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Sample records for late postpartum period

  1. [HELLP syndrome in the postpartum period].

    PubMed

    Krzemie?-Wiczy?ska, Swiet?ana; Mikaszewska-Sokolewicz, Ma?gorzata; Bablok, Leszek; Mayzner-Zawadzka, Ewa

    2005-05-01

    The HELLP syndrome was described by Weinstein as a complication of pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). There are few clinical reports about HELLP during postpartum period. We present the history of 31 years old pregnant patient, who developed in 36 week of her first pregnancy PIH, pregnancy was terminated in 39 week by cesarean section and postpartum period was complicated with HELLP syndrome (class I). The patient was treated surgically (hysterectomy), than continue at ICU. The treatment was successful without any late organ complications. PMID:16145859

  2. The postpartum period in women with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Klein, Autumn

    2012-08-01

    For women with epilepsy (WWE), the postpartum period is a vulnerable time owing to medication alterations, disrupted sleep, increased stress, and the challenges of breastfeeding. Sleep deprivation and the stress of having a new child can be challenging for WWE. Concerns over antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in breast milk and sleep disruption associated with breastfeeding leads some WWE to discontinue breastfeeding. Adjustment of AEDs in the postpartum period can lead to difficulties in seizure control. Postpartum depression is increased in WWE, and patient education about newborn safety remains a concern. This article covers these important topics in postpartum WWE. PMID:22840793

  3. Late postpartum eclampsia at five weeks post-delivery.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, R; Upreti, D; Agrawal, A; Raina, A

    2007-10-01

    Postpartum eclampsia is a serious and unexpected complication. A relative increase in the incidence of postpartum eclampsia has been noted in the last few years. Late postpartum eclampsia, though initially controversial, is now recognised up to four weeks after delivery. We present such a case occurring in a 26-year-old woman. This patient, who had undergone lower segment caesarean section due to pregnancy-induced hypertension, presented with typical features of postpartum eclampsia 34 days after an asymptomatic interval. PMID:17909682

  4. Ovarian follicular activity during late gestation and postpartum in guanaco (Lama guanicoe).

    PubMed

    Riveros, J L; Schuler, G; Urquieta, B; Hoffmann, B; Bonacic, C

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated ovarian activity in late gestation and post-partum in guanacos in captivity. Follicular dynamics was monitored every second day from 40 days before and other 40 after delivery by transrectal sonography and by plasma steroids concentrations. Seven out of eight (87.5%) of gestating females presented ovarian follicular activity under progesterone levels >3 nmol/l with maximum follicular size of 8.42 ± 0.83 mm from days 23 to 1 before delivery. After delivery, all females have follicular wave development from day 0 to 38, with larger follicular size and longer follicular wave phases and interwave interval when compared with pre-partum data. During post-partum period, there was a close relationship between follicle size and estradiol-17? concentration, with r = 0.69 at the beginning of growth phase and r = 0.86 in association with the largest dominant follicle. Plasma estradiol-17? concentration varied from 11.92 to 198.55 pmol/l. Plasma estrone sulfate, free estrone and progesterone returned to baseline concentrations during peripartal period and remained basal thereafter. The results described follicular activity during late gestation and early post-partum period. These findings provide relevant information to understand physiological changes occurring during this reproductive key period in seasonal breeders with long gestation duration as New and Old World camelids. PMID:25528969

  5. The prenatal and immediate postpartum periods

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    A mother's nutritional status during pregnancy has important implications for both her own health and her ability to produce and breast-feed a healthy infant. Knowledge about adequate maternal nutrition during pregnancy is incomplete, however, and there is still considerable debate about the level of extra energy needed by a pregnant woman. A woman's usual nutritional requirements increase during pregnancy to meet her needs and those of the growing fetus. Additional energy is needed because of increased basal metabolism, the greater cost of physical activity, and the normal accumulation of fat as the energy reserve. The protein, vitamin and mineral requirements of the mother also increase during pregnancy, but the precise amounts for the last two are still a matter for discussion. A woman's weight increments during pregnancy vary between privileged and underprivileged communities. In addition to calcium, phosphorus and iron, a mother provides considerable amounts of protein and fat for fetal growth. Placental metabolism and placental blood flow, which are interrelated, are the most critical factors for fetal development. The nutritional requirements of healthy newborns vary widely according to their weight, gestational age, rate of growth, as well as environmental factors. However, recommendations for some components may be derived from the average composition of early human milk and the amounts consumed by healthy, mature newborns who are following a normal postpartum clinical course. The water requirements of infants are related to their caloric consumption, activity, rate of growth, and the ambient temperature. A postnatal weight loss of 5-8% of body weight is usual during the first few days of life in mature newborn infants; in contrast, infants who experienced intrauterine malnutrition lose little or no weight at all. The dynamic process of mother—newborn interaction from the first hours of life is intimately related to successful early breast-feeding. If this process is delayed, however, it may take longer and may be more difficult to achieve. Close mother—infant contact immediately after birth also helps infants to adapt to their new unsterile environment. Because drugs can interfere with bonding and breast-feeding, such substances should be given only when necessary and their effects should be evaluated. In general, young infants, especially newborns, have very irregular feeding intervals. It is advisable for numerous reasons to feed them whenever they indicate a need. PMID:2702124

  6. Is the Predictability of New-Onset Postpartum Depression Better During Pregnancy or in the Early Postpartum Period? A Prospective Study in Croatian Women.

    PubMed

    Naki? Radoš, Sandra; Herman, Radoslav; Tadinac, Meri

    2016-01-01

    The researchers' aim was to examine whether it was better to predict new-onset postpartum depression (PPD) during pregnancy or immediately after childbirth. A prospective study conducted in Croatia followed women (N = 272) from the third trimester of pregnancy through the early postpartum period (within the first 3 postpartum days), to 6 weeks postpartum. Questionnaires on depression, anxiety, stress, coping, self-esteem, and social support were administered. Through regression analyses we showed that PPD symptoms could be equally predicted by variables from pregnancy (30.3%) and the early postpartum period (34.0%), with a small advantage of PPD prediction in the early postpartum period. PMID:25558954

  7. Use of psychotropic medication during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Pearlstein, Teri

    2013-11-01

    Women with active psychiatric disorders who become pregnant face treatment dilemmas. Although results from studies are inconsistent, small but significant, risks on birth outcomes occur with exposure to untreated disorders, as well as to psychotropic medications. Prenatal antidepressant medication exposure may increase the risk for spontaneous miscarriage, preterm birth, cardiac malformations, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn and postnatal adaptation syndrome. The use of valproate is contraindicated during pregnancy due to teratogenicity and neurocognitive delay and deficits. This review of selected studies will highlight some of the current issues with the use of psychotropic medications during pregnancy and the postpartum period. PMID:24161312

  8. Protein C levels in late pregnancy, postpartum and in women on oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, R; Alberca, I; Vicente, V

    1985-09-01

    4 groups of 30 women participated in a study designed to examine the protein C level during late normal pregnancy, the puerperal period, and oral contraceptive (OC) use. The results were compared with those obtained with another important inhibitor, i.e., antithrombin III. In pregnant women, protein C levels during the 3rd trimester of normal pregnancy were the same as those in control nonpregnant women. Delivery did not induce any variations in protein. Antithrombin III was slightly decreased in late pregnancy, the decrease being more important at 24 hours following delivery. The women using OCs showed a significant increase in protein C compared with the control group; antithrombin was similar in both groups. The results show that protein C levels were not altered in the 3rd trimester of normal pregnancy and in the immediate postpartum period and make it difficult to assign an important role to protein C in the mechanism responsible for the increased rick of thrombosis observed in these situations. The data also eliminate the possibility that the risk of thrombosis observed in OC users could be due to a decrease in protein C. PMID:3841233

  9. The Prevalence and Risk Factors of Paternal Depression from the Antenatal to the Postpartum Period and the Relationships between Antenatal and Postpartum Depression among Fathers in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Koh, Y W; Chui, C Y; Tang, C S K; Lee, A M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Despite the fact that maternal perinatal mental health problems have been extensively studied and addressed to be a significant health problem, the literature on paternal perinatal mental health problems is relatively scarce. The present study aims at determining the prevalence of paternal perinatal depression and identifying the risk factors and the relationship between antenatal and postpartum depression. Methodology. 622 expectant fathers were recruited from regional maternal clinics. The expectant fathers were assessed using standardized and validated psychological instruments on 3 time points including early pregnancy, late pregnancy, and six weeks postpartum. Results. Results showed that a significant proportion of expectant fathers manifested depressive symptoms during the perinatal period. Paternal antenatal depression could significantly predict higher level of paternal postpartum depression. Psychosocial risk factors were consistently associated with paternal depression in different time points. Conclusions. The present study points to the need for greater research and clinical attention to paternal depression given that it is a highly prevalent problem and could be detrimental to their spouse and children development. The present findings contribute to theoretical basis of the prevalence and risk factors of paternal perinatal depression and have implications of the design of effective identification, prevention, and interventions of these clinical problems. PMID:24600517

  10. Altering ewe nutrition in late gestation: I. The impact on pre- and postpartum ewe performance.

    PubMed

    McGovern, F M; Campion, F P; Lott, S; Boland, T M

    2015-10-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the effects of offering a single diet rationed to 80% (80% ME), 100% (100% ME), or 120% (120% ME) of recommended ME requirements from d 119 of gestation to lambing, with concurrent changes in other dietary nutrients. The effects on pre- and postpartum ewe performance, including estimated milk yield and milk fatty acid concentrations, were monitored. Sixty twin-bearing ewes were allocated to 1 of 3 dietary treatments ( = 20 per treatment) and individually fed for the final 4 wk of gestation. Metabolizable energy requirements were individually calculated for each ewe and amended according to treatment. Ewes were rationed daily on the basis of their treatment ME allocation, which led to concurrent alterations in other nutrient intakes. Diets were grass silage based and supplemented with concentrates to meet treatment ME allocation on an individual ewe basis. Ewes offered the 80% ME treatment had a lower liveweight ( = 0.04) and BCS ( = 0.03) at 24 h postpartum when compared with ewes offered the 120% ME diet. Although there was no difference in liveweight at either d 40 ( = 0.18) or 98 postpartum ( = 0.20), the difference in BCS persisted until d 40 postpartum ( = 0.02). Colostrum yield at 1 h postpartum ( = 0.03) and total yield up to 18 h postpartum ( = 0.04) was greater for ewes offered the 120% ME diet than either of the other treatment groups. Similarly, these ewes had a greater estimated milk yield during wk 3 of lactation ( = 0.04) and elevated concentrations of short-chain SFA ( = 0.02) and long-chain SFA ( ? 0.05) from wk 2 through 6 of lactation. In summary, the negative impact of applying a dietary insult to ewes in late gestation is reflected in colostrum and estimated milk yield and fatty acid composition, thus potentially influencing postpartum growth and development of the offspring. PMID:26523579

  11. Successful Intra-Arterial Thrombolysis for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Immediate Postpartum Period: Case Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, Jose C. Masjuan, J.; Garcia, N.; Lecinana, M. de

    2008-01-15

    Stroke in pregnancy and the puerperium is a rare but potentially devastating event. We present the case of a previously healthy woman who underwent a cesarean delivery and experienced a middle cerebral artery thrombosis in the immediate postpartum period that was subsequently lysed with intra-arterial urokinase. The patient made a complete neurologic recovery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of successful intra-arterial thrombolysis for ischemic stroke in the postpartum period.

  12. Characteristics of mothers with depressive symptoms outside the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, David G; Learned, Nicole; Liu, Ying-Hua; Weitzman, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the deleterious effects of maternal depression on child outcomes. Knowledge of characteristics of these mothers is incomplete, as most studies utilize small samples or limit investigation to the postpartum period. Utilizing data from a nationally representative sample of 7,211 fathers and mothers living in households with children aged 5-17 years who participated in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) 2004-2006, the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2) was used to assess parental depressive symptoms, the Short Form-12 (SF-12) was used to examine paternal and maternal physical health, and the Columbia Impairment Scale was used to measure child behavioral or emotional problems. In multivariate analyses, maternal unemployment (AOR 1.76, 95 % CI 1.31-2.35); living with smokers (AOR 1.82, 95 % CI 1.12-2.94); poor maternal physical health (AOR 2.31; 95 % CI 1.81-2.94); living with children with behavioral or emotional problems (AOR 2.95, 95 % CI 2.30-3.96); and paternal depressive symptoms (AOR 5.11, 95 % CI 1.97-13.25) each were independently associated with increased rates of maternal depressive symptoms. This paper is the first we are aware of to use a nationally representative sample to investigate characteristics associated with maternal depressive symptoms and found that maternal unemployment, living with smokers, poor maternal physical health, having children with behavioral or emotional problems, and paternal depressive symptoms are each independently associated with maternal depressive symptoms. In these data, paternal depressive symptoms are associated with the greatest risk of mothers exhibiting depressive symptoms, a finding that we believe has never before been shown. PMID:22878534

  13. A Counselor's Primer on Postpartum Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfost, Karen S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Notes that women are particularly vulnerable to depression during the postpartum period. Distinguishes postpartum depression from normal postpartum adjustment, postpartum blues, and postpartum psychosis. Describes biological, psychodynamic, and diathesis-stress perspectives on postpartum depression. Encourages counselors to fashion individualized…

  14. Social support during the postpartum period: Mothers’ views on needs, expectations, and mobilization of support

    PubMed Central

    Negron, Rennie; Martin, Anika; Almog, Meital; Balbierz, Amy; Howell, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Research has indicated that social support is a major buffer of postpartum depression. Yet little is known concerning women’s perceptions on social support during the postpartum period. The objective of this study was to explore postpartum women’s views and experiences with social support following childbirth. Methods Four focus groups were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of women (n=33) in a large urban teaching hospital in New York City. Participants had completed participation in a postpartum depression randomized trial and were 6 to 12 months postpartum. Data transcripts were reviewed and analyzed for themes. Results The main themes identified in the focus group discussions were mother’s major needs and challenges postpartum, social support expectations and providers of support, how mothers mobilize support, and barriers to mobilizing support. Women across all groups identified receipt of instrumental support as essential to their physical and emotional recovery. Support from partners and families was expected and many women believed this support should be provided without asking. Racial/ethnic differences existed in the way women from different groups mobilized support from their support networks. Conclusions Instrumental support plays a significant role in meeting women’s basic needs during the postpartum period. In addition, women’s expectations surrounding support can have an impact on their ability to mobilize support among their social networks. The results of this study suggest that identifying support needs and expectations of new mothers is important for mothers’ recovery after childbirth. Future postpartum depression prevention efforts should integrate a strong focus on social support. PMID:22581378

  15. Bidirectional psychoneuroimmune interactions in the early postpartum period influence risk of postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Corwin, Elizabeth J; Pajer, Kathleen; Paul, Sudeshna; Lowe, Nancy; Weber, Mary; McCarthy, Donna O

    2015-10-01

    More than 500,000 U.S. women develop postpartum depression (PPD) annually. Although psychosocial risks are known, the underlying biology remains unclear. Dysregulation of the immune inflammatory response and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are associated with depression in other populations. While significant research on the contribution of these systems to the development of PPD has been conducted, results have been inconclusive. This is partly because few studies have focused on whether disruption in the bidirectional and dynamic interaction between the inflammatory response and the HPA axis together influence PPD. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that disruption in the inflammatory-HPA axis bidirectional relationship would increase the risk of PPD. Plasma pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were measured in women during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy and on Days 7 and 14, and Months 1, 2, 3, and 6 after childbirth. Saliva was collected 5 times the day preceding blood draws for determination of cortisol area under the curve (AUC) and depressive symptoms were measured using the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Survey (EPDS). Of the 152 women who completed the EPDS, 18% were depressed according to EDPS criteria within the 6months postpartum. Cortisol AUC was higher in symptomatic women on Day 14 (p=.017). To consider the combined effects of cytokines and cortisol on predicting symptoms of PPD, a multiple logistic regression model was developed that included predictors identified in bivariate analyses to have an effect on depressive symptoms. Results indicated that family history of depression, day 14 cortisol AUC, and the day 14 IL8/IL10 ratio were significant predictors of PPD symptoms. One unit increase each in the IL8/IL10 ratio and cortisol AUC resulted in 1.50 (p=0.06) and 2.16 (p=0.02) fold increases respectively in the development of PPD. Overall, this model correctly classified 84.2% of individuals in their respective groups. Findings suggest that variability in the complex interaction between the inflammatory response and the HPA axis influence the risk of PPD. PMID:25937051

  16. Imaging manifestations of a dreaded obstetric complication in the immediate postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Zarghouni, Mehrzad; Cannon, Walter

    2014-01-01

    HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelet) syndrome is a dreaded complication that may develop during pregnancy or in the immediate postpartum period. Rarely this syndrome manifests itself with imaging findings. We report a case of HELLP syndrome in which the diagnosis was reaffirmed via imaging findings. PMID:24688204

  17. Management of Toxoplasmic Retinochoroiditis during Pregnancy, Postpartum Period and Lactation: Clinical Observations

    PubMed Central

    Brydak-Godowska, Joanna; Moneta-Wielgo?, Joanna; K?cik, Dariusz; Borkowski, Piotr Karol

    2015-01-01

    Background During pregnancy and labor, the immune response is physiologically impaired and women are more susceptible to infections. Since many drugs may have potentially adverse effects on the fetus and newborn, less aggressive treatment regimens should be considered in pregnant and lactating patients. The aim of our study was to present the management of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis during pregnancy, postpartum period, and lactation. Material/Methods A retrospective study was undertaken of the clinical records of 24 women during pregnancy, postpartum period, and lactation who were referred in the years 1994–2014 to the Department of Zoonoses and Tropical Diseases or the Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Warsaw for toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. The diagnosis was based on the typical ophthalmoscopic picture, confirmed by serological testing using an ELISA method. Results A total of 28 attacks of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis were observed in 24 patients during pregnancy, postpartum period, and lactation. The choice of treatment was guided by the character and location of the inflammatory lesion and the gestational age. Topical (steroidal/nonsteroidal eye drops) and systemic treatments with spiramycin or azithromycin, Fansidar (pyrimethamine 25 mg/sulfadoxine 500 mg), and prednisone were used. Conclusions Management of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis during pregnancy, postpartum period, or lactation must be individualized and guided by the gestational age and location of the active lesion. Women of childbearing age with toxoplasma ocular lesions should be informed by their doctors about possible active recurrences during pregnancy and followed carefully by an ophthalmologist when pregnant. PMID:25711713

  18. Lymph Region in the Female Internal Reproductive Organs during the Early Postpartum Period after Normal Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dergacheva, T I; Borodin, Yu I; Gorchakov, V N; Konenkov, V I

    2015-11-01

    The structural and functional changes in the lymph region of the female internal reproductive organs in rats were studied during the early postpartum period after normal pregnancy. The results indicated that the main role of the lymph region in pregnancy consisted in supporting sufficient lymph production and drainage in the hypertrophic uterus. PMID:26601833

  19. Recurrence rates of bipolar disorder during the postpartum period: a study on 276 medication-free Italian women.

    PubMed

    Maina, Giuseppe; Rosso, Gianluca; Aguglia, Andrea; Bogetto, Filippo

    2014-10-01

    The postpartum period is considered a time of heightened vulnerability to bipolar disorder. The primary goal of this study was to examine the frequency and the polarity of postpartum episodes in a clinical sample of women with bipolar disorder who were medication-free during their pregnancies. In addition, we sought to examine whether there are differences in terms of clinical features of bipolar disorder between women with and without postpartum episodes. Lastly, we analyzed the potential relationship between polarity of the postpartum episodes and clinical features of bipolar disorder. The presence/absence of postpartum episodes and their characteristics were obtained from medical records of 276 women with bipolar disorder who were medication-free during their pregnancies. Two hundred seven women (75.0 %) had a history of one or more postpartum mood episodes: depressive (79.7 %), (hypo)manic (16.4 %), or mixed episodes (3.9 %). Psychotic symptoms during postpartum episodes were associated with depression in 37 (22.4 %) patients, with mania in 19 (67.8 %) patients, and with mixed episodes in 7 (87.5 %) patients. Postpartum manic and mixed episodes were significantly associated with type I disorder and with psychotic features. Our findings indicate high risk of clinically ascertained mood episodes during postpartum period in bipolar women who are not treated during pregnancy. PMID:24449192

  20. Plasma cocaine levels, metabolites, and locomotor activity after subcutaneous cocaine injection are stable across the postpartum period in rats?

    PubMed Central

    Wansaw, Michael P.; Lin, Shen-Nan; Morrell, Joan I.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma levels of cocaine (COC) and two of its principle metabolites, benzoylecgonine (BE) and ecgonine methyl ester (EME) were determined by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) in samples collected up to 3 h after a subcutaneous injection of cocaine (10 mg/kg) on six different days between days 4 and 24 postpartum, a period of dramatic change in the endocrine state of the female rat. Locomotor activity was measured in the same animals during this period using automated animal activity monitors. Additional measures in males provide a link to existing literature. We found that plasma levels of cocaine and its metabolites, as well as their respective time courses, are remarkably uniform across the postpartum period in female rats, as are the effects of cocaine on locomotor activity. Data from males show accord with prior published values. COC and BE, but not EME levels, were higher in males, and the time courses of COC and BE levels after injection varied somewhat between postpartum females and males; however, neither baseline nor cocaine-induced locomotor activity differed between postpartum females and males. We conclude that in the postpartum rat, there are no significant differences in the peripheral processing or general accessibility of cocaine to the brain to activate motor systems across the postpartum period. These data are critical to our understanding of differences in the reward salience of cocaine across the postpartum period and in other adult rat models [Mattson BJ, Williams S, Rosenblatt JS, Morrell JI. Comparison of two positive reinforcing stimuli: pups and cocaine throughout the postpartum period. Behav Neurosci 2001;115:683–94, Mattson BJ, Williams SE, Rosenblatt JS, Morrell JI. Preferences for cocaine- or pup-associated chambers differentiate otherwise behaviorally identical postpartum maternal rats. PMID:16115667

  1. Do Pregnancy, Postpartum Period and Lactation Predispose to Recurrent Toxoplasmic Retinochoroiditis?

    PubMed Central

    Brydak-Godowska, Joanna; Borkowski, Piotr Karol; Rabczenko, Daniel; Moneta-Wielgo?, Joanna; K?cik, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Backgrund The aim of the study was a statistical analysis of the possible effects of pregnancy, postpartum period, and lactation on increased risk for reactivation of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. Material/Methods A retrospective study was undertaken of the clinical records of 661 patients referred with the diagnosis of acute toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis to the Department of Zoonoses and Tropical Diseases, Medical University of Warsaw and to the Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Warsaw in the years 1994–2014. This group of inpatients consisted of 213 women of child-bearing age (18 to 40 years). Reactivation of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis was observed in 24 women aged 15 to 39 years who were pregnant, in the postpartum period, or lactating. To compare the rate of the relapses in pregnant/lactating patients vs. non-pregnant/non-lactating patients, the Fisher exact test was used. Calculations were performed with WinPepi software (Abramson JH (2004) WINPEPI (PEPI-for-Windows) for epidemiologists. Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations, 2005, 1: 6). Results A total of 28 reactivations of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis were observed (16 episodes in pregnancy, 4 in the postpartum period, and 8 during lactation) in 24 women aged 15 to 39 years. In 3 women, multiple episodes were reported (in early pregnancy and the postpartum period in 2 women, and during 2 pregnancies and lactation in 1 woman). Statistical analysis showed that the risk of an episode of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis is 7.4-fold higher in pregnancy compared to the non-pregnant/non-lactating women (p<0.0001). Conclusions Women of childbearing age with toxoplasma ocular lesions should be informed by their doctors about possible active recurrences during pregnancy and should be followed carefully by an ophthalmologist when pregnant. PMID:25703198

  2. Ovarian and Renal Vein Thrombosis: A Rare Cause of Fever Outer the Postpartum Period

    PubMed Central

    Togan, Turhan; Turan, Hale; Cifci, Egemen; Çiftci, Ceylan

    2015-01-01

    Although there is no other underlying disease, women can sometimes experience rare and serious diseases such as ovarian vein thrombosis (OVT) and renal vein thrombosis (RVT) after giving birth. The widespread development of thrombosis is treated for the first time in this study. Stasis, coagulation factor abnormalities, and intimal damage to the venous thrombosis risk can increase during pregnancy. It was mentioned that it diagnoses an abnormality in the hypercoagulability half of women with OVT. Despite the hypercoagulant abnormality observed in pregnant women, it was very unusual that the renal vein thrombosis led to this complication. It can lead to severe complication of OVT which can even cause death. It was the first time that the renal vein and ovarian vein thrombosis were observed in the postpartum period, and there was no coagulation abnormality. It is known that the thrombus in the postpartum period can be observed with the fever of unknown origin. The problematic, but rarely observed, postpartum disease such as ovarian venous thrombosis (OVT) is generally observed in the right ovarian vein. In this disease, avoiding the resulting laparotomy heparin and intravenous antibiotics is best solution for the patient. If it is to be noted a fever for unknown reasons, that it be thrombosis. PMID:26185694

  3. Reversal of Peripheral Nerve Injury-induced Hypersensitivity in the Postpartum Period: Role of Spinal Oxytocin

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Silvia; Liu, Baogang; Hayashida, Ken-ichiro; Houle, Timothy T.; Eisenach, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical injury, including surgery, can result in chronic pain; yet chronic pain following childbirth, including cesarean delivery in women, is rare. The mechanisms involved in this protection by pregnancy or delivery have not been explored. Methods We examined the effect of pregnancy and delivery on hypersensitivity to mechanical stimuli of the rat hindpaw induced by peripheral nerve injury (spinal nerve ligation) and after intrathecal oxytocin, atosiban and naloxone. Additionally, oxytocin concentration in lumbar spinal cerebrospinal fluid was determined. Results Spinal nerve ligation performed at mid-pregnancy resulted in similar hypersensitivity to nonpregnant controls, but hypersensitivity partially resolved beginning after delivery. Removal of pups after delivery prevented this partial resolution. Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of oxytocin were greater in normal postpartum rats prior to weaning. To examine the effect of injury at the time of delivery rather than during pregnancy, spinal nerve ligation was performed within 24 h of delivery. This resulted in acute hypersensitivity that partially resolved over the next 2–3 weeks. Weaning of pups resulted only in a temporary return of hypersensitivity. Intrathecal oxytocin effectively reversed the hypersensitivity following separation of the pups. Postpartum resolution of hypersensitivity was transiently abolished by intrathecal injection of the oxytocin receptor antagonist, atosiban. Conclusions These results suggest that the postpartum period rather than pregnancy protects against chronic hypersensitivity from peripheral nerve injury and that this protection may reflect sustained oxytocin signaling in the central nervous system during this period. PMID:23249932

  4. Uterine involution and progesterone level during the postpartum period in Barbary ewes in north Libya

    PubMed Central

    Medan, M.S.; EL-Daek, T.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to determine the time of uterine involution and ovarian activity using ultrasound examination and progesterone assay. Weekly progesterone levels were measured starting one week postpartum until two weeks after the 1st postpartum estrus in Barbary ewes lambed during winter in AL-Bayda city, north of Libya. A total of 15 Barbary ewes were used in the present study distributed in three groups according to the month of lambing as group 1 (lambed in January), group 2 (lambed in February) and group 3 (lambed in March). Ewes were examined weekly by trans-rectal ultrasound to check involution of the uterus starting one week after lambing until complete uterine involution. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein, and serum was separated and stored at -20 °C until measuring progesterone using ELISA. Results showed that uterine involution completed at day 35 postpartum in groups 1 and 2, while it occurred at day 28 in group 3. The mean progesterone level was basal (less than 1 ng/ml) for a long period and started to increase at days 119, 99 and 77 postpartum in group 1, 2 and 3, respectively. One ewe did not show estrus at all during the period of study in group 2 and there were no growing follicles on their ovaries. The obtained results indicate that, uterine involution as determined by ultrasound completed earlier in ewes lambed in March than those lambed in February or January. Also, progesterone level and ultrasound examination showed that there was no ovarian activity for a longtime after parturition indicating that reproduction in Barbary ewes tends to be seasonal in AL-Bayda city, north Libya. PMID:26623357

  5. Validity of Depression Rating Scales during Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period: Impact of Trimester and Parity

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Shuang; Long, Qi; Newport, D. Jeffrey; Na, Hyeji; Knight, Bettina; Zach, Elizabeth B.; Morris, Natalie J.; Kutner, Michael; Stowe, Zachary N.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to delineate the optimal cutpoints for depression rating scales during pregnancy and the postpartum period and to assess the perinatal factors influencing these scores. Women participating in prospective investigations of maternal mental illness were enrolled prior to 28 weeks gestation and followed through 6 months postpartum. At each visit, subjects completed self-rated depression scales – Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and clinician-rated scales – Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD17 and HRSD21). These scores were compared to the SCID Mood Module for the presence of fulfilling diagnostic criteria for a major depressive episode (MDE) during 6 perinatal windows: preconception; first trimester; 2nd trimester; 3rd trimester; early postpartum; and later postpartum. Optimal cutpoints were determined by maximizing the sum of each scale’s sensitivity and specificity. Stratified ROC analyses determined the impact of previous pregnancy and comparison of initial to follow-up visits. A total of 534 women encompassing 640 pregnancies and 4025 follow-up visits were included. ROC analysis demonstrated that all 4 scales were highly predictive of MDE. The AUCs ranged from 0.857 to 0.971 and were all highly significant (p<0.0001). Optimal cutpoints were higher at initial visits and for multigravidas and demonstrated more variability for the self-rated scales. These data indicate that both clinician-rated and self-rated scales can be effective tools in identifying perinatal episodes of major depression. However, the results also suggest that prior childbirth experiences and the use of scales longitudinally across the perinatal period influence optimal cutpoints. PMID:20542520

  6. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePLUS

    ... QUESTIONS FAQ091 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Postpartum Depression • What are the postpartum blues? • How long do the postpartum blues usually last? • What is postpartum depression? • When does postpartum depression occur? • What causes postpartum ...

  7. Effect of ovulatory follicle size and estradiol supplementation during the preovulatory period on pregnancy rates in postpartum beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In postpartum beef cows, GnRH-induced ovulation of small dominant follicles decreased pregnancy rates and increased late embryonic/fetal mortality; however, ovulatory follicle size had no apparent effect on the establishment or maintenance of pregnancy when ovulation occurred spontaneously. Further...

  8. Plasticity of GABAA Receptors during Pregnancy and Postpartum Period: From Gene to Function

    PubMed Central

    Licheri, Valentina; Talani, Giuseppe; Gorule, Ashish A.; Mostallino, Maria Cristina; Biggio, Giovanni; Sanna, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy needs complex pathways that together play a role in proper growth and protection of the fetus preventing its premature loss. Changes during pregnancy and postpartum period include the manifold machinery of neuroactive steroids that plays a crucial role in neuronal excitability by local modulation of specific inhibitory receptors: the GABAA receptors. Marked fluctuations in both blood and brain concentration of neuroactive steroids strongly contribute to GABAA receptor function and plasticity. In this review, we listed several interesting results regarding the regulation and plasticity of GABAA receptor function during pregnancy and postpartum period in rats. The increase in brain levels of neuroactive steroids during pregnancy and their sudden decrease immediately before delivery are causally related to changes in the expression/function of specific GABAA receptor subunits in the hippocampus. These data suggest that alterations in GABAA receptor expression and function may be related to neurological and psychiatric disorders associated with crucial periods in women. These findings could help to provide potential new treatments for these women's disabling syndromes. PMID:26413323

  9. Postpartum contraception.

    PubMed

    Sober, Stephanie; Schreiber, Courtney A

    2014-12-01

    As birth spacing has demonstrated health benefits for a woman and her children, contraception after childbirth is recognized as an important health issue. The potential risk of pregnancy soon after delivery underscores the importance of initiating postpartum contraception in a timely manner. The contraceptive method initiated in the postpartum period depends upon a number of factors including medical history, anatomic and hormonal factors, patient preference, and whether or not the woman is breastfeeding. When electing a contraceptive method, informed choice is paramount. The availability of long-acting reversible contraceptive methods immediately postpartum provides a strategy to achieve reductions in unintended pregnancy. PMID:25264698

  10. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period: An Analysis of the National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kemper, Kathi J.; Rothman, Russell; Gardiner, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is commonly used among women, but few national data exist regarding CAM use during pregnancy or the postnatal period. Methods: Data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey were analyzed for women ages between the ages of 18 and 49 years who were pregnant or had children less than 1 year old. CAM use was identified based on standard definitions of CAM from the National Institutes of Health's National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. CAM use among women who were pregnant or with a child less than 1 year was compared with the other similarly aged female responders. CAM use was examined among these women stratified by sociodemographics, health conditions, and conventional medicine use through bivariable and multivariable logistic regression models. Results: Among pregnant and postpartum women from the ages of 19 to 49 years in the United States, 37% of pregnant women and 28% of postpartum women reported using CAM in the last 12 months compared with 40% of nonpregnant/non-postpartum women. Mind–body practices were the most common CAM modality reported, with one out of four women reporting use. Biological therapies, excluding vitamins and minerals, during the postpartum period were used by only 8% of women. Using multivariable regression modeling, we report no significant difference in CAM use among pregnant compared with non-pregnant women (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.88; [95% confidence interval 0.65–1.20]), but lower CAM use among postpartum women compared with non-pregnant women (AOR 0.67; [0.52–0.88]), while adjusting for sociodemographics. Conclusion: CAM use among pregnancy similar to women who are not pregnant, while postpartum CAM use decreases. Further evaluation of CAM therapies among pregnant and postpartum women is necessary to determine the costs and benefits of integrative CAM therapies in conventional care. PMID:25268759

  11. Effects of pasture feeding during the periparturient period on postpartum anovulation in grazed dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Burke, C R; Roche, J R

    2007-09-01

    Extended postpartum anovulatory intervals (PPAI) are a major contributor to infertility in seasonal dairy systems constrained to 365-d calving intervals. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of pasture-based dietary energy intakes during the transitional calving period on PPAI. Sixty-eight multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows were assigned to high [11.9 kg of dry matter (DM)/d] or low (4.8 kg of DM/d) pasture intakes for 29 +/- 7.7 d prepartum. After calving, cows within each prepartum diet were assigned to either a high (13.5 kg of DM/d) or low (8.6 kg of DM/d) pasture intake for 35 d in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Progesterone concentrations were measured in milk samples collected twice weekly to determine PPAI, which was defined as the day on which progesterone level was elevated to > or = 3 ng/mL with subsequent concentrations being consistent with an ovulatory cycle. Blood samples were collected before initiation of treatments, and at d -21, -14, -7, 0 (day of calving), 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 in all cows. The PPAI was associated with body condition score, concentrations of plasma insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I, and growth hormone. Postpartum intake did not affect these metabolic hormones or PPAI, but yield of FCM during the first 35 d was reduced by 23% among cows on a restricted intake. No relationships were found between PPAI and milk production characteristics. These data demonstrate that when pasture is the sole dietary source during the calving transition period, PPAI may be influenced by prepartum intake levels, whereas postpartum intake influences milk yield, but not PPAI. The underlying mechanism(s) that associates the prepartum period to PPAI may involve the sensitivity of the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor axis to dietary intake levels. Nonetheless, PPAI in grazing multiparous dairy cows appears largely unresponsive to intake levels during the calving transition period. PMID:17699050

  12. The use of magnesium sulfate for women with severe preeclampsia or eclampsia diagnosed during the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Vigil-De Gracia, Paulino; Ludmir, Jack

    2015-12-01

    This was a systematic review of randomized controlled trials comparing anticonvulsants with placebo or no anticonvulsant for prevention (a) of eclampsia in women with severe preeclampsia diagnosed during the postpartum period or diagnosed before delivery but without previous treatment and (b) prevention of seizures recurrence in women with eclampsia postpartum. We did not find study with full inclusion criteria. However, a total of two randomised controlled trials meet inclusion criteria as subgroup analysis; one for severe preeclampsia diagnosed during the postpartum period and one for eclampsia postpartum. For severe preeclampsia diagnosed during postpartum, there was no clear difference between the groups reporting eclampsia (relative risk: 0.54, 95% confidence interval: 0.16-1.80). For seizure recurrence, magnesium sulfate was superior to diazepam, but there was no significant difference compared with phenytoin. No conclusion can be drawn on the role of magnesium sulfate post partum as established in antepartum pre-eclampsia/eclampsia management because of lack of powered randomised controlled trials. PMID:25373431

  13. Oxytocin in the medial prefrontal cortex regulates maternal care, maternal aggression and anxiety during the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Sabihi, Sara; Dong, Shirley M.; Durosko, Nicole E.; Leuner, Benedetta

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) acts on a widespread network of brain regions to regulate numerous behavioral adaptations during the postpartum period including maternal care, maternal aggression, and anxiety. In the present study, we examined whether this network also includes the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We found that bilateral infusion of a highly specific oxytocin receptor antagonist (OTR-A) into the prelimbic (PL) region of the mPFC increased anxiety-like behavior in postpartum, but not virgin, females. In addition, OTR blockade in the postpartum mPFC impaired maternal care behaviors and enhanced maternal aggression. Overall, these results suggest that OT in the mPFC modulates maternal care and aggression, as well as anxiety-like behavior, during the postpartum period. Although the relationship among these behaviors is complicated and further investigation is required to refine our understanding of OT actions in the maternal mPFC, these data nonetheless provide new insights into neural circuitry of OT-mediated postpartum behaviors. PMID:25147513

  14. Efficacy of Enhanced HIV Counseling for Risk Reduction during Pregnancy and in the Postpartum Period: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Maman, Suzanne; Moodley, Dhayendre; McNaughton-Reyes, Heathe Luz; Groves, Allison K.; Kagee, Ashraf; Moodley, Prashini

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pregnancy and the postpartum period present important intervention opportunities. Counseling can leverage the motivation women have during this time to change behaviors that may negatively affect their health and the heath of their infants. Methods Pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in South Africa were randomly allocated to treatment (n?=?733) and control arms (n?=?747). Treatment arm participants received enhanced HIV pre- and post-test counseling, legal support and access to support groups at baseline, which occurred at the first antenatal visit, and then six and ten weeks postpartum. Control arm participants received standard HIV testing and counseling (HTC) and two postpartum attention control sessions. Outcomes were incidence of sexually transmitted infection (STI) by 14 weeks postpartum and past 30-day inconsistent condom use at 14 weeks and 9 months postpartum. Results There were no intervention effects on incident STIs for either HIV-negative (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 1.01, 95% CI 0.71–1.44) or HIV-positive participants (aRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.61–1.23). The intervention was associated with a 28% decrease in risk of past 30-day inconsistent condom use at nine-months among HIV-negative women (aRR 0.72,95% CI 0.59–0.88), but did not affect inconsistent condom use among HIV-positive women (aRR1.08; 95% CI 0.67–1.75). Discussion An enhanced counseling intervention during pregnancy and the postpartum period can lead to reductions in inconsistent condom use among HIV-negative women. Results underscore the importance of the counseling that accompanies HIV HTC. More work is needed to understand how to promote and sustain risk reduction among HIV-positive women. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01683461 PMID:24824050

  15. CYP3A activity based on plasma 4?-hydroxycholesterol during the early postpartum period has an effect on the plasma disposition of amlodipine.

    PubMed

    Naito, Takafumi; Kubono, Naoko; Ishida, Takuya; Deguchi, Shuhei; Sugihara, Masahisa; Itoh, Hiroaki; Kanayama, Naohiro; Kawakami, Junichi

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate plasma 4?-hydroxycholesterol as an endogenous marker of CYP3A4/5 activity in early postpartum women and its impact on the plasma disposition of amlodipine. Twenty-seven early postpartum women treated with amlodipine for pregnancy-induced hypertension were enrolled. The plasma concentration of 4?-hydroxycholesterol and its ratio to cholesterol in postpartum and in non-perinatal women were evaluated. The predose plasma concentration of amlodipine was determined at steady state. The medians of the plasma 4?-hydroxycholesterol concentration at day 0-3 and 8-21 after delivery were 146 and 161 ng/mL, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the plasma concentration of 4?-hydroxycholesterol between the postpartum periods. The plasma concentration of 4?-hydroxycholesterol and its ratio to cholesterol in postpartum women were significantly higher than those in non-perinatal women. A large individual variability was observed in the dose-normalized plasma concentration of amlodipine in early postpartum women. A weak negative correlation was observed between the dose-normalized plasma concentration of amlodipine and the plasma concentration of 4?-hydroxycholesterol. In conclusion, early postpartum women possessed higher CYP3A activity based on plasma 4?-hydroxycholesterol and had a large pharmacokinetic variability in amlodipine. CYP3A activity during the early postpartum period had an effect on the plasma disposition of amlodipine. PMID:26654672

  16. Postpartum Sterilization

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of a baby. What is the most common method of postpartum sterilization? The method used most often ... is postpartum sterilization? • What is the most common method of postpartum sterilization? • When is postpartum sterilization performed? • ...

  17. Relationship factors and trajectories of intimate partner violence among South African women during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Groves, Allison K; McNaughton-Reyes, H Luz; Foshee, Vangie A; Moodley, Dhayendre; Maman, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem in South Africa. However, there is limited research on whether and how IPV changes during pregnancy and the postpartum period and on the factors that might affect women's risk during this time. In this study, we describe the mean trajectories of physical and psychological IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period and examine whether relationship power, partner social support, and relationship stress are associated with women's trajectories of IPV. Data come from a longitudinal study with 1,480 women recruited during pregnancy between May 2008 and June 2010 at a public clinic in Durban. Women completed behavioral assessments at their first antenatal visit, at fourteen weeks and at nine months postpartum. Women's experiences of IPV were measured at all three time points and relationship power, partner social support and relationship stress were each measured at the baseline assessment. We used multilevel random coefficients growth modeling to build our models. The mean trajectory for both types of IPV was flat which means that, on average, there was not significant change in levels of IPV over pregnancy and the postpartum period. However, there was significant individual variability in trajectories of IPV over the study period. Women who had higher relationship power had lower levels of physical and psychological IPV over time than women with lower relationship power. Additionally, women with higher relationship stress and lower partner support had higher levels of psychological IPV at pregnancy. Interventions that maximize women's relationship power and partner social support and minimize relationship stress during this transformative time are needed. PMID:25268363

  18. Fractional excretion of electrolytes during pre- and postpartum periods in cows.

    PubMed

    Uluta?, B; Ozlem, M B; Uluta?, Pinar Alkim; Eren, V; Pa?a, S

    2003-01-01

    In this study, fractional excretions (Fe) of sodium (Na), potassium (K), chloride (Cl), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (PO4) were examined with the aim to demonstrate interactions between fractional excretions of these electrolytes within each period and relate them to electrolyte metabolism in clinically normal cows at different stages of lactation and dry period. The material of this study consisted of 20 clinically healthy Holstein-Friesian cows of the same age and milk yield. Blood and urine samples were collected on 190-200th, 240-250th and 270-280th days of pregnancy and on days 1-7th, 35-45th and 75-85th after calving, altogether 6 times. An increase was observed in FeCa and FeMg during the transition from the lactation to the dry period (p < 0.05), and a decrease in FeCa (p < 0.05), FeMg (p < 0.01) in the 2nd month of the dry period. FePO4 and FeMg, respectively, increased on levels of p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, while FeCa decreased on a level of p < 0.05 after gestation compared to the level before gestation. FeNa and FeK showed a decrease of p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively, between the 1st and 2nd months of the dry period, while after gestation this value showed an increase in FeNa (p < 0.05) and FeK (p < 0.01). FeCl increased significantly (p < 0.05) only from postpartum to the 1st month of lactation. There was a strong positive correlation between FeNa and FeCl in all of the periods. It was concluded that there were significant changes in the Fe of Na, K, Cl, Ca, PO4 and Mg before parturition and during lactation; these changes could have an important role in assessing renal function and electrolyte balance. PMID:14680064

  19. Update to CDC's U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010: revised recommendations for the use of contraceptive methods during the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    2011-07-01

    Initiation of contraception during the postpartum period is important to prevent unintended pregnancy and short birth intervals, which can lead to negative health outcomes for mother and infant. In 2010, CDC published U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010 (US MEC), providing evidence-based guidance for choosing a contraceptive method based on the relative safety of contraceptive methods for women with certain characteristics or medical conditions, including women who are postpartum. Recently, CDC assessed evidence regarding the safety of combined hormonal contraceptive use during the postpartum period. This report summarizes that assessment and the resulting updated guidance. These updated recommendations state that postpartum women should not use combined hormonal contraceptives during the first 21 days after delivery because of the high risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) during this period. During 21-42 days postpartum, women without risk factors for VTE generally can initiate combined hormonal contraceptives, but women with risk factors for VTE (e.g., previous VTE or recent cesarean delivery) generally should not use these methods. After 42 days postpartum, no restrictions on the use of combined hormonal contraceptives based on postpartum status apply. PMID:21734635

  20. Glutamate, GABA, and glutamine are synchronously upregulated in the mouse lateral septum during the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Changjiu; Gammie, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    Dramatic structural and functional remodeling occurs in the postpartum brain for the establishment of maternal care, which is essential for the growth and development of young offspring. Glutamate and GABA signaling are critically important in modulating multiple behavioral performances. Large scale signaling changes occur in the postpartum brain, but it is still not clear to what extent the neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA change and whether the ratio of glutamate/GABA remains balanced. In this study, we examined the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle in the lateral septum (LS) of postpartum female mice. In postpartum females (relative to virgins), tissue levels of glutamate and GABA were elevated in LS and increased mRNA was found for the respective enzymes producing glutamate and GABA, glutaminase (Gls) and glutamate decarboxylase 1 and 2 (Gad1 and Gad2). The common precursor, glutamine, was elevated as was the enzyme that produces it, glutamate-ammonia ligase (Glul). Additionally, glutamate, GABA, and glutamine were positively correlated and the glutamate/GABA ratio was almost identical in the postpartum and virgin females. Collectively, these findings indicate that glutamate and GABA signaling are increased and that the ratio of glutamate/GABA is well balanced in the maternal LS. The postpartum brain may provide a useful model system for understanding how glutamate and GABA are linked despite large signaling changes. Given that some mental health disorders, including depression and schizophrenia display dysregulated glutamate/GABA ratio, and there is increased vulnerability to mental disorders in mothers, it is possible that these postpartum disorders emerge when glutamate and GABA changes are not properly coordinated. PMID:25451092

  1. HPV clearance in postpartum period of HIV-positive and negative women: a prospective follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HPV persistence is a key determinant of cervical carcinogenesis. The influence of postpartum on HPV clearance has been debated. This study aimed to assess HPV clearance in later pregnancy and postpartum among HIV-positive and negative women. Methods We conducted a follow-up study with 151 HPV-positive women coinfected with HIV, in 2007–2010. After baseline assessment, all women were retested for HPV infection using PCR in later pregnancy and after delivery. Multivariable logistic regressions assessed the putative association of covariates with HPV status in between each one of the successive visits. Results Seventy-one women (47%) have eliminated HPV between the baseline visit and their second or third visits. HIV-positive women took a significantly longer time (7.0?±?3.8 months) to clear HPV, compared to those not infected by HIV (5.9?±?3.0 months). HPV clearance was significantly more likely to take place after delivery than during pregnancy (84.5% x 15.5%). Conclusions Both HIV-positive and negative women presented a significant reduction in HPV infection during the postpartum period. HIV-positive status was found to be associated with a longer period of time to clear HPV infection in pregnant women. PMID:24289532

  2. Effects of postpartum exercise program on fatigue and depression during "doing-the-month" period.

    PubMed

    Ko, Yi-Li; Yang, Chi-Li; Chiang, Li-Chi

    2008-09-01

    This study explored the effectiveness of an exercise program on reducing levels of fatigue and depression among postpartum women who were "doing-the-month" in a maternity center in Taiwan. Previous studies related to postpartum have focused on depression rather than women's feelings of fatigue, and no study related to exercise has previously been conducted in a Taiwan maternity center. A low-intensity exercise program was specifically designed and administered to 31 subjects in the study's intervention group. Another 30 subjects (the control group) followed a traditional, non-physically active postpartum care regimen. Those in the intervention group were required to participate in at least 6 exercise program sessions during their one month postpartum stay. All subjects were asked to fill out a fatigue and depression questionnaire before and after the program. A Fatigue Symptom Checklist (FSC) was used to measure fatigue, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CESD) was used to confirm the development of depression. Results showed statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of fatigue levels, with statistical improvements (p < .05) registered by the intervention group in terms of levels of physical and psychological fatigue and fatigue symptoms. However, no significant changes in depression between the two groups were found. Study results demonstrate that a low-intensity exercise program can offer a good platform for clinicians and researchers to help reduce fatigue in postpartum women. PMID:18792887

  3. Characteristics and Outcomes of AKI Treated with Dialysis during Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Ainslie M; Liu, Kuan; Shariff, Salimah Z; Ray, Joel G; Sontrop, Jessica M; Clark, William F; Hladunewich, Michelle A; Garg, Amit X

    2015-12-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a rare complication of pregnancy, but may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality in young and often otherwise healthy women. We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study of all consecutive pregnancies over a 15-year period (1997-2011) in Ontario, Canada, and describe the incidence and outcomes of AKI treated with dialysis during pregnancy or within 12 weeks of delivery. Of 1,918,789 pregnancies, 188 were complicated by AKI treated with dialysis (incidence: 1 per 10,000 [95% confidence interval, 0.8 to 1.1]). Only 21 of 188 (11.2%) women had record of a preexisting medical condition; however, 130 (69.2%) women experienced a major pregnancy-related complication, including preeclampsia, thrombotic microangiopathy, heart failure, sepsis, or postpartum hemorrhage. Eight women died (4.3% versus 0.01% in the general population), and seven (3.9%) women remained dialysis dependent 4 months after delivery. Low birth weight (<2500 g), small for gestational age, or preterm birth (<37 weeks' gestation) were more common in pregnancies in which dialysis was initiated (35.6% versus 14.0%; relative risk, 3.40; 95% confidence interval, 2.52 to 4.58). There were no stillbirths and fewer than five neonatal deaths (<2.7%) in affected pregnancies compared with 0.1% and 0.8%, respectively, in the general population. In conclusion, AKI treated with dialysis during pregnancy is rare and typically occurs in healthy women who acquire a major pregnancy-related medical condition such as preeclampsia. Many affected women and their babies have good short-term outcomes. PMID:25977311

  4. Incidence and risk factors for intimate partner violence during the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Elisabete Pereira; Valongueiro, Sandra; de Araújo, Thália Velho Barreto; Ludermir, Ana Bernarda

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the incidence and identify risk factors for intimate partner violence during postpartum. METHODS This prospective cohort study was conducted with women, aged between 18-49 years, enrolled in the Brazilian Family Health Strategy in Recife, Northeastern Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. Of the 1.057 women interviewed during pregnancy and postpartum, 539 women, who did not report violence before or during pregnancy, were evaluated. A theoretical-conceptual framework was built with three levels of factors hierarchically ordered: women’s and partners’ sociodemografic and behavioral characteristics, and relationship dynamics. Incidence and risk factors of intimate partner violence were estimated by Poisson Regression. RESULTS The incidence of violence during postpartum was 9.3% (95%CI 7.0;12.0). Isolated psychological violence was the most common (4.3%; 95%CI 2.8;6.4). The overlapping of psychological with physical violence occurred at 3.3% (95%CI 2.0;5.3) and with physical and/or sexual in almost 2.0% (95%CI 0.8;3.0) of cases. The risk of partner violence during postpartum was increased for women with a low level of education (RR = 2.6; 95%CI 1.3;5.4), without own income (RR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.0;2.9) and those who perpetrated physical violence against their partner without being assaulted first (RR = 2.0; 95%CI 1.2;3.4), had a very controlling partner (RR = 2.5; 95%CI 1.1;5.8), and had frequent fights with their partner (RR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.0;2.9). CONCLUSIONS The high incidence of intimate partner violence during postpartum and its association with aspects of the relationship’s quality between the couple, demonstrated the need for public policies that promote conflict mediation and enable forms of empowerment for women to address the cycle of violence. PMID:26270012

  5. Influence of hormonal and nonhormonal estrus synchronization methods on follicular and oocyte quality in primiparous lactating does at early postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Arias-Alvarez, M; García-García, R M; Torres-Rovira, L; González-Bulnes, A; Rebollar, P G; Lorenzo, P L

    2010-01-01

    High-yield lactating does need effective estrus synchronization methods to improve their reproductive outcome by enhancing ovarian function. The aim of the current work was to analyze ovarian follicular and oocyte characteristics of hormonal and nonhormonal estrus synchronization regimes in primiparous lactating rabbit does (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in the early postpartum period (Day 11). Females were randomly treated with either (1) a hormonal standard treatment with 25 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) 48h before artificial insemination (eCG group) or (2) an alternative nonhormonal treatment consisting of doe-litter separation 24h before artificial insemination (Bio group). No significant differences were found in serum estradiol and progesterone concentrations between experimental groups. During the histologic study, the Bio group presented a higher number of primordial (P<0.05) and primary follicles (P=0.07) compared with that of the eCG group, whereas secondary and antral follicular populations were similar. Rates of late atretic follicles assessed by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling technique were not different between treatments, but the eCG group showed a significantly higher number of mid-atretic follicles compared with that of the Bio group. Nuclear in vitro oocyte maturation (IVM), measured as metaphase II rate, and in vitro steroidogenic response of cumulus-oocyte complexes, measured by ELISA, did not show significant differences between treatments. However, confocal study showed that cytoplasmic maturation of oocytes, in terms of cortical granule migration rate, was significantly higher in the Bio group compared with that after the eCG treatment. In conclusion, transient doe-litter separation seems to improve ovarian response in terms of follicular health and oocyte competence compared with that after the eCG treatment. Therefore, a 24-h-long transient weaning could be an alternative nonhormonal method for synchronizing estrus in primiparous lactating rabbit does inseminated in the early postpartum period. PMID:19864013

  6. Postpartum Exercise and Lactation.

    PubMed

    Bane, Susan M

    2015-12-01

    Many women who are breastfeeding also want to participate in exercise, but have concerns about the safety of their newborn. The following chapter reviews issues related to postpartum exercise and lactation. The goals of the chapter are to help clinicians understand the benefits of exercise, examine the impact of postpartum exercise on breastfeeding, and provide practical recommendations for exercise during the postpartum period in women who are breastfeeding. PMID:26398298

  7. Late pregnancy progesterone treatment as a modulatory signal for postpartum behavior.

    PubMed

    Cruz, A M; Sukikara, M H; Felicio, L F

    2015-03-01

    Changes in plasma progesterone levels during late pregnancy are a determining factor in the expression of maternal behavior during lactation. Previous studies showed that mild opioidergic stimulation during late pregnancy makes lactating females more sensitive to opioidergic-induced inhibition of maternal behavior and more willing to display hunting behavior. Such previous behaviorally meaningful opioidergic stimulation also selectively increased serum progesterone levels. The present study tested whether progesterone treatment during late pregnancy interferes with the display of maternal behavior and behavioral selection during lactation. In Experiment 1, rats were treated with progesterone (400 and 500 ?g per day) from the 17th day to the 22nd day of pregnancy. The lowest progesterone dose did not interfere with pregnancy or parturition, and this dose was used in Experiments 2 and 3, in which the rats were treated with subcutaneous progesterone or peanut oil for 5 days beginning on pregnancy day 17. On day 5 of lactation, dams were challenged with subcutaneous morphine (1.5 mg/kg), or saline. The rats were then tested for maternal care (Experiment 2) or behavioral selection with pups and cockroaches (Experiment 3). Animals treated with progesterone during late pregnancy and challenged with morphine during lactation exhibited a significant decrease in maternal behavior in both Experiments 2 and 3. Predatory hunting was not modified by progesterone treatment. These results indicate that sensitivity to opioidergic-mediated inhibition of maternal behavior is enhanced by prepartum progesterone administration. Thus progesterone might be part of the opioid-triggered prepartum signaling leading to behavioral changes during lactation. PMID:25550156

  8. Postpartum depression

    MedlinePLUS

    Depression - postpartum; Postnatal depression; Postpartum psychological reactions ... The exact causes of postpartum depression are unknown. Changes in hormone levels during and after pregnancy may affect a woman’s mood. Many non-hormonal factors may also ...

  9. The vaginal microbiome during pregnancy and the postpartum period in a European population

    PubMed Central

    MacIntyre, David A.; Chandiramani, Manju; Lee, Yun S.; Kindinger, Lindsay; Smith, Ann; Angelopoulos, Nicos; Lehne, Benjamin; Arulkumaran, Shankari; Brown, Richard; Teoh, Tiong Ghee; Holmes, Elaine; Nicoholson, Jeremy K.; Marchesi, Julian R.; Bennett, Phillip R.

    2015-01-01

    The composition and structure of the pregnancy vaginal microbiome may influence susceptibility to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Studies on the pregnant vaginal microbiome have largely been limited to Northern American populations. Using MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, we characterised the vaginal microbiota of a mixed British cohort of women (n = 42) who experienced uncomplicated term delivery and who were sampled longitudinally throughout pregnancy (8–12, 20–22, 28–30 and 34–36 weeks gestation) and 6 weeks postpartum. We show that vaginal microbiome composition dramatically changes postpartum to become less Lactobacillus spp. dominant with increased alpha-diversity irrespective of the community structure during pregnancy and independent of ethnicity. While the pregnancy vaginal microbiome was characteristically dominated by Lactobacillus spp. and low alpha-diversity, unlike Northern American populations, a significant number of pregnant women this British population had a L. jensenii-dominated microbiome characterised by low alpha-diversity. L. jensenii was predominantly observed in women of Asian and Caucasian ethnicity whereas L. gasseri was absent in samples from Black women. This study reveals new insights into biogeographical and ethnic effects upon the pregnancy and postpartum vaginal microbiome and has important implications for future studies exploring relationships between the vaginal microbiome, host health and pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25758319

  10. Evaluation of the French version of the multidimensional scale of perceived social support during the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Denis, A; Callahan, S; Bouvard, M

    2015-06-01

    In the presence of physical and psychological disturbances in the postpartum period, perceived social support is often regarded as a protective factor in women's mental health. This work evaluates the psychometric properties of the French version of a questionnaire widely used internationally to measure perceived social support, which has not been yet validated in French: the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). This study collected data from 148 women (30.5 ± 5.12 years) who agreed to complete the MSPSS and a scale assessing symptoms of postpartum depression (Edinburgh Post-Natal Depression Scale, EPDS) 1 and 4 months after childbirth. The results confirm the original three-factor structure of the scale. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients are excellent. The total scale score is correlated with all three dimensions and a significantly negative correlation is found between MSPSS and EPDS. The results suggest that the French tool has generally good internal reliability. The MSPSS can provide useful data helping to identify French-speaking people at risk for negative feelings (e.g., mood disorders of perinatal period). PMID:25366102

  11. Emotion Reactivity Is Increased 4-6 Weeks Postpartum in Healthy Women: A Longitudinal fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Gingnell, Malin; Bannbers, Elin; Moes, Harmen; Engman, Jonas; Sylvén, Sara; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Kask, Kristiina; Wikström, Johan; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2015-01-01

    Marked endocrine alterations occur after delivery. Most women cope well with these changes, but the postpartum period is associated with an increased risk of depressive episodes. Previous studies of emotion processing have focused on maternal–infant bonding or postpartum depression (PPD), and longitudinal studies of the neural correlates of emotion processing throughout the postpartum period in healthy women are lacking. In this study, 13 women, without signs of post partum depression, underwent fMRI with an emotional face matching task and completed the MADRS-S, STAI-S, and EPDS within 48 h (early postpartum) and 4–6 weeks after delivery (late postpartum). Also, data from a previous study including 15 naturally cycling controls assessed in the luteal and follicular phase of the menstrual cycle was used. Women had lower reactivity in insula, middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in the early as compared to the late postpartum assessment. Insular reactivity was positively correlated with anxiety in the early postpartum period and with depressive symptoms late postpartum. Reactivity in insula and IFG were greater in postpartum women than in non-pregnant control subjects. Brain reactivity was not correlated with serum estradiol or progesterone levels. Increased reactivity in the insula, IFG, and MFG may reflect normal postpartum adaptation, but correlation with self-rated symptoms of depression and anxiety in these otherwise healthy postpartum women, may also suggest that these changes place susceptible women at increased risk of PPD. These findings contribute to our understanding of the neurobiological aspects of the postpartum period, which might shed light on the mechanisms underlying affective puerperal disorders, such as PPD. PMID:26061879

  12. Omental infarction in the postpartum period: a case report and a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Omental infarction is a rare and often misdiagnosed clinical event with unspecific symptoms. It affects predominantly young and middle aged women. Case presentation This is a case report of a 26-year-old Caucasian woman with spontaneous omental infarction two weeks after normal vaginal delivery. Conclusion Omental infarction is a differential diagnosis in the postpartum acute abdomen. As some cases of omental infarction, which are caused by torsion, can be adequately diagnosed via computed tomography, a conservative treatment strategy for patients without complications should be considered in order to avoid any unnecessary surgical intervention. PMID:21083882

  13. Language Acquisition in Late Critical Period: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gheitury, Amer; Sahraee, Ahmad Hosein; Hoseini, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Studies carried out to support the existence of a critical period for language acquisition have concentrated mainly on the case of being in total deprivation from language contact, and in particular deprivation from auditory input in the entire time span before puberty. While arguing for a useful distinction between early and late critical…

  14. Non-invasive endocrine monitoring of ovarian and adrenal activity in chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) females during pregnancy, parturition and early post-partum period.

    PubMed

    Mastromonaco, Gabriela F; Cantarelli, Verónica I; Galeano, María G; Bourguignon, Nadia S; Gilman, Christine; Ponzio, Marina F

    2015-03-01

    The chinchilla is a rodent that bears one of the finest and most valuable pelts in the world. The wild counterpart is, however, almost extinct because of a drastic past and ongoing population decline. The present work was developed to increase our knowledge of the reproductive physiology of pregnancy and post-partum estrus in the chinchilla, characterizing the endocrine patterns of urinary progesterone, estradiol, LH and cortisol metabolites throughout gestation and post-partum estrus and estimating the ovulation timing at post-partum estrus. Longitudinal urine samples were collected once per week throughout pregnancy and analyzed for creatinine, cortisol, LH, estrogen and progesterone metabolite concentrations. To indirectly determine the ovulation timing at post-partum estrus, a second experiment was performed using pregnant females subjected to a post-partum in vivo fertilization scheme. Urinary progestagen metabolites increased above baseline levels in early pregnancy between weeks-8 and -11 respectively to parturition, and slightly declined at parturition time. Urinary estrogens showed rising levels throughout mid- and late pregnancy (weeks-9 to -6 and a further increase at week-5 to parturition) and decreased in a stepwise manner after parturition, returning to baseline levels two weeks thereafter. Cortisol metabolite levels were relatively constant throughout pregnancy with a tendency for higher levels in the last third of gestation and after the pups' birth. Parturition was associated with dramatic reductions in urinary concentrations of sex steroids (especially progestagens). Observations in breeding farms indicated that the females that resulted in a second pregnancy after mating, did so on the second day after parturition. These data were in agreement with an LH peak detected 24h after parturition. Urinary steroid hormone patterns of estrogen and progestagen metabolites provided valuable information on endocrine events during pregnancy and after parturition in the chinchilla. Results presented in this study enhance our understanding of natural reproductive dynamics in the chinchilla and support empirical observations of breeders that post-partum ovulation occurs ? 48 h after parturition. PMID:25712434

  15. A complete insect from the Late Devonian period.

    PubMed

    Garrouste, Romain; Clément, Gaël; Nel, Patricia; Engel, Michael S; Grandcolas, Philippe; D'Haese, Cyrille; Lagebro, Linda; Denayer, Julien; Gueriau, Pierre; Lafaite, Patrick; Olive, Sébastien; Prestianni, Cyrille; Nel, André

    2012-08-01

    After terrestrialization, the diversification of arthropods and vertebrates is thought to have occurred in two distinct phases, the first between the Silurian and the Frasnian stages (Late Devonian period) (425-385?million years (Myr) ago), and the second characterized by the emergence of numerous new major taxa, during the Late Carboniferous period (after 345?Myr ago). These two diversification periods bracket the depauperate vertebrate Romer's gap (360-345?Myr ago) and arthropod gap (385-325?Myr ago), which could be due to preservational artefact. Although a recent molecular dating has given an age of 390?Myr for the Holometabola, the record of hexapods during the Early-Middle Devonian (411.5-391?Myr ago, Pragian to Givetian stages) is exceptionally sparse and based on fragmentary remains, which hinders the timing of this diversification. Indeed, although Devonian Archaeognatha are problematic, the Pragian of Scotland has given some Collembola and the incomplete insect Rhyniognatha, with its diagnostic dicondylic, metapterygotan mandibles. The oldest, definitively winged insects are from the Serpukhovian stage (latest Early Carboniferous period). Here we report the first complete Late Devonian insect, which was probably a terrestrial species. Its 'orthopteroid' mandibles are of an omnivorous type, clearly not modified for a solely carnivorous diet. This discovery narrows the 45-Myr gap in the fossil record of Hexapoda, and demonstrates further a first Devonian phase of diversification for the Hexapoda, as in vertebrates, and suggests that the Pterygota diversified before and during Romer's gap. PMID:22859205

  16. Immediate Postpartum Intrauterine Contraception Insertion.

    PubMed

    Prager, Sarah W; McCoy, Erin E

    2015-12-01

    The immediate postpartum period is a favorable time for initiating contraception because women who have recently given birth are often highly motivated to use contraception, pregnancy is excluded, and the hospital setting offers convenience for patients and providers. This article addresses immediate postpartum intrauterine contraception (IUC) insertion for copper and levonorgestrel IUC. Immediate postpartum IUC is safe and effective, with a majority of IUC devices retained at 6 and 12 months. There are increased rates of expulsion, compared with delayed postpartum insertion and interval insertion, which need to be weighed against the risk of patients not returning for postpartum follow-up. PMID:26598300

  17. The Immediate Effects on Inter-rectus Distance of Abdominal Crunch and Drawing-in Exercises During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    Mota, Patrícia; Pascoal, Augusto Gil; Carita, Ana Isabel; Bø, Kari

    2015-10-01

    Study Design Longitudinal descriptive exploratory study. Objectives To evaluate in primigravid women the immediate effect of drawing-in and abdominal crunch exercises on inter-rectus distance (IRD), measured at 4 time points during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. Background There is scant knowledge of the effect of different abdominal exercises on IRD in pregnant and postpartum women. Methods The study included 84 primiparous participants. Ultrasound images were recorded with a 12-MHz linear transducer, at rest and during abdominal drawing-in and abdominal crunch exercises, at 3 locations on the linea alba. The IRD was measured at 4 time points: gestational weeks 35 to 41, 6 to 8 weeks postpartum, 12 to 14 weeks postpartum, and 24 to 26 weeks postpartum. Separate 2-way, repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were performed for each exercise (drawing-in and abdominal crunch) and each measurement location to evaluate the immediate effects of exercises on IRD at each of the 4 time points. Similarly, 2-way ANOVAs were used to contrast the effects of the 2 exercises on IRD. Results Performing the drawing-in exercise caused a significant change in width of the IRD at 2 cm below the umbilicus, narrowing the IRD by a mean of 3.8 mm (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2, 6.4 mm) at gestational weeks 35 to 41, and widening the IRD by 3.0 mm (95% CI: 1.4, 4.6 mm) at 6 to 8 weeks postpartum, by 1.8 mm (95% CI: 0.6, 3.1 mm) at 12 to 14 weeks postpartum, and by 2.5 mm (95% CI: 1.4, 3.6 mm) at 24 to 26 weeks postpartum (P<.01). Performing the abdominal crunch exercise led to a significant narrowing of the IRD (P<.01) in all 3 locations at all 4 time points, with the exception of 2 cm below the umbilicus at postpartum weeks 24 to 26. The average amount of narrowing varied from 1.6 to 20.9 mm, based on time and location. Conclusion Overall, there was a contrasting effect of the 2 exercises, with the abdominal crunch exercise consistently producing a significant narrowing of the IRD. In contrast, the drawing-in exercise generally led to a small widening of the IRD. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(10):781-788. Epub 24 Aug 2015. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.5459. PMID:26304639

  18. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePLUS

    ... do not need treatment. The symptoms of postpartum depression last longer and are more severe. You may ... treatment right away, often in the hospital. Postpartum depression can begin anytime within the first year after ...

  19. Postpartum Thyroiditis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... high thyroid hormone levels in the blood) and hypothyroidism (low thyroid hormone levels in the blood). In postpartum thyroiditis, thyrotoxicosis occurs first followed by hypothyroidism. What causes postpartum thyroiditis? The exact cause is ...

  20. Mental Health of HIV-Seropositive Women During Pregnancy and Postpartum Period: A Comprehensive Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Dass-Brailsford, Priscilla; Nora, Diana; Talisman, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    With growing numbers of HIV-seropositive (HIV+) women of child-bearing age and increased access to effective clinical protocols for preventing mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV, mental health-related factors have become increasingly relevant due to their potential to affect the women’s quality of life, obstetric outcomes and risk of MTCT. This review synthesizes evidence from 53 peer-reviewed publications examining mental health-related variables in pregnant and postpartum HIV+ women. The presentation of results is organized by the level of socioeconomic resources in the countries where studies were conducted (i.e., high-, middle-, and low-income countries). It is concluded that psychiatric symptoms, particularly depression, and mental health vulnerabilities (e.g., inadequate coping skills) are widespread among pregnant HIV+ women globally and have a potential to affect psychological well-being, quality of life and salient clinical outcomes. The current body of evidence provides rationale for developing and evaluating clinical and structural interventions aimed at improving mental health outcomes and their clinical correlates in pregnant HIV+ women. PMID:24584458

  1. The role of the parents’ perception of the postpartum period and knowledge of maternal mortality in uptake of postnatal care: a qualitative exploration in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Zamawe, Collins F; Masache, Gibson C; Dube, Albert N

    2015-01-01

    Background Postpartum is the most risky period for both mothers and newborn babies. However, existing evidence suggests that utilization of postnatal care is relatively lower when compared to uptake of other similar health care services. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the perceptions of parents toward the postpartum period and postnatal care in order to deepen our understanding of the maternal care-seeking practices after childbirth. Methods A descriptive qualitative study, comprising four focus group discussions with 50 parents aged between 18 and 35 years, was conducted in Malawi between January and March 2014. Only young men and women who had either given birth or fathered a baby within 12 months prior to the study were eligible to participate in this study. This was to ensure that only participants who had recent first-hand postpartum experience were included. Local leaders purposively identified all parents who met the inclusion criteria and then simple random sampling was used to select participants from this pool of parents. Data analysis followed the six steps of thematic approach developed by Braun and Clarke, and NVivo software aided the process. Findings The parents interviewed described the various factors relating to pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum periods that may possibly influence uptake of postnatal care. These factors were categorized into the following three themes: beliefs about the causes of maternal morbidity and mortality; risks associated with the pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum periods; and the importance of and barriers to postnatal care. Most participants perceived pregnancy and childbirth as the most risky periods to women, and their understanding of the causes of maternal death differed considerably from the existing evidence. In addition, segregation of mother and baby care in the clinics was identified as one of the potential barriers to postnatal care. Conclusion The study findings suggest that parents’ perception of the postpartum period and postnatal care as well as their knowledge of maternal morbidity and mortality play a vital role in the uptake of postnatal care. The study has also established that lack of knowledge of postnatal care, long waiting time for treatment, and separation of the mother and baby care in clinics are some of the key barriers to postnatal care. We recommend massive maternal health education programs as well as the integration of all postdelivery health care services provided in clinics, so that mothers and neonates receive health care together. PMID:26089704

  2. Variation of Transaminases, HCV-RNA Levels and Th1/Th2 Cytokine Production during the Post-Partum Period in Pregnant Women with Chronic Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Extremera, Ángeles; Muñoz-Gámez, José Antonio; Abril-Molina, Ana; Salmerón-Ruiz, María Angustias; Muñoz-de-Rueda, Paloma; Pavón-Castillero, Esther José; Quiles-Pérez, Rosa; Carazo, Ángel; Gila, Ana; Jimenez-Ruiz, Sergio Manuel; Casado, Jorge; Martín, Ana Belén; Sanjuán-Núñez, Laura; Ocete-Hita, Esther; Viota, Julián López; León, Josefa; Salmerón, Javier

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses the evolution of liver disease in women with chronic hepatitis C during the third trimester of pregnancy and the post-partum period, as a natural model of immune modulation and reconstitution. Of the 122 mothers recruited to this study, 89 were HCV-RNA+ve/HIV-ve and 33 were HCV-RNA-ve/HIV-ve/HCVantibody+ve and all were tested during the third trimester of pregnancy, at delivery and post-delivery. The HCV-RNA+ve mothers were categorized as either Type-A (66%), with an increase in ALT levels in the post-partum period (>40 U/L; P<0.001) or as Type-B (34%), with no variation in ALT values. The Type-A mothers also presented a significant decrease in serum HCV-RNA levels in the post-delivery period (P<0.001) and this event was concomitant with an increase in Th1 cytokine levels (INF?, P?=?0.04; IL12, P?=?0.01 and IL2, P?=?0.01). On the other hand, the Type-B mothers and the HCV-RNA-ve women presented no variations in either of these parameters. However, they did present higher Th1 cytokine levels in the partum period (INF? and IL2, P<0.05) than both the Type-A and the HCV-RNA-ve women. Cytokine levels at the moment of delivery do not constitute a risk factor associated with HCV vertical transmission. It is concluded that differences in the ALT and HCV-RNA values observed in HCV-RNA+ve women in the postpartum period might be due to different ratios of Th1 cytokine production. In the Type-B women, the high partum levels of Th1 cytokines and the absence of post-partum variation in ALT and HCV-RNA levels may be related to permanent Th1 cytokine stimulation. PMID:24130726

  3. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and associated factors in women and newborns in the immediate postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    do Prado, Mara Rúbia Maciel Cardoso; Oliveira, Fabiana de Cássia Carvalho; Assis, Karine Franklin; Ribeiro, Sarah Aparecida Vieira; do Prado, Pedro Paulo; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its associated factors in women and their newborns in the postpartum period. Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency in 226 women and their newborns in Viçosa (Minas Gerais, BR) between December 2011 and November 2012. Cord blood and venous maternal blood were collected to evaluate the following biochemical parameters: vitamin D, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus and parathyroid hormone. Poisson regression analysis, with a confidence interval of 95%, was applied to assess vitamin D deficiency and its associated factors. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with 25(OH)D deficiency in the newborns and women from the study. The criteria for variable inclusion in the multiple linear regression model was the association with the dependent variable in the simple linear regression analysis, considering p<0.20. Significance level was ? <5%. Results: From 226 women included, 200 (88.5%) were 20-44 years old; the median age was 28 years. Deficient/insufficient levels of vitamin D were found in 192 (85%) women and in 182 (80.5%) neonates. The maternal 25(OH)D and alkaline phosphatase levels were independently associated with vitamin D deficiency in infants. Conclusions: This study identified a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in women and newborns and the association between maternal nutritional status of vitamin D and their infants' vitamin D status. PMID:26100593

  4. Postpartum psychiatric disorders: Early diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Rai, Shashi; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Indira

    2015-07-01

    Postpartum period is demanding period characterized by overwhelming biological, physical, social, and emotional changes. It requires significant personal and interpersonal adaptation, especially in case of primigravida. Pregnant women and their families have lots of aspirations from the postpartum period, which is colored by the joyful arrival of a new baby. Unfortunately, women in the postpartum period can be vulnerable to a range of psychiatric disorders like postpartum blues, depression, and psychosis. Perinatal mental illness is largely under-diagnosed and can have far reaching ramifications for both the mother and the infant. Early screening, diagnosis, and management are very important and must be considered as mandatory part of postpartum care. PMID:26330638

  5. Postpartum psychiatric disorders: Early diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Shashi; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Indira

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum period is demanding period characterized by overwhelming biological, physical, social, and emotional changes. It requires significant personal and interpersonal adaptation, especially in case of primigravida. Pregnant women and their families have lots of aspirations from the postpartum period, which is colored by the joyful arrival of a new baby. Unfortunately, women in the postpartum period can be vulnerable to a range of psychiatric disorders like postpartum blues, depression, and psychosis. Perinatal mental illness is largely under-diagnosed and can have far reaching ramifications for both the mother and the infant. Early screening, diagnosis, and management are very important and must be considered as mandatory part of postpartum care. PMID:26330638

  6. Blood levels of the prostaglandin F2 alpha metabolite during the postpartum period in Bos indicus cows in the humid tropics.

    PubMed

    Toribio, R E; Molina, J R; Bolaños, J M; Kindahl, H

    1994-10-01

    Plasma levels of the prostaglandin F2 alpha metabolite (15-ketodihydroprostaglandin F2 alpha) were determined by radioimmunoassay in 26 postpartum multiparous Brahman cows. Variation in the concentrations of the metabolite was high among animals. 15-Ketodihydro-PGF2 alpha concentrations on day 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 postpartum ranged from 402 to > or = 1000, from 251 to > or = 1000, from 237 to > or = 1000, from 75 to 608 and from 75 to 267 pmol l-1, respectively. The prostaglandin metabolite levels were elevated at parturition and remained elevated thereafter for periods varying up to 10 to 23 days postpartum (16.7 +/- 0.7 days, mean +/- SEM). Uterine involution (UI) was completed by 28.0 +/- 0.8 days (ranging from 20 to 36 days). A markedly linear decrease of 15-ketodihydro-PGF2 alpha levels (P < 0.001) occurred from parturition until Day 23 postpartum. A significant correlation between the duration of the elevated PGF2 alpha metabolite and the time required for completion of UI was observed (r = -0.05, P < 0.01). The effect of parity (PT) on 15-ketodihydro-PGF2 alpha levels was not significant, however the relationship between UI and PT was affected (r = -0.59, P < 0.001). Both PGF2 alpha release and PT had effects on the variability of UI (R2 = 0.62, P < 0.001). No significant relationship was found between elevated levels of 15-ketodihydro-PGF2 alpha UI and PT with postpartum anoestrous interval (PPAI). PMID:7732740

  7. Iatromathematica (medical astrology) in late antiquity and the Byzantine period.

    PubMed

    Papathanassiou, M

    1999-01-01

    Byzantium inherited the rich astrological tradition of Late Antiquity, especially that of Alexandria, where even in the 6th century A.D., astrology was taught in philosophical schools. The great number of Byzantine astrological MSS, which preserve works of famous authors and many anonymous treatises, shows the survival and continuity of astrology in Byzantium. Through medical astrology physicians can better understand the temperament of an individual man and find out about his bodily constitution and psychic faculties, his inclination to chronic and acute diseases, the possibilities of curable or incurable cases, and finally the periods of major danger for his health. They can conjecture about the evolution of a disease, choose a favorable time for an operation, or initiate a cure. PMID:11624570

  8. Postpartum Coronary Vasospasm with Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Koneru, Jayanth; Alattar, Fadi; Alqaqa, Ashraf; Virk, Hirtaj; Shamoon, Fayez; Bikkina, Mahesh

    2014-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction during pregnancy or the postpartum period is rare. We report a case of a 39-year-old postpartum woman who developed non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction due to severe diffuse coronary vasospasm. To our knowledge, this is the first case of angiographically evidenced coronary vasospasm, in a postpartum woman, with resistance to intracoronary nitroglycerin. PMID:25105029

  9. [Postpartum psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Mazaira, Silvina

    2014-01-01

    The postpartum period represents a very particular time in women's life, the beginning of a new bond, the maternity. As many times, beginnings are such turbulent, intense. In this period the women suffers deep changes in their hormonal status, with its body and changes and affective oscillations. Women are often so labile at this time, ranging from happiness to deep sadness. The vast majority suffers the blues, a benign form of mild depressive state. On the other hand, 20% may have a major depressive episode, and a much less percentage will suffer the most disruptive postpartum syndrome, the postpartum psychosis. In this paper it will be described the symptomatology of such cases, the most important treatment approaches and will focus on the clinical dilemma of using psychotropic medications during breastfeeding. PMID:25545081

  10. Personality and risk for postpartum depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Iliadis, S I; Koulouris, P; Gingnell, M; Sylvén, S M; Sundström-Poromaa, I; Ekselius, L; Papadopoulos, F C; Skalkidou, A

    2015-06-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common childbirth complication, affecting 10-15 % of newly delivered mothers. This study aims to assess the association between personality factors and PPD. All pregnant women during the period September 2009 to September 2010, undergoing a routine ultrasound at Uppsala University Hospital, were invited to participate in the BASIC study, a prospective study designed to investigate maternal well-being. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) while the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) was used as a diagnostic tool for major depression. Personality traits were evaluated using the Swedish Universities Scale of Personality (SSP). One thousand thirty-seven non-depressed pregnant women were included in the study. Non-depressed women reporting high levels of neuroticism in late pregnancy were at high risk of developing postpartum depressive symptoms (PPDSs) at 6 weeks and 6 months after delivery, even after adjustment for confounders (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)?=?3.4, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.8-6.5 and adjusted odds ratio (aOR)?=?3.9, 95 % CI 1.9-7.9). The same was true for a DSRS-based diagnosis of major depression at 6 months postpartum. Somatic trait anxiety and psychic trait anxiety were associated with increased risk for PPDS at 6 weeks (aOR?=?2.1, 95 % CI 1.2-3.5 and aOR?=?1.9, 95 % CI 1.1-3.1), while high scores of mistrust were associated with a twofold increased risk for PPDS at 6 months postpartum (aOR 1.9, 95 % CI 1.1-3.4). Non-depressed pregnant women with high neuroticism scores have an almost fourfold increased risk to develop depressive symptoms postpartum, and the association remains robust even after controlling for most known confounders. Clinically, this could be of importance for health care professionals working with pregnant and newly delivered women. PMID:25369905

  11. Postpartum Period: Emotions

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  12. Bacteriological and cytological findings during the late puerperal period after two different treatments of retained placenta followed by acute puerperal metritis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of two acute puerperal metritis (APM) treatment protocols on uterine condition during the late puerperal period (5th to 7th week). Late gestation healthy cows (n = 21) were divided randomly in three equal groups. Parturitions were induced. Treatments of APM were started on the third day postpartum (PP). Group A was treated with an oxytocin analogue carbetocin for three days and intrauterine administration of cephapirin between days 15 and 17. Group B was given intramuscular injection of ceftiofur for five days followed by two injections of prostaglandin F2?, at an interval of 12 h, on the eighth day PP. Group C served as the control group with no treatment. Body temperature was recorded daily for 14 days PP. Uterine biopsies for bacteriology, and uterobrush samples for cytology, were taken once a week from the 5th to 7th week postpartum. No differences were found in body temperature on day 14 PP, presence of bacteriological infections and disappearance of uterine inflammatory signs diagnosed by cytological examination between experimental groups. PMID:20550666

  13. Bacteriological and cytological findings during the late puerperal period after two different treatments of retained placenta followed by acute puerperal metritis.

    PubMed

    Jeremejeva, Julia; Orro, Toomas; Valdmann, Merle; Kask, Kalle

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of two acute puerperal metritis (APM) treatment protocols on uterine condition during the late puerperal period (5th to 7th week). Late gestation healthy cows (n = 21) were divided randomly in three equal groups. Parturitions were induced. Treatments of APM were started on the third day postpartum (PP). Group A was treated with an oxytocin analogue carbetocin for three days and intrauterine administration of cephapirin between days 15 and 17. Group B was given intramuscular injection of ceftiofur for five days followed by two injections of prostaglandin F2alpha, at an interval of 12 h, on the eighth day PP. Group C served as the control group with no treatment. Body temperature was recorded daily for 14 days PP. Uterine biopsies for bacteriology, and uterobrush samples for cytology, were taken once a week from the 5th to 7th week postpartum. No differences were found in body temperature on day 14 PP, presence of bacteriological infections and disappearance of uterine inflammatory signs diagnosed by cytological examination between experimental groups. PMID:20550666

  14. Short term post-partum heat stress in dairy cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuquay, J. W.; Chapin, L. T.; Brown, W. H.

    1980-06-01

    Since many dairy cows calve during late summer, the objective was to determine if heat stress immediately post-partum would (1) alter metabolism, thus, increasing susceptibility to metabolic disorders, (2) affect lactation and/or (3) affect reproduction. Forty four cows, calving during late summer, were paired with one member of each pair stressed (HS) for the first 10 post-partum days in a hot barn. Controls (CC) were kept in a cooled section of the barn. Plasma drawn weekly for 7 weeks was analyzed in an autoanalyzer for calcium, inor. phosphorus, protein, glucose and cholesterol and by radioimmunoassay for cortisol and progesterone. Ovaries and uteri were palpated weekly. Rectal temperatures were significant higher for HS during the first 10 post-partum days. No significant effects on plasma constituents were observed during the 10-day treatment period. For the 7-week period, glucose and cholesterol were lower in HS, as were cyclic peaks of progesterone and cortisol. Both calcium and inorganic phosphorus remained clinically low for the 7 weeks, but no treatment effects were seen. Uteri of HS involuted more rapidly than the CC. Treatment did not affect reproductive efficiency. Lactation milk yields did not differ, but milk fat percent was lower in HS. Heat stress immediately post-partum altered lipid metabolism, but the animal's compensatory mechanisms prevented reduction in milk production or reproductive efficiency.

  15. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePLUS

    ... all forms of depression, postpartum depression creates a cloud of negative feelings and thoughts over a woman's ... her, her situation, and the future. Under the cloud of depression, a woman might see herself as ...

  16. Postpartum Depression Facts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... help? Where can I find more information? Postpartum Depression Facts Order a free hardcopy With postpartum depression, ... for herself or her family. What is postpartum depression? Postpartum depression is a mood disorder that can ...

  17. Sad dads: paternal postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pilyoung; Swain, James E

    2007-02-01

    The postpartum period is associated with many adjustments to fathers that pose risks for depression. Estimates of the prevalence of paternal postpartum depression (PPD) in the first two months postpartum vary in the postpartum period from 4 to 25 percent. Paternal PPD has high comorbidity with maternal PPD and might also be associated with other postpartum psychiatric disorders. Studies so far have only used diagnostic criteria for maternal PPD to investigate paternal PPD, so there is an urgent need to study the validity of these scales for men and develop accurate diagnostic tools for paternal PPD. Paternal PPD has negative impacts on family, including increasing emotional and behavioral problems among their children (either directly or through the mother) and increasing conflicts in the marital relationship. Changes in hormones, including testosterone, estrogen, cortisol, vasopressin, and prolactin, during the postpartum period in fathers may be biological risk factors in paternal PPD. Fathers who have ecological risk factors, such as excessive stress from becoming a parent, lack of social supports for parenting, and feeling excluded from mother-infant bonding, may be more likely to develop paternal PPD. Support from their partner, educational programs, policy for paid paternal leave, as well as consideration of psychiatric care may help fathers cope with stressful experiences during the postpartum period. PMID:20805898

  18. Postpartum changes in methadone maintenance dose.

    PubMed

    Pace, Christine A; Kaminetzky, Leah B; Winter, Michael; Cheng, Debbie M; Saia, Kelley; Samet, Jeffrey H; Walley, Alexander Y

    2014-09-01

    The optimal approach to postpartum dosing among women treated with methadone maintenance is unclear. We examined doses among 101 methadone-maintained pregnant women 2, 6 and 12 weeks postpartum, and compared the incidence of having doses held for oversedation during pregnancy and postpartum. The average dose at delivery was 83.3mg, and the mean change from delivery to 12 weeks postpartum was -3.7 mg (95% CI -6.3, -1.1). The incidence of oversedation events per 10,000 days was 2.8 among pregnant women and 5.6 for postpartum women (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 2.04, 95% CI 0.66, 6.28). After adjusting for benzodiazepine prescriptions, the IRR of an oversedation event among postpartum women compared to pregnant women was 1.74 (95% CI 0.56, 5.30). In conclusion, postpartum dose changes were small in a methadone clinic using clinical assessments to determine dose. Although the incidence of oversedation events remained low postpartum, the clinically important but not statistically significant increase in events among postpartum women and those prescribed benzodiazepines requires further research. While there are not yet adequate data to support pre-specified postpartum dose reductions, the findings suggest that more frequent clinical assessments continuing as late as 12 weeks postpartum may be warranted. PMID:24953167

  19. [The state of the adaptation system of women during the postpartum period under the influence of an industrial complex].

    PubMed

    Kulkybaev, G A; Diusembin, Kh D; Konkabaeva, A E

    2001-01-01

    The hormonal status was studied in the dynamics of postpartum stress in the puerperas who lived in the town of Balkhash under the influence of an industrial complex. The puerperas were found to show no pronounced adrenal cortical response to postpartum stress; there was monotony of changes in the content of dopa and dophamine and the levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline remained high on day 5 after delivery as compared with the controls. There were high levels of prolactin and cortisole, which suggests different stress levels in Balkhash females and in the controls. It can be assumed that chronic exposure to industrial noxious agents results in so-called cross resistance caused by one stressor (delivery) in relation to the effect of other-order (ecological) stressors rather than in depletion of the hormonal system. PMID:11519456

  20. Project MSSE: Maternal Sleep and Social Environment in the Short-Term Postpartum

    E-print Network

    Lillis, Teresa A.

    2015-08-31

    The postpartum period is a time of considerable excitement and joy for new mothers as well as stress and change. While the majority of postpartum research has been conducted during the first three postpartum months, less ...

  1. Modulation of post-partum reproductive performance in dairy cows through supplementation of long- or short-chain fatty acids during transition period.

    PubMed

    Ulfina, G G; Kimothi, S P; Oberoi, P S; Baithalu, R K; Kumaresan, A; Mohanty, T K; Imtiwati, P; Dang, A K

    2015-12-01

    Thirty-six cross-bred cows were used to study the effect of long-chain (flaxseed) or short-chain (butyric acid) fatty acid supplementation on metabolic status, ovarian function and reproduction performance during transition period. Control cows received a routine feed of transition diet, while the cows in two treatment groups were supplemented with either 750-g crushed flaxseed or 250 g butyric acid per cow per day. Ovarian activity was monitored by transrectal ultrasonography on 10th, 20th and 30th days post-partum. Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture into heparinized polystyrene tubes; plasma was prepared and stored under -20 °C until analysis. Results indicated that cows in flaxseed group were in positive energy balance as indicated by lower NEFA and Beta hydroxy Butyrate and higher glucose concentrations. Uterine involution was completed well within 30 days post-partum in all the cows in flaxseed fed group compared to 76.9% in butyric acid supplemented and 61.5% in control groups. The size of dominant follicle and corpus luteum was significantly higher (p < 0.05) for flaxseed group compared to control group, which in turn resulted in higher concentrations of plasma progesterone. Cows fed on diets supplemented with flaxseed exhibited post-partum heat earlier and bred sooner (p < 0.05) than control cows. It has been noticed that supplementation of flaxseed and butyric acid enhanced involution of uterus, early resumption of cyclicity and thereby early breeding. However, in view of the encouraging results obtained for flaxseed supplemented group, its organic nature and easier availability at farmer's gate, we concluded that flaxseed can be safely included in transition diet to modulate reproductive performance of dairy cattle. PMID:25879374

  2. Periods of activity cycles in late-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kliorin, N. I.; Ruzmaykin, A. A.; Sokolov, D. D.

    1983-01-01

    The mean magnetic field dynamo theory is utilized to obtain the qualitative dependence of the period of activity on the angular velocity of rotation for stars with sufficiently extensive convective shells. The dependence of the cycle period on the spectral class is also discussed.

  3. Saturated fat supplementation interacts with dietary forage neutral detergent fiber content during the immediate postpartum and carryover periods in Holstein cows: Production responses and digestibility of nutrients.

    PubMed

    Piantoni, P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S

    2015-05-01

    Forty-eight multiparous cows were used in a randomized complete block design experiment with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the interaction between a highly saturated free FA supplement (SFFA) and dietary forage neutral detergent fiber (fNDF) content on production responses and nutrient digestibility of dairy cows in the postpartum period. Treatment diets were offered from 1 to 29d postpartum (postpartum period; PP) and contained 20 or 26% fNDF (50:50 corn silage:alfalfa silage and hay, dry matter basis) and 0 or 2% SFFA [Energy Booster 100 (Milk Specialties Global, Eden Prairie, MN); 96.1% FA: 46.2% C18:0 and 37.0% C16:0]. From 30 to 71d postpartum (carryover period), a common diet (~23% fNDF, 0% SFFA) was offered to all cows to evaluate carryover effects of the treatment diets early in lactation. During the PP, higher fNDF decreased dry matter intake (DMI) by 2.0 kg/d, whereas SFFA supplementation increased it by 1.4kg/d. In addition, high fNDF with 0% SFFA decreased DMI compared with the other diets and this difference increased throughout the PP. Treatments did not affect 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield during the PP but did during the carryover period when SFFA supplementation decreased 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield for the low-fNDF diet (51.1 vs. 58.7kg/d), but not for the high-fNDF diet (58.5 vs. 58.0kg/d). During the PP, lower fNDF and SFFA supplementation decreased body condition score loss. A tendency for an interaction between fNDF and SFFA indicated that low fNDF with 2% SFFA decreased body condition score loss compared with the other diets (-0.49 vs. -0.89). During the PP, lower fNDF and 2% SFFA supplementation decreased feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk/DMI) by 0.30 and 0.23 units, respectively. The low-fNDF diet with 2% SFFA decreased feed efficiency compared with other diets early in the PP, but this difference decreased over time. Supplementation of SFFA in the PP favored energy partitioning to body reserves and limited DMI depression for the high-fNDF diet, which might allow higher-fNDF diets to be fed to cows in the PP. However, SFFA supplemented in the low-fNDF diet during the PP affected production negatively in the carryover period. Dietary fNDF and SFFA interacted, affecting performance in the PP with carryover effects when cows were fed a common diet in early lactation. PMID:25726102

  4. Blood Lead Changes during Pregnancy and Postpartum with Calcium Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Gulson, Brian L.; Mizon, Karen J.; Palmer, Jacqueline M.; Korsch, Michael J.; Taylor, Alan J.; Mahaffey, Kathryn R.

    2004-01-01

    Pregnancy and lactation are times of physiologic stress during which bone turnover is accelerated. Previous studies have demonstrated that there is increased mobilization of lead from the maternal skeleton at this time and that calcium supplementation may have a protective effect. Ten immigrants to Australia were provided with either calcium carbonate or a complex calcium supplement (~ 1 g/day) during pregnancy and for 6 months postpartum. Two immigrant subjects who did not conceive acted as controls. Sampling involved monthly venous blood samples throughout pregnancy and every 2 months postpartum, and quarterly environmental samples and 6-day duplicate diets. The geometric mean blood lead at the time of first sampling was 2.4 ?g/dL (range, 1.4–6.5). Increases in blood lead during the third trimester, corrected for hematocrit, compared with the minimum value observed, varied from 10 to 50%, with a geometric mean of 25%. The increases generally occurred at 6–8 months gestation, in contrast with that found for a previous cohort, characterized by very low calcium intakes, where the increases occurred at 3–6 months. Large increases in blood lead concentration were found during the postpartum period compared with those during pregnancy; blood lead concentrations increased by between 30 and 95% (geometric mean 65%; n = 8) from the minimum value observed during late pregnancy. From late pregnancy through postpartum, there were significant increases in the lead isotopic ratios from the minimum value observed during late pregnancy for 3 of 8 subjects (p < 0.01). The observed changes are considered to reflect increases in mobilization of lead from the skeleton despite calcium supplementation. The identical isotopic ratios in maternal and cord blood provide further confirmation of placental transfer of lead. The extra flux released from bone during late pregnancy and postpartum varies from 50 to 380 ?g lead (geometric mean, 145 ?g lead) compared with 330 ?g lead in the previous cohort. For subjects replete in calcium, the delay in increase in blood lead and halving of the extra flux released from bone during late pregnancy and postpartum may provide less lead exposure to the developing fetus and newly born infant. Nevertheless, as shown in several other studies on calcium relationships with bone turnover, calcium supplementation appears to provide limited benefit for lead toxicity during lactation. PMID:15531434

  5. ASSOCIATIONS AMONG CIRCULATING CONCENTRATIONS OF IGF-1 AND GH DURING THE POSTPARTUM PERIOD WITH RESUMPTION OF ESTRUS, CALF WEIGHTS, AND MILK PRODUCTION IN MATURE CROSSBRED COWS FED VARYING LEVELS OF ENERGY INTAKE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Circulating concentrations of IGF-1 and GH fluctuate in response to nutritional status. Objectives of this study were to evaluate usefulness of circulating profiles of IGF-1 and GH during the postpartum period as predictors of capacity to resume estrus and level of production (milk and calf growth)...

  6. Saturated fat supplementation interacts with dietary forage neutral detergent fiber content during the immediate postpartum period in Holstein cows: Energy balance and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Piantoni, P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S

    2015-05-01

    Forty-eight multiparous cows were used in a randomized complete block design experiment with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the interaction between a highly saturated free FA supplement (SFFA) and dietary forage NDF (fNDF) content on energy balance and metabolic responses in postpartum cows. Treatment diets were offered from 1 to 29 d postpartum and contained 20 or 26% fNDF and 0 or 2% SFFA (Energy Booster 100; 96.1% FA: 46.2% C18:0, and 37.0% C16:0). Overall, low fNDF versus high fNDF and 2% SFFA versus 0% SFFA increased digestible energy intake (DEI; 67.5 vs. 62.2 Mcal/d and 68.1 vs. 61.6 Mcal/d, respectively). The low fNDF diet with SFFA increased energy balance compared with the other treatments early during the treatment period, but treatment differences diminished over time. Overall, low fNDF versus high fNDF diets and 2% SFFA versus 0% SFFA improved energy balance (-13.0 vs. -16.3 Mcal/d and -12.0 vs. -17.3, respectively) decreasing efficiency of utilization of DEI for milk (milk NEL/DEI; 0.575 vs. 0.634 and 0.565 vs. 0.643). Low fNDF diets increased plasma insulin (308 vs. 137µg/mL) and glucose concentrations (50.5 vs. 45.7mg/dL) and decreased plasma nonesterified FA (606 vs. 917µEq/L) and ?-hydroxybutyrate (9.29 vs. 16.5mg/dL) concentrations and liver triglyceride content. Compared with 0% SFFA, 2% SFFA decreased plasma nonesterified FA concentration during the first week postpartum (706 vs. 943µEq/L) and tended to decrease plasma nonesterified FA overall throughout the treatment period, but did not affect liver triglyceride content. During a glucose tolerance test, 2% SFFA increased plasma insulin concentration more in the low fNDF diet (84.5 vs. 44.6µIU/mL) than in the high fNDF diet (40.4 vs. 38.0µIU/mL). After glucose infusion, 2% SFFA increased insulin area under the curve by 64% when included in the low fNDF diet, but only by 5.2% when included in the high fNDF diet. Even though 2% SFFA did not affect weekly plasma insulin concentration, it increased plasma insulin baseline concentration before the tolerance tests. Supplementation of 2% SFFA and low fNDF diets increased DEI and improved energy balance, but decreased apparent efficiency of utilization of DEI for milk production. Fat supplementation affected energy partitioning, increasing energy balance and decreasing body condition score loss, especially in the lower fNDF diet. The decrease in body condition score loss observed was likely related to an increase in plasma insulin concentration. Feeding SFFA in a low fNDF diet during the first 29 d postpartum might have primed the cows to limit fat mobilization at the expense of milk. PMID:25726097

  7. The Association of Cytokines and Micronutrients with Hepatitis E Virus Infection During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period in Rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Kmush, Brittany L; Labrique, Alain; Li, Wei; Klein, Sabra L; Schulze, Kerry; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Ali, Hasmot; Engle, Ronald E; Wu, Lee; Purcell, Robert H; Mehra, Sucheta; Christian, Parul; West, Keith; Nelson, Kenrad

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is severe during pregnancy, with a pregnant case fatality rate around 30%. In Bangladesh, plasma samples from 1,100 women during the first trimester (TM) and third TM of pregnancy and 3 months postpartum (PP) were tested for anti-HEV IgG. During this time, 40 women developed antibody responses to HEV. These seroconverters are classified as the cases (incidence = 46 infections per 1,000 person-years). All except one seroconversion occurred between the third TM and 3 months PP. The cases and 40 matched non-seroconverters (controls) underwent analysis of a panel of 10 cytokines, 12 vitamins and minerals, and two markers of inflammation. Throughout pregnancy, seroconverting cases displayed higher concentrations of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines compared with the non-seroconverting controls, even prior to infection. In the first TM, seroconverters had lower circulating zinc concentrations (P = 0.03), an increased prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)2D] < 50 nmol/L, P = 0.08), and anemia (hemoglobin < 110 g/L, P = 0.05) compared with controls. There were no differences in C-reactive protein or ?-1-acid glycoprotein. Antecedent micronutrient deficiencies may lead to dysregulated cytokine expression and immunologic compromise, increasing the risk of HEV infection, especially during pregnancy. This exploratory analysis reveals potential novel associations that deserve further study. PMID:26621563

  8. Rates of change and chronolgical problems during the late-glacial period

    SciTech Connect

    Lotter, A.F.; Sturm, M.; Ammann, B.

    1992-01-01

    Results of high-resolution AMS {sup 14}C dating of terrestrial plant macrofossils from late-glacial and early-Holocene lake deposits in Switzerland show three periods with constant radiocarbon ages. These plateaux of constant age occur at 12700, 10000, and 9500 y BP. A comparison of this radiocarbon chronology with a varve chronology documents discrepancies between the sidereal and the radiocarbon time-scale for the late-glacial period. The age-plateaux and the time-scale discrepancies have a significant impact on the estimation of rates of change during this period; estimates of rates of change can be very misleading if calculated on the basis of radiocarbon ages. This is illustrated by an example of estimated rates of late-glacial and early Holocene palynological change in Switzerland. 33 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 is downregulated and its expression is shifted from neurons to astrocytes in the mouse lateral septum during the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Changjiu; Gammie, Stephen C

    2015-06-01

    The inhibitory metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (mGluR3) plays diverse and complex roles in brain function, including synaptic plasticity and neurotransmission. We recently found that mGluR3 is downregulated in the lateral septum (LS) of postpartum females using microarray and qPCR analysis. In this study, we used double fluorescence immunohistochemical approaches to characterize mGluR3 changes in LS of the postpartum brain. The number of mGluR3-immunoractive cells was significantly reduced in the dorsal (LSD) and intermediate (LSI) but not ventral (LSV) parts of the LS in postpartum versus virgin females. mGluR3 immunoreactivity in the LS was found predominantly in neurons (~70%), with a smaller portion (~20%-30%) in astrocytes. Colocalization analysis revealed a reduced mGluR3 expression in neurons but an increased astrocytic localization in postpartum LSI. This change in the pattern of expression suggests that mGluR3 expression is shifted from neurons to astrocytes in postpartum LS, and the decrease in mGluR3 is neuron-specific. Because mGluR3 is inhibitory and negatively regulates glutamate and GABA release, decreases in neuronal expression would increase glutamate and GABA signaling. Given our recent finding that ~90% of LS neurons are GABAergic, the present data suggest that decreases in mGluR3 are a mechanism for elevated GABA in LS in the postpartum state. PMID:25739438

  10. Maternal stress predicts postpartum weight retention.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Kara; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Vernon, Marlo; Wilcox, Sara

    2014-11-01

    Postpartum weight retention (PPWR) is a significant contributor to the development of overweight and obesity in women of childbearing age. Stress may be a key mechanism making it more difficult for mothers to lose weight in the year following delivery. The aim of this study was to assess whether specific aspects of parenting stress and life stress influence postpartum weight retention in new mothers. Women in late pregnancy or up to 2 months postpartum (n = 123) were enrolled in the study and followed through the first year postpartum. Linear regression models evaluated the associations of parenting stress (isolation, attachment and depressive symptoms) as well as overall life stress at 2, 6, and 12 months postpartum with PPWR at 6 and 12 months. During the first year postpartum, higher depression and life stress were significantly associated with greater PPWR. As the effect of depression diminished, the effect of life stress became significant. Contrary to hypothesized relationships, fewer problems with attachment and less social isolation were significantly associated with greater PPWR. Higher gestational weight gain and African American race were also significantly associated with greater PPWR at both 6 and 12 months. Different types of stress predict weight retention in first time mothers during the first year postpartum. Understanding the relationships between parenting stress, concurrent life stress and PPWR can enhance the development of future interventions that specifically target self-identified stressors, leading to improved weight related outcomes. PMID:24760321

  11. Maternal Stress Predicts Postpartum Weight Retention

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Kara; Vernon, Marlo; Wilcox, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Postpartum weight retention (PPWR) is a significant contributor to the development of overweight and obesity in women of childbearing age. Stress may be a key mechanism making it more difficult for mothers to lose weight in the year following delivery. The aim of this study was to assess whether specific aspects of parenting stress and life stress influence postpartum weight retention in new mothers. Women in late pregnancy or up to 2 months postpartum (n = 123) were enrolled in the study and followed through the first year postpartum. Linear regression models evaluated the associations of parenting stress (isolation, attachment and depressive symptoms) as well as overall life stress at 2, 6, and 12 months postpartum with PPWR at 6 and 12 months. During the first year postpartum, higher depression and life stress were significantly associated with greater PPWR. As the effect of depression diminished, the effect of life stress became significant. Contrary to hypothesized relationships, fewer problems with attachment and less social isolation were significantly associated with greater PPWR. Higher gestational weight gain and African American race were also significantly associated with greater PPWR at both 6 and 12 months. Different types of stress predict weight retention in first time mothers during the first year postpartum. Understanding the relationships between parenting stress, concurrent life stress and PPWR can enhance the development of future interventions that specifically target self-identified stressors, leading to improved weight related outcomes. PMID:24760321

  12. Use of Postpartum Care: Predictors and Barriers

    PubMed Central

    DiBari, Jessica N.; Yu, Stella M.; Chao, Shin M.; Lu, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify actual and perceived barriers to postpartum care among a probability sample of women who gave birth in Los Angeles County, California in 2007. Survey data from the 2007 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) study (N = 4,075) were used to identify predictors and barriers to postpartum care use. The LAMB study was a cross-sectional, population-based study that examined maternal and child health outcomes during the preconception, prenatal, and postpartum periods. Multivariable analyses identified low income, being separated/divorced and never married, trying hard to get pregnant or trying to prevent pregnancy, Medi-Cal insurance holders, and lack of prenatal care to be risk factors of postpartum care nonuse, while Hispanic ethnicity was protective. The most commonly reported barriers to postpartum care use were feeling fine, being too busy with the baby, having other things going on, and a lack of need. Findings from this study can inform the development of interventions targeting subgroups at risk for not obtaining postpartum care. Community education and improved access to care can further increase the acceptability of postpartum visits and contribute to improvements in women's health. Postpartum care can serve as a gateway to engage underserved populations in the continuum of women's health care. PMID:24693433

  13. Postpartum Depression Action Plan

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Postpartum Depression | Postpartum Depression Action Plan Patient __________________________ Physician/NP/PA __________________ Clinic ____________________________ Phone Number ____________________ Choose one area and add other areas as you begin to ...

  14. Metabolic and reproductive status are not improved from 11 to 25 day post-partum in non-weaned primiparous rabbit does.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Garcia, R M; Sakr, O G; Arias-Alvarez, M; Velasco, B; Lorenzo, P L; Rebollar, P G

    2012-03-01

    The aim of present work was to analyze the body reserves and ovarian features of lactating primiparous rabbit does under extensive reproductive management (artificial insemination (AI) at 25 days post-partum (dpp)) compared with the common insemination rhythm at 11 dpp. A total of 48 primiparous Californian×New Zealand White rabbit does suckling 8 kits were used to assess liveweight, estimated body composition, serum metabolic and endocrine parameters (oestradiol and progesterone concentrations) and ovarian features like follicle population and atresia rate, and oocyte maturation. Rabbit does were randomly allocated in two experimental groups: (a) lactating does euthanized at early post-partum period (11 dpp) according to a semi-intensive rhythm (n=24), and (b) lactating does euthanized at later post-partum period (25 dpp) according to a more extensive rhythm (n=24). Liveweight, body energy content, lipid depots and serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations decreased from parturition to post-partum period (P<0.05). In addition, serum protein and glucose concentrations increased in the post-partum period (P<0.05). Similar oestradiol and progesterone levels were found in rhythms as well as similar follicle population and nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation rates measured as metaphase II and cortical granule migration, respectively in both post-partum times. However, the number of preovulatory follicles on the ovarian surface was lower (P<0.05) and the atresia rate tended to be higher with a lower percentage of healthy follicles (P<0.1) in ovaries from females of extensive group. In conclusion, the body reserves, serum metabolic parameters and oocyte quality of primiparous non-weaned rabbits does at the late post-partum time (25 days) were not improved. Thus this reproductive management did not present any advantages compared to earlier post-partum (11 days) reproductive rhythm. PMID:22445611

  15. Postpartum Depression: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Angela

    1993-01-01

    Occurring in about 12 percent of postpartum women, postpartum depression has been focus of considerable research. Variables that have been correlated with postpartum depression range from biological causes, to lack of social support, to relationship with husband, to attributional styles, to psychodynamic explanations. There is need for more…

  16. Effects of feeding wheat straw or orchardgrass at ad libitum or restricted intake during the dry period on postpartum performance and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Litherland, N B; Weich, W D; Hansen, W P; Linn, J G

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of forage source [wheat straw (WS) or orchardgrass hay (OG)] and total amount of diet dry matter fed [ad libitum or restricted to 70% of predicted dry matter intake (DMI)] prepartum on postpartum performance. The study design was a 2×2 factorial design with 10 cows per treatment. Treatments were WS total mixed ration (TMR) ad libitum, OG TMR ad libitum, WS TMR restricted, and OG TMR restricted. The WS TMR (dry matter basis) contained 30% WS, 20.7% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 18.2% ground corn, 16.8% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses mineral mix (14.7% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 37.0% neutral detergent fiber). The OG TMR contained 30% OG, 46.2% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 9.5% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses (14.2% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 41.0% neutral detergent fiber). Cows received 1 lactation diet after calving (17.7% CP, 1.6 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 27.3% neutral detergent fiber). Total diet DMI prepartum was higher for ad libitum than for restricted as designed, but forage source had no effect on DMI. Total tract apparent digestibilities of DM and NDF were greater for OG than for WS. Postpartum DMI expressed as a percentage of body weight for the first week of lactation was higher for ad libitum than for restricted diets. Postpartum DMI during the first 30 d of lactation was higher for OG than for WS, but no effect was observed for the amount fed prepartum. Milk yield during the first week of lactation was higher for OG than for WS; however, during the first 30 d, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield and yield of milk fat were highest for OG TMR restricted and WS TMR ad libitum. Prepartum treatments had a limited effect on pre- and postpartum lipid metabolism; however, cows fed WS TMR ad libitum had the highest postpartum ?-hydroxybutyrate. Eating behavior was observed by 10-min video scans of 24-h video surveillance for 5d pre- and postpartum. Prepartum eating time and eating bouts tended to be greater by WS than for OG, and postpartum eating time per kilogram of neutral detergent fiber intake tended to be greater for WS than for OG. Results indicate that forage source and amount of DM fed prepartum affected postpartum performance and tended to alter the behavior of cows in tie-stall barns. PMID:23040018

  17. Postpartum services for adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Cartoof, V G

    1978-12-01

    The Crittenton Hastings House of the Florence Crittenton League, located in Boston's Brighton area has been serving inner-city teenage pregnant women in a day program since early 1973. The program's 400 or so young women are characterized as typically Black; 16 year old; resident of an inner-city neighborhood of Boston; and a 10th-grade public high school student at time of conception. Most come from welfare families, and most confessed that the pregnancy was unintended. The program aims to reach the young woman who traditionally drops out of school upon learning of her pregnancy; does not seek medical care until late in pregnancy; and rarely receives social services during this critical and stressful period. Program financing comes from the Massachusetts Dept. of Public Welfare; from private foundations; contributions; income from investments; and endowment funds. Program findings show that almost 80% of the mothers return to school soon after delivery, and 67% plan to continue education in a career school or college. Academic goals tend to be higher following program participation. 69% of the girls report using birth control devices after delivery. However, almost half of the mothers drop out of school and experience 1 more unintended pregnancy after 2 years of program participation. These alarming figures support similar findings in research conducted across the country and suggest that the benefits of a service program that ends at delivery are short-lived. Thus, a followup project was designed to change the statistics on school dropout and repeat pregnancy by extending services well into the postpartum period. Details of the followup project are described. Although the followup project is less than a year old, statistical and narrative records show that such intervention works, and that services must be offered aggressively even before they are asked for by the young mothers. PMID:738141

  18. Development of a Postpartum Stressor Measure.

    PubMed

    Park, E R; Psaros, C; Traeger, L; Stagg, A; Jacquart, J; Willett, J; Alert, M D; LaRoche, K L; Ecker, J L

    2015-10-01

    To develop a brief self-report assessment of the type and magnitude of stressors during the postpartum period. A cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of 138 women at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, MA completed a measure of postpartum stressors at their 6-week postpartum visit. Item analyses were conducted; items were eliminated based on low relevance, low endorsement, and cross-loadings, resulting in a 9-item measure. Items were summed to create a total postpartum stressors score. To establish concurrent validity with perceived stress, the total postpartum stressors score was correlated with the 4-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4). The stressors score was tested for bivariate associations with depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-2) and with social support (three items adapted from the MOS Social Support Scale). The 9-item measure, which was comprised of three factors (baby care, well-being, and work) demonstrated good reliability (Cronbach's ? = .74) and concurrent validity with the PSS-4 (r = .53; p < .001) in the current sample. The stressors total score was negatively associated with social support (p < .001) and was positively associated with depression symptoms (p < .001). The early psychometric results on this measure are promising and associated with postpartum social support and depressive symptoms. With additional research to enhance external validity, this measure could be used and tested in an intervention study at the 6-week postpartum visit to identify women at risk for distress. PMID:25682113

  19. Origin of the cataclysmic Late Heavy Bombardment period of the terrestrial planets.

    PubMed

    Gomes, R; Levison, H F; Tsiganis, K; Morbidelli, A

    2005-05-26

    The petrology record on the Moon suggests that a cataclysmic spike in the cratering rate occurred approximately 700 million years after the planets formed; this event is known as the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB). Planetary formation theories cannot naturally account for an intense period of planetesimal bombardment so late in Solar System history. Several models have been proposed to explain a late impact spike, but none of them has been set within a self-consistent framework of Solar System evolution. Here we propose that the LHB was triggered by the rapid migration of the giant planets, which occurred after a long quiescent period. During this burst of migration, the planetesimal disk outside the orbits of the planets was destabilized, causing a sudden massive delivery of planetesimals to the inner Solar System. The asteroid belt was also strongly perturbed, with these objects supplying a significant fraction of the LHB impactors in accordance with recent geochemical evidence. Our model not only naturally explains the LHB, but also reproduces the observational constraints of the outer Solar System. PMID:15917802

  20. Management of Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Guille, Constance; Newman, Roger; Fryml, Leah D.; Lifton, Clay K.; Epperson, C. Neill

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum depression, now termed peripartum depression by the DSM-V, is one of the most common complications in the postpartum period and has potentially significant negative consequences for mothers and their families. This article highlights common clinical challenges in the treatment of peripartum depression and reviews the evidence for currently available treatment options. Psychotherapy is the first-line treatment options for women with mild-to-moderate peripartum depression. Antidepressant medication in combination with therapy is recommended for women with moderate-to-severe depression. While pooled case reports and small controlled studies have demonstrated undetectable infant serum levels and no short-term adverse events in infants of mothers breastfeeding while taking sertraline (Zoloft) and paroxetine (Paxil), further research is needed including larger samples and long-term follow-up of infants exposed to antidepressants via breastfeeding with control for maternal depression. Pharmacological treatment recommendations in women who are lactating must include discussion with the patient regarding the benefits of breastfeeding, risks of antidepressant use during lactation and risks of untreated illness. There is a growing evidence base for non-pharmacological interventions including repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) which may offer an attractive option for women who wish to continue to breastfeed and are concerned about exposure of medication to their infant. Among severe cases of peripartum depression with psychosis referral to a psychiatrist or psychiatric APRN is warranted. Suicidal or homicidal ideation with a desire, intent or plan to harm oneself or anyone one else, including the infant, is a psychiatric emergency, and an evaluation by a mental health professional should be conducted immediately. Peripartum depression treatment research is limited by small samples sizes and few controlled studies. Much work is still needed to better understand which treatments women prefer and are the most effective in ameliorating the symptoms and disease burden associated with peripartum depression. PMID:24131708

  1. Subantarctic Pacific hiatuses as clues to periods of enhanced oceanic circulation during the late Neogene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waddell, L. M.; Hendy, I. L.; Moore, T. C.; Lyle, M. W.

    2009-12-01

    New stable isotope records from cores MV0502-4JC (50°20’S, 148°08’W, 4286m), ELT 25-11 (50°02’S, 127°31’W, 3969m), and ELT 20-11 (49°00’S, 144°50’W, 4517 m) obtained in close proximity to the Subantarctic Front in the southeast Pacific show a consistent pattern of hiatuses that could be related to late Neogene changes in the strength of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). These subantarctic Pacific records show three hiatuses that we have dated to 1) the early Pliocene-early late Pliocene, 2) ~1.57-0.68 Ma, and 3) ~0.53-0.19 Ma. These hiatuses correspond well with the timing of the Pliocene Warm Period and the climatic transitions of the Mid-Pleistocene Revolution and the Mid-Brunhes, as well as with periods of reduced or non-deposition on the Maurice Ewing Bank, also located in the path of the ACC (Ciesielski, 1982). Interestingly, sediment cores recovered from regions outside of the ACC that experience significant bottom water flow (e.g. fracture zones and the western margins of continents), including the Vema Channel (Ledbetter et al., 1978), the South Australia Basin (Ledbetter, 1981), and the continental margin of Northwest Africa (Stein et al., 1986), also show intervals of reduced or non-deposition that correlate well with the timing of hiatuses in the subantarctic Pacific. This correlation could indicate that the Pliocene Warm Period and the climatic transitions of the Mid-Pleistocene Revolution and Mid-Brunhes were characterized not only by a more vigourous ACC but also by a stronger and more globally-distributed overturning circulation than the present day.

  2. Psychiatric consultation to the postpartum mother.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Eleanor A; Kim, Deborah R

    2015-04-01

    The immediate postpartum period is a time of acute vulnerability to mental illness, which presents unique challenges for the psychiatric consultant. Because the postpartum hospital stay is typically brief, the consultant must have a working knowledge of postpartum physiology and the myriad forms of mental illness that may emerge in this vulnerable time, in order to quickly make a diagnosis and formulate a treatment plan. This review aims to characterize the most common reasons for postpartum consultation, review postpartum physiology and psychiatric conditions, and propose an evidence-based, practical approach to treatment. A literature search using the terms "postpartum," "obstetric," "consultation," and "psychiatry" yielded six studies that identified reasons for psychiatric consultation to the obstetrics and gynecology services. These studies informed the structure of the article such that we review the most common reasons for consultation and how to approach each issue. The most common reason for consultation is past psychiatric history, often in the absence of current symptoms. For each clinical situation, including depression, adverse birth events, and psychosis, we present a differential diagnosis, as well as risk factors, clinical signs, and recommended treatment. PMID:25764006

  3. Factors Influencing Physical Activity among Postpartum Iranian Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roozbahani, Nasrin; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Eftekhar Ardabili, Hassan; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postpartum women are a population at risk for sedentary living. Physical activity (PA) prior to pregnancy may be effective in predicting similar behaviour in the postpartum period. Objective: To test a composite version of the extended transtheoretical model (TTM) by adding "past behaviour" in order to predict PA behaviour…

  4. Discovery of a short-necked sauropod dinosaur from the Late Jurassic period of Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Rauhut, Oliver W M; Remes, Kristian; Fechner, Regina; Cladera, Gerardo; Puerta, Pablo

    2005-06-01

    Sauropod dinosaurs are one of the most conspicuous groups of Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrates. They show general trends towards an overall increase in size and elongation of the neck, by means of considerable elongation of the length of individual vertebrae and a cervical vertebra count that, in some cases, increases to 19 (ref. 1). The long neck is a particular hallmark of sauropod dinosaurs and is usually regarded as a key feeding adaptation. Here we describe a new dicraeosaurid sauropod, from the latest Jurassic period of Patagonia, that has a particularly short neck. With a neck that is about 40% shorter than in other known dicraeosaurs, this taxon demonstrates a trend opposite to that seen in most sauropods and indicates that the ecology of dicraeosaurids might have differed considerably from that of other sauropods. The new taxon indicates that there was a rapid radiation and dispersal of dicraeosaurids in the Late Jurassic of the Southern Hemisphere, after the separation of Gondwana from the northern continents by the late Middle Jurassic. PMID:15931221

  5. Postpartum Depression and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Lynne, Ed.; Cooper, Peter J., Ed.

    Only recently has the research on postpartum depression dealt with the disorder's effects on child development. This book explores the impact of postpartum depression on mother-infant interaction and child development, its treatment, and postpartum psychosis. The chapters are: (1) "The Nature of Postpartum Depressive Disorders" (Michael O'Hara);…

  6. Postpartum and Post-Abortion Contraception: From Research to Programs.

    PubMed

    Shah, Iqbal H; Santhya, K G; Cleland, John

    2015-12-01

    Contraception following delivery or an induced abortion reduces the risk of an early unintended pregnancy and its associated adverse health consequences. Unmet need for contraception during the postpartum period and contraceptive counseling and services following abortion have been the focus of efforts for the last several decades. This article provides an introduction to the more focused contributions that follow in this special issue. We discuss the validity and measurement of the concept of unmet need for family planning during the postpartum period. We then present key findings on postpartum contraceptive protection, use dynamics, and method mix, followed by an assessment of interventions to improve postpartum family planning. The evidence on postabortion contraceptive uptake and continuation of use remains thin, although encouraging results are noted for implementation of comprehensive abortion care and for the impact of post-abortion contraceptive counseling and services. Drawing on these studies, we outline policy and program implications for improving postpartum and post-abortion contraceptive use. PMID:26643486

  7. Effects of assisted reproductive technology and of women's quality of life on depressive symptoms in the early postpartum period: a prospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Monti, Fiorella; Agostini, Francesca; Paterlini, Marcella; Andrei, Federica; De Pascalis, Leonardo; Palomba, Stefano; La Sala, Giovanni Battista

    2015-05-01

    This study explored the influence of both assisted reproductive technology (ART) and reduced quality of life (QoL) during pregnancy on postpartum blues (PPB). Sixty-three sub-fertile patients who conceived through ART and 72 women who naturally conceived were enrolled in this prospective study. At 22nd and 32nd gestational weeks, women completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Short-Form 36 (SF-36), to investigate depressive symptoms and QoL, respectively; EPDS was again used at 15 days after birth to assess PPB. At both time points, higher EPDS scores and lower mental well-being scores (SF-36) significantly predicted PPB. The number of previous ART cycles emerged as the strongest predictor, whereas no significant effect was observed for the conceiving method. The results suggest the usefulness of assessing QoL during pregnancy and considering previous ART failures in preventing PPB. PMID:25625377

  8. Maternal Deworming Research Study (MADRES) protocol: a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised trial to determine the effectiveness of deworming in the immediate postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Mofid, Layla S; Casapía, Martín; Montresor, Antonio; Rahme, Elham; Fraser, William D; Marquis, Grace S; Vercruysse, Jozef; Allen, Lindsay H; Gyorkos, Theresa W

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Soil-transmitted helminth infections are endemic in 114 countries worldwide, and cause the highest burden of disease among all neglected tropical diseases. The WHO includes women of reproductive age as a high-risk group for infection. The primary consequence of infection in this population is anaemia. During lactation, anaemia may contribute to reduced quality and quantity of milk, decreasing the duration of exclusive breastfeeding and lowering the age at weaning. To date, no study has investigated the effects of maternal postpartum deworming on infant or maternal health outcomes. Methods and analysis A single-centre, parallel, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial will be carried out in Iquitos, Peru, to assess the effectiveness of integrating single-dose 400?mg albendazole into routine maternal postpartum care. A total of 1010 mother-infant pairs will be randomised to either the intervention or control arm, following inhospital delivery and prior to discharge. Participants will be visited in their homes at 1, 6, 12 and 24?months following delivery for outcome ascertainment. The primary outcome is infant mean weight gain between birth and 6?months of age. Secondary outcomes include other infant growth indicators and morbidity, maternal soil-transmitted helminth infection and intensity, anaemia, fatigue, and breastfeeding practices. All statistical analyses will be performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Ethics and dissemination Research ethics board approval has been obtained from the McGill University Health Centre (Canada), the Asociación Civil Impacta Salud y Educación (Peru) and the Instituto Nacional de Salud (Peru). A data safety and monitoring committee is in place to oversee study progression and evaluate adverse events. The results of the analyses will be published in peer-reviewed journals, and presented at national and international conferences. Trial registration number Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01748929. PMID:26084556

  9. Fossil embryos from the Middle and Late Cambrian period of Hunan, south China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xi-Ping; Donoghue, Philip C J; Cheng, Hong; Liu, Jian-Bo

    2004-01-15

    Comparative embryology is integral to uncovering the pattern and process of metazoan phylogeny, but it relies on the assumption that life histories of living taxa are representative of their antecedents. Fossil embryos provide a crucial test of this assumption and, potentially, insight into the evolution of development, but because discoveries so far lack phylogenetic constraint, their significance is moot. Here we describe a collection of embryos from the Middle and Late Cambrian period (500 million years ago) of Hunan, south China, that preserves stages of development from cleavage to the pre-hatching embryo of a direct-developing animal comparable to living Scalidophora (phyla Priapulida, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera). The latest-stage embryos show affinity to the Lower Cambrian embryo Markuelia, whose life-history strategy contrasts both with the primitive condition inferred for metazoan phyla and with many proposed hypotheses of affinity, all of which prescribe indirect development. Phylogenetic tests based on these embryological data suggest a stem Scalidophora affinity. These discoveries corroborate, rather than contradict, the predictions of comparative embryology, providing direct historical support for the view that the life-history strategies of living taxa are representative of their stem lineages. PMID:14724636

  10. Postpartum depression in the absence of lactation: an evolutionary perspective 

    E-print Network

    Peyton, Kelly J

    1996-01-01

    between the hormonal profiles of women in Western and non-Western countries. Specifically, the activity of oxytocin, a neurohormone released during parturition and lactation, is reduced in the postpartum period in mothers who do not breastfeed. Because...

  11. Ecosystem responses during Late Glacial period recorded in the sediments of Lake ?ukie (East Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawiska, Izabela; S?owi?ski, Micha?; Correa-Metrio, Alex; Obremska, Milena; Luoto, Tomi; Nevalainen, Liisa; Woszczyk, Micha?; Milecka, Krystyna

    2014-05-01

    The main objectives of this study was to reconstruct climate impact on the functioning of Lake ?ukie and its catchment (??czna W?odawa Lake District, East European Plain) during Late Glacial period. In order to reconstruct climatic fluctuations and corresponding ecosystem responses, we analysed lake sediments for pollen, subfossil Cladocera, plant macrofossils and chemical composition of the sediment. Of these, plant macrofossils and Cladocera were used to infer minimum and mean July temperatures and ordination analysis was used to examine biotic community shifts. Multiproxy analyses of late-glacial sediments of Lake ?ukie clearly show that the main driver of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems as well as geomorphological processes in the catchment was climate variation. The history of the lake initiated during the Older Dryas. In that period, ??czna W?odawa Lake District was covered by open habitats dominated by grasses (Poaceae), humid sites were occupied by tundra plant communities with less clubmoss (Selaginella selaginoides), dry sites by dominated by steppe-like vegetation with light-demanding species such as Helianthemum, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, and juniper bushes (Juniperus). Cold climate limited the growth and development of organisms in the lake, Cladocera community species composition was poor, with only few species present there all the time. During this time period, permafrost was still present in the ground limiting infiltration of rainwater and causing high erosion in the catchment area. Surface runoff is confirmed by the presence of sclerotia of Cenococcum geophilum and high terrigenous silica content. The warming of the early Allerød caused a remarkable change in the natural environment of this area. This is in accordance with the temperature rise reconstructed with the use of plant macrofossils though the Cladocera reconstruction did not recorded the rise than. This temperature increase resulted in turnover of vegetation in the catchment of Lake ?ukie, pioneer birch-pine forests dominated, later replaced by pine-birch forests. Consequently this limited the erosion. The results of all proxy suggest the water-lever rise in lake ?ukie. The Younger Dryas cooling in the region began about 12 630 14C years BP and recorded in significant drop in temperature reconstructed with plant macrofossils and Cladocera. The cooling resulted in a decline of forest communities and development of open habitats with grasses (Poaceae), Artemisia, and Chenopodiaceae), as well as juniper thickets (Juniperus) At the end of the Younger Dryas, plant communities changed, the non-arborescent pollen declined, while pollen of trees (especially Pinus) became more abundant. This change was more abruptly reflected in Cladocera and aquatic pollen results and is probably related to gradual climate warming. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute ICLEA (Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis) funded by the Helmholtz Association, projects UMO-2011/01/B/ST10/07367 and N N306 036436 founded by National Science Center, Poland.

  12. A Sensitive Period for Language in the Visual Cortex: Distinct Patterns of Plasticity in Congenitally versus Late Blind Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedny, Marina; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Dravida, Swethasri; Saxe, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that blindness enables visual circuits to contribute to language processing. We examined whether this dramatic functional plasticity has a sensitive period. BOLD fMRI signal was measured in congenitally blind, late blind (blindness onset 9-years-old or later) and sighted participants while they performed a sentence…

  13. Maternal Postpartum Role Collapse as a Theory of Postpartum Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amankwaa, Linda Clark

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development of a theory of maternal postpartum role collapse. The influences of traditional role theory and symbolic interactionism are presented. The development of the maternal postpartum role collapse theory emerged from the study of postpartum depression among African-American women (Amankwaa, 2000).…

  14. Comparative Efficacy of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item Scale and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale as Screening Tools for Generalized Anxiety Disorder in Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, William; Glazer, Melanie; Michalski, Natalie; Steiner, Meir; Frey, Benicio N

    2014-01-01

    Objective: About 24.1% of pregnant women suffer from at least 1 anxiety disorder, 8.5% of whom suffer specifically from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). GAD is often associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). During the perinatal period, the presence of physical and somatic symptoms often makes differentiation between depression and anxiety more challenging. To date, no screening tools have been developed to detect GAD in the perinatal population. We investigated the psychometric properties of the GAD 7-item Scale (GAD-7) as a screening tool for GAD in pregnant and postpartum women. Methods: Two hundred and forty perinatal women (n = 155 pregnant and n = 85 postpartum) referred for psychiatric consultation were enrolled. On the day of initial assessment, all women completed the GAD-7 and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition–based diagnoses were made by experienced psychiatrists. Scores from the GAD-7 and EPDS were compared with the clinical diagnoses to evaluate the psychometric properties of the GAD-7 and EPDS when used as a screening tool for GAD. Results: The GAD-7 yielded a sensitivity of 61.3% and specificity of 72.7% at an optimal cut-off score of 13. Compared with the EPDS and the EPDS-3A subscale, the GAD-7 displayed greater accuracy and specificity over a greater range of cut-off scores and more accurately identified GAD in patients with comorbid MDD. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the GAD-7 represents a clinically useful scale for the detection of GAD in perinatal women. PMID:25161068

  15. Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy occurring postpartum.

    PubMed

    Dehdashti, Alma L; Wikas, Schield M

    2015-06-01

    Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy (PUPPP)(also known as polymorphic eruption of pregnancy in Europe) is an intensely pruritic eruption that affects women during the third trimester of pregnancy. Treatment usually is aimed at symptom relief until delivery, as the eruption usually resolves rapidly in the postpartum period. We report the case of a 30-year-old woman who presented 2 weeks postpartum with an intensely pruritic generalized eruption. The eruption started on the abdominal striae within 24 hours of delivery and gradually spread to the buttocks, legs, and arms. Punch biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of PUPPP. Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy presenting in the postpartum period is extremely rare. We present this case for clinical interest and to remind clinicians to keep PUPPP as a consideration in the differential diagnosis when evaluating pruritic eruptions in women who are in the postpartum period. PMID:26125211

  16. Antigen exposure in the late light period induces severe symptoms of food allergy in an OVA-allergic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Kana; Kitagawa, Eri; Wada, Misaki; Haraguchi, Atsushi; Orihara, Kanami; Tahara, Yu; Nakao, Atsuhito; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian circadian clock controls many physiological processes that include immune responses and allergic reactions. Several studies have investigated the circadian regulation of intestinal permeability and tight junctions known to be affected by cytokines. However, the contribution of circadian clock to food allergy symptoms remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the role of the circadian clock in determining the severity of food allergies. We prepared an ovalbumin food allergy mouse model, and orally administered ovalbumin either late in the light or late in the dark period under light-dark cycle. The light period group showed higher allergic diarrhea and weight loss than the dark period group. The production of type 2 cytokines, IL-13 and IL-5, from the mesenteric lymph nodes and ovalbumin absorption was higher in the light period group than in the dark period group. Compared to the dark period group, the mRNA expression levels of the tight junction proteins were lower in the light period group. We have demonstrated that increased production of type 2 cytokines and intestinal permeability in the light period induced severe food allergy symptoms. Our results suggest that the time of food antigen intake might affect the determination of the severity of food allergy symptoms. PMID:26419283

  17. Antigen exposure in the late light period induces severe symptoms of food allergy in an OVA-allergic mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Kana; Kitagawa, Eri; Wada, Misaki; Haraguchi, Atsushi; Orihara, Kanami; Tahara, Yu; Nakao, Atsuhito; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian circadian clock controls many physiological processes that include immune responses and allergic reactions. Several studies have investigated the circadian regulation of intestinal permeability and tight junctions known to be affected by cytokines. However, the contribution of circadian clock to food allergy symptoms remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the role of the circadian clock in determining the severity of food allergies. We prepared an ovalbumin food allergy mouse model, and orally administered ovalbumin either late in the light or late in the dark period under light-dark cycle. The light period group showed higher allergic diarrhea and weight loss than the dark period group. The production of type 2 cytokines, IL-13 and IL-5, from the mesenteric lymph nodes and ovalbumin absorption was higher in the light period group than in the dark period group. Compared to the dark period group, the mRNA expression levels of the tight junction proteins were lower in the light period group. We have demonstrated that increased production of type 2 cytokines and intestinal permeability in the light period induced severe food allergy symptoms. Our results suggest that the time of food antigen intake might affect the determination of the severity of food allergy symptoms. PMID:26419283

  18. Postpartum beliefs and practices among non-Western cultures.

    PubMed

    Kim-Godwin, Yeoun Soo

    2003-01-01

    Postpartum health beliefs and practices among non-Western cultures are each distinct, but have many similarities. Two common belief systems surround 1) the importance of hot and cold, and 2) the necessity of confinement during a specific period of time after giving birth. This article describes common postpartum health beliefs among women in Guatemala, China, Jordan, Lebanon, Egypt, Palestine, India, and Mexico, and offers an exemplar from the author's experiences as a Korean woman giving birth in the United States. Cultural competence in the provision of postpartum care is essential for nurses in the healthcare world of the 21st century. PMID:12629311

  19. Impact of forced separation policy on incarcerated postpartum mothers.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Angelina N

    2009-08-01

    The number of incarcerated women in the United States is steadily increasing with 9% giving birth while serving time. Mothers and babies are routinely separated immediately and during most of the postpartum period. This qualitative study examines the impact of this policy by exploring the nature and meaning of the mother-infant bonding experience when the mothers know separation is coming. Twelve incarcerated postpartum mothers were interviewed during the early postpartum period about their antepartum and postpartum relationships with their babies. Qualitative data analysis produced four relational themes: (a) "a love connection," (b) "everything was great until I birthed," (c) "feeling empty and missing a part of me," and (d) "I don't try to think too far in advance." Results of this qualitative study provide information to professionals exploring gender-sensitive prison policies for the growing female population. PMID:20022914

  20. Eclipses in the Middle East from the Late Medieval Islamic Period to the Early Modern Period. Part 1: The observation of six lunar eclipses from the Late Medieval Islamic Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozaffari, S. Mohammad

    2013-11-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of data obtained from observations of two sets of three lunar eclipses in the Late Medieval Islamic Period. The first trio consists of the lunar eclipses of 7 March 1262, 7 April 1270 and 24 January 1274, observed by Muḥy? al-D?n al-Maghrib?; from the Maragha Observatory (in north-western Iran), and the second includes those of 2 June and 26 November 1406, and 22 May 1407, observed by Jamsh?d Ghiy?th al-D?n al-K?sh? from K?sh?n (in central Iran). The results are that al-Maghrib?'s values for the magnitudes of these eclipses agree excellently with modern data, and his values for the times when the maximum phases occurred agree to within five minutes with modern values. Al-K?sh?'s values for the times of the maximum phases show a rather larger divergence from modern data, varying from about ten minutes to about one hour. The errors in all six values both astronomers computed from their own solar parameters for the longitude of the Sun at the instant of the opposition of the Moon to the Sun in these eclipses remain below ten minutes of arc. The motivation for doing these observations was to measure the lunar epicycle radius r in the Ptolemaic model. Al-Maghrib? achieved r = 5;12 and al-K?sh? r ? 5;17,1 in terms of the radius of an orbit of R = 60 arbitrary units. It is argued that comparing with modern theory, neither of these two medieval values can be considered an improvement on Ptolemy's value of r = 5;15.

  1. Short communication: Characterizing metabolic and oxidant status of pastured dairy cows postpartum in an automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Elischer, M F; Sordillo, L M; Siegford, J M; Karcher, E L

    2015-10-01

    The periparturient period represents a stressful time for dairy cows as they transition from late gestation to early lactation. Undesirable fluctuations in metabolites and impaired immune defense mechanisms near parturition can severely affect cow health and have residual effects on performance and longevity. Metabolic and oxidative stress profiles of multiparous and primiparous dairy cows in traditional parlor and feeding systems are well characterized, but status of these profiles in alternative management systems, such as grazing cows managed with an automatic milking system (AMS), are poorly characterized. Therefore, the objective of this case study was to characterize the metabolic and oxidant status of pastured cows milked with an AMS. It was hypothesized that primiparous and multiparous cows milked with an AMS would experience changes in oxidative and metabolic status after parturition; however, these changes would not impair cow health or production. Blood was collected from 14 multiparous and 8 primiparous Friesian-cross dairy cows at 1, 7, 14, and 21 d relative to calving for concentrations of insulin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), ?-hydroxybutyrate, reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione, and antioxidant potential. Milk production and milking frequency data were collected postpartum. Milk production differed on d 7 and 14 between primiparous and multiparous cows and frequency was not affected by parity. Primiparous cows had higher levels of glucose than multiparous cows. No differences in insulin, NEFA, or ?-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were noted between multiparous and primiparous cows postpartum, though days relative to calving significantly affected insulin and NEFA. Primiparous cows also had higher antioxidant potential than multiparous cows during the postpartum period. Results from this study show that, although responses were within expected ranges, periparturient multiparous cows responded differently than periparturient primiparous cows with respect to metabolic and oxidative measures during the postpartum period at this pastured-AMS dairy, suggesting different management strategies may need to be considered with primiparous and multiparous cows. PMID:26277310

  2. High Serum Level of ?2-Microglobulin in Late Posttransplant Period Predicts Subsequent Decline in Kidney Allograft Function: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Trailin, Andriy V.; Pleten, Marina V.; Ostapenko, Tatiana I.; Iefimenko, Nadiia F.; Nikonenko, Olexander S.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Identification of patients at risk for kidney allograft (KAG) failure beyond the first posttransplant year is an unmet need. We aimed to determine whether serum beta-2-microglobulin (?2MG) in the late posttransplant period could predict a decline in KAG function. Methods. We assessed a value of single measurement of serum ?2MG at one to seventeen years after transplantation in predicting the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the decline in eGFR over a period of two years in 79 recipients of KAG. Results. At baseline serum ?2MG concentration was higher (P = 0.011) in patients with allograft dysfunction: 8.67 ± 2.48?µg/mL versus those with satisfactory graft function: 6.67 ± 2.13?µg/mL. Higher ?2MG independently predicted the lower eGFR, the drop in eGFR by ?25% after one and two years, and the value of negative eGFR slope. When combined with proteinuria and acute rejection, serum ?2MG had excellent power in predicting certain drop in eGFR after one year (AUC = 0.910). In conjunction with posttransplant time serum ?2MG had good accuracy in predicting certain eGFR drop after two years (AUC = 0.821). Conclusions. Elevated serum ?2MG in the late posttransplant period is useful in identifying patients at risk for rapid loss of graft function. PMID:26633915

  3. Obstetric Outcome in Early and Late Onset Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Easmin, S; Chowdhury, T A; Islam, M R; Beg, A; Jahan, M K; Latif, T; Dhar, S; Alam, M N; Akhter, M

    2015-07-01

    Obstetric outcome in early onset and late onset GDM was compared in a prospective study conducted at the Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology in BIRDEM, Dhaka, Bangladesh. A total 120 pregnant women were recruited purposively for the study in which 60 were early onset GDM and 60 were late onset GDM during study period of January 2008 to December 2009. Patients were followed up in different periods of gestation, during delivery and early postpartum period & findings were compared between two groups. BMI & family history of diabetes were significantly higher in early GDM group (p<0.05). Evidence of increased glycaemia was observed in early GDM group & difference of glycaemic status was statistically significant (p<0.05). Insulin was needed in 85% of early onset GDM and 55% in late onset GDM. There was also significant difference (p<0.05). In this study, 23.3% of early onset GDM group developed pre-eclampsia while in late onset GDM it was 10% and was statistically significant (p<0.05). Regarding intrapartum & postpartum complications - perineal tear, PPH wound infection, puerperal sepsis were more in early onset than late onset GDM group with no significant difference. Regarding foetal outcome, 8.3% early GDM group delivered asphyxiated baby in comparison to 3.3% in late GDM group. Twenty percent (20%) of early onset GDM group had to admit their babies in neonatal unit while in late onset group it was 5%. There was significant difference between two groups (p<0.05). Neonatal hypoglycaemia was also statistically significantly (p<0.05) higher in early GDM group. Neonatal hyper-bilirubinaemia, RDS, perinatal death was more in early onset GDM subjects. Early onset GDM subjects are high risk subgroup & have significant deleterious effect on maternal and perinatal outcome than late GDM groups. PMID:26329938

  4. Greater nutrition knowledge is associated with lower 1-year postpartum weight retention in low-income women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to assess nutrition knowledge during early and late postpartum in a sample of low-income and minority women, and to determine if that knowledge had any relationship to weight retention at 1-year postpartum. A questionnaire was developed and validated in a sample of 151 ...

  5. Major storm periods and climate forcing in the Western Mediterranean during the Late Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degeai, Jean-Philippe; Devillers, Benoît; Dezileau, Laurent; Oueslati, Hamza; Bony, Guénaëlle

    2015-12-01

    Big storm events represent a major risk for populations and infrastructures settled on coastal lowlands. In the Western Mediterranean, where human societies colonized and occupied the coastal areas since the Ancient times, the variability of storm activity for the past three millennia was investigated with a multi-proxy sedimentological and geochemical study from a lagoonal sequence. Mappings of the geochemistry and magnetic susceptibility of detrital sources in the watershed of the lagoon and from the coastal barriers were undertaken in order to track the terrestrial or coastal/marine origin of sediments deposited into the lagoon. The multi-proxy analysis shows that coarser material, low magnetic susceptibility, and high strontium content characterize the sedimentological signature of the paleostorm levels identified in the lagoonal sequence. A comparison with North Atlantic and Western Mediterranean paleoclimate proxies shows that the phases of high storm activity occurred during cold periods, suggesting a climatically-controlled mechanism for the occurrence of these storm periods. Besides, an in-phase storm activity pattern is found between the Western Mediterranean and Northern Europe. Spectral analyses performed on the Sr content revealed a new 270-year solar-driven pattern of storm cyclicity. For the last 3000 years, this 270-year cycle defines a succession of ten major storm periods (SP) with a mean duration of 96 ± 54 yr. Periods of higher storm activity are recorded from >680 to 560 cal yr BC (SP10, end of the Iron Age Cold Period), from 140 to 820 cal yr AD (SP7 to SP5) with a climax of storminess between 400 and 800 cal yr AD (Dark Ages Cold Period), and from 1230 to >1800 cal yr AD (SP3 to SP1, Little Ice Age). Periods of low storm activity occurred from 560 cal yr BC to 140 cal yr AD (SP9 and SP8, Roman Warm Period) and from 820 to 1230 cal yr AD (SP4, Medieval Warm Period).

  6. Late Devonian glacial deposits from the eastern United States signal an end of the mid-Paleozoic warm period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brezinski, D.K.; Cecil, C.B.; Skema, V.W.; Stamm, R.

    2008-01-01

    A Late Devonian polymictic diamictite extends for more than 400??km from northeastern Pennsylvania across western Maryland and into east-central West Virginia. The matrix-supported, unbedded, locally sheared diamictite contains subangular to rounded clasts up to 2??m in diameter. The mostly rounded clasts are both locally derived and exotic; some exhibit striations, faceting, and polish. The diamictite commonly is overlain by laminated siltstone/mudstone facies associations (laminites). The laminites contain isolated clasts ranging in size from sand and pebbles to boulders, some of which are striated. The diamictite/laminite sequence is capped by massive, coarse-grained, pebbly sandstone that is trough cross-bedded. A stratigraphic change from red, calcic paleo-Vertisols in strata below the diamictite to non-calcic paleo-Spodosols and coal beds at and above the diamictite interval suggests that the climate became much wetter during deposition of the diamictite. The diamictite deposit is contemporaneous with regressive facies that reflect fluvial incision during the Late Devonian of the Appalachian basin. These deposits record a Late Devonian episode of climatic cooling so extreme that it produced glaciation in the Appalachian basin. Evidence for this episode of climatic cooling is preserved as the interpreted glacial deposits of diamictite, overlain by glaciolacustrine varves containing dropstones, and capped by sandstone interpreted as braided stream outwash. The Appalachian glacigenic deposits are contemporaneous with glacial deposits in South America, and suggest that Late Devonian climatic cooling was global. This period of dramatic global cooling may represent the end of the mid-Paleozoic warm interval that began in the Middle Silurian. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pelvic inflammatory disease during the post-partum year.

    PubMed Central

    Mahon, Barbara E; Temkit, M'hamed; Wang, Jane; Rosenman, Marc B; Katz, Barry P

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the occurrence of, and risk factors for, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) occurring during the post-partum year. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data for women who delivered a term infant with 5-minute Apgar score > or = 8 from 1992 through 1999 at a large urban hospital were extracted from an electronic medical record system. RESULTS: During the study period, 15 206 deliveries occurred among 12 549 women. PID was diagnosed during the post-partum year of 148 (1.0%) deliveries. In univariate analysis, young age, black race, and both pre-delivery history and post-partum diagnosis of chlamydial and gonococcal infection were associated with PID. In multivariate analysis, only young age and a positive test for gonorrhea before delivery or post-partum were independent predictors of PID. CONCLUSIONS: Pelvic inflammatory disease was diagnosed during the post-partum year in 1% of women studied. Young maternal age was an important demographic risk factor. Further investigation of post-partum STD acquisition and progression to PID is needed to determine whether women are at increased risk following delivery. PMID:16338778

  8. Developmental Profile of Infants Born to Mothers with Postpartum Depression and Anxiety: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalita, Kamal Narayan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Postpartum period is associated with higher rates for depression, blues and psychosis. Anxiety is also significant. These disorders may have serious implications in the cognitive development of the infant. There is relative lack of data in this area. So we tried to estimate postpartum anxiety and depression in a group of women and…

  9. Predictors of the Longitudinal Course of Postpartum Depression Following Interpersonal Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nylen, Kimberly J.; O'Hara, Michael W.; Brock, Rebecca; Moel, Joy; Gorman, Laura; Stuart, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We examined the course and predictors of postpartum depression in the 18 months following interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT). Method: We enrolled 120 community women with major depression in a 12-week randomized trial of individual IPT during the postpartum period (O'Hara, Stuart, Gorman, & Wenzel, 2000). At 6, 12, and 18 months…

  10. Postpartum vertebral artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Finley, Amanda; Rogers, Brenton; Richards, Theodore; Vogel, Heather

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a right vertebral artery dissection in a 35-year-old woman, 3?weeks post partum, with manifestations of vertebrobasilar disease. She was 3?weeks out from the uneventful delivery of her fourth child, with presentation of acute neurological symptoms, predominantly intractable vertigo. Vertigo can have many non-specific generalised symptoms and clinical findings. Postpartum women have a lengthy list of possible aetiologies of vertigo not limited to our initially suspected preeclampsia, dural venous thrombosis and vertebral dissection. PMID:26604230

  11. Is Shade Beneficial for Mediterranean Shrubs Experiencing Periods of Extreme Drought and Late-winter Frosts?

    PubMed Central

    Valladares, Fernando; Zaragoza-Castells, Joana; Sánchez-Gómez, David; Matesanz, Silvia; Alonso, Beatriz; Portsmuth, Angelika; Delgado, Antonio; Atkin, Owen K.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Plants are naturally exposed to multiple, frequently interactive stress factors, most of which are becoming more severe due to global change. Established plants have been reported to facilitate the establishment of juvenile plants, but net effects of plant–plant interactions are difficult to assess due to complex interactions among environmental factors. An investigation was carried out in order to determine how two dominant evergreen shrubs (Quercus ilex and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) co-occurring in continental, Mediterranean habitats respond to multiple abiotic stresses and whether the shaded understorey conditions ameliorate the negative effects of drought and winter frosts on the physiology of leaves. Methods Microclimate and ecophysiology of sun and shade plants were studied at a continental plateau in central Spain during 2004–2005, with 2005 being one of the driest and hottest years on record; several late-winter frosts also occurred in 2005. Key Results Daytime air temperature and vapour pressure deficit were lower in the shade than in the sun, but soil moisture was also lower in the shade during the spring and summer of 2005, and night-time temperatures were higher in the shade. Water potential, photochemical efficiency, light-saturated photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and leaf 13C composition differed between sun and shade individuals throughout the seasons, but differences were species specific. Shade was beneficial for leaf-level physiology in Q. ilex during winter, detrimental during spring for both species, and of little consequence in summer. Conclusions The results suggest that beneficial effects of shade can be eclipsed by reduced soil moisture during dry years, which are expected to be more frequent in the most likely climate change scenarios for the Mediterranean region. PMID:18819947

  12. An investigation into the effects of antenatal stressors on the postpartum neuroimmune profile and depressive-like behaviors.

    PubMed

    Posillico, Caitlin K; Schwarz, Jaclyn M

    2016-02-01

    Postpartum depression is a specific type of depression that affects approximately 10-15% of mothers [28]. While many have attributed the etiology of postpartum depression to the dramatic change in hormone levels that occurs immediately postpartum, the exact causes are not well-understood. It is well-known, however, that pregnancy induces a number of dramatic changes in the peripheral immune system that foster the development of the growing fetus. It is also well-known that changes in immune function, specifically within the brain, have been linked to several neuropsychiatric disorders including depression. Thus, we sought to determine whether pregnancy induces significant neuroimmune changes postpartum and whether stress or immune activation during pregnancy induce a unique neuroimmune profile that may be associated with depressive-like behaviors postpartum. We used late-gestation sub-chronic stress and late-gestation acute immune activation to examine the postpartum expression of depressive-like behaviors, microglial activation markers, and inflammatory cytokines within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the hippocampus (HP). The expression of many immune molecules was significantly altered in the brain postpartum, and postpartum females also showed significant anhedonia, both independently of stress. Following late-gestation immune activation, we found a unique set of changes in neuroimmune gene expression immediately postpartum. Thus, our data indicate that even in the absence of additional stressors, postpartum females exhibit significant changes in the expression of cytokines within the brain that are associated with depressive-like behavior. Additionally, different forms of antenatal stress produce varying profiles of postpartum neuroimmune gene expression and associated depressive-like behaviors. PMID:26589802

  13. Postpartum Healthcare After Gestational Diabetes and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Maiden, Kristin; Rogers, Stephanie; Ball, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Gestational diabetes and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy identify women with an elevated lifetime risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Methods: Prospective cohort of women recruited from the postpartum service of a large community-based academic obstetrical hospital after delivery of a pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes (GDM) or a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP). Interviews were conducted, and validated surveys completed, before hospital discharge and again 3 months postpartum. Results: The study sample included 249 women: 111 with GDM, 127 with HDP, and 11 with both. Most, 230 (92.4%) had a PCP prior to pregnancy and 97 (39.0%) reported an office visit with their PCP during the prenatal period. Of the 176 (70.7%) participants who attended the 3-month study visit, 169 (96.0%) women with either diagnosis reported they had attended their 6-week postpartum visit. By the 3-month study visit, 51 (57.9%) women with GDM had completed follow-up glucose testing; 93 (97.9%) with HDP had follow-up blood pressure testing; and 101 (57.4%) with either diagnosis recalled ever having completed lipid screening. Women least likely to complete screening tests were those who had no college education, less than a high school level of health literacy, and who were not privately insured. Conclusion: There are important opportunities to improve postpartum testing for diabetes and CVD risk factor assessment. Most women were connected to primary care suggesting a “hand-off” to a primary care physician after pregnancy is feasible. More robust strategies may be needed to improve follow-up care for women with less education, lower health literacy, and those without private health insurance. PMID:25089915

  14. The interrelationships among acculturation, social support, and postpartum depression symptoms among marriage-based immigrant women in Taiwan: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Hui; Hwang, Fang-Ming; Tai, Chen-Jei; Chien, Li-Yin

    2013-02-01

    This cohort study assessed the structural relationships among social support, acculturation, and postpartum depressive symptoms experienced by marriage-based immigrant mothers in Taiwan. Data were collected at 1 and 6 months postpartum from 203 immigrant mothers married to Taiwanese men in Taipei, Taiwan. The structural equation modeling results showed that social support and postpartum depression were directly and negatively related. Higher social support and lower depression at 1 month postpartum were related to a positive social attitude (i.e., accepting attitude toward mainstream society). Social attitude was a moderator of the relationship between depression at 1 month and social support at 6 months postpartum, where a positive social attitude decreased the negative effect of depression at 1 month on social support at 6 months. Social support in the early postpartum period not only directly decreased postpartum depression, but also indirectly decreased postpartum depression through improving social attitude. PMID:22865022

  15. Assimilating continental mean temperatures to reconstruct the climate of the late pre-industrial period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsikaris, Anastasios; Widmann, Martin; Jungclaus, Johann

    2015-08-01

    An on-line, ensemble-based data assimilation (DA) method is performed to reconstruct the climate for 1750-1850 AD, and the performance is evaluated on large and small spatial scales. We use a low-resolution version of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology MPI-ESM model and assimilate the PAGES 2K continental mean temperature reconstructions for the Northern Hemisphere (NH). The ensembles are generated sequentially for sub-periods based on the analysis of previous sub-periods. The assimilation has good skill for large-scale temperatures, but there is no agreement between the DA analysis and proxy-based reconstructions for small-scale temperature patterns within Europe or with reconstructions for the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. To explain the lack of added value in small spatial scales, a maximum covariance analysis (MCA) of links between NH temperature and sea level pressure is performed based on a control simulation with MPI-ESM. For annual values, winter and spring the Northern Annular Mode (NAM) is the pattern that is most closely linked to the NH continental temperatures, while for summer and autumn it is a wave-like pattern. This link is reproduced in the DA for winter, spring and annual means, providing potential for constraining the NAM/NAO phase and in turn regional temperature variability. It is shown that the lack of actual small-scale skill is likely due to the fact that the link might be too weak, as the NH continental mean temperatures are not the best predictors for large-scale circulation anomalies, or that the PAGES 2K temperatures include noise. Both factors can lead to circulation anomalies in the DA analysis that are substantially different from reality, leading to unrealistic representation of small-scale temperature variability. Moreover, we show that even if the true amplitudes of the leading MCA circulation patterns were known, there is still a large amount of unexplained local temperature variance. Based on these results, we argue that assimilating temperature reconstructions with a higher spatial resolution might improve the DA performance.

  16. Changes in perceived health status, physical symptoms, and sleep satisfaction of postpartum women over time.

    PubMed

    Song, Ju-Eun; Chae, Hyun Ju; Kim, Chang Hee

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the changes of perceived health status, physical symptoms, and sleep satisfaction of postpartum women over time. A longitudinal design was used. Participants were 137 healthy postpartum women who had not been diagnosed with any medical diseases. Data were collected by a self-report questionnaire at three periods, the second day, 4-6 weeks, and 12-14 weeks postpartum. Women's perceived health status was lower at 4-6 weeks than on the second day after childbirth, physical symptoms were more frequent at 4-6 weeks than on the second day after childbirth, and sleep satisfaction was lower at 4-6 weeks than at 12-14 weeks postpartum. Tiredness or fatigue was the most frequent symptom experienced by postpartum women at all three periods. These results indicate that the period from 4 to 6 weeks postpartum is the most difficult time for mothers. Therefore, there is a need to develop nursing interventions to alleviate fatigue and other symptoms, and to help and support women during the period 4-6 weeks postpartum, a critical period for interventions. PMID:24372842

  17. Sequelae of postpartum sterilization.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, B L; Taskin, O; Kafkashli, A; Rosenfeld, M L; Chuong, C J

    1998-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the menstrual, psychosexual, psychological and somatic sequelae in a group of women who may be more prone to express regret following postpartum sterilization. The follow-up was conducted by questionnaire at six months and five years following the procedure. Data were available from 242 patient; 76.8% were below the age of 30. Of all patients, 21.9% expressed regrets. About one third had various menstrual disturbances. Patients rated their sex life as generally more enjoyable in many aspects. The most common psychological symptoms were irritability, nervousness and depression; while the common somatic symptoms were pelvic/abdominal pain and backache and tiredness. PMID:9789648

  18. Postpartum Depression: An Interactional View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Mary Ann; Redman, E. Scott

    1986-01-01

    Postpartum depression is conceptualized as a predictable developmental, family crisis, which occurs when the natural difficulties of childbirth are benignly mishandled. Tactics are illustrated for interdicting maladaptive interpersonal spirals, including normalizing conflicting complaints; reframing depression as positive but costly; regulating…

  19. Rock-inhabiting fungi originated during periods of dry climate in the late Devonian and middle Triassic.

    PubMed

    Gueidan, Cécile; Ruibal, Constantino; de Hoog, G S; Schneider, Harald

    2011-10-01

    Non-lichenized rock-inhabiting fungi (RIF) are slow-growing melanized ascomycetes colonizing rock surfaces in arid environments. They possess adaptations, which allow them to tolerate extreme abiotic conditions, such as high UV radiations and extreme temperatures. They belong to two separate lineages, one consisting in the sister classes Dothideomycetes and Arthoniomycetes (Dothideomyceta), and the other consisting in the order Chaetothyriales (Eurotiomycetes). Because RIF often form early diverging groups in Chaetothyriales and Dothideomyceta, the ancestors of these two lineages were suggested to most likely be rock-inhabitants. The lineage of RIF related to the Chaetothyriales shows a much narrower phylogenetic spectrum than the lineage of RIF related to Dothideomyceta, suggesting a much more ancient origin for the latter. Our study aims at investigating the times of origin of RIF using a relaxed clock model and several fossil and secondary calibrations. Our results show that the RIF in Dothideomyceta evolved in the late Devonian, much earlier than the RIF in Chaetothyriales, which originated in the middle Triassic. The origin of the chaetothyrialean RIF correlates well with a period of recovery after the Permian-Triassic mass extinction and an expansion of arid landmasses. The period preceding the diversification of the RIF related to Dothideomyceta (Silurian--Devonian) is also characterized by large arid landmasses, but temperatures were much cooler than during the Triassic. The paleoclimate record provides a good explanation for the diversification of fungi subjected to abiotic stresses and adapted to life on rock surfaces in nutrient-poor habitats. PMID:21944211

  20. [Concept Analysis of Postpartum Depression].

    PubMed

    Lee, Pei-Jung; Liaw, Jen-Jiuan; Chen, Chin-Mi

    2015-06-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) affects the health of women and is an important issue that impacts negatively on the happiness of affected families. Previous studies have demonstrated that PPD impairs the mother-child attachment, impacts the marital relationship, and may cause family dysfunction. Although PPD is a common phenomenon, the concept of PPD is easily confused with other similar concepts such as postpartum blues and postpartum psychosis, which may delay proper prevention and management. This paper identifies the definitions, characteristics, antecedents, and consequences of PPD as well as provides empirical screen measurements and examples of model, borderline, and contrary cases in order to differentiate between the concepts of PPD and other disorders using Walker and Avant's (2011) concept analysis methodology. Three defining characteristics of postpartum depression were identified. First, depression begins four to six weeks after delivery and continues for at least two weeks. Second, we benchmarked over 5 depressive symptoms. Third, postpartum depression may disrupt puerperal women's lives by making it difficult for them to care for their babies and to concentrate on daily tasks. We hope that this article enhances nurses' professional competences to detect PPD as early as possible and to promote the quality of care received by postpartum women and their family members. PMID:26073958

  1. Promoting Postpartum Exercise: An Opportune Time for Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringdahl, Erika N.

    2002-01-01

    During the postpartum period clinicians can promote the importance of physical fitness, help patients incorporate exercise into lifestyle changes, and encourage them to overcome barriers to exercise. New responsibilities, physical changes, and time constraints may make exercise seem impossible. By emphasizing weight control, stress reduction, and…

  2. Orbital-scale glacio-eustasy during the transition between the Early Ordovician warm period (greenhouse) and the Late Ordovician cool period (icehouse)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elrick, M.; Reardon, D.; Labor, W. A.

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies using oxygen isotopes from conodont apatite and carbonate clumped isotopes suggest that the transition from the Early Ordovician warm period (greenhouse) to the Latest Ordovician glacial period (icehouse) occurred in two stages- cooling during the Early and Middle Ordovician and another, more abrupt cooling in the Latest Ordovician (Hirnantian). These results come from samples collected at time intervals of >0.5 My; therefore, the data does not resolve orbital-scale climatic changes. This study utilizes oxygen isotopes from conodont apatite collected across multiple, orbital-scale carbonate cycles (or parasequences) in the early Late Ordovician to evaluate high-frequency paleoclimate changes. More specifically, we are addressing whether the observed carbonate cycles formed in response to orbital-scale, glacio-eustasy and to shed light on the dynamics of the Ordovician warm-to-cool climatic transition. The Upper Ordovician (early Katian) Lexington Limestone of Kentucky is characterized by cyclic carbonates and shales deposited in southern subtropical waters of the Laurentian craton. Orbital-scale (~15-130 ky) subtidal cycles (1-3 m) are composed of offshore limestone and shale, overlain by lower shoreface, then upper shoreface skeletal carbonates and show no evidence of subaerial exposure at cycle tops. ?18Oapatite values from multiple cycles range from ~18-19.5%. The majority of cycles record low isotopic values in the deepest water facies (during sea-level rise and highstand) and higher isotopic values in the shallowest water facies (during sea-level fall and lowstand). The magnitude of isotopic shift across individual cycles is up to ~1%. Estimated subtropical SSTs range from ~28°-34°C. If the intracycle isotopic shifts were due only to SST changes, then the temperatures fluctuated up to 4°C during individual cycle formation; estimated thermo-eustatic changes given these SST changes are not sufficient in magnitude to generate the observed offshore to upper shoreface facies changes. We suggest that similar to the Pleistocene, the measured isotopic shifts were due to a combination of SST and ice-volume effects. If we assume Pleistocene relationships for partitioning of SST versus ice-volume effects, this suggests orbital-scale glacio-eustatic sea-level changes of many tens of meters along with SST changes of <2°C. Such magnitudes of glacio-eustasy imply that high-latitude continental ice sheets were waxing and waning at orbital time scales at least 6 My before the peak Hirnantian glacial period and that orbital-scale, glacial-interglacial cycles were superimposed upon the long-term Ordovician cooling trend- a pattern similar to that observed during the more recent Cenozoic cooling trend.

  3. Late Dynastic Period

    E-print Network

    Ladynin, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Egyptian king Nectanebo II ( Nxt-1r-(n)-1byt , “Strong is (the god)Egyptian presumption that the demiurge established the temple shrines and installed in them godsgod” ( tA mj(t) pA nTr ; evidently a calque of the Middle Egyptian

  4. Exsanguinated uterus after massive atonic postpartum haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Mahadik, Kalpana V; Swami, M B; Pandey, Neha; Pathak, Ashish

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses issues related to pregnancy anaemia and late referral by a village birth attendant in resource poor setting in a central state of India. A young anaemic woman had labour onset at her village, a birth attendant tried to deliver her but failed. When she came to our hospital, had established septicaemia and absolutely non-reassurable uterine tone leading to intractable atonic postpartum haemorrhage. She died after 5?days because of coagulopathy and multiorgan failure. Huge budgets are being spent for the promotion of institutional deliveries but still the maternal mortality ratio has not reduced. The epidemiology of childbirth, social awareness for safe labour and administrative lethargy towards implementation of government programmes have not changed. The tertiary care—blood and components—multidisciplinary approach could not prevent the death of an anaemic woman. Unless there is a grassroot level change in the healthcare delivery system at the village level, the scenario might not change. PMID:23853190

  5. Postpartum and Depression Status are Associated With Lower [11C]raclopride BPND in Reproductive-Age Women

    PubMed Central

    Moses-Kolko, Eydie L; Price, Julie C; Wisner, Katherine L; Hanusa, Barbara H; Meltzer, Carolyn C; Berga, Sarah L; Grace, Anthony A; di Scalea, Teresa Lanza; Kaye, Walter H; Becker, Carl; Drevets, Wayne C

    2012-01-01

    The early postpartum period is associated with increased risk for affective and psychotic disorders. Because maternal dopaminergic reward system function is altered with perinatal status, dopaminergic system dysregulation may be an important mechanism of postpartum psychiatric disorders. Subjects included were non-postpartum healthy (n=13), postpartum healthy (n=13), non-postpartum unipolar depressed (n=10), non-postpartum bipolar depressed (n=7), postpartum unipolar (n=13), and postpartum bipolar depressed (n=7) women. Subjects underwent 60?min of [11C]raclopride–positron emission tomography imaging to determine the nondisplaceable striatal D2/3 receptor binding potential (BPND). Postpartum status and unipolar depression were associated with lower striatal D2/3 receptor BPND in the whole striatum (p=0.05 and p=0.02, respectively) that reached a maximum of 7–8% in anteroventral striatum for postpartum status (p=0.02). Unipolar depression showed a nonsignificant trend toward being associated with 5% lower BPND in dorsal striatum (p=0.06). D2/3 receptor BPND did not differ significantly between unipolar depressed and healthy postpartum women or between bipolar and healthy subjects; however, D2/3 receptor BPND was higher in dorsal striatal regions in bipolar relative to unipolar depressives (p=0.02). In conclusion, lower striatal D2/3 receptor BPND in postpartum and unipolar depressed women, primarily in ventral striatum, and higher dorsal striatal D2/3 receptor BPND in bipolar relative to unipolar depressives reveal a potential role for the dopamine (DA) system in the physiology of these states. Further studies delineating the mechanisms underlying these differences in D2/3 receptor BPND, including study of DA system responsivity to rewarding stimuli, and increasing power to assess unipolar vs bipolar-related differences, are needed to better understand the affective role of the DA system in postpartum and depressed women. PMID:22257897

  6. The detection of nicotine in a Late Mayan period flask by gas chromatography and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry methods.

    PubMed

    Zagorevski, Dmitri V; Loughmiller-Newman, Jennifer A

    2012-02-29

    Several ancient Mayan vessels from the Kislak Collection of the US Library of Congress were examined for the presence of alkaloids. One of them, a codex-style flask, bears a text that appears to read yo-'OTOT-ti 'u-MAY, spelling y-otoot 'u-may 'the home of its/his/her tobacco'. Samples extracted from this Late Classic period (600 to 900?AD) container were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) methods. Nicotine was identified as the major component of the extracts. LC/MS analyses also yielded signals due to nicotine mono-oxides. The identities of the compounds were determined by comparison of the chromatographic and/or mass spectral characteristics with those from standards and literature data. High-resolution high mass accuracy tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) spectra of protonated nicotine and nicotine mono-oxides were measured to verify and to correct previous product ion assignments. These analyses provided positive evidence for nicotine from a Mayan vessel, indicating it as a likely holder of tobacco leafs. The result of this investigation is the first physical evidence of tobacco from a Mayan container, and only the second example where the vessel content recorded in a Mayan hieroglyphic text has been confirmed directly by chromatography/mass spectrometry trace analysis. PMID:22279016

  7. The Critical Period for Second Language Pronunciation: Is There Such a Thing? Ten Case Studies of Late Starters who Attained a Native-like Hebrew Accent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim; Kehat, Simona

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the critical period hypothesis (CPH) for the acquisition of a second language sound system (phonology) in a naturalistic setting. Ten cases of successful late-starters with a native-like Hebrew pronunciation are presented in an effort to determine possible variables that may account for their exceptional accomplishment. The…

  8. Northern mid-latitude glaciation in the Late Amazonian period of Mars: Criteria for the recognition of debris-covered glacier and valley glacier landsystem deposits

    E-print Network

    Marchant, David R.

    -covered glaciers). We use new High-Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) image and topography data, in conjunctionNorthern mid-latitude glaciation in the Late Amazonian period of Mars: Criteria for the recognition 2009 Keywords: Mars lobate debris aprons lineated valley fill debris-covered glaciers glaciation rock

  9. The Late Holocene Dry Period: multiproxy evidence for an extended drought between 2800 and 1850 cal yr BP across the central Great Basin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensing, Scott A.; Sharpe, Saxon E.; Tunno, Irene; Sada, Don W.; Thomas, Jim M.; Starratt, Scott; Smith, Jeremy

    2013-10-01

    Evidence of a multi-centennial scale dry period between ˜2800 and 1850 cal yr BP is documented by pollen, mollusks, diatoms, and sediment in spring sediments from Stonehouse Meadow in Spring Valley, eastern central Nevada, U.S. We refer to this period as the Late Holocene Dry Period. Based on sediment recovered, Stonehouse Meadow was either absent or severely restricted in size at ˜8000 cal yr BP. Beginning ˜7500 cal yr BP, the meadow became established and persisted to ˜3000 cal yr BP when it began to dry. Comparison of the timing of this late Holocene drought record to multiple records extending from the eastern Sierra Nevada across the central Great Basin to the Great Salt Lake support the interpretation that this dry period was regional. The beginning and ending dates vary among sites, but all sites record multiple centuries of dry climate between 2500 and 1900 cal yr BP. This duration makes it the longest persistent dry period within the late Holocene. In contrast, sites in the northern Great Basin record either no clear evidence of drought, or have wetter than average climate during this period, suggesting that the northern boundary between wet and dry climates may have been between about 40° and 42° N latitude. This dry in the southwest and wet in the northwest precipitation pattern across the Great Basin is supported by large-scale spatial climate pattern hypotheses involving ENSO, PDO, AMO, and the position of the Aleutian Low and North Pacific High, particularly during winter.

  10. Principals in Late Career: Toward a Conceptualization of Principals' Tasks and Experiences in the Pre-Retirement Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To fill the gap in theoretical and empirical knowledge on late career in principalship, the aim of this study was to explore the career experiences, needs, and behaviors of principals at this stage. Research method: Life history and semistructured interviews were conducted with 20 late-career principals, 20 schoolteachers, and 10…

  11. Severe Postpartum Hemorrhage from Uterine Atony: A Multicentric Study

    PubMed Central

    Montufar-Rueda, Carlos; Rodriguez, Laritza; Jarquin, José Douglas; Barboza, Alejandra; Bustillo, Maura Carolina; Marin, Flor; Ortiz, Guillermo; Estrada, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is an important cause of maternal mortality (MM) around the world. Seventy percent of the PPH corresponds to uterine atony. The objective of our study was to evaluate multicenter PPH cases during a 10-month period, and evaluate severe postpartum hemorrhage management. Study Design. The study population is a cohort of vaginal delivery and cesarean section patients with severe postpartum hemorrhage secondary to uterine atony. The study was designed as a descriptive, prospective, longitudinal, and multicenter study, during 10 months in 13 teaching hospitals. Results. Total live births during the study period were 124,019 with 218 patients (0.17%) with severe postpartum hemorrhage (SPHH). Total maternal deaths were 8, for mortality rate of 3.6% and a MM rate of 6.45/100,000 live births (LB). Maternal deaths were associated with inadequate transfusion therapy. Conclusions. In all patients with severe hemorrhage and subsequent hypovolemic shock, the most important therapy is intravascular volume resuscitation, to reduce the possibility of target organ damage and death. Similarly, the current proposals of transfusion therapy in severe or massive hemorrhage point to early transfusion of blood products and use of fresh frozen plasma, in addition to packed red blood cells, to prevent maternal deaths. PMID:24363935

  12. Postpartum depression in adolescent mothers: an integrative review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Reid, Vanessa; Meadows-Oliver, Mikki

    2007-01-01

    Research on adolescent mothers has revealed increasing rates of depressive symptoms in the postpartum period. This review integrated 12 research-based articles to provide a better understanding of depression among adolescent mothers in the first year postpartum. The results revealed that more family conflict, fewer social supports, and low self-esteem all were associated with increased rates of depressive symptoms in adolescent mothers during the first postpartum year. To prevent adverse outcomes associated with depression, it is important that nurse practitioners working with these families screen adolescent mothers for depression and refer them for treatment as needed. PMID:17825726

  13. Prenatal and Postpartum Evening Salivary Cortisol Levels in Association with Peripartum Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Iliadis, Stavros I.; Comasco, Erika; Sylvén, Sara; Hellgren, Charlotte; Sundström Poromaa, Inger; Skalkidou, Alkistis

    2015-01-01

    Background The biology of peripartum depression remains unclear, with altered stress and the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis response having been implicated in its pathophysiology. Methods The current study was undertaken as a part of the BASIC project (Biology, Affect, Stress, Imaging, Cognition), a population-based longitudinal study of psychological wellbeing during pregnancy and the postpartum period in Uppsala County, Sweden, in order to assess the association between evening salivary cortisol levels and depressive symptoms in the peripartum period. Three hundred and sixty-five pregnant women from the BASIC cohort were recruited at pregnancy week 18 and instructed to complete a Swedish validated version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at the 36th week of pregnancy as well as the sixth week after delivery. At both times, they were also asked to provide evening salivary samples for cortisol analysis. A comprehensive review of the relevant literature is also provided. Results Women with postpartum EPDS score ? 10 had higher salivary evening cortisol at six weeks postpartum compared to healthy controls (median cortisol 1.19 vs 0.89 nmol/L). A logistic regression model showed a positive association between cortisol levels and depressive symptoms postpartum (OR = 4.1; 95% CI 1.7–9.7). This association remained significant even after controlling for history of depression, use of tobacco, partner support, breastfeeding, stressful life events, and sleep problems, as possible confounders (aOR = 4.5; 95% CI 1.5–14.1). Additionally, women with postpartum depressive symptoms had higher postpartum cortisol levels compared to both women with depressive symptoms antenatally and controls (p = 0.019 and p = 0.004, respectively). Conclusions Women with depressive symptoms postpartum had higher postpartum cortisol levels, indicating an altered response of the HPA-axis in postpartum depression. PMID:26322643

  14. Is Postpartum Depression a Distinct Disorder?

    PubMed

    Di Florio, Arianna; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha

    2015-10-01

    The nosology of postpartum depression (PPD) is controversial. We review the evidence and arguments for and against the recognition of PPD as a distinct disorder and discuss the etiopathogenic and diagnostic validity of PPD as a distinct disorder, including its utility and indications for further research. Although multiple epidemiological and clinical studies have found that depression is more common following childbirth than at other times in a woman's life, there is conflicting evidence for the validity of PPD as a distinct disorder. PPD is likely to be a complex phenotype, encompassing several disorders with different disease pathways. It is plausible that for a sub-group of vulnerable women, childbirth triggers episodes of depression. However, even within this group, the mechanisms underpinning the mood disturbances are likely complex and heterogeneous. The distinction between depression occurring in the perinatal period and depression at other times is important for both research and clinical practice. Research should differentiate between episodes that begin during pregnancy and postpartum, as the pathogenetic factors involved may differ and require specialized treatment. PMID:26267038

  15. Adolescent Motherhood and Postpartum Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkeland, Robyn; Thompson, J. Kevin; Phares, Vicky

    2005-01-01

    Adolescent mothers undergo unique personal and social challenges that may contribute to postpartum functioning. In this exploratory investigation completed within a risk and resilience framework, 149 adolescent mothers, ages 15 to 19, who participated in school-based teen parents' programs, completed measures of parental stress (social isolation…

  16. Postpartum Adjustment in Primiparous Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, A. Kathleen; Rickel, Annette U.

    Within the framework of the social stress and behavioral theories of depression, this study investigated the hypothesis that postpartum depression is a function of disruption of parents' prepartum functioning by the subsequent demands of infant caretaking. Seventy-eight primiparous married couples (N=156, 78 men and 78 women) volunteered to…

  17. Uranium and molybdenum isotope evidence for an episode of widespread ocean oxygenation during the late Ediacaran Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, Brian; Komiya, Tsuyoshi; Lyons, Timothy W.; Bates, Steve M.; Gordon, Gwyneth W.; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Jiang, Ganqing; Creaser, Robert A.; Xiao, Shuhai; McFadden, Kathleen; Sawaki, Yusuke; Tahata, Miyuki; Shu, Degan; Han, Jian; Li, Yong; Chu, Xuelei; Anbar, Ariel D.

    2015-05-01

    To improve estimates of the extent of ocean oxygenation during the late Ediacaran Period, we measured the U and Mo isotope compositions of euxinic (anoxic and sulfidic) organic-rich mudrocks (ORM) of Member IV, upper Doushantuo Formation, South China. The average ?238U of most samples is 0.24 ± 0.16‰ (2SD; relative to standard CRM145), which is slightly higher than the average ?238U of 0.02 ± 0.12‰ for restricted Black Sea (deep-water Unit I) euxinic sediments and is similar to a modeled ?238U value of 0.2‰ for open ocean euxinic sediments in the modern well-oxygenated oceans. Because 238U is preferentially removed to euxinic sediments compared to 235U, expanded ocean anoxia will deplete seawater of 238U relative to 235U, ultimately leading to deposition of ORM with low ?238U. Hence, the high ?238U of Member IV ORM points to a common occurrence of extensive ocean oxygenation ca. 560 to 551 Myr ago. The Mo isotope composition of sediments deposited from strongly euxinic bottom waters ([H2S]aq >11 ?M) either directly records the global seawater Mo isotope composition (if Mo removal from deep waters is quantitative) or represents a minimum value for seawater (if Mo removal is not quantitative). Near the top of Member IV, ?98Mo approaches the modern seawater value of 2.34 ± 0.10‰. High ?98Mo points to widespread ocean oxygenation because the preferential removal of isotopically light Mo to sediments occurs to a greater extent in O2-rich compared to O2-deficient marine environments. However, the ?98Mo value for most Member IV ORM is near 0‰ (relative to standard NIST SRM 3134 = 0.25‰), suggesting extensive anoxia. The low ?98Mo is at odds with the high Mo concentrations of Member IV ORM, which suggest a large seawater Mo inventory in well-oxygenated oceans, and the high ?238U. Hence, we propose that the low ?98Mo of most Member IV ORM was fractionated from contemporaneous seawater. Possible mechanisms driving this isotope fractionation include: (1) inadequate dissolved sulfide for quantitative thiomolybdate formation and capture of a seawater-like ?98Mo signature in sediments or (2) delivery of isotopically light Mo to sediments via a particulate Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide shuttle. A compilation of Mo isotope data from euxinic ORM suggests that there were transient episodes of extensive ocean oxygenation that break up intervals of less oxygenated oceans during late Neoproterozoic and early Paleozoic time. Hence, Member IV does not capture irreversible deep ocean oxygenation. Instead, complex ocean redox variations likely marked the transition from O2-deficient Proterozoic oceans to widely oxygenated later Phanerozoic oceans.

  18. The Impact of Sleep, Stress, and Depression on Postpartum Weight Retention: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Rui S.; Kroll-Desrosiers, Aimee R.; Goldberg, Robert J; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Person, Sharina D.; Waring, Molly E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the impact of sleep, stress, and/or depression on postpartum weight retention. Methods We searched three electronic databases, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and PsycInfo. Studies were included if they were published between January 1990 and September 2013 in English, measured sleep, stress, and/or depression in the postpartum period and assessed the association of these factors with postpartum weight retention. Two reviewers reviewed included articles and rated study quality using a modified version of the Downs and Black scale. Results Thirteen studies met our pre-defined eligibility criteria, reporting on 9 study samples. Two were cross-sectional studies and eleven were longitudinal studies. The study sample size ranged from 74 to 37,127. All four studies examining short sleep duration and postpartum weight retention reported a positive association. The four studies examining postpartum stress and weight retention reported non-significant associations only. Of 7 studies examining postpartum depression and weight retention, 3 reported non-significant associations, and 4 reported positive associations. Conclusion Research investigating the impact of postpartum sleep, stress, depression and weight retention is limited. Future longitudinal studies are needed. PMID:25306538

  19. Immigrant women's perspective on prenatal and postpartum care: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Maria da Conceição F; Figueiredo, Maria Henriqueta

    2015-02-01

    Female migration represents a major public health challenge faced today because its heterogeneity and gender issues placing immigrant women among the most vulnerable and at-risk group. To identify and analyze studies dealing with immigrant women's perspectives with prenatal and postpartum health care. A systematic literature review was conducted to assess studies published between 2000 and 2010 using Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, EMBASE, PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. The studies explored the relation between socio-demographic characteristics of immigrant women participants and its impact on the main factors identified as influencing prenatal and postpartum care, characterizing the manifested knowledge and behaviors expressed and describing the women's experience with health care services and the incidence of postpartum depression symptoms. The less favorable socio-economic status of migrant women participants seems to have been influential in the quality of health service in prenatal and postpartum periods. The language barrier was the main negative factor interfering with communication between women and health professionals, followed by health care professionals' lack of cultural sensitivity, leading to women's reluctance in using health services. PMID:24052479

  20. Postpartum Contraception in Northern Tanzania: Patterns of Use, Relationship to Antenatal Intentions, and Impact of Antenatal Counseling.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Sarah C; Urassa, Mark; Kumogola, Yusufu; Kalongoji, Samwel; Kimaro, Daniel; Zaba, Basia

    2015-12-01

    In Tanzania, unmet need for contraception is high, particularly in the postpartum period. Contraceptive counseling during routine antenatal HIV testing could reach 97 percent of pregnant women with much-needed information, but requires an understanding of postpartum contraceptive use and its relationship to antenatal intentions. We conducted a baseline survey of reproductive behavior among 5,284 antenatal clients in Northern Tanzania, followed by an intervention offering contraceptive counseling to half the respondents. A follow-up survey at 6-15 months postpartum examined patterns and determinants of postpartum contraceptive use, assessed their correspondence with antenatal intentions, and evaluated the impact of the intervention. Despite high loss to follow-up, our findings indicate that condoms and hormonal methods had particular and distinct roles in the postpartum period, based on understandings of postpartum fertility. Antenatal intentions were poor predictors of postpartum reproductive behavior. Antenatal counseling had an effect on postpartum contraceptive intentions, but not on use. Different antenatal/contraceptive service integration models should be tested to determine how and when antenatal counseling can be most effective. PMID:26643490

  1. Anxiety symptoms and coping strategies in the perinatal period

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to explore the prospective relationship between anxiety symptoms and coping strategies during late pregnancy and early postpartum. Methods Participants completed the Hospital Anxiety Depression-Anxiety subscale and Carver’s Brief COPE at two time points, namely during the last trimester of pregnancy (N?=?400) and at two months postpartum (N?=?158). Results Antenatally, 18.8% of pregnant women presented severe anxiety symptoms while 20.2% of women presented severe anxiety symptoms after birth. Carver's proposed coping styles allowed to significantly distinguish between anxious and non anxious women during these two periods. Anxious women used significantly more inappropriate coping and less adaptive coping responses, such as self-blame and denial of reality, which remained associated with anxiety in the perinatal period. Our results also indicated a decrease in adaptive coping in women without anxiety after birth (e.g. acceptance, positive reframing). Conclusion Our findings confirm that antenatal and postnatal anxiety symptoms occur frequently and that inappropriate and/or non functional coping may account for persisting anxiety after childbirth. Limitations: Data were based on self-reports and participating women were predominantly primiparous. A high drop-out rate at two months postpartum must also be acknowledged. PMID:24330429

  2. Social support, stress, and maternal postpartum depression: A comparison of supportive relationships.

    PubMed

    Reid, Keshia M; Taylor, Miles G

    2015-11-01

    A large body of literature documents the link between social support, stress, and women's mental health during pregnancy and the postpartum period; however, uncertainty remains as to whether a direct effect or stress mediating pathway best describes the relationship between these factors. Moreover, specific dimensions of social support that may be influential (family type, sources of support) have largely been neglected. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study (N=4150), we examine the pathway between social support, stress exposure, and postpartum depression in greater detail. Findings reveal that social support is a significant, protective factor for postpartum depression, and the variety of support providers in a woman's social network is important, especially in the context of family type. Findings also reveal the importance of considering social support and stress exposure as part of a larger causal pathway to postpartum mental health. PMID:26463547

  3. Predictors of Mothers’ Postpartum Body Dissatisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Gjerdingen, Dwenda; Fontaine, Patricia; Crow, Scott; McGovern, Patricia; Center, Bruce; Miner, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To investigate changes in mothers’ body dissatisfaction from delivery to 9 months postpartum, and the relationship of postpartum body dissatisfaction to weight, other health, and social characteristics. Methods In this prospective longitudinal study, 506 mothers completed surveys at 0-1 and 9 months postpartum. Postpartum changes in body dissatisfaction and weight were evaluated by paired t-tests, and predictors of postpartum body dissatisfaction were identified by stepwise multiple regression analysis. Results Mothers’ body dissatisfaction increased significantly from 0-1 to 9 months postpartum (mean scores of 15.2 and 18.2, respectively, p < .001). Although women lost an average of 10.1 pounds (sd = 16.3) or 4.6 kg. (sd = 7.4) between 0-1 and 9 months postpartum (p < .001), their weight at 9 months postpartum remained an average of 5.4 pounds (sd = 15.6) or 2.5 kg (sd = 7.1) above their pre-pregnancy weights (p < .001). Body dissatisfaction at 9 months postpartum was associated with overeating or poor appetite, higher current weight, worse mental health (SF-36 Mental Health scale), race other than black, bottle-feeding (vs. breastfeeding), being single (vs. married), and having fewer children,. Conclusions Mothers’ body satisfaction worsened from 1 to 9 months postpartum, and 9-month body dissatisfaction was associated with eating/appetite abnormalities, greater weight, worse mental health, non-black race, non-breastfeeding status, and fewer immediate family relationships. Given these relationships, it is important to educate women about expected postpartum weight and body changes, and to find ways to enhance mothers’ postpartum self-esteem and body satisfaction. PMID:20013517

  4. Differentially Expressed MicroRNAs in Postpartum Breast Cancer in Hispanic Women

    PubMed Central

    Futscher, Bernard W.; Hu, Chengcheng; Komenaka, Ian K.; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes; Gutierrez-Millan, Luis Enrique; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Thompson, Patricia A.; Martinez, Maria Elena

    2015-01-01

    The risk of breast cancer transiently increases immediately following pregnancy; peaking between 3-7 years. The biology that underlies this risk window and the effect on the natural history of the disease is unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that have been shown to be dysregulated in breast cancer. We conducted miRNA profiling of 56 tumors from a case series of multiparous Hispanic women and assessed the pattern of expression by time since last full-term pregnancy. A data-driven splitting analysis on the pattern of 355 miRNAs separated the case series into two groups: a) an early group representing women diagnosed with breast cancer ? 5.2 years postpartum (n = 12), and b) a late group representing women diagnosed with breast cancer ? 5.3 years postpartum (n = 44). We identified 15 miRNAs with significant differential expression between the early and late postpartum groups; 60% of these miRNAs are encoded on the X chromosome. Ten miRNAs had a two-fold or higher difference in expression with miR-138, miR-660, miR-31, miR-135b, miR-17, miR-454, and miR-934 overexpressed in the early versus the late group; while miR-892a, miR-199a-5p, and miR-542-5p were underexpressed in the early versus the late postpartum group. The DNA methylation of three out of five tested miRNAs (miR-31, miR-135b, and miR-138) was lower in the early versus late postpartum group, and negatively correlated with miRNA expression. Here we show that miRNAs are differentially expressed and differentially methylated between tumors of the early versus late postpartum, suggesting that potential differences in epigenetic dysfunction may be operative in postpartum breast cancers. PMID:25875827

  5. The palaeoclimatic significance of Eurasian Giant Salamanders (Cryptobranchidae: Zaissanurus, Andrias) - indications for elevated humidity in Central Asia during global warm periods (Eocene, late Oligocene warming, Miocene Climate Optimum)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyan, Davit; Böhme, Madelaine; Winklhofer, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Cryptobranchids represent a group of large sized (up to 1.8 m) tailed amphibians known since the Middle Jurassic (Gao & Shubin 2003). Two species are living today in eastern Eurasia: Andrias davidianus (China) and A. japonicus (Japan). Cenozoic Eurasian fossil giant salamanders are known with two genera and two or three species from over 30 localities, ranging from the Late Eocene to the Early Pliocene (Böhme & Ilg 2003). The Late Eocene species Zaissanurus beliajevae is restricted to the Central Asian Zaissan Basin (SE-Kazakhstan, 50°N, 85°E), whereas the Late Oligocene to Early Pliocene species Andrias scheuchzeri is distributed from Central Europe to the Zaissan Basin. In the latter basin the species occur during two periods; the latest Oligocene and the late Early to early Middle Miocene (Chkhikvadse 1982). Andrias scheuchzeri is osteological indistinguishable from both recent species, indicating a similar ecology (Westfahl 1958). To investigate the palaeoclimatic significance of giant salamanders we analyzed the climate within the present-day distribution area and at selected fossil localities with independent palaeoclimate record. Our results indicate that fossil and recent Andrias species occur in humid areas where the mean annual precipitation reach over 900 mm (900 - 1.300 mm). As a working hypothesis (assuming a similar ecology of Andrias and Zaissanurus) we interpret occurrences of both fossil Eurasian giant salamanders as indicative for humid palaeoclimatic conditions. Based on this assumption the Late Eocene, the latest Oligocene (late Oligocene warming) and the late Early to early Middle Miocene (Miocene Climatic Optimum) of Central Asia (Zaissan Basin) are periods of elevated humidity, suggesting a direct (positive) relationship between global climate and Central Asian humidity evolution. Böhme M., Ilg A. 2003: fosFARbase, www.wahre-staerke.com/ Chkhikvadze V.M. 1982. On the finding of fossil Cryptobranchidae in the USSR and Mongolia. Vertebrata Hungarica, 21: 63-67. Gao K.-Q., Shubin N.H. 2003. Earliest known crown-group Salamanders. Nature, 422: 424-428. Westphal F. 1958. Die Tertiären und rezenten Eurasiatischen Riesensalamander. Palaeontolographica Abt. A, 110: 20-92.

  6. The effect of health and nutrition education intervention on women's postpartum beliefs and practices: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Nian; Mao, Limei; Sun, Xiufa; Liu, Liegang; Yao, Ping; Chen, Banghua

    2009-01-01

    Background 'Sitting month' is the Chinese tradition for postpartum customs. Available studies indicate that some of the traditional postpartum practices are potentially harmful for women's health. However, no intervention study aiming at postpartum practices has been performed. In this paper we evaluated the effect of a health and nutrition education intervention, which focused on improving postpartum dietary quality and optimal health behaviors. Methods The study design was a randomized controlled trial conducted in both urban and rural area of Hubei between August 2003 and June 2004. A total of 302 women who attended the antenatal clinic during the third trimester with an uncomplicated pregnancy were recruited. Women randomized to the education intervention group in both urban and rural area received two two-hour prenatal education sessions and four postpartum counseling visits. Control group women received usual health care during pregnancy and postpartum period. Women were followed up until 42 days postpartum. Outcome measures were nutrition and health knowledge, dietary behavior, health behavior and health problems during the postpartum period. Results Women in the intervention groups exhibited significantly greater improvement in overall dietary behaviors such as consumption of fruits, vegetables, soybean and soybean products as well as nutrition and health knowledge than those in the control groups. Significantly more women in the intervention groups give up the traditional behavior taboos. The incidence of constipation, leg cramp or joint pain and prolonged lochia rubra was significantly lower in the intervention groups as compared with the control groups. Conclusion The study shows that health and nutrition education intervention enable the women take away some of the unhealthy traditional postpartum practices and decrease the prevalence of postpartum health problems. The intervention has potential for adaptation and development to large-scale implementation. Trial registration number klACTRN12607000549426 PMID:19183504

  7. Postpartum spontaneous subcapsular hepatic hematoma related to preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Anyfantakis, Dimitrios; Kastanakis, Miltiades; Fragiadakis, Georgios; Karona, Paraskevi; Katsougris, Nikolaos; Bobolakis, Emmanouil

    2014-01-01

    Subcapsular hematoma of the liver represents an unusual clinical phenomenon in the pregnancy and postpartum period with serious complications in terms of fetal and maternal mortality. Here we report a case of a 32-year-old primiparous female at 36 weeks of gestation, admitted to a maternity ward of a private clinic for preeclampsia. The woman underwent an emergency caesarean section with the extraction of an alive foetus. A few hours after delivery, she was transferred to the emergency department of our institution complaining of severe epigastric pain. Diagnostic work-up was suggestive of a subcapsular right lob hepatic hematoma which was successfully managed conservatively. Timely diagnosis is necessary for the prevention of life-threatening events in mother and fetus. For this reason acute care physicians have to be vigilant of the condition and consider this in the differential diagnosis of epigastric pain during pregnancy and postpartum. PMID:25202460

  8. Postpartum Spontaneous Subcapsular Hepatic Hematoma Related to Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Anyfantakis, Dimitrios; Kastanakis, Miltiades; Fragiadakis, Georgios; Karona, Paraskevi; Katsougris, Nikolaos; Bobolakis, Emmanouil

    2014-01-01

    Subcapsular hematoma of the liver represents an unusual clinical phenomenon in the pregnancy and postpartum period with serious complications in terms of fetal and maternal mortality. Here we report a case of a 32-year-old primiparous female at 36 weeks of gestation, admitted to a maternity ward of a private clinic for preeclampsia. The woman underwent an emergency caesarean section with the extraction of an alive foetus. A few hours after delivery, she was transferred to the emergency department of our institution complaining of severe epigastric pain. Diagnostic work-up was suggestive of a subcapsular right lob hepatic hematoma which was successfully managed conservatively. Timely diagnosis is necessary for the prevention of life-threatening events in mother and fetus. For this reason acute care physicians have to be vigilant of the condition and consider this in the differential diagnosis of epigastric pain during pregnancy and postpartum. PMID:25202460

  9. The role of body image in prenatal and postpartum depression: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Marushka L; Ertel, Karen A; Dole, Nancy; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    Maternal depression increases risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, and recent evidence suggests that body image may play an important role in depression. This systematic review identifies studies of body image and perinatal depression with the goal of elucidating the complex role that body image plays in prenatal and postpartum depression, improving measurement, and informing next steps in research. We conducted a literature search of the PubMed database (1996-2014) for English language studies of (1) depression, (2) body image, and (3) pregnancy or postpartum. In total, 19 studies matched these criteria. Cross-sectional studies consistently found a positive association between body image dissatisfaction and perinatal depression. Prospective cohort studies found that body image dissatisfaction predicted incident prenatal and postpartum depression; findings were consistent across different aspects of body image and various pregnancy and postpartum time periods. Prospective studies that examined the reverse association found that depression influenced the onset of some aspects of body image dissatisfaction during pregnancy, but few evaluated the postpartum onset of body image dissatisfaction. The majority of studies found that body image dissatisfaction is consistently but weakly associated with the onset of prenatal and postpartum depression. Findings were less consistent for the association between perinatal depression and subsequent body image dissatisfaction. While published studies provide a foundation for understanding these issues, methodologically rigorous studies that capture the perinatal variation in depression and body image via instruments validated in pregnant women, consistently adjust for important confounders, and include ethnically diverse populations will further elucidate this association. PMID:25895137

  10. Antidepressant-like effects of omega-3 fatty acids in postpartum model of depression in rats.

    PubMed

    Arbabi, Leila; Baharuldin, Mohamad Taufik Hidayat; Moklas, Mohamad Aris Mohamad; Fakurazi, Sharida; Muhammad, Sani Ismaila

    2014-09-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a psychiatric disorder that occurs in 10-15% of childbearing women. It is hypothesized that omega-3 fatty acids, which are components of fish oil, may attenuate depression symptoms. In order to examine this hypothesis, the animal model of postpartum depression was established in the present study. Ovariectomized female rats underwent hormone-simulated pregnancy (HSP) regimen and received progesterone and estradiol benzoate or vehicle for 23 days, mimicking the actual rat's pregnancy. The days after hormone termination were considered as the postpartum period. Forced feeding of menhaden fish oil, as a source of omega-3, with three doses of 1, 3, and 9g/kg/d, fluoxetine 15mg/kg/d, and distilled water 2ml/d per rat started in five postpartum-induced and one vehicle group on postpartum day 1 and continued for 15 consecutive days. On postpartum day 15, all groups were tested in the forced swimming test (FST) and open field test (OFT), followed by a biochemical assay. Results showed that the postpartum-induced rats not treated with menhaden fish oil, exhibited an increase in immobility time seen in FST, hippocampal concentration of corticosterone and plasmatic level of corticosterone, and pro-inflammatory cytokines. These depression-related effects were attenuated by supplementation of menhaden fish oil with doses of 3 and 9g/kg. Moreover, results of rats supplemented with menhaden fish oil were comparable to rats treated with the clinically effective antidepressant, fluoxetine. Taken together, these results suggest that menhaden fish oil, rich in omega-3, exerts beneficial effect on postpartum depression and decreases the biomarkers related to depression such as corticosterone and pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:24867329

  11. Prevalence of postpartum depression among immigrant women: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Falah-Hassani, Kobra; Shiri, Rahman; Vigod, Simone; Dennis, Cindy-Lee

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were threefold: to estimate the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms in immigrant women, compare this prevalence to non-immigrant women, and determine risk factors for postpartum depressive symptoms in immigrant women. Literature searches were conducted in PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Scopus, ResearchGate and Google Scholar databases from 1950 until October 2014. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria of which 22 (12 cross-sectional and 10 prospective cohort) contributed data for meta-analyses. Heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed. The prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms in immigrant women was 20% (95% confidence interval [CI] 17-23%, 18 studies, N = 13,749 women). Immigrant women were twice more likely to experience depressive symptoms in the postpartum period than non-immigrant women (pooled unadjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.10 [95% CI 1.62-2.73, 15 studies, N = 50,519 women] and adjusted OR = 2.18 [95% CI 1.60-2.96, 7 studies, N = 35,557 women]). There was, however, evidence of publication bias with the pooled adjusted OR reduced to 1.63 (95% CI 1.22-2.17) after adjustment for bias. Risk factors associated with postpartum depressive symptoms among immigrant women included shorter length of residence in the destination country, lower levels of social support, poorer marital adjustment, and perceived insufficient household income. This study suggests that postpartum depression is a common condition among immigrant women. Moreover, immigrant women are at higher risk of postpartum depression than non-immigrant women. Further prospective studies on the risk factors of postpartum depression among immigrant women verified by a clinical diagnosis are needed. PMID:26424425

  12. Using animal models to study post-partum psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Perani, C V; Slattery, D A

    2014-01-01

    The post-partum period represents a time during which all maternal organisms undergo substantial plasticity in a wide variety of systems in order to ensure the well-being of the offspring. Although this time is generally associated with increased calmness and decreased stress responses, for a substantial subset of mothers, this period represents a time of particular risk for the onset of psychiatric disorders. Thus, post-partum anxiety, depression and, to a lesser extent, psychosis may develop, and not only affect the well-being of the mother but also place at risk the long-term health of the infant. Although the risk factors for these disorders, as well as normal peripartum-associated adaptations, are well known, the underlying aetiology of post-partum psychiatric disorders remains poorly understood. However, there have been a number of attempts to model these disorders in basic research, which aim to reveal their underlying mechanisms. In the following review, we first discuss known peripartum adaptations and then describe post-partum mood and anxiety disorders, including their risk factors, prevalence and symptoms. Thereafter, we discuss the animal models that have been designed in order to study them and what they have revealed about their aetiology to date. Overall, these studies show that it is feasible to study such complex disorders in animal models, but that more needs to be done in order to increase our knowledge of these severe and debilitating mood and anxiety disorders. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Animal Models in Psychiatry Research. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-20 PMID:24527704

  13. Intimate partner abuse before and during pregnancy as risk factors for postpartum mental health problems

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although research has established the profound effects that intimate partner abuse can have on postpartum mental health, little is known regarding how this association may change as a function of the timing and type of abuse. This study examined associations of psychological, physical and sexual abuse experienced as adults before and during pregnancy with symptoms of postpartum mental health problems in a non-clinical sample of women. Methods English-speaking mothers aged 18 years and older in the metropolitan area of a large, Western Canadian city were recruited to participate in a study of women’s health after pregnancy. The study was advertised in hospitals, local newspapers, community venues, and relevant websites. One-hundred women completed standardized, self-report questionnaires during semi-structured interviews conducted by female research assistants at approximately 2 months postpartum. In addition to questions about their general health and well-being, participants answered questions about their experiences of intimate partner abuse and about their mental health during the postpartum period. Results Almost two-thirds (61.0%) of women reported postpartum mental health symptoms above normal levels, with 47.0% reporting symptoms at moderate or higher levels. The majority reported some form of intimate partner abuse before pregnancy (84.0%) and more than two-thirds (70.0%), during pregnancy; however, the abuse was typically minor in nature. Multivariate models revealed that women who experienced intimate partner abuse—whether before or during pregnancy—reported higher levels of postpartum mental health problems; however, associations differed as a function of the timing and type of abuse, as well as specific mental health symptoms. Multivariate models also showed that as the number of types of intimate partner abuse experienced increased, so did the negative effects on postpartum mental health. Conclusions Results of this study provide further evidence that intimate partner abuse is a risk factor for postpartum mental health problems. They also underscore the complex risks and needs associated with intimate partner abuse among postpartum women and support the use of integrated approaches to treating postpartum mental health problems. Future efforts should focus on the extent to which strategies designed to reduce intimate partner abuse also improve postpartum mental health and vice versus. PMID:24708777

  14. Cognitive-behavioral intervention to promote smoking cessation for pregnant and postpartum inner city women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Minsun; Wen, Kuang-Yi; Hui, Sui-kuen Azor; Roussi, Pagona; Hernandez, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated a theory-guided cognitive-behavioral counseling (CBC) intervention for smoking cessation during pregnancy and postpartum. It also explored the mediating role of cognitive-affective variables on the impact of CBC. Underserved inner city pregnant women (N = 277) were randomized to the CBC or a best practice (BP) condition, each of which consisted of two prenatal and two postpartum sessions. Assessments were obtained at baseline, late pregnancy, and 1- and 5-months postpartum. An intent-to-treat analysis found no differences between the two groups in 7-day point-prevalence abstinence. However, a respondents-only analysis revealed a significantly higher cessation rate in the CBC (37.3 %) versus the BP (19.0 %) condition at 5-months postpartum follow-up. This effect was mediated by higher quitting self-efficacy and lower cons of quitting. CBC, based on the Cognitive-Social Health Information Processing model, has the potential to increase postpartum smoking abstinence by assessing and addressing cognitive-affective barriers among women who adhere to the intervention. PMID:26335312

  15. Cognitive-behavioral intervention to promote smoking cessation for pregnant and postpartum inner city women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minsun; Miller, Suzanne M; Wen, Kuang-Yi; Hui, Sui-Kuen Azor; Roussi, Pagona; Hernandez, Enrique

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated a theory-guided cognitive-behavioral counseling (CBC) intervention for smoking cessation during pregnancy and postpartum. It also explored the mediating role of cognitive-affective variables on the impact of CBC. Underserved inner city pregnant women (N = 277) were randomized to the CBC or a best practice (BP) condition, each of which consisted of two prenatal and two postpartum sessions. Assessments were obtained at baseline, late pregnancy, and 1- and 5-months postpartum. An intent-to-treat analysis found no differences between the two groups in 7-day point-prevalence abstinence. However, a respondents-only analysis revealed a significantly higher cessation rate in the CBC (37.3 %) versus the BP (19.0 %) condition at 5-months postpartum follow-up. This effect was mediated by higher quitting self-efficacy and lower cons of quitting. CBC, based on the Cognitive-Social Health Information Processing model, has the potential to increase postpartum smoking abstinence by assessing and addressing cognitive-affective barriers among women who adhere to the intervention. PMID:26335312

  16. Postpartum hemorrhage: a continuing challenge.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, Evelyn

    2015-12-01

    Obstetric hemorrhage remains a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Many postpartum hemorrhages (PPHs) do not have identifiable risk factors; maternity units should therefore have obstetric hemorrhageprotocols in place for all parturients as every pregnancy has the potential to be complicated by hemorrhage. This review will examine the epidemiology of PPH as well as current recommendations for key elements in obstetric hemorrhage protocols. Recent advances in hematologic management of PPH will be also be reviewed, including: (1) recognition of hypofibrinogenemia as a risk factor for severe PPH, (2) use of antifibrinolytic therapy, and (3) strategies for fibrinogen replacement therapy. PMID:26637712

  17. Haootia quadriformis n. gen., n. sp., interpreted as a muscular cnidarian impression from the Late Ediacaran period (approx. 560 Ma).

    PubMed

    Liu, Alexander G; Matthews, Jack J; Menon, Latha R; McIlroy, Duncan; Brasier, Martin D

    2014-10-22

    Muscle tissue is a fundamentally eumetazoan attribute. The oldest evidence for fossilized muscular tissue before the Early Cambrian has hitherto remained moot, being reliant upon indirect evidence in the form of Late Ediacaran ichnofossils. We here report a candidate muscle-bearing organism, Haootia quadriformis n. gen., n. sp., from approximately 560 Ma strata in Newfoundland, Canada. This taxon exhibits sediment moulds of twisted, superimposed fibrous bundles arranged quadrilaterally, extending into four prominent bifurcating corner branches. Haootia is distinct from all previously published contemporaneous Ediacaran macrofossils in its symmetrically fibrous, rather than frondose, architecture. Its bundled fibres, morphology, and taphonomy compare well with the muscle fibres of fossil and extant Cnidaria, particularly the benthic Staurozoa. Haootia quadriformis thus potentially provides the earliest body fossil evidence for both metazoan musculature, and for Eumetazoa, in the geological record. PMID:25165764

  18. Haootia quadriformis n. gen., n. sp., interpreted as a muscular cnidarian impression from the Late Ediacaran period (approx. 560 Ma)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Alexander G.; Matthews, Jack J.; Menon, Latha R.; McIlroy, Duncan; Brasier, Martin D.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle tissue is a fundamentally eumetazoan attribute. The oldest evidence for fossilized muscular tissue before the Early Cambrian has hitherto remained moot, being reliant upon indirect evidence in the form of Late Ediacaran ichnofossils. We here report a candidate muscle-bearing organism, Haootia quadriformis n. gen., n. sp., from approximately 560 Ma strata in Newfoundland, Canada. This taxon exhibits sediment moulds of twisted, superimposed fibrous bundles arranged quadrilaterally, extending into four prominent bifurcating corner branches. Haootia is distinct from all previously published contemporaneous Ediacaran macrofossils in its symmetrically fibrous, rather than frondose, architecture. Its bundled fibres, morphology, and taphonomy compare well with the muscle fibres of fossil and extant Cnidaria, particularly the benthic Staurozoa. Haootia quadriformis thus potentially provides the earliest body fossil evidence for both metazoan musculature, and for Eumetazoa, in the geological record. PMID:25165764

  19. Comparing the estimation of postpartum hemorrhage using the weighting method and National Guideline with the postpartum hemorrhage estimation by midwives

    PubMed Central

    Golmakani, Nahid; Khaleghinezhad, Khosheh; Dadgar, Selmeh; Hashempor, Majid; Baharian, Nosrat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In developing countries, hemorrhage accounts for 30% of the maternal deaths. Postpartum hemorrhage has been defined as blood loss of around 500 ml or more, after completing the third phase of labor. Most cases of postpartum hemorrhage occur during the first hour after birth. The most common reason for bleeding in the early hours after childbirth is uterine atony. Bleeding during delivery is usually a visual estimate that is measured by the midwife. It has a high error rate. However, studies have shown that the use of a standard can improve the estimation. The aim of the research is to compare the estimation of postpartum hemorrhage using the weighting method and the National Guideline for postpartum hemorrhage estimation. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on 112 females in the Omolbanin Maternity Department of Mashhad, for a six-month period, from November 2012 to May 2013. The accessible method was used for sampling. The data collection tools were case selection, observation and interview forms. For postpartum hemorrhage estimation, after the third section of labor was complete, the quantity of bleeding was estimated in the first and second hours after delivery, by the midwife in charge, using the National Guideline for vaginal delivery, provided by the Maternal Health Office. Also, after visual estimation by using the National Guideline, the sheets under parturient in first and second hours after delivery were exchanged and weighted. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the t-test. Results: According to the results, a significant difference was found between the estimated blood loss based on the weighting methods and that using the National Guideline (weighting method 62.68 ± 16.858 cc vs. National Guideline 45.31 ± 13.484 cc in the first hour after delivery) (P = 0.000) and (weighting method 41.26 ± 10.518 vs. National Guideline 30.24 ± 8.439 in second hour after delivery) (P = 0.000). Conclusions: Natural child birth education by using the National Guideline can increase the accuracy of estimated blood loss. Therefore, training the personnel to use this guideline is recommended. However, It has less accuracy than 'sheet weighing’. Consequently, usage of symptoms and the weighing method is recommended in cases of postpartum bleeding. PMID:26257803

  20. Postpartum acute renal failure: a multicenter study of risk factors in patients admitted to ICU

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Even in developed countries, severe specific pregnancy complications may occur in the immediate postpartum period and require admission to the ICU. The characteristics and risk factors of acute renal failure (ARF) induced by these complications and their treatments are not well known. Methods We performed a retrospective multicenter study in three intensive care departments linked to level III maternity wards in the north of France. All patients admitted to ICU for postpartum complications over a 5-year period (2008 to 2012) were included. Clinical and biological data, delivery characteristics, type of complications, and treatments were compared by univariate and multivariate analyses according to the occurrence and severity of ARF. Results One hundred eighty-two patients admitted to ICU for postpartum complications were included in the study. Sixty-eight patients (37%) developed an ARF: 49 with a low or medium severity and 19 with a severe ARF requiring renal replacement therapy. Hemolysis, elevated liver enzyme, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome on its own (p = 0.047) or combined with postpartum haemorrhage (p = 0.003), previous treatment by hyperoncotic albumin infusion (p = 0.001) and blockade of fibrinolysis by tranexamic acid (p = 0.03), was associated with secondary ARF. By multivariate analysis, the only independent factors were the association of HELLP syndrome with postpartum haemorrhage and the use of hyperoncotic albumin infusion. Conclusions HELLP syndrome associated with postpartum haemorrhage induces a high risk of ARF in the complicated postpartum setting. A particular attention should be given to treatments that could worsen the kidney function in that situation. PMID:25593752

  1. The Late K-type Binary V1104 Her Near the Short-period End of Contact Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, N.-P.; Qian, S.-B.; Soonthornthum, B.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Liao, W.-P.; Zhao, E.-G.; Zhou, X.

    2015-04-01

    V1104 Her is a newly discovered periodic variable with EW type variability. With an orbital period that is extremely short for a contact binary, it was found to have almost the latest K spectral type. To study its properties and nature, two new sets of multi-color light curves were analyzed with the Wilson-Devinney code. Photometric solutions reveal that the system is a W-type shallow contact binary with a mass ratio of 1/q={{M}1}/{{M}2}=0.63+/- 0.01 and a degree of contact of about f=15%+/- 2%. The real parameter uncertainties may be from three to five times larger, depending on the required confidence. Combining the newly determined times of minimum light, some of which were reprocessed from initial data, in conjunction with others published, the period variation is investigated in detail. Different methods of curve fitting were used, based on a weighted least-squares method. Finally, the orbital period of V1104 Her is found to be undergoing a long-term decrease at a rate of dP/dt=-2.9?ft( +/- 0.5 \\right)× {{10}-8} days · yr-1, as well as double cyclic oscillations with a period ratio ({{T}1}/{{T}2}) very close to 9:2. The light-travel time effect was found to be the best explanation for the cyclic variations. This indicates that the object is a possible quadruple system, which further implies that multiplicity may be a common phenomenon among close binaries.

  2. Postpartum care -- what's best for mother and baby.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    This special feature focuses on the care of mothers and infants during the postpartum period. Postpartum care should include prevention, early detection and treatment of complications and disease, and provision of advice. Most maternal mortality is due to postpartum hemorrhage within 4 hours of delivery, especially among anemic women. The uterus should be well contracted, and blood loss should be minimal. Sepsis, as indicated by fever, should be treated with antibiotics, but preventive measures include cleanliness and hygiene at delivery. Infections are more likely after cesarean section, prolonged labor, and early rupture of membranes. Handwashing prevents infection. Women should be encouraged to pass urine in the first 12 hours after delivery. Bathing frequently relieves painful episiotomy. 85% of neonatal deaths are due to preterm birth and low birth weight. Keeping the baby warm helps prevent low body temperature and infections. Parents need social support in adjusting to congenital defects. Infants with infections should be recognized on time, managed correctly, and referred to a district hospital. Breast feeding should start immediately or within the first hour of birth. Mothers need adequate rest and a nutritious diet. Breast tenderness is common during the first 4 days after delivery. Breast feeding on demand and proper hygiene helps to prevent infections and breast tenderness. Postpartum depression requires support from families and expert advice. Exclusive breast feeding inhibits ovulation until menstruation returns. Family planning may begin during lactation with a progestin-only pill, IUD, or diaphragm. HIV-positive mothers should discontinue breast feeding and take extreme care to mix formula with clean water. Mothers should be immunized with two doses of tetanus toxoid. Pregnant mothers need iodized oil and vitamin A supplements. Reproductive tract infections should be treated. PMID:12321360

  3. Effect of thermal environment and caloric intake on head growth of low birthweight infants during late neonatal period.

    PubMed Central

    Glass, L; Lala, R V; Jaiswal, V; Nigam, S K

    1975-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of ambient thermal conditions on postnatal head growth in low birth weight infants, 42 asymtomatic neonates were reared under 4 combinations of caloric intake and thermal environment after the first week of life. Exposure to a subthermoneutral temperature (abdominal skin temperature of 35 degrees C), together with a relatively low caloric intake (120 cal/kg per day), was associated with significant retardation of head growth over a 2-week study period. PMID:1167073

  4. Effect of lactation on postpartum cardiac function of pregnancy-associated hypertensive mice.

    PubMed

    Murata, Kazuya; Saito, Chiaki; Ishida, Junji; Hamada, Juri; Sugiyama, Fumihiro; Yagami, Ken-Ichi; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi

    2013-02-01

    Preeclampsia is a serious complication during pregnancy, and recent epidemiological studies indicate the association between preeclampsia and cardiac morbidity and mortality during the postpartum period. Although the risk of cardiovascular diseases in the postpartum period is affected by lactation, its role in maternal heart with a history of preeclampsia remains unclear. In this study, we investigated postpartum change in cardiac remodeling and function of pregnancy-associated hypertensive (PAH) mice with and without lactation. The systolic blood pressure was increased in PAH mice at day 19 of gestation (E19) and was reduced to normal levels in both lactating and nonlactating (NL) groups in the postpartum period. Histological analyses revealed that cardiac hypertrophy and macrophage infiltration in PAH mice at E19 were improved in both lactating and NL groups at 4 weeks postpartum (4W-PP), while marked fibrosis remained. Increased mRNA expression of profibrotic genes and proinflammatory cytokines in PAH mice at E19 was significantly reduced in both lactating and NL groups at 4W-PP. Echocardiographic analysis found no significant differences in fractional shortening between PAH mice and C57BL/6J mice at E19. On the other hand, at 4W-PP, NL PAH mice showed normal fractional shortening, but lactating PAH mice exhibited significant decreases in cardiac contractility compared with NL PAH mice. These results show that cardiac remodeling induced by hypertension during pregnancy are improved in the postpartum period except fibrosis, whereas lactation induces cardiac contractile dysfunction in mice with a history of pregnancy-associated hypertension. PMID:23254193

  5. Antenatal psychosocial risk factors associated with adverse postpartum family outcomes.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, L M; Reid, A J; Midmer, D K; Biringer, A; Carroll, J C; Stewart, D E

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the strength of the association between antenatal psychosocial risk factors and adverse postpartum outcomes in the family, such as assault of women by their partner, child abuse, postpartum depression, marital dysfunction and physical illness. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Cinahl, Famli, Psych Abstracts and the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials were searched from relevant articles published from Jan. 1, 1980, to Dec. 31, 1993, with the use of MeSH terms "depression, involutional," "child abuse," "child neglect," "domestic violence," "family," "marital adjustment," "family health," "newborn health," "child health," "physical illness," "social support," "psychosocial risk," "prediction," "risk factors," "obstetrics" and "prenatal care." Further articles were identified from bibliographies. STUDY SELECTION: Of the 370 articles identified through the search, 118 were included for review. Studies were included if they examined the association between psychosocial risk factors and the outcomes of interest. Articles were excluded if they were reviews of poor quality or they had one or more of the following features: insufficient description of the sample, a high attrition rate, a lack of standardized outcome measures, outcomes other than the ones of interest or results that had already been reported in a previous study. DATA EXTRACTION: The strength of evidence of each study was evaluated. On the basis of the evidence, each risk factor was assigned a rating of the strength of its association with each of the postpartum outcomes. The ratings were class A (good evidence of association), class B (fair evidence) and class C (no clear evidence). Of the 129 antenatal psychosocial risk factors studied, 15 were found to have a class A association with at least one of the postpartum outcomes. DATA SYNTHESIS: Child abuse and abuse of the mother by her partner were most strongly correlated (class A evidence) with a history of lack of social support, recent life stressors, psychiatric disturbance in the mother and an unwanted pregnancy. Child abuse was also strongly associated with a history of childhood violence in the mother or her partner, previous child abuse by the mother's partner, a poor relationship between the mother and her parents, low self-esteem in the mother and lack of attendance at prenatal classes. Postpartum abuse of the mother was also associated with a history of abuse of the mother, prenatal care not started until the third trimester and alcohol or drug abuse by the mother or her partner (class A evidence). Child abuse had a fair (class B) association with poor marital adjustment or satisfaction, current or past abuse of the mother and alcohol or drug abuse by the mother or her partner. There was class B evidence supporting an association between abuse of the mother and poor marital adjustment, traditional sex-role expectations, a history of childhood violence in the mother or her partner and low self-esteem in the mother. Postpartum depression was most strongly associated with poor marital adjustment, recent life stressors, antepartum depression (class A evidence), but was also associated with lack of social support, abuse of the mother and a history of psychiatric disorder in the mother (class B evidence). Marital dysfunction was associated with poor marital adjustment before the birth and traditional sex-role expectations (class A evidence), and physical illness was correlated with recent life stressors (class B evidence). CONCLUSIONS: Psychosocial risk factors during the antenatal period may herald postpartum morbidity. Research is required to determine whether detection of these risk factors may lead to interventions that improve postpartum family outcomes. PMID:8634957

  6. Traditions and plant use during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum recovery by the Kry ethnic group in Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Activities and diet during the postpartum period are culturally dictated in many Southeast Asian cultures, and a period of confinement is observed. Plants play an important role in recovery during the postpartum period in diet and traditional medicine. Little is known of the Kry, a small ethnic group whose language was recently described, concerning its traditions and use of plants during pregnancy, parturition, postpartum recovery and infant healthcare. This research aims to study those traditions and identify medicinal plant use. Methods Data were collected in the 3 different Kry villages in Khammouane province, Lao PDR, through group and individual interviews with women by female interviewers. Results A total of 49 different plant species are used in women's healthcare. Plant use is culturally different from the neighboring Brou and Saek ethnic groups. Menstruation, delivery and postpartum recovery take place in separate, purpose-built, huts and a complex system of spatial restrictions is observed. Conclusions Traditions surrounding childbirth are diverse and have been strictly observed, but are undergoing a shift towards those from neighboring ethnic groups, the Brou and Saek. Medicinal plant use to facilitate childbirth, alleviate menstruation problems, assist recovery after miscarriage, mitigate postpartum haemorrhage, aid postpartum recovery, and for use in infant care, is more common than previously reported (49 species instead of 14). The wealth of novel insights into plant use and preparation will help to understand culturally important practices such as traditional delivery, spatial taboos, confinement and dietary restrictions, and their potential in modern healthcare. PMID:21569234

  7. Further studies of post-partum ovulation timing in mice.

    PubMed

    Bingel, A S

    1982-07-01

    The times at which post-partum ovulation occurred relative to the times of parturition, were similar for CD-1 mice exposed either to 18L:6D of 10L:14D and comparable to the times reported previously for mice of the same strain kept under 14L:10D. When parturition took place close to 'lights off', ovulation tended to occur 13--14 h after littering (i.e. during the last part of the same dark period and the early part of the next light period). Conversely, when parturition took place closer to 'lights on', ovulation tended to be delayed by the equivalent number of hours so that it occurred during the last part of the next dark period and early part of the subsequent light period. This confirmation and extension of earlier work suggests that mice of this strain would be useful for investigating hormonal events associated with the timing of post-partum ovulation in the mouse. PMID:7201517

  8. Effect of propylene glycol on adipose tissue mobilization in postpartum over-conditioned Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Bjerre-Harpøth, V; Storm, A C; Eslamizad, M; Kuhla, B; Larsen, M

    2015-12-01

    Our objective was to investigate the quantitative and qualitative effects of propylene glycol (PG) allocation on postpartum adipose tissue mobilization in over-conditioned Holstein cows. Nine ruminally cannulated and arterially catheterized cows were, at parturition, randomly assigned to a ruminal pulse dose of either 500g of tap water (n=4) or 500g of PG (n=5) once a day. The PG was given with the morning feeding for 4 wk postpartum (treatment period), followed by a 4-wk follow-up period. All cows were fed the same prepartum and postpartum diets. At -16 (±3), 4 (±0), 15 (±1) and 29 (±2) days in milk (DIM), body composition was determined using the deuterium oxide dilution technique, liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were collected, and mammary gland nutrient uptake was measured. Weekly blood samples were obtained during the experiment and daily blood samples were taken from -7 to 7 DIM. Postpartum feed intake and milk yield was not affected by PG allocation. The body content of lipid was not affected by treatment, but tended to decrease from 4 to 29 DIM with both treatments. Except for the first week postpartum, no difference in plasma nonesterified fatty acids concentration was noted between treatments in the treatment period. Yet, PG allocation resulted in decreased plasma concentrations of ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and increased plasma concentrations of glucose. In the follow-up period, plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, and BHB did not differ between treatments. Additionally, the change in abundance of proteins in adipose tissue biopsies from prepartum to 4 DIM was not affected by treatment. In conclusion, the different variables to assess body fat mobilization were concurrent and showed that a 4-wk postpartum PG allocation had limited effect on adipose tissue mobilization. The main effect was an enhanced glucogenic status with PG. No carry-over effect of PG allocation was recorded for production or plasma metabolites, and, hence, a new period of metabolic adaption to lactation seemed to occur with PG treatment after ceasing PG allocation. Thus, PG seemed to induce a 2-step adaption to lactation, reducing the immediate postpartum nadir and peak of plasma concentration of glucose and BHB, respectively; which is beneficial for postpartum cows at high risk of lipid-related metabolic diseases. PMID:26454303

  9. Can Insomnia in Pregnancy Predict Postpartum Depression? A Longitudinal, Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Dørheim, Signe K.; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Eberhard-Gran, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Background Insomnia and depression are strongly interrelated. This study aimed to describe changes in sleep across childbirth, and to evaluate whether insomnia in pregnancy is a predictor of postpartum depression. Methods A longitudinal, population-based study was conducted among perinatal women giving birth at Akershus University Hospital, Norway. Women received questionnaires in weeks 17 and 32 of pregnancy and eight weeks postpartum. This paper presents data from 2,088 of 4,662 women with complete data for insomnia and depression in week 32 of pregnancy and eight weeks postpartum. Sleep times, wake-up times and average sleep durations were self-reported. The Bergen Insomnia Scale (BIS) was used to measure insomnia. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to measure depressive symptoms. Results After delivery, sleep duration was reduced by 49 minutes (to 6.5 hours), and mean sleep efficiency was reduced from 84% to 75%. However, self-reported insomnia scores (BIS) improved from 17.2 to 15.4, and the reported prevalence of insomnia decreased from 61.6% to 53.8%. High EPDS scores and anxiety in pregnancy, fear of delivery, previous depression, primiparity, and higher educational level were risk factors for both postpartum insomnia and depression. Insomnia did not predict postpartum depression in women with no prior history of depression, whereas women who recovered from depression had residual insomnia. Limitations Depression and insomnia were not verified by clinical interviews. Women with depressive symptoms were less likely to remain in the study. Conclusions Although women slept fewer hours at night after delivery compared to during late pregnancy, and reported more nights with nighttime awakenings, their self-reported insomnia scores improved, and the prevalence of insomnia according to the DSM-IV criteria decreased. Insomnia in pregnancy may be a marker for postpartum recurrence of depression among women with previous depression. PMID:24732691

  10. Postpartum Care - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... List of All Topics All Postpartum Care - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Traditional (????) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Portuguese (português) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ...

  11. Probable hepatic capillariosis and hydatidosis in an adolescent from the late Roman period buried in Amiens (France)

    PubMed Central

    Mowlavi, Gholamreza; Kacki, Sacha; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Mobedi, Iraj; Makki, Mahsasadat; Harandi, Majid Fasihi; Naddaf, Saied Reza

    2014-01-01

    Two calcified objects recovered from a 3rd to 4th-century grave of an adolescent in Amiens (Northern France) were identified as probable hydatid cysts. By using thin-section petrographic techniques, probable Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) eggs were identified in the wall of the cysts. Human hepatic capillariosis has not been reported from archaeological material so far, but could be expected given the poor level of environmental hygiene prevalent in this period. Identification of tissue-dwelling parasites such as C. hepaticum in archaeological remains is particularly dependent on preservation conditions and taphonomic changes and should be interpreted with caution due to morphological similarities with Trichuris sp. eggs. PMID:24572211

  12. Postpartum depression: psychoneuroimmunological underpinnings and treatment.

    PubMed

    Anderson, George; Maes, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is common, occurring in 10%-15% of women. Due to concerns about teratogenicity of medications in the suckling infant, the treatment of PPD has often been restricted to psychotherapy. We review here the biological underpinnings to PPD, suggesting a powerful role for the tryptophan catabolites, indoleamine 2,3-dixoygenase, serotonin, and autoimmunity in mediating the consequences of immuno-inflammation and oxidative and nitrosative stress. It is suggested that the increased inflammatory potential, the decreases in endogenous anti-inflammatory compounds together with decreased omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids, in the postnatal period cause an inflammatory environment. The latter may result in the utilization of peripheral inflammatory products, especially kynurenine, in driving the central processes producing postnatal depression. The pharmacological treatment of PPD is placed in this context, and recommendations for more refined and safer treatments are made, including the better utilization of the antidepressant, and the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of melatonin. PMID:23459664

  13. Postpartum depression: psychoneuroimmunological underpinnings and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, George; Maes, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is common, occurring in 10%–15% of women. Due to concerns about teratogenicity of medications in the suckling infant, the treatment of PPD has often been restricted to psychotherapy. We review here the biological underpinnings to PPD, suggesting a powerful role for the tryptophan catabolites, indoleamine 2,3-dixoygenase, serotonin, and autoimmunity in mediating the consequences of immuno-inflammation and oxidative and nitrosative stress. It is suggested that the increased inflammatory potential, the decreases in endogenous anti-inflammatory compounds together with decreased omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids, in the postnatal period cause an inflammatory environment. The latter may result in the utilization of peripheral inflammatory products, especially kynurenine, in driving the central processes producing postnatal depression. The pharmacological treatment of PPD is placed in this context, and recommendations for more refined and safer treatments are made, including the better utilization of the antidepressant, and the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of melatonin. PMID:23459664

  14. Effect of Medicinal Plant By-products Supplementation to Total Mixed Ration on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Economic Efficacy in the Late Fattening Period of Hanwoo Steers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S. J.; Kim, D. H.; Guan, Le Luo; Ahn, S. K.; Cho, K. W.; Lee, Sung S.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of medicinal plant by-products (MPB) supplementation to a total mixed ration (TMR) on growth, carcass characteristics and economic efficacy in the late fattening period of Hanwoo steers. Twenty seven steers (body weight [BW], 573±57 kg) were assigned to 3 treatment groups so that each treatment based on BW contained 9 animals. All groups received ad libitum TMR throughout the feeding trial until slaughter (from 24 to 30 months of age) and treatments were as follows: control, 1,000 g/kg TMR; treatment 1 (T1), 970 g/kg TMR and 30 g/kg MPB; treatment 2 (T2), 950 g/kg TMR and 50 g/kg MPB. Initial and final BW were not different among treatments. Resultant data were analyzed using general linear models of SAS. Average daily gain and feed efficiency were higher (p<0.05) for T1 than control, but there was no difference between control and T2. Plasma albumin showed low-, intermediate- and high-level (p<0.05) for control, T1 and T2, whereas non-esterified fatty acid was high-, intermediate- and high-level (p<0.05) for control, T1 and T2, respectively. Carcass weight, carcass rate, backfat thickness and rib eye muscle area were not affected by MPB supplementation, whereas quality and yield grades were highest (p<0.05) for T1 and T2, respectively. Daily feed costs were decreased by 0.5% and 0.8% and carcass prices were increased by 18.1% and 7.6% for T1 and T2 compared to control, resulting from substituting TMR with 30 and 50 g/kg MPB, respectively. In conclusion, the substituting TMR by 30 g/kg MPB may be a potential feed supplement approach to improve economic efficacy in the late fattening period of Hanwoo steers. PMID:26580440

  15. Effects of an energy-dense diet and nicotinic acid supplementation on production and metabolic variables of primiparous or multiparous cows in periparturient period.

    PubMed

    Tienken, Reka; Kersten, Susanne; Frahm, Jana; Meyer, Ulrich; Locher, Lena; Rehage, Jürgen; Huber, Korinna; Kenéz, Ákos; Sauerwein, Helga; Mielenz, Manfred; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    It is well observed that feeding energy-dense diets in dairy cows during the dry period can cause metabolic imbalances after parturition. Especially dairy cows with high body condition score (BCS) and fed an energy-dense diet were prone to develop production diseases due to metabolic disturbances postpartum. An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of an energy-dense diet and nicotinic acid (NA) on production and metabolic variables of primiparous and multiparous cows in late pregnancy and early lactation which were not pre-selected for high BCS. Thirty-six multiparous and 20 primiparous German Holstein cows with equal body conditions were fed with energy-dense (60% concentrate/40% roughage mixture; HC group) or adequate (30% concentrate/70% roughage mixture; LC group) diets prepartum. After parturition, concentrate proportion was dropped to 30% for all HC and LC groups and was increased to 50% within 16 days for LC and within 24 days for HC cows. In addition, half of the cows per group received 24 g NA supplement per day and cow aimed to attenuate the lipid mobilisation postpartum. Feeding energy-dense diets to late-pregnant dairy cows elevated the dry matter (p < 0.001) and energy intake (p < 0.001) as well as the energy balance (p < 0.001) without affecting the BCS (p = 0.265) during this period. However, this did not result in any metabolic deviation postpartum as the effects of prepartum concentrate feeding were not carried over into postpartum period. Multiparous cows responded more profoundly to energy-dense feeding prepartum compared with primiparous cows, and parity-related differences in the transition from late pregnancy to lactation were obvious pre- and postpartum. The supplementation with 24 g NA did not reveal any effect on energy metabolism. This study clearly showed that energy-dense feeding prepartum did not result in metabolic imbalances postpartum in multiparous and primiparous cows not selected for high BCS. A genetic predisposition for an anabolic metabolic status as indicated by high BCS may be crucial for developing production diseases at the onset of lactation. PMID:26305382

  16. Postpartum Treatment With Immunoglobulin Does Not Prevent Relapses of Multiple Sclerosis in the Mother.

    PubMed

    Fragoso, Yara Dadalti; Adoni, Tarso; Alves-Leon, Soniza Vieira; Azambuja, Nerio Dutra; Barreira, Amilton Antunes; Brooks, Joseph Bruno Bidin; Carneiro, Denise Sisteroli Diniz; Carvalho, Margarete J; Claudino, Rinaldo; Comini-Frota, Elizabeth Regina; Domingues, Renan Barros; Finkelsztejn, Alessandro; Gama, Paulo Diniz; Giacomo, Maria Cristina Brandao; Gomes, Sidney; Goncalves, Marcus Vinicius Magno; Grzesiuk, Anderson Kuntz; Kaimen-Maciel, Damacio Ramon; Mendes, Maria Fernanda; Morales, Nivea Macedo Oliveira; Morales, Rogerio Rizo; Muniz, Andre; Papais-Alvarenga, Regina Maria; Parolin, Monica Koncke Fiuza; Ribeiro, Sonia Beatriz Felix; Ruocco, Heloisa Helena; Salgado, Pedro Rippel; Siquineli, Fabio; Souza, Doralina Brum; Tosta, Elza Dias; Vasconcelos, Claudia Cristina Ferreira; Almeida, Sandra Maria Garcia; Bernardes, Daniella Freire Ribeiro; Castro, Simone Nascimento; Gama, Rodrigo Assad Diniz; Gomide, Fabrizio Antonio Resende; Finkelzstejn, Juliana; Lopes, Josiane; Lourenco, Fabiani Honorato de Barros; Lourenco, Gisele A; Oliveira, Celso Luis Silva; Oliveira, Francisco Tomaz Meneses; Oliveira, Lucas Felix; Patroclo, Cristiane Borges; Pereira, Wildea Lice de Carvalho Jennings; Safanelli, Juliana; Sahdo, Alinne Martiniano; Saldanha, Patricia Correa de Oliveira; Shinzato, Yves Fumio; Souza, Jorge Murilo Barbosa; Zani, Denis Evandro

    2015-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, neurological, immune-mediated disease that can worsen in the postpartum period. There is no consensus on the use of immunoglobulin for prevention of disease relapses after delivery. We have shown that the controversial beneficial effect of immunoglobulin given immediately after birth could not be observed in patients with MS. PMID:25187102

  17. Evidence of proviral clearance following postpartum transmission of an ovine lentivirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lentiviral transmission by transfer of infected colostrum and/or milk is considered to be highly efficient. In this study, postpartum transmission of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) from 10 naturally infected ewes to their 23 lambs was followed from the perinatal period throughout a four y...

  18. Maternal anxiety from pregnancy to 2 years postpartum: transactional patterns of maternal early adversity and child temperament.

    PubMed

    Agrati, Daniella; Browne, Dillon; Jonas, Wibke; Meaney, Michael; Atkinson, Leslie; Steiner, Meir; Fleming, Alison S

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the anxiety trajectories of women from pregnancy to 2 years postpartum and to assess the influence of their early life experiences and the temperament of the child on these trajectories. We evaluated state anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) at pregnancy and 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postpartum and determined its course as a function of self-reported early adverse experiences (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) and the temperament of the child at 18 months (Early Child Behavior Questionnaire). Based on growth curve modeling, we found that anxiety followed a general U-shape pattern from gestation to 2 years postpartum, which was modified by early life experience of women. Greater early adversity was associated with higher gestational anxiety, followed by a marked decrease once the baby was born, and subsequent increase during the later postpartum period. The temperament of the child also modulated anxiety trajectories. Thus, mothers of children high in negative affectivity and who also experienced greater early adversity had elevated and flat anxiety trajectories, while child extraversion was associated with increasing anxiety courses approaching 2 years postpartum. These results show that maternal anxiety dynamically changes through the postpartum period with a course that is affected by previous and current experiences. PMID:25627018

  19. Sedimentary Evidence for Land Use Change in the Narragansett Bay Watershed: Late Woodland period (~500 AD) to the present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salacup, J. M.; Altabet, M. A.; Herbert, T.; Prell, W. L.

    2012-12-01

    In the U.S., the last ~300 years have been a period of progressive and widespread resource exploitation, ecosystem degradation, and habitat destruction. In southern New England, the European Colonists thrived on the spread of slave-based plantation farming, which peaked ~1750 in RI. They produced commodities such as livestock, apples, onions, flax, and dairy. Trees felled to produce the necessary pasture- and farm-land were quickly used as lumber for boards, planks, timber, and barrels. In 1793, Slater Mill, located on the Blackstone River at the head of Narragansett Bay, was the first mill in the U.S to spin yarn using water power, making it the birthplace of the U.S Industrial Revolution. The ensuing urbanization drove the human population of the watershed up from ~50,000 in 1790 to more than 2 million by the year 2000. More recently, the Bay has experienced episodic hypoxic events [1]. These events correlate well with spatial and temporal patterns of nutrients and productivity [2] suggesting that human-induced increases in nutrient nitrogen and phosphorus are responsible for eutrophication-induced oxygen depletion [3]. However, these post-Colonial land use changes have yet to be characterized within the longer context of Native American land use practices, mainly due to the lack of historical records for the period. Additionally, the impact of this ecosystem disturbance on the Bay has not been fully described. Here we present results based on sedimentary profiles of biomarkers diagnostic for soil delivery to marine systems, branched glycerol dialykl glycerol tetraethers, and pollen for disturbance taxa, that suggest land use change began in the Bay's watershed 300 years before European contact. This contradicts long standing ideas regarding the land use practices of local tribes but agrees with new archaeological findings suggesting large semi-permanent settlements and widespread horticulture of maize may have been the norm at this time. We also show results of pollen, nitrogen isotopes, and foraminiferal abundance (proxies for land disturbance, nutrient sources, and ecosystem productivity, respectively) implying the large domestic animal population housed on the plantations were a new source of nitrogen to the Bay. This nutrient input may have led to an increase in the Bay's primary productivity, which may have decreased or stabilized as plantations became less important. Lastly, these same proxies show that the industrialization and urbanization of the Bay's watershed added additional nutrients, further stimulating the Bay's productivity. 1. Codiga, D.L., et al., Narragansett Bay Hypoxic Event Characteristics Based on Fixed-Site Monitoring Network Time Series: Intermittency, Geographic Distribution, Spatial Synchronicity, and Interannual Variablity. Estuaries and Coasts, 2009. 32: p. 621-641. 2. Oviatt, C.A., Impacts of Nutrients on Narragansett Bay Productivity: A Gradient Approach, in Science for Ecosystem-based Management, Narragansett Bay in the 21st Century, A. Desbonnet, Editor 2008, Springer: New York. p. 523-543. 3. Nixon, S.W., et al., Nitrogen and Phosphorus Inputs to Narragansett Bay: Past, Present, and Future, in Science for Ecosystem-based Management: Narragansett Bay in the 21st Century, A. Desbonnet and B.A. Costa-Pierce, Editors. 2008, Springer: New York, NY. p. 101-175.

  20. Effects of Space Flight on Ovarian-Hypophyseal Function in Postpartum Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burden, H. W.; Zary, J.; Lawrence, I. E.; Jonnalagadda, P.; Davis, M.; Hodson, C. A.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of space flight in a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) shuttle was studied in pregnant rats. Rats were launched on day 9 of gestation and recovered on day 20 of gestation. On day 20 of gestation, rats were unilaterally hysterectomized and subsequently allowed to go to term and deliver vaginally. There was no effect of space flight on pituitary and ovary mass postpartum. In addition, space flight did not alter healthy and atretic ovarian antral follicle populations, fetal wastage in utero, plasma concentrations of progesterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) or pituitary content of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). Space flight significantly increased plasma concentrations of FSH and decreased pituitary content of LH at the postpartum sampling time. Collectively, these data show that space flight, initiated during the postimplantation period of pregnancy, and concluded before parturition, is compatible with maintenance of pregnancy and has minimal effects on postpartum hypophyseal parameters; however, none of the ovarian parameters examined was altered by space flight.

  1. Postpartum Depression Effects on Early Interactions, Parenting, and Safety Practices: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Field, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    In this paper studies are reviewed from the last decade on postpartum depression effects on early interactions, parenting, safety practices and on early interventions. The interaction disturbances of depressed mothers and their infants appear to be universal, across different cultures and socioeconomic status groups and, include less sensitivity of the mothers and responsivity of the infants. Several caregiving activities also appear to be compromised by postpartum depression including feeding practices, most especially breastfeeding, sleep routines and well-child visits, vaccinations and safety practices. These data highlight the need for universal screening of maternal and paternal depression during the postpartum period. Early interventions reviewed here include psychotherapy and interaction coaching for the mothers, and infant massage for their infants. PMID:19962196

  2. Chronic cocaine exposure during pregnancy increases postpartum neuroendocrine stress responses.

    PubMed

    Williams, S K; Barber, J S; Jamieson-Drake, A W; Enns, J A; Townsend, L B; Walker, C H; Johns, J M

    2012-04-01

    The cycle of chronic cocaine (CC) use and withdrawal results in increased anxiety, depression and disrupted stress-responsiveness. Oxytocin and corticosterone (CORT) interact to mediate hormonal stress responses and can be altered by cocaine use. These neuroendocrine signals play important regulatory roles in a variety of social behaviours, specifically during the postpartum period, and are sensitive to disruption by CC exposure in both clinical settings and preclinical models. To determine whether CC exposure during pregnancy affected behavioural and hormonal stress response in the early postpartum period in a rodent model, Sprague-Dawley rats were administered cocaine daily (30 mg/kg) throughout gestation (days 1-20). Open field test (OFT) and forced swim test (FST) behaviours were measured on postpartum day 5. Plasma CORT concentrations were measured before and after testing throughout the test day, whereas plasma and brain oxytocin concentrations were measured post-testing only. The results obtained indicated increased CORT response after the OFT in CC-treated dams (P ? 0.05). CC-treated dams also exhibited altered FST behaviour (P ? 0.05), suggesting abnormal stress responsiveness. Peripheral, but not central, oxytocin levels were increased by cocaine treatment (P ? 0.05). Peripheral oxytocin and CORT increased after the FST, regardless of treatment condition (P ? 0.05). Changes in stress-responsiveness, both behaviourally and hormonally, may underlie some deficits in maternal behaviour; thus, a clearer understanding of the effect of CC on the stress response system may potentially lead to treatment interventions that could be relevant to clinical populations. Additionally, these results indicate that CC treatment can have long-lasting effects on peripheral oxytocin regulation in rats, similar to changes observed in persistent social behaviour and stress-response deficits in clinical populations. PMID:22309318

  3. A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Perceived Infant Outcomes at 18–24 Months: Neural and Psychological Correlates of Parental Thoughts and Actions Assessed during the First Month Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Pilyoung; Rigo, Paola; Leckman, James F.; Mayes, Linda C.; Cole, Pamela M.; Feldman, Ruth; Swain, James E.

    2015-01-01

    The first postpartum months constitute a critical period for parents to establish an emotional bond with their infants. Neural responses to infant-related stimuli have been associated with parental sensitivity. However, the associations among these neural responses, parenting, and later infant outcomes for mothers and fathers are unknown. In the current longitudinal study, we investigated the relationships between parental thoughts/actions and neural activation in mothers and fathers in the neonatal period with infant outcomes at the toddler stage. At the first month postpartum, mothers (n = 21) and fathers (n = 19) underwent a neuroimaging session during which they listened to their own and unfamiliar baby’s cry. Parenting-related thoughts/behaviors were assessed by interview twice at the first month and 3–4 months postpartum and infants’ socioemotional outcomes were reported by mothers and fathers at 18–24 months postpartum. In mothers, higher levels of anxious thoughts/actions about parenting at the first month postpartum, but not at 3–4 months postpartum, were associated with infant’s low socioemotional competencies at 18–24 months. Anxious thoughts/actions were also associated with heightened responses in the motor cortex and reduced responses in the substantia nigra to own infant cry sounds. On the other hand, in fathers, higher levels of positive perception of being a parent at the first month postpartum, but not at 3–4 months postpartum, were associated with higher infant socioemotional competencies at 18–24 months. Positive thoughts were associated with heightened responses in the auditory cortex and caudate to own infant cry sounds. The current study provides evidence that parental thoughts are related to concurrent neural responses to their infants at the first month postpartum as well as their infant’s future socioemotional outcome at 18–24 months. Parent differences suggest that anxious thoughts in mothers and positive thoughts in fathers may be the targets for parenting-focused interventions very early postpartum. PMID:26635679

  4. A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Perceived Infant Outcomes at 18-24 Months: Neural and Psychological Correlates of Parental Thoughts and Actions Assessed during the First Month Postpartum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pilyoung; Rigo, Paola; Leckman, James F; Mayes, Linda C; Cole, Pamela M; Feldman, Ruth; Swain, James E

    2015-01-01

    The first postpartum months constitute a critical period for parents to establish an emotional bond with their infants. Neural responses to infant-related stimuli have been associated with parental sensitivity. However, the associations among these neural responses, parenting, and later infant outcomes for mothers and fathers are unknown. In the current longitudinal study, we investigated the relationships between parental thoughts/actions and neural activation in mothers and fathers in the neonatal period with infant outcomes at the toddler stage. At the first month postpartum, mothers (n = 21) and fathers (n = 19) underwent a neuroimaging session during which they listened to their own and unfamiliar baby's cry. Parenting-related thoughts/behaviors were assessed by interview twice at the first month and 3-4 months postpartum and infants' socioemotional outcomes were reported by mothers and fathers at 18-24 months postpartum. In mothers, higher levels of anxious thoughts/actions about parenting at the first month postpartum, but not at 3-4 months postpartum, were associated with infant's low socioemotional competencies at 18-24 months. Anxious thoughts/actions were also associated with heightened responses in the motor cortex and reduced responses in the substantia nigra to own infant cry sounds. On the other hand, in fathers, higher levels of positive perception of being a parent at the first month postpartum, but not at 3-4 months postpartum, were associated with higher infant socioemotional competencies at 18-24 months. Positive thoughts were associated with heightened responses in the auditory cortex and caudate to own infant cry sounds. The current study provides evidence that parental thoughts are related to concurrent neural responses to their infants at the first month postpartum as well as their infant's future socioemotional outcome at 18-24 months. Parent differences suggest that anxious thoughts in mothers and positive thoughts in fathers may be the targets for parenting-focused interventions very early postpartum. PMID:26635679

  5. The Effects of Rhodobacter capsulatus KCTC-2583 on Cholesterol Metabolism, Egg Production and Quality Parameters during the Late Laying Periods in Hens

    PubMed Central

    Lokhande, Anushka; Ingale, S. L.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, J. S.; Lohakare, J. D.; Chae, B. J.; Kwon, I. K.

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of Rhodobacter capsulatus KCTC-2583 on egg-yolk and serum cholesterol, egg production and quality parameters during the late laying periods in hens. A total of 160 Hy-Line Brown layers (54 wk-old) were randomly allotted to 4 treatment groups on the basis of laying performance. Each treatment had 4 replicates with 10 birds each (40 birds per treatment). Two hens were confined individually with cage size 35×35×40 cm and each 10 birds (5 cages) shared a common feed trough between them forming one experimental unit. Dietary treatments were; basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15% R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Experimental diets were fed in meal form for 56 d. Dietary supplementation of increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 reduced (linear, p<0.05) egg-yolk cholesterol and triglycerides (d 28, 42 and 56) concentrations. Also, serum cholesterol and triglycerides (d 21, 42 and 56) concentrations were linearly reduced (p<0.05) with increasing dietary R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Laying hens fed a diet supplemented with increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 had increased (linear; p<0.05) overall egg production, egg weight, egg mass and feed efficiency. However, dietary treatments had no effect (linear or quadratic; p>0.05) on feed intake of laying hens. At d 28 and 56, breaking strength and yolk colour of eggs were linearly improved (p<0.05) in laying hens fed dietary increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Dietary treatment had no effects (linear or quadratic; p>0.05) on albumin height, shell thickness and shell weight at any period of experiment. These results indicate that dietary supplementation of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 has the potential to improve the laying hen performance and lead to the development of low cholesterol eggs during late laying period in Hy-Line Brown hens. PMID:25049857

  6. Plants used during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum healthcare in Lao PDR: A comparative study of the Brou, Saek and Kry ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Hugo; Lamxay, Vichith

    2009-01-01

    Background In many Southeast Asian cultures the activities and diet during the postpartum period are culturally dictated and a period of confinement is observed. Plants play an important role in recovery during the postpartum period in diet, traditional medicine, steam bath and mother roasting (where mother and child placed on a bed above a brazier with charcoal embers on which aromatic plants are laid). This research focuses on the use of plants during pregnancy, parturition, postpartum recovery and infant healthcare among three ethnic groups, the Brou, Saek and Kry. It aims to identify culturally important traditions that may facilitate implementation of culturally appropriate healthcare. Methods Data were collected in 10 different villages in Khammouane province, Lao PDR, through group and individual interviews with women by female interviewers. Results A total of 55 different plant species are used in women's healthcare, of which over 90% are used in postpartum recovery. Consensus Analysis rejects the hypothesis that the three ethnic groups belong to a single culture for postpartum plant use, and multidimensional scaling reveals non-overlapping clusters per ethnic group. Conclusion Medicinal plant use is common among the Brou, Saek and Kry to facilitate childbirth, alleviate menstruation problems, assist recovery after miscarriage, mitigate postpartum haemorrhage, aid postpartum recovery, and for use in infant care. The wealth of novel insights into plant use and preparation will help to understand culturally important practices such as confinement, dietary restrictions, mother roasting and herbal steam baths and their incorporation into modern healthcare. PMID:19737413

  7. Single rice growth period was prolonged by cultivars shifts, but yield was damaged by climate change during 1981-2009 in China, and late rice was just opposite.

    PubMed

    Tao, Fulu; Zhang, Zhao; Shi, Wenjiao; Liu, Yujie; Xiao, Dengpan; Zhang, Shuai; Zhu, Zhu; Wang, Meng; Liu, Fengshan

    2013-10-01

    Based on the crop trial data during 1981-2009 at 57 agricultural experimental stations across the North Eastern China Plain (NECP) and the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River (MLRYR), we investigated how major climate variables had changed and how the climate change had affected crop growth and yield in a setting in which agronomic management practices were taken based on actual weather. We found a significant warming trend during rice growing season, and a general decreasing trend in solar radiation (SRD) in the MLRYR during 1981-2009. Rice transplanting, heading, and maturity dates were generally advanced, but the heading and maturity dates of single rice in the MLRYR (YZ_SR) and NECP (NE_SR) were delayed. Climate warming had a negative impact on growth period lengths at about 80% of the investigated stations. Nevertheless, the actual growth period lengths of YZ_SR and NE_SR, as well as the actual length of reproductive growth period (RGP) of early rice in the MLRYR (YZ_ER), were generally prolonged due to adoption of cultivars with longer growth period to obtain higher yield. In contrast, the actual growth period length of late rice in the MLRYR (YZ_LR) was shortened by both climate warming and adoption of early mature cultivars to prevent cold damage and obtain higher yield. During 1981-2009, climate warming and decrease in SRD changed the yield of YZ_ER by -0.59 to 2.4%; climate warming during RGP increased the yield of YZ_LR by 8.38-9.56%; climate warming and decrease in SRD jointly reduced yield of YZ_SR by 7.14-9.68%; climate warming and increase in SRD jointly increased the yield of NE_SR by 1.01-3.29%. Our study suggests that rice production in China has been affected by climate change, yet at the same time changes in varieties continue to be the major factor driving yield and growing period trends. PMID:23661287

  8. History of childhood sexual abuse and risk of prenatal and postpartum depression or depressive symptoms: an epidemiologic review.

    PubMed

    Wosu, Adaeze C; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this review is to summarize the literature (and to the extent possible, report the magnitude and direction of the association) concerning history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and depression or depressive symptoms among pregnant and postpartum women. Publications were identified through literature searches of seven databases (PubMed, EMBASE, PyscINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, BIOSIS, and Science Direct) using keywords including "child abuse," "depression," "pregnancy," "prenatal," "pregnancy," and "postpartum." The literature search yielded seven eligible studies on the prenatal period and another seven studies on the postpartum period. All but one prenatal study observed statistically significant positive associations of CSA with depression or depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Findings on the association of CSA with postpartum depression or depressive symptoms were inconsistent; pooled unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were 1.82 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.92, 3.60) and 1.20 (95 % CI 0.81, 1.76). In sum, findings suggest a positive association of history of CSA with depression and depressive symptoms in the prenatal period. Findings on the postpartum period were inconsistent. Clinical and public health implications of evidence from the available literature are discussed, as are desirable study design characteristics of future research. PMID:25956589

  9. Return to work, economic hardship, and women's postpartum health.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Jenna N; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Leng, Iris; Clinch, C Randall; Arcury, Thomas A

    2010-10-01

    This study followed a sample of 217 new mothers in a North Carolina county as they returned to work full-time, measuring their mental and physical health-related quality of life through 16 months postpartum. In general, working mothers of infants had mental health scores that were comparable to the general population of U.S. women, and physical health that was slightly better than women in general. Using ANCOVA and controlling for important demographic characteristics, health-related quality of life was compared between mothers experiencing low and high levels of economic hardship. Across the study period, women with high economic hardship, who constituted 30.7% of the sample, had levels of mental and physical health below those of women with low economic hardship. Mothers with high economic hardship also had less stable health trajectories than mothers with low economic hardship. The findings highlight the importance of reconsidering the traditionally accepted postpartum recovery period of six weeks and extending benefits, such as paid maternity and sick leave, as well as stable yet flexible work schedules. PMID:21104566

  10. Predictors of postpartum depression: prospective study of 264 women followed during pregnancy and postpartum.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Adeline; Le Strat, Yann; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Keïta, Hawa; Dubertret, Caroline

    2014-02-28

    The prevalence of postpartum depression is approximately 13%. Postpartum depression is associated with a higher maternal morbidity and mortality, and also with pervasive effects on the emotional, cognitive and behavioral development of the child. The aim of our study was to identify socio-demographic, psychosocial and obstetrical risk factors of postpartum depression in a middle class community sample, using a prospective design. We enrolled consecutively 312 pregnant outpatients in a single maternity unit. The first assessment was conducted between 32 and 41 weeks gestation, and a second time between 6 and 8 weeks after delivery. Depressive symptoms were measured using the French version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). A cut-off score of 12/30 or above was considered as indicative of Major Depression. Of the initial sample of 312 women, 264 (84.6%) were followed-up between 6 and 8 weeks after delivery and considered for analysis. Depression during pregnancy, migrant status, and physical abuse by the partner were independently associated with postpartum depression when considered together, whereas physical complications were significantly associated with postpartum depression only when adjusting for antenatal depression. Depression during pregnancy, history of physical abuse, migrant status and postpartum physical complications are four major risk factors for postpartum depression. PMID:24370337

  11. Prevalence of serious psychological distress and mental health treatment in a national sample of pregnant and postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Glasheen, Cristie; Colpe, Lisa; Hoffman, Valerie; Warren, Lauren Klein

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence and correlates of past month serious psychological distress (SPD) and past year mental health treatment (MHT) across pregnancy and the postpartum. Data are from the 2008 to 2012 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Prevalence estimates of SPD as well as MHT among women with SPD were generated for each trimester and across the postpartum period. Correlates of SPD and MHT were examined among pregnant and postpartum women. The prevalence of past month SPD was 6.4 % in first trimester women and 3.9 % in third trimester women. In postpartum women, SPD prevalence ranged from 4.6 % (0-2 months) to 6.9 % (3-5 months). Correlates of SPD among pregnant and postpartum women included being younger; non-Hispanic black; unmarried; making under $20,000 annually; having past month cigarette use; or having a past year alcohol or illicit drug use disorder. Only 38.5 % of pregnant and 49.5 % of postpartum women with past month SPD reported past year MHT. Those who received MHT were more likely to be white; widowed, divorced, or separated; have insurance; and have a history of depression or anxiety than their counterparts with no MHT. Pregnant women with SPD were less likely to report past year MHT than postpartum women, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Over half of pregnant and postpartum women with past month SPD are not receiving MHT. Increased contact with health care professionals during this time may be an opportunity for screening, identification, and referral to MHT. PMID:24802262

  12. Patterns and trends of postpartum family planning in Ethiopia, Malawi, and Nigeria: evidence of missed opportunities for integration

    PubMed Central

    Hounton, Sennen; Winfrey, William; Barros, Aluisio J. D.; Askew, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Background The first 12 months following childbirth are a period when a subsequent pregnancy holds the greatest risk for mother and baby, but also when there are numerous contacts with the healthcare system for postnatal care for mother and baby (immunisation, nutrition, etc.). The benefits and importance of postpartum family planning are well documented. They include a reduction in risk of miscarriage, as well as mitigation of (or protection against) low birth weight, neonatal and maternal death, preterm birth, and anaemia. Objectives The objectives of this paper are to assess patterns and trends in the use of postpartum family planning at the country level, to determine whether postpartum family planning is associated with birth interval and parity, and to identify the health services most closely associated with postpartum family planning after adjusting for socio-economic characteristics. Design Data were used from Demographic and Health Surveys that contain a reproductive calendar, carried out within the last 10 years, from Ethiopia, Malawi, and Nigeria. All women for whom the calendar was completed and who gave birth between 57 and 60 months prior to data collection were included in the analysis. For each of the births, we merged the reproductive calendar with the birth record into a survey for each country reflecting the previous 60 months. The definition of the postpartum period in this paper is based on a period of 3 months postpartum. We used this definition to assess early adoption of postpartum family planning. We assessed variations in postpartum family planning according to demographic and socio-economic variables, as well as its association with various contact opportunities with the health system [antenatal care (ANC), childbirth in facilities, immunisation, etc.]. We did simple descriptive analysis with tabular, graphic, and ‘equiplot’ displays and a logistic regression controlling for important background characteristics. Results Overall, variation in postpartum use of modern contraception was not affected over the years by age or marital status. One contrast to this is in Ethiopia, where the data show a significant increase in uptake of postpartum contraception among adolescents from 2005 to 2011. There are systematic and pervasive equity issues in the use of modern postpartum family planning by education level, place of residence, and wealth quintile, especially in Ethiopia where the gaps are very large. Disaggregation of data also point to significant sub-national variations. After adjusting for socio-economic variables, the most consistent health sector services associated with modern postpartum contraception are institutional childbirth and child immunisation. ANC is less likely to be associated with the use of modern postpartum family planning. Conclusion Postpartum use of modern family planning has remained very low over the years, including for childbearing adolescents. Our results indicate that improving postpartum family planning requires policies and strategies to address the inequalities caused by socio-economic factors and the integration of family planning with maternal and newborn health services, particularly with childbirth in facilities and child immunisation. Scaling up systematic screening, training of providers, and generation of demand are some possible ways forward. PMID:26562144

  13. Prepartum and Postpartum Rumen Fluid Microbiomes: Characterization and Correlation with Production Traits in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Fabio S.; Oikonomou, Georgios; Lima, Svetlana F.; Bicalho, Marcela L. S.; Ganda, Erika K.; de Oliveira Filho, Jose C.; Lorenzo, Gustavo; Trojacanec, Plamen

    2014-01-01

    Microbes present in the rumen of dairy cows are essential for degradation of cellulosic and nonstructural carbohydrates of plant origin. The prepartum and postpartum diets of high-producing dairy cows are substantially different, but in what ways the rumen microbiome changes in response and how those changes may influence production traits are not well elucidated. Here, we sequenced the 16S and 18S rRNA genes using the MiSeq platform to characterize the prepartum and postpartum rumen fluid microbiomes in 115 high-producing dairy cows, including both primiparous and multiparous animals. Discriminant analysis identified differences between the microbiomes of prepartum and postpartum samples and between primiparous and multiparous cows. 18S rRNA sequencing revealed an overwhelming dominance of the protozoan class Litostomatea, with over 90% of the eukaryotic microbial population belonging to that group. Additionally, fungi were relatively more prevalent and Litostomatea relatively less prevalent in prepartum samples than in postpartum ones. The core rumen microbiome (common to all samples) consisted of 64 bacterial taxa, of which members of the genus Prevotella were the most prevalent. The Chao1 richness index was greater for prepartum multiparous cows than for postpartum multiparous cows. Multivariable models identified bacterial taxa associated with increased or reduced milk production, and general linear models revealed that a metagenomically based prediction of productivity is highly associated with production of actual milk and milk components. In conclusion, the structure of the rumen fluid microbiome shifts between the prepartum and first-week postpartum periods, and its profile within the context of this study could be used to accurately predict production traits. PMID:25501481

  14. Late Holocene shoreline behavior in embayments of Lake Michigan: Influence of quasi-periodic lake-level variations and sediment supply

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, T.A.; Baedke, S.J. . Indiana Geological Survey)

    1994-04-01

    Lake Michigan contains numerous former embayments into glacial deposits or bedrock. Many of the embayments contain dunes, spits, and captured lakes, but others contain arcuate strandplains of beach ridges. The strandplains are a geologic record of shoreline behavior and lake-level variation throughout the late Holocene. The larger strandplains show similar long-term patterns of beach-ridge development. The similar patterns are expected because variations in lake level are a primary control on shoreline behavior, and all embayments would have experienced relatively the same lake-level changes. Some variations in the long-term pattern of shoreline development do occur between strandplains. These dissimilarities are primarily a function of different rates of sediment supply to the shoreline of each embayment. Beach-ridge development within embayments can be represented on a rate of water level change versus rate of sediment supply diagram (Curray diagram) as three superimposed ovals on the positive rate of sediment supply side of the diagram. The three stacked ovals represent the three quasi-periodic lake-level variations defined by Thompson (1992) and show the position of the shoreline for a given time within the Curray diagram fields. For shorelines with a high rate of sediment supply, only the 30-year quasi-periodic variation would reach the aggradation line. For shorelines having significantly less sediment supply, rising lake level on the 150- and 600-year variations would force the 30-year oval across the aggradation line and well into the depositional and possibly the erosional transgression fields. Under these conditions erosion would occur that may remove, stack, or at least prevent one or more beach ridges from being developed.

  15. Prenatal depression leading to postpartum psychosis.

    PubMed

    Ebeid, E; Nassif, N; Sinha, P

    2010-01-01

    Postpartum psychosis is a mood disorder occurring up to 3 months after delivery. Incidence is one to two women every 1,000 live births. If not detected and appropriately treated in time, it may have detrimental effects on both the mother and her baby. We report a case of puerperal psychosis in a patient with a history of depression. We have also reviewed the relevant literature discussing prediction, management and differential diagnosis of postpartum psychosis. We emphasise the importance of early detection and provision of care to all women at risk of mental illness by multidisciplinary team, including GPs, obstetricians, midwives and perinatal mental health professionals. PMID:20604641

  16. Feeding infants directly at the breast during the postpartum hospital stay is associated with increased breastfeeding at 6?months postpartum: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Della A; Johns, Helene M; McLachlan, Helen L; Moorhead, Anita M; McEgan, Kerri M; Amir, Lisa H

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore whether feeding only directly from the breast in the first 24–48?h of life increases the proportion of infants receiving any breast milk at 6?months. Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Three maternity hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. Participants 1003 postpartum English-speaking women with a healthy singleton term infant, who intended to breast feed, were recruited between 2009 and 2011. Women were excluded if they or their infant were seriously ill. 92% (n=924) were followed up at 6?months postpartum. Primary and secondary outcome measures Main exposure variable —type of infant feeding in hospital up to time of study recruitment (24–48?h postpartum), categorised as ‘fed directly at the breast only’ or ‘received at least some expressed breast milk (EBM) or infant formula’. Primary outcome—proportion of infants receiving any breast milk feeding at 6?months postpartum. Secondary outcomes—proportion of infants receiving only breast milk feeding at 6?months; breast milk feeding duration; and maternal characteristics associated with giving any breast milk at 6?months. Results Infants who had fed only at the breast prior to recruitment were more likely to be continuing to have any breast milk at 6?months than those who had received any EBM and/or infant formula (76% vs 59%; adjusted OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.48 (adjusted for parity, type of birth, breastfeeding intention, breastfeeding problems at recruitment, public/private status, epidural for labour or birth, maternal body mass index and education)). Conclusions Healthy term infants that fed only directly at the breast 24–48?h after birth were more likely to be continuing to breast feed at 6?months than those who received any EBM and/or formula in the early postpartum period. Support and encouragement to initiate breastfeeding directly at the breast is important. PMID:25953728

  17. Postpartum contraceptive use and unmet need for family planning in five low-income countries

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background During the post-partum period, most women wish to delay or prevent future pregnancies. Despite this, the unmet need for family planning up to a year after delivery is higher than at any other time. This study aims to assess fertility intention, contraceptive usage and unmet need for family planning amongst women who are six weeks postpartum, as well as to identify those at greatest risk of having an unmet need for family planning during this period. Methods Using the NICHD Global Network for Women’s and Children’s Health Research’s multi-site, prospective, ongoing, active surveillance system to track pregnancies and births in 100 rural geographic clusters in 5 countries (India, Pakistan, Zambia, Kenya and Guatemala), we assessed fertility intention and contraceptive usage at day 42 post-partum. Results We gathered data on 36,687 women in the post-partum period. Less than 5% of these women wished to have another pregnancy within the year. Despite this, rates of modern contraceptive usage varied widely and unmet need ranged from 25% to 96%. Even amongst users of modern contraceptives, the uptake of the most effective long-acting reversible contraceptives (intrauterine devices) was low. Women of age less than 20 years, parity of two or less, limited education and those who deliver at home were at highest risk for having unmet need. Conclusions Six weeks postpartum, almost all women wish to delay or prevent a future pregnancy. Even in sites where early contraceptive adoption is common, there is substantial unmet need for family planning. This is consistently highest amongst women below the age of 20 years. Interventions aimed at increasing the adoption of effective contraceptive methods are urgently needed in the majority of sites in order to reduce unmet need and to improve both maternal and infant outcomes, especially amongst young women. Study registration Clinicaltrials.gov (ID# NCT01073475) PMID:26063346

  18. Depression as bargaining The case postpartum$

    E-print Network

    Depression as bargaining The case postpartum$ Edward H. Hagen* Institute for Theoretical Biology; accepted 4 December 2001 Abstract It was recently hypothesized that depression might function, in part. Hum. Behav. 20 (1999) 325.]. If so, such social constraints should be associated with depression

  19. Postpartum depression among women with unintended pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Cynthia Nunes de Oliveira; Alves, Sandra Valongueiro; Ludermir, Ana Bernarda; de Araújo, Thália Velho Barreto

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the association between unintended pregnancy and postpartum depression. METHODS This is a prospective cohort study conducted with 1,121 pregnant aged 18 to 49 years, who attended the prenatal program devised by the Brazilian Family Health Strategy, Recife, PE, Northeastern Brazil, between July 2005 and December 2006. We interviewed 1,121 women during pregnancy and 1,057 after childbirth. Unintended pregnancy was evaluated during the first interview and postpartum depression symptoms were assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Screening Scale. The crude and adjusted odds ratios for the studied association were estimated using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS The frequency for unintended pregnancy was 60.2%; 25.9% presented postpartum depression symptoms. Those who had unintended pregnancies had a higher likelihood of presenting this symptoms, even after adjusting for confounding variables (OR = 1.48; 95%CI 1.09;2.01). When the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) variable was included, the association decreased, however, remained statistically significant (OR = 1.42; 95%CI 1.03;1.97). CONCLUSIONS Unintended pregnancy showed association with subsequent postpartum depressive symptoms. This suggests that high values in Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Screening Scale may result from unintended pregnancy. PMID:26083941

  20. NEUROENDOCRINE FUNCTIONS OF PUERPERAE WITH POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION AGGRAVATED BY STRESSFUL CHILDBIRTH-RELATED EVENTS.

    PubMed

    Song, W; Yu, S

    2015-01-01

    In the period of gestation, delivery and post-delivery, fear and tension produced in puerperae are likely to evolve into depression as they worry too much about delivery pain. In recent years, it has been noted that stressful events during this period aggravate postpartum depression. To discuss the effect of these childbirth-related stressful events on neuroendocrine functions of patients with postpartum depression, 300 full-term puerperae who had been admitted to the Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Capital Medical University between October, 2011 and October, 2013 and who had suffered from stressful childbirth-related events were enrolled as a study group. This group was divided into six subgroups, i.e., A, B, C, D, E and F, based on the number of stressful events they had suffered which were labeled by numbers 1 to 6. Additionally, 100 puerperae from the same hospital who had not suffered from childbirth-related stressful events were taken as controls. Relevant clinical indexes, including serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), plasma 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), noradrenaline ELISA (NE), dopamine (DA) and cortisol level were measured and compared. It was found that incidence probability of postpartum depression was significantly different between the study group (13.67%, 41/300) and the control group (7%, 7/100). Moreover, the incidence probability of postpartum depression of puerperae suffering from no less than 4 childbirth-related stressful events was higher than those suffering from no more than 3, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Thus, stress disorders caused by these events are one of the important pathogenic factors of postpartum depression. PMID:26403408

  1. Isotopic evidence for divergent diets and mobility patterns in the Atacama Desert, northern Chile, during the Late Intermediate Period (AD 900-1450).

    PubMed

    Santana-Sagredo, Francisca; Lee-Thorp, Julia A; Schulting, Rick; Uribe, Mauricio

    2015-03-01

    The decline of the Tiwanaku state saw the emergence of two new cultures-Pica-Tarapacá and Atacama-during the Late Intermediate Period in northern Chile. Archeological evidence suggests that both groups practised maize agriculture and pastoralism, but that their interaction zones differed significantly. Marine resources are common at Pica-Tarapacá sites, even those far from coast, while Atacama sites in the desert oases and precordilleran area seem to have directed their networks towards the highlands. Here we apply stable carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotope analysis on human bone and enamel to test dietary patterns and residential mobility at two sites, Pica 8 and Quitor 6, representing the Pica-Tarapacá and Atacama cultures, respectively. Our results show that diet at the two sites indeed differed: significant but variable consumption of marine resources and maize is indicated at Pica 8, despite being an inland site, while diet at Quitor 6 was based mainly on terrestrial resources. The use of seabird guano and llama dung as fertilizers and extreme aridity may have contributed to the high nitrogen isotope values observed in Pica 8 humans. The ?(18) O values in Pica 8 individuals are generally lower than for Quitor in spite of its greater distance from the Andes. All three isotopes suggest the presence of at least five nonlocals in the 30 measured at Pica 8. This evidence for human mobility is consistent with the high levels of trade and interaction observed in the archeological record, and begins to quantify the degree of movement of specific individuals. PMID:25385676

  2. Simulating the Antarctic ice sheet in the late-Pliocene warm period: PLISMIP-ANT, an ice-sheet model intercomparison project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, B.; Dolan, A. M.; Bernales, J.; Gasson, E.; Goelzer, H.; Golledge, N. R.; Sutter, J.; Huybrechts, P.; Lohmann, G.; Rogozhina, I.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Saito, F.; van de Wal, R. S. W.

    2015-05-01

    In the context of future climate change, understanding the nature and behaviour of ice sheets during warm intervals in Earth history is of fundamental importance. The late Pliocene warm period (also known as the PRISM interval: 3.264 to 3.025 million years before present) can serve as a potential analogue for projected future climates. Although Pliocene ice locations and extents are still poorly constrained, a significant contribution to sea-level rise should be expected from both the Greenland ice sheet and the West and East Antarctic ice sheets based on palaeo sea-level reconstructions. Here, we present results from simulations of the Antarctic ice sheet by means of an international Pliocene Ice Sheet Modeling Intercomparison Project (PLISMIP-ANT). For the experiments, ice-sheet models including the shallow ice and shelf approximations have been used to simulate the complete Antarctic domain (including grounded and floating ice). We compare the performance of six existing numerical ice-sheet models in simulating modern control and Pliocene ice sheets by a suite of five sensitivity experiments. We include an overview of the different ice-sheet models used and how specific model configurations influence the resulting Pliocene Antarctic ice sheet. The six ice-sheet models simulate a comparable present-day ice sheet, considering the models are set up with their own parameter settings. For the Pliocene, the results demonstrate the difficulty of all six models used here to simulate a significant retreat or re-advance of the East Antarctic ice grounding line, which is thought to have happened during the Pliocene for the Wilkes and Aurora basins. The specific sea-level contribution of the Antarctic ice sheet at this point cannot be conclusively determined, whereas improved grounding line physics could be essential for a correct representation of the migration of the grounding-line of the Antarctic ice sheet during the Pliocene.

  3. Meta-analysis of the role of delivery mode in postpartum depression (Iran 1997-2011)

    PubMed Central

    Bahadoran, Parvin; Oreizi, Hamid Reza; Safari, Saeideh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postpartum period is the riskiest time for mood disorders and psychosis. Postpartum depression is the most important mood disorder after delivery, which can be accompanied by mother-child and family relationship disorders. Meta-analysis with the integration of research results demonstrates to investigate the association between the mode of delivery and postpartum depression. Materials and Methods: This meta-analysis uses the Rosenthal and Robin approach. For this purpose, 18 studies which were acceptable in terms of methodology were selected and meta-analysis was conducted on them. Research instrument was a checklist of meta-analysis. After summarizing the results of the studies, effect sizes were calculated manually and combined based on meta-analysis method. Results: The findings showed that the amount of effect size (in term of Cohen d) of delivery mode on postpartum depression was 0/30 (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Delivery mode on maternal mental health is assessed medium. Meta analysis also indicates moderator variables role, and researcher must focus in these variables. PMID:25540791

  4. The timing of the onset of puberty, extension of the breeding season, and length of postpartum anestrus in the female mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon).

    PubMed

    Santiago-Moreno, J; Lopez-Sebastian, A; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A; Gomez-Brunet, A; Tortonese, D

    2001-06-01

    The timing of the onset of puberty, duration of seasonal ovulatory activity, and length of postpartum anestrus were studied by means of blood plasma progesterone concentrations in a flock of European female mouflons (Ovis gmelini musimon) maintained in captivity under natural photoperiod (40 degrees 25'N). Concentrations of progesterone in the peripheral blood were determined by radioimmunoassay in samples collected from the jugular vein twice a week. First ovulations in the breeding season were highly synchronized and occurred in mid-October. In contrast, the cessation of ovulatory cycles showed significant variation among females and extended from February to May, depending on age, with 2-yr-old animals exhibiting the longest anovulatory period (P < 0.01). When lambing occurred within the breeding season (February-April), 12 out of 26 animals had their first ovulation 25 +/- 1.8 days after parturition. The 14 late-lambing females had the first postpartum ovulation delayed until the next breeding season. March/April-born mouflon lambs that reached a minimum threshold body weight (23.8 +/- 0.6 kg) in their first breeding season reached puberty at 8 mo of age. In those with slower growth rates, however, the prepubertal period was extended throughout the first breeding and nonbreeding seasons, reaching puberty during the breeding season of the following year at 19 mo of age and 27 +/- 0.3 kg body weight. Further, attainment of puberty in ewe lambs born in June/July was also delayed until the breeding season of the following year, when animals had reached a threshold body weight at 17 mo of age. PMID:12790426

  5. COMMON PROBLEMS OF BREASTFEEDING IN THE POSTPARTUM PERIOD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breastfeeding a healthy infant is often accompanied by challenges. Some may be predictable, while others are unexpected. These problems may accompany the normal anxiety of first-time parents, who rarely appreciate the intensity of care infants require. Reassurance and guidance often will enable moth...

  6. Reproductive performance in dairy cows following postpartum treatment with gonadotrophin releasing hormone and/or prostaglandin: a field trial.

    PubMed Central

    Etherington, W G; Bosu, W T; Martin, S W; Cote, J F; Doig, P A; Leslie, K E

    1984-01-01

    Three hundred and five Holstein Friesian cows were given either 250 micrograms gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) or saline on day 15 postpartum followed by 500 micrograms cloprostenol or saline on day 24 postpartum. Four treatment groups were formed using random allocation: Group I -- placebo (Day 15)/placebo (Day 24), Group II -- GnRH (Day 15)/placebo (Day 24), Group III -- placebo (Day 15)/cloprostenol (Day 24), Group IV -- GnRH (Day 15)/cloprostenol (Day 24). Double blind techniques were used during the follow-up period. Rectal palpation, to assess uterine involution and ovarian activity was performed just prior to each treatment and again at 28 days postpartum. In addition blood samples were collected at 15, 24 and 28 days postpartum for measurement of plasma progesterone. There were no significant differences among treatment groups with respect to services per conception, number of heats detected before first service and culling for infertility. Cows treated only with GnRH had an increased calving to first estrus and calving to first breeding interval, and tended to have an increased calving to conception interval. Treatment with cloprostenol significantly decreased calving to conception and calving to first observed estrus intervals. Treatment with GnRH on day 15 postpartum resulted in a significant increase in the subsequent incidence of pyometra and prebreeding anestrus. On the other hand, cloprostenol treatment on day 24 postpartum resulted in a decreased incidence of pyometra, regardless of GnRH treatment and a decreased incidence of prebreeding anestrus in GnRH treated cows compared to cows receiving only GnRH at day 15 postpartum.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6383577

  7. Visual acuity changes during pregnancy and postpartum: a cross-sectional study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Mehdizadehkashi, Khashayar; Chaichian, Shahla; Mehdizadehkashi, Abolfazl; Jafarzadepour, Ebrahim; Tamannaie, Zeinab; Moazzami, Bahram; Pishgahroudsari, Mohaddeseh

    2014-01-01

    In this research, we represent the changes in visual acuity during pregnancy and after delivery. Changes as myopic shift start during second trimester and will be stopped after delivery; however it is obtained that women will have the same refractive error as what they had in the first trimester, after postpartum. So, any change in their spectacle prescription during this period is forbidden. As a result, not only changing in hormones can cause myopic shift in vision, but also overweight has its retributive role. What we are trying to do is to notify gynecologists and optometrists to be aware of these changes, so as to leave spectacle prescription writing to the session after postpartum period. PMID:25328705

  8. What patterns of postpartum psychological distress are associated with maternal concerns about their children's emotional and behavioural problems at the age of three years?

    PubMed Central

    Benzies, Karen; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Tough, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Mothers experiencing psychological distress in the postpartum period may have difficulties parenting their children. Inconsistent and unresponsive parenting may increase the risk of later emotional and behavioural problems in children. The purpose of this study was to identify how maternal psychological characteristics cluster at eight weeks postpartum, and whether these clusters were associated with maternal-reported child emotional and behavioural problems at the age of three years, as measured by the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) questionnaire. In a longitudinal pregnancy cohort (N?=?647), three clusters of postpartum psychological characteristics were identified. Contrary to expectations, mothers with the greatest psychological distress did not report concerns about their child's emotional and behavioural problems; rather, they reported concerns about global developmental delay. These findings suggest that infants of mothers experiencing postpartum psychological distress should receive additional follow-up to reduce the risk for global developmental delay. PMID:25544794

  9. Postpartum Maternal and Neonatal Hospitalizations Among Women with HIV: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, Erin M.; Ng, Ryan; Yudin, Mark H.; Bayoumi, Ahmed M.; Loutfy, Mona; Raboud, Janet; Masinde, Khatundi-Irene; Tharao, Wangari E.; Brophy, Jason; Glazier, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Postpartum maternal and neonatal readmissions in the period shortly following birth are indicators of serious morbidity. We compared the risk of postpartum maternal and neonatal hospitalizations in women living with and without HIV in Ontario, Canada. We conducted a population-based study of pregnancies in Ontario between April 1, 2002 and March 31, 2011 using Ontario's administrative health care databases. Generalized estimating equations were used to derive adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of HIV infection with postpartum maternal hospitalizations within 30 days of hospital discharge and neonatal hospitalizations within 30 and 60 days of hospital discharge. Between 2002/2003 and 2010/2011, 1,133,505 pregnancies were available for analysis, of which 634 (0.06%) were to women living with HIV. The proportion of postpartum maternal hospitalizations (2.8% versus 1.1%; odds ratio 2.53; 95% CI 1.57 to 4.07) was higher among women with HIV. The multivariable adjusted odds ratio was 1.54 (95% CI 0.93 to 2.55). The proportions of neonates hospitalized within 30 (2.6% versus 3.7%; aOR 0.68, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.10) and 60 days (4.9% versus 4.9%; aOR 0.86, 95% CI 0.60 to 1.24) of discharge were similar among infants born to women with and without HIV. Women living with HIV are at a higher risk of postpartum maternal hospitalizations than women not living with HIV. The effect of HIV infection was attenuated by multivariable adjustment, suggesting that sociodemographic or health care factors are responsible for much of the difference in outcomes. PMID:26132654

  10. Postpartum Contraception: a Comparative Study of Berlin Women with and without Immigration Background

    PubMed Central

    David, M.; Brenne, S.; Breckenkamp, J.; Razum, O.; Borde, T.

    2015-01-01

    Research Questions: Are there differences in postpartum contraceptive use between women with and without immigration background? Do women more commonly use contraception following a high-risk pregnancy or caesarean section? What role does current breastfeeding play and, amongst immigrants, what is the effect of acculturation level on the frequency of contraceptive use? Study Population and Methods: Data collection was carried out as part of a larger study in three Berlin delivery units using standardised interviews (questionnaires covering e.g. sociodemographics, immigration history/acculturation and use of antenatal care); telephone interviews comprising 6 questions on postpartum contraception, breastfeeding and postpartum complications were conducted on a sample of the study population six months after delivery. Results: 247 women with, and 358 women without a background of immigration were included in the study (total study population n?=?605, response rate 81.1?%). 68?% of 1st generation immigrants, 87?% of 2nd/3rd generation women and 73?% of women without immigration background (non-immigrants) used contraception. In the logistical regression analysis 1st generation immigrants were less likely than non-immigrants to be using contraception six months postpartum, and 1st generation immigrants with low acculturation level were significantly less likely to use contraception than 2nd/3rd generation women with low acculturation level. Conclusion: In the extended postpartum period there was no major difference in contraceptive use between immigrants in general and non-immigrants. It remains unclear whether the differing contraceptive behaviour of 1st generation immigrants is the result of less access to information, sociocultural factors or differing contraceptive requirements and further targeted, qualitative study is required. PMID:26500367

  11. Simulating the Antarctic ice sheet in the Late-Pliocene warm period: PLISMIP-ANT, an ice-sheet model intercomparison project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, B.; Dolan, A. M.; Bernales, J.; Gasson, E.; Goelzer, H.; Golledge, N. R.; Sutter, J.; Huybrechts, P.; Lohmann, G.; Rogozhina, I.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Saito, F.; van de Wal, R. S. W.

    2014-11-01

    In the context of future climate change, understanding the nature and behaviour of ice sheets during warm intervals in Earth history is of fundamental importance. The Late-Pliocene warm period (also known as the PRISM interval: 3.264 to 3.025 million years before present) can serve as a potential analogue for projected future climates. Although Pliocene ice locations and extents are still poorly constrained, a significant contribution to sea-level rise should be expected from both the Greenland ice sheet and the West and East Antarctic ice sheets based on palaeo sea-level reconstructions. Here, we present results from simulations of the Antarctic ice sheet by means of an international Pliocene Ice Sheet Modeling Intercomparison Project (PLISMIP-ANT). For the experiments, ice-sheet models including the shallow ice and shelf approximations have been used to simulate the complete Antarctic domain (including grounded and floating ice). We compare the performance of six existing numerical ice-sheet models in simulating modern control and Pliocene ice sheets by a suite of four sensitivity experiments. Ice-sheet model forcing fields are taken from the HadCM3 atmosphere-ocean climate model runs for the pre-industrial and the Pliocene. We include an overview of the different ice-sheet models used and how specific model configurations influence the resulting Pliocene Antarctic ice sheet. The six ice-sheet models simulate a comparable present-day ice sheet, although the models are setup with their own parameter settings. For the Pliocene simulations using the Bedmap1 bedrock topography, some models show a small retreat of the East Antarctic ice sheet, which is thought to have happened during the Pliocene for the Wilkes and Aurora basins. This can be ascribed to either the surface mass balance, as the HadCM3 Pliocene climate shows a significant increase over the Wilkes and Aurora basin, or the initial bedrock topography. For the latter, our simulations with the recently published Bedmap2 bedrock topography indicate a significantly larger contribution to Pliocene sea-level rise from the East Antarctic ice sheet for all six models relative to the simulations with Bedmap1.

  12. Simulating the Antarctic ice sheet in the Late-Pliocene warm period: PLISMIP-ANT, an ice-sheet model intercomparison project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Bas; Dolan, Aisling; Bernales, Jorge; Gasson, Edward; Goelzer, Heiko; Golledge, Nick; Sutter, Johannes; Huybrechts, Phillipe; Lohmann, Gerrit; Rogozhina, Irina; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Saito, Fuyuki; van de Wal, Roderik

    2015-04-01

    In the context of future climate change, understanding the nature and behaviour of ice sheets during warm intervals in Earth history is of fundamental importance. The Late-Pliocene warm period (also known as the PRISM interval: 3.264 to 3.025 million years before present) can serve as a potential analogue for projected future climates. Although Pliocene ice locations and extents are still poorly constrained, a significant contribution to sea-level rise should be expected from both the Greenland ice sheet and the West and East Antarctic ice sheets based on palaeo sea-level reconstructions. Here, we present results from simulations of the Antarctic ice sheet by means of an international Pliocene Ice Sheet Modeling Intercomparison Project (PLISMIP-ANT). For the experiments, ice-sheet models including the shallow ice and shelf approximations have been used to simulate the complete Antarctic domain (including grounded and floating ice). We compare the performance of six existing numerical ice-sheet models in simulating modern control and Pliocene ice sheets by a suite of four sensitivity experiments. Ice-sheet model forcing fields are taken from the HadCM3 atmosphere-ocean climate model runs for the pre-industrial and the Pliocene. We include an overview of the different ice-sheet models used and how specific model configurations influence the resulting Pliocene Antarctic ice sheet. The six ice-sheet models simulate a comparable present-day ice sheet, although the models are setup with their own parameter settings. For the Pliocene simulations using the Bedmap1 bedrock topography, some models show a small retreat of the East Antarctic ice sheet, which is thought to have happened during the Pliocene for the Wilkes and Aurora basins. This can be ascribed to either the surface mass balance, as the HadCM3 Pliocene climate shows a significant increase over the Wilkes and Aurora basin, or the initial bedrock topography. For the latter, our simulations with the recently published Bedmap2 bedrock topography indicate a significantly larger contribution to Pliocene sea-level rise from the East Antarctic ice sheet for all six models relative to the simulations with Bedmap1. Such multi-model comparison efforts will assist in providing potential model uncertainty when comparing reconstructions of the Antarctic ice sheet with available proxy data.

  13. Sleep and Sleepiness among First-Time Postpartum Parents: A Field- and Laboratory-Based Multimethod Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Insana, Salvatore P.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.

    2012-01-01

    The study aim was to compare sleep, sleepiness, fatigue, and neurobehavioral performance among first-time mothers and fathers during their early postpartum period. Participants were 21 first-time postpartum mother-father dyads (N=42) and seven childless control dyads (N=14). Within their natural environment, participants completed one week of wrist actigraphy monitoring, along with multi-day self-administered sleepiness, fatigue, and neurobehavioral performance measures. The assessment week was followed by an objective laboratory based test of sleepiness. Mothers obtained more sleep compared to fathers, but mothers’ sleep was more disturbed by awakenings. Fathers had greater objectively measured sleepiness than mothers. Mothers and fathers did not differ on subjectively measured sleep quality, sleepiness, or fatigue; however, mothers had worse neurobehavioral performance than fathers. Compared to control dyads, postpartum parents experienced greater sleep disturbance, sleepiness, and sleepiness associated impairments. Study results inform social policy, postpartum sleep interventions, and research on postpartum family systems and mechanisms that propagate sleepiness. PMID:22553114

  14. The relationship between ovarian steroids and uterine estrogen receptors during late pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Cathey, T.M.; Chung, Kyung W. )

    1991-01-01

    Although a direct interdependence exists between the ovarian steroids, estrogen and progesterone, the exact role of these two hormones during pregnancy, especially late pregnancy, is not completely understood. Investigations have been conducted to determine whether the circulating levels of progesterone and estrogen or changes in the ratio of progesterone/estrogen in relation to the concentration of uterine estrogen receptors are associated with triggering parturition. Ninety-day old female rats were sacrificed at gestation days 14, 16, 18, 20 and two days post-partum. The plasma levels of estradiol and progesterone were measured by solid-phase radioimmunoassay. Uterine cytosol was subjected to a charcoal binding assay to determine the concentration of estrogen receptors. Our findings demonstrate that there is a significant drop in both plasma progesterone and estradiol during late pregnancy. Also indicated is a significant increase in uterine estrogen receptors throughout late pregnancy. Finally, during this period there is a direct correlation between the shift in the progesterone/estrogen ratio and the increase in the concentration of uterine estrogen receptors in late pregnancy.

  15. Preventing postpartum depression: A meta-analytic review

    PubMed Central

    Sockol, Laura E.; Epperson, C. Neill; Barber, Jacques P.

    2014-01-01

    This meta-analysis assessed the efficacy of a wide range of preventive interventions designed to reduce the severity of postpartum depressive symptoms or decrease the prevalence of postpartum depressive episodes. A systematic review identified 37 randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials in which an intervention was compared to a control condition. Differences between treatment and control conditions in the level of depressive symptoms and prevalence of depressive episodes by 6 months postpartum were assessed in separate analyses. Depressive symptoms were significantly lower at post-treatment in intervention conditions, with an overall effect size in the small range after exclusion of outliers (Hedges' g = 0.18). There was a 27% reduction in the prevalence of depressive episodes in intervention conditions by 6 months postpartum after removal of outliers and correction for publication bias. Later timing of the postpartum assessment was associated with smaller differences between intervention and control conditions in both analyses. Among studies that assessed depressive symptoms using the EPDS, higher levels of depressive symptoms at pre-treatment were associated with smaller differences in depressive symptoms by 6 months postpartum. These findings suggest that interventions designed to prevent postpartum depression effectively reduce levels of postpartum depressive symptoms and decrease risk for postpartum depressive episodes. PMID:24211712

  16. Effects of rumen-protected methionine on plasma amino acid concentrations during a period of weight loss for late gestating beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study determined changes in plasma amino acid concentration in late-gestating (beginning 58 ± 1.02 d prior to calving), primiparous, winter-grazing range heifers receiving wheat middling based supplement without (CON) or with rumen-protected methionine (MET) to provide 15 g DL- MET each day. Pl...

  17. Determination of anti-inflammatory cytokine in periparturient cows for prediction of postpartum reproductive diseases.

    PubMed

    Islam, Rafiqul; Kumar, Harendra; Nandi, Sukdeb; Rai, R B

    2013-04-01

    Forty-one pregnant cows at 240 days of gestation were selected from the cattle herd at the Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, India. The cows were critically observed daily during the periparturient period until 45 days postpartum. The prepartum sampling day was fixed on the basis of AI date supported by the external signs of the animals approaching parturition. Blood sampling was done for each experimental animal on 15 days prepartum (-15 d), calving day (0 d), 15 days (15 d), and 30 days (30 d) postpartum, and thorough gynecological examinations were performed on 0 d, 15 d, 30 d, and 45 d for diagnosis of postpartum reproductive diseases like retained placenta (ROP), clinical metritis (CM), clinical endometritis, cervicitis, and delayed involution of the uterus. The blood serum was used for estimation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10 (IL-10). Determintaion of IL-10 concentration in serum was done by using a commercially available bovine-specific ELISA kit. The IL-10 concentration (pg/mL) was significantly (P < 0.01) higher for ROP (1956.96 ± 325.30) and CM (2283.01 ± 326.82) than normal cows (827.19 ± 127.11) at 15 days before calving. The values for IL-10 was also significantly (P < 0.05) higher for cows with ROP and CM than for normal cows at 0 d and 15 d postpartum. However, the values for IL-10 were significantly (P < 0.05) higher for cows with clinical endometritis (1847.83 ± 539.38) than for normal cows (770.75 ± 29.22) at 30 d postpartum. The concentration of IL-10 was lower (P > 0.05) in cows with delayed involution of uterus than other groups of cows at all days of the periparturient period. The cytokine level in cows with delayed involution of the uterus was 328.906 ± 107.19, 263.08 ± 84.92, 415.26 ± 102.14, and 386.28 ± 111.11 on -15 d, 0 d, 15 d, and 30 d, respectively. According to the results of this study it can be concluded that increased serum concentration of IL-10 at 15 d prepartum was observed in cows that developed ROP and CM and remained significantly higher until 15 d postpartum. Therefore, this cytokine might be used as a prognostic marker to identify the cows that are going to develop ROP and CM. PMID:23434356

  18. A Rare Cause of Postpartum Low Back Pain: Pregnancy- and Lactation-Associated Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Terzi, Rabia; Terzi, Hasan; Özer, Tülay; Kale, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis (PLO) is a rare form of osteoporosis. It results in severe low back pain in the last trimester of pregnancy and in the postpartum period, decreases in height, and fragility fractures, particularly in the vertebra. The current case report presents a 32-year-old patient who presented with back and low back pain that began in the last trimester of the pregnancy and worsened at two months postpartum and who was diagnosed with pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis after exclusion of other causes; the findings are discussed in view of the current literature. PLO is a rare clinical condition causing significant disability. PLO must be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with low back pain during or after pregnancy. The patients must be evaluated for the risk factors of PLO, and an appropriate therapy must be initiated. PMID:25525595

  19. Contraceptive Adoption, Discontinuation, and Switching among Postpartum Women in Nairobi's Urban Slums.

    PubMed

    Mumah, Joyce N; Machiyama, Kazuyo; Mutua, Michael; Kabiru, Caroline W; Cleland, John

    2015-12-01

    Unmet need for contraception is highest within 12 months post-delivery, according to research. Using longitudinal data from the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System, we assess the dynamics of contraceptive use during the postpartum period among women in Nairobi's slums. Results show that by 6 months postpartum, 83 percent of women had resumed sexual activity and 51 percent had resumed menses, yet only 49 percent had adopted a modern contraceptive method. Furthermore, almost half of women discontinued a modern method within 12 months of initiating use, with many likely to switch to another short-term method with high method-related dissatisfaction. Women who adopted a method after resumption of menses had higher discontinuation rates, though the effect was much reduced after adjusting for other variables. To reduce unmet need, effective intervention programs are essential to lower high levels of discontinuation and encourage switching to more effective methods. PMID:26643488

  20. Increased Skeletal Muscle Tumor Necrosis Factor-? and Impaired Insulin Signaling Persist in Obese Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus 1 Year Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Jacob E.; Kirwan, John P.; Jing, Ming; Presley, Larraine; Catalano, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) demonstrate chronic and progressive insulin resistance and a markedly increased risk of converting to type 2 diabetes after pregnancy. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying this insulin resistance are unknown. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We investigated the progression of insulin resistance in nine obese women with GDM during late pregnancy (30–36 weeks) and 1 year postpartum. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained at each visit, and insulin resistance was determined by the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique. RESULTS Insulin resistance was not significantly improved in GDM women (4.1 ± 0.4 vs. 5.8 ± 1.1 10?2 mg · kg FFM · min?1/µU · ml?1). Subjects did not experience significant weight loss postpartum. Body weight, fat mass, fasting glucose, and plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? remained higher 1 year postpartum than seen in previously studied normal glucose-tolerant women. Skeletal muscle TNF-? mRNA was elevated five- to sixfold in GDM women and remained higher 1 year postpartum. While levels of insulin receptor (IR), IR substrate (IRS)-1, and p85? improved postpartum, insulin-stimulated IR tyrosine phosphorylation and receptor tyrosine kinase activity did not significantly improve postpartum in GDM. The levels of 312Ser-IRS-1 also did not improve postpartum and correlated with TNF-? mRNA (r2 = 0.19, P < 0.03), consistent with a state of subclinical inflammation and chronic skeletal muscle insulin resistance. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest the mechanisms underlying chronic insulin resistance in GDM women may be driven by increased inflammation that impinges on the IR and IRS-1 signaling cascade in skeletal muscle. These findings have important implications for the health of GDM women during subsequent pregnancies and their risk for progression to type 2 diabetes. PMID:18083784

  1. Maternal Diet and Weight at 3 Months Postpartum Following a Pregnancy Intervention with a Low Glycaemic Index Diet: Results from the ROLO Randomised Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Horan, Mary K.; McGowan, Ciara A.; Gibney, Eileen R.; Donnelly, Jean M.; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy increases the risk of being overweight at a later time period, particularly when there is excessive gestational weight gain. There remains a paucity of data into the effect of low glycaemic index (GI) pregnancy interventions postpartum. Aim: To examine the impact of a low glycaemic index diet during pregnancy on maternal diet 3 months postpartum. Methodology: This analysis examined the diet, weight and lifestyle of 460 participants of the ROLO study 3 months postpartum. Questionnaires on weight, physical activity, breastfeeding, supplement use, food label reading and dietary habits were completed. Results: The intervention group had significantly greater weight loss from pre-pregnancy to 3 months postpartum than the control group (1.3 vs. 0.1 kg, p = 0.022). The intervention group reported greater numbers following a low glycaemic index diet (p < 0.001) and reading food labels (p = 0.032) and had a lower glycaemic load (GL) (128 vs. 145, p = 0.014) but not GI (55 vs. 55, p = 0.809) than controls. Conclusions: Low GI dietary interventions in pregnancy result in improved health-behaviours and continued reported compliance at 3 months postpartum possibly through lower dietary GL as a result of portion control. Greater levels of weight loss from pre-pregnancy to 3 months postpartum in the intervention group may have important positive implications for overweight and obesity. PMID:25057103

  2. Characterizing and Predicting Postpartum Depression from Shared Facebook Data

    E-print Network

    Horvitz, Eric

    ; emotion; health; language; postpartum; social media; Twitter; wellness ACM Classification Keywords H.3 mothers experience a mood disorder of greater severity and duration called postpartum depression (http://www.cdc.gov/ reproductivehealth/Depression/). PPD is marked by symptoms such as sadness, fatigue, changes in sleeping and eating

  3. Women's Experiences with Postpartum Anxiety: Expectations, Relationships, and Sociocultural Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardrop, Andrea A.; Popadiuk, Natalee E.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence about anxiety in the postpartum is sparse and contradictory. Our research expands this knowledge by using a qualitative methodology, the Feminist Biographical Method, to explore first time mothers' experiences of postpartum anxiety. Data collection included 1.5 to 2.0 hour interviews with six women about their experiences of anxiety in…

  4. Challenges in Diagnosing and Treating Postpartum Blues, Depression and Psychosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Carol A.; Byers, Alison Daly; Malard, Sarah Deann; Dawson, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    With recent media attention and a growing awareness in popular culture, the appropriate treatment for postpartum depression has taken center stage as a prevalent women's health issue. There is little agreement on the definition, existence and treatment of postpartum depression. Contributing to this factor is the lack of research that exists to…

  5. Plasticity and constraint in response to early-life stressors among late/final Jomon period foragers from Japan: evidence for life history trade-offs from incremental microstructures of enamel.

    PubMed

    Temple, Daniel H

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluates two hypotheses that address how Late/Final Jomon period people responded to early-life stress using linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) and incremental microstructures of enamel. The first hypothesis predicts that Jomon people who experienced early-life stressors had greater physiological competence in responding to future stress events (predictive adaptive response). The second hypothesis predicts that Jomon people traded-off in future growth and maintenance when early investment in growth and survival was required (plasticity/constraint). High resolution tooth impressions were collected from intact, anterior teeth and studied under an engineer's measuring microscope. LEH were identified based on accentuated perikymata and depressions in the enamel surface profile. Age of formation for each LEH was estimated by summing counts of perikymata and constants associated with crown initiation and cuspal enamel formation times. The relationship between age-at-first-defect formation, number of LEH, periodicity between LEH, and mortality was evaluated using multiple regression and hazards analysis. A significant, positive relationship was found between age-at-death relative to age-at-first-defect formation and a significant, negative relationship was found between number of LEH relative to age-at-first-defect formation. Individuals with earlier forming defects were at a significantly greater risk of forming defects at later stages of development and dying at younger ages. These results suggest that Late/Final Jomon period foragers responded to early-life stressors in a manner consistent with the plasticity/constraint hypothesis of human life history. Late/Final Jomon period individuals were able to survive early-life stressors, but this investment weakened responses to future stress events and exacerbated mortality schedules. PMID:25156299

  6. Effects of hypergravity on ovarian-hypophyseal function in antepartum and postpartum rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burden, Hubert W.; Zary, Joan T.; Hodson, Charles A.; Gregory, Heather L.; Baer, Lisa A.; Ronca, April E.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rats exposed to microgravity during the post-implantation phase of pregnancy had minimal alterations in ovarian and hypophyseal parameters during the antepartum and postpartum periods. In the current study, a similar parallel experimental design was employed to ascertain the effects of hypergravity on ovarian and hypophyseal function. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that hypergravity exposure during the post-implantation stage of pregnancy would not alter antepartum and postpartum ovarian and hypophyseal function. METHODS: Pregnant rats were assigned to hypergravity (1.5 G, 1.75 G, or 2.0 G), rotational control, or stationary control groups (n = 10 each group) beginning on gestation day 11 and ending on day 20. Hypophyseal and ovarian analyses were conducted on 5 of the animals from each group at day 20. The remaining animals in each group were allowed to go to term and the same analyses were conducted 3 h postpartum. RESULTS: Hypergravity at all levels decreased the percent body mass gain from gestation day 11 to 20 (p < 0.05); however, the wet weight of the pituitaries and ovaries was not changed. There was no effect of hypergravity on the number of healthy or atretic antral follicles of any size at gestation day 20 or postpartum. The number of corpora lutea of pregnancy was decreased in all hypergravity groups, but the number of live fetuses at gestation day 20 or pups at term was not altered. Plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin, and progesterone were not changed at gestation day 20 or postpartum. Pituitary content of LH, FSH, and prolactin was not altered by hypergravity at gestation day 20, but LH content was significantly increased (p < 0.05) at 1.5 and 1.75 G postpartum. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that hypergravity, up to and including 2.0 G, is compatible with maintenance of pregnancy and has minimal effects on hypophyseal parameters. Ovarian follicles are not altered by hypergravity, but corpora lutea may regress at a more rapid rate.

  7. Thrombophlébite cérébrale inhabituelle du post-partum

    PubMed Central

    El Hassani, Moulay Elmehdi; Habib, Abdellah Baba; Kouach, Jaouad; Sekkach, Youssef; Bakkali, Hicham; Jira, Mohamed; Elqatni, Mohamed; Abouzahir, Ali; Ghafir, Dris; Moussaoui, Dris; Dehayni, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    La thrombophlébite cérébrale du post-partum immédiat constitue un événement rare et gravissime pouvant mettre en jeu le pronostic vital à court terme. Celle-ci doit être systématiquement évoquée devant la persistance d'une fièvre dans les suites de couches. La prise en charge associera le plus souvent, des antibiotiques à large spectre et des anticoagulants. Le suivi évolutif est indispensable, afin d'apprécier l'efficacité thérapeutique. A travers une observation singulière et à présentation inhabituelle, nous insistons sur le grand intérêt des moyens d'imagerie dont nous disposons afin de porter le diagnostic et de choisir le traitement le mieux adapté. PMID:25478039

  8. Anthropogenic changes and environmental degradation in pre-Hispanic and post-Colonial periods: soil erosion modelled with WEPP during Late Holocene in Teotihuacán Valley (central Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lourdes González-Arqueros, M.; Mendoza Cantú, Manuel E.

    2015-04-01

    Land use changes and support practices are a worldwide significant issue in soil erosion and subsequently, land degradation. Anthropogenic changes, along different periods of the history in the last 2000 years in the Valley of Teotihuacan (central Mexico), highlight that soil erosion varies depending on how the management and the intensity of soil use is handled, considering the soils as a main resource. As a part of a broader effort to reconstruct the erosion dynamics in the Teotihuacán Valley through geoarchaeological approaches, this study apply a process-based watershed hydrology and upland erosion model, Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP). This research aims to contribute with insights through modelling and to recreate soil erosion and sedimentation dynamics in several historical periods with different environmental and anthropogenic scenarios. The Geo-spatial interface for WEPP (GeoWEPP) was used to characterize location of detachment, depositions and erosion predicted on the profile through time, based on current and hypothetical reconstructed conditions in the watershed. Climate, topography, soil and land use were used as inputs for the WEPP model to estimate runoff fluxes, soil loss rates, and sediment delivery ratio (SDR) for three historical scenarios: current period, reconstructed Teotihuacán period (AD 1-650), and reconstructed Aztec period (AD 1325-1520). Over a simulated and stablished timeframe for those social periods, the runoff, soil loss rate and SDR were estimated to be greater during the Aztec period. We assume that in general the climate conditions for this period were wetter, compared with present, in agreement with several authors that proposed climate reconstructions for the center of Mexico. It is also highlighted that support practices were more effective in this period. The next period with higher values is the current one, and fewer rates are estimated for the Teotihuacán period. This comparison release new arguments in the scientific debate about the antiquity and causes on ancient erosion in central Mexico and information for the social-cultural transition of periods. Therefore, it increases the knowledge for great periods in the Mesoamerica history through interdisciplinary approach. Nucleation of settlements, due to the Colonial policy for the nucleation and, abandonment by fall in population agree with a change in the soil use. Results show how changes in land use are one of the foremost reasons in the soil erosion, not only in nowadays conditions, but also in ancient periods.

  9. Effect of shortening or omitting the dry period of Holstein-Friesian cows on casein composition of milk.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Ruben; van Knegsel, Ariëtte; Johansson, Monika; Lindmark-Månsson, Helena; van Hooijdonk, Toon; Holtenius, Kjell; Hettinga, Kasper

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of shortening or omitting the dry period of dairy cows on milk casein composition. For this study, we analyzed milk samples of 90 cows with a dry period of 0, 30, or 60d and either a glucogenic or a lipogenic ration in early lactation. Milk was sampled at 6 and 2wk prepartum and at 2, 6, and 12wk postpartum. Milk was analyzed for casein (CN) composition by capillary zone electrophoresis, and isoforms of ?-CN were measured by reversed phase-HPLC. Shortening the dry period from 60 to 30d reduced the ?S1-CN fraction by 3.8% and increased the ?S2-CN fraction by 5.5%. In milk from cows with a 0-d dry period, the glycosylated ?-CN fraction in late lactation increased from 8 to 12% between 6 and 2wk prepartum. After calving, the glycosylated ?-CN fraction in milk was higher for cows with a 0-d dry period (6.7%) compared with cows with a 60-d dry period (5.2%). The glycosylated ?-CN fraction at 2wk postpartum was negatively correlated with milk yield, suggesting that glycosylation was related to reduced productivity of mammary epithelial cells. In early lactation, the ?-CN fraction was reduced in milk of cows with a 0-d dry period. A lowered ?-CN fraction was associated with high somatic cell count and greater parity, indicating that it was the result of proteolytic activity. In conclusion, casein composition changes that result from shortening the dry period from 60 to 30d are not expected to affect processing characteristics of milk. Applying a 0-d dry period may affect processability of milk because of a higher glycosylated ?-CN fraction, and possibly because of higher proteolytic activity compared with a 60-d dry period. PMID:26454294

  10. Gestational and postpartum corticosterone exposure to the dam affects behavioral and endocrine outcome of the offspring in a sexually-dimorphic manner.

    PubMed

    Brummelte, Susanne; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of glucocorticoids in utero and during the postpartum period has a detrimental effect on brain development. We created an animal model of postpartum stress/depression based on administering high levels of corticosterone (CORT) to the dams during the postpartum period which caused behavioral changes and reduced hippocampal cell proliferation in the offspring. As the consequences of early exposure to glucocorticoids may depend on the dose and the developmental stage of the offspring, the present study was conducted to investigate the effects of low (10 mg/kg) or high levels of CORT (40 mg/kg) given to dams either during gestation, postpartum or across both gestation and postpartum on the outcome of the offspring. Male and female offspring were weighed throughout the experiment, tested in a series of behavioral tests (forced swim test, open field, elevated plus maze) and basal and restraint stress CORT levels were examined in adolescence or young adulthood. Results show that maternal CORT exposure, regardless of when administered, significantly attenuated body weight gain until adulthood in the offspring. Offspring exposed to low maternal CORT, but not high maternal CORT, during the postpartum had higher basal levels of CORT as young adults. Further, male and female offspring of dams exposed to high maternal CORT in utero showed more depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test, while males of dams exposed to high maternal CORT postpartum exhibited more anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Taken together, maternal glucocorticoid exposure have long lasting effects on male and female offspring's behavioral and neuroendocrine measures in adolescence and adulthood depending on the time of exposure to glucocorticoids. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'. PMID:21867716

  11. Sustained Decrease of Early-Phase Insulin Secretion in Japanese Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Who Developed Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Impaired Fasting Glucose Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Hiroko; Tachibana, Daisuke; Hamuro, Akihiro; Misugi, Takuya; Motoyama, Koka; Morioka, Tomoaki; Fukumoto, Shinya; Emoto, Masanori; Inaba, Masaaki; Koyama, Masayasu

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to compare glucose intolerance in the antenatal and the postpartum periods using a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in the Japanese women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) using a retrospective design. PATIENTS AND METHODS Data were obtained from 85 Japanese women with GDM who delivered from April 2011 through April 2015 and who underwent an OGTT 6–14 weeks postpartum. The women were divided into two groups based on the results of the postpartum OGTT: one group with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and the other with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) as well as impaired fasting glucose (IFG). We analyzed the associations between postpartum IGT–IFG and various factors. RESULTS Antenatally, a significant difference was observed between the groups only in the 1-hour plasma glucose level of the 75-g OGTT. Postpartum results of plasma glucose level were significantly higher at 0.5, 1, and 2 hours in the IGT–IFG group than those in the NGT group. Moreover, a significant decrease in the levels of 0.5-hour immunoreactive insulin and insulinogenic index was observed in the IGT–IFG group compared to those in the NGT group. Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance and homeostasis model assessment ?-cell function of both groups were found to significantly decrease in the postpartum period; however, there was no significant change in the insulinogenic index of either group. CONCLUSIONS Our study clearly showed that the postpartum IGT and IFG levels of Japanese women with GDM are affected by impaired early-phase insulin secretion; however, insulin resistance promptly improves. PMID:26688669

  12. Estimates of post-partum bleeding.

    PubMed

    Pedrón, N; Mondragón, H; Marcushamer, B; Aznar, R; Gallegos, A J

    1987-04-01

    Post-partum bleeding was estimated during the first 72 hours in 106 women with normal delivery at term, all had live child with a body weight between 2.5 and 3.5 Kg. Three groups of women were studied: Group 1 comprised 41 volunteers with normal deliveries to whom no medication had been administered; Group 2 comprised 39 volunteers receiving 20 IU of oxytocin in 250 ml of a 5% glucose solution, immediately after delivery; and in Group 3, 26 volunteers received 0.2 mg of ergonovine maleate, orally three times daily for three days. The average post-partum blood loss in Group 1 during the first 72 hours after delivery was 151.5 +/- 12.5 ml; for Group 2, 155.9 +/- 13.9 ml; and for Group 3, 135.5 +/- 15.9 ml. There were no significant differences among the groups and, most of the blood loss occurred during the first 24 hours after delivery. PMID:3497776

  13. Pharmacokinetics of paracetamol and its metabolites in women at delivery and post?partum

    PubMed Central

    Kulo, Aida; Peeters, Mariska Y.; Allegaert, Karel; Smits, Anne; de Hoon, Jan; Verbesselt, Rene; Lewi, Liesbeth; van de Velde, Marc; Knibbe, Catherijne A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Aim A recent report on intravenous (i.v.) paracetamol pharmacokinetics (PK) showed a higher total clearance in women at delivery compared with non?pregnant women. To describe the paracetamol metabolic and elimination routes involved in this increase in clearance, we performed a population PK analysis in women at delivery and post?partum in which the different pathways were considered. Methods Population PK parameters using non?linear mixed effect modelling were estimated in a two?period PK study in women to whom i.v. paracetamol (2?g loading dose followed by 1?g every 6?h up to 24?h) was administered immediately following Caesarean delivery and in a subgroup of the same women to whom single 2?g i.v.loading dose was administered 10–15 weeks post?partum. Results Population PK analysis was performed based on 255 plasma and 71 urine samples collected in 39 women at delivery and in eight of these 39 women 12 weeks post?partum. Total clearance was higher in women at delivery compared with 12th post?partum week (21.1 vs. 11.7 l?h?1) due to higher clearances to paracetamol glucuronide (11.6 vs. 4.76 l?h?1), to oxidative metabolites (4.95 vs. 2.77 l?h?1) and of unchanged paracetamol (1.15 vs. 0.75 l?h?1). In contrast, there was no difference in clearance to paracetamol sulphate. Conclusion The increased total paracetamol clearance at delivery is caused by a disproportional increase in glucuronidation clearance and a proportional increase in clearance of unchanged paracetamol and in oxidation clearance, of which the latter may potentially limit further dose increase in this patient group. PMID:22845052

  14. CoRoT 101186644: A transiting low-mass dense M-dwarf on an eccentric 20.7-day period orbit around a late F-star. Discovered in the CoRoT lightcurves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tal-Or, L.; Mazeh, T.; Alonso, R.; Bouchy, F.; Cabrera, J.; Deeg, H. J.; Deleuil, M.; Faigler, S.; Fridlund, M.; Hébrard, G.; Moutou, C.; Santerne, A.; Tingley, B.

    2013-05-01

    We present the study of the CoRoT transiting planet candidate 101186644, also named LRc01_E1_4780. Analysis of the CoRoT lightcurve and the HARPS spectroscopic follow-up observations of this faint (mV = 16) candidate revealed an eclipsing binary composed of a late F-type primary (Teff = 6090 ± 200 K) and a low-mass, dense late M-dwarf secondary on an eccentric (e = 0.4) orbit with a period of ~20.7 days. The M-dwarf has a mass of 0.096 ± 0.011 M?, and a radius of 0.104-0.006+0.026 R?, which possibly makes it the smallest and densest late M-dwarf reported so far. Unlike the claim that theoretical models predict radii that are 5-15% smaller than measured for low-mass stars, this one seems to have a radius that is consistent and might even be below the radius predicted by theoretical models. Based on observations made with the 1-m telescope at the Wise Observatory, Israel, the Swiss 1.2-m Leonhard Euler telescope at La Silla Observatory, Chile, the IAC-80 telescope at the Observatory del Teide, Canarias, Spain, and the 3.6-m telescope at La Silla Observatory (ESO), Chile (program 184.C-0639).

  15. Ethanol exposure during late gestation and nursing in the rat: effects upon maternal care, ethanol metabolism and infantile milk intake.

    PubMed

    Pueta, Mariana; Abate, Paula; Haymal, Olga B; Spear, Norman E; Molina, Juan C

    2008-11-01

    Ethanol experiences, during late gestation as well as during nursing, modify the behavioral dynamics of the dam/pup dyad, and leads to heightened ethanol intake in the offspring. This study focuses on: a) behavioral and metabolic changes in intoxicated dams with previous exposure to ethanol during pregnancy and b) infantile consumption of milk when the dam is either under the effects of ethanol or sober. Pregnant rats received water, 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg ethanol, and were administered with water or ethanol during the postpartum period. Intoxication during nursing disrupted the capability of the dam to retrieve the pups and to adopt a crouching posture. These disruptions were attenuated when dams had exposure to ethanol during pregnancy. Ethanol experiences during gestation did not affect pharmacokinetic processes during nursing, whereas progressive postpartum ethanol experience resulted in metabolic tolerance. Pups suckling from intoxicated dams, with previous ethanol experiences, ingested more milk than did infants suckling from ethanol-intoxicated dams without such experience. Ethanol gestational experience results in subsequent resistance to the drug's disruptions in maternal care. Consequently, better maternal care by an intoxicated dam with ethanol experience during gestation facilitates access of pups to milk which could be contaminated with ethanol. PMID:18602418

  16. Postpartum Sexuality and the Lactational Amenorrhea Method for Contraception.

    PubMed

    Labbok, Miriam H

    2015-12-01

    This chapter reviews the literature on postpartum coital behavior, anovulatory and ovulatory bleeding episodes, and the methodology and efficacy of Lactational Amenorrhea Method and progesterone-only oral contraceptives. Of interest is the finding that breastfeeding women may resume coital behavior earlier postpartum, but report increased discomfort over time. The high efficacy of the Lactational Amenorrhea Method is confirmed and data illustrating possible relaxation of some criteria are presented. The conflicting guidance of CDC and WHO concerning immediate postpartum use of progestin-only methods is presented. The dearth of recent studies calls for new research on these topics. PMID:26457855

  17. Maternal self-confidence postpartum and at pre-school age: the role of depression, anxiety disorders, maternal attachment insecurity.

    PubMed

    Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Schlüter, Myriam Kim; Nonnenmacher, Nora; Müller, Mitho; Reck, Corinna

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of maternal postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DMS-IV on maternal self-confidence throughout infancy and early childhood. Exploratively, associations between maternal attachment insecurity and maternal self-confidence at pre-school age were examined. The sample (N = 54) of this prospective longitudinal study was comprised of n = 27 women with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV criteria and n = 27 healthy women without present or history of mental health disorders or psychotherapy. Data was collected in the postpartum period (M = 60.08 days) and at pre-school age (M = 4.7 years). Subjects were recruited between 2004 and 2011 in South Germany. Data revealed a significant difference in maternal self-confidence between clinical and control group at child's pre-school age: Women with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorder scored lower on maternal self-confidence than healthy controls, but only if they had current SCID-diagnoses or partly remitted symptoms. According to explorative analyses maternal attachment insecurity turned out to be the strongest predictor of maternal self-confidence at pre-school age besides maternal mental health status. The results emphasize the impact of attachment insecurity and maternal mental health regarding maternal self-confidence leading to potential adverse long-term consequences for the mother-child relationship. Attachment based interventions taking maternal self-confidence into account are needed. PMID:24474591

  18. A Comparison of Excessive Postpartum Blood Loss Estimates Among Three Subgroups of Women Attending Births in Matlab, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Edmonds, Joyce K.; Hruschka, Daniel; Sibley, Lynn M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal death and disability worldwide. Recognition depends on subjective visual quantification. This study sought to assess and compare the thresholds for excessive postpartum blood loss reported by skilled birth attendants (SBA), traditional birth attendants (TBA), and laywomen in Matlab, Bangladesh. Method Data from six questions asking about excessive blood loss in the postpartum period were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA), Hochberg test, Kruskal-Wallis and standard descriptive statistics. Results Thresholds for excessive blood loss estimated by laywomen and TBAs exceed biomedical standards for PPH. Skilled birth attendant reports are consistent with the definition of severe acute PPH. Conclusion Further research on locally validated blood collection devices, in birth kits, for diagnostic aid or referral indication is needed. Areas where coverage and uptake of skilled birth attendance are low should be targeted due to the number of home births attended by TBAs and laywomen in such settings. Precis A comparison of excessive postpartum blood loss estimates among skilled birth attendants, traditional birth attendants and laywomen in Matlab, Bangladesh. PMID:20625452

  19. Maternal depression screening during prenatal and postpartum care at a Navy and Marine Corps military treatment facility.

    PubMed

    Spooner, Shawn; Rastle, Marsha; Elmore, Kelly

    2012-10-01

    Maternal depression in the prenatal and postpartum periods is an important concern for women, infants, and families. Military family life may create some unique stressors, including operational deployment of an active duty husband, which increase perinatal depression challenges for women. This study examined depression screening scores, based on a modified Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale, among women receiving obstetric care at a military hospital serving a Navy and Marine Corps community. Among 3,882 surveys collected between 2007 and 2009 from women at various points in their prenatal or postpartum care, the proportion with scores indicative of high risk for clinical depression was relatively low at 4.6%. However, scores were significantly higher at the initial obstetric visit among women who reported their husband as currently deployed, and scores were significantly higher at the postpartum visit among women who reported their husband as currently deployed or planning to deploy. These results underscore the importance of evaluating all aspects of the military family life experience when providing perinatal care to women in military families. PMID:23113449

  20. Relationship of monoamine oxidase-A distribution volume to postpartum depression and postpartum crying.

    PubMed

    Sacher, Julia; Rekkas, P Vivien; Wilson, Alan A; Houle, Sylvain; Romano, Leslie; Hamidi, Jinous; Rusjan, Pablo; Fan, Ian; Stewart, Donna E; Meyer, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) has a prevalence rate of 13% and a similarly high proportion of women report a subclinical state of one or more major depressive episode symptoms. The aim was to investigate whether monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) VT, an index of MAO-A density, is increased in the prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex (PFC and ACC), during PPD or when a PPD spectrum symptom, greater predisposition to crying, is present. MAO-A is an enzyme that increases in density after estrogen decline, and has several functions including creating oxidative stress, influencing apoptosis and monoamine metabolism. Fifty-seven women were recruited including 15 first-onset, antidepressant naive, PPD subjects, 12 postpartum healthy who cry due to sad mood, 15 asymptomatic postpartum healthy women, and 15 healthy women not recently pregnant. Each underwent [(11)C]-harmine positron emission tomography scanning to measure MAO-A VT. Both PPD and greater predisposition to crying were associated with greater MAO-A VT in the PFC and ACC (multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), group effect, F21,135=1.856; p=0.019; mean combined region elevation 21% and 14% in PPD and crying groups, respectively, relative to postpartum asymptomatic). Greater MAO-A VT in the PFC and ACC represents a new biomarker in PPD, and the PPD symptom of predisposition to crying. Novel strategies for preventing PPD (and some PPD symptoms) may be possible by avoiding environmental conditions that elevate MAO-A level and enhancing conditions that normalize MAO-A level. These findings also argue for clinical trials in PPD with the newer, well-tolerated MAO-A inhibitor antidepressants. PMID:25074638

  1. Periodic isolation of the southern coastal plain of South Africa and the evolution of modern humans over late Quaternary glacial to interglacial cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compton, J. S.

    2012-04-01

    Humans evolved in Africa, but where in Africa and by what mechanisms remain unclear. The evolution of modern humans over the last million years is associated with the onset of major global climate fluctuations, glacial to interglacial cycles, related to the build up and melting of large ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere. During interglacial periods, such as today, warm and wet climates favored human expansion but during cold and dry glacial periods conditions were harsh and habitats fragmented. These large climate fluctuations periodically expanded and contracted African ecosystems and led to human migrations to more hospitable glacial refugia. Periodic isolation of relatively small numbers of humans may have allowed for their rapid evolutionary divergence from the rest of Africa. During climate transitions these divergent groups may have then dispersed and interbred with other groups (hybridization). Two areas at the opposite ends of Africa stand out as regions that were periodically isolated from the rest of Africa: North Africa (the Maghreb) and the southern coastal plain (SCP) of South Africa. The Maghreb is isolated by the Sahara Desert which periodically greens and is reconnected to the rest of Africa during the transition from glacial to interglacial periods. The SCP of South Africa is isolated from the rest of Africa by the rugged mountains of the Cape Fold Belt associated with inedible vegetation and dry climates to the north. The SCP is periodically opened when sea level falls by up to 130 m during glacial maxima to expose the present day submerged inner continental shelf. A five-fold expansion of the SCP receiving more rainfall in glacial periods may have served as a refuge to humans and large migratory herds. The expansive glacial SCP habitat abruptly contracts, by as much as one-third in 300 yr, during the rapid rise in sea level associated with glacial terminations. Rapid flooding may have increased population density and competition on the SCP to select for humans who expanded their diet to include marine resources or hunted large animals. Modest expansion of the coastal plain off Morocco and more extensive expansion off Tunisia would have similarly provided potential refugia for human groups during glacial periods. Other refugia in the African interior included the Ethiopian Highlands and the East African lakes; however, most of these regions probably had more diffuse barriers connected by river valley corridors. The earliest yet reported occurrence of symbolic artifacts from both North Africa and the SCP coastal caves of South Africa suggest that human populations in these areas were under shared selection pressures to adapt to increasing population densities associated with the transition from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6 to 5, 135 to 130 thousand years ago. The hypothesis that periodic expansion and contraction of the coastal plains of South Africa and North Africa contributed to the stepwise origin of our species over the last 800 thousand years is evaluated by comparing the archeological, DNA and sea-level records.

  2. Effect of chromium supplementation on productive and reproductive performances and some metabolic parameters in late gestation and early lactation of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kafilzadeh, F; shabankareh, H Karami; Targhibi, M R

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of supplemental chromium as chromium-L-methionine (Cr-Met) on productive and reproductive performances and some metabolic parameters in late gestation and early lactation of dairy cows. Sixty multiparous Holstein dairy cows according to prior lactation, parity, body mass (682±33 kg), and expected calving date were divided equally (30 cows/treatment) and were randomly allocated to one of the two groups. One group received basal diet without Cr (control group) and another group received Cr-Met supplement added at manufacturer's recommended level (8 mg of "Cr"/head per day) from 21 days before expected calving date until 21 days of lactation. Supplemental Cr tended to increase milk yield (P=0.08) while percentage of lactose and lactose yield increased (P<0.01). Chromium supplementation decreased serum nonesterified fatty acids concentration at 7 days prepartum and 21 days postpartum. Serum insulin concentration for cows receiving Cr was higher than the control group (P=0.05). Serum cortisol concentration decreased (P<0.05) in prepartum period in supplemented group. Chromium did not affect concentrations of metabolic parameters at calving. However, serum glucose concentration increased at 21 days postpartum in the supplemented group (P<0.05). Chromium supplementation increased neutrophil and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in prepartum period (P<0.05). Based on serum concentrations of progesterone, days to first ovulation tended (P=0.07) to occur earlier in the supplemented group. Furthermore, days to first service and days to first estrus of the supplemented group occurred earlier than the control group (P<0.05) but days open, services per conception and conception rates at first insemination did not differ between two groups (P>0.05). Percentage of cyclic cows at 36 days postpartum and estrous behavior before AI was higher in the supplemented group. PMID:22552822

  3. Does Impulsiveness Moderate Response to Financial Incentives for Smoking Cessation Among Pregnant and Newly Postpartum Women?

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Alexa A.; Skelly, Joan M.; White, Thomas J.; Higgins, Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether impulsiveness moderates response to financial incentives for cessation among pregnant smokers. All participants were randomized to either a condition wherein financial incentives were delivered contingent on smoking abstinence or to a control condition wherein incentives were delivered independent of smoking status. The study was conducted in two steps: First, we examined associations between baseline impulsiveness scores and abstinence at late pregnancy and 24-weeks postpartum as part of a planned prospective study of this topic using data from a recently completed, randomized controlled clinical trial (N = 118). Next, to increase statistical power, we conducted a second analysis collapsing results across that recent trial and two prior trials involving the same contingent incentive and control conditions (N = 236). Impulsivity was assessed using a delay discounting (DD) of hypothetical monetary rewards task in all three trials and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) in the most recent trial. Neither DD nor BIS predicted antepartum or postpartum smoking status in the single or combined trials. Receiving abstinence-contingent incentives, lower baseline smoking rate (cigs/day), and a history of quit attempts pre-pregnancy predicted greater odds of antepartum abstinence across the single and combined trials. No variable predicted postpartum abstinence across the single and combined trials, although a history of antepartum quit attempts and receiving abstinence-contingent incentives predicted in the single and combined trials, respectively. Overall, this study provides no evidence that impulsiveness as assessed by DD or BIS moderates response to this treatment approach while underscoring a substantial association of smoking rate and prior quit attempts with abstinence across the contingent incentives and control treatment conditions. PMID:25730417

  4. Postpartum Transitions in Adolescent Mothers' Romantic and Maternal Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Christina B.; Rhodes, Jean E.

    1999-01-01

    Interviewed adolescent mothers at prepartum or early postpartum and 1 year later regarding maternal and romantic relationships, depression, and negative life events. Responses indicated that over time male partner support became more important than maternal support. (LBT)

  5. Homocysteine and serotonin: association with postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Aishwarya, S; Rajendiren, Soundravally; Kattimani, Shivanand; Dhiman, Pooja; Haritha, S; Ananthanarayanan, P H

    2013-12-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a disorder of multifactorial origin with significant consequences on both maternal and child health. One of the biological factors implicated is perturbed methionine-homocysteine metabolism. Since this metabolic pathway plays a significant role in myelination of nerve fibers, the growth and development of the child would also be adversely affected. We carried out this study in 103 women (58 with PPD and 45 without PPD) who delivered their child in our institute from December 2010 to November 2011. The study group was evaluated for PPD using Edinburgh postnatal depression scale with a cut-off score of 10. Assessment of fetal well being was done by APGAR score assessed immediately after birth. Serum folic acid, vitamin B12, homocysteine and serotonin was done by ELISA. We found significantly elevated levels of homocysteine in women with PPD as compared to those without PPD, both at 24-48h as well as six weeks after delivery, although no associations were found with folate and vitamin B12 levels. Also, there was a significant negative correlation between serum homocysteine and serotonin levels in the postpartum depression group with a significant negative correlation between homocysteine and serotonin. Our study showed a significantly lower APGAR score in the infants born to mothers with PPD. Our study also shows that homocysteinemia is associated with PPD whether at the first week or sixth week, while low serum serotonin may play a role in depression during the first week, but may not have a role in depression status at the sixth week. Also, PPD in the mother is related to a low APGAR score in infants born to these mothers emphasizing the significance of both mental as well as nutritional status of the mother. PMID:24309856

  6. Chronologic evidence for multiple periods of loess deposition during the Late Pleistocene in the Missouri and Mississippi River Valley, United States: Implications for the activity of the Laurentide ice sheet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forman, S.L.; Bettis, E. Arthur, III; Kemmis, T.J.; Miller, B.B.

    1992-01-01

    The loess stratigraphy of the mid-continental U.S. is an important proxy record for the activity of the Laurentide Ice Sheet in North America. One of the most outstanding problems is deciphering the age of loess deposits in this area during the late Pleistocene. Radiocarbon dating of snails and thermoluminescence dating of the fine-silt fraction (4-11 ??m) from loess at the Loveland Loess type section, Loveland, Iowa and a recent excavation at the Pleasant Grove School section. Madison County, Illinois provide new chronologic control on loess deposition in the Mississippi/Missouri River Valley chronology indicates that the Loveland Loess is Illinoian in age (135??20 ka) but is not correlative with the Teneriffe Silt which is dated to 77 ?? 8 ka. Concordant radiocarbon and thermoluminescence age estimates demonstrate that the Roxana Silt and a correlative loess in Iowa, the Pisgah Formation, is probably 40-30 ka old. These age estimates in conjunction with previous results indicate that there were four periods of loess deposition during the last 150 ka at 25-12 ka, 45-30 ka, 85-70 ka and at ca. 135 ?? 20 ka. This chronology of loess deposition supports the presence of both a late Illinoian and early Wisconsinan loess and associated soils. Thus, there may be more than one soil in the loess stratigraphy of the mid-continental U.S. with morphologies similar to the Sangamon Soil. The last three periods of loess deposition may be correlative with periods of elevated dust concentrations recorded in the Dye 3 ice core from southern Greenland. This is particularly significant because both areas possibly had the same source for eolian particles. Reconstructions of atmospheric circulation for glacial periods show a southerly deflected jet stream that could have transported dust from the mid-continental USA to southern Greenland. Lastly, the inferred record of loess deposition is parallel to a chronology for deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet deciphered from chronologic and stratigraphic studies of raised glacial and marine sediments in the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada. These chronologies indicate that the Laurentide Ice Sheet was quite dynamic during the late Pleistocene, advancing and retreating across North America at least four times during the last 150 ka. ?? 1992.

  7. Estradiol alleviates depressive-like symptoms in a novel animal model of post-partum depression.

    PubMed

    Galea, L A; Wide, J K; Barr, A M

    2001-07-01

    The effect of hormone withdrawal following hormone-simulated "pregnancy" on "depressive-like behavior" in the Forced Swim Test (FST) was investigated in female Long-Evans rats. Females were randomly assigned to "pregnant", "pregnant"+estradiol benzoate (EB), and control groups. Both the "pregnant" and "pregnant"+EB groups received daily injections of the hormones estradiol and progesterone to simulate the 23-day gestational period in the rat. However, the "pregnant"+EB group continued to receive daily estradiol injections after "pregnancy". All groups were tested 48 h after the last injection of the pregnancy period in the FST and subsequently in the Open Field Test (OFT). Results revealed that the "pregnant" rats exhibited significantly increased immobility and decreased struggling and swimming behaviors as compared to the "pregnant"+EB and control groups. These findings could not be explained by an overall depression in general locomotor activity among "pregnant" rats, as the "pregnant" rats made more area crossings in the OFT. Thus "pregnant" rats exhibited behaviors consistent with "depressive-like" symptoms "post-partum" (after their hormone regime was discontinued). Continual treatment with high levels of estradiol in the "pregnant"+EB group, however, reversed the exhibition of these behaviors. These results imply that withdrawal from chronic high levels of pregnancy-associated hormones (estradiol and progesterone) can produce depressed symptomology in rodents, which can be prevented by prolonging exposure to high levels of estradiol through the post-partum period. These findings are the first demonstration of "depressive-like" symptoms in a rodent model of post-partum pregnancy and the ability of high levels of estradiol to attenuate these "depressive-like" symptoms. PMID:11287071

  8. The Technical and Financial Effects of Parenteral Supplementation with Selenium and Vitamin E during Late Pregnancy and the Early Lactation Period on the Productivity of Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bayril, T.; Yildiz, A. S.; Akdemir, F.; Yalcin, C.; Köse, M.; Yilmaz, O.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of parenteral selenium (Se) and vitamin E supplementation on economic impact, milk yield, and some reproductive parameters in high-yield dairy cows in the dry period and in those at the beginning of lactation. At the beginning of the dry period, cows (n = 323) were randomly divided into three groups as follows: Treatment 1 (T1), Treatment 2 (T2), and Control (C). Cows in group T1 received this preparation 21 days before calving and on calving day, and cows in group T2 received it only on calving day. The cows in the control group did not receive this preparation. Supplementation with Se increased Se serum levels of cows treated at calving day (p<0.05). Differences in milk yield at all weeks and the electrical conductivity values at the 8th and 12th weeks were significant (p<0.05). Supplementation with Se and Vitamin E decreased the incidence of metritis, the number of services per conception and the service period, but had no effects on the incidence of retained fetal membrane. A partial budgeting analysis indicated that Se supplementation was economically profitable; cows in group T1 averaged 240.6$ per cow, those in group T2 averaged 224.6$ per cow. Supplementation with Se and Vitamin E has been found to increase serum Se levels, milk yield, and has positive effects on udder health by decreasing milk conductivity values and incidence of sub-clinical mastitis. PMID:26104521

  9. The Technical and Financial Effects of Parenteral Supplementation with Selenium and Vitamin E during Late Pregnancy and the Early Lactation Period on the Productivity of Dairy Cattle.

    PubMed

    Bayril, T; Yildiz, A S; Akdemir, F; Yalcin, C; Köse, M; Yilmaz, O

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of parenteral selenium (Se) and vitamin E supplementation on economic impact, milk yield, and some reproductive parameters in high-yield dairy cows in the dry period and in those at the beginning of lactation. At the beginning of the dry period, cows (n = 323) were randomly divided into three groups as follows: Treatment 1 (T1), Treatment 2 (T2), and Control (C). Cows in group T1 received this preparation 21 days before calving and on calving day, and cows in group T2 received it only on calving day. The cows in the control group did not receive this preparation. Supplementation with Se increased Se serum levels of cows treated at calving day (p<0.05). Differences in milk yield at all weeks and the electrical conductivity values at the 8th and 12th weeks were significant (p<0.05). Supplementation with Se and Vitamin E decreased the incidence of metritis, the number of services per conception and the service period, but had no effects on the incidence of retained fetal membrane. A partial budgeting analysis indicated that Se supplementation was economically profitable; cows in group T1 averaged 240.6$ per cow, those in group T2 averaged 224.6$ per cow. Supplementation with Se and Vitamin E has been found to increase serum Se levels, milk yield, and has positive effects on udder health by decreasing milk conductivity values and incidence of sub-clinical mastitis. PMID:26104521

  10. Multimodal Sensory Distortions in Post-partum Exacerbation of Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Urvakhsh Meherwan; Naveen Kumar, C; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Thirthalli, Jagadisha

    2013-11-25

    Background: Sensory distortions of body image commonly occur during migraine, seizures, non-dominant cortical infarcts and hallucinogen abuse.Methods: We report the case of a 30-year-old woman with paranoid schizophrenia, presenting with post-partum onset multimodal sensory distortions in the absence of any neurological disorders or substance use.Results: Her symptoms involved persistent facial/body metamorphopsia (distorted images) and vocal paracousis (distorted voices), in the absence of visual hallucinations, illusions or agnosia. Neuropsychological assessments revealed deficits on visual processing tasks. Neuroimaging, electroencephalography and ophthalmological evaluation revealed no abnormalities. The multimodal sensory distortions responded to anti-psychotic treatment, paralleling improvement in other schizophrenia psychopathology, over a period of one month.Conclusion: Prominent and persistent multimodal sensory distortions like metamorphopsia and paracousis in the presence of psychotic symptoms warrant a detailed neurological and general medical work-up. These symptoms presenting in the absence of neurological or substance use disorders may be a component of schizophrenia. PMID:24275634

  11. Lavender Fragrance Essential Oil and the Quality of Sleep in Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarz Afshar, Mahnaz; Behboodi Moghadam, Zahra; Taghizadeh, Ziba; Bekhradi, Reza; Montazeri, Ali; Mokhtari, Pouran

    2015-01-01

    Background: Labor and delivery is a stressful stage for mothers. During these periods, sleep-related disorders have been reported. The problems of inadequate sleep include decrease in concentration, judgment, difficulty in performing daily activities, and an increase in irritability. Even the effects of moderate sleep loss on life and health quality can be similar to sleep deprivation. some research aggravated by aromatherapy on sleep quality in different periods of life so might be useful for the improve of sleep quality in postpartum women. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the effect of aromatherapy on the quality of sleep in postpartum women. The sample was recruited from medical health centers of Zanjan University of Medical Sciences. Patients and Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial with the control group. A total of 158 mothers in postpartum period (with certain inclusion criteria) were enrolled in the study and assigned randomly to two groups of control and intervention. Lavender fragrance (made by Barij Essence Pharmaceutical Co.) was used by participants in the intervention group nightly before sleeping. The fragrance was dropped on cotton balls, which were placed on a cylindrical container at mothers’ disposal. Keeping the container at a projected distance of 20 cm, the participants inhaled 10 deep breaths and then the container was placed beside their pillow until morning. This procedure was done 4 times a week for 8 weeks. For the control group, the same intervention was done with the placebo. The instrument for collecting data was Pittsburgh sleep quality index, which was completed at the baseline, fourth, and eighth weeks after the intervention. Data were analyzed using independent t test and repeated measures analysis of variance calculated by SPSS16. Results: Before the intervention, there were no significant differences between mothers in two groups (P > 0.05). After 8 weeks follow up, a significant improvement appeared in mothers’ sleep quality in the intervention group. Aromatherapy increased sleep quality mean score (±SD) from 8.2911 (± 2.1192) to 6.7975 (± 2.3663) (P < 0.05), but in the control group sleep quality mean score (±SD) changes from 8.4557 (± 2.3027) to 7.5696 (± 1.1464) (P > 0.05). Comparing sleep quality between control and intervention groups after 8 weeks from the beginning of the intervention indicated that aromatherapy was effective in the improvement of mothers’ sleep quality (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Considering the effects of aromatherapy on the improvement of mother’s sleep quality during postpartum period, aromatherapy has been suggested as a non-pharmacological method for the improvement of the maternal health. PMID:26023343

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies of Postpartum Depression: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Fiorelli, Marco; Aceti, Franca; Marini, Isabella; Giacchetti, Nicoletta; Macci, Enrica; Tinelli, Emanuele; Calistri, Valentina; Meuti, Valentina; Caramia, Francesca; Biondi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum depression is a frequent and disabling condition whose pathophysiology is still unclear. In recent years, the study of the neural correlates of mental disorders has been increasingly approached using magnetic resonance techniques. In this review we synthesize the results from studies on postpartum depression in the context of structural, functional, and spectroscopic magnetic resonance studies of major depression as a whole. Compared to the relative wealth of data available for major depression, magnetic resonance studies of postpartum depression are limited in number and design. A systematic literature search yielded only eleven studies conducted on about one hundred mothers with postpartum depression overall. Brain magnetic resonance findings in postpartum depression appear to replicate those obtained in major depression, with minor deviations that are not sufficient to delineate a distinct neurobiological profile for this condition, due to the small samples used and the lack of direct comparisons with subjects with major depression. However, it seems reasonable to expect that studies conducted in larger populations, and using a larger variety of brain magnetic resonance techniques than has been done so far, might allow for the identification of neuroimaging signatures for postpartum depression. PMID:26347585

  13. Feasibility and Perception of Using Text Messages as an Adjunct Therapy for Low-Income, Minority Mothers With Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Ladley, Amy S; Rhyne, Elizabeth A; Halloran, Donna R

    2015-01-01

    Background Postpartum depression (PPD) is the most common medical problem among new mothers that can have a negative impact on infant health. Traditional treatments are often difficult for low-income mothers to complete, particularly given the numerous barriers families face. Objective Among low-income, primarily racial, and ethnic minority mothers with postpartum depression, our aim was to evaluate (1) the feasibility of sending supportive text messages, and (2) the perception of receiving private, supportive text messages for postpartum depression. Methods Mothers found to be at risk for postpartum depression received supportive text messages four times weekly for 6 months in addition to receiving access to traditional counseling services based within an academic pediatric office. Feasibility was evaluated along with cellular and text messaging use, access, and perception of the message protocol. Perception of the message protocol was evaluated at study completion via a Likert scale questionnaire and open-ended qualitative survey. Results In total, 4158/4790 (86.81%) text messages were successfully delivered to 54 mothers over a 6-month period at a low cost (US $777.60). Among the 96 scripted messages, 37 unique messages (38.54%) allowed for a response. Of all sent messages that allowed for responses, 7.30% (118/1616) were responded to, and 66.1% of those responses requested a call back; 46% (25/54) of mothers responded at least once to a text message. Mothers felt that messages were easily received and read (25/28, 89%) and relevant to them personally (23/28, 82%). Most shared texts with others (21/28, 75%). Conclusions Text messaging is feasible, well-accepted, and may serve as a simple, inexpensive adjunct therapy well-suited to cross socioeconomic boundaries and provide private support for at-risk mothers suffering from postpartum depression. PMID:26543910

  14. Comparing the Postpartum Quality of Life Between Six to Eight Weeks and Twelve to Fourteen Weeks After Delivery in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Nosrat; Karimian, Zahra; Bahrami, Somayeh; Bolbolhaghighi, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Women during the postpartum period experience many physiological, psychological, and social changes. Quality of life (QOL) is a sense of well-being and arises from satisfaction or dissatisfaction with various aspects of life including health, employment, socioeconomic state, psychological-emotional state, and family. Moreover, QOL is an important criteria for assessing healthcare system. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the postpartum QOL between six to eight and 12 to 14 weeks after delivery in women referred to public health centers in Dezful City, Iran, in 2011. Materials and Methods: This study was a longitudinal study. The study participants were 150 postpartum women referred to public health centers. Quota method was used for sampling. Data collection tools in this study were demographic questionnaire, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), short form health survey questionnaire (SF-36), and Specific Quality of Life after Delivery Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Results: The results showed that the mean scores of various dimensions of the SF-36 were significantly higher at 12 to 14 weeks than at six to eight weeks (P < 0.001). The postpartum mean depression score was significantly higher at six to eight weeks than at 12 to 14 weeks (P < 0.001). The mean score of QOL questionnaires at 12 to 14 weeks were increased in all dimensions in comparison with six to eight weeks; however, this increase was significant only in dimension of the mother's feelings toward herself, her husband, and others (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Because enormous changes develop in postpartum women, we suggest supportive measures for mother by her mother-in-law, family, and caregivers to improve the QOL and health status of the mother and her child. PMID:25237575

  15. The Effects of Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone Administration in Early Postpartum Dairy Cows on Hormone Concentrations, Ovarian Activity and Reproductive Performance: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, K. E.

    1983-01-01

    Gonadotrophin releasing hormones have become widely used hormonal compounds in veterinary medicine, particularly with respect to bovine reproduction. The character and physiological actions of gonadotrophin releasing hormone are briefly reviewed and its clinical applications are summarized. The endocrinological research concerned with the use of gonadotrophin releasing hormone in the early postpartum period is discussed. Field trials which have been conducted to assess the effects of postpartum gonadotrophin releasing hormone administration on reproductive performance have varied widely in both design and interpretation of results. These experiments are reviewed, including the clinical trials using normal cows as well as those on cows with retained placenta. PMID:17422245

  16. What Patterns of Postpartum Psychological Distress Are Associated with Maternal Concerns about Their Children's Emotional and Behavioural Problems at the Age of Three Years?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benzies, Karen; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Tough, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Mothers experiencing psychological distress in the postpartum period may have difficulties parenting their children. Inconsistent and unresponsive parenting may increase the risk of later emotional and behavioural problems in children. The purpose of this study was to identify how maternal psychological characteristics cluster at eight weeks…

  17. Factors that influence physical activity for pregnant and postpartum women and implications for primary care.

    PubMed

    Doran, Frances; Davis, Kierrynn

    2011-01-01

    Many pregnant women and women of child-bearing age do not engage in the recommended levels of physical activity despite the well known benefits. Pregnancy and the postpartum period can be a time when inactivity actually increases. Women who experience gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) during their pregnancy are often advised to become more active in order to ameliorate their increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Health professionals have an influential role in promoting physical activity, which would be enhanced with an understanding of the factors that positively and negatively influence women's participation in physical activity during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. This research sought to explore these factors with pregnant and postpartum women including those who had experienced GDM and the attention given to physical activity during pregnancy. A survey was developed after a critical review of factors identified from previous studies. Women were recruited from the antenatal clinic, community health centres and the local media. Results from 72 women are reported from a predominately well educated, Caucasian population. Overall, the results were confirmatory of factors previously identified. Lack of child care, time constraints, no time and feeling unwell during pregnancy hindered activity and factors that facilitated activity included family support, enjoyment of activity and to prevent later health problems. It was also found that non-GDM women are given minimal advice about exercise during pregnancy. A checklist has been developed for health professionals, in partnership with women, to direct attention to the factors that enable and hinder participation in physical activity during and after pregnancy. PMID:21616029

  18. The effect of energy balance on the transcriptome of bovine granulosa cells at 60 days postpartum.

    PubMed

    Girard, Annie; Dufort, Isabelle; Sirard, Marc-André

    2015-11-01

    Dairy cows expend great amounts of energy during the lactation peak to cope with milk production. A state of negative energy balance (NEB) was suggested as a cause for the suboptimal fertility observed during this period, via an interaction with ovarian function. The objective of this study was to identify the impact of NEB on gene expression in granulosa cells of dairy cows at 60 days postpartum and to suggest a potential treatment to improve ovarian function. Dairy cows at 60 days postpartum from 10 typical medium-sized farms were synchronized using a single injection of prostaglandin. Dominant follicles  were collected 42 hours later by transvaginal aspiration. Blood concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) on the day of aspiration were used to classify animals into two groups: severe NEB (high BHB, n = 12) and mild NEB (low BHB, n = 12). The transcriptomes of granulosa cells from both groups were contrasted using microarrays, and the differentially expressed genes were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis to identify affected functions and potential upstream regulators. Genes linked with cellular organization (KRT4 and PPL), proliferation (TACSTD2), and fatty acids metabolism (VNN2) were downregulated in granulosa cells from animals with severe NEB. Several genes linked to decitabine, a hypomethylating agent, and with beta-estradiol, were downregulated in the severe NEB group. Numerous genes linked to vitamins A and D were also downregulated in this group of cows, suggesting a potential deficiency of these vitamins in dairy cows during the postpartum period. This study supports the idea that energy balance has an impact on follicular dynamics which could be detrimental to resumption of fertility after calving. PMID:26316219

  19. [Consumption coagulopathies and severe postpartum hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Larcan, A; Lambert, H; Laprevote-Heully, M C; Schweitzer, M; Gerbaut, A

    1976-06-01

    15 patients were referred to the Intensive Care Unit immediately after delivery for severe post-partum haemorrhage. In 7 cases complications followed retroplacental haemotoma formation and in the other 8 cases they were due to secondary haemorrhages from the placental site and/or from tears of the cervix or vagina. It is a clinical picture that is associated with a state of shock, with continuing massive bleeding associated with failure of the blood to clot and which persists and becomes worse with the transfusion of stored blood and of the coagulation factors. In all these cases severe coagulation pathology due to consumption defects is revealed. We must point out that tears of the cervix and vagina which have been neglected and failure to compensate for the original blood loss are among the aetiological factors. Treatment with Heparin giving a dose of 1 to 3 mg per kg of body weight per 24 hours and controlled by a strict biological check together with symptomatic resuscitation from the state of shock and from the coagulation factors is successful (9 cases) if it is undertaken early on. A fatal outcome, whether it is due to a persistent state of shock (1 case) or to visceral complications of diffuse intravascular coagulation (C.I.V.D.) (5 cases) can be found where treatment is delayed and when insufficient blood is replaced and when antifibrinolytics are prescribed. A preventive therapeutic plan as well as a curative one can be drawn up for these cases of obstetrical drama. PMID:1085307

  20. Pharmacotherapy of postpartum depression: an update

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Deborah R; Epperson, C Neill; Weiss, Amy R; Wisner, Katherine L

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common and serious illness that affects up to 14% of women in the first month after childbirth. We present an update on the pharmacologic treatment of PPD, although there continues to be a lack of large, randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Areas covered A review of the literature on the use of antidepressants, hormonal supplements and omega-3 fatty acids for the prevention and the treatment of PPD published since the original review in 2009 and the authors’ opinion on the current status of the pharmacological treatment of PPD are covered. An electronic search was performed by using PubMed, Medline and PsychINFO. Inclusion criteria were: i) empirical articles in peer-reviewed English-language journals; ii) well-validated measures of depression; and iii) a uniform scoring system for depression among the sample. Expert opinion Since the last Expert Opinion review, four antidepressant treatment studies and one prevention study of PPD have been published. Six RCTs evaluating the use of omega-3 fatty acids (four for prevention and two for treatment) have been published. There continues to be lack of data regarding the pharmacotherapy of PPD. However, serotonin reuptake inhibitors should be considered first-line for women with PPD after it has been determined that the proper diagnosis is not bipolar disorder. It is important to individualize treatment for women with PPD and consider the risks and benefits of treatment while breastfeeding. PMID:24773410

  1. Depression During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Among HIV-Infected Women on Antiretroviral Therapy in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Lynn T.; Ashaba, Scholastic; Tsai, Alexander C.; Kanters, Steve; Robak, Magdalena; Psaros, Christina; Kabakyenga, Jerome; Boum, Yap; Haberer, Jessica E.; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Hunt, Peter W.; Bangsberg, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Among HIV-infected women, perinatal depression compromises clinical, maternal, and child health outcomes. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is associated with lower depression symptom severity but the uniformity of effect through pregnancy and postpartum periods is unknown. Methods: We analyzed prospective data from 447 HIV-infected women (18–49 years) initiating ART in rural Uganda (2005–2012). Participants completed blood work and comprehensive questionnaires quarterly. Pregnancy status was assessed by self-report. Analysis time periods were defined as currently pregnant, postpartum (0–12 months post-pregnancy outcome), or non–pregnancy-related. Depression symptom severity was measured using a modified Hopkins Symptom Checklist 15, with scores ranging from 1 to 4. Probable depression was defined as >1.75. Linear regression with generalized estimating equations was used to compare mean depression scores over the 3 periods. Results: At enrollment, median age was 32 years (interquartile range: 27–37), median CD4 count was 160 cells per cubic millimeter (interquartile range: 95–245), and mean depression score was 1.75 (s = 0.58) (39% with probable depression). Over 4.1 median years of follow-up, 104 women experienced 151 pregnancies. Mean depression scores did not differ across the time periods (P = 0.75). Multivariable models yielded similar findings. Increasing time on ART, viral suppression, better physical health, and “never married” were independently associated with lower mean depression scores. Findings were consistent when assessing probable depression. Conclusions: Although the lack of association between depression and perinatal periods is reassuring, high depression prevalence at treatment initiation and continued incidence across pregnancy and non–pregnancy-related periods of follow-up highlight the critical need for mental health services for HIV-infected women to optimize both maternal and perinatal health. PMID:25436816

  2. Women's perceptions of antenatal, delivery, and postpartum services in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mahiti, Gladys Reuben; Mkoka, Dickson Ally; Kiwara, Angwara Dennis; Mbekenga, Columba Kokusiima; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Goicolea, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal health care provision remains a major challenge in developing countries. There is agreement that the provision of quality clinical services is essential if high rates of maternal death are to be reduced. However, despite efforts to improve access to these services, a high number of women in Tanzania do not access them. The aim of this study is to explore women's views about the maternal health services (pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum period) that they received at health facilities in order to identify gaps in service provision that may lead to low-quality maternal care and increased risks associated with maternal morbidity and mortality in rural Tanzania. Design We gathered qualitative data from 15 focus group discussions with women attending a health facility after child birth and transcribed it verbatim. Qualitative content analysis was used for analysis. Results ‘Three categories emerged that reflected women's perceptions of maternal health care services: “mothers perceive that maternal health services are beneficial,” “barriers to accessing maternal health services” such as availability and use of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and the long distances between some villages, and “ambivalence regarding the quality of maternal health services” reflecting that women had both positive and negative perceptions in relation to quality of health care services offered’. Conclusions Mothers perceived that maternal health care services are beneficial during pregnancy and delivery, but their awareness of postpartum complications and the role of medical services during that stage were poor. The study revealed an ambivalence regarding the perceived quality of health care services offered, partly due to shortages of material resources. Barriers to accessing maternal health care services, such as the cost of transport and the use of TBAs, were also shown. These findings call for improvement on the services provided. Improvements should address, accessibility of services, professionals' attitudes and stronger promotion of the importance of postpartum check-ups, both among health care professionals and women. PMID:26498576

  3. Possibility to predict early postpartum glucose abnormality following gestational diabetes mellitus based on the results of routine mid-gestational screening

    PubMed Central

    Bartáková, Vendula; Malúšková, Denisa; Mužík, Jan; B?lobrádková, Jana; Ka?ková, Kate?ina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have increased risk of developing glucose abnormality, but current diagnostic criteria are evidence-based for adverse pregnancy outcome. The aims of our study were: (i) to ascertain a frequency of early conversion of GDM into permanent glucose abnormality, (ii) to determine predictive potential of current GDM diagnostic criteria for prediction of postpartum glucose abnormality and (iii) to find optimal cut-off values of oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) to stratify GDM population according to postpartum risk. Materials and methods Electronic medical records of an ethnically homogenous cohort of women diagnosed and treated for GDM in a single medical centre during the period 2005–2011 who completed postpartum oGTT up to 1 year after the index delivery were retrospectively analysed (N = 305). Results Postpartum glucose abnormality was detected in 16.7% subjects. Mid-trimester oGTT values, respective area under the curve and HbA1c were significantly associated with early postpartum glucose abnormality (P < 0.05, Mann-Whitney) and exhibited significant predictive potential for postpartum glucose abnormality risk assessment. Optimal cut-off values for discrimination of at-risk sub-population were identified using ROC analysis and their comparison with WHO and IADPSG criteria exhibited superiority of IADPSG for risk-stratification of GDM population. Conclusion Risk-based stratification at the time of GDM diagnosis could improve efficiency of the post-gestational screening for diabetes. IADPSG criteria seem to optimally capture both perinatal and maternal metabolic risks and are therefore medically and economically justified. PMID:26526166

  4. Optimistic outlook regarding maternity protects against depressive symptoms postpartum.

    PubMed

    Robakis, Thalia K; Williams, Katherine E; Crowe, Susan; Kenna, Heather; Gannon, Jamie; Rasgon, Natalie L

    2015-04-01

    The transition to motherhood is a time of elevated risk for clinical depression. Dispositional optimism may be protective against depressive symptoms; however, the arrival of a newborn presents numerous challenges that may be at odds with initially positive expectations, and which may contribute to depressed mood. We have explored the relative contributions of antenatal and postnatal optimism regarding maternity to depressive symptoms in the postnatal period. Ninety-eight pregnant women underwent clinician interview in the third trimester to record psychiatric history, antenatal depressive symptoms, and administer a novel measure of optimism towards maternity. Measures of depressive symptoms, attitudes to maternity, and mother-to-infant bonding were obtained from 97 study completers at monthly intervals through 3 months postpartum. We found a positive effect of antenatal optimism, and a negative effect of postnatal disconfirmation of expectations, on depressive mood postnatally. Postnatal disconfirmation, but not antenatal optimism, was associated with more negative attitudes toward maternity postnatally. Antenatal optimism, but not postnatal disconfirmation, was associated with reduced scores on a mother-to-infant bonding measure. The relationships between antenatal optimism, postnatal disconfirmation of expectations, and postnatal depression held true among primigravidas and multigravidas, as well as among women with prior histories of mood disorders, although antenatal optimism tended to be lower among women with mental health histories. We conclude that cautious antenatal optimism, rather than immoderate optimism or frank pessimism, is the approach that is most protective against postnatal depressive symptoms, and that this is true irrespective of either mood disorder history or parity. Factors predisposing to negative cognitive assessments and impaired mother-to-infant bonding may be substantially different than those associated with depressive symptoms, a finding that merits further study. PMID:25088532

  5. Postpartum Management of Women Begun on Levothyroxine during Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Stagnaro-Green, Alex

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy, the thyroid gland must produce 50% more thyroid hormone to maintain the euthyroid state. Women with decreased thyroid reserve preconception, most typically due to Hashimoto's thyroiditis, may develop hypothyroidism during pregnancy. Data over the last 20?years have reported a strong association between subclinical hypothyroidism and adverse maternal/fetal events. As a result of this association, an increasing number of women are being screened for thyroid disease either preconception or at the first prenatal visit. Consequently, an ever increasing number of women are being initiated on levothyroxine for the first time during pregnancy. At present, there are very limited guidelines related to the management of the thyroid disease in these women postpartum. Based on an understanding of the physiology of the thyroid gland during pregnancy and postpartum, and the personal clinical experience of the author, recommendations for the postpartum management of women who were started on levothyroxine during pregnancy are presented. PMID:26648909

  6. Postpartum Management of Women Begun on Levothyroxine during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Stagnaro-Green, Alex

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy, the thyroid gland must produce 50% more thyroid hormone to maintain the euthyroid state. Women with decreased thyroid reserve preconception, most typically due to Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, may develop hypothyroidism during pregnancy. Data over the last 20?years have reported a strong association between subclinical hypothyroidism and adverse maternal/fetal events. As a result of this association, an increasing number of women are being screened for thyroid disease either preconception or at the first prenatal visit. Consequently, an ever increasing number of women are being initiated on levothyroxine for the first time during pregnancy. At present, there are very limited guidelines related to the management of the thyroid disease in these women postpartum. Based on an understanding of the physiology of the thyroid gland during pregnancy and postpartum, and the personal clinical experience of the author, recommendations for the postpartum management of women who were started on levothyroxine during pregnancy are presented. PMID:26648909

  7. Clark T. Sawin historical vignette: what do criminology, Harry Houdini, and King George V have in common with postpartum thyroid dysfunction?

    PubMed

    Smallridge, Robert C

    2014-12-01

    The history of postpartum thyroid dysfunction (PPTD) dates back almost two millennia, when Soranus of Ephesus, who practiced obstetrics and neonatology, observed swelling in the necks (presumably goiters) of women after pregnancy. The next reference to PPTD appeared in artwork more than 1000 years later, with many portraits illustrating women with goiter while holding infants. In the early to mid-19th century, Caleb Hillier Parry and Armand Trousseau described postpartum hyperthyroidism, while in the late 1800s, Sir Horatio Bryan Donkin reported the first patient with postpartum hypothyroidism. The modern era of PPTD began with the description in the late 1940s by H.E.W. Roberton of women after delivery reporting hypothyroid symptoms and responding to thyroid extract. The immunologic influence on PPTD was recognized initially by Parker and Beierwaltes in the early 1960s, and the clinical variability and natural history were carefully documented by numerous investigators in the 1970s-1980s. The past two decades have seen further refinements in understanding the prevalence, etiology, and treatment of PPTD. Yet to be determined is the role of screening as a cost-effective measure. PMID:25180618

  8. Applying polygenic risk scores to postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Enda M; Carrillo-Roa, Tania; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Sallis, Hannah M; Viktorin, Alexander; Chapman, Brett; Henders, Anjali K; Pergadia, Michele L; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela A F; Sullivan, Patrick F; Boschloo, Lynn; van Grootheest, Gerard; McMahon, George; Lawlor, Debbie A; Landén, Mikael; Lichtenstein, Paul; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Evans, David M; Montgomery, Grant W; Boomsma, Dorret I; Martin, Nicholas G; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Wray, Naomi R

    2014-12-01

    The etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) is likely to be heterogeneous, but postpartum depression (PPD) is hypothesized to represent a more homogenous subset of MDD. We use genome-wide SNP data to explore this hypothesis. We assembled a total cohort of 1,420 self-report cases of PPD and 9,473 controls with genome-wide genotypes from Australia, The Netherlands, Sweden and the UK. We estimated the total variance attributable to genotyped variants. We used association results from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortia (PGC) of bipolar disorder (BPD) and MDD to create polygenic scores in PPD and related MDD data sets to estimate the genetic overlap between the disorders. We estimated that the percentage of variance on the liability scale explained by common genetic variants to be 0.22 with a standard error of 0.12, p?=?0.02. The proportion of variance (R (2)) from a logistic regression of PPD case/control status in all four cohorts on a SNP profile score weighted by PGC-BPD association results was small (0.1 %) but significant (p?=?0.004) indicating a genetic overlap between BPD and PPD. The results were highly significant in the Australian and Dutch cohorts (R (2)?>?1.1 %, p?

  9. Content analysis of motivational counseling calls targeting obesity-related behaviors among postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Price, Sarah N; McDonald, Julia; Oken, Emily; Haines, Jess; Gillman, Matthew W; Taveras, Elsie M

    2012-02-01

    Our objective was to examine mothers' perspectives of obesity-related health behavior recommendations for themselves and their 0-6 month old infants. A health educator conducted 4 motivational counseling calls with 60 mothers of infants during the first 6 months postpartum. Calls addressed 5 behaviors for infants (breastfeeding, introduction of solid foods, sleep, TV, hunger cues), and 4 for mothers (eating, physical activity, sleep, TV). We recorded detailed notes from each call, capturing responsiveness to recommendations and barriers to change. Two independent coders analyzed the notes to identify themes. Mothers in our study were more interested in focusing on their infants' health behaviors than on their own. While most were receptive to eliminating their infants' TV exposure, they resisted limiting TV for themselves. There was some resistance to following infant feeding guidelines, and contrary to advice to avoid nursing or rocking babies to sleep, mothers commonly relied on these techniques. Return to work emerged as a barrier to breastfeeding, yet facilitated healthier eating, increased activity, and reduced TV time for mothers. The early postpartum period is a challenging time for mothers to focus on their own health behaviors, but returning to work appears to offer an opportunity for positive changes in this regard. To improve weight-related infant behaviors, interventions should consider mothers' perceptions of nutrition and physical activity recommendations and barriers to adherence. PMID:21258960

  10. Retinal detachment in postpartum preeclampsia and eclampsia: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Hsu, T Y; Ou, C Y; Chang, S Y; Soong, Y K

    1999-09-01

    Retinal detachment is an unusual complication of hypertensive disorder in pregnancy. It has been reported in 1% to 2% of patients with severe preeclampsia and in 10% of patients with eclampsia. Choroidal ischemia may be the cause of retinal detachment. We know that mild arteriolar spasm involving the bulbar conjunctival vessels has been observed in the normal pregnancy, but in pregnancy-induced hypertension the vasospasm may be severe and result in choroidal ischemia. Most patients with retinal detachment in pregnancy-induced hypertension have had full spontaneous resolution within a few weeks, and they did not have any sequelae. Medical treatment with antihypertensive drugs and steroids may be helpful. We report two rare cases of retinal detachment and persistent hypertension in association with postpartum eclampsia and post-cesarean section preeclampsia. These patients had normotension throughout pregnancy. Preeclampsia or eclampsia developed after delivery, and blurred vision, headache, and reduced vision accompanied serous retinal detachment. The serous retinal detachment disappeared within 3 weeks. Good outcomes were found in the follow-up examinations in both of these cases. For women who had been normotensive at the time of delivery and then complained in the postpartum period of blurred vision, headaches, nausea and vomiting, we should consider the possibility of retinal detachment and perform fundoscopy. PMID:10584429

  11. Successful Reduction of Acute Puerperal Uterine Inversion with the Use of a Bakri Postpartum Balloon

    PubMed Central

    Ida, Akinori; Ito, Koichi; Kubota, Yoko; Nosaka, Maiko; Kato, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Uterine inversion is a state wherein the endometrial surface is inverted. Although this condition may be observed in nonpregnant women, it most commonly develops at the time of delivery. In the present case, a 37-year-old woman without any remarkable history developed acute puerperal uterine inversion after the successful induction of labor. Following the delivery, she complained twice of severe lower abdominal pain; subsequently, hemorrhage was noted at the site of partial detachment of the placenta. These findings led to a diagnosis of placenta accreta, and the patient developed a state of shock. A Bakri postpartum balloon was inserted into the uterine cavity under ultrasonographic guidance and was filled with physiological saline for treatment of this condition. With this procedure, the uterine inversion was completely reduced and the hemorrhage was stopped. Moreover, no reinversion was observed in the postoperative period. These findings suggest that a Bakri postpartum balloon can be used to noninvasively reduce uterine inversion and prevent its recurrence. PMID:25954560

  12. The Structure of Women's Mood in the Early Postpartum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttner, Melissa M.; O'Hara, Michael W.; Watson, David

    2012-01-01

    The "postpartum blues" is a mild, predictable mood disturbance occurring within the first several days following childbirth. Previous analyses of the "blues" symptom structure yielded inconclusive findings, making reliable assessment a significant methodological limitation. The current study aimed to explicate the symptom structure of women's mood…

  13. Reply: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for postpartum depression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To the Editors: We appreciate the interest and the comments of Chiu et al. concerning our recently published study investigating the effect of maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation to prevent postpartum depression (PPD). We agree with many of their criticisms and, in fact, discussed th...

  14. Soranus of Ephesus (98-138) on postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Laios, Konstantinos; Karamanou, Marianna; Tsoucalas, Gregory; Androutsos, George

    2014-01-01

    Although ancient Greek physicians described several mental disorders, their medical texts bring little information about postpartum depression as defined by modern medicine. Only one reference in ancient Greek medical literature - a passage from Soranus' Gynaeciorum libri IV - can be considered a clear presentation of this mental disorder. Soranus' interpretation seems to be firmly based on the tenets of the four humours. PMID:25310614

  15. Predicting Postpartum Changes in Emotion and Behavior via Social Media

    E-print Network

    Horvitz, Eric

    of postpartum depression, an underreported health concern among large populations, and to inform the design Having a baby is a major life event that creates significant changes in the lives of new parents. Sleep for their newborn. Adding to the challenges, many new mothers experience psychological changes, such as the "baby

  16. Trajectories of Postpartum Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Children's Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yelena P.; Selig, James P.; Roberts, Michael C.; Steele, Ric G.

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of new mothers experience at least some depressive symptoms. Postpartum maternal depressive symptoms can greatly influence children's outcomes (e.g., emotional, cognitive, language, and social development). However, there have been relatively few longitudinal studies of how maternal depressive symptoms may influence children's…

  17. Student Pregnancy and Postpartum Assistance and Accommodations GETTING HELP

    E-print Network

    Elzanowski, Marek

    Student Pregnancy and Postpartum Assistance and Accommodations Procedure GETTING HELP Students "normal" and "abnormal" pregnancies Disability Resource Center 116 Smith Memorial Student Union 503 of pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions Office of Equity and Compliance 503-725-5919 www

  18. Anger after Childbirth: An Overlooked Reaction to Postpartum Stressors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Jennifer E.; Lobel, Marci; DeLuca, Robyn Stein

    2002-01-01

    Other than postpartum depression, little is known about women's emotional responses to childbirth and subsequent stressors. Anger was explored on the basis of theory and evidence that it is a likely emotional response in this context. During their third trimester of pregnancy and approximately six weeks after delivery, 163 participants completed…

  19. Predicting Change in Postpartum Depression: An Individual Growth Curve Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Trey

    Recently, methodologists interested in examining problems associated with measuring change have suggested that developmental researchers should focus upon assessing change at both intra-individual and inter-individual levels. This study used an application of individual growth curve analysis to the problem of maternal postpartum depression.…

  20. Pregnancy Problems, Postpartum Depression, and Early Mother-Infant Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Mothers observed at 3 to 5 months postpartum interacting with their infants were given attitude questionnaires. Mothers who had reported preganancy problems were more depressed and anxious and expressed more punitive childrearing attitudes than mothers not reporting pregnancy problems. (Author/NH)

  1. A Family Approach to Treatment of Postpartum Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Judith; Shaver-Hast, Laura; Sharnoff, Wendy; Warren, Mary Ellen; Wright, Harry

    2009-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) has an impact on the entire family. The authors describe a model of intervention that emphasizes the family system and includes mothers, fathers, and children in the treatment of PPD. The intervention is provided by a multidisciplinary team consisting of a psychiatrist, social worker, child psychologist, and therapists.…

  2. The role of fibrinogen and haemostatic assessment in postpartum haemorrhage: preparations for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wikkelsø, Anne Juul

    2015-04-01

    Pregnancy is a state of hypercoagulobility that might be an evolutionary way of protecting parturients from exsanguination following child birth. Observational studies suggest an association between a low level of fibrinogen (coagulation factor I) at the start of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) and subsequent severity of bleeding. Fibrinogen concentrate may be prescribed to correct acquired hypofibrinogenaemia, but evidence is lacking regarding the treatment efficacy. This thesis assesses the current evidence for the use of fibrinogen concentrate and haemostatic assessment in bleeding patients with special attention to the obstetrical population. It includes five papers: In Paper I the benefits or harms of fibrinogen concentrate in bleeding patients in general was evaluated using a systematic Cochrane review methodology with metaanalysis of all published randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Six trials with high risk of bias were included (248 patients). Fibrinogen appeared to reduce the need of allogenic transfusions by 53%. However, the included trials were conducted only in an elective surgical setting with a population of mainly cardiac surgical patients. Paper II was also a systematic review based on Cochrane methodology evaluating the use of viscoelastic haemostatic assays to guide haemostatic transfusion in bleeding patients. Nine RCTs (776 patients) with high risk of bias were included primarily in elective cardiac surgical patients and none were specific for the obstetric subpopulation. Viscoelastic haemostatic assay guided transfusion algorithm reduced blood loss and the proportion of patients exposed to fresh frozen plasma (FFP) or platelets. In both studies, we were unable to make firm conclusion on our primary outcome, "all cause mortality" due to lack of adequate data. Paper III was based on two national Danish registries evaluating the predictability of postpartum blood transfusion. Prediction was found difficult. However, retained placental parts seemed to be the strongest predictor. Since this diagnosis is made very late and often in association with the onset of bleeding, tools to perform an early diagnosis is highly warranted. Paper IV includes recommendations of the European Society of Anaesthesiology regarding the use of fibrinogen concentrate in PPH, and is based on very weak (GRADE 2) evidence and low confidence in estimates of effect (GRADE C). Paper V describes the protocol for a RCT of early fibrinogen supplementation in women with severe postpartum haemorrhage. Several practical, ethical and trial management challenges need to be addressed when conducting independent clinical research involving parturients with severe bleeding, placebo-controlled and blinded administration of a drug in a multicenter set-up with enrolments during the entire day and with many personnel involved. PMID:25872542

  3. Docosahexaenoic Acid Status in Pregnancy Determines the Maternal Docosahexaenoic Acid Status 3-, 6- and 12 Months Postpartum. Results from a Longitudinal Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Markhus, Maria Wik; Rasinger, Josef Daniel; Malde, Marian Kjellevold; Frøyland, Livar; Skotheim, Siv; Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Graff, Ingvild Eide

    2015-01-01

    Background Essential fatty acid status as well as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) declines during pregnancy and lactation. As a result, the DHA status may not be optimal for child development and may increase the risk for maternal postpartum depression. The objective of this study was to assess changes in the maternal fatty acid status from pregnancy to 12 months postpartum, and to study the impact of seafood consumption on the individual fatty acid status. Methods Blood samples and seafood consumption habits (gestation week 28, and three-, six- and 12 months postpartum) were collected in a longitudinal observational study of pregnant and postpartum women (n = 118). Multilevel linear modeling was used to assess both changes over time in the fatty acid status of red blood cells (RBC), and in the seafood consumption. Results Six fatty acids varied the most (>80%) across the four time points analyzed, including the derivative of the essential ?-linoleic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3), DHA; the essential linoleic acid (LA, 18:2 n-6); and the LA derivative, arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6). Over all, a large variation in individuals’ DHA- and AA status was observed; however, over the 15-month study period only small inter-individual differences in the longitudinal trajectory of DHA- and AA abundance in the RBC were detected. The median intake of seafood was lower than recommended. Regardless, the total weekly frequency of seafood and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3)/DHA-supplement intake predicted the maternal level of DHA (?g/g RBC). Conclusion The period of depletion of the maternal DHA status during pregnancy and lactation, seem to turn to repletion from about six months postpartum towards one year after childbirth, irrespective of RBC concentration of DHA during pregnancy. Seafood and EPA/DHA-supplement intake predicted the DHA levels over time. Trial Registration www.helseforskning.etikkom.no 2009/570/REC, project number: 083.09 PMID:26331947

  4. When Depression Complicates Childbearing: Guidelines for Screening and Treatment during Antenatal and Postpartum Obstetric Care

    PubMed Central

    Muzik, Maria; Marcus, Sheila M.; Heringhausen, Julie E.; Flynn, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Prevalence studies show that one in five women experience an episode of major depressive disorder during their lifetime. The peripartum period constitutes a prime time for symptom exacerbation and relapse of depressive episodes. It is important for health care providers, specifically those in obstetric care, to be aware of (1) the frequency of depression in pregnant and postpartum women; (2) signs, symptoms, and appropriate screening methods; and (3) the health risks for the mother and growing fetus if depression is undetected or untreated. Because management of depressed peripartum women also includes care of a growing fetus or breastfeeding infant, treatment may be complex and requires input from a multidisciplinary team, including an obstetrician, psychiatrist, and pediatrician, to provide optimal care. PMID:19944300

  5. Post-Partum Diastasis of the Pubic Symphysis: Report of a Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathy, Prabha; Indira, Nalliannan

    2015-01-01

    Post-partum pubic symphysis diastasis refers to an abnormally wide gap between the two pubic bones following delivery. It is an uncommon and under diagnosed condition resulting in acute pelvic pain. A case of pelvic diastasis in a 24-year-old G2A1 following normal vaginal delivery is reported. Management consisted of simple conservative treatment with binders and analgesics, which were sufficient in achieving a complete reversal of the condition. The low incidence of 1 in 3700 normal vaginal deliveries over a 5 year period at Public Health Centre, Chennai, coupled with the rarity of the condition renders it as a salient presentation in the practice of our profession. PMID:26500965

  6. Paradoxical Physiological Transitions from Aging to Late Life in Drosophila

    E-print Network

    Mueller, Laurence D.

    Paradoxical Physiological Transitions from Aging to Late Life in Drosophila Parvin Shahrestani and late life is a period of roughly plateaued mortality rates. In this study we used *57,600 Drosophila is divided into aging and late life, where aging is a period of exponentially increasing mortality rates

  7. First steps of vulagarization of science in the late ninetheen century: The Yearbook of the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional de Chapultepec, Mexico during the period of Mr. Angel Anguiano (1878-1889)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zueck, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    Since the founding of the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional de Chapultepec in 1878 during the presidential term of General Porfirio Diaz, begins the publication of the Yearbook of the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional de Chapultepec (from now on OAN) in a period when the positivist paradigm based on will boost science as a means of national progress. Here we describe the actions taken by the observatory's director and editor of the publication, the engineer Angel Anguiano, to initiate and successfully carry out the exchange of scientific publications and / or dissemination through the exchange of the Yearbook of the OAN, both nationally and internationally. The importance of conferences to which he attended started the sharing printed information relating to subjects such as astronomy, meteorology, cartography and geography. The Yearbook was intended to publish two or three months before the beginning of each year and according to the editor would serve to popularize science, making its contents available to anyone with basic knowledge of geometry or for amateur astronomers. I find that the yearbook was the publication that was released to the observatory in the country and abroad, but was sent to distant places where no one speaks or reads Spanish. I think that the content of articles published in, did not respond and objective and informative to the public as mentioned by, because at the late 1800s, 90% of the inhabitants of the Mexican Republic were illiterate and lived in rural areas. The access to the Bulletin was the Mexican intellectual elite grouped into societies, astronomical or meteorological observatories and another wealthy person individually. The same happened abroad. The collection of data from reports to the Secretaria de Fomento, that was the government agency that funds money destined to different scientific institutions founded during this period were published in the Yearbook, the oficios that sent the OAN over a hundred sites in the world responding to the exchange of scientific publications of the mentioned areas through the Library. These documents are available on the Fund of National Astronomical Observatory Historical Archive of the UNAM. The importance of this publication is reflected in the fact that it has continued publishing without interruption since 1881 and gave rise to the Bulletin of the OAN which later became the Boletin del Observatorio Astronomico Nacional de Tacubaya in and finally to the Boletin del Observatorio Astronomico Nacional de Tonantzintla y Tacubaya.

  8. Antidepressant Use in Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Yonkers, Kimberly A.; Blackwell, Katherine A.; Forray, Ariadna

    2014-01-01

    Women in their reproductive years are at increased risk of experiencing depressive and anxiety disorders. As such, it is likely that pregnant women will undergo treatment with antidepressants. We review the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and perinatal and neonatal complications of the offspring related to in utero exposure to antidepressants. The literature shows that antidepressant exposure is associated with fetal growth changes and shorter gestations, although effects are small. There are a number of reports of transitory neonatal signs after exposure to antidepressants. No specific pattern of malformations has been consistently associated with antidepressants, with the possible exception of paroxetine and cardiac malformations. There is inconclusive evidence of a link between antidepressants in late pregnancy and persistent pulmonary hypertension in the newborn. While antidepressant use in pregnancy is well studied, confounding factors that can adversely affect pregnancy and birth outcomes may contribute to some of the findings. PMID:24313569

  9. Mastitis in post-partum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pyörälä, S

    2008-07-01

    Transition from the dry period to lactation is a high risk period for the modern dairy cow. The biggest challenge at that time is mastitis. Environmental bacteria are the most problematic pathogens around parturition. Coliforms are able to cause severe infections in multiparous cows, and heifers are likely to be infected with coagulase-negative staphylococci. During the periparturient period, hormonal and other factors make the dairy cows more or less immunocompromised. A successful mastitis control programme is focused on the management of dry and calving cows and heifers. Clean and comfortable environment, proper feeding and adequate supplementation of the diet with vitamins and trace elements are essential for maintaining good udder health. Strategies which would enhance closure of the teat canal in the beginning of the dry period and would protect teat end from bacteria until the keratin plug has formed decrease the risk for mastitis after calving. Dry cow therapy has been used with considerable success. Yet, a selective approach could be recommended rather than blanket therapy. Non-antibiotic approaches can be useful tools to prevent new infections during the dry period, in herds where the risk for environmental mastitis is high. Vaccination has been suggested as a means to support the immune defence of the dairy cow around parturition. In some countries, implementation of Escherichia coli core antigen vaccine has reduced the incidence of severe coliform mastitis after calving. PMID:18638132

  10. Early and Late Onset Sepsis in Late Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Moran, Cassandra; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Cotten, C. Michael; Clark, Reese H.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Smith, P. Brian

    2009-01-01

    Background Preterm birth is increasing worldwide, and late preterm births, which comprise more than 70% of all preterm births, account for much of the increase. Early and late onset sepsis results in significant mortality in extremely preterm infants, but little is known about sepsis outcomes in late preterm infants. Methods This is an observational cohort study of infants < 121 days of age (119,130 infants less than or equal to 3 days of life and 106,142 infants between 4 and 120 days of life) with estimated gestational age at birth between 34 and 36 weeks, admitted to 248 neonatal intensive care units in the United States between 1996 and 2007. Results During the study period, the cumulative incidence of early and late onset sepsis was 4.42 and 6.30 episodes per 1000 admissions, respectively. Gram-positive organisms caused the majority of early and late onset sepsis episodes. Infants with early onset sepsis caused by Gram-negative rods and infants with late onset sepsis were more likely to die than their peers with sterile blood cultures (OR 4.39, 95% CI 1.71–11.23, P=0.002; and OR 3.37, 95% CI 2.35–4.84, P<0.001, respectively). Conclusion Late preterm infants demonstrate specific infection rates, pathogen distribution, and mortality associated with early and late onset sepsis. The results of this study are generalizable to late preterm infants admitted to the special care nursery or neonatal intensive care unit. PMID:19953725

  11. Impacts of Maternal Obesity on Metabolic Profiles in Postpartum Ewes 

    E-print Network

    McKnight, Jason Ray

    2011-10-21

    , midline and epidural space identification, and dislodging the catheter (Galtier et al. 2008). However, regional anesthesia seems to be the preference for obese women, as intubation of these women can be difficult, and a rapid desaturation... and an increased risk of aspiration is associated with obese women during anesthesia (Saravanakumar et al. 2006). Obese women are also at greater risk for deep vein thrombosis, endometritis, postpartum hemorrhage, wound infections, urinary tract infections...

  12. Changes of Adipose Tissue Morphology and Composition during Late Pregnancy and Early Lactation in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Kenéz, Ákos; Kulcsár, Anna; Kluge, Franziska; Benbelkacem, Idir; Hansen, Kathrin; Locher, Lena; Meyer, Ulrich; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven; Huber, Korinna

    2015-01-01

    Dairy cows mobilize large amounts of body fat during early lactation to overcome negative energy balance which typically arises in this period. As an adaptation process, adipose tissues of cows undergo extensive remodeling during late pregnancy and early lactation. The objective of the present study was to characterize this remodeling to get a better understanding of adaptation processes in adipose tissues, affected by changing metabolic conditions including lipid mobilization and refilling as a function of energy status. This was done by determining adipocyte size in histological sections of subcutaneous and retroperitoneal adipose tissue biopsy samples collected from German Holstein cows at 42 days prepartum, and 1, 21, and 100 days postpartum. Characterization of cell size changes was extended by the analysis of DNA, triacylglycerol, and protein content per gram tissue, and ?-actin protein expression in the same samples. In both adipose tissue depots cell size was becoming smaller during the course of the study, suggesting a decrease in cellular triacylglycerol content. Results of DNA, triacylglycerol, and protein content, and ?-actin protein expression could only partially explain the observed differences in cell size. The retroperitoneal adipose tissue exhibited a greater extent of time-related differences in cell size, DNA, and protein content, suggesting greater dynamics and metabolic flexibility for this abdominal depot compared to the investigated subcutaneous depot. PMID:25978720

  13. Managing Major Postpartum Haemorrhage following Acute Uterine Inversion with Rusch Balloon Catheter

    PubMed Central

    Keriakos, Remon; Chaudhuri, Smriti Ray

    2011-01-01

    Acute postpartum uterine inversion is a relatively rare complication. The uterus inverts and the uterine fundus prolapses to or through the dilated cervix. It is associated with major postpartum haemorrhage with or without shock. Shock is sometimes out of proportion to the haemorrhage. Minimal maternal morbidity and mortality can be achieved when uterine inversion is promptly and aggressively managed. We present this report of three cases of acute uterine inversion complicated with major postpartum haemorrhage and managed with Rusch balloon. The paper highlights the importance of early recognition and the safety of the use of intrauterine balloon to manage major postpartum haemorrhage in these cases. PMID:24826322

  14. Risk factors for postpartum hemorrhage after vaginal delivery of twins.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shunji; Kikuchi, Fumi; Ouchi, Nozomi; Nagayama, Chiaki; Nakagawa, Michiko; Inde, Yusuke; Igarashi, Miwa; Miyake, Hidehiko

    2007-12-01

    We examined vaginal deliveries of twins to identify factors most strongly associated with the increased risk of postpartum hemorrhage (estimated blood loss > or = 1,000 mL). We reviewed the obstetric records of all 171 twin vaginal deliveries at Japanese Red Cross Katsushika Maternity Hospital from January 2002 through August 2006. Of these deliveries, 41 (24%) were complicated by postopartum hemorrhage. Postpartum hemorrhage was significantly more likely in cases with gestational age > or = 39 weeks (odds ratio [OR], 3.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65-7.28), a combined birth weight of more than 5,500 g (OR, 2.53; 95% CI, 1.00-6.45), induction of labor (OR, 2.87; 95% CI, 1.38-5.98), oxytocin administration during labor (OR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.27-6.48), or a duration of labor > or = 24 hours (OR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.15-5.62). Postpartum hemorrhage is a frequent complication in twin pregnancies. Therefore, special attention should be given after birth to patients with induction of labor or intervened delivery especially at > or = 39 weeks gestation. PMID:18084135

  15. Driving through: postpartum care during World War II.

    PubMed Central

    Temkin, E

    1999-01-01

    In 1996, public outcry over shortened hospital stays for new mothers and their infants led to the passage of a federal law banning "drive-through deliveries." This recent round of brief postpartum stays is not unprecedented. During World War II, a baby boom overwhelmed maternity facilities in American hospitals. Hospital births became more popular and accessible as the Emergency Maternal and Infant Care program subsidized obstetric care for servicemen's wives. Although protocols before the war had called for prolonged bed rest in the puerperium, medical theory was quickly revised as crowded hospitals were forced to discharge mothers after 24 hours. To compensate for short inpatient stays, community-based services such as visiting nursing care, postnatal homes, and prenatal classes evolved to support new mothers. Fueled by rhetoric that identified maternal-child health as a critical factor in military morale, postpartum care during the war years remained comprehensive despite short hospital stays. The wartime experience offers a model of alternatives to legislation for ensuring adequate care of postpartum women. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:10191809

  16. Tobacco and alcohol use in the context of adolescent pregnancy and postpartum: a scoping review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; Poole, Nancy; Kelly, Mary T; Greaves, Lorraine; Marcellus, Lenora; Jung, Mary

    2014-11-01

    Adolescent girls are more likely than women of other ages to smoke tobacco or drink alcohol during pregnancy. The health impacts of smoking and drinking for girls and the interconnections between alcohol and tobacco use with adolescent pregnancy underscore the urgent need for integrated approaches to prevent and reduce alcohol and tobacco use among pregnant girls/young women. This article reports on the results of a scoping review of the literature focused on adolescents' use of tobacco and alcohol during pregnancy and postpartum. A search of CINAHL, Medline, Social Science Index and Web of Science identified 40 articles published in the two decades between 1990 and 2012 that met our inclusion criteria related to this age group, pregnancy/motherhood status, and use of both alcohol and tobacco. The review points to compelling gaps in our knowledge and our responsiveness to adolescents aged 19 and under who use alcohol and tobacco during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Research has been primarily descriptive, with separate, parallel streams of investigation to identify trends and predictors of alcohol and tobacco use, prior to, during and following pregnancy. There is a marked lack of effective interventions described in the literature that are designed to prevent or reduce alcohol and tobacco use during pregnancy among adolescent girls; and there are few examples of gender-informed prevention or treatment programmes for this population. Research is needed on interventions that attend to the context of adolescent girls' substance use as well as their preferences and developmental needs for support that encourage sustained behaviour change throughout pregnancy and the postpartum period and that effectively address the influence of partners and friends on use. PMID:24405036

  17. Tobacco and alcohol use in the context of adolescent pregnancy and postpartum: a scoping review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Bottorff, Joan L; Poole, Nancy; Kelly, Mary T; Greaves, Lorraine; Marcellus, Lenora; Jung, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent girls are more likely than women of other ages to smoke tobacco or drink alcohol during pregnancy. The health impacts of smoking and drinking for girls and the interconnections between alcohol and tobacco use with adolescent pregnancy underscore the urgent need for integrated approaches to prevent and reduce alcohol and tobacco use among pregnant girls/young women. This article reports on the results of a scoping review of the literature focused on adolescents’ use of tobacco and alcohol during pregnancy and postpartum. A search of CINAHL, Medline, Social Science Index and Web of Science identified 40 articles published in the two decades between 1990 and 2012 that met our inclusion criteria related to this age group, pregnancy/motherhood status, and use of both alcohol and tobacco. The review points to compelling gaps in our knowledge and our responsiveness to adolescents aged 19 and under who use alcohol and tobacco during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Research has been primarily descriptive, with separate, parallel streams of investigation to identify trends and predictors of alcohol and tobacco use, prior to, during and following pregnancy. There is a marked lack of effective interventions described in the literature that are designed to prevent or reduce alcohol and tobacco use during pregnancy among adolescent girls; and there are few examples of gender-informed prevention or treatment programmes for this population. Research is needed on interventions that attend to the context of adolescent girls’ substance use as well as their preferences and developmental needs for support that encourage sustained behaviour change throughout pregnancy and the postpartum period and that effectively address the influence of partners and friends on use. PMID:24405036

  18. Acceptability and Feasibility of a Mobile Phone-Based Case Management Intervention to Retain Mothers and Infants from an Option B+ Program in Postpartum HIV Care.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Sheree R; Clouse, Kate; Yende, Nompumelelo; Van Rie, Annelies; Bassett, Jean; Ratshefola, Mamothe; Pettifor, Audrey

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the acceptability and feasibility of a cell phone based case manager intervention targeting HIV-infected pregnant women on highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Pregnant women ?36 weeks gestation attending antenatal care and receiving HAART through the Option B+ program at a primary care clinic in South Africa were enrolled into a prospective pilot intervention to receive text messages and telephone calls from a case manager through 6 weeks postpartum. Acceptability and feasibility of the intervention were assessed along with infant HIV testing rates and 10-week and 12-month postpartum maternal retention in care. Retention outcomes were compared to women of similar eligibility receiving care prior to the intervention. Fifty women were enrolled into the pilot from May to July 2013. Most (70%) were HAART-naive at time of conception and started HAART during antenatal care. During the intervention, the case manager sent 482 text messages and completed 202 telephone calls, for a median of 10 text messages and 4 calls/woman. Ninety-six percent completed the postpartum interview and 47/48 (98%) endorsed the utility of the intervention. Engagement in 10-week postpartum maternal HIV care was >90% in the pre-intervention (n = 50) and intervention (n = 50) periods; by 12-months retention fell to 72% and was the same across periods. More infants received HIV-testing by 10-weeks in the intervention period as compared to pre-intervention (90.0 vs. 63.3%, p < 0.01). Maternal support through a cell phone based case manager approach was highly acceptable among South African HIV infected women on HAART and feasible, warranting further assessment of effectiveness. PMID:25656728

  19. Postpartum Pyomyoma, a Rare Complication of Sepsis Associated with Chorioamnionitis and Massive Postpartum Haemorrhage Treated with an Intrauterine Balloon

    PubMed Central

    Kaler, Mandeep; Gailer, Ruth; Iskaros, Joseph; David, Anna L.

    2015-01-01

    We report the successful treatment of a postpartum pyomyoma, a rare but serious complication of uterine leiomyomata in a 28-year-old primigravida. The patient was treated for an Escherichia Coli (E. Coli) urinary tract infection (UTI) at 16 weeks of gestation. She had asymptomatic short cervical length on ultrasound scan at 20 weeks that was managed conservatively due to the presence of further UTI and received antibiotics. She was known to have a left sided intramural leiomyoma. She presented with abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding at 23+1 weeks of gestation and the next day she had spontaneous vaginal delivery and collapsed with E. Coli septic shock, massive postpartum haemorrhage, and disseminated intravascular coagulation and was successfully treated with oxytocic drugs, a Rusch intrauterine balloon, and intravenous antibiotics. Eleven days postnatally she re-presented with systemic sepsis and was treated for retained products of conception. Sepsis persisted and investigations showed a postpartum pyomyoma that was initially managed with intravenous antibiotics to avoid surgery. Ultimately she required laparotomy, drainage of pyomyoma, and myomectomy. Postoperative recovery was good and the patient had a successful pregnancy two years later. PMID:26199774

  20. Synergistic Effect of Gestational Hypertension and Postpartum Incident Hypertension on Cardiovascular Health: A Nationwide Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Jong Shiuan; Cheng, Hao?Min; Hsu, Pai?Feng; Sung, Shih?Hsien; Liu, Wen?Ling; Fang, Hsin?Ling; Chuang, Shao?Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Background Gestational hypertension (GH) is a common complication of pregnancy and is associated with increased risk of incident hypertension in later life (IH) and cardiovascular events. However, the interactive effect of GH and IH on postpartum cardiovascular health remains unclear. Methods and Results A nationwide population?based study was conducted using 1 million individuals from the Taiwan National Health Insurance database. Records from 1998 to 2009 were used to identify 1260 pregnant women with GH and without previous cardiovascular disease. The control group comprised 5040 pregnant women without GH, matched for age and date of delivery. During the follow?up period (median duration, 5.8 years), 182 cardiovascular events developed. Women with GH had significantly higher risk of cardiovascular events (hazard ratio [95% CI], 2.44 [1.80 to 3.31]) and IH (8.29 [6.30 to 10.91]) than controls. Compared with women without GH and IH, there was a significantly higher risk of cardiovascular events for women without GH but with IH (relative risk [95% CI], 2.89 [1.27–6.58]), women with GH but without IH (1.66 [1.16–2.39]), and women with GH and IH (8.11 [5.36–12.30]). The synergy index was 2.91 (95% CI 1.11 to 7.59), suggesting a positive interaction between GH and IH. Conclusions GH increased the risk of subsequent IH. Women with both GH and IH were at a substantially higher cardiovascular risk than were women with either GH or IH. The synergistic adverse effect of GH and IH on postpartum cardiovascular health indicates that more attention should be paid to this special population. PMID:25389282

  1. WIC mothers' social environment and postpartum health on breastfeeding initiation and duration.

    PubMed

    Darfour-Oduro, Sandra Asantewaa; Kim, Juhee

    2014-12-01

    A low breastfeeding rate has been a consistent maternal and child health problem in the United States, especially for low-income families. Understanding mothers' social environment and overall well-being is important in determining how mothers will take care of themselves and their infants during the postnatal period in relation to the breastfeeding rate among low-income mothers. In this study, we examined the effects of the social environment of mothers enrolled in a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program in eastern Illinois and their postpartum health on breastfeeding initiation (n=103) and maintaining breastfeeding for at least 3 months (n=73). Using logistic regression models, a significant positive association (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=3.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-10.47; p=0.03) between marital status and breastfeeding initiation and a significant negative association (AOR=0.23; 95% CI, 0.06-0.88) between receiving food stamps and breastfeeding initiation were found. WIC mothers who were married were 4.1 times as likely to maintain any breastfeeding for at least 3 months than single mothers, and the association was significant (AOR=4.08; 95% CI, 1.36-12.27; p=0.01). The breastfeeding initiation rate was 77.7%, however, the mean±standard deviation age of the child when breastfeeding stopped was 2.2±1.4 months. There was a nonsignificant association between postpartum depression and breastfeeding initiation and maintaining any breastfeeding for 3 months. This study has shown that the familial environment of mothers plays a very important role in improving breastfeeding rates among WIC mothers. In addition, there is a negative relationship between using a food assistance program and breastfeeding among low-income women. PMID:25188784

  2. THE EFFECTS OF PREPARTUM MILKING ON POSTPARTUM PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE IN DAIRY HEIFERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The acclimation of heifers to the milking parlor via prepartum milking may be beneficial to heifer postpartum production performance, and has been shown to improve postpartum heifer udder health (reduced udder edema). The objective of this study was to determine the impact of prepartum milking on p...

  3. Early School Outcomes for Children of Postpartum Depressed Mothers: Comparison with a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersten-Alvarez, Laura E.; Hosman, Clemens M. H.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; van Doesum, Karin T. M.; Smeekens, Sanny; Hoefnagels, Cees

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies of the long-term effects of maternal postpartum depression (PPD) on child development have mostly focused on a limited set of outcomes, and have often not controlled for risk factors associated with maternal depression. The present study compared children of postpartum depressed mothers (n = 29) with children from a community…

  4. Prevalence Rates and Demographic Characteristics Associated with Depression in Pregnancy and the Postpartum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotlib, Ian H.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined prevalence of depression in 360 women during pregnancy and after delivery. At both assessments, approximately 25 percent reported elevated levels of depressive symptomatology. Ten percent met diagnostic criteria for depression during pregnancy; 6.8 percent were depressed postpartum. One-half of postpartum depression cases were new onset.…

  5. Treating Depression during Pregnancy and the Postpartum: A Preliminary Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Grote, Nancy K.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: This meta-analysis evaluates treatment effects for nonpsychotic major depression during pregnancy and postpartum comparing interventions by type and timing. Methods: Studies for decreasing depressive severity during pregnancy and postpartum applying treatment trials and standardized measures were included. Standardized mean differences…

  6. Developmental Transition of Motherhood: Treating Postpartum Depression Using a Feminist Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis-Gage, Darcie; Kettmann, Julie Jenks; Moel, Joy

    2010-01-01

    During the developmental lifeline for women, some individuals are affected by postpartum depression. This article describes the treatment of a Latina woman experiencing postpartum depression. The authors illustrate the feminist approach using counseling interventions that incorporate the client's developmental level, cultural background, and…

  7. Comparison of Postpartum and Nonpostpartum Depression: Clinical Presentation, Psychiatric History, and Psychosocial Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiffen, Valerie E.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    1993-01-01

    Compared postpartum women diagnosed with depression with nonpostpartum depressed group and two nondepressed groups. Postpartum depression tended to be relatively mild. Both depressed groups had high rates of positive psychiatric history and were equally likely to have recovered at six-month follow-up. Findings suggest little to distinguish…

  8. [The effectiveness of clanobutin for the prevention of postpartum primary ketosis in dairy cows].

    PubMed

    Karatzias, H; Roubies, N; Papasteriadis, A; Papadopoulos, N

    1993-10-01

    Investigations on the efficacy of Clanobutin for prophylaxis of postpartum primary ketosis were performed in dairy cows. No one cow in the group of 15 treated animals diseased by ketosis, but 2 of 15 control animals showed signs of primary ketosis. The results show the good efficacy of Clanobutin for prophylaxis of postpartum primary ketosis in dairy cows. PMID:8261909

  9. Latinas and Postpartum Depression: Role of Partner Relationship, Additional Children, and Breastfeeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassert, Silva; Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson

    2011-01-01

    Breastfeeding, additional children, and partner relationship predicted postpartum depression among 59 Latinas who had an infant who was 6 months old or younger. The most powerful predictor was conflict with partner. Counselors working with Latinas experiencing postpartum depression should explore the partner relationship, particularly relationship…

  10. Oxytocin and postpartum depression: Delivering on what's known and what's not

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of oxytocin in the treatment of postpartum depression has been a topic of growing interest. This subject carries important implications, given that postpartum depression can have detrimental effects on both the mother and her infant, with life long consequences for infant socioemotional and...

  11. Predicting Postpartum Depressive Symptoms in New Mothers: The Role of Optimism and Stress Frequency during Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grote, Nancy K.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.

    2007-01-01

    During the transition to motherhood, women typically show favorable psychological adjustment after the first child is born, whereas 10 percent to 26 percent of women are at risk of developing clinically significant postpartum depressive symptoms. Little is known about which individuals are especially protected against the emergence of postpartum

  12. Accumbal dopamine function in postpartum rats that were raised without their mothers

    E-print Network

    Sokolowski, Marla

    Accumbal dopamine function in postpartum rats that were raised without their mothers Veronica M August 2011 Available online 22 September 2011 Keywords: Artificial rearing Postpartum Dopamine Pup) rats, nucleus accumbens (NAC) dopamine (DA) responses to pups evoke a robust sustained rise during

  13. Factors associated with early postpartum maternity blues and depression tendency among Japanese mothers with full-term healthy infants.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yuki; Tamakoshi, Koji

    2014-02-01

    Maternity blues and postpartum depression are common mental health problems during the early postpartum period. However, few studies have examined the factors associated with maternity blues and postpartum depression in healthy mothers with spontaneous births of healthy full-term infants. This study aimed to determine the demographic and obstetric factors, various feelings during pregnancy, and psychological factors by using the Maternity Blues Scale (MBS) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression scale (EPDS) among healthy Japanese mothers. We distributed the MBS and EPDS self-administered questionnaires to 100 Japanese mothers during their 4-5 day hospitalization and at a health check-up 1-month after delivery, respectively. Multiple regression analyses were performed including the above-mentioned variables as independent variables and the maximum MBS or EPDS scores as dependent variables. The answers "Having a friend I can talk to about maternity life or child rearing" [beta (95% confidence interval) = -1.53 (-2.68 - -0.378)] and "Satogaeri bunben", a Japanese traditional support system wherein a postnatal woman lives with her husband/parents [-2.82 (-4.73 - -0.898)] were significantly associated with MBS scores. The answer "Having a friend I can talk to about maternity life or child rearing" [-2.83 (-4.76 - -0.903)] was also significantly associated with EPDS scores, although the association between the partner's age and these scores was marginally significant [-0.106 (-0.008 - 0.221)]. This study shows that it is important to provide support for healthy women without delivery complications, both at home and in the community. PMID:25129999

  14. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH EARLY POSTPARTUM MATERNITY BLUES AND DEPRESSION TENDENCY AMONG JAPANESE MOTHERS WITH FULL-TERM HEALTHY INFANTS

    PubMed Central

    TAKAHASHI, YUKI; TAMAKOSHI, KOJI

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Maternity blues and postpartum depression are common mental health problems during the early postpartum period. However, few studies have examined the factors associated with maternity blues and postpartum depression in healthy mothers with spontaneous births of healthy full-term infants. This study aimed to determine the demographic and obstetric factors, various feelings during pregnancy, and psychological factors by using the Maternity Blues Scale (MBS) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression scale (EPDS) among healthy Japanese mothers. We distributed the MBS and EPDS self-administered questionnaires to 100 Japanese mothers during their 4–5 day hospitalization and at a health check-up 1-month after delivery, respectively. Multiple regression analyses were performed including the above-mentioned variables as independent variables and the maximum MBS or EPDS scores as dependent variables. The answers "Having a friend I can talk to about maternity life or child rearing" [? (95% confidence interval) = –1.53 (–2.68 – –0.378)] and "Satogaeri bunben", a Japanese traditional support system wherein a postnatal woman lives with her husband/parents [–2.82 (–4.73 – –0.898)] were significantly associated with MBS scores. The answer "Having a friend I can talk to about maternity life or child rearing" [–2.83 (–4.76 – –0.903)] was also significantly associated with EPDS scores, although the association between the partner’s age and these scores was marginally significant [–0.106 (–0.008 – 0.221)]. This study shows that it is important to provide support for healthy women without delivery complications, both at home and in the community. PMID:25129999

  15. Effectiveness of a facebook-delivered physical activity intervention for post-partum women: a randomized controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical activity is reduced during the post-partum period. Facebook is frequently used by Australian mothers, and offers flexibility, high levels of engagement and the ability to disseminate information and advice via social contacts. The Mums Step it Up Program is a newly developed 50 day team-based physical activity intervention delivered via a Facebook app. The program involves post-partum women working in teams of 4–8 friends aiming to achieve 10,000 steps per day measured by a pedometer. Women are encouraged to use the app to log their daily steps and undertake social and supportive interactions with their friends and other participants. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the Mums Step it Up Program. Method/design A sample of 126 women up to 12 months post-partum will be recruited through community-based health and family services. Participants will be randomly allocated into one of three groups: control, pedometer only and the Mums Step it Up Program. Assessments will be completed at baseline, 6 weeks and 6 months. The primary outcome (objective physical activity) and the secondary outcomes (sleep quality and quantity, depressive symptoms, weight and quality of life) will be used to determine the effectiveness of the Mums Step it Up Program compared with the control and pedometer only groups. Analyses will be undertaken on an intention-to-treat-basis using random effects mixed modeling. The effect of theorized mediators (physical activity attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control) will also be examined. Discussion This study will provide information about the potential of a Facebook app for the delivery of health behavior interventions. If this intervention proves to be effective it will be released on a mass scale and promoted to the general public. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register: ACTRN12613000069752 PMID:23714411

  16. Oxytocin and Postpartum Depression: Delivering on What’s Known and What’s Not

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sohye; Soeken, Timothy A.; Cromer, Sara J.; Martinez, Sheila R.; Hardy, Leah R.; Strathearn, Lane

    2013-01-01

    The role of oxytocin in the treatment of postpartum depression has been a topic of growing interest. This subject carries important implications, given that postpartum depression can have detrimental effects on both the mother and her infant, with lifelong consequences for infant socioemotional and cognitive development. In recent years, oxytocin has received attention for its potential role in many neuropsychiatric conditions beyond its well-described functions in childbirth and lactation. In the present review, we present available data on the clinical characteristics and neuroendocrine foundations of postpartum depression. We outline current treatment modalities and their limitations, and proceed to evaluate the potential role of oxytocin in the treatment of postpartum depression. The aim of the present review is twofold: a) to bring together evidence from animal and human research concerning the role of oxytocin in postpartum depression, and b) to highlight areas that deserve further research in order to bring a fuller understanding of oxytocin’s therapeutic potential. PMID:24239932

  17. Postpartum depression: A systematic review of the genetics involved

    PubMed Central

    Couto, Tiago Castro e; Brancaglion, Mayra Yara Martins; Alvim-Soares, António; Moreira, Lafaiete; Garcia, Frederico Duarte; Nicolato, Rodrigo; Aguiar, Regina Amélia Lopes P; Leite, Henrique Vitor; Corrêa, Humberto

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum depression is one of the most prevalent psychopathologies. Its prevalence is estimated to be between 10% and 15%. Despite its multifactorial etiology, it is known that genetics play an important role in the genesis of this disorder. This paper reviews epidemiological evidence supporting the role of genetics in postpartum depression (PPD). The main objectives of this review are to determine which genes and polymorphisms are associated with PPD and discuss how this association may occur. In addition, this paper explores whether these genes are somehow related to or even the same as those linked to Major Depression (MD). To identify gaps in the current knowledge that require investigation, a systematic review was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, LILACS and SciELO using the index terms “postpartum depression” and “genetics”. Literature searches for articles in peer-reviewed journals were made until April 2014. PPD was indexed 56 times with genetics. The inclusion criteria were articles in Portuguese, Spanish or English that were available by institutional means or sent by authors upon request; this search resulted in 20 papers. Genes and polymorphisms traditionally related to MD, which are those involved in the serotonin, catecholamine, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tryptophan metabolism, have been the most studied, and some have been related to PPD. The results are conflicting and some depend on epigenetics, which makes the data incipient. Further studies are required to determine the genes that are involved in PPD and establish the nature of the relationship between these genes and PPD. PMID:25815259

  18. Effect of Pilates exercises on postpartum maternal fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafinia, Farzaneh; Mirmohammadali, Mandana; Rajabi, Hamid; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Haghighi, Khosro Sadeghniiat; Amelvalizadeh, Mehrnoosh

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Postpartum fatigue is a pervasive phenomenon and often affects mothers immediately after delivery. The present study aimed to assess the effect Pilates home exercises had on postpartum maternal fatigue. METHODS A total of 80 women participated in our clinical trial study. The women were randomly divided into two groups – the intervention group (n = 40) and the control group (n = 40). In the intervention group, the women performed Pilates exercises five times a week (30 min per session) for eight consecutive weeks. The first session was conducted 72 hours after delivery. The control group did not receive any intervention. Each woman’s level of fatigue was evaluated at hospital discharge (as a baseline), and at four and eight weeks after delivery, using the standard Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) questionnaire and repeated measures analysis. RESULTS During the eight weeks of follow-up, we found that the intervention group had lower mean MFI-20 scores than the control group with regard to general fatigue (7.80 ± 2.07 vs. 12.72 ± 1.79; p < 0.001), physical fatigue (7.12 ± 1.41 vs. 10.42 ± 2.02; p < 0.001), reduced activity (6.95 ± 1.35 vs. 11.27 ± 1.70; p < 0.001), reduced motivation (6.20 ± 1.01 vs. 9.80 ± 2.04; p < 0.001) and mental fatigue (6.85 ± 1.45 vs. 10.72 ± 1.98; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION The present study’s findings show that physical exercise can significantly reduce postpartum maternal fatigue in all subscales. PMID:25820848

  19. Correlation between postpartum depression and premenstrual dysphoric disorder: Single center study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Jae; Yi, Sang-Wook; Lee, Sang-Soo; Sohn, Woo-Seok; Kim, In-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence and correlates of the postpartum depression and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Methods One hundred sixty six women were assessed around 10th to 14th days after delivery in Gangneung Asan Hospital, Korea, from September 2011 to March 2012. We checked their risk factors for postpartum depressive disorders using the Beck Depression Inventory and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder was evaluated retrospectively and was defined as having more than 5 of the following 10 symptoms: breast tenderness, bloating, headache, peripheral edema (hand and foot), depressive symptoms, anger, irritability, anxiety, oversensitivity, and exaggerated mood swings. Results The prevalence rate of postpartum depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale ?10 and Beck Depression Inventory ?10 was 13.9% (23/166). We found statistical differences (P<0.01) between the postpartum depression group and the postpartum non-depression group in smoking history, past history of psychiatric problems, and level of marital satisfaction. The prevalence rate of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) was 9% (15/166) and among 23 women in the postpartum depression group, eight were determined to have premenstrual dysphoric disorder, yielding a prevalence rate of 34.8% (8/23). Among 143 women in the postpartum non-depression group, seven were determined to have PMS, yielding a prevalence rate of 4.9% (7/143). A correlation between postpartum depression and PMS was thus found (P<0.01). Conclusion PMS appears to be associated with postpartum depression. This means that a hormone-related etiology appears to be one risk factor for postpartum depression. PMID:26430659

  20. Prevention of postpartum haemorrhage with the oxytocin analogue carbetocin.

    PubMed

    Rath, Werner

    2009-11-01

    Postpartum haemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide: 67-80% of cases are caused by uterine atony. Preventive measures include prophylactic drug use to aid uterine contraction after delivery, thus avoiding severe blood loss and reducing maternal morbidity and mortality. Carbetocin is a synthetic analogue of oxytocin with a half-life approximately 4-10 times longer than that reported for oxytocin. It combines the safety and tolerability profile of oxytocin with the sustained uterotonic activity of injectable ergot alkaloids. Furthermore, carbetocin can be administered as a single dose injection either intravenously or intramuscularly rather than as an infusion over several hours as is the case with oxytocin. Carbetocin is currently indicated for prevention of uterine atony after delivery by caesarean section in spinal or epidural anaesthesia. Data from three randomised controlled trials in caesarean delivery and a meta-analysis indicate that carbetocin significantly reduces the need for additional uterotonic agents or uterine massage to prevent excessive bleeding compared with placebo or oxytocin. The risk of headache, tremor, hypotension, flushing, nausea, abdominal pain, pruritus and feeling of warmth was similar in women who received carbetocin or oxytocin. The findings from two more recent double-blind randomised trials and one retrospective study suggest that carbetocin may also represent a good alternative to conventional uterotonic agents for prevention of postpartum haemorrhage after vaginal deliveries. A reduced need for additional uterotonics was observed with carbetocin vs. oxytocin in high-risk women and carbetocin was at least as effective as syntometrine in low-risk women. In these studies of vaginal deliveries, carbetocin was associated with a low incidence of adverse effects and demonstrated a better tolerability profile than syntometrine. Carbetocin had a long duration of action compared with intravenous oxytocin alone and a better cardiovascular side effect profile compared with syntometrine. In addition to being an effective treatment for the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage following caesarean delivery, carbetocin may also become the drug of choice for postpartum haemorrhage prevention after vaginal delivery in high-risk women and those who suffer from hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Preeclampsia is still a contraindication to the administration of carbetocin in the EU, and further studies would be required to assess the cardiovascular effects of carbetocin before it can be advocated for routine use in preeclamptic patients. Further research is required to assess whether prophylactic carbetocin is superior to conventional uterotonic agents following vaginal delivery in low-risk women. PMID:19616358

  1. La symphysite pubienne du post-partum: un diagnostic difficile

    PubMed Central

    Kehila, Mehdi; Majdoub, Manel; Zegha, Dorra; Khedher, Sonia Ben; Cheour, Elhem; Mahjoub, Sami

    2013-01-01

    La symphysite pubienne est une localisation rare de l'arthrite septique. Son association à la grossesse est exceptionnelle. Nous rapportons un cas de symphysite pubienne survenant dans les suites d'un accouchement par voie basse. Le diagnostic est difficile en post-partum. Il faut savoir l'évoquer devant toute douleur pubienne atypique dans sa présentation ou dans son évolution. Le diagnostic doit être posé de façon précoce car l'évolution peut se faire dans le cas contraire vers la chronicité. PMID:24498463

  2. Learning during motherhood: A resistance to stress Benedetta Leuner, Tracey J. Shors

    E-print Network

    Shors, Tracey J.

    and persisted until the late postpartum period, just prior to weaning. Postpartum conditioning was unresponsive in rabbits and humans, but more recently in mice and rats (Clark et al., 2002; Thompson, 2005). This paradigm

  3. The medial preoptic area is necessary for motivated choice of pup- over cocaine-associated environments by early postpartum rats

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Mariana; Morrell, Joan I.

    2010-01-01

    Converging evidence suggests that the motivation to seek cocaine during the postpartum period is significantly impacted by the competing incentives of offspring, a stimulus unique to this life stage. In the present study, the functional role of the medial preoptic area (mPOA), a critical site involved in maternal responsiveness, on processing incentive value of pup-associated cues and influencing response allocation for pup- over cocaine-associated environments was investigated using a concurrent pup/cocaine choice conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Early postpartum females with bilateral guide cannulae aimed into the mPOA or into anatomical control sites were conditioned, from postpartum days (PPD) 4 to 7, to associate different uniquely featured environments with pups or cocaine. CPP was tested on PPD8 following intra-mPOA infusions of either 2% bupivacaine or saline vehicle. In two additional experiments, the effects of intra-mPOA infusions of bupivacaine on expression of conditioned responding induced by environments associated with either pups or cocaine were examined separately. Transient inactivation of the mPOA selectively blocked the conditioned preferences for pup-associated environments, significantly contrasting the robust pup-CPP found in non-surgical and intra-mPOA vehicle-treated females. In contrast, mPOA inactivation failed to alter cocaine-CPP in postpartum females. When given a choice between environments associated with pups or cocaine, transient functional inactivation of the mPOA altered choice behavior, biasing the preference of females toward cocaine-associated environments, such that almost all preferred cocaine- and none the pup-associated option. The anatomical specificity was revealed when inactivation of adjacent regions to the mPOA did not affect CPP responses for pups. The findings support a critical role for the mPOA in mediating pup-seeking behavior, and further suggest that the competing properties of pups over alternative incentives, including drugs of abuse, rely on mPOA integrity to provide relevant pup-related information to the circuitry underlying the choice behavior between pups and alternative stimuli. PMID:20156528

  4. Chiropractic management of postpartum pubic symphysis diastasis: A case report.

    PubMed

    Henry, Lucian

    2015-03-01

    This case report describes the chiropractic management of a 30-year-old female patient with severe postpartum pelvic pain secondary to pubic symphysis diastasis. No literature was found on the chiropractic management of postpartum symphysis pubis diastasis. The existing literature concerning chiropractic care for symphysis pubis dysfunction during pregnancy is limited and indicates a potential benefit. Separation of the pubic symphysis may include ligamentous injury to the sacroiliac joints and may lead to chronic pain. Pubic symphysis separation of 17 millimeters was present on digital radiograph. Management consisted of chiropractic adjustments, trigger point release, electrical stimulation, moist heat, sacroiliac belt, and specific stabilizing exercises. The patient's pain improved immediately following treatment on the initial visit. Pain was reduced from 8/10 VAS at the first visit to 2/10 at the fourth visit. She was able to resume normal activities and reached a final pain level of 1/10. The diastasis was reduced by 7 millimeters at 14-weeks post radiograph for a final separation of just under 10 millimeters. Collaboration between obstetricians, midwives and chiropractors may be warranted. PMID:25729083

  5. Carbetocin for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Peters, Nina C J; Duvekot, Johannes J

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of carbetocin in the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage. All trials found during a targeted Medline and Cochrane database search were screened for eligibility. Outcome measures were estimated blood loss, uterine tone, amount and type of lochia, fundal position after delivery (number of centimeters above or below the umbilicus), side-effects, adverse effects, vital signs, levels of hemoglobin/hematocrit before delivery compared with 24 or 48 hours postpartum, the need for additional uterotonic therapy, and/or uterine massage and duration of the third stage of labor. The retrieved studies were difficult to compare because of differences in study design and outcome. We conclude that carbetocin probably is as effective as oxytocin or syntometrine in the prophylactic management of the third stage of labor. Also carbetocin has a similar safety profile to oxytocin, which is now used as a standard prophylactic treatment. However, more research on this subject is needed. PMID:19159497

  6. Nutrition education for postpartum women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Falciglia, Grace; Piazza, Julia; Ritcher, Erika; Reinerman, Christina; Lee, Seung Yeon

    2014-10-01

    This pilot study examined the effectiveness of a 4-month clinic-based dietary intervention emphasizing the intake of deep yellow and dark green vegetables versus usual care on improving diet quality in postpartum women. The intervention group (n = 31) received 1 face-to-face nutrition education session with a registered dietitian, 2 follow-up phone calls, and 3 pamphlets distributed by mail. The usual care group (n = 25) received handouts with guidelines on healthy eating. Dietary outcomes were assessed from 3-day food recalls and evaluated using paired and independent t tests. Intervention women exhibited a significant increase in total vegetable intake (P < .001) and in dark green and deep yellow vegetables (P < .001). In comparison, the control group increased the intake of total vegetables (P < .001), but did not increase the consumption of dark green and deep yellow vegetables. When comparing the change in intake between study groups for both types of vegetables, the difference was not significant. Furthermore, 61% of the intervention women met the goals for total vegetable intake compared with 12% for the usual care group (P < .001). The intervention group also had a greater percentage of women (25.8%) that met the goal for deep yellow and dark green vegetable intake when compared with the usual care group (8%; P < .08). These results suggest that postpartum women are receptive to nutrition education and that nutrition education can influence vegetable intake. PMID:24695771

  7. Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Variants in Untreated and Tenofovir Treated Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) Patients during Pregnancy and Post-Partum Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Virine, Boris; Osiowy, Carla; Gao, Shan; Wang, Tong; Castillo, Eliana; Martin, Steven R.; Lee, Samuel S.; Simmonds, Kimberley; van Marle, Guido; Coffin, Carla S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a dynamic disease that may be affected by immune changes in pregnancy. Guidelines suggest consideration of nucleos/tide analogs (NA), i.e., tenofovir, (TDF) in highly viremic mothers to reduce vertical transmission risk. HBV variability affects CHB outcome, but little is known about HBV genetic changes in pregnancy due to immune or NA selection. Objectives To evaluate HBV diversity in NA treated or untreated pregnant vs. post-partum CHB carriers. Study Design In plasma collected from 21 mothers (7 matching pre/post-partum), HBV serological tests, genotype and viral load were assayed. The HBV pre-surface (S) /S overlapping polymerase (P) (N = 20), pre-core (C) /C (N = 11) and/or full genome PCR amplicons (N = 3) underwent clonal sequence analysis. Results The median age was 31 y, 71% Asian, 68% genotype B or C, 33% HBV eAg+, 5 received TDF (median HBV DNA 8.5 log IU/ml). In untreated mothers, median antepartum vs. post-partum ALT was 21 vs. 24 U/L and HBV DNA was 2.7 vs. 2.4 log(10) IU/ml. ALT and/or HBV DNA flares occurred during pregnant and/or post-partum period in 47% (10/21). Clonal sequencing antepartum showed the presence of minor “a determinant” and/or vaccine escape mutants (VEM) but drug resistant variants were infrequent. Analysis of pregnant vs. post-partum samples showed different HBV variants and viral diversity. Conclusions Differences in immune and/or by NA selective pressures during pregnancy may affect HBV evolution during pregnancy. The presence of minor VEM warrant infant follow-up. PMID:26474400

  8. Postpartum cervical repair in mice: a morphological characterization and potential role for angiogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Robert; Ohashi, Takako; Mowa, Chishimba

    2015-10-01

    The cervix undergoes marked mechanical trauma during delivery of the baby at birth. As such, a timely and complete tissue repair postpartum is necessary to prevent obstetrical complications, such as cervicitis, ectropion, hemorrhage, repeated miscarriages or abortions and possibly preterm labor and malignancies. However, our knowledge of normal cervical repair is currently incomplete and factors that influence repair are unclear. Here, we characterize the morphological and angiogenic profile of postpartum repair in mice cervix during the first 48 h of postpartum. The key findings presented here are: (1) cervical epithelial folds and size are diminished during the first 48 h of postpartum repair, (2) hypoxic inducible factor 1a, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and VEGF receptor 1 expression are pronounced early in postpartum cervical repair, and (3) VEGF receptor 2 gene and protein expressions are variable. We conclude that postpartum cervical repair involves gross and microscopic changes and is linked to expression of angiogenic factors. Future studies will assess the suitability of these factors, identified in the present study, as potential markers for determining the phase of postpartum cervical repair in obstetrical complications, such as cervical lacerations. PMID:25943091

  9. Relationship between social support during pregnancy and postpartum depressive state: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Morikawa, Mako; Okada, Takashi; Ando, Masahiko; Aleksic, Branko; Kunimoto, Shohko; Nakamura, Yukako; Kubota, Chika; Uno, Yota; Tamaji, Ai; Hayakawa, Norika; Furumura, Kaori; Shiino, Tomoko; Morita, Tokiko; Ishikawa, Naoko; Ohoka, Harue; Usui, Hinako; Banno, Naomi; Murase, Satomi; Goto, Setsuko; Kanai, Atsuko; Masuda, Tomoko; Ozaki, Norio

    2015-01-01

    Although the association between social support and postpartum depression has been previously investigated, its causal relationship remains unclear. Therefore, we examined prospectively whether social support during pregnancy affected postpartum depression. Social support and depressive symptoms were assessed by Japanese version of Social Support Questionnaire (J-SSQ) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), among 877 pregnant women in early pregnancy and at one month postpartum. First, J-SSQ was standardized among peripartum women. The J-SSQ was found to have a two-factor structure, with Number and Satisfaction subscales, by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Analysis of covariance was performed to examine how EPDS and J-SSQ scores during pregnancy affected the EPDS score at postpartum. Significant associations were found between postpartum EPDS score and both EPDS and total scores on the Number subscales during pregnancy (??=?0.488 and -0.054, ps?postpartum EPDS score. These results suggest that having a larger number of supportive persons during pregnancy helps protect against postpartum depression, and that this effect is greater in depressive than non-depressive pregnant women. This finding is expected to be vitally important in preventive interventions. PMID:26022720

  10. Vitamin D Status in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus during Pregnancy and Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Pleska?ová, Anna; Bartáková, Vendula; Pácal, Lukáš; B?lobrádková, Jana; Tomandl, Josef; Ka?ková, Kate?ina

    2015-01-01

    Of many vitamin D extraskeletal functions, its modulatory role in insulin secretion and action is especially relevant for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The aims of the present study were to determine midgestational and early postpartum vitamin D status in pregnant women with and without GDM and to describe the relationship between midgestational and postpartum vitamin D status and parallel changes of glucose tolerance. A total of 76 pregnant women (47 GDM and 29 healthy controls) were included in the study. Plasma levels of 25(OH)D were measured using an enzyme immunoassay. Vitamin D was not significantly decreased in GDM compared to controls during pregnancy; however, both groups of pregnant women exhibited high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency. Prevalence of postpartum 25(OH)D deficiency in post-GDM women remained significantly higher and their postpartum 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower compared to non-GDM counterparts. Finally, based on the oGTT repeated early postpartum persistent glucose abnormality was ascertained in 15% of post-GDM women; however, neither midgestational nor postpartum 25(OH)D levels significantly differed between subjects with GDM history and persistent postpartum glucose intolerance and those with normal glucose tolerance after delivery. PMID:26000285

  11. Early diagnosis and management of postpartum hemolytic uremic syndrome with plasma exchange.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Manisha; Modi, Gopesh; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Navaid, Seema

    2011-06-01

    The likelihood of survival in cases of postpartum hemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) is as high as 80-90% with early diagnosis and aggressive treatment using plasma exchange (PE). The patients, referred to our center, diagnosed as postpartum HUS presented with thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anaemia with or without fever and severe renal failure, were managed aggressively with PE in conjunction with hemodialysis. All patients showed clinical improvement, along with laboratory indicators like normal renal function tests, increased platelet counts and decreased lactic dehydrogenase levels. Awareness amongst treating physicians, early diagnosis and treatment with PE could be the key factors in reducing maternal mortality due to postpartum HUS in developing countries. PMID:21550309

  12. Vitamin D Status during Pregnancy and the Risk of Subsequent Postpartum Depression: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Nina O.; Strøm, Marin; Boyd, Heather A.; Andersen, Elisabeth W.; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Lundqvist, Marika; Cohen, Arieh; Hougaard, David M.; Melbye, Mads

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have provided evidence of an association between vitamin D insufficiency and depression and other mood disorders, and a role for vitamin D in various brain functions has been suggested. We hypothesized that low vitamin D status during pregnancy might increase the risk of postpartum depression (PPD). The objective of the study was thus to determine whether low vitamin D status during pregnancy was associated with postpartum depression. In a case-control study nested in the Danish National Birth Cohort, we measured late pregnancy serum concentrations of 25[OH]D3 in 605 women with PPD and 875 controls. Odds ratios [OR) for PPD were calculated for six levels of 25[OH]D3. Overall, we found no association between vitamin D concentrations and risk of PPD (p?=?0.08). Compared with women with vitamin D concentrations between 50 and 79 nmol/L, the adjusted odds ratios for PPD were 1.35 (95% CI: 0.64; 2.85), 0.83 (CI: 0.50; 1.39) and 1.13 (CI: 0.84; 1.51) among women with vitamin D concentrations < 15 nmol/L, 15–24 nmol/L and 25–49 nmol/L, respectively, and 1.53 (CI: 1.04; 2.26) and 1.89 (CI: 1.06; 3.37) among women with vitamin D concentrations of 80–99 nmol/L and ? 100 nmol/L, respectively. In an additional analysis among women with sufficient vitamin D (? 50 nmol/L), we observed a significant positive association between vitamin D concentrations and PPD. Our results did not support an association between low maternal vitamin D concentrations during pregnancy and risk of PPD. Instead, an increased risk of PPD was found among women with the highest vitamin D concentrations. PMID:24312237

  13. A Parenting Support System to Facilitate Parental Competence in the Postpartum Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wandersman, Lois Pall; Wandersman, Abraham

    This paper describes the Family Development Project which is aimed at developing a systematic model of parenting support for new families and evaluating its effects on family development. The project focuses on Parenting Groups consisting of 6 to 10 couples who meet together as soon after delivery as possible, weekly for 6 weeks, and monthly for 4…

  14. Committee Opinion No. 650 Summary: Physical Activity and Exercise During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity in all stages of life maintains and improves cardiorespiratory fitness, reduces the risk of obesity and associated comorbidities, and results in greater longevity. Physical activity in pregnancy has minimal risks and has been shown to benefit most women, although some modification to exercise routines may be necessary because of normal anatomic and physiologic changes and fetal requirements. Women with uncomplicated pregnancies should be encouraged to engage in aerobic and strength-conditioning exercises before, during, and after pregnancy. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should carefully evaluate women with medical or obstetric complications before making recommendations on physical activity participation during pregnancy. Although frequently prescribed, bed rest is only rarely indicated and, in most cases, allowing ambulation should be considered. Regular physical activity during pregnancy improves or maintains physical fitness, helps with weight management, reduces the risk of gestational diabetes in obese women, and enhances psychologic well-being. An exercise program that leads to an eventual goal of moderate-intensity exercise for at least 20-30 minutes per day on most or all days of the week should be developed with the patient and adjusted as medically indicated. Additional research is needed to study the effects of exercise on pregnancy-specific outcomes and to clarify the most effective behavioral counseling methods, and the optimal intensity and frequency of exercise. Similar work is needed to create an improved evidence base concerning the effects of occupational physical activity on maternal-fetal health. PMID:26595580

  15. Committee Opinion No. 650: Physical Activity and Exercise During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity in all stages of life maintains and improves cardiorespiratory fitness, reduces the risk of obesity and associated comorbidities, and results in greater longevity. Physical activity in pregnancy has minimal risks and has been shown to benefit most women, although some modification to exercise routines may be necessary because of normal anatomic and physiologic changes and fetal requirements. Women with uncomplicated pregnancies should be encouraged to engage in aerobic and strength-conditioning exercises before, during, and after pregnancy. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should carefully evaluate women with medical or obstetric complications before making recommendations on physical activity participation during pregnancy. Although frequently prescribed, bed rest is only rarely indicated and, in most cases, allowing ambulation should be considered. Regular physical activity during pregnancy improves or maintains physical fitness, helps with weight management, reduces the risk of gestational diabetes in obese women, and enhances psychologic well-being. An exercise program that leads to an eventual goal of moderate-intensity exercise for at least 20-30 minutes per day on most or all days of the week should be developed with the patient and adjusted as medically indicated. Additional research is needed to study the effects of exercise on pregnancy-specific outcomes and to clarify the most effective behavioral counseling methods, and the optimal intensity and frequency of exercise. Similar work is needed to create an improved evidence base concerning the effects of occupational physical activity on maternal-fetal health. PMID:26595585

  16. Postpartum Depression Among Immigrant and Arabic Women: Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Alhasanat, Dalia; Fry-McComish, Judith

    2015-12-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a major disabling mood disorder that affects women during childbearing years. The purpose of this literature review is to identify the prevalence and risk factors for PPD among immigrant women in industrialized countries and compare it with prevalence and risk factors for PPD among Arab women in their home countries. 26 studies, published between 1995 and 2013 have been included. In this review, prevalence of PPD among Arab women in their countries ranged 10-37 %, and the prevalence of PPD among immigrant women in industrialized countries ranged 11.2-60 %. Lack of social support, stressful life events, low income, and intimate partner violence were risk factors associated with development of PPD among both Arab women and immigrant women. Immigration stress and lack of access to health care services were found among immigrant women. Lack of social support was more predominant in studies on immigrant women. PMID:25644538

  17. Postpartum depression on the neonatal intensive care unit: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Tahirkheli, Noor N; Cherry, Amanda S; Tackett, Alayna P; McCaffree, Mary Anne; Gillaspy, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    As the most common complication of childbirth affecting 10%–15% of women, postpartum depression (PPD) goes vastly undetected and untreated, inflicting long-term consequences on both mother and child. Studies consistently show that mothers of infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) experience PPD at higher rates with more elevated symptomatology than mothers of healthy infants. Although there has been increased awareness regarding the overall prevalence of PPD and recognition of the need for health care providers to address this health issue, there has not been adequate attention to PPD in the context of the NICU. This review will focus on an overview of PPD and psychological morbidities, the prevalence of PPD in mothers of infants admitted to NICU, associated risk factors, potential PPD screening measures, promising intervention programs, the role of NICU health care providers in addressing PPD in the NICU, and suggested future research directions. PMID:25473317

  18. Persistent headache in a postpartum patient: the investigation and management

    PubMed Central

    Gonen, Korcan Aysun; Taskapilioglu, Ozlem; Dusak, Abdurrahim; Hakyemez, Bahattin

    2013-01-01

    Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) is the most common complication of obstetric regional anaesthesia and the most likely cause of headache in a woman who underwent epidural anaesthesia during delivery. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is an uncommon cause of postpartum headache. Anaesthesia in obstetrics may lead to long-lasting intracranial hypotension resulting in CVST. CVST is a serious pathology with high mortality if misdiagnosed, but its correct and rapid diagnosis offers the opportunity for early treatment. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important modality in the diagnosis of both CVST and intracranial hypotension. The latter condition may be treated either by an epidural blood patch or bed rest and hydration. We report a case of a 36-year-old woman who developed CVST and multiple venous infarcts after an attempted epidural procedure during delivery. She was treated conservatively with bed rest, hydration and low-molecular-weight heparin and the patient recovered completely. PMID:23813512

  19. Persistent headache in a postpartum patient: the investigation and management.

    PubMed

    Gonen, Korcan Aysun; Taskapilioglu, Ozlem; Dusak, Abdurrahim; Hakyemez, Bahattin

    2013-01-01

    Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) is the most common complication of obstetric regional anaesthesia and the most likely cause of headache in a woman who underwent epidural anaesthesia during delivery. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is an uncommon cause of postpartum headache. Anaesthesia in obstetrics may lead to long-lasting intracranial hypotension resulting in CVST. CVST is a serious pathology with high mortality if misdiagnosed, but its correct and rapid diagnosis offers the opportunity for early treatment. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important modality in the diagnosis of both CVST and intracranial hypotension. The latter condition may be treated either by an epidural blood patch or bed rest and hydration. We report a case of a 36-year-old woman who developed CVST and multiple venous infarcts after an attempted epidural procedure during delivery. She was treated conservatively with bed rest, hydration and low-molecular-weight heparin and the patient recovered completely. PMID:23813512

  20. Excavating discursivity : Post-Partum Document in the conceptualist, feminist and psychoanalytic fields

    E-print Network

    Carson, Juli (Juli Christine), 1962-

    2000-01-01

    Post-Partum Document, a multi - media artwork made by American artist Mary Kelly from 1973- 1978 , was informed by and contributed to contemporaneous debates in the fields of Conceptualism, feminism, and psychoanalysis ...

  1. Sexual motivation suppresses paternal behaviour of male gerbils during their mates' postpartum oestrus

    E-print Network

    Galef Jr., Bennett G.

    Sexual motivation suppresses paternal behaviour of male gerbils during their mates' postpartum; MS. number: A9425) Adult male Mongolian gerbils, Meriones unguiculatus, avoid contact Mongolian ger- bils, Meriones unguiculatus, are very similar (Elwood 1983), except that male gerbils do

  2. Transdermal Estradiol Treatment for Postpartum Depression: A Pilot, Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Wisner, Katherine L; Sit, Dorothy K Y; Moses-Kolko, Eydie L; Driscoll, Kara E; Prairie, Beth A; Stika, Catherine S; Eng, Heather F; Dills, John L; Luther, James F; Wisniewski, Stephen R

    2015-08-01

    Postpartum depression occurs in 14.5% of women in the first 3 months after birth. This study was an 8-week acute phase randomized trial with 3 cells (transdermal estradiol [E2], sertraline [SERT], and placebo [PL]) for the treatment of postpartum major depressive disorder. However, the study was stopped after batch analysis revealed that the E2 serum concentrations were lower than prestudy projections. This paper explores our experiences that will inform future investigations of therapeutic E2 use. Explanations for the low E2 concentrations were as follows: (1) study patch nonadhesion, which did not explain the low concentrations across the entire sample. (2) Ineffective transdermal patch preparations, although 2 different patch preparations were used and no significant main effect of patch type on E2 concentrations was found. (3) Obesity, at study entry, E2-treated women had body mass index of 32.9 (7.4) (mean [SD]). No pharmacokinetic data comparing E2 concentrations from transdermal patches in obese women versus normal weight controls are available. (4) Induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) 3A4 and other E2 elimination pathways in pregnancy. CYP4503A4 is induced in pregnancy and is a pathway for the metabolism of E2. Conversion to estrone and phase II metabolism via glucuronidation and sulfation, which also increase in pregnancy, are routes of E2 elimination. The time required for these pathways to normalize after delivery has not been elucidated. The observation that transdermal E2 doses greater than 100 ?g/d did not increase serum concentrations was unexpected. Another hypothesis consistent with this observation is suppression of endogenous E2 secretion with increasing exogenous E2 dosing. PMID:26061609

  3. Predictors of postpartum depression in a sample of Egyptian women

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, El-Sayed; El-Bahei, Wafaa; del El-Hadidy, Mohamed A; Zayed, Abdelhady

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Postpartum depression (PPD) represents a considerable health problem affecting women and their families. The aims of this study were to: (a) compare female patients with PPD to normal controls with regard to some biopsychosocial variables, (b) correlate between the severity of PPD and some clinical and biological variables, and (c) to predict some risk factors for PPD. Method Sixty female patients with PPD were compared with 60 healthy postpartum females (control group). Patient and controls were subjected to: (1) a complete psychiatric and obstetric examination, (2) psychometric studies using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, Fahmy and El-Sherbini’s Social Classification Scale for Egyptian socioeconomic classification and Horowitz et al’s Impact of Event Scale, (3) quantities of thyroid hormone (T3), cortisol hormone, and estrogen were assessed. Results There were high statistical differences between PPD females and controls as regard psychosocial stressors, level of (estradiol, thyroxin [T3], and cortisol), marital status, residence, parity, method of delivery, complicated puerperium, positive history of premenstrual tension syndrome and baby variables (eg, unwelcomed, with a negative attitude of parents toward the baby, underweight, female, artificially feeding, unhealthy baby). While there were moderate statistical differences in attitude toward spouse and social support and mild statistical difference in socioeconomic status between them. Severity of depression is positively highly correlated with onset of depression, psychosocial stress, levels of T3 and cortisol. However, severity of depression is negatively high when correlated with socioeconomic status. Stepwise linear regression indicated that PPD was significantly predicted by social support, socioeconomic status, feeding of baby, and prior psychiatric problems. Conclusion Many factors may lead to development of PPD. These factors include some psychosocial, socioeconomic, obstetric, and hormonal variables. Early detection of these factors could help in prediction of the development of PPD. PMID:23293523

  4. Early post-partum hematological changes in Holstein dairy cows with retained placenta.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Pierangelo; Probo, Monica; Morandi, Nicola; Trevisi, Erminio; Ferrari, Annarita; Minuti, Andrea; Venturini, Monica; Paltrinieri, Saverio; Giordano, Alessia

    2015-01-01

    Retained placenta (RP) occurs frequently in dairy cattle but little is known about the pathogenic or prognostic role of the hematological changes in this disease. This retrospective study was designed to investigate the hematological changes associated with RP in the immediate post-partum period and to assess whether these changes are associated with an acute phase reaction. Data concerning hematology, acute phase proteins, markers of inflammation and serum biochemistry performed on cows at 3±1 days in milk (DIM) from two intensive farms were extracted from the database of the ProZoo project, a research project aimed to investigate the relationship between genomic traits and bovine health and production. After application of restrictive inclusion criteria, data from 45 cows, 22 with RP and 23 controls, were statistically compared. RBC count, d-ROMs concentration, and AST activity were significantly higher in the RP group than controls. Conversely, neutrophils, thiol groups, and serum zinc concentration were significantly lower in the RP group than controls. In conclusion, although retained placenta has to be considered as a syndrome with multifactorial causes, neutropenia may be a co-factor involved in its pathogenesis. Further studies are needed to clarify whether neutropenia acts as a contributor in the pathogenesis of RP or if it is a very early consequence of the syndrome, preceding any other inflammatory changes in blood. PMID:25515153

  5. From goat colostrum to milk: physical, chemical, and immune evolution from partum to 90 days postpartum.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Macías, D; Moreno-Indias, I; Castro, N; Morales-Delanuez, A; Argüello, A

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the study of the changes originated in the milk from partum until d 90 of lactation. Ten multiparous Majorera goats, bred carefully under animal health standards, with a litter size of 2 kids (the average in this breed is 1.83 prolificacy) and similar gestation length (149 ± 1 d) were used. Goat kids were removed from their dams to avoid interferences with the study. Compositional content (fat, protein, and lactose) were measured, as well as some other properties, including pH, density, titratable acidity, ethanol stability, rennet clotting time, and somatic cell count. Moreover, immunity molecules (IgG, IgA, and IgM concentrations and chitotriosidase activity) received great attention. Fat and protein content were higher in the first days postpartum, whereas lactose content was lower. Density, titratable acidity, rennet clotting time, and somatic cell count decreased throughout the lactation period, whereas pH and ethanol stability increased. Relative to the immunological parameters, each measured parameter obtained its maximum level at d 0, showing the first milking as the choice to provide immunity to the newborn kids. On the other hand, this study might be used to establish what the best use is: processing or kid feeding. PMID:24183682

  6. Three-Dimensional Kinetic Adaptations of Gait throughout Pregnancy and Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Branco, Marco; Santos-Rocha, Rita; Vieira, Filomena; Aguiar, Liliana; Veloso, António Prieto

    2015-01-01

    Biomechanical adaptations that occur during pregnancy can lead to changes on gait pattern. Nevertheless, these adaptations of gait are still not fully understood. The purpose was to determine the effect of pregnancy on the biomechanical pattern of walking, regarding the kinetic parameters. A three-dimensional analysis was performed in eleven participants. The kinetic parameters in the joints of the lower limb during gait were compared at the end of the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy and in the postpartum period, in healthy pregnant women. The main results showed a reduction in the normalized vertical reaction forces, throughout pregnancy, particularly the third peak. Pregnant women showed, during most of the stance phase, medial reaction forces as a motor response to promote the body stability. Bilateral changes were observed in hip joint, with a decrease in the participation of the hip extensors and in the eccentric contraction of hip flexors. In ankle joint a decrease in the participation of ankle plantar flexors was found. In conclusion, the overall results point to biomechanical adjustments that showed a decrease of the mechanical load of women throughout pregnancy, with exception for few unilateral changes of hip joint moments. PMID:26491603

  7. Maternal mortality: what can we learn from stories of postpartum haemorrhage?

    PubMed

    Homer, Caroline; Clements, Vanessa; McDonnell, Nolan; Peek, Michael; Sullivan, Elizabeth

    2009-09-01

    Death from pregnancy is rare in developed countries such as Australia but is still common in third world and developing countries. The investigation of each maternal death yields valuable information and lessons that all health care providers involved with the care of women can learn from. The aim of these investigations is to prevent future maternal morbidity and mortality. Obstetric haemorrhage remains a leading cause of maternal death internationally. It is the most common cause of death in developing countries. In Australia and the United Kingdom, obstetric haemorrhage is ranked as the 4th and 3rd most common cause of direct maternal death respectively. In a number of cases there are readily identifiable factors associated with the care that the women received that may have contributed to their death. It is from these identifiable factors that both midwives and doctors can learn to help prevent similar episodes from occurring. This article will identify some of the lessons that can be learnt from the recent Australian and UK maternal death reports. This paper presents an overview of the process and systems for the reporting of maternal death in Australia. It will then specifically focus on obstetric haemorrhage, with a focus on postpartum haemorrhage, for the 12-year period, 1994-2005. Vignettes from the maternal mortality reports in Australia and the United Kingdom are used to highlight the important lessons for providers of maternity care. PMID:19278912

  8. New Evidence on Breastfeeding and Postpartum Depression: The Importance of Understanding Women's Intentions

    E-print Network

    Borra, C.; Iacovou, M.; Sevilla, A.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence on Breastfeeding and Postpartum Depression: The Importance of Understanding Women’s Intentions Cristina Borra • Maria Iacovou • Almudena Sevilla ? The Author(s) 2014. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com Abstract... This study aimed to identify the causal effect of breastfeeding on postpartum depression (PPD), using data on mothers from a British survey, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were performed...

  9. Post-partum sequential occurrence of two diverse transfusion reactions (transfusion associated circulatory overload and transfusion related acute lung injury).

    PubMed

    Haldar, Rudrashish; Samanta, Sukhen

    2013-10-01

    Transfusion associated circulatory overload (TACO) and transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) are two dissimilar pathological conditions associated with transfusion of blood products where the time course of the events and clinical presentation overlap leading to uncertainty in establishing the diagnosis and initiating the treatment, which otherwise differs. We encountered a case where a patient of post-partum hemorrhage developed TACO in the immediate post-operative period due to aggressive resuscitative attempts with blood products. The patient's condition was appropriately diagnosed and was managed according to the clinical scenario, and the condition abated. Subsequently, on the third post-operative day the patient again required blood product transfusions following which the patient developed TRALI, the diagnosis of which was also established and adequate treatment strategy was undertaken. PMID:24339663

  10. Impact of Anesthetic Predictors on Postpartum Hospital Length of Stay and Adverse Events Following Cesarean Delivery: A Retrospective Study in 840 Consecutive Parturients

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ting Ting; Martel, Colleen G.; Clark, Allison G.; Russo, Melissa B.; Nossaman, Bobby D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cesarean deliveries are increasing, and associated postoperative adverse events are extending hospitalizations. The aims of the present study were to analyze the role of anesthestic predictors during cesarean delivery on the incidences of extended postpartum hospital length of stay (>4 postoperative days) and adverse events. Methods The medical records of 840 consecutive patients who underwent cesarean delivery during a 1-year period were abstracted. Previously reported anesthetic predictors underwent recursive partitioning with 5-fold cross-validation and with LogWorth values ?2.0 statistically significant at the <0.01 level. Results In this study of 840 cesarean delivery patients, 120 parturients (14.3%; confidence interval 12.1%-16.8%) experienced extended postpartum hospital length of stay (>4 hospital days). One anesthetic predictor associated with extended postpartum hospital length of stay was type of anesthetic technique: a 25.6% incidence in parturients receiving general or epidural anesthesia compared to a 9.6% incidence in parturients receiving either spinal or combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (LogWorth value of 7.3). When the amount of intravenous fluids intraoperatively administered to Americian Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status III and IV parturients was ?2,000 mL, the incidence of extended postpartum hospital length of stay decreased from a baseline value of 30.0% to 17.3% (LogWorth value of 2.8). The incidence of adverse events ranged from 0%-5.0%. All regional anesthetic techniques were significantly associated with a decreased incidence of adverse events: 0.7% with spinal anesthesia, 1.9% with epidural anesthesia, and 3.2% with combined spinal-epidural anesthesia when compared to the 51.4% incidence associated with general anesthesia (LogWorth value of 4.0). Conclusion These findings suggest that type of anesthetic technique and amount of intraoperative fluids administered during cesarean delivery have important effects on the incidences of extended postpartum hospital length of stay and adverse events following cesarean delivery. PMID:26412993

  11. Duration of Expulsive Efforts and Risk of Postpartum Hemorrhage in Nulliparous Women: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Dionne, Marie-Danielle; Deneux-Tharaux, Catherine; Dupont, Corinne; Basso, Olga; Rudigoz, René-Charles; Bouvier-Colle, Marie-Hélène; Le Ray, Camille

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the specific association between the duration of expulsive efforts and the risk of postpartum hemorrhage. Methods Population-based cohort-nested case-control study of nulliparous women delivering vaginally in 106 French maternity units between December 2004 and November 2006, including 3,852 women with PPH (blood loss ? 500 mL and/or peripartum Hb decrease ? 2 g/dL), 1,048 of them severe (peripartum Hb decrease ? 4 g/dL or transfusion of ? 2 units of red blood cells), and 762 controls from a representative sample of deliveries without hemorrhage in the same population. The association between duration of expulsive efforts and postpartum hemorrhage was estimated by multilevel logistic regression models adjusted for individual and hospital characteristics. Results Median duration of expulsive efforts was 18 minutes among controls, 20 minutes among postpartum hemorrhage and 23 minutes among severe postpartum hemorrhage (p<0.01). Duration of expulsive efforts was significantly, positively, and linearly associated with both postpartum hemorrhage and severe postpartum hemorrhage. After adjustment for other risk factors, every additional 10 minutes of expulsive efforts was associated with about a 10% increase in the risk of postpartum hemorrhage (aOR = 1.11 [1.02–1.21]) and severe postpartum hemorrhage (aOR = 1.14 [1.03–1.27]). Oxytocin during labor, duration of active phase of labor, forceps use, episiotomy, perineal tears, and birth weight were also independently associated with both risks. Conclusion Duration of expulsive efforts was independently associated with postpartum hemorrhage and severe postpartum hemorrhage. Interventions to shorten the duration of this stage, such as oxytocin, forceps, and episiotomy, are also associated with higher risks of postpartum hemorrhage. Beyond duration, other aspects of the management of active second stage should be evaluated as some might allow it to last longer with a minimal increase in postpartum hemorrhage risk. PMID:26555447

  12. Modeling late Paleozoic glaciation

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, T.J.; Baum, S.K. )

    1992-06-01

    Late Paleozoic glaciation on Gondwana is associated with changes in geography, solar luminosity, and estimated CO{sub 2} levels. To assess the relative importance of these boundary conditions, the authors conducted a suite of climate model simulations for the periods before, during, and after peak mid-Carboniferous ({approximately}300 Ma) glaciation (340, 300, and 255 and 225 Ma, respectively). Orbital insolation values favorable for glaciation and interglaciation were used for each time interval. Results indicate that changes in geography cause significant changes in snow area, but the temporal trend is not consistent with the geologic record for glaciation. Combined CO{sub 2}-plus-geography changes yield the best agreement with observations. In addition, interglacial orbital configurations result in almost ice-free conditions for the glacial interval at 300 Ma, at a time of low CO{sub 2}. The large simulated glacial-interglacial snowline fluctuations for Permian-Carboniferous time may explain cyclothem fluctuations at these times. Overall, results support the importance of the CO{sub 2} paradigm, but also indicate that a fuller understanding of past climate change requires consideration of paleogeographic, luminosity, and orbital insolation changes.

  13. Evidence of proviral clearance following postpartum transmission of an ovine lentivirus.

    PubMed

    Herrmann-Hoesing, Lynn M; Palmer, Guy H; Knowles, Donald P

    2007-05-25

    Lentiviral transmission by transfer of infected colostrum and/or milk is considered to be highly efficient. In this study, postpartum transmission of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) from 10 naturally infected ewes to their 23 lambs was followed from the perinatal period throughout a four-year period. The lambs were allowed to suckle from their dam from birth through 32 weeks of age. Virus was tracked by virus isolation, quantitative PCR (qPCR), and anti-OPPV antibody responses as measured by cELISA. Cell-associated OPPV was isolated from colostrum/milk cells in 7 out of 10 ewes and provirus envelope (env) loads ranged 8 to 10(5) copies/mug DNA in colostrum/milk cells from the 10 ewes using qPCR. Provirus env loads were also detected in the peripheral circulation of 21 lambs at 8 weeks and two lambs at 22 weeks. The qPCR product at 8 weeks was confirmed as the transmembrane (tm) gene of OPPV by cloning and sequencing. Both cELISA titers ranging from 325 to 3125 and cross-neutralizing antibody titers ranging from 6 to 162 to seven different OPPV strains were found in the colostrum of the 10 ewes. Furthermore, cELISA titers in serum from lambs remained detectable through 32 weeks following the clearance of provirus at 24 weeks. After 32 weeks, both provirus and anti-OPPV antibody responses have subsequently remained undetectable through 4 years of age. These data suggest the clearance of cell-associated lentiviruses from lamb circulation after passive transfer of antibody via colostrum. PMID:17267002

  14. Integrating family planning into postpartum care through modern quality improvement: experience from Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Youssef; Rahimzai, Mirwais; Ahmadzai, Malalah; Clark, Phyllis Annie; Kamgang, Evelyn

    2014-05-01

    To address low contraceptive use in Afghanistan, we supported 2 large public maternity hospitals and 3 private hospitals in Kabul to use modern quality improvement (QI) methods to integrate family planning into postpartum care. In 2012, QI teams comprising hospital staff applied root cause analysis to identify barriers to integrated postpartum family planning (PPFP) services and to develop solutions for how to integrate services. Changes made to service provision to address identified barriers included creating a private counseling space near the postpartum ward, providing PPFP counseling training and job aids to staff, and involving husbands and mothers-in-law in counseling in person or via mobile phones. After 10 months, the proportion of postpartum women who received family planning counseling before discharge in the 5 hospitals increased from 36% to 55%, and the proportion of women who received family planning counseling with their husbands rose from 18% to 90%. In addition, the proportion of postpartum women who agreed to use family planning and left the hospital with their preferred method increased from 12% to 95%. Follow-up telephone surveys with a random sample of women who had received PPFP services in the 2 public hospitals and a control group of postpartum women who had received routine hospital services found significant differences in the proportion of women with self-reported pregnancies: 3% vs. 15%, respectively, 6 months after discharge; 6% vs. 22% at 12 months; and 14% vs. 35% at 18 months (P < .001). Applying QI methods helped providers recognize and overcome barriers to integration of family planning and postpartum services by testing changes they deemed feasible. PMID:25276580

  15. Integrating family planning into postpartum care through modern quality improvement: experience from Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Tawfik, Youssef; Rahimzai, Mirwais; Ahmadzai, Malalah; Clark, Phyllis Annie; Kamgang, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    To address low contraceptive use in Afghanistan, we supported 2 large public maternity hospitals and 3 private hospitals in Kabul to use modern quality improvement (QI) methods to integrate family planning into postpartum care. In 2012, QI teams comprising hospital staff applied root cause analysis to identify barriers to integrated postpartum family planning (PPFP) services and to develop solutions for how to integrate services. Changes made to service provision to address identified barriers included creating a private counseling space near the postpartum ward, providing PPFP counseling training and job aids to staff, and involving husbands and mothers-in-law in counseling in person or via mobile phones. After 10 months, the proportion of postpartum women who received family planning counseling before discharge in the 5 hospitals increased from 36% to 55%, and the proportion of women who received family planning counseling with their husbands rose from 18% to 90%. In addition, the proportion of postpartum women who agreed to use family planning and left the hospital with their preferred method increased from 12% to 95%. Follow-up telephone surveys with a random sample of women who had received PPFP services in the 2 public hospitals and a control group of postpartum women who had received routine hospital services found significant differences in the proportion of women with self-reported pregnancies: 3% vs. 15%, respectively, 6 months after discharge; 6% vs. 22% at 12 months; and 14% vs. 35% at 18 months (P < .001). Applying QI methods helped providers recognize and overcome barriers to integration of family planning and postpartum services by testing changes they deemed feasible. PMID:25276580

  16. Addiction and reward-related genes show altered expression in the postpartum nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Changjiu; Eisinger, Brian Earl; Driessen, Terri M.; Gammie, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    Motherhood involves a switch in natural rewards, whereby offspring become highly rewarding. Nucleus accumbens (NAC) is a key CNS region for natural rewards and addictions, but to date no study has evaluated on a large scale the events in NAC that underlie the maternal change in natural rewards. In this study we utilized microarray and bioinformatics approaches to evaluate postpartum NAC gene expression changes in mice. Modular Single-set Enrichment Test (MSET) indicated that postpartum (relative to virgin) NAC gene expression profile was significantly enriched for genes related to addiction and reward in five of five independently curated databases (e.g., Malacards, Phenopedia). Over 100 addiction/reward related genes were identified and these included: Per1, Per2, Arc, Homer2, Creb1, Grm3, Fosb, Gabrb3, Adra2a, Ntrk2, Cry1, Penk, Cartpt, Adcy1, Npy1r, Htr1a, Drd1a, Gria1, and Pdyn. ToppCluster analysis found maternal NAC expression profile to be significantly enriched for genes related to the drug action of nicotine, ketamine, and dronabinol. Pathway analysis indicated postpartum NAC as enriched for RNA processing, CNS development/differentiation, and transcriptional regulation. Weighted Gene Coexpression Network Analysis (WGCNA) identified possible networks for transcription factors, including Nr1d1, Per2, Fosb, Egr1, and Nr4a1. The postpartum state involves increased risk for mental health disorders and MSET analysis indicated postpartum NAC to be enriched for genes related to depression, bipolar disorder (BPD), and schizophrenia. Mental health related genes included: Fabp7, Grm3, Penk, and Nr1d1. We confirmed via quantitative PCR Nr1d1, Per2, Grm3, Penk, Drd1a, and Pdyn. This study indicates for the first time that postpartum NAC involves large scale gene expression alterations linked to addiction and reward. Because the postpartum state also involves decreased response to drugs, the findings could provide insights into how to mitigate addictions. PMID:25414651

  17. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Safely Irregular Periods KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual Health > For Girls > Irregular Periods Print A A A Text Size ... after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ages of ...

  18. Effect of supranutritional organic selenium supplementation on postpartum blood micronutrients, antioxidants, metabolites, and inflammation biomarkers in selenium-replete dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jean A; Bobe, Gerd; Vorachek, William R; Kasper, Katherine; Traber, Maret G; Mosher, Wayne D; Pirelli, Gene J; Gamroth, Mike

    2014-12-01

    Dairy cows have increased nutritional requirements for antioxidants postpartum. Supranutritional organic Se supplementation may be beneficial because selenoproteins are involved in regulating oxidative stress and inflammation. Our objective was to determine whether feeding Se-yeast above requirements to Se-replete dairy cows during late gestation affects blood micronutrients, antioxidants, metabolites, and inflammation biomarkers postpartum. During the last 8-weeks before calving, dairy cows at a commercial farm were fed either 0 (control) or 105 mg Se-yeast once weekly (supranutritional Se-yeast), in addition to Na selenite at 0.3 mg Se/kg dry matter in their rations. Concentrations of whole-blood (WB) Se and serum Se, erythrocyte glutathione (GSH), and serum albumin, cholesterol, ?-tocopherol, haptoglobin, serum amyloid A (SAA), calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, non-esterified fatty acids, and ?-hydroxybutyrate were measured directly after calving, at 48 h, and 14 days of lactation in 10 cows of each group. Supranutritional Se-yeast supplementation affected indicators of antioxidant status and inflammation. Cows fed a supranutritional Se-yeast supplement during the last 8-weeks of gestation had higher Se concentrations in WB (overall 52 % higher) and serum (overall 36 % higher) at all-time points, had higher SAA concentrations at 48 h (98 % higher), had higher erythrocyte GSH (38 % higher) and serum albumin concentrations (6.6 % higher) at 14 days, and had lower serum cholesterol concentrations and higher ?-tocopherol/cholesterol ratios at calving and at 48 h compared with control cows. In conclusion, feeding Se-replete cows during late gestation a supranutritional Se-yeast supplement improves antioxidant status and immune responses after calving without negatively impacting other micronutrients and energy status. PMID:25142062

  19. Emotional memory in pregnant women at risk for postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Williams, Marissa E; Becker, Suzanna; McKinnon, Margaret C; Wong, Queenie; Cudney, Lauren E; Steiner, Meir; Frey, Benicio N

    2015-10-30

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is associated with debilitating effects on mothers and their infants. A previous history of depression is considered the strongest risk factor for PPD. Depressed individuals recall more negative than positive content and higher levels of stress hormones released during encoding are associated with enhanced recall of emotional stimuli. This study examined the impact of a previous history of major depressive disorder (MDD) and pregnancy on emotional memory. Seventy-seven participants completed the study [44 pregnant women in the second trimester of pregnancy with and without a lifetime history of MDD and 33 non-pregnant women with and without a lifetime history of MDD]. All completed an encoding task and provided salivary cortisol (sCORT) and alpha-amylase (sAA) samples. Participants returned one week later for a surprise incidental recognition memory task. Women with a history of MDD had worse recognition than women without a history of MDD for negative, but not positive images; this effect was independent of sCORT and sAA levels. Pregnancy did not affect emotional memory. Considering that several previous studies found enhanced memory bias for negative content during depressive states, our results suggest that clinical remission may be associated with an opposite cognitive processing of negative emotional content. PMID:26272023

  20. Characteristics of Postpartum Depression in Anand District, Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Patel, Himadri L; Ganjiwale, Jaishree D; Nimbalkar, Archana S; Vani, Shashi N; Vasa, Rohitkumar; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar M

    2015-10-01

    Characteristics of postpartum depression (PPD) in Anand District, Gujarat, India. PPD affects 1 in 10 women in the developed world. It has been implicated as an independent factor with adverse effect on child health, and health care-seeking behavior of mothers. We sought to find the prevalence of PPD in our hospital by including mothers who registered and delivered live babies at our hospital. Basic demographic information related to pregnancy was acquired from mothers and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), pre-translated and validated in Gujarati language, was administered. Current study observed prevalence of PPD as 48.5% using cutoff score of 10.5 for classifying depression in Gujarati women. Factors associated with depression after multivariable logistic regression were: age of mother, modified Kuppuswami category (MKC) score, family type, violence from husband, gravida, para and sex of infant. PPD has higher prevalence in our study vis-a-vis Western countries. This may be because of early administration of EPDS. PMID:26179494

  1. Hypertriglyceridemia and unusual lipoprotein subclass distributions associated with late pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Forte, T.M.; Kretchmer, N.; Silliman, K. )

    1991-03-15

    In the human adult population elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) levels are associated with decreased high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and decreased HDL and LDL particle sizes. Late pregnancy is a hypertriglyceridemic state where little is known about LDL and HDL subpopulation distribution. Plasma lipids, apolipoproteins (apo) and lipoprotein subpopulations were examined in 36 pregnant women at 36 wk pregnancy and 6 wk postpartum and correlated with HDL and LDL size. There was a significant decrease in LDL diameter at 36 wk pre, 25 {plus minus} 0.7 nm compared, with 6 wk post, 26.4 {plus minus} 0.8 nm. A total of 97% of the 36 wk pre subjects had small dense LDL which paralleled increases in apoB concentration. Unlike LDL HDL at 36 wks pre showed a significant increase in larger sized particles where HDL{sub 2b} predominated. There was a positive correlation between HDL{sub 2b} mass and apoAl and HDL-C concentrations. Late pregnancy is a metabolic state where the predominance of large, HDL{sub 2b} particles is discordant with the predominance of small LDL and elevated TG. This annual metabolic pattern may in part be due to hormonal changes occurring in late pregnancy.

  2. Exogenous estradiol enhances apoptosis in regressing post-partum rat corpora lutea possibly mediated by prolactin

    PubMed Central

    Goyeneche, Alicia A; Telleria, Carlos M

    2005-01-01

    Background In pregnant rats, structural luteal regression takes place after parturition and is associated with cell death by apoptosis. We have recently shown that the hormonal environment is responsible for the fate of the corpora lutea (CL). Changing the levels of circulating hormones in post-partum rats, either by injecting androgen, progesterone, or by allowing dams to suckle, was coupled with a delay in the onset of apoptosis in the CL. The objectives of the present investigation were: i) to examine the effect of exogenous estradiol on apoptosis of the rat CL during post-partum luteal regression; and ii) to evaluate the post-partum luteal expression of the estrogen receptor (ER) genes. Methods In a first experiment, rats after parturition were separated from their pups and injected daily with vehicle or estradiol benzoate for 4 days. On day 4 post-partum, animals were sacrificed, blood samples were taken to determine serum concentrations of hormones, and the ovaries were isolated to study apoptosis in situ. In a second experiment, non-lactating rats after parturition received vehicle, estradiol benzoate or estradiol benzoate plus bromoergocryptine for 4 days, and their CL were isolated and used to study apoptosis ex vivo. In a third experiment, we obtained CL from rats on day 15 of pregnancy and from non-lactating rats on day 4 post-partum, and studied the expression of the messenger RNAs (mRNAs) encoding the ERalpha and ERbeta genes. Results Exogenous administration of estradiol benzoate induced an increase in the number of apoptotic cells within the CL on day 4 post-partum when compared with animals receiving vehicle alone. Animals treated with the estrogen had higher serum prolactin and progesterone concentrations, with no changes in serum androstenedione. Administration of bromoergocryptine blocked the increase in serum prolactin and progesterone concentrations, and DNA fragmentation induced by the estrogen treatment. ERalpha and ERbeta mRNAs were expressed in CL of day 4 post-partum animals at levels similar to those found in CL of day 15 pregnant animals. Conclusion We have established that estradiol accelerates apoptosis in the CL during post-partum luteal regression through a mechanism that possibly involves the secretion of pituitary prolactin. We have also shown that the post-partum rat CL express ERalpha and ERbeta mRNAs suggesting that they can be targeted by estrogen. PMID:16131396

  3. Gene-environment interaction in postpartum depression: a Chinese clinical study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Wang, Lin; Huang, Fenghua; Li, Jiafu; Xiong, Li; Xue, Han; Zhang, Yuanzhen

    2014-08-01

    Mounting evidence has showed that both nature and nurture exert significant influences on the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric diseases or psychopathologies. Postpartum depression (PPD) is a mental disorder that is by far under diagnosed and under treated, which can have a negative impact on both the maternal and the neonatal health. Several risk factors for PPD have been defined, including genetic, environmental, and hormonal. Genetically, postpartum women can be explained by the absence or presence of certain genetic variants that confer increased risk. Environmentally, postpartum women might have been exposed to various psychosocial risk factors. The aim of this study is to examine whether genetic variations of the Serotonin Transporter Promoter Variant (5-HTTLPR), together with environmental stressors, assessed by multiple psychological scales, contribute to the development of PPD symptoms. Results show that 5-HTTLPR is strongly associated with the major depressive disorder in postpartum women. Han Chinese Women who carry the long (L) allele (LL) when experiencing maternal pregnancy complications, prenatal maternal infection, prenatal maternal folate deficiency, or stressful life events during pregnancy, or had senior maternal age upon pregnancy (over 32.8 years old) showed higher prevalence ratios (PR) for symptoms of postpartum depression. PMID:24882202

  4. Relationships of Race and Socioeconomic Status to Postpartum Depressive Symptoms in Rural African American and Non-Hispanic White Women

    PubMed Central

    Dolbier, Christyn L.; Rush, Taylor E.; Sahadeo, Latoya S.; Shaffer, Michele L.; Thorp, John

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the potential racial disparity in postpartum depression (PPD) symptoms among a cohort of non-Hispanic white and African American women after taking into consideration the influence of socioeconomic status (SES). Participants (N = 299) were recruited from maternity clinics serving rural counties, with over-sampling of low SES and African Americans. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was administered 1 and 6 months postpartum, and subjective SES scale at 6 months postpartum. Demographic information was collected during enrollment and 1 month postpartum, with updates at 6 months postpartum. Separate logistic regressions were conducted for 1 and 6 month time points for minor-major PPD (EPDS ? 10) and major PPD (EPDS > 12); with marital status, poverty, education, subjective SES, and race predictors entered in block sequence. After including all other predictors, race was not a significant predictor of minor-major or major PPD at 1 or 6 months postpartum. Subjective SES was the most consistent predictor of PPD, being significantly associated with minor-major PPD and major PPD at 6 months postpartum, with higher subjective SES indicating lower odds of PPD, even after accounting for all other predictors. This study shows that significant racial disparities were not observed for minor-major or major PPD criteria at 1 or 6 months postpartum. The most consistent and significant predictor of PPD was subjective SES. Implications of these findings for future research, as well as PPD screening and intervention are discussed. PMID:22961387

  5. A pre-synchronization program at early postpartum might increase the chances of Bos indicus cows cycling prior to 50 days regardless of the length of calf separation

    PubMed Central

    PÉREZ-TORRES, Libia; RUBIO, Ivette; CORRO, Manuel; COHEN, Abraham; ORIHUELA, Agustín; GALINA, Carlos S.; PABLOS, J. Luis

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish if pre-synchronization would enhance the number of animals cycling prior to conventional breeding at 45 days irrespective of the length of calf separation. Multiparous Bos indicus cows were allotted in four groups (n = 10). Control group (C) dams remained with their calves; groups G24, G48 and G72, which were partially weaned for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively, were estrus synchronized using a controlled internal drug. These procedures were performed at 25 days and again at 45 days postpartum. The number of follicles, presence of a corpus luteum and back fat thickness (BFT) were determined by ultrasound. The proportion of cows with estrus and ovulation at day 25 postpartum was statistically different between the control and treated groups, with the values being 20, 60, 50 and 70 for the control, G24, G48 and G72 groups respectively (P < 0.05). At days 45 postpartum, the proportion of cows with estrus and ovulation was different in group G48 compared with the other groups (P <0.05). The average BFT and body condition score for the four experimental groups in the two periods were similar (P >0.05). Animals with a higher proportion of follicles from 17 to 21 mm, BFT values above 3.5 mm and a regular body condition were significantly different regardless of whether the dams remained with their calves or were separated, regardless of the length of this event. It can be concluded that (1) a pre-synchronization program at day 25 could trigger the onset of ovarian activity and facilitate a breeding program at day 50 and (2) temporary weaning enhances the effect of a pre-synchronization program. PMID:25739397

  6. What matters for working fathers? Job characteristics, work-family conflict and enrichment, and fathers' postpartum mental health in an Australian cohort.

    PubMed

    Cooklin, Amanda R; Giallo, Rebecca; Strazdins, Lyndall; Martin, Angela; Leach, Liana S; Nicholson, Jan M

    2015-12-01

    One in ten fathers experience mental health difficulties in the first year postpartum. Unsupportive job conditions that exacerbate work-family conflict are a potential risk to fathers' mental health given that most new fathers (95%) combine parenting with paid work. However, few studies have examined work-family conflict and mental health for postpartum fathers specifically. The aim of the present study was to identify the particular work characteristics (e.g., work hours per week, job quality) associated with work-family conflict and enrichment, and fathers' mental health in the postpartum period. Survey data from 3243 fathers of infants (aged 6-12 months) participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were analysed via path analysis, considering key confounders (age, education, income, maternal employment, maternal mental health and relationship quality). Long and inflexible work hours, night shift, job insecurity, a lack of autonomy and more children in the household were associated with increased work-family conflict, and this was in turn associated with increased distress. Job security, autonomy, and being in a more prestigious occupation were positively associated with work-family enrichment and better mental health. These findings from a nationally representative sample of Australian fathers contribute novel evidence that employment characteristics, via work-family conflict and work-family enrichment, are key determinants of fathers' postnatal mental health, independent from established risk factors. Findings will inform the provision of specific 'family-friendly' conditions protective for fathers during this critical stage in the family life-cycle, with implications for their wellbeing and that of their families. PMID:26520473

  7. Haematological parameters in postpartum women and their babies in Poland - comparison of urban and rural areas.

    PubMed

    Wojty?a, Cezary; Bili?ski, Przemys?aw; Paprzycki, Piotr; Warzocha, Krzysztof

    2011-12-01

    Anaemia is a serious health problem in the contemporary world which aff ects 24.8% of the total human population. It is especially frequent among pregnant women and children. Anaemia is considered as a risk factor of an unfavourable outcome of pregnancy. More than a half of the cases of anaemia, especially among pregnant women, are caused by iron deficiency. The prevalence of anaemia worldwide is especially high among the rural population. It is estimated that the incidence of anaemia after delivery is 4-27%. Anaemia occurring in pregnant women is the cause of anaemia in newborns after birth. The objective of the study was analysis of the haematological parameters of postpartum women and newborns, with particular consideration of the comparison between urban and rural areas. The studies were conducted with the use of questionnaire forms based on the project undertaken in the USA: Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS). The survey was carried out on a single day, during the period 9-13 August 2010, in all hospitals in Poland where mothers were hospitalized with their newborns. The presented study was based on the replies concerning the results of whole blood count tests in mothers and their babies. The results of the study did not confirm any significant differences between Hct, Hb and RBC values between urban and rural mothers. In both cases, the Hct levels were at the lower limit of normal. Also, no differences with respect to the above-mentioned values were noted among the newborns, although the babies of urban mothers had a higher Hb level. The results of the studies indicate the lack of differences in the health of mothers and their newborn babies with respect to the urban or rural place of residence. Despite this, anaemia is associated with complications which are life-threatening for the mother and the baby; therefore, efforts should be undertaken in order to minimize this problem. PMID:22216816

  8. Acute Ovarian Insufficiency and Uterine Infarction Following Uterine Artery Embolization for Postpartum Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Elsarrag, Sarah Z.; Forss, Abigail R.; Richman, Susan; Salih, Sana M.

    2015-01-01

    Uterine artery embolization for intractable postpartum hemorrhage saves lives while preserving fertility. The procedure-related risks of uterine infarction and ovarian insufficiency are rare. A primparous patient underwent bilateral internal hypogastric artery embolization to control severe postpartum hemorrhage following primary cesarean section. The bleeding continued, and a repeat aortogram demonstrated significant filling of the uterus from an anomalous proximal take off of the right uterine artery and from the left ovarian artery. Further embolization was required to control the bleeding. The patient developed acute primary ovarian insufficiency within two weeks of the procedure and subsequently presented with uterine infarction necessitating hysterectomy. This case demonstrates the increased risk of acute ovarian insufficiency and uterine infarction following uterine artery embolization for postpartum hemorrhage in the settings of aberrant pelvic vasculature. PMID:26523290

  9. Comet or Asteroid Shower in the Late Eocene?

    E-print Network

    Claeys, Philippe

    Comet or Asteroid Shower in the Late Eocene? Roald Tagle1 and Philippe Claeys2 * In the late Eocene to the arrival in the inner solar system of long-period comets, triggered by a perturbation of the Oort cloud (1% of the inner Oort cloud ob- jects (4), it cannot be excluded that a comet shower would include an L

  10. Comparison of Static Postural Stability in Exercising and Non-Exercising Women During the Perinatal Period

    PubMed Central

    Opala-Berdzik, Agnieszka; Bacik, Bogdan; Markiewicz, Andrzej; Cie?li?ska-?wider, Joanna; ?wider, Dariusz; Sobota, Grzegorz; B?aszczyk, Janusz W.

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of the study was to determine whether women who exercised during and after pregnancy had better static postural stability compared to those who did not exercise. Material/Methods Posturographic tests were performed in 31 women at 34–39 weeks gestation, and again at 6–10 weeks postpartum. The center of pressure mean velocity (with directional subcomponents) and sway area were computed from 30-s quiet standing trials on a stationary force plate with eyes open or closed. The women were surveyed about their lifestyle and physical activity in the perinatal period. Based on the survey, 12 of the women were assigned as regular exercisers and 19 as non-exercisers. A Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare data of the exercisers and the non-exercisers in their advanced pregnancy and again at 2 months postpartum. Results Postural sway measures were not significantly different between the exercisers and the non-exercisers in advanced pregnancy and at 2 months postpartum (p>0.05). Conclusions Individually performed physical activity during the perinatal period did not affect pregnant/postpartum women’s postural stability characteristics of quiet standing. PMID:25293983

  11. Mothers’ Health and Work-Related Factors at 11 Weeks Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Pat; Dowd, Bryan; Gjerdingen, Dwenda; Dagher, Rada; Ukestad, Laurie; McCaffrey, David; Lundberg, Ulf

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE Many new mothers return to work soon after childbirth. This study examines personal and work-related factors associated with the postpartum health of employed women 11 weeks after childbirth. METHODS Using a prospective cohort design, we recruited 817 Minnesota mothers into the study while they were hospitalized for childbirth in 2001. Telephone interviews were conducted at 5 and 11 weeks postpartum. Eligible women were 18 years or older, employed, and spoke English and gave birth to a singleton infant. Multivariate models using instrumental variables (2-stage least squares) were used to estimate personal and employment characteristics associated with women’s physical and mental health and postpartum symptoms. RESULTS At 11 weeks postpartum, 661 participants (81% of enrollees) completed a full interview, and 50% of participants had returned to work. On average, women reported 4.1 (SD 3.2) childbirth-related symptoms, most frequently fatigue (43%). Factors significantly associated with better health outcomes included better preconception health, the absence of prenatal mood problems, more control over work and home activities, more social support at work and home, and less job stress. CONCLUSIONS The findings suggest postpartum women need to be evaluated regarding their fatigue levels and mental and physical symptoms. Women whose fatigue or postpartum symptoms limit daily role function may find it helpful to have health care clinicians counsel them on strategies to decrease job stress, increase social support at work and home, and certify their use of intermittent family and medical leave to help them manage their symptoms. PMID:18025489

  12. Breastfeeding and maternal weight changes during 24 months post-partum: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Maria da Conceição M; Oliveira Assis, Ana Marlúcia; Pinheiro, Sandra Maria C; de Oliveira, Lucivalda Pereira Magalhães; da Cruz, Thomaz Rodrigues P

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between breastfeeding and the loss of weight gained during pregnancy remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the association between breastfeeding and maternal weight changes during 24 months post-partum. We studied a dynamic cohort comprising 315 women living in two cities in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The outcome variable was change in the post-partum weight; the exposure variable was the duration and intensity of breastfeeding. Demographic, socio-economic, environmental, reproductive and lifestyle factors were integrated in the analysis as covariates. The data were analysed using multiple linear regression and linear mixed-effects models. The average cumulative weight loss at 6 months post-partum was 2.561?kg (SD 4.585), increasing at 12 months (3.066?kg; SD 5.098) and decreasing at 18 months (1.993?kg; SD 5.340), being 1.353?kg (SD, 5.574) at 24 months post-partum. After adjustment, the data indicated that for every 1-point increase in breastfeeding score, the estimated average post-partum weight loss observed was 0.191?kg at 6 months (P?=?0.03), 0.090?kg at 12 months (P?=?0.043), 0.123?kg at 18 months (P?post-partum weight loss at all stages of the study during the 24-month follow-up. PMID:23941254

  13. Suicides in Late Life

    PubMed Central

    Van Orden, Kimberly; Conwell, Yeates

    2011-01-01

    Suicide in late life is an enormous public health problem that will likely increase in severity as adults of the baby boom generation age. Data from psychological autopsy studies supplemented with recent studies of suicidal ideation and attempts point to a consistent set of risk factors for the spectrum of suicidal behaviors in late life (suicide ideation, attempts, and deaths). Clinicians should be vigilant for psychiatric illness (especially depression), physical illness, pain, functional impairment, and social disconnectedness. Recent advances in late-life suicide prevention have in common collaborative, multifaceted intervention designs. We suggest that one mechanism shared by all preventive interventions shown to reduce the incidence of late-life suicide is the promotion of connectedness. For the clinician working with older adults, our recommendation is to not only consider risk factors, such as depression, and implement appropriate treatments but to enhance social connectedness as well. PMID:21369952

  14. Two Cases of Severe Preeclampsia Were Diagnosed with HELLP Postpartum after Caesarian Section

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xuechuan; Fan, Yang; Yu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    HELLP occurs in 0.5%–0.9% of all pregnancies. About 30% of the cases happen within 48 hours after delivery. Women with postpartum HELLP syndrome have significantly higher incidences of complications. Because of the absence of classical signs of preeclampsia, it can confuse physicians and lead to delay in diagnosis. Therefore, it is associated with serious maternal morbidity. We present two cases of acute postpartum HELLP syndrome after caesarean section following severe preeclampsia. Our cases were successfully managed with the timely diagnosis and therapy. PMID:25143846

  15. HELLP Syndrome Complicated with Postpartum Subcapsular Ruptured Liver Hematoma and Purtscher-Like Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Cernea, Daniela; Dragoescu, Alice; Novac, Marius

    2012-01-01

    Purtscher's retinopathy is usually associated with trauma, acute pancreatitis, vasculitis, lupus, and bone fractures. It was rarely described postpartum in patients with preeclampsia as well as associated with HELLP syndrome. We present a case of a multiparous patient aged 44 with severe preeclampsia and postpartum HELLP syndrome complicated with Purtscher-like retinopathy and large ruptured subcapsular liver hematoma that required emergency abdominal surgery after premature delivery of a dead fetus. Postsurgical outcome was favorable regarding both liver function and visual acuity. PMID:22852104

  16. The impact of parental postpartum pertussis vaccination on infection in infants: A population-based study of cocooning in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Carcione, Dale; Regan, Annette K; Tracey, Lauren; Mak, Donna B; Gibbs, Robyn; Dowse, Gary K; Bulsara, Max; Effler, Paul V

    2015-10-13

    During a pertussis epidemic in 2011-2012 the Western Australian (WA) Department of Health implemented a 'cocooning' programme, offering free pertussis-containing vaccine (dTpa) to new parents. We assessed the impact of vaccinating parents with dTpa on the incidence of pertussis infection in newborns. Births in WA during 2011-2012 were linked to a register of parental pertussis vaccinations and to notified reports of laboratory-proven pertussis in children <6 months of age. Parents who received dTpa during the four weeks after their child's birth were defined as 'vaccinated postpartum.' Cox proportional-hazards methods were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of pertussis infection among infants born to parents vaccinated postpartum vs. unvaccinated parents, adjusted for maternal age, geographic region, timing of birth, and number of siblings. Of 64,364 live-births, 43,480 (68%) infants had at least one vaccinated parent (60% of mothers and 36% of fathers). After excluding records where parent(s) were either vaccinated prior to the birth, vaccinated >28 days after the birth, the vaccination date was uncertain, or the child died at birth (n=42), the final cohort contained 53,149 children, 118 of whom developed pertussis. There was no difference in the incidence of pertussis among infants whose parents were both vaccinated postpartum compared to those with unvaccinated parents (1.9 vs 2.2 infections per 1000 infants; adjusted HR 0.91; 95%CI 0.55-1.53). Similarly, when assessed independently, maternal postpartum vaccination was not protective (adjusted HR 1.19; 95%CI 0.82-1.72). Supplemental sensitivity analyses which varied the time period for parental vaccination and accounted for under-reporting of vaccination status did not significantly alter these findings. In our setting, vaccinating parents with dTpa during the four weeks following delivery did not reduce pertussis diagnoses in infants. WA now provides dTpa vaccine to pregnant women during the third trimester. PMID:26320420

  17. Tropical marine climate during the late Paleozoic ice age using trace element analyses of brachiopods

    E-print Network

    Schöne, Bernd R.

    and Read, 2000) and persisting into the early Permian Period (290 Ma; Montañez et al., 2007). The modern Paleozoic ice age lasted 37 million years, beginning in the late Mississippian Period (327 Ma; Smith estimated at up to 95 m during the late Mississippian Period (Smith and Read, 2000) and 100 m during

  18. The relationship between maternal attitudes and symptoms of depression and anxiety among pregnant and postpartum first-time mothers

    PubMed Central

    Epperson, C. Neill; Barber, Jacques P.

    2014-01-01

    Two studies examined the relationship between maternal attitudes and symptoms of depression and anxiety during pregnancy and the early postpartum period. In the first study, a measure of maternal attitudes, the Attitudes Toward Motherhood Scale (AToM), was developed and validated in a sample of first-time mothers. The AToM was found to have good internal reliability and convergent validity with cognitive biases and an existing measure of maternal attitudes. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses determined that the measure comprises three correlated factors: beliefs about others’ judgments, beliefs about maternal responsibility, and maternal role idealization. In the second study, we used the AToM to assess the relationship between maternal attitudes and other psychological variables. The factor structure of the measure was confirmed. Maternal attitudes predicted symptoms of depression and anxiety, and these attitudes had incremental predictive validity over general cognitive biases and interpersonal risk factors. Overall, the results of these studies suggest that maternal attitudes are related to psychological distress among first-time mothers during the transition to parenthood and may provide a useful means of identifying women who may benefit from intervention during the perinatal period. PMID:24643422

  19. Paternal and Maternal Transition to Parenthood: The Risk of Postpartum Depression and Parenting Stress.

    PubMed

    Epifanio, Maria Stella; Genna, Vitalba; De Luca, Caterina; Roccella, Michele; La Grutta, Sabina

    2015-05-25

    Transition to parenthood represents an important life event increasing vulnerability to psychological disorders. Postpartum depression and parenting distress are the most common psychological disturbances and a growing scientific evidence suggests that both mothers and fathers are involved in this developmental crisis. This paper aims to explore maternal and paternal experience of transition to parenthood in terms of parenting distress and risk of postpartum depression. Seventy-five couples of first-time parents were invited to compile the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form in the first month of children life. Study sample reported very high levels of parenting distress and a risk of postpartum depression in 20.8% of mothers and 5.7% of fathers. No significant correlation between parenting distress and the risk of postpartum depression emerged, both in mothers than in fathers group while maternal distress levels are related to paternal one. The first month after partum represents a critical phase of parents life and it could be considered a developmental crisis characterized by anxiety, stress and mood alterations that could have important repercussions on the child psycho-physical development. PMID:26266033

  20. Pre-and Postpartum Sex Steroids in Female Marmosets (Callithrix kuhlii): Is There a Link with

    E-print Network

    French, Jeffrey A.

    Pre- and Postpartum Sex Steroids in Female Marmosets (Callithrix kuhlii): Is There a Link Recent studies in primates have suggested that pre- and peripartum sex steroid hormones may be important; prepartum; postpar- tum; sex steroids; infant survival; maternal behavior. Mammalian maternal caregiving

  1. Associations between prenatal nicotine exposure, oxidative stress, and postpartum visceral fat.

    PubMed

    Loy, See-Ling; Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the associations among prenatal nicotine exposure, oxidative stress, and postpartum visceral fat among women exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS). The study was conducted in Kelantan, Malaysia, from April 2010 to December 2012. Blood samples were collected in the second and third trimesters from 135 healthy pregnant women who were followed-up at delivery, 2 months, 6 months and 12 months postpartum. Maternal hair nicotine and oxidative stress markers during pregnancy were measured. Visceral fat was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that maternal hair nicotine concentration was associated with increased DNA damage (tail moment: ?=0.580, p=0.001) and decreased glutathione peroxidase (?=-12.100; p=0.009) in the second trimester of pregnancy. Increased DNA damage, protein oxidation and total antioxidant capacity in the second trimester were associated with 2, 6, and 12 months postpartum visceral fat. No direct association was found between prenatal hair nicotine level and postpartum visceral fat; however, these results suggest that any relation of SHS to visceral adiposity may be indirect, mediated via enhanced oxidative stress. PMID:24329183

  2. Paternal and Maternal Transition to Parenthood: The Risk of Postpartum Depression and Parenting Stress

    PubMed Central

    Epifanio, Maria Stella; Genna, Vitalba; De Luca, Caterina; Roccella, Michele; La Grutta, Sabina

    2015-01-01

    Transition to parenthood represents an important life event increasing vulnerability to psychological disorders. Postpartum depression and parenting distress are the most common psychological disturbances and a growing scientific evidence suggests that both mothers and fathers are involved in this developmental crisis. This paper aims to explore maternal and paternal experience of transition to parenthood in terms of parenting distress and risk of postpartum depression. Seventy-five couples of first-time parents were invited to compile the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form in the first month of children life. Study sample reported very high levels of parenting distress and a risk of postpartum depression in 20.8% of mothers and 5.7% of fathers. No significant correlation between parenting distress and the risk of postpartum depression emerged, both in mothers than in fathers group while maternal distress levels are related to paternal one. The first month after partum represents a critical phase of parents life and it could be considered a developmental crisis characterized by anxiety, stress and mood alterations that could have important repercussions on the child psycho-physical development. PMID:26266033

  3. MICROARRAY ANALYSIS OF GENE EXPRESSION IN ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLANDS FROM ANESTROUS AND CYCLING POSTPARTUM BEEF COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oligionucleotide microarrays (GeneChip Bovine Genome Arrays, Affymetrix Inc., Santa Clara, CA) were used to evaluate gene expression profiles in anterior pituitary glands collected from four anestrous and four cycling postpartum beef cows. Anestrous cows were slaughtered 40 to 61d after calving at ...

  4. Comprehensive Treatment of Women with Postpartum Psychosis across Health Care Systems from Swedish Psychiatrists' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engqvist, Inger; Ahlin, Arne; Ferszt, Ginette; Nilsson, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    Studies concerning the psychiatrist's experiences of treating women with postpartum psychosis (PPP) or how they react to these women are limited in the literature. In this study a qualitative design is used. Data collection includes semi-structured interviews with nine Swedish psychiatrists working in psychiatric hospitals. The audio-taped…

  5. INFLUENCE OF FEVER AND METABOLIC DISORDERS ON MILK YIELD AND REPRODUCTION IN POSTPARTUM COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field trial was conducted to monitor body temperature and identify metabolic disorders (MD) on 135 Holstein cows (42 primiparous and 93 multiparous) for 7 d postpartum (PP). Effects of fever and MD on reproductive performance and subsequent milk production (November through July) of cows were dete...

  6. ARGININE FLUX AND NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION DURING HUMAN PREGNANCY AND POSTPARTUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To compare second-trimester, third-trimester, and postpartum arginine flux and nitric oxide production using infusions of the stable isotope L-[(15)N(2)]-arginine in normal human gestation, kinetic measurements were made in pregnant volunteers with uncomplicated singleton gestations in mid gestation...

  7. Mediators of the Association of Major Depressive Syndrome and Anxiety Syndrome with Postpartum Smoking Relapse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correa-Fernandez, Virmarie; Ji, Lingyun; Castro, Yessenia; Heppner, Whitney L.; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Costello, Tracy J.; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Velasquez, Mary M.; Greisinger, Anthony; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Based on conceptual models of addiction and affect regulation, this study examined the mechanisms linking current major depressive syndrome (MDS) and anxiety syndrome (AS) to postpartum smoking relapse. Method: Data were collected in a randomized clinical trial from 251 women who quit smoking during pregnancy. Simple and multiple…

  8. Antepartum and Postpartum Exposure to Maternal Depression: Different Effects on Different Adolescent Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Dale F.; Pawlby, Susan; Waters, Cerith S.; Sharp, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Background: Postpartum depression (PPD) is considered a major public health problem that conveys risk to mothers and offspring. Yet PPD typically occurs in the context of a lifelong episodic illness, and its putative effects might derive from the child's exposure to other episodes, in pregnancy or later childhood. The aim of the study is to test…

  9. Prevalence and risk factors for postpartum depression symptoms among women with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Monika; Iezzoni, Lisa I; Zhang, Jianying; Long-Bellil, Linda M; Smeltzer, Suzanne C; Barton, Bruce A

    2015-02-01

    The adverse consequences of postpartum depression on the health of the mother and her child are well documented. However, there is little information on postpartum depression among mothers with disabilities. This study examines the patterns of depression and depressive symptoms before, during and after pregnancy and the association between depression before and during pregnancy and postpartum depression symptomatology (PPD) among women with and without disabilities. Data from the 2009-2011 Rhode Island Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) were analyzed in 2013. Almost 30% (28.9%; 95% CI 22.8-35.8) of mothers with disabilities reported often or always feeling down, depressed or sad after childbirth compared to 10% of those without disabilities (95% CI 8.9-11.3). Compared to other women in the study, women with disabilities had a greater likelihood for PPD symptoms (RR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.2) after accounting for sociodemographics, maternal characteristics related to PPD, and depression before and during pregnancy. Adjusting for other covariates, self-reported prenatal diagnosis of depression was not associated with symptoms of PPD and depression during pregnancy was marginally associated with PPD symptomatology for women with disabilities. Women with disabilities are at a greater risk of experiencing symptoms of postpartum depression than other women. Screening for PPD among new mothers with disabilities and timely referral of those with PPD diagnosis are vital to the health of mothers with disabilities and their children. PMID:24889114

  10. Does ß-hydroxybutyrate concentration influence conception date in young postpartum range beef cows?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cows in negative energy balance after calving often have reduced reproductive performance, which is mediated by metabolic signals. The objective of these studies was to determine the association of serum metabolites, days to first postpartum ovulation, milk production, cow BW change, BCS, and calf ...

  11. Reducing Postpartum Weight Retention and Improving Breastfeeding Outcomes in Overweight Women: A Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Julia; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Hure, Alexis; Smith, Roger; Collins, Clare E

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity is prevalent among women of reproductive age (42% BMI > 25 kg/m2) and parity is associated with risk of weight gain. Weight gain greater than that recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM )is also associated with lower rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration in women. The aim of this pilot randomised controlled trial is to examine the feasibility of recruiting and maintaining a cohort of pregnant women with the view of reducing postpartum weight retention and improving breastfeeding outcomes. Women (BMI of 25–35 kg/m2 (n = 36)) were recruited from the John Hunter Hospital antenatal clinic in New South Wales, Australia. Participants were stratified by BMI and randomised to one of three groups with follow-up to six months postpartum. Women received a dietary intervention with or without breastfeeding support from a lactation consultant, or were assigned to a wait-list control group where the dietary intervention was issued at three months postpartum. Feasibility and acceptability was assessed by participation rates and questionnaire. Analysis of variance and covariance was conducted to determine any differences between groups. Sixty-nine per cent of the participants were still enrolled at six months postpartum. This pilot demonstrated some difficulties in recruiting women from antenatal clinics and retaining them in the trial. Although underpowered; the results on weight; biomarkers and breastfeeding outcomes indicated improved metabolic health. PMID:25723973

  12. EFFECT OF MASTITIS AND POSTPARTUM METABOLIC DISEASES ON LACTATION PERSISTENCY OF HOLSTEIN AND JERSEY COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of clinical mastitis (CM) and post-partum metabolic disease (PPMD) on persistency of milk yield (P) in Holstein (H) and Jersey (J) cows. Data consisted of daily milk yields and health events for 59 H and 27 J calving between July, 2004 and ...

  13. Identification of indicator traits of fertility in the postpartum beef cow

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproductive failure is the primary reason that a beef cow leaves the production herd; however, the low heritability of reproductive traits makes identification of genetic markers for fertility difficult. Postpartum interval is a moderately heritable trait that influences fertility because cows that...

  14. Residential Substance Abuse Treatment for Pregnant and Postpartum Women and Their Children: Treatment and Policy Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, H. Westley

    2001-01-01

    Analyzed data from a cross-site evaluation of 24 federally funded residential treatment projects for substance-abusing pregnant and postpartum women with children. Found benefits at 6 months of treatment included improvements in infant mortality and morbidity, treatment retention and completion rates, and behavioral changes in participating…

  15. Intractable Postpartum Hemorrhage Resulting from Uterine Artery Pseudoaneurysm: Superselective Arteriographic Embolization via the Collateral Route

    SciTech Connect

    Doenmez, Halil Oztuerk, M. Halil; Guergen, Fatma; Soylu, Serra O.; Hekimoglu, Baki

    2007-04-15

    We present a patient with intractable postpartum hemorrhage resulting from uterine artery pseudoaneurysm despite bilateral hypogastric artery ligation who was successfully treated by an endovascular approach via the collateral route. Although there is a good argument for postponing surgery until transcatheter embolization has been attempted, this case shows that embolization can still be successful even if the iliac vessels have been ligated.

  16. Depression Prevalence and Incidence among Inner-City Pregnant and Postpartum Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobfoll, Stevan E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Financially impoverished inner city women (n=192) were assessed for clinical depression twice during pregnancy and once postpartum. The rates of depression are about double those found for middle-class samples, and there were no racial differences. Heightened risk for antepartum depression was found among single women with no cohabitating partner.…

  17. Postpartum Depression among Rural Women from Developed and Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villegas, Laura; McKay, Katherine; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Ross, Lori E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a significant public health problem, with significant consequences for the mother, infant, and family. Available research has not adequately examined the potential impact of sociodemographic characteristics, such as place of residence, on risk for PPD. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis…

  18. Not Just a Middle-Class Affliction: Crafting a Social Work Research Agenda on Postpartum Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Laura S.; Curran, Laura

    2007-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a major mental health disorder that affects at least 13 percent of new mothers and has detrimental consequences for populations that are of concern to social workers, such as low-income women, women of color, young women, and single mothers. Despite the relevance of PPD to multiple social work problems and…

  19. Perceptions and Satisfaction with Father Involvement and Adolescent Mothers' Postpartum Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jay; Lee, Yookyong

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations between adolescent mothers' postpartum depressive symptoms and their perceptions of amount of father care giving and satisfaction with father involvement with the baby. The sample included 100 adolescent mothers (ages 13-19; mainly African-American and Latina) whose partners were recruited for a randomized…

  20. Social Support, Infant Temperament, and Parenting Self-Efficacy: A Mediational Model of Postpartum Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Troutman, Beth R.

    1986-01-01

    Infant temperamental difficulty was strongly related to mothers' level of postpartum depression, both directly and through the mediation of parenting self-efficacy. Social support appeared to function protectively against depression, primarily through self-efficacy. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed. (Author/RH)

  1. Differential gene expression in anterior pituitary glands from anestrous and cycling postpartum beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oligionucleotide microarrays (GeneChip Bovine Genome Arrays, Affymetrix Inc., Santa Clara, CA) were used to evaluate gene expression profiles in anterior pituitary glands collected from 4 anestrous and 4 cycling postpartum primiparous beef cows to provide insight into genes associated with transitio...

  2. Stress During Gestation Alters Postpartum Maternal Care and the Development of the Offspring in a

    E-print Network

    Champagne, Frances A.

    that environmental adversity can alter parental care and thus influence child development. We addressed the question of environmental adversity on child development. In support of this idea are findings that indicateStress During Gestation Alters Postpartum Maternal Care and the Development of the Offspring

  3. Postpartum Depression Prevention for Reservation-Based American Indians: Results from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Barlow, Allison; Goklish, Novalene; Hastings, Ranelda; Baker, Elena Varipatis; Mullany, Britta; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Walkup, John

    2012-01-01

    Background: Postpartum depression is a devastating condition that affects a significant number of women and their offspring. Few preventive interventions have targeted high risk youth, such as American Indians (AIs). Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of a depression prevention program for AI adolescents and young adults. Methods: Expectant AI…

  4. Effects of feeding high-linoleate safflower seeds on postpartum reproduction in beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate reproductive responses to supplemental high-linoleate safflower seeds in postpartum beef cows. In Exp. 1, 18 primiparous, crossbred beef cows (BW 411 ± 24.3 kg) were fed Foxtail millet hay at 1.68% of BW (DM basis) and either a low-fat control (Control: 63...

  5. Influence of breed on postpartum interval and estrous cycle length in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Before genetic markers can be generated for fertility in beef cows, greater characterization of reproductive phenotypes is needed to understand the components of reproductive efficiency. The present study tested the hypotheses that 1) breeds vary in postpartum interval (PPI) and estrous cycle length...

  6. Predictors of postpartum glucose tolerance testing in italian women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Capula, Carmelo; Chiefari, Eusebio; Vero, Anna; Iiritano, Stefania; Arcidiacono, Biagio; Puccio, Luigi; Pullano, Vittorio; Foti, Daniela; Brunetti, Antonio; Vero, Raffaella

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum screening is critical for early identification of type 2 diabetes in women previously diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Nevertheless, its rate remains disappointingly low. Thus, we plan to examine the rate of postpartum glucose tolerance test (ppOGTT) for Italian women with GDM, before and after counseling, and identify demographic, clinical, and/or biochemical predictors of adherence. With these aims, we retrospectively enrolled 1159 women with GDM, in Calabria, Southern Italy, between 2004 and 2011. During the last year, verbal and written counseling on the importance of followup was introduced. Data were analyzed by multiple regression analysis. A significant increase of the return rate was observed following introduction of the counseling [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 5.17 (95% CI, 3.83-6.97), P < 0.001]. Interestingly, previous diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) emerged as the major predictor of postpartum followup [AOR 5.27 (95% CI, 3.51-8.70), P < 0.001], even after stratification for the absence of counseling. Previous diagnosis of GDM, higher educational status, and insulin treatment were also relevant predictors. Overall, our data indicate that counseling intervention is effective, even if many women fail to return, whereas PCOS represents a new strong predictor of adherence to postpartum testing. PMID:23956870

  7. Pathways to Violence in the Children of Mothers Who Were Depressed Postpartum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Dale F.; Pawlby, Susan; Angold, Adrian; Harold, Gordon T.; Sharp, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    The impact of postnatal depression on a child's risk for violent behavior was evaluated in an urban British community sample (N=122 families). Mothers were interviewed during pregnancy, at 3 months postpartum, and when the child was 1, 4, and 11 years of age. Mothers, teachers, and children reported on violent symptoms at age 11. Structural…

  8. Childhood Sexual Abuse as a Predictor of Birth-Related Posttraumatic Stress and Postpartum Posttraumatic Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Daphna-Tekoah, Shir; Hallak, Mordechai

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the extent to which childbirth may function as a retraumatization of childhood sexual abuse, and may exacerbate postpartum posttraumatic stress reactions. Methods: Data was obtained from a convenience sample of 837 women in mid-pregnancy, at 2 and 6 months following childbirth. Three groups were drawn from this sample:…

  9. Prenatal and Postpartum Maternal Psychological Distress and Infant Development: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Dawn; Tough, Suzanne; Whitfield, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Infant development plays a foundational role in optimal child development and health. Some studies have demonstrated an association between maternal psychological distress and infant outcomes, although the main emphasis has been on postpartum depression and infant-maternal attachment. Prevention and early intervention strategies would benefit from…

  10. Risk Factors for Postpartum Hemorrhage in Vaginal Deliveries in a Latin-American Population

    PubMed Central

    Sosa, Claudio G.; Althabe, Fernando; Belizán, José M.; Buekens, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify risk factors for immediate postpartum hemorrhage after vaginal delivery in a South-American population. METHODS This was a prospective cohort study including all vaginal births (n=11,323) between October-December 2003 and October-December 2005 from 24 maternity units in two South-American countries: Argentina and Uruguay. Blood loss was measured in all births using a calibrated receptacle. Moderate postpartum hemorrhage and severe postpartum hemorrhage were defined as blood loss of at least 500 ml and at least 1,000 ml, respectively. RESULTS Moderate and severe postpartum hemorrhage occurred in 10.8% and 1.9% of deliveries, respectively. The risk factors more strongly associated and the incidence of moderate postpartum hemorrhage in women with each of these factors were: retained placenta (33.3%) (adjusted odds ratio – aOR: 6.02; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.50–10.36); multiple pregnancy (20.9%) (aOR:4.67; CI 2.41–9.05); macrosomia (18.6%) (aOR:2.36; CI 1.93–2.88), episiotomy (16.2%) (aOR:1.70; CI 1.15–2.50); and need for perineal suture (15.0%) (aOR:1.66; CI 1.11–2.49). Active management of third stage of labor, multiparity and a low birth weight baby, were found to be protective factors. Severe postpartum hemorrhage was associated with retained placenta (17.1%)(aOR:16.04; CI 7.15–35.99), multiple pregnancy (4.7%)(aOR:4.34; CI 1.46–12.87), macrosomia (4.9%)(aOR:3.48; CI 2.27–5.36), induced labor (3.5%)(aOR:2.00; CI 1.30–3.09), and need for perineal suture (2.5%) (aOR:2.50; CI 1.87–3.36). CONCLUSION Many of the risk factors for immediate postpartum hemorrhage in this South-American population are related to complications of the second and third stage of labor. PMID:19461428

  11. Understanding the factors affecting the postpartum depression in the mothers of Isfahan city

    PubMed Central

    Mazaheri, Maryam Amidi; Rabiei, Leili; Masoudi, Reza; Hamidizadeh, Saeid; Nooshabadi, Mohammad Reza Rashidi; Najimi, Arash

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: Depression is one of the most common and specific problems during pregnancy and after it. Maternal postpartum depression compromises mother's health and affects social relationship, and has negative effect on infant development. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of postpartum depression and its related factors in Isfahanian mothers. Materials and Methods: This is a cross - sectional study. The study populations were 133 women who at the last 8-4 weeks of labor referred to Isfahan health centers. Demographic information and obstetric and Beck Depression Inventory were applied. Three categories emerged according to the degree of scale: Mild, moderate, and severe depression. Statistical analysis was used with the Pearson correlation and linear regression in SPSS version 18. Results: A total of 73 mothers had mild depression (10-19) and 56 had moderate depressions (20-29). Among the factors related to depression such as maternal education, financial status, unwanted pregnancy, premenstrual syndrome, and maternal occupational history, there was a significant correlation with postpartum depression (P > 0.05). Variables in the regression analysis include maternal education, financial status, unwanted pregnancy, history of premenstrual syndrome, maternal occupation, type of delivery, history of miscarriage, and having a satisfaction with baby gender. And, a total of 27.7% variance explains the postpartum depression. Among these factors, the predictive variables of maternal education, type of delivery, financial condition, unwanted pregnancy, premenstrual syndrome, and maternal occupational history were significant in the meantime; the prediction of unplanned pregnancy was more than other variables (ß = 0.24). Conclusions: With attention to factors associated with postpartum depression, the healthcare planner will help to better manage the problem. The results of this study will help to better understand the factors influencing mothers in the labor process, and mothers in the labor process, experiences minimum mental health disorders. PMID:25077158

  12. Abydos in the Late Period: an epigraphic and prosopographic study

    E-print Network

    Leahy, Michael Anthony

    1978-02-07

    that its loca­ tion was rediscovered. 3 In the wake of the French survey in the early nineteenth century, 4 it became one of the principal targets of the 5 treasure hunters such as Anastasi, d'Athanasi, Drovetti and Passalacqua, 1. A. Piankoff, BSAC 15...

  13. Late Quaternary mammalian zoogeography of eastern Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyman, R. Lee; Livingston, Stephanie D.

    1983-11-01

    The late Quaternary mammalian zoogeographic history of eastern Washington as revealed by archaeological and paleontological research conforms to a set of past environmental conditions inferred from botanical data. During the relatively cool and moist late Pleistocene and early Holocene, Cervus cf. elaphus, Ovis canadensis, Vulpes vulpes, Martes americana, Alopex lagopus, and perhaps Rangifer sp., taxa with ecological preferences for mesic steppe habitats, were present in the now xeric Columbia Basin. As the climate became progressively warmer and drier during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene, Antilocapra americana, Onychomys leucogaster, Spermophilus townsendii, and Neotoma cinerea, taxa with ecological preferences for xeric steppe habitats, appear in the Columbia Basin. Bison sp. and Taxidea taxus may have been present in eastern Washington for the last 20,000 yr. Middle and late Holocene records for Oreamnos americanus, Spermophilus columbianus, S. townsendii, Lagurus curtatus, and Urocyon cinereoargenteus in central eastern Washington suggest fluctuations in the ranges of these taxa that conform to a middle Holocene period of less effective precipitation and a ca. 3500-yr-old period of more effective precipitation before essentially modern environmental conditions prevailed.

  14. Oxytocin receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell are involved in the consolidation of maternal memory in postpartum rats

    E-print Network

    Sokolowski, Marla

    to respond maternally until the pups are weaned at about 3­4 weeks postpartum (Numan, 1994; Rosenblatt, 1987). Maternal memory likely occurs in a number of species. This has been demonstrated in rabbits

  15. The Late Triassic and Late Jurassic stress fields and tectonic transmission of North China craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Guiting; Wang, Yanxin; Hari, K. R.

    2010-09-01

    The transmission of the tectonic regime from the Paleo-Asian Ocean to the Pacific Ocean during Mesozoic era was reconstructed using the modeling of Late Triassic (T 3) and Late Jurassic (J 3) stress fields employing two dimensional linear finite element models (2-D FEM). The model at T 3 proposes that Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogens coevally collided and the model J 3 proposes that Subei block continued to collide with the North China block along the Sulu orogen while the collision of the Qinling-Dabie orogen was terminated. The stress fields at T 3 and J 3 during the two episodes were calculated based on mechanical conditions under different deviatoric stresses acting along the boundaries of the North China craton by elastic finite modeling. The transmission between two episodes of stress fields resulted from Qinling-Dabie-Sulu collision between North China and South China in the Late Triassic period, and from continued collision between the Subei block and North China by the NW-trending movement of Izanagi plate during Late Jurassic. The results from modeling of the Mesozoic stress fields of the North China suggest that late Jurassic was the key transmission period of the tectonic regime of the North China block when large scale thrusting triggered the subsequent destruction of the North China craton.

  16. Influence of late gestation drylot rations differing in protein degradability and fat content on beef cow and subsequent calf performance.

    PubMed

    Wilson, T B; Faulkner, D B; Shike, D W

    2015-12-01

    Spring-calving, mature cows ( = 191 total) and their progeny were used to evaluate the effects of late gestation drylot rations differing in RUP and fat content on cow performance as well as performance and carcass characteristics of subsequent progeny. Cows were blocked by BW and anticipated calving date and assigned to 16 pens. Pens were randomly allotted to 1 of 2 treatments: limit-fed corn coproducts and ground cornstalks (COP; TDN = 64.4%, CP = 11.1%, RDP = 60.2% of CP, and fat = 5.1%) or limit-fed ground mixed, cool-season grass hay (HY; TDN = 55.7%, CP = 9.5%, RDP = 86.0% of CP, and fat = 2.3%). Treatments were limit fed as isocaloric, isonitrogenous rations from 88 ± 11 d prepartum to calving. All cows were fed a common diet postpartum. Cow BW and BCS were collected at the beginning of the feeding period, within 48 h after calving, and at breeding. Calf BW was collected at birth and at 64 ± 11 and 124 ± 11 d of age. Milk production was determined using the weigh-suckle-weigh technique at 64 ± 11 and 124 ± 11 d postpartum. At 124 ± 11 d of age, steers ( = 68) and nonreplacement heifer calves ( = 25) were weaned and placed on a common feedlot diet with individual feed intake monitored using GrowSafe. Feedlot calves were slaughtered at a commercial facility 35 ± 10 d after a minimum ultrasound 12-rib fat thickness estimation of 0.9 cm. After calving, cow BW was greater ( < 0.01) and BCS was greater ( < 0.01) for cows fed COP than for cows fed HY. Calf birth BW was greater ( = 0.04) for those born to cows fed COP with no difference ( = 0.43) in percentage of unassisted births across treatment. Cows fed HY were lighter ( < 0.01) at breeding with lower BCS ( = 0.03); nevertheless, overall pregnancy rate was not different ( = 0.80). No differences ( ? 0.22) in milk production were detected. For feedlot progeny, initial feedlot BW, final BW, and days on feed were not different ( ? 0.23), and as a result, no difference ( = 0.21) in feedlot ADG was detected. Feedlot DMI and G:F were not different ( ? 0.19) across treatments. Feedlot calf health was monitored with no differences ( ? 0.68) in morbidity and mortality observed. No differences ( ? 0.27) were detected for HCW, LM area, backfat, marbling score, yield grade, or KPH. Increased dietary RUP and fat content during late gestation increased cow BW and BCS but did not alter milk production, subsequent reproduction, or subsequent calf performance or carcass characteristics. PMID:26641192

  17. Potential Cost-Effectiveness of Prenatal Distribution of Misoprostol for Prevention of Postpartum Hemorrhage in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Lubinga, Solomon J.; Atukunda, Esther C.; Wasswa-Ssalongo, George; Babigumira, Joseph B.

    2015-01-01

    Background In settings where home birth rates are high, prenatal distribution of misoprostol has been advocated as a strategy to increase access to uterotonics during the third stage of labor to prevent postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). Our objective was to project the potential cost-effectiveness of this strategy in Uganda from both governmental (the relevant payer) and modified societal perspectives. Methods and Findings To compare prenatal misoprostol distribution to status quo (no misoprostol distribution), we developed a decision analytic model that tracked the delivery pathways of a cohort of pregnant women from the prenatal period, labor to delivery without complications or delivery with PPH, and successful treatment or death. Delivery pathway parameters were derived from the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey. Incidence of PPH, treatment efficacy, adverse event and case fatality rates, access to misoprostol, and health resource use and cost data were obtained from published literature and supplemented with expert opinion where necessary. We computed the expected incidence of PPH, mortality, disability adjusted life years (DALYs), costs and incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs). We conducted univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses to examine robustness of our results. In the base-case analysis, misoprostol distribution lowered the expected incidence of PPH by 1.0% (95% credibility interval (CrI): 0.55%, 1.95%), mortality by 0.08% (95% CrI: 0.04%, 0.13%) and DALYs by 0.02 (95% CrI: 0.01, 0.03). Mean costs were higher with prenatal misoprostol distribution from governmental by US$3.3 (95% CrI: 2.1, 4.2) and modified societal (by US$1.3; 95% CrI: -1.6, 2.8) perspectives. ICERs were US$191 (95% CrI: 82, 443) per DALY averted from a governmental perspective, and US$73 (95% CI: -86, 256) per DALY averted from a modified societal perspective. Conclusions Prenatal distribution of misoprostol is potentially cost-effective in Uganda and should be considered for national-level scale up for prevention of PPH. PMID:26560140

  18. The effect of a single oxytocin or carbetocin treatment on uterine contractility in early postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bajcsy, Arpád Csaba; Szenci, Ottó; van der Weijden, Gijsbert C; Doornenbal, Arie; Maassen, Francesca; Bartyik, János; Taverne, Marcel A M

    2006-01-20

    The uterotonic characteristics and effectiveness of a single treatment with either oxytocin or carbetocin were quantified in early postpartum dairy cows after normal, uncomplicated calvings. Both the short-term (within 4 h), and the long-term effects (between 12 and 36 h) of the two treatments were compared. Between 14 and 16 h after parturition, 27 multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows, without fetal membrane retention, were selected and divided into three groups. The first group (n = 9) was administered 50 IU oxytocin intramuscularly, the second group (n = 10) received 0.35 mg carbetocin, while animals of the third group (n = 8), serving as a control, were administered 5 mL saline solution. A transcervically introduced open tip catheter system was used for the non-invasive acquisition of the intrauterine pressure (IUP) recording. After digitalization, the signals were analyzed, using a specially adapted graphical software program. A significant short-term effect was found both in the oxytocin and carbetocin treated groups from the analysis of the contraction frequencies (FREQ) and of the total area under the curve (TAUC). After significant peaking during the first post-treatment hour, the values of the parameters for these two groups remained higher during the second hour, returning to the initial levels again during the third hour and reaching the level of the control group by the 12th hour. Mean amplitude (AMP), duration (DUR) and area under the curve (AUC) of pressure cycles were not significantly affected by any of the treatments. Although mean FREQ and TAUC significantly declined from the initial values to 12, 24 and 36 h in all groups, mean AMP and AUC in the oxytocin and carbetocin treated groups, and mean DUR only in the carbetocin treated group to 12 and 36 h, the long-term analysis revealed no significant treatment differences for any IUP parameters. Because treatment with either oxytocin, or carbetocin elicited similar uterotonic effects in healthy, early postpartum cows, it cannot be expected, that using carbetocin in preference to oxytocin, will result in a more beneficial clinical effect on uterine involution during this period. PMID:15993938

  19. Antepartum or immediate postpartum renal biopsies in preeclampsia/eclampsia of pregnancy: new morphologic and clinical findings

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lei; Yang, Zhiling; Li, Kailong; Zou, Jiaqun; Li, Hongmei; Han, Jian; Zhou, Lijuan; Liu, Xiaojie; Zhang, Xin; Zheng, Yingru; Yu, Lili; Li, Li

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia (PE) and eclampsia remain leading causes of maternal and fetal mortality worldwide. The kidney is considered the first and most severely affected organ in women with PE/eclampsia. In this study, we analyzed new morphologic features of kidney biopsies and clinical findings in patients with PE or eclampsia at our hospital. Methods: Eight patients with PE/eclampsia underwent renal biopsies during the antepartum (3/8) or postpartum (5/8) period. Maternal clinical findings, major serological indices, neonatal outcomes, and renal histopathologic and immunofluorescent characteristics were reviewed for each case. Results: Most patients had abnormal serum cholesterol (8/8), triglyceride (6/8), albumin (7/8), and uric acid (5/8). The ratio of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) to serum creatinine (SCr) was elevated in all patients. Five of eight newborns survived. Various degrees of morphologic change were present in the renal glomeruli, and were associated with proteinuria. All patients had deposition of complement factor 4 (C4) in the renal glomeruli and seven had deposition of immunoglobulin M (IgM). Conclusion: Endotheliosis, vacuolation of podocytes, proliferation of mesangial cells, and protein casts in the tubule lumens were found in the kidneys of women with PE/eclampsia. Immune depositions of C4 and IgM are major contributors to renal lesions in preeclamptic patients, whose neonates can generally survive. Eclampsia can occur without increased blood pressure. PMID:25197387

  20. Menses, fertility and pregnancy following the use of balloon tamponade technology in the management of postpartum haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, Christos

    2014-06-01

    This manuscript describes five cases of pregnancies and births in women that have previously required the uterine-specific Bakri™ balloon in the management of postpartum haemorrhage. In addition, this manuscript reviews the impact on menses, fertility and subsequent pregnancies as potential surrogate effects on the myometrium and endometrium, when balloon tamponade technology is used as a 'uterine-sparing' second-line approach in the management of postpartum haemorrhage. PMID:24506416

  1. Bio-psycho-socio-demographic and Obstetric Predictors of Postpartum Depression in Pregnancy: A prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahi, Fatemeh; Rohani, Samad; Sazlina, Ghazali Shariff; Zarghami, Mehran; Azhar, Md Zain; Lye, Munn Sann; Rezaiee Abhari, Farideh; Majidi, Zohreh; Mozafari, Soghra

    2014-01-01

    Objective: There are various attempts to confirm variables that could predict postpartum depression in advance. This study determined antenatal risk factors for postpartum depression in women at risk of developing this disorder. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted with 2279 eligible women who attended at Mazandaran province’ primary health centers from 32-42 weeks of pregnancy to eighth postpartum weeks. The women were screened for symptoms of depression using the Iranian version of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. An Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of > 12 indicated possible postpartum depression. Univariate and multiple logistic regression models were used for data analysis. Results: A total of 2083women during 32-42 weeks of gestation participated in this study and were followed up to 8-week postpartum. Four hundred and three (19.4%) mothers yielded scores above the threshold of 12. Depression and general health state in pregnancy based on Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (OR = 1.35, CI = 1.3-1.4) and General Health Questionnaire-28 (OR = 1.03, CI = 1.01-1.04), respectively were significant independent antenatal risk factors of depression symptoms at 8-week postpartum. Mothers who lived in nuclear families (OR = 1.38, CI = 1.04-1.84), whose husbands had lower educational status (OR = 0.95, CI = 0.91-0.99), and with delayed prenatal care (OR = 1.01, CI = 1.001-1.03) were more susceptible to postpartum depression. Conclusion: A comprehensive antenatal assessment focused on psychiatric problems, environmental and obstetric factors would benefit pregnant women in the prevention of postpartum depression. PMID:25053953

  2. Association of postpartum maternal tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine administration and timeliness of infant immunization.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ishminder; George, Krissa J; Pena-Ricardo, Carolina; Kelly, Barbara A; Watson, Barbara

    2013-11-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted on infants of mothers delivering at an inner-city hospital in October 2009 where postpartum maternal tetanus toxoid, reduced diptheria toxoid and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination had been initiated in May 2008. We compared mothers and infants in a Tdap intervention group discharged July 2008 (n=250) with a pre-Tdap control group discharged July 2007 (n=238). Postpartum maternal Tdap impacted positively timeliness of early infant immunization. PMID:23694833

  3. Short communication: Concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and ?-hydroxybutyrate in dairy cows are not well correlated during the transition period.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, M M; Mann, S; Nydam, D V; Overton, T R; McArt, J A A

    2015-09-01

    The objective was to use longitudinal data of blood nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations to describe the relationship between NEFA and BHBA in dairy cows during the periparturient period. Blood NEFA and BHBA concentration data collected from d 21 prepartum to 21 postpartum for 269 multiparous Holstein cows were selected from 4 different studies carried out within our research groups. Overall, NEFA concentrations were increased beginning near parturition with a relatively steady elevation of NEFA through d 9, after which concentrations gradually decreased. Prepartum BHBA concentrations began to increase beginning several days before parturition, continued to increase during the first week after parturition, and remained elevated through d 21 postpartum. Of the 269 cows included in the data set, 117 cows (43.5%) had at least one postpartum hyperketonemic event (BHBA ?1.2mmol/L), and 202 cows (75.1%) had at least one event of elevated postpartum NEFA concentrations (?0.70mmol/L) between 3 and 21 d in milk. Area under the curve (AUC) was used to investigate relationships between metabolites over time. Overall, the correlations between transition period NEFA and BHBA AUC were weak. We detected a negative correlation between prepartum BHBA AUC and postpartum NEFA AUC (r=-0.26). A positive correlation existed between postpartum NEFA AUC and postpartum BHBA AUC; however, the correlation coefficient was low (r=0.26). Large variation was found between the day of maximum NEFA concentration within the first 21 d in milk and day of maximum BHBA concentration for the same period. The mean and median times of maximum NEFA concentration were 6.8 and 6 d, respectively, whereas the mean and median times of maximum BHBA were 9.6 and 8 d, respectively; however, the range in days for both the mean and median day of maximum concentrations was very large. Overall, our data set indicates a weak relationship between blood concentrations of NEFA and BHBA during the periparturient period of dairy cows, suggesting that elevated concentrations of one should not be extrapolated to suggest elevated concentrations of the other metabolite. PMID:26188575

  4. Effect of lactation on maternal postpartum cardiac function and adiposity - a murine model

    PubMed Central

    POOLE, Aaron T.; VINCENT, Kathleen L.; OLSON, Gayle L.; PATRIKEEV, Igor; SAADE, George R.; STUEBE, Alison; BYTAUTIENE, Egle

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Lactation is associated with reduction in maternal metabolic disease and hypertension later in life; however, findings in humans may be confounded by socioeconomic factors. We sought to determine the independent contribution of lactation on cardiovascular parameters and adiposity in a murine model. STUDY DESIGN Following delivery, CD-1 female mice were randomly divided into two groups: lactated (L, nursed pups for 3 weeks, n=10), and nonlactated (NL, pups were removed after birth, n=12). Blood pressure (BP) was assessed prepregnancy and at 1 and 2 months postpartum. Visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) determined by computed tomography, and left ventricular ejection fraction (EF), cardiac output (CO) and the E/A ratio determined by micro-ultrasound were evaluated at 1 and 2 months postpartum. Results were analyzed using Student’s t-test (significance: P<0.05). RESULTS We observed a significantly different maternal BP at 2 months postpartum with relatively greater BP in NL (systolic BP: NL 122.2±7.2 vs L 96.8±9.8 mmHg; P=0.04; diastolic BP NL 87.0±6.8 vs L 65.9±6.2 mmHg; P=0.04). VAT was significantly increased in NL mice at 1 (22.0±4.1 vs 10.7±1.8 %, P=0.04) and 2 months postpartum (22.9±3.5 vs 11.2±2.2 %, P=0.02), while SAT did not differ between the groups. At 2 months postpartum, EF (51.8±1.5 vs 60.5±3.8%; P=0.04), CO (14.2±1.0 vs 18.0±1.3ml/min; P=0.02) and MV E/A (1.38±0.06 vs 1.82±0.13; P=0.04) were significantly lower in NL mice than L mice. CONCLUSION Our data provide evidence that interruption of lactation adversely affects postpartum maternal cardiovascular function and adiposity. PMID:24905416

  5. Breastfeeding Practices During the First Month Postpartum and Associated Factors: Impact on Breastfeeding Survival

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Forough; Mousavi, Seyed Abbas; Chaman, Reza; Wambach, Karen Ann; Mortazavi, Saideh Sadat; Khosravi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: The introduction of fluids to infants during the first days postpartum, which may be harmful to infant health, is a common practice in Iran. Objectives: This study aimed to find the prevalence of breastfeeding practices using monthly dietary recall and factors associated with introduction of fluids during the first month of life and determine the effects of these supplementations on breastfeeding survival. Patients and Methods: This longitudinal study carried out in Shahroud, Iran from May 2011 to October 2013. Using convenient sampling strategy, 358 mothers in their third trimester of pregnancy were enrolled in the study and completed the questionnaires. Then the data regarding the introduction of fluids during first month postpartum was collected. We followed women monthly up to breastfeeding cessation. Kaplan-Meier and time-to-event methods were used to assess breastfeeding survival. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to identify the variables that determined breastfeeding practices at the first month postpartum. The Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the effect of variables on breastfeeding survival. Results: The prevalence of exclusive, predominant, and partial breastfeeding during the first month postpartum were 33.1%, 58.2%, and 8.6%, respectively. Predominant breastfeeding was associated with the lack of breastfeeding experience (OR = 1.93; 95% CI [1.02 - 3.66]). Partial breastfeeding was associated with the maternal age ? 30 y (OR = 5.96; CI [1.66 - 21.37]), family income higher than the mean (OR = 3.39; 95% CI [1.17 - 9.81]), and breastfeeding difficulties score higher than mean (OR = 3.09; 95% CI [1.10 - 8.71]). The Cox regression analysis revealed that breastfeeding practices at the first month was associated with an increased risk for breastfeeding discontinuation. The hazard ratio of breastfeeding discontinuation for predominant and partial breastfeeding groups were 1.11 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.51; P = 0.49) and 2.23 (95% CI: 1.39, 3.58; P = 0.001), respectively compared to the exclusive group. Conclusions: The prevalence of predominant breastfeeding during the first month postpartum is high in Shahroud. Interventions to strengthen adherence to WHO guidelines for breastfeeding should be considered. Breastfeeding education providers at the hospitals should emphasize the effects of formula on breastfeeding continuation at early postpartum. PMID:26023352

  6. Substance Use in the Perinatal Period.

    PubMed

    Forray, Ariadna; Foster, Dawn

    2015-11-01

    Perinatal substance use remains a major public health problem and is associated with a number of deleterious maternal and fetal effects. Polysubstance use in pregnancy is common and can potentiate adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Tobacco is the most commonly used substance in pregnancy, followed by alcohol and illicit substances. The treatments for perinatal substance use are limited and consist mostly of behavioral and psychosocial interventions. Of these, contingency management has shown the most efficacy. More recently, novel interventions such as progesterone for postpartum cocaine use have shown promise. The purpose of this review is to examine the recent literature on the use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, stimulants, and opioids in the perinatal period, their effects on maternal and fetal health, and current treatments. PMID:26386836

  7. Late Babylonian Astrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, John M.

    The last five centuries BC saw the development of several new forms of astrology in Babylonia. Key to these new astrological techniques was the invention of the zodiac in about 400 BC. These new forms of astrology include personal horoscopes, astral medicine, and the exploitation of geometrical relationships between the position of heavenly bodies. Several Late Babylonian astrological doctrines were later adopted within Greek astrology.

  8. Postpartum Prolapsed Leiomyoma with Uterine Inversion Managed by Vaginal Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Pieh-Holder, Kelly L.; DeVente, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Uterine inversion is a rare, but life threatening, obstetrical emergency which occurs when the uterine fundus collapses into the endometrial cavity. Various conservative and surgical therapies have been outlined in the literature for the management of uterine inversions. Case. We present a case of a chronic, recurrent uterine inversion, which was diagnosed following spontaneous vaginal delivery and recurred seven weeks later. The uterine inversion was likely due to a leiomyoma. This late-presenting, chronic, recurring uterine inversion was treated with a vaginal hysterectomy. Conclusion. Uterine inversions can occur in both acute and chronic phases. Persistent vaginal bleeding with the appearance of a prolapsing fibroid should prompt further investigation for uterine inversion and may require surgical therapy. A vaginal hysterectomy may be an appropriate management option in select populations and may be considered in women who do not desire to maintain reproductive function. PMID:25379314

  9. Late Cenozoic Moisture History of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trauth, M. H.; Maslin, M. A.; Deino, A.; Strecker, M. R.

    2004-12-01

    Evidence from fluvio-lacustrine sediments in ten separate basins in the Ethiopian and Kenya rifts suggests there were three protracted humid periods during the Late Cenozoic; at 2.7 - 2.5, 1.9 - 1.7, and 1.1 - 0.9 million years before present. These wet periods are coeval with known increases of aridity in parts of North West and North East Africa, indicating significant regional shifts in African climate. These three East African wet periods correspond to major global climatic changes as well as maxima in eccentricity and thus precession, suggesting a combined global and local causation. These climatic changes were important for the speciation and dispersal of mammals and hominids in East Africa as it implies that key steps in human evolution occurred during relatively humid periods in a region containing extensive deep lakes.

  10. TOMATO AND POTATO LATE BLIGHT

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    TOMATO AND POTATO LATE BLIGHT ALERT WHAT EVERY GROWER NEEDS TO KNOW ABOUT TOMATO AND POTATO LATE.potatodiseases.org #12;This year the disease known as late blight has affected many tomato and potato crops throughout days. The disease can spread from tomato to potato plants and to surrounding gardens and commercial

  11. Misoprostol for postpartum hemorrhage prevention at home birth: an integrative review of global implementation experience to date

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hemorrhage continues to be a leading cause of maternal death in developing countries. The 2012 World Health Organization guidelines for the prevention and management of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) recommend oral administration of misoprostol by community health workers (CHWs). However, there are several outstanding questions about distribution of misoprostol for PPH prevention at home births. Methods We conducted an integrative review of published research studies and evaluation reports from programs that distributed misoprostol at the community level for prevention of PPH at home births. We reviewed methods and cadres involved in education of end-users, drug administration, distribution, and coverage, correct and incorrect usage, and serious adverse events. Results Eighteen programs were identified; only seven reported all data of interest. Programs utilized a range of strategies and timings for distributing misoprostol. Distribution rates were higher when misoprostol was distributed at a home visit during late pregnancy (54.5-96.9%) or at birth (22.5-83.6%), compared to antenatal care (ANC) distribution at any ANC visit (22.5-49.1%) or late ANC visit (21.0-26.7%). Coverage rates were highest when CHWs and traditional birth attendants distributed misoprostol and lower when health workers/ANC providers distributed the medication. The highest distribution and coverage rates were achieved by programs that allowed self-administration. Seven women took misoprostol prior to delivery out of more than 12,000 women who were followed-up. Facility birth rates increased in the three programs for which this information was available. Fifty-one (51) maternal deaths were reported among 86,732 women taking misoprostol: 24 were attributed to perceived PPH; none were directly attributed to use of misoprostol. Even if all deaths were attributable to PPH, the equivalent ratio (59 maternal deaths/100,000 live births) is substantially lower than the reported maternal mortality ratio in any of these countries. Conclusions Community-based programs for prevention of PPH at home birth using misoprostol can achieve high distribution and use of the medication, using diverse program strategies. Coverage was greatest when misoprostol was distributed by community health agents at home visits. Programs appear to be safe, with an extremely low rate of ante- or intrapartum administration of the medication. PMID:23421792

  12. Effects of postpartum anxiety disorders and depression on maternal self-confidence.

    PubMed

    Reck, Corinna; Noe, Daniela; Gerstenlauer, Jakob; Stehle, Eva

    2012-04-01

    Low maternal self-confidence may damage the early mother-infant relationship and negatively influence infant development. The goal of this study was to test whether a current and previous history of DSM-IV anxiety and depressive disorders is associated with maternal self-confidence two weeks after delivery. Postpartum anxiety disorder and depression was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria in a community sample of 798 women. The data showed a significant link between current postpartum anxiety and depressive disorders and maternal self-confidence. Furthermore, women with a depression or anxiety disorder in their previous psychiatric history scored lower in maternal self-confidence. There is a need for appropriate preventive programmes to promote maternal self-confidence. With such programmes it is possible to prevent infant developmental disorders which might result from reduced feelings of maternal self-confidence and associated maternal interaction behaviour. PMID:22261433

  13. Postpartum patient with congenital patent ductus arteriosus mimicking acute pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Tung-Chen; Liu, Chun-Peng; Tseng, Ching-Jiunn; Liou, Jau-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    A 25-year-old woman presented with severe dyspnoea at an emergency care unit on her postpartum day 7. Her O2 saturation level was low. Blood tests showed a high blood D-dimer level; echocardiography showed a high pulmonary artery pressure. Initially, heparin was administered for suspicion of pulmonary embolism. After transfer to the intensive care unit, she suffered respiratory failure. A three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction CT angiography then revealed a giant patent ductus arteriosus. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was performed owing to low O2 saturation after ventilator use. After 1?month, she died of multiple organ failure. In postpartum patients with congenital heart disease, a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism should be immediately confirmed by 3D reconstruction CT angiography to rule out patent ductus arteriosus. PMID:23608837

  14. Factors Influencing Uptake of Intrauterine Devices among Postpartum Adolescents: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    WESTON, Melissa R. S.; MARTINS, Summer L.; NEUSTADT, Amy B.; GILLIAM, Melissa L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective We assessed barriers and facilitators to uptake of the intrauterine device (IUD) among primiparous African American adolescent mothers. Study Design Twenty participants who expressed IUD desire completed 4–5 qualitative interviews during the first postpartum year as part of a larger longitudinal study. Transcripts were analyzed for salient themes using a grounded theory approach to content analysis. Results Twelve participants did not obtain IUDs and instead used condoms, used no method, or intermittently used hormonal methods, resulting in 3 repeat pregnancies. Outdated IUD eligibility requirements, long wait times, lack of insurance coverage and fear of IUD-related side effects precluded or delayed uptake. Facilitators to IUD uptake included strong recommendations from providers or family members, planning for IUD during pregnancy, and perceived reproductive autonomy. Conclusions Postpartum adolescents may reduce their risk of rapid repeat pregnancy by using IUDs. Providers and members of adolescents’ support networks can be instrumental in method adoption. PMID:21903193

  15. Predictors of post-partum weight retention in a prospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Martin, Julia Elizabeth; Hure, Alexis Jayne; Macdonald-Wicks, Lesley; Smith, Roger; Collins, Clare Elizabeth

    2014-10-01

    Post-partum weight retention (WR) occurs in 60-80% of women with some retaining ?10?kg with contributing factors reported as pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain (GWG) and breastfeeding. A longitudinal study of pregnancy, with 12-month post-partum follow-up was conducted to determine factors associated with WR. Pregnant women (n?=?152) were recruited from the John Hunter Hospital antenatal clinic in New South Wales, Australia. Pre-pregnancy weight was self-reported; weight was measured four times during pregnancy (for GWG) and in the first 12 months post-partum. Infant feeding data were obtained via questionnaires. Breastfeeding was categorised as exclusive, predominant, complementary or not breastfeeding. Linear mixed models tested the predictors of WR, with and without adjustment for potential confounders. Compared with pre-pregnancy weight, 68% of women retained weight at 12 months, median (interquartile range) [4.5?kg (2.1-8.9)]. After adjustment, GWG was positively associated with WR (P?post-partum weight loss. Whether these factors are modifiable strategies to optimise the weight status of women at this life stage requires further research. PMID:22974518

  16. Perinatal Dyadic Psychotherapy for postpartum depression: a randomized controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Janice H; Prager, Joanna; Goldstein, Richard; Freeman, Marlene

    2015-06-01

    An integrated approach addressing maternal depression and associated mother-infant relationship dysfunction may improve outcomes. This study tested Perinatal Dyadic Psychotherapy (PDP), a dual-focused mother-infant intervention to prevent/decrease maternal postpartum depression and improve aspects of the mother-infant relationship related to child development. Women recruited from hospital postpartum units were screened using a three-stage process. Forty-two depressed first-time mothers and their 6-week-old infants were enrolled and randomized to receive the PDP intervention or usual care plus depression monitoring by phone. The intervention consisted of eight home-based, nurse-delivered mother-infant sessions consisting of (a) supportive, relationship-based, mother-infant psychotherapy, and (b) a developmentally based infant-oriented component focused on promoting positive mother-infant interactions. Data collected at baseline, post-intervention, and three-month follow-up included measures of maternal depression, anxiety, maternal self-esteem, parenting stress, and mother-infant interaction. Depression and anxiety symptoms and diagnoses decreased significantly, and maternal self-esteem increased significantly across the study time frame with no between-group differences. There were no significant differences between groups on parenting stress or mother-infant interaction at post-intervention and follow-up. No participants developed onset of postpartum depression during the course of the study. PDP holds potential for treating depression in the context of the mother-infant relationship; however, usual care plus depression monitoring showed equal benefit. Further research is needed to explore using low-intensity interventions as a first step in a stepped care approach and to determine what subset of at-risk or depressed postpartum mothers might benefit most from the PDP intervention. PMID:25522664

  17. Postpartum Teens’ Breakfast Consumption is Associated with Snack and Beverage Intake and Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Cynthia; Budd, Elizabeth L; Yount, Byron W; Lapka, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Addressing high risk dietary patterns among postpartum teens may help reduce weight retention and prevent intergenerational obesity. The objective of this study was to describe the relationship between breakfast consumption and outcomes of snack and beverage intake and body mass index (BMI) among postpartum teens. During 2007–2009, 1,330 postpartum teens across 27 states participated in a cross-sectional, baseline assessment of a group-randomized, nested cohort study. Participants were enrolled in the Parents as Teachers Teen Program and completed a seven-day recall of breakfast, snack and beverage consumption. BMI was calculated from heights and weights obtained by on-site staff. Sample descriptives were compared across breakfast consumption frequency groupings by one-way analysis of variance tests or chi-square tests. General Linear Models assessed relationships between breakfast consumption and measures of snack and sweetened beverage intake, water consumption, and BMI-for-age percentile. Almost half (42%) of the sample consumed breakfast fewer than two days per week. Those who ate breakfast six to seven days per week consumed 1,197 fewer calories per week from sweet and salty snacks, 1,337 fewer calories per week from sweetened drinks, and had a lower BMI compared to those who ate breakfast fewer than two days per week (p<.05). Consumption of fruit, vegetables, milk, water and cereal as a snack were higher among regular breakfast consumers (p<.05). While breakfast consumption among postpartum teens is low, those who regularly consume breakfast had healthier snacking behaviors and weight. Interventions are needed to encourage breakfast consumption among teen mothers. PMID:21185974

  18. Postpartum teens' breakfast consumption is associated with snack and beverage intake and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Haire-Joshu, Debra; Schwarz, Cynthia; Budd, Elizabeth; Yount, Byron W; Lapka, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Addressing high-risk dietary patterns among postpartum teens may help reduce weight retention and prevent intergenerational obesity. The objective of this study was to describe the relationship between breakfast consumption and outcomes of snack and beverage intake and body mass index (BMI) among postpartum teens. During 2007-2009, 1,330 postpartum teens across 27 states participated in a cross-sectional, baseline assessment of a group-randomized, nested cohort study. Participants were enrolled in the Parents as Teachers Teen Program and completed a 7-day recall of breakfast, snack, and beverage consumption. BMI was calculated from heights and weights obtained by on-site staff. Sample descriptives were compared across breakfast consumption frequency groupings by one-way analysis of variance tests or ?² tests. General linear models assessed relationships between breakfast consumption and measures of snack and sweetened beverage intake, water consumption, and BMI-for-age percentile. Almost half (42%) of the sample consumed breakfast fewer than 2 days per week. Those who ate breakfast 6 to 7 days/week consumed 1,197 fewer kilocalories per week from sweet and salty snacks, 1,337 fewer kilocalories per week from sweetened drinks, and had a lower BMI compared to those who ate breakfast fewer than 2 days per week (P < 0.05). Consumption of fruit, vegetables, milk, water, and cereal as a snack were higher among regular breakfast consumers (P < 0.05). Although breakfast consumption among postpartum teens is low, those who regularly consume breakfast had healthier snacking behaviors and weight. Interventions are needed to encourage breakfast consumption among teen mothers. PMID:21185974

  19. Laparoscopic Bipolar Coagulation of Hypogastric Artery in Postpartum Haemorrhage: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Panuccio, Enrico; Volpi, Eugenio; Ferrero, Annamaria; Sismondi, Piero

    2011-01-01

    Background. Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a significant contributor to worldwide maternal morbidity and mortality. When PPH continues despite aggressive medical treatment, early consideration should be given to surgical intervention. Various surgical interventions may be used but conservative interventions are recommended primarily. Case. This case report describes laparoscopic coagulation of hypogastric artery technique in a patient with PPH. Conclusions. Laparoscopic ligature of the hypogastric artery for PPH treatment can be a valid alternative to laparotomy in patients with vaginal delivery. PMID:22567499

  20. Laparoscopic bipolar coagulation of hypogastric artery in postpartum haemorrhage: a case report.

    PubMed

    Panuccio, Enrico; Volpi, Eugenio; Ferrero, Annamaria; Sismondi, Piero

    2011-01-01

    Background. Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a significant contributor to worldwide maternal morbidity and mortality. When PPH continues despite aggressive medical treatment, early consideration should be given to surgical intervention. Various surgical interventions may be used but conservative interventions are recommended primarily. Case. This case report describes laparoscopic coagulation of hypogastric artery technique in a patient with PPH. Conclusions. Laparoscopic ligature of the hypogastric artery for PPH treatment can be a valid alternative to laparotomy in patients with vaginal delivery. PMID:22567499

  1. Effect of postpartum practices of doing the month on Chinese women's physical and psychological health.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan Qun; Maloni, Judith A; Petrini, Marcia A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe Chinese women's postpartum physiological and psychological health and adherence to "doing-the-month" practices. A descriptive repeated measures design was used, with data collected at 3 days and 6 weeks postpartum. The convenience sample consisted of 198 healthy childbearing women with a term birth. Maternal physical health was measured by the Six-Minute Walk (endurance), Chair Stand test (muscle strength), severity of physical symptoms, and physical health subscales of SF36v2. Maternal psychological health was measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression scale. Adherence was measured by the Adherence to Doing-the-Month Practices questionnaire. Aerobic endurance and lower-body muscle strength improved significantly across time (p < .001) but remained suboptimal for maternal age. Women who delivered by Cesarean section had significantly poorer physical health than those who had a vaginal delivery. Physical functioning significantly increased, but general health and role limitations due to physical health significantly decreased over time. Postpartum physical symptoms decreased in number and severity. Depression increased over time (p < .001). Adherence to doing the month was negatively correlated with aerobic endurance and positively correlated with depression at 6 weeks (p < .05). These findings challenge the assumption that practices of doing the month are healthy for Chinese women's recovery after childbirth. Research-based evidence needs to be integrated into doing-the-month practices. Education of Chinese women and families, whether living at home or abroad, is needed about the adverse health effects of doing the month. Routine screening for postpartum depression is also advised. PMID:23132403

  2. Postpartum smoking cessation and relapse prevention intervention: a structural equation modeling application to behavioral and non-behavioral outcomes of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Röske, K; Schumann, A; Hannöver, W; Grempler, J; Thyrian, J R; Rumpf, H-J; John, U; Hapke, U

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the study was to test the effectiveness of a postpartum smoking cessation and relapse prevention intervention. Structural equation modeling techniques were applied to evaluate the impact of the intervention on smoking behavior and on non-behavioral variables derived from the Transtheoretical Model (TTM). Women were randomized to an intervention (I) and control group (C). Smoking status, TTM-variables, and control variables were assessed four weeks, six and 12 months postpartum. Membership in the intervention group significantly predicted non-smoking and higher self-efficacy six months, but not one year postpartum, after controlling for demographic, smoking, and postpartum risk variables. PMID:18420764

  3. Postpartum depression screening by telephone: a good alternative for public health and research.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Felipe Pinheiro de; Parada, Ana Paula; Cardoso, Viviane Cunha; Batista, Rosângela Fernandes Lucena; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da; Barbieri, Marco Antônio; Cavalli, Ricardo de Carvalho; Bettiol, Heloisa; Del-Ben, Cristina Marta

    2015-06-01

    This study verified the reliability and validity of the Edinburg Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) administered by telephone interviews. In a cross-sectional study of a cohort from Brazil (BRISA), the EPDS was administered by telephone to 1,083 women within 12 months postpartum, and 257 (23.7 %) participants had an EPDS score ?10. At 67?±?48 days after their telephone interview, 199 (EPDS ?10?=?96; EPDS <10?=?103) participants were interviewed face-to-face using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) and completed the EPDS again by self-report. In 90 participants, the diagnosis of major depressive episode was confirmed by the SCID (EPDS ?10?=?65; EPDS <10?=?25). The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.861. The Spearman's correlation between the EPDS administered by telephone and the self-reported EPDS was 0.69 (p?postpartum depression. PMID:25380783

  4. Expectant Fathers’ Intuitive Parenting: Associations with Parent Characteristics and Postpartum Positive Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Altenburger, Lauren E.; Settle, Theresa A.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.; Sullivan, Jason M.; Bower, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined expectant fathers’ intuitive parenting behavior, its correlates, and its associations with fathers’ postpartum positive engagement. One hundred eighty-two expectant couples completed the Prenatal Lausanne Trilogue Play in the third trimester of pregnancy. Coders rated expectant fathers’ and mothers’ intuitive parenting behavior during this procedure. Expectant parents also completed surveys regarding their psychological and demographic characteristics. At 3 months postpartum, fathers completed time diaries that assessed the time they spent in developmentally appropriate positive engagement activities with their infants. Examination of correlates of expectant fathers’ intuitive parenting behavior revealed that expectant fathers showed lower levels of these behaviors than expectant mothers, that intuitive parenting behavior was moderately positively associated for mothers and fathers, and that individual differences in expectant fathers’ intuitive parenting behavior were associated with parent demographic and psychological characteristics. In particular, expectant fathers showed greater intuitive parenting behavior when they had greater human capital and more progressive beliefs about parent roles, and when their partners had lower parenting self-efficacy. Findings also indicated that expectant fathers’ greater intuitive parenting behavior was predictive of fathers’ greater subsequent engagement in developmentally appropriate activities at 3 months postpartum, but only when expectant mothers demonstrated low levels of intuitive parenting behavior. PMID:25798492

  5. Carbetocin vs. Syntometrine in Prevention of Postpartum Hemorrhage: a Double Blind Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Samimi, Mansoureh; Imani-Harsini, Azam; Abedzadeh-Kalahroudi, Masoumeh

    2013-01-01

    Background Postpartum hemorrhage is a signi?cant cause of maternal mortality and morbidity, worldwide. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy between carbetocin and syntometrine in prevention of postpartum hemorrhage. Materials and Methods This study was a double blind randomized clinical trial that carried out on 200 pregnant women referred to Shabiehkhani maternity center of Kashan, during 2011. The first group received intramuscular syntometrine and the second group received intramuscular carbetocin after placental delivery. All of the participants were followed for 24 hours and blood pressure, pulse rate, uterine tone, hemoglobin concentration at first and 24 hours after delivery, and the need for additional uterotonic drugs and drug side effects were evaluated. Finally all data were analyzed using t-test, chi square tests and logistic regression. Results The mean fall in hemoglobin level in the carbetocin group was significantly lower than the syntometrine group (P < 0.001). Also there were significant differences between the two groups, regarding additional uterotonic drug requirements (P = 0.002). Moreover systolic blood pressure and uterine tone immediately and 30 minutes after drug administration were significantly different (P < 0.001). Incidence rate of tachycardia in the carbetocin group was 13%, in contrast to 5% in the syntometrine group (P = 0.04). Conclusions This study revealed that carbetocin is more effective than syntometrine in prevention of postpartum hemorrhages. Thus it can be used as a good alternative of syntometrine for low-risk women. PMID:24616793

  6. How Can We Increase Postpartum Glucose Screening in Women at High Risk for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus?

    PubMed Central

    Korpi-Hyövälti, Eeva; Laaksonen, David E.; Schwab, Ursula; Heinonen, Seppo; Niskanen, Leo

    2012-01-01

    Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at increased risk for diabetes mellitus but postpartum followup is problematic for frequent nonattendance. Our aim was to increase coverage of postpartum oral glucose tolerance tests (ppOGTTs) and examine associated factors. This was a prospective observational study of altogether 266 high-risk women for GDM from 2005 to 2008 in four Finnish municipalities. The groups were as follows: women (n = 54) who had previously participated in early pregnancy lifestyle intervention study and high-risk women (n = 102) from the same municipalities studied within one-year after delivery. Furthermore, in two neighboring municipalities nurses were reminded to perform a ppOGTT on high-risk women (n = 110). The primary outcome was the prevalence of ppOGTT performed and associated factors. Overall the ppOGTT was performed in 35.7% of women. Only 14.7% of women returned for testing to health care centers, 30.9% after a reminder in municipalities, and 82.5% to the central hospital, respectively. The most important explaining factor was a special call or reminder from the central hospital (OR 13.4 (4.6–38.1), P < 0.001). Thus, additional reminders improved communication between primary care and secondary care and more attention to postpartum oral glucose testing in primary care are of great importance. PMID:22536233

  7. Effects of Online Self-Regulation Activities on Physical Activity Among Pregnant and Early Postpartum Women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Kyung; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Graham, Meredith; Olson, Christine; Gay, Geri

    2015-10-01

    Physical and psychological changes that occur during pregnancy present a unique challenge for women's physical activity. Using a theory-based prospective design, this study examines the effects of pregnant women's (a) physical activity cognitions (self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and safety beliefs) and (b) online self-regulation activities (goal-setting and self-monitoring) on subsequent changes in their physical activity intentions and behavior during pregnancy and immediately postpartum. The authors used data from three panel surveys administered to pregnant women enrolled in a web-based intervention to promote healthy pregnancy and postpartum weight, as well as log data on their use of self-regulatory features on the intervention website. Perceived self-efficacy and perceived safety of physical activity in pregnancy enhanced subsequent intentions to be physically active. Repeated goal-setting and monitoring of those goals helped to maintain positive intentions during pregnancy, but only repeated self-monitoring transferred positive intentions into actual behavior. Theoretically, this study offers a better understanding of the roles of self-regulation activities in the processes of goal-striving. The authors also discuss practical implications for encouraging physical activity among pregnant and early postpartum women. PMID:26132887

  8. What are postpartum women doing while the rest of the world is asleep?

    PubMed

    McBean, Amanda L; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E

    2015-06-01

    Large individual differences characterize maternal postpartum sleep and adjustment. Our goal was to explore aspects of mothers' nocturnal environments and behaviours that may explain differences in postpartum adjustment. A total of 201 mothers of infants aged 0-6 months completed an online survey with demographics, number and duration of nocturnal awakenings, caretaking behaviours, environment and nocturnal activities during 'one typical night during the past week'. Mothers reported 2.9 [standard deviation (SD) ± 1.7] nocturnal awakenings, each lasting 33.9 (SD ± 22.5) min. Infant age was related inversely to duration but unrelated to number of awakenings. Falling asleep while feeding was less frequent among exclusively formula-feeders. Among the entire sample, mothers used a cellphone (59%), backlit tablet (25%), TV (20%) and computer (16%) during nocturnal awakenings. Watching TV and using a computer were each associated with longer nocturnal awakenings. Eighty-nine per cent of women used ?1 extra light source during nocturnal awakenings: night light (35%), light from a cracked door (28%), desk lamp (25%), electronic device (19%) or room light (14%). Light source(s) was unrelated to number or duration of nocturnal awakenings. These data suggest that, although supplemental light sources were not associated with awakenings, TV and computer use accounted for longer awakenings. Feeding method and technology use may help to explain individual differences in postpartum adjustments and may be targets for more effective interventions. PMID:25431167

  9. Madres para la Salud: Design of a Theory-based Intervention for Postpartum Latinas

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Colleen; Records, Kathie; Ainsworth, Barbara; Belyea, Michael; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean; Vega-López, Sonia; Nagle-Williams, Allison

    2011-01-01

    Background Weight gain in young women suggests that childbearing may be an important contributor to the development of obesity in women. Depressive symptoms can interfere with resumption of normal activity levels following childbirth or with the initiation of or adherence to physical activity programs essential for losing pregnancy weight. Depression symptoms may function directly to promote weight gain through a physiologic mechanism. Obesity and its related insulin resistance may contribute to depressed mood physiologically. Although physical activity has well-established beneficial effects on weight management and depression, women tend to under participate in physical activity during childbearing years. Further, the mechanisms underpinning the interplay of overweight, obesity, physical activity, depression, and inflammatory processes are not clearly explained. Objectives This report describes the theoretical rationale, design considerations, and cultural relevance for “Madres para la Salud” [Mothers for Health]. Design and Methods Madres para la Salud is a 12 month prospective, randomized controlled trial exploring the effectiveness of a culturally specific intervention using “bouts” of physical activity to effect changes in body fat, systemic and fat tissue inflammation, and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary postpartum Latinas. Summary The significance and innovation of Madres para la Salud includes use of a theory-driven approach to intervention, specification and cultural relevance of a social support intervention, use of a Promotora model to incorporate cultural approaches, use of objective measures of physical activity in post partum Latinas women, and the examination of biomarkers indicative of cardiovascular risk related to physical activity behaviors in postpartum Latinas. PMID:21238614

  10. Development and psychometric testing of the Chinese Postnatal Risk Factors Questionnaire (CPRFQ) for postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaoyu; Lu, Jun; Shi, Shenxun; Wang, Ximei; Zhao, Rui; Yan, Yuan; Chen, Gang

    2015-04-01

    This article describes the development and psychometric assessment of the Chinese Postnatal Risk Factors Questionnaire (CPRFQ). There were four phases in this process: (1) the items were generated using a literature review and a focus group, (2) content validity was evaluated by an expert panel, (3) a pilot study was conducted with 45 postpartum women to refine the scale, and (4) a convenience sample of 256 postpartum women in China was recruited to complete the questionnaire. Construct validity was established by exploratory factor analysis; a four-factor structure of the scale was accepted (social and family, personality and relationship, mother and infant, maternal feelings and 'doing the month'). These factors explained 47.46 % of the variance. Pearson's correlation coefficient was conducted to test convergent validity with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) (r?=?0.54; p?postpartum mothers. PMID:25142052

  11. Investigation of the effect of religious doctrines on religious knowledge and attitude and postpartum blues in primiparous women

    PubMed Central

    Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Mokhtaryan, Tahereh; Amooee, Sedigheh; Moshfeghy, Zeinab; Zare, Najaf

    2015-01-01

    Background: Postpartum blues is a transient change of moods occurring in the first few days after delivery. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of religious doctrines on postpartum blues in primiparous women. Materials and Methods: In this randomized controlled tria1, 84 primiparous women who had average or weak religious attitude were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. In the intervention group, religious doctrines were instructed from 20th to 28th weeks of gestation through 6 weekly sessions of 60–90 min each. The control group, however, just received the routine care. Spielberger's anxiety scale and the questionnaires assessing religious knowledge and attitude were completed by both groups before, immediately after, and 1–2 months after the intervention. Also, postpartum blues were evaluated by Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) 10 days after delivery. Then, the data were analyzed using Chi-square, paired t-test, independent t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: The results showed postpartum blues in 59.5% of the study participants. Besides, the results of independent t-test revealed a statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding the mean score of postpartum blues (P = 0.036). Although the intervention group's knowledge and attitude scores were higher than those of the control group, no significant difference was found between the two groups regarding the correlation coefficient between postpartum blues and religious knowledge (P = 0.088) and religious attitude (P = 0.7). Conclusions: The results of the study show that instruction of religious doctrines was effective in increasing the religious knowledge and attitudes and reducing the postpartum blues. PMID:26457094

  12. Prevalence and risk factors for postpartum depressive symptoms in Argentina: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Mathisen, Siv Elin; Glavin, Kari; Lien, Lars; Lagerløv, Per

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Postpartum depression is a prevalent disorder with negative consequences for women, infants, and the family as a whole. Most studies of this disorder have been conducted in Western countries, and studies from developing countries are few. In this paper, we report the first – as far as we are aware – study of the prevalence and risk factors associated with postpartum depressive symptoms in Argentina. Materials and methods The study participants were 86 women attending 6 week checkups, (range 4–12 weeks) postpartum at a private health care center in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires. The women completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and a questionnaire collecting demographic and obstetric data. Data were described as proportions (percentages). Differences between proportions were assessed with chi-squared tests. To control for possible confounders, we fitted bivariate logistic regression models in which the dependent variable was an EPDS sum score of <10 versus a score of ?10. Results We found a high prevalence of depressive symptoms. A total of 32 women (37.2%) had an EPDS score of ?10, 16 (18.6%) had a score between 10 and 12, and 16 (18.6%) had a score of ?13. In our sample, an EPDS score of ?10 was significantly associated with multiparity (odds ratio [OR] =3.58; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13–11.30; P=0.030), pregnancy complications (OR =3.40; 95% CI: 1.03–11.26; P=0.045), labor complications (OR =11.43; 95% CI: 1.71–76.61; P=0.012), cesarean section (OR =4.19; 95% CI: 1.10–16.01; P=0.036), and incomplete breast-feeding (OR =5.00; 95% CI: 1.42–17.54; P=0.012). Conclusion Our results indicate that postpartum depression may be prevalent in Argentina, and may be associated with incomplete breast-feeding, cesarean section, perinatal complications and multiparity. The prevalence and risk factors for postpartum depression has not been described previously and is a considerable health-related problem among women. Argentinian health professionals should be aware of the high prevalence rate and possible risk factors so that these women and families can be identified and receive adequate support and treatment. PMID:24294009

  13. Effects of supplementation during late gestation on goat performance and behavior under rangeland conditions.

    PubMed

    Luna-Orozco, J R; Meza-Herrera, C A; Contreras-Villarreal, V; Hernández-Macías, N; Angel-Garcia, O; Carrillo, E; Mellado, M; Véliz-Deras, F G

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of peripartum feed supplementation on doe and kid BW and BCS, milk yield and composition, serum metabolites, and maternal-neonatal behavior under rangeland conditions in northern Mexico. Adult does ( = 23) were randomly assigned to 3 nutritional plane groups: 1) goats supplemented (500 g of concentrate [18% CP/kg DM, 2.7 Mcal/kg DM, and 2% salt]) from 15 d prepartum to 7 d postpartum (G15; = 8), 2) the same supplementation as G15 but from 35 d before until 7 d after kidding (G35; = 8), and 3) nonsupplemented does (GC; = 7). Supplemented goats differed from GC goats in BW (48 ± 1.8, 46.1 ± 2.5, and 44.9 ± 2.3 kg; < 0.05), milk yield (1.8 ± 0.1, 1.9 ± 0.2, and 1.2 ± 0.1 kg at d 15 postpartum; < 0.01), kid birth weights (3.8 ± 0.2, 3.6 ± 0.2, and 3.4 ± 0.2 kg; < 0.05), and kid BW at 15 d after birth (6.9 ± 0.2, 6.6 ± 0.2, and 5.6 ± 0.2 kg; < 0.05) for the G35, G15, and GC, respectively. Serum concentrations for total protein, glucose, and cholesterol were not affected ( > 0.05) by treatments. Milk of GC goats showed increased ( < 0.05) percentages for fat, protein, lactose, and nonfat milk solids, whereas total quantities of these variables where higher ( < 0.05) in the G15 and G35 groups. Furthermore, GC dams spent more time seeking their offspring and emitted more low-pitched bleats 4 h postpartum ( < 0.05) in a 2-choice test compared with the G15 and G35 groups. In general, peripartum supplementation promoted a closer dam-kid relationship at 8 h postpartum. Goat performance may be improved in this semiarid region of Mexico with marginal production through supplementation in late gestation. PMID:26440195

  14. A new Late Carboniferous Pangea reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, X.

    2014-12-01

    Paleomagnetically reconstructed Laurasia and Gondwana are well satisfied. However, the Pangea reconstruction remains controversial. The Late Triassic-Early Jurassic reconstruction, Pangea A, is consistent with one derived by closure of the Atlantic Ocean. As going back to older Period, the Pangea A reconstruction cannot stand. Particularly, the Late Carboniferous and Permian reconstruction, Pangea B, placed Gondwana ~3500 km eastward relative to its Pangea A configuration. This might indicate that the super continent was tectonically evolving during the period. For instance, an intra Pangean megashear zone has been proposed to show the evolution from Pangea B to Pangea A. On the other hand, researchers suspected that the Pangea B reconstruction is not accurate, because of several factors, i.e., the effect of persistent, large non-dipole field, remagnetization, errors in paleomagnetic record (inclination shallowing), and so on. To test the effect of inclination shallowing on the Pangea reconstruction, we here focus on the Late Carboniferous time, because, the Laurasian poles are mainly from volcanic rocks, and the Gondwana poles dominantly from sediments. This makes the test rather simple. Assuming a flattening factor of 0.5, we corrected the paleomagnetic inclinations of the Late Carboniferous results from Gondwana, and the inclination-corrected poles are thus achieved. The mean Laurasia and Gondwana poles can largely be accommodated by closure of the Atlantic Ocean, and the remaining offset may be solved by a ~15 degree relative rotation between the two continents. Relative rotation is often observed during continental collision (e.g., the collision between the North and South China blocks, the India-Asia collision, and so on), and more likely than the large scale shear. Our test indicates that Pangea B is probably the artifact of paleomagnetic inclination shallowing in sedimentary rocks.

  15. Antimicrobial Protein and Peptide Concentrations and Activity in Human Breast Milk Consumed by Preterm Infants at Risk of Late-Onset Neonatal Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Trend, Stephanie; Strunk, Tobias; Hibbert, Julie; Kok, Chooi Heen; Zhang, Guicheng; Doherty, Dorota A.; Richmond, Peter; Burgner, David; Simmer, Karen; Davidson, Donald J.; Currie, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We investigated the levels and antimicrobial activity of antimicrobial proteins and peptides (AMPs) in breast milk consumed by preterm infants, and whether deficiencies of these factors were associated with late-onset neonatal sepsis (LOS), a bacterial infection that frequently occurs in preterm infants in the neonatal period. Study design Breast milk from mothers of preterm infants (?32 weeks gestation) was collected on days 7 (n = 88) and 21 (n = 77) postpartum. Concentrations of lactoferrin, LL-37, beta-defensins 1 and 2, and alpha-defensin 5 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The antimicrobial activity of breast milk samples against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus agalactiae was compared to the activity of infant formula, alone or supplemented with physiological levels of AMPs. Samples of breast milk fed to infants with and without subsequent LOS were compared for levels of AMPs and inhibition of bacterial growth. Results Levels of most AMPs and antibacterial activity in preterm breast milk were higher at day 7 than at day 21. Lactoferrin was the only AMP that limited pathogen growth >50% when added to formula at a concentration equivalent to that present in breast milk. Levels of AMPs were similar in the breast milk fed to infants with and without LOS, however, infants who developed LOS consumed significantly less breast milk and lower doses of milk AMPs than those who were free from LOS. Conclusions The concentrations of lactoferrin and defensins in preterm breast milk have antimicrobial activity against common neonatal pathogens. PMID:25643281

  16. The impact of postpartum depression and anxiety disorders on children's processing of facial emotional expressions at pre-school age.

    PubMed

    Meiser, Susanne; Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Reck, Corinna; Träuble, Birgit

    2015-10-01

    To enhance understanding of impaired socio-emotional development in children of postpartum depressed or anxious mothers, this longitudinal study addressed the question of whether maternal postpartum depression and anxiety disorders result in deficits in children's processing of facial emotional expressions (FEEs) at pre-school age. Thirty-two mothers who had fulfilled Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-IV) criteria for postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorder and their pre-school aged children were tested for FEE processing abilities and compared to a healthy control group (n?=?29). Child assessments included separate tasks for emotion recognition and emotion labelling. Mothers completed an emotion recognition test as well as the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders I (SCID-I). Children of postpartum depressed and/or anxious mothers performed significantly worse than control children at labelling, but not at recognizing facial expressions of basic emotions. Emotion labelling at pre-school age was predicted by child age and maternal postpartum mental health, but neither current maternal mental health nor current maternal emotion recognition was associated with child FEE processing. Results point to a specific importance of early social experiences for the development of FEE labelling skills. However, further studies involving sensitive measures of emotion recognition are needed to determine if there might also exist subtle effects on FEE recognition. PMID:25833807

  17. Suicide in late life.

    PubMed

    Mitty, Ethel; Flores, Sandi

    2008-01-01

    Late-life suicide is a persistent threat and a reality from which no one emerges unscathed. Family members and significant others feel guilty and inconsequential. Assisted living residence staff is demoralized. The residents feel frightened and confused. Although constituting only 13% of the population in the United States, older adults accounted for 18% of suicide deaths in the later 1990s. There is at present a national strategy for suicide prevention among youth under 19 years and adults aged 65 years and older. The assisted living community that fosters independence and self-determination can be, simultaneously, an environment in which the warning signs of suicidal ideation and self-destruction can be missed. This article discusses risk factors of suicide, the association of depression with suicide, basic screening tools, and supportive actions. PMID:18555157

  18. Relationship between metabolism and ovarian activity in dairy cows with different dry period lengths.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Soede, N M; van Dorland, H A; Remmelink, G J; Bruckmaier, R M; Kemp, B; van Knegsel, A T M

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of dry period length on ovarian activity in cows fed a lipogenic or a glucogenic diet within 100 days in milk (DIM) and to determine relationships between ovarian activity and energy balance and metabolic status in early lactation. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n = 167) were randomly assigned to one of three dry period lengths (0, 30, or 60 days) and one of two diets in early lactation (glucogenic or lipogenic diet) resulting in a 3 × 2 factorial design. Cows were monitored for body condition score, milk yield, dry matter intake, and energy balance from calving to week 8 postpartum, and blood was sampled weekly from 95 cows from calving to week 8 postpartum. Milk samples were collected three times a week until 100 DIM postpartum for determination of progesterone concentration. At least two succeeding milk samples with progesterone concentration of 2 ng/mL or greater were used to indicate the occurrence of luteal activity. Normal resumption of ovarian cyclicity was defined as the onset of luteal activity (OLA) occurring at 45 DIM or less, followed by regular ovarian cycles of 18 to 24 days in length. Within 100 DIM postpartum, cows with a 0-day dry period had greater incidence of normal resumption of ovarian cyclicity (53.2%; 25 out of 47 cows) compared with cows with a 60-day dry period (26.0%; 13 out of 50 cows, P = 0.02). Independent of dry period length or diet, cows with OLA at less than 21 DIM had a greater body condition score during weeks 1 and 2 (P = 0.01) and weeks 1 through 8 (P = 0.01) postpartum compared with cows with OLA at greater than 30 DIM. Cows with the first ovarian cycle of medium length (18-24 days) had greater energy balance (P = 0.03), plasma concentrations of insulin (P = 0.03), glucose (P = 0.04), and insulin-like growth factor I (P = 0.04) than cows with long ovarian cycle lengths (>24 days) but had lower plasma ?-hydroxybutyrate (P < 0.01) and liver triacylglycerol (P = 0.02) concentrations than cows with short ovarian cycle lengths (<18 days) during weeks 1 through 8 postpartum. Diet did not affect the measured ovarian activity variables within 100 DIM. In conclusion, omitting the dry period (0 days) increased the incidence of normal resumption of ovarian cyclicity in dairy cows within 100 DIM compared with a conventional dry period (60 days). Short (<18 days) or long (>24 days) ovarian cycles during the first ovarian cycle postpartum were associated with severe negative energy balance and poor metabolic status in early lactation. PMID:26282444

  19. Postpartum Maternal Sleep and Mothers' Perceptions of Their Attachment Relationship with the Infant among Women with a History of Depression during Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikotzky, Liat; Chambers, Andrea S.; Kent, Jamie; Gaylor, Erika; Manber, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the links between maternal sleep and mothers' perceptions of their attachment relationship with their infant among women at risk for postpartum depression by virtue of having been depressed during pregnancy. Sixty-two mothers completed sleep diaries and questionnaires at 3 and 6 months postpartum. Regression analyses,…

  20. Postpartum Depression: Is It a Condition Affecting the Mother-Infant Interaction and the Development of the Child across the First Year of Life?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueiredo, B.

    Noting that maternal depression is common during a baby's first year, this study examined the interaction of depressed and non-depressed mother-child dyads. A sample of 26 first-time mothers with postpartum depression at the third month after birth and their 3-month-old infants was compared to a sample of 25 first-time mothers with no postpartum

  1. Untreated depression in the first trimester of pregnancy leads to postpartum depression: high rates from a natural follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Yazici, Esra; Kirkan, Tulay Sati; Aslan, Puren Akcali; Aydin, Nazan; Yazici, Ahmet Bulent

    2015-01-01

    Background This is a natural follow-up study that presents the postpartum results of women who experienced depression during pregnancy. Methods This study involved 78 women diagnosed with depression in the first trimester of pregnancy. All patients were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) in the first trimester and all were referred to a psychiatric center for treatment. Of the 78, 73 were contacted postpartum and reassessed by SCID-I. Treatment anamnesis was evaluated retrospectively. Results The women were divided into two groups at the postpartum evaluation according to anamnesis of psychiatric treatment. Twenty-one of the 73 (28.7%) had received treatment during pregnancy (treated group). Fifty-two women had not been treated (untreated group). In the treated group, no postpartum depression was determined (0%). In the untreated group, 92% (n=48) of women had a depressive disorder postpartum (P<0.01). In addition, scores regarding depression, functionality, and perceived social support were worse postpartum for the untreated group. Conclusion Untreated depression during pregnancy is an important predictor of postpartum depression. This natural follow-up study is important because it presents very striking rates of postpartum depression. Referral of patients with depression during pregnancy to psychiatric treatment should be provided and is strongly encouraged. PMID:25737636

  2. DIFFERENTIAL POSTPARTUM SENSITIVITY TO THE ANXIETY-MODULATING EFFECTS OF OFFSPRING CONTACT IS ASSOCIATED WITH INNATE ANXIETY AND BRAINSTEM LEVELS OF DOPAMINE BETA-HYDROXYLASE IN FEMALE LABORATORY RATS

    PubMed Central

    RAGAN, C. M.; LONSTEIN, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    In female mammals, the postpartum period involves dramatic shifts in many socioemotional behaviors. This includes a suppression of anxiety-related behaviors that requires recent physical contact with offspring. Factors contributing to differences among females in their susceptibility to the anxiety-modulating effect of offspring contact are unknown, but could include their innate anxiety and brain monoaminergic activity. Anxiety behavior was assessed in a large group of nulliparous female rats and the least-anxious and most-anxious tertiles were mated. Anxiety was assessed again postpartum after females were permitted or prevented from contacting their offspring 4 h before testing. Levels of dopamine ?-hydroxylase (DBH, norepinephrine synthesizing enzyme) and tryptophan hydroxylase- 2 (TPH2, serotonin synthesizing enzyme) were measured in the brainstem and dorsal raphe, respectively. It was found that anxiety-related behavior in the two groups did not differ when dams were permitted contact with offspring before testing. Removal of the offspring before testing, however, differentially affected anxiety based on dams’ innate anxiety. Specifically, dams reverted back to their pre-mating levels of anxiety such that offspring removal slightly increased anxiety in the most-anxious females but greatly lowered anxiety in the least-anxious females. This reduction in anxiety in the least-anxious females after litter removal was associated with lower brainstem DBH. There was no relationship between females’ anxiety and dorsal raphe TPH2. Thus, a primary effect of recent contact with offspring on anxiety-related behavior in postpartum rats is to shift females away from their innate anxiety to a more moderate level of responding. This effect is particularly true for females with the lowest anxiety, may be mediated by central noradrenergic systems, and has implications for their ability to attend to their offspring. PMID:24161285

  3. Representations of Celebrities’ Weight and Shape during Pregnancy and Postpartum: A Content Analysis of Three Entertainment Magazine Websites

    PubMed Central

    Gow, Rachel W.; Lydecker, Janet A.; Lamanna, Jennifer D.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.

    2011-01-01

    Entertainment magazine websites provide a continuous stream of celebrity news accessed by over 13 million unique viewers each month. Celebrities’ experiences of pregnancy and new motherhood appear to be popular topics within these media outlets; however, little research has investigated the content of this coverage. In this study, investigators coded articles (N = 387) published between August 1, 2007 and August 1, 2008 on three popular entertainment magazine websites. Relatively few articles about celebrities’ pregnancies discussed weight (13%) or shape (30%), and an even smaller proportion (6.2%) included any discussion of postpartum body dissatisfaction. This suggests a gap between portrayal of celebrities’ pregnancies and postpartum experiences and those of non-celebrity women. This disparity is concerning as it might lead to unrealistic expectations about pregnancy and postpartum for both pregnant readers and a more general audience. This study provides important initial information about the messages these media provide regarding pregnancy-related appearance. PMID:21873126

  4. Does carbetocin for prevention of postpartum haemorrhage at caesarean section provide clinical or financial benefit compared with oxytocin?

    PubMed

    Higgins, L; Mechery, J; Tomlinson, A J

    2011-11-01

    Postpartum haemorrhage is a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. A recent Cochrane review of carbetocin (long-acting oxytocin analogue) concluded that its use decreased additional uterotonic requirements, however, no included studies compared its use against intravenous bolus oxytocin. The majority of studies of carbetocin have considered its use in vaginal delivery; no studies have examined the economic implications of its use. This study describes a clinical and financial evaluation undertaken at a United Kingdom District General Hospital surrounding the introduction of carbetocin for prophylaxis against postpartum haemorrhage at caesarean deliveries. A range of clinical outcomes were observed including frequency of postpartum haemorrhage, estimated blood loss, transfusion requirements, change in haemoglobin or haemodynamics, use of additional uterotonics and perioperative recovery. Finally, a composite financial analysis was performed. No clinically significant benefit was found, however associated costs increased by £18.52/patient. PMID:22085065

  5. A Postpartum Community-Based Weight Management Intervention Designed for Low-Income Women: Feasibility and Initial Efficacy Testing.

    PubMed

    Berry, Diane; Verbiest, Sarah; Hall, Emily Gail; Dawson, Ida; Norton, Deborah; Willis, Shaderika; McDonald, Kimberly; Stuebe, Alison

    2015-07-01

    Postpartum weight retention increases a woman's risk of entering subsequent pregnancies overweight or obese, and women who are overweight or obese in pregnancy face higher rates of complications for themselves and their infants. This study assessed the feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of an intervention to prevent postpartum weight retention in predominantly low-income African-American women. A randomized control pilot study was conducted to test the effects of the intervention on weight, adiposity, health behaviors, and eating and exercise self-efficacy from baseline (Time 1) to study completion (Time 2). The women in the experimental group had significantly greater decreases in triceps skinfolds (p = 0.01) and subscapular skinfolds (p = 0.04) and had significantly greater nutrition knowledge (p =0.04) than the control group. The results indicate that women randomized to a postpartum weight management program significantly decreased adiposity, increased nutrition knowledge and action, and, in addition, the women found the intervention acceptable. PMID:26371358

  6. Massive postpartum haemorrhage as a cause of maternal morbidity in a large tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Hazra, S; Chilaka, V N; Rajendran, S; Konje, J C

    2004-08-01

    All cases of massive PPH (defined as estimated blood loss > 1500 ml within 24 hours of delivery) were identified from the obstetric database of the unit for the period 1997-2001 (inclusive). The casenotes of the patients were retrieved and various variables collected for analyses. Over the 5-year period, there were 145 cases of massive PPH of the 27,106 deliveries; an incidence of five per 1000 deliveries (0.5%). Most (42%) of the women were nulliparous and 12 (8%) had four or more previous deliveries. There was associated antepartum haemorrhage in 12 (8%) cases, five of which were placental abruptions. Risk factors identified to be associated with massive PPH included prolonged labour, emergency caesarean section (CS) for failure to progress, especially in the second stage (34), and placenta praevia (10). Four women had an abdominal hysterectomy. Massive PPH remains an important cause of severe maternal morbidity; risk factors, which are independent of parity, include CS in the late first stage or second stage and previous CS (irrespective of parity). A high index of suspicion is necessary for these cases, as timely intervention is more likely to minimise the complications and its consequences. PMID:15369931

  7. Lactation Intensity and Postpartum Maternal Glucose Tolerance and Insulin Resistance in Women With Recent GDM

    PubMed Central

    Gunderson, Erica P.; Hedderson, Monique M.; Chiang, Vicky; Crites, Yvonne; Walton, David; Azevedo, Robert A.; Fox, Gary; Elmasian, Cathie; Young, Stephen; Salvador, Nora; Lum, Michael; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Lo, Joan C.; Sternfeld, Barbara; Ferrara, Assiamira; Selby, Joseph V.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the association between breastfeeding intensity in relation to maternal blood glucose and insulin and glucose intolerance based on the postpartum 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results at 6–9 weeks after a pregnancy with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We selected 522 participants enrolled into the Study of Women, Infant Feeding, and Type 2 Diabetes (SWIFT), a prospective observational cohort study of Kaiser Permanente Northern California members diagnosed with GDM using the 3-h 100-g OGTT by the Carpenter and Coustan criteria. Women were classified as normal, prediabetes, or diabetes according to American Diabetes Association criteria based on the postpartum 2-h 75-g OGTT results. RESULTS Compared with exclusive or mostly formula feeding (>17 oz formula per 24 h), exclusive breastfeeding and mostly breastfeeding (?6 oz formula per 24 h) groups, respectively, had lower adjusted mean (95% CI) group differences in fasting plasma glucose (mg/dL) of ?4.3 (?7.4 to ?1.3) and ?5.0 (?8.5 to ?1.4), in fasting insulin (?U/mL) of ?6.3 (?10.1 to ?2.4) and ?7.5 (?11.9 to ?3.0), and in 2-h insulin of ?21.4 (?41.0 to ?1.7) and ?36.5 (?59.3 to ?13.7) (all P < 0.05). Exclusive or mostly breastfeeding groups had lower prevalence of diabetes or prediabetes (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS Higher intensity of lactation was associated with improved fasting glucose and lower insulin levels at 6–9 weeks’ postpartum. Lactation may have favorable effects on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity that may reduce diabetes risk after GDM pregnancy. PMID:22011407

  8. Randomized Trial of Psychological Interventions to Preventing Postpartum Depression among Iranian First-time Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Fathi-Ashtiani, Ali; Ahmadi, Ahmad; Ghobari-Bonab, Bagher; Azizi, Mohammed Parsa; Saheb-Alzamani, Sayeh Moosavi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The current study was conducted to examine the effect of cognitive behavior therapy on the reduction postpartum mood disorder and increasing the self-esteem of at-risk Iranian mothers. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 135 at-risk mothers were selected from the population by means of cluster sampling and randomly assigned into one of two groups: Intervention (n = 64), or control (n = 71). The control group received usual medical care, and the intervention group received an eight sessions’ cognitive behavior program during pregnancy. Assessments were administered at two time points (pretest at the beginning of the third trimester and posttest at 2 weeks postpartum). Beck anxiety, beck depression, Edinburgh postpartum depression, (PPD) Coopersmith self-esteem, and religious attitude questionnaire were used to collect data. Results: The mean age of participants was 25.8 ± 3.7 years. One-third of them had either bachelor or higher degrees in education (33%). About two-third of participants were unemployment with similar distribution in both the groups (intervention = 80%, control = 83%). The majority (70%) of the participants had cesarean section deliveries. There were no statistically significant differences respects to sociodemographic characteristics between the control and intervention groups (P > 0.05). The multivariate analysis of covariance results showed that the average scores of PPD were reduced significantly in the intervention group (P < 0.001). Also while the mean score of anxiety in the intervention group decreased from 23.31 (standard error [SE] =12.11) to 16.64 (SE = 8.33) and self-esteem increased from 29.09 (SE = 3.51) to 31.81 (SE = 2.76), no change was statistically significant in comparison to the control group. Conclusions: According to the findings of the present study, cognitive behavior intervention is effective in reducing PPD in at-risk mothers. PMID:26682030

  9. Increased Risk for Postpartum Psychiatric Disorders Among Women with Past Pregnancy Loss

    PubMed Central

    Cerulli, Catherine; Anson, Elizabeth; Chaudron, Linda H.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Scant literature exists on whether prior pregnancy loss (miscarriage, stillbirth, and/or induced abortion) increases the risk of postpartum psychiatric disorders—specifically depression and anxiety—after subsequent births. This study compares: (1) risk factors for depression and/or anxiety disorders in the postpartum year among women with and without prior pregnancy loss; and (2) rates of these disorders in women with one versus multiple pregnancy losses. Methods One-hundred-ninety-two women recruited at first-year pediatric well-child care visits from an urban pediatric clinic provided demographic information, reproductive and health histories. They also completed depression screening tools and a standard semi-structured psychiatric diagnostic interview. Results Almost half of the participants (49%) reported a previous pregnancy loss (miscarriage, stillbirth, or induced abortion). More than half of those with a history of pregnancy loss reported more than one loss (52%). Women with prior pregnancy loss were more likely to be diagnosed with major depression (p=0.002) than women without a history of loss. Women with multiple losses were more likely to be diagnosed with major depression (p=0.047) and/or post-traumatic stress disorder (Fisher's exact [FET]=0.028) than women with a history of one pregnancy loss. Loss type was not related to depression, although number of losses was related to the presence of depression and anxiety. Conclusions Low-income urban mothers have high rates of pregnancy loss and often have experienced more than one loss and/or more than one type of loss. Women with a history of pregnancy loss are at increased risk for depression and anxiety, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), after the birth of a child. Future research is needed to understand the reasons that previous pregnancy loss is associated with subsequent postpartum depression and anxiety among this population of women. PMID:24007380

  10. Egg Intake and Dietary Quality among Overweight and Obese Mexican-American Postpartum Women.

    PubMed

    Vega-López, Sonia; Pignotti, Giselle A P; Todd, Michael; Keller, Colleen

    2015-10-01

    Despite their low cost and high nutrient density, the contribution of eggs to nutrient intake and dietary quality among Mexican-American postpartum women has not been evaluated. Nutrient intake and dietary quality, as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010), were measured in habitually sedentary overweight/obese (body mass index (BMI) = 29.7 ± 3.5 kg/m²) Mexican-American postpartum women (28 ± 6 years) and compared between egg consumers (n = 82; any egg intake reported in at least one of three 24-h dietary recalls) and non-consumers (n = 57). Egg consumers had greater intake of energy (+808 kJ (193 kcal) or 14%; p = 0.033), protein (+9 g or 17%; p = 0.031), total fat (+9 g or 19%; p = 0.039), monounsaturated fat (+4