Science.gov

Sample records for late postpartum period

  1. Admission to psychiatric hospital in the early and late postpartum periods: Scottish national linkage study

    PubMed Central

    Langan Martin, Julie; McLean, Gary; Cantwell, Roch; Smith, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe weekly admission rates for affective and non-affective psychosis, major depression and other psychiatric disorders in the early and late postpartum periods. To assess the impact of socioeconomic status, age and parity on admission rates. Methods Scottish maternity records were linked to psychiatric hospital admissions. 3290 pregnancy-related psychiatric admissions were assessed. Weekly admission rates were calculated for the pregnancy period, early postpartum period (6 weeks after birth) and late postpartum period (up to 2 years after birth), and compared with pre-pregnancy rates (up to 2 years before pregnancy). Admission rates were generated by calculating the total number of admissions for each time period divided by the number of weeks in the period. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were generated for each time period, using deprivation, age, parity and record of previous psychiatric hospital care-adjusted Poisson regression models. Results Women from more deprived social quintiles accounted for the largest proportion of admissions across all time periods. Compared with pre-pregnancy period, admission rates fell during pregnancy, increased markedly during the early postpartum period, and remained elevated for 2 years after childbirth. Within the most affluent quintile, admission IRRs were higher in the early postpartum period (IRR=1.29, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.59) than in the late postpartum period (IRR=0.87, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.98). For the late postpartum period, there was a positive association between higher maternal age and admission IRRs (ages 20–35 years, IRR=1.35, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.54 and age>40 years IRR=1.72, 95% CI 1.41 to 2.09). Conclusions Rates of psychiatric admission fell during pregnancy and increased in the early postpartum period (particularly during the first 2 weeks after birth), and remained elevated above baseline during the 2-year late postpartum period. An understanding of how social deprivation, age and parity

  2. Mood and objective and subjective measures of sleep during late pregnancy and the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Coo, Soledad; Milgrom, Jeannette; Trinder, John

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the association between measures of objective sleep (OS) and subjective sleep (SS) to postpartum mood in healthy women from the third trimester of pregnancy to 10 to 12 weeks postpartum. Twenty-nine pregnant women completed self-report measures of mood and SS, and wore actigraphs for 7 continuous days during the third trimester (Time 1), within 15 days (Time 2), and 10 to 12 weeks postpartum (Time 3). The subjective perception of marked daytime dysfunction was associated with low mood during Time 1 and Time 3. Poor nighttime SS was related to low mood only at Time 2, whereas poor nighttime OS influenced stress during the same assessment time. These data indicate a stronger association between postpartum mood and the subjective perception of sleep than with OS quality and duration in healthy, non-depressed women, and highlight the awareness of poor daytime functioning as a significant contributor to new mothers' emotional wellbeing. PMID:24128191

  3. Serum levels of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1, leptin, and lipids during late pregnancy and the early postpartum period in mares.

    PubMed

    Arfuso, F; Giannetto, C; Rizzo, M; Fazio, F; Giudice, E; Piccione, G

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of serum mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and leptin levels as well as of lipid and lipoprotein profiles in mares during the peripartum period. Ten pregnant mares (group A) were monitored from 15 ± 3 days of pregnancy until 15 days after foaling, and 10 nonpregnant nonlactating mares constituted the control (group B). In group A, blood sampling was performed on Days 15 ± 3 and 7 ± 3 before foaling, on the day of foaling, and on Days 7 and 15 after foaling. In group B, blood sampling was performed on the same days as in group A. Serum levels were determined for UCP1, leptin, total lipids, phospholipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol (Total-Chol), high-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs). Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA was applied to evaluate the effects of peripartum period and group membership. All studied parameters except phospholipid levels (P > 0.05) showed significant changes in group A over the peripartum period (P < 0.0001). A significant effect of pregnancy was found on all studied parameters (P < 0.001), which showed lower levels in group A than in group B for most of the time points considered. Significant negative correlations were found between UCP1 and total lipids, triglycerides, VLDLs, Total-Chol, and LDL values. Positive correlations were found between leptin and total lipids, triglycerides, VLDLs, Total-Chol, and LDLs. These changes observed in mares during the peripartum period could represent a response to hormonal and metabolic adaptations occurring during specific physiological conditions such as late pregnancy and early postpartum. These changes should compensate for the energy loss occurring during these particular life phases and ensure a good body condition to protect mares against negative energy balance. PMID:27165993

  4. Disposition of firocoxib in late pregnant and early postpartum mares.

    PubMed

    Giguère, S; Macpherson, M L; Benson, S M; Cox, S; McNaughten, J W; Pozor, M A

    2016-04-01

    Pregnancy induces several physiologic changes that might impact the bioavailability, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of pregnancy on the disposition of oral firocoxib in mares. Seven pony mares received oral firocoxib paste at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg during late pregnancy and again 12 to 33 days postpartum. Firocoxib concentrations were measured in plasma by HPLC with ultraviolet detection. Maximum plasma concentrations were significantly lower in pregnant (50.0 ± 21.8 ng/mL) than in postpartum (73.7 ± 25.6 ng/mL) mares. Plasma concentrations 24 h after administration, time to maximum plasma concentrations, and area under the plasma concentration versus time curve were not significantly different between late pregnancy and the postpartum period in mares. PMID:26202842

  5. Inflammatory cytokine and acute phase protein concentrations in the peripheral blood and uterine washings of cows with subclinical endometritis in the late postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Brodzki, Piotr; Kostro, Krzysztof; Krakowski, Leszek; Marczuk, Jan

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines: tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10), and acute phase proteins (APPs)--haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA) in serum and uterine washings of cows with subclinical endometritis, and compare them to healthy animals. The study was performed on 24 cows on day 60 after delivery. The cows were divided into two groups based on the results of cytological tests: 12 cows with subclinical endometritis and 12 healthy cows. Experimental material consisted of blood serum and uterine washings. The levels of the following cytokines in the study material were determined with ELISA: TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and APPs - Hp and SAA. The results show that the levels of TNF-α (p < 0.01), IL-6, IL-10 as well as SAA and Hp were significantly higher in the serum of cows with subclinical endometritis compared to the controls (p < 0.001). Uterine washings had significantly higher levels of IL-6, IL-10, and Hp in the experimental cows compared to the controls (p < 0.001). The demonstrated differences in the concentration of cytokines and APP between cows with subclinical endometritis and healthy cows, in both the serum and uterine washings, may suggest the usefulness of these parameters in the diagnosis of subclinical endometritis in cows in the late postpartum period. PMID:25846950

  6. Changes in Maternal Plasma Adiponectin from Late Pregnancy to the Postpartum Period According to the Mode of Delivery: Results from a Prospective Cohort in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rebelo, Fernanda; Franco-Sena, Ana Beatriz; Struchiner, Claudio Jose; Kac, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Maternal plasma adiponectin is inversely related to insulin resistance, atherosclerosis and child health. However, little is known about its concentrations in the perinatal period, especially according to mode of delivery. Our aim is to evaluate the association between mode of delivery and changes in maternal plasma adiponectin from 3rd trimester of pregnancy to 30–45 days postpartum. Methods A cohort was recruited in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with four waves of follow-up: 5-13th, 22-26th, 30-36th gestational weeks and 30–45 days postpartum. Eligible subjects should be between 20–40 years of age, be free of chronic and infectious diseases and presenting with a singleton pregnancy. The mode of delivery was classified as vaginal (VD) or cesarean (CS). Plasma adiponectin concentration (μg/mL) was measured using commercial ELISA kits. Statistical analyses included the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and the multiple linear mixed effects model. Results A total of 159 participated in the study. Median adiponectin concentrations were higher for the VD group (n = 99; 8.25, IQR: 5.85–11.90) than for the CS group (n = 60; 7.34, IQR: 4.36–9.76; p = 0.040) in the postpartum samples but were not different between the two groups in the 3rd trimester. Women who underwent CS had a lower rate of increase in adiponectin concentration from the 3rd trimester to 30–45 days postpartum compared to those who underwent VD (β = -.15, 95% CI: -.28-.02, p = 0.030). Conclusion The CS procedure was associated with lower maternal circulating concentrations of adiponectin at 30–45 days postpartum, compared to the VD. PMID:27391647

  7. Oral contraceptives in the immediate postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Hume, A L; Hijab, J C

    1991-04-01

    Although there is a critical need for effective contraception in the immediate postpartum period for women who are not breastfeeding, this need must be balanced against the inherent risks. The most effective form of contraceptive protection--oral contraceptives (OCs)--can present an increased risk of thromboembolism in the period after delivery. The thrombotic changes associated with pregnancy, and the statistics and vascular damage following a delivery, can combine to create greater potential for thromboembolism after delivery than during pregnancy. Reported here is the case of a 21-year-old woman who, 4 weeks postpartum, developed pain and swelling in the right lower calf and mottled discoloration extending from the proximal thigh to the toes. A diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis was made and heparin was administered. In the hospital, the patient experienced pleuritic chest pain and diaphoresis. A ventilation-perfusion scan indicated a pulmonary embolism. 1 week after delivery, the patient had initiated use of Triphasil. Although this woman had other risk factors (obesity, light cigarette smoking, and a sedentary life-style), OC use in the immediate postpartum period may have been the final factor precipitating the thromboembolic event. It is recommended that OC use should be delayed until at least 2 weeks postpartum in women without other risk factors for thromboembolism and until 4-6 weeks postpartum in those with such factors. PMID:2010744

  8. Oxytocin course over pregnancy and postpartum period and the association with postpartum depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Jobst, Andrea; Krause, Daniela; Maiwald, Carina; Härtl, Kristin; Myint, Aye-Mu; Kästner, Ralph; Obermeier, Michael; Padberg, Frank; Brücklmeier, Benedikt; Weidinger, Elif; Kieper, Susann; Schwarz, Markus; Zill, Peter; Müller, Norbert

    2016-08-01

    During the postpartum period, women are at higher risk of developing a mental disorder such as postpartum depression (PPD), a disorder that associates with mother-infant bonding and child development. Oxytocin is considered to play a key role in mother-infant bonding and social interactions and altered oxytocin plasma concentrations were found to be associated with PPD. In the present study, we evaluated oxytocin plasma levels and depressive symptoms during pregnancy and the postpartum period in healthy women. We evaluated 100 women twice during pregnancy (weeks 35 and 38) and three times in the postpartum period (within 2 days and 7 weeks and 6 months after delivery) by measuring oxytocin plasma levels with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and assessing depressive symptoms with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. Oxytocin plasma levels significantly increased from the 35th week of gestation to 6 months postpartum in all women. However, levels decreased from the 38th week of gestation to 2 days after delivery in participants with postpartum depressive symptoms, whereas they continuously increased in the group without postpartum depressive symptoms; the difference between the course of oxytocin levels in the two groups was significant (Δt2-t3: t = 2.14; p = 0.036*). Previous depressive episodes and breastfeeding problems predicted postpartum depressive symptoms. Our results indicate that alterations in the oxytocin system during pregnancy might be specific for women who develop postpartum depressive symptoms. Future studies should investigate whether oxytocin plasma levels might have predictive value in women at high risk for PPD. PMID:27320943

  9. Hypertensive crisis during pregnancy and postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Too, Gloria T; Hill, James B

    2013-08-01

    Hypertension affects 10% of pregnancies, many with underlying chronic hypertension, and approximately 1-2% will undergo a hypertensive crisis at some point during their lives. Hypertensive crisis includes hypertensive urgency and emergency; the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists describes a hypertensive emergency in pregnancy as persistent (lasting 15 min or more), acute-onset, severe hypertension, defined as systolic BP greater than 160 mmHg or diastolic BP >110 mmHg in the setting of pre-eclampsia or eclampsia. Pregnancy may be complicated by hypertensive crisis, with lower blood pressure threshold for end-organ damage than non-pregnant patients. Maternal assessment should include a thorough history. Fetal assessment should include heart rate tracing, ultrasound for growth and amniotic assessment, and Doppler evaluation if growth restriction is suspected. Initial management of hypertensive emergency (systolic BP >160 mmHg or diastolic BP >110 mmHg in the setting of pre-eclampsia or eclampsia) generally includes the rapid reduction of blood pressure through the use of intravenous antihypertensive medications, with goal systolic blood pressure between 140 mmHg and 150 mmHg and diastolic pressure between 90 mmHg and 100 mmHg. First-line intravenous drugs include labetalol and hydralazine, but other agents may be used, including esmolol, nicardipine, nifedipine, and, as a last resort, sodium nitroprusside. Among patients with hypertensive urgency, slower blood pressure reduction can be provided with oral agents. The objective of this article is to review the current understanding, diagnosis, and management of hypertensive crisis during pregnancy and the postpartum period. PMID:23916027

  10. Transitions in the early-life of late preterm infants: vulnerabilities and implications for postpartum care.

    PubMed

    Premji, Shahirose Sadrudin; Young, Marilyn; Rogers, Carol; Reilly, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this article is on the transition of late preterm infants from hospital to home. The current state of literature related to mortality, morbidities, emergency department visits, and rehospitalization underscores the vulnerability of late preterm infants following discharge from hospital. Universal provision of postpartum care to late preterm infants is viewed as an environmental support intended to facilitate transition of these vulnerable infants from hospital to home. Gaps in provision of postpartum care of late preterm infants are situated within the discussion of guidelines and models of postpartum care (home vs clinic) of late preterm infants. PMID:22293643

  11. Women's Perceptions of Breastfeeding Barriers in Early Postpartum Period: A Qualitative Analysis Nested in Two Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Josephine; Bonuck, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: This study examined women's perceptions of early infant feeding experiences and identified early postpartum barriers to successful breastfeeding. Subjects and Methods: We conducted semistructured exit interviews at 6 months postpartum with a subsample of participants (n=67) enrolled in two randomized controlled trials of breastfeeding promotion. Study arms included (1) routine pre- and postnatal visits with an International Board Certified Lactation Consultant (IBCLC) (LC group), (2) electronically prompted guidance from prenatal care providers (EP group), (3) EP+LC combined, and (4) standard of care (control group). Interview transcripts were coded using grounded theory and analyzed in MAXqda. Code matrices were used to identify early postpartum breastfeeding barriers and were further examined in relation to treatment group using a mixed methods analysis. Results: The majority of the participants reported experiencing at least one barrier to breastfeeding. Barriers to breastfeeding were more commonly reported in the early postpartum than late postpartum period. The most common barrier during the early postpartum period was the perception of inadequate milk supply (“lactational”) (n=18), followed by problems with latch, medical problems that were perceived as precluding breastfeeding, and medical staff and hospital practices. Participants frequently reported that the IBCLCs assisted them in anticipating, managing, and overcoming these barriers. Conclusions: Our findings underscore the importance of integrating IBCLCs into routine pre- and postpartum care because they provide critical support that effectively addresses early postpartum barriers to breastfeeding. PMID:24304033

  12. Do changes in mood and concerns about weight relate to smoking relapse in the postpartum period?

    PubMed Central

    Levine, M. D.; Marcus, M. D.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The majority of women who quit smoking during pregnancy will resume smoking during the postpartum period. Little is known, however, about the predictors of postpartum relapses to smoking. Changes in mood and increases in concerns about weight are common during the postpartum period, and these factors may affect women's postpartum smoking behavior. In this paper, we present a model of the relationship among mood, weight concerns and postpartum smoking. Data from previous postpartum relapse prevention trials are reviewed and evidence of a connection between changes in mood and weight concerns to postpartum relapse is presented. Directions for future research on the prevention of smoking relapses during the postpartum period, and the roles of mood and weight concerns in smoking relapse are presented. PMID:15241661

  13. [Vestibular dysfunction in the postpartum period following gestosis].

    PubMed

    Likhachev, S A; Astapenko, A V; Osos, E L; Tarasevich, N M

    2010-01-01

    The state of the vestibular system was evaluated in 30 postpartum women following gestosis and 25 controls after uncomplicated pregnancy. Examination using the electronystagmographic technique failed to reveal spontaneous nystagmus (Ny) in the latter group whereas 13.3% and 30% women of the former group had it with the eyes open and closed respectively. Provocative functional tests significantly improved detectability of Ny. Hyperventilation was associated with Ny in 80% and 12% of the women after complicated and uneventful pregnancy respectively while orthostatic test revealed Ny in 63% and 12% of them. Active head rotation with closed eyes produced well-apparent experimental Ny in women of both groups, but it was significantly more pronounced in the former one. Post-gestosis women displayed markedly impaired reaction in vestibular-ocular reflex suppression test. It is concluded that 80% of the women with complicated pregnancy exhibited vestibular dysfunction of central origin in the postpartum period. PMID:20517270

  14. Hematobiochemical profile in Surti goats during post-partum period

    PubMed Central

    Manat, Tanvi D.; Chaudhary, Sandhya S.; Singh, Virendra Kumar; Patel, Sanjay B.; Puri, Gopal

    2016-01-01

    concentration decreased up to 14th day post-partum and then started increasing from 21st day onward. Conclusion: Hematobiochemical parameters are indicative of health status of animals. Significantly low values of Hb, PCV, and TLC during first 2 weeks post-partum are indicative of stress. Catabolism of protein occurred during 2 weeks post-partum, as observed from increase in urea concentration. Decrease TGs and high level of NEFA during the transition period are suggestive of utilization of lipids for the supply of energy. High glucose level on 0 day indicates that the animals were in positive energy status. PMID:27051179

  15. Sleep and Mood During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    Bei, Bei; Coo, Soledad; Trinder, John

    2015-03-01

    During the perinatal period, compromises in sleep duration and quality are commonly reported by women and confirmed by objective measurements of sleep. Self-reported poor sleep has been associated with concurrent mood disturbance and with increased risk for future mood problems during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Findings on the relationship between objectively measured sleep and mood in perinatal women have been mixed. This article reviews the literature on the nature of and contributing factors to perinatal sleep disturbance, the relationship between sleep and mood, and intervention studies that aim to improve maternal sleep. PMID:26055670

  16. Reassessing Unmet Need for Family Planning in the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    Rossier, Clémentine; Bradley, Sarah E K; Ross, John; Winfrey, William

    2015-12-01

    Despite renewed interest in postpartum family planning programs, the question of the time at which women should be expected to start contraception after a birth remains unanswered. Three indicators of postpartum unmet need consider women to be fully exposed to the risk of pregnancy at different times: right after delivery (prospective indicator), after six months of amenorrhea (intermediate indicator), and at the end of amenorrhea (classic indicator). DHS data from 57 countries in 2005-13 indicate that 62 percent (prospective), 43 percent (intermediate), and 32 percent (classic) of women in the first year after a birth have an unmet need for contraception (40 percent when including abstinence). While the protection afforded by postpartum abstinence and lactational amenorrhea lowers unmet need, further analysis shows that women also often rely on these methods without being actually protected. Programs should acknowledge these methods' widespread use and inform women about their limits. Also, the respective advantages of targeting the postnatal period, the end of six months of amenorrhea/exclusive breastfeeding, or the resumption of sexual intercourse to offer contraceptive services should be tested. PMID:26643487

  17. Is the Predictability of New-Onset Postpartum Depression Better During Pregnancy or in the Early Postpartum Period? A Prospective Study in Croatian Women.

    PubMed

    Nakić Radoš, Sandra; Herman, Radoslav; Tadinac, Meri

    2016-01-01

    The researchers' aim was to examine whether it was better to predict new-onset postpartum depression (PPD) during pregnancy or immediately after childbirth. A prospective study conducted in Croatia followed women (N = 272) from the third trimester of pregnancy through the early postpartum period (within the first 3 postpartum days), to 6 weeks postpartum. Questionnaires on depression, anxiety, stress, coping, self-esteem, and social support were administered. Through regression analyses we showed that PPD symptoms could be equally predicted by variables from pregnancy (30.3%) and the early postpartum period (34.0%), with a small advantage of PPD prediction in the early postpartum period. PMID:25558954

  18. Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy in the Postpartum Period: Increased Risk of Bleeding, a Challenging Situation.

    PubMed

    Abouzahr, Omar; Garofalo, Fabio; Garneau, Pierre Y

    2016-06-01

    The female population represents three-fourths of patients undergoing a bariatric procedure and could be scheduled for surgery in their postpartum period. We report a difficult case of a female patient who underwent a laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy 6 weeks postpartum. The postpartum period is accompanied by pronounced vasodilatation with transient portal hypertension. Most of the hemodynamic alterations occurring during pregnancy return to baseline within 6-8 weeks after delivery. Bariatric surgery in the postpartum period should be avoided in order for the cardiovascular system to regain its normality. PMID:27034060

  19. [Children murdered by their mothers in the postpartum period].

    PubMed

    Trautmann-Villalba, P; Hornstein, C

    2007-11-01

    The parental killing of children constitutes a complex phenomenon which has been reported across numerous cultures and throughout history. Children in the 1st year of life are at the highest risk of filicide. Types of filicide in the postpartum period include altruistic filicide, extended suicide, fatal child maltreatment, and neonaticide. Babies are murdered more frequently by mothers who are psychiatrically disturbed. With high frequency, depressive and psychotic symptoms are related to the newborn or to the maternity itself. The knowledge about maternal factors associated with filicide is not homogeneous. Sociodemographic characteristics are presented in relation to the different types of filicide. Risk constellations that may lead to a child's murder are described. PMID:17926015

  20. Problem-Solving Appraisal and the Prediction of Depression during Pregnancy and in the Postpartum Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Timothy R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Tested hypothesis that higher levels of positive affect and lower levels of negative affect would predict depression during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. Analysis of 100 women indicated that women at risk for depression during pregnancy and in the postpartum period may exhibit heightened negative moods and a dearth of positive affective…

  1. Influence of hepatic load from far-off dry period to early postpartum period on the first postpartum ovulation and accompanying subsequent fertility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Chiho; Ito, Nozomi; Nagashima, Shuntarou; Matsui, Motozumi; Sawada, Kumiko; Schweigert, Florian J; Miyamoto, Akio; Kida, Katsuya

    2016-06-17

    The aim of the present study was to investigate nutritional and metabolic parameters during the dry and early postpartum periods of ovulatory and anovulatory cows, as well as their postpartum reproductive performance. Blood samples from 20 multiparous Holstein cows were collected once a week from the far-off dry period to 3 weeks postpartum. Early postpartum (0-3 weeks) ovulation was confirmed using plasma progesterone concentration profiles, and cows were considered ovulatory if they had resumed luteal activity by this point (n = 9), whereas cows that had not were considered anovulatory (n = 11). Data from the ovulatory and anovulatory cows were analyzed separately for the far-off dry period (7-4 weeks prepartum), the close-up dry period (3-1 weeks prepartum), and the early postpartum period (0-3 weeks). Serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity (far-off, P = 0.065; close-up, P = 0.051; and early postpartum, P = 0.030) and aspartate aminotransferase (close-up, P = 0.050 and early postpartum, P = 0.087) activities were higher in anovulatory than in ovulatory cows. The days open period was longer (P = 0.019) in anovulatory than in ovulatory cows, and the number of artificial inseminations per conception (P = 0.025) was greater. In conclusion, we found that continuously high gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities in serum, which may be induced by liver disorders, prevent subsequent ovulation and affect subsequent fertility, even if cows obtain sufficient ovulation-related energy and β-carotene. PMID:26935323

  2. Influence of hepatic load from far-off dry period to early postpartum period on the first postpartum ovulation and accompanying subsequent fertility in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    KAWASHIMA, Chiho; ITO, Nozomi; NAGASHIMA, Shuntarou; MATSUI, Motozumi; SAWADA, Kumiko; SCHWEIGERT, Florian J.; MIYAMOTO, Akio; KIDA, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate nutritional and metabolic parameters during the dry and early postpartum periods of ovulatory and anovulatory cows, as well as their postpartum reproductive performance. Blood samples from 20 multiparous Holstein cows were collected once a week from the far-off dry period to 3 weeks postpartum. Early postpartum (0–3 weeks) ovulation was confirmed using plasma progesterone concentration profiles, and cows were considered ovulatory if they had resumed luteal activity by this point (n = 9), whereas cows that had not were considered anovulatory (n = 11). Data from the ovulatory and anovulatory cows were analyzed separately for the far-off dry period (7–4 weeks prepartum), the close-up dry period (3–1 weeks prepartum), and the early postpartum period (0–3 weeks). Serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity (far-off, P = 0.065; close-up, P = 0.051; and early postpartum, P = 0.030) and aspartate aminotransferase (close-up, P = 0.050 and early postpartum, P = 0.087) activities were higher in anovulatory than in ovulatory cows. The days open period was longer (P = 0.019) in anovulatory than in ovulatory cows, and the number of artificial inseminations per conception (P = 0.025) was greater. In conclusion, we found that continuously high gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities in serum, which may be induced by liver disorders, prevent subsequent ovulation and affect subsequent fertility, even if cows obtain sufficient ovulation-related energy and β-carotene. PMID:26935323

  3. The Broken Thread of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention for Women During the Postpartum Period

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Lorraine O.; Murphey, Christina L.; Nichols, Francine

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Postpartum maternal health affects maternal functional status, future pregnancy outcomes, maternal chronic disease development, and infant health. After pregnancy, however, many mothers may find that they face gaps in care related to their health and caregiving roles. Research shows that they were unprepared, uninformed, and unsupported during the postpartum period as they struggle with physical and emotional symptoms, infant caregiving, breastfeeding concerns, and lifestyle adjustments. Limited follow-up after a diagnosis of gestational hypertension or gestational diabetes and screening for postpartum depression are additional gaps in preventive and supportive care. Integrative reviews revealed modest efficacy and limitations of recent postpartum health promotion and disease prevention interventions. System, clinical, and community strategies are identified to address these gaps in women’s postpartum health services. PMID:26957891

  4. Successful Intra-Arterial Thrombolysis for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Immediate Postpartum Period: Case Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, Jose C. Masjuan, J.; Garcia, N.; Lecinana, M. de

    2008-01-15

    Stroke in pregnancy and the puerperium is a rare but potentially devastating event. We present the case of a previously healthy woman who underwent a cesarean delivery and experienced a middle cerebral artery thrombosis in the immediate postpartum period that was subsequently lysed with intra-arterial urokinase. The patient made a complete neurologic recovery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of successful intra-arterial thrombolysis for ischemic stroke in the postpartum period.

  5. Maternal anxiety: course and antecedents during the early postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Britton, John R

    2008-01-01

    The early course and antecedents of postpartum anxiety are unknown. This study sought to determine the course and antecedents of maternal anxiety during the first month postpartum and to develop a model to predict 1-month anxiety using information obtainable before perinatal hospital discharge. Two hundred and ninety-six mothers were screened before discharge with the State (SS) and Trait (TS) Scales of the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Demographic characteristics were assessed by questionnaire and medical record review, and psychiatric history, measures of perinatal stress, and resilient factors were determined by focused questions and formal instruments. At 1-month postpartum, the SS was repeated. Scores on the SS were significantly higher at 1 month than immediately postpartum (35.30+/-0.68 versus 33.38+/-0.60, mean+/-standard error, P=.004), but only 58.6% of mothers with high pre-discharge anxiety had high anxiety at 1 month. One-month anxiety correlated with pre-discharge SS and TS scores, a history of psychiatric problems including depressed mood, medical and negative social life events, lack of pregnancy planning and prenatal class attendance, perceived peripartum stress, and duration of postpartum hospital stay. Inverse correlations were observed with education, household income, and resiliency factors. In multivariate modeling, anxiety trait, education, history >or=2 years of depression, and perception of peripartum stress accounted for 50% of the variance in the 1-month SS score. Maternal anxiety increases during the first postpartum month. Women with high trait anxiety, low education, a history of depressed mood, and a perception of high peripartum stress are at risk for experiencing anxiety at this time. PMID:17397041

  6. Reversible posterior encephalopathy syndrome associated with late onset postpartum eclampsia: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Bo, Qi-Yu; Zhao, Xiu-He; Yang, Xue; Wang, Sheng-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Late onset postpartum eclampsia (LPE) is defined by its onset at >48 h after delivery. Reversible posterior encephalopathy syndrome (RPES) associated with LPE is uncommon, with the majority of RPES cases having a late postpartum onset within 4 weeks after childbirth. The present study reported the case of a 15-year old female presenting with convulsions that began 5 weeks after delivery. A magnetic resonance imaging scan of the brain revealed multiple lesions in the cortex, subcortical region and deep white matter of the bilateral cerebellum, and occipital, frontal and parietal lobes. The clinical manifestations and radiological abnormalities were readily resolved subsequent to antihypertension and anticonvulsion treatment. In conclusion, the present rare case indicates that LPE should be considered as a potential diagnosis even at 4 weeks after delivery. Furthermore, clinicians should familiarize with the reversible radioimaging features of RPES, since early recognition and adequate treatment are important to the outcome of patients. PMID:27602098

  7. Effects of the postpartum period on nortriptyline pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Wisner, K L; Perel, J M; Peindl, K S; Findling, R L; Hanusa, B H

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate sequential serum levels and level/dose ratios of the tricyclic antidepressant nortriptyline (NTP) through the first 17 postpartum weeks. The initial NTP dose was given immediately postpartum to 16 mothers and increased gradually to 70 mg over the first week. A dose of 75 mg was prescribed until adjustment according to serum levels. Serum levels of NTP and its metabolites Z- and E-OH-NTP were determined. At postpartum Week 2, the women developed a mean level/dose (L/D) ratio for NTP of 1.11 (range 0.37 to 3.23), and subsequently experienced an increase in the L/D ratios which continued through Week 6. At Week 8, the NTP L/D ratios declined, and became relatively stable at Week 11 and beyond. For postpartum women treated with NTP, side effect profiles should be carefully followed during the first 6 weeks after delivery as a clinical marker for elevation of serum levels. Since our highest L/D ratios for NTP occurred at Week 6, a serum level is recommended at this time. If the dose needs to be lowered to maintain a nontoxic level, a repeat serum level should be obtained at Week 11, at which time an increase in dose may be required. PMID:9230637

  8. High serum testosterone levels during postpartum period are associated with postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Aswathi, A; Rajendiren, Soundravally; Nimesh, Archana; Philip, R Ravi; Kattimani, Shivanand; Jayalakshmi, D; Ananthanarayanan, P H; Dhiman, Pooja

    2015-10-01

    In view of the reported cases of mood disorders that occur in mothers following childbirth and believing that sex steroid hormones contribute to mood and behavioral changes, this study has been aimed to explore the role of sex steroid hormones as an etiological factor for postpartum depression (PPD). This study was conducted at JIPMER, Puducherry, India between January 2010 and 2011. 103 women were recruited in the study after childbirth, out of which 62 women who were believed to be suffering from PPD were categorized as cases and the remaining 41 with no mood changes as controls, using Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) (cases had EPDS score ≥10 at 24-28h, controls had score <10 at 24-48h postpartum). The hormones estimated in these two groups included estradiol, progesterone and testosterone, and their levels were compared between these two groups. A significantly high testosterone levels were observed in cases with PPD at 24-28h when compared to controls. Estradiol and progesterone levels did not show significant difference between cases and controls. ROC analysis done at 24-28h showed that testosterone levels beyond 42.71ng/mL predict the development of PPD with 79% sensitivity, 63% specificity, 68% positive predictive value, 74% negative predictive value with AUC being 0.708. This study shows that there is an association between persistent high serum testosterone level in women following childbirth and PPD. PMID:26372084

  9. Factors associated with parenting behavior of mothers in the early postpartum period in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Calışır, Hüsniye; Karaçam, Zekiye

    2011-12-01

    This study determined the factors associated with parenting behavior during the early postpartum period in first-time mothers. This cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in the postpartum ward of a state hospital in Aydın, Turkey. The study included 207 first-time mothers selected by non-probability sampling method. A significant weak, positive correlation was found between the Postpartum Parenting Behavior Scale score at the time of initial acquaintance with her infant and the Labor Agentry Scale score. Stepwise multiple regression analyses, performed to determine factors associated with the parenting behavior score of the mothers in the early postpartum period, revealed two statistically significant variables, which increased the strength of the model: maternal age and infant's birth weight. Midwives should observe early parenting behaviors, particularly of younger mothers having babies with low birth weight, appreciate their positive behaviors, and encourage them to develop appropriate behavior. PMID:22070622

  10. Social support during the postpartum period: Mothers’ views on needs, expectations, and mobilization of support

    PubMed Central

    Negron, Rennie; Martin, Anika; Almog, Meital; Balbierz, Amy; Howell, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Research has indicated that social support is a major buffer of postpartum depression. Yet little is known concerning women’s perceptions on social support during the postpartum period. The objective of this study was to explore postpartum women’s views and experiences with social support following childbirth. Methods Four focus groups were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of women (n=33) in a large urban teaching hospital in New York City. Participants had completed participation in a postpartum depression randomized trial and were 6 to 12 months postpartum. Data transcripts were reviewed and analyzed for themes. Results The main themes identified in the focus group discussions were mother’s major needs and challenges postpartum, social support expectations and providers of support, how mothers mobilize support, and barriers to mobilizing support. Women across all groups identified receipt of instrumental support as essential to their physical and emotional recovery. Support from partners and families was expected and many women believed this support should be provided without asking. Racial/ethnic differences existed in the way women from different groups mobilized support from their support networks. Conclusions Instrumental support plays a significant role in meeting women’s basic needs during the postpartum period. In addition, women’s expectations surrounding support can have an impact on their ability to mobilize support among their social networks. The results of this study suggest that identifying support needs and expectations of new mothers is important for mothers’ recovery after childbirth. Future postpartum depression prevention efforts should integrate a strong focus on social support. PMID:22581378

  11. Bidirectional psychoneuroimmune interactions in the early postpartum period influence risk of postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Corwin, Elizabeth J; Pajer, Kathleen; Paul, Sudeshna; Lowe, Nancy; Weber, Mary; McCarthy, Donna O

    2015-10-01

    More than 500,000 U.S. women develop postpartum depression (PPD) annually. Although psychosocial risks are known, the underlying biology remains unclear. Dysregulation of the immune inflammatory response and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are associated with depression in other populations. While significant research on the contribution of these systems to the development of PPD has been conducted, results have been inconclusive. This is partly because few studies have focused on whether disruption in the bidirectional and dynamic interaction between the inflammatory response and the HPA axis together influence PPD. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that disruption in the inflammatory-HPA axis bidirectional relationship would increase the risk of PPD. Plasma pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were measured in women during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy and on Days 7 and 14, and Months 1, 2, 3, and 6 after childbirth. Saliva was collected 5 times the day preceding blood draws for determination of cortisol area under the curve (AUC) and depressive symptoms were measured using the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Survey (EPDS). Of the 152 women who completed the EPDS, 18% were depressed according to EDPS criteria within the 6months postpartum. Cortisol AUC was higher in symptomatic women on Day 14 (p=.017). To consider the combined effects of cytokines and cortisol on predicting symptoms of PPD, a multiple logistic regression model was developed that included predictors identified in bivariate analyses to have an effect on depressive symptoms. Results indicated that family history of depression, day 14 cortisol AUC, and the day 14 IL8/IL10 ratio were significant predictors of PPD symptoms. One unit increase each in the IL8/IL10 ratio and cortisol AUC resulted in 1.50 (p=0.06) and 2.16 (p=0.02) fold increases respectively in the development of PPD. Overall, this model correctly classified 84.2% of individuals in their respective groups. Findings

  12. Heart rate variability biofeedback intervention for reduction of psychological stress during the early postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Naoko; Shinohara, Hitomi; Kodama, Hideya

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback intervention for reduction of psychological stress in women in the early postpartum period. On postpartum day 4, 55 healthy subjects received a brief explanation about HRV biofeedback using a portable device. Among them, 25 mothers who agreed to implement HRV biofeedback at home were grouped as the biofeedback group, and other 30 mothers were grouped as the control group. At 1 month postpartum, there was a significant decrease in total Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score (P < 0.001) in the biofeedback group; this change was brought about mainly by decreases in items related to anxiety or difficulty sleeping. There was also a significant increase in standard deviation of the normal heartbeat interval (P < 0.01) of the resting HRV measures in the biofeedback group after adjusting for potential covariates. In conclusion, postpartum women who implemented HRV biofeedback after delivery were relatively free from anxiety and complained less of difficulties sleeping at 1 month postpartum. Although the positive effects of HRV biofeedback may be partly attributable to intervention effects, due to its clinical outcome, HRV biofeedback appears to be recommendable for many postpartum women as a feasible health-promoting measure after childbirth. PMID:25239433

  13. A Counselor's Primer on Postpartum Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfost, Karen S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Notes that women are particularly vulnerable to depression during the postpartum period. Distinguishes postpartum depression from normal postpartum adjustment, postpartum blues, and postpartum psychosis. Describes biological, psychodynamic, and diathesis-stress perspectives on postpartum depression. Encourages counselors to fashion individualized…

  14. Sleep, daily activity rhythms and postpartum mood: A longitudinal study across the perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Krawczak, Elizabeth M; Minuzzi, Luciano; Simpson, William; Hidalgo, Maria Paz; Frey, Benicio N

    2016-01-01

    Women with a diagnosis of bipolar and major depressive disorders are at higher risk to develop postpartum depression. The primary objective of this longitudinal study was to determine whether daily activity rhythms and sleep parameters differ between women with and without a history of a mood disorder across the perinatal period. A secondary objective was to determine whether changes in these parameters were associated with postpartum mood. In total, 33 women were included in this study, 15 of which had a history of a mood disorder (high-risk group) and 18 who did not (low-risk group). Sleep and daily rhythms were assessed subjectively and objectively during the third trimester (≥26 weeks gestation) and again at 6-12 weeks postpartum. Mood was also assessed at both time points. Women in the high-risk group showed greater subjective daily rhythms and sleep disturbances across the perinatal period. Objective sleep efficiency was worse in the high-risk group in the postpartum period. Changes in both subjective daily rhythms and objective sleep efficiency were predictive of changes in depressive symptoms across the perinatal period. These findings encourage the development of preventative therapeutics to ensure circadian rhythm and sleep stability throughout the perinatal period. PMID:27097327

  15. Management of Toxoplasmic Retinochoroiditis during Pregnancy, Postpartum Period and Lactation: Clinical Observations

    PubMed Central

    Brydak-Godowska, Joanna; Moneta-Wielgoś, Joanna; Kęcik, Dariusz; Borkowski, Piotr Karol

    2015-01-01

    Background During pregnancy and labor, the immune response is physiologically impaired and women are more susceptible to infections. Since many drugs may have potentially adverse effects on the fetus and newborn, less aggressive treatment regimens should be considered in pregnant and lactating patients. The aim of our study was to present the management of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis during pregnancy, postpartum period, and lactation. Material/Methods A retrospective study was undertaken of the clinical records of 24 women during pregnancy, postpartum period, and lactation who were referred in the years 1994–2014 to the Department of Zoonoses and Tropical Diseases or the Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Warsaw for toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. The diagnosis was based on the typical ophthalmoscopic picture, confirmed by serological testing using an ELISA method. Results A total of 28 attacks of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis were observed in 24 patients during pregnancy, postpartum period, and lactation. The choice of treatment was guided by the character and location of the inflammatory lesion and the gestational age. Topical (steroidal/nonsteroidal eye drops) and systemic treatments with spiramycin or azithromycin, Fansidar (pyrimethamine 25 mg/sulfadoxine 500 mg), and prednisone were used. Conclusions Management of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis during pregnancy, postpartum period, or lactation must be individualized and guided by the gestational age and location of the active lesion. Women of childbearing age with toxoplasma ocular lesions should be informed by their doctors about possible active recurrences during pregnancy and followed carefully by an ophthalmologist when pregnant. PMID:25711713

  16. Lymph Region in the Female Internal Reproductive Organs during the Early Postpartum Period after Normal Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dergacheva, T I; Borodin, Yu I; Gorchakov, V N; Konenkov, V I

    2015-11-01

    The structural and functional changes in the lymph region of the female internal reproductive organs in rats were studied during the early postpartum period after normal pregnancy. The results indicated that the main role of the lymph region in pregnancy consisted in supporting sufficient lymph production and drainage in the hypertrophic uterus. PMID:26601833

  17. Imaging manifestations of a dreaded obstetric complication in the immediate postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Zarghouni, Mehrzad; Cannon, Walter

    2014-01-01

    HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelet) syndrome is a dreaded complication that may develop during pregnancy or in the immediate postpartum period. Rarely this syndrome manifests itself with imaging findings. We report a case of HELLP syndrome in which the diagnosis was reaffirmed via imaging findings. PMID:24688204

  18. Relationship between Fathers' Depression and Perceived Social Support and Stress in Postpartum Period

    PubMed Central

    Kamalifard, Mahin; Hasanpoor, Shirin; Babapour Kheiroddin, Jalil; Panahi, Samira; Bayati Payan, Somayeh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The evidence suggests that some men experience depression after the childbirth of their wife, and this real and unknown phenomenon will adversely affect them as well as their families. Regarding the lack of understanding about the paternal depression and its complex and multifaceted etiology, the present study was done to assess the paternal postpartum depression and its relationship with perceived stress and social support components. Methods: In this descriptive study, 205 new fathers were assessed from 6th to 12th week postpartum in seven health centers, affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University. Collected data with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, and the Perceived Social Support Scale were analyzed by descriptive statistics, correlation tests and linear regression analysis. Results: 11.7% of the fathers scored 12 or above in the Edinburgh scale, which indicated depression symptom. The postnatal depression scores had a significant positive correlation with the perceived stress scores and a significant negative correlation with the perceived social support components scores. Perceived stress was key predictor of paternal postpartum depression. Perceived social support components cannot significantly predict the paternal postpartum depression. Conclusion: Assessment of paternal postpartum depression and its risk factors is recommended. Healthcare providers should pay more attention to the increasing public awareness, stress management and communication skills training, and support of fathers during the postnatal period. PMID:25276749

  19. The impact of migration on women’s mental health in the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Lígia Moreira; Costa-Santos, Cristina; Caldas, José Peixoto; Dias, Sónia; Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess the influence of I mmigration on the psychological health of women after childbirth. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, immigrant and Portuguese-native women delivering in the four public hospitals of the metropolitan area of Porto, Portugal, were contacted by telephone between February and December 2012 during the first postpartum month to schedule a home visit and fill in a questionnaire. Most immigrant (76.1%) and Portuguese mothers (80.0%) agreed to participate and with the visits, thus a total of 89 immigrants and 188 Portuguese women were included in the study. The questionnaire included the application of four validated scales: Mental Health Inventory-5, Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, and Scale of Satisfaction with Social Support. Statistical analysis included t-test and Chi-square or Fisher’s test, and logistic regression models. RESULTS Immigrants had an increased risk of postpartum depression (OR = 6.444, 95%CI 1.858–22.344), and of low satisfaction with social support (OR = 6.118, 95%CI 1.991–18.798). We did not perceive any associations between migrant state, perceived stress, and impoverished mental health. CONCLUSIONS Immigrant mothers have increased vulnerabilities in the postpartum period, resulting in an increased risk of postpartum depression and lesser satisfaction with the received social support. PMID:27355463

  20. Course and predictors of maternal eating disorders in the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Knoph, Cecilie; Holle, Ann Von; Zerwas, Stephanie; Torgersen, Leila; Tambs, Kristian; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Bulik, Cynthia M; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate course and predictors of eating disorders in the postpartum period. Method A total of 77,807 women, participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), completed questionnaires during pregnancy including items covering DSM-IV criteria for pre-pregnancy anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS-P), and binge eating disorder (BED). Additional questionnaires were completed at 18 and 36 months postpartum. Results Proportions of women remitting at 18 months and 36 months postpartum were 50% and 59% for AN, 39% and 30% for BN, 46% and 57% for EDNOS-P, and 45% and 42% for BED, respectively. However, disordered eating persisted in a substantial proportion of women meeting criteria for either full or subthreshold eating disorders. BN during pregnancy increased the risk for continuation of BN. BMI and psychological distress were significantly associated with course of BED. Discussion This is the first large-scale population-based study on course of eating disorders in the postpartum period. The results indicated that disordered eating persists in a substantial proportion of women with pre-pregnancy eating disorders. Health care professionals working with women in this phase of life need to pay specific attention to eating disorder symptoms and behaviors. PMID:23307499

  1. Prevalence and rates of intimate partner violence among South African women during pregnancy and the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Groves, Allison K.; Moodley, Dhayendre; McNaughton-Reyes, Luz; Martin, Sandra L.; Foshee, Vangie; Maman, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem in South Africa. However, limited research exists on IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period in South Africa. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence, rates and correlates of IPV among South African women during pregnancy and the first nine months postpartum. Methods Data are from a longitudinal study with women recruited during pregnancy between 2008 and 2010 at a public clinic in Durban. We used a modified version of the World Health Organization’s IPV scale to estimate prevalence and rates of IPV during pregnancy, at four months postpartum and nine months postpartum and we used logistic regression to assess the correlates of IPV during this time. Results More than 20% of all women experienced at least one act of physical, psychological or sexual IPV during pregnancy. Nearly one-quarter of all women experienced at least one act of physical, psychological or sexual IPV during the first nine months postpartum. Psychological IPV was the most prevalent type of IPV during pregnancy and the first four months postpartum. Age and previous violence within the relationship were associated with IPV during pregnancy and IPV during the postpartum period. Conclusions The high levels of IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period highlight the need to develop screening and intervention strategies specifically for this time. Further, women should be screened not only for physical violence but also psychological violence given that psychological violence may result in distinct negative consequences. PMID:24889116

  2. Influence of Body Composition on Gait Kinetics throughout Pregnancy and Postpartum Period

    PubMed Central

    Branco, Marco; Santos-Rocha, Rita; Vieira, Filomena; Silva, Maria-Raquel; Aguiar, Liliana; Veloso, António P.

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy leads to several changes in body composition and morphology of women. It is not clear whether the biomechanical changes occurring in this period are due exclusively to body composition and size or to other physiological factors. The purpose was to quantify the morphology and body composition of women throughout pregnancy and in the postpartum period and identify the contribution of these parameters on the lower limb joints kinetic during gait. Eleven women were assessed longitudinally, regarding anthropometric, body composition, and kinetic parameters of gait. Body composition and body dimensions showed a significant increase during pregnancy and a decrease in the postpartum period. In the postpartum period, body composition was similar to the 1st trimester, except for triceps skinfold, total calf area, and body mass index, with higher results than at the beginning of pregnancy. Regression models were developed to predict women's internal loading through anthropometric variables. Four models include variables associated with the amount of fat; four models include variables related to overall body weight; three models include fat-free mass; one model includes the shape of the trunk as a predictor variable. Changes in maternal body composition and morphology largely determine kinetic dynamics of the joints in pregnant women. PMID:27073713

  3. Influence of Body Composition on Gait Kinetics throughout Pregnancy and Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    Branco, Marco; Santos-Rocha, Rita; Vieira, Filomena; Silva, Maria-Raquel; Aguiar, Liliana; Veloso, António P

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy leads to several changes in body composition and morphology of women. It is not clear whether the biomechanical changes occurring in this period are due exclusively to body composition and size or to other physiological factors. The purpose was to quantify the morphology and body composition of women throughout pregnancy and in the postpartum period and identify the contribution of these parameters on the lower limb joints kinetic during gait. Eleven women were assessed longitudinally, regarding anthropometric, body composition, and kinetic parameters of gait. Body composition and body dimensions showed a significant increase during pregnancy and a decrease in the postpartum period. In the postpartum period, body composition was similar to the 1st trimester, except for triceps skinfold, total calf area, and body mass index, with higher results than at the beginning of pregnancy. Regression models were developed to predict women's internal loading through anthropometric variables. Four models include variables associated with the amount of fat; four models include variables related to overall body weight; three models include fat-free mass; one model includes the shape of the trunk as a predictor variable. Changes in maternal body composition and morphology largely determine kinetic dynamics of the joints in pregnant women. PMID:27073713

  4. Bipolar disorder, affective psychosis, and schizophrenia in pregnancy and the post-partum period.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ian; Chandra, Prabha S; Dazzan, Paola; Howard, Louise M

    2014-11-15

    The perinatal period is associated with an increased risk of severe mental disorders. We summarise the evidence regarding the epidemiology, risk factors, and treatment of severe mental illness in relation to childbirth, focusing on bipolar disorder, affective psychosis, and schizophrenia. We discuss women with ongoing chronic conditions and those with the onset of new episodes of post-partum psychosis. Despite the importance of perinatal episodes, with suicide a leading cause of maternal death, few studies are available to guide the management of women with severe mental disorders in pregnancy and the post-partum period. However, general principles of management are discussed, including the need for an individual risk-benefit analysis for each woman. PMID:25455249

  5. Aggressive vertebral hemangioma in the postpartum period: an eye-opener

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Rajendra Singh; Agrawal, Rakesh; Srivastava, Trilochan; Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Pankaj Kumar; Kookna, Jagdeesh Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy is a well-known risk factor for incidental or asymptomatic vertebral hemangiomas becoming aggressive or symptomatic, most often during the third trimester of pregnancy, related to hemodynamic and endocrinal changes occurring during pregnancy. Many patients show spontaneous incomplete remission after delivery. We report a rare case of aggressive vertebral hemangioma in the postpartum period in a 26-year-old woman, who presented with upper backache with progressive spastic paraparesis. PMID:25988053

  6. Neurogenesis and anxiety-like behavior in male California mice during the mate's postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Hyer, M M; Hunter, T J; Katakam, J; Wolz, T; Glasper, E R

    2016-03-01

    Our understanding of postpartum anxiety (PPA) in fathers is limited, despite the negative consequences of anxiety on the father and child. Offspring contact reduces PPA in mothers; however, parallel investigations in fathers has gone unaddressed. Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) contributes to anxiety regulation and is altered during the postpartum period, yet the effects of fatherhood on the production, or survival, of newborn cells in the DG, and the role of adult neurogenesis in PPA regulation, have not been examined. Using the biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus), we examined the relationships among postnatal day, anxiety-like behavior and adult neurogenesis in fathers. We hypothesized that attenuated anxiety-like behavior and enhanced adult neurogenesis would be observed when father-offspring contact was increased. We observed a reduction in anxiety-like behavior on the elevated plus-maze, but only at PND 16, a time of peak pup retrieval. Fatherhood reduced 1-week survival of newborn cells; however, surviving cells were maintained until 2 weeks postpartum. In contrast, non-fathers experienced a significant reduction in the survival of newborn cells between 1 and 2 weeks postpartum. Fatherhood also increased the numbers of newborn cells that expressed a neuronal phenotype. Collectively, these findings suggest that offspring interaction contributes to reductions in anxiety-like behavior and the maintenance of newborn neurons in the DG of fathers. These data contribute to our knowledge of the postpartum affective state in fathers, findings that may contribute to improved health of both the father and offspring. PMID:26750200

  7. Personal Care Product Use in Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period: Implications for Exposure Assessment.

    PubMed

    Lang, Carly; Fisher, Mandy; Neisa, Angelica; MacKinnon, Leona; Kuchta, Sandra; MacPherson, Susan; Probert, Adam; Arbuckle, Tye E

    2016-01-01

    Concern regarding the potential for developmental health risks associated with certain chemicals (e.g., phthalates, antibacterials) used in personal care products is well documented; however, current exposure data for pregnant women are limited. The objective of this study was to describe the pattern of personal care product use in pregnancy and the post-partum period. Usage patterns of personal care products were collected at six different time points during pregnancy and once in the postpartum period for a cohort of 80 pregnant women in Ottawa, Canada. The pattern of use was then described and groups of personal care product groups commonly used together were identified using hierarchical cluster analysis. The results showed that product use varied by income and country of birth. General hygiene products were the most commonly used products and were consistently used over time while cosmetic product use declined with advancing pregnancy and post-delivery. Hand soaps and baby products were reported as used more frequently after birth. This study is the first to track personal care product use across pregnancy and into the postpartum period, and suggests that pregnant populations may be a unique group of personal care product users. This information will be useful for exposure assessments. PMID:26751460

  8. Personal Care Product Use in Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period: Implications for Exposure Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Carly; Fisher, Mandy; Neisa, Angelica; MacKinnon, Leona; Kuchta, Sandra; MacPherson, Susan; Probert, Adam; Arbuckle, Tye E.

    2016-01-01

    Concern regarding the potential for developmental health risks associated with certain chemicals (e.g., phthalates, antibacterials) used in personal care products is well documented; however, current exposure data for pregnant women are limited. The objective of this study was to describe the pattern of personal care product use in pregnancy and the post-partum period. Usage patterns of personal care products were collected at six different time points during pregnancy and once in the postpartum period for a cohort of 80 pregnant women in Ottawa, Canada. The pattern of use was then described and groups of personal care product groups commonly used together were identified using hierarchical cluster analysis. The results showed that product use varied by income and country of birth. General hygiene products were the most commonly used products and were consistently used over time while cosmetic product use declined with advancing pregnancy and post-delivery. Hand soaps and baby products were reported as used more frequently after birth. This study is the first to track personal care product use across pregnancy and into the postpartum period, and suggests that pregnant populations may be a unique group of personal care product users. This information will be useful for exposure assessments. PMID:26751460

  9. Postpartum Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Misri, Shaila; Burgmann, Allan J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Adjusting to the role of mother, a creative and joyous change for most women, combines with simultaneous physiological and psychological changes to develop into psychiatric problems in some women. Three common syndromes during the postpartum period are postpartum blues, postpartum depression, and postpartum psychosis. Any postpartum condition should be diagnosed rapidly to prevent short- and long-term disorders. PMID:21221273

  10. Postpartum responses of dairy cows supplemented with n-3 fatty acids for different durations during the peripartal period.

    PubMed

    Badiei, A; Aliverdilou, A; Amanlou, H; Beheshti, M; Dirandeh, E; Masoumi, R; Moosakhani, F; Petit, H V

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different durations of n-3 supplementation during the peripartal period on production and reproduction performance of Holstein dairy cows. Thirty-two Holstein dry cows (16 multiparous and 16 primiparous) were blocked within parity for similar expected calving dates 8 wk before calving. Cows within blocks were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 treatments: (1) control without n-3 fatty acid (FA) supplementation during the dry period; (2) n-3 FA supplementation during the whole dry period (8 wk); and (3) n-3 FA supplementation during the early dry period (first 5 wk; far-off), or (4) n-3 FA supplementation during the late dry period (last 3 wk; close-up). All cows received the same diet without n-3 FA after calving for the first 6 wk of lactation. Ovaries of each cow were examined 10, 17, 24, and 34 d from calving (calving=d 0) by transrectal ultrasonography to determine follicular development. Blood samples were collected at 14-d intervals starting on the first day of the dry period (8 wk before expected calving) to determine plasma concentrations of glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, nonesterified fatty acids, urea N, aspartate aminotransferase, and insulin. Blood samples were also collected on d 1, 10, 17, 24, 31, and 38 postpartum for determination of progesterone concentration. Milk yield was recorded daily throughout the experiment and samples were taken twice weekly (Monday and Thursday mornings) for analysis of fat, protein, and lactose. Yields of milk and 4% fat-corrected milk and milk composition were similar among treatments except for fat proportion, which tended to be lower in cows that were fed n-3 FA throughout the dry period. We observed no differences among treatments for plasma concentrations of metabolites and hormones. The cows that were fed in the 3 n-3 FA treatments had larger ovulatory follicles compared with those fed the controlled diet. Treatments did not differ significantly in terms of the

  11. Ovarian and Renal Vein Thrombosis: A Rare Cause of Fever Outer the Postpartum Period

    PubMed Central

    Togan, Turhan; Turan, Hale; Cifci, Egemen; Çiftci, Ceylan

    2015-01-01

    Although there is no other underlying disease, women can sometimes experience rare and serious diseases such as ovarian vein thrombosis (OVT) and renal vein thrombosis (RVT) after giving birth. The widespread development of thrombosis is treated for the first time in this study. Stasis, coagulation factor abnormalities, and intimal damage to the venous thrombosis risk can increase during pregnancy. It was mentioned that it diagnoses an abnormality in the hypercoagulability half of women with OVT. Despite the hypercoagulant abnormality observed in pregnant women, it was very unusual that the renal vein thrombosis led to this complication. It can lead to severe complication of OVT which can even cause death. It was the first time that the renal vein and ovarian vein thrombosis were observed in the postpartum period, and there was no coagulation abnormality. It is known that the thrombus in the postpartum period can be observed with the fever of unknown origin. The problematic, but rarely observed, postpartum disease such as ovarian venous thrombosis (OVT) is generally observed in the right ovarian vein. In this disease, avoiding the resulting laparotomy heparin and intravenous antibiotics is best solution for the patient. If it is to be noted a fever for unknown reasons, that it be thrombosis. PMID:26185694

  12. Ovarian and Renal Vein Thrombosis: A Rare Cause of Fever Outer the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    Togan, Turhan; Turan, Hale; Cifci, Egemen; Çiftci, Ceylan

    2015-01-01

    Although there is no other underlying disease, women can sometimes experience rare and serious diseases such as ovarian vein thrombosis (OVT) and renal vein thrombosis (RVT) after giving birth. The widespread development of thrombosis is treated for the first time in this study. Stasis, coagulation factor abnormalities, and intimal damage to the venous thrombosis risk can increase during pregnancy. It was mentioned that it diagnoses an abnormality in the hypercoagulability half of women with OVT. Despite the hypercoagulant abnormality observed in pregnant women, it was very unusual that the renal vein thrombosis led to this complication. It can lead to severe complication of OVT which can even cause death. It was the first time that the renal vein and ovarian vein thrombosis were observed in the postpartum period, and there was no coagulation abnormality. It is known that the thrombus in the postpartum period can be observed with the fever of unknown origin. The problematic, but rarely observed, postpartum disease such as ovarian venous thrombosis (OVT) is generally observed in the right ovarian vein. In this disease, avoiding the resulting laparotomy heparin and intravenous antibiotics is best solution for the patient. If it is to be noted a fever for unknown reasons, that it be thrombosis. PMID:26185694

  13. Reversal of Peripheral Nerve Injury-induced Hypersensitivity in the Postpartum Period: Role of Spinal Oxytocin

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Silvia; Liu, Baogang; Hayashida, Ken-ichiro; Houle, Timothy T.; Eisenach, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical injury, including surgery, can result in chronic pain; yet chronic pain following childbirth, including cesarean delivery in women, is rare. The mechanisms involved in this protection by pregnancy or delivery have not been explored. Methods We examined the effect of pregnancy and delivery on hypersensitivity to mechanical stimuli of the rat hindpaw induced by peripheral nerve injury (spinal nerve ligation) and after intrathecal oxytocin, atosiban and naloxone. Additionally, oxytocin concentration in lumbar spinal cerebrospinal fluid was determined. Results Spinal nerve ligation performed at mid-pregnancy resulted in similar hypersensitivity to nonpregnant controls, but hypersensitivity partially resolved beginning after delivery. Removal of pups after delivery prevented this partial resolution. Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of oxytocin were greater in normal postpartum rats prior to weaning. To examine the effect of injury at the time of delivery rather than during pregnancy, spinal nerve ligation was performed within 24 h of delivery. This resulted in acute hypersensitivity that partially resolved over the next 2–3 weeks. Weaning of pups resulted only in a temporary return of hypersensitivity. Intrathecal oxytocin effectively reversed the hypersensitivity following separation of the pups. Postpartum resolution of hypersensitivity was transiently abolished by intrathecal injection of the oxytocin receptor antagonist, atosiban. Conclusions These results suggest that the postpartum period rather than pregnancy protects against chronic hypersensitivity from peripheral nerve injury and that this protection may reflect sustained oxytocin signaling in the central nervous system during this period. PMID:23249932

  14. Uterine involution and progesterone level during the postpartum period in Barbary ewes in north Libya

    PubMed Central

    Medan, M.S.; EL-Daek, T.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to determine the time of uterine involution and ovarian activity using ultrasound examination and progesterone assay. Weekly progesterone levels were measured starting one week postpartum until two weeks after the 1st postpartum estrus in Barbary ewes lambed during winter in AL-Bayda city, north of Libya. A total of 15 Barbary ewes were used in the present study distributed in three groups according to the month of lambing as group 1 (lambed in January), group 2 (lambed in February) and group 3 (lambed in March). Ewes were examined weekly by trans-rectal ultrasound to check involution of the uterus starting one week after lambing until complete uterine involution. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein, and serum was separated and stored at -20 °C until measuring progesterone using ELISA. Results showed that uterine involution completed at day 35 postpartum in groups 1 and 2, while it occurred at day 28 in group 3. The mean progesterone level was basal (less than 1 ng/ml) for a long period and started to increase at days 119, 99 and 77 postpartum in group 1, 2 and 3, respectively. One ewe did not show estrus at all during the period of study in group 2 and there were no growing follicles on their ovaries. The obtained results indicate that, uterine involution as determined by ultrasound completed earlier in ewes lambed in March than those lambed in February or January. Also, progesterone level and ultrasound examination showed that there was no ovarian activity for a longtime after parturition indicating that reproduction in Barbary ewes tends to be seasonal in AL-Bayda city, north Libya. PMID:26623357

  15. Value of UVJ-M in the diagnosis of SUI in late pregnancy and postpartum

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, GUIXIN; JIANG, WEI; GUO, QUANWEI; GUO, QUANRONG

    2016-01-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a common pelvic floor dysfunctional disorder in which leakage of urine occurs when there is abdominal pressure. The aim of the present study was to determine the value of stress urinary incontinences (SUIs) in late pregnancy and postpartum via detection of the mobility of the ureterovesical junction (UVJ-M) by using transperineal ultrasound. The study involved the continuous and random selection of 120 cases of early pregnant women and single births. The patients were divided into the SUI and non-SUI groups dependent on whether there was leakage of urine when abdominal pressure in the form of coughing, laughing and sneezing, was increased. UVJ-M was measured, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn up and the threshold value was predicted. The results showed that, the SUI prevalence was 7.5 (9/120), 22.5 (27/120), 43.3 (52/120), and 5.8% (7/100), respectively, in 34, 36, and 38 gestational weeks, and 6 weeks after delivery. The SUI prevalence gradually increased with the gestational weeks, and differences were statistically significant. UVJ-M values increased with the gestational weeks, at 3.43±1.52, 6.77±0.98 and 2.35±1.04 mm, respectively. Statistically significant differences were identified. Results of the ROC analysis, based on measurement of UVJ-M between the late pregnancy and non-SUI groups, revealed that the optimal threshold was 8.66 mm, corresponding to a sensitivity of 89.5% and specificity of 66.7%. In conclusion, UVJ-M ≥6.59 mm was identified as the predicted value of SUI during late pregnancy, and UVJ-M ≥8.66 mm the predicted value of SUI after delivery. PMID:27168801

  16. Effect of ovulatory follicle size and estradiol supplementation during the preovulatory period on pregnancy rates in postpartum beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In postpartum beef cows, GnRH-induced ovulation of small dominant follicles decreased pregnancy rates and increased late embryonic/fetal mortality; however, ovulatory follicle size had no apparent effect on the establishment or maintenance of pregnancy when ovulation occurred spontaneously. Further...

  17. Weight change in the postpartum period. A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Crowell, D T

    1995-01-01

    Women who gain excessive weight during pregnancy are at risk for postpartum weight retention and long-term obesity. Familiarity with current research related to postpartum weight loss can aid the nurse-midwife in providing sound, clinical advice to women at risk for postpartum weight retention. This article provides a review of current literature and research studies related to postpartum weight loss, weight retention, and weight gain. An overview of gestational weight gain and fetal growth, recommendations of the Institute of Medicine, complications of maternal obesity, postpartum weight-loss patterns, and factors that affect postpartum weight loss are discussed. PMID:7472647

  18. Plasticity of GABAA Receptors during Pregnancy and Postpartum Period: From Gene to Function

    PubMed Central

    Licheri, Valentina; Talani, Giuseppe; Gorule, Ashish A.; Mostallino, Maria Cristina; Biggio, Giovanni; Sanna, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy needs complex pathways that together play a role in proper growth and protection of the fetus preventing its premature loss. Changes during pregnancy and postpartum period include the manifold machinery of neuroactive steroids that plays a crucial role in neuronal excitability by local modulation of specific inhibitory receptors: the GABAA receptors. Marked fluctuations in both blood and brain concentration of neuroactive steroids strongly contribute to GABAA receptor function and plasticity. In this review, we listed several interesting results regarding the regulation and plasticity of GABAA receptor function during pregnancy and postpartum period in rats. The increase in brain levels of neuroactive steroids during pregnancy and their sudden decrease immediately before delivery are causally related to changes in the expression/function of specific GABAA receptor subunits in the hippocampus. These data suggest that alterations in GABAA receptor expression and function may be related to neurological and psychiatric disorders associated with crucial periods in women. These findings could help to provide potential new treatments for these women's disabling syndromes. PMID:26413323

  19. Factors in Dry Period Associated with Intramammary Infection and Subsequent Clinical Mastitis in Early Postpartum Cows.

    PubMed

    Leelahapongsathon, Kansuda; Piroon, Tipapun; Chaisri, Wasana; Suriyasathaporn, Witaya

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine cow characteristics and farm management factors during the dry period associated with early postparturient intramammary infection (IMI) and subsequent clinical mastitis (CM). Data were collected three times: before drying off (P1), during the dry period (P2), and 5 to 14 days after calving (P3), using questionnaires and farm investigation. Milk samples were aseptically collected for bacterial identification at P1 and P3. Factors associated with IMI and CM were analyzed using multiple logistic regression models. The final model showed that IMI in early postpartum was significantly associated with full insertion of dry cow antibiotic, dry cows in barns with a combination of tie and free stalls, body condition score (BCS) in dry period and after calving, and milk yield before drying off. For IMI cows, factors significantly associated with clinical expression of mastitis were having daily barn cleaning, teat disinfected with alcohol before administration of dry cow therapy, BCS before drying off, milk yield before drying off, and days in milk at drying off. In conclusion, both cow and farm management factors are associated with the IMI rate and subsequent expression of clinical signs of mastitis in early postpartum cows. PMID:26949960

  20. Factors in Dry Period Associated with Intramammary Infection and Subsequent Clinical Mastitis in Early Postpartum Cows

    PubMed Central

    Leelahapongsathon, Kansuda; Piroon, Tipapun; Chaisri, Wasana; Suriyasathaporn, Witaya

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine cow characteristics and farm management factors during the dry period associated with early postparturient intramammary infection (IMI) and subsequent clinical mastitis (CM). Data were collected three times: before drying off (P1), during the dry period (P2), and 5 to 14 days after calving (P3), using questionnaires and farm investigation. Milk samples were aseptically collected for bacterial identification at P1 and P3. Factors associated with IMI and CM were analyzed using multiple logistic regression models. The final model showed that IMI in early postpartum was significantly associated with full insertion of dry cow antibiotic, dry cows in barns with a combination of tie and free stalls, body condition score (BCS) in dry period and after calving, and milk yield before drying off. For IMI cows, factors significantly associated with clinical expression of mastitis were having daily barn cleaning, teat disinfected with alcohol before administration of dry cow therapy, BCS before drying off, milk yield before drying off, and days in milk at drying off. In conclusion, both cow and farm management factors are associated with the IMI rate and subsequent expression of clinical signs of mastitis in early postpartum cows. PMID:26949960

  1. Relationship between fatigue and sleepiness with general health of mothers in the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Khayamim, Nafiseh; Bahadoran, Parvin; Mehrabi, Tayebeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fatigue and changes in sleep patterns are one of the impressive features in the first year after birth, which have negative effects on work, family life, and social relationships. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between fatigue and Stanford sleepiness with the general health of mothers in the postpartum period. Materials and Methods: The current research is a descriptive correlational study which was performed on 190 mothers between 2 and 24 postpartum weeks, referring to the health centers of Isfahan in 2014. All mothers meeting the inclusion criteria were selected through cluster purposive sampling. Data were collected by use of four questionnaires including profile and fertility, fatigue, Stanford sleepiness, and general health. Data were analyzed by statistical tests at a significance level of ≤0.05. Results: The results showed that 5.3%, 59.5%, and 35.3% of subjects had mild, moderate, and severe fatigue, respectively. In addition, 26.3% of women showed a public health disorder, and according to Stanford sleepiness, 20.5% of subjects had sleepiness. The statistical results indicated that there were significant relationships between fatigue (P ≤ 0.001, r = 0.52) and Stanford sleepiness (P = 0.04, r = 0.14), and mothers’ general health. Conclusions: According to prevalence of fatigue and sleepiness in the postpartum period and its relationship with maternal health, application of sleep health education and appropriate counseling during pregnancy and after delivery is recommended to prevent mothers’ mental complications in order to achieve a safe pregnancy. PMID:27563322

  2. Chromium propionate supplementation during the peripartum period interacts with starch source fed postpartum: Production responses during the immediate postpartum and carryover periods.

    PubMed

    Rockwell, R J; Allen, M S

    2016-06-01

    Forty-eight multiparous cows were used in a randomized complete block design experiment with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the interaction between chromium propionate (CrPr) supplementation and sources of corn varying in ruminal starch fermentability on production responses during the postpartum (PP) and carryover periods. During the peripartum period (28d before expected parturition until 28d PP), diets were top-dressed (20g/d) with either CrPr (KemTRACE Chromium Propionate, Kemin Industries, Des Moines, IA; 8mg of Cr/cow per day) or control (Con; ground corn). At parturition, cows were randomly assigned to corn treatment within CrPr and Con treatments: dry corn (DC) or high-moisture corn (HMC). Treatment combinations (CrPr/DC, CrPr/HMC, Con/DC, and Con/HMC) were fed from parturition until 28d PP (treatment period). Cows were fed a common diet to evaluate potential carryover effects of the treatment diets from 29 to 84d PP (carryover period). The CrPr and corn treatments interacted over time to affect yield of 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM) during both the treatment and carryover periods. The CrPr/HMC treatment combination tended to increase FCM compared with Con/DC and Con/HMC by 28d PP (57.4 vs. 48.6 and 48.5kg/d, respectively) and increased FCM compared with Con/DC by 42d PP (59.2 vs. 44.8kg/d). The CrPr tended to increase milk yield (55.4 vs. 51.9kg/d) regardless of corn source during the carryover period after treatment ceased. Daily and cumulative DMI were not affected by treatment during the PP period, but CrPr and corn treatments interacted over time to affect daily DMI during the carryover period; DMI was generally higher for CrPr/HMC, lower for Con/DC, and intermediate for CrPr/DC and Con/HMC from 29 to 84d PP. Supplementation of CrPr throughout the peripartum period interacted with starch source in PP diets over time to affect production responses that were sustained after treatment application ceased. PMID:26995130

  3. Management of colorectal neoplasia during pregnancy and in the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Aytac, Erman; Ozuner, Gokhan; Isik, Ozgen; Gorgun, Emre; Stocchi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To report our experience on management of colorectal neoplasia during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. METHODS: Patients who were diagnosed with colorectal cancer during pregnancy or in the postpartum period (< 6 mo), between 8/1997 and 4/2013, in our department were reviewed. Patient characteristics, operations, fetal health and follow-up during pregnancy, type of delivery and oncologic outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: Eight patients met our study criteria. Median age at the time of diagnosis of colorectal cancer was 31 years. Median follow-up after surgery was 36 mo. Median duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 16 wk. Three patients were diagnosed with colorectal cancer during pregnancy and underwent surgery prior to delivery. None of the patients received adjuvant treatment during pregnancy. Five patients were diagnosed with colorectal cancer within a median of 2.1 mo after delivery and underwent surgery. No adverse neonatal outcomes were noted. All deliveries were at term (2 cesarean sections) except for one preterm delivery following low anterior resection on the 34th week of pregnancy. CONCLUSION: There has been a significant delay in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer which is probably due to overlap of symptoms and signs between these tumors and a normal pregnancy. Surgery for colorectal cancer during pregnancy can be performed safely without compromising maternal and fetal outcomes.

  4. [Anemia and its treatment with peroral anti-anemia agents in women during the postpartum period].

    PubMed

    Mára, M; Eretová, V; Zivný, J; Kvasnicka, J; Umlaufová, A; Márová, E

    1999-06-01

    proved that laboratory and clinical indicators of post-partum anaemia reached more quickly normal values in women treated with iron preparations. The authors did not detect a single and supreme marker of sideropenic anaemia in the early post-partum period. This is one of the reasons why the authors recommend iron administration to all women after spontaneous delivery. In the authors' opinion examination of the blood count on the fourth day and assessment of the serum ferritin concentration one month after a spontaneous delivery in selected mothers (e.g. after an above average peripartal blood loss) is desirable. Addition of folic acid to iron is of no special value during the post-partum period. Iron substitution in women after spontaneous delivery should be, with regard to the long persisting sideropenia, administered at least for three months. The dose of 80 mg elemental iron per day is sufficient for mild or medium post-partum anaemia. Addition of mucoprotease and ascorbic acid to iron preparations is useful because it increases the compliance of the patients and thus also its effectiveness. The preparation Tardyferon meets the above criteria and is therefore a good choice for the treatment of post-partum anaemia. PMID:10568044

  5. Oral L-arginine supplementation impacts several reproductive parameters during the postpartum period in mares.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Dale E; Warren, Lori K; Mortensen, Christopher J

    2013-05-01

    L-arginine is an amino acid which can alter pituitary function and increase blood flow to the reproductive tract. The objective was to determine the effect of supplementing 100g of L-arginine on plasma arginine concentrations, follicular dynamics and ovarian and uterine artery blood flow during the estrus that occurs subsequent to foaling. In Experiment 1, mares were fed 100g L-arginine for 1 day during the last 3 weeks of pregnancy and plasma samples taken for every hour for the first 4h and every other hour until 12h.L-arginine supplementation elevated plasma arginine concentrations from 1 to 8h post feeding; arginine peaked at 6h (arginine: 515±33μmol/L; control: 80±33μmol/L). In Experiment 2, mares received either 100g L-arginine or control diets beginning 21 d before the expected foaling date and continued for 30 d postpartum. The reproductive tract was evaluated by transrectal Doppler ultrasonography from Day 1 postpartum through Day 30. There were no differences in ovarian follicular dynamics, ovarian or uterine resistance indices between groups. Vascular perfusion of the F1 follicular wall was greater in L-arginine supplemented mares (37.3±2.6%) than controls (25.4±2.7%; P<0.05). L-arginine supplemented mares had a smaller uterine body and horns and accumulated less uterine fluid than controls (P<0.05). The combination of reducing uterine fluid accumulation, while not altering follicular development, raises the possible use of L-arginine supplementation as a breeding management tool during the postpartum period to increase reproductive success. PMID:23523236

  6. Effect of lavender scent inhalation on prevention of stress, anxiety and depression in the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Kianpour, Maryam; Mansouri, Akram; Mehrabi, Tayebeh; Asghari, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stress, anxiety, and postpartum depression are the most common problems among women in their childbearing age. Research has shown that aromatherapy administered during labor reduces anxiety in mothers. With regard to the specific biological conditions in postpartum period and the subsequent drop in hormone levels, this study investigated the effect of lavender on prevention of stress, anxiety, and postpartum depression in women. Materials and Methods: In a clinical trial, 140 women admitted to the obstetric and gynecological unit were randomly divided into aromatherapy and non-aromatherapy groups immediately after delivery. Intervention with aromatherapy consisted of inhaling three drops of lavender essential oil every 8 h with for 4 weeks. The control group received routine care after discharge and was followed up by telephone only. After 2 weeks, 1 and 3 months of delivery, women were assessed by the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale and the Edinburgh stress, anxiety, and depression scale in the two groups. Data analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and post hoc tests. Level of significance was set as 0.05 for all tests. Results: The results showed that the mean stress, anxiety, and depression at time point of 2 weeks (P = 0.012, P < 0.0001, and P = 0.003, respectively) and stress, anxiety, and depression scores at time points of 1 month (P < 0.0001) and 3 months after delivery (P < 0.0001) were significantly lower in the study group compared with the control group. Conclusions: Inhaling the scent of lavender for 4 weeks can prevent stress, anxiety, and depression after childbirth. PMID:27095995

  7. Depression and suicidality during the postpartum period after first time deliveries, active component service women and dependent spouses, U.S. Armed Forces, 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Do, Tai; Hu, Zheng; Otto, Jean; Rohrbeck, Patricia

    2013-09-01

    Although suicide is a leading cause of death among new mothers during the postpartum period, there has been limited research on self-harm in the postpartum period and associated risk factors. One potential risk factor for suicidality (completed suicides, suicide attempts, and suicide ideation including thoughts of self harm) during the postpartum period is postpartum depression (PPD). In this study of women who gave birth for the first time between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2011, 5,267 (9.9% of all who delivered) active component service women and 10,301 (8.2%) dependent spouses received incident PPD diagnoses during the one year postpartum period; 213 (0.4%) service women and 221 (0.2%) dependent spouses were diagnosed with incident suicidality. After adjusting for the effects of other covariates, service women with PPD had 42.2 times the odds to be diagnosed with suicidality in the postpartum period compared to service women without PPD; dependent spouses with PPD had 14.5 times the odds compared to those without PPD. The findings of this report suggest that a history of mental disorders was common among service women and dependent spouses with PPD in the postpartum period, and, in turn, PPD was a strong predictor for suicidality in the postpartum period. These results emphasize the importance of PPD screening during the postpartum period. They also suggest that additional focused screening for suicidal behavior among those already diagnosed with PPD may be warranted. PMID:24093957

  8. Declining levels of erythrocyte folate during the postpartum period among Hispanic women living on the Texas-Mexico border.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, K M; Redlinger, T E; Waller, D K

    2000-05-01

    Hispanic women have higher parity and shorter interbirth intervals than women of other ethnic groups. Thus, they are more likely to become pregnant relatively soon after giving birth, which may place these women at risk of low or deficient levels of specific nutrients. Folic acid is of particular concern because recent studies suggest that maternal use of folic acid supplements may be associated with better reproductive outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess folic acid levels in postpartum Hispanic women. Using a cross-sectional design, we measured erythrocyte folate values for 188 low-income Hispanic women 1-12 months postpartum who were receiving services at the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics in El Paso, Texas. An interview was administered to collect information on diet, vitamin use, and method of infant feeding. Mean erythrocyte folate levels decreased from >1300 ng/ml during the first 4 months postpartum to a low of 1017 ng/ml by 12 months postpartum, for an overall decrease of approximately 23% (p = 0.004). Use of postpartum vitamin supplements was significantly associated with higher folate levels. However, only 35% of mothers used vitamins beyond 1 month postpartum. Study results suggest that these mothers may be at risk of developing low or deficient levels of folic acid during the postpartum period. Educational campaigns targeting these women as well as other groups of postpartum women should encourage them to comply with the U.S. Public Health Service recommendation that women of childbearing age consume 0.4 mg of folic acid daily. PMID:10868612

  9. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period: An Analysis of the National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kemper, Kathi J.; Rothman, Russell; Gardiner, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is commonly used among women, but few national data exist regarding CAM use during pregnancy or the postnatal period. Methods: Data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey were analyzed for women ages between the ages of 18 and 49 years who were pregnant or had children less than 1 year old. CAM use was identified based on standard definitions of CAM from the National Institutes of Health's National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. CAM use among women who were pregnant or with a child less than 1 year was compared with the other similarly aged female responders. CAM use was examined among these women stratified by sociodemographics, health conditions, and conventional medicine use through bivariable and multivariable logistic regression models. Results: Among pregnant and postpartum women from the ages of 19 to 49 years in the United States, 37% of pregnant women and 28% of postpartum women reported using CAM in the last 12 months compared with 40% of nonpregnant/non-postpartum women. Mind–body practices were the most common CAM modality reported, with one out of four women reporting use. Biological therapies, excluding vitamins and minerals, during the postpartum period were used by only 8% of women. Using multivariable regression modeling, we report no significant difference in CAM use among pregnant compared with non-pregnant women (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.88; [95% confidence interval 0.65–1.20]), but lower CAM use among postpartum women compared with non-pregnant women (AOR 0.67; [0.52–0.88]), while adjusting for sociodemographics. Conclusion: CAM use among pregnancy similar to women who are not pregnant, while postpartum CAM use decreases. Further evaluation of CAM therapies among pregnant and postpartum women is necessary to determine the costs and benefits of integrative CAM therapies in conventional care. PMID:25268759

  10. Oxytocin in the medial prefrontal cortex regulates maternal care, maternal aggression and anxiety during the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Sabihi, Sara; Dong, Shirley M; Durosko, Nicole E; Leuner, Benedetta

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) acts on a widespread network of brain regions to regulate numerous behavioral adaptations during the postpartum period including maternal care, maternal aggression, and anxiety. In the present study, we examined whether this network also includes the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We found that bilateral infusion of a highly specific oxytocin receptor antagonist (OTR-A) into the prelimbic (PL) region of the mPFC increased anxiety-like behavior in postpartum, but not virgin, females. In addition, OTR blockade in the postpartum mPFC impaired maternal care behaviors and enhanced maternal aggression. Overall, these results suggest that OT in the mPFC modulates maternal care and aggression, as well as anxiety-like behavior, during the postpartum period. Although the relationship among these behaviors is complicated and further investigation is required to refine our understanding of OT actions in the maternal mPFC, these data nonetheless provide new insights into neural circuitry of OT-mediated postpartum behaviors. PMID:25147513

  11. Oxytocin in the medial prefrontal cortex regulates maternal care, maternal aggression and anxiety during the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Sabihi, Sara; Dong, Shirley M.; Durosko, Nicole E.; Leuner, Benedetta

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) acts on a widespread network of brain regions to regulate numerous behavioral adaptations during the postpartum period including maternal care, maternal aggression, and anxiety. In the present study, we examined whether this network also includes the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We found that bilateral infusion of a highly specific oxytocin receptor antagonist (OTR-A) into the prelimbic (PL) region of the mPFC increased anxiety-like behavior in postpartum, but not virgin, females. In addition, OTR blockade in the postpartum mPFC impaired maternal care behaviors and enhanced maternal aggression. Overall, these results suggest that OT in the mPFC modulates maternal care and aggression, as well as anxiety-like behavior, during the postpartum period. Although the relationship among these behaviors is complicated and further investigation is required to refine our understanding of OT actions in the maternal mPFC, these data nonetheless provide new insights into neural circuitry of OT-mediated postpartum behaviors. PMID:25147513

  12. The Efficiency of Reproduction Health Education Given to Adolescents during the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    Topatan, Serap; Demirci, Nurdan

    2015-10-01

    Our research, partly experimental and partly prospective, was conducted for the purpose of evaluating the efficiency of reproductive health education given to adolescents during the postpartum period. The study comprised with 120 adolescents aged 15 to 19 (60 experimental group, 60 control group). Follow-up was conducted every 3 months for a total of 12 months, and the study concluded with 55 individuals from the experimental group and 46 individuals from the control group having participated fully, for the full 12 months. At the end of the research, it was found that the reproductive health knowledge of the experimental (103.10 ± 11.43) and control (99.15 ± 9.53) groups were similar before education. A statistically significant difference was also found between the total points for the scale determining the reproductive health of the experimental and control groups before and after education (P < .001). The socio-demographic variables affecting the total points for the scale determining the reproductive health-protective behavior of women were evaluated by multiple regression analysis; the most effective variables were found to be age and educational status. A statistically significant difference was also found between the total points for the family planning behavior scale of the experimental and control groups before and after education (P < .001). From this, it was understood that reproductive health education given during the postpartum and follow-up periods has a positive effect on adolescents' developing reproductive health behaviors and on creating knowledge and awareness related to family planning behavior. But there needs to be follow-up and supporting specific for adolescents in the current health system. PMID:26173382

  13. Efficacy of Enhanced HIV Counseling for Risk Reduction during Pregnancy and in the Postpartum Period: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Maman, Suzanne; Moodley, Dhayendre; McNaughton-Reyes, Heathe Luz; Groves, Allison K.; Kagee, Ashraf; Moodley, Prashini

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pregnancy and the postpartum period present important intervention opportunities. Counseling can leverage the motivation women have during this time to change behaviors that may negatively affect their health and the heath of their infants. Methods Pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in South Africa were randomly allocated to treatment (n = 733) and control arms (n = 747). Treatment arm participants received enhanced HIV pre- and post-test counseling, legal support and access to support groups at baseline, which occurred at the first antenatal visit, and then six and ten weeks postpartum. Control arm participants received standard HIV testing and counseling (HTC) and two postpartum attention control sessions. Outcomes were incidence of sexually transmitted infection (STI) by 14 weeks postpartum and past 30-day inconsistent condom use at 14 weeks and 9 months postpartum. Results There were no intervention effects on incident STIs for either HIV-negative (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 1.01, 95% CI 0.71–1.44) or HIV-positive participants (aRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.61–1.23). The intervention was associated with a 28% decrease in risk of past 30-day inconsistent condom use at nine-months among HIV-negative women (aRR 0.72,95% CI 0.59–0.88), but did not affect inconsistent condom use among HIV-positive women (aRR1.08; 95% CI 0.67–1.75). Discussion An enhanced counseling intervention during pregnancy and the postpartum period can lead to reductions in inconsistent condom use among HIV-negative women. Results underscore the importance of the counseling that accompanies HIV HTC. More work is needed to understand how to promote and sustain risk reduction among HIV-positive women. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01683461 PMID:24824050

  14. Metabolic and energy status during the dry period is crucial for the resumption of ovarian activity postpartum in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castro, N; Kawashima, C; van Dorland, H A; Morel, I; Miyamoto, A; Bruckmaier, R M

    2012-10-01

    It is well known that the degree of negative energy balance in high-producing dairy cows is the major cause of delayed resumption of the ovarian cyclicity that closely relates to fertility. Recent evidence suggests that the energetic situation during early lactation critically affects nutrient partitioning, metabolism, and the reproductive axis, whereas the effect of energy status during the dry period is widely unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of energy status throughout the entire dry period until early lactation on the onset of the ovarian cyclicity. Blood samples were taken in 23 cows from dry off at 8 wk before expected parturition to 8 wk postpartum for the analyses of metabolites and hormones, and milk samples were obtained 3 times weekly from d 7 of lactation onward to confirm luteal activity and pregnancy by milk progesterone analysis. Energy balance (EB) was measured weekly during the last 6 wk of the dry period and every other week after parturition. Liver biopsies were obtained at 8 wk before expected calving, within 1 d after calving, and at 4 wk postpartum to measure the mRNA abundance of various gluconeogenic enzymes and metabolic hormone receptors. Cows showing luteal activity within 3 wk postpartum were defined as ovulatory during the first follicular wave postpartum (OC), whereas cows without luteal activity within 3 wk postpartum were defined as anovulatory (AC). Energy balance and, concomitantly, plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine, and thyroxine were higher in OC than in AC during the dry period. Plasma thyroxine concentrations and body condition score during the postpartum period were higher in OC than in AC. At the mRNA level (19 cows), hepatic insulin receptor decreased from dry off to early lactation, and mRNA of pyruvate carboxylase was highest at parturition and decreased in early lactation in AC only, whereas both parameters remained unchanged

  15. Understanding and meeting the needs of women in the postpartum period: the Perinatal Maternal Health Promotion Model.

    PubMed

    Fahey, Jenifer O; Shenassa, Edmond

    2013-01-01

    A new model for the care of women in the postpartum focuses on the development of life skills that promote complete well-being. The year following childbirth is a time of significant transition for women. In addition to the physiologic changes associated with the postpartum period, a woman undergoes marked psychosocial changes as she transitions into a motherhood role, reestablishes relationships, and works to meet the physical and emotional needs of her infant and other family members. It is a time when women are vulnerable to health problems directly related to childbirth and to compromised self-care, which can manifest in the development or reestablishment of unhealthy behaviors such as smoking and a sedentary lifestyle. In addition to long-term implications for women, compromised maternal health in the postpartum period is associated with suboptimal health and developmental outcomes for infants. Maternal health experts have called for a change in how care is provided for women in the postpartum period. This article presents the rationale for a health promotion approach to meeting the needs of women in the postpartum period and introduces the Perinatal Maternal Health Promotion Model. This conceptual framework is built around a definition of maternal well-being that asserts that health goes beyond merely the absence of medical complications. In the model, the core elements of a healthy postpartum are identified and include not only physical recovery but also the ability to meet individual needs and successfully transition into motherhood. These goals can best be achieved by helping women develop or strengthen 4 key individual health-promoting skills: the ability to mobilize social support, self-efficacy, positive coping strategies, and realistic expectations. While the model focuses on the woman, the health promotion approach takes into account that maternal health in this critical period affects and is affected by her family, social network, and community

  16. [Relationship between the intensity of gynecologic supervision during the postpartum period and fertility results in dairy cow herds].

    PubMed

    Bostedt, H; Maurer, G

    1990-10-01

    The efficiency of regular post-partum gynaecological care in the dairy cow can only be correctly evaluated if cows with a normal post-partum period and those with problems during this time are distinguished. From 1,125 dairy cows being fed a high proportion of maize silage it was shown that gynaecological examinations on days 12, 28 and 40 post-partum had a positive effect on herd fertility. Regular checks resulted in significant reductions in the calving to conception interval, the insemination index and in the percentage culled due to fertility problems in comparison to the control animals (n = 451) where veterinary control took place only occasionally. In particular the early detection and treatment of endometritis and ovary function abnormalities contributed to a high conception rate with appropriate calving interval. The administration of GnRH (20 micrograms Buserelin) to cows with problems in the post-partum period and under continuous gynaecological supervision resulted in improvements in only some aspects (uterine involution, ovarian cyst incidence). The conception rates in the treated group and in the intensively controlled group were the same. PMID:2124734

  17. Are symptom features of depression during pregnancy, the postpartum period and outside the peripartum period distinct? Results from a nationally representative sample using Item Response Theory (IRT)

    PubMed Central

    Hoertel, Nicolas; López, Saioa; Peyre, Hugo; Wall, Melanie M.; González-Pinto, Ana; Limosin, Frédéric; Blanco, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Background Whether there are systematic differences in depression symptom expression during pregnancy, the postpartum period and outside these periods (i.e., outside the peripartum period) remains debated. The aim of this study was to use methods based on item response theory (IRT) to examine, after equating for depression severity, differences in the likelihood of reporting DSM-IV symptoms of major depressive episode (MDE) in women of childbearing age (i.e., aged 18-50) during pregnancy, the postpartum period and outside the peripartum period. Method We conducted these analyses using a large, nationally representative sample of women of childbearing age from the USA (n = 11,256) who participated in the second wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Results The overall 12-month prevalence of all depressive criteria (except for worthlessness/guilt) was significantly lower in pregnant women than in women of childbearing age outside the peripartum period, whereas the prevalence of all symptoms (except for “psychomotor symptoms”) were not significantly different between the postpartum and the non-peripartum group. There were no clinically significant differences in the endorsement rates of symptoms of MDE by pregnancy status when equating for levels of depression severity. Conclusions This study suggests that the clinical presentation of depressive symptoms in women of childbearing age does not differ during pregnancy, the postpartum period and outside the peripartum period. These findings do not provide psychometric support for the inclusion of the peripartum onset specifier for major depressive disorder in the DSM-5. PMID:25424539

  18. Blood metabolite profiles in cycling and non-cycling Friesian-Sanga cross-bred cows grazing natural pasture during the post-partum period.

    PubMed

    Obese, F Y; MacCarthy, C; Osei-Amponsah, R; Ayizanga, R A; Damptey, J K

    2015-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of plasma concentrations of the metabolic hormones [Growth hormone (GH), insulin and insulin-like growth factor -I (IGF-I)] and nutritional metabolites (Glucose, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinine) on the resumption of post-partum ovarian activity in sixteen Friesian-Sanga cows grazing extensively on native grassland. Blood samples were taken from cows from week 1 to 16 post-partum. Cows were classified as having resumed ovarian activity when a plasma progesterone concentration of ≥ 1.0 ng/ml was recorded for two consecutive weekly samples. Based on the resumption of ovarian activity, cows were classified as early-cycling, late-cycling or non-cycling. The concentrations of the metabolic hormones were measured from week 1 to 10, while those of the nutritional metabolites were measured during week 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 during the study period. The concentrations of the metabolic hormones, GH and insulin were similar (p > 0.05) in the three ovarian activity groups, likewise the concentrations of the nutritional metabolites, glucose, total protein, globulin, urea and creatinine. Plasma IGF-I concentration was higher (p < 0.001) in early-cycling (18.7 ± 0.74 ng/ml) than in late-cycling (12.4 ± 0.75 ng/ml) and non-cycling (10.4 ± 0.91 ng/ml) cows. Plasma cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in early-cycling (1.94 ± 0.15 mmol/l) compared with late-cycling (2.48 ± 0.12 mmol/l) and non-cycling (2.61 ± 0.11 mmol/l) cows. For plasma albumin concentrations, the levels recorded for early-cycling cows were higher (40.7 ± 2.85 g/l) than in late-cycling (34.4 ± 1.97 g/l) and non-cycling (33.6 ± 2.66) cows. The results suggest that cows with lower plasma concentrations of IGF-I and albumin, but higher plasma cholesterol concentrations were at risk of delayed resumption of post-partum ovarian activity. PMID:25683608

  19. Late postpartum eclampsia complicated with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: a case report and a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lihong; Wang, Yacong; Shi, Liang; Cao, Jianhui

    2015-01-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a rare but serious clinical-neuroradiological entity characterized by headache, vomiting, visual disturbances, altered mental status, seizures, and unconsciousness associated with the characteristic imaging findings including sub-cortical vasogenic edema at the bilateral parietal and occipital lobes. We describe a case of 28-year-old PRES patient secondary to delayed maternal postpartum eclampsia. This patient was not initially diagnosed with pre-eclampsia and PRES. The diagnosis was established after magnetic resonance imaging. After treatment this patient’s PRES resolved. Early diagnosis and treatment are the keys to reverse PRES. A literature review for PRES is provided in this report. PMID:26807372

  20. The association between physical activity and maternal sleep during the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Vladutiu, Catherine J.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Borodulin, Katja; Deng, Yu; Dole, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity is associated with improved sleep quality and duration in the general population, but its effect on sleep in postpartum women is unknown. Methods We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between hours/week of self-reported domain-specific and overall moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sleep quality and duration at 3- and 12-months postpartum among a cohort of 530 women in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Postpartum Study. Results MVPA was not associated with sleep quality or duration at 3-months postpartum. At 12-months postpartum, a one hour/week increase in recreational MVPA was associated with higher odds of good (vs. poor) sleep quality (odds ratio, OR=1.14; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.03–1.27) and a one hour/week increase in child/adult care MVPA was associated with lower odds of good (vs. poor) sleep quality (OR=0.93; 95% CI=0.88–0.99). A one hour/week increase in child/adult care MVPA (OR=1.08, 95% CI=1.00–1.16) was associated with higher odds of long sleep duration and one hour/week increases in indoor household (OR=1.09, 95% CI=1.01–1.18) and overall MVPA (OR=1.04, 95% CI=1.01–1.07) were associated with higher odds of short (vs. normal) sleep duration. Comparing 3-months postpartum to 12-months postpartum, increased work MVPA was associated with good sleep quality (OR=2.40, 95% CI=1.12–5.15) and increased indoor household MVPA was associated with short sleep duration (OR=1.85, 95% CI=1.05–3.27) as measured at 12-months postpartum. Conclusions Selected domains of MVPA and their longitudinal increases were associated with sleep quality and duration at 12-months postpartum. Additional research is needed to elucidate whether physical activity can improve postpartum sleep. PMID:24577601

  1. Relationship Factors and Trajectories of Intimate Partner Violence among South African Women during Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period

    PubMed Central

    Groves, Allison K.; McNaughton-Reyes, H. Luz; Foshee, Vangie A.; Moodley, Dhayendre; Maman, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem in South Africa. However, there is limited research on whether and how IPV changes during pregnancy and the postpartum period and on the factors that might affect women's risk during this time. In this study, we describe the mean trajectories of physical and psychological IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period and examine whether relationship power, partner social support, and relationship stress are associated with women's trajectories of IPV. Data come from a longitudinal study with 1,480 women recruited during pregnancy between May 2008 and June 2010 at a public clinic in Durban. Women completed behavioral assessments at their first antenatal visit, at fourteen weeks and at nine months postpartum. Women's experiences of IPV were measured at all three time points and relationship power, partner social support and relationship stress were each measured at the baseline assessment. We used multilevel random coefficients growth modeling to build our models. The mean trajectory for both types of IPV was flat which means that, on average, there was not significant change in levels of IPV over pregnancy and the postpartum period. However, there was significant individual variability in trajectories of IPV over the study period. Women who had higher relationship power had lower levels of physical and psychological IPV over time than women with lower relationship power. Additionally, women with higher relationship stress and lower partner support had higher levels of psychological IPV at pregnancy. Interventions that maximize women's relationship power and partner social support and minimize relationship stress during this transformative time are needed. PMID:25268363

  2. Effect of Dietary Cation-Anion Difference during Prepartum and Postpartum Periods on Performance, Blood and Urine Minerals Status of Holstein Dairy Cow

    PubMed Central

    Razzaghi, A.; Aliarabi, H.; Tabatabaei, M. M.; Saki, A. A.; Valizadeh, R.; Zamani, P.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty four periparturient cows were used to determine the effects of DCAD on acid-base balance, plasma and urine mineral concentrations, health status, and subsequent lactation performance. Each group of 12 cows received either a diet containing −100 DCAD or +100 DCAD for 21 d prepartum. Both anionic and cationic groups were divided into two groups, one received a +200 DCAD and the other +400 DCAD diet for 60 d postpartum. Prepartum reduction of DCAD decreased DMI, urinary and blood pH, urinary concentrations of Na or K and increased plasma and urinary Ca, Mg, Cl and S. Also cows fed −100 DCAD diet consumed the most dry matter in the first 60 d after calving. Postpartum +400 DCAD increased milk fat and total solid percentages, urinary and blood pH and urinary Na and K concentrations, but urinary Ca, P, Cl and S contents decreased. Greater DMI, FCM yields were observed in cows fed a diet of +400 DCAD than +200 DCAD. No case of milk fever occurred for any diets but feeding with a negative DCAD diet reduced placenta expulsion time. In conclusion, feeding negative DCAD in late gestation period and high DCAD in early lactation improves performance and productivity of dairy cows. PMID:25049589

  3. Adverse events from spinal manipulation in the pregnant and postpartum periods: a critical review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The safety of spinal manipulation during pregnancy and the postpartum periods has been a matter of debate among manual therapists. Spinal manipulative therapy during these periods is a commonly performed intervention as musculoskeletal pain is common in these patients. To date there has not been an evaluation of the literature on this topic exclusively. Methods A literature search was conducted on PubMed, CINAHL and the Index to Chiropractic Literature along with reference searching for articles published in English and French in the peer-reviewed literature that documented adverse effects of spinal manipulation during either pregnancy or postpartum. Case reports, case series, and any other clinical study designs were deemed acceptable for inclusion, as were systematic reviews. The appropriate Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) tools were used to rate included articles for quality when applicable. Results Five articles identifying adverse events in seven subjects following spinal manipulation were included in this review, along with two systematic reviews. The articles were published between 1978 and 2009. Two articles describing adverse effects from spinal manipulation on two postpartum patients were included, while the remaining three articles on five patients with adverse effects following spinal manipulation were on pregnant patients. Injury severity ranged from minor injury such as increasing pain after treatment that resolved within a few days to more severe injuries including fracture, stroke, and epidural hematoma. SIGN scores of the prospective observational cohort study and systematic reviews indicated acceptable quality. Conclusions There are only a few reported cases of adverse events following spinal manipulation during pregnancy and the postpartum period identified in the literature. While improved reporting of such events is required in the future, it may be that such injuries are relatively rare. PMID:22455720

  4. Patient Management with Metallic Valve Prosthesis during Pregnancy and Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    Garcez, Juliane Dantas Seabra; Rosa, Vitor Emer Egypto; Lopes, Antonio Sergio de Santis Andrade; Accorsi, Tarso Augusto Duenhas; Fernandes, João Ricardo Cordeiro; Pomerantzeff, Pablo Maria; Avila, Walkiria Samuel; Tarasoutchi, Flavio

    2015-10-01

    Prosthetic thrombosis is a rare complication, but it has high mortality and morbidity. Young women of childbearing age that have prosthetic heart valves are at increased risk of thrombosis during pregnancy due to changes in coagulation factors. Anticoagulation with adequate control and frequent follow-up if pregnancy occurs must be performed in order to prevent complications related to anticoagulant use. Surgery remains the treatment of choice for prosthetic heart valve thrombosis in most clinical conditions. Patients with metallic prosthetic valves have an estimated 5% risk of thrombosis during pregnancy and maternal mortality of 1.5% related to the event. Anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists during pregnancy is related to varying degrees of complications at each stage of the pregnancy and postpartum periods. Warfarin sodium crosses the placental barrier and when used in the first trimester of pregnancy is a teratogenic agent, causing 1-3% of malformations characterized by fetal warfarin syndrome and also constitutes a major cause of miscarriage in 10-30% of cases. In the third trimester and at delivery, the use of warfarin is associated with maternal and neonatal bleeding in approximately 5 to 15% of cases, respectively. On the other hand, inadequate anticoagulation, including the suspension of the oral anticoagulants aiming at fetal protection, carries a maternal risk of about 25% of metallic prosthesis thrombosis, particularly in the mitral valve. This fact is also due to the state of maternal hypercoagulability with activation of coagulation factors V, VI, VII, IX, X, platelet activity and fibrinogen synthesis, and decrease in protein S levels. The Registry of Pregnancy and Cardiac Disease (ROPAC), assessing 212 pregnant women with metal prosthesis, showed that prosthesis thrombosis occurred in 10 (4.7%) patients and maternal hemorrhage in 23.1%, concluding that only 58% of patients with metallic prosthesis had a complication-free pregnancy. PMID

  5. [The impact of thyroid function in women of reproductive age: infertility, pregnancy and the postpartum period].

    PubMed

    Speer, Gábor

    2013-12-22

    This article reviews the management and diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy and postpartum, which was published by any of the endocrine societies in 2012. The author presents human data based on these clinical practice guidelines, however, there are also many unresolved questions. Especially, there are inconsistencies about screening using plasma TSH measurement. In pregnancy the main causes of hyperthyroidism are Graves's disease and gestational transient thyrotoxicosis. Generally, gestational transient thyrotoxicosis does not require medication, whereas Graves's disease needs antithyroid drug therapy. Postpartum thyroiditis occurs more frequently in antithyroid peroxidase-positive women, who should be screened using serum thyrotropin measurements at 6 to 12 gestation weeks and at 3 and 6 months postpartum. Because overt maternal hypothyroidism, due to autoimmune pathophysioloical mechanisms, negatively affects the fetus, timely recognition and treatment are important. The subclinical form of maternal hypothyroidism should also be treated. A link between thyroid dysfunction and infertility has been warranted. PMID:24334133

  6. Maternal Health-Related Quality of Life and Its Predicting Factors in the Postpartum Period in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Nazanin; Zargousi, Razieh; Sadoughi, Zinab; Tavalaee, Zahra; Rezayati, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background/Purpose. Postpartum period is accompanied by many physical, emotional, and social changes in women's health. The aim of this study was to examine the mothers' quality of life in postpartum period. In addition, it also sought to recognize the variables that predict their quality of life. Methods. This cross-sectional, descriptive study was undertaken among 380 women in 10 urban health centers in Ilam province in west of Iran. They were selected using proportional random sampling method. The SF-36 questionnaire was used to identify women's health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15. Results. Women who were employed, aged less than 30 years, had college degree, have no history of disease in pregnancy, and had given birth more than 3 months ago had higher quality of life scores. Independent predictors for lower physical HRQoL were being with history of disease in pregnancy; being with high school diploma or lower education; and giving birth less than 3 months ago. Also, independent predictor for lower mental HRQoL was being housewife. Conclusion. According to study findings, greater attention must be paid to providing postpartum healthcare for housewife and less educated women as well as those with history of disease in pregnancy. PMID:27022506

  7. Massive Hemothorax Occurring with Intramural Hematoma of the Descending Aorta in the Early Postpartum Period

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jeong Hee; Jeon, Yeong Jeong; Hong, Tae Hee; Byun, Joung Hun; Hwang, Sang Won; Park, Jae Hong

    2016-01-01

    Postpartum aortic intramural hematoma (IMH) is a rare but potentially lethal condition. We report a case of aortic IMH with massive hemothorax in a postpartum woman. The patient was a 31-year-old woman who had delivered twins by cesarean section. Two days after delivery, she complained of sudden-onset dyspnea. Chest computed tomography revealed a massive left hemothorax. Exploratory thoracotomy was performed, and we found a defect measuring approximately 6 mm in the adventitial layer of the thoracic aorta and an IMH. We repaired the defect primarily, and no more bleeding was observed. The patient was discharged on the 19th postoperative day without any complications. PMID:27066436

  8. The Antecedents and Consequences of Maternal Adaptation in the Postpartum Period. Project Prepare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Christine F.

    A prospective, longitudinal investigation was made of psychological aspects of pregnancy, birth, and the first year postpartum. The majority of participants were Caucasian (90 percent) and Chinese-Canadian (5 percent) men and women and their infant children. Adult participants completed a series of psychological and attitude measures selected to…

  9. Incidence and risk factors for intimate partner violence during the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Elisabete Pereira; Valongueiro, Sandra; de Araújo, Thália Velho Barreto; Ludermir, Ana Bernarda

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the incidence and identify risk factors for intimate partner violence during postpartum. METHODS This prospective cohort study was conducted with women, aged between 18-49 years, enrolled in the Brazilian Family Health Strategy in Recife, Northeastern Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. Of the 1.057 women interviewed during pregnancy and postpartum, 539 women, who did not report violence before or during pregnancy, were evaluated. A theoretical-conceptual framework was built with three levels of factors hierarchically ordered: women’s and partners’ sociodemografic and behavioral characteristics, and relationship dynamics. Incidence and risk factors of intimate partner violence were estimated by Poisson Regression. RESULTS The incidence of violence during postpartum was 9.3% (95%CI 7.0;12.0). Isolated psychological violence was the most common (4.3%; 95%CI 2.8;6.4). The overlapping of psychological with physical violence occurred at 3.3% (95%CI 2.0;5.3) and with physical and/or sexual in almost 2.0% (95%CI 0.8;3.0) of cases. The risk of partner violence during postpartum was increased for women with a low level of education (RR = 2.6; 95%CI 1.3;5.4), without own income (RR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.0;2.9) and those who perpetrated physical violence against their partner without being assaulted first (RR = 2.0; 95%CI 1.2;3.4), had a very controlling partner (RR = 2.5; 95%CI 1.1;5.8), and had frequent fights with their partner (RR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.0;2.9). CONCLUSIONS The high incidence of intimate partner violence during postpartum and its association with aspects of the relationship’s quality between the couple, demonstrated the need for public policies that promote conflict mediation and enable forms of empowerment for women to address the cycle of violence. PMID:26270012

  10. The vaginal microbiome during pregnancy and the postpartum period in a European population.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, David A; Chandiramani, Manju; Lee, Yun S; Kindinger, Lindsay; Smith, Ann; Angelopoulos, Nicos; Lehne, Benjamin; Arulkumaran, Shankari; Brown, Richard; Teoh, Tiong Ghee; Holmes, Elaine; Nicoholson, Jeremy K; Marchesi, Julian R; Bennett, Phillip R

    2015-01-01

    The composition and structure of the pregnancy vaginal microbiome may influence susceptibility to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Studies on the pregnant vaginal microbiome have largely been limited to Northern American populations. Using MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, we characterised the vaginal microbiota of a mixed British cohort of women (n = 42) who experienced uncomplicated term delivery and who were sampled longitudinally throughout pregnancy (8-12, 20-22, 28-30 and 34-36 weeks gestation) and 6 weeks postpartum. We show that vaginal microbiome composition dramatically changes postpartum to become less Lactobacillus spp. dominant with increased alpha-diversity irrespective of the community structure during pregnancy and independent of ethnicity. While the pregnancy vaginal microbiome was characteristically dominated by Lactobacillus spp. and low alpha-diversity, unlike Northern American populations, a significant number of pregnant women this British population had a L. jensenii-dominated microbiome characterised by low alpha-diversity. L. jensenii was predominantly observed in women of Asian and Caucasian ethnicity whereas L. gasseri was absent in samples from Black women. This study reveals new insights into biogeographical and ethnic effects upon the pregnancy and postpartum vaginal microbiome and has important implications for future studies exploring relationships between the vaginal microbiome, host health and pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25758319

  11. The vaginal microbiome during pregnancy and the postpartum period in a European population

    PubMed Central

    MacIntyre, David A.; Chandiramani, Manju; Lee, Yun S.; Kindinger, Lindsay; Smith, Ann; Angelopoulos, Nicos; Lehne, Benjamin; Arulkumaran, Shankari; Brown, Richard; Teoh, Tiong Ghee; Holmes, Elaine; Nicoholson, Jeremy K.; Marchesi, Julian R.; Bennett, Phillip R.

    2015-01-01

    The composition and structure of the pregnancy vaginal microbiome may influence susceptibility to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Studies on the pregnant vaginal microbiome have largely been limited to Northern American populations. Using MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, we characterised the vaginal microbiota of a mixed British cohort of women (n = 42) who experienced uncomplicated term delivery and who were sampled longitudinally throughout pregnancy (8–12, 20–22, 28–30 and 34–36 weeks gestation) and 6 weeks postpartum. We show that vaginal microbiome composition dramatically changes postpartum to become less Lactobacillus spp. dominant with increased alpha-diversity irrespective of the community structure during pregnancy and independent of ethnicity. While the pregnancy vaginal microbiome was characteristically dominated by Lactobacillus spp. and low alpha-diversity, unlike Northern American populations, a significant number of pregnant women this British population had a L. jensenii-dominated microbiome characterised by low alpha-diversity. L. jensenii was predominantly observed in women of Asian and Caucasian ethnicity whereas L. gasseri was absent in samples from Black women. This study reveals new insights into biogeographical and ethnic effects upon the pregnancy and postpartum vaginal microbiome and has important implications for future studies exploring relationships between the vaginal microbiome, host health and pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25758319

  12. Use of bovine pregnancy-associated glycoproteins to predict late embryonic mortality in postpartum Nelore beef cows.

    PubMed

    Pohler, K G; Peres, R F G; Green, J A; Graff, H; Martins, T; Vasconcelos, J L M; Smith, M F

    2016-06-01

    The primary objective was to determine if circulating concentration of bovine pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (bPAGs) on Day 30 after artificial insemination (AI) may serve as a marker of late embryonic mortality in Bos indicus (Nelore) beef cows. In experiment 1, postpartum Nelore beef cows (n = 56) were artificially inseminated at a fixed time (Day 0) after synchronization of ovulation. Serum samples were collected on Days 0, 21, 24, 27, and 30 after AI. The first significant increase (P < 0.0001) in serum bPAGs after insemination occurred on Day 24 of gestation. In experiment 2, ovulation was synchronized in postpartum Nelore beef cows (n = 1460) and AI was received at a fixed time. Pregnancy diagnosis and blood sample collection were carried out on Days 28 to 30 after insemination. Cows that maintained a pregnancy from Days 28 to 100 of gestation (n = 714) had significantly (P < 0.0001) higher circulating concentrations of bPAGs on Day 28 compared with cows that did not maintain a pregnancy (embryonic mortality [EM]) until Day 100 (n = 89). When Day 28 bPAG concentration was included in a logistic regression model to predict pregnancy maintenance until Day 100 of gestation, there was an increase (P < 0.0001) in the probability of maintaining pregnancy as maternal concentrations of bPAGs increased. A receiver operating characteristic curve was generated to determine bPAG concentrations on Day 28 that should predict embryonic survival or mortality with an accuracy of 95% or more. On the basis of the positive and negative predicative value analysis, at Day 28 of gestation a circulating concentration of bPAGs greater than 7.9 ng/mL was 95% accurate in predicting embryonic maintenance (to Day 100); a concentration of bPAGs less than 0.72 ng/mL was 95% accurate in predicting EM by Day 100. In experiment 3, the preceding model was tested in a separate set of Nelore beef cows to validate whether bPAGs would serve as an accurate measure of late

  13. A complete insect from the Late Devonian period.

    PubMed

    Garrouste, Romain; Clément, Gaël; Nel, Patricia; Engel, Michael S; Grandcolas, Philippe; D'Haese, Cyrille; Lagebro, Linda; Denayer, Julien; Gueriau, Pierre; Lafaite, Patrick; Olive, Sébastien; Prestianni, Cyrille; Nel, André

    2012-08-01

    After terrestrialization, the diversification of arthropods and vertebrates is thought to have occurred in two distinct phases, the first between the Silurian and the Frasnian stages (Late Devonian period) (425-385 million years (Myr) ago), and the second characterized by the emergence of numerous new major taxa, during the Late Carboniferous period (after 345 Myr ago). These two diversification periods bracket the depauperate vertebrate Romer's gap (360-345 Myr ago) and arthropod gap (385-325 Myr ago), which could be due to preservational artefact. Although a recent molecular dating has given an age of 390 Myr for the Holometabola, the record of hexapods during the Early-Middle Devonian (411.5-391 Myr ago, Pragian to Givetian stages) is exceptionally sparse and based on fragmentary remains, which hinders the timing of this diversification. Indeed, although Devonian Archaeognatha are problematic, the Pragian of Scotland has given some Collembola and the incomplete insect Rhyniognatha, with its diagnostic dicondylic, metapterygotan mandibles. The oldest, definitively winged insects are from the Serpukhovian stage (latest Early Carboniferous period). Here we report the first complete Late Devonian insect, which was probably a terrestrial species. Its 'orthopteroid' mandibles are of an omnivorous type, clearly not modified for a solely carnivorous diet. This discovery narrows the 45-Myr gap in the fossil record of Hexapoda, and demonstrates further a first Devonian phase of diversification for the Hexapoda, as in vertebrates, and suggests that the Pterygota diversified before and during Romer's gap. PMID:22859205

  14. Do changes in subjective sleep and biological rhythms predict worsening in postpartum depressive symptoms? A prospective study across the perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Krawczak, Elizabeth M; Minuzzi, Luciano; Hidalgo, Maria Paz; Frey, Benicio N

    2016-08-01

    Abnormalities of sleep and biological rhythms have been widely implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). However, less is known about the influence of biological rhythm disruptions across the perinatal period on postpartum depression (PPD). The objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the relationship between subjective changes in both sleep and biological rhythms and worsening of depressive symptoms from pregnancy to the postpartum period in women with and without mood disorders. Eighty-three participants (38 euthymic women with a history of a mood disorder and 45 healthy controls) were studied. Participants completed subjective assessments of sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), biological rhythm disturbances (Biological Rhythms Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry), and depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) prospectively at two time points: third trimester of pregnancy and at 6-12 weeks postpartum. Multivariate regression analyses showed that changes in biological rhythms across the perinatal period predicted worsening of depressive symptoms in both groups. Moreover, women with a history of a mood disorder showed higher levels of sleep and biological rhythm disruption during both pregnancy and the postpartum period. These findings suggest that disruptions in biological rhythms during the perinatal period increase the risk for postpartum mood worsening in healthy pregnant as well as in pregnant women with a history of mood disorders. PMID:26920913

  15. Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration in First-Time Mothers: Exploring the Impact of Father Involvement in the Early Post-Partum Period

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Theresa; Cattelona, Georg’ann

    2014-01-01

    Background: The early post-partum period is a crucial time for breastfeeding support. Mothers who have physical and emotional support during this period are more likely to be successful in breastfeeding. This study examined the relationship between father involvement and support for breast feeding initiation and duration in first-time mothers. Methods: Overall, 146 women who attended a childbirth education class or breastfeeding course at BABS were asked to fill out the Childbirth Experiences Survey, which explored key topics such as (1) breastfeeding initiation, (2) early post-partum breastfeeding, (3) breastfeeding plan, (4) post-partum breastfeeding support and (5) breast feeding duration. This was a voluntary self-reported ques­tionnaire. The surveys were completed by the mothers during the post-partum period. Results: 45.9% (n=67) of mothers received helped from their husband or part­ner with breastfeeding while in the hospital, while 54.1% (n=79) of mothers did not receive support from their partners. Mothers who received early post-par­tum breastfeeding support were more likely to continue breastfeeding after leaving the hospital. Conclusion: First-time mothers who identified as having breastfeeding support from their partners, the infant’s father, during the early post-partum period were more likely to initiate breastfeeding and had longer breastfeeding durations. PMID:25649998

  16. Outreach and integration programs to promote family planning in the extended postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Sonalkar, Sarita; Mody, Sheila; Gaffield, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Background WHO recommends birth spacing to improve the health of the mother and child. One strategy to facilitate birth spacing is to improve the use of family planning during the first year postpartum. Objectives To determine from the literature the effectiveness of postpartum family-planning programs and to identify research gaps. Search strategy PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were systematically searched for articles published between database inception and March 2013. Abstracts of conference presentations, dissertations, and unpublished studies were also considered. Selection criteria Published studies with birth spacing or contraceptive use outcomes were included. Data collection and analysis Standard abstract forms and the US Preventive Services Task Force grading system were used to summarize and assess the quality of the evidence. Main results Thirty-four studies were included. Prenatal care, home visitation programs, and educational interventions were associated with improved family-planning outcomes, but should be further studied in low-resource settings. Mother–infant care integration, multidisciplinary interventions, and cash transfer/microfinance interventions need further investigation. Conclusions Programmatic interventions may improve birth spacing and contraceptive uptake. Larger well-designed studies in international settings are needed to determine the most effective ways to deliver family-planning interventions. PMID:24434229

  17. Thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy and in postpartum period: treatment and latest recommendations.

    PubMed

    Vandana; Kumar, Amit; Khatuja, Ritu; Mehta, Sumita

    2014-05-01

    Thyroid dysfunction is the second most common endocrine disorder, only after diabetes mellitus, affecting females in reproductive age group. Pregnancy is associated with profound repercussions on the thyroid status of a lady. Thyroid dysfunctions such as hypothyroidism, thyrotoxicosis and thyroid nodules may develop during pregnancy leading to abortion, placental abruptions, pre-eclampsia, preterm delivery and reduced intellectual function in the offspring. Thus, maintenance of euthyroid state is of utmost important for maternal and fetal well being during pregnancy as well as after. The Endocrine Society has issued latest guidelines regarding the diagnosis and management of thyroid dysfunction related to pregnancy. All the clinicians should be well aware of the latest recommendations regarding management of thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy and in postpartum phase and practice them accordingly. PMID:24510157

  18. The effect of dry period duration and dietary energy density on milk production, bioenergetic status, and postpartum ovarian function in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows.

    PubMed

    de Feu, M A; Evans, A C O; Lonergan, P; Butler, S T

    2009-12-01

    Following parturition, it is typical for dairy cows to enter a period of negative energy balance and body condition loss to support mammary milk synthesis; this is associated with compromised reproductive performance. Alternative management strategies during the prepartum (dry) and early postpartum periods may ameliorate this loss. Forty mature Holstein-Friesian cows were assigned to 1 of 2 dry period treatments [standard 8-wk dry period (SDP) or no planned dry period (NDP)] and 1 of 2 dietary energy density treatments [standard TMR (STMR) or high-quality TMR (HTMR)]. Milk yield during wk 1 to 12 postpartum was reduced in cows assigned to the NDP treatment. Energy balance and body condition score (BCS) during wk 1 to 4 postpartum were increased in cows assigned to the NDP treatment compared with the cows assigned to the SDP treatment, and BCS increased from wk 5 to 12 postpartum in the NDP cows compared with the SDP cows. During the first 12 wk postpartum, cows assigned to the HTMR diet had greater milk yield and reduced milk fat concentration compared with the cows assigned the STMR diet. The BCS was greater from wk 5 to 12 postpartum in HTMR cows compared with STMR cows. During the period from wk -3 to +3 relative to parturition, circulating concentrations of insulin, glucose, and IGF-I were greater in cows in the NDP treatment compared with cows in the SDP treatment. Cows assigned to the HTMR diet had greater circulating insulin and glucose concentrations compared with the STMR cows from wk -3 to +3 relative to parturition. The first postpartum ovulation occurred earlier for cows in the NDP treatment compared with cows in the SDP treatment (16.9 vs. 24.8 d postpartum. Cows assigned to the STMR diet tended to have a higher conception rate to first service compared with cows assigned to the HTMR diet. Energy balance and metabolic status can be improved by either eliminating the dry period or by feeding a higher energy diet, but effects on the reproductive axis

  19. Postpartum depression

    MedlinePlus

    Depression - postpartum; Postnatal depression; Postpartum psychological reactions ... The exact causes of postpartum depression are unknown. Changes in hormone levels during and after pregnancy may affect a woman’s mood. Many non-hormonal factors may also ...

  20. Non-invasive endocrine monitoring of ovarian and adrenal activity in chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) females during pregnancy, parturition and early post-partum period.

    PubMed

    Mastromonaco, Gabriela F; Cantarelli, Verónica I; Galeano, María G; Bourguignon, Nadia S; Gilman, Christine; Ponzio, Marina F

    2015-03-01

    The chinchilla is a rodent that bears one of the finest and most valuable pelts in the world. The wild counterpart is, however, almost extinct because of a drastic past and ongoing population decline. The present work was developed to increase our knowledge of the reproductive physiology of pregnancy and post-partum estrus in the chinchilla, characterizing the endocrine patterns of urinary progesterone, estradiol, LH and cortisol metabolites throughout gestation and post-partum estrus and estimating the ovulation timing at post-partum estrus. Longitudinal urine samples were collected once per week throughout pregnancy and analyzed for creatinine, cortisol, LH, estrogen and progesterone metabolite concentrations. To indirectly determine the ovulation timing at post-partum estrus, a second experiment was performed using pregnant females subjected to a post-partum in vivo fertilization scheme. Urinary progestagen metabolites increased above baseline levels in early pregnancy between weeks-8 and -11 respectively to parturition, and slightly declined at parturition time. Urinary estrogens showed rising levels throughout mid- and late pregnancy (weeks-9 to -6 and a further increase at week-5 to parturition) and decreased in a stepwise manner after parturition, returning to baseline levels two weeks thereafter. Cortisol metabolite levels were relatively constant throughout pregnancy with a tendency for higher levels in the last third of gestation and after the pups' birth. Parturition was associated with dramatic reductions in urinary concentrations of sex steroids (especially progestagens). Observations in breeding farms indicated that the females that resulted in a second pregnancy after mating, did so on the second day after parturition. These data were in agreement with an LH peak detected 24h after parturition. Urinary steroid hormone patterns of estrogen and progestagen metabolites provided valuable information on endocrine events during pregnancy and after

  1. Identifying intimate partner violence (IPV) during the postpartum period in a Greek sample.

    PubMed

    Vivilaki, Victoria G; Dafermos, Vassilis; Daglas, Maria; Antoniou, Evagelia; Tsopelas, Nicholas D; Theodorakis, Pavlos N; Brown, Judith B; Lionis, Christos

    2010-12-01

    Research has highlighted the wide impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) and the public health role of community health professionals in detection of victimized women. The purpose of this study was to identify postpartum emotional and physical abuse and to validate the Greek version of the Women Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) along with its sensitivity and specificity. Five hundred seventy-nine mothers within 12 weeks postpartum were recruited from the perinatal care registers of the Maternity Departments of two public hospitals in Athens, Greece. Participants were randomly selected by clinic or shift. The WAST and the Partner Violence Screen (PVS) surveys were administered in random order to the mothers from September 2007 to January 2008. The WAST was compared with the PVS as a criterion standard. Agreement between the screening instruments was examined. The psychometric measurements that were performed included: two independent sample t tests, reliability coefficients, explanatory factor analysis using a Varimax rotation, and Principal Components Method. Confirmatory analysis-also called structural equation modeling-of principal components was conducted by Linear Structural Relations. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was carried out to evaluate the global functioning of the scale. Two hundred four (35.6%) of the mothers screened were identified as experiencing IPV. Scores on the WAST correlated well with those on the PVS; the internal consistency of the WAST Greek version-tested using Cronbach's alpha coefficient-was found to be 0.926 and that of Guttman's split-half coefficient was 0.924. Our findings confirm the multidimensionality of the WAST, demonstrating a two-factor structure. The area under ROC curve (AUC) was found to be 0.824, and the logistic estimate for the threshold score of 0/1 fitted the model sensitivity at 99.7% and model specificity at 64.4%. Our data confirm the validity of the Greek version of the WAST in identifying IPV

  2. Antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax blood-stage and sporozoite antigens in the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Alistair R. D.; Boel, Machteld E.; McGready, Rose; Ataide, Ricardo; Drew, Damien; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Beeson, James G.; Nosten, François; Simpson, Julie A.; Fowkes, Freya J. I.

    2016-01-01

    During pregnancy a variety of immunological changes occur to accommodate the fetus. It is unknown whether these changes continue to affect humoral immunity postpartum or how quickly they resolve. IgG levels were measured to P. falciparum and P. vivax antigens in 201 postpartum and 201 controls over 12 weeks. Linear mixed-effects models assessed antibody maintenance over time and the effect of microscopically confirmed Plasmodium spp. infection on antibody levels, and whether this was different in postpartum women compared with control women. Postpartum women had reduced Plasmodium spp. antibody levels compared to controls at baseline. Over 12 weeks, mean antibody levels in postpartum women increased to levels observed in control women. Microscopically confirmed P. falciparum and P. vivax infections during follow-up were associated with an increase in species-specific antibodies with similar magnitudes of boosting observed in postpartum and control women. Antibodies specific for pregnancy-associated, VAR2CSA-expressing parasites did not rapidly decline postpartum and did not boost in response to infection in either postpartum or control women. After pregnancy, levels of malaria-specific antibodies were reduced, but recovered to levels seen in control women. There was no evidence of an impaired ability to mount a boosting response in postpartum women. PMID:27558000

  3. Antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax blood-stage and sporozoite antigens in the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    McLean, Alistair R D; Boel, Machteld E; McGready, Rose; Ataide, Ricardo; Drew, Damien; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Beeson, James G; Nosten, François; Simpson, Julie A; Fowkes, Freya J I

    2016-01-01

    During pregnancy a variety of immunological changes occur to accommodate the fetus. It is unknown whether these changes continue to affect humoral immunity postpartum or how quickly they resolve. IgG levels were measured to P. falciparum and P. vivax antigens in 201 postpartum and 201 controls over 12 weeks. Linear mixed-effects models assessed antibody maintenance over time and the effect of microscopically confirmed Plasmodium spp. infection on antibody levels, and whether this was different in postpartum women compared with control women. Postpartum women had reduced Plasmodium spp. antibody levels compared to controls at baseline. Over 12 weeks, mean antibody levels in postpartum women increased to levels observed in control women. Microscopically confirmed P. falciparum and P. vivax infections during follow-up were associated with an increase in species-specific antibodies with similar magnitudes of boosting observed in postpartum and control women. Antibodies specific for pregnancy-associated, VAR2CSA-expressing parasites did not rapidly decline postpartum and did not boost in response to infection in either postpartum or control women. After pregnancy, levels of malaria-specific antibodies were reduced, but recovered to levels seen in control women. There was no evidence of an impaired ability to mount a boosting response in postpartum women. PMID:27558000

  4. Mental health of HIV-seropositive women during pregnancy and postpartum period: a comprehensive literature review.

    PubMed

    Kapetanovic, Suad; Dass-Brailsford, Priscilla; Nora, Diana; Talisman, Nicholas

    2014-06-01

    With growing numbers of HIV-seropositive (HIV+) women of child-bearing age and increased access to effective clinical protocols for preventing mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV, mental health-related factors have become increasingly relevant due to their potential to affect the women's quality of life, obstetric outcomes and risk of MTCT. This review synthesizes evidence from 53 peer-reviewed publications examining mental health-related variables in pregnant and postpartum HIV+ women. The presentation of results is organized by the level of socioeconomic resources in the countries where studies were conducted (i.e., high-, middle-, and low-income countries). It is concluded that psychiatric symptoms, particularly depression, and mental health vulnerabilities (e.g., inadequate coping skills) are widespread among pregnant HIV+ women globally and have a potential to affect psychological well-being, quality of life and salient clinical outcomes. The current body of evidence provides rationale for developing and evaluating clinical and structural interventions aimed at improving mental health outcomes and their clinical correlates in pregnant HIV+ women. PMID:24584458

  5. Emotion Reactivity Is Increased 4-6 Weeks Postpartum in Healthy Women: A Longitudinal fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Gingnell, Malin; Bannbers, Elin; Moes, Harmen; Engman, Jonas; Sylvén, Sara; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Kask, Kristiina; Wikström, Johan; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2015-01-01

    Marked endocrine alterations occur after delivery. Most women cope well with these changes, but the postpartum period is associated with an increased risk of depressive episodes. Previous studies of emotion processing have focused on maternal–infant bonding or postpartum depression (PPD), and longitudinal studies of the neural correlates of emotion processing throughout the postpartum period in healthy women are lacking. In this study, 13 women, without signs of post partum depression, underwent fMRI with an emotional face matching task and completed the MADRS-S, STAI-S, and EPDS within 48 h (early postpartum) and 4–6 weeks after delivery (late postpartum). Also, data from a previous study including 15 naturally cycling controls assessed in the luteal and follicular phase of the menstrual cycle was used. Women had lower reactivity in insula, middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in the early as compared to the late postpartum assessment. Insular reactivity was positively correlated with anxiety in the early postpartum period and with depressive symptoms late postpartum. Reactivity in insula and IFG were greater in postpartum women than in non-pregnant control subjects. Brain reactivity was not correlated with serum estradiol or progesterone levels. Increased reactivity in the insula, IFG, and MFG may reflect normal postpartum adaptation, but correlation with self-rated symptoms of depression and anxiety in these otherwise healthy postpartum women, may also suggest that these changes place susceptible women at increased risk of PPD. These findings contribute to our understanding of the neurobiological aspects of the postpartum period, which might shed light on the mechanisms underlying affective puerperal disorders, such as PPD. PMID:26061879

  6. Potential of acute phase proteins as predictor of postpartum uterine infections during transition period and its regulatory mechanism in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Manimaran, A; Kumaresan, A; Jeyakumar, S; Mohanty, T K; Sejian, V; Kumar, Narender; Sreela, L; Prakash, M Arul; Mooventhan, P; Anantharaj, A; Das, D N

    2016-01-01

    Among the various systemic reactions against infection or injury, the acute phase response is the cascade of reaction and mostly coordinated by cytokines-mediated acute phase proteins (APPs) production. Since APPs are sensitive innate immune molecules, they are useful for early detection of inflammation in bovines and believed to be better discriminators than routine hematological parameters. Therefore, the possibility of using APPs as a diagnostic and prognostic marker of inflammation in major bovine health disorders including postpartum uterine infection has been explored by many workers. In this review, we discussed specifically importance of postpartum uterine infection, the role of energy balance in uterine infections and potential of APPs as a predictor of postpartum uterine infections during the transition period and its regulatory mechanism in dairy cattle. PMID:27051191

  7. Potential of acute phase proteins as predictor of postpartum uterine infections during transition period and its regulatory mechanism in dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    Manimaran, A.; Kumaresan, A.; Jeyakumar, S.; Mohanty, T. K.; Sejian, V.; Kumar, Narender; Sreela, L.; Prakash, M. Arul; Mooventhan, P.; Anantharaj, A.; Das, D. N.

    2016-01-01

    Among the various systemic reactions against infection or injury, the acute phase response is the cascade of reaction and mostly coordinated by cytokines-mediated acute phase proteins (APPs) production. Since APPs are sensitive innate immune molecules, they are useful for early detection of inflammation in bovines and believed to be better discriminators than routine hematological parameters. Therefore, the possibility of using APPs as a diagnostic and prognostic marker of inflammation in major bovine health disorders including postpartum uterine infection has been explored by many workers. In this review, we discussed specifically importance of postpartum uterine infection, the role of energy balance in uterine infections and potential of APPs as a predictor of postpartum uterine infections during the transition period and its regulatory mechanism in dairy cattle. PMID:27051191

  8. Ovarian activity in beef and dairy cows with prolonged postpartum period and heifers that fail to conceive.

    PubMed

    Yimer, N; Rosnina, Y; Wahid, H; Saharee, A A; Yap, K C; Ganesamurthi, P

    2010-04-01

    The primary objectives of this study were to investigate incidence of abnormal ovarian cyclicity (AOC) and its type in dairy and beef cows with prolonged postpartum period (>90 days) and in heifers that fail to conceive. A total of 53 animals were included in the study: 17 Friesian crosses, 16 Braford crosses, eight Brangus crosses, and 12 local Kedah-Kelantan (KKX) crosses. These animals were initially checked for absence of pregnancy via palpation per rectum. Blood samples for progesterone analysis were obtained twice a week for 2 to 3 months following their spontaneous oestrous cycle, and all animals were rechecked for pregnancy at the end of the study. Progesterone analysis indicated that 33.9% of the total animals were having AOC: 18.9% with cessation of ovarian cyclicity, 9.4% with prolonged luteal phases (PLP), and 5.7% short luteal phases. The highest incidence was observed in Brangus crosses (62.5%), followed by Braford crosses (43.8%), and Friesian crosses (35.3%). In contrast, no AOC was observed in the local KKX breeds, and all of them were found to be pregnant at the end of the study. A significant difference (p < 0.05) in the incidence of AOC and its type was observed between Kedah-Kelantan crosses and the other breeds. Although not significant (p > 0.05), Friesian crosses showed a higher percentage incidence of AOC than beef cows (40% vs 36.4%), with major types being PLP (26.7%) in dairy and cessation of ovarian cycle (27.3%) in beef cows. Compared with beef heifers, beef cows showed a higher percentage of AOC (36.4% vs 28.6%) where again, cessation of cyclicity was the predominant abnormality. In conclusion, AOC reflected by abnormal endocrine pattern is a possible cause of reduction in fertility for dairy and beef cows beyond 90 days postpartum and heifers that fail to conceive. PMID:19809886

  9. [How to manage a patient with chronic arterial hypertension during pregnancy and the postpartum period].

    PubMed

    Pourrat, O

    2015-03-01

    The management of chronic arterial hypertension during pregnancy and postpartum requires first to estimate the risk of the pregnancy, linked with the severity of hypertension, with cardiac and renal involvement, with its cause as well as with the background (obesity, diabetes, possible history of placental vascular pathology). On a very practical approach, antihypertensive drug has to be started or increased if systolic pressure reaches or exceeds 160 mmHg or if diastolic pressure reaches or exceeds 105 mmHg. Below this level, there are no evidence-based medicine data, but it seems reasonable to treat if pressure increases over 150/100 mmHg (140/90 mmHg in case of ambulatory monitoring). Excessive pressure figures control must be avoided as much as insufficient ones: in practice, it is necessary to decrease the treatment dose if figures are below 130/80 mmHg. Three antihypertensive drugs are consensually recommended today: alphametyldopa, calcium-channel blockers and labetalol. Monotherapy is most often sufficient; if needed, two of these drugs can easily be associated, and even three if necessary. Converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor II antagonists should not be prescribed to pregnant women. Betablockers and diuretics are not recommended. Whatever is the antihypertensive drug used, it is necessary to detect the signs of bad placenta blood circulation with uterine Doppler ultrasound and regular controls of fetal growth, and to check for appearance of proteinuria, defining then over-imposed pre-eclampsia needing immediate admission to the maternity. After delivery, lacatation suppresion with bromocriptin should not be prescribed. PMID:24075628

  10. The postpartum triathlete.

    PubMed

    Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill

    2016-09-01

    The postpartum period in a woman's life is filled with numerous changes, including physical changes, changes in sleep habits, and learning how to best care for a newborn. A common goal among postpartum women is to either begin or resume an active lifestyle, which often includes physical activity such as running, biking and swimming. The postpartum athlete may discover barriers that prevent her from returning to or beginning an exercise routine. These obstacles include muscle weakness, fatigue, depression and physical changes that require exercise modification. The physical therapist is well-suited to properly assess, treat and manage the care of the postpartum athlete. Postpartum athletes wishing to begin or resume training for triathlons require special consideration, as the triathlete must balance training to compete in three different sports. The purpose of the paper is to identify the unique physical and physiological changes that occur to the female during the postpartum period. In addition, injuries that are more commonly seen during the postpartum period will be discussed. Recommendations for beginning or resuming an exercise program will be reviewed. Lastly, sport-specific training for the postpartum triathlete, including challenges presented with each triathlon component, will be discussed. PMID:27497835

  11. Factors associated with ovarian structures and intrauterine fluid in the postpartum period in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    López-Helguera, I; Colazo, M G; Garcia-Ispierto, I; López-Gatius, F

    2016-05-01

    The objective was to examine risk factors for the interval to resumption of ovarian cyclicity (ROC), multiple ovulations (MCL), ovarian follicular cysts (OC), and presence of intrauterine fluid (IUF) at 22 to 28 [visit (V) 1] and 36 to 42 (V2) days in milk (DIM) in dairy cows. The study was conducted retrospectively by evaluating records from 1,155 Holstein cows from 3 herds. Ovaries and uteri were examined at V1 and V2 by transrectal ultrasonography to determine ovarian structures and IUF. Based on the odds ratio, multiparous cows were more likely to have ROC at V1 by a factor of 1.79 compared with primiparous cows. The likelihood of ROC at V1 was lower in cows with higher milk production, in cows with retained fetal membranes (RFM) or cows with IUF at V1 by factors of 0.98 (for each kg of milk increased), 0.52, and 0.61, respectively. Based on the odds ratio, cows diagnosed with IUF at V2 were 2.85 times more likely to have attained ROC at V2. Multiparous cows and cows that delivered twins were 2.73 and 2.16 times, respectively, more likely to have MCL at V1, whereas cows with RFM were 0.38 times less likely to have MCL at V1. The likelihood of MCL at V2 was higher in cows with MCL and OC at V1 by factors of 2.67 and 1.91, respectively. Multiparous cows were 8.51 times more likely to have OC at V1 than primiparous cows. Higher producing cows were more likely to have OC at V2 by a factor of 1.04 compared with lower producing cows. Parity, stillbirth, RFM, and ROC at V1 were all identified as risk factors for IUF at V1. Cows with RFM and delivering twins were more likely to be diagnosed with IUF at V2 by a factor of 3.43 and 4.07, respectively. In summary, parity, twinning, RFM, metritis, IUF, and milk production were all associated with altered ovarian structures, and the presence of IUF was related to parity, twinning, RFM, and ROC in postpartum dairy cows. PMID:26947303

  12. Effect of supplementation with vitamins E, C and β-carotene on antioxidative/oxidative status parameters in sows during the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Szczubiał, M

    2015-01-01

    The effect of vitamins E, C and β-carotene supplementation in sows on the parameters of antioxidative/oxidative status during the postpartum period was investigated. Twenty four primiparous sows, divided into two groups (experimental and control), were included in the study. After the half-way point of pregnancy until farrowing, each experimental sow received feed supplemented twice a week with 200 mg of vitamin E and 1000 mg of vitamin C, and additionally, 70 mg of β-carotene were administered via intramuscular injection, on day 14 and day 7 before farrowing. The control group was not supplemented. Blood samples were collected before supplementation (gestational day 57-58), 48 hours and 7 days after parturition. The following antioxidative and oxidative parameters were measured using spectrophotometric methods: glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), vitamin C, vitamin E, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and sulfhydryl groups (SH groups). In supplemented sows the erythrocyte activity of GSH-Px and CAT was found to be significantly higher on day 7 after farrowing and the activity of SOD was significantly higher at 48 hours postpartum, compared to the control group. The concentration of vitamins C and E in plasma of the supplemented group was found to be significantly higher and the content of TBARS was found significantly lower at both postpartum measurement points, compared to the control group. The content of SH groups was significantly higher on day 7 postpartum, compared to the control group. The study findings indicate that supplementation of pregnant sows with vitamins E, C and β-carotene in the second half of pregnancy has beneficial effects on the antioxidative/oxidative balance in the postpartum period by increasing the antioxidative potential and reducing lipid and protein peroxidation. PMID:26172179

  13. An Examination of Dynamic Gene Expression Changes in the Mouse Brain During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    Ray, Surjyendu; Tzeng, Ruei-Ying; DiCarlo, Lisa M; Bundy, Joseph L; Vied, Cynthia; Tyson, Gary; Nowakowski, Richard; Arbeitman, Michelle N

    2016-01-01

    The developmental transition to motherhood requires gene expression changes that alter the brain to drive the female to perform maternal behaviors. We broadly examined the global transcriptional response in the mouse maternal brain, by examining four brain regions: hypothalamus, hippocampus, neocortex, and cerebellum, in virgin females, two pregnancy time points, and three postpartum time points. We find that overall there are hundreds of differentially expressed genes, but each brain region and time point shows a unique molecular signature, with only 49 genes differentially expressed in all four regions. Interestingly, a set of "early-response genes" is repressed in all brain regions during pregnancy and postpartum stages. Several genes previously implicated in underlying postpartum depression change expression. This study serves as an atlas of gene expression changes in the maternal brain, with the results demonstrating that pregnancy, parturition, and postpartum maternal experience substantially impact diverse brain regions. PMID:26596646

  14. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and associated factors in women and newborns in the immediate postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    do Prado, Mara Rúbia Maciel Cardoso; Oliveira, Fabiana de Cássia Carvalho; Assis, Karine Franklin; Ribeiro, Sarah Aparecida Vieira; do Prado, Pedro Paulo; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its associated factors in women and their newborns in the postpartum period. Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency in 226 women and their newborns in Viçosa (Minas Gerais, BR) between December 2011 and November 2012. Cord blood and venous maternal blood were collected to evaluate the following biochemical parameters: vitamin D, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus and parathyroid hormone. Poisson regression analysis, with a confidence interval of 95%, was applied to assess vitamin D deficiency and its associated factors. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with 25(OH)D deficiency in the newborns and women from the study. The criteria for variable inclusion in the multiple linear regression model was the association with the dependent variable in the simple linear regression analysis, considering p<0.20. Significance level was α <5%. Results: From 226 women included, 200 (88.5%) were 20-44 years old; the median age was 28 years. Deficient/insufficient levels of vitamin D were found in 192 (85%) women and in 182 (80.5%) neonates. The maternal 25(OH)D and alkaline phosphatase levels were independently associated with vitamin D deficiency in infants. Conclusions: This study identified a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in women and newborns and the association between maternal nutritional status of vitamin D and their infants' vitamin D status. PMID:26100593

  15. Postpartum Blood Clots

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast Infection Postpartum Blood Clots Postpartum Thyroid Disorders Postpartum Depression The risk of developing blood clots (thrombophlebitis) is ... Breast Infection Postpartum Blood Clots Postpartum Thyroid Disorders Postpartum Depression NOTE: This is the Consumer Version. CONSUMERS: Click ...

  16. Postpartum Thyroiditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... high thyroid hormone levels in the blood) and hypothyroidism (low thyroid hormone levels in the blood). In postpartum thyroiditis, thyrotoxicosis occurs first followed by hypothyroidism. What causes postpartum thyroiditis? The exact cause is ...

  17. Postpartum depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... therapy if you have postpartum depression. Having good social support from family, friends, and coworkers may help reduce ... Having good social support from family, friends, and coworkers may ... seriousness of postpartum depression, but may not prevent it. ...

  18. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... do not need treatment. The symptoms of postpartum depression last longer and are more severe. You may ... treatment right away, often in the hospital. Postpartum depression can begin anytime within the first year after ...

  19. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... and do not need treatment. The symptoms of postpartum depression last longer and are more severe. You may ... get treatment right away, often in the hospital. Postpartum depression can begin anytime within the first year after ...

  20. Postpartum Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Interactions Pill Identifier Commonly searched drugs Aspirin Metformin Warfarin Tramadol Lactulose Ranitidine News & Commentary Recent News ... Muscle Disorders Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders Cancer Children's Health Issues ... Bladder and Kidney Infections Breast Infection Postpartum Blood Clots Postpartum Thyroid Disorders Postpartum ...

  1. Bacteriological and cytological findings during the late puerperal period after two different treatments of retained placenta followed by acute puerperal metritis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of two acute puerperal metritis (APM) treatment protocols on uterine condition during the late puerperal period (5th to 7th week). Late gestation healthy cows (n = 21) were divided randomly in three equal groups. Parturitions were induced. Treatments of APM were started on the third day postpartum (PP). Group A was treated with an oxytocin analogue carbetocin for three days and intrauterine administration of cephapirin between days 15 and 17. Group B was given intramuscular injection of ceftiofur for five days followed by two injections of prostaglandin F2α, at an interval of 12 h, on the eighth day PP. Group C served as the control group with no treatment. Body temperature was recorded daily for 14 days PP. Uterine biopsies for bacteriology, and uterobrush samples for cytology, were taken once a week from the 5th to 7th week postpartum. No differences were found in body temperature on day 14 PP, presence of bacteriological infections and disappearance of uterine inflammatory signs diagnosed by cytological examination between experimental groups. PMID:20550666

  2. Periods of activity cycles in late-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kliorin, N. I.; Ruzmaykin, A. A.; Sokolov, D. D.

    1983-01-01

    The mean magnetic field dynamo theory is utilized to obtain the qualitative dependence of the period of activity on the angular velocity of rotation for stars with sufficiently extensive convective shells. The dependence of the cycle period on the spectral class is also discussed.

  3. Postpartum psychiatric disorders: Early diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Shashi; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Indira

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum period is demanding period characterized by overwhelming biological, physical, social, and emotional changes. It requires significant personal and interpersonal adaptation, especially in case of primigravida. Pregnant women and their families have lots of aspirations from the postpartum period, which is colored by the joyful arrival of a new baby. Unfortunately, women in the postpartum period can be vulnerable to a range of psychiatric disorders like postpartum blues, depression, and psychosis. Perinatal mental illness is largely under-diagnosed and can have far reaching ramifications for both the mother and the infant. Early screening, diagnosis, and management are very important and must be considered as mandatory part of postpartum care. PMID:26330638

  4. Rotation Periods of Nearby, Mid-to-late M Dwarfs from the MEarth Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Elisabeth R.; Irwin, Jonathan; Charbonneau, David; Berta-Thomspon, Zachary K.; West, Andrew A.

    2016-01-01

    Field stars provide important constraints for the late stages of stars' angular momentum evolution. We measured rotation periods ranging from 0.1 to 150 days for approximately 450 mid-to-late M dwarfs using photometry from the MEarth transiting planet survey. We use parallaxes, proper motions, and radial velocities to calculate galactic kinematics for these solar neighborhood M dwarfs. The velocity dispersions increase towards longer rotation periods, indicating that there is a relationship between rotation and age for these stars.

  5. Postpartum Coronary Vasospasm with Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Koneru, Jayanth; Alattar, Fadi; Alqaqa, Ashraf; Virk, Hirtaj; Shamoon, Fayez; Bikkina, Mahesh

    2014-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction during pregnancy or the postpartum period is rare. We report a case of a 39-year-old postpartum woman who developed non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction due to severe diffuse coronary vasospasm. To our knowledge, this is the first case of angiographically evidenced coronary vasospasm, in a postpartum woman, with resistance to intracoronary nitroglycerin. PMID:25105029

  6. Effects of feeding dry glycerol to primiparous Holstein dairy cows on follicular development, reproductive performance and metabolic parameters related to fertility during the early post-partum period.

    PubMed

    Karami-Shabankareh, H; Kafilzadeh, F; Piri, V; Mohammadi, H

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the effects of dry glycerol supplementation on follicular growth, post-partum interval to first ovulation, concentration of serum metabolites and hormones related to fertility, body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) in primiparous Holstein dairy cows. Sixty primiparous Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to two groups (control: n = 30 and glycerol supplemented: n = 30). Dry glycerol (250 g/day/cow) was fed as a top dressing to the common lactating total mixed ration (TMR) from parturition to 21 days post-partum. Ovaries were examined four times using ultrasonography on days 13, 19, 25 and 36 post-partum to determine ovarian follicular growth. Concentration of serum metabolites and hormones was determined weekly. Body condition score was evaluated weekly from weeks 1 to 5 after parturition, and BWs were recorded three times on days 1, 11 and 21 during the experimental period. The cows fed dry glycerol had more large follicles (p < 0.0001) and corpora lutea (CL) (p = 0.02) compared with the control cows. Days to the first ovulation (p = 0.06), days to first oestrus (p = 0.05), services per conception (p = 0.06) and days open (p = 0.004) were positively affected by dry glycerol supplementation. Serum concentration of glucose and insulin was higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p = 0.1; p = 0.06, respectively). Feeding glycerol had no effect on mean serum concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acids and IGF-1 during the experimental period. However, significant differences were observed at concentration of BHBA and IGF-1 (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively) between two groups on day 21 after calving. The cows in the glycerol-fed group had higher serum progesterone concentrations on days 33 (p = 0.007) and 36 (p = 0.004) after calving. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1-5 after calving compared with the control cows (0.34 vs 0.41 BCS). In week 13 post-partum

  7. Modulation of post-partum reproductive performance in dairy cows through supplementation of long- or short-chain fatty acids during transition period.

    PubMed

    Ulfina, G G; Kimothi, S P; Oberoi, P S; Baithalu, R K; Kumaresan, A; Mohanty, T K; Imtiwati, P; Dang, A K

    2015-12-01

    Thirty-six cross-bred cows were used to study the effect of long-chain (flaxseed) or short-chain (butyric acid) fatty acid supplementation on metabolic status, ovarian function and reproduction performance during transition period. Control cows received a routine feed of transition diet, while the cows in two treatment groups were supplemented with either 750-g crushed flaxseed or 250 g butyric acid per cow per day. Ovarian activity was monitored by transrectal ultrasonography on 10th, 20th and 30th days post-partum. Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture into heparinized polystyrene tubes; plasma was prepared and stored under -20 °C until analysis. Results indicated that cows in flaxseed group were in positive energy balance as indicated by lower NEFA and Beta hydroxy Butyrate and higher glucose concentrations. Uterine involution was completed well within 30 days post-partum in all the cows in flaxseed fed group compared to 76.9% in butyric acid supplemented and 61.5% in control groups. The size of dominant follicle and corpus luteum was significantly higher (p < 0.05) for flaxseed group compared to control group, which in turn resulted in higher concentrations of plasma progesterone. Cows fed on diets supplemented with flaxseed exhibited post-partum heat earlier and bred sooner (p < 0.05) than control cows. It has been noticed that supplementation of flaxseed and butyric acid enhanced involution of uterus, early resumption of cyclicity and thereby early breeding. However, in view of the encouraging results obtained for flaxseed supplemented group, its organic nature and easier availability at farmer's gate, we concluded that flaxseed can be safely included in transition diet to modulate reproductive performance of dairy cattle. PMID:25879374

  8. Short term post-partum heat stress in dairy cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuquay, J. W.; Chapin, L. T.; Brown, W. H.

    1980-06-01

    Since many dairy cows calve during late summer, the objective was to determine if heat stress immediately post-partum would (1) alter metabolism, thus, increasing susceptibility to metabolic disorders, (2) affect lactation and/or (3) affect reproduction. Forty four cows, calving during late summer, were paired with one member of each pair stressed (HS) for the first 10 post-partum days in a hot barn. Controls (CC) were kept in a cooled section of the barn. Plasma drawn weekly for 7 weeks was analyzed in an autoanalyzer for calcium, inor. phosphorus, protein, glucose and cholesterol and by radioimmunoassay for cortisol and progesterone. Ovaries and uteri were palpated weekly. Rectal temperatures were significant higher for HS during the first 10 post-partum days. No significant effects on plasma constituents were observed during the 10-day treatment period. For the 7-week period, glucose and cholesterol were lower in HS, as were cyclic peaks of progesterone and cortisol. Both calcium and inorganic phosphorus remained clinically low for the 7 weeks, but no treatment effects were seen. Uteri of HS involuted more rapidly than the CC. Treatment did not affect reproductive efficiency. Lactation milk yields did not differ, but milk fat percent was lower in HS. Heat stress immediately post-partum altered lipid metabolism, but the animal's compensatory mechanisms prevented reduction in milk production or reproductive efficiency.

  9. Views of Women and Clinicians on Postpartum Preparation and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Anika; Horowitz, Carol; Howell, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    To explore important domains of women’s postpartum experiences as perceived by postpartum mothers and obstetricians/midwives, and to investigate how postpartum care could enhance patient preparation for the postpartum period. Qualitative research study was conducted to explore women’s and clinicians’ perceptions of the postpartum experience. Four focus groups of postpartum women (n = 45) and two focus groups of obstetric clinicians (n = 13) were held at a large urban teaching hospital in New York City. All focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using grounded theory. Four main themes were identified: lack of women’s knowledge about postpartum health and lack of preparation for the postpartum experience, lack of continuity of care and absence of maternal care during the early postpartum period, disconnect between providers and postpartum mothers, and suggestions for improvement. Mothers did not expect many of the symptoms they experienced after childbirth and were disappointed with the lack of support by providers during this critical time in their recovery. Differences existed in the major postpartum concerns of mothers and clinicians. However, both mothers and clinicians agreed that preparation during the antepartum period could be beneficial for postpartum recovery. Results from this study indicate that many mothers do not feel prepared for the postpartum experience. Study findings raise the hypothesis that capturing patient-centered domains that define the postpartum experience and integrating these domains into patient care may enhance patient preparation for postpartum recovery and improve postpartum outcomes. PMID:23775250

  10. Rates of change and chronolgical problems during the late-glacial period

    SciTech Connect

    Lotter, A.F.; Sturm, M.; Ammann, B.

    1992-01-01

    Results of high-resolution AMS {sup 14}C dating of terrestrial plant macrofossils from late-glacial and early-Holocene lake deposits in Switzerland show three periods with constant radiocarbon ages. These plateaux of constant age occur at 12700, 10000, and 9500 y BP. A comparison of this radiocarbon chronology with a varve chronology documents discrepancies between the sidereal and the radiocarbon time-scale for the late-glacial period. The age-plateaux and the time-scale discrepancies have a significant impact on the estimation of rates of change during this period; estimates of rates of change can be very misleading if calculated on the basis of radiocarbon ages. This is illustrated by an example of estimated rates of late-glacial and early Holocene palynological change in Switzerland. 33 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Saturated fat supplementation interacts with dietary forage neutral detergent fiber content during the immediate postpartum and carryover periods in Holstein cows: Production responses and digestibility of nutrients.

    PubMed

    Piantoni, P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S

    2015-05-01

    Forty-eight multiparous cows were used in a randomized complete block design experiment with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the interaction between a highly saturated free FA supplement (SFFA) and dietary forage neutral detergent fiber (fNDF) content on production responses and nutrient digestibility of dairy cows in the postpartum period. Treatment diets were offered from 1 to 29d postpartum (postpartum period; PP) and contained 20 or 26% fNDF (50:50 corn silage:alfalfa silage and hay, dry matter basis) and 0 or 2% SFFA [Energy Booster 100 (Milk Specialties Global, Eden Prairie, MN); 96.1% FA: 46.2% C18:0 and 37.0% C16:0]. From 30 to 71d postpartum (carryover period), a common diet (~23% fNDF, 0% SFFA) was offered to all cows to evaluate carryover effects of the treatment diets early in lactation. During the PP, higher fNDF decreased dry matter intake (DMI) by 2.0 kg/d, whereas SFFA supplementation increased it by 1.4kg/d. In addition, high fNDF with 0% SFFA decreased DMI compared with the other diets and this difference increased throughout the PP. Treatments did not affect 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield during the PP but did during the carryover period when SFFA supplementation decreased 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield for the low-fNDF diet (51.1 vs. 58.7kg/d), but not for the high-fNDF diet (58.5 vs. 58.0kg/d). During the PP, lower fNDF and SFFA supplementation decreased body condition score loss. A tendency for an interaction between fNDF and SFFA indicated that low fNDF with 2% SFFA decreased body condition score loss compared with the other diets (-0.49 vs. -0.89). During the PP, lower fNDF and 2% SFFA supplementation decreased feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk/DMI) by 0.30 and 0.23 units, respectively. The low-fNDF diet with 2% SFFA decreased feed efficiency compared with other diets early in the PP, but this difference decreased over time. Supplementation of SFFA in the PP favored energy partitioning to body reserves and

  12. Relationship between the degree of insulin resistance during late gestation and postpartum performance in dairy cows and factors that affect growth and metabolic status of their calves

    PubMed Central

    KAWASHIMA, Chiho; MUNAKATA, Megumi; SHIMIZU, Takashi; MIYAMOTO, Akio; KIDA, Katsuya; MATSUI, Motozumi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of insulin resistance (IR) during the close-up dry period on the metabolic status and performance of dairy cows as well as to determine the effects on body weight (BW) and metabolic status of their calves. An insulin tolerance test (ITT) was conducted by administering 0.05 IU/kg BW of insulin to 34 multiparous Holstein cows at 3 weeks prepartum. Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 45 and 60 min after insulin injection, and cows were divided into two groups based on the time required for glucose to reach the minimum levels [non-IR (NIR), 45 min (n=28); and IR, 60 min (n=6)]. Blood or milk sampling and body condition score (BCS) estimation were performed twice weekly during the experimental period. Blood samples from calves were collected immediately after birth. Cows with IR showed lower BCS (P<0.05) and serum urea nitrogen (P<0.05) and glucose concentration (P=0.05) before calving, and lower serum non-esterified fatty acid concentration (P<0.05) and milk yield (P<0.05) and earlier resumption of luteal activity (P<0.05) after calving; their calves showed lower BW (P<0.05) and plasma insulin-like growth factor-I concentration (P<0.001) and higher plasma insulin concentration (P<0.05). In conclusion, IR at 3 weeks prepartum in dairy cows is related to postpartum metabolic status and performance along with growth and metabolic status of their calves. PMID:26781705

  13. Relationship between the degree of insulin resistance during late gestation and postpartum performance in dairy cows and factors that affect growth and metabolic status of their calves.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Chiho; Munakata, Megumi; Shimizu, Takashi; Miyamoto, Akio; Kida, Katsuya; Matsui, Motozumi

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of insulin resistance (IR) during the close-up dry period on the metabolic status and performance of dairy cows as well as to determine the effects on body weight (BW) and metabolic status of their calves. An insulin tolerance test (ITT) was conducted by administering 0.05 IU/kg BW of insulin to 34 multiparous Holstein cows at 3 weeks prepartum. Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 45 and 60 min after insulin injection, and cows were divided into two groups based on the time required for glucose to reach the minimum levels [non-IR (NIR), 45 min (n=28); and IR, 60 min (n=6)]. Blood or milk sampling and body condition score (BCS) estimation were performed twice weekly during the experimental period. Blood samples from calves were collected immediately after birth. Cows with IR showed lower BCS (P<0.05) and serum urea nitrogen (P<0.05) and glucose concentration (P=0.05) before calving, and lower serum non-esterified fatty acid concentration (P<0.05) and milk yield (P<0.05) and earlier resumption of luteal activity (P<0.05) after calving; their calves showed lower BW (P<0.05) and plasma insulin-like growth factor-I concentration (P<0.001) and higher plasma insulin concentration (P<0.05). In conclusion, IR at 3 weeks prepartum in dairy cows is related to postpartum metabolic status and performance along with growth and metabolic status of their calves. PMID:26781705

  14. Postpartum management of diabetes pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Nazli

    2016-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus has assumed the role of an epidemic. Previously considered a disease of affluent developed countries, it has become more common in developing countries. Pakistan is included among the countries with a high prevalence of diabetes. In this scenario, postpartum management of a woman with diabetes mellitus becomes more important as in this period counseling and educating a woman is essential. Counselling includes life style modifications to prevent future risks involving all the systems of the body. This review article discusses management of diabetes mellitus in postpartum period, guidelines for postpartum screening of women with gestational diabetes mellitus, risks involved in future life and stresses upon the need of local population based studies. Primary care providers and gynaecologists must realize the importance of postpartum screening for diabetes mellitus and provide relevant information to women as well. PMID:27582163

  15. Prevalence and risk factors of diastasis recti abdominis from late pregnancy to 6 months postpartum, and relationship with lumbo-pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Fernandes da Mota, Patrícia Gonçalves; Pascoal, Augusto Gil Brites Andrade; Carita, Ana Isabel Andrade Dinis; Bø, Kari

    2015-02-01

    Diastasis recti abdominis (DRA) is an impairment characterized by a midline separation of the rectus abdominis muscles along the linea alba. It has its onset during pregnancy and the first weeks following childbirth. There is scant knowledge on both prevalence and risk factors for development of the condition. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of DRA at gestational week 35 and three timepoints postpartum, possible risk factors, and the relationship between DRA and lumbo-pelvic pain. Ultrasound images of inter rectus distance (IRD) were recorded in 84 healthy primiparous women, at three locations on the linea alba. The IRD was measured at: gestational week 35 and 6-8, 12-14, and 24-26 weeks postpartum. Diagnosis of DRA was defined as 16 mm at 2 cm below the umbilicus. Independent sample t-test and binary logistic regression was used to assess differences and risk factors in women with and without DRA and women with and without lumbo-pelvic pain. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The prevalence of DRA decreased from 100% at gestational week 35-39% at 6 months postpartum. No statistically significant differences were found in prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), weight gain, baby's birth weight or abdominal circumference between women with and without DRA at 6 months postpartum. Women with DRA at 6 months postpartum were not more likely to report lumbo-pelvic pain than women without DRA. DRA is prevalent at 6 months postpartum, but is not linked with lumbo-pelvic pain. PMID:25282439

  16. Non-invasive detection and monitoring of estrus, pregnancy and the postpartum period in pygmy loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus) using fecal estrogen metabolites.

    PubMed

    Jurke, M H; Czekala, N M; Fitch-Snyder, H

    1997-01-01

    Estrone-conjugates (E1C) were measured in the feces of six female pygmy lorises (Nycticebus pygmaeus) during estrus (n = 12), pregnancy (n = 4) and the postpartum period (n = 3). Noninvasive feces collection permitted frequent sampling throughout estrus and pregnancy, without disturbance of animals. The estrous period was defined as an increase in fecal E1C levels above an average of 70 ng/g feces with peaks above 100 ng/g feces obtained in consecutive fecal samples collected over a 6- to 11-day period between the end of July and the first third of October. Comparison of the periovulatory profile of E1C and the stage of labial opening of the vagina revealed a high agreement (P < 0.001). In all pregnant females, an E1C rise was found approximately 47 days postestrus, the source of which may be the growing fetal placental unit. Estimated gestation lengths ranged between 187 and 198 days (n = 4). PMID:9050368

  17. Origin of the cataclysmic Late Heavy Bombardment period of the terrestrial planets.

    PubMed

    Gomes, R; Levison, H F; Tsiganis, K; Morbidelli, A

    2005-05-26

    The petrology record on the Moon suggests that a cataclysmic spike in the cratering rate occurred approximately 700 million years after the planets formed; this event is known as the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB). Planetary formation theories cannot naturally account for an intense period of planetesimal bombardment so late in Solar System history. Several models have been proposed to explain a late impact spike, but none of them has been set within a self-consistent framework of Solar System evolution. Here we propose that the LHB was triggered by the rapid migration of the giant planets, which occurred after a long quiescent period. During this burst of migration, the planetesimal disk outside the orbits of the planets was destabilized, causing a sudden massive delivery of planetesimals to the inner Solar System. The asteroid belt was also strongly perturbed, with these objects supplying a significant fraction of the LHB impactors in accordance with recent geochemical evidence. Our model not only naturally explains the LHB, but also reproduces the observational constraints of the outer Solar System. PMID:15917802

  18. Photometric and Period Investigation of the Late F-type Overcontact Binary II UMa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Qian, S.-B.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, B.; Kreiner, J.

    2016-03-01

    II UMa is a late F-type (F5) contact binary with a close-in tertiary and a distant visual companion. According to the four-color (B V RcIc) light curves’ solutions of II UMa, it is a high fill-out (f = 86.6%) and low-mass ratio (q = 0.172) contact binary system, which indicates that it is at the late evolutionary stage of late-type tidal-locked binary stars. The masses of the primary star and secondary star are calculated to be {M}1=1.99{M}⊙ and {M}2=0.34{M}⊙ . The primary star has evolved from the zero-age main sequence, but it still appeared before the terminal-age main sequence, and the secondary star is even more evolved. Considering the mass ratio ({M}3/{M}1=0.67) obtained by spectroscopic observations, the mass of the close-in tertiary is estimated to be {M}3=1.34{M}⊙ . The period variations of the binary system are investigated for the first time. According to the observed-calculated (O-C) curve analysis, a continuous period increase at a rate of {dP}/{dt}=4.88× {10}-7 {day} {{yr}}-1 is determined. The parabolic variation in the O-C curve may be part of a cyclic period of change, or the combined period of change of a parabolic variation and a cyclic one. More instances of minimum light are needed to confirm this. The presence of the tertiary component may play an important role in the formation and evolution of this binary system by drawing angular momentum from the central system during the pre-contact stage.

  19. Rotation periods for nearby, mid-to-late M dwarfs estimated from the MEarth Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Elisabeth R.; Irwin, Jonathan; Charbonneau, David; Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.; Dittmann, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of M dwarfs' rotation is essential to understanding the generation of their magnetic fields and the mechanism by which they lose angular momentum. It is also important for characterizing the environment of planets that might orbit them. The most direct way to infer rotation periods is from variations in stars' brightnesses as dark spots rotate in and out of view. Most rotation periods estimated prior to this decade are the result of dedicated photometric studies. If care is taken to preserve astrophysical variability and limit systematics, transiting planet surveys generate the high-cadence monitoring required to estimate stellar rotation periods. While targeted surveys of clusters have provided data at young ages, observations of field M dwarfs are required to constrain their late-term evolution. Rotation periods of the smallest stars are also needed: the Kepler mission produced exquisite light curves of several thousand cool dwarfs, but field stars below 0.3 solar masses are not well-represented in the sample. The MEarth Project is a transiting planet survey targeting mid-to-late M dwarfs within 33 parsecs; it provides a unique data set for exploring rotation in a large sample of fully convective stars. We present a catalog of rotation periods for these stars. Our measurements are particularly useful because many of the MEarth targets have parallaxes, multi-wavelength photometry, and optical and near-infrared spectra. We present our methods for estimating rotation periods and quantifying our uncertainties, and discuss our results in the context of other surveys.The MEarth project gratefully acknowledges funding from the David and Lucile Packard Fellowship for Science and Engineering, the National Science Foundation under grants AST-0807690, AST-1109468, and AST-1004488, and the John Templeton Foundation

  20. Fifty cases of late prosthetic valve endocarditis: improvement in prognosis over a 15 year period.

    PubMed

    Leport, C; Vilde, J L; Bricaire, F; Cohen, A; Pangon, B; Gaudebout, C; Valere, P E

    1987-07-01

    The clinical course, prognostic factors, and management of 50 cases of late prosthetic valve endocarditis, occurring more than two months after valve replacement, were reviewed. Twenty nine cases that presented from 1971 to 1980 were compared with 21 cases that presented from 1981 to 1985. Apart from an appreciable decrease in the frequency of neurological complications between the first period (38%) and the second period (10%) no differences in clinical or bacteriological features were seen. Seventeen (59%) of the 29 cases in the earlier period and four (19%) of the 21 cases in the later period died. The rationale for antimicrobial treatment was similar during both periods. Cardiac surgery was performed in eight of 29 cases between 1971 and 1980 and in 11 of 21 between 1981 and 1985; the mean (SD) time between diagnosis of endocarditis and operation was 28 (19) days and 43 (44) days respectively. Six of the eight cases operated on in the first period died as did two of the 11 operated on in the second period. Twenty seven of the 29 cases presenting between 1971 and 1980 were treated with anticoagulants--either warfarin (15 of 27) or heparin sodium (12 of 27). Sixteen of the 21 cases presenting later were given anticoagulants and 15 of these cases were given heparin sodium. Control of anticoagulation was inadequate in nine of the 27 cases treated with anticoagulants during the first period and in only two of 16 treated during the second period. During the first treatment period neurological complications were more frequent when control of anticoagulation was inadequate. PMID:3620245

  1. [Postpartum thyroiditis. A review].

    PubMed

    Hurtado-Hernández, Z; Segura-Domínguez, A

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum thyroiditis (PPT) is a transient thyroid dysfunction of autoimmune origin that can occur in the first year postpartum in women who have not been previously diagnosed with thyroid disease. It may start with clinical thyrotoxicosis followed by hypothyroidism and the subsequent recovery of thyroid function, or may just appear as isolated thyrotoxicosis or hypothyroidism. PPT recurs in high percentage of patients after subsequent pregnancies. Many women develop permanent hypothyroidism sometime during the 3 to 10 year period after an episode of PPT. It is important for family physicians to be familiar with this disease, due to its high prevalence in order to make a correct diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. Family doctors also play a crucial role in the monitoring of these patients, given the negative implications of established hypothyroidism on reproduction in the female population during their reproductive years. This article reviews the principle characteristics of PPT along with its diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23834978

  2. Active ghrelin and the postpartum.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jessica H; Pedersen, Cort; Leserman, Jane; Brownley, Kimberly A

    2016-06-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) occurs in 10-15 % of women. The appetite hormone ghrelin, which fluctuates during pregnancy, is associated with depression in nonpregnant samples. Here, we examine the association between PPD and active ghrelin from pregnancy to postpartum. We additionally examine whether ghrelin changes from pregnancy to postpartum and differs between breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding women. Sixty women who participated in a survey examining PPD and had information in regard to ghrelin concentrations were included in the study. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used to assess symptoms of PPD. Raw ghrelin levels and ghrelin levels adjusted for creatinine were included as outcomes. Women screening positive for PPD at 12 weeks postpartum had higher pregnancy ghrelin concentrations. Ghrelin concentrations significantly decreased from pregnancy to 6 weeks postpartum and this change differed based on pregnancy depression status. Finally, ghrelin levels were lower in women who breastfed compared with women who were bottle-feeding. No significant findings remained once ghrelin levels were adjusted for creatinine. Although results do not suggest an association between PPD and ghrelin after adjusting for creatinine, future research should continue to explore this possibility extending further across the postpartum period with larger sample sizes. PMID:26424410

  3. Autoimmune Encephalitis in Postpartum Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Bergink, Veerle; Armangue, Thaís; Titulaer, Maarten J.; Markx, Sander; Dalmau, Josep; Kushner, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Significant immunological alterations have been observed in women with first-onset affective psychosis during the postpartum period. Recent studies have highlighted the possibility that a subset of patients with first-onset severe psychiatric episodes might suffer from undiagnosed autoimmune encephalitis. Therefore, the authors performed a three-step immunohistochemistry-based screening for CNS autoantibodies in a large cohort of patients with postpartum psychosis and matched postpartum comparison subjects. Method Ninety-six consecutive patients with postpartum psychosis and 64 healthy postpartum women were included. Screening for antibodies in patient serum was performed using immunohistochemistry. Samples showing any staining were further examined by immunocytochemistry using live hippocampal neurons and cell-based assays to test for anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibodies. Cell-based assays for all other known CNS antigens were performed in those samples with immunocytochemistry labeling but negative for NMDA receptor antibodies. Results Four patients (4%) with neuropil labeling suggestive for extracellular antigen reactivity were identified. Serum samples from all four patients showed clear extracellular labeling of live hippocampal neurons. Two women had the specific staining pattern characteristic for anti-NMDA receptor antibody positivity, which was confirmed by cell-based assays. Neither patient with anti-NMDA receptor antibody positivity had evidence of an ovarian teratoma. The other two patients tested negative by cell-based assays for all known CNS antigens. None of the matched postpartum comparison subjects had confirmed neuronal surface antibodies. The two patients with anti-NMDA receptor antibodies both showed extrapyramidal symptoms following initiation of treatment with low-dose haloperidol. Conclusions In patients with acute psychosis during the postpartum period, systematic screening for anti-NMDA receptor autoantibodies

  4. Low Omega-3 Index in Pregnancy Is a Possible Biological Risk Factor for Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Markhus, Maria Wik; Skotheim, Siv; Graff, Ingvild Eide; Frøyland, Livar; Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Malde, Marian Kjellevold

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression is a common disorder affecting 10–15% women in the postpartum period. Postpartum depression can disrupt early mother-infant interaction, and constitutes a risk factor for early child development. Recently, attention has been drawn to the hypothesis that a low intake of seafood in pregnancy can be a risk factor for postpartum depression. Seafood is a unique dietary source of the marine omega-3 fatty acids and is a natural part of a healthy balanced diet that is especially important during pregnancy. Methods In a community based prospective cohort in a municipality in Western Norway, we investigated both nutritional and psychological risk factors for postpartum depression. The source population was all women who were pregnant within the period November 2009 - June 2011. The fatty acid status in red blood cells was assessed in the 28th gestation week and participants were screened for postpartum depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) three months after delivery. The aim of the present study was to investigate if a low omega-3 index in pregnancy is a possible risk factor for postpartum depression. Results In a simple regression model, the omega-3 index was associated with the EPDS score in a nonlinear inverse manner with an R square of 19. Thus, the low omega-3 index explained 19% of the variance in the EPDS score. The DPA content, DHA content, omega-3 index, omega-3/omega-6 ratio, total HUFA score, and the omega-3 HUFA score were all inversely correlated with the EPDS score. The EPDS scores of participants in the lowest omega-3 index quartile were significantly different to the three other omega-3 index quartiles. Conclusion In this study population, a low omega-3 index in late pregnancy was associated with higher depression score three months postpartum. PMID:23844041

  5. Effects of feeding wheat straw or orchardgrass at ad libitum or restricted intake during the dry period on postpartum performance and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Litherland, N B; Weich, W D; Hansen, W P; Linn, J G

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of forage source [wheat straw (WS) or orchardgrass hay (OG)] and total amount of diet dry matter fed [ad libitum or restricted to 70% of predicted dry matter intake (DMI)] prepartum on postpartum performance. The study design was a 2×2 factorial design with 10 cows per treatment. Treatments were WS total mixed ration (TMR) ad libitum, OG TMR ad libitum, WS TMR restricted, and OG TMR restricted. The WS TMR (dry matter basis) contained 30% WS, 20.7% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 18.2% ground corn, 16.8% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses mineral mix (14.7% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 37.0% neutral detergent fiber). The OG TMR contained 30% OG, 46.2% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 9.5% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses (14.2% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 41.0% neutral detergent fiber). Cows received 1 lactation diet after calving (17.7% CP, 1.6 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 27.3% neutral detergent fiber). Total diet DMI prepartum was higher for ad libitum than for restricted as designed, but forage source had no effect on DMI. Total tract apparent digestibilities of DM and NDF were greater for OG than for WS. Postpartum DMI expressed as a percentage of body weight for the first week of lactation was higher for ad libitum than for restricted diets. Postpartum DMI during the first 30 d of lactation was higher for OG than for WS, but no effect was observed for the amount fed prepartum. Milk yield during the first week of lactation was higher for OG than for WS; however, during the first 30 d, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield and yield of milk fat were highest for OG TMR restricted and WS TMR ad libitum. Prepartum treatments had a limited effect on pre- and postpartum lipid metabolism; however, cows fed WS TMR ad libitum had the highest postpartum β-hydroxybutyrate. Eating behavior was observed by 10-min video scans of 24-h video surveillance for 5d pre- and postpartum

  6. Postpartum pyomyoma.

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Tina C.; Adair, Jamie; Lee, Yi Chun

    2005-01-01

    Leiomyomata are common benign tumors of the uterus and female pelvis. Myomas have been reported in 25% of Caucasian American women and 50% of African-American women. The true incidence is unknown, but descriptions of 50% have been found at postmortem examinations. Considering the high incidence of uterine myomata in women of reproductive age, they are reported as complications in only 2% of pregnancies. Pyomyoma (suppurative leiomyoma) a rare complication results from infarction and infection of a leiomyoma. Without a strong clinical suspicion and surgical intervention, fatalities may occur. Since 1945, only 15 cases have been described in the literature, mostly in pregnant or postmenopausal women after ascending infection. This report documents a pyomyoma that presented as a postpartum enlargement of a previously known leiomyoma. This case is unique because the patient did not undergo a hysterectomy at the time of exploratory laparotomy. Six months after the procedure, normal cyclic bleeding was noted. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:16035584

  7. Discovery of a short-necked sauropod dinosaur from the Late Jurassic period of Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Rauhut, Oliver W M; Remes, Kristian; Fechner, Regina; Cladera, Gerardo; Puerta, Pablo

    2005-06-01

    Sauropod dinosaurs are one of the most conspicuous groups of Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrates. They show general trends towards an overall increase in size and elongation of the neck, by means of considerable elongation of the length of individual vertebrae and a cervical vertebra count that, in some cases, increases to 19 (ref. 1). The long neck is a particular hallmark of sauropod dinosaurs and is usually regarded as a key feeding adaptation. Here we describe a new dicraeosaurid sauropod, from the latest Jurassic period of Patagonia, that has a particularly short neck. With a neck that is about 40% shorter than in other known dicraeosaurs, this taxon demonstrates a trend opposite to that seen in most sauropods and indicates that the ecology of dicraeosaurids might have differed considerably from that of other sauropods. The new taxon indicates that there was a rapid radiation and dispersal of dicraeosaurids in the Late Jurassic of the Southern Hemisphere, after the separation of Gondwana from the northern continents by the late Middle Jurassic. PMID:15931221

  8. Short report: cysticercosis in an Egyptian mummy of the late Ptolemaic period.

    PubMed

    Bruschi, Fabrizio; Masetti, Massimo; Locci, Maria Teresa; Ciranni, Rosalba; Fornaciari, Gino

    2006-04-01

    We describe here an ancient case of cysticercosis that was discovered in an Egyptian mummy of a young woman of about 20 years of age who lived in the late Ptolemaic period (second to first centuries b.c.). On removal of the stomach and its rehydration, a cystic lesion in the stomach wall was observed by naked eye. Microscopical examination of sections of this lesion revealed a cystic structure, with a wall, with numerous projecting eversions, a characteristic feature of the larval stage (cysticercus) of the human tapeworm Taenia solium (or "pig tapeworm"). Immunohistochemical testing with serum from a T. solium-infected human confirmed the identity of the cyst. This finding is the oldest on record of the antiquity of this zoonotic parasite. This observation also confirms that, in Hellenistic Egypt, the farming of swine, along with man an intermediate host of this parasite, was present, and supports other archeological evidence. PMID:16606991

  9. [The emergence of Korean modern hospitals: hospitals in the late period of Chosun Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Cho, Woo Hyun; Park, Chong Yon; Park, Chun Sun

    2002-06-01

    Hospitals are confronting in the transforming or reforming period to cope with the rapid social and environmental changes worldwide. By the researches in the history of Korean health, we could understand the context of the introduction of Western medicine and institutions to Korea. However there have been few studies on the historical review of hospitals in relations to their roles in the modern medicine. This article is to review the issues around the rise of modern hospitals in Korean history of health affairs. The introduction of Western medicine in Korea was on the road with the establishment of Kwanghyewon, the Royal Hospital, which was possible due to favorable conditions under the Korean socio-political background for the emerging and accepting the entirely new medical system. And also the emergence of modern and transformed the Korean traditional health system from the fundamentals through the corruption of the old dynasty to nowadays. Most national health affairs including medical services, prevention of diseases, health promotion, and the training of health personnels have performed along with the development of modern hospitals, which have the roots in the period after the end of 19th century. Thus the Korean history of health care around the end of 19th century and beginning of 20th century could be defined as a period of emergence of modern hospitals. The hospitals also have played core roles in establishing the Korean modern health system and culture. Compared to the cases of Western countries, Korean modern hospitals were emerged with the exogenous factors in the turbulence of political and cultural changes in the world system. In sum, Korean modern hospitals in the period of late Chosun have the great meaning in that they are the beginning point to shape the current Korean health care system and the driving forces or carriers of this new system. PMID:12619632

  10. Disturbed Sleep and Postpartum Depression.

    PubMed

    Okun, Michele L

    2016-07-01

    The perinatal period introduces a myriad of changes. One important but often overlooked change is an increased reporting of sleep disturbance. Although casually regarded as a consequence of pregnancy or postpartum, there is emerging evidence implicating significant sleep disturbance, characterized by insomnia symptoms and/or poor sleep quality, with adverse outcomes, such as an increase in depressive symptomatology or the development postpartum depression (PPD). Significant consequences may arise as a result including issues with maternal-infant bonding, effective care for the infant, and behavioral or emotional difficulties in the infant. This review discusses the relevant literature as to how disturbed sleep during pregnancy as well as in the postpartum may increase the risk for PPD. PMID:27222140

  11. Maternal stress predicts postpartum weight retention.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Kara; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Vernon, Marlo; Wilcox, Sara

    2014-11-01

    Postpartum weight retention (PPWR) is a significant contributor to the development of overweight and obesity in women of childbearing age. Stress may be a key mechanism making it more difficult for mothers to lose weight in the year following delivery. The aim of this study was to assess whether specific aspects of parenting stress and life stress influence postpartum weight retention in new mothers. Women in late pregnancy or up to 2 months postpartum (n = 123) were enrolled in the study and followed through the first year postpartum. Linear regression models evaluated the associations of parenting stress (isolation, attachment and depressive symptoms) as well as overall life stress at 2, 6, and 12 months postpartum with PPWR at 6 and 12 months. During the first year postpartum, higher depression and life stress were significantly associated with greater PPWR. As the effect of depression diminished, the effect of life stress became significant. Contrary to hypothesized relationships, fewer problems with attachment and less social isolation were significantly associated with greater PPWR. Higher gestational weight gain and African American race were also significantly associated with greater PPWR at both 6 and 12 months. Different types of stress predict weight retention in first time mothers during the first year postpartum. Understanding the relationships between parenting stress, concurrent life stress and PPWR can enhance the development of future interventions that specifically target self-identified stressors, leading to improved weight related outcomes. PMID:24760321

  12. Maternal Stress Predicts Postpartum Weight Retention

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Kara; Vernon, Marlo; Wilcox, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Postpartum weight retention (PPWR) is a significant contributor to the development of overweight and obesity in women of childbearing age. Stress may be a key mechanism making it more difficult for mothers to lose weight in the year following delivery. The aim of this study was to assess whether specific aspects of parenting stress and life stress influence postpartum weight retention in new mothers. Women in late pregnancy or up to 2 months postpartum (n = 123) were enrolled in the study and followed through the first year postpartum. Linear regression models evaluated the associations of parenting stress (isolation, attachment and depressive symptoms) as well as overall life stress at 2, 6, and 12 months postpartum with PPWR at 6 and 12 months. During the first year postpartum, higher depression and life stress were significantly associated with greater PPWR. As the effect of depression diminished, the effect of life stress became significant. Contrary to hypothesized relationships, fewer problems with attachment and less social isolation were significantly associated with greater PPWR. Higher gestational weight gain and African American race were also significantly associated with greater PPWR at both 6 and 12 months. Different types of stress predict weight retention in first time mothers during the first year postpartum. Understanding the relationships between parenting stress, concurrent life stress and PPWR can enhance the development of future interventions that specifically target self-identified stressors, leading to improved weight related outcomes. PMID:24760321

  13. [A case of arteriovenous malformation showed onset of symptoms on the late neonatal period].

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, S; Shirakuni, T; Hojo, H

    1982-08-01

    Arteriovenous malformation ruptured in the neonatal period is rare. The authors report a case of arteriovenous malformation showed onset of symptoms on the late neonatal period. A female Japanese baby was born at full term. Neonatal history was uneventful until she had bad temper, pallor and vomiting on 23th day. Her head size increased abnormally until it was 42.5 cm when she was admitted to Shizuoka Children's Hospital with a diagnosis of possible hydrocephalus at 2 months old. CT scan showed a large cystic cavity communicated with the dilated lateral ventricles. The ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was performed, but unfortunately the shunt was removed for the suspicion of abdominal complication. At the age of 4 months, right retrograde brachial angiography showed a tangle of abnormal vascular channels in the right fronto-lateral basal region (15X13X8 mm in size), which was fed a frontopolar artery and drained to superior saggital sinus. Frontal osteoplastic craniotomy was performed and total arteriovenous malformation with a partial frontal lobe was excised. Ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was reinserted for the post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus. She was healthy on 3 years old with mild motor deficit. PMID:7133311

  14. Postpartum Depression Action Plan

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Postpartum Depression | Postpartum Depression Action Plan Patient __________________________ Physician/NP/PA __________________ Clinic ____________________________ Phone Number ____________________ Choose one area and add other areas as you begin to ...

  15. Metabolic and reproductive status are not improved from 11 to 25 day post-partum in non-weaned primiparous rabbit does.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Garcia, R M; Sakr, O G; Arias-Alvarez, M; Velasco, B; Lorenzo, P L; Rebollar, P G

    2012-03-01

    The aim of present work was to analyze the body reserves and ovarian features of lactating primiparous rabbit does under extensive reproductive management (artificial insemination (AI) at 25 days post-partum (dpp)) compared with the common insemination rhythm at 11 dpp. A total of 48 primiparous Californian×New Zealand White rabbit does suckling 8 kits were used to assess liveweight, estimated body composition, serum metabolic and endocrine parameters (oestradiol and progesterone concentrations) and ovarian features like follicle population and atresia rate, and oocyte maturation. Rabbit does were randomly allocated in two experimental groups: (a) lactating does euthanized at early post-partum period (11 dpp) according to a semi-intensive rhythm (n=24), and (b) lactating does euthanized at later post-partum period (25 dpp) according to a more extensive rhythm (n=24). Liveweight, body energy content, lipid depots and serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations decreased from parturition to post-partum period (P<0.05). In addition, serum protein and glucose concentrations increased in the post-partum period (P<0.05). Similar oestradiol and progesterone levels were found in rhythms as well as similar follicle population and nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation rates measured as metaphase II and cortical granule migration, respectively in both post-partum times. However, the number of preovulatory follicles on the ovarian surface was lower (P<0.05) and the atresia rate tended to be higher with a lower percentage of healthy follicles (P<0.1) in ovaries from females of extensive group. In conclusion, the body reserves, serum metabolic parameters and oocyte quality of primiparous non-weaned rabbits does at the late post-partum time (25 days) were not improved. Thus this reproductive management did not present any advantages compared to earlier post-partum (11 days) reproductive rhythm. PMID:22445611

  16. Postpartum Depression: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Angela

    1993-01-01

    Occurring in about 12 percent of postpartum women, postpartum depression has been focus of considerable research. Variables that have been correlated with postpartum depression range from biological causes, to lack of social support, to relationship with husband, to attributional styles, to psychodynamic explanations. There is need for more…

  17. Calcium supplementation, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. Predictors of bone mass changes in adolescent mothers during the 6-month postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Malpeli, Agustina; Apezteguia, María; Mansur, José L; Armanini, Alicia; Macías Couret, Melisa; Villalobos, Rosa; Kuzminczuk, Marta; Gonzalez, Horacio F

    2012-03-01

    We determined the effect of calcium supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) and identified predictors of bone mass changes in adolescent mothers 6 months postpartum. A prospective, analytical, clinical study was performed in adolescent mothers (< or = 19 years old; n = 37) from La Plata, Argentina. At 15 days postpartum, mothers were randomly assigned into one of two groups and started with calcium supplementation; one group received dairy products (932 mg Ca; n = 19) and the other calcium citrate tablets (1000 mg calcium/day; n = 18). Weight, height and dietary intake were measured and BMD was determined by DEXA at 15 days (baseline) and 6 months postpartum. BMC, total body BMD and BMD were assessed in lumbar spine, femoral neck, trochanter and total hip. Regression models were used to identify the relationship of total body BMD and BMC with independent variables (calcium supplementation, months of lactation, weight at 6 months, percent weight change, lean mass at 6 months, percent lean mass change, total calcium intake). Results showed that changes in BMD and BMC at the different sites were similar in both groups, and changes in percent body weight and total calcium intake were the main predictive factors. In conclusion, the effect of calcium was similar with either form of supplementation, i.e., dairy products or tablets, and changes in percent body weight and total calcium intake were predictors of total body BMD and BMC changes. PMID:23477205

  18. Fossil embryos from the Middle and Late Cambrian period of Hunan, south China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xi-Ping; Donoghue, Philip C J; Cheng, Hong; Liu, Jian-Bo

    2004-01-15

    Comparative embryology is integral to uncovering the pattern and process of metazoan phylogeny, but it relies on the assumption that life histories of living taxa are representative of their antecedents. Fossil embryos provide a crucial test of this assumption and, potentially, insight into the evolution of development, but because discoveries so far lack phylogenetic constraint, their significance is moot. Here we describe a collection of embryos from the Middle and Late Cambrian period (500 million years ago) of Hunan, south China, that preserves stages of development from cleavage to the pre-hatching embryo of a direct-developing animal comparable to living Scalidophora (phyla Priapulida, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera). The latest-stage embryos show affinity to the Lower Cambrian embryo Markuelia, whose life-history strategy contrasts both with the primitive condition inferred for metazoan phyla and with many proposed hypotheses of affinity, all of which prescribe indirect development. Phylogenetic tests based on these embryological data suggest a stem Scalidophora affinity. These discoveries corroborate, rather than contradict, the predictions of comparative embryology, providing direct historical support for the view that the life-history strategies of living taxa are representative of their stem lineages. PMID:14724636

  19. Locally applied simvastatin improves fracture healing at late period in osteoporotic rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Faming; Zhang, Liu; Kang, Yuchuan; Zhang, Junshan; Ao, Jiao; Yang, Fang

    effect of simvastatin locally applied from a bioactive polymer coating of implants on osteoporotic fracture healing at late period. Methods:Femur fracture model was established on normal or osteotoporotic mature female SD rats, intramedullary stabilization was achieved with uncoated titanium Kirschnerwires in normal rats(group A),with polymer-only coated vs. polymer plus simvastatin coated titanium Kirschner wires in osteoporotic rats(group B and C, respectively).Femurs were harvested after 12 weeks, and underwent radiographic and histologic analysis, as well as immunohistochemical evaluation for BMP-2 expression. Results:Radiographic results demonstrated progressed callus in the simvastatin-treated groups compared to the uncoated group.The histologic analysis revealed a significantly processed callus with irregular-shaped newly formed bone trabeculae in simvastatin-treated group. Immunohistochemical evaluation showed markedly higher expression levels of B:MP-2 in simvastatin-treated group.Conclusions: The present study revealed a improved fracture healing under local application of simvastatin in osteoporotic rat,which might partially from upregulation of the B:MP-2 expression at fractured site.

  20. Committee Opinion No. 666: Optimizing Postpartum Care.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    In the weeks after birth, postpartum care often is fragmented among maternal and pediatric health care providers, and communication between inpatient and outpatient settings is inconsistent. To optimize postpartum care, anticipatory guidance should begin during pregnancy. During antenatal care, it is recommended that the patient and her obstetrician-gynecologist or other obstetric care provider formulate a postpartum care plan and identify the health care professionals who will comprise the postpartum care team for the woman and her infant. Ideally, during the postpartum period, a single health care practice assumes responsibility for coordinating the woman's care. At discharge from maternity care, the woman should receive contact information for her postpartum care team and written instructions regarding the timing of follow-up postpartum care. It is recommended that all women undergo a comprehensive postpartum visit within the first 6 weeks after birth. This visit should include a full assessment of physical, social, and psychological well-being. Systems should be implemented to ensure each woman can receive her desired form of contraception during the comprehensive postpartum visit, if not done earlier. At the conclusion of the postpartum visit, the woman and her obstetrician-gynecologist or other obstetric care provider should determine who will assume primary responsibility for her ongoing care. If responsibility is transferred to another primary care provider, the obstetrician-gynecologist or other obstetric care provider is responsible for ensuring that there is communication with the primary care provider so that he or she can understand the implications of any pregnancy complications for the woman's future health and maintain continuity of care. PMID:27214194

  1. Cryptogenic postpartum stroke.

    PubMed

    Bereczki, Dániel; Szegedi, Norbert; Szakács, Zoltán; Gubucz, István; May, Zsolt

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 25-40% of ischemic strokes are classified as cryptogenic, which means the cause of the cerebral infarction remains unidentified. One of the potential pathomechanisms - especially among young patients with no cardiovascular risk factors - is paradoxical embolism through a patent foramen ovale. Pregnancy, cesarean delivery and the postpartum period are associated with an increased risk of cerebrovascular events. Factors that may contribute to ischemic strokes during gestation and puerperium include classic cardiovascular risk factors, changes in hemostaseology/hemodynamics, and pregnancy-specific disorders such as pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, postpartum cerebral angiopathy or peripartum cardiomyopathy. In this case report, we present a 36-year-old thrombolysis candidate undergoing mechanical thrombectomy 3 weeks after a cesarean section due to HELLP-syndrome. After evaluation of anamnestic and diagnostic parameters, closure of the patent foramen ovale has been performed. In the absence of specific guidelines, diagnostic work-up for cryptogenic stroke should be oriented after the suspected pathomechanism based on patient history and clinical picture. As long as definite evidences emerge, management of cryptogenic stroke patients with pathogenic right-to-left shunt remains individual based on the mutual decision of the patient and the multidisciplinary medical team. PMID:27591063

  2. Organic matter production during late summer-winter period in a temperate sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marić, Daniela; Frka, Sanja; Godrijan, Jelena; Tomažić, Igor; Penezić, Abra; Djakovac, Tamara; Vojvodić, Vjeročka; Precali, Robert; Gašparović, Blaženka

    2013-03-01

    The quantity and quality of fresh organic matter (OM) formed by primary production in relation to phytoplankton community structure was calculated for the late summer-winter 2009/2010 in the northern Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean). Phytoplankton species, as a direct measure of fresh OM, chlorophyll a, the OM pool (DOC and POC) and lipids, including classes, were analyzed. Data for temperature, salinity and nutrients enabled deeper insight into the conditions that promoted fresh OM production and associated processes at two stations of different trophic status. Phytoplankton growth was controlled by bottom regenerated nutrients and to lesser extent by riverine nutrients. The phytoplankton community was mainly dominated by nanoplankton. Species of moderate carbon content Chaetoceros compressus, Asterionellopsis glacialis, Leptocylindrus danicus and Bacteriastrum jadranum dominated the microplankton fraction. Availability of orthophosphates was the key factor influencing fresh OM production. POC varied from 37-522 μg l-1. Freshphyto POC, i.e. carbon fixed in phytoplankton cells, contributed 7-79% to the POC pool. The DOC (890-1560 μg l-1) level decreased during the investigated period. Calculation of fresh DOC, i.e. carbon fixed during primary production and released as dissolved OM, revealed it as a minor part (0-2%) of the DOC pool. Lipid concentrations varied from 9.9-55.0 μg l-1 and 20.0-40.2 μg l-1 in the particulate and dissolved fractions, respectively. Nutrient limitation caused increased synthesis of lipids, among which energy reserve lipids triacylglycerols, which are further immobilized for the construction of glycolipids with increasing depletion of orthophosphates.

  3. A Sensitive Period for Language in the Visual Cortex: Distinct Patterns of Plasticity in Congenitally versus Late Blind Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedny, Marina; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Dravida, Swethasri; Saxe, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that blindness enables visual circuits to contribute to language processing. We examined whether this dramatic functional plasticity has a sensitive period. BOLD fMRI signal was measured in congenitally blind, late blind (blindness onset 9-years-old or later) and sighted participants while they performed a sentence…

  4. Diagnosis and treatment of postpartum bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Erin; Sharma, Verinder

    2010-07-01

    The postpartum period is a time of increased risk of new-onset psychiatric illness, hospital admissions and out-patient psychiatric care for new mothers. Research into postpartum mood disorders has focused primarily on major depressive disorder, and has overlooked the study of bipolar disorder, particularly bipolar II disorder and bipolar disorder not otherwise specified. Failure to properly diagnose postpartum bipolar disorder may delay the initiation of appropriate treatment, lead to inappropriate treatment - thereby precipitating (hypo)mania, rapid cycling or a mixed episode - or result in polypharmacy and treatment refractoriness. The most serious consequence, however, is the high risk of infanticide and suicide among women with postpartum bipolar disorder. While no specific screening tools have been validated for postpartum mania or bipolar depression, symptoms of hypomania, atypical depression, a family history of bipolar disorder and a rapid onset of depressive symptoms following delivery may suggest a bipolar diathesis. In the absence of any pharmacological or psychotherapeutic treatments to guide clinical decision-making, it is recommended that the treatment of postpartum bipolar depression follow the same guidelines as the treatment of non-postpartum bipolar depression, using medications that are compatible with lactation. PMID:20586688

  5. Antigen exposure in the late light period induces severe symptoms of food allergy in an OVA-allergic mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Kana; Kitagawa, Eri; Wada, Misaki; Haraguchi, Atsushi; Orihara, Kanami; Tahara, Yu; Nakao, Atsuhito; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian circadian clock controls many physiological processes that include immune responses and allergic reactions. Several studies have investigated the circadian regulation of intestinal permeability and tight junctions known to be affected by cytokines. However, the contribution of circadian clock to food allergy symptoms remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the role of the circadian clock in determining the severity of food allergies. We prepared an ovalbumin food allergy mouse model, and orally administered ovalbumin either late in the light or late in the dark period under light-dark cycle. The light period group showed higher allergic diarrhea and weight loss than the dark period group. The production of type 2 cytokines, IL-13 and IL-5, from the mesenteric lymph nodes and ovalbumin absorption was higher in the light period group than in the dark period group. Compared to the dark period group, the mRNA expression levels of the tight junction proteins were lower in the light period group. We have demonstrated that increased production of type 2 cytokines and intestinal permeability in the light period induced severe food allergy symptoms. Our results suggest that the time of food antigen intake might affect the determination of the severity of food allergy symptoms. PMID:26419283

  6. Sleep Disturbance and Neurobehavioral Performance among Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Insana, Salvatore P.; Williams, Kayla B.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep disturbances cause neurobehavioral performance and daytime functioning impairments. Postpartum women experience high levels of sleep disturbance. Thus, the study objective was to describe and explore the relation between neurobehavioral performance and sleep among women during the early postpartum period. Design: Longitudinal field-based study. Participants: There were 70 primiparous women and nine nulliparous women in a control group. Interventions: None. Methods and Results: During their first 12 postpartum weeks, 70 primiparous women wore continuous wrist actigraphy to objectively monitor their sleep. Each morning they self-administered the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) to index their neurobehavioral performance. Nine nulliparous women in a control group underwent the same protocol for 12 continuous weeks. Postpartum PVT mean reciprocal (1/RT) reaction time did not differ from that of women in the control group at postpartum week 2, but then worsened over time. Postpartum slowest 10% 1/RT PVT reaction time was significantly worse than that of women in the control group at all weeks. Despite improvements in postpartum sleep, neurobehavioral performance continued to worsen from week 2 through the end of the study. Across the first 12 postpartum weeks, PVT measures were more frequently associated with percent sleep compared with total sleep time, highlighting the deleterious consequences of sleep disruption on maternal daytime functioning throughout the early postpartum period. Conclusions: Worsened maternal neurobehavioral performance across the first 12 postpartum weeks may have been influenced by the cumulative effects of sleep disturbance. These results can inform future work to identify the particular sleep profiles that could be primary intervention targets to improve daytime functioning among postpartum women, and indicate need for further research on the effectiveness of family leave policies. The time when postpartum women return

  7. A sensitive period for language in the visual cortex: Distinct patterns of plasticity in congenitally versus late blind adults

    PubMed Central

    Bedny, Marina; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Dravida, Swethasri; Saxe, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that blindness enables visual circuits to contribute to language processing. We examined whether this dramatic functional plasticity has a sensitive period. BOLD fMRI signal was measured in congenitally blind, late blind (blindness onset 9-years-old or later) and sighted participants while they performed a sentence comprehension task. In a control condition, participants listened to backwards speech and made match/non-match to sample judgments. In both, congenitally and late blind participants BOLD signal increased in bilateral foveal-pericalcarine cortex during response preparation, irrespective of whether the stimulus was a sentence or backwards speech. However, only in congenitally blind people left occipital areas (pericalcarine, extrastriate, fusiform and lateral) responded more to sentences than backwards speech. We conclude that age of blindness onset constrains the non-visual functions of occipital cortex: while plasticity is present in both congenitally and late blind individuals, recruitment of visual circuits for language depends on blindness during childhood. PMID:22154509

  8. Postpartum depression: a metasynthesis.

    PubMed

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano

    2002-04-01

    Postpartum depression has been described as a dangerous thief that robs mothers of the love and happiness they expected to feel toward their newborn babies. Even though the number of qualitative studies on postpartum depression is increasing, knowledge development will be impeded unless the rich understandings gleaned from these studies are synthesized. Using Noblit and Hare's 1988 approach, the author conducted a metasynthesis of 18 qualitative studies on postpartum depression. Four overarching themes emerged that reflected four perspectives involved in postpartum depression: (a) incongruity between expectations and the reality of motherhood, (b) spiraling downward, (c) pervasive loss, and (d) making gains. Implications for clinical practice and theory development are addressed. PMID:11939248

  9. Eclipses in the Middle East from the Late Medieval Islamic Period to the Early Modern Period. Part 1: The observation of six lunar eclipses from the Late Medieval Islamic Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozaffari, S. Mohammad

    2013-11-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of data obtained from observations of two sets of three lunar eclipses in the Late Medieval Islamic Period. The first trio consists of the lunar eclipses of 7 March 1262, 7 April 1270 and 24 January 1274, observed by Muḥyī al-Dīn al-Maghribī; from the Maragha Observatory (in north-western Iran), and the second includes those of 2 June and 26 November 1406, and 22 May 1407, observed by Jamshīd Ghiyāth al-Dīn al-Kāshī from Kāshān (in central Iran). The results are that al-Maghribī's values for the magnitudes of these eclipses agree excellently with modern data, and his values for the times when the maximum phases occurred agree to within five minutes with modern values. Al-Kāshī's values for the times of the maximum phases show a rather larger divergence from modern data, varying from about ten minutes to about one hour. The errors in all six values both astronomers computed from their own solar parameters for the longitude of the Sun at the instant of the opposition of the Moon to the Sun in these eclipses remain below ten minutes of arc. The motivation for doing these observations was to measure the lunar epicycle radius r in the Ptolemaic model. Al-Maghribī achieved r = 5;12 and al-Kāshī r ∼ 5;17,1 in terms of the radius of an orbit of R = 60 arbitrary units. It is argued that comparing with modern theory, neither of these two medieval values can be considered an improvement on Ptolemy's value of r = 5;15.

  10. Self-reported and Objectively Measured Physical Activity Among a Cohort of Postpartum Women: The PIN Postpartum Study

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Herring, Amy H.; Wen, Fang

    2010-01-01

    Background Few studies measure physical activity objectively or at multiple time points during postpartum. We describe physical activity at 3- and 12-months postpartum among a cohort of women using both self-reported and objective measures. Methods In total, 181 women completed the 3-month postpartum measures, and 204 women completed the 12-month postpartum measures. Participants wore an Actigraph accelerometer for one week and completed in-home interviews that included questions on physical activity. A cohort of 80 women participated at both time points. Poisson regression models were used to determine whether physical activity differed over time for the cohort. Results For the cohort, average counts/minute were 364 at 3-months postpartum and 394 at 12-months postpartum. At both time periods for the cohort, vigorous activity averaged 1 to 3 minutes/day, and moderate activity (NHANES cutpoints) averaged 16 minutes/day. Sedentary time averaged 9.3 hours at 3-months postpartum and 8.8 hours at 12-months postpartum, out of a 19-hour day. Average counts/minute increased and sedentary behavior declined from 3- to 12-months postpartum. Conclusion Interventions are needed to help women integrate more moderate to vigorous physical activity and to capitalize on the improvements in sedentary behavior that occur during postpartum. PMID:22232505

  11. A risk score to identify HIV-infected women most likely to become lost to follow-up in the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Bengtson, Angela M; Chibwesha, Carla J; Westreich, Daniel; Mubiana-Mbewe, Mwangelwa; Chi, Benjamin H; Miller, William C; Mapani, Muntanga; Pence, Brian W; Musonda, Patrick; Stringer, Jeffrey Sa; Pettifor, Audrey

    2016-08-01

    Access to lifelong combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is expanding among HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women throughout sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). For this strategy to meaningfully improve maternal HIV outcomes, retention in HIV care is essential. We developed a risk score to identify women with high likelihood of loss to follow-up (LTFU) at 6 months postpartum from HIV care, using data from public health facilities in Lusaka, Zambia. LTFU was defined as not presenting for HIV care within 60 days of the last scheduled appointment. We used logistic regression to assess demographic, obstetric and HIV predictors of LTFU and to develop a simple risk score. Sensitivity and specificity were assessed at each risk score cut-point. Among 2029 pregnant women initiating cART between 2009 and 2011, 507 (25%) were LTFU by 6 months postpartum. Parity, education, employment status, WHO clinical stage, duration of cART during pregnancy and number of antenatal care visits were associated with LTFU (p-value < .10). A risk score cut-point of 11 (42nd percentile) had 85% sensitivity (95% CI 82%, 88%) and 22% specificity (95% CI 20%, 24%) to detect women LTFU and would exclude 20% of women from a retention intervention. A risk score cut-point of 18 (69th percentile) identified the 23% of women with the highest probability of LTFU and had sensitivity 32% (95% CI 28%, 36%) and specificity 80% (95% CI 78%, 82%). A risk score approach may be useful to triage a subset of women most likely to be LTFU for targeted retention interventions. PMID:26887526

  12. Maternal Deworming Research Study (MADRES) protocol: a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised trial to determine the effectiveness of deworming in the immediate postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Mofid, Layla S; Casapía, Martín; Montresor, Antonio; Rahme, Elham; Fraser, William D; Marquis, Grace S; Vercruysse, Jozef; Allen, Lindsay H; Gyorkos, Theresa W

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Soil-transmitted helminth infections are endemic in 114 countries worldwide, and cause the highest burden of disease among all neglected tropical diseases. The WHO includes women of reproductive age as a high-risk group for infection. The primary consequence of infection in this population is anaemia. During lactation, anaemia may contribute to reduced quality and quantity of milk, decreasing the duration of exclusive breastfeeding and lowering the age at weaning. To date, no study has investigated the effects of maternal postpartum deworming on infant or maternal health outcomes. Methods and analysis A single-centre, parallel, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial will be carried out in Iquitos, Peru, to assess the effectiveness of integrating single-dose 400 mg albendazole into routine maternal postpartum care. A total of 1010 mother-infant pairs will be randomised to either the intervention or control arm, following inhospital delivery and prior to discharge. Participants will be visited in their homes at 1, 6, 12 and 24 months following delivery for outcome ascertainment. The primary outcome is infant mean weight gain between birth and 6 months of age. Secondary outcomes include other infant growth indicators and morbidity, maternal soil-transmitted helminth infection and intensity, anaemia, fatigue, and breastfeeding practices. All statistical analyses will be performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Ethics and dissemination Research ethics board approval has been obtained from the McGill University Health Centre (Canada), the Asociación Civil Impacta Salud y Educación (Peru) and the Instituto Nacional de Salud (Peru). A data safety and monitoring committee is in place to oversee study progression and evaluate adverse events. The results of the analyses will be published in peer-reviewed journals, and presented at national and international conferences. Trial registration number Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01748929. PMID:26084556

  13. Physical Activity Beliefs, Barriers, and Enablers among Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Aytur, Semra A.; Borodulin, Katja

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background and Methods Physical activity during postpartum is both a recommended and an essential contributor to maternal health. Understanding the beliefs, barriers, and enablers regarding physical activity during the postpartum period can more effectively tailor physical activity interventions. The objective of this study was to document self-reported beliefs, barriers, and enablers to physical activity among a cohort of women queried at 3 and 12 months postpartum. Five questions about beliefs and two open-ended questions about their main barriers and enablers regarding physical activity and exercise were asked of 667 women at 3 months postpartum. Among the sample, 530 women answered the same questions about barriers and enablers to physical activity at 12 months postpartum. Results Agreement on all five beliefs statements was high (≥89%), indicating that women thought that exercise and physical activity were appropriate at 3 months postpartum, even if they continued to breastfeed. For the cohort, the most common barriers to physical activity at both 3 and 12 months postpartum were lack of time (47% and 51%, respectively) and issues with child care (26% and 22%, respectively). No barrier changed by more than 5% from 3 to 12 months postpartum. For the cohort, the most common enablers at 3 months postpartum were partner support (16%) and desire to feel better (14%). From 3 to 12 months postpartum, only one enabler changed by >5%; women reported baby reasons (e.g., baby older, healthier, not breastfeeding, more active) more often at 12 months than at 3 months postpartum (32% vs. 10%). Environmental/policy and organizational barriers and enablers were reported less often than intrapersonal or interpersonal barriers at both time points. Conclusions A number of barriers and enablers were identified for physical activity, most of which were consistent at 3 and 12 months postpartum. This study provides information to create more successful interventions to

  14. Psychiatric consultation to the postpartum mother.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Eleanor A; Kim, Deborah R

    2015-04-01

    The immediate postpartum period is a time of acute vulnerability to mental illness, which presents unique challenges for the psychiatric consultant. Because the postpartum hospital stay is typically brief, the consultant must have a working knowledge of postpartum physiology and the myriad forms of mental illness that may emerge in this vulnerable time, in order to quickly make a diagnosis and formulate a treatment plan. This review aims to characterize the most common reasons for postpartum consultation, review postpartum physiology and psychiatric conditions, and propose an evidence-based, practical approach to treatment. A literature search using the terms "postpartum," "obstetric," "consultation," and "psychiatry" yielded six studies that identified reasons for psychiatric consultation to the obstetrics and gynecology services. These studies informed the structure of the article such that we review the most common reasons for consultation and how to approach each issue. The most common reason for consultation is past psychiatric history, often in the absence of current symptoms. For each clinical situation, including depression, adverse birth events, and psychosis, we present a differential diagnosis, as well as risk factors, clinical signs, and recommended treatment. PMID:25764006

  15. [Postpartum pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Escalante, Juan Pablo; Diez, Ana; Figueroa Casas, Marcelo; Lasave, Alejandro; Cursack, Guillermo; Poy, Carlos; Rodríguez, María Soledad; Galuppo, Marcela; Zapata, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) in pregnancy is a rare disorder that carries a high risk to mother and child, and as such, it is considered a contraindication to becoming pregnant. However, there are few published reports related to the diagnosis of this condition after delivery. We describe three PH cases diagnosed after their normal pregnancies and deliveries. Although the causes are unknown, several mechanisms such as hypercoagulation, placental hypoxia or amniotic fluid embolism have been considered as possible causes. It is difficult to define whether a PH diagnosed in the postpartum period, relates to an earlier asymptomatic PH period that was triggered by the physiological stress of labor or if it is a recently acquired condition. Despite the lack of data to support the absence of PH previous to pregnancy in our three patients, lack of events during this period, asymptomatic and normal deliveries, lead us to believe that they did not suffer this disease prior to pregnancy; considering that high hemodynamic demands impair a ventricle with little reserve, and its subsequent appearance at time of delivery. PMID:25637900

  16. The Wandering Indian Plate and Its Changing Biogeography During the Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Sankar; Scotese, Christopher

    Palaeobiogeographic analysis of Indian tetrapods during the Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary time has recognized that both vicariance and geodispersal have played important roles in producing biogeographic congruence. The biogeographic patterns show oscillating cycles of geodispersal (Late Cretaceous), followed by congruent episodes of vicariance and geodispersal (Early Eocene), followed by another geodispersal event (Middle Eocene). New biogeographic synthesis suggests that the Late Cretaceous Indian tetrapod fauna is cosmopolitan with both Gondwanan and Laurasian elements. Throughout most of the Cretaceous, India was separated from the rest of Gondwana, but in the latest Cretaceous it reestablished contact with Africa through Kohistan-Dras (K-D) volcanic arc, and maintained biotic link with South America via Ninetyeast Ridge-Kerguelen-Antarctica corridor. These two geodispersal routes allowed exchanges of "pan-Gondwana" terrestrial tetrapods from Africa, South America, and Madagascar. During that time India also maintained biotic connections with Laurasia across the Neotethys via Kohistan-Dras Arc and Africa. During the Palaeocene, India, welded to the K-D Arc, rafted like a "Noah's Ark" as an island continent and underwent rapid cladogenesis because of allopatric speciation. Although the Palaeocene fossil record is blank, Early Eocene tetrapods contain both endemic and cosmopolitan elements, but Middle Eocene faunas have strong Asian character. India collided with Asia in Early and Middle Eocene time and established a new northeast corridor for faunal migration to facilitate the bidirectional "Great Asian Interchange" dispersals.

  17. Factors Influencing Physical Activity among Postpartum Iranian Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roozbahani, Nasrin; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Eftekhar Ardabili, Hassan; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postpartum women are a population at risk for sedentary living. Physical activity (PA) prior to pregnancy may be effective in predicting similar behaviour in the postpartum period. Objective: To test a composite version of the extended transtheoretical model (TTM) by adding "past behaviour" in order to predict PA behaviour…

  18. Postpartum IUCD: Rediscovering a Languishing Innovation.

    PubMed

    Balsarkar, Geetha Dharmesh; Nayak, Arun

    2015-07-01

    The National Family Planning Programme of India, since its inception in 1951, has been able to successfully achieve significant reductions in maternal mortality and fertility. Over the past decade, the need for contraception has changed dramatically in India. Couples no longer desire sterilization, but prefer modern reversible long-term methods of contraception. The ideal time to discuss contraception is in the antenatal period when there is a good rapport between the doctor and the patient. The window period when the patient is admitted in the hospital during delivery can be used effectively to offer postpartum contraception. It has been found that the highest chance of unwanted pregnancy is in the first year after delivery, when women do not report to the doctor if this window period is missed. Postpartum intrauterine contraceptive devices are ideal for a country like India and it can be used to cover the unmet need of contraception if inserted immediately after delivery. There are two types of insertion: post placental, within 10 min of delivery of placenta and postpartum, within 48 h of delivery. Although there is a greater chance of expulsion in the postpartum insertions, it can be significantly reduced with proper training and user experience. Postpartum IUCD should be routinely offered to all patients delivering in institutions to provide complete care to a parturient and to achieve safe motherhood. PMID:26243985

  19. Postpartum Depression and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Lynne, Ed.; Cooper, Peter J., Ed.

    Only recently has the research on postpartum depression dealt with the disorder's effects on child development. This book explores the impact of postpartum depression on mother-infant interaction and child development, its treatment, and postpartum psychosis. The chapters are: (1) "The Nature of Postpartum Depressive Disorders" (Michael O'Hara);…

  20. Major storm periods and climate forcing in the Western Mediterranean during the Late Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degeai, Jean-Philippe; Devillers, Benoît; Dezileau, Laurent; Oueslati, Hamza; Bony, Guénaëlle

    2015-12-01

    Big storm events represent a major risk for populations and infrastructures settled on coastal lowlands. In the Western Mediterranean, where human societies colonized and occupied the coastal areas since the Ancient times, the variability of storm activity for the past three millennia was investigated with a multi-proxy sedimentological and geochemical study from a lagoonal sequence. Mappings of the geochemistry and magnetic susceptibility of detrital sources in the watershed of the lagoon and from the coastal barriers were undertaken in order to track the terrestrial or coastal/marine origin of sediments deposited into the lagoon. The multi-proxy analysis shows that coarser material, low magnetic susceptibility, and high strontium content characterize the sedimentological signature of the paleostorm levels identified in the lagoonal sequence. A comparison with North Atlantic and Western Mediterranean paleoclimate proxies shows that the phases of high storm activity occurred during cold periods, suggesting a climatically-controlled mechanism for the occurrence of these storm periods. Besides, an in-phase storm activity pattern is found between the Western Mediterranean and Northern Europe. Spectral analyses performed on the Sr content revealed a new 270-year solar-driven pattern of storm cyclicity. For the last 3000 years, this 270-year cycle defines a succession of ten major storm periods (SP) with a mean duration of 96 ± 54 yr. Periods of higher storm activity are recorded from >680 to 560 cal yr BC (SP10, end of the Iron Age Cold Period), from 140 to 820 cal yr AD (SP7 to SP5) with a climax of storminess between 400 and 800 cal yr AD (Dark Ages Cold Period), and from 1230 to >1800 cal yr AD (SP3 to SP1, Little Ice Age). Periods of low storm activity occurred from 560 cal yr BC to 140 cal yr AD (SP9 and SP8, Roman Warm Period) and from 820 to 1230 cal yr AD (SP4, Medieval Warm Period).

  1. Committee Opinion No. 670 Summary: Immediate Postpartum Long-Acting Reversible Contraception.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    Immediate postpartum long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) has the potential to reduce unintended and short-interval pregnancy. Women should be counseled about all forms of postpartum contraception in a context that allows informed decision making. Immediate postpartum LARC should be offered as an effective option for postpartum contraception; there are few contraindications to postpartum intrauterine devices and implants. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should discuss LARC during the antepartum period and counsel all pregnant women about options for immediate postpartum initiation. Education and institutional protocols are needed to raise clinician awareness and to improve access to immediate postpartum LARC insertion. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should incorporate immediate postpartum LARC into their practices, counsel women appropriately about advantages and risks, and advocate for institutional and payment policy changes to support provision. PMID:27454730

  2. Committee Opinion No. 670: Immediate Postpartum Long-Acting Reversible Contraception.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    Immediate postpartum long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) has the potential to reduce unintended and short-interval pregnancy. Women should be counseled about all forms of postpartum contraception in a context that allows informed decision making. Immediate postpartum LARC should be offered as an effective option for postpartum contraception; there are few contraindications to postpartum intrauterine devices and implants. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should discuss LARC during the antepartum period and counsel all pregnant women about options for immediate postpartum initiation. Education and institutional protocols are needed to raise clinician awareness and to improve access to immediate postpartum LARC insertion. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should incorporate immediate postpartum LARC into their practices, counsel women appropriately about advantages and risks, and advocate for institutional and payment policy changes to support provision. PMID:27454734

  3. Quantitative assessment of regulatory proteins in blood as markers of radiation effects in the late period after occupational exposure.

    PubMed

    Kirillova, Evgenia N; Zakharova, Maria L; Muksinova, Klara N; Drugova, Elena D; Pavlova, Olga S; Sokolova, Svetlana N

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this research was quantitative assessment of serum and membrane regulatory proteins in blood from nuclear workers as markers of radiation-induced alterations in immune homeostasis in the late period after protracted exposure of nuclear workers with different doses. The effector and regulatory lymphocytes were measured using a flow cytofluorometer in workers from the main facilities of the Mayak PA (aged ∼60 y up to 80 y) in the late period after combined exposure to external gamma-rays and internal alpha-radiation from incorporated 239Pu. The control group included non-occupationally exposed members of the Ozyorsk population matched by gender and age to the group of Mayak workers. Thirty serum proteins involved in regulation of immune homeostasis, such as growth factors, multifunctional interleukins, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and their receptors, were measured using ELISA in blood serum specimens from the Radiobiology Human Tissue Repository. The dosimetry estimates were obtained using Doses-2005. The correlation analysis revealed a statistically significant direct relationship of T-killers and plutonium body burden and a decreasing level of T-helpers with accumulated external dose in exposed individuals. There were differences in expression of membrane markers in young regulatory cells (double null T-lymphocytes, NKT-lymphocytes, regulatory T-cells, and an increase of activated forms of T-lymphocytes), which indicated an active role of regulatory cells in maintaining immune homeostasis in terms of protracted exposure. The assessment of regulatory proteins in blood indicated that growth factors (EGF, TGF-β1, PDGF), multifunctional interleukins (IL-17A, IL-18), and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and INF-γ) could be potential markers of radiation-induced alterations in protein status. An imbalance of pro- and antiinflammatory proteins in blood and variations of protein profiles at the lower exposure levels (gamma-ray dose <1 Gy

  4. Late Devonian glacial deposits from the eastern United States signal an end of the mid-Paleozoic warm period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brezinski, D.K.; Cecil, C.B.; Skema, V.W.; Stamm, R.

    2008-01-01

    A Late Devonian polymictic diamictite extends for more than 400??km from northeastern Pennsylvania across western Maryland and into east-central West Virginia. The matrix-supported, unbedded, locally sheared diamictite contains subangular to rounded clasts up to 2??m in diameter. The mostly rounded clasts are both locally derived and exotic; some exhibit striations, faceting, and polish. The diamictite commonly is overlain by laminated siltstone/mudstone facies associations (laminites). The laminites contain isolated clasts ranging in size from sand and pebbles to boulders, some of which are striated. The diamictite/laminite sequence is capped by massive, coarse-grained, pebbly sandstone that is trough cross-bedded. A stratigraphic change from red, calcic paleo-Vertisols in strata below the diamictite to non-calcic paleo-Spodosols and coal beds at and above the diamictite interval suggests that the climate became much wetter during deposition of the diamictite. The diamictite deposit is contemporaneous with regressive facies that reflect fluvial incision during the Late Devonian of the Appalachian basin. These deposits record a Late Devonian episode of climatic cooling so extreme that it produced glaciation in the Appalachian basin. Evidence for this episode of climatic cooling is preserved as the interpreted glacial deposits of diamictite, overlain by glaciolacustrine varves containing dropstones, and capped by sandstone interpreted as braided stream outwash. The Appalachian glacigenic deposits are contemporaneous with glacial deposits in South America, and suggest that Late Devonian climatic cooling was global. This period of dramatic global cooling may represent the end of the mid-Paleozoic warm interval that began in the Middle Silurian. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Susceptibility to monocular deprivation following immersion in darkness either late into or beyond the critical period.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Kevin R; Lingley, Alexander J; Holman, Kaitlyn D; Mitchell, Donald E

    2016-09-01

    An extended duration of darkness starting near the time of birth preserves immature neuronal characteristics and prolongs the accentuated plasticity observed in young animals. Brief periods of complete darkness have emerged as an effective means of restoring a high capacity for neural plasticity and of promoting recovery from the effects of monocular deprivation (MD). We examined whether 10 days of darkness imposed in adulthood or beyond the peak of the critical period could rejuvenate the ability of MD to reduce the size of neuron somata within deprived layers of the cat dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN). For adult cats subjected to 10 days of darkness before 7 days of MD, we observed no alteration in neuron size or neurofilament labeling within the dLGN. At 12 weeks of age, MD that followed immediately after 10 days of darkness produced an enhanced reduction of neuron soma size within deprived dLGN layers. For this age we observed that 10 days of darkness also enhanced the loss of neurofilament protein within deprived dLGN layers. These results indicate that, although 10 days of darkness in adulthood does not enhance the susceptibility to 7 days of MD, darkness imposed near the trailing edge of the critical period can restore a heightened susceptibility to MD more typical of an earlier developmental stage. The loss of neurofilament in juveniles exposed to darkness prior to MD suggests that the enhanced capacity for structural plasticity is partially rooted in the ability of darkness to modulate molecules that inhibit plasticity. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2643-2653, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26878686

  6. Is Shade Beneficial for Mediterranean Shrubs Experiencing Periods of Extreme Drought and Late-winter Frosts?

    PubMed Central

    Valladares, Fernando; Zaragoza-Castells, Joana; Sánchez-Gómez, David; Matesanz, Silvia; Alonso, Beatriz; Portsmuth, Angelika; Delgado, Antonio; Atkin, Owen K.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Plants are naturally exposed to multiple, frequently interactive stress factors, most of which are becoming more severe due to global change. Established plants have been reported to facilitate the establishment of juvenile plants, but net effects of plant–plant interactions are difficult to assess due to complex interactions among environmental factors. An investigation was carried out in order to determine how two dominant evergreen shrubs (Quercus ilex and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) co-occurring in continental, Mediterranean habitats respond to multiple abiotic stresses and whether the shaded understorey conditions ameliorate the negative effects of drought and winter frosts on the physiology of leaves. Methods Microclimate and ecophysiology of sun and shade plants were studied at a continental plateau in central Spain during 2004–2005, with 2005 being one of the driest and hottest years on record; several late-winter frosts also occurred in 2005. Key Results Daytime air temperature and vapour pressure deficit were lower in the shade than in the sun, but soil moisture was also lower in the shade during the spring and summer of 2005, and night-time temperatures were higher in the shade. Water potential, photochemical efficiency, light-saturated photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and leaf 13C composition differed between sun and shade individuals throughout the seasons, but differences were species specific. Shade was beneficial for leaf-level physiology in Q. ilex during winter, detrimental during spring for both species, and of little consequence in summer. Conclusions The results suggest that beneficial effects of shade can be eclipsed by reduced soil moisture during dry years, which are expected to be more frequent in the most likely climate change scenarios for the Mediterranean region. PMID:18819947

  7. [Effects of the periodical spread of rinderpest on famine, epidemic, and tiger disasters in the late 17th Century].

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Jin; Yoo, Han Sang; Lee, Hang

    2014-04-01

    This study clarifies the causes of the repetitive occurrences of such phenomena as rinderpest, epidemic, famine, and tiger disasters recorded in the Joseon Dynasty Chronicle and the Seungjeongwon Journals in the period of great catastrophe, the late 17th century in which the great Gyeongsin famine (1670~1671) and the great Eulbyeong famine (1695~1696) occurred, from the perspective that they were biological exchanges caused by the new arrival of rinderpest in the early 17th century. It is an objection to the achievements by existing studies which suggest that the great catastrophes occurring in the late 17th century are evidence of phenomena in a little ice age. First of all, rinderpest has had influence on East Asia as it had been spread from certain areas in Machuria in May 1636 through Joseon, where it raged throughout the nation, and then to the west part of Japan. The new arrival of rinderpest was indigenized in Joseon, where it was localized and spread periodically while it was adjusted to changes in the population of cattle with immunity in accordance with their life spans and reproduction rates. As the new rinderpest, which showed high pathogenicity in the early 17th century, was indigenized with its high mortality and continued until the late 17th century, it broke out periodically in general. Contrastively, epidemics like smallpox and measles that were indigenized as routine ones had occurred constantly from far past times. As a result, the rinderpest, which tried a new indigenization, and the human epidemics, which had been already indigenized long ago, were unexpectedly overlapped in their breakout, and hence great changes were noticed in the aspects of the human casualty due to epidemics. The outbreak of rinderpest resulted in famine due to lack of farming cattle, and the famine caused epidemics among people. The casualty of the human population due to the epidemics in turn led to negligence of farming cattle, which constituted factors that triggered

  8. Assimilating Continental Mean Temperatures to Reconstruct the Climate of the Late Pre-industrial Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsikaris, A.; Widmann, M.; Jungclaus, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Climate reconstructions for the pre-instrumental period are either based on climate proxy data or on numerical simulations. However, both approaches are associated with substantial uncertainties. In principle, the best state estimates can be expected by employing data assimilation (DA) techniques, which systematically combine the empirical information from proxy data with the representation of the processes that govern the climate system given by climate models. Here, an ensemble-based DA method is performed to reconstruct the climate of the period 1750-1850 AD, and the performance is evaluated on large and small spatial scales. We use a low-resolution version of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology's MPI-ESM model and assimilate the PAGES 2K continental mean temperature reconstructions for the Northern Hemisphere (NH). The ensembles are generated sequentially for sub-periods based on the analysis of previous sub-periods. The assimilation has good skill for large-scale temperatures, but there is no agreement between the DA analysis and proxy-based reconstructions for small-scale temperature variability within Europe or with reconstructions for the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. To explain the lack of added value in the DA, a Maximum Covariance Analysis (MCA) of links between NH temperature and sea level pressure (SLP) is performed on a control run with MPI-ESM. The analysis shows that the Northern Annular Mode (NAM) is the pattern that is most closely linked to the NH continental temperatures. This link is reproduced in the assimilation run for winter, spring and annual means, providing potential for constraining the NAM/NAO phase and in turn, for regional temperature variability in the DA. It is shown that the lack of actual skill for these aspects is likely due to the fact that either the link might be too weak, as the continental mean temperatures are not the best predictors for the NAM (they are reconstructed by many proxies in locations not linked

  9. Rainy Periods and Bottom Water Stagnation Initiating Brine Accumulation and Metal Concentrations: 1. The Late Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossignol-Strick, Martine

    1987-06-01

    A working hypothesis is proposed to account for the present accumulation of brines in isolated pockets of the ocean floor and for the formation of the underlying organic and metal-rich sediments. These are the Tyro and Bannock basins in the East Mediterranean, the Red Sea Deeps, and the Orca Basin in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Initiation of brine-derived deposition in the Red Sea Deeps and Orca Basin occurred between 12,000 and 8000 years B.P. This time bracket also encompasses the formation of the latest East Mediterranean sapropel and the wettest global climate since the last glacial maximum. This wet period first appeared in the tropics around 12,000 years B.P, then in the subtropical and middle latitudes. During the same period, the 23,000 year precession cycle brought the summer insolation of the northern hemisphere to its peak at 11,000 years B.P. with retreating northern hemisphere ice sheets. The Red Sea Deeps and the Orca Basin became anoxic during this humid period, and metal-rich sapropel deposition then began. In contrast, the Tyro and Bannock basins began accumulating a brine long before and persisted beyond this climatic stage. The hypothesis involves two propositions: (1) As in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, marine anoxia was mainly the consequence of the large influx of continental runoff and local precipitation. Longer residence time of bottom waters, so-called "stagnation," in silled rimmed basins would have resulted from lower salinity at the sea surface in areas of deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean, the Red Sea, and the Gulf of Mexico and (2) Miocene or older evaporites underlie these basins or outcrop on their flanks. Leaching from these evaporites was an ongoing process before the quasi-stagnation phase, but the initial leachate, much less saline than the present brines, was continuously flushed by bottom circulation. The climate-induced quiescence of bottom waters in these basins enabled the leachate to accumulate. The

  10. Competence and Responsiveness in Mothers of Late Preterm Infants Versus Term Infants

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Brenda; McGrath, Jacqueline M.; Pickler, Rita; Jallo, Nancy; Cohen, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare maternal competence and responsiveness in mothers of late preterm infants (LPIs) with mothers of full-term infants. Design A nonexperimental repeated-measures design was used to compare maternal competence and responsiveness in two groups of postpartum mothers and the relationship of the theoretical antecedents to these outcomes. Setting Urban academic medical center. Participants Mothers of late preterm infants (34–36, 6/7-weeks gestation) and mothers of term infants (≥37-weeks gestation), including primiparas and multiparas. Data were collected after delivery during the postpartum hospital stay and again at 6-weeks postpartum. Methods Descriptive and inferential analysis. Results A total of 70 mothers completed both data collection periods: 49 term mothers and 21 LPI mothers. There were no differences between the two groups related to their perception of competence or responsiveness at delivery or 6-weeks postpartum. At 6-weeks postpartum, none of the assessed factors in the model was significantly related to competence or responsiveness. Conclusions The results, which may have been limited by small sample size, demonstrated no difference in the perceptions of LPI and term mothers related to competence or responsiveness. Maternal stress and support were significantly related to other factors in the model of maternal competence and responsiveness. PMID:23601024

  11. Modern use of extracorporeal life support in pregnancy and postpartum.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Nirmal S; Wille, Keith M; Bellot, Scott C; Diaz-Guzman, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) use during pregnancy and the postpartum period are thought to be associated with an increased risk for maternal or fetal bleeding complications. We present our recent institutional experience in managing pregnant and postpartum patients with ECMO. We also performed a literature review of modern use of ECMO in pregnant and postpartum patients utilizing Pubmed and Embase databases. ECMO was used for severe cardiopulmonary failure due to multiple conditions. Based on published reports, overall maternal and fetal survival on ECMO were 80% and 70%, respectively. Mild-to-moderate vaginal bleeding was reported in a few cases, with rare occurrences of catastrophic postpartum hemorrhage. There was no consensus on an optimal anticoagulation strategy in these patients, though most preferred to keep anticoagulation at lower therapeutic levels. We conclude that ECMO, in well-selected pregnant and postpartum patients, appears to be safe and associated with low risk of maternal and fetal complications. PMID:25248040

  12. [Postpartum mania induced by Bromocriptine: a case report].

    PubMed

    Misdrahi, D; Chalard, R; Verdoux, H

    2006-02-01

    The postpartum period is a high-risk period for occurrence of mood disorders (depression, mania) particularly for women with a history of bipolar disorder. We report the case of a woman with a postpartum mania episode with psychotic features induced by bromocriptine. This case report highlights the need to systematically explore the personal history of pregnant women in search of mood disorder which may proscribe use of bromocriptine. PMID:16446616

  13. Effect of Previous Miscarriage on Depressive Symptoms during Subsequent Pregnancy and Postpartum in the First Baby Study

    PubMed Central

    Bicking Kinsey, Cara; Baptiste-Roberts, Kesha; Zhu, Junjia; Kjerulff, Kristen H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Our objective was to test the hypothesis that nulliparous women with a history of miscarriage have an increased risk of depression during late pregnancy, and at 1, 6, and 12 months postpartum compared to women without a history of miscarriage. Methods We conducted secondary analysis of a longitudinal cohort study, the First Baby Study, and compared 448 pregnant women with a history of miscarriage to 2343 pregnant women without a history of miscarriage on risk of probable depression (score >12 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale). Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios at each time point and generalized estimating equations were used to obtain estimates in longitudinal analysis. Results Women with a history of miscarriage were not more likely than woman without a history of miscarriage to score in the probable depression range during the third trimester or at 6 or 12 months postpartum but were more likely at 1 month postpartum, after adjustment for sociodemographic factors (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.03 – 2.69). Conclusions Women with a history of miscarriage may be more vulnerable to depression during the first month postpartum than women without prior miscarriage, but this effect does not appear to persist beyond this time period. We support the promotion of awareness surrounding this issue and recommend that research is planned to identify risk factors that may position a woman with a history of miscarriage to be at higher risk for depression. PMID:24894728

  14. Assimilating continental mean temperatures to reconstruct the climate of the late pre-industrial period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsikaris, Anastasios; Widmann, Martin; Jungclaus, Johann

    2016-06-01

    An on-line, ensemble-based data assimilation (DA) method is performed to reconstruct the climate for 1750-1850 AD, and the performance is evaluated on large and small spatial scales. We use a low-resolution version of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology MPI-ESM model and assimilate the PAGES 2K continental mean temperature reconstructions for the Northern Hemisphere (NH). The ensembles are generated sequentially for sub-periods based on the analysis of previous sub-periods. The assimilation has good skill for large-scale temperatures, but there is no agreement between the DA analysis and proxy-based reconstructions for small-scale temperature patterns within Europe or with reconstructions for the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. To explain the lack of added value in small spatial scales, a maximum covariance analysis (MCA) of links between NH temperature and sea level pressure is performed based on a control simulation with MPI-ESM. For annual values, winter and spring the Northern Annular Mode (NAM) is the pattern that is most closely linked to the NH continental temperatures, while for summer and autumn it is a wave-like pattern. This link is reproduced in the DA for winter, spring and annual means, providing potential for constraining the NAM/NAO phase and in turn regional temperature variability. It is shown that the lack of actual small-scale skill is likely due to the fact that the link might be too weak, as the NH continental mean temperatures are not the best predictors for large-scale circulation anomalies, or that the PAGES 2K temperatures include noise. Both factors can lead to circulation anomalies in the DA analysis that are substantially different from reality, leading to unrealistic representation of small-scale temperature variability. Moreover, we show that even if the true amplitudes of the leading MCA circulation patterns were known, there is still a large amount of unexplained local temperature variance. Based on these results, we

  15. Maternal Postpartum Role Collapse as a Theory of Postpartum Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amankwaa, Linda Clark

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development of a theory of maternal postpartum role collapse. The influences of traditional role theory and symbolic interactionism are presented. The development of the maternal postpartum role collapse theory emerged from the study of postpartum depression among African-American women (Amankwaa, 2000).…

  16. A transitional snake from the Late Cretaceous period of North America.

    PubMed

    Longrich, Nicholas R; Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S; Gauthier, Jacques A

    2012-08-01

    Snakes are the most diverse group of lizards, but their origins and early evolution remain poorly understood owing to a lack of transitional forms. Several major issues remain outstanding, such as whether snakes originated in a marine or terrestrial environment and how their unique feeding mechanism evolved. The Cretaceous Coniophis precedens was among the first Mesozoic snakes discovered, but until now only an isolated vertebra has been described and it has therefore been overlooked in discussions of snake evolution. Here we report on previously undescribed material from this ancient snake, including the maxilla, dentary and additional vertebrae. Coniophis is not an anilioid as previously thought a revised phylogenetic analysis of Ophidia shows that it instead represents the most primitive known snake. Accordingly, its morphology and ecology are critical to understanding snake evolution. Coniophis occurs in a continental floodplain environment, consistent with a terrestrial rather than a marine origin; furthermore, its small size and reduced neural spines indicate fossorial habits, suggesting that snakes evolved from burrowing lizards. The skull is intermediate between that of lizards and snakes. Hooked teeth and an intramandibular joint indicate that Coniophis fed on relatively large, soft-bodied prey. However, the maxilla is firmly united with the skull, indicating an akinetic rostrum. Coniophis therefore represents a transitional snake, combining a snake-like body and a lizard-like head. Subsequent to the evolution of a serpentine body and carnivory, snakes evolved a highly specialized, kinetic skull, which was followed by a major adaptive radiation in the Early Cretaceous period. This pattern suggests that the kinetic skull was a key innovation that permitted the diversification of snakes. PMID:22832579

  17. Suppression of natural killer cell cytotoxicity in postpartum women: time course and potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Groer, Maureen W; El-Badri, Nagwa; Djeu, Julie; Williams, S Nicole; Kane, Bradley; Szekeres, Karoly

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about the recovery of the immune system from normal pregnancy and whether the postpartum period is a uniquely adapted immune state. This report extends previous observations from our group of decreased natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity in the postpartum period. NK cytotoxicity was measured from 1 week through 9 months postpartum. In addition, NK cytotoxicity was assayed in the presence or absence of pooled plasmas collected from either postpartum or nonpostpartum women. Samples of cells were stained for inhibitory receptors and analyzed by flow cytometry. NK cytotoxicity remained decreased in postpartum women compared to controls through the first 6 postpartum months, returned to normal levels by 9 months, and remained normal at 12 months. NK cytotoxicity during the first 6 months was further inhibited by the addition of pooled plasma to NK cultures from postpartum women, but the addition of pooled plasma from the control group did not affect that group's NK cultures. There were differences in inhibitory receptor staining between the two groups, with decreased CD158a and CD158b and increased NKG2A expression on postpartum NK cells during the first 3 postpartum months. These data suggest that NK cytotoxicity postpartum inhibition lasts 6 months and is influenced by unidentified postpartum plasma components. The effect may also involve receptors on NK cells. PMID:23956351

  18. Responses of serum neurotrophic factors to exercise in pregnant and postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Vega, Sandra Rojas; Kleinert, Jens; Sulprizio, Marion; Hollmann, Wildor; Bloch, Wilhelm; Strüder, Heiko K

    2011-02-01

    It was recently shown in humans that exercise affects the neurotrophic factors known to function as neurogenesis regulators. No data related to exercise and pregnancy, however, is yet available. Thus, we investigated the effects of acute exercise on pregnant women during late pregnancy and women postpartum, on the serum concentration of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), prolactin (PRL) and cortisol (COR). Twenty women with uncomplicated pregnancies underwent a graded submaximal exercise test during pregnancy (weeks 32-36 of gestation; T(1)) and postpartum (10-12 weeks after childbirth; T(2)). On two of these test days the women carried out an intensifying exercise test (25 W steps) on a cycle ergometer until a heart rate of 150 bpm was reached. Blood samples were taken in the rest period before beginning the exercise, immediately at the end of the exercise and after recovery periods of 5 and 10 min, respectively. Basal maternal IGF-1, PRL and COR were found to be higher during T(1) (p<.01), while the BDNF was higher during T(2) (p=.00). VEGF was not detectable in the serum of the pregnant women. During T(2), VEGF, which was found to be within the normal range before exercise, was at a higher level after exercise (p<.01). Exercise increased the BDNF and IGF-1 during T(1) and T(2) (p<.01). This study also shows that exercise increases the serum concentrations of IGF-1 and BDNF during pregnancy and postpartum as well as VEGF postpartum. Thus, exercise might be a beneficial lifestyle factor with therapeutic/public health implications i.e. with regard to maternal mood and cognitive performance. PMID:20692101

  19. Effect of Indigenous Herbs on Growth, Blood Metabolites and Carcass Characteristics in the Late Fattening Period of Hanwoo Steers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, D. H.; Kim, K. H.; Nam, I. S.; Lee, S. S.; Choi, C. W.; Kim, W. Y.; Kwon, E. G.; Lee, K. Y.; Lee, M. J.; Oh, Y. K.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of indigenous herbal supplements on growth, blood metabolites and carcass characteristics in the late fattening period of Hanwoo steers. In a 6 month feeding trial, thirty Hanwoo steers (647±32 kg) were allotted to one of 5 treatment groups, control (basal diet contained lasalocid), licorice, clove, turmeric and silymarin, with six steers per pen. All groups received ad libitum concentrate and 1 kg rice straw/animal/d throughout the feeding trial. Blood samples were collected at the beginning, middle, and the end of the experiment and the steers were slaughtered at the end. Blood glucose, triglyceride, total protein, and albumin concentrations were higher in the turmeric treatment compared with other treatments. Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations were highest (p<0.003 and p = 0.071, respectively) in steers treated with silymarin. Alanine aminotransferase activity was lower (p<0.06) for licorice and silymarin compared with the control group. There were no alterations in serum aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glutamyltransferase activities as a consequence of herb treatments (p = 0.203 and 0.135, respectively). Final body weight, body weight gain, average dairy gain and dry matter intake were not significantly different among treatments. Yield grade, marbling score and quality grade were higher for silymarin group than those of the control group (p<0.05). Therefore, the results suggest that silymarin can be used an effective dietary supplement as an alternative to antibiotic feed additive and a productivity enhancer, providing safe and more consumer acceptable alternative to synthetic compounds during the late fattening period of steers. PMID:25049742

  20. Induction of ovulation with GnRH and PGF(2 alpha) at two different stages during the early postpartum period in dairy cows: ovarian response and changes in hormone concentrations.

    PubMed

    Amaya-Montoya, Carlos; Matsui, Motozumi; Kawashima, Chiho; Hayashi, Ken-Go; Matsuda, Go; Kaneko, Etsushi; Kida, Katsuya; Miyamoto, Akio; Miyake, Yoh-Ichi

    2007-08-01

    The aims of this study were 1) to determine whether dairy cows can be induced to ovulate by the treatment with gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) followed by prostaglandin F(2 alpha) (PGF(2 alpha)) during the early postpartum period and 2) to describe their ovarian and hormonal responses according to ovarian status. Cows were divided in two groups and received 10 microg of buserelin followed by 500 microg of cloprostenol 7 days apart starting from 21 (GnRH21, n=7) or around 37 days postpartum (GnRH37, n=7). The groups were further classified according to presence (-CL) or absence (-NCL) of functional corpora lutea (CL) on the day of GnRH treatment (d 0): GnRH21-NCL (n=4), GnRH21-CL (n=3) and GnRH37-CL (n=7). Ovarian morphology was monitored and the concentrations of P(4), E(2), FSH and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were measured. All cows ovulated after administration of GnRH. The P(4) levels of the GnRH21-NCL group from d 0 to d 5 were lower than those of the GnRH21-CL (P<0.05) and GnRH37-CL groups (P<0.01). In contrast, the E(2) levels of the GnRH21-NCL group within d 2 to d 6 were higher (P<0.05) than those of the other groups. Compared with the GnRH37-CL group, the GnRH21-NCL group had more small follicles on d 2 (P<0.05), d 3 (P<0.01) and d 4 (P<0.01) and more large follicles on d 5 (P<0.05). The induced CL and new ovulatory follicles were larger in the GnRH21-NCL group compared with the GnRH21-CL (P<0.001 and P<0.01) and GnRH37-CL groups (P<0.001 and P<0.05). IGF-1 did not differ among the groups. The GnRH21-NCL group had higher FSH levels than the GnRH21-CL (P<0.01) and GnRH37-CL groups (P<0.001) on d 0. Low P(4) and high FSH levels may suggest higher gonadotropin support on the enhanced ovarian morphology of the GnRH21-NCL group. PGF(2 alpha) treatment induced CL regression and subsequent ovulation in 3/4 (75%), 3/3 (100%) and 7/7 (100%) cows in the GnRH21-NCL, GnRH21-CL and GnRH37-CL groups, respectively. In conclusion, a 7-day GnRH-PGF(2 alpha

  1. Committee Opinion No. 666 Summary: Optimizing Postpartum Care.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    In the weeks after birth, postpartum care often is fragmented among maternal and pediatric health care providers, and communication between inpatient and outpatient settings is inconsistent. To optimize postpartum care, anticipatory guidance should begin during pregnancy. During antenatal care, it is recommended that the patient and her obstetrician-gynecologist or other obstetric care provider formulate a postpartum care plan and identify the health care professionals who will comprise the postpartum care team for the woman and her infant. Ideally, during the postpartum period, a single health care practice assumes responsibility for coordinating the woman's care. At discharge from maternity care, the woman should receive contact information for her postpartum care team and written instructions regarding the timing of follow-up postpartum care. It is recommended that all women undergo a comprehensive postpartum visit within the first 6 weeks after birth. This visit should include a full assessment of physical, social, and psychological well-being. Systems should be implemented to ensure each woman can receive her desired form of contraception during the comprehensive postpartum visit, if not done earlier. At the conclusion of the postpartum visit, the woman and her obstetrician-gynecologist or other obstetric care provider should determine who will assume primary responsibility for her ongoing care. If responsibility is transferred to another primary care provider, the obstetrician-gynecologist or other obstetric care provider is responsible for ensuring that there is communication with the primary care provider so that he or she can understand the implications of any pregnancy complications for the woman's future health and maintain continuity of care. PMID:27214188

  2. Pregnancy and postpartum bowel changes: constipation and fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Shin, Grace Hewon; Toto, Erin Lucinda; Schey, Ron

    2015-04-01

    Pregnancy and the postpartum period are often associated with many gastrointestinal complaints, including nausea, vomiting, and heartburn; however, the most troublesome complaints in some women are defecatory disorders such as constipation and fecal incontinence, especially postpartum. These disorders are often multifactorial in etiology, and many studies have looked to see what risk factors lead to these complications. This review discusses the current knowledge of pelvic floor and anorectal physiology, especially during pregnancy, and reviews the current literature on causes and treatments of postpartum bowel symptoms of constipation and fecal incontinence. PMID:25803402

  3. Dynamics of Late Quaternary North African humid periods documented in the clay mineral record of central Aegean Sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrmann, Werner; Seidel, Martin; Schmiedl, Gerhard

    2013-08-01

    The ratio between the clay minerals kaolinite and chlorite has been investigated in high resolution in a late Quaternary sediment core from the central Aegean Sea. The record spans the last ca. 105 ka. The kaolinite/chlorite ratio was used to reconstruct the fine-grained aeolian dust influx from the North African deserts, mainly derived from desiccated lake depressions. It therewith can be used as a proxy for wind activity, aridity and vegetation cover in the source area. The data document three major humid phases in North Africa bracketing the formation of sapropel layers S4, S3 and S1. They occur at > 105-95 ka, 83.5-72 ka and 14-2 ka. The first two phases are characterised by relatively abrupt lower and upper boundaries suggesting a non-linear response of vegetation to precipitation, with critical hydrological thresholds. In contrast, the onset and termination of the last humid period were more gradual. Highest kaolinite/chlorite ratios indicating strongest aeolian transport and aridity occur during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5b, at ca. 95-84 ka. The long-term decrease in kaolinite/chlorite ratios during the last glacial period indicates a gradual decline of deflatable lake sediments in the source areas.

  4. Rock-inhabiting fungi originated during periods of dry climate in the late Devonian and middle Triassic.

    PubMed

    Gueidan, Cécile; Ruibal, Constantino; de Hoog, G S; Schneider, Harald

    2011-10-01

    Non-lichenized rock-inhabiting fungi (RIF) are slow-growing melanized ascomycetes colonizing rock surfaces in arid environments. They possess adaptations, which allow them to tolerate extreme abiotic conditions, such as high UV radiations and extreme temperatures. They belong to two separate lineages, one consisting in the sister classes Dothideomycetes and Arthoniomycetes (Dothideomyceta), and the other consisting in the order Chaetothyriales (Eurotiomycetes). Because RIF often form early diverging groups in Chaetothyriales and Dothideomyceta, the ancestors of these two lineages were suggested to most likely be rock-inhabitants. The lineage of RIF related to the Chaetothyriales shows a much narrower phylogenetic spectrum than the lineage of RIF related to Dothideomyceta, suggesting a much more ancient origin for the latter. Our study aims at investigating the times of origin of RIF using a relaxed clock model and several fossil and secondary calibrations. Our results show that the RIF in Dothideomyceta evolved in the late Devonian, much earlier than the RIF in Chaetothyriales, which originated in the middle Triassic. The origin of the chaetothyrialean RIF correlates well with a period of recovery after the Permian-Triassic mass extinction and an expansion of arid landmasses. The period preceding the diversification of the RIF related to Dothideomyceta (Silurian--Devonian) is also characterized by large arid landmasses, but temperatures were much cooler than during the Triassic. The paleoclimate record provides a good explanation for the diversification of fungi subjected to abiotic stresses and adapted to life on rock surfaces in nutrient-poor habitats. PMID:21944211

  5. Orbital-scale glacio-eustasy during the transition between the Early Ordovician warm period (greenhouse) and the Late Ordovician cool period (icehouse)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elrick, M.; Reardon, D.; Labor, W. A.

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies using oxygen isotopes from conodont apatite and carbonate clumped isotopes suggest that the transition from the Early Ordovician warm period (greenhouse) to the Latest Ordovician glacial period (icehouse) occurred in two stages- cooling during the Early and Middle Ordovician and another, more abrupt cooling in the Latest Ordovician (Hirnantian). These results come from samples collected at time intervals of >0.5 My; therefore, the data does not resolve orbital-scale climatic changes. This study utilizes oxygen isotopes from conodont apatite collected across multiple, orbital-scale carbonate cycles (or parasequences) in the early Late Ordovician to evaluate high-frequency paleoclimate changes. More specifically, we are addressing whether the observed carbonate cycles formed in response to orbital-scale, glacio-eustasy and to shed light on the dynamics of the Ordovician warm-to-cool climatic transition. The Upper Ordovician (early Katian) Lexington Limestone of Kentucky is characterized by cyclic carbonates and shales deposited in southern subtropical waters of the Laurentian craton. Orbital-scale (~15-130 ky) subtidal cycles (1-3 m) are composed of offshore limestone and shale, overlain by lower shoreface, then upper shoreface skeletal carbonates and show no evidence of subaerial exposure at cycle tops. δ18Oapatite values from multiple cycles range from ~18-19.5%. The majority of cycles record low isotopic values in the deepest water facies (during sea-level rise and highstand) and higher isotopic values in the shallowest water facies (during sea-level fall and lowstand). The magnitude of isotopic shift across individual cycles is up to ~1%. Estimated subtropical SSTs range from ~28°-34°C. If the intracycle isotopic shifts were due only to SST changes, then the temperatures fluctuated up to 4°C during individual cycle formation; estimated thermo-eustatic changes given these SST changes are not sufficient in magnitude to generate the observed

  6. Postpartum Bilateral Sacroiliitis caused by Brucella Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Ferdi; Altun, Demet; Ulubay, Mustafa; Firatligil, Fahri Burçin

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis of this septic sacroiliitis is difficult because symptoms are nonspecific during the postpartum period. In this case we dicscuss about a patient with bilateral buttock pain unresolved with painkillers and rest, after an induction delivery. A 31-year-old woman was presented to our clinic on the second week of postpartum period with bilateral buttock pain. She was subfebrile and had no apparent abnormality on her pelvic X-ray. The pain was so severe that she was unable to walk properly. Sacroiliac MRI during the acute episode of pain showed bone marrow oedema and fluid within the bilateral sacroiliac joint. She was found seropositive for brucellosis and the patient completely recovered with antibiotherapy treatment. We stopped our patient from breastfeeding when the Rose Bengal test turned out positive. Brucella sacroiliitis should be considered in puerperium period women when buttock pain and difficulty in walking are present and pain is unresponsive to analgesics. PMID:26675497

  7. Obstetric Outcome in Early and Late Onset Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Easmin, S; Chowdhury, T A; Islam, M R; Beg, A; Jahan, M K; Latif, T; Dhar, S; Alam, M N; Akhter, M

    2015-07-01

    Obstetric outcome in early onset and late onset GDM was compared in a prospective study conducted at the Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology in BIRDEM, Dhaka, Bangladesh. A total 120 pregnant women were recruited purposively for the study in which 60 were early onset GDM and 60 were late onset GDM during study period of January 2008 to December 2009. Patients were followed up in different periods of gestation, during delivery and early postpartum period & findings were compared between two groups. BMI & family history of diabetes were significantly higher in early GDM group (p<0.05). Evidence of increased glycaemia was observed in early GDM group & difference of glycaemic status was statistically significant (p<0.05). Insulin was needed in 85% of early onset GDM and 55% in late onset GDM. There was also significant difference (p<0.05). In this study, 23.3% of early onset GDM group developed pre-eclampsia while in late onset GDM it was 10% and was statistically significant (p<0.05). Regarding intrapartum & postpartum complications - perineal tear, PPH wound infection, puerperal sepsis were more in early onset than late onset GDM group with no significant difference. Regarding foetal outcome, 8.3% early GDM group delivered asphyxiated baby in comparison to 3.3% in late GDM group. Twenty percent (20%) of early onset GDM group had to admit their babies in neonatal unit while in late onset group it was 5%. There was significant difference between two groups (p<0.05). Neonatal hypoglycaemia was also statistically significantly (p<0.05) higher in early GDM group. Neonatal hyper-bilirubinaemia, RDS, perinatal death was more in early onset GDM subjects. Early onset GDM subjects are high risk subgroup & have significant deleterious effect on maternal and perinatal outcome than late GDM groups. PMID:26329938

  8. [The therapeutic activity of synthetic peptides, analogs of the renal natural peptide complex, in the late periods of a toxic lesion by ethylene glycol].

    PubMed

    Gaĭko, O A; Kaĭdashev, I P

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the work was study of the therapeutic activity of synthetic peptides, analogs of the natural renal peptide complexes, in late-term sequelae of a toxic affection caused by oral administration of ethylene glycol. Quite moderate disorders of renal function were encountered in the late-term periods after affection of the hepatic parenchyma. Under such conditions all the peptides under study produced a therapeutic effect, but of a different degree. It is thus obvious that study of these synthetic peptides, analogs of the natural renal complex, as potential drugs for the prevention of late-term toxic disorders of renal function is promising. PMID:10572753

  9. [Influence of compendium of Materia Medica on the materia medica in the late period of the Chosun Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Oh, Chae-Kun

    2012-08-31

    In this paper, I investigated the influence of Compendium of Materia Medica (CM) on Records for Rural Life of Chosun Gentlemen (RRC), and refuted Miki Sakae's opinion, CM did not have much impact on the Materia Medica in the late period of the Chosun Dynasty. When Li Shizhen published CM, it resulted in a shift of mainstream of Materia Medica in Eastern Asia from Classified Emergency Materia Medica to CM and a new categorizing system of Materia Medica by CM led to the division of Materia Medica into medicine and natural history. It is obvious that doctors of the Chosun Dynasty also adopted the latest achievements of Materia Medica by CM, but so far there have been few studies to clarify this. Seo yugu was a scholar of the Realist School of Confucianism during the late period of the Chosun Dynasty, and RRC is his representative work. RRC is a massive encyclopedia of natural history that covers vast areas of science from agriculture, floriculture, writing and drawing, architecture, diet, and medicine, among others which absorbed the achievements of CM, the best Materia Medica book at that time. Miki Sakae also highly regarded the encyclopedic knowledge of RRC, but devalued the results of Materia Medica. He only described a part of RRC's Materia Medica, nurturing volume, on the view of life nurturing and mentioned that it had been strongly influenced by China. According to this study, a large portion of RRC, especially regarding Materia Medica, depends on CM. Seo yugu had accepted the categorizing system and new medicinal information of CM, at the same time he modified the categorizing system of CM practically by the subject of each volume of RRC. We can find many quotations of CM except the nurturing volume, but other books, Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine, Materia Medica for Relief of Famines are also quoted. Furthermore, Seo yugu emphasized the differences of natural environments between Chosun and China, and specified the editing criteria, "to be useful in

  10. Correlation of C0 and C2 levels with lipid profiles in adolescent renal transplant recipients in the early and late posttransplant periods.

    PubMed

    Soylu, A; Kavukçu, S; Türkmen, M A; Kasap, B; Soylu, A; Bora, S; Gülay, H

    2006-06-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a frequent complication after renal transplantation. Cyclosporine therapy is an important cause of hyperlipidemia. It is still controversial whether C0 or C2 is the most effective way to monitor blood cyclosporine concentrations to guide dosages. We sought to evaluate the relationship of C0 or C2 to serum lipid levels in the early and late posttransplant periods among adolescent renal transplant recipients. The posttransplantation charts of 26 adolescent renal transplant recipients were evaluated retrospectively. Serum C0 and C2 levels and serum lipid (triglyceride and total cholesterol) levels were analyzed both in the early (first 6 months) and the late (thereafter) posttransplant periods. Hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia were defined as levels above the 95th percentile adjusted for age and gender. To evaluate the influence of C0 and C2 levels on serum lipids, we excluded one patient with familial hyperlipidemia. In addition, serum lipid levels of the remaining 25 patients were excluded in acute rejection periods and when the serum creatinine levels were above 2.5 mg/dL, representing chronic allograft nephropathy. Concurrently recorded serum C0 and C2 levels were present for only 21 patients. Overall, we evaluated the records of 245 visits for these 21 patients. The incidence of hyperlipidemia decreased in the late posttransplant period, being significant for hypercholesterolemia. C2 had strong negative correlation with serum lipids; it was significant for total cholesterol in the early posttransplant period (r=-0.542, P=.005), but weaker in the late posttransplant and whole posttransplant periods. Thus correlation of C2 with serum lipids showed differences during posttransplant follow-up. C0, on the other hand, was positively correlated with total cholesterol levels in all periods, being significant for the whole posttransplant period (r=0.293, P=.000) and for the late posttransplant period (r=0.196, P=.025). Although not

  11. Dairy cows affected by ketosis show alterations in innate immunity and lipid and carbohydrate metabolism during the dry off period and postpartum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guanshi; Hailemariam, Dagnachew; Dervishi, Elda; Goldansaz, Seyed Ali; Deng, Qilan; Dunn, Suzanna M; Ametaj, Burim N

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to search for alterations in blood variables related to innate immunity and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism during the transition period in cows affected by ketosis. One hundred multiparous Holstein dairy cows were involved in the study. Blood samples were collected at -8, -4, week of disease diagnosis (+1 to +3weeks), and +4weeks relative to parturition from 6 healthy cows (CON) and 6 cows with ketosis and were analyzed for serum variables. Results showed that cows with ketosis had greater concentrations of serum β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), serum amyloid A (SAA), and lactate in comparison with the CON animals. Serum concentrations of BHBA, IL-6, TNF, and lactate were greater starting at -8 and -4weeks prior to parturition in cows with ketosis vs those of CON group. Cows with ketosis also had lower DMI and milk production vs CON cows. Milk fat also was lower in ketotic cows at diagnosis of disease. Cows affected by ketosis showed an activated innate immunity and altered carbohydrate and lipid metabolism several weeks prior to diagnosis of disease. Serum IL-6 and lactate were the strongest discriminators between ketosis cows and CON ones before the occurrence of ketosis, which might be useful as predictive biomarkers of the disease state. PMID:27474003

  12. The Knowledge of Third Trimester Pregnant Women about Postpartum and Newborn Infants Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahayuningsih, Faizah Betty

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Postpartum period is a transition period but it is being neglected aspect from women health care. Mother's knowledge and education before childbirth is important to be prepared for postpartum. Misinformation about traditions/customs in society are considered irrational, causing confusion in puerperal women, especially for mothers who…

  13. Evaporative cooling in late-gestation Murrah buffaloes potentiates immunity around transition period and overcomes reproductive disorders.

    PubMed

    Aarif, Ovais; Aggarwal, Anjali

    2015-10-15

    The objective of the study was to observe the effect of evaporative cooling during late gestation on immunity around the transition period and the probable outcome on reproductive disorders in Murrah buffaloes. Sixteen pregnant dry Murrah buffaloes at 60 days prepartum were selected and divided into two groups of eight animals each. Group 1 buffaloes remained without the provision of cooling, whereas the second group of buffaloes was managed under fans and mist cooling during the dry period. After parturition, all the animals were managed under evaporative cooling. Dry matter intake was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in cooled relative to noncooled animals at -15, 0, and +20 days of parturition. Cortisol and prolactin levels were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in noncooled relative to cooled animals at -15 and 0 days of parturition. However, prolactin was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in cooled animals at +20 days. Messenger RNA expression of prolactin receptor gene (PRL-R) was upregulated and suppressor of cytokine signaling gene 1 (SOCS-1) was downregulated in cooled animals at -20, 0, and +20 days of parturition. Tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 4 levels remained significantly (P < 0.05) higher in cooled animals at -20, 0, and +20 days of parturition. Interleukin 6 was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in cooled animals at -20 and 0 days. Interferon γ levels were significantly higher at -20 and +20 days of parturition in cooled relative to noncooled animals. The reproductive disorders such as retention of placenta, metritis, and endometritis occurred at the rate of 37.25%, 25%, and 12.25% in the noncooled group, whereas only retention of placenta was observed in the cooled (12.5%) group. PMID:26211430

  14. The detection of nicotine in a Late Mayan period flask by gas chromatography and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry methods.

    PubMed

    Zagorevski, Dmitri V; Loughmiller-Newman, Jennifer A

    2012-02-29

    Several ancient Mayan vessels from the Kislak Collection of the US Library of Congress were examined for the presence of alkaloids. One of them, a codex-style flask, bears a text that appears to read yo-'OTOT-ti 'u-MAY, spelling y-otoot 'u-may 'the home of its/his/her tobacco'. Samples extracted from this Late Classic period (600 to 900 AD) container were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) methods. Nicotine was identified as the major component of the extracts. LC/MS analyses also yielded signals due to nicotine mono-oxides. The identities of the compounds were determined by comparison of the chromatographic and/or mass spectral characteristics with those from standards and literature data. High-resolution high mass accuracy tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) spectra of protonated nicotine and nicotine mono-oxides were measured to verify and to correct previous product ion assignments. These analyses provided positive evidence for nicotine from a Mayan vessel, indicating it as a likely holder of tobacco leafs. The result of this investigation is the first physical evidence of tobacco from a Mayan container, and only the second example where the vessel content recorded in a Mayan hieroglyphic text has been confirmed directly by chromatography/mass spectrometry trace analysis. PMID:22279016

  15. Proxy records of Late Holocene climate events in the eastern United States: Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willard, D. A.; Cronin, T. M.; Hayo, K. M.

    2006-12-01

    We are conducting a multiproxy, regional reconstruction of climate variability during the last two millennia including the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) and Little Ice Age (LIA) in eastern North America. Pollen, benthic foraminifers, ostracodes, and other proxies were analyzed from high-resolution sampling of continuous sedimentary records from lakes, wetlands, and estuaries in Florida, North Carolina, Chesapeake Bay, and Lake Champlain. These records document multi-decadal changes in vegetation, temperature, precipitation, and estuarine salinity across a latitudinal transect. During both the MWP and LIA, decreased precipitation altered plant community composition and distribution in the southeastern United States, and the LIA triggered threshold changes in vegetation that persisted until anthropogenic land-cover change overwhelmed the climate signature. In the mid-Atlantic region, progressively cooler and wetter late Holocene springs culminated in a cool, wet LIA; this trend correlates with observed oceanic changes. Trend analysis of the data suggest that inter-regional correlation of multi-decadal and centennial-scale Holocene climate events will be forthcoming.

  16. Maternal and infant sleep postpartum.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    New parents should be aware that infants' sleep is unlike that of adults and that meeting their infant's needs is likely to disrupt their own sleep. They will need to adjust their routine to manage their own sleep needs. Parental sleep patterns in the postpartum period are tied to the infant's development of a circadian sleep-wake rhythm, and the infant's feeds. Close contact with the mother and exposure to light/dark cues appear to assist in the development of the infant's circadian rhythm. The composition of breastmilk varies over the course of 24 hours and some components produced at night are likely to contribute to the infant's day/night entrainment. There is no clear evidence that using artificial feeds improves maternal sleep. Most infants need night feeds but requirements for nighttime feeds vary with the individual. PMID:23957180

  17. Short communication: Characterizing metabolic and oxidant status of pastured dairy cows postpartum in an automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Elischer, M F; Sordillo, L M; Siegford, J M; Karcher, E L

    2015-10-01

    The periparturient period represents a stressful time for dairy cows as they transition from late gestation to early lactation. Undesirable fluctuations in metabolites and impaired immune defense mechanisms near parturition can severely affect cow health and have residual effects on performance and longevity. Metabolic and oxidative stress profiles of multiparous and primiparous dairy cows in traditional parlor and feeding systems are well characterized, but status of these profiles in alternative management systems, such as grazing cows managed with an automatic milking system (AMS), are poorly characterized. Therefore, the objective of this case study was to characterize the metabolic and oxidant status of pastured cows milked with an AMS. It was hypothesized that primiparous and multiparous cows milked with an AMS would experience changes in oxidative and metabolic status after parturition; however, these changes would not impair cow health or production. Blood was collected from 14 multiparous and 8 primiparous Friesian-cross dairy cows at 1, 7, 14, and 21 d relative to calving for concentrations of insulin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate, reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione, and antioxidant potential. Milk production and milking frequency data were collected postpartum. Milk production differed on d 7 and 14 between primiparous and multiparous cows and frequency was not affected by parity. Primiparous cows had higher levels of glucose than multiparous cows. No differences in insulin, NEFA, or β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were noted between multiparous and primiparous cows postpartum, though days relative to calving significantly affected insulin and NEFA. Primiparous cows also had higher antioxidant potential than multiparous cows during the postpartum period. Results from this study show that, although responses were within expected ranges, periparturient multiparous cows responded differently than periparturient

  18. Principals in Late Career: Toward a Conceptualization of Principals' Tasks and Experiences in the Pre-Retirement Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To fill the gap in theoretical and empirical knowledge on late career in principalship, the aim of this study was to explore the career experiences, needs, and behaviors of principals at this stage. Research method: Life history and semistructured interviews were conducted with 20 late-career principals, 20 schoolteachers, and 10…

  19. Management of postpartum haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, Marie Pierre; Benhamou, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Postpartum Haemorrhage (PPH) is a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Treatment of acquired coagulopathy observed in severe PPH is an important part of PPH management, but is mainly based on literature in trauma patients, and data thus should be interpreted with caution. This review describes recent advances in transfusion strategy and in the use of tranexamic acid and fibrinogen concentrates in women with PPH. PMID:27408694

  20. The Critical Period for Second Language Pronunciation: Is There Such a Thing? Ten Case Studies of Late Starters who Attained a Native-like Hebrew Accent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim; Kehat, Simona

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the critical period hypothesis (CPH) for the acquisition of a second language sound system (phonology) in a naturalistic setting. Ten cases of successful late-starters with a native-like Hebrew pronunciation are presented in an effort to determine possible variables that may account for their exceptional accomplishment. The…

  1. Greater nutrition knowledge is associated with lower 1-year postpartum weight retention in low-income women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to assess nutrition knowledge during early and late postpartum in a sample of low-income and minority women, and to determine if that knowledge had any relationship to weight retention at 1-year postpartum. A questionnaire was developed and validated in a sample of 151 ...

  2. Differential patterns of cortical reorganization following constraint-induced movement therapy during early and late period after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Sawaki, Lumy; Butler, Andrew J.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Wassenaar, Peter A.; Mohammad, Yousef; Blanton, Sarah; Sathian, K.; Nichols-Larsen, Deborah S.; Wolf, Steven L.; Good, David C.; Wittenberg, George F.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) leads to improvement in upper extremity movement and cortical reorganization after stroke. Direct comparison of the differential degree of cortical reorganization according to chronicity in stroke subjects receiving CIMT has not been performed and was the purpose of this study. We hypothesized that a higher degree of cortical reorganization would occur in the early (less than 9 months post-stroke) compared to the late group (more than 12 months post-stroke). METHODS 17 early and 9 late subjects were enrolled. Each subject was evaluated using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) and received CIMT for 2 weeks. RESULTS The early group showed greater improvement in WMFT compared with the late group. TMS motor maps showed persistent enlargement in both groups. The map shifted posteriorly in the late stroke group. CONCLUSION CIMT appears to lead to greater improvement in motor function in early phase after stroke. Greater cortical reorganization associated with shift in map position occurred in late group. SIGNIFICANCE The contrast between larger functional gains in the early group vs larger map expansion in the late group may indicate that cortical reorganization depends upon different neural substrates in the late stroke group. PMID:25227542

  3. Clinical presentation, risk factors and treatment outcomes of first allograft rejection after penetrating keratoplasty in early and late postoperative period

    PubMed Central

    Perera, C; Jhanji, V; Lamoureux, E; Pollock, G; Favilla, I; Vajpayee, R B

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Corneal graft rejection is the most common reason for the failure of an allograft corneal transplant. We undertook this study to identify and compare risk factors and treatment outcomes for early and late corneal graft rejections after optical penetrating keratoplasty. Methods A retrospective case file analysis of 880 primary penetrating keratoplasties was performed at a tertiary ophthalmic care centre. Patients were divided into early rejectors (rejection episode within 6 months postoperatively) and late rejectors (rejection episode after 6 months postoperatively). Main parameters evaluated were demographics, preoperative diagnosis and clinical signs, donor tissue details, surgical technique, details of rejection episode, treatment, and outcome information. Results A total of 156 patients with rejection episodes were identified. Of these, 42 (26.9%) patients experienced early rejection episodes and 114 (73.1%) patients experienced late rejection episodes. Preoperative donor and recipient characteristics, surgical technique, and clinical presentation of graft rejection were found to be similar between both groups after a Bonferroni correction was applied (P>0.005). Treatment outcomes of graft rejections were not significantly different (P=0.46) between early and late rejectors, with 83% of patients responding to rejection treatment (80% early rejectors; 85% late rejectors). Conclusion Patients with early and late graft rejection have similar characteristics and both groups respond to treatment equally. PMID:22344190

  4. Uranium and molybdenum isotope evidence for an episode of widespread ocean oxygenation during the late Ediacaran Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, Brian; Komiya, Tsuyoshi; Lyons, Timothy W.; Bates, Steve M.; Gordon, Gwyneth W.; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Jiang, Ganqing; Creaser, Robert A.; Xiao, Shuhai; McFadden, Kathleen; Sawaki, Yusuke; Tahata, Miyuki; Shu, Degan; Han, Jian; Li, Yong; Chu, Xuelei; Anbar, Ariel D.

    2015-05-01

    To improve estimates of the extent of ocean oxygenation during the late Ediacaran Period, we measured the U and Mo isotope compositions of euxinic (anoxic and sulfidic) organic-rich mudrocks (ORM) of Member IV, upper Doushantuo Formation, South China. The average δ238U of most samples is 0.24 ± 0.16‰ (2SD; relative to standard CRM145), which is slightly higher than the average δ238U of 0.02 ± 0.12‰ for restricted Black Sea (deep-water Unit I) euxinic sediments and is similar to a modeled δ238U value of 0.2‰ for open ocean euxinic sediments in the modern well-oxygenated oceans. Because 238U is preferentially removed to euxinic sediments compared to 235U, expanded ocean anoxia will deplete seawater of 238U relative to 235U, ultimately leading to deposition of ORM with low δ238U. Hence, the high δ238U of Member IV ORM points to a common occurrence of extensive ocean oxygenation ca. 560 to 551 Myr ago. The Mo isotope composition of sediments deposited from strongly euxinic bottom waters ([H2S]aq >11 μM) either directly records the global seawater Mo isotope composition (if Mo removal from deep waters is quantitative) or represents a minimum value for seawater (if Mo removal is not quantitative). Near the top of Member IV, δ98Mo approaches the modern seawater value of 2.34 ± 0.10‰. High δ98Mo points to widespread ocean oxygenation because the preferential removal of isotopically light Mo to sediments occurs to a greater extent in O2-rich compared to O2-deficient marine environments. However, the δ98Mo value for most Member IV ORM is near 0‰ (relative to standard NIST SRM 3134 = 0.25‰), suggesting extensive anoxia. The low δ98Mo is at odds with the high Mo concentrations of Member IV ORM, which suggest a large seawater Mo inventory in well-oxygenated oceans, and the high δ238U. Hence, we propose that the low δ98Mo of most Member IV ORM was fractionated from contemporaneous seawater. Possible mechanisms driving this isotope fractionation include

  5. Sleep duration, depression, and oxytocinergic genotype influence prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex in postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Comasco, Erika; Gulinello, Maria; Hellgren, Charlotte; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Sylven, Sara; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2016-04-01

    The postpartum period is characterized by a post-withdrawal hormonal status, sleep deprivation, and susceptibility to affective disorders. Postpartum mothering involves automatic and attentional processes to screen out new external as well as internal stimuli. The present study investigated sensorimotor gating in relation to sleep duration, depression, as well as catecholaminergic and oxytocinergic genotypes in postpartum women. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex and startle reactivity were assessed two months postpartum in 141 healthy and 29 depressed women. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met, and oxytocin receptor (OXTR) rs237885 and rs53576 polymorphisms were genotyped, and data on sleep duration were collected. Short sleep duration (less than four hours in the preceding night) and postpartum depression were independently associated with lower PPI. Also, women with postpartum depression had higher startle reactivity in comparison with controls. The OXTR rs237885 genotype was related to PPI in an allele dose-dependent mode, with T/T healthy postpartum women carriers displaying the lowest PPI. Reduced sensorimotor gating was associated with sleep deprivation and depressive symptoms during the postpartum period. Individual neurophysiological vulnerability might be mediated by oxytocinergic genotype which relates to bonding and stress response. These findings implicate the putative relevance of lower PPI of the startle response as an objective physiological correlate of liability to postpartum depression. PMID:26857197

  6. Developmental Profile of Infants Born to Mothers with Postpartum Depression and Anxiety: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalita, Kamal Narayan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Postpartum period is associated with higher rates for depression, blues and psychosis. Anxiety is also significant. These disorders may have serious implications in the cognitive development of the infant. There is relative lack of data in this area. So we tried to estimate postpartum anxiety and depression in a group of women and…

  7. Predictors of the Longitudinal Course of Postpartum Depression Following Interpersonal Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nylen, Kimberly J.; O'Hara, Michael W.; Brock, Rebecca; Moel, Joy; Gorman, Laura; Stuart, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We examined the course and predictors of postpartum depression in the 18 months following interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT). Method: We enrolled 120 community women with major depression in a 12-week randomized trial of individual IPT during the postpartum period (O'Hara, Stuart, Gorman, & Wenzel, 2000). At 6, 12, and 18 months…

  8. PRIMARY POSTPARTUM HEMORRHAGE

    PubMed Central

    Melody, George F.

    1951-01-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage is the outstanding cause of maternal mortality, and a redoubtable contributor to puerperal death from other causes, notably infection and renal failure. The clinical situations in which hemorrhage is liable to occur must be better known, so that anticipatory and preventive measures can be taken. Recent knowledge about defibrinated blood in women with degenerative changes at the placental site must be incorporated in the thinking and practice of physicians dealing with obstetrical cases. The indications, limitations, and hazards of the various anesthetic methods available for parturient women should be carefully considered in the circumstances of each case. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:14886749

  9. Disengagement of HIV-positive pregnant and postpartum women from antiretroviral therapy services: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Tamsin; Thebus, Elizabeth; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Mcintyre, James; Abrams, Elaine J; Myer, Landon

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Recent international guidelines call for expanded access to triple-drug antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-positive women during pregnancy and postpartum. However, high levels of non-adherence and/or disengagement from care may attenuate the benefits of ART for HIV transmission and maternal health. We examined the frequency and predictors of disengagement from care among women initiating ART during pregnancy in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods We used routine medical records to follow-up pregnant women initiating ART within prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV services in Cape Town, South Africa. Outcomes assessed through six months postpartum were (1) disengagement (no attendance within 56 days of a scheduled visit) and (2) missed visits (returning to care 14–56 days late for a scheduled visit). Results A total of 358 women (median age, 28 years; median gestational age, 26 weeks) initiated ART during pregnancy. By six months postpartum, 24% of women (n=86) had missed at least one visit and an additional 32% (n=115) had disengaged from care; together, 49% of women had either missed a visit or had disengaged by six months postpartum. Disengagement was more than twice as frequent postpartum compared to in the antenatal period (6.2 vs. 2.4 per 100 woman-months, respectively; p<0.0001). In a proportional hazards model, later gestational age at initiation (HR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.00–1.07; p=0.030) and being newly diagnosed with HIV (HR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.07–2.33; p=0.022) were significant predictors of disengagement after adjusting for patient age, starting CD4 cell count and site of ART initiation. Conclusions These results demonstrate that missed visits and disengagement from care occur frequently, particularly post-delivery, among HIV-positive women initiating ART during pregnancy. Women who are newly diagnosed with HIV may be particularly vulnerable and there is an urgent need for interventions both to promote retention overall, as well as

  10. An investigation into the effects of antenatal stressors on the postpartum neuroimmune profile and depressive-like behaviors.

    PubMed

    Posillico, Caitlin K; Schwarz, Jaclyn M

    2016-02-01

    Postpartum depression is a specific type of depression that affects approximately 10-15% of mothers [28]. While many have attributed the etiology of postpartum depression to the dramatic change in hormone levels that occurs immediately postpartum, the exact causes are not well-understood. It is well-known, however, that pregnancy induces a number of dramatic changes in the peripheral immune system that foster the development of the growing fetus. It is also well-known that changes in immune function, specifically within the brain, have been linked to several neuropsychiatric disorders including depression. Thus, we sought to determine whether pregnancy induces significant neuroimmune changes postpartum and whether stress or immune activation during pregnancy induce a unique neuroimmune profile that may be associated with depressive-like behaviors postpartum. We used late-gestation sub-chronic stress and late-gestation acute immune activation to examine the postpartum expression of depressive-like behaviors, microglial activation markers, and inflammatory cytokines within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the hippocampus (HP). The expression of many immune molecules was significantly altered in the brain postpartum, and postpartum females also showed significant anhedonia, both independently of stress. Following late-gestation immune activation, we found a unique set of changes in neuroimmune gene expression immediately postpartum. Thus, our data indicate that even in the absence of additional stressors, postpartum females exhibit significant changes in the expression of cytokines within the brain that are associated with depressive-like behavior. Additionally, different forms of antenatal stress produce varying profiles of postpartum neuroimmune gene expression and associated depressive-like behaviors. PMID:26589802

  11. Immediate postpartum insertion of the norplant contraceptive device.

    PubMed

    Molland, J R; Morehead, D B; Baldwin, D M; Castracane, V D; Lasley, B; Bergquist, C A

    1996-07-01

    During December 1992 to October 1994, in Texas, clinical researchers conducted a prospective case control study (15 cases receiving Norplant immediately postpartum vs. 6 controls undergoing bilateral tubal ligation immediately postpartum) to determine the safety and efficacy of inserting the contraceptive implant Norplant (6 capsules inserted subdermally, each containing 35 mg levonorgestrel) immediately postpartum. They followed the cases and the controls for three months. The study subjects were 18-35 years old, received prenatal care at one of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology's (Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center) community clinics, had an uncomplicated term pregnancy and normal spontaneous vaginal delivery, and did not breast feed. They tended to be poor. During the first week after Norplant insertion, serum levonorgestrel levels peaked at about 2000 pg/ml, then fell abruptly until about the eighth week to about 250 pg/ml. This lower levonorgestrel level concerned the researchers because it is just slightly higher than levels associated with pregnancy. They were also concerned about the possibility of Norplant inducing a hypoestrogenic state in postpartum women. The Norplant group was more likely than the tubal ligation group to experience irregular bleeding (p 0.01), headaches (p 0.01), hair loss (p 0.05), and abdominal discomfort (p 0.05). The various serum metabolic biomarkers, serum electrolytes, and blood components fell into the normal range in both groups. The serum estradiol, progesterone, and urinary steroid biomarkers suggested that the Norplant group experienced very suppressed steroid secretion throughout the three month study period, while the controls had normal postpartum ovarian activity. Thus, ovarian activity was absent in the Norplant group. These findings suggest that postpartum insertion of Norplant is safe and effective. Yet further clinical evaluation is needed to address concerns about the long-term hypoestrogenic

  12. Women with postpartum depression: "my husband" stories

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Phyllis; Bailey, Pat; Purdon, Sheri Johnson; Snelling, Susan J; Kauppi, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Background The research on Postpartum Depression (PPD) to date suggests that there is a knowledge gap regarding women's perception of their partners' role as carer and care activities they perform. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe women's understanding of their partners' or husbands' involvement in the midst of PPD. Methods This study used interview data from a larger study of northern and rural Ontario women's stories of help-seeking for PPD. The interpretive description approach was used to illustrate the complexity of women's spousal connections in PPD. Data from a purposive community sample of 27 women who self-identified as having been diagnosed with PPD was used. From the verbatim transcribed interviews a number of data excerpts were identified and labeled as "my husband" stories. Narrative analysis was employed to examine these stories. Results During this time of vulnerability, the husbands' physical, emotional and cognitive availability positively contributed to the women's functioning and self-appraisals as wife and mother. Their representations of their husbands' 'doing for' and/or 'being with' promoted their well-being and ultimately protected the family. Conclusion Given that husbands are perceived to be central in mitigating women's suffering with PPD, the consistent implementation of a triad orientation, that includes woman, child and partner rather than a more traditional and convenient dyadic orientation, is warranted in comprehensive postpartum care. Finally, this study contributes a theoretical understanding of responsive as well as reactive connections between women and family members during the postpartum period. PMID:19732461

  13. Prospective study of the hemodynamic behavior of ophthalmic arteries in postpartum preeclamptic women: A doppler evaluation.

    PubMed

    Alves Borges, José Hilário; Goes, Daniela A; de Araújo, Lúcio Borges; Dos Santos, Maria Célia; Debs Diniz, Angélica Lemos

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hemodynamic behavior of the ophthalmic artery by means of the Doppler ultrasound, in postpartum preeclamptic women. It was an observational prospective study with 44 postpartum preeclamptic women (group 1) and 49 postpartum normal women with normal blood pressure and with no previous illnesses known (group 2). All the pregnant women had a Doppler ultrasound exam of the ophthalmic artery in the immediate puerperium, that is, 10 days for the delivery (time 1). Group 1 was then followed prospectively, 26 patients of which returned to the last test in the remote puerperium in 45 days (time 2) and 29 patients returned to the last test in the remote puerperium in 90 days (time 3). All these women had preeclampsia before the delivery. The resistance index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic flow velocity (EDV), second peak of systolic velocity (P2), and the peak ratio (PR) were calculated. The data obtained are expressed in average and standard deviation, by using the Lilliefors test for normality. The average of the Doppler indexes in groups 1 and 2 was compared by means of test t of the student. Group 1 was analyzed separately, comparing the three times, using the test of ANOVA for repetitive measures and Tukey post-hoc range test. In the "Results" section, the statically meaningful differences in RI, PI, P2, RPV, and EDV (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p < 0.0009, p < 0.0001, p < 0.0028) were found in the immediate puerperium of group 1 in relation to group 2, indicating the persistence of hyperperfusion and orbital vasodilatation in the immediate postpartum period in patients who had complicated pregnancies previously due to preeclampsia. In the evolutionary analysis of group 1, comparing the Doppler indexes between the immediate and late puerperium, statistically relevant differences between the rates of RI, P2, and PR (p < 0,01) were observed, showing a raise of RI and reduction of P2 and PR

  14. Relic Late Pleistocene fluvial forms as geomorphic archives indicating periods of high climatic runoff over the East European Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panin, Andrei; Belyaev, Yury; Eremenko, Ekaterina; Sidorchuk, Alexei

    2014-05-01

    In water balance estimations within palaeoenvironmental studies river runoff is estimated as the difference between precipitation and evapotranspiration. The other technique is numerical modeling using general circulation models. Both approaches fail to recognize epochs of extremely high surface runoff characteristic for the Pleistocene cold epochs and recorded in geomorphic outcomes of this runoff. We have studied two kinds of such archives that have wide spatial coverage over the East European Plain (EEP). 1. Post-LGM large palaeochannels (macromeanders) in river valleys with channel width and meander wavelength 5-15 times as great as that of modern rivers. Massive measurements of their parameters and application of specially constructed transfer function provided estimations of palaeo-runoff from large river basins: in the Black Sea and Caspian Sea catchments it carried from 2.2 (Kama River) to 3.1 (Don, Dnieper Rivers) times as great as modern runoff. High runoff lasted long enough to provide formation of 2-3 generations of macromeanders characteristic for many valleys. Macromeanders were radiocarbon dated at 6 sites over EEP in the range 13-19 cal ka BP, but it is not clear whether high runoff was characteristic for the entire period or it performed during short isolated epochs within this interval. Therefore, it is not clear to what exact time palaeohydrological estimations should be attributed. 2. Dendritic and parallel systems of gentle hollows clearly designated in vegetation-free areas south from 55-57ºN. Distinctive spatial patterns and full integration into water transportation through modern fluvial landscapes provides interpretation of these hollow systems as partially or totally buried networks of small dry valleys (balkas). It is supported by revelation of buried incisions up to 10 m deep by coring and trenching across hollows. Ancient erosion network demonstrates erosion density much higher and Horton's "belt of no erosion" much narrower and

  15. Postpartum Healthcare After Gestational Diabetes and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Maiden, Kristin; Rogers, Stephanie; Ball, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Gestational diabetes and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy identify women with an elevated lifetime risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Methods: Prospective cohort of women recruited from the postpartum service of a large community-based academic obstetrical hospital after delivery of a pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes (GDM) or a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP). Interviews were conducted, and validated surveys completed, before hospital discharge and again 3 months postpartum. Results: The study sample included 249 women: 111 with GDM, 127 with HDP, and 11 with both. Most, 230 (92.4%) had a PCP prior to pregnancy and 97 (39.0%) reported an office visit with their PCP during the prenatal period. Of the 176 (70.7%) participants who attended the 3-month study visit, 169 (96.0%) women with either diagnosis reported they had attended their 6-week postpartum visit. By the 3-month study visit, 51 (57.9%) women with GDM had completed follow-up glucose testing; 93 (97.9%) with HDP had follow-up blood pressure testing; and 101 (57.4%) with either diagnosis recalled ever having completed lipid screening. Women least likely to complete screening tests were those who had no college education, less than a high school level of health literacy, and who were not privately insured. Conclusion: There are important opportunities to improve postpartum testing for diabetes and CVD risk factor assessment. Most women were connected to primary care suggesting a “hand-off” to a primary care physician after pregnancy is feasible. More robust strategies may be needed to improve follow-up care for women with less education, lower health literacy, and those without private health insurance. PMID:25089915

  16. Helping postpartum rural adolescents visualize future goals.

    PubMed

    Walsh, S M; Corbett, R W

    1995-01-01

    An Art Future Image (AFI) intervention was initiated among postpartum adolescent mothers during the hospitalization period in North Carolina. The aim was to improve adolescents self-image and encourage educational goal setting as a means of changing the cycle of poverty. The hope was that mothers would consider alternatives to public assistance. Nursing students were engaged as teachers during their clinical rotation in the postpartum unit. The project involved 9 mothers (8 Black women and 1 White woman). Women ranged in age from 17 to 24 years. 8 women were single, and all had a low socioeconomic status. Each study participant completed a workbook, which reflected future images as a high school or college graduate, an accountant, and other occupations. The study women selected a future role and spoke about their dreams and plans and constraints to achievement of their goal. Instant photos were taken of the mother and the infant following the interview and the faces placed on personalized body images of their choice. Both students and participants were enthusiastic about the project. An evaluation found, however, that time constraints of staff nurses would prohibit the use of this intervention model. The suggestion was made for this module to be incorporated into two 30 minute classes as part of postpartum classes. Mothers wanted only one time slot. Suggestions were made to expand the AFI program at other postpartum check-up times or when counseling on family planning. Other members of the family unit could be included. The long-term impact of AFI needs to be evaluated. PMID:7476012

  17. The late Holocene dry period: multiproxy evidence for an extended drought between 2800 and 1850 cal yr BP across the central Great Basin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mensing, Scott A.; Sharpe, Saxon E.; Tunno, Irene; Sada, Don W.; Thomas, Jim M.; Starratt, Scott W.; Smith, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Evidence of a multi-centennial scale dry period between ∼2800 and 1850 cal yr BP is documented by pollen, mollusks, diatoms, and sediment in spring sediments from Stonehouse Meadow in Spring Valley, eastern central Nevada, U.S. We refer to this period as the Late Holocene Dry Period. Based on sediment recovered, Stonehouse Meadow was either absent or severely restricted in size at ∼8000 cal yr BP. Beginning ∼7500 cal yr BP, the meadow became established and persisted to ∼3000 cal yr BP when it began to dry. Comparison of the timing of this late Holocene drought record to multiple records extending from the eastern Sierra Nevada across the central Great Basin to the Great Salt Lake support the interpretation that this dry period was regional. The beginning and ending dates vary among sites, but all sites record multiple centuries of dry climate between 2500 and 1900 cal yr BP. This duration makes it the longest persistent dry period within the late Holocene. In contrast, sites in the northern Great Basin record either no clear evidence of drought, or have wetter than average climate during this period, suggesting that the northern boundary between wet and dry climates may have been between about 40° and 42° N latitude. This dry in the southwest and wet in the northwest precipitation pattern across the Great Basin is supported by large-scale spatial climate pattern hypotheses involving ENSO, PDO, AMO, and the position of the Aleutian Low and North Pacific High, particularly during winter.

  18. [Multidisciplinary approach to postpartum depression].

    PubMed

    Arranz Lara, Lilia Cristina; Aguirre Rivera, Wilfrido; Ruiz Ornelas, Jaime; Gaviño Ambriz, Salvador; Cervantes Chávez, José Francisco; Carsi Bocanegra, Eduardo; Camacho Díaz, Margarita; Ochoa Madrigal, Martha Georgina

    2008-06-01

    Postpartum depression is a multifactorial condition suffered by 15% of women after delivery. We report a clinical case of a 32 years old female admitted at Postpartum depression clinic of gyneco-obstetric coordination at Centro Médico Nacional 20 de Noviembre, ISSTE, Mexico City. Patient was evaluated by psychiatric and psychological service personnel and diagnosed as with postpartum depression. She was admitted with her child during two weeks to be studied and treated. Several evaluation tests were applied and specific interventions by multidisciplinary team were designed. PMID:18800591

  19. The interrelationships among acculturation, social support, and postpartum depression symptoms among marriage-based immigrant women in Taiwan: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Hui; Hwang, Fang-Ming; Tai, Chen-Jei; Chien, Li-Yin

    2013-02-01

    This cohort study assessed the structural relationships among social support, acculturation, and postpartum depressive symptoms experienced by marriage-based immigrant mothers in Taiwan. Data were collected at 1 and 6 months postpartum from 203 immigrant mothers married to Taiwanese men in Taipei, Taiwan. The structural equation modeling results showed that social support and postpartum depression were directly and negatively related. Higher social support and lower depression at 1 month postpartum were related to a positive social attitude (i.e., accepting attitude toward mainstream society). Social attitude was a moderator of the relationship between depression at 1 month and social support at 6 months postpartum, where a positive social attitude decreased the negative effect of depression at 1 month on social support at 6 months. Social support in the early postpartum period not only directly decreased postpartum depression, but also indirectly decreased postpartum depression through improving social attitude. PMID:22865022

  20. Vitamin D Status during Pregnancy: A Longitudinal Study in Swedish Women from Early Pregnancy to Seven Months Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Lundqvist, Anette; Sandström, Herbert; Stenlund, Hans; Johansson, Ingegerd; Hultdin, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Low vitamin D levels during pregnancy may have negative consequences for the health of both the mother and child. Cross-sectional studies in childbearing women suggest that vitamin D levels are low during pregnancy, but few studies have followed the same women during pregnancy and postpartum. The aims of this study were to longitudinally assess vitamin D status during pregnancy and postpartum and identify the factors associated with vitamin D status in pregnant women in northern Sweden. Between September 2006 and March 2009, 184 women were consecutively recruited at five antenatal primary care clinics. Blood was sampled, and dietary intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire with 66 food items/food aggregates and questions on the intake of vitamin supplements at gestational weeks 12, 21, and 35, as well as at 12 and 29 weeks after birth. Plasma 25(OH) vitamin D levels were analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. At least one-third of the women had 25(OH) vitamin D levels <50 nmol/L on at least one sampling occasion. Plasma levels increased slightly over the gestation period and peaked in late pregnancy. The levels reverted to the baseline levels after birth. Multivariate analysis showed that gestational and postpartum week, season, dietary intake of vitamin D, and vitamin supplementation were significantly related to plasma levels. There was also an influence of season on the longitudinal concentration patterns. In conclusion, more than one-third of the women studied had low 25(OH) vitamin D levels, and gestational and postpartum week was related to 25(OH) vitamin D levels after adjustment for season and vitamin D intake. PMID:26938997

  1. Vitamin D Status during Pregnancy: A Longitudinal Study in Swedish Women from Early Pregnancy to Seven Months Postpartum.

    PubMed

    Lundqvist, Anette; Sandström, Herbert; Stenlund, Hans; Johansson, Ingegerd; Hultdin, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Low vitamin D levels during pregnancy may have negative consequences for the health of both the mother and child. Cross-sectional studies in childbearing women suggest that vitamin D levels are low during pregnancy, but few studies have followed the same women during pregnancy and postpartum. The aims of this study were to longitudinally assess vitamin D status during pregnancy and postpartum and identify the factors associated with vitamin D status in pregnant women in northern Sweden. Between September 2006 and March 2009, 184 women were consecutively recruited at five antenatal primary care clinics. Blood was sampled, and dietary intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire with 66 food items/food aggregates and questions on the intake of vitamin supplements at gestational weeks 12, 21, and 35, as well as at 12 and 29 weeks after birth. Plasma 25(OH) vitamin D levels were analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. At least one-third of the women had 25(OH) vitamin D levels <50 nmol/L on at least one sampling occasion. Plasma levels increased slightly over the gestation period and peaked in late pregnancy. The levels reverted to the baseline levels after birth. Multivariate analysis showed that gestational and postpartum week, season, dietary intake of vitamin D, and vitamin supplementation were significantly related to plasma levels. There was also an influence of season on the longitudinal concentration patterns. In conclusion, more than one-third of the women studied had low 25(OH) vitamin D levels, and gestational and postpartum week was related to 25(OH) vitamin D levels after adjustment for season and vitamin D intake. PMID:26938997

  2. Practices related to postpartum uterine involution in the Western Highlands of Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Radoff, K.A.; Thompson, Lisa M.; Bly, KC; Romero, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Background Guatemala has the third highest level of maternal mortality in Latin America. Postpartum haemorrhage is the main cause of maternal mortality. In rural Guatemala, most women rely on Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) during labour, delivery, and the postpartum period. Little is known about current postpartum practices that may contribute to uterine involution provided by Mam- and Spanish-speaking TBAs in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. Methods a qualitative study was conducted with 39 women who participated in five focus groups in the San Marcos Department of Guatemala. Questions regarding postpartum practices were discussed during four focus groups of TBAs and one group of auxiliary nurses. Results three postpartum practices believed to aid postpartum uterine involution were identified: use of the chuj (Mam) (Spanish, temazcal), a traditional wood-fired sauna-bath used by Mam-speaking women; herbal baths and teas; and administration of biomedicines. Conclusions TBAs provide the majority of care to women during childbirth and the postpartum period and have developed a set of practices to prevent and treat postpartum haemorrhage. Integration of these practices may prove an effective method to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. PMID:22762787

  3. The palaeoclimatic significance of Eurasian Giant Salamanders (Cryptobranchidae: Zaissanurus, Andrias) - indications for elevated humidity in Central Asia during global warm periods (Eocene, late Oligocene warming, Miocene Climate Optimum)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyan, Davit; Böhme, Madelaine; Winklhofer, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Cryptobranchids represent a group of large sized (up to 1.8 m) tailed amphibians known since the Middle Jurassic (Gao & Shubin 2003). Two species are living today in eastern Eurasia: Andrias davidianus (China) and A. japonicus (Japan). Cenozoic Eurasian fossil giant salamanders are known with two genera and two or three species from over 30 localities, ranging from the Late Eocene to the Early Pliocene (Böhme & Ilg 2003). The Late Eocene species Zaissanurus beliajevae is restricted to the Central Asian Zaissan Basin (SE-Kazakhstan, 50°N, 85°E), whereas the Late Oligocene to Early Pliocene species Andrias scheuchzeri is distributed from Central Europe to the Zaissan Basin. In the latter basin the species occur during two periods; the latest Oligocene and the late Early to early Middle Miocene (Chkhikvadse 1982). Andrias scheuchzeri is osteological indistinguishable from both recent species, indicating a similar ecology (Westfahl 1958). To investigate the palaeoclimatic significance of giant salamanders we analyzed the climate within the present-day distribution area and at selected fossil localities with independent palaeoclimate record. Our results indicate that fossil and recent Andrias species occur in humid areas where the mean annual precipitation reach over 900 mm (900 - 1.300 mm). As a working hypothesis (assuming a similar ecology of Andrias and Zaissanurus) we interpret occurrences of both fossil Eurasian giant salamanders as indicative for humid palaeoclimatic conditions. Based on this assumption the Late Eocene, the latest Oligocene (late Oligocene warming) and the late Early to early Middle Miocene (Miocene Climatic Optimum) of Central Asia (Zaissan Basin) are periods of elevated humidity, suggesting a direct (positive) relationship between global climate and Central Asian humidity evolution. Böhme M., Ilg A. 2003: fosFARbase, www.wahre-staerke.com/ Chkhikvadze V.M. 1982. On the finding of fossil Cryptobranchidae in the USSR and Mongolia. Vertebrata

  4. Internet confessions of postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Kantrowitz-Gordon, Ira

    2013-12-01

    Women with postpartum depression may suffer in silence due to the stigma of depression and failed motherhood. It is important to consider how mothers are able to talk about postpartum depression and what strategies they use. Foucault's idea that confession is a widespread technique for producing truth in Western societies was tested through discourse analysis of posts on an Internet forum for women with postpartum depression. The Internet forum showed women's use of confessionary language and self-judgments as well as their sense of disconnected mothering, shame, and disembodiment. Discourses of depression included the good mother, biomedical illness, and social dysfunction. Findings have implications for creating safe spaces for helping mothers with postpartum depression. PMID:24274243

  5. Postpartum Depression: An Interactional View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Mary Ann; Redman, E. Scott

    1986-01-01

    Postpartum depression is conceptualized as a predictable developmental, family crisis, which occurs when the natural difficulties of childbirth are benignly mishandled. Tactics are illustrated for interdicting maladaptive interpersonal spirals, including normalizing conflicting complaints; reframing depression as positive but costly; regulating…

  6. Postpartum nursing for Korean mothers.

    PubMed

    Schneiderman, J U

    1996-01-01

    Growing numbers of Korean-Americans require US health care workers to become knowledgeable of and sensitive to the cultural beliefs and customs of Korean patients. To further such understanding, health behaviors related to infant care and family involvement in the postpartum period were observed in a Los Angeles, California, hospital located in a Korean community. Notable in unassimilated Korean families were the power of the mother-in-law to assume control of decisions regarding infant care and the tendency of new mothers to defer to their mothers-in-law rather than ask nurses for advice. There is a cultural perception that the new mother is sick and unable to handle her infant. Other practices identified include a special diet of seaweed soup, avoidance of cold (including the rejection of ice packs against pain), resistance to breast feeding, preference for a male child, and modesty in the presence of men. In some cases, clinical considerations conflicted with cultural traditions. Respectful teaching, in nonverbal ways if there is a language barrier, and modeling of infant care techniques are recommended. Disregard for childbirth-associated cultural traditions on the part of medical staff can only increase the stress for the infant and family. PMID:8857400

  7. Periodicities in mid- to late-Holocene peatland hydrology identified from Swedish and Lithuanian tree-ring data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edvardsson, Johannes; Adolphi, Florian; Linderholm, Hans W.; Corona, Christophe; Muscheler, Raimund; Stoffel, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Twenty-five tree-ring width (TRW) chronologies, developed from moisture sensitive peatland trees in Sweden and Lithuania, and representing eight periods during the mid-Holocene to present, were analysed regarding common periodicities (cycles). Periods of 13-15, 20-22, and 30-35 years were found in most chronologies, while 8-10, 18-19, and 60-65 year periodicities were observed as well, but less commonly. Similar periodicities, especially about 15 and 30 years in duration, were detected in both living and subfossil trees, indicating that the trees have responded to similar forcing mechanisms on those timescales through time. Some of the detected periods may be related to solar variability and lunar nodal tides, but most of the detected periodicities are more likely linked to hydrological changes in the peatlands associated to atmospheric patterns such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), or variations in sea surface temperatures (i.e. the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, AMO). However, no significant relationships between tree growth, NAO and AMO could be formally established, possibly due to hydrological lag and feedback effects which are typical for peatlands but render in-depth assessments rather difficult.

  8. Promoting Postpartum Exercise: An Opportune Time for Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringdahl, Erika N.

    2002-01-01

    During the postpartum period clinicians can promote the importance of physical fitness, help patients incorporate exercise into lifestyle changes, and encourage them to overcome barriers to exercise. New responsibilities, physical changes, and time constraints may make exercise seem impossible. By emphasizing weight control, stress reduction, and…

  9. Postpartum Early and Extended Contact: Quality, Quantity or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, John B.; Vietze, Peter M.

    This study examined the effects of early vs. extended mother-infant contact on infant, maternal and interactional outcomes in the lying-in period for 104 lower class mother-infant dyads. The early contact treatment consisted of placing the mother and neonate together for 10 to 45 minutes within the first 3 postpartum hours. The extended contact…

  10. Modeling postpartum depression in rats: theoretic and methodological issues.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Chou, Shinn-Yi

    2016-07-18

    The postpartum period is when a host of changes occur at molecular, cellular, physiological and behavioral levels to prepare female humans for the challenge of maternity. Alteration or prevention of these normal adaptions is thought to contribute to disruptions of emotion regulation, motivation and cognitive abilities that underlie postpartum mental disorders, such as postpartum depression. Despite the high incidence of this disorder, and the detrimental consequences for both mother and child, its etiology and related neurobiological mechanisms remain poorly understood, partially due to the lack of appropriate animal models. In recent decades, there have been a number of attempts to model postpartum depression disorder in rats. In the present review, we first describe clinical symptoms of postpartum depression and discuss known risk factors, including both genetic and environmental factors. Thereafter, we discuss various rat models that have been developed to capture various aspects of this disorder and knowledge gained from such attempts. In doing so, we focus on the theories behind each attempt and the methods used to achieve their goals. Finally, we point out several understudied areas in this field and make suggestions for future directions. PMID:27469254