a weighted least-squares method. Finally, the orbital period of V1104 Her is found to be undergoing a long-term decrease at a rate of dP/dt=-2.9?ft( +/- 0.5 \\right)× {{10}-8} days · yr?1, as well as double cyclic oscillations with a period ratio ({{T}1}/{{T}2}) very close to 9:2. The light-travel time effect was found to be the best explanation for the cyclic variations. This indicates that the object is a possible quadruple system, which further implies that multiplicity may be a common phenomenon among close binaries.

Liu, N.-P.; Qian, S.-B.; Soonthornthum, B.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Liao, W.-P.; Zhao, E.-G.; Zhou, X.

2015-04-01

240

Further studies of post-partum ovulation timing in mice.  

PubMed

The times at which post-partum ovulation occurred relative to the times of parturition, were similar for CD-1 mice exposed either to 18L:6D of 10L:14D and comparable to the times reported previously for mice of the same strain kept under 14L:10D. When parturition took place close to 'lights off', ovulation tended to occur 13--14 h after littering (i.e. during the last part of the same dark period and the early part of the next light period). Conversely, when parturition took place closer to 'lights on', ovulation tended to be delayed by the equivalent number of hours so that it occurred during the last part of the next dark period and early part of the subsequent light period. This confirmation and extension of earlier work suggests that mice of this strain would be useful for investigating hormonal events associated with the timing of post-partum ovulation in the mouse. PMID:7201517

Bingel, A S

1982-07-01

241

Depression as bargaining The case postpartum$  

E-print Network

in general. The depression levels, abortion attitudes, additional mating opportunities, and investment on abortion correlated significantly with PPD levels, but, as predicted, only for mothers with an unplanned. Keywords: Postpartum depression; Abortion; Evolutionary psychology; Bargaining; Parental investment 1090

242

Acute dyspnea in a postpartum patient.  

PubMed

Topical benzocaine sprays used to relieve perineal pain in postpartum patients can, rarely, lead to methemoglobinemia. In patients with other medical issues, such as anemia, methemoglobinemia can become symptomatic, causing acute dyspnea and potentially becoming life-threatening. PMID:24361652

Fittro, Kenneth; Nichols, William

2014-01-01

243

Population-based screening for postpartum depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To estimate the community prevalence in Olmsted County, Minnesota of elevated scores on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, a self-report screening tool for postpartum depression.Methods: At the 6-week postpartum visit, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was administered to women who gave birth in Olmsted County between July 28, 1997 and March 28, 1998. Study sites included all ambulatory clinics

Anna M Georgiopoulos; Tonya L Bryan; Barbara P Yawn; Margaret S Houston; Teresa A Rummans; Terry M Therneau

1999-01-01

244

Postpartum depression: psychoneuroimmunological underpinnings and treatment  

PubMed Central

Postpartum depression (PPD) is common, occurring in 10%–15% of women. Due to concerns about teratogenicity of medications in the suckling infant, the treatment of PPD has often been restricted to psychotherapy. We review here the biological underpinnings to PPD, suggesting a powerful role for the tryptophan catabolites, indoleamine 2,3-dixoygenase, serotonin, and autoimmunity in mediating the consequences of immuno-inflammation and oxidative and nitrosative stress. It is suggested that the increased inflammatory potential, the decreases in endogenous anti-inflammatory compounds together with decreased omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids, in the postnatal period cause an inflammatory environment. The latter may result in the utilization of peripheral inflammatory products, especially kynurenine, in driving the central processes producing postnatal depression. The pharmacological treatment of PPD is placed in this context, and recommendations for more refined and safer treatments are made, including the better utilization of the antidepressant, and the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of melatonin. PMID:23459664

Anderson, George; Maes, Michael

2013-01-01

245

Inhibition of post-partum lactation with quinestrol.  

PubMed

In order to determine the effectiveness of the preparation Quinestrol, a 3-cyclo-pentyl ether of ethinyl estradiol, in inhibiting the level of postpartum lactation, 60 patients received 4 mg of Quinestrol within 6 hours of delivery, and 60 others a placebo of lactose at the same time. The patients were observed for a period of 4 days. Absence of pain, lactation, and engorgement were the criteria for success. Lactation was successfully inhibited in 46 of the 60 using Quinestrol (76.6%). 8 patients were considered failures. Only 6 of those patients administered the lactose placebo had lactation successfully suppressed. Literature from other sources on this topic is discussed. PMID:790111

Chuan, O K; Ping, W W; Fook, C W

1976-06-01

246

Ovariectomy-induced osteopenia influences the middle and late periods of bone healing in a mouse femoral osteotomy model.  

PubMed

Objective It is known that bone healing was delayed in the presence of osteoporosis in humans. However, due to the complexities of the healing of osteoporotic fractures, animal models may be more appropriate to study the effects of osteoporosis in more details and to test drugs on the fracture repair process. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of ovariectomy-induced osteopenia in bone healing in an open femoral osteotomy model, and to test the feasibility of this model for evaluating the healing process under osteopenic conditions. Methods In assessing the effects of osteopenia on fracture healing, ovariectomized mouse models were employed. A mid-shaft femur osteotomy model was also established 3 weeks after ovariectomy as an osteopenic fracture group (OVX group). Femurs were then harvested at 2 weeks and 6 weeks after fracture for X-ray radiography, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), histology and biomechanical analysis. A sham-operated group (Sham group) was used for comparison. Results The OVX mice had significantly lower BVF, vBMD and TMD in the fracture calluses at 6 weeks (P < 0.05), and similar trend was observed in 2 weeks. Additionally, larger calluses in OVX animals were observed via micro-CT and X-ray, but these did not result in better healing outcomes as determined by biomechanical test at 6 weeks. Histological images of the healing fractures in the OVX mice found forward of broken end resorption and delay of hard callus remodeling. The impaired biomechanical measurements in the OVX group (P < 0.05) were consistent with micro-CT measurements and radiographic scoring, which also indicated delay in fracture healing of the OVX group. Conclusions This study provided evidences that ovariectomy-induced osteopenia impair the middle and late bone healing process once more. These data also supported the validity of the mouse femoral osteotomy model in evaluating the process of bone healing under osteopenic conditions. PMID:25296620

Pang, Jian; Ye, Meina; Cao, Yuelong; Zheng, Yuxin; Guo, Hailing; Zhao, Yongfang; Zhan, Hongsheng; Shi, Yinyu

2014-10-01

247

Commitment to lysogeny is preceded by a prolonged period of sensitivity to the late lytic regulator Q in bacteriophage ?.  

PubMed

A key event in development is the irreversible commitment to a particular cell fate, which may be concurrent with or delayed with respect to the initial cell fate decision. In this work, we use the paradigmatic bacteriophage ? lysis-lysogeny decision circuit to study the timing of commitment. The lysis-lysogeny decision is made based on the expression trajectory of CII. The chosen developmental strategy is manifested by repression of the pR and pL promoters by CI (lysogeny) or by antitermination of late gene expression by Q (lysis). We found that expression of Q in trans from a plasmid at the time of infection resulted in a uniform lytic decision. Furthermore, expression of Q up to 50 min after infection results in lysis of the majority of cells which initially chose lysogenic development. In contrast, expression of Q in cells containing a single chromosomal prophage had no effect on cell growth, indicating commitment to lysogeny. Notably, if the prophage was present in 10 plasmid-borne copies, Q expression resulted in lytic development, suggesting that the cellular phage chromosome number is the critical determinant of the timing of lysogenic commitment. Based on our results, we conclude that (i) the lysogenic decision made by the CI-Cro switch soon after infection can be overruled by ectopic Q expression at least for a time equivalent to one phage life cycle, (ii) the presence of multiple ? chromosomes is a prerequisite for a successful Q-mediated switch from lysogenic to lytic development, and (iii) phage chromosomes within the same cell can reach different decisions. PMID:25092034

Svenningsen, Sine Lo; Semsey, Szabolcs

2014-10-01

248

An examination of prenatal and postpartum depressive symptoms among women served by urban community health centers.  

PubMed

We characterized depressive symptoms in the prenatal and/or postpartum periods and examined associated risk factors among 594 women who received care at community health care centers. Women were screened with comprehensive risk assessments, which included the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 depression screen, during pregnancy and at least 4 weeks after delivery. Fifteen percent had depressive symptoms in the prenatal period only; 6 % in the postpartum period only, and 8 % had depressive symptoms in both periods. Risk markers varied for women who reported depressive symptoms at one period only compared with those who reported persistent depressive symptoms. Age (25 years versus younger), having experienced abuse, not living with the infant's father, and cigarette smoking were associated with depressive symptoms at both periods; being US-born, lacking social support, and experiencing food insecurity were associated with reporting symptoms only in the prenatal period, and lack of phone access was associated with risk only in the postpartum period. Our findings confirm the importance of repeated screenings for depressive symptoms during the perinatal period. The variability in risk markers associated with periods of reported depressive symptoms may reflect their varying associations with persistence, new onset, or recovery from depressive symptoms. PMID:24037098

Sidebottom, Abbey C; Hellerstedt, Wendy L; Harrison, Patricia A; Hennrikus, Deborah

2014-02-01

249

Postpartum Exercise among Nigerian Women: Issues Relating to Exercise Performance and Self-Efficacy  

PubMed Central

Physical exercise during postpartum period is beneficial to mothers, and the health gains are abundantly reported. This study characterises the postpartum exercise profile of a group of Nigerian women and reports how their exercise self-efficacies are influenced by sociodemographic characteristics. Participants were women attending the two largest postnatal clinics in Ibadan, south-western Nigeria. A self-developed questionnaire assessed the socio-demographic and exercise profile of participants, while the Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale assessed their exercise self-efficacy. About two-third (61.0%) of the participants were not aware that they could undertake physical exercise to enhance postpartum health, and 109 (47.8%) were not engaged in any exercise. Those who exercised did so for less than three days/week, and 89% of the women did not belong to any exercise support group. Exercise self-efficacy was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with being in an exercise programme, age, employment, work hours/week, monthly income, and number of pregnancies. Most of the women were not aware they could engage in postpartum exercise, and about half were not undertaking it. More women with high compared to moderate exercise self-efficacy undertook the exercise. Efforts at increasing awareness, improving exercise self-efficacy and adoption of postpartum exercise are desirable among the Nigerian women. PMID:23844290

Adeniyi, A. F.; Ogwumike, O. O.; Bamikefa, T. R.

2013-01-01

250

A Preventive Intervention for Pregnant Women on Public Assistance at Risk for Postpartum Depression  

PubMed Central

Objective Promising results were obtained in an earlier pilot study of a preventive intervention based on the principles of interpersonal psychotherapy to reduce the risk of postpartum major depressive disorder. In this study, the authors examined whether the intervention would reduce the risk of postpartum major depressive disorder in a larger sample of pregnant women. Method Ninety-nine pregnant women on public assistance who were assessed to be at risk for postpartum depression were randomly assigned to receive standard antenatal care plus the intervention or standard antenatal care only. Diagnostic interviews were administered 3 months after delivery to assess for major depressive disorder. Results Within 3 months after delivery, eight (20%) of the women in the standard antenatal care condition had developed postpartum major depressive disorder, compared with two (4%) in the intervention condition. Conclusions This study provides further evidence for the efficacy of a brief intervention to reduce the occurrence of major depressive disorder among financially disadvantaged women during a postpartum period of 3 months. PMID:16877662

Zlotnick, Caron; Miller, Ivan W.; Pearlstein, Teri; Howard, Margaret; Sweeney, Patrick

2015-01-01

251

An Intervention to Extend Breastfeeding Among Black and Latina Postpartum Mothers  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To compare breastfeeding duration in postpartum mothers randomized to a behavioral educational intervention versus enhanced usual care. STUDY DESIGN Randomized trial. Self-identified black and Latina early postpartum mothers were randomized to receive a behavioral educational intervention or enhanced usual care. The two-step intervention aimed to prepare and educate mothers about postpartum symptoms and experiences (including tips on breastfeeding and breast/nipple pain), bolster social support and self-management skills. Enhanced usual care participants received a list of community resources and received a 2-week control call. Intention-to-treat analyses examined breastfeeding duration (measured in weeks) for up to six-months of follow-up. This study is registered with clinicaltrial.gov (NCT01312883). RESULTS Five hundred forty mothers were randomized to the intervention (n=270) versus controls (n=270). Mean age was 28 (range 18–46); 62% were Latina and 38% were black. Baseline sociodemographic, clinical, psycho-social, and breastfeeding characteristics were similar among intervention versus controls. Mothers in the intervention arm breastfed for longer duration than controls (median of 12.0 weeks versus 6.5 weeks, respectively, p =.02) Mothers in the intervention arm were less likely to quit breastfeeding over the first six-months postpartum (hazard ratio of 0.79; 95% CI 0.65–0.97). CONCLUSION A behavioral educational intervention increased breastfeeding duration among low-income, self-identified black and Latina mothers during the six-month postpartum period. PMID:24262719

Howell, Elizabeth A.; Bodnar-Deren, Susan; Balbierz, Amy; Parides, Michael; Bickell, Nina

2014-01-01

252

Location of oocyte-specific linker histone in pig ovaries at different developmental stages postpartum.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine the location of oocyte-specific linker histone (H1foo) in pig ovaries at different developmental stages postpartum using histologic, immunohistochemical, and immunofluorescent protocols. The pig ovaries were divided into three periods: proliferation of oogonia (P1, 3 days postpartum), slow growth of follicles (P2, from 40 days to 60 days postpartum), and rapid growth of follicles (P3, from 72 days to 165 days postpartum). With the development of the pig ovary, the boundary between the cortex and medulla gradually became obvious, and the cortex became thinner while the medulla thickened. The rete ovarii could only be observed in P1. The number of oogonia gradually declined after birth, whereas primordial follicles and early growing follicles all underwent an increasing trend followed by a decreasing trend. Developing antral follicles and antral follicles were first observed in 72 and 95 days postpartum, respectively. Both the immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence detection showed that H1foo was mainly located in the cytoplasm of oogonia and apoptotic oogonia, as well as in the ooplasm of follicles and apoptotic follicles. Moreover, with the development of the pig ovary, the range of the positive signals became larger. PMID:25662203

Sheng, Jie; Yang, Yange; Liu, Wei; Ji, Honglei; Lei, Anmin; Qing, Suzhu

2015-04-15

253

Maternity leave duration and postpartum mental and physical health: implications for leave policies.  

PubMed

This study examines the association of leave duration with depressive symptoms, mental health, physical health, and maternal symptoms in the first postpartum year, using a prospective cohort design. Eligible employed women, eighteen years or older, were interviewed in person at three Minnesota hospitals while hospitalized for childbirth in 2001. Telephone interviews were conducted at six weeks (N?=?716), twelve weeks (N?=?661), six months (N?=?625), and twelve months (N?=?575) after delivery. Depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale), mental and physical health (SF-12 Health Survey), and maternal childbirth-related symptoms were measured at each time period. Two-stage least squares analysis showed that the relationship between leave duration and postpartum depressive symptoms is U-shaped, with a minimum at six months. In the first postpartum year, an increase in leave duration is associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms until six months postpartum. Moreover, ordinary least squares analysis showed a marginally significant linear positive association between leave duration and physical health. Taking leave from work provides time for mothers to rest and recover from pregnancy and childbirth. Findings indicate that the current leave duration provided by the Family and Medical Leave Act, twelve weeks, may not be sufficient for mothers at risk for or experiencing postpartum depression. PMID:24305845

Dagher, Rada K; McGovern, Patricia M; Dowd, Bryan E

2014-04-01

254

Impact of antenatal depression on perinatal outcomes and postpartum depression in Korean women  

PubMed Central

Background: Maternal prenatal mental health has been shown to be associated with adverse consequences for the mother and the child. However, studies considering the effect of prenatal depressive symptoms are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of antenatal depressive symptoms on obstetric outcomes and to determine associations between antenatal and postpartum depressions. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cohort study. The Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS) questionnaire was completed by pregnant women receiving obstetrical care at Seoul St. Mary's hospital in the third trimester of gestation. The electronic medical records were reviewed after delivery and perinatal outcomes were evaluated. The association between antenatal and postpartum depression was analyzed using the EPDS questionnaire, which was completed by the same women within 2 months of delivery. Results: Of the 467 participants, 26.34% (n = 123) had antenatal depressive symptoms, with EPDS scores of ?10. There were no significant perinatal outcomes associated with antenatal depressive symptoms. During the postpartum period, 192 of the women in the initial study cohort were given the EPDS again as a follow-up. Of the 192 participants, 56 (29.17%) scored >10. Spearman correlation coefficient between the antenatal and postpartum EPDS scores was 0.604, which was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Antenatal depression does not lead to unfavorable perinatal outcomes. However, screening for antenatal depression may be helpful to identify women at risk of postpartum depression. PMID:25535492

Choi, Sae Kyung; Park, Yong Gyu; Park, In Yang; Ko, Hyun Sun; Shin, Jong Chul

2014-01-01

255

Evidence of proviral clearance following postpartum transmission of an ovine lentivirus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lentiviral transmission by transfer of infected colostrum and/or milk is considered to be highly efficient. In this study, postpartum transmission of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) from 10 naturally infected ewes to their 23 lambs was followed from the perinatal period throughout a four y...

256

Risk factors for postpartum ovarian cysts and their spontaneous recovery or persistence in lactating dairy cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cystic ovarian disease is a major cause of reproductive failure and economic loss for the dairy industry. Many cysts that develop during the early postpartum period regress spontaneously. However, it is difficult to decide at what point it would be more cost effective to treat ovarian cysts than to wait for spontaneous recovery. The objective of this study was to

F López-Gatius; P Santolaria; J Yániz; M Fenech; M López-Béjar

2002-01-01

257

Impact of a multiple, IVF birth on post-partum mental health: a composite analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study explored the impact of a multiple IVF birth on maternal mental health in the early post- partum period. METHODS: A prospective study of 207 women who had conceived following IVF treatment and fol- lowed up at 6 weeks post-partum. Mothers rated their mood using the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS) and their baby's behaviour using the Unsettled

C. Sheard; S. Cox; M. Oates; G. Ndukwe; C. Glazebrook

2007-01-01

258

Accumbal dopamine function in postpartum rats that were raised without their mothers  

E-print Network

the postpartum period and following treatment with estrogen/proges- terone parturient-like hormones (Afonso et al tactile stimulation (ARmin; ARmax). The present study examined NACshell DA responses to pup and food, Exp. 1), or after ovariectomy with different hormone treatments (sham vs. hormone, Exp. 2. After basal

Sokolowski, Marla

259

Effects of Space Flight on Ovarian-Hypophyseal Function in Postpartum Rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of space flight in a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) shuttle was studied in pregnant rats. Rats were launched on day 9 of gestation and recovered on day 20 of gestation. On day 20 of gestation, rats were unilaterally hysterectomized and subsequently allowed to go to term and deliver vaginally. There was no effect of space flight on pituitary and ovary mass postpartum. In addition, space flight did not alter healthy and atretic ovarian antral follicle populations, fetal wastage in utero, plasma concentrations of progesterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) or pituitary content of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). Space flight significantly increased plasma concentrations of FSH and decreased pituitary content of LH at the postpartum sampling time. Collectively, these data show that space flight, initiated during the postimplantation period of pregnancy, and concluded before parturition, is compatible with maintenance of pregnancy and has minimal effects on postpartum hypophyseal parameters; however, none of the ovarian parameters examined was altered by space flight.

Burden, H. W.; Zary, J.; Lawrence, I. E.; Jonnalagadda, P.; Davis, M.; Hodson, C. A.

1997-01-01

260

Chronic Cocaine Exposure During Pregnancy Increases Postpartum Neuroendocrine Stress Responses  

PubMed Central

The cycle of chronic cocaine (CC) use and withdrawal results in increased anxiety, depression and disrupted stress-responsiveness. Oxytocin and corticosterone (CORT) interact to mediate hormonal stress responses and can be altered by cocaine use. These neuroendocrine signals play important regulatory roles in a variety of social behaviours, specifically during the postpartum period, and are sensitive to disruption by CC exposure in both clinical settings and preclinical models. To determine whether CC exposure during pregnancy affected behavioural and hormonal stress response in the early postpartum period in a rodent model, Sprague-Dawley rats were administered cocaine daily (30 mg/kg) throughout gestation (days 1–20). Open field test (OFT) and forced swim test (FST) behaviours were measured on postpartum day 5. Plasma CORT concentrations were measured prior to and following testing throughout the test day, while plasma and brain oxytocin concentrations were measured post-testing only. Results indicated increased CORT response following the OFT in CC-treated dams (p? 0.05). CC-treated dams also exhibited altered FST behaviour (p? 0.05), suggesting abnormal stress responsiveness. Peripheral, but not central, oxytocin levels were increased by cocaine treatment (p? 0.05). Peripheral oxytocin and CORT increased following the FST regardless of treatment condition (p? 0.05). Changes in stress-responsiveness, both behaviourally and hormonally may underlie some deficits in maternal behaviour, thus a clearer understanding of CC’s effect on the stress response system may potentially lead to treatment interventions which could be relevant to clinical populations. Additionally, these results indicate that CC treatment can have long-lasting effects on peripheral oxytocin regulation in rats, similar to changes observed in persistent social behaviour and stress-response deficits in clinical populations. PMID:22309318

Williams, Sarah K.; Barber, John S.; Jamieson-Drake, Abigail W.; Enns, Jordan A.; Townsend, Leah B.; Walker, Cheryl H.; Johns, Josephine M.

2012-01-01

261

Plants used during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum healthcare in Lao PDR: A comparative study of the Brou, Saek and Kry ethnic groups  

PubMed Central

Background In many Southeast Asian cultures the activities and diet during the postpartum period are culturally dictated and a period of confinement is observed. Plants play an important role in recovery during the postpartum period in diet, traditional medicine, steam bath and mother roasting (where mother and child placed on a bed above a brazier with charcoal embers on which aromatic plants are laid). This research focuses on the use of plants during pregnancy, parturition, postpartum recovery and infant healthcare among three ethnic groups, the Brou, Saek and Kry. It aims to identify culturally important traditions that may facilitate implementation of culturally appropriate healthcare. Methods Data were collected in 10 different villages in Khammouane province, Lao PDR, through group and individual interviews with women by female interviewers. Results A total of 55 different plant species are used in women's healthcare, of which over 90% are used in postpartum recovery. Consensus Analysis rejects the hypothesis that the three ethnic groups belong to a single culture for postpartum plant use, and multidimensional scaling reveals non-overlapping clusters per ethnic group. Conclusion Medicinal plant use is common among the Brou, Saek and Kry to facilitate childbirth, alleviate menstruation problems, assist recovery after miscarriage, mitigate postpartum haemorrhage, aid postpartum recovery, and for use in infant care. The wealth of novel insights into plant use and preparation will help to understand culturally important practices such as confinement, dietary restrictions, mother roasting and herbal steam baths and their incorporation into modern healthcare. PMID:19737413

de Boer, Hugo; Lamxay, Vichith

2009-01-01

262

Simulating the Antarctic ice sheet in the Late-Pliocene warm period: PLISMIP-ANT, an ice-sheet model intercomparison project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of future climate change, understanding the nature and behaviour of ice sheets during warm intervals in Earth history is of fundamental importance. The Late-Pliocene Warm Period (also known as the PRISM interval: 3.29 to 2.97 million years before present) can serve as a potential analogue for projected future climates, with a global annual mean surface-air temperature warming of 1.76 °C. Although Pliocene ice locations and surface extents are still poorly constrained, a significant contribution to sea-level rise should be expected from Greenland and West and, possibly, East Antarctica based on palaeo sea-level reconstructions. Here, we present results from simulations of the Antarctic ice sheet by means of an international Pliocene Ice Sheet Modeling Intercomparison Project (PLISMIP-ANT). We include an overview of the different ice-sheet models used and how specific model configurations influence the resulting Pliocene Antarctic ice sheet. For the experiments, ice-sheet models including the shallow ice and shelf approximations have been used to simulate the complete Antarctic domain (including grounded and floating ice). We compare the performance of the ice-sheet models in simulating modern control and Pliocene ice sheets by a suite of sensitivity experiments. Ice-sheet model forcing fields are taken from the PlioMIP results incorporating multiple coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (GCM). We show that ice-sheet models simulate a present-day ice sheet which is comparable to the observations, and find no systematic biases introduced when using different GCM forcing relative to observational climate forcing. This project includes multiple ice-sheet models forced with multiple climate model output, from which a comprehensive assessment can be made as to the uncertainties of ice-sheet extent on Antarctica. These results may eventually serve as a new constraint on the extent of the Antarctic ice sheet during the Late-Pliocene Warm Period for use in climate modelling experiments.

de Boer, Bas; Dolan, Aisling M.; Hill, Daniel J.; van de Wal, Roderik S. W.

2014-05-01

263

Brief daily postpartum separations from the litter alter dam response to psychostimulants and to stress.  

PubMed

Neonatal handling induces several behavioral and neurochemical alterations in pups, including decreased responses to stress and reduced fear in new environments. However, there are few reports in the literature concerning the behavioral effects of this neonatal intervention on the dams during the postpartum period. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to determine if brief postpartum separation from pups has a persistent impact on the dam's stress response and behavior. Litters were divided into two neonatal groups: 1) non-handled and 2) handled [10?min/day, from postnatal day (PND) 1 to 10]. Weaning occurred at PND 21 when behavioral tasks started to be applied to the dams, including sweet food ingestion (PND 21), forced swimming test (PND 28), and locomotor response to a psychostimulant (PND 28). On postpartum day 40, plasma was collected at baseline for leptin assays and after 1?h of restraint for corticosterone assay. Regarding sweet food consumption, behavior during the forced swimming test or plasma leptin levels did not differ between dams briefly separated and non-separated from their pups during the postpartum period. On the other hand, both increased locomotion in response to diethylpropion and increased corticosterone secretion in response to acute stress were detected in dams briefly separated from their pups during the first 10 postnatal days. Taken together, these findings suggest that brief, repeated separations from the pups during the neonatal period persistently impact the behavior and induce signs of dopaminergic sensitization in the dam. PMID:23739746

Silveira, P P; Benetti, C da Silva; Portella, A K; Diehl, L A; Molle, R Dalle; Lucion, A B; Dalmaz, C

2013-05-01

264

Sedimentary Evidence for Land Use Change in the Narragansett Bay Watershed: Late Woodland period (~500 AD) to the present  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the U.S., the last ~300 years have been a period of progressive and widespread resource exploitation, ecosystem degradation, and habitat destruction. In southern New England, the European Colonists thrived on the spread of slave-based plantation farming, which peaked ~1750 in RI. They produced commodities such as livestock, apples, onions, flax, and dairy. Trees felled to produce the necessary pasture- and farm-land were quickly used as lumber for boards, planks, timber, and barrels. In 1793, Slater Mill, located on the Blackstone River at the head of Narragansett Bay, was the first mill in the U.S to spin yarn using water power, making it the birthplace of the U.S Industrial Revolution. The ensuing urbanization drove the human population of the watershed up from ~50,000 in 1790 to more than 2 million by the year 2000. More recently, the Bay has experienced episodic hypoxic events [1]. These events correlate well with spatial and temporal patterns of nutrients and productivity [2] suggesting that human-induced increases in nutrient nitrogen and phosphorus are responsible for eutrophication-induced oxygen depletion [3]. However, these post-Colonial land use changes have yet to be characterized within the longer context of Native American land use practices, mainly due to the lack of historical records for the period. Additionally, the impact of this ecosystem disturbance on the Bay has not been fully described. Here we present results based on sedimentary profiles of biomarkers diagnostic for soil delivery to marine systems, branched glycerol dialykl glycerol tetraethers, and pollen for disturbance taxa, that suggest land use change began in the Bay's watershed 300 years before European contact. This contradicts long standing ideas regarding the land use practices of local tribes but agrees with new archaeological findings suggesting large semi-permanent settlements and widespread horticulture of maize may have been the norm at this time. We also show results of pollen, nitrogen isotopes, and foraminiferal abundance (proxies for land disturbance, nutrient sources, and ecosystem productivity, respectively) implying the large domestic animal population housed on the plantations were a new source of nitrogen to the Bay. This nutrient input may have led to an increase in the Bay's primary productivity, which may have decreased or stabilized as plantations became less important. Lastly, these same proxies show that the industrialization and urbanization of the Bay's watershed added additional nutrients, further stimulating the Bay's productivity. 1. Codiga, D.L., et al., Narragansett Bay Hypoxic Event Characteristics Based on Fixed-Site Monitoring Network Time Series: Intermittency, Geographic Distribution, Spatial Synchronicity, and Interannual Variablity. Estuaries and Coasts, 2009. 32: p. 621-641. 2. Oviatt, C.A., Impacts of Nutrients on Narragansett Bay Productivity: A Gradient Approach, in Science for Ecosystem-based Management, Narragansett Bay in the 21st Century, A. Desbonnet, Editor 2008, Springer: New York. p. 523-543. 3. Nixon, S.W., et al., Nitrogen and Phosphorus Inputs to Narragansett Bay: Past, Present, and Future, in Science for Ecosystem-based Management: Narragansett Bay in the 21st Century, A. Desbonnet and B.A. Costa-Pierce, Editors. 2008, Springer: New York, NY. p. 101-175.

Salacup, J. M.; Altabet, M. A.; Herbert, T.; Prell, W. L.

2012-12-01

265

Glacial cycle and precessional period of clay mineral assemblage during late Quaternary in the Western Equatorial Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clay mineralogy, coupled with oxygen isotope records and elemental XRF scanning data, have been conducted on Core KX21-2 recovered from the Ontong Java Plateau, Western Equatorial Pacific. The clay mineral assemblage over the last 370 kyr displays strong glacial-interglacial cyclicity, with higher contents of smectite (average 76%), lower contents of chlorite (10%), illite (8%) and kaolinite (6%) during glacials, and vice versa. Fe mainly originates from smectite, and has therefore been used to represent it. In addition to glacial cycle (100 ka), spectral analysis reveals that Fe contents also display precessional period (26.8 ka and 14.4 ka). The question is, why and how the features of high-latitude and tropical-process could be exhibited in concert? The clay mineral assemblage dominating by smectite is detrital, and derived from river sediment of New Guinea, though possibly minor Asian dust. Fluctuation of sea-level combined with contrasting styles of Source-to-Sink in New Guinea cause the glacial-interglacial cycles of clay mineral assemblage. Regardless of sea-level, river sediments can travel across the narrow shelves off the northern New Guinea and then inject directly into New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent, which finally contribute Equatorial Undercurrent. In contrast, when the sea-level were high, only few sediment could be transported from southern New Guinea to the Western Equatorial Pacific, possibly by surface current. Considering the positive correlation between contents of smectite and feldspar/quartz ratios, we conclude that, because of the limitation of weathering time, the contents of smectite essentially indicate the intensity of mechanical erosion, responding to the river runoff and precipitation. Furthermore, due to the regional precipitation pattern is under control of ITCZ, these variations of smectite reflect the meridional migration of ITCZ, indirectly.

Wu, J.; Liu, Z.; Zhou, C.

2011-12-01

266

Transcultural analysis of postpartum depression.  

PubMed

Postpartum depression (PPD) strikes about 1 in 10 Western women. Studies of Western women have demonstrated that this emotional experience can occur during pregnancy and/or after delivery, and even in women who adopt an infant. Is PPD a universal experience or a morbid condition that is culture specific to Western/industrialized countries? The purpose of this literature review was to examine other cultures to ascertain whether PPD is a universal experience. The literature describes women throughout the world experiencing degrees of sadness postnatally, which persist up to 1 year. The risk factors for PPD also share similar themes cross-culturally, with one notable exception--the impact that the sex of the infant had on PPD, for a higher value for male children over female offspring was reported in literature from China, Turkey, and India. This literature review demonstrated that, although PPD is an experience that women in all cultures experience, the underlying cause for this malady in non-Western cultures is not attributed to biologic causes, and treatment is not generally based on a Western medical model. PMID:16523038

Goldbort, Joanne

2006-01-01

267

Predictors of postpartum depression: prospective study of 264 women followed during pregnancy and postpartum.  

PubMed

The prevalence of postpartum depression is approximately 13%. Postpartum depression is associated with a higher maternal morbidity and mortality, and also with pervasive effects on the emotional, cognitive and behavioral development of the child. The aim of our study was to identify socio-demographic, psychosocial and obstetrical risk factors of postpartum depression in a middle class community sample, using a prospective design. We enrolled consecutively 312 pregnant outpatients in a single maternity unit. The first assessment was conducted between 32 and 41 weeks gestation, and a second time between 6 and 8 weeks after delivery. Depressive symptoms were measured using the French version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). A cut-off score of 12/30 or above was considered as indicative of Major Depression. Of the initial sample of 312 women, 264 (84.6%) were followed-up between 6 and 8 weeks after delivery and considered for analysis. Depression during pregnancy, migrant status, and physical abuse by the partner were independently associated with postpartum depression when considered together, whereas physical complications were significantly associated with postpartum depression only when adjusting for antenatal depression. Depression during pregnancy, history of physical abuse, migrant status and postpartum physical complications are four major risk factors for postpartum depression. PMID:24370337

Gaillard, Adeline; Le Strat, Yann; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Keïta, Hawa; Dubertret, Caroline

2014-02-28

268

Epidural analgesia and cesarean delivery in multiple sclerosis post-partum relapses: the Italian cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies have systematically addressed the role of epidural analgesia and caesarean delivery in predicting the post-partum disease activity in women with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The objective of this study was to assess the impact of epidural analgesia (EA) and caesarean delivery (CD) on the risk of post-partum relapses and disability in women with MS. Methods In the context of an Italian prospective study on the safety of immunomodulators in pregnancy, we included pregnancies occurred between 2002 and 2008 in women with MS regularly followed-up in 21 Italian MS centers. Data were gathered through a standardized, semi-structured interview, dealing with pregnancy outcomes, breastfeeding, type of delivery (vaginal or caesarean) and EA. The risk of post-partum relapses and disability progression (1 point on the Expanded Disability Status Sclae, EDSS, point, confirmed after six months) was assessed through a logistic multivariate regression analysis. Results We collected data on 423 pregnancies in 415 women. Among these, 349 pregnancies resulted in full term deliveries, with a post-partum follow-up of at least one year (mean follow-up period 5.5±3.1 years). One hundred and fifty-five patients (44.4%) underwent CD and 65 (18.5%) EA. In the multivariate analysis neither CD, nor EA were associated with a higher risk of post-partum relapses. Post-partum relapses were related to a higher EDSS score at conception (OR=1.42; 95% CI 1.11-1.82; p=0.005), a higher number of relapses in the year before pregnancy (OR=1.62; 95% CI 1.15-2.29; p=0.006) and during pregnancy (OR=3.07; 95% CI 1.40-6.72; p=0.005). Likewise, CD and EA were not associated with disability progression on the EDSS after delivery. The only significant predictor of disability progression was the occurrence of relapses in the year after delivery (disability progression in the year after delivery: OR= 4.00; 95% CI 2.0-8.2; p<0.001; disability progression over the whole follow-up period: OR= 2.0; 95% CI 1.2-3.3; p=0.005). Conclusions Our findings, show no correlation between EA, CD and postpartum relapses and disability. Therefore these procedures can safely be applied in MS patients. On the other hand, post-partum relapses are significantly associated with increased disability, which calls for the need of preventive therapies after delivery. PMID:23276328

2012-01-01

269

Depressive symptomatology in pregnant and postpartum women. An exploratory study of the role of maternal antenatal orientations.  

PubMed

Little is known about how an expecting woman's view of pregnancy, the child, and motherhood relates to antenatal and postpartum depressive symptomatology. In this study, we investigated the influence of the maternal orientations, as described by Raphael-Leff (Psychological processes of childbearing. The Anna Freud Centre, London, 2005), on the prevalence of depressive symptoms in pregnant and postpartum women. Four hundred three pregnant women participated in a longitudinal study and completed the EPDS and the HADS-D in each pregnancy trimester and between 8 to 12 and 20 to 25 weeks postpartum. In addition, measures of maternal orientation (PPQ), personality (NEO-FFI), coping styles (UCL), adult attachment (RQ), and parental bonding (PBI) were completed antenatally. Bivariate and multivariate analyses revealed that Neuroticism and the Regulator orientation are positively associated with the EPDS and HADS-D in both pregnant and postpartum women. These associations decreased in strength but remained significant after controlling for previous responses on the EPDS and HADS-D. Small negative associations were found between the Facilitator orientation and the HADS-D scores during pregnancy and the early postpartum period. However, this association did not hold its statistical significance within the hierarchical multiple regression models. The maternal orientations have a small but significant and independent contribution in the variance of depressive symptomatology in pregnant and postpartum women. PMID:19266251

van Bussel, Johan C H; Spitz, Bernard; Demyttenaere, Koen

2009-06-01

270

Advance distribution of misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) at home births in two districts of Liberia  

PubMed Central

Background A postpartum hemorrhage prevention program to increase uterotonic coverage for home and facility births was introduced in two districts of Liberia. Advance distribution of misoprostol was offered during antenatal care (ANC) and home visits. Feasibility, acceptability, effectiveness of distribution mechanisms and uterotonic coverage were evaluated. Methods Eight facilities were strengthened to provide PPH prevention with oxytocin, PPH management and advance distribution of misoprostol during ANC. Trained traditional midwives (TTMs) as volunteer community health workers (CHWs) provided education to pregnant women, and district reproductive health supervisors (DRHSs) distributed misoprostol during home visits. Data were collected through facility and DRHS registers. Postpartum interviews were conducted with a sample of 550 women who received advance distribution of misoprostol on place of delivery, knowledge, misoprostol use, and satisfaction. Results There were 1826 estimated deliveries during the seven-month implementation period. A total of 980 women (53.7%) were enrolled and provided misoprostol, primarily through ANC (78.2%). Uterotonic coverage rate of all deliveries was 53.5%, based on 97.7% oxytocin use at recorded facility vaginal births and 24.9% misoprostol use at home births. Among 550 women interviewed postpartum, 87.7% of those who received misoprostol and had a home birth took the drug. Sixty-three percent (63.0%) took it at the correct time, and 54.0% experienced at least one minor side effect. No serious adverse events reported among enrolled women. Facility-based deliveries appeared to increase during the program. Conclusions The program was moderately effective at achieving high uterotonic coverage of all births. Coverage of home births was low despite the use of two channels of advance distribution of misoprostol. Although ANC reached a greater proportion of women in late pregnancy than home visits, 46.3% of expected deliveries did not receive education or advance distribution of misoprostol. A revised community-based strategy is needed to increase advance distribution rates and misoprostol coverage rates for home births. Misoprostol for PPH prevention appears acceptable to women in Liberia. Correct timing of misoprostol self-administration needs improved emphasis during counseling and education. PMID:24894566

2014-01-01

271

Predicting Postpartum Changes in Emotion and Behavior via Social Media  

E-print Network

of postpartum depression, an underreported health concern among large populations, and to inform the design wellness postpartum. Author Keywords behavioral health; childbirth; depression; emotion; health; language , between 12 and 20 percent of new mothers report postpartum depression (a 13% incidence rate in a meta

Horvitz, Eric

272

Low rates of postpartum glucose screening among indigenous and non-indigenous women in Australia with gestational diabetes.  

PubMed

Women with gestational diabetes have a high risk of type 2 diabetes postpartum, with Indigenous women particularly affected. This study reports postpartum diabetes screening rates among Indigenous and non-Indigenous women with gestational diabetes, in Far North Queensland, Australia. Retrospective study including 1,012 women with gestational diabetes giving birth at a regional hospital from 1/1/2004 to 31/12/2010. Data were linked between hospital records, midwives perinatal data, and laboratory results, then analysed using survival analysis and logistic regression. Indigenous women had significantly longer times to first oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) [hazards ratio (HR) 0.62, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.48-0.79, p < 0.0001) and 'any' postpartum glucose test (HR 0.81, 95 % CI 0.67-0.98, p = 0.03], compared to non-Indigenous women. Postpartum screening rates among all women were low. However, early OGTT screening rates (<6 months) were significantly lower among Indigenous women (13.6 vs. 28.3 %, p < 0.0001), leading to a persistent gap in cumulative postpartum screening rates. By 3 years postpartum, cumulative rates of receiving an OGTT, were 24.6 % (95 % CI 19.9-30.2 %) and 34.1 % (95 % CI 30.6-38.0 %) among Indigenous and non-Indigenous women, respectively. Excluding OGTTs in previous periods, few women received OGTTs at 6-24 months (7.8 vs. 6.7 %) or 2-4 years (5.2 vs. 6.5 %), among Indigenous and non-Indigenous women, respectively. Low rates of postpartum diabetes screening demonstrate that essential 'ongoing management' and 'equity' criteria for population-based screening for gestational diabetes are not being met; particularly among Indigenous women, for whom recent guideline changes have specific implications. Strategies to improve postpartum screening after gestational diabetes are urgently needed. PMID:24981736

Chamberlain, Catherine; McLean, Anna; Oats, Jeremy; Oldenburg, Brian; Eades, Sandra; Sinha, Ashim; Wolfe, Rory

2015-03-01

273

Should antiplatelet therapy be interrupted in drug eluting stent recipients throughout the periendoscopic period? A very late stent thrombosis case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

In-stent thrombosis after cessation of antiplatelet medications in patients with drug-eluting stents (DES) is a significant problem in medical practice, particularly in the perioperative period. We report a case of an 87-year-old man with a medical history of hypertension, coronary artery disease and chronic atrophic gastritis. Very late thrombosis of a sirolimus-eluting stent occurred 1207 days after implantation, seven months after discontinuation of clopidogrel, and the interruption of aspirin 13 days in preparation of an elective endoscopic gastrointestinal procedure presented with acute myocardial infarction. The patient was treated with thrombectomy and successfully revascularized with superimposition of two sirolimus-eluting stents. Medications administered in the catheterization laboratory included low molecular weight heparin and nitroglycerin. Flow was defined as grade 2 according to the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction scale. Electrocardiogram after the procedure revealed persistent, but decreased, ST-segment elevation in the anterolateral leads. The patient recovered and was discharged on aspirin and clopidogrel indefinitely. There was no cardiac event during the two year follow-up period. This case underlines the importance of maintaining the balance of thrombosis and bleeding during perioperation of non-cardiac procedure and the possible need for continuation of aspirin therapy during periendoscopic procedures among patients with low bleeding risks who received DES. PMID:25278977

Dong, Peng; Yang, Xin-Chun; Bian, Su-Yan

2014-09-01

274

Postpartum smoking behaviors and immune response in mothers of term and preterm infants.  

PubMed

Infants exposed to secondhand smoke, especially preterm infants with a very low birth weight (VLBW), have an increased risk for developing health problems. Smoking has been associated with numerous health problems in mothers and may reduce immune functioning as well. The purposes of this study were to examine smoking in postpartum mothers of term and preterm infants and to examine the relationship between smoking and immune status. Peripheral blood was drawn on 142 women at four data-collection points and tested for cotinine, immune cell phenotypes, and immune functioning. Overall, 39% of the participants smoked in the postpartum period, but 49% of mothers who delivered preterm infants smoked compared to only 28% of mothers who delivered term infants. There was no difference in cotinine levels between the smokers in both groups of postpartum mothers, nor was smoking related to immune phenotypes or immune function. Given the documented health risks to the mother and infant and the significant number of women who continue to smoke in the postpartum period, it is imperative that health care providers continue to assess smoking status and provide smoking-cessation counseling at every encounter. PMID:11260581

Gennaro, S; Dunphy, P; Dowd, M; Fehder, W; Douglas, S D

2001-02-01

275

Postpartum fever in the presence of a fibroid: Sphingomonas paucimobilis sepsis associated with pyomyoma  

PubMed Central

Background Pyomyoma is a life-threatening complication of uterine leiomyoma. It may occur in post- menopausal women, during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. Fever may be the only manifestation during the early stages of the disease. We detail the first reported case of postpartum pyomyoma-related sepsis due to Sphingomonas paucimobilis, a Gram-negative bacillus that is gaining recognition as an important human pathogen. Case presentation A woman presented with an asymptomatic uterine fibroid and a two-week history of fever during the postpartum period. Suppurative uterine leiomyoma was diagnosed, and blood cultures grew Sphingomonas paucimobilis. The myoma was surgically removed from the uterus without hysterectomy. Intravenous antimicrobial therapy was given for fifteen days, and the patient was discharged from hospital in good condition. Conclusion Pyomyoma should be considered in broad differential diagnosis of postpartum fever. This case highlights a unique disease manifestation of S. paucimobilis, an emerging opportunistic pathogen with increasing significance in the nosocomial setting. PMID:24308831

2013-01-01

276

The Postpartum Depressive State in Relation to Perceived Rearing: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background The relationship between perceived rearing and the postpartum depressive state remains unclear. We aimed to examine whether perceived rearing is a risk factor for postpartum depression as measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and whether the score of perceived rearing is affected by depressive mood (the state dependency of perceived rearing). Methods Pregnant women (n?=?448, mean age 31.8±4.2 years) completed the EPDS as a measure of depressive state in early pregnancy (T1), late pregnancy (around 36 weeks), and at 1 month postpartum (T2), and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) at T1 as a measure of perceived rearing. Changes in the EPDS and the PBI scores from T1 to T2 were compared between the non depressive (ND) group and the postpartum depressive (PD) group. Results There were no significant differences in any PBI category for perceived rearing between the ND and PD groups at T1. EPDS scores did not change significantly from T1 to T2 in the ND group but increased significantly in the PD group. The PBI maternal care score increased significantly in the ND group (p<0.01), while decreasing in the PD group (p<0.05). Additionally, in both the ND and PD groups, significant negative correlation was observed regarding change in the EPDS and PBI maternal care scores from T1 to T2 (r?=??0.28, p?=?0.013). Conclusions The present study suggests that perceived rearing is not a strong risk factor for postpartum depression as measured by the EPDS. Furthermore, the results indicated the state dependency of the PBI maternal care score. PMID:23185582

Okada, Takashi; Murase, Satomi; Aleksic, Branko; Furumura, Kaori; Shiino, Tomoko; Nakamura, Yukako; Tamaji, Ai; Ishikawa, Naoko; Ohoka, Harue; Usui, Hinako; Banno, Naomi; Morita, Tokiko; Goto, Setsuko; Kanai, Atsuko; Masuda, Tomoko; Ozaki, Norio

2012-01-01

277

Lying behavior and postpartum health status in grazing dairy cows.  

PubMed

Many cows have difficulty making the transition from pregnancy to lactation, as evidenced by the high incidence of disease that occurs in the weeks after calving. Changes in lying behavior can be used as an indicator of illness, yet no work to date has evaluated this relationship in dairy cows on pasture. The objectives of this study were to describe the lying behavior of grazing dairy cows during the first 3 wk after calving and determine the relationships between transition diseases and lying behavior. Our convenience sample included 227 multiparous and 47 primiparous Holstein cows from 6 commercial farms. Cows were recruited as they calved during the spring calving period. Electronic data loggers (Hobo Pendant G Acceleration, Onset Computer Corp., Pocasset, MA) recorded lying behavior at 1-min intervals. Diseases were recorded up to 21 d in milk, and cows were subsequently categorized into 3 health categories: (1) healthy, not lame and had no other signs of clinical (retained placenta, milk fever, metritis, mastitis) or subclinical (ketosis, hypocalcemia) postpartum diseases; (2) lame, identified as being clinically or severely lame with no other signs of clinical or subclinical postpartum disease; and (3) sick, diagnosed as having one or more clinical postpartum diseases (with or without a subclinical disease) but not lame. This last group was further divided into 2 groups: those that were diagnosed with a single clinical health event and those diagnosed with more than one clinical event. Lying behavior differed between primiparous and multiparous cows; primiparous cows divided their lying time into more bouts than did multiparous cows (9.7 ± 0.54 vs. 8.4 ± 0.26 bouts/d) and spent less time lying down than multiparous cows (7.5 ± 0.38 h/d vs. 8.5 ± 0.19 h/d). Lying behavior was also affected by illness; primiparous cows that developed more than one clinical disease, excluding lameness, spent more time lying, and tended to have longer lying bouts in the days following calving compared with healthy cows; multiparous severely lame cows spent more time lying down (1.7 h longer per day) compared with multiparous cows that were nonlame. Clinically lame cows had fewer lying bouts per day and these bouts were of longer duration than healthy nonlame cows. In summary, changes in lying behavior after calving were associated with postpartum health status in grazing dairy cows. PMID:25151885

Sepúlveda-Varas, P; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

2014-10-01

278

Isotopic evidence for divergent diets and mobility patterns in the Atacama Desert, northern Chile, during the Late Intermediate Period (AD 900-1450).  

PubMed

The decline of the Tiwanaku state saw the emergence of two new cultures-Pica-Tarapacá and Atacama-during the Late Intermediate Period in northern Chile. Archeological evidence suggests that both groups practised maize agriculture and pastoralism, but that their interaction zones differed significantly. Marine resources are common at Pica-Tarapacá sites, even those far from coast, while Atacama sites in the desert oases and precordilleran area seem to have directed their networks towards the highlands. Here we apply stable carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotope analysis on human bone and enamel to test dietary patterns and residential mobility at two sites, Pica 8 and Quitor 6, representing the Pica-Tarapacá and Atacama cultures, respectively. Our results show that diet at the two sites indeed differed: significant but variable consumption of marine resources and maize is indicated at Pica 8, despite being an inland site, while diet at Quitor 6 was based mainly on terrestrial resources. The use of seabird guano and llama dung as fertilizers and extreme aridity may have contributed to the high nitrogen isotope values observed in Pica 8 humans. The ?(18) O values in Pica 8 individuals are generally lower than for Quitor in spite of its greater distance from the Andes. All three isotopes suggest the presence of at least five nonlocals in the 30 measured at Pica 8. This evidence for human mobility is consistent with the high levels of trade and interaction observed in the archeological record, and begins to quantify the degree of movement of specific individuals. Am J Phys Anthropol 156:374-387, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25385676

Santana-Sagredo, Francisca; Lee-Thorp, Julia A; Schulting, Rick; Uribe, Mauricio

2015-03-01

279

Research Report Callosal oligodendrocyte number in postpartum  

E-print Network

Research Report Callosal oligodendrocyte number in postpartum Sprague-Dawley rats Marissa E. Maheu in oligodendrocyte proliferation during gestation, contributing to increased myelination in the maternal brain contribute to additional gliogenesis in lactating females. In the present study, we assessed oligodendrocyte

Sokolowski, Marla

280

Symptoms and Signs Associated with Postpartum Thyroiditis  

PubMed Central

Background. Postpartum thyroiditis (PPT) is a common triphasic autoimmune disease in women with thyroid peroxidase (TPO) autoantibodies. This study evaluated women's thyroid disease symptoms, physical findings, stress levels, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels across six postpartum months in three groups, TPO negative, TPO positive, and PPT positive women. Methods. Women were recruited in midpregnancy (n = 631) and TPO status was determined which then was used to form the three postpartum groups. The three groups were compared on TSH levels, thyroid symptoms, weight, blood pressure, heart rate, a thyroid exam, and stress scores. Results. Fifty-six percent of the TPO positive women developed PPT. Hypothyroid group (F (2, 742) = 5.8, P = .003) and hyperthyroid group (F (2, 747) = 6.6, P = .001) subscale scores differed by group. Several symptoms and stress scores were highest in the PPT group. Conclusions. The normal postpartum is associated with many symptoms that mimic thyroid disease symptoms, but severity is greater in women with either TPO or PPT positivity. While the most severe symptoms were generally seen in PPT positive women, even TPO positive women seem to have higher risk for these signs and symptoms. PMID:25405057

2014-01-01

281

À propos du post-partum blues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since postpartum blues was described by Savage in 1875, the controversy regarding its nature and cause has been sustained. In a first part, the author reviews the conventional clinical assessment of the blues as described in international medical literature. Its constitutive symptoms are mundane, of an affective, emotional, cognitive or psychosomatic nature. On the other hand, their originality resides in

J. Jouppe

2007-01-01

282

Meta-analysis of the role of delivery mode in postpartum depression (Iran 1997-2011)  

PubMed Central

Background: Postpartum period is the riskiest time for mood disorders and psychosis. Postpartum depression is the most important mood disorder after delivery, which can be accompanied by mother-child and family relationship disorders. Meta-analysis with the integration of research results demonstrates to investigate the association between the mode of delivery and postpartum depression. Materials and Methods: This meta-analysis uses the Rosenthal and Robin approach. For this purpose, 18 studies which were acceptable in terms of methodology were selected and meta-analysis was conducted on them. Research instrument was a checklist of meta-analysis. After summarizing the results of the studies, effect sizes were calculated manually and combined based on meta-analysis method. Results: The findings showed that the amount of effect size (in term of Cohen d) of delivery mode on postpartum depression was 0/30 (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Delivery mode on maternal mental health is assessed medium. Meta analysis also indicates moderator variables role, and researcher must focus in these variables. PMID:25540791

Bahadoran, Parvin; Oreizi, Hamid Reza; Safari, Saeideh

2014-01-01

283

Screening for bipolar disorder during pregnancy and the postpartum period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bipolar disorder is a significant mental health problem among perinatal women; however, little attention has been devoted\\u000a to methods of screening for bipolar disorder during this phase of women’s life cycle. There is a need for reliable and valid\\u000a screening instruments for perinatal women. This paper presents a review of 11 self-report measures used to screen bipolar\\u000a disorder in the

Cheryl Ann Chessick; Sona Dimidjian

2010-01-01

284

COMMON PROBLEMS OF BREASTFEEDING IN THE POSTPARTUM PERIOD  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Breastfeeding a healthy infant is often accompanied by challenges. Some may be predictable, while others are unexpected. These problems may accompany the normal anxiety of first-time parents, who rarely appreciate the intensity of care infants require. Reassurance and guidance often will enable moth...

285

Maternal bonding in mothers with postpartum anxiety disorder: the crucial role of subclinical depressive symptoms and maternal avoidance behaviour.  

PubMed

Hardly any research has examined the link between postpartum anxiety disorder and maternal bonding. This study examined if postpartum anxiety disorder and maternal bonding are related in the postpartum period. Thereby, subclinical depressive symptoms and specific aspects of an anxious symptomatology were also taken into consideration. The German sample of N = 78 mother-infant dyads is composed of n = 30 mothers with postpartum anxiety disorders but without major or minor depression according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-IV) and n = 48 healthy mothers. Subjects were interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders at an average infant age of M = 4.1 months. Moreover, mothers filled out the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire-16. The Anxiety Cognitions Questionnaire, the Body Sensations Questionnaire and the Mobility Inventory were chosen to assess different aspects of anxious symptomatology. To control for concurrent subclinical depressive symptoms, we used the German Edinburgh-Postnatal-Depression Scale. Mothers with postpartum anxiety disorder reported significantly lower bonding than healthy mothers. However, in a linear regression analysis, concurrent subclinical depressive symptoms and avoidance of anxiety-related situations in company explained 27 % of the overall variance in maternal bonding. The perceived lower bonding of mothers with anxiety disorder could be due to aspects of a concurrent subclinical depressive symptomatology. This notion emphasizes the need to target even mild depressive symptoms in the treatment of postpartum anxiety disorders. The outcomes also underline that the severity of anxious symptomatology, reflected by avoidance behaviour in company, puts the mother-infant bond at risk. PMID:24687168

Tietz, A; Zietlow, A-L; Reck, C

2014-10-01

286

Nighttime Breastfeeding Behavior Is Associated with More Nocturnal Sleep among First-Time Mothers at One Month Postpartum  

PubMed Central

Study Objective: To describe sleep duration and quality in the first month postpartum and compare the sleep of women who exclusively breastfed at night to those who used formula. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal study in a predominantly low-income and ethnically diverse sample of 120 first-time mothers. Both objective and subjective measures of sleep were obtained using actigraphy, diary, and self-report data. Measures were collected in the last month of pregnancy and at one month postpartum. Infant feeding diaries were used to group mothers by nighttime breastfeeding behavior. Results: Mothers who used at least some formula at night (n = 54) and those who breastfed exclusively (n = 66) had similar sleep patterns in late pregnancy. However, there was a significant group difference in nocturnal sleep at one month postpartum as measured by actigraphy. Total nighttime sleep was 386 ± 66 minutes for the exclusive breastfeeding group and 356 ± 67 minutes for the formula group. The groups did not differ with respect to daytime sleep, wake after sleep onset (sleep fragmentation), or subjective sleep disturbance at one month postpartum. Conclusion: Women who breastfed exclusively averaged 30 minutes more nocturnal sleep than women who used formula at night, but measures of sleep fragmentation did not differ. New mothers should be encouraged to breastfeed exclusively since breastfeeding may promote sleep during postpartum recovery. Further research is needed to better understand how infant feeding method affects maternal sleep duration and fragmentation. Citation: Doan T; Gay CL; Kennedy HP; Newman J; Lee KA. Nighttime breastfeeding behavior is associated with more nocturnal sleep among first-time mothers at one month postpartum. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(3):313-319. PMID:24634630

Doan, Therese; Gay, Caryl L.; Kennedy, Holly P.; Newman, Jack; Lee, Kathryn A.

2014-01-01

287

Visual Acuity Changes during Pregnancy and Postpartum: A Cross-Sectional Study in Iran  

PubMed Central

In this research, we represent the changes in visual acuity during pregnancy and after delivery. Changes as myopic shift start during second trimester and will be stopped after delivery; however it is obtained that women will have the same refractive error as what they had in the first trimester, after postpartum. So, any change in their spectacle prescription during this period is forbidden. As a result, not only changing in hormones can cause myopic shift in vision, but also overweight has its retributive role. What we are trying to do is to notify gynecologists and optometrists to be aware of these changes, so as to leave spectacle prescription writing to the session after postpartum period. PMID:25328705

Chaichian, Shahla; Mehdizadehkashi, Abolfazl; Jafarzadepour, Ebrahim; Tamannaie, Zeinab; Moazzami, Bahram; Pishgahroudsari, Mohaddeseh

2014-01-01

288

Immediate post-partum initiation of intrauterine contraception and implants: a review of the safety and guidelines for use.  

PubMed

Women are particularly susceptible to unintended pregnancies in the first year after birth, with 10-44% of pregnancies being unintended. In many settings, post-partum birth control is initiated at the six-week post-partum visit but most women are sexually active by this time, and ovulation can occur as early as day 28. There are many potential advantages of initiating intrauterine contraception (IUC) and implants use in the immediate post-partum period, including their high efficacy and reversibility which rivals sterilisation as well as ease of access to providers trained in their insertion. This review aims to describe the benefits and risks of use of IUC and implants in the immediate post-partum period. It discusses the maternal and infant health safety issues of early initiation of the progestogen containing methods and provides a critical review of existing international guidelines. Overall low rates of adverse effects such as pain, bleeding, infection and perforation, are documented to occur in all studies regardless of the timing or route of IUC insertion. Expulsion rates are significantly higher immediately after vaginal delivery compared to interval insertions, but are no higher after insertion at caesarean section. Post-partum implants appear to have the same side effects as interval insertions, and to date, no adverse impact on breast milk or infant growth has been demonstrated. Most international evidence-based guidelines support the initiation of IUC and progestogen containing contraceptive methods in the immediate post-partum period as they regard the advantages of provision at this time to outweigh the risks. PMID:23635040

Mwalwanda, Carolyn S; Black, Kirsten I

2013-08-01

289

The control of short-term feed intake by metabolic oxidation in late-pregnant and early lactating dairy cows exposed to high ambient temperatures.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to integrate the dynamics of feed intake and metabolic oxidation in late pregnant and early lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions. On day 21 before parturition and again on day 20 after parturition, seven Holstein cows were kept for 7days at thermoneutral (TN) conditions (15°C; temperature-humidity-index (THI)=60) followed by a 7day heat stress (HS) period at 28°C (THI=76). On the last day of each temperature condition, gas exchange, feed intake and water intake were recorded every 6min in a respiration chamber. Pre- and post-partum cows responded to HS by decreasing feed intake. The reduction in feed intake in pre-partum cows was achieved through decreased meal size, meal duration, eating rate and daily eating time with no change in meal frequency, while post-partum cows kept under HS conditions showed variable responses in feeding behavior. In both pre- and post-partum cows exposed to heat stress, daily and resting metabolic heat production decreased while the periprandial respiratory quotient (RQ) increased. The prolonged time between meal and the postprandial minimum in fat oxidation and the postprandial RQ maximum, respectively, revealed that HS as compared to TN early-lactating cows have slower postprandial fat oxidation, longer feed digestion, and thereby showing a shift from fat to glucose utilization. PMID:25839094

Eslamizad, Mehdi; Lamp, Ole; Derno, Michael; Kuhla, Björn

2015-06-01

290

GABAergic Neuroactive Steroids and Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Postpartum Depression: A Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

Postpartum depression (PPD) affects up to 1 in 8 women. The early postpartum period is characterized by a downward physiological shift from relatively elevated levels of sex steroids during pregnancy to diminished levels after parturition. Sex steroids influence functional brain connectivity in healthy non-puerperal subjects. This study tests the hypothesis that PPD is associated with attenuation of resting-state functional connectivity (rs-fc) within corticolimbic regions implicated in depression and alterations in neuroactive steroid concentrations as compared to healthy postpartum women. Subjects (n=32) were prospectively evaluated during pregnancy and in the postpartum with repeated plasma neuroactive steroid measurements and mood and psychosocial assessments. Healthy comparison subjects (HCS) and medication-free subjects with unipolar PPD (PPD) were examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) within 9 weeks of delivery. We performed rs-fc analysis with seeds placed in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and bilateral amygdalae (AMYG), hippocampi (HIPP) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFC). Postpartum rs-fc and perinatal neuroactive steroid plasma concentrations, quantified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, were compared between groups. PPD subjects showed attenuation of connectivity for each of the tested regions (i.e. ACC, AMYG, HIPP and DLPFC) and between corticocortical and corticolimbic regions vs. HCS. Perinatal concentrations of pregnanolone, allopregnanolone and pregnenolone were not different between groups. This is the first report of a disruption in the rs-fc patterns in medication-free subjects with PPD. This disruption may contribute to the development of PPD, at a time of falling neuroactive steroid concentrations. PMID:23499388

Deligiannidis, Kristina M.; Sikoglu, Elif M.; Shaffer, Scott A.; Frederick, Blaise; Svenson, Abby; Kopoyan, Andre; Kosma, Chelsea; Rothschild, Anthony J.; Moore, Constance M.

2014-01-01

291

Evaluation of Postpartum Reproductive Performance in Brahman Females with Divergent Residual Feed Intake  

E-print Network

to estrous cyclicity and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations, as well as changes in both body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) during the prepartum and postpartum time periods in Brahman females. Residual feed intake classification... was evaluated for all females during the course of 70-d trials conducted prior to these experiments. Heifers (n = 30) and cows (n = 63) were evaluated for BW and BCS, as well as by collection of weekly blood samples beginning five weeks prior to calving...

Poovey, Anna Kathryn

2011-10-21

292

What patterns of postpartum psychological distress are associated with maternal concerns about their children's emotional and behavioural problems at the age of three years?  

PubMed Central

Mothers experiencing psychological distress in the postpartum period may have difficulties parenting their children. Inconsistent and unresponsive parenting may increase the risk of later emotional and behavioural problems in children. The purpose of this study was to identify how maternal psychological characteristics cluster at eight weeks postpartum, and whether these clusters were associated with maternal-reported child emotional and behavioural problems at the age of three years, as measured by the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) questionnaire. In a longitudinal pregnancy cohort (N?=?647), three clusters of postpartum psychological characteristics were identified. Contrary to expectations, mothers with the greatest psychological distress did not report concerns about their child's emotional and behavioural problems; rather, they reported concerns about global developmental delay. These findings suggest that infants of mothers experiencing postpartum psychological distress should receive additional follow-up to reduce the risk for global developmental delay. PMID:25544794

Benzies, Karen; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Tough, Suzanne

2015-01-01

293

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection and acute myocardial infarction after cesarean section in a postpartum woman with untreated dyslipidemia.  

PubMed

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare cause of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We are presenting a case of a young woman with a history of untreated dyslipidemia presented with AMI secondary to left anterior descending coronary artery dissection during postpartum period. Physicians should be aware of this rare etiology of AMI which occurs during pregnancy and postpartum, since early diagnosis and treatment play a key role in saving both the mother and the baby. It is important to screen for other possible causes such as collagen vascular diseases, blunt injury to the chest, or cocaine abuse. PMID:25538822

Pulivarthi, Swaroopa; Lawal, Taiwo; Li, Dayuan; Gurram, Murali Krishna

2014-07-01

294

Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection and Acute Myocardial Infarction after Cesarean Section in a Postpartum Woman with Untreated Dyslipidemia  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare cause of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We are presenting a case of a young woman with a history of untreated dyslipidemia presented with AMI secondary to left anterior descending coronary artery dissection during postpartum period. Physicians should be aware of this rare etiology of AMI which occurs during pregnancy and postpartum, since early diagnosis and treatment play a key role in saving both the mother and the baby. It is important to screen for other possible causes such as collagen vascular diseases, blunt injury to the chest, or cocaine abuse. PMID:25538822

Pulivarthi, Swaroopa; Lawal, Taiwo; Li, Dayuan; Gurram, Murali Krishna

2014-01-01

295

Fordyce happiness program and postpartum depression  

PubMed Central

Background: Postpartum depression is endangering the health of mothers and has negative impacts on the evolution of social communication and newborns evolution. This study was conducted to determine the effects of Fordyce Happiness program on the postpartum depression. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental intervention carried out on postpartum mothers that referred to 4 health centers in Isfahan. A total of 133 mothers were selected by convenient sampling and then randomly allocated in two groups (63 and 70 mothers for intervention and control respectively). Maternal depression 3 times before, immediate and 1 months after intervention in both groups was evaluated with Beck Depression Inventory-II-Persian standardized questionnaires. Educational sessions based on the Fordyce happiness program were conducted for intervention group. Data was analyzed in SPSS17 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Illinois) descriptive and analytic statistical tests at significance level of 0.05. Results: No significant differences in demographic variables between the two groups (P ? 0.05). No significant differences in depression scores in the two groups before training. However after 2 months a significant difference in depression score was observed between two groups (control group: 19.38 ± 3.94; intervention group: 16.24 ± 4.8; P < 0.001). Furthermore in intervention group showed significant differences in depression scores before and after intervention (19.15 ± 3.41 and 16.24 ± 4.83; P < 0.001). However in the control group had not any significant change. Conclusion: Fordyce happiness program was effective in reducing postpartum depression in our study. With attention to the effectiveness and low cost of this program, it is recommended that this program might be considered for all mothers after childbirth in health centers or other community-based settings. PMID:24949034

Rabiei, Leili; Mazaheri, Maryam Amidi; Masoudi, Reza; Hasheminia, Sayed Ali Mohammad

2014-01-01

296

Diagnosing postpartum depression: Can we do better?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale versus routine clinical evaluation to detect postpartum depression among a low-income inner-city population and to evaluate risk factors associated with a positive score on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Study Design: On the basis of the day of the month, all English-speaking patients

Sarah Smallwood Fergerson; Denise J. Jamieson; Michael Lindsay

2002-01-01

297

Lifetime hormonal factors may predict late-life depression in women Ryan Joanne *  

E-print Network

in the development of depression ( ). In the case of both premenstrual syndrome and postpartum depression, it hasLifetime hormonal factors may predict late-life depression in women Ryan Joanne * , Carri reè lifetime' hormonal markers are associated with late-life depression symptoms among elderly community

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

298

Is postpartum depression a homogenous disorder: time of onset, severity, symptoms and hopelessness in relation to the course of depression.  

PubMed

BackgroundPostpartum depression (PPD) is a common illness, but due to the underlying processes and the diversity of symptoms, some variability is exhibited. The risk of postpartum depression is great if the mother has previously suffered from depression, but there is some evidence that a certain subgroup of women only experience depression during the postpartum period.MethodsThe study group consisted of 104 mothers with postpartum major depression and a control group of 104 postpartum mothers without depression. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) was used for data collection. The severity of depression and other mental symptoms were assessed using several validated rating scales.ResultsA history of past depression (82%), including depression during pregnancy (42%) and during the postpartum period (53%), was very common in those with current PPD. Eighteen per cent of mothers with current PPD had previously not had any depressive episodes and four per cent had experienced depression only during the postpartum period. Therefore, pure PPD was rare. The onset of PPD was usually (84%) within six weeks of childbirth. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, depressed mood, diminished pleasure/interest, decreased energy, and psychomotor agitation/retardation were common with all kinds of depression histories. Pure PPD was the most similar to the first depressive episode. Nevertheless, the severity of depression, the level of hopelessness, somatisation, interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety, hostility, psychoticism, sleep disturbance, and suicidal ideation were lower, appetite changed less, and concentration was better than in other recurrent depressions.ConclusionsAccording to this study, PPD is not a homogenous disorder. The time of onset, severity, symptoms, level of hopelessness, and the course of depression vary. Recurrent depression is common. All mothers must be screened during the sixth week postpartum at the latest. Screening alone is not effective; it is also important to give mothers information about PPD and to discuss the symptoms with them in order for them to recognise this disorder and possible new episodes in the future. PMID:25491477

Kettunen, Pirjo; Koistinen, Eeva; Hintikka, Jukka

2014-12-10

299

The effects of long-acting oxytocin, GnRH and FSH administration on thyroxin, triiodothyronin, oestradiol 17-? and progesterone levels as well as conception rates in post-partum ewes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work was a first attempt to discover whether the suppression of adenopituitary gonadotropin secretion might be responsible for a decrease of systemic T4 and T3 levels in the post-partum period in ewes, and also whether the depression of T4 and T3 levels might be retroactively responsible for a depression of sexual activity in the post-partum period and in spring.

E. Bekeova; M. Krajnicakova; V. Hendrichovsky; I. Maracek

1995-01-01

300

Simulating the Antarctic ice sheet in the Late-Pliocene warm period: PLISMIP-ANT, an ice-sheet model intercomparison project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of future climate change, understanding the nature and behaviour of ice sheets during warm intervals in Earth history is of fundamental importance. The Late-Pliocene warm period (also known as the PRISM interval: 3.264 to 3.025 million years before present) can serve as a potential analogue for projected future climates. Although Pliocene ice locations and extents are still poorly constrained, a significant contribution to sea-level rise should be expected from both the Greenland ice sheet and the West and East Antarctic ice sheets based on palaeo sea-level reconstructions. Here, we present results from simulations of the Antarctic ice sheet by means of an international Pliocene Ice Sheet Modeling Intercomparison Project (PLISMIP-ANT). For the experiments, ice-sheet models including the shallow ice and shelf approximations have been used to simulate the complete Antarctic domain (including grounded and floating ice). We compare the performance of six existing numerical ice-sheet models in simulating modern control and Pliocene ice sheets by a suite of four sensitivity experiments. Ice-sheet model forcing fields are taken from the HadCM3 atmosphere-ocean climate model runs for the pre-industrial and the Pliocene. We include an overview of the different ice-sheet models used and how specific model configurations influence the resulting Pliocene Antarctic ice sheet. The six ice-sheet models simulate a comparable present-day ice sheet, although the models are setup with their own parameter settings. For the Pliocene simulations using the Bedmap1 bedrock topography, some models show a small retreat of the East Antarctic ice sheet, which is thought to have happened during the Pliocene for the Wilkes and Aurora basins. This can be ascribed to either the surface mass balance, as the HadCM3 Pliocene climate shows a significant increase over the Wilkes and Aurora basin, or the initial bedrock topography. For the latter, our simulations with the recently published Bedmap2 bedrock topography indicate a significantly larger contribution to Pliocene sea-level rise from the East Antarctic ice sheet for all six models relative to the simulations with Bedmap1.

de Boer, B.; Dolan, A. M.; Bernales, J.; Gasson, E.; Goelzer, H.; Golledge, N. R.; Sutter, J.; Huybrechts, P.; Lohmann, G.; Rogozhina, I.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Saito, F.; van de Wal, R. S. W.

2014-11-01

301

Occurrence and Determinants of Postpartum Maternal Morbidities and Disabilities among Women in Matlab, Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

The burden of maternal ill-health includes not only the levels of maternal mortality and complications during pregnancy and around the time of delivery but also extends to the standard postpartum period of 42 days with consequences of obstetric complications and poor management at delivery. There is a dearth of reliable data on these postpartum maternal morbidities and disabilities in developing countries, and more research is warranted to investigate these and further strengthen the existing safe motherhood programmes to respond to these conditions. This study aims at identifying the consequences of pregnancy and delivery in the postpartum period, their association with acute obstetric complications, the sociodemographic characteristics of women, mode and place of delivery, nutritional status of the mother, and outcomes of birth. From among women who delivered between 2007 and 2008 in the icddr,b service area in Matlab, we prospectively recruited all women identified with complicated births (n=295); a perinatal mortality (n=182); and caesarean-section delivery without any maternal indication (n=147). A random sample of 538 women with uncomplicated births, who delivered at home or in a facility, was taken as the control. All subjects were clinically examined at 6-9 weeks for postpartum morbidities and disabilities. Postpartum women who had suffered obstetric complications during birth and delivered in a hospital were more likely to suffer from hypertension [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=3.44; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.14-10.36], haemorrhoids (AOR=1.73; 95% CI=1.11-3.09), and moderate to severe anaemia (AOR=7.11; 95% CI=2.03-4.88) than women with uncomplicated normal deliveries. Yet, women who had complicated births were less likely to have perineal tears (AOR=0.05; 95% CI=0.02-0.14) and genital prolapse (AOR=0.22; 95% CI=0.06-0.76) than those with uncomplicated normal deliveries. Genital infections were more common amongst women experiencing a perinatal death than those with uncomplicated normal births (AOR=1.92; 95% CI=1.18-3.14). Perineal tears were significantly higher (AOR=3.53; 95% CI=2.32-5.37) among those who had delivery at home than those giving birth in a hospital. Any woman may suffer a postpartum morbidity or disability. The increased likelihood of having hypertension, haemorrhoids, or anaemia among women with obstetric complications at birth needs specific intervention. A higher quality of maternal healthcare services generally might alleviate the suffering from perineal tears and prolapse amongst those with a normal uncomplicated delivery. PMID:22838157

Ahmed, A.; Dasgupta, S.K.; Jahan, M.; Huda, F.A.; Ronsmans, C.; Koblinsky, M.; Chowdhury, M.E.

2012-01-01

302

Prepartum and postpartum nutritional management to optimize fertility in high-yielding dairy cows in confined TMR systems.  

PubMed

The 6 to 8-week period centered on parturition, known as the transition or periparturient period, is critical to welfare and profitability of individual cows. Fertility of high-producing cows is compromised by difficult transitions. Deficiencies in either nutritional or non-nutritional management increase risk for periparturient metabolic disorders and infectious diseases, which decrease subsequent fertility. A primary factor impeding fertility is the extent of negative energy balance (NEB) early postpartum, which may inhibit timing of first ovulation, return to cyclicity, and oocyte quality. In particular, pronounced NEB during the first 10 days to 2 weeks (the time of greatest occurrence of health problems) is critical for later reproductive efficiency. Avoiding over-conditioning and preventing cows from over-consuming energy relative to their requirements in late gestation result in higher dry matter intake (DMI) and less NEB after calving. A pooled statistical analysis of previous studies in our group showed that days to pregnancy are decreased (by 10 days) by controlling energy intake to near requirements of cows before calving compared with allowing cows to over-consume energy. To control energy intake, total mixed rations (TMR) must be well balanced for metabolizable protein, minerals and vitamins yet limit total DM consumed, and cows must uniformly consume the TMR without sorting. Dietary management to maintain blood calcium and rumen health around and after calving also are important. Opportunities may exist to further improve energy status in fresh cows. Recent research to manipulate the glucogenic to lipogenic balance and the essential fatty acid content of tissues are intriguing. High-producing cows that adapt successfully to lactation can have high reproductive efficiency, and nutritional management of the transition period both pre- and post-calving must facilitate that adaptation. PMID:24844126

Drackley, J K; Cardoso, F C

2014-05-01

303

Modulation of the immune system during postpartum uterine inflammation.  

PubMed

Postpartum uterine inflammation (endometritis) in the dairy cow is associated with lower fertility at both the time of infection and after the inflammation has resolved. We hypothesized that aberrant DNA methylation may be involved in the subfertility associated with uterine inflammation. The objective of this study was to characterize genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression in the endometrium of dairy cows with subclinical endometritis (SCE). Endometrial tissues were obtained at 29 days postpartum (n = 12), and microarrays were used to characterize transcription and DNA methylation. Analyses revealed 1,856 probes differentially expressed in animals with SCE (n = 6) compared with controls (CON, n = 6, P < 0.05, Storey Multiple testing correction) and 2,976 probes with significant correlation between gene expression and bacteriology score. No significant associations among DNA methylation and gene expression were detected. Analysis of transcription data using the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis identified several pathways and processes enriched in SCE cows, with the majority related to the immune response. Furthermore, the top ontology terms enriched in genes that had expression data correlated to bacteriology score were: Defense response, inflammatory response, and innate immune response. Gene expression profiles in cows with subclinical endometritis in this study indicate that the immune response is activated, potentially resulting in a local proinflammatory environment in the uterus. If this period of inflammation is prolonged it could result in tissue damage or failure to complete involution of the uterus, which may create a suboptimal environment for future pregnancy. PMID:25604124

Walker, Caroline G; Meier, Susanne; Hussein, Hassan; McDougall, Scott; Burke, Chris R; Roche, John R; Mitchell, Murray D

2015-04-01

304

Changes in PTSD Symptomatology and Mental Health During Pregnancy and Postpartum  

PubMed Central

Changes in mental health symptoms throughout pregnancy and postpartum may impact a woman’s experience and adjustment during an important time. However, few studies have investigated these changes throughout the perinatal period, particularly changes in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinal changes in PTSD, depression, and anxiety symptomatology during pregnancy and postpartum. Pregnant women of ethnically diverse backgrounds receiving services for prenatal care at an outpatient obstetric-gynecology clinic or private physicians’ office were assessed by interview on symptoms of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and general stress up to four times, including their first, second, and third trimester, and postpartum visits. Overall, during pregnancy there was a declining trend of PTSD symptoms. For anxiety, there was no overall significant change over time, however anxiety symptoms were individually variable in the rate of change. For both depression and general stress symptoms there was a declining trend, which was also variable in the individual rate of change among women during their pregnancy. Visual and post-hoc analyses also suggest a possible peak in PTSD symptoms in the weeks prior to delivery. While most mental health symptoms may generally decrease during pregnancy, given the individual variability among women in the rate of change in symptoms, screening and monitoring of symptom fluctuations throughout the course of pregnancy may be needed. Further studies are needed to examine potential spiking of symptoms in the perinatal period. PMID:23797809

Onoye, Jane M.; Shafer, Leigh Anne; Goebert, Deborah A.; Morland, Leslie A.; Matsu, Courtenay R.; Hamagami, Fumiaki

2013-01-01

305

The relationship between ovarian steroids and uterine estrogen receptors during late pregnancy  

SciTech Connect

Although a direct interdependence exists between the ovarian steroids, estrogen and progesterone, the exact role of these two hormones during pregnancy, especially late pregnancy, is not completely understood. Investigations have been conducted to determine whether the circulating levels of progesterone and estrogen or changes in the ratio of progesterone/estrogen in relation to the concentration of uterine estrogen receptors are associated with triggering parturition. Ninety-day old female rats were sacrificed at gestation days 14, 16, 18, 20 and two days post-partum. The plasma levels of estradiol and progesterone were measured by solid-phase radioimmunoassay. Uterine cytosol was subjected to a charcoal binding assay to determine the concentration of estrogen receptors. Our findings demonstrate that there is a significant drop in both plasma progesterone and estradiol during late pregnancy. Also indicated is a significant increase in uterine estrogen receptors throughout late pregnancy. Finally, during this period there is a direct correlation between the shift in the progesterone/estrogen ratio and the increase in the concentration of uterine estrogen receptors in late pregnancy.

Cathey, T.M.; Chung, Kyung W. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City (USA))

1991-01-01

306

A Rare Cause of Postpartum Low Back Pain: Pregnancy- and Lactation-Associated Osteoporosis  

PubMed Central

Pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis (PLO) is a rare form of osteoporosis. It results in severe low back pain in the last trimester of pregnancy and in the postpartum period, decreases in height, and fragility fractures, particularly in the vertebra. The current case report presents a 32-year-old patient who presented with back and low back pain that began in the last trimester of the pregnancy and worsened at two months postpartum and who was diagnosed with pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis after exclusion of other causes; the findings are discussed in view of the current literature. PLO is a rare clinical condition causing significant disability. PLO must be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with low back pain during or after pregnancy. The patients must be evaluated for the risk factors of PLO, and an appropriate therapy must be initiated. PMID:25525595

Terzi, Rabia; Terzi, Hasan; Özer, Tülay; Kale, Ahmet

2014-01-01

307

Embolization for post-partum rupture of ovarian artery aneurysm: Case report and review.  

PubMed

Spontaneous rupture of an ovarian artery aneurysm most commonly presents with abdominal pain in a multiparous woman in the early post-partum period. Aneurysms of the ovarian artery have been reported in the published work very infrequently. In our case, a 31-year-old multiparous woman experienced sudden left lower quadrant abdominal pain on the second post-partum day. Angiography showed rupture of a left ovarian artery aneurysm, which was successfully embolized using gelatin sponge particles. The patient resumed menstruation 3 months after the embolization and concurrently conceived, ultimately giving birth at term without complications. Interventional radiology appears to be a highly safe and effective technique for diagnosis and management of a ruptured ovarian artery aneurysm with minimal risk of impairing subsequent fertility. PMID:25370370

Sakaguchi, Isao; Ohba, Takashi; Ikeda, Osamu; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Katabuchi, Hidetaka

2014-11-01

308

Maternal Diet and Weight at 3 Months Postpartum Following a Pregnancy Intervention with a Low Glycaemic Index Diet: Results from the ROLO Randomised Control Trial  

PubMed Central

Pregnancy increases the risk of being overweight at a later time period, particularly when there is excessive gestational weight gain. There remains a paucity of data into the effect of low glycaemic index (GI) pregnancy interventions postpartum. Aim: To examine the impact of a low glycaemic index diet during pregnancy on maternal diet 3 months postpartum. Methodology: This analysis examined the diet, weight and lifestyle of 460 participants of the ROLO study 3 months postpartum. Questionnaires on weight, physical activity, breastfeeding, supplement use, food label reading and dietary habits were completed. Results: The intervention group had significantly greater weight loss from pre-pregnancy to 3 months postpartum than the control group (1.3 vs. 0.1 kg, p = 0.022). The intervention group reported greater numbers following a low glycaemic index diet (p < 0.001) and reading food labels (p = 0.032) and had a lower glycaemic load (GL) (128 vs. 145, p = 0.014) but not GI (55 vs. 55, p = 0.809) than controls. Conclusions: Low GI dietary interventions in pregnancy result in improved health-behaviours and continued reported compliance at 3 months postpartum possibly through lower dietary GL as a result of portion control. Greater levels of weight loss from pre-pregnancy to 3 months postpartum in the intervention group may have important positive implications for overweight and obesity. PMID:25057103

Horan, Mary K.; McGowan, Ciara A.; Gibney, Eileen R.; Donnelly, Jean M.; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.

2014-01-01

309

Efferocytosis produces a prometastatic landscape during postpartum mammary gland involution  

PubMed Central

Breast cancers that occur in women 2–5 years postpartum are more frequently diagnosed at metastatic stages and correlate with poorer outcomes compared with breast cancers diagnosed in young, premenopausal women. The molecular mechanisms underlying the malignant severity associated with postpartum breast cancers (ppBCs) are unclear but relate to stromal wound-healing events during postpartum involution, a dynamic process characterized by widespread cell death in milk-producing mammary epithelial cells (MECs). Using both spontaneous and allografted mammary tumors in fully immune–competent mice, we discovered that postpartum involution increases mammary tumor metastasis. Cell death was widespread, not only occurring in MECs but also in tumor epithelium. Dying tumor cells were cleared through receptor tyrosine kinase MerTK–dependent efferocytosis, which robustly induced the transcription of genes encoding wound-healing cytokines, including IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, and TGF-?. Animals lacking MerTK and animals treated with a MerTK inhibitor exhibited impaired efferocytosis in postpartum tumors, a reduction of M2-like macrophages but no change in total macrophage levels, decreased TGF-? expression, and a reduction of postpartum tumor metastasis that was similar to the metastasis frequencies observed in nulliparous mice. Moreover, TGF-? blockade reduced postpartum tumor metastasis. These data suggest that widespread cell death during postpartum involution triggers efferocytosis-induced wound-healing cytokines in the tumor microenvironment that promote metastatic tumor progression. PMID:25250573

Stanford, Jamie C.; Young, Christian; Hicks, Donna; Owens, Philip; Williams, Andrew; Vaught, David B.; Morrison, Meghan M.; Lim, Jiyeon; Williams, Michelle; Brantley-Sieders, Dana M.; Balko, Justin M.; Tonetti, Debra; Earp, H. Shelton; Cook, Rebecca S.

2014-01-01

310

Long-Term Efficacy of Postpartum Intravenous Iron Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background. The potential benefits of administering a dose of intravenous iron in patients with moderate postpartum anaemia rather than oral iron alone remains unproven. Aims. To determine whether a single injection of intravenous iron followed by a 6-week course of oral iron is as effective over 6 months in restoring normal haemoglobin levels and replenishing iron stores in women with moderate postpartum anaemia as a course of oral iron alone in women with mild postpartum anaemia. Materials and Methods. Retrospective two-arm cohort study in women with mild postpartum anaemia (haemoglobin 9.6–10.5?g/dL) prescribed iron daily for 6 weeks (N = 150) and women with moderate postpartum anaemia (haemoglobin 8.5–9.5?g/dL), given a single 500?mg injection of intravenous iron followed by iron daily for 6 weeks (N = 75). Haemoglobin and ferritin were measured 6 months postpartum. Results. Haemoglobin returned to similar mean levels in both groups. Ferritin levels were statistically significantly higher in the intravenous + oral group (57.7 ± 49.3??g/L versus 32.9 ± 20.1??g/L). Conclusions. Despite lower baseline haemoglobin, intravenous iron carboxymaltose was superior to oral iron alone in replenishing iron stores in moderate postpartum anaemia and may prove similarly beneficial in mild postpartum anaemia. PMID:25431768

Zimmermann, Roland

2014-01-01

311

Challenges in Diagnosing and Treating Postpartum Blues, Depression and Psychosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With recent media attention and a growing awareness in popular culture, the appropriate treatment for postpartum depression has taken center stage as a prevalent women's health issue. There is little agreement on the definition, existence and treatment of postpartum depression. Contributing to this factor is the lack of research that exists to…

Lewis, Carol A.; Byers, Alison Daly; Malard, Sarah Deann; Dawson, Gregory A.

2010-01-01

312

Implementing a clinical practice guideline to manage postpartum urinary retention.  

PubMed

Postpartum urinary retention is a common condition in obstetric units. A Clinical Practice Guideline was implemented in a high-risk obstetrical unit to decrease variance of clinical practice, rate of postpartum urinary retention, and number of urinary catheterizations and increase awareness of this common condition. Guideline implementation met the 4 aims, including a decreased rate of urinary retention. PMID:25166910

Stanley, Angela Y; Conner, Brian T

2015-01-01

313

The role of obstetric factors in postpartum depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large sample of primiparous women was screened for postpartum depression and for depression occurring before childbirth. Obstetric risk data, rated on the Peripartum Events Scale (O'Hara etal., 1986, 1991), were analysed for women identified as having suffered from depression, and for a control group. Obstetric risk was unrelated to the occurrence of postpartum depression in the population as a

Lynne Murray; Wendy Cartwright

1993-01-01

314

Women's Experiences with Postpartum Anxiety: Expectations, Relationships, and Sociocultural Influences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence about anxiety in the postpartum is sparse and contradictory. Our research expands this knowledge by using a qualitative methodology, the Feminist Biographical Method, to explore first time mothers' experiences of postpartum anxiety. Data collection included 1.5 to 2.0 hour interviews with six women about their experiences of anxiety in…

Wardrop, Andrea A.; Popadiuk, Natalee E.

2013-01-01

315

Effects of rumen-protected methionine on plasma amino acid concentrations during a period of weight loss for late gestating beef heifers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study determined changes in plasma amino acid concentration in late-gestating (beginning 58 ± 1.02 d prior to calving), primiparous, winter-grazing range heifers receiving wheat middling based supplement without (CON) or with rumen-protected methionine (MET) to provide 15 g DL- MET each day. Pl...

316

Magnitudes, rates and periodicities of early Late Cretaceous sea-level changes: evidence from sedimentary basin in Europe, northern Africa and the Middle East  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the mid-Cretaceous super-greenhouse with generally rising and high sea-level stands, the Cenomanian-Turonian interval (C-T, early Late Cretaceous, ~100-90 ma) was repeatedly punctuated by large and rapid sea-level drops, the reasons of which are still poorly understood. In order to test the isochrony of those early Late Cretaceous sea-level changes, an interplate sequence stratigraphic study of selected Cenomanian-Turonian basins on different tectonic plates (Europe, northern Africa, Middle East) has been conducted. Well exposed shelf sections have stratigraphically been calibrated and correlated by means of integrated approaches, especially high-resolution ammonoid biostratigraphy, carbon stable isotopes and cyclostratigraphy. In combination with analyses of (bio-)facies and stratal architectures (such as on-/offlap geometries or incision at sequence boundaries), a precise correlation of unconformities and an assessment of the magnitudes of sea-level changes involved in their formation has been possible. High-resolution orbital time-scales provide the possibilities to elucidate the rates of sea-level change. The study shows that C-T sea-level changes have in fact been strictly time-equivalent and iso-directional on different tectonic plates. Major sea-level falls, resulting in the development of depositional sequence (i.e., 3rd-order) bounding unconformities occurred in the latest Albian, the mid- and latest Early Cenomanian, the late Middle and mid-Late Cenomanian, the Lower-Middle Turonian boundary interval, the Middle Turonian as well as the early, mid-and late Late Turonian. Especially the sea-level falls were of high-magnitude and short duration (tens of metres in less than 100 kyr). The resulting rates of sea-level change are in the order of 150-1000 m/myr and can only be explained by glacio-eustasy (or a yet unknown process). The study also showed a regular temporal recurrence of unconformities and suggests that early Late Cretaceous 3rd-order sequences developed by low-frequency modulations of the Milankovitch oscillations, i.e. the nodes of obliquity cycle (ca. 1.2 myr), regularly amplified by the ca. 2.4 myr minima of Earth' eccentricity. High-frequency sequences, controlled by the ca. 400-kyr-long eccentricity cycle, are components of the depositional sequences. The study thus perfectly integrates the hitherto conflicting approaches of high-frequency and depositional sequence stratigraphy.

Wilmsen, Markus; Richardt, Nadine

2013-04-01

317

Extended negative dietary cation-anion difference feeding does not negatively affect postpartum performance of multiparous dairy cows.  

PubMed

Low postpartum blood calcium remains one of the largest constraints to postpartum feed intake, milk yield, and energy balance in transitioning dairy cows. Supplemental dietary anions decrease the dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) and reduce the risk for postpartum hypocalcemia. Prepartum management strategies aiming to minimize social stress and diet changes have resulted in a need to explore the effects of extended exposure to a negative DCAD (>21 d) diet. Holstein and Holstein-cross dairy cows (n=60) were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments 42 d before expected calving to evaluate effects of supplying anions for 21 or 42 d during the dry period on energy status, postpartum production, and Ca homeostasis. Treatments included (1) a control diet (CON; DCAD=12 mEq/100 g of DM), (2) a 21-d negative DCAD diet (21-ND; DCAD=12 and -16 mEq/100 g of DM), and (3) a 42-d negative DCAD diet (42-ND; DCAD=-16 mEq/100 g of DM). Cows fed CON were fed positive DCAD prepartum for 42 d. Cows fed 21-ND received the positive DCAD (12 mEq/100 g of DM) diet for the first 21 d of the dry period and the anionic diet (-16 mEq/100 g of DM) from d 22 until calving. Cows fed 42-ND received the anionic diet for the entire dry period. Control and anionic diets were formulated by using 2 isonitrogenous protein mixes: (1) 97.5% soybean meal and (2) 52.8% BioChlor (Church & Dwight Co. Inc.), 45.8% soybean meal. Supplementing anions induced a mild metabolic acidosis, reducing urine pH for 21-ND and 42-ND compared with CON. Prepartum DMI was not different among treatments. Postpartum DMI was higher for 21-ND compared with CON (20.8 vs. 18.1±1.1 kg/d), and 42-ND had similar DMI compared with 21-ND. During the first 56 d of lactation 21-ND had greater average milk production compared with CON (44.8 vs. 39.2±2.1 kg/d). Average milk production by 42-ND was similar to 21-ND. Postpartum total blood Ca concentration was greater for 42-ND. Cows fed anionic diets prepartum tended to have lower lipid accumulation in the liver after calving compared with CON. These data suggest low-DCAD diets fed for 21 or 42 d during the dry period can have positive effects on postpartum DMI, Ca homeostasis, and milk production. PMID:23831094

Weich, W; Block, E; Litherland, N B

2013-09-01

318

Effects of hypergravity on ovarian-hypophyseal function in antepartum and postpartum rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: Rats exposed to microgravity during the post-implantation phase of pregnancy had minimal alterations in ovarian and hypophyseal parameters during the antepartum and postpartum periods. In the current study, a similar parallel experimental design was employed to ascertain the effects of hypergravity on ovarian and hypophyseal function. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that hypergravity exposure during the post-implantation stage of pregnancy would not alter antepartum and postpartum ovarian and hypophyseal function. METHODS: Pregnant rats were assigned to hypergravity (1.5 G, 1.75 G, or 2.0 G), rotational control, or stationary control groups (n = 10 each group) beginning on gestation day 11 and ending on day 20. Hypophyseal and ovarian analyses were conducted on 5 of the animals from each group at day 20. The remaining animals in each group were allowed to go to term and the same analyses were conducted 3 h postpartum. RESULTS: Hypergravity at all levels decreased the percent body mass gain from gestation day 11 to 20 (p < 0.05); however, the wet weight of the pituitaries and ovaries was not changed. There was no effect of hypergravity on the number of healthy or atretic antral follicles of any size at gestation day 20 or postpartum. The number of corpora lutea of pregnancy was decreased in all hypergravity groups, but the number of live fetuses at gestation day 20 or pups at term was not altered. Plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin, and progesterone were not changed at gestation day 20 or postpartum. Pituitary content of LH, FSH, and prolactin was not altered by hypergravity at gestation day 20, but LH content was significantly increased (p < 0.05) at 1.5 and 1.75 G postpartum. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that hypergravity, up to and including 2.0 G, is compatible with maintenance of pregnancy and has minimal effects on hypophyseal parameters. Ovarian follicles are not altered by hypergravity, but corpora lutea may regress at a more rapid rate.

Burden, Hubert W.; Zary, Joan T.; Hodson, Charles A.; Gregory, Heather L.; Baer, Lisa A.; Ronca, April E.

2003-01-01

319

Brief Motivational Enhancement Intervention to Prevent or Reduce Postpartum Alcohol Use: A Single-Blinded, Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial  

PubMed Central

Aims To assess the effect of brief motivational enhancement intervention postpartum alcohol use. Design Single-blinded, randomized controlled effectiveness trial in which pregnant women were assigned to receive usual care or up to 5 face-to-face brief motivational enhancement sessions lasting 10–30 minutes each and occurring at study enrollment, 4 and 8 weeks after enrollment, 32 weeks of gestation, and 6 weeks postpartum. Setting Large, urban, obstetrics clinic. Participants Women who were ?18 years old, < 20 weeks of gestation, and consumed alcohol during pregnancy. Of 3438 women screened, 330 eligible women were assigned to usual care (n=165) or intervention (n=165). Due to missing data, we analyzed 125 in the intervention group and 126 in the usual care group. Measurements The proportion of women with any alcohol use and the number of drinks per day, reported via follow-up telephone interviews at 4 and 8 weeks after enrollment, 32 weeks of gestation, and 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months postpartum. Findings In random effects models adjusted for confounders, the intervention group was less likely to use any alcohol (odds ratio 0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23 – 1.09; P=0.08) and consumed fewer drinks per day (coefficient ?0.11; 95% CI ?0.23 ? 0.01; P=0.07) than the usual care group in the postpartum period but these differences were non-significant. Missing data during the prenatal period prevented us from modeling prenatal alcohol use. Conclusions Brief motivational enhancement intervention delivered in an obstetrical outpatient setting did not conclusively decrease alcohol use during the postpartum period. PMID:24315218

Rubio, Doris McGartland; Day, Nancy L.; Conigliaro, Joseph; Hanusa, Barbara H.; Larkby, Cynthia; McNeil, Melissa; Cohen, Elan; Jones, Bobby; Watt-Morse, Margaret; Gilmour, Carol; Lancet, Michelle; Kraemer, Kevin L.

2013-01-01

320

Community postpartum care needs assessment and systems development for low income families.  

PubMed

Decreased lengths of stay for U.S. childbirth hospitalization, infant morbidities, repeat adolescent pregnancies, and high no-show rates for postpartum visits among disadvantaged populations suggest barriers to continuity of maternity care. Findings of a survey of maternity health professionals (N = 78) providing postpartum case management with an urban Healthy Start project indicated less tracking and follow-up for postpartum care as compared to prenatal care as well as maternal postpartum health education, social support, and environmental needs. Recommendations included: (a) earlier timing of postpartum visit, (b) community care sites and home visiting, (c) coordinated postpartum maternal and infant care, and (d) increased postpartum psychosocial and environmental services. PMID:10538430

Pistella, C Y; Synkewecz, C A

1999-01-01

321

Pre- and post-partum mild underfeeding influences gene expression in the reproductive tract of cyclic dairy cows.  

PubMed

Undernutrition before and after calving has a detrimental effect on the fertility of dairy cows. The effect of nutritional stress was previously reported to influence gene expression in key tissues for metabolic health and reproduction such as the liver and the genital tract early after calving, but not at breeding, that is, between 70 and 90 days post-partum. This study investigated the effects of pre- and post-partum mild underfeeding on global gene expression in the oviduct, endometrium and corpus luteum of eight multiparous Holstein cows during the early and middle phases of an induced cycle 80 days post-partum. Four control cows received 100% of energy and protein requirements during the dry period and after calving, while four underfed received 80% of control diet. Oestrous synchronization treatment was used to induce ovulation on D80 post-partum. Oviducts, ovaries and the anterior part of each uterine horn were recovered surgically 4, 8, 12 and 15 days after ovulation. Corpora lutea were dissected from the ovaries, and the endometrium was separated from the stroma and myometrium in each uterine horn. The oviduct segments were comprised of ampulla and isthmus. RNAs from ipsi- and contralateral samples were pooled on an equal weight basis. In each tissue, gene expression was assessed on a custom bovine 10K array. No differentially expressed gene (DEG) in the corpus luteum was identified between underfed and control, conversely to 293 DEGs in the oviduct vs 1 in the endometrium under a false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.10 and 1370 DEGs vs 3, respectively, under FDR < 0.15. Additionally, we used dedicated statistics (regularized canonical correlation analysis) to correlate the post-partum patterns of six plasma metabolites and hormones related to energy metabolism measured weekly between calving and D80 with gene expression. High correlations were observed between post-partum patterns of IGF-1, insulin, ?-hydroxybutyrate and the expression in the oviduct of genes related to reproductive system disease, connective tissue disorders and metabolic disease. Moreover, we found special interest in the literature to retinoic acid-related genes (e.g. FABP5/CRABP2) that might indicate abnormalities in post-partum tissue repair mechanisms. In conclusion, this experiment highlights relationships between underfeeding and gene expression in the oviduct and endometrium after ovulation in cyclic Holstein cows. This might help to explain the effect of mild undernutrition on fertilization failure and early embryonic mortality in post-partum dairy cows. PMID:23131127

Valour, D; Hue, I; Degrelle, S A; Déjean, S; Marot, G; Dubois, O; Germain, G; Humblot, P; Ponter, A A; Charpigny, G; Grimard, B

2013-06-01

322

Parental care pathway after late fetal loss and stillbirth: an audit of cases in sunderland royal hospital over a 2-year period  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRecently the RCOG published Green-Top Guideline ‘Late Intrauterine Fetal Death & Stillbirth’.1 The North East has the highest adjusted mortality for stillbirth,2 therefore an audit of the parental care pathway following stillbirth was appropriate.ObjectivesTo establish whether all aspects of a DGH care pathway following stillbirth are being followed and to detect areas for improvement.MethodA retrospective audit of stillbirths at SRH

L E Waller; H M Cameron

2011-01-01

323

Stable isotope palaeodietary study of humans and fauna from the multi-period (Iron Age, Viking and Late Medieval) site of Newark Bay, Orkney  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here on stable carbon and nitrogen isotope measurements of human and faunal bone collagen from the Iron Age, Viking Age, and Late Medieval site of Newark Bay, Orkney, Scotland. We found a wide range of results for humans in both d13C (15.4& to 20.3&) and d15N (8.6&e15.6&) values. The enriched carbon and nitrogen values indicate the consumption of

M. P. Richards; B. T. Fuller; T. I. Molleson

2005-01-01

324

Infant formula samples: perinatal sources and breast-feeding outcomes at 1 month postpartum.  

PubMed

The purpose was to describe sources of infant formula samples during the perinatal period and assess their associations with breast-feeding outcomes at 1 month postpartum. Subjects included expectant mothers who anticipated breast-feeding at least 1 month. Infant feeding history and sources of formula samples were obtained at 1 month postpartum. Associations between sources and breast-feeding outcomes were assessed using partial correlation. Of the 61 subjects who initiated breast-feeding, most were white (87%), married (75%), college-educated (75%), and planned exclusive breast-feeding (82%). Forty-two subjects (69%) continued breast-feeding at 1 month postpartum. Subjects received formula samples from the hospital (n = 40; 66%), physician's office (n = 10; 16%), and mail (n = 41; 67%). There were no significant correlations between formula samples from the hospital, physician's office, and/or mail and any or exclusive breast-feeding at 1 month (P > .05). In addition to the hospital, a long-standing source of formula samples, mail was also frequently reported as a route for distribution. The lack of statistically significant associations between formula samples and any or exclusive breast-feeding at 1 month may be related to small sample size and unique characteristics of the group studied. PMID:24164818

Thurston, Amanda; Bolin, Jocelyn H; Chezem, Jo Carol

2013-01-01

325

Adherence to cultural practices following childbirth in migrant Chinese women and relation to postpartum mood.  

PubMed

Chinese women (N = 102) who had migrated to Sydney, Australia, were interviewed about traditional cultural practices they had followed in the first six weeks of the postpartum period. The majority (90.2%) of these women had adhered to some form of practice, with the most frequent being eating warm ('yang') food (78%), following confinement for one month (55%), and using warm water for washing themselves (19%). Of note was that 18% of these women felt ambivalent about following such practices, with the impression being that the adoption of such practices was more a result of family or in-law expectations than the wishes of the woman. Of the 9.8% who did not follow any form of traditional Chinese postpartum practice, only half felt ambivalent or negative about not doing so. There was no relationship between the women's mood at six weeks postpartum and how she felt about following or not following such practices. The adherence to traditional cultural practices was not related to length of time in Australia, nor to whether the woman was residing with her parents or in-laws. There was some indication that more educated women were less likely to follow cultural practices following the birth. PMID:12418979

Matthey, Stephen; Panasetis, Paula; Barnett, Bryanne

2002-01-01

326

Spontaneous Post-Partum Cervical Carotid Artery Dissection in a Patient with Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Summary Post-partum cervicocephalic artery dissection (pp-CAD) is a rare and poorly understood condition. To our knowledge, only 21 cases have been reported. Reversible cerebral segmental vasoconstriction (RCSV) was first described by Call and Fleming in 1988, and its association with pp-CAD has only been reported in three cases. However, in those cases it is unclear whether the pp-CAD may have been caused by straining during labor and therefore merely coincidental to the intracranial arteriopathy. We describe a 41-year-old right-handed African-American woman who developed the syndrome of pp-CAD (headaches, trace subarachnoid hemorrhage and diffuse cerebral arteriopathy on angiogram) two weeks after delivery. In this unique case, the patient had fortuitously undergone an MR study twice over a four day period which included the carotid bifurcations. During that time the patient was an inpatient, on bed rest and subject to continuous cardiac monitoring. The interval studies documented a true spontaneous right internal carotid artery dissection occurring without obvious cause. The patient had noted moderate right neck pain developing between the two MR studies but experienced no neurological deficits. Subsequent conventional angiography confirmed the presence of postpartum cerebral arteriopathy and the cervical dissection. The patient was managed conservatively with antiplatelet medication and had an otherwise uneventful course. We hypothesize whether transient arterial wall abnormalities, postpartum hormonal changes or subtle connective tissue aberrations play a similar role in the pathogenesis of these two associated conditions. PMID:22192555

Soltanolkotabi, M.; Ansari, S.A.; Shaibani, A.; Singer, T.B.; Hurley, M.C.

2011-01-01

327

Postpartum vaginal cystic lesions: everyday practice or a differential diagnosis challenge?  

PubMed Central

Postpartum vaginal cystic lesions constitute a common situation that is caused either by inflammation or by accumulation of lymph. We report a case of a 33-year-old woman who had bilateral duplication of the pelvicalyceal system and ureter, and after the labor of her second child, she had one ureter prolapse into the vagina after initially appearing as a cystic lesion. Ureteral duplication is the most common renal abnormality, occurring in approximately 1% of the population and in 10% of children who are diagnosed with urinary tract infections. In our case we consider possible that this clinical situation was a result of a combination of postpartum pelvic floor trauma and prolapse of the ureter. There are only several of these cases in the literature where ureter prolapse is associated and complicated by pelvic floor trauma caused during or after labor. The clinical approach of the cystic lesions located in the vagina during the postpartum period should include a meticulous examination of the urinary system before any other medical practice. PMID:23803247

2013-01-01

328

Plasticity and constraint in response to early-life stressors among late/final Jomon period foragers from Japan: evidence for life history trade-offs from incremental microstructures of enamel.  

PubMed

This study evaluates two hypotheses that address how Late/Final Jomon period people responded to early-life stress using linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) and incremental microstructures of enamel. The first hypothesis predicts that Jomon people who experienced early-life stressors had greater physiological competence in responding to future stress events (predictive adaptive response). The second hypothesis predicts that Jomon people traded-off in future growth and maintenance when early investment in growth and survival was required (plasticity/constraint). High resolution tooth impressions were collected from intact, anterior teeth and studied under an engineer's measuring microscope. LEH were identified based on accentuated perikymata and depressions in the enamel surface profile. Age of formation for each LEH was estimated by summing counts of perikymata and constants associated with crown initiation and cuspal enamel formation times. The relationship between age-at-first-defect formation, number of LEH, periodicity between LEH, and mortality was evaluated using multiple regression and hazards analysis. A significant, positive relationship was found between age-at-death relative to age-at-first-defect formation and a significant, negative relationship was found between number of LEH relative to age-at-first-defect formation. Individuals with earlier forming defects were at a significantly greater risk of forming defects at later stages of development and dying at younger ages. These results suggest that Late/Final Jomon period foragers responded to early-life stressors in a manner consistent with the plasticity/constraint hypothesis of human life history. Late/Final Jomon period individuals were able to survive early-life stressors, but this investment weakened responses to future stress events and exacerbated mortality schedules. PMID:25156299

Temple, Daniel H

2014-12-01

329

Characterization of ruminal dynamics in Holstein dairy cows during the periparturient period.  

PubMed

We used four pregnant Holstein cows to delineate ruminal adaptations as cows transitioned from one lactation to the next. Cows were fed typical diets through far-off and close-up dry periods and lactation. We measured ruminal characteristics on day 72 (late lactation), 51 (far-off dry), 23 and 9 (close-up dry) prepartum and on days 6, 20, 34, 48, 62, 76 and 90 postpartum (early lactation). Measurements included: ruminal fill (weight of actual contents), ruminal capacity (volume of rumen when fully filled), digestibilities and ruminal passage rates. Ruminal capacity tended to increase linearly during early lactation but was stable during dry and transition periods. Both total and liquid fill decreased linearly during the dry period, increased across parturition, and increased linearly through early lactation. Dry matter fill decreased as cows were fed the close-up diet at day 23 prepartum then increased near parturition and continued to increase across early lactation. Solid passage rate was greatest when cows were fed the close-up diet, and decreased throughout the transition period. In lactation, solid passage rate responded quadratically with peak at day 48 followed by decreases through day 90 postpartum. Liquid passage increased linearly across the transition period. Total tract organic matter digestibilities increased linearly over the dry period with significant increases prior to or immediately after parturition, then they remained relatively stable over early lactation until they increased at day 90. Fibre digestibilities demonstrated quadratic responses over early lactation, being higher on day 6 and day 90 than at other times. Starch digestibilities decreased linearly across both the dry and transition periods with decreases in lactation until day 62 followed by increases until day 90. High producing lactating dairy cows go through a multitude of ruminal adaptations, in terms of digestion, passage, capacity and fill, as they transition from one lactation to the next. PMID:21091551

Park, A F; Shirley, J E; Titgemeyer, E C; DeFrain, J M; Cochran, R C; Wickersham, E E; Nagaraja, T G; Johnson, D E

2011-10-01

330

Association study of 44 candidate genes with depressive and anxiety symptoms in post-partum women.  

PubMed

The post-partum period is a time of extreme vulnerability for a whole spectrum of psychiatric disorders. Delivery may be considered an important risk factor in genetically susceptible women. Five hundred and eight SNPs in 44 genes at candidate pathways putatively related to mood changes after delivery were genotyped in a multicenter cohort of 1804 women from Spain. Participants completed two scales at 2-3 days, 8 weeks, and 32 weeks post-partum, the Edinburgh Post-partum Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Those women who scored 9 or more on EPDS were evaluated for major depression using the Diagnostic Interview for Genetics Studies (DIGS) adapted for post-partum depression. Association with major depression was assessed using likelihood ratio tests under a codominant genotype model. Association with scale scores was tested using linear mixed models to take into account repeated measures over time. Two intronic SNPs, one at the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) and another at dopa decarboxylase (DDC), were significantly associated to STAI anxiety scores after multiple testing correction (nominal P=0.0000513 and 0.000097, respectively). In addition, post hoc analysis at the unphased haplotype level using nominal significant SNPs revealed an association with a combination of three SNPs at protein kinase C, beta (PRKCB) with major depression, significant after multiple testing correction (nominal global P=0.0001596). In conclusion, we detected a role of SLC6A4 in mood changes after stressful events, and revealed new putative associations involving DDC and PRKCB. Therefore, these genes deserve further investigation to confirm these results. PMID:20092830

Costas, Javier; Gratacòs, Mònica; Escaramís, Geòrgia; Martín-Santos, Rocío; de Diego, Yolanda; Baca-García, Enrique; Canellas, Francesca; Estivill, Xavier; Guillamat, Roser; Guitart, Miriam; Gutiérrez-Zotes, Alfonso; García-Esteve, Luisa; Mayoral, Fermín; Moltó, María Dolores; Phillips, Christopher; Roca, Miquel; Carracedo, Angel; Vilella, Elisabet; Sanjuán, Julio

2010-08-01

331

[The first labor analgesia with drug was already performed in late Meiji-Period (1868-1912): trace of opioid-scopolamine which was used in Akiko Yosano, back to its origins].  

PubMed

There have been some records of labor analgesia with intravenous or rectal anesthetics in early Showa-period (1926-1989). However, the author found that labor analgesia had been already attempted for some women in late Meiji-period (1868-1912). One of agents used was pantopon, a water-soluble opioid without serious respiratory depression as morphine. The drug was developed and produced in Germany. Some doctors applied this agent with scopolamine to labor analgesia in Europe. They also reported that this combination also conferred excellent analgesic effects without any serious complications in the mother and fetus. This combination was originally used for general surgery with inhaled anesthesia at that period. It remains uncertain how Japanese doctors got pantopon scopolamine from Germany. PMID:23479935

Okutomi, Toshiyuki

2013-02-01

332

Effectiveness of a combined prenatal and postpartum smoking cessation program.  

PubMed

Women frequently quit smoking during pregnancy but then relapse postpartum. The BABY & ME-Tobacco Free program combines prenatal and postpartum smoking cessation counseling and biomarker feedback with monthly postpartum incentives. The settings included 22 sites (WIC offices and prenatal clinics) in upstate New York. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate this intervention, that included four face-to-face prenatal sessions with a counselor who did smoking cessation counseling, carbon monoxide testing and random saliva cotinine testing. For 1 year postpartum, mothers were biochemically tested every 3-4 weeks and, if negative, were issued a voucher for diapers. Three implementation models were studied: multi-tasking counselors at fixed sites (Models 1 and 2) versus itinerant smoking cessation specialists (Model 3). Outcomes included biochemically validated abstinence rates during pregnancy and postpartum. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of postpartum abstinence and program dropout. Proportional hazards regression was used to compare implementation models. Of the 777 pregnant women who enrolled in the program, 588 were eligible for the postpartum program. The intention to treat pregnancy quit rate was 60%. Postpartum, Model 3 showed consistently better quit outcomes than the other models. Predictors of abstinence at 6 months postpartum are: older age (OR = 1.07, 95% C.I. 1.02-1.12), lower baseline carbon monoxide level (OR = 0.69, 95% C.I. 0.49-0.97), Model 3 (OR = 4.60, 95% C.I. 2.80-7.57) and attending more prenatal sessions (OR = 3.52; 95% C.I. 2.19-5.65). The BABY & ME-Tobacco Free program is an effective smoking cessation program for pregnant and parenting women. PMID:20091107

Gadomski, Anne; Adams, Laurie; Tallman, Nancy; Krupa, Nicole; Jenkins, Paul

2011-02-01

333

Perspective on physiological/endocrine and nutritional factors influencing fertility in post-partum dairy cows.  

PubMed

Increasing reproductive performance of post-partum lactating dairy cows is a multi-factorial challenge involving disciplines of production medicine, nutrition, physiology and herd management. Systems of programmed timed insemination have been fine-tuned to achieve pregnancy per artificial inseminations (AI) approximating 45%. Systems have optimized follicle development, integrated follicle development with timing of induced corpus luteum regression and fine-tuned sequential timing of induced ovulation and AI. Use of programmes for insemination have identified occurrence of anovulatory ovarian status, body condition, uterine health and seasonal summer stress as factors contributing to reduced herd fertility. Furthermore, programmes of timed insemination provide a platform to evaluate efficacy of nutritional and herd health systems targeted to the transition and post-partum periods. The homeorhetic periparturient period, as cows deal with decreases in dry matter intake, results in a negative energy balance and is associated with a period of immunosuppression. Cows that transition well will cycle earlier and have a greater risk of becoming pregnant earlier post-partum. The innate arms of the immune system (acute and adaptive) are suppressed during the periparturient period. Cows experiencing the sequential complex of disorders such as dystocia, puerperal metritis, metritis, endometritis and subclinical endometritis are subsequently less fertile. Targeted strategies of providing specific nutraceuticals that provide pro- and anti-inflammatory effects, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (e.g., linoleic, eicosapentaenoic/docosahexaenoic, conjugated linoleic acid), sequential glycogenic and lipogenic enrichment of diets, and organic selenium appear to differentially regulate and improve the immune and reproductive systems to benefit an earlier restoration of ovarian activity and increased fertility. PMID:24417194

Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P; Silvestre, F T; Kim, I H; Staples, C R

2010-09-01

334

Relationship of monoamine oxidase-A distribution volume to postpartum depression and postpartum crying.  

PubMed

Postpartum depression (PPD) has a prevalence rate of 13% and a similarly high proportion of women report a subclinical state of one or more major depressive episode symptoms. The aim was to investigate whether monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) VT, an index of MAO-A density, is increased in the prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex (PFC and ACC), during PPD or when a PPD spectrum symptom, greater predisposition to crying, is present. MAO-A is an enzyme that increases in density after estrogen decline, and has several functions including creating oxidative stress, influencing apoptosis and monoamine metabolism. Fifty-seven women were recruited including 15 first-onset, antidepressant naive, PPD subjects, 12 postpartum healthy who cry due to sad mood, 15 asymptomatic postpartum healthy women, and 15 healthy women not recently pregnant. Each underwent [(11)C]-harmine positron emission tomography scanning to measure MAO-A VT. Both PPD and greater predisposition to crying were associated with greater MAO-A VT in the PFC and ACC (multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), group effect, F21,135=1.856; p=0.019; mean combined region elevation 21% and 14% in PPD and crying groups, respectively, relative to postpartum asymptomatic). Greater MAO-A VT in the PFC and ACC represents a new biomarker in PPD, and the PPD symptom of predisposition to crying. Novel strategies for preventing PPD (and some PPD symptoms) may be possible by avoiding environmental conditions that elevate MAO-A level and enhancing conditions that normalize MAO-A level. These findings also argue for clinical trials in PPD with the newer, well-tolerated MAO-A inhibitor antidepressants. PMID:25074638

Sacher, Julia; Rekkas, P Vivien; Wilson, Alan A; Houle, Sylvain; Romano, Leslie; Hamidi, Jinous; Rusjan, Pablo; Fan, Ian; Stewart, Donna E; Meyer, Jeffrey H

2015-01-01

335

Free fatty acid levels in fluid of dominant follicles at the preferred insemination time in dairy cows are not affected by early postpartum fatty acid stress.  

PubMed

The fertility of high-yielding dairy cows has declined during the last 3 decades, in association with a more profound negative energy balance (NEB) during the early weeks postpartum. One feature of this NEB is a marked elevation in circulating free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations. During the early postpartum period (?d 42), circulatory FFA levels were measured weekly, and progesterone concentrations and the diameter of the dominant follicles were determined thrice weekly. Retrospectively, cows that ovulated within 35 d postpartum were grouped as "normal ovulating" cows (n=5), and the others were grouped as "delayed ovulating" cows (n=5). In both groups, high total FFA levels (>500 µM) were evident immediately postpartum. Interestingly, cows with delayed ovulation had higher plasma FFA concentrations in the first weeks postpartum compared with normal ovulating cows. In both cow groups, FFA decreased to control levels of non-NEB cows within 3 wk postpartum. The FFA compositions and concentrations in fluids from the dominant follicles of postpartum cows were not different between the normal and delayed ovulating cows when measured at potential insemination points: d 55, 80, and 105 postpartum. Interestingly, the concentration of monounsaturated oleic acid was higher and that of saturated stearic acid lower in follicular fluids of both groups compared with that in blood. The level of FFA in follicular fluid was correlated with the ratio of 17?-estradiol (E2) to progesterone (P4) in follicular fluid, with a relatively high level of unsaturated FFA in follicles with a low E2:P4 ratio. Taken together, these results indicate that a more severe NEB early postpartum is related to a delay in the first postpartum ovulation and does not affect FFA composition in follicular fluid at the preferred insemination time. The high FFA level in dominant follicles with a low E2:P4 ratio may be due to a different FFA metabolism in these follicles. The diagnostic value of this observation for selective screening of dominant follicles needs further investigation. PMID:25648816

Aardema, Hilde; Gadella, Bart M; van de Lest, Chris H A; Brouwers, Jos F H M; Stout, Tom A E; Roelen, Bernard A J; Vos, Peter L A M

2015-04-01

336

Rapunzel Syndrome: A Rare Postpartum Case  

PubMed Central

The Rapunzel syndrome describes a disorder in which a significant amount of hair is swallowed, forming a trichobezoar that extends past the stomach into the small intestines. Given the indigestible nature of hair, it subsequently leads to obstruction within the gastrointestinal system. Clinically, patients may present with symptoms of gastrointestinal obstruction, including abdominal complaints such as pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. However, due to its broad and nonspecific presenting symptoms, the diagnosis of Rapunzel syndrome warrants consideration once other common etiologies have been excluded. Surgical intervention is often required to remove the abdominal mass. This unusual syndrome is often associated with psychiatric disorders, affecting young women most commonly. In this report, we will discuss a unique case of Rapunzel syndrome in a one-month postpartum woman. PMID:24171124

Tegene, Teshome; Foda, Yahia; Hussain, Omar; Manikonda, Geeta

2013-01-01

337

Postpartum depression among African-American women.  

PubMed

The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the nature of postpartum depression (PPD) among African-American women. Twelve women, who had experienced PPD within the last three years, were interviewed for approximately one hour at two intervals. Nudist-4 software and the constant comparative method were used to analyze the data. Five themes "Stressing Out," "Feeling Down," "Losing It," "Seeking Help," and "Feeling Better" represented aspects of PPD as experienced by the participants. The last theme, "Dealing with It," represented the cultural ways in which African-American mothers managed their depression. These included Keeping the Faith, Trying to Be a Strong Black Woman, Living with Myths, and Keeping Secrets. Suggestions for future directions in nursing research are included. PMID:12623687

Amankwaa, Linda Clark

2003-01-01

338

Management of post-partum haemorrhage.  

PubMed

Management of post-partum haemorrhage (PPH) involves the treatment of uterine atony, evacuation of retained placenta or placental fragments, surgery due to uterine or birth canal trauma, balloon tamponade, effective volume replacement and transfusion therapy, and occasionally, selective arterial embolization. This article aims at introducing pregnancy- and haemorrhage-induced changes in coagulation and fibrinolysis and their relevant compensatory mechanisms, volume replacement therapy, optimal transfusion of blood products, and coagulation factor concentrates, and briefly cell salvage, management of uterine atony, surgical interventions, and selective arterial embolization. Special attention, respective management, and follow-up are required in women with bleeding disorders, such as von Willebrand disease, carriers of haemophilia A or B, and rare coagulation factor deficiencies. We also provide a proposal for practical instructions in the treatment of PPH. PMID:21069897

Ahonen, J; Stefanovic, V; Lassila, R

2010-11-01

339

Preventing postpartum depression: review and recommendations.  

PubMed

Nearly 20 % of mothers will experience an episode of major or minor depression within the first 3 months postpartum, making it the most common complication of childbearing. Postpartum depression (PPD) is significantly undertreated, and because prospective mothers are especially motivated for self-care, a focus on the prevention of PPD holds promise of clinical efficacy. This study is a qualitative review of existing approaches to prevent PPD. A PubMed search identified studies of methods of PPD prevention. The search was limited to peer-reviewed, published, English-language, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of biological, psychological, and psychosocial interventions. Eighty articles were initially identified, and 45 were found to meet inclusion criteria. Eight RCTs of biological interventions were identified and 37 RCTs of psychological or psychosocial interventions. Results were mixed, with 20 studies showing clear positive effects of an intervention and 25 showing no effect. Studies differed widely in screening, population, measurement, and intervention. Among biological studies, anti-depressants and nutrients provided the most evidence of successful intervention. Among psychological and psychosocial studies, 13/17 successful trials targeted an at-risk population, and 4/7 trials using interpersonal therapy demonstrated success of the intervention versus control, with a further two small studies showing trends toward statistical significance. Existing approaches to the prevention of PPD vary widely, and given the current literature, it is not possible to identify one approach that is superior to others. Interpersonal therapy trials and trials that targeted an at-risk population appear to hold the most promise for further study. PMID:25422150

Werner, Elizabeth; Miller, Maia; Osborne, Lauren M; Kuzava, Sierra; Monk, Catherine

2015-02-01

340

Postpartum Transitions in Adolescent Mothers' Romantic and Maternal Relationships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviewed adolescent mothers at prepartum or early postpartum and 1 year later regarding maternal and romantic relationships, depression, and negative life events. Responses indicated that over time male partner support became more important than maternal support. (LBT)

Gee, Christina B.; Rhodes, Jean E.

1999-01-01

341

Does Impulsiveness Moderate Response to Financial Incentives for Smoking Cessation Among Pregnant and Newly Postpartum Women?  

PubMed Central

We examined whether impulsiveness moderates response to financial incentives for cessation among pregnant smokers. All participants were randomized to either a condition wherein financial incentives were delivered contingent on smoking abstinence or to a control condition wherein incentives were delivered independent of smoking status. The study was conducted in two steps: First, we examined associations between baseline impulsiveness scores and abstinence at late pregnancy and 24-weeks postpartum as part of a planned prospective study of this topic using data from a recently completed, randomized controlled clinical trial (N = 118). Next, to increase statistical power, we conducted a second analysis collapsing results across that recent trial and two prior trials involving the same contingent incentive and control conditions (N = 236). Impulsivity was assessed using a delay discounting (DD) of hypothetical monetary rewards task in all three trials and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) in the most recent trial. Neither DD nor BIS predicted antepartum or postpartum smoking status in the single or combined trials. Receiving abstinence-contingent incentives, lower baseline smoking rate (cigs/day), and a history of quit attempts pre-pregnancy predicted greater odds of antepartum abstinence across the single and combined trials. No variable predicted postpartum abstinence across the single and combined trials, although a history of antepartum quit attempts and receiving abstinence-contingent incentives predicted in the single and combined trials, respectively. Overall, this study provides no evidence that impulsiveness as assessed by DD or BIS moderates response to this treatment approach while underscoring a substantial association of smoking rate and prior quit attempts with abstinence across the contingent incentives and control treatment conditions. PMID:25730417

Lopez, Alexa A.; Skelly, Joan M.; White, Thomas J.; Higgins, Stephen T.

2015-01-01

342

CoRoT 101186644: A transiting low-mass dense M-dwarf on an eccentric 20.7-day period orbit around a late F-star. Discovered in the CoRoT lightcurves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the study of the CoRoT transiting planet candidate 101186644, also named LRc01_E1_4780. Analysis of the CoRoT lightcurve and the HARPS spectroscopic follow-up observations of this faint (mV = 16) candidate revealed an eclipsing binary composed of a late F-type primary (Teff = 6090 ± 200 K) and a low-mass, dense late M-dwarf secondary on an eccentric (e = 0.4) orbit with a period of ~20.7 days. The M-dwarf has a mass of 0.096 ± 0.011 M?, and a radius of 0.104-0.006+0.026 R?, which possibly makes it the smallest and densest late M-dwarf reported so far. Unlike the claim that theoretical models predict radii that are 5-15% smaller than measured for low-mass stars, this one seems to have a radius that is consistent and might even be below the radius predicted by theoretical models. Based on observations made with the 1-m telescope at the Wise Observatory, Israel, the Swiss 1.2-m Leonhard Euler telescope at La Silla Observatory, Chile, the IAC-80 telescope at the Observatory del Teide, Canarias, Spain, and the 3.6-m telescope at La Silla Observatory (ESO), Chile (program 184.C-0639).

Tal-Or, L.; Mazeh, T.; Alonso, R.; Bouchy, F.; Cabrera, J.; Deeg, H. J.; Deleuil, M.; Faigler, S.; Fridlund, M.; Hébrard, G.; Moutou, C.; Santerne, A.; Tingley, B.

2013-05-01

343

Prevalence of Postpartum Depression in a Native American Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Data were collected on postpartum depression from 151 women, ages 16–40 years who received postpartum health services from a rural obstetrical clinic in North Carolina between September 2002 and May 2003. Reflective of the racial and socio-economic make-up of the county, 60.9% of the sample were American Indian (Lumbee tribe) 25.8% were African American and 13.3% were Caucasian or

Lisa Baker; Sandra Cross; Linda Greaver; Gou Wei; Regina Lewis

2005-01-01

344

The psychological precipitants of transient postpartum depression: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies reporting incidence rates for the “postpartum blues” (defined as atransient depressive episode occurring in the first 10-14 days after childbirth) are surveyed, and the methodological issues involved\\u000a in collecting these data are considered. When women provide self-report ratings of depression on each day in the first postpartum\\u000a week, the incidence of the blues is about 66%. Psychological factors found

Jacqueline A. Thirkettle; Robert G. Knight

1985-01-01

345

Postpartum Mothers’ Attitudes, Knowledge, and Trust Regarding Vaccination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine attitudes and knowledge about vaccinations in postpartum mothers. Methods This cross-sectional study collected data via written survey to postpartum mothers in a large teaching hospital in Connecticut.\\u000a We used multivariable analysis to identify mothers who were less trusting with regard to vaccines. Results Of 228 mothers who participated in the study, 29% of mothers worried about vaccinating

Ann Chen Wu; Daryl J. Wisler-Sher; Katherine Griswold; Eve Colson; Eugene D. Shapiro; Eric S. Holmboe

2008-01-01

346

Postpartum depression in the absence of lactation: an evolutionary perspective  

E-print Network

POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION IN THE ABSENCE OF LACTATION: AN EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE A Thesis by KELLY J. PEYTON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF ARTS May 1996 Major Subject: Anthropology POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION IN THE ABSENCE OF LACTATION: AN EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE A Thesis by KELLY J. PEYTON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A8M University in partial...

Peyton, Kelly J

1996-01-01

347

Anterior Pituitary Function in Women with Postpartum Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Thirteen asymptomatic women with postpartum blood loss of at least 500 cc were evaluated for anterior pituitary endocrine function. Insulin tolerance tests and TRH stimulation tests were done and determinations made for serum growth hormone, cortisol, thyrotropin, and prolactin. There was no laboratory evidence of pituitary dysfunction in this group of 13 patients. Subclinical hypopituitarism in women with previous postpartum hemorrhage would appear to be uncommon. PMID:308279

Kayne, Richard D.; Burrow, Gerard N.

1978-01-01

348

Screening for postpartum depression in an inner-city population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of positive screens for postpartum depression by using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in an inner-city population. Study Design: At their postpartum visits, women who were seen in two inner-city practices between February 20 and April 30, 2002, self-administered the EPDS. A threshold of 10 or more points was selected

Jeanine K. Morris-Rush; Margaret Comerford Freda; Peter S. Bernstein

2003-01-01

349

Inability to predict postpartum hemorrhage: insights from Egyptian intervention data  

PubMed Central

Background Knowledge on how well we can predict primary postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) can help policy makers and health providers design current delivery protocols and PPH case management. The purpose of this paper is to identify risk factors and determine predictive probabilities of those risk factors for primary PPH among women expecting singleton vaginal deliveries in Egypt. Methods From a prospective cohort study, 2510 pregnant women were recruited over a six-month period in Egypt in 2004. PPH was defined as blood loss ? 500 ml. Measures of blood loss were made every 20 minutes for the first 4 hours after delivery using a calibrated under the buttocks drape. Using all variables available in the patients' charts, we divided them in ante-partum and intra-partum factors. We employed logistic regression to analyze socio-demographic, medical and past obstetric history, and labor and delivery outcomes as potential PPH risk factors. Post-model predicted probabilities were estimated using the identified risk factors. Results We found a total of 93 cases of primary PPH. In multivariate models, ante-partum hemoglobin, history of previous PPH, labor augmentation and prolonged labor were significantly associated with PPH. Post model probability estimates showed that even among women with three or more risk factors, PPH could only be predicted in 10% of the cases. Conclusions The predictive probability of ante-partum and intra-partum risk factors for PPH is very low. Prevention of PPH to all women is highly recommended. PMID:22123123

2011-01-01

350

Multimodal Sensory Distortions in Post-partum Exacerbation of Schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Background: Sensory distortions of body image commonly occur during migraine, seizures, non-dominant cortical infarcts and hallucinogen abuse.Methods: We report the case of a 30-year-old woman with paranoid schizophrenia, presenting with post-partum onset multimodal sensory distortions in the absence of any neurological disorders or substance use.Results: Her symptoms involved persistent facial/body metamorphopsia (distorted images) and vocal paracousis (distorted voices), in the absence of visual hallucinations, illusions or agnosia. Neuropsychological assessments revealed deficits on visual processing tasks. Neuroimaging, electroencephalography and ophthalmological evaluation revealed no abnormalities. The multimodal sensory distortions responded to anti-psychotic treatment, paralleling improvement in other schizophrenia psychopathology, over a period of one month.Conclusion: Prominent and persistent multimodal sensory distortions like metamorphopsia and paracousis in the presence of psychotic symptoms warrant a detailed neurological and general medical work-up. These symptoms presenting in the absence of neurological or substance use disorders may be a component of schizophrenia. PMID:24275634

Mehta, Urvakhsh Meherwan; Naveen Kumar, C; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Thirthalli, Jagadisha

2013-11-25

351

The Occurrence of a Ca2+-Dependent Period in the Red Light-Induced Late G1 Phase of Germinating Adiantum Spores 1  

PubMed Central

The first cell cycle of Adiantum spores, which is induced by red light (R), was studied with regard to its temporal dependence on Pfr (the active form of phytochrome) and Ca2+. Responses were quantified with increases of the spore content of DNA, thus limiting the investigation to the reactions taking place before the S phase of the cell cycle (i.e. during G0/G1/S transitions). Spores hydrated for more than 2 days in the standard medium (includes 1 millimolar free Ca2+) showed, after stimulation with a saturating R pulse, an increase of DNA beginning at about 25 hours and saturating at about 55 hours. Reversal by far-red light of the inductive effect of R was used to examine the temporal requirement for Pfr. Spores became dependent on the supply of external Ca2+ when incubated in a low Ca medium (32 nanomolar free Ca2+ with 10 millimolar EGTA); this culture condition was used, after observing that the DNA increase occurs similarly if Ca2+ is supplied after the R pulse, to examine the temporal requirement for external Ca2+. It was concluded that the G1 phase of the spore is separated into three subphases: (a) the Pfr-dependent period which immediately follows the R pulse and varies among individual spores from a few to about 25 hours, (b) the Ca2+-dependent period (about 10 hours) which occurs immediately before the S phase, and (c) a gap (15-20 hours) between the two periods. In the Ca2+-dependent period, spores require the presence of extracellular Ca2+. This period occurs only during a determined time after the R pulse, and the competence of spores to enter the S phase is lost sharply if external Ca2+ is not available continuously during this period. PMID:16667076

Iino, Moritoshi; Endo, Masami; Wada, Masamitsu

1989-01-01

352

Periodic isolation of the southern coastal plain of South Africa and the evolution of modern humans over late Quaternary glacial to interglacial cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humans evolved in Africa, but where in Africa and by what mechanisms remain unclear. The evolution of modern humans over the last million years is associated with the onset of major global climate fluctuations, glacial to interglacial cycles, related to the build up and melting of large ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere. During interglacial periods, such as today, warm and wet climates favored human expansion but during cold and dry glacial periods conditions were harsh and habitats fragmented. These large climate fluctuations periodically expanded and contracted African ecosystems and led to human migrations to more hospitable glacial refugia. Periodic isolation of relatively small numbers of humans may have allowed for their rapid evolutionary divergence from the rest of Africa. During climate transitions these divergent groups may have then dispersed and interbred with other groups (hybridization). Two areas at the opposite ends of Africa stand out as regions that were periodically isolated from the rest of Africa: North Africa (the Maghreb) and the southern coastal plain (SCP) of South Africa. The Maghreb is isolated by the Sahara Desert which periodically greens and is reconnected to the rest of Africa during the transition from glacial to interglacial periods. The SCP of South Africa is isolated from the rest of Africa by the rugged mountains of the Cape Fold Belt associated with inedible vegetation and dry climates to the north. The SCP is periodically opened when sea level falls by up to 130 m during glacial maxima to expose the present day submerged inner continental shelf. A five-fold expansion of the SCP receiving more rainfall in glacial periods may have served as a refuge to humans and large migratory herds. The expansive glacial SCP habitat abruptly contracts, by as much as one-third in 300 yr, during the rapid rise in sea level associated with glacial terminations. Rapid flooding may have increased population density and competition on the SCP to select for humans who expanded their diet to include marine resources or hunted large animals. Modest expansion of the coastal plain off Morocco and more extensive expansion off Tunisia would have similarly provided potential refugia for human groups during glacial periods. Other refugia in the African interior included the Ethiopian Highlands and the East African lakes; however, most of these regions probably had more diffuse barriers connected by river valley corridors. The earliest yet reported occurrence of symbolic artifacts from both North Africa and the SCP coastal caves of South Africa suggest that human populations in these areas were under shared selection pressures to adapt to increasing population densities associated with the transition from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6 to 5, 135 to 130 thousand years ago. The hypothesis that periodic expansion and contraction of the coastal plains of South Africa and North Africa contributed to the stepwise origin of our species over the last 800 thousand years is evaluated by comparing the archeological, DNA and sea-level records.

Compton, J. S.

2012-04-01

353

Influence of lactation on metabolic characteristics and embryo development in postpartum Holstein dairy cows.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the direct effect of lactation on the ability of the reproductive tract of postpartum dairy cows to support early embryo development. Twenty-one primiparous Holstein heifers were used. Immediately after calving, half of the cows were dried off (i.e., never milked), and the other half entered the milking herd and were milked twice daily. Jugular blood samples were taken twice per week from 15 d before calving to approximately 100 d postpartum to measure nonesterified fatty acids, ?-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-I. At the same time, body weight and body condition score were recorded for each cow. At approximately 60 d postpartum (experiment 1), approximately 65 two- to four-cell embryos, produced by in vitro maturation and fertilization, were endoscopically transferred to the oviduct ipsilateral to the corpus luteum of all cows on d 2 of the estrous cycle. Five days later (d 7), the oviduct and uterus were flushed nonsurgically and the number of embryos developing to the blastocyst stage was recorded. At approximately 90 d postpartum (experiment 2), the estrous cycles of the same cows were resynchronized and 15 to 20 in vitro-produced blastocysts were transferred to the uterus of each recipient on d 7. All cows were slaughtered on d 14 to assess embryo survival and dimensions. Body weight and body condition score were significantly different between groups for the entire postpartum period of the study. Concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and ?-hydroxybutyrate were higher and concentrations of glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-I were lower in lactating compared with nonlactating cows. Embryo recovery rates from lactating and dry cows were similar. In experiment 1, fewer embryos developed to the blastocyst stage in the lactating cows compared with the nonlactating cows. In experiment 2, embryo survival and conceptus dimensions were not different between lactating and nonlactating cows. In conclusion, the data indicate that the reproductive tract of the lactating dairy cow is compromised in its ability to support early embryo development compared with that of matched dry cows and this may contribute to early embryo mortality observed in such animals. PMID:22720941

Maillo, V; Rizos, D; Besenfelder, U; Havlicek, V; Kelly, A K; Garrett, M; Lonergan, P

2012-07-01

354

The miRNAome of the postpartum dairy cow liver in negative energy balance  

PubMed Central

Background Negative energy balance (NEB) is an altered metabolic state in high yielding cows that occurs during the first few weeks postpartum when energy demands for lactation and maintenance exceed the energy supply from dietary intake. NEB can, in turn, lead to metabolic disorders and to reduced fertility. Alterations in the expression of more than 700 hepatic genes have previously been reported in a study of NEB in postpartum dairy cows. miRNAs (microRNA) are known to mediate many alterations in gene expression post transcriptionally. To study the hepatic miRNA content of postpartum dairy cows, including their overall abundance and differential expression, in mild NEB (MNEB) and severe NEB (SNEB), short read RNA sequencing was carried out. To identify putative targets of differentially expressed miRNAs among differentially expressed hepatic genes reported previously in dairy cows in SNEB computational target identification was employed. Results Our results indicate that the dairy cow liver expresses 53 miRNAs at a lower threshold of 10 reads per million. Of these, 10 miRNAs accounted for greater than 95% of the miRNAome (miRNA content). Of the highly expressed miRNAs, miR-122 constitutes 75% followed by miR-192 and miR-3596. Five out of thirteen let-7 miRNA family members are also among the highly expressed miRNAs. miR-143, down-regulated in SNEB, was found to have 4 putative up-regulated gene targets associated with SNEB including LRP2 (low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 2), involved in lipid metabolism and up-regulated in SNEB. Conclusions This is the first liver miRNA-seq profiling study of moderate yielding dairy cows in the early postpartum period. Tissue specific miR-122 and liver enriched miR-192 are two of the most abundant miRNAs in the postpartum dairy cow liver. miR-143 is significantly down-regulated in SNEB and putative targets of miRNA-143 which are up-regulated in SNEB, include a gene involved in lipid metabolism. PMID:24725334

2014-01-01

355

Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome in a Postpartum Preeclamptic Woman without Seizure  

PubMed Central

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a cliniconeuroradiological entity presenting with headache, confusion, visual disturbances or blindness, and seizures. Parieto-occipital white matter changes due to vasogenic oedema can be observed on imaging modalities. It rarely occurs without seizures and after delivery. We report a 33-year-old multigravida with a history of preeclampsia in term pregnancy complicated by PRES without seizures at the postpartum period. Clinical improvement with complete resolution without any complications was observed on the 6th day after delivery. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is reversible when early diagnosis is established and appropriate treatment is started without delay. PMID:24592342

Ural, Ülkü Mete; Balik, Gülsah; ?entürk, ?enol; Üstüner, I??k; Çobano?lu, U?ur; ?ahin, Figen K?r

2014-01-01

356

New Evidence on Breastfeeding and Postpartum Depression: The Importance of Understanding Women's Intentions  

E-print Network

]. If the antenatal period is also considered, as many as 19 % of women experience a depressive episode during pregnancy or the first 3 months postpartum [2]. Post-natal depression has an immediate impact on mothers and carries long-term risks for mothers’ future... mental health [3, 4]; it also has significant negative effects on the cognitive, social and physical development of their children [5, 6]. In addition, post-natal depression involves substantial eco- nomic costs, in terms of costs to healthcare systems [7...

Borra, C.; Iacovou, M.; Sevilla, A.

2014-01-01

357

The effect of physical exercise strategies on weight loss in postpartum women: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

For women of reproductive age, excessive gestational weight gain and/or postpartum weight retention can increase the risk of obesity. This systematic review evaluates the effectiveness of lifestyle modification control trials that utilize exercise interventions, with or without dietary intervention, on weight loss among postpartum women. A search of randomized clinical trials (RCT) was performed using the follow databases and the bibliography of candidate studies: MEDLINE, Web of Science, EMBASE, CENTRAL/Cochrane and Physiotherapy Evidence Database. English language RCT papers published up to 31 October 2012, which present changes on maternal body weight from baseline to the end of exercise intervention were included. The primary meta-analysis examined the effects of exercise interventions, with or without complementary dietary intervention, on weight loss during the postpartum period compared with usual standard of care. Five subgroup analyses were performed to examine differences in study interventions and exercise modalities: duration of intervention, quality of study methodology, supervision of exercise intervention, exercise intervention goals used and the type of dietary intervention. In total 11 studies met eligibility criteria with 769 participants, 409 under intervention and 360 in the control group. The primary meta-analysis included all 11 studies and found a mean difference (MD) on weight loss of -2.57?kg (95% CI -3.66 to -1.47). The subgroup analysis demonstrated that the most effective interventions in reducing weight in postpartum women were exercise programs with objectively defined goals, such as the use of heart rate monitors or pedometer (MD of -4.09?kg-95% CI -4.94 to -3.25, I(2)=0%) and exercise combined with intensive dietary intervention (MD of -4.34?kg-95% CI -5.15 to -3.52, I(2)=0%). Thus, there is benefit from overall lifestyle interventions on weight loss in postpartum women and exercise plus intensive diet and objective targets are the most effective intervention strategies. PMID:24048142

Nascimento, S L; Pudwell, J; Surita, F G; Adamo, K B; Smith, G N

2014-05-01

358

Comparing the Postpartum Quality of Life Between Six to Eight Weeks and Twelve to Fourteen Weeks After Delivery in Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Women during the postpartum period experience many physiological, psychological, and social changes. Quality of life (QOL) is a sense of well-being and arises from satisfaction or dissatisfaction with various aspects of life including health, employment, socioeconomic state, psychological-emotional state, and family. Moreover, QOL is an important criteria for assessing healthcare system. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the postpartum QOL between six to eight and 12 to 14 weeks after delivery in women referred to public health centers in Dezful City, Iran, in 2011. Materials and Methods: This study was a longitudinal study. The study participants were 150 postpartum women referred to public health centers. Quota method was used for sampling. Data collection tools in this study were demographic questionnaire, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), short form health survey questionnaire (SF-36), and Specific Quality of Life after Delivery Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Results: The results showed that the mean scores of various dimensions of the SF-36 were significantly higher at 12 to 14 weeks than at six to eight weeks (P < 0.001). The postpartum mean depression score was significantly higher at six to eight weeks than at 12 to 14 weeks (P < 0.001). The mean score of QOL questionnaires at 12 to 14 weeks were increased in all dimensions in comparison with six to eight weeks; however, this increase was significant only in dimension of the mother's feelings toward herself, her husband, and others (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Because enormous changes develop in postpartum women, we suggest supportive measures for mother by her mother-in-law, family, and caregivers to improve the QOL and health status of the mother and her child. PMID:25237575

Bahrami, Nosrat; Karimian, Zahra; Bahrami, Somayeh; Bolbolhaghighi, Nahid

2014-01-01

359

Diet Quality as Measured by the Healthy Eating Index and the Association with Lipid Profile in Low-Income Women in Early Postpartum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early postpartum is a critical period that may initiate consumption of an unhealthful diet, which can lead to obesity and adverse lipid profiles. The Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI 2005) is a tool that assesses diet quality in terms of adherence to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Previous versions of HEI have shown to be associated with serum lipids.

Bijal S. Shah; Jeanne H. Freeland-Graves; Jodi M. Cahill; Hongxing Lu; Glenn R. Graves

2010-01-01

360

The WOMAN Trial (World Maternal Antifibrinolytic Trial): tranexamic acid for the treatment of postpartum haemorrhage: an international randomised, double blind placebo controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Each year, worldwide about 530,000 women die from causes related to pregnancy and childbirth. Of the deaths 99% are in low and middle income countries. Obstetric haemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal mortality, most occurring in the postpartum period. Systemic antifibrinolytic agents are widely used in surgery to prevent clot breakdown (fibrinolysis) in order to reduce surgical blood

Haleema Shakur; Diana Elbourne; Metin Gülmezoglu; Zarko Alfirevic; Carine Ronsmans; Elizabeth Allen; Ian Roberts

2010-01-01

361

What Patterns of Postpartum Psychological Distress Are Associated with Maternal Concerns about Their Children's Emotional and Behavioural Problems at the Age of Three Years?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mothers experiencing psychological distress in the postpartum period may have difficulties parenting their children. Inconsistent and unresponsive parenting may increase the risk of later emotional and behavioural problems in children. The purpose of this study was to identify how maternal psychological characteristics cluster at eight weeks…

Benzies, Karen; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Tough, Suzanne

2015-01-01

362

Successful catheter directed thrombolysis in postpartum deep venous thrombosis complicated by nicoumalone-induced skin necrosis and failure in retrieval of inferior vena caval filter.  

PubMed

Venous thromboembolism is an important cause for maternal morbidity and mortality in postpartum period. Though catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) is now considered as a safe and effective therapy for the management of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) but still it is not indicated in postpartum DVT. We are presenting a case of 22-year-old female patient who presented with post-partum lower limb DVT and managed successfully with CDT by using injection streptokinase and temporary inferior vena caval filter was inserted as prophylactic for pulmonary embolism as she had extensive DVT extending into inferior vena cava (IVC). During follow-up, she developed large skin necrosis in left lower limb which was managed by adding injection low-molecular-weight heparin. IVC filter also could not be retrieved even after trying all manoeuvres during follow-up after 2 weeks. PMID:23887994

Srinivas, B C; Patra, Soumya; Agrawal, Navin; Manjunath, C N

2013-01-01

363

Chronologic evidence for multiple periods of loess deposition during the Late Pleistocene in the Missouri and Mississippi River Valley, United States: Implications for the activity of the Laurentide ice sheet  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The loess stratigraphy of the mid-continental U.S. is an important proxy record for the activity of the Laurentide Ice Sheet in North America. One of the most outstanding problems is deciphering the age of loess deposits in this area during the late Pleistocene. Radiocarbon dating of snails and thermoluminescence dating of the fine-silt fraction (4-11 ??m) from loess at the Loveland Loess type section, Loveland, Iowa and a recent excavation at the Pleasant Grove School section. Madison County, Illinois provide new chronologic control on loess deposition in the Mississippi/Missouri River Valley chronology indicates that the Loveland Loess is Illinoian in age (135??20 ka) but is not correlative with the Teneriffe Silt which is dated to 77 ?? 8 ka. Concordant radiocarbon and thermoluminescence age estimates demonstrate that the Roxana Silt and a correlative loess in Iowa, the Pisgah Formation, is probably 40-30 ka old. These age estimates in conjunction with previous results indicate that there were four periods of loess deposition during the last 150 ka at 25-12 ka, 45-30 ka, 85-70 ka and at ca. 135 ?? 20 ka. This chronology of loess deposition supports the presence of both a late Illinoian and early Wisconsinan loess and associated soils. Thus, there may be more than one soil in the loess stratigraphy of the mid-continental U.S. with morphologies similar to the Sangamon Soil. The last three periods of loess deposition may be correlative with periods of elevated dust concentrations recorded in the Dye 3 ice core from southern Greenland. This is particularly significant because both areas possibly had the same source for eolian particles. Reconstructions of atmospheric circulation for glacial periods show a southerly deflected jet stream that could have transported dust from the mid-continental USA to southern Greenland. Lastly, the inferred record of loess deposition is parallel to a chronology for deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet deciphered from chronologic and stratigraphic studies of raised glacial and marine sediments in the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada. These chronologies indicate that the Laurentide Ice Sheet was quite dynamic during the late Pleistocene, advancing and retreating across North America at least four times during the last 150 ka. ?? 1992.

Forman, S.L.; Bettis, E. Arthur, III; Kemmis, T.J.; Miller, B.B.

1992-01-01

364

Factors that influence physical activity for pregnant and postpartum women and implications for primary care.  

PubMed

Many pregnant women and women of child-bearing age do not engage in the recommended levels of physical activity despite the well known benefits. Pregnancy and the postpartum period can be a time when inactivity actually increases. Women who experience gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) during their pregnancy are often advised to become more active in order to ameliorate their increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Health professionals have an influential role in promoting physical activity, which would be enhanced with an understanding of the factors that positively and negatively influence women's participation in physical activity during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. This research sought to explore these factors with pregnant and postpartum women including those who had experienced GDM and the attention given to physical activity during pregnancy. A survey was developed after a critical review of factors identified from previous studies. Women were recruited from the antenatal clinic, community health centres and the local media. Results from 72 women are reported from a predominately well educated, Caucasian population. Overall, the results were confirmatory of factors previously identified. Lack of child care, time constraints, no time and feeling unwell during pregnancy hindered activity and factors that facilitated activity included family support, enjoyment of activity and to prevent later health problems. It was also found that non-GDM women are given minimal advice about exercise during pregnancy. A checklist has been developed for health professionals, in partnership with women, to direct attention to the factors that enable and hinder participation in physical activity during and after pregnancy. PMID:21616029

Doran, Frances; Davis, Kierrynn

2011-01-01

365

Factors associated with early cyclicity in postpartum dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate factors associated with resumption of ovarian cyclicity within 21 days in milk (DIM) in dairy cows. Cows (n=768) from 2 herds in north Florida had their ovaries scanned at 17±3, 21±3, and 24±3 DIM. Cows that had a corpus luteum ?20mm at 17±3 or at 21±3 DIM or that had a corpus luteum <20mm in 2 consecutive examinations were determined to be cyclic by 21±3 DIM. The following information was collected for up to 14 DIM: calving season, parity, calving problems, metabolic problems, metritis, mastitis, digestive problems, lameness, body weight loss, dry period length, and average daily milk yield. Body condition was scored at 17±3 DIM. Multivariable mixed logistic regression analysis was performed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Variables with P?0.2 were considered in each model. Herd was included as a random variable. Three models were constructed: model 1 included all cows, model 2 included only cows from dairy 1 that had daily body weights available, and model 3 included only multiparous cows with a previous dry period length recorded. In model 1, variables associated with greater cyclicity by 21±3 DIM were calving in the summer and fall rather than in the winter or spring, being multiparous rather than primiparous, and not having metabolic or digestive problems. In model 2, variables associated with greater cyclicity by 21±3 DIM were calving in the summer and fall, not having metritis or digestive problems and not losing >28 kg of BW within 14 DIM. In model 3, variables associated with greater cyclicity by 21±3 DIM were absence of metabolic problems and dry period ?76 d. In summary, cyclicity by 21±3 DIM was negatively associated with calving in winter or spring, primiparity, metritis, metabolic or digestive problems, loss of >28 kg of body weight, and a dry period >76d. Strategies preventing extended dry period length and loss of BW, together with reductions in the incidence of metritis as well as metabolic and digestive problems should improve early cyclicity postpartum. PMID:25465552

Vercouteren, M M A A; Bittar, J H J; Pinedo, P J; Risco, C A; Santos, J E P; Vieira-Neto, A; Galvão, K N

2015-01-01

366

Nutrition and the psychoneuroimmunology of postpartum depression  

PubMed Central

Postpartum depression (PPD) is a relatively common and often severe mood disorder that develops in women after childbirth. The aetiology of PPD is unclear, although there is emerging evidence to suggest a psychoneuroimmune connection. Additionally, deficiencies in n-3 PUFA, B vitamins, vitamin D and trace minerals have been implicated. This paper reviews evidence for a link between micronutrient status and PPD, analysing the potential contribution of each micronutrient to psychoneuroimmunological mechanisms of PPD. Articles related to PPD and women’s levels of n-3 PUFA, B vitamins, vitamin D and the trace minerals Zn and Se were reviewed. Findings suggest that while n-3 PUFA levels have been shown to vary inversely with PPD and link with psychoneuroimmunology, there is mixed evidence regarding the ability of n-3 PUFA to prevent or treat PPD. B vitamin status is not clearly linked to PPD, even though it seems to vary inversely with depression in non-perinatal populations and may have an impact on immunity. Vitamin D and the trace minerals Zn and Se are linked to PPD and psychoneuroimmunology by intriguing, but small, studies. Overall, evidence suggests that certain micronutrient deficiencies contribute to the development of PPD, possibly through psychoneuroimmunological mechanisms. Developing a better understanding of these mechanisms is important for guiding future research, clinical practice and health education regarding PPD. PMID:22853878

Ellsworth-Bowers, E. R.; Corwin, E. J.

2013-01-01

367

Postpartum Depression: Is Mode of Delivery a Risk Factor?  

PubMed Central

There are various factors related to postpartum depression. In this study we have aimed to determine the effect of mode of delivery on the risk of postpartum depression. A total of 318 women who applied for delivery were included in the study. Previously diagnosed fetal anomalies, preterm deliveries, stillbirths, and patients with need of intensive care unit were excluded from the study. Data about the patients were obtained during hospital stay. During the postpartum sixth week visit Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS) was applied. There was no significant difference between EPDS scores when compared according to age, education, gravidity, wanting the pregnancy, fear about birth, gender, family type, and income level (P > 0.05). Those who had experienced emesis during their pregnancy, had a history of depression, and were housewives had significantly higher EPDS scores (P < 0.05). Delivering by spontaneous vaginal birth, elective Cesarean section, or emergency Cesarean section had no effect on EPDS scores. In conclusion healthcare providers should be aware of postpartum depression risk in nonworking women with a history of emesis and depression and apply the EPDS to them for early detection of postpartum depression. PMID:23304542

Goker, Asli; Yanikkerem, Emre; Demet, M. Murat; Dikayak, Serife; Yildirim, Yasemin; Koyuncu, Faik M.

2012-01-01

368

Use of the principle of proprioceptive correction in the restoration of voluntary movements in the paralyzed arm in patients in the late recovery and residual post-stroke periods.  

PubMed

A specially developed proprioceptive correction costume was used for the restoration of motor functions in the proximal parts of the upper limb in central paralysis syndrome in patients in the late recovery and residual post-stroke states. The costume is a logical continuation of the Adeli and Gravistat proprioceptive correction systems, directed to restoring balance and gait in post-stroke patients. The costume consists of a waistcoat and cuffs connected by a system of elastic bands fixed around the shoulder and forearm of the paralyzed upper limb. Controlling the tension in the elastic bands allows a regime of "facilitated" work to be created, with increased loading of active movements in the proximal parts of the paralyzed arm. The effectiveness of using the proprioceptive correction costume in restoring voluntary movements in the upper limb was demonstrated during the treatment of 23 patients in the late recovery and residual post-stroke periods. In most patients, treatment resulted in significant decreases in the extent of paralysis in the arm and produced recovery rates greater than those seen in the control group. Use of the proprioceptive correction costume in the neurorehabilitation complex is advised for restoration of voluntary movements in the arms of stroke patients. PMID:18607743

Prokopenko, S V; Rudnev, V A; Arakchaa, E M; Derevtsova, S N

2008-07-01

369

Depression During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Among HIV-Infected Women on Antiretroviral Therapy in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background: Among HIV-infected women, perinatal depression compromises clinical, maternal, and child health outcomes. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is associated with lower depression symptom severity but the uniformity of effect through pregnancy and postpartum periods is unknown. Methods: We analyzed prospective data from 447 HIV-infected women (18–49 years) initiating ART in rural Uganda (2005–2012). Participants completed blood work and comprehensive questionnaires quarterly. Pregnancy status was assessed by self-report. Analysis time periods were defined as currently pregnant, postpartum (0–12 months post-pregnancy outcome), or non–pregnancy-related. Depression symptom severity was measured using a modified Hopkins Symptom Checklist 15, with scores ranging from 1 to 4. Probable depression was defined as >1.75. Linear regression with generalized estimating equations was used to compare mean depression scores over the 3 periods. Results: At enrollment, median age was 32 years (interquartile range: 27–37), median CD4 count was 160 cells per cubic millimeter (interquartile range: 95–245), and mean depression score was 1.75 (s = 0.58) (39% with probable depression). Over 4.1 median years of follow-up, 104 women experienced 151 pregnancies. Mean depression scores did not differ across the time periods (P = 0.75). Multivariable models yielded similar findings. Increasing time on ART, viral suppression, better physical health, and “never married” were independently associated with lower mean depression scores. Findings were consistent when assessing probable depression. Conclusions: Although the lack of association between depression and perinatal periods is reassuring, high depression prevalence at treatment initiation and continued incidence across pregnancy and non–pregnancy-related periods of follow-up highlight the critical need for mental health services for HIV-infected women to optimize both maternal and perinatal health. PMID:25436816

Matthews, Lynn T.; Ashaba, Scholastic; Tsai, Alexander C.; Kanters, Steve; Robak, Magdalena; Psaros, Christina; Kabakyenga, Jerome; Boum, Yap; Haberer, Jessica E.; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Hunt, Peter W.; Bangsberg, David R.

2014-01-01

370

Addition of Sodium Bicarbonate to Rations of Pre and Postpartum Dairy Cows1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium bicarbonate was added to complete mixed rations to evaluate the effect of buffer addition on adaptation to high-energy rations by dairy cows in early lactation. Forty-five Holstein cows were assigned to one of three treatment groups: control pre- and postpartum; control prepartum, buffer postpartum; and buffer pre- and postpartum. Rations consisted of 85% chopped grass hay: 15% concentrate prepartum

L. H. Kilmer; L. D. Muller; P. J. Wangsness

1980-01-01

371

Women’s experience with postpartum intrauterine contraceptive device use in India  

PubMed Central

Background Postpartum intrauterine contraceptive devices (PPIUCD) are increasingly included in many national postpartum family planning (PPFP) programs, but satisfaction of women who have adopted PPIUCD and complication rates need further characterization. Our specific aims were to describe women who accepted PPIUCD, their experience and satisfaction with their choice, and complication of expulsion or infection. Methods We studied 2,733 married women, aged 15–49 years, who received PPIUCD in sixteen health facilities, located in eight states and the national capital territory of India, at the time of IUCD insertion and six weeks later. The satisfaction of women who received IUCD during the postpartum period and problems and complications following insertion were assessed using standardized questionnaires. Results Mean (SD) age of women accepting PPIUCD was 24 (4) years. Over half of women had parity of one, and nearly one-quarter had no formal schooling. Nearly all women (99.6%) reported that they were satisfied with IUCD at the time of insertion and 92% reported satisfaction at the six-week follow-up visit. The rate of expulsion of IUCD was 3.6% by six weeks of follow-up. There were large variations in rates of problems and complications that were largely attributable to the individual hospitals implementing the study. Conclusions Women who receive PPIUCD show a high level of satisfaction with this choice of contraception, and the rates of expulsion were low enough such that the benefits of contraceptive protection outweigh the potential inconvenience of needing to return for care for that subset of women. PMID:24755312

2014-01-01

372

Postpartum osteoporosis and vertebral fractures in two patients treated with enoxaparin during pregnancy.  

PubMed

Postpartum osteoporosis (PPO) is a rare disease associated with pregnancy and lactation period. Here, we report severe PPO and multiple vertebral compression fractures in two patients treated with enoxaparin--low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH)--throughout their pregnancy. A 34-year-old woman who has delivered her second baby 3 months ago presented with severe low-back pain. She was treated with enoxaparin 40 mg/day for 8 months during her pregnancy. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) showed low T- and Z-scores in lumbar (L) vertebras. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), severe height losses in thoracic (T) 12, L1, and L2 vertebras were detected. She was diagnosed to have severe PPO and multiple vertebral compression fractures and was prescribed risedronate 35 mg/week, calcium, and vitamin D. The other patient was a 36-year-old woman diagnosed with PPO and vertebral fractures at the third week postpartum. She was also treated with enoxaparin 60 mg/day during her pregnancy. Severe osteoporosis in L vertebras and height losses indicative for compression fractures in T5-8, T11-12, and L2-5 vertebras were detected by DEXA and MRI, respectively. She was treated with calcitonin 200 U/day, calcium, and vitamin D. These findings suggest that vertebral compression fractures and PPO may be one of the causes of severe back pain in postpartum patients. Treatment with LMWH during pregnancy might be considered as a new risk factor for this rare condition. PMID:25138263

Ozdemir, D; Tam, A A; Dirikoc, A; Ersoy, R; Cakir, B

2015-01-01

373

Optimistic outlook regarding maternity protects against depressive symptoms postpartum.  

PubMed

The transition to motherhood is a time of elevated risk for clinical depression. Dispositional optimism may be protective against depressive symptoms; however, the arrival of a newborn presents numerous challenges that may be at odds with initially positive expectations, and which may contribute to depressed mood. We have explored the relative contributions of antenatal and postnatal optimism regarding maternity to depressive symptoms in the postnatal period. Ninety-eight pregnant women underwent clinician interview in the third trimester to record psychiatric history, antenatal depressive symptoms, and administer a novel measure of optimism towards maternity. Measures of depressive symptoms, attitudes to maternity, and mother-to-infant bonding were obtained from 97 study completers at monthly intervals through 3 months postpartum. We found a positive effect of antenatal optimism, and a negative effect of postnatal disconfirmation of expectations, on depressive mood postnatally. Postnatal disconfirmation, but not antenatal optimism, was associated with more negative attitudes toward maternity postnatally. Antenatal optimism, but not postnatal disconfirmation, was associated with reduced scores on a mother-to-infant bonding measure. The relationships between antenatal optimism, postnatal disconfirmation of expectations, and postnatal depression held true among primigravidas and multigravidas, as well as among women with prior histories of mood disorders, although antenatal optimism tended to be lower among women with mental health histories. We conclude that cautious antenatal optimism, rather than immoderate optimism or frank pessimism, is the approach that is most protective against postnatal depressive symptoms, and that this is true irrespective of either mood disorder history or parity. Factors predisposing to negative cognitive assessments and impaired mother-to-infant bonding may be substantially different than those associated with depressive symptoms, a finding that merits further study. PMID:25088532

Robakis, Thalia K; Williams, Katherine E; Crowe, Susan; Kenna, Heather; Gannon, Jamie; Rasgon, Natalie L

2015-04-01

374

Reproductive tract defense and disease in postpartum dairy cows.  

PubMed

This paper briefly reviews recent data and concepts on the development and mitigation of infection and inflammation in the reproductive tract of dairy cows during the first 2 mo after calving. The incidence of metritis is typically between 10 and 20%, of clinical endometritis or purulent vaginal discharge (PVD) approximately 15%, and of subclinical or cytological endometritis a further 15%. Worse postpartum negative energy balance is associated with more severe or prolonged uterine inflammation. Changes in feed intake, expression of genes for pro-inflammatory cytokines, notably interleukin (IL) 1, IL6 and IL8, circulating concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) or nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and innate immune function precede both metritis and endometritis by several weeks. Infections with Escherichia coli and Arcanobacterium pyogenes are associated with both metritis and PVD. There are new data to suggest that specific virulence factors in E. coli associated with adherence may be important in metritis and PVD. Cytological endometritis and PVD are overlapping but largely distinct conditions, and there are emerging data that cervicitis exists both concurrent with and separate from endometritis. Much remains to be learned about what initiates and sustains harmful inflammation of the reproductive tract. Such information is necessary to develop effective treatments for the various forms of disease and, more importantly, to develop means to prevent endometritis and cervicitis. In particular, vaccination against specific uterine pathogens and interventions to modulate innate immune response appear to be important avenues for investigation. Presently, commonly recommended best management practices for cows in the transition period are likely to be helpful to mitigate the risk of reproductive disease. PMID:21890187

LeBlanc, Stephen J; Osawa, Takeshi; Dubuc, Jocelyn

2011-12-01

375

Aripiprazole augmentation of antidepressants for postpartum depression: a preliminary report.  

PubMed

We describe the results of an open-label study designed to assess the effectiveness and tolerability of aripiprazole addition to an antidepressant in patients with major depressive disorder with postpartum onset who had not experienced significant clinical improvement following an adequate trial of an antidepressant. Eight of ten women completed the trial with augmentation of aripiprazole (2-10 mg) to their existing antidepressant treatment. Our results suggest a possible therapeutic role for aripiprazole when added to an antidepressant in non-breastfeeding women with postpartum depression. Aripiprazole addition appeared effective and safe with no serious adverse events reported. PMID:25223952

Sharma, Verinder; Sommerdyk, Christina; Xie, Bin

2015-02-01

376

Family history, not lack of medication use, is associated with the development of postpartum depression in a high-risk sample.  

PubMed

We sought to determine clinical predictors of postpartum depression (PPD), including the role of medication, in a sample of women followed prospectively during and after pregnancy. Women with a history of mood disorder were recruited and evaluated during each trimester and 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postpartum. DSM-IV criteria for a major depressive episode were assessed by a psychiatric interview at each time point. Sixty-three women with major depression and 30 women with bipolar disorder entered the study and 75.4 % met DSM-IV criteria for a MDE during pregnancy, postpartum, or both. We modeled depression in a given time period (second trimester, third trimester, or 1 month postpartum) as a function of medication use during the preceding period (first, second, or third trimester). The odds of being depressed for those who did not use medication in the previous period was approximately 2.8 times that of those who used medication (OR 2.79, 95 % CI 1.38-5.66, p?=?0.0048). Of 38 subjects who were psychiatrically well during the third trimester, 39.5 % (N?=?15) met the criteria for a MDE by 4 weeks postpartum. In women who developed PPD, there was a high rate of a family history of PPD (53.3 %) compared to women who did not develop PPD (11.8 %, p?=?0.02). While the use of psychiatric medications during pregnancy reduced the odds of being depressed overall, the use of psychiatric medications during pregnancy may not protect against PPD in women at high risk, particularly those with a family history of PPD. PMID:24980575

Kimmel, Mary; Hess, Edward; Roy, Patricia S; Palmer, Jennifer Teitelbaum; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Meuchel, Jennifer M; Bost-Baxter, Emily; Payne, Jennifer L

2015-02-01

377

Influence of cardiac rehabilitation in Primigravida with spontaneous coronary artery dissection during postpartum  

PubMed Central

Background The physical exercise consists of trainable physical abilities such as strength and endurance. It can be inferred that the individual cardiac patient is dependent on it as an associated therapy to the drug treatment for a rapid and lasting improvement of their overall clinical status Case presentation The patient – with Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection Postpartum period – was subjected to 21 sessions of cardiac rehabilitation. A physical evaluation was performed, before and after the treatment period, for data collection: anthropometric values, flexibility, aerobic capacity and strength of grip. Conclusion The patient had a positive response in aerobic capacity, flexibility and grip strength and the anthropometric values were kept in short term rehabilitation. PMID:24829614

2014-01-01

378

[Course of chronic paranoid delusions during pregnancy and post-partum].  

PubMed

In order to analyse the evolution of the mental state of patient suffering from chronic delirium, during their pregnancy and the postpartum period, we researched the medical history of some pregnant women about 50 pregnancies. It appears that the period preceding the birth is calm in the great majority of cases. However the delirium reappears in the days following the birth in a brutal fashion in nearly a third of the cases. No malformation in the child is found, but we should note there was one case of infanticide and one young baby was abandoned in the street. The delirium, often concerning the identity or the theft of the child, has necessitated the hospitalisation. The termination of psychotropic drugs is justified during the months of pregnancy. However it often brings with it, an end to psychiatric follow up and the absence of any return to treatment, which seems necessary to us immediately after the birth. PMID:1781582

Maudoux, M; Prevost, P; Repellin, F; Pailleux, J M; Couzinet, N

1991-11-01

379

Transcriptome analysis of bovine granulosa cells of preovulatory follicles harvested 30, 60, 90, and 120 days postpartum.  

PubMed

The nutritional requirements of high-producing dairy cows increase rapidly in the weeks postpartum due to elevated milk production, and most cows enter a state of negative energy balance (NEB). Cows in this condition may preferentially divert nutrients away from reproduction, thereby experiencing a period of anovulatory anestrus, delayed ovulation of large follicles, and impaired fertility. To better understand the changes occurring in these large follicles as a function of time postpartum, granulosa cells from preovulatory follicles were collected at different times after calving: 30 days, 60 days, 90 days, and 120 days from a minimum of six animals at each time point. Three subjects for each period were selected for the analysis of the transcriptome, which was performed using a global bovine oligoarray microarray to identify differences in gene expression and cellular functions that occur in the follicular microenvironment during the progressive recovery from NEB in dairy cows. The time point 120 days was chosen as a reference period, as cows are then fully recovered from NEB. Data clustering indicated that the most different period from 120 days was 60 days with several 100 genes deregulated at that time. The principal cellular functions affected were cell proliferation, which was reduced, and deregulation of steroidogenesis, indicating immaturity of the follicles from the 60-day period relative to 120 days. One of the most interesting downregulated pathways was p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, which is sensitive to the amount of retinoic acid or vitamin A, suggesting a possible treatment to improve postpartum fertility. PMID:24985356

Golini, V E; Stradaioli, G; Sirard, M A

2014-09-01

380

Association study of the estrogen receptor gene ESR1 with post-partum depression – a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Perinatal mood disorders, such as postpartum depression (PPD) are costly for society, with potentially serious consequences for mother and child. While multiple genes appear to play a role in PPD susceptibility, the contributions of specific genetic variations remain unclear. Previously implicated as a candidate gene, the estrogen receptor alpha gene (ESR1) is a key player in mediating hormonal differences during pregnancy and the postpartum period. This study addresses genetic factors in perinatal mood disorders, testing 9 polymorphisms in ESR1. 257 postpartum women were screened for mood disorders, including 52 women with PPD and 32 without any symptoms of mood disorders. We detected a significant association for the upstream TA microsatellite repeat with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (p=0.007). The same variant was also associated with the occurrence of PPD. Separately, 11 candidate functional polymorphisms in 7 additional genes were genotyped to investigate gene-gene interaction with the ESR1 TA repeat, identifying a potential interaction with the serotonin transporter. Our results support a role for ESR1 in the etiology of PPD, possibly through the modulation of serotonin signaling. Our findings for ESR1 could have broad implications for other disorders and therapies that involve estrogens. PMID:23917948

Pinsonneault, Julia K.; Sullivan, Danielle; Sadee, Wolfgang; Soares, Claudio N.; Hampson, Elizabeth; Steiner, Meir

2013-01-01

381

Development of a multiplex PCR for the identification of major pathogenic bacteria of post-partum endometritis in dairy cows.  

PubMed

Post-partum period has an important role in cows' breeding due to its effects on reproductive efficiency and subsequent pregnancy. Escherichia coli, Trueperella pyogenes (Arcanobacterium pyogenes), Fusobacterium necrophorum and Prevotella melaninogenicus are recognized as major pathogens associated with uterine endometrial lesions. The objective of this study was to identify these pathogens using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a culture-independent sensitive method. A total of 172 cows were examined 25-35 days post-partum, and 128 cows were examined at 2 weeks later (39-49 days post-partum). Uterine discharges were collected by covered plastic infusion pipettes. The prevalence of endometritis was greater in the first examination than the second (35.5% vs. 16%). E. coli was detected in eight of the samples, T. pyogenes was detected in 13 of the samples and F. necrophorum was detected in 11 of the samples. There was no positive sample of P. melaninogenicus. Uterine contamination by T. pyogenes and F. necrophorum in the first examination was higher than the second examination. T. pyogenes affected as a tendency the prevalence of clinical endometritis in first examination. Primiparous cows showed 4.02 times higher odds of clinical endometritis compared with second-parity cows in first examination. A multiplex PCR protocol as a simple, less expensive, fast assay was introduced to identify E. coli, T. pyogenes and F. necrophorum. PMID:24325777

Aghamiri, S M; Haghkhah, M; Ahmadi, M R; Gheisari, H R

2014-04-01

382

Sleep, rhythms and women's mood. Part I. Menstrual cycle, pregnancy and postpartum.  

PubMed

This review summarizes studies of sleep and other biological rhythms during the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and the postpartum period, focusing, where feasible, on studies in women who met DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, 4th edition) criteria for a depressive disorder compared with healthy controls. The aim was to review supporting evidence for the hypothesis that disruption of the normal temporal relationship between sleep and other biological rhythms such as melatonin, core body temperature, cortisol, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) or prolactin occurring during times of reproductive hormonal change precipitates depressive disorders in predisposed women. Treatment strategies, designed to correct these altered phase (timing) or amplitude abnormalities, thereby improve mood. Although there may be some common features to premenstrual, pregnancy and postpartum depressive disorders (e.g. elevated prolactin levels), a specific profile of sleep and biological rhythms distinguishes healthy from depressed women during each reproductive epoch. Further work is needed to characterize more fully the particular abnormalities associated with each reproductive state to identify common versus distinctive features for each diagnostic group. This information could serve as the basis for developing more targeted treatment strategies. PMID:16460973

Parry, Barbara L; Martínez, L Fernando; Maurer, Eva L; López, Ana M; Sorenson, Diane; Meliska, Charles J

2006-04-01

383

Men's experience of their partners' postpartum psychiatric disorders: narratives from the internet.  

PubMed

Objectives Postpartum psychiatric disorders (PPPD) can be serious and disabling, and may lead to long-term adverse consequences. Partners of women with PPPD are also affected by the illness, but their experiences are seldom described. The aim of this study was to explore men's experience of women with PPPD.Methods Eleven written narratives from the internet were used to analyse men's perceived experience of their partner's PPPDs. Data were analysed using content analysis.Results The men revealed a major disruption in their lives. They expressed fear, confusion and anger; they were also extremely concerned about their partners, and felt unable to help in overcoming the disorder. Most of the men described making sacrifices in order to hold the relationship and the family together. Although the disorder improved over time, they were left to face an uncertain future with a woman who seemed to be very different from the person they had known previously. Most of the men gained maturity and increased self-esteem, but for some the result was divorce, custody disputes and loneliness.Conclusions The men in this study experienced the woman's PPPD as a difficult time, when everything familiar was turned upside down. Health professionals should pay more attention to men's mental health in the postpartum period. Furthermore, information regarding the possibility of these disorders should be given to expectant couples in prenatal classes. Further research is needed to ascertain how and to what extent this should be included in the education. PMID:22942895

Engqvist, Inger; Nilsson, K

2011-09-01

384

"Doing the month": Postpartum practices in Chinese women.  

PubMed

This review describes the traditional ancient Chinese postpartum practice of "doing the month" or "zuoyuezi", the evidence for specific practices, maternal adherence to practices, and their effect upon the maternal postpartum physical and psychological health. A comprehensive search yielded 38 English or Chinese publications about common practices, adherence to practices, and their effects upon Chinese women's physical and psychological health. Doing the month involves a series of practices related to the maternal role, physical activity, maintenance of body warmth, and food consumption that are believed to restore maternal postpartum health and prevent future disease. Strengths of these practices include acknowledgment of the woman's societal and familial contribution to childbearing and the provision of consistent family support. There is concern for the effect of some practices upon both maternal physical and psychological health, particularly for postpartum depression. Current evidence about the effects of doing-the-month practices upon maternal health needs to be integrated into the traditional practices of doing the month to improve maternal health. PMID:24798890

Liu, Yan Qun; Petrini, Marcia; Maloni, Judith A

2014-05-01

385

Ruptured diaphragmatic eventration: a rare cause of acute postpartum dyspnea.  

PubMed

Rupture of a maternal diaphragmatic hernia (DH) during pregnancy is a rare but significant complication. We describe a case of a maternal ruptured DH, presenting as acute postpartum dyspnea, which required urgent operative repair. We report our surgical strategy and review the key concepts in the multidisciplinary management of this condition. PMID:22632531

Servais, Elliot L; Stiles, Brendon M; Finnerty, Brendan M; Paul, Subroto

2012-06-01

386

Endovascular Therapies for Primary Postpartum Hemorrhage: Techniques and Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Interventional radiologists are often consulted for acute management of hemorrhagic complications in obstetric and gynecologic patients. The aim of this article is to review the common indications for vascular embolization in obstetric and gynecologic emergencies, specifically in the setting of primary postpartum hemorrhage, and to discuss the technique and outcomes of endovascular treatment. PMID:24436559

Gipson, Matthew G.; Smith, Mitchell T.

2013-01-01

387

Trajectories of Postpartum Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Children's Social Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The vast majority of new mothers experience at least some depressive symptoms. Postpartum maternal depressive symptoms can greatly influence children's outcomes (e.g., emotional, cognitive, language, and social development). However, there have been relatively few longitudinal studies of how maternal depressive symptoms may influence children's…

Wu, Yelena P.; Selig, James P.; Roberts, Michael C.; Steele, Ric G.

2011-01-01

388

Physiological mechanisms controlling anestrus and infertility in postpartum beef cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Postpartum infertility is caused by four factors: general infertility, lack of uterine involution, short estrous cycles and anestrus. The general infertility component is common to any estrous cycle and reduces potential fertility by 20 to 30%. Incomplete uterine involution prevents fertilization during the first 20 d after calving but is not related to anestrus. Short estrous cycles prevent fertility

R. E. Short; R. A. Bellows; R. B. Staigmiller; J. G. Berardinelli; E. E. Custer; E. E. Custep

389

La contraception du post-partum : état des connaissances  

Microsoft Academic Search

It takes some six weeks for menstrual flow to come back after delivery, but an ovulation may occur from the twenty-fifth day, especially in the absence of bottle feeding. That is the reason why postpartum birth control must be gets onto in maternity wards. Obstetricians and midwives are supposed to deliver update information about variant contraceptive means. They have to

G. Robin; P. Massart; F. Graizeau; B. Guérin du Masgenet

2008-01-01

390

SECONDARY POSTPARTUM HAEMORRHAGE DUE TO RUPTURE OF UTERUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a very unusual case of secondary postpartum hemorrhage due to uterine rupture. Our case was a 23 years old lady who presented with heavy bleeding per vagina and gave his- tory of home delivery. Rupture was most probably caused by injudicious use of oxytocic injec- tion by a Traditional Birth Attendant at home. Surprisingly, after recovering completely from

Amna Memon; Raheel Sikandar; Fatima Memon; Farhana Saeed

391

Post-partum pyogenic abscess containing Ascaris lumbricoides  

PubMed Central

We report an unusual case of multiple pyogenic liver abscesses containing Ascariasis lumbricoides in a 35-year-old post-partum female who had delivered 1 month back. Open drainage of liver abscess along with liver worm was done. Patient did well post-operatively. PMID:23961448

Hamid, Raashid; Wani, Sajad; Ahmad, Nawab; Akhter, Afrozah

2013-01-01

392

The Structure of Women's Mood in the Early Postpartum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "postpartum blues" is a mild, predictable mood disturbance occurring within the first several days following childbirth. Previous analyses of the "blues" symptom structure yielded inconclusive findings, making reliable assessment a significant methodological limitation. The current study aimed to explicate the symptom structure of women's mood…

Buttner, Melissa M.; O'Hara, Michael W.; Watson, David

2012-01-01

393

Reply: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for postpartum depression  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To the Editors: We appreciate the interest and the comments of Chiu et al. concerning our recently published study investigating the effect of maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation to prevent postpartum depression (PPD). We agree with many of their criticisms and, in fact, discussed th...

394

Blood mononuclear cell gene expression signature of postpartum depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In sorrow thou shalt bring forth children (Genesis 3:16) seems as relevant today, with one of seven mothers afflicted by a depressive episode, constituting the most common medical complication after delivery. Why mothers are variably affected by mood symptoms postpartum remains unclear, and the pathogenesis and early molecular indicators of this divergent outcome have not been described. We applied a

R H Segman; T Goltser-Dubner; I Weiner; L Canetti; E Galili-Weisstub; A Milwidsky; V Pablov; N Friedman; D Hochner-Celnikier

2010-01-01

395

Reversible splenial lesion in postpartum cerebral angiopathy: a case report.  

PubMed

Reversible lesions on magnetic resonance imaging that transiently restrict diffusion in the splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC) without any other accompanying lesions have been reported in various clinical conditions. We offer the first report of postpartum cerebral angiopathy with reversible SCC lesions. PMID:22928778

Takahashi, Yoshinobu; Hashimoto, Naoya; Tokoroyama, Hiroki; Yamauchi, Shigeru; Nakasato, Matsuyoshi; Kondo, Kimito; Nitta, Kazumi; Ide, Wataru; Hashimoto, Ikuo; Kamada, Hajime

2014-01-01

396

Pregnancy Problems, Postpartum Depression, and Early Mother-Infant Interactions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mothers observed at 3 to 5 months postpartum interacting with their infants were given attitude questionnaires. Mothers who had reported preganancy problems were more depressed and anxious and expressed more punitive childrearing attitudes than mothers not reporting pregnancy problems. (Author/NH)

Field, Tiffany; And Others

1985-01-01

397

An international study exploring levels of postpartum depressive symptomatology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Differences in postpartum depressive symptomatology (PPDS) among an international sample of 892 women from nine countries representing five continents were explored.Method: Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used to assess PPDS among a convenience sample that completed the two questionnaires twice, yielding a total of four sets of scores per subject. Women sampled were

Dyanne D. Affonso; Anindya K. De; June Andrews Horowitz; Linda J. Mayberry

2000-01-01

398

Women at risk for postpartum-onset major depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable evidence that the childbearing years represent a time when women are highly vulnerable to developing mood disorders. Prospective, cross-sectional, and retrospective studies have demonstrated that more than 10% of new adult mothers will experience a major depressive episode during the first postpartum year. Changes in the health care delivery system will result in increased pressure on the

Zachary N. Stowe; Charles B. Nemeroff

1995-01-01

399

A Family Approach to Treatment of Postpartum Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Postpartum depression (PPD) has an impact on the entire family. The authors describe a model of intervention that emphasizes the family system and includes mothers, fathers, and children in the treatment of PPD. The intervention is provided by a multidisciplinary team consisting of a psychiatrist, social worker, child psychologist, and therapists.…

McKay, Judith; Shaver-Hast, Laura; Sharnoff, Wendy; Warren, Mary Ellen; Wright, Harry

2009-01-01

400

Risk factors and predictive signs of postpartum depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Depressed new mothers usually do not seek and therefore do not receive any psychiatric help. Methods: In order to assess predictive signs of postpartum depression (PPD), an unselected sample of 570 women were seen by midwives during their pregnancy, using a questionnaire elaborated by ourselves and Derogatis' Hopkins Symptom Checklist. Three months after delivery each new mother was examined

Marion Righetti-Veltema; Elisabeth Conne-Perréard; Arnaud Bousquet; Juan Manzano

1998-01-01

401

Anger after Childbirth: An Overlooked Reaction to Postpartum Stressors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Other than postpartum depression, little is known about women's emotional responses to childbirth and subsequent stressors. Anger was explored on the basis of theory and evidence that it is a likely emotional response in this context. During their third trimester of pregnancy and approximately six weeks after delivery, 163 participants completed…

Graham, Jennifer E.; Lobel, Marci; DeLuca, Robyn Stein

2002-01-01