Sample records for late postpartum period

  1. Composition of Colostrum from Dairy Heifers Exposed to High Air Temperatures During Late Pregnancy and the Early Postpartum Period1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Nardone; N. Lacetera; U. Bernabucci; B. Ronchi

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the effects of heat stress on composition of colostrum from primiparous cows dur- ing late pregnancy and the early postpartum period. Two groups of 6 Holstein heifers were utilized. During the last 3 wk of pregnancy and during the first 36 h after calving, one group was exposed to thermal com- fort (temperature-humidity index = 65); the

  2. Ovarian follicular activity during late gestation and postpartum in guanaco (Lama guanicoe).

    PubMed

    Riveros, J L; Schuler, G; Urquieta, B; Hoffmann, B; Bonacic, C

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated ovarian activity in late gestation and post-partum in guanacos in captivity. Follicular dynamics was monitored every second day from 40 days before and other 40 after delivery by transrectal sonography and by plasma steroids concentrations. Seven out of eight (87.5%) of gestating females presented ovarian follicular activity under progesterone levels >3 nmol/l with maximum follicular size of 8.42 ± 0.83 mm from days 23 to 1 before delivery. After delivery, all females have follicular wave development from day 0 to 38, with larger follicular size and longer follicular wave phases and interwave interval when compared with pre-partum data. During post-partum period, there was a close relationship between follicle size and estradiol-17? concentration, with r = 0.69 at the beginning of growth phase and r = 0.86 in association with the largest dominant follicle. Plasma estradiol-17? concentration varied from 11.92 to 198.55 pmol/l. Plasma estrone sulfate, free estrone and progesterone returned to baseline concentrations during peripartal period and remained basal thereafter. The results described follicular activity during late gestation and early post-partum period. These findings provide relevant information to understand physiological changes occurring during this reproductive key period in seasonal breeders with long gestation duration as New and Old World camelids. PMID:25528969

  3. Primary hypoparathyroidism: psychosis in postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Patil, N J; Yadav, S S; Gokhale, Y A; Padwa, Namita

    2010-08-01

    We report a 30-yr-old lady who was being treated as postpartum psychosis. Patient had generalized tonic clonic convulsions and was found to have bilateral cataract. Her serum calcium, serum magnesium and serum parathyroid were low. On correction of serum magnesium her PTH did not increase. She was hence diagnosed as primary hypoparathyroidism. On correction of her serum calcium her psychosis improved. PMID:21189701

  4. [Children murdered by their mothers in the postpartum period].

    PubMed

    Trautmann-Villalba, P; Hornstein, C

    2007-11-01

    The parental killing of children constitutes a complex phenomenon which has been reported across numerous cultures and throughout history. Children in the 1st year of life are at the highest risk of filicide. Types of filicide in the postpartum period include altruistic filicide, extended suicide, fatal child maltreatment, and neonaticide. Babies are murdered more frequently by mothers who are psychiatrically disturbed. With high frequency, depressive and psychotic symptoms are related to the newborn or to the maternity itself. The knowledge about maternal factors associated with filicide is not homogeneous. Sociodemographic characteristics are presented in relation to the different types of filicide. Risk constellations that may lead to a child's murder are described. PMID:17926015

  5. Determinants of bone and blood lead concentrations in the early postpartum period

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Jean Brown; Howard Hu; Teresa Gonzales-Cossio; Karen E Peterson; Luz-Helena Sanin; Maria de Luz Kageyama; Eduardo Palazuelos; Antonio Aro; Lourdes Schnaas; Mauricio Hernandez-Avila

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVEThis study investigated determinants of bone and blood lead concentrations in 430 lactating Mexican women during the early postpartum period and the contribution of bone lead to blood lead.METHODSMaternal venous lead was measured at delivery and postpartum, and bone lead concentrations, measured with in vivo K-xray fluorescence, were measured post partum. Data on environmental exposure, demographic characteristics, and maternal factors

  6. The Prevalence and Risk Factors of Paternal Depression from the Antenatal to the Postpartum Period and the Relationships between Antenatal and Postpartum Depression among Fathers in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Y. W.; Chui, C. Y.; Tang, C. S. K.; Lee, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Despite the fact that maternal perinatal mental health problems have been extensively studied and addressed to be a significant health problem, the literature on paternal perinatal mental health problems is relatively scarce. The present study aims at determining the prevalence of paternal perinatal depression and identifying the risk factors and the relationship between antenatal and postpartum depression. Methodology. 622 expectant fathers were recruited from regional maternal clinics. The expectant fathers were assessed using standardized and validated psychological instruments on 3 time points including early pregnancy, late pregnancy, and six weeks postpartum. Results. Results showed that a significant proportion of expectant fathers manifested depressive symptoms during the perinatal period. Paternal antenatal depression could significantly predict higher level of paternal postpartum depression. Psychosocial risk factors were consistently associated with paternal depression in different time points. Conclusions. The present study points to the need for greater research and clinical attention to paternal depression given that it is a highly prevalent problem and could be detrimental to their spouse and children development. The present findings contribute to theoretical basis of the prevalence and risk factors of paternal perinatal depression and have implications of the design of effective identification, prevention, and interventions of these clinical problems. PMID:24600517

  7. Sexual function in the postpartum period: effects of maternal depression and interpersonal psychotherapy treatment.

    PubMed

    Moel, Joy E; Buttner, Melissa M; O'Hara, Michael W; Stuart, Scott; Gorman, Laura

    2010-12-01

    Women's sexual functioning in the postpartum period is understudied given its potential impact on women's mental health and their relationships with their partners. The sexual functioning of women with postpartum depression (PPD) in particular is not well characterized. The goals of this study were to examine factors associated with the sexual functioning of postpartum women and to compare the long-term sexual functioning of depressed postpartum women treated with interpersonal psychotherapy with a group of postpartum women who had never been depressed. Depressed (120) and never depressed (56) postpartum women were enrolled. Self-report questionnaires and clinician-rated measures were completed at initial entry to study, immediately post-treatment, and at 6, 12, and 18 months post-treatment. Analyses revealed significant differences in sexual interest between depressed and never depressed postpartum women (t (171)?=?11.82, p?<0.001). Although sexual interest improved significantly following treatment for depression (t (104)?=?-3.18, p?postpartum than never depressed women. These findings suggest that differences in sexual functioning exist between depressed and never depressed postpartum women, even after depressed women are treated and have recovered from their depression. Clinicians should inquire about changes in sexual functioning when treating women with PPD. PMID:20549525

  8. Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome in late postpartum eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Pezzi, M; Le Piane, E; Giglio, A M; Pagnotta, L; Scozzafava, A; Tortorella, V; Sergi, A; Verre, M

    2015-01-01

    Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) is a neurological complication associated with several medical conditions and it has been described in clinical findings of seizures, headache, vomiting, altered mental status, and visual changes and focal neurologic deficit, in conjunction with radiological findings of primarily posterior cerebral white matter edema of both cerebral hemispheres. PRES can develop in a wide array situations including pregnancy and postpartum in patients with or without symptoms and signs of eclampsia. A prompt diagnosis of PRES by magnetic resonance imaging and an immediate antihypertensive and anticonvulsant therapy can help to prevent serious complications. The clinical case presented deals with a 35 year-old pregnant woman whose history of eclampsia was observed after a cesarean section. PMID:25945433

  9. A Multimethod Perspective on Emotional Availability in the Postpartum Period

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole Vliegen; Patrick Luyten; Zeynep Biringen

    2009-01-01

    Objective. This study investigates observed and self-reported emotional availability in clinically depressed and nondepressed mother–infant pairs. Design. Observations of mother–infant interaction were made during 30-min free-play interaction during the first year of life in clinically postpartum depressed (n = 49) and nondepressed mothers (n = 35) in Flanders (Belgium). Results. Postpartum depressed mothers had significantly lower scores on most emotional

  10. Successful Intra-Arterial Thrombolysis for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Immediate Postpartum Period: Case Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, Jose C. [Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Department of Neuroradiology (Spain)], E-mail: jmendezce@hotmail.com; Masjuan, J.; Garcia, N.; Lecinana, M. de [Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Department of Neurology (Spain)

    2008-01-15

    Stroke in pregnancy and the puerperium is a rare but potentially devastating event. We present the case of a previously healthy woman who underwent a cesarean delivery and experienced a middle cerebral artery thrombosis in the immediate postpartum period that was subsequently lysed with intra-arterial urokinase. The patient made a complete neurologic recovery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of successful intra-arterial thrombolysis for ischemic stroke in the postpartum period.

  11. Improving Energy Supply to Late Gestation and Early Postpartum Dairy Cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M. Dann; G. A. Varga; D. E. Putnam

    1999-01-01

    Sixty-five multiparous Holstein cows were used to test the effects of feeding diets of varied ruminal carbohydrate availability during the transition period on dry matter intake, blood metabolites, and lacta- tional performance. Cows received total mixed rations containing either cracked corn or steam-flaked corn beginning 28 d prior to expected calving date. At parturition, cows were assigned to a postpartum

  12. Plasma patterns of biologically and immunologically active luteinizing hormone during late gestation and early postpartum in the bovine 

    E-print Network

    Weesner, Gary Duane

    1986-01-01

    ) activities of luteinising hormone (LH) were analysed during four peripar- tum periods in the cow. The sampling periods were PRE-5 (approximately 5 days prior to parturition), POST-g (day 2 or 3 postpartum), POST-12 (day 11 or 12 postpartum) and LUTEAL... (day 11 or 12 following the first postpartum estrus). Blood samples were collected at 10 minute intervals for either eight hours (PRE-5, POST-3, and POST-12) or six hours (LUTEAL). Four hours prior to the end of each sampling period. , 100 ug...

  13. Longitudinal Association of Maternal Attempt to Lose Weight During the Postpartum Period and Child Obesity at Age 3 Years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kendrin R. Sonneville; Sheryl L. Rifas-Shiman; Emily Oken; Karen E. Peterson; Steven L. Gortmaker; Matthew W. Gillman; Elsie M. Taveras

    2011-01-01

    The effect of maternal attempt to lose weight during the postpartum period on later child weight has not been explored. Among 1,044 mother–infant pairs in Project Viva, we estimated longitudinal associations of maternal attempt to lose weight during the postpartum period with child weight and adiposity at age 3 years and examined differences in associations by type of weight loss

  14. Postpartum Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Misri, Shaila; Burgmann, Allan J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Adjusting to the role of mother, a creative and joyous change for most women, combines with simultaneous physiological and psychological changes to develop into psychiatric problems in some women. Three common syndromes during the postpartum period are postpartum blues, postpartum depression, and postpartum psychosis. Any postpartum condition should be diagnosed rapidly to prevent short- and long-term disorders. PMID:21221273

  15. Relationship between Fathers' Depression and Perceived Social Support and Stress in Postpartum Period

    PubMed Central

    Kamalifard, Mahin; Hasanpoor, Shirin; Babapour Kheiroddin, Jalil; Panahi, Samira; Bayati Payan, Somayeh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The evidence suggests that some men experience depression after the childbirth of their wife, and this real and unknown phenomenon will adversely affect them as well as their families. Regarding the lack of understanding about the paternal depression and its complex and multifaceted etiology, the present study was done to assess the paternal postpartum depression and its relationship with perceived stress and social support components. Methods: In this descriptive study, 205 new fathers were assessed from 6th to 12th week postpartum in seven health centers, affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University. Collected data with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, and the Perceived Social Support Scale were analyzed by descriptive statistics, correlation tests and linear regression analysis. Results: 11.7% of the fathers scored 12 or above in the Edinburgh scale, which indicated depression symptom. The postnatal depression scores had a significant positive correlation with the perceived stress scores and a significant negative correlation with the perceived social support components scores. Perceived stress was key predictor of paternal postpartum depression. Perceived social support components cannot significantly predict the paternal postpartum depression. Conclusion: Assessment of paternal postpartum depression and its risk factors is recommended. Healthcare providers should pay more attention to the increasing public awareness, stress management and communication skills training, and support of fathers during the postnatal period. PMID:25276749

  16. The relation between prepregnancy sexuality and sexual function during pregnancy and the postpartum period: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Y?ld?z, Hatice

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relation between sexual functions of women in prepregnancy (before conception) and during pregnancy and the postpartum period. This study was conducted on 59 healthy pregnant women. Participants were followed from the eighth week of gestation to 6 months after delivery. Sexual function during pregnancy and the postpartum period was shown to have a significant linear correlation with prepregnancy sexuality. There was no relation between pregnancy and postpartum sexuality. All of the participants who had prepregnancy sexual dysfunction continued to experience it during pregnancy, and the majority of them had a significant level of sexual dysfunction in the postpartum period. Our results showed that prepregnancy sexuality plays an important role in maintaining sexuality during pregnancy and the postpartum period. PMID:24328753

  17. Course and predictors of maternal eating disorders in the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Knoph, Cecilie; Holle, Ann Von; Zerwas, Stephanie; Torgersen, Leila; Tambs, Kristian; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Bulik, Cynthia M; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate course and predictors of eating disorders in the postpartum period. Method A total of 77,807 women, participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), completed questionnaires during pregnancy including items covering DSM-IV criteria for pre-pregnancy anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS-P), and binge eating disorder (BED). Additional questionnaires were completed at 18 and 36 months postpartum. Results Proportions of women remitting at 18 months and 36 months postpartum were 50% and 59% for AN, 39% and 30% for BN, 46% and 57% for EDNOS-P, and 45% and 42% for BED, respectively. However, disordered eating persisted in a substantial proportion of women meeting criteria for either full or subthreshold eating disorders. BN during pregnancy increased the risk for continuation of BN. BMI and psychological distress were significantly associated with course of BED. Discussion This is the first large-scale population-based study on course of eating disorders in the postpartum period. The results indicated that disordered eating persists in a substantial proportion of women with pre-pregnancy eating disorders. Health care professionals working with women in this phase of life need to pay specific attention to eating disorder symptoms and behaviors. PMID:23307499

  18. Prevalence, rates and correlates of intimate partner violence among South African women during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Groves, Allison K; Moodley, Dhayendre; McNaughton-Reyes, Luz; Martin, Sandra L; Foshee, Vangie; Maman, Suzanne

    2015-03-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem in South Africa. However, limited research exists on IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period in South Africa. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence, rates and correlates of IPV among South African women during pregnancy and the first 9 months postpartum. Data are from a longitudinal study with women recruited during pregnancy between 2008 and 2010 at a public clinic in Durban. We used a modified version of the World Health Organization's IPV scale to estimate prevalence and rates of IPV during pregnancy, at 4 months postpartum and 9 months postpartum and we used logistic regression to assess the correlates of IPV during this time. More than 20 % of all women experienced at least one act of physical, psychological or sexual IPV during pregnancy. Nearly one-quarter of all women experienced at least one act of physical, psychological or sexual IPV during the first 9 months postpartum. Psychological IPV was the most prevalent type of IPV during pregnancy and the first 4 months postpartum. Age and previous violence within the relationship were associated with IPV during pregnancy and IPV during the postpartum period. The high levels of IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period highlight the need to develop screening and intervention strategies specifically for this time. Further, women should be screened not only for physical violence but also psychological violence given that psychological violence may result in distinct negative consequences. PMID:24889116

  19. Effects of different anesthesia protocols on lactation in the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Kutlucan, Leyla; Seker, ?lknur S.; Demiraran, Yavuz; Ersoy, Özlem; Karagöz, ?brahim; Sezen, Gülbin; Köse, Seyit Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objective Many factors can influence the secretion of breast milk. Cesarean section is a risk factor for late onset of breastfeeding. Material and Methods In our study, we compared the lactation process by mothers who underwent elective cesarean section under general anesthesia, spinal anesthesia, epidural anesthesia, and normal birth; 84 patients between 18–40 years of age with a risk of ASA I–II were included. Randomly patients were divided into four groups: group G (general anesthesia, n:21), group S (spinal anesthesia, n:21), group E (epidural anesthesia, n:21), and group V (vaginal birth, without anesthesia, n:21). Oxytocin and prolactin values of all patients before and after operation or birth were recorded. In addition the initiation time of lactation after delivery or cesarean section were recorded. Results In all groups, there were no significant differences among hormone levels in the prepartum period (p=0.350). Prolactin levels in group G (p=0.011) and oxytocin levels in group V (p=0.012) in the postpartum period were significantly higher than in the other groups. The start of lactation was significantly delayed in group G (p=0.003). Conclusion We consider that the onset time of lactation is delayed in patients undergoing cesarean section with general anesthesia when compared with patients who undergo cesarean section with spinal and epidural anesthesia and with patients who undergo normal vaginal birth. Because of the delay of awakening and recovery of cognitive functions in general anesthesia, communication between the mother and the newborn is delayed and so is the lactation. PMID:25584032

  20. Deep vein and intracardiac thrombosis during the post-partum period in Behçet’s disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prashant Hiwarkar; Roberto Stasi; George Sutherland; Muriel Shannon

    2010-01-01

    A 22-year-old woman presented on the 10th post-partum day with deep vein thrombosis involving the right ilio-femoral and popliteal\\u000a veins. This thrombosis was refractory to conventional anticoagulation and subsequently over a period of 6 weeks progressed\\u000a to involve inferior vena cava and right ventricle. A diagnosis of Behçet’s disease was made on the clinical grounds of fever,\\u000a night sweats, and recurrent

  1. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePLUS

    ... postpartum depression occur? • What causes postpartum depression? • If I think I have postpartum depression, when should I see ... greatly increase the risk of postpartum depression. If I think I have postpartum depression, when should I see ...

  2. Determinants of bone and blood lead concentrations in the early postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Brown, M. J.; Hu, H.; Gonzales-Cossio, T.; Peterson, K.; Sanin, L.; Kageyama, M. d.; Palazuelos, E.; Aro, A.; Schnaas, L.; Hernandez-Avila, M.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—This study investigated determinants of bone and blood lead concentrations in 430 lactating Mexican women during the early postpartum period and the contribution of bone lead to blood lead.?METHODS—Maternal venous lead was measured at delivery and postpartum, and bone lead concentrations, measured with in vivo K-x ray fluorescence, were measured post partum. Data on environmental exposure, demographic characteristics, and maternal factors related to exposure to lead were collected by questionnaire. Linear regression was used to examine the relations between bone and blood lead, demographics, and environmental exposure variables.?RESULTS—Mean (SD) blood, tibial, and patellar lead concentrations were 9.5 (4.5) µg/dl, 10.2 (10.1) µg Pb/g bone mineral, and 15.2 (15.1) µg Pb/g bone mineral respectively. These values are considerably higher than values for women in the United States. Older age, the cumulative use of lead glazed pottery, and higher proportion of life spent in Mexico City were powerful predictors of higher bone lead concentrations. Use of lead glazed ceramics to cook food in the past week and increased patellar lead concentrations were significant predictors of increased blood lead. Patellar lead concentrations explained one third of the variance accounted for by the final blood lead model. Women in the 90th percentile for patella lead had an untransformed predicted mean blood lead concentration 3.6 µg/dl higher than those in the 10th percentile.?CONCLUSIONS—This study identified the use of lead glazed ceramics as a major source of cumulative exposure to lead, as reflected by bone lead concentrations, as well as current exposure, reflected by blood lead, in Mexico. A higher proportion of life spent in Mexico City, a proxy for exposure to leaded gasoline emissions, was identified as the other major source of cumulative lead exposure. The influence of bone lead on blood lead coupled with the long half life of lead in bone has implications for other populations and suggests that bone stores may pose a threat to women of reproductive age long after exposure has declined.???Keywords: postpartum; blood lead; bone lead PMID:10896960

  3. Depressive and anxiety disorders in the postpartum period: how prevalent are they and can we improve their detection?

    PubMed

    Austin, Marie-Paule V; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Priest, Susan R; Reilly, Nicole; Wilhelm, Kay; Saint, Karen; Parker, Gordon

    2010-10-01

    The objectives of this study were: (1) to examine Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) period prevalence and comorbidity for depression and anxiety disorder in a cohort of women assessed during the first 6-8 months postpartum and (2) to examine the benefits of combining the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) with a simple "interval symptom" question to optimize screening postpartum. Women aged over 18 (N?=?1,549) were assessed during late pregnancy and reviewed at approximately 2, 4, and 6-8 months postpartum using the EPDS and an "interval symptom" question. The latter asked about any depressive symptoms in the interval since the last EPDS. Women who scored >12 on the EPDS and/or positive on the "interval symptom" question were then administered the CIDI. A further 65 randomly selected women that screened negative were also administered the CIDI. Loss to postnatal follow-up was very significant, and returns rates were inconsistent across the three postnatal time points. Almost 25% of those who screened positive did not complete a CIDI. For screen-positive status, a total of 314 (24.4%) of those that returned questionnaires (N?=?1,289) screened positive at least once across the 6- to 8-month interval. Of these, 79 were lost to follow-up; thus, 235 (74.8%) completed a CIDI. In this group, 34.7% had been positive both on the EPDS and the "interval" question, 15.9% on the EPDS alone, and 49.4% on the "interval" question alone. For the CIDI diagnosis and estimated 6- to 8-month period CIDI prevalence, among those 235 women who screened positive and completed a CIDI, 67.2% met the criteria for a CIDI diagnosis, as did 16.9% of those who screened negative. The breakdown in CIDI diagnoses in the 235 women was 32.8% major depression (± anxiety disorder); 26.4% minor depression alone; and 8.1% with a primary anxiety disorder (approximately half with minor depression). Put another way, 20.4% of these women had an anxiety disorder (approximately two thirds with comorbid depression) and 37.7% of women with a major depressive episode (MDE) had a comorbid anxiety disorder. The estimated 6- to 8-month prevalence rate for a CIDI diagnosis of anxiety or depression (major or minor) was 29.2% (95% CI 26.7%-31.7%). The use of the "interval symptom" question alone was 1.7 times more likely to identify positive CIDI cases than the EPDS alone. Almost 40% of postnatal women with a diagnosis of MDE have a comorbid diagnosis of anxiety disorder. The estimated 6- to 8-month period prevalence for CIDI cases of anxiety and depression was 29.2%. Screening for anxiety and depression using the EPDS alone was associated with a lesser capacity to identify CIDI caseness than a simple "interval symptom" question (for the 2 months prior) which almost doubled the yield. This paper demonstrates that combining the EPDS with the "interval symptom" question improves detection of CIDI caseness. PMID:20232218

  4. Depression in pregnancy and the postpartum period: balancing adverse effects of untreated illness with treatment risks.

    PubMed

    Mian, Ayesha I

    2005-11-01

    The author reviews the risks and benefits of untreated maternal depression during pregnancy and the postnatal period and its effects on the well-being of the mother and infant. She then discusses the significant role psychiatrists can play in detecting and managing maternal depression as a primary measure for preventing future child psychopathology. A literature search was conducted on PubMed to identify both preclinical and clinical studies concerning deleterious effects of maternal depression on offspring. Additional searches focused on available safety data concerning the use of antidepressants during pregnancy and lactation. Key search items included depression during pregnancy, postpartum depression, lactation, and antidepressants. Burgeoning evidence was found concerning the adverse effects of maternal depression on the developing fetus and infant in the perinatal period. No controlled studies on the safety of antidepressant use in pregnancy and lactation were found; therefore, case reports, and some retrospective and prospective case series, must serve as guidelines for the treating clinician. Each case of maternal depression needs to be evaluated on an individual basis and decisions about treatment interventions should involve both the patient and family. Maternal depression during pregnancy and the postnatal period is associated with a significant disease burden in that it affects not only the mother but may also have both short- and long-term effects on offspring. Therefore, early detection and management of maternal depression, of which perinatal screening of mothers is an important component, are warranted. PMID:16304507

  5. The association between physical activity and maternal sleep during the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Vladutiu, Catherine J; Evenson, Kelly R; Borodulin, Katja; Deng, Yu; Dole, Nancy

    2014-11-01

    Physical activity is associated with improved sleep quality and duration in the general population, but its effect on sleep in postpartum women is unknown. We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between hours/week of self-reported domain-specific and overall moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sleep quality and duration at 3- and 12-months postpartum among a cohort of 530 women in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Postpartum Study. MVPA was not associated with sleep quality or duration at 3-months postpartum. At 12-months postpartum, a 1 h/week increase in recreational MVPA was associated with higher odds of good (vs. poor) sleep quality (odds ratio, OR 1.14; 95 % confidence interval, CI, 1.03-1.27) and a 1 h/week increase in child/adult care MVPA was associated with lower odds of good (vs. poor) sleep quality (OR = 0.93; 95 % CI 0.88-0.99). A 1 h/week increase in child/adult care MVPA (OR 1.08, 95 % CI 1.00-1.16) was associated with higher odds of long sleep duration and 1 h/week increases in indoor household (OR 1.09, 95 % CI 1.01-1.18) and overall MVPA (OR 1.04, 95 % CI 1.01-1.07) were associated with higher odds of short (vs. normal) sleep duration. Comparing 3-months postpartum to 12-months postpartum, increased work MVPA was associated with good sleep quality (OR 2.40, 95 % CI 1.12-5.15) and increased indoor household MVPA was associated with short sleep duration (OR 1.85, 95 % CI 1.05-3.27) as measured at 12-months postpartum. Selected domains of MVPA and their longitudinal increases were associated with sleep quality and duration at 12-months postpartum. Additional research is needed to elucidate whether physical activity can improve postpartum sleep. PMID:24577601

  6. Postpartum Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel Pope; Iris Ohel; Gershon Holcberg; Eyal Sheiner

    \\u000a Simply put, postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is excessive bleeding after childbirth. It is a leading cause of maternal mortality\\u000a worldwide, but most of the deaths occur in low-income countries. Specifically, PPH is defined as blood loss of >500 ml after\\u000a vaginal delivery or >1,000 ml after cesarean delivery. “Early” PPH occurs within 24 h after delivery, and “late” PPH occurs\\u000a between

  7. Cohort study of depressive moods in Thai women during late pregnancy and 6–8 weeks of postpartum using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Limlomwongse; T. Liabsuetrakul

    2006-01-01

    Summary  Objective: To identify depressive moods as measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in late pregnancy and postpartum, explore\\u000a associated factors and assess changes in depressive moods.\\u000a \\u000a Methods: A cohort study of 610 pregnant Thai women was conducted. The self-reporting EPDS was completed at 36–40 weeks and at 6–8\\u000a weeks postpartum.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Result: The prevalence of depressive moods (scores of 10

  8. Effect of pregnancy and the postpartum period on adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected women established on treatment.

    PubMed

    Henegar, Cassidy E; Westreich, Daniel J; Maskew, Mhairi; Miller, William C; Brookhart, M Alan; Van Rie, Annelies

    2015-04-01

    : Among women who become pregnant after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), few data describe the effect of pregnancy and postpartum on adherence. We conducted a retrospective clinical cohort study among therapy-naive women (age, 18-45 years) initiating HAART in Johannesburg, South Africa. Among 7510 women in our analysis, 896 experienced a pregnancy after starting HAART. Compared with nonpregnant periods of follow-up, there was an increased risk of nonadherence during the postpartum period (weighted risk ratio: 1.46, 95% confidence interval: 1.17 to 1.82) but not during pregnancy itself (weighted risk ratio: 0.95, 95% confidence interval: 0.78 to 1.17). PMID:25559590

  9. Multivessel spontaneous dissection of the left coronary tree in the postpartum period: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Petrou, E; Bousoula, E; Boutsikou, M; Iakovou, I; Kolovou, G; Pavlides, G

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare cause of myocardial infarction predominantly associated with young women during the third trimester of pregnancy or during the postpartum period. Multivessel spontaneous coronary artery dissection is an even less frequent condition with limited reports in medical literature. Hormonal changes as well as hemodymanic stress are some of the factors that have been implicated in the etiology of this condition. However, the exact pathophysiological process leading to spontaneous coronary artery dissection has not yet been elucidated. The spectrum of clinical presentation ranges from mild symptoms to cardiac arrest. Herein, we report the case of a 39-year-old woman with spontaneous two coronary vessel dissection during her postpartum period presented with ST elevation myocardial infarction on electrocardiogram complicated with pulmonary edema and cardiorespiratory arrest. PMID:25555861

  10. A content analysis of attributions for resuming smoking or maintaining abstinence in the post-partum period.

    PubMed

    Correa, John B; Simmons, Vani N; Sutton, Steven K; Meltzer, Lauren R; Brandon, Thomas H

    2015-03-01

    A significant proportion of women who self-quit smoking during pregnancy subsequently relapse to smoking post-partum. This study examined free-text responses describing attributions of smoking relapse or maintained abstinence at 1, 8, and 12 months post-partum. This study reports secondary analyses from a randomized clinical trial (N = 504) for preventing post-partum smoking relapse. At each follow-up, one survey item asked the participant to describe why she resumed smoking or what helped her maintain abstinence. A thematic content analysis was conducted on responses from the 472 participants (94.0 % of the original sample) who returned at least 1 survey. Content analyses revealed several themes for participants' reasons for relapse and abstinence. Stress was the most frequently cited reason for smoking relapse across all follow-ups. Health concerns for children and family was the most common reason provided for remaining abstinent. Chi square analyses revealed differences in written responses related to income, age, and depressive symptoms. Overall, these findings suggest that during the post-partum period, stress and familial health concerns are perceived contributors to smoking relapse and abstinence, respectively. These results confirmed key risk and protective factors that have been identified through other assessment modalities (e.g., quantitative surveys and focus groups). They also provide support for targeting these variables in the development, content, and delivery of future post-partum smoking relapse-prevention interventions. The high response rate to these open-ended attribution questions suggests that future studies would benefit from including these and similar items to allow for additional insight into participant perspectives. PMID:24996953

  11. Relationship Factors and Trajectories of Intimate Partner Violence among South African Women during Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period

    PubMed Central

    Groves, Allison K.; McNaughton-Reyes, H. Luz; Foshee, Vangie A.; Moodley, Dhayendre; Maman, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem in South Africa. However, there is limited research on whether and how IPV changes during pregnancy and the postpartum period and on the factors that might affect women's risk during this time. In this study, we describe the mean trajectories of physical and psychological IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period and examine whether relationship power, partner social support, and relationship stress are associated with women's trajectories of IPV. Data come from a longitudinal study with 1,480 women recruited during pregnancy between May 2008 and June 2010 at a public clinic in Durban. Women completed behavioral assessments at their first antenatal visit, at fourteen weeks and at nine months postpartum. Women's experiences of IPV were measured at all three time points and relationship power, partner social support and relationship stress were each measured at the baseline assessment. We used multilevel random coefficients growth modeling to build our models. The mean trajectory for both types of IPV was flat which means that, on average, there was not significant change in levels of IPV over pregnancy and the postpartum period. However, there was significant individual variability in trajectories of IPV over the study period. Women who had higher relationship power had lower levels of physical and psychological IPV over time than women with lower relationship power. Additionally, women with higher relationship stress and lower partner support had higher levels of psychological IPV at pregnancy. Interventions that maximize women's relationship power and partner social support and minimize relationship stress during this transformative time are needed. PMID:25268363

  12. Prepartum and Postpartum Predictors of Smoking

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Reduction of smoking during pregnancy and in the postpartum period remains a public health priority. This study tested whether variables (demographic, pregnancy related, emotional, and smoking related) assessed in abstinent women during their pregnancy predicted resumed smoking at 1 month and 1 year postpartum. Additionally, pregnancy-related and smoking-related variables obtained in the immediate postpartum period were examined as predictors of smoking at 1 year postpartum. Methods: Participants were pregnant women in their second and third trimester (N = 504) who enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a smoking relapse-prevention intervention. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted with baseline data collected during pregnancy and follow-up assessments completed at 1 month and 12 months postpartum. Results: Independent predictors of smoking at 1 month postpartum included not intending to remain abstinent, lower quitting confidence, the presence of other household smokers, and not planning to breast feed. Smoking at 12 months postpartum was predicted by only not intending to remain abstinent and having a partner who maintained his or her smoking rate. In contrast, when assessed at 1 month postpartum, smoking at 12 months was predicted by current smoking status and lower quitting confidence. Conclusions: Baseline variables measured during pregnancy differentially predicted early versus late smoking status. After delivery, the best predictor of later smoking status was current smoking status, reinforcing the need to focus on preventing early postpartum relapse. The importance of quitting confidence, or self-efficacy, was also reinforced. Findings may be useful for screening women at risk of relapse and targeting interventions to key variables. PMID:24203933

  13. Adverse events from spinal manipulation in the pregnant and postpartum periods: a critical review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The safety of spinal manipulation during pregnancy and the postpartum periods has been a matter of debate among manual therapists. Spinal manipulative therapy during these periods is a commonly performed intervention as musculoskeletal pain is common in these patients. To date there has not been an evaluation of the literature on this topic exclusively. Methods A literature search was conducted on PubMed, CINAHL and the Index to Chiropractic Literature along with reference searching for articles published in English and French in the peer-reviewed literature that documented adverse effects of spinal manipulation during either pregnancy or postpartum. Case reports, case series, and any other clinical study designs were deemed acceptable for inclusion, as were systematic reviews. The appropriate Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) tools were used to rate included articles for quality when applicable. Results Five articles identifying adverse events in seven subjects following spinal manipulation were included in this review, along with two systematic reviews. The articles were published between 1978 and 2009. Two articles describing adverse effects from spinal manipulation on two postpartum patients were included, while the remaining three articles on five patients with adverse effects following spinal manipulation were on pregnant patients. Injury severity ranged from minor injury such as increasing pain after treatment that resolved within a few days to more severe injuries including fracture, stroke, and epidural hematoma. SIGN scores of the prospective observational cohort study and systematic reviews indicated acceptable quality. Conclusions There are only a few reported cases of adverse events following spinal manipulation during pregnancy and the postpartum period identified in the literature. While improved reporting of such events is required in the future, it may be that such injuries are relatively rare. PMID:22455720

  14. Intrathoracic gastric perforation: a late complication of an unknown postpartum recurrent hiatal hernia.

    PubMed

    Lococo, Filippo; Cesario, Alfredo; Meacci, Elisa; Granone, Pierluigi

    2012-08-01

    Diaphragmatic hernias occurring during pregnancy are an uncommon event. In very rare occasions, the clinical situation can suddenly worsen due to obstruction, torsion or infarction of the herniated viscera. Here, we describe a challenging case of a post-partum diaphragmatic hiatus hernia complicated by intrathoracic gastric perforation. A 23-year old woman was admitted at our hospital with a syndrome characterized by epigastralgy, dyspnoea and fever. She had previously undergone a laparoscopic antireflux surgery for hiatus hernia (6 years before) and a recent (4 months) unremarkable vaginal delivery. Due to the persistence of a pelvic pain after the delivery, she had been taking pain-killers as a self-administered medication. A CT scan showed a massive left pleural effusion and a complete herniation of the stomach into the left hemithorax. After placing a chest drainage and removing up to 3000 ml of brownish purulent fluid, a repeat CT scan (with water soluble contrast swallow) showed a leak at the level of the stomach. At surgery, we observed a complete intrathoracic herniation through a large diaphragmatic hiatal defect and a small well-defined gastric ulcer. A primary repair of both the stomach and the diaphragm was performed. We take the opportunity presented by this report to briefly discuss the patho-physiological mechanisms underlying this unusual complication. PMID:22611183

  15. Traditional beliefs and practices in the postpartum period in Fujian Province, China: a qualitative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanna H Raven; Qiyan Chen; Rachel J Tolhurst; Paul Garner

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Zuo yuezi is the month postpartum in China associated with a variety of traditional beliefs and practices. We explored the current status of zuo yuezi from social, cultural and western medical perspectives. METHODS: We interviewed family members (36) and health workers (8) in Fujian Province, selecting one rural and one rapidly developing urban county. We asked about their traditional

  16. Postpartum Psychosis

    MedlinePLUS

    Psychosis Postpartum Psychosis is a rare illness, compared to the rates of postpartum depression or anxiety. It ... can get the help you need. Treating Postpartum Psychosis Emergency Hotlines are available all the time. It ...

  17. Knowledge and attitudes of postpartum women toward immunization during pregnancy and the peripartum period

    PubMed Central

    Beel, Elizabeth Rossmann; Rench, Marcia A; Montesinos, Diana P; Mayes, Betsy; Healy, C Mary

    2013-01-01

    Influenza and pertussis prevention in young infants requires immunizing pregnant women and all caregivers (cocooning). We evaluated the knowledge and attitude of postpartum women about these two recommendations. A survey of predominantly Hispanic, underinsured, medically underserved postpartum women in Houston, Texas was performed during June 2010 through July 2012. Five hundred eleven postpartum women [mean age 28.8 y (18–45); 94% Hispanic] with a mean of 3 children (1–12) participated. Ninety-one (17.8%) were first-time mothers. Four hundred ninety-six (97.1%) received prenatal care; care was delayed in 24.3%. Only 313 (61.3%) received vaccine education while pregnant, and 291 (57%) were immunized. Four hundred seventy-four women (93%) were willing to be immunized during pregnancy if recommended by their healthcare provider, (the most trusted information source for 62%). Immunization of infants or infant caregivers had been discussed with 41% and 10% of mothers, respectively. Two hundred thirty women (45%) had received influenza vaccine; most intended to (79%) or had already received (15%) tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine. Preferred locations for cocooning were hospital or community clinics (97%). Insufficient knowledge (46.6%), cost (31.4%), lack of transportation (26%), work commitments (13.3%), and fear of needles (13.3%) were perceived barriers to cocooning. Level of formal education received by mothers had no effect on the quantity or quality of immunization education received during PNC or their attitude toward immunization. Immunization during pregnancy and cocooning, if recommended by providers, are acceptable in this high-risk population. Healthcare providers, as reported in infant studies, have the greatest influence on vaccine acceptance by pregnant and postpartum women. PMID:23782490

  18. Late pregnancy progesterone treatment as a modulatory signal for postpartum behavior.

    PubMed

    Cruz, A M; Sukikara, M H; Felicio, L F

    2015-03-01

    Changes in plasma progesterone levels during late pregnancy are a determining factor in the expression of maternal behavior during lactation. Previous studies showed that mild opioidergic stimulation during late pregnancy makes lactating females more sensitive to opioidergic-induced inhibition of maternal behavior and more willing to display hunting behavior. Such previous behaviorally meaningful opioidergic stimulation also selectively increased serum progesterone levels. The present study tested whether progesterone treatment during late pregnancy interferes with the display of maternal behavior and behavioral selection during lactation. In Experiment 1, rats were treated with progesterone (400 and 500 ?g per day) from the 17th day to the 22nd day of pregnancy. The lowest progesterone dose did not interfere with pregnancy or parturition, and this dose was used in Experiments 2 and 3, in which the rats were treated with subcutaneous progesterone or peanut oil for 5 days beginning on pregnancy day 17. On day 5 of lactation, dams were challenged with subcutaneous morphine (1.5 mg/kg), or saline. The rats were then tested for maternal care (Experiment 2) or behavioral selection with pups and cockroaches (Experiment 3). Animals treated with progesterone during late pregnancy and challenged with morphine during lactation exhibited a significant decrease in maternal behavior in both Experiments 2 and 3. Predatory hunting was not modified by progesterone treatment. These results indicate that sensitivity to opioidergic-mediated inhibition of maternal behavior is enhanced by prepartum progesterone administration. Thus progesterone might be part of the opioid-triggered prepartum signaling leading to behavioral changes during lactation. PMID:25550156

  19. The vaginal microbiome during pregnancy and the postpartum period in a European population

    PubMed Central

    MacIntyre, David A.; Chandiramani, Manju; Lee, Yun S.; Kindinger, Lindsay; Smith, Ann; Angelopoulos, Nicos; Lehne, Benjamin; Arulkumaran, Shankari; Brown, Richard; Teoh, Tiong Ghee; Holmes, Elaine; Nicoholson, Jeremy K.; Marchesi, Julian R.; Bennett, Phillip R.

    2015-01-01

    The composition and structure of the pregnancy vaginal microbiome may influence susceptibility to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Studies on the pregnant vaginal microbiome have largely been limited to Northern American populations. Using MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, we characterised the vaginal microbiota of a mixed British cohort of women (n = 42) who experienced uncomplicated term delivery and who were sampled longitudinally throughout pregnancy (8–12, 20–22, 28–30 and 34–36 weeks gestation) and 6 weeks postpartum. We show that vaginal microbiome composition dramatically changes postpartum to become less Lactobacillus spp. dominant with increased alpha-diversity irrespective of the community structure during pregnancy and independent of ethnicity. While the pregnancy vaginal microbiome was characteristically dominated by Lactobacillus spp. and low alpha-diversity, unlike Northern American populations, a significant number of pregnant women this British population had a L. jensenii-dominated microbiome characterised by low alpha-diversity. L. jensenii was predominantly observed in women of Asian and Caucasian ethnicity whereas L. gasseri was absent in samples from Black women. This study reveals new insights into biogeographical and ethnic effects upon the pregnancy and postpartum vaginal microbiome and has important implications for future studies exploring relationships between the vaginal microbiome, host health and pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25758319

  20. Emotion Reactivity Is Increased 4-6 Weeks Postpartum in Healthy Women: A Longitudinal fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Gingnell, Malin; Bannbers, Elin; Moes, Harmen; Engman, Jonas; Sylvén, Sara; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Kask, Kristiina; Wikström, Johan; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2015-01-01

    Marked endocrine alterations occur after delivery. Most women cope well with these changes, but the postpartum period is associated with an increased risk of depressive episodes. Previous studies of emotion processing have focused on maternal–infant bonding or postpartum depression (PPD), and longitudinal studies of the neural correlates of emotion processing throughout the postpartum period in healthy women are lacking. In this study, 13 women, without signs of post partum depression, underwent fMRI with an emotional face matching task and completed the MADRS-S, STAI-S, and EPDS within 48 h (early postpartum) and 4–6 weeks after delivery (late postpartum). Also, data from a previous study including 15 naturally cycling controls assessed in the luteal and follicular phase of the menstrual cycle was used. Women had lower reactivity in insula, middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in the early as compared to the late postpartum assessment. Insular reactivity was positively correlated with anxiety in the early postpartum period and with depressive symptoms late postpartum. Reactivity in insula and IFG were greater in postpartum women than in non-pregnant control subjects. Brain reactivity was not correlated with serum estradiol or progesterone levels. Increased reactivity in the insula, IFG, and MFG may reflect normal postpartum adaptation, but correlation with self-rated symptoms of depression and anxiety in these otherwise healthy postpartum women, may also suggest that these changes place susceptible women at increased risk of PPD. These findings contribute to our understanding of the neurobiological aspects of the postpartum period, which might shed light on the mechanisms underlying affective puerperal disorders, such as PPD. PMID:26061879

  1. The effect of dry period duration and dietary energy density on milk production, bioenergetic status, and postpartum ovarian function in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows.

    PubMed

    de Feu, M A; Evans, A C O; Lonergan, P; Butler, S T

    2009-12-01

    Following parturition, it is typical for dairy cows to enter a period of negative energy balance and body condition loss to support mammary milk synthesis; this is associated with compromised reproductive performance. Alternative management strategies during the prepartum (dry) and early postpartum periods may ameliorate this loss. Forty mature Holstein-Friesian cows were assigned to 1 of 2 dry period treatments [standard 8-wk dry period (SDP) or no planned dry period (NDP)] and 1 of 2 dietary energy density treatments [standard TMR (STMR) or high-quality TMR (HTMR)]. Milk yield during wk 1 to 12 postpartum was reduced in cows assigned to the NDP treatment. Energy balance and body condition score (BCS) during wk 1 to 4 postpartum were increased in cows assigned to the NDP treatment compared with the cows assigned to the SDP treatment, and BCS increased from wk 5 to 12 postpartum in the NDP cows compared with the SDP cows. During the first 12 wk postpartum, cows assigned to the HTMR diet had greater milk yield and reduced milk fat concentration compared with the cows assigned the STMR diet. The BCS was greater from wk 5 to 12 postpartum in HTMR cows compared with STMR cows. During the period from wk -3 to +3 relative to parturition, circulating concentrations of insulin, glucose, and IGF-I were greater in cows in the NDP treatment compared with cows in the SDP treatment. Cows assigned to the HTMR diet had greater circulating insulin and glucose concentrations compared with the STMR cows from wk -3 to +3 relative to parturition. The first postpartum ovulation occurred earlier for cows in the NDP treatment compared with cows in the SDP treatment (16.9 vs. 24.8 d postpartum. Cows assigned to the STMR diet tended to have a higher conception rate to first service compared with cows assigned to the HTMR diet. Energy balance and metabolic status can be improved by either eliminating the dry period or by feeding a higher energy diet, but effects on the reproductive axis appear to be different. PMID:19923604

  2. Outreach and integration programs to promote family planning in the extended postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Sonalkar, Sarita; Mody, Sheila; Gaffield, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Background WHO recommends birth spacing to improve the health of the mother and child. One strategy to facilitate birth spacing is to improve the use of family planning during the first year postpartum. Objectives To determine from the literature the effectiveness of postpartum family-planning programs and to identify research gaps. Search strategy PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were systematically searched for articles published between database inception and March 2013. Abstracts of conference presentations, dissertations, and unpublished studies were also considered. Selection criteria Published studies with birth spacing or contraceptive use outcomes were included. Data collection and analysis Standard abstract forms and the US Preventive Services Task Force grading system were used to summarize and assess the quality of the evidence. Main results Thirty-four studies were included. Prenatal care, home visitation programs, and educational interventions were associated with improved family-planning outcomes, but should be further studied in low-resource settings. Mother–infant care integration, multidisciplinary interventions, and cash transfer/microfinance interventions need further investigation. Conclusions Programmatic interventions may improve birth spacing and contraceptive uptake. Larger well-designed studies in international settings are needed to determine the most effective ways to deliver family-planning interventions. PMID:24434229

  3. Non-invasive endocrine monitoring of ovarian and adrenal activity in chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) females during pregnancy, parturition and early post-partum period.

    PubMed

    Mastromonaco, Gabriela F; Cantarelli, Verónica I; Galeano, María G; Bourguignon, Nadia S; Gilman, Christine; Ponzio, Marina F

    2015-03-01

    The chinchilla is a rodent that bears one of the finest and most valuable pelts in the world. The wild counterpart is, however, almost extinct because of a drastic past and ongoing population decline. The present work was developed to increase our knowledge of the reproductive physiology of pregnancy and post-partum estrus in the chinchilla, characterizing the endocrine patterns of urinary progesterone, estradiol, LH and cortisol metabolites throughout gestation and post-partum estrus and estimating the ovulation timing at post-partum estrus. Longitudinal urine samples were collected once per week throughout pregnancy and analyzed for creatinine, cortisol, LH, estrogen and progesterone metabolite concentrations. To indirectly determine the ovulation timing at post-partum estrus, a second experiment was performed using pregnant females subjected to a post-partum in vivo fertilization scheme. Urinary progestagen metabolites increased above baseline levels in early pregnancy between weeks-8 and -11 respectively to parturition, and slightly declined at parturition time. Urinary estrogens showed rising levels throughout mid- and late pregnancy (weeks-9 to -6 and a further increase at week-5 to parturition) and decreased in a stepwise manner after parturition, returning to baseline levels two weeks thereafter. Cortisol metabolite levels were relatively constant throughout pregnancy with a tendency for higher levels in the last third of gestation and after the pups' birth. Parturition was associated with dramatic reductions in urinary concentrations of sex steroids (especially progestagens). Observations in breeding farms indicated that the females that resulted in a second pregnancy after mating, did so on the second day after parturition. These data were in agreement with an LH peak detected 24h after parturition. Urinary steroid hormone patterns of estrogen and progestagen metabolites provided valuable information on endocrine events during pregnancy and after parturition in the chinchilla. Results presented in this study enhance our understanding of natural reproductive dynamics in the chinchilla and support empirical observations of breeders that post-partum ovulation occurs ? 48 h after parturition. PMID:25712434

  4. Language Acquisition in Late Critical Period: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gheitury, Amer; Sahraee, Ahmad Hosein; Hoseini, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Studies carried out to support the existence of a critical period for language acquisition have concentrated mainly on the case of being in total deprivation from language contact, and in particular deprivation from auditory input in the entire time span before puberty. While arguing for a useful distinction between early and late critical…

  5. THE VEGETATION HISTORY OF SNOWDONIA SINCE THE LATE GLACIAL PERIOD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PETER RHIND; BARBARA JONES

    Snowdonia has one of the most intensely studied pollen records in Britain. It has, therefore, been possible to provide a detailed description of all of the major vegetation types that developed since the last ice age. The account extends from the late glacial period (some 12,000 years BP), when pioneer plants were struggling to colonise the newly exposed, barren landscapes,

  6. Complicated benign cystic mesothelioma of mesoappendix misdiagnosed as an appendiceal abscess in a postpartum period woman.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Sunchul; Son, Taeil; Hong, Young Ok

    2015-03-01

    Benign cystic mesothelioma is an uncommon tumor arising from the peritoneal mesothelium. It is characterized by multilocular grapelike, thin-, and translucent-walled cysts, or a unilocular cyst lined by benign mesothelial cells. It occurs predominantly in women of reproductive age, and shows a predilection for the surface of the pelvic peritoneum or visceral peritoneum. Patients usually present abdominal pain and palpable mass, but many cases have been found incidentally during laparotomy. Definite preoperative diagnosis is known to be difficult. Benign cystic mesothelioma has a tendency towards local recurrence, although the gross microscopic features are benign. Moreover, there is controversy over whether this disease is neoplastic or reactive. Initial complete surgical resection and cytoreductive surgery for recurred cases are standard treatments. In the following report, we describe a case of complicated benign cystic mesothelioma in a postpartum woman, involving the pelvic peritoneum and mesoappendix, which was initially misdiagnosed as a periappendiceal abscess. PMID:25741498

  7. Plasma patterns of biologically and immunologically active luteinizing hormone during late gestation and early postpartum in the bovine

    E-print Network

    Weesner, Gary Duane

    1986-01-01

    -acetyl-hexosamines at each branch terminus. In 1968, Morell et al. determined that the presence of these sulfur groups was required for the survival of LH in circulation. Removal or non-addition of these sulfur 'caps' leaves a galactose residue on the terminal...), POST-12 (day 12 or 13 postpartum), and. LUTEAL (day 10 or 11 after the first displayed postpartum estrus). One of the cows calved ear- lier than expected~ therefore, PRE-5 samples were collected from only four of the five cows. Actual number of d...

  8. Mental Health of HIV-Seropositive Women During Pregnancy and Postpartum Period: A Comprehensive Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Dass-Brailsford, Priscilla; Nora, Diana; Talisman, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    With growing numbers of HIV-seropositive (HIV+) women of child-bearing age and increased access to effective clinical protocols for preventing mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV, mental health-related factors have become increasingly relevant due to their potential to affect the women’s quality of life, obstetric outcomes and risk of MTCT. This review synthesizes evidence from 53 peer-reviewed publications examining mental health-related variables in pregnant and postpartum HIV+ women. The presentation of results is organized by the level of socioeconomic resources in the countries where studies were conducted (i.e., high-, middle-, and low-income countries). It is concluded that psychiatric symptoms, particularly depression, and mental health vulnerabilities (e.g., inadequate coping skills) are widespread among pregnant HIV+ women globally and have a potential to affect psychological well-being, quality of life and salient clinical outcomes. The current body of evidence provides rationale for developing and evaluating clinical and structural interventions aimed at improving mental health outcomes and their clinical correlates in pregnant HIV+ women. PMID:24584458

  9. [How to manage a patient with chronic arterial hypertension during pregnancy and the postpartum period].

    PubMed

    Pourrat, O

    2015-03-01

    The management of chronic arterial hypertension during pregnancy and postpartum requires first to estimate the risk of the pregnancy, linked with the severity of hypertension, with cardiac and renal involvement, with its cause as well as with the background (obesity, diabetes, possible history of placental vascular pathology). On a very practical approach, antihypertensive drug has to be started or increased if systolic pressure reaches or exceeds 160 mmHg or if diastolic pressure reaches or exceeds 105 mmHg. Below this level, there are no evidence-based medicine data, but it seems reasonable to treat if pressure increases over 150/100 mmHg (140/90 mmHg in case of ambulatory monitoring). Excessive pressure figures control must be avoided as much as insufficient ones: in practice, it is necessary to decrease the treatment dose if figures are below 130/80 mmHg. Three antihypertensive drugs are consensually recommended today: alphametyldopa, calcium-channel blockers and labetalol. Monotherapy is most often sufficient; if needed, two of these drugs can easily be associated, and even three if necessary. Converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor II antagonists should not be prescribed to pregnant women. Betablockers and diuretics are not recommended. Whatever is the antihypertensive drug used, it is necessary to detect the signs of bad placenta blood circulation with uterine Doppler ultrasound and regular controls of fetal growth, and to check for appearance of proteinuria, defining then over-imposed pre-eclampsia needing immediate admission to the maternity. After delivery, lacatation suppresion with bromocriptin should not be prescribed. PMID:24075628

  10. High HIV incidence in the postpartum period sustains vertical transmission in settings with generalized epidemics: a cohort study in Southern Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    De Schacht, Caroline; Mabunda, Nédio; Ferreira, Orlando C; Ismael, Nália; Calú, Nurbai; Santos, Iolanda; Hoffman, Heather J; Alons, Catharina; Guay, Laura; Jani, Ilesh V

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Acute infection with HIV in the postpartum period results in a high risk of vertical transmission through breastfeeding. A study was done to determine the HIV incidence rate and associated risk factors among postpartum women in Southern Mozambique, where HIV prevalence among pregnant women is 21%. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted in six rural health facilities in Gaza and Maputo provinces from March 2008 to July 2011. A total of 1221 women who were HIV-negative on testing at delivery or within two months postpartum were recruited and followed until 18 months postpartum. HIV testing, collection of dried blood spot samples and administration of a structured questionnaire to women were performed every three months. Infant testing by DNA-PCR was done as soon as possible after identification of a new infection in women. HIV incidence was estimated, and potential risk factors at baseline were compared using Poisson regression. Results Data from 957 women were analyzed with follow-up after the enrolment visit, with a median follow-up of 18.2 months. The HIV incidence in postpartum women is estimated at 3.20/100 women-years (95% CI: 2.30–4.46), with the highest rate among 18- to 19-year-olds (4.92 per 100 women-years; 95% CI: 2.65–9.15). Of the new infections, 14 (34%) were identified during the first six months postpartum, 11 (27%) between 6 and 12 months and 16 (39%) between 12 and 18 months postpartum. Risk factors for incident HIV infection include young age, low number of children, higher education level of the woman's partner and having had sex with someone other than one's partner. The vertical transmission was 21% (95% CI: 5–36) among newly infected women. Conclusions Incidence of HIV is high among breastfeeding women in Southern Mozambique, contributing to increasing numbers of HIV-infected infants. Comprehensive primary prevention strategies targeting women of reproductive age, particularly pregnant and postpartum women and their partners, will be crucial for the elimination of paediatric AIDS in Africa. PMID:24629842

  11. The role of the parents’ perception of the postpartum period and knowledge of maternal mortality in uptake of postnatal care: a qualitative exploration in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Zamawe, Collins F; Masache, Gibson C; Dube, Albert N

    2015-01-01

    Background Postpartum is the most risky period for both mothers and newborn babies. However, existing evidence suggests that utilization of postnatal care is relatively lower when compared to uptake of other similar health care services. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the perceptions of parents toward the postpartum period and postnatal care in order to deepen our understanding of the maternal care-seeking practices after childbirth. Methods A descriptive qualitative study, comprising four focus group discussions with 50 parents aged between 18 and 35 years, was conducted in Malawi between January and March 2014. Only young men and women who had either given birth or fathered a baby within 12 months prior to the study were eligible to participate in this study. This was to ensure that only participants who had recent first-hand postpartum experience were included. Local leaders purposively identified all parents who met the inclusion criteria and then simple random sampling was used to select participants from this pool of parents. Data analysis followed the six steps of thematic approach developed by Braun and Clarke, and NVivo software aided the process. Findings The parents interviewed described the various factors relating to pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum periods that may possibly influence uptake of postnatal care. These factors were categorized into the following three themes: beliefs about the causes of maternal morbidity and mortality; risks associated with the pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum periods; and the importance of and barriers to postnatal care. Most participants perceived pregnancy and childbirth as the most risky periods to women, and their understanding of the causes of maternal death differed considerably from the existing evidence. In addition, segregation of mother and baby care in the clinics was identified as one of the potential barriers to postnatal care. Conclusion The study findings suggest that parents’ perception of the postpartum period and postnatal care as well as their knowledge of maternal morbidity and mortality play a vital role in the uptake of postnatal care. The study has also established that lack of knowledge of postnatal care, long waiting time for treatment, and separation of the mother and baby care in clinics are some of the key barriers to postnatal care. We recommend massive maternal health education programs as well as the integration of all postdelivery health care services provided in clinics, so that mothers and neonates receive health care together.

  12. [Contribution to the history of pharmacology (the late antique period)].

    PubMed

    Tesa?ová, Drahomíra

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological literature in the Late Antique period followed the Roman tradition and widely used Scribonius Largus and excerpts from the writings of Pliny the Elder. Literature was created both in the western part of the Roman Empire and in North Africa in Carthage. Manuals have been written about medicinal plants (Herbarius of Pseudo-Apuleius, De herba vettonica of Pseudo-Musa), for drugs obtained from the animal kingdom (Liber medicinae of Sextus Placitus) or documents containing both (De medicina of Cassius Felix, De medicamentis of Marcellus Empiricus). The contribution of this literature is the mediation of ancient knowledge into the Middle Ages. PMID:25994825

  13. Endogenous release of prostaglandin F?[a?lpha] during the postpartum period and its relationship with resumption of ovarian activity in mature Brahman cows

    E-print Network

    Velez, Juan Santiago

    1991-01-01

    ENDOGENOUS RELEASE OF PROSTAGLANDIN F2 0 DURING THE POSTPARTUM PERIOD AND ZTS RELATIONSHIP WITH RESUMPTION OF OVARIAN ACTIVITY ZN MATURE BRAHMAN COWS A Thesis by JUAN SANTIAGO VELEZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A... OF OVARIAN ACTIVITY IN MATURE BRAHMAN COWS A Thesis by JUAN SANTIAGO VELEZ Approved as to style and content by: Ronald D. Randel (Chairman of Committe) Duane C. Kraemer (Member) Paul G. Harms (Member) H. R. Cross (Head of Department) May 1991...

  14. Effect of ?-carotene supply during close-up dry period on the onset of first postpartum luteal activity in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, C; Nagashima, S; Sawada, K; Schweigert, F J; Miyamoto, A; Kida, K

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of ?-carotene supply during the close-up dry period on the onset of first postpartum luteal activity in dairy cows. Twelve cows were supplied with 2000?mg of ?-carotene (20?g Rovimix(®) ?-Carotene containing 10% ?-carotene; DSM Nutrition Japan K.K., Tokyo, Japan) by oral administration daily from day 21 before expected calving date to parturition. Fourteen cows (control) did not receive ?-carotene supplementation. Blood samples were obtained on days 21, 14 and 7 before expected calving date and on days 1, 7, 14, 21 postpartum. When the plasma progesterone concentration exceeded 1?ng/ml by day 21 postpartum, luteal activity was assumed to have been initiated. The result showed that serum ?-carotene concentrations in the ?-carotene cows were higher than in the control cows during the experimental period (p?postpartum was 9/12 in the ?-carotene cows and 4/14 in the control cows (p?period may support the onset of luteal activity during early lactation in dairy cows. PMID:20002607

  15. Postpartum Coronary Vasospasm with Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Koneru, Jayanth; Alattar, Fadi; Alqaqa, Ashraf; Virk, Hirtaj; Shamoon, Fayez; Bikkina, Mahesh

    2014-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction during pregnancy or the postpartum period is rare. We report a case of a 39-year-old postpartum woman who developed non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction due to severe diffuse coronary vasospasm. To our knowledge, this is the first case of angiographically evidenced coronary vasospasm, in a postpartum woman, with resistance to intracoronary nitroglycerin. PMID:25105029

  16. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors and their ligands in rat uterus during the postpartum involution period.

    PubMed

    Sa?söz, H; Liman, N; Alan, E

    2015-07-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its specific receptors, FLt1/fms, Flk1/KDR and FLt4, play important roles in vasculogenesis, and physiological and pathological angiogenesis. Whether angiogenic growth factors are involved in regulating angiogenic processes during the postpartum involution period (PP) of the rat uterus is unknown. We used immunohistochemistry to analyze the expression levels of VEGF, the fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (FLt1/fms), the kinase insert domain-containing region 1 (Flk1/KDR), Fms-related tyrosine kinase 4 (FLt4) and vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (VEGI) in the rat uterus during the days 1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 of the PP to determine the temporal and spatial expressions of VEGF and its receptors during the PP. Throughout the PP, cytoplasmic and membrane staining of VEGI, VEGF and their receptors were observed in the lumens, crypts and glandular epithelial cells as well as in connective tissue and vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells in the endometrium. We found that the intensity of the immunoreactions in the endometrium varied with the morphological changes that occurred during involution. Immunoreactions for VEGI, VEGF and their receptor, Flk1/KDR, in the luminal epithelial cells were stronger than those in the glandular epithelial and stromal cells, particularly during PP 1, 3 and 5, which suggests that these peptides may contribute to re-epithelialization of the endometrium. On the other hand, Flt1/fms immunoreactivity was strong mainly in the stromal cells during the PP. The presence of VEGF and its receptors (FLt1/fms, Flk1/KDR, FLt4) in the stromal cells and blood vessels during the PP suggests that they may contribute to regulating stromal repair and angiogenesis in the involuting uterus of the rat. PMID:25801298

  17. [Postpartum psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Mazaira, Silvina

    2014-01-01

    The postpartum period represents a very particular time in women's life, the beginning of a new bond, the maternity. As many times, beginnings are such turbulent, intense. In this period the women suffers deep changes in their hormonal status, with its body and changes and affective oscillations. Women are often so labile at this time, ranging from happiness to deep sadness. The vast majority suffers the blues, a benign form of mild depressive state. On the other hand, 20% may have a major depressive episode, and a much less percentage will suffer the most disruptive postpartum syndrome, the postpartum psychosis. In this paper it will be described the symptomatology of such cases, the most important treatment approaches and will focus on the clinical dilemma of using psychotropic medications during breastfeeding. PMID:25545081

  18. Personality and risk for postpartum depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Iliadis, S I; Koulouris, P; Gingnell, M; Sylvén, S M; Sundström-Poromaa, I; Ekselius, L; Papadopoulos, F C; Skalkidou, A

    2015-06-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common childbirth complication, affecting 10-15 % of newly delivered mothers. This study aims to assess the association between personality factors and PPD. All pregnant women during the period September 2009 to September 2010, undergoing a routine ultrasound at Uppsala University Hospital, were invited to participate in the BASIC study, a prospective study designed to investigate maternal well-being. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) while the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) was used as a diagnostic tool for major depression. Personality traits were evaluated using the Swedish Universities Scale of Personality (SSP). One thousand thirty-seven non-depressed pregnant women were included in the study. Non-depressed women reporting high levels of neuroticism in late pregnancy were at high risk of developing postpartum depressive symptoms (PPDSs) at 6 weeks and 6 months after delivery, even after adjustment for confounders (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)?=?3.4, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.8-6.5 and adjusted odds ratio (aOR)?=?3.9, 95 % CI 1.9-7.9). The same was true for a DSRS-based diagnosis of major depression at 6 months postpartum. Somatic trait anxiety and psychic trait anxiety were associated with increased risk for PPDS at 6 weeks (aOR?=?2.1, 95 % CI 1.2-3.5 and aOR?=?1.9, 95 % CI 1.1-3.1), while high scores of mistrust were associated with a twofold increased risk for PPDS at 6 months postpartum (aOR 1.9, 95 % CI 1.1-3.4). Non-depressed pregnant women with high neuroticism scores have an almost fourfold increased risk to develop depressive symptoms postpartum, and the association remains robust even after controlling for most known confounders. Clinically, this could be of importance for health care professionals working with pregnant and newly delivered women. PMID:25369905

  19. Views of Women and Clinicians on Postpartum Preparation and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Anika; Horowitz, Carol; Howell, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    To explore important domains of women’s postpartum experiences as perceived by postpartum mothers and obstetricians/midwives, and to investigate how postpartum care could enhance patient preparation for the postpartum period. Qualitative research study was conducted to explore women’s and clinicians’ perceptions of the postpartum experience. Four focus groups of postpartum women (n = 45) and two focus groups of obstetric clinicians (n = 13) were held at a large urban teaching hospital in New York City. All focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using grounded theory. Four main themes were identified: lack of women’s knowledge about postpartum health and lack of preparation for the postpartum experience, lack of continuity of care and absence of maternal care during the early postpartum period, disconnect between providers and postpartum mothers, and suggestions for improvement. Mothers did not expect many of the symptoms they experienced after childbirth and were disappointed with the lack of support by providers during this critical time in their recovery. Differences existed in the major postpartum concerns of mothers and clinicians. However, both mothers and clinicians agreed that preparation during the antepartum period could be beneficial for postpartum recovery. Results from this study indicate that many mothers do not feel prepared for the postpartum experience. Study findings raise the hypothesis that capturing patient-centered domains that define the postpartum experience and integrating these domains into patient care may enhance patient preparation for postpartum recovery and improve postpartum outcomes. PMID:23775250

  20. Views of women and clinicians on postpartum preparation and recovery.

    PubMed

    Martin, Anika; Horowitz, Carol; Balbierz, Amy; Howell, Elizabeth A

    2014-04-01

    To explore important domains of women's postpartum experiences as perceived by postpartum mothers and obstetricians/midwives, and to investigate how postpartum care could enhance patient preparation for the postpartum period. Qualitative research study was conducted to explore women's and clinicians' perceptions of the postpartum experience. Four focus groups of postpartum women (n = 45) and two focus groups of obstetric clinicians (n = 13) were held at a large urban teaching hospital in New York City. All focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using grounded theory. Four main themes were identified: lack of women's knowledge about postpartum health and lack of preparation for the postpartum experience, lack of continuity of care and absence of maternal care during the early postpartum period, disconnect between providers and postpartum mothers, and suggestions for improvement. Mothers did not expect many of the symptoms they experienced after childbirth and were disappointed with the lack of support by providers during this critical time in their recovery. Differences existed in the major postpartum concerns of mothers and clinicians. However, both mothers and clinicians agreed that preparation during the antepartum period could be beneficial for postpartum recovery. Results from this study indicate that many mothers do not feel prepared for the postpartum experience. Study findings raise the hypothesis that capturing patient-centered domains that define the postpartum experience and integrating these domains into patient care may enhance patient preparation for postpartum recovery and improve postpartum outcomes. PMID:23775250

  1. Short term post-partum heat stress in dairy cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuquay, J. W.; Chapin, L. T.; Brown, W. H.

    1980-06-01

    Since many dairy cows calve during late summer, the objective was to determine if heat stress immediately post-partum would (1) alter metabolism, thus, increasing susceptibility to metabolic disorders, (2) affect lactation and/or (3) affect reproduction. Forty four cows, calving during late summer, were paired with one member of each pair stressed (HS) for the first 10 post-partum days in a hot barn. Controls (CC) were kept in a cooled section of the barn. Plasma drawn weekly for 7 weeks was analyzed in an autoanalyzer for calcium, inor. phosphorus, protein, glucose and cholesterol and by radioimmunoassay for cortisol and progesterone. Ovaries and uteri were palpated weekly. Rectal temperatures were significant higher for HS during the first 10 post-partum days. No significant effects on plasma constituents were observed during the 10-day treatment period. For the 7-week period, glucose and cholesterol were lower in HS, as were cyclic peaks of progesterone and cortisol. Both calcium and inorganic phosphorus remained clinically low for the 7 weeks, but no treatment effects were seen. Uteri of HS involuted more rapidly than the CC. Treatment did not affect reproductive efficiency. Lactation milk yields did not differ, but milk fat percent was lower in HS. Heat stress immediately post-partum altered lipid metabolism, but the animal's compensatory mechanisms prevented reduction in milk production or reproductive efficiency.

  2. Postpartum Period: Emotions

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  3. Postpartum Period: Vaginal Bleeding

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  4. Negative energy balance and hepatic gene expression patterns in high-yielding dairy cows during the early postpartum period: a global approach

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, S. D.; Waters, S. M.; Kenny, D. A.; Diskin, M. G.; Fitzpatrick, R.; Patton, J.; Wathes, D. C.

    2010-01-01

    In high-yielding dairy cows the liver undergoes extensive physiological and biochemical changes during the early postpartum period in an effort to re-establish metabolic homeostasis and to counteract the adverse effects of negative energy balance (NEB). These adaptations are likely to be mediated by significant alterations in hepatic gene expression. To gain new insights into these events an energy balance model was created using differential feeding and milking regimes to produce two groups of cows with either a mild (MNEB) or severe NEB (SNEB) status. Cows were slaughtered and liver tissues collected on days 6–7 of the first follicular wave postpartum. Using an Affymetrix 23k oligonucleotide bovine array to determine global gene expression in hepatic tissue of these cows, we found a total of 416 genes (189 up- and 227 downregulated) to be altered by SNEB. Network analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that SNEB was associated with widespread changes in gene expression classified into 36 gene networks including those associated with lipid metabolism, connective tissue development and function, cell signaling, cell cycle, and metabolic diseases, the three most significant of which are discussed in detail. SNEB cows displayed reduced expression of transcription activators and signal transducers that regulate the expression of genes and gene networks associated with cell signaling and tissue repair. These alterations are linked with increased expression of abnormal cell cycle and cellular proliferation associated pathways. This study provides new information and insights on the effect of SNEB on gene expression in high-yielding Holstein Friesian dairy cows in the early postpartum period. PMID:20716645

  5. The postpartum period in dromedary camels: uterine involution, ovarian activity, hormonal changes, and response to GnRH treatment.

    PubMed

    Derar, R; Ali, A; Al-Sobayil, F A

    2014-12-30

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the time for complete uterine involution and resumption of ovarian activity in postpartum dromedary camels, relative to hormonal changes. A total of six females were examined by ultrasonography twice weekly starting 3d after parturition. GnRH was administered when the follicles reached ?0.9cm diameter. Blood samples were collected for hormonal analysis. Results revealed that the mean intervals for complete involution of the previously gravid horn, non-gravid horn, and cervix were 34.33±3.9, 29.01±0.81, and 28.71±1.51d, respectively. After GnRH treatment (Days 17-34), five of the six camels had ovulated. The corpus luteum was detected by Day 4.1±1.6 after GnRH treatment and lasted for 6±1.1d. Serum progesterone (P4) was basal and increased only after GnRH treatment. Serum estradiol 17-? (E2) peaked twice: when a large follicle was detected and 8.5±2.8d post-GnRH treatment. The serum FSH pattern was biphasic, with two peaks just before the recruitment of small follicles and 4.67±4.1d after GnRH treatment. The five ovulating females were mated; two conceived after the first service and three after the second service. The interval from calving to conception was 78.16±3.71d. It was concluded that in dromedary camels, involution of the uterus is completed by the 5th week postpartum, these camels are highly responsive to early GnRH treatment, and they can be mated between the 5th and 6th week after parturition with encouraging conception rates. PMID:25465362

  6. ASSOCIATIONS AMONG CIRCULATING CONCENTRATIONS OF IGF-1 AND GH DURING THE POSTPARTUM PERIOD WITH RESUMPTION OF ESTRUS, CALF WEIGHTS, AND MILK PRODUCTION IN MATURE CROSSBRED COWS FED VARYING LEVELS OF ENERGY INTAKE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Circulating concentrations of IGF-1 and GH fluctuate in response to nutritional status. Objectives of this study were to evaluate usefulness of circulating profiles of IGF-1 and GH during the postpartum period as predictors of capacity to resume estrus and level of production (milk and calf growth)...

  7. Origin of the cataclysmic Late Heavy Bombardment period of the terrestrialplanets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Gomes; H. F. Levison; K. Tsiganis; A. Morbidelli

    2005-01-01

    The petrology record on the Moon suggests that a cataclysmic spike in the cratering rate occurred ~700 million years after the planets formed; this event is known as the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB). Planetary formation theories cannot naturally account for an intense period of planetesimal bombardment so late in Solar System history. Several models have been proposed to explain a

  8. [Postpartum thyroiditis. A review].

    PubMed

    Hurtado-Hernández, Z; Segura-Domínguez, A

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum thyroiditis (PPT) is a transient thyroid dysfunction of autoimmune origin that can occur in the first year postpartum in women who have not been previously diagnosed with thyroid disease. It may start with clinical thyrotoxicosis followed by hypothyroidism and the subsequent recovery of thyroid function, or may just appear as isolated thyrotoxicosis or hypothyroidism. PPT recurs in high percentage of patients after subsequent pregnancies. Many women develop permanent hypothyroidism sometime during the 3 to 10 year period after an episode of PPT. It is important for family physicians to be familiar with this disease, due to its high prevalence in order to make a correct diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. Family doctors also play a crucial role in the monitoring of these patients, given the negative implications of established hypothyroidism on reproduction in the female population during their reproductive years. This article reviews the principle characteristics of PPT along with its diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23834978

  9. Influence of interpersonal violence on maternal anxiety, depression, stress and parenting morale in the early postpartum: a community based pregnancy cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Research has shown that exposure to interpersonal violence is associated with poorer mental health outcomes. Understanding the impact of interpersonal violence on mental health in the early postpartum period has important implications for parenting, child development, and delivery of health services. The objective of the present study was to determine the impact of interpersonal violence on depression, anxiety, stress, and parenting morale in the early postpartum. Methods Women participating in a community-based prospective cohort study (n?=?1319) completed questionnaires prior to 25 weeks gestation, between 34–36 weeks gestation, and at 4 months postpartum. Women were asked about current and past abuse at the late pregnancy data collection time point. Postpartum depression, anxiety, stress, and parenting morale were assessed at 4 months postpartum using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the Spielberger State Anxiety Index, the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale, and the Parenting Morale Index, respectively. The relationship between interpersonal violence and postpartum psychosocial health status was examined using Chi-square analysis (p?postpartum, while both child maltreatment and intimate partner violence were associated with low parenting morale. Interpersonal violence did not have an independent effect on anxiety or stress in the postpartum. Conclusion The most robust relationships were seen for the influence of child maltreatment on postpartum depression and low parenting morale. By identifying women at risk for depression and low parenting morale, screening and treatment in the prenatal period could have far-reaching effects on postpartum mental health thus benefiting new mothers and their families in the long term. PMID:23241428

  10. Negotiating Equality through Ritual: A Consideration of Late Natufian and Prepottery Neolithic A Period Mortuary Practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Kuijt

    1996-01-01

    Mortuary rituals, specifically secondary mortuary practices with the socially sanctioned removal of all or some parts of the deceased, are a powerful means of social integration during periods of social, economic, or environmental change. Integrating ethnographic data on the social impact of secondary mortuary ceremonies with archaeological evidence from the Late Natufian and Prepottery Neolithic A periods of the south-central

  11. Urinary excretion of lead during pregnancy and postpartum.

    PubMed

    Gulson, B L; Mizon, K J; Palmer, J M; Korsch, M J; Donnelly, J B

    2000-10-30

    We have compared lead isotopic ratios and lead concentrations in 53 spot urine and 59 24-h urine samples from 13 subjects covering the interval from pre-pregnancy through 180 days postpartum to estimate the amount of lead excreted in urine and renal clearance relative to blood. The total amount of lead excreted in 24-h urine samples ranges from 0.8 to 5.9 microg Pb with an arithmetic mean of 2.2+/-1.1 microg (geometric mean 1.90 microg). This compares with amounts of 0.9-10 microg of extra lead per day estimated to be released into blood from the skeleton during pregnancy and postpartum. There were no differences in excretion rates during the trimesters of pregnancy and between pregnancy and postpartum time periods. The renal clearance relative to blood ranged from 0.8 to 10 g/h (arithmetic mean 3.2+/-1.9; geometric mean 2.7). Renal clearance relative to blood was somewhat higher in trimesters 2 and 3 compared with postpartum 150-180 days (P = 0.004, 0.006, respectively). Reassessment of earlier published blood and dietary data for Australian pregnant controls indicates there is no increased gastrointestinal absorption of lead during pregnancy and postpartum. This differs from calcium, which shows increased absorption during late pregnancy. In light of the inconvenience of sampling and potential contamination at the low levels of lead found in most of these subjects, we do not consider the 24 h urines to provide sufficient useful information. PMID:11059841

  12. Postpartum depression

    PubMed Central

    Pearlstein, Teri; Howard, Margaret; Salisbury, Amy; Zlotnick, Caron

    2014-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) affects up to 15% of mothers. Recent research has identified several psychosocial and biologic risk factors for PPD. The negative short-term and long-term effects on child development are well-established. PPD is under recognized and under treated. The obstetrician and pediatrician can serve important roles in screening for and treating PPD. Treatment options include psychotherapy and antidepressant medication. Obstacles to compliance with treatment recommendations include access to psychotherapists and concerns of breastfeeding mothers about exposure of the infant to antidepressant medication. Further research is needed to examine systematically the short-term and long-term effect of medication exposure through breastmilk on infant and child development. PMID:19318144

  13. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 is downregulated and its expression is shifted from neurons to astrocytes in the mouse lateral septum during the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Changjiu; Gammie, Stephen C

    2015-06-01

    The inhibitory metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (mGluR3) plays diverse and complex roles in brain function, including synaptic plasticity and neurotransmission. We recently found that mGluR3 is downregulated in the lateral septum (LS) of postpartum females using microarray and qPCR analysis. In this study, we used double fluorescence immunohistochemical approaches to characterize mGluR3 changes in LS of the postpartum brain. The number of mGluR3-immunoractive cells was significantly reduced in the dorsal (LSD) and intermediate (LSI) but not ventral (LSV) parts of the LS in postpartum versus virgin females. mGluR3 immunoreactivity in the LS was found predominantly in neurons (~70%), with a smaller portion (~20%-30%) in astrocytes. Colocalization analysis revealed a reduced mGluR3 expression in neurons but an increased astrocytic localization in postpartum LSI. This change in the pattern of expression suggests that mGluR3 expression is shifted from neurons to astrocytes in postpartum LS, and the decrease in mGluR3 is neuron-specific. Because mGluR3 is inhibitory and negatively regulates glutamate and GABA release, decreases in neuronal expression would increase glutamate and GABA signaling. Given our recent finding that ~90% of LS neurons are GABAergic, the present data suggest that decreases in mGluR3 are a mechanism for elevated GABA in LS in the postpartum state. PMID:25739438

  14. Maternal stress predicts postpartum weight retention.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Kara; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Vernon, Marlo; Wilcox, Sara

    2014-11-01

    Postpartum weight retention (PPWR) is a significant contributor to the development of overweight and obesity in women of childbearing age. Stress may be a key mechanism making it more difficult for mothers to lose weight in the year following delivery. The aim of this study was to assess whether specific aspects of parenting stress and life stress influence postpartum weight retention in new mothers. Women in late pregnancy or up to 2 months postpartum (n = 123) were enrolled in the study and followed through the first year postpartum. Linear regression models evaluated the associations of parenting stress (isolation, attachment and depressive symptoms) as well as overall life stress at 2, 6, and 12 months postpartum with PPWR at 6 and 12 months. During the first year postpartum, higher depression and life stress were significantly associated with greater PPWR. As the effect of depression diminished, the effect of life stress became significant. Contrary to hypothesized relationships, fewer problems with attachment and less social isolation were significantly associated with greater PPWR. Higher gestational weight gain and African American race were also significantly associated with greater PPWR at both 6 and 12 months. Different types of stress predict weight retention in first time mothers during the first year postpartum. Understanding the relationships between parenting stress, concurrent life stress and PPWR can enhance the development of future interventions that specifically target self-identified stressors, leading to improved weight related outcomes. PMID:24760321

  15. Path Analysis of Dry Period Nutrition, Postpartum Metabolic and Reproductive Disorders, and Mastitis in Holstein Cows1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles R. Curtis; Hollis N. Erb; Charles J. Sniffen; R. David Smith; David S. Kronfeld

    1985-01-01

    ABSTRACT Path,analysis,and,logistic regression were,used,to model,direct and,indirect relationships,among,clinical periparturi- ent,(within 30 d after calving) retained placenta, metritis, veterinary-assisted dys- tocia, uncomplicated and complicated ketosis, left displaced abomasum, parturi- ent paresis, mastiffs, and estimated nutri- ent intakes (protein, calcium, phospho- rus, energy; coded into terciles) in the last 3 wk,of the dry,period. Data were,from 1,374 multiparous Holstein lactations for calvings from,March,1981 through,Feb-

  16. Effects of feeding wheat straw or orchardgrass at ad libitum or restricted intake during the dry period on postpartum performance and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Litherland, N B; Weich, W D; Hansen, W P; Linn, J G

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of forage source [wheat straw (WS) or orchardgrass hay (OG)] and total amount of diet dry matter fed [ad libitum or restricted to 70% of predicted dry matter intake (DMI)] prepartum on postpartum performance. The study design was a 2×2 factorial design with 10 cows per treatment. Treatments were WS total mixed ration (TMR) ad libitum, OG TMR ad libitum, WS TMR restricted, and OG TMR restricted. The WS TMR (dry matter basis) contained 30% WS, 20.7% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 18.2% ground corn, 16.8% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses mineral mix (14.7% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 37.0% neutral detergent fiber). The OG TMR contained 30% OG, 46.2% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 9.5% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses (14.2% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 41.0% neutral detergent fiber). Cows received 1 lactation diet after calving (17.7% CP, 1.6 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 27.3% neutral detergent fiber). Total diet DMI prepartum was higher for ad libitum than for restricted as designed, but forage source had no effect on DMI. Total tract apparent digestibilities of DM and NDF were greater for OG than for WS. Postpartum DMI expressed as a percentage of body weight for the first week of lactation was higher for ad libitum than for restricted diets. Postpartum DMI during the first 30 d of lactation was higher for OG than for WS, but no effect was observed for the amount fed prepartum. Milk yield during the first week of lactation was higher for OG than for WS; however, during the first 30 d, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield and yield of milk fat were highest for OG TMR restricted and WS TMR ad libitum. Prepartum treatments had a limited effect on pre- and postpartum lipid metabolism; however, cows fed WS TMR ad libitum had the highest postpartum ?-hydroxybutyrate. Eating behavior was observed by 10-min video scans of 24-h video surveillance for 5d pre- and postpartum. Prepartum eating time and eating bouts tended to be greater by WS than for OG, and postpartum eating time per kilogram of neutral detergent fiber intake tended to be greater for WS than for OG. Results indicate that forage source and amount of DM fed prepartum affected postpartum performance and tended to alter the behavior of cows in tie-stall barns. PMID:23040018

  17. Sleep Disturbance and Neurobehavioral Performance among Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Insana, Salvatore P.; Williams, Kayla B.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep disturbances cause neurobehavioral performance and daytime functioning impairments. Postpartum women experience high levels of sleep disturbance. Thus, the study objective was to describe and explore the relation between neurobehavioral performance and sleep among women during the early postpartum period. Design: Longitudinal field-based study. Participants: There were 70 primiparous women and nine nulliparous women in a control group. Interventions: None. Methods and Results: During their first 12 postpartum weeks, 70 primiparous women wore continuous wrist actigraphy to objectively monitor their sleep. Each morning they self-administered the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) to index their neurobehavioral performance. Nine nulliparous women in a control group underwent the same protocol for 12 continuous weeks. Postpartum PVT mean reciprocal (1/RT) reaction time did not differ from that of women in the control group at postpartum week 2, but then worsened over time. Postpartum slowest 10% 1/RT PVT reaction time was significantly worse than that of women in the control group at all weeks. Despite improvements in postpartum sleep, neurobehavioral performance continued to worsen from week 2 through the end of the study. Across the first 12 postpartum weeks, PVT measures were more frequently associated with percent sleep compared with total sleep time, highlighting the deleterious consequences of sleep disruption on maternal daytime functioning throughout the early postpartum period. Conclusions: Worsened maternal neurobehavioral performance across the first 12 postpartum weeks may have been influenced by the cumulative effects of sleep disturbance. These results can inform future work to identify the particular sleep profiles that could be primary intervention targets to improve daytime functioning among postpartum women, and indicate need for further research on the effectiveness of family leave policies. The time when postpartum women return to control-level daytime functioning is unknown. Citation: Insana SP; Williams KB; Montgomery-Downs HE. Sleep disturbance and neurobehavioral performance among postpartum women. SLEEP 2013;36(1):73–81. PMID:23288973

  18. Successful sustained lactation following postpartum tubal ligation.

    PubMed

    Amatayakul, K; Wongsawasdi, L; Munglapruks, A; Imong, S M; Jackson, D A; Tansuhaj, A; Suwannarach, C; Chiowanich, P; Woolridge, M M; Drewett, R F

    1991-12-01

    This study was undertaken to see whether tubal ligation performed within days postpartum, and associated with a delay in the initiation of breastfeeding, exerts a disruptive influence on successfully establishing lactation among the rural population of northern Thailand. Lactational performance of 12 rural northern Thai mothers was not affected by the delay in reunion of mothers with their babies as a result of postpartum tubal sterilization procedure when compared with a group of 8 other healthy mothers and babies. The volume of breast milk transferred, frequency of breastfeeding and the total feeding time spent on the breast were similar on days 15, 45, 90, 180 and 360 postpartum. This finding suggests that the pattern of intense breastfeeding activity as practiced by this group of mothers has a stronger influence on prolonged and successful lactation than early contact in the immediate postpartum period. PMID:1776561

  19. Postpartum Period: Discomfort and Recovery

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

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  20. Postpartum onset and subsequent relapse of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Mark Hiley; Curtis, Elizabeth Mary; Ledingham, Joanna Mary

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) can affect women of childbearing age. However, reports of the disease in the postpartum period are limited. We present a case of postpartum-onset EGPA that went into clinical remission before relapsing in the subsequent postpartum period. Our patient presented with dyspnoea, arthralgia and rash, shown to be eosinophilic vasculitis, 3?days following the birth of her second child. CT of the thorax showed alveolar shadowing and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. She was treated successfully for EGPA with glucocorticoid therapy. She declined maintenance treatment during remission. Off treatment, she remained disease free throughout her next pregnancy. In the postpartum period she relapsed in an almost identical manner, requiring prolonged glucocorticoid therapy, cyclophosphamide and rituximab. This case highlights the importance of maintenance therapy around pregnancy in individuals with EGPA, and the need for careful monitoring of women with a history of EGPA in the postpartum period. PMID:26106182

  1. Factors Influencing Physical Activity among Postpartum Iranian Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roozbahani, Nasrin; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Eftekhar Ardabili, Hassan; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postpartum women are a population at risk for sedentary living. Physical activity (PA) prior to pregnancy may be effective in predicting similar behaviour in the postpartum period. Objective: To test a composite version of the extended transtheoretical model (TTM) by adding "past behaviour" in order to predict PA behaviour…

  2. [Postpartum pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Escalante, Juan Pablo; Diez, Ana; Figueroa Casas, Marcelo; Lasave, Alejandro; Cursack, Guillermo; Poy, Carlos; Rodríguez, María Soledad; Galuppo, Marcela; Zapata, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) in pregnancy is a rare disorder that carries a high risk to mother and child, and as such, it is considered a contraindication to becoming pregnant. However, there are few published reports related to the diagnosis of this condition after delivery. We describe three PH cases diagnosed after their normal pregnancies and deliveries. Although the causes are unknown, several mechanisms such as hypercoagulation, placental hypoxia or amniotic fluid embolism have been considered as possible causes. It is difficult to define whether a PH diagnosed in the postpartum period, relates to an earlier asymptomatic PH period that was triggered by the physiological stress of labor or if it is a recently acquired condition. Despite the lack of data to support the absence of PH previous to pregnancy in our three patients, lack of events during this period, asymptomatic and normal deliveries, lead us to believe that they did not suffer this disease prior to pregnancy; considering that high hemodynamic demands impair a ventricle with little reserve, and its subsequent appearance at time of delivery. PMID:25637900

  3. Subantarctic Pacific hiatuses as clues to periods of enhanced oceanic circulation during the late Neogene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waddell, L. M.; Hendy, I. L.; Moore, T. C.; Lyle, M. W.

    2009-12-01

    New stable isotope records from cores MV0502-4JC (50°20’S, 148°08’W, 4286m), ELT 25-11 (50°02’S, 127°31’W, 3969m), and ELT 20-11 (49°00’S, 144°50’W, 4517 m) obtained in close proximity to the Subantarctic Front in the southeast Pacific show a consistent pattern of hiatuses that could be related to late Neogene changes in the strength of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). These subantarctic Pacific records show three hiatuses that we have dated to 1) the early Pliocene-early late Pliocene, 2) ~1.57-0.68 Ma, and 3) ~0.53-0.19 Ma. These hiatuses correspond well with the timing of the Pliocene Warm Period and the climatic transitions of the Mid-Pleistocene Revolution and the Mid-Brunhes, as well as with periods of reduced or non-deposition on the Maurice Ewing Bank, also located in the path of the ACC (Ciesielski, 1982). Interestingly, sediment cores recovered from regions outside of the ACC that experience significant bottom water flow (e.g. fracture zones and the western margins of continents), including the Vema Channel (Ledbetter et al., 1978), the South Australia Basin (Ledbetter, 1981), and the continental margin of Northwest Africa (Stein et al., 1986), also show intervals of reduced or non-deposition that correlate well with the timing of hiatuses in the subantarctic Pacific. This correlation could indicate that the Pliocene Warm Period and the climatic transitions of the Mid-Pleistocene Revolution and Mid-Brunhes were characterized not only by a more vigourous ACC but also by a stronger and more globally-distributed overturning circulation than the present day.

  4. Postpartum Intimate Partner Violence and Health Risks Among Young Mothers in the United States: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Ickovics, Jeannette; Lewis, Jessica B.; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace S.

    2014-01-01

    The study assessed the relationship between postpartum intimate partner violence (IPV) and postpartum health risks among young mothers over time. Data were collected from 2001 to 2005 on young women aged 14–25 attending obstetrics and gynecology clinics in two US cities. Postpartum IPV (i.e., emotional, physical, sexual) was assessed at 6 and 12 months after childbirth (n = 734). Four types of postpartum IPV patterns were examined: emerged IPV, dissipated IPV, repeated IPV, and no IPV. Emerged IPV occurred at 12 months postpartum, not 6 months postpartum. Dissipated IPV occurred at 6 months postpartum, not 12 months postpartum. Repeated IPV was reported at 6 months and 12 months postpartum. Postpartum health risks studied at both time points were perceived stress, depression, fear of condom negotiation, condom use, infant sleeping problems, and parental stress. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used. The proportion of young mothers reporting IPV after childbirth increased from 17.9 % at 6 months postpartum to 25.3 % at 12 months postpartum (P < 0.001). Emerged and/or repeated postpartum IPV were associated with increased perceived stress, depression, fear of condom negotiation, and infant sleeping problems as well as decreased condom use (P < 0.05). Dissipated postpartum IPV was associated with decreased depression (P < 0.05). IPV screening and prevention programs for young mothers may reduce health risks observed in this group during the postpartum period. PMID:24562504

  5. Discovery of a short-necked sauropod dinosaur from the Late Jurassic period of Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Rauhut, Oliver W M; Remes, Kristian; Fechner, Regina; Cladera, Gerardo; Puerta, Pablo

    2005-06-01

    Sauropod dinosaurs are one of the most conspicuous groups of Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrates. They show general trends towards an overall increase in size and elongation of the neck, by means of considerable elongation of the length of individual vertebrae and a cervical vertebra count that, in some cases, increases to 19 (ref. 1). The long neck is a particular hallmark of sauropod dinosaurs and is usually regarded as a key feeding adaptation. Here we describe a new dicraeosaurid sauropod, from the latest Jurassic period of Patagonia, that has a particularly short neck. With a neck that is about 40% shorter than in other known dicraeosaurs, this taxon demonstrates a trend opposite to that seen in most sauropods and indicates that the ecology of dicraeosaurids might have differed considerably from that of other sauropods. The new taxon indicates that there was a rapid radiation and dispersal of dicraeosaurids in the Late Jurassic of the Southern Hemisphere, after the separation of Gondwana from the northern continents by the late Middle Jurassic. PMID:15931221

  6. Postpartum Support International

    MedlinePLUS

    ... increasing options, and embracing innovative treatments Postpartum Support International (PSI) 28th Annual Conference with Tree of Hope Foundation June 24-27, 2015 Inn at St. John’s | Plymouth Michigan The annual ...

  7. Maternal Deworming Research Study (MADRES) protocol: a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised trial to determine the effectiveness of deworming in the immediate postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Mofid, Layla S; Casapía, Martín; Montresor, Antonio; Rahme, Elham; Fraser, William D; Marquis, Grace S; Vercruysse, Jozef; Allen, Lindsay H; Gyorkos, Theresa W

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Soil-transmitted helminth infections are endemic in 114 countries worldwide, and cause the highest burden of disease among all neglected tropical diseases. The WHO includes women of reproductive age as a high-risk group for infection. The primary consequence of infection in this population is anaemia. During lactation, anaemia may contribute to reduced quality and quantity of milk, decreasing the duration of exclusive breastfeeding and lowering the age at weaning. To date, no study has investigated the effects of maternal postpartum deworming on infant or maternal health outcomes. Methods and analysis A single-centre, parallel, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial will be carried out in Iquitos, Peru, to assess the effectiveness of integrating single-dose 400?mg albendazole into routine maternal postpartum care. A total of 1010 mother-infant pairs will be randomised to either the intervention or control arm, following inhospital delivery and prior to discharge. Participants will be visited in their homes at 1, 6, 12 and 24?months following delivery for outcome ascertainment. The primary outcome is infant mean weight gain between birth and 6?months of age. Secondary outcomes include other infant growth indicators and morbidity, maternal soil-transmitted helminth infection and intensity, anaemia, fatigue, and breastfeeding practices. All statistical analyses will be performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Ethics and dissemination Research ethics board approval has been obtained from the McGill University Health Centre (Canada), the Asociación Civil Impacta Salud y Educación (Peru) and the Instituto Nacional de Salud (Peru). A data safety and monitoring committee is in place to oversee study progression and evaluate adverse events. The results of the analyses will be published in peer-reviewed journals, and presented at national and international conferences. Trial registration number Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01748929. PMID:26084556

  8. Modern use of extracorporeal life support in pregnancy and postpartum.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Nirmal S; Wille, Keith M; Bellot, Scott C; Diaz-Guzman, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) use during pregnancy and the postpartum period are thought to be associated with an increased risk for maternal or fetal bleeding complications. We present our recent institutional experience in managing pregnant and postpartum patients with ECMO. We also performed a literature review of modern use of ECMO in pregnant and postpartum patients utilizing Pubmed and Embase databases. ECMO was used for severe cardiopulmonary failure due to multiple conditions. Based on published reports, overall maternal and fetal survival on ECMO were 80% and 70%, respectively. Mild-to-moderate vaginal bleeding was reported in a few cases, with rare occurrences of catastrophic postpartum hemorrhage. There was no consensus on an optimal anticoagulation strategy in these patients, though most preferred to keep anticoagulation at lower therapeutic levels. We conclude that ECMO, in well-selected pregnant and postpartum patients, appears to be safe and associated with low risk of maternal and fetal complications. PMID:25248040

  9. Postpartum Depression: How Childbirth Educators Can Help Break the Silence

    PubMed Central

    Zauderer, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    The voices of women suffering from postpartum depression are often silent. Women are reluctant to reveal to others that they are unhappy after the birth of their babies. Much has been written on possible causes, risk factors, and treatments for postpartum depression, but little has been done to investigate why women take so long to seek help. Early detection and treatment are key to a full recovery. Childbirth educators are in the position to offer anticipatory guidance on possible complications of the postpartum period, including postpartum depression. This article explores why women with postpartum depression choose to suffer in silence and suggests how childbirth educators can help new mothers find their voices. PMID:20190853

  10. Grant Title: WOMEN'S MENTAL HEALTH DURING PREGNANCY AND THE POSTPARTUM PERIOD (R01, Funding Opportunity Number: R01: PA-12-216. R21: PA-12-215. CFDA Number(s): 93.242, 93.279, 93.865.

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    Grant Title: WOMEN'S MENTAL HEALTH DURING PREGNANCY AND THE POSTPARTUM PERIOD (R01, R21) Funding/Department: Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Institute of Mental), National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Area of Research: Research addressing women's mental health

  11. Steroid concentrations in antepartum and postpartum saliva: normative values in women and correlations with serum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Saliva has been advocated as an alternative to serum or plasma for steroid monitoring. Little normative information is available concerning expected concentrations of the major reproductive steroids in saliva during pregnancy and the extended postpartum. Methods Matched serum and saliva specimens controlled for time of day and collected less than 30?minutes apart were obtained in 28 women with normal singleton pregnancies between 32 and 38?weeks of gestation and in 43 women during the first six months postpartum. Concentrations of six steroids (estriol, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone) were quantified in saliva by enzyme immunoassay. Results For most of the steroids examined, concentrations in antepartum saliva showed linear increases near end of gestation, suggesting an increase in the bioavailable hormone component. Observed concentrations were in agreement with the limited data available from previous reports. Modal concentrations of the ovarian steroids were undetectable in postpartum saliva and, when detectable in individual women, approximated early follicular phase values. Only low to moderate correlations between the serum and salivary concentrations were found, suggesting that during the peripartum period saliva provides information that is not redundant to serum. Conclusions Low correlations in the late antepartum may be due to differential rates of change in the total and bioavailable fractions of the circulating steroid in the final weeks of the third trimester as a consequence of dynamic changes in carrier proteins such as corticosteroid binding globulin. PMID:23575245

  12. Pregnancy and postpartum bowel changes: constipation and fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Shin, Grace Hewon; Toto, Erin Lucinda; Schey, Ron

    2015-04-01

    Pregnancy and the postpartum period are often associated with many gastrointestinal complaints, including nausea, vomiting, and heartburn; however, the most troublesome complaints in some women are defecatory disorders such as constipation and fecal incontinence, especially postpartum. These disorders are often multifactorial in etiology, and many studies have looked to see what risk factors lead to these complications. This review discusses the current knowledge of pelvic floor and anorectal physiology, especially during pregnancy, and reviews the current literature on causes and treatments of postpartum bowel symptoms of constipation and fecal incontinence. PMID:25803402

  13. The Wandering Indian Plate and Its Changing Biogeography During the Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary Period

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sankar Chatterjee; Christopher Scotese

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Palaeobiogeographic analysis of Indian tetrapods during the Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary time has recognized that both vicariance\\u000a and geodispersal have played important roles in producing biogeographic congruence. The biogeographic patterns show oscillating\\u000a cycles of geodispersal (Late Cretaceous), followed by congruent episodes of vicariance and geodispersal (Early Eocene), followed\\u000a by another geodispersal event (Middle Eocene). New biogeographic synthesis suggests that the Late

  14. [Post-partum psychosis].

    PubMed

    Gressier, Florence; Letranchant, Aurélie; Hardy, Patrick

    2015-02-01

    Postpartum psychosis occurs in 1-2/1000 childbearing women. It is commonly admitted that it belongs to bipolar disorder with psychotic features. A strong link between puerperal psychosis and bipolar disorder has been established. Symptoms include rapid mood fluctuations, confusion, delusions, hallucinations and bizarre behaviour. It can lead to devastating consequences. It is a psychiatric emergency that requires an urgent evaluation to exclude any organic cause. Therefore, early identification and appropriate treatment are critical. A quick and effective relief is necessary for maternal and child health and mother-infant relationship. Perinatal health professionals have to be accurate screening postpartum psychosis symptoms and have to educate patients and their family. PMID:25939231

  15. Impact of forced separation policy on incarcerated postpartum mothers.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Angelina N

    2009-08-01

    The number of incarcerated women in the United States is steadily increasing with 9% giving birth while serving time. Mothers and babies are routinely separated immediately and during most of the postpartum period. This qualitative study examines the impact of this policy by exploring the nature and meaning of the mother-infant bonding experience when the mothers know separation is coming. Twelve incarcerated postpartum mothers were interviewed during the early postpartum period about their antepartum and postpartum relationships with their babies. Qualitative data analysis produced four relational themes: (a) "a love connection," (b) "everything was great until I birthed," (c) "feeling empty and missing a part of me," and (d) "I don't try to think too far in advance." Results of this qualitative study provide information to professionals exploring gender-sensitive prison policies for the growing female population. PMID:20022914

  16. Reproductive management of postpartum cows.

    PubMed

    Roche, J F; Mackey, D; Diskin, M D

    2000-07-01

    High reproductive efficiency in the dairy cow requires a disease-free transition period, high submission rates to AI and high pregnancy rates per service. A key risk factor that causes increased incidence of metabolic disease is low negative energy balance (NEB) in the periparturient and early postpartum periods. Low NEB decreases LH pulse frequency, growth rate and diameter of dominant follicle (DF), IGF-I, glucose, insulin concentrations and increases GH and certain blood metabolites; these effects result in greater loss of body condition score (BCS) and a higher percent of anoestrous cows in the herd. It is important to decrease the incidence of metabolic disease by achieving high dry matter intake (DMI) and minimising the period of NEB after calving. Thus, nutritional management of the cow in the transition period has a crucial role to play in improving reproductive efficiency, because acute nutritional deprivation of heifers has immediate deleterious effects on follicular growth and ovulation. To obtain high submission rates, it is necessary to decrease the incidence of anoestrus and to have good oestrous detection rates. Pregnancy rates per service are affected by a variety of factors. NEB can have deleterious effects on the follicle or the corpus luteum (CL) by decreasing IGF-I concentrations and steroidogenesis. High protein diets fed to postpartum cows leads to increased blood urea and lower fertility. Although the mechanism is not clear, the practical implication of feeding the appropriate level of crude protein in the diet is clear. Thus, a coordinated management approach involving herd managers, nutritionists and veterinarians is required to obtain high reproduction efficiency in dairy cows. PMID:10844236

  17. Organic matter production during late summer-winter period in a temperate sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari?, Daniela; Frka, Sanja; Godrijan, Jelena; Tomaži?, Igor; Penezi?, Abra; Djakovac, Tamara; Vojvodi?, Vjero?ka; Precali, Robert; Gašparovi?, Blaženka

    2013-03-01

    The quantity and quality of fresh organic matter (OM) formed by primary production in relation to phytoplankton community structure was calculated for the late summer-winter 2009/2010 in the northern Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean). Phytoplankton species, as a direct measure of fresh OM, chlorophyll a, the OM pool (DOC and POC) and lipids, including classes, were analyzed. Data for temperature, salinity and nutrients enabled deeper insight into the conditions that promoted fresh OM production and associated processes at two stations of different trophic status. Phytoplankton growth was controlled by bottom regenerated nutrients and to lesser extent by riverine nutrients. The phytoplankton community was mainly dominated by nanoplankton. Species of moderate carbon content Chaetoceros compressus, Asterionellopsis glacialis, Leptocylindrus danicus and Bacteriastrum jadranum dominated the microplankton fraction. Availability of orthophosphates was the key factor influencing fresh OM production. POC varied from 37-522 ?g l-1. Freshphyto POC, i.e. carbon fixed in phytoplankton cells, contributed 7-79% to the POC pool. The DOC (890-1560 ?g l-1) level decreased during the investigated period. Calculation of fresh DOC, i.e. carbon fixed during primary production and released as dissolved OM, revealed it as a minor part (0-2%) of the DOC pool. Lipid concentrations varied from 9.9-55.0 ?g l-1 and 20.0-40.2 ?g l-1 in the particulate and dissolved fractions, respectively. Nutrient limitation caused increased synthesis of lipids, among which energy reserve lipids triacylglycerols, which are further immobilized for the construction of glycolipids with increasing depletion of orthophosphates.

  18. Rotation periods of late-type dwarf stars from time-series high-resolution spectroscopy of chromospheric indicators

    E-print Network

    Mascareño, A Suárez; Hernández, J I González; Esposito, M

    2015-01-01

    We determine rotation periods of a sample of 48 late F-type to mid-M dwarf stars using time-series high-resolution spectroscopy of the Ca II H&K and H-alpha chromospheric activity indicators. We find good agreement between the rotation periods obtained from each of these two indicators. An empirical relationship between the level of chromospheric emission measured by log (R'HK) and the spectroscopic rotation periods is reported. This relation is largely independent of the spectral type and the metallicity of the stars and can be used to make a reliable prediction of rotation periods for late K to mid-M dwarfs with low levels of activity. For some stars in the sample, the measured spectroscopic rotation periods coincide, or are very close, to the orbital periods of postulated planets. In such cases, further studies are needed to clarify whether the associated periodic radial velocity signals reveal the existence of planets or are due to magnetic activity.

  19. The prevention and reduction of postpartum complications: Orem's model.

    PubMed

    Nazik, Evsen; Eryilmaz, Gülsen

    2013-10-01

    This study was conducted using Orem's self-care model to investigate its impact on the reduction and prevention of women's postpartum complications. One group of 63 women was included in the study in which a pretest and posttest quasi-experimental method was used. For analysis of the data, descriptive statistics, dependent groups t test, and McNemar test were applied, 24 different nursing diagnoses were made. Self-care agency pretest mean score was 97.13 ± 17.20, posttest mean score was 114.44 ± 13.72, and the difference was statistically significant (p < .001). The study found that the care given to women in the postpartum period using Orem's self-care model prevented postpartum complications and increased the self-care agency of postpartum women. PMID:24085674

  20. Use of regenerating clearcuts by late-successional bird species and their young during the post-fledging period

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew R. Marshall; Jennifer A. DeCecco; Alan B. Williams; George A. Gale; Robert J. Cooper

    2003-01-01

    From 1995 to 1999, we mist-netted birds in regenerating clearcuts within a primarily forested landscape of West Virginia and Virginia to determine the extent that both resident and migrant birds and their young use this type of early-successional habitat during the post-fledging period. Our primary objective was to document whether or not birds typically considered mature or late-successional forest breeders

  1. Clinical aspects of recurrent postpartum thyroiditis.

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, J H; Ammari, F; Oretti, R; Parkes, A B; Richards, C J; Harris, B

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postpartum thyroiditis (PPT), characterized by transient hyperthyroidism and transient hypothyroidism, occurs in 5-9% of women. It is accompanied by the presence of circulating antithyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) which have been associated with an increase in depressive symptomatology compared with TPOAb-negative women. AIM: To assess the frequency and nature of the syndrome in patients studied in detail after more than one pregnancy, as there are only sparse data on recurrence of PPT. METHOD: Fifty-four patients were identified who had participated in at least two of three detailed postpartum studies of thyroid and psychiatric function during the past 12 years in the Caerphilly and Cardiff regions of South Wales. They included two women who had had three pregnancies. All patients had been followed monthly postpartum for at least six months, and 44 had been followed for 12 months. RESULTS: Of the 13 patients who developed PPT after their first pregnancy, nine had a recurrence of dysfunction after a further pregnancy and four remained TPOAb positive. Of the 24 women who were euthyroid anti-TPO positive after the first pregnancy, six developed thyroid dysfunction after a subsequent delivery, 14 remained antibody positive and euthyroid, while four underwent seroconversion and were antibody negative. The control group of 17 women were antibody negative after the first pregnancy; 16 remained negative after a further pregnancy and one became anti-TPO positive. The severity of PPT was slightly, but not significantly worse after the second recorded pregnancy (67% hypothyroid versus 44% hypothyroid). Neither the maximum anti-TPO titre following the first pregnancy, nor the rise in titre during this period were predictive of outcome after a subsequent pregnancy. Data from 26 women showed that recurrent depression was seen in 15.4%; a further six were depressed after the first pregnancy only, and two during a further postpartum period. CONCLUSION: There was a 70% chance of developing recurrent PPT after a first attack, and a 25% risk even in women who were only anti-TPO positive without thyroid dysfunction during the first postpartum period. The recurrence of postpartum depression was not related to thyroid function. Patients noted to have thyroid dysfunction or just to be euthyroid but anti-TPO positive after pregnancy should be assessed carefully after a subsequent pregnancy. PMID:9219408

  2. Eclipses in the Middle East from the Late Medieval Islamic Period to the Early Modern Period. Part 1: The observation of six lunar eclipses from the Late Medieval Islamic Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozaffari, S. Mohammad

    2013-11-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of data obtained from observations of two sets of three lunar eclipses in the Late Medieval Islamic Period. The first trio consists of the lunar eclipses of 7 March 1262, 7 April 1270 and 24 January 1274, observed by Muḥy? al-D?n al-Maghrib?; from the Maragha Observatory (in north-western Iran), and the second includes those of 2 June and 26 November 1406, and 22 May 1407, observed by Jamsh?d Ghiy?th al-D?n al-K?sh? from K?sh?n (in central Iran). The results are that al-Maghrib?'s values for the magnitudes of these eclipses agree excellently with modern data, and his values for the times when the maximum phases occurred agree to within five minutes with modern values. Al-K?sh?'s values for the times of the maximum phases show a rather larger divergence from modern data, varying from about ten minutes to about one hour. The errors in all six values both astronomers computed from their own solar parameters for the longitude of the Sun at the instant of the opposition of the Moon to the Sun in these eclipses remain below ten minutes of arc. The motivation for doing these observations was to measure the lunar epicycle radius r in the Ptolemaic model. Al-Maghrib? achieved r = 5;12 and al-K?sh? r ? 5;17,1 in terms of the radius of an orbit of R = 60 arbitrary units. It is argued that comparing with modern theory, neither of these two medieval values can be considered an improvement on Ptolemy's value of r = 5;15.

  3. Conceptualizations of postpartum depression by public-sector health care providers in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Place, Jean Marie S; Billings, Deborah L; Blake, Christine E; Frongillo, Edward A; Mann, Joshua R; deCastro, Filipa

    2015-04-01

    In this article we describe the knowledge frameworks that 61 physicians, nurses, social workers, and psychologists from five public-sector health care facilities in Mexico used to conceptualize postpartum depression. We also demonstrate how providers applied social and behavioral antecedents in their conceptualizations of postpartum depression. Using grounded theory, we identify two frameworks that providers used to conceptualize postpartum depression: biochemical and adjustment. We highlight an emerging model of the function of social and behavioral antecedents within the frameworks, as well as the representation of postpartum depression by symptoms of distress and the perception among providers that these symptoms affected responsibilities associated with motherhood. The results provide a foundation for future study of how providers' conceptualizations of postpartum depression might affect detection and treatment practices and might be useful in the development of training materials to enhance the quality of care for women who experience any form of distress in the postpartum period. PMID:25281238

  4. Predictors of the Longitudinal Course of Postpartum Depression Following Interpersonal Psychotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly J. Nylen; Michael W. OHara; Rebecca Brock; Joy Moel; Laura Gorman; Scott Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We examined the course and predictors of postpartum depression in the 18 months following interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT). Method: We enrolled 120 community women with major depression in a 12-week randomized trial of individual IPT during the postpartum period (O'Hara, Stuart, Gorman, & Wenzel, 2000). At 6, 12, and 18 months posttreatment, women participated in clinical interviews to establish the

  5. Developmental Profile of Infants Born to Mothers with Postpartum Depression and Anxiety: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalita, Kamal Narayan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Postpartum period is associated with higher rates for depression, blues and psychosis. Anxiety is also significant. These disorders may have serious implications in the cognitive development of the infant. There is relative lack of data in this area. So we tried to estimate postpartum anxiety and depression in a group of women and…

  6. Predictors of the Longitudinal Course of Postpartum Depression Following Interpersonal Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nylen, Kimberly J.; O'Hara, Michael W.; Brock, Rebecca; Moel, Joy; Gorman, Laura; Stuart, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We examined the course and predictors of postpartum depression in the 18 months following interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT). Method: We enrolled 120 community women with major depression in a 12-week randomized trial of individual IPT during the postpartum period (O'Hara, Stuart, Gorman, & Wenzel, 2000). At 6, 12, and 18 months…

  7. Quantitative assessment of regulatory proteins in blood as markers of radiation effects in the late period after occupational exposure.

    PubMed

    Kirillova, Evgenia N; Zakharova, Maria L; Muksinova, Klara N; Drugova, Elena D; Pavlova, Olga S; Sokolova, Svetlana N

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this research was quantitative assessment of serum and membrane regulatory proteins in blood from nuclear workers as markers of radiation-induced alterations in immune homeostasis in the late period after protracted exposure of nuclear workers with different doses. The effector and regulatory lymphocytes were measured using a flow cytofluorometer in workers from the main facilities of the Mayak PA (aged ?60 y up to 80 y) in the late period after combined exposure to external gamma-rays and internal alpha-radiation from incorporated 239Pu. The control group included non-occupationally exposed members of the Ozyorsk population matched by gender and age to the group of Mayak workers. Thirty serum proteins involved in regulation of immune homeostasis, such as growth factors, multifunctional interleukins, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and their receptors, were measured using ELISA in blood serum specimens from the Radiobiology Human Tissue Repository. The dosimetry estimates were obtained using Doses-2005. The correlation analysis revealed a statistically significant direct relationship of T-killers and plutonium body burden and a decreasing level of T-helpers with accumulated external dose in exposed individuals. There were differences in expression of membrane markers in young regulatory cells (double null T-lymphocytes, NKT-lymphocytes, regulatory T-cells, and an increase of activated forms of T-lymphocytes), which indicated an active role of regulatory cells in maintaining immune homeostasis in terms of protracted exposure. The assessment of regulatory proteins in blood indicated that growth factors (EGF, TGF-?1, PDGF), multifunctional interleukins (IL-17A, IL-18), and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1? and INF-?) could be potential markers of radiation-induced alterations in protein status. An imbalance of pro- and antiinflammatory proteins in blood and variations of protein profiles at the lower exposure levels (gamma-ray dose <1 Gy, plutonium body burden <0.74 kBq) in the late period after protracted exposure were less pronounced than at the higher exposure levels, which was probably explained by compensatory-adaptive responses in the late period among senile individuals with polypathology. PMID:22647909

  8. The 218 day period of the peculiar late B-type star HD 101584

    E-print Network

    Eric J. Bakker; Henny J. G. L. M. Lamers; L. B. F. M. Waters; Christoffel Waelkens

    1995-11-10

    We have searched for periodicity in the photometric and spectroscopic variations of the enigmatic star HD 101584 and found a long-term variability on a typical time scale of 1700 days (4.7 years) and a highly significant period of 218+-0.7 day. This period is most prominently present in the photometric indices which are a measure for the Balmer jump (Geneva d and Stromgren c). The Doppler velocities of the high-excitation photospheric absorption lines (HeI and CII) seem to be variable with the photometric period. Our data favor the 218 day period for the Doppler velocities with a small probability that the true period is 436 days. We argue that HD 101584 is a close (highly) eccentric 218 day binary system with a low-mass unseen secondary. The photometric and Doppler variations are attributed to changes in the velocity law and mass-loss rate of the stellar wind which lead to asymmetric line profiles and a phase dependent Balmer discontinuity. Binary interaction is responsible for the changes in velocity law and mass-loss rate leading to the observed phenomena.

  9. Women with postpartum depression: "my husband" stories

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Phyllis; Bailey, Pat; Purdon, Sheri Johnson; Snelling, Susan J; Kauppi, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Background The research on Postpartum Depression (PPD) to date suggests that there is a knowledge gap regarding women's perception of their partners' role as carer and care activities they perform. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe women's understanding of their partners' or husbands' involvement in the midst of PPD. Methods This study used interview data from a larger study of northern and rural Ontario women's stories of help-seeking for PPD. The interpretive description approach was used to illustrate the complexity of women's spousal connections in PPD. Data from a purposive community sample of 27 women who self-identified as having been diagnosed with PPD was used. From the verbatim transcribed interviews a number of data excerpts were identified and labeled as "my husband" stories. Narrative analysis was employed to examine these stories. Results During this time of vulnerability, the husbands' physical, emotional and cognitive availability positively contributed to the women's functioning and self-appraisals as wife and mother. Their representations of their husbands' 'doing for' and/or 'being with' promoted their well-being and ultimately protected the family. Conclusion Given that husbands are perceived to be central in mitigating women's suffering with PPD, the consistent implementation of a triad orientation, that includes woman, child and partner rather than a more traditional and convenient dyadic orientation, is warranted in comprehensive postpartum care. Finally, this study contributes a theoretical understanding of responsive as well as reactive connections between women and family members during the postpartum period. PMID:19732461

  10. Helping postpartum rural adolescents visualize future goals.

    PubMed

    Walsh, S M; Corbett, R W

    1995-01-01

    An Art Future Image (AFI) intervention was initiated among postpartum adolescent mothers during the hospitalization period in North Carolina. The aim was to improve adolescents self-image and encourage educational goal setting as a means of changing the cycle of poverty. The hope was that mothers would consider alternatives to public assistance. Nursing students were engaged as teachers during their clinical rotation in the postpartum unit. The project involved 9 mothers (8 Black women and 1 White woman). Women ranged in age from 17 to 24 years. 8 women were single, and all had a low socioeconomic status. Each study participant completed a workbook, which reflected future images as a high school or college graduate, an accountant, and other occupations. The study women selected a future role and spoke about their dreams and plans and constraints to achievement of their goal. Instant photos were taken of the mother and the infant following the interview and the faces placed on personalized body images of their choice. Both students and participants were enthusiastic about the project. An evaluation found, however, that time constraints of staff nurses would prohibit the use of this intervention model. The suggestion was made for this module to be incorporated into two 30 minute classes as part of postpartum classes. Mothers wanted only one time slot. Suggestions were made to expand the AFI program at other postpartum check-up times or when counseling on family planning. Other members of the family unit could be included. The long-term impact of AFI needs to be evaluated. PMID:7476012

  11. The interrelationships among acculturation, social support, and postpartum depression symptoms among marriage-based immigrant women in Taiwan: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Hui; Hwang, Fang-Ming; Tai, Chen-Jei; Chien, Li-Yin

    2013-02-01

    This cohort study assessed the structural relationships among social support, acculturation, and postpartum depressive symptoms experienced by marriage-based immigrant mothers in Taiwan. Data were collected at 1 and 6 months postpartum from 203 immigrant mothers married to Taiwanese men in Taipei, Taiwan. The structural equation modeling results showed that social support and postpartum depression were directly and negatively related. Higher social support and lower depression at 1 month postpartum were related to a positive social attitude (i.e., accepting attitude toward mainstream society). Social attitude was a moderator of the relationship between depression at 1 month and social support at 6 months postpartum, where a positive social attitude decreased the negative effect of depression at 1 month on social support at 6 months. Social support in the early postpartum period not only directly decreased postpartum depression, but also indirectly decreased postpartum depression through improving social attitude. PMID:22865022

  12. Late Devonian glacial deposits from the eastern United States signal an end of the mid-Paleozoic warm period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brezinski, D.K.; Cecil, C.B.; Skema, V.W.; Stamm, R.

    2008-01-01

    A Late Devonian polymictic diamictite extends for more than 400??km from northeastern Pennsylvania across western Maryland and into east-central West Virginia. The matrix-supported, unbedded, locally sheared diamictite contains subangular to rounded clasts up to 2??m in diameter. The mostly rounded clasts are both locally derived and exotic; some exhibit striations, faceting, and polish. The diamictite commonly is overlain by laminated siltstone/mudstone facies associations (laminites). The laminites contain isolated clasts ranging in size from sand and pebbles to boulders, some of which are striated. The diamictite/laminite sequence is capped by massive, coarse-grained, pebbly sandstone that is trough cross-bedded. A stratigraphic change from red, calcic paleo-Vertisols in strata below the diamictite to non-calcic paleo-Spodosols and coal beds at and above the diamictite interval suggests that the climate became much wetter during deposition of the diamictite. The diamictite deposit is contemporaneous with regressive facies that reflect fluvial incision during the Late Devonian of the Appalachian basin. These deposits record a Late Devonian episode of climatic cooling so extreme that it produced glaciation in the Appalachian basin. Evidence for this episode of climatic cooling is preserved as the interpreted glacial deposits of diamictite, overlain by glaciolacustrine varves containing dropstones, and capped by sandstone interpreted as braided stream outwash. The Appalachian glacigenic deposits are contemporaneous with glacial deposits in South America, and suggest that Late Devonian climatic cooling was global. This period of dramatic global cooling may represent the end of the mid-Paleozoic warm interval that began in the Middle Silurian. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Effects of the periodical spread of rinderpest on famine, epidemic, and tiger disasters in the late 17th Century].

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Jin; Yoo, Han Sang; Lee, Hang

    2014-04-01

    This study clarifies the causes of the repetitive occurrences of such phenomena as rinderpest, epidemic, famine, and tiger disasters recorded in the Joseon Dynasty Chronicle and the Seungjeongwon Journals in the period of great catastrophe, the late 17th century in which the great Gyeongsin famine (1670~1671) and the great Eulbyeong famine (1695~1696) occurred, from the perspective that they were biological exchanges caused by the new arrival of rinderpest in the early 17th century. It is an objection to the achievements by existing studies which suggest that the great catastrophes occurring in the late 17th century are evidence of phenomena in a little ice age. First of all, rinderpest has had influence on East Asia as it had been spread from certain areas in Machuria in May 1636 through Joseon, where it raged throughout the nation, and then to the west part of Japan. The new arrival of rinderpest was indigenized in Joseon, where it was localized and spread periodically while it was adjusted to changes in the population of cattle with immunity in accordance with their life spans and reproduction rates. As the new rinderpest, which showed high pathogenicity in the early 17th century, was indigenized with its high mortality and continued until the late 17th century, it broke out periodically in general. Contrastively, epidemics like smallpox and measles that were indigenized as routine ones had occurred constantly from far past times. As a result, the rinderpest, which tried a new indigenization, and the human epidemics, which had been already indigenized long ago, were unexpectedly overlapped in their breakout, and hence great changes were noticed in the aspects of the human casualty due to epidemics. The outbreak of rinderpest resulted in famine due to lack of farming cattle, and the famine caused epidemics among people. The casualty of the human population due to the epidemics in turn led to negligence of farming cattle, which constituted factors that triggered rage and epidemics of rinderpest. The more the number of sources of infection and hosts with low immunity increased, the more lost human resources and farming cattle were lost, which led to a great famine. The periodic outbreak of the rinderpester along with the routine prevalence of various epidemics in the 17thcentury also had influenced on domestic and wild animals. Due to these phenomenon, full-fledged famines occurred that were incomparable with earlier ones. The number of domestic animals that were neglected by people who, faced with famines, were not able to take care of them was increased, and this might have brought about the rage of epidemics like rinderpest in domestic animals like cattle. The great Gyeongsin and Eulbyeong famines due to reoccurrence of the rinderpest in the late 17th century linked rinderpester, epidemics and great famines so that they interacted with each other. Furthermore, the recurring cycle of epidemics-famines-rinderpest-great famines constituted a great cycle with synergy, which resulted in eco-economic-historical great catastrophes accompanied by large scale casualties. Therefore, the Gyeongsin and Eulbyeong famines occurring in the late 17th century can be treated as events caused by the repetition of various periodic disastrous factors generated in 1670~1671 and in 1695~1696 respectively, and particularly as phenomena caused by biological exchanges based on rinderpester., rather than as little ice age phenomena due to relatively long term temperature lowering. PMID:24804681

  14. Vegetation-induced warming of high-latitude regions during the Late Cretaceous period

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bette L. Otto-Bliesner; Garland R. Upchurch

    1997-01-01

    Modelling studies of pre-Quaternary (>2 million years ago) climate implicate atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations1, land elevation2 and land-sea distribution3-5 as important factors influencing global climate change over geological timescales. But during times of global warmth, such as the Cretaceous period and Eocene epoch, there are large discrepancies between model simulations of high-latitude and continental-interior temperatures and those indicated by palaeotemperature

  15. Effect of temporary weaning duration on tonic LH secretion, estrus, and ovulation in anestrous postpartum beef cows

    E-print Network

    Shively, Tandy Elizabeth

    1987-01-01

    and ovarian responses to temporary weaning in postpartum anestrous cows. DEDICATION I would like to dedicate this thesis to the memory of my brother, Gregory Michael Shively and my grandfather, Fred Albert Kauffeld. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author would like... of this 20/o loss can be accounted for by cows failing to rebreed within 85 days after calving. Cows must conceive within 85 days postpartum to produce a calf each year. A suppression of cyclic ovarian activity during the early postpartum period...

  16. Internet confessions of postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Kantrowitz-Gordon, Ira

    2013-12-01

    Women with postpartum depression may suffer in silence due to the stigma of depression and failed motherhood. It is important to consider how mothers are able to talk about postpartum depression and what strategies they use. Foucault's idea that confession is a widespread technique for producing truth in Western societies was tested through discourse analysis of posts on an Internet forum for women with postpartum depression. The Internet forum showed women's use of confessionary language and self-judgments as well as their sense of disconnected mothering, shame, and disembodiment. Discourses of depression included the good mother, biomedical illness, and social dysfunction. Findings have implications for creating safe spaces for helping mothers with postpartum depression. PMID:24274243

  17. Sequelae of postpartum sterilization.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, B L; Taskin, O; Kafkashli, A; Rosenfeld, M L; Chuong, C J

    1998-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the menstrual, psychosexual, psychological and somatic sequelae in a group of women who may be more prone to express regret following postpartum sterilization. The follow-up was conducted by questionnaire at six months and five years following the procedure. Data were available from 242 patient; 76.8% were below the age of 30. Of all patients, 21.9% expressed regrets. About one third had various menstrual disturbances. Patients rated their sex life as generally more enjoyable in many aspects. The most common psychological symptoms were irritability, nervousness and depression; while the common somatic symptoms were pelvic/abdominal pain and backache and tiredness. PMID:9789648

  18. Postpartum Rh immunoprophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Sandler, S Gerald; Gottschall, Jerome L

    2012-12-01

    The postpartum dose of Rh immune globulin varies according to an individual laboratory estimation of fetal red blood cells in each mother's peripheral blood. In the United States, a four-step procedure determines the postpartum dose (number of vials of 300 micrograms; 1,500 international units) of Rh immune globulin (anti-D) for each RhD-negative mother who has delivered an RhD-positive newborn and has not already formed anti-D. The first step is a rosette fetal red blood cell screen to determine whether an excessive (greater than 30 mL fetal whole blood) fetomaternal hemorrhage occurred. If the rosette screen is negative, the mother receives one vial of Rh immune globulin for Rh immunoprophylaxis. If the rosette screen is positive, the blood sample is retested by a quantitative method, typically an acid-elution (Kleihauer-Betke) assay. The result of the acid-elution assay is converted to an estimation of the volume of the fetomaternal hemorrhage, which is the basis for calculating the dose of Rh immune globulin. The acid-elution assay is subjective, imprecise, and poorly reproducible. As a result, the formula for calculating the dose includes a precautionary adjustment, adding an extra vial in borderline situations to prevent underdosing. Flow cytometry is a more precise method for quantifying a fetomaternal hemorrhage. However, few hospitals use flow cytometry, because it is not cost-effective to maintain an expensive, high-technology laboratory service for the relatively few occasions when a precise quantitative determination of fetomaternal hemorrhage is required. PMID:23168770

  19. Is Shade Beneficial for Mediterranean Shrubs Experiencing Periods of Extreme Drought and Late-winter Frosts?

    PubMed Central

    Valladares, Fernando; Zaragoza-Castells, Joana; Sánchez-Gómez, David; Matesanz, Silvia; Alonso, Beatriz; Portsmuth, Angelika; Delgado, Antonio; Atkin, Owen K.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Plants are naturally exposed to multiple, frequently interactive stress factors, most of which are becoming more severe due to global change. Established plants have been reported to facilitate the establishment of juvenile plants, but net effects of plant–plant interactions are difficult to assess due to complex interactions among environmental factors. An investigation was carried out in order to determine how two dominant evergreen shrubs (Quercus ilex and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) co-occurring in continental, Mediterranean habitats respond to multiple abiotic stresses and whether the shaded understorey conditions ameliorate the negative effects of drought and winter frosts on the physiology of leaves. Methods Microclimate and ecophysiology of sun and shade plants were studied at a continental plateau in central Spain during 2004–2005, with 2005 being one of the driest and hottest years on record; several late-winter frosts also occurred in 2005. Key Results Daytime air temperature and vapour pressure deficit were lower in the shade than in the sun, but soil moisture was also lower in the shade during the spring and summer of 2005, and night-time temperatures were higher in the shade. Water potential, photochemical efficiency, light-saturated photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and leaf 13C composition differed between sun and shade individuals throughout the seasons, but differences were species specific. Shade was beneficial for leaf-level physiology in Q. ilex during winter, detrimental during spring for both species, and of little consequence in summer. Conclusions The results suggest that beneficial effects of shade can be eclipsed by reduced soil moisture during dry years, which are expected to be more frequent in the most likely climate change scenarios for the Mediterranean region. PMID:18819947

  20. [Concept Analysis of Postpartum Depression].

    PubMed

    Lee, Pei-Jung; Liaw, Jen-Jiuan; Chen, Chin-Mi

    2015-06-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) affects the health of women and is an important issue that impacts negatively on the happiness of affected families. Previous studies have demonstrated that PPD impairs the mother-child attachment, impacts the marital relationship, and may cause family dysfunction. Although PPD is a common phenomenon, the concept of PPD is easily confused with other similar concepts such as postpartum blues and postpartum psychosis, which may delay proper prevention and management. This paper identifies the definitions, characteristics, antecedents, and consequences of PPD as well as provides empirical screen measurements and examples of model, borderline, and contrary cases in order to differentiate between the concepts of PPD and other disorders using Walker and Avant's (2011) concept analysis methodology. Three defining characteristics of postpartum depression were identified. First, depression begins four to six weeks after delivery and continues for at least two weeks. Second, we benchmarked over 5 depressive symptoms. Third, postpartum depression may disrupt puerperal women's lives by making it difficult for them to care for their babies and to concentrate on daily tasks. We hope that this article enhances nurses' professional competences to detect PPD as early as possible and to promote the quality of care received by postpartum women and their family members. PMID:26073958

  1. Milking of cows in late pregnancy: milk production during this period and during the succeeding lactation.

    PubMed

    Rémond, B; Ollier, A; Miranda, G

    1992-08-01

    Fifteen lactating cows were milked throughout pregnancy, and the effects on milk performance were studied during this period and during the succeeding lactation, relative to 11 conventionally managed cows (2 months dry before calving) as controls. During the last 2 months of pregnancy, only nine cows did not dry off spontaneously. Protein and fat concentrations in milk increased rapidly, but the concentration of lactose, corrected for milk yield, did not change. The ratios of individual caseins to total protein decreased with the quantity of milk produced, but only for yields below approximately 6 kg/d. The relative proportion of kappa-casein tended to decrease in the last milkings. During the succeeding lactation (first 15 weeks after calving and first 6 weeks of grazing) continuously milked cows yielded 4 kg milk/d less than the cows of the other group. The protein content of their milk was higher (2-3 g/kg depending on the period) than that of the control group, and the lactose content tended (P less than 0.10) to be lower. Changes in the relative proportions of nitrogenous fractions with time were not different in the two groups. Differences between the two groups in the concentration of protein in milk, and in the concentration of glucose and non-esterified fatty acids in the plasma, suggest a better energy balance for the continuously milked cows during the succeeding lactation. PMID:1401350

  2. Bilateral pheochromocytoma during the postpartum period

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lalita Wattanachanya; Udomsak Bunworasate; Wanee Plengpanich; Natnicha Houngngam; Patinut Buranasupkajorn; Sarat Sunthornyothin; Vorasuk Shotelersuk; Thiti Snabboon

    2009-01-01

    Background  Pheochromocytoma manifesting during pregnancy is uncommon but it is responsible for a high maternal and fetal mortality rate,\\u000a especially when unrecognized. Most cases of pheochromocytoma are sporadic but they can be part of hereditary autosomal dominant\\u000a syndromes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case  We describe a case of bilateral pheochromocytoma in a term-pregnant patient with a previous history of medullary thyroid carcinoma\\u000a (MTC). Her genetic study

  3. Postpartum Early and Extended Contact: Quality, Quantity or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, John B.; Vietze, Peter M.

    This study examined the effects of early vs. extended mother-infant contact on infant, maternal and interactional outcomes in the lying-in period for 104 lower class mother-infant dyads. The early contact treatment consisted of placing the mother and neonate together for 10 to 45 minutes within the first 3 postpartum hours. The extended contact…

  4. Causes of late diagnosis in cases of colorectal cancer seen in a district general hospital over a 2-year period.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, G. J.; Simson, J. N.

    1998-01-01

    Our aim in this prospective study was to identify those patients who were found to have a colorectal cancer after a delay we considered unacceptable; this was taken as 6 months or more from initial presentation to a physician to diagnosis. It was then possible to determine the presenting complaints (always multiple) and the reasons for delay, in the hope that recommendations could be made regarding appropriate, rapid and thorough investigation of patients suspected of having a colorectal cancer. Of the total of 141 patients with colorectal cancer (108 elective, 33 emergency cases) under the care of one consultant during the period studied, 17 patients (12%) (10 men and 7 women), satisfied the criteria for late diagnosis. The mean age was 72.4 years (range 43-86 years). Five common presenting complaints were identified. They were, symptomatic iron deficiency anaemia, rectal bleeding, change in bowel habit, abdominal pain and weight loss. Incomplete imaging of the colon in patients with sinister presenting symptoms was the most commonly identified factor in delay of diagnosis. Inappropriate iron therapy and false-negative reporting of double contrast barium enema investigations were both seen in a number of cases. Other causes were, inappropriate surgical treatment and both clerical error and delay. The mean time for delay was 17.6 months (median 15 months). Late diagnosed cancers were most commonly found in the caecum and least commonly in the rectum. Colonic tumours of each Dukes' stage were identified, Dukes' B most common and Dukes' A least. PMID:9771221

  5. Postpartum and Depression Status are Associated With Lower [11C]raclopride BPND in Reproductive-Age Women

    PubMed Central

    Moses-Kolko, Eydie L; Price, Julie C; Wisner, Katherine L; Hanusa, Barbara H; Meltzer, Carolyn C; Berga, Sarah L; Grace, Anthony A; di Scalea, Teresa Lanza; Kaye, Walter H; Becker, Carl; Drevets, Wayne C

    2012-01-01

    The early postpartum period is associated with increased risk for affective and psychotic disorders. Because maternal dopaminergic reward system function is altered with perinatal status, dopaminergic system dysregulation may be an important mechanism of postpartum psychiatric disorders. Subjects included were non-postpartum healthy (n=13), postpartum healthy (n=13), non-postpartum unipolar depressed (n=10), non-postpartum bipolar depressed (n=7), postpartum unipolar (n=13), and postpartum bipolar depressed (n=7) women. Subjects underwent 60?min of [11C]raclopride–positron emission tomography imaging to determine the nondisplaceable striatal D2/3 receptor binding potential (BPND). Postpartum status and unipolar depression were associated with lower striatal D2/3 receptor BPND in the whole striatum (p=0.05 and p=0.02, respectively) that reached a maximum of 7–8% in anteroventral striatum for postpartum status (p=0.02). Unipolar depression showed a nonsignificant trend toward being associated with 5% lower BPND in dorsal striatum (p=0.06). D2/3 receptor BPND did not differ significantly between unipolar depressed and healthy postpartum women or between bipolar and healthy subjects; however, D2/3 receptor BPND was higher in dorsal striatal regions in bipolar relative to unipolar depressives (p=0.02). In conclusion, lower striatal D2/3 receptor BPND in postpartum and unipolar depressed women, primarily in ventral striatum, and higher dorsal striatal D2/3 receptor BPND in bipolar relative to unipolar depressives reveal a potential role for the dopamine (DA) system in the physiology of these states. Further studies delineating the mechanisms underlying these differences in D2/3 receptor BPND, including study of DA system responsivity to rewarding stimuli, and increasing power to assess unipolar vs bipolar-related differences, are needed to better understand the affective role of the DA system in postpartum and depressed women. PMID:22257897

  6. Exsanguinated uterus after massive atonic postpartum haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Mahadik, Kalpana V; Swami, M B; Pandey, Neha; Pathak, Ashish

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses issues related to pregnancy anaemia and late referral by a village birth attendant in resource poor setting in a central state of India. A young anaemic woman had labour onset at her village, a birth attendant tried to deliver her but failed. When she came to our hospital, had established septicaemia and absolutely non-reassurable uterine tone leading to intractable atonic postpartum haemorrhage. She died after 5?days because of coagulopathy and multiorgan failure. Huge budgets are being spent for the promotion of institutional deliveries but still the maternal mortality ratio has not reduced. The epidemiology of childbirth, social awareness for safe labour and administrative lethargy towards implementation of government programmes have not changed. The tertiary care—blood and components—multidisciplinary approach could not prevent the death of an anaemic woman. Unless there is a grassroot level change in the healthcare delivery system at the village level, the scenario might not change. PMID:23853190

  7. Plants used during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum healthcare in Lao PDR: A comparative study of the Brou, Saek and Kry ethnic groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugo de Boer; Vichith Lamxay

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In many Southeast Asian cultures the activities and diet during the postpartum period are culturally dictated and a period of confinement is observed. Plants play an important role in recovery during the postpartum period in diet, traditional medicine, steam bath and mother roasting (where mother and child placed on a bed above a brazier with charcoal embers on which

  8. Gestational diabetes: antepartum characteristics that predict postpartum glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes in Latino women.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, T A; Xiang, A; Kjos, S L; Lee, W P; Trigo, E; Nader, I; Bergner, E A; Palmer, J P; Peters, R K

    1998-08-01

    We examined antepartum clinical characteristics along with measures of glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, pancreatic beta-cell function, and body composition in Latino women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) for their ability to predict type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) within 6 months after delivery. A total of 122 islet cell antibody-negative women underwent oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests (OGTT; IVGTT), hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, and measurement of body fat between 29 and 36 weeks' gestation and returned between 1 and 6 months postpartum for a 75-g OGTT. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between antepartum variables and glucose tolerance status postpartum. At postpartum testing, 40% of the cohort had normal glucose tolerance, 50% had IGT, and 10% had diabetes by American Diabetes Association criteria. Independent antepartum predictors of postpartum diabetes were the 30-min incremental insulin:glucose ratio during a 75-g OGTT (P = 0.0002) and the total area under the diagnostic 100-g glucose tolerance curve (P = 0.003). Independent predictors of postpartum IGT were a low first-phase IVGTT insulin response (P = 0.0001), a diagnosis of GDM before 22 weeks' gestation (P = 0.003), and weight gain between prepregnancy and the postpartum examination (P = 0.03). All subjects had low insulin sensitivity during late pregnancy, but neither glucose clamp nor minimal model measures of insulin sensitivity in the 3rd trimester were associated with the risk of IGT or diabetes within 6 months' postpartum. These results highlight the importance of pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction, detectable under conditions of marked insulin resistance in late pregnancy, to predict abnormalities of glucose tolerance soon after delivery in pregnancies complicated by GDM. Moreover, the association of postpartum IGT with weight gain and an early gestational age at diagnosis of GDM suggests a role for chronic insulin resistance in mediating hyperglycemia outside the 3rd trimester in women with such a beta-cell defect. PMID:9703332

  9. Predictors for postpartum pelvic girdle pain in working women: the Mom@Work cohort study.

    PubMed

    Stomp-van den Berg, Suzanne G M; Hendriksen, Ingrid J M; Bruinvels, David J; Twisk, Jos W R; van Mechelen, Willem; van Poppel, Mireille N M

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine which factors during pregnancy and postpartum predict pelvic girdle pain (PGP) at 12 weeks postpartum among working women. A total of 548 Dutch pregnant employees were recruited in 15 companies, mainly health care, child care, and supermarkets. The definition of PGP was any pain felt in the pelvic girdle region at 12 weeks postpartum. Participants received questionnaires at 30 weeks of pregnancy and at 6 and 12 weeks postpartum with demographic, work-related, pregnancy-related, fatigue, psychosocial, PGP-related and delivery-related questions. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Almost half of the women experienced pain in their pelvic girdle at 12 weeks postpartum. However, the level of pain and the degree of disability due to postpartum PGP was low. Pregnancy-related predictors for PGP at 12 weeks were history of low back pain, higher somatisation, more than 8 hours of sleep or rest per day, and uncomfortable postures at work. The pregnancy and postpartum-related predictors were: more disability at 6 weeks, having PGP at 6 weeks, higher mean pain at 6 weeks, higher somatisation during pregnancy and at 6 weeks postpartum, higher birth weight of the baby, uncomfortable postures at work and number of days of bed rest. Based on these results, it is concluded that extra attention should be given to women who experience PGP during pregnancy to prevent serious PGP during late pregnancy and postpartum. More research is needed to confirm the roles of hours of sleep, somatisation, and bed rest in relation to PGP. PMID:23137900

  10. The use of once-daily suckling and uterine manipulation in management systems to enhance postpartum reproductive performance in multiparous Brahman cows

    E-print Network

    Weis, David Alan

    1992-01-01

    (Foote and Peterson, 1968). Short estrous cycles. Short estrous cycles, occurring during the resumption of ovarian activity, contribute to extended postpartum infertility. Short estrous cycles are generally 7 to 10 d in length, compared to normal... understood. The physical chamcteristics of activities during the postpartum period are, to a certain extent, predictable. At parturition the placenta is expelled, the CL of pregnancy regresses and the early postpartum period is characterized by ovarian...

  11. Seafood consumption, the DHA content of mothers’ milk and prevalence rates of postpartum depression: a cross-national, ecological analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph R. Hibbeln

    2002-01-01

    Background: Mothers selectively transfer docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to their fetuses to support optimal neurological development during pregnancy. Without sufficient dietary intake, mothers become depleted of DHA and may increase their risk of suffering major depressive symptoms in the postpartum period. We postulated that the DHA content of mothers’ milk and seafood consumption would both predict prevalence rates of postpartum depression

  12. Efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Postpartum Depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael W. O'Hara; Scott Stuart; Laura L. Gorman; Amy Wenzel

    2000-01-01

    Background: Postpartum depression causes women great suffering and has negative consequences for their social relationships and for the development of their in- fants. Research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of psy- chotherapy for postpartum depression. Methods: A total of 120 postpartum women meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depression were recruited from the community and randomly assigned to 12 weeks

  13. The Effect of Telephone Support on Postpartum Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Sakineh; Malakoti, Jamileh; Sohrabi, Faramarz; Shokranian, Nafiseh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Postpartum depression is a common disorder. Systematic reviews emphasized the need to conduct more trials about interventions to prevent postpartum depression. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of postpartum telephone support on maternal depression. Methods: 366 postpartum women with no history of known depression were randomly assigned into control (244 subjects) and intervention (122 subjects) groups. The control group received only routine postpartum care. In the intervention group, telephone support was provided twice in the first week and once a week during the second to sixth week of postpartum by a trained midwife in addition to the routine care. In order to meet their unpredicted needs, the mothers could contact the consultant 24 hours a day. Postpartum depression was assessed using the self-administered Edinburgh Depression Scale at 60 to 65 days of postpartum. Mothers with scores of 13 and above were considered to have depression. Logistic regression and Student's t-test were used for the data analysis. Results: There was no significant difference regarding frequency of depression between the intervention and control groups (29.9% vs. 31.6%; Odds ratio 0.91, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.49). Mean of depression score was not significantly different between the groups [9.2 (6.1) vs. 10.4 (5.8); mean difference -1.19, 95%CI -2.5 to 0.13]. Conclusion: This study did not provide evidence to show that telephone support of a midwife during postpartum period have a preventive effect on postpartum depression. PMID:25276721

  14. [Influence of compendium of Materia Medica on the materia medica in the late period of the Chosun Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Oh, Chae-Kun

    2012-08-31

    In this paper, I investigated the influence of Compendium of Materia Medica (CM) on Records for Rural Life of Chosun Gentlemen (RRC), and refuted Miki Sakae's opinion, CM did not have much impact on the Materia Medica in the late period of the Chosun Dynasty. When Li Shizhen published CM, it resulted in a shift of mainstream of Materia Medica in Eastern Asia from Classified Emergency Materia Medica to CM and a new categorizing system of Materia Medica by CM led to the division of Materia Medica into medicine and natural history. It is obvious that doctors of the Chosun Dynasty also adopted the latest achievements of Materia Medica by CM, but so far there have been few studies to clarify this. Seo yugu was a scholar of the Realist School of Confucianism during the late period of the Chosun Dynasty, and RRC is his representative work. RRC is a massive encyclopedia of natural history that covers vast areas of science from agriculture, floriculture, writing and drawing, architecture, diet, and medicine, among others which absorbed the achievements of CM, the best Materia Medica book at that time. Miki Sakae also highly regarded the encyclopedic knowledge of RRC, but devalued the results of Materia Medica. He only described a part of RRC's Materia Medica, nurturing volume, on the view of life nurturing and mentioned that it had been strongly influenced by China. According to this study, a large portion of RRC, especially regarding Materia Medica, depends on CM. Seo yugu had accepted the categorizing system and new medicinal information of CM, at the same time he modified the categorizing system of CM practically by the subject of each volume of RRC. We can find many quotations of CM except the nurturing volume, but other books, Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine, Materia Medica for Relief of Famines are also quoted. Furthermore, Seo yugu emphasized the differences of natural environments between Chosun and China, and specified the editing criteria, "to be useful in Chosun." This is the most obvious evidence that Materia Medica of Chosun had not remained in the framework of Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine which succeeded Classified Emergency Materia Medica, but had been developed into medicine and natural history based on CM. PMID:22948165

  15. Compression Fracture in Postpartum Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Jeon, Dong-Su; Byun, Dong Won

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis is mainly a problem in postmenopausal women. However, we had a case of postpartum compression fracture associated with osteoporosis. A 42-year-old multiparous woman had undergone tertiary cesarean section without complications 1 month before. She was breast-feeding her baby and had no other bone-related complication history. She did not exercise on a regular basis. She experienced back pain abruptly and was diagnosed with a recent compression fracture of T12, L1, and L3. We evaluated this rare case of postpartum osteoporosis and compression fracture. PMID:24524068

  16. Postpartum care of the mother and newborn: a practical guide. Technical Working Group, World Health Organization.

    PubMed

    1999-12-01

    This paper defines the needs of women and their newborns, and classifies a number of practices common in postpartum care. It is a summary of the report, Postpartum Care of the Mother and Newborn: A Practical Guide, which was developed by a Technical Working Group of the World Health Organization and published in 1998. The report takes a comprehensive view of maternal and newborn needs during the postpartum period, examining major maternal and neonatal health challenges, nutrition and breastfeeding, birth spacing, immunization, HIV/AIDS, and the essential elements of care and service provision. The document lists recommendations, and classifies common practices in the postpartum period, dividing them into four categories: those which are useful, those which are harmful, those for which insufficient evidence exists, and those which are frequently used inappropriately. PMID:10655832

  17. Effects of Catechins and Wheat Bran on the Beef Color in the Late Fattening Period of Hanwoo Steers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Hyung; Oh, Young Kyoon; Jang, Sun Sik; Kwon, Eung Gi; Seol, Yong Joo; Ok, Ji Un; Park, Keun Kyu; Lee, Sung Sill; Kim, Kyoung Hoon

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of catechins and wheat bran on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat color using forty-eight Hanwoo steers. Each steer was randomly assigned to one of four treatments. Treatments were as follows: control, catechins, wheat bran, and catechins+wheat bran (CW). At the end of the feeding trial, blood samples were collected for analysis of hemoglobin and iron concentration, and then steers were slaughtered at a commercial abattoir. Catechins, wheat bran, and CW had no effect on growth performance and carcass characteristics. Percentage of myoglobin in M. longissimus dorsi was not affected by treatments. Percentage of oxymyoglobin was increased (p<0.05) by CW and maintained at the highest level (p<0.05) for CW during meat display time up to 24 h. Percentage of metmyoglobin was the lowest (p<0.05) for CW between 5 and 24 h during display time. Although blood iron concentration was not affected by treatments, total concentration of muscle iron was the lowest (p<0.05) for CW compared with that of other treatments. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that CW may provide good protection against oxidation of myoglobin, and might be an effective dietary supplement for improving meat color in the late fattening period of Hanwoo steers. PMID:25049634

  18. New constraints on the variation of the geomagnetic field during the late Neolithic period: Archaeointensity results from Sichuan, southwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Wei; Tauxe, Lisa; Deng, Chenglong; Qin, Huafeng; Pan, Yongxin; Yi, Liang; Zhu, Rixiang

    2015-04-01

    We have carried out an archaeomagnetic study on a late Neolithic locality (Liujiazhai) in Sichuan, southwestern China. We pull together various dating techniques, including radiocarbon analysis, optically stimulated luminescence dating, stratigraphic information as well as archaeological and archaeomagnetic estimations, to constrain the age of the studied samples. Rock magnetic results indicate thermally stable fine-grained magnetite or titanomagnetite as the dominant magnetic carriers. More than half of the specimens (141/246) in the paleointensity experiment pass the selection criteria and are considered to record robust intensity values. The virtual axial dipole moments range from approximately (2.8 to 7.8) × 1022 Am2 with an average of 5.9 × 1022 Am2, indicating that the geomagnetic intensity around 3000 before the Common Era (B.C.E.) is overall lower than the present field intensity (9.8 × 1022 Am2) of this area. The new results from Liujiazhai are generally consistent with the published data of similar age but deviate from the only available model of CALS10k.1b at certain time periods, making them important for future improvements of the model. Those data are significant for constraining the variation of geomagnetic field intensity between ~3100 and 2600 B.C.E. and improving the regional model of eastern Asia.

  19. Utilization of Mental Health Services by Low-Income Pregnant and Postpartum Women on Medical Assistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dayoung Song; Roberta G. Sands; Yin-Ling Irene Wong

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines mental health service use among publicly insured white and African-American pregnant and postpartum women who live in a metropolitan area. The study examines the extent to which ethnicity, physical health problems, and behavioral health risk factors are associated with the probability of service use during the pre-natal-postpartum period. It also analyzes the patterns of service utilization for

  20. Lower sexual interest in postpartum women: relationship to amygdala activation and intranasal oxytocin

    PubMed Central

    RUPP, HEATHER A.; JAMES, THOMAS W.; KETTERSON, ELLEN D.; SENGELAUB, DALE R.; DITZEN, BEATE; HEIMAN, JULIA R.

    2012-01-01

    During the postpartum period, women experience significant changes in their neuroendocrine profiles and social behavior compared to before pregnancy. A common experience with motherhood is a decrease in sexual desire. Although the lifestyle and peripheral physiological changes associated with parturition might decrease a woman’s sexual interest, we hypothesized that there are also hormone-mediated changes in women’s neural response to sexual and infant stimuli with altered reproductive priorities. We predicted that amygdala activation to sexually arousing stimuli would be suppressed in postpartum versus nulliparous women, and altered with intranasal oxytocin administration. To test this, we measured amygdala activation using fMRI in response to sexually arousing pictures, infant pictures, and neutral pictures in 29 postpartum and 30 nulliparous women. Half of the women received a dose of exogenous oxytocin before scanning. As predicted, nulliparous women subjectively rated sexual pictures to be more arousing, and infant pictures to be less arousing, than did postpartum women. However, nulliparous women receiving the nasal oxytocin spray rated the infant photos as arousing as did postpartum women. Right amygdala activation was lower in postpartum versus nulliparous women in response to sexual, infant, and neutral images, suggesting a generalized decrease in right amygdala responsiveness to arousing images with parturition. There was no difference in right amygdala activation with nasal spray application. Postpartum women therefore appear to experience a decrease in sexual interest possibly as a feature of a more generalized decrease in amygdala responsiveness to arousing stimuli. PMID:23085496

  1. Combining photogrammetry and laser scanning for the recording and modelling of the Late Intermediate Period site of Pinchango Alto, Palpa, Peru

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karsten Lambers; Henri Eisenbeiss; Martin Sauerbier; Denise Kupferschmidt; Thomas Gaisecker; Soheil Sotoodeh; Thomas Hanusch

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the 3D modelling of Pinchango Alto, Peru, based on a combination of image and range data. Digital photogrammetry and laser scanning allow archaeological sites to be recorded efficiently and in detail even under unfavourable conditions. In 2004 we documented Pinchango Alto, a typical site of the hitherto poorly studied Late Intermediate Period on the south coast of

  2. Adolescent Motherhood and Postpartum Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkeland, Robyn; Thompson, J. Kevin; Phares, Vicky

    2005-01-01

    Adolescent mothers undergo unique personal and social challenges that may contribute to postpartum functioning. In this exploratory investigation completed within a risk and resilience framework, 149 adolescent mothers, ages 15 to 19, who participated in school-based teen parents' programs, completed measures of parental stress (social isolation…

  3. Longitudinal Change in Sleep and Daytime Sleepiness in Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Filtness, Ashleigh J.; MacKenzie, Janelle; Armstrong, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disruption strongly influences daytime functioning; resultant sleepiness is recognised as a contributing risk-factor for individuals performing critical and dangerous tasks. While the relationship between sleep and sleepiness has been heavily investigated in the vulnerable sub-populations of shift workers and patients with sleep disorders, postpartum women have been comparatively overlooked. Thirty-three healthy, postpartum women recorded every episode of sleep and wake each day during postpartum weeks 6, 12 and 18. Although repeated measures analysis revealed there was no significant difference in the amount of nocturnal sleep and frequency of night-time wakings, there was a significant reduction in sleep disruption, due to fewer minutes of wake after sleep onset. Subjective sleepiness was measured each day using the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale; at the two earlier time points this was significantly correlated with sleep quality but not to sleep quantity. Epworth Sleepiness Scores significantly reduced over time; however, during week 18 over 50% of participants were still experiencing excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Score ?12). Results have implications for health care providers and policy makers. Health care providers designing interventions to address sleepiness in new mothers should take into account the dynamic changes to sleep and sleepiness during this initial postpartum period. Policy makers developing regulations for parental leave entitlements should take into consideration the high prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness experienced by new mothers, ensuring enough opportunity for daytime sleepiness to diminish to a manageable level prior to reengagement in the workforce. PMID:25078950

  4. Drivers of post-partum uterine disease in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Williams, E J

    2013-09-01

    Post-partum uterine disease has a detrimental effect on dairy cow fertility; affected cows require more serves per conception, have reduced conception rates and are more likely to be culled for infertility. Furthermore, the detrimental effects on fertility remain even after clinical resolution of disease. There are many factors that influence a cow's resistance to or development of post-partum disease, and the key drivers determining disease outcome are uterine microbial load, regulation of inflammation and immune responses peripherally and at a local level, production pressure, and metabolic (energy) status. These factors are intricately interlinked, which makes assessment of their individual effects difficult. It is clear, however, that the period surrounding calving is a key transition phase and events during this time point will influence uterine disease outcome and subsequent fertility. Good peripartum management and accurate diagnosis are critical to facilitate the use of the most effective treatment and limit the negative impact of post-partum uterine disease on fertility. If we can improve our understanding of the underlying causes of disease, then we can identify 'at risk' animals and implement management and breeding strategies to prevent uterine disease or reduce its severity. Thus, this article aims to summarize the key factors that drive uterine disease in the post-partum dairy cow. PMID:23962215

  5. Periodicity in Sediments from the Baltic Sea and in Greenland Ice as Climate Signals for the Late Quaternary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Harff; R. Endler; S. Kotov; T. Leipe; A. Witkowski

    2009-01-01

    Climatic records from Greenland ice and Baltic Sea provide as well information about global climate changes as about local basin peculiarities. Late Quaternary sediments have been accumulated in the Baltic Basin with high accumulation rates, qualifying them for the study of late Pleistocene to Holocene climate and environmental history in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic realm. Physical and geochemical

  6. Differential patterns of cortical reorganization following constraint-induced movement therapy during early and late period after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Sawaki, Lumy; Butler, Andrew J.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Wassenaar, Peter A.; Mohammad, Yousef; Blanton, Sarah; Sathian, K.; Nichols-Larsen, Deborah S.; Wolf, Steven L.; Good, David C.; Wittenberg, George F.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) leads to improvement in upper extremity movement and cortical reorganization after stroke. Direct comparison of the differential degree of cortical reorganization according to chronicity in stroke subjects receiving CIMT has not been performed and was the purpose of this study. We hypothesized that a higher degree of cortical reorganization would occur in the early (less than 9 months post-stroke) compared to the late group (more than 12 months post-stroke). METHODS 17 early and 9 late subjects were enrolled. Each subject was evaluated using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) and received CIMT for 2 weeks. RESULTS The early group showed greater improvement in WMFT compared with the late group. TMS motor maps showed persistent enlargement in both groups. The map shifted posteriorly in the late stroke group. CONCLUSION CIMT appears to lead to greater improvement in motor function in early phase after stroke. Greater cortical reorganization associated with shift in map position occurred in late group. SIGNIFICANCE The contrast between larger functional gains in the early group vs larger map expansion in the late group may indicate that cortical reorganization depends upon different neural substrates in the late stroke group. PMID:25227542

  7. Postpartum live virus vaccination: lessons from veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Yazbak, F Edward; Diodati, Catherine J M

    2002-09-01

    Pregnant rubella-susceptible women are often revaccinated during the postpartum period with the Measles, Mumps, and Rubella vaccine (MMR). It is known that the rubella virus from vaccine is secreted in breast milk and persists in the nose and throat for up to 28 days but it is not known whether the measles and mumps viruses are similarly secreted. It is probable the measles virus from vaccine is. PMID:12208153

  8. A Review of Postpartum Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    SIT, DOROTHY; ROTHSCHILD, ANTHONY J.; WISNER, KATHERINE L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective is to provide an overview of the clinical features, prognosis, differential diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of postpartum psychosis. Methods The authors searched Medline (1966–2005), PsycInfo (1974–2005), Toxnet, and PubMed databases using the key words postpartum psychosis, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, organic psychosis, pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, and electroconvulsive therapy. A clinical case is used to facilitate the discussion. Results The onset of puerperal psychosis occurs in the first 1–4 weeks after childbirth. The data suggest that postpartum psychosis is an overt presentation of bipolar disorder that is timed to coincide with tremendous hormonal shifts after delivery. The patient develops frank psychosis, cognitive impairment, and grossly disorganized behavior that represent a complete change from previous functioning. These perturbations, in combination with lapsed insight into her illness and symptoms, can lead to devastating consequences in which the safety and well-being of the affected mother and her offspring are jeopardized. Therefore, careful and repeated assessment of the mothers’ symptoms, safety, and functional capacity is imperative. Treatment is dictated by the underlying diagnosis, bipolar disorder, and guided by the symptom acuity, patient’s response to past treatments, drug tolerability, and breastfeeding preference. The somatic therapies include antimanic agents, atypical antipsychotic medications, and ECT. Estrogen prophylaxis remains purely investigational. Conclusions The rapid and accurate diagnosis of postpartum psychosis is essential to expedite appropriate treatment and to allow for quick, full recovery, prevention of future episodes, and reduction of risk to the mother and her children and family. PMID:16724884

  9. Critical period for adverse effects on development of reproductive system in male offspring of rats given di- n-butyl phthalate during late pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto Ema; Emiko Miyawaki; Kunio Kawashima

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the susceptible days for the adverse effects of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) on development of reproductive system in male offspring following maternal administration on successive 3-day period during late pregnancy. Pregnant rats were given DBP by gastric intubation at 1000 or 1500 mg\\/kg on days 12–14 or 18–20 of pregnancy or at 500,

  10. Randomized controlled trial to prevent postpartum depression in adolescent mothers

    PubMed Central

    Phipps, Maureen G.; Raker, Christina A.; Jocelyn, Crystal F.; Zlotnick, Caron

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effect of an interpersonally-oriented intervention on reducing the risk of postpartum depression in primiparous adolescents. Study design Randomized controlled trial of 106 pregnant primiparous adolescents who were 17 years old or younger at their first prenatal visit. Participants were randomized to the intervention (n=54) or the attention and dose-matched control program (n=52). Each program included 5 sessions delivered during the prenatal period. To assess for the primary outcome, depression at 6-weeks, 3-months and 6-months after delivery, a structured diagnostic interview was administered. Results Participants included Hispanic (53%), non-Hispanic black (17%) and non-Hispanic white (16%) adolescents. The overall rate of depression in the intervention group (12.5%) was lower than the control group (25%) with a HR 0.44 (95% CI 0.17–1.15) at 6 months postpartum. Conclusion An intervention delivered during the prenatal period has the potential to reduce the risk for postpartum depression in primiparous adolescent mothers. PMID:23313720

  11. The role of body image in prenatal and postpartum depression: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Marushka L; Ertel, Karen A; Dole, Nancy; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    Maternal depression increases risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, and recent evidence suggests that body image may play an important role in depression. This systematic review identifies studies of body image and perinatal depression with the goal of elucidating the complex role that body image plays in prenatal and postpartum depression, improving measurement, and informing next steps in research. We conducted a literature search of the PubMed database (1996-2014) for English language studies of (1) depression, (2) body image, and (3) pregnancy or postpartum. In total, 19 studies matched these criteria. Cross-sectional studies consistently found a positive association between body image dissatisfaction and perinatal depression. Prospective cohort studies found that body image dissatisfaction predicted incident prenatal and postpartum depression; findings were consistent across different aspects of body image and various pregnancy and postpartum time periods. Prospective studies that examined the reverse association found that depression influenced the onset of some aspects of body image dissatisfaction during pregnancy, but few evaluated the postpartum onset of body image dissatisfaction. The majority of studies found that body image dissatisfaction is consistently but weakly associated with the onset of prenatal and postpartum depression. Findings were less consistent for the association between perinatal depression and subsequent body image dissatisfaction. While published studies provide a foundation for understanding these issues, methodologically rigorous studies that capture the perinatal variation in depression and body image via instruments validated in pregnant women, consistently adjust for important confounders, and include ethnically diverse populations will further elucidate this association. PMID:25895137

  12. Intimate partner abuse before and during pregnancy as risk factors for postpartum mental health problems

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although research has established the profound effects that intimate partner abuse can have on postpartum mental health, little is known regarding how this association may change as a function of the timing and type of abuse. This study examined associations of psychological, physical and sexual abuse experienced as adults before and during pregnancy with symptoms of postpartum mental health problems in a non-clinical sample of women. Methods English-speaking mothers aged 18 years and older in the metropolitan area of a large, Western Canadian city were recruited to participate in a study of women’s health after pregnancy. The study was advertised in hospitals, local newspapers, community venues, and relevant websites. One-hundred women completed standardized, self-report questionnaires during semi-structured interviews conducted by female research assistants at approximately 2 months postpartum. In addition to questions about their general health and well-being, participants answered questions about their experiences of intimate partner abuse and about their mental health during the postpartum period. Results Almost two-thirds (61.0%) of women reported postpartum mental health symptoms above normal levels, with 47.0% reporting symptoms at moderate or higher levels. The majority reported some form of intimate partner abuse before pregnancy (84.0%) and more than two-thirds (70.0%), during pregnancy; however, the abuse was typically minor in nature. Multivariate models revealed that women who experienced intimate partner abuse—whether before or during pregnancy—reported higher levels of postpartum mental health problems; however, associations differed as a function of the timing and type of abuse, as well as specific mental health symptoms. Multivariate models also showed that as the number of types of intimate partner abuse experienced increased, so did the negative effects on postpartum mental health. Conclusions Results of this study provide further evidence that intimate partner abuse is a risk factor for postpartum mental health problems. They also underscore the complex risks and needs associated with intimate partner abuse among postpartum women and support the use of integrated approaches to treating postpartum mental health problems. Future efforts should focus on the extent to which strategies designed to reduce intimate partner abuse also improve postpartum mental health and vice versus. PMID:24708777

  13. Postpartum acute renal failure: a multicenter study of risk factors in patients admitted to ICU

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Even in developed countries, severe specific pregnancy complications may occur in the immediate postpartum period and require admission to the ICU. The characteristics and risk factors of acute renal failure (ARF) induced by these complications and their treatments are not well known. Methods We performed a retrospective multicenter study in three intensive care departments linked to level III maternity wards in the north of France. All patients admitted to ICU for postpartum complications over a 5-year period (2008 to 2012) were included. Clinical and biological data, delivery characteristics, type of complications, and treatments were compared by univariate and multivariate analyses according to the occurrence and severity of ARF. Results One hundred eighty-two patients admitted to ICU for postpartum complications were included in the study. Sixty-eight patients (37%) developed an ARF: 49 with a low or medium severity and 19 with a severe ARF requiring renal replacement therapy. Hemolysis, elevated liver enzyme, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome on its own (p = 0.047) or combined with postpartum haemorrhage (p = 0.003), previous treatment by hyperoncotic albumin infusion (p = 0.001) and blockade of fibrinolysis by tranexamic acid (p = 0.03), was associated with secondary ARF. By multivariate analysis, the only independent factors were the association of HELLP syndrome with postpartum haemorrhage and the use of hyperoncotic albumin infusion. Conclusions HELLP syndrome associated with postpartum haemorrhage induces a high risk of ARF in the complicated postpartum setting. A particular attention should be given to treatments that could worsen the kidney function in that situation. PMID:25593752

  14. Active Mothers Postpartum A Randomized Controlled Weight-Loss Intervention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Østbye, Truls; Krause, Katrina M.; Lovelady, Cheryl A.; Morey, Miriam C.; Bastian, Lori A.; Peterson, Bercedis L.; Swamy, Geeta K.; Brouwer, Rebecca J.N.; McBride, Colleen M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Pregnancy may contribute to overweight and obesity. Purpose The primary objective of Active Mothers Postpartum was to promote a reduction in BMI through 24-months postpartum via sustainable lifestyle changes. Design Behavioral intervention RCT to enhance postpartum weight loss. Setting/participants A total of 450 overweight or obese women, enrolled 6-weeks postpartum, were recruited through obstetrics clinics and community posters in the Durham NC area. Intervention Intervention participants were offered eight healthy-eating classes, ten physical-activity classes, and six telephone-counseling sessions over 9 months. Main outcome measures Changes from baseline (6-weeks postpartum) to 1-month post-intervention (12-months postpartum) in: (1) diet (caloric intake, calories from fat, intake of certain foods); (2) physical activity (self-reported physical activity, television time); and (3) weight (collected 2004–2007, analyzed 2007–2008). Results Mean weight loss was 0.90 kg (±5.1 kg) in the intervention group and 0.36 kg (±4.9 kg) in the control group; this difference was not significant. There were also no significant group differences in improvement of diet or increased physical activity. In secondary analyses, there was a positive bivariate relationship between classes attended and weight loss (p=0.01). Conclusions There were no significant differences among the arms in diet, physical activity, or weight change. Home-based interventions via mail, telephone, or Internet/e-mail may be more feasible and successful in this population. The postpartum period is an important phase in women’s lives with regard to weight retention, but engaging them during this busy period remains a challenge. PMID:19595557

  15. [HUANG Yu-jie, the famous traditional Chinese medical physician of Taiwan in the late Qing dynasty and early republican period of China].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lin-rong; Zhang, Yong-xian

    2009-07-01

    HUANG Yu-jie, the famous TCM physician of Taiwan in the late Qing dynasty and early Republican period of China, was a physician with noble medical morality and perfect medical skill. He made distinguished contributions especially to the prevention and treatment of epidemic disease. During the time he undertook the medical work, he also actively took part in the social activities and made changes in customs and traditions to promote the development of society. His medical morality and skill not only were the model for the medical field at that time but also had an extensive and profound impact on the common people. PMID:19930943

  16. Accuracy of Depression Screening Tools for Identifying Postpartum Depression Among Urban Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Chaudron, Linda H.; Szilagyi, Peter G.; Tang, Wan; Anson, Elizabeth; Talbot, Nancy L.; Wadkins, Holly I.M.; Tu, Xin; Wisner, Katherine L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The goal was to describe the accuracy of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II), and Postpartum Depression Screening Scale (PDSS) in identifying major depressive disorder (MDD) or minor depressive disorder (MnDD) in low-income, urban mothers attending well childcare (WCC) visits during the postpartum year. Design/Methods Mothers (N=198) attending WCC visits with their infants 0 to 14 months of age completed a psychiatric diagnostic interview (standard method) and 3 screening tools. The sensitivity and specificity of each screening tool were calculated in comparison with diagnoses of MDD or MDD/MnDD. Receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated and the areas under the curves for each tool were compared to assess accuracy for the entire sample (representing the postpartum year) and sub-samples (representing early, middle and late postpartum time frames). Optimal cut-points were calculated. Results At some point between 2 weeks and 14 months postpartum, 56% of mothers met criteria for either MDD (37%) or MnDD (19%). When used as a continuous measures, all scales performed equally well (areas under the curves of ? 0.8). With traditional cut-points, the measures did not perform at the expected levels of sensitivity and specificity. Optimal cut-points for the BDI-II (?14 for MDD, ?11 for MDD/MnDD) and EPDS (?9 for MDD, ?7 for MDD/MnDD) were lower than currently recommended. For the PDSS, the optimal cut-point was consistent with current guidelines for MDD (?80) but higher than recommended for MDD/MnDD (? 77). Conclusions Large proportions of low-income, urban mothers attending WCC visits experience MDD or MnDD during the postpartum year. The EPDS, BDI-II and PDSS have high accuracy in identifying depression but cutoff points may need to be altered to more accurately identify depression in urban, low-income mothers. PMID:20156899

  17. Comparison of shortened and conventional dry period management strategies.

    PubMed

    Cermakova, J; Kudrna, V; Simeckova, M; Vyborna, A; Dolezal, P; Illek, J

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare 2 dry-cow management strategies and evaluate the effect of shortened dry period strategy on feed intake, metabolism, and postpartum performance of dairy cows in early lactation. Twenty-nine high-yielding dairy cows were divided into 2 groups. The control (CON) group (n=14) was assigned to a traditional dry period of approximately 60 d (57±5.9 d) and was fed a far-off dry cow ration from dry-off to -21 d relative to expected parturition. From d -21 relative to expected parturition, the cows were switched to a precalving ration containing an additional 3kg of concentrates. The cows of the experimental group (n=15) were assigned to a shortened dry period (SDP; 35±6.3 d) and were continuously fed a late-lactation diet from d -60 d relative to expected parturition until calving. After calving, both groups were fed the same lactation diet corresponding to their lactation requirements and cows were followed for 100 d of lactation. Prepartum dry matter intake of the cows assigned to an SDP and fed a late-lactation diet was approximately 4.11kg/cow per day greater compared with the CON group during the 60 d. However, no effect of dry period strategy on postpartum dry matter intake was detected. The cows with an SDP produced approximately 2.78kg/d (6.9%) less milk in the first 100 d of lactation than CON cows; the difference was not statistically significant. No differences were observed in live body weight, body condition score, or back-fat thickness between the treatments. Similarly, no differences existed in concentrations of plasma metabolites. The cows of the SDP group showed lower pH and increased concentrations of lactic acid and volatile fatty acids prepartum than the CON cows. Postpartum concentrations of lactic acid, volatile fatty acids, and NH3 and pH in rumen fluid did not differ between the treatments. Shortening of the dry period did not affect the colostrum quality or birth weights of the calves. Based on the results of this study, a traditional dry period management strategy appeared to be more favorable, considering the dry matter intake and milk production, compared with an SDP and feeding a late-lactation diet throughout the dry period. PMID:24997667

  18. Depression as bargaining The case postpartum$

    E-print Network

    in general. The depression levels, abortion attitudes, additional mating opportunities, and investment on abortion correlated significantly with PPD levels, but, as predicted, only for mothers with an unplanned. Keywords: Postpartum depression; Abortion; Evolutionary psychology; Bargaining; Parental investment 1090

  19. Eating Disorders in Pregnancy and the Postpartum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debra L. Franko

    Eating disorders are most often diagnosed during the childbearing years. Pregnancy and postpartum issues for women with eating\\u000a disorders are discussed with regard to symptoms, complications, course of pregnancy, delivery, breast-feeding, and postpartum\\u000a depression (PPD). Research findings indicate that women with eating disorders during pregnancy may be at risk for a variety\\u000a of pregnancy and obstetric complications. Moreover, there appears

  20. Population-based screening for postpartum depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna M Georgiopoulos; Tonya L Bryan; Barbara P Yawn; Margaret S Houston; Teresa A Rummans; Terry M Therneau

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the community prevalence in Olmsted County, Minnesota of elevated scores on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, a self-report screening tool for postpartum depression.Methods: At the 6-week postpartum visit, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was administered to women who gave birth in Olmsted County between July 28, 1997 and March 28, 1998. Study sites included all ambulatory clinics

  1. [Intracerebral haemorrhage and postpartum cerebral angiopathy associated with the administration of sulprostone and norepinephrine].

    PubMed

    Ruzic, Y; Tran-Van, D; Omarjee, A; Boukerrou, M; Winer, A

    2012-01-01

    We report the case of a 29-year-old female who had developed a postpartum cerebral angiopathy (PCA) complicated by an intracerebral haematoma and convulsions, after a postpartum haemorrhage with sulprostone and norepinephrine infusion. PCA is an under diagnosed neurovascular pathology, responsible of reversible and non-specific symptoms. However, it can be complicated by haemorrhagic or ischemic stroke with vital or functional risks. As PCA is favored by vasoactive treatments, their administration in peripartum period, when it is imperative, should be strictly controlled. PMID:22154454

  2. E nergy balance relationships with follicular development, q ovulation and fertility in postpartum dairy cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. R. Butler

    2003-01-01

    Increased capacity for milk production in dairy cows has been associated with a decline in fertility. Following parturition, nutritional requirements increase rapidly with milk production and the resulting negative energy balance (NEBAL) extends for 10-12 weeks. NEBAL is strongly associated with the length of the postpartum anovulatory period through attenuation of LH pulse frequency and low levels of blood glucose,

  3. Oestrous expression and relapse back into anoestrus at early postpartum ovulations in fertile dairy cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sakaguchi

    2010-01-01

    A total of 368 ovulations from 92 lactations in 69 cows were analysed to determine the effects of timing of ovulation and signs of oestrus on the fertility of the cows. During the study period of 10 to 13 weeks postpartum, cows ranged from having reached their first ovulation to having reached their fifth. Before ovulation, the cows exhibiting standing

  4. Effects of Prepartum Feeding Level and Body Condition on the Postpartum Performance of Dairy Cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. G. Davenport; A. H. Rakes

    1969-01-01

    Holstein cows were subjected to a low, medium, or high plane of nutrition during the dry periods. Thin, medium, or fat body condition was designated after calv- ing. All cows had limited free access to concentrates and corn silage or alfalfa hay for 12 weeks postpartum. Concentrate, forage, and total digestible nutrient intakes were not affected by level of either

  5. Postpartum multivessel spontaneous coronary artery dissection confirmed by coronary CT angiography

    PubMed Central

    Schroder, Catherine; Stoler, Robert C.; Branning, George B.

    2006-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare but potentially life-threatening event associated with the peripartum period. We present a case of postpartum multivessel spontaneous coronary artery dissection diagnosed by conventional angiography and monitored with computed tomographic coronary angiography. The patient was initially managed medically and later received a coronary stent. PMID:17106495

  6. Evidence of proviral clearance following postpartum transmission of an ovine lentivirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lentiviral transmission by transfer of infected colostrum and/or milk is considered to be highly efficient. In this study, postpartum transmission of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) from 10 naturally infected ewes to their 23 lambs was followed from the perinatal period throughout a four y...

  7. Coverage of post-partum and post-natal care in Egypt in 2005-2008 and Bangladesh in 2004-2007: levels, trends and unmet need.

    PubMed

    Fort, Alfredo L

    2012-06-01

    Maternal and neonatal mortality in the post-partum period remain high in many countries because of the limited provision of care. This study uses demographic & health survey data for Egypt in 2005 and 2008 and Bangladesh in 2004 and 2007 to analyse levels and trends in post-partum and post-natal care by place of delivery. Improvements were found in levels and timing of post-partum care following institutional deliveries in both countries, especially within 24 hours post-partum. In Egypt, post-partum care within 24 hours rose from 86% to 93% between the two surveys, and in Bangladesh from 46% to 67% (data for home deliveries only). In contrast, although most first neonatal care was within 24 hours, few improvements were seen in the proportion of infants receiving early care after institutional or home deliveries. If the first hour after delivery were excluded from our analysis, more than 40% and 78%, respectively, of the level of institution-based post-partum care in Egypt in 2008 and Bangladesh in 2007 would be excluded, implying that post-partum coverage may be far worse than DHS data indicate. This study shows that post-partum and post-natal care--like skilled attendance and emergency obstetric care--continue to be grossly neglected and lag far behind the high and rising levels of antenatal care in a growing number of countries. PMID:22789085

  8. Plants used during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum healthcare in Lao PDR: A comparative study of the Brou, Saek and Kry ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Hugo; Lamxay, Vichith

    2009-01-01

    Background In many Southeast Asian cultures the activities and diet during the postpartum period are culturally dictated and a period of confinement is observed. Plants play an important role in recovery during the postpartum period in diet, traditional medicine, steam bath and mother roasting (where mother and child placed on a bed above a brazier with charcoal embers on which aromatic plants are laid). This research focuses on the use of plants during pregnancy, parturition, postpartum recovery and infant healthcare among three ethnic groups, the Brou, Saek and Kry. It aims to identify culturally important traditions that may facilitate implementation of culturally appropriate healthcare. Methods Data were collected in 10 different villages in Khammouane province, Lao PDR, through group and individual interviews with women by female interviewers. Results A total of 55 different plant species are used in women's healthcare, of which over 90% are used in postpartum recovery. Consensus Analysis rejects the hypothesis that the three ethnic groups belong to a single culture for postpartum plant use, and multidimensional scaling reveals non-overlapping clusters per ethnic group. Conclusion Medicinal plant use is common among the Brou, Saek and Kry to facilitate childbirth, alleviate menstruation problems, assist recovery after miscarriage, mitigate postpartum haemorrhage, aid postpartum recovery, and for use in infant care. The wealth of novel insights into plant use and preparation will help to understand culturally important practices such as confinement, dietary restrictions, mother roasting and herbal steam baths and their incorporation into modern healthcare. PMID:19737413

  9. Low rates of postpartum glucose screening among indigenous and non-indigenous women in Australia with gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Catherine; McLean, Anna; Oats, Jeremy; Oldenburg, Brian; Eades, Sandra; Sinha, Ashim; Wolfe, Rory

    2015-03-01

    Women with gestational diabetes have a high risk of type 2 diabetes postpartum, with Indigenous women particularly affected. This study reports postpartum diabetes screening rates among Indigenous and non-Indigenous women with gestational diabetes, in Far North Queensland, Australia. Retrospective study including 1,012 women with gestational diabetes giving birth at a regional hospital from 1/1/2004 to 31/12/2010. Data were linked between hospital records, midwives perinatal data, and laboratory results, then analysed using survival analysis and logistic regression. Indigenous women had significantly longer times to first oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) [hazards ratio (HR) 0.62, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.48-0.79, p < 0.0001) and 'any' postpartum glucose test (HR 0.81, 95 % CI 0.67-0.98, p = 0.03], compared to non-Indigenous women. Postpartum screening rates among all women were low. However, early OGTT screening rates (<6 months) were significantly lower among Indigenous women (13.6 vs. 28.3 %, p < 0.0001), leading to a persistent gap in cumulative postpartum screening rates. By 3 years postpartum, cumulative rates of receiving an OGTT, were 24.6 % (95 % CI 19.9-30.2 %) and 34.1 % (95 % CI 30.6-38.0 %) among Indigenous and non-Indigenous women, respectively. Excluding OGTTs in previous periods, few women received OGTTs at 6-24 months (7.8 vs. 6.7 %) or 2-4 years (5.2 vs. 6.5 %), among Indigenous and non-Indigenous women, respectively. Low rates of postpartum diabetes screening demonstrate that essential 'ongoing management' and 'equity' criteria for population-based screening for gestational diabetes are not being met; particularly among Indigenous women, for whom recent guideline changes have specific implications. Strategies to improve postpartum screening after gestational diabetes are urgently needed. PMID:24981736

  10. Critical views on postpartum care expressed by new mothers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann Rudman; Ulla Waldenström

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Women's evaluation of hospital postpartum care has consistently been more negative than their assessment of other types of maternity care. The need to further explore what is wrong with postpartum care, in order to stimulate changes and improvements, has been stressed. The principal aim of this study was to describe women's negative experiences of hospital postpartum care, expressed in

  11. The prevention and psychotherapeutic treatment of postpartum depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Stuart; M. W. O’Hara; L. L. Gorman

    2003-01-01

    Summary ¶The efficacy of psychotherapeutic interventions for the acute treatment of postpartum depression is strongly supported by empirical data, which suggest that counseling is of benefit as a stand-alone treatment for postpartum depression. Given the paucity of treatment trials using medication for postpartum depression, and the fact that psychotherapeutic interventions do not confer any “exposure” risks to breastfeeding infants, the

  12. Sedimentary Evidence for Land Use Change in the Narragansett Bay Watershed: Late Woodland period (~500 AD) to the present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salacup, J. M.; Altabet, M. A.; Herbert, T.; Prell, W. L.

    2012-12-01

    In the U.S., the last ~300 years have been a period of progressive and widespread resource exploitation, ecosystem degradation, and habitat destruction. In southern New England, the European Colonists thrived on the spread of slave-based plantation farming, which peaked ~1750 in RI. They produced commodities such as livestock, apples, onions, flax, and dairy. Trees felled to produce the necessary pasture- and farm-land were quickly used as lumber for boards, planks, timber, and barrels. In 1793, Slater Mill, located on the Blackstone River at the head of Narragansett Bay, was the first mill in the U.S to spin yarn using water power, making it the birthplace of the U.S Industrial Revolution. The ensuing urbanization drove the human population of the watershed up from ~50,000 in 1790 to more than 2 million by the year 2000. More recently, the Bay has experienced episodic hypoxic events [1]. These events correlate well with spatial and temporal patterns of nutrients and productivity [2] suggesting that human-induced increases in nutrient nitrogen and phosphorus are responsible for eutrophication-induced oxygen depletion [3]. However, these post-Colonial land use changes have yet to be characterized within the longer context of Native American land use practices, mainly due to the lack of historical records for the period. Additionally, the impact of this ecosystem disturbance on the Bay has not been fully described. Here we present results based on sedimentary profiles of biomarkers diagnostic for soil delivery to marine systems, branched glycerol dialykl glycerol tetraethers, and pollen for disturbance taxa, that suggest land use change began in the Bay's watershed 300 years before European contact. This contradicts long standing ideas regarding the land use practices of local tribes but agrees with new archaeological findings suggesting large semi-permanent settlements and widespread horticulture of maize may have been the norm at this time. We also show results of pollen, nitrogen isotopes, and foraminiferal abundance (proxies for land disturbance, nutrient sources, and ecosystem productivity, respectively) implying the large domestic animal population housed on the plantations were a new source of nitrogen to the Bay. This nutrient input may have led to an increase in the Bay's primary productivity, which may have decreased or stabilized as plantations became less important. Lastly, these same proxies show that the industrialization and urbanization of the Bay's watershed added additional nutrients, further stimulating the Bay's productivity. 1. Codiga, D.L., et al., Narragansett Bay Hypoxic Event Characteristics Based on Fixed-Site Monitoring Network Time Series: Intermittency, Geographic Distribution, Spatial Synchronicity, and Interannual Variablity. Estuaries and Coasts, 2009. 32: p. 621-641. 2. Oviatt, C.A., Impacts of Nutrients on Narragansett Bay Productivity: A Gradient Approach, in Science for Ecosystem-based Management, Narragansett Bay in the 21st Century, A. Desbonnet, Editor 2008, Springer: New York. p. 523-543. 3. Nixon, S.W., et al., Nitrogen and Phosphorus Inputs to Narragansett Bay: Past, Present, and Future, in Science for Ecosystem-based Management: Narragansett Bay in the 21st Century, A. Desbonnet and B.A. Costa-Pierce, Editors. 2008, Springer: New York, NY. p. 101-175.

  13. Glacial cycle and precessional period of clay mineral assemblage during late Quaternary in the Western Equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J.; Liu, Z.; Zhou, C.

    2011-12-01

    Clay mineralogy, coupled with oxygen isotope records and elemental XRF scanning data, have been conducted on Core KX21-2 recovered from the Ontong Java Plateau, Western Equatorial Pacific. The clay mineral assemblage over the last 370 kyr displays strong glacial-interglacial cyclicity, with higher contents of smectite (average 76%), lower contents of chlorite (10%), illite (8%) and kaolinite (6%) during glacials, and vice versa. Fe mainly originates from smectite, and has therefore been used to represent it. In addition to glacial cycle (100 ka), spectral analysis reveals that Fe contents also display precessional period (26.8 ka and 14.4 ka). The question is, why and how the features of high-latitude and tropical-process could be exhibited in concert? The clay mineral assemblage dominating by smectite is detrital, and derived from river sediment of New Guinea, though possibly minor Asian dust. Fluctuation of sea-level combined with contrasting styles of Source-to-Sink in New Guinea cause the glacial-interglacial cycles of clay mineral assemblage. Regardless of sea-level, river sediments can travel across the narrow shelves off the northern New Guinea and then inject directly into New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent, which finally contribute Equatorial Undercurrent. In contrast, when the sea-level were high, only few sediment could be transported from southern New Guinea to the Western Equatorial Pacific, possibly by surface current. Considering the positive correlation between contents of smectite and feldspar/quartz ratios, we conclude that, because of the limitation of weathering time, the contents of smectite essentially indicate the intensity of mechanical erosion, responding to the river runoff and precipitation. Furthermore, due to the regional precipitation pattern is under control of ITCZ, these variations of smectite reflect the meridional migration of ITCZ, indirectly.

  14. Postpartum fever in the presence of a fibroid: Sphingomonas paucimobilis sepsis associated with pyomyoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pyomyoma is a life-threatening complication of uterine leiomyoma. It may occur in post- menopausal women, during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. Fever may be the only manifestation during the early stages of the disease. We detail the first reported case of postpartum pyomyoma-related sepsis due to Sphingomonas paucimobilis, a Gram-negative bacillus that is gaining recognition as an important human pathogen. Case presentation A woman presented with an asymptomatic uterine fibroid and a two-week history of fever during the postpartum period. Suppurative uterine leiomyoma was diagnosed, and blood cultures grew Sphingomonas paucimobilis. The myoma was surgically removed from the uterus without hysterectomy. Intravenous antimicrobial therapy was given for fifteen days, and the patient was discharged from hospital in good condition. Conclusion Pyomyoma should be considered in broad differential diagnosis of postpartum fever. This case highlights a unique disease manifestation of S. paucimobilis, an emerging opportunistic pathogen with increasing significance in the nosocomial setting. PMID:24308831

  15. Should antiplatelet therapy be interrupted in drug eluting stent recipients throughout the periendoscopic period? A very late stent thrombosis case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Dong, Peng; Yang, Xin-Chun; Bian, Su-Yan

    2014-09-01

    In-stent thrombosis after cessation of antiplatelet medications in patients with drug-eluting stents (DES) is a significant problem in medical practice, particularly in the perioperative period. We report a case of an 87-year-old man with a medical history of hypertension, coronary artery disease and chronic atrophic gastritis. Very late thrombosis of a sirolimus-eluting stent occurred 1207 days after implantation, seven months after discontinuation of clopidogrel, and the interruption of aspirin 13 days in preparation of an elective endoscopic gastrointestinal procedure presented with acute myocardial infarction. The patient was treated with thrombectomy and successfully revascularized with superimposition of two sirolimus-eluting stents. Medications administered in the catheterization laboratory included low molecular weight heparin and nitroglycerin. Flow was defined as grade 2 according to the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction scale. Electrocardiogram after the procedure revealed persistent, but decreased, ST-segment elevation in the anterolateral leads. The patient recovered and was discharged on aspirin and clopidogrel indefinitely. There was no cardiac event during the two year follow-up period. This case underlines the importance of maintaining the balance of thrombosis and bleeding during perioperation of non-cardiac procedure and the possible need for continuation of aspirin therapy during periendoscopic procedures among patients with low bleeding risks who received DES. PMID:25278977

  16. The Effects of Rhodobacter capsulatus KCTC-2583 on Cholesterol Metabolism, Egg Production and Quality Parameters during the Late Laying Periods in Hens

    PubMed Central

    Lokhande, Anushka; Ingale, S. L.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, J. S.; Lohakare, J. D.; Chae, B. J.; Kwon, I. K.

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of Rhodobacter capsulatus KCTC-2583 on egg-yolk and serum cholesterol, egg production and quality parameters during the late laying periods in hens. A total of 160 Hy-Line Brown layers (54 wk-old) were randomly allotted to 4 treatment groups on the basis of laying performance. Each treatment had 4 replicates with 10 birds each (40 birds per treatment). Two hens were confined individually with cage size 35×35×40 cm and each 10 birds (5 cages) shared a common feed trough between them forming one experimental unit. Dietary treatments were; basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15% R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Experimental diets were fed in meal form for 56 d. Dietary supplementation of increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 reduced (linear, p<0.05) egg-yolk cholesterol and triglycerides (d 28, 42 and 56) concentrations. Also, serum cholesterol and triglycerides (d 21, 42 and 56) concentrations were linearly reduced (p<0.05) with increasing dietary R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Laying hens fed a diet supplemented with increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 had increased (linear; p<0.05) overall egg production, egg weight, egg mass and feed efficiency. However, dietary treatments had no effect (linear or quadratic; p>0.05) on feed intake of laying hens. At d 28 and 56, breaking strength and yolk colour of eggs were linearly improved (p<0.05) in laying hens fed dietary increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Dietary treatment had no effects (linear or quadratic; p>0.05) on albumin height, shell thickness and shell weight at any period of experiment. These results indicate that dietary supplementation of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 has the potential to improve the laying hen performance and lead to the development of low cholesterol eggs during late laying period in Hy-Line Brown hens. PMID:25049857

  17. Feeding infants directly at the breast during the postpartum hospital stay is associated with increased breastfeeding at 6?months postpartum: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Della A; Johns, Helene M; McLachlan, Helen L; Moorhead, Anita M; McEgan, Kerri M; Amir, Lisa H

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore whether feeding only directly from the breast in the first 24–48?h of life increases the proportion of infants receiving any breast milk at 6?months. Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Three maternity hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. Participants 1003 postpartum English-speaking women with a healthy singleton term infant, who intended to breast feed, were recruited between 2009 and 2011. Women were excluded if they or their infant were seriously ill. 92% (n=924) were followed up at 6?months postpartum. Primary and secondary outcome measures Main exposure variable —type of infant feeding in hospital up to time of study recruitment (24–48?h postpartum), categorised as ‘fed directly at the breast only’ or ‘received at least some expressed breast milk (EBM) or infant formula’. Primary outcome—proportion of infants receiving any breast milk feeding at 6?months postpartum. Secondary outcomes—proportion of infants receiving only breast milk feeding at 6?months; breast milk feeding duration; and maternal characteristics associated with giving any breast milk at 6?months. Results Infants who had fed only at the breast prior to recruitment were more likely to be continuing to have any breast milk at 6?months than those who had received any EBM and/or infant formula (76% vs 59%; adjusted OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.48 (adjusted for parity, type of birth, breastfeeding intention, breastfeeding problems at recruitment, public/private status, epidural for labour or birth, maternal body mass index and education)). Conclusions Healthy term infants that fed only directly at the breast 24–48?h after birth were more likely to be continuing to breast feed at 6?months than those who received any EBM and/or formula in the early postpartum period. Support and encouragement to initiate breastfeeding directly at the breast is important. PMID:25953728

  18. Postpartum contraceptive use and unmet need for family planning in five low-income countries

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background During the post-partum period, most women wish to delay or prevent future pregnancies. Despite this, the unmet need for family planning up to a year after delivery is higher than at any other time. This study aims to assess fertility intention, contraceptive usage and unmet need for family planning amongst women who are six weeks postpartum, as well as to identify those at greatest risk of having an unmet need for family planning during this period. Methods Using the NICHD Global Network for Women’s and Children’s Health Research’s multi-site, prospective, ongoing, active surveillance system to track pregnancies and births in 100 rural geographic clusters in 5 countries (India, Pakistan, Zambia, Kenya and Guatemala), we assessed fertility intention and contraceptive usage at day 42 post-partum. Results We gathered data on 36,687 women in the post-partum period. Less than 5% of these women wished to have another pregnancy within the year. Despite this, rates of modern contraceptive usage varied widely and unmet need ranged from 25% to 96%. Even amongst users of modern contraceptives, the uptake of the most effective long-acting reversible contraceptives (intrauterine devices) was low. Women of age less than 20 years, parity of two or less, limited education and those who deliver at home were at highest risk for having unmet need. Conclusions Six weeks postpartum, almost all women wish to delay or prevent a future pregnancy. Even in sites where early contraceptive adoption is common, there is substantial unmet need for family planning. This is consistently highest amongst women below the age of 20 years. Interventions aimed at increasing the adoption of effective contraceptive methods are urgently needed in the majority of sites in order to reduce unmet need and to improve both maternal and infant outcomes, especially amongst young women. Study registration Clinicaltrials.gov (ID# NCT01073475) PMID:26063346

  19. Recurrent Silent Thyroiditis as a Sequela of Postpartum Thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Thyroiditis encompasses a group of disorders characterized by thyroid inflammation. Though clinically indistinguishable from silent thyroiditis, postpartum thyroiditis occurs in women within 12 months after delivery. Recurrent postpartum thyroiditis in subsequent pregnancies is common, but recurrent silent thyroiditis is rare. We reported a case of patient with recurrent episodes of thyroiditis, unrelated to pregnancy, after an episode of postpartum thyroiditis. It is of interest that postpartum thyroiditis and silent thyroiditis could occur closely to each other; however, the link between these disorders is not well established. This report is to remind physicians of the possibility of recurrent silent thyroiditis in women with a history of postpartum thyroiditis. PMID:24987536

  20. The neural processing of negative emotion postpartum: a preliminary study of amygdala function in postpartum depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael E. Silverman; Holly Loudon; Xun Liu; Casey Mauro; Gila Leiter; Martin A. Goldstein

    2011-01-01

    While contemporary diagnostic nosology characterizes postpartum depression (PPD) as a specifier of a major depressive disorder\\u000a (MDD), this classification continues to be questioned. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) holds the promise of helping\\u000a to characterize the neuroanatomical dysfunction associated with dysregulated emotion after childbirth. Twenty postpartum women\\u000a underwent fMRI in the presence of emotionally valenced stimuli. The observation of relative

  1. Symptoms and Signs Associated with Postpartum Thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background. Postpartum thyroiditis (PPT) is a common triphasic autoimmune disease in women with thyroid peroxidase (TPO) autoantibodies. This study evaluated women's thyroid disease symptoms, physical findings, stress levels, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels across six postpartum months in three groups, TPO negative, TPO positive, and PPT positive women. Methods. Women were recruited in midpregnancy (n = 631) and TPO status was determined which then was used to form the three postpartum groups. The three groups were compared on TSH levels, thyroid symptoms, weight, blood pressure, heart rate, a thyroid exam, and stress scores. Results. Fifty-six percent of the TPO positive women developed PPT. Hypothyroid group (F (2, 742) = 5.8, P = .003) and hyperthyroid group (F (2, 747) = 6.6, P = .001) subscale scores differed by group. Several symptoms and stress scores were highest in the PPT group. Conclusions. The normal postpartum is associated with many symptoms that mimic thyroid disease symptoms, but severity is greater in women with either TPO or PPT positivity. While the most severe symptoms were generally seen in PPT positive women, even TPO positive women seem to have higher risk for these signs and symptoms. PMID:25405057

  2. Research Report Callosal oligodendrocyte number in postpartum

    E-print Network

    Sokolowski, Marla

    Research Report Callosal oligodendrocyte number in postpartum Sprague-Dawley rats Marissa E. Maheu in oligodendrocyte proliferation during gestation, contributing to increased myelination in the maternal brain contribute to additional gliogenesis in lactating females. In the present study, we assessed oligodendrocyte

  3. Uterine artery embolization for primary postpartum hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Kim, Jun-Mo; Ryu, Ae-Li; Chung, Soo-Ho; Seok Lee, Woo

    2013-01-01

    Background: Postpartum hemorrhage is the leading cause of severe maternal morbidity and death. A prompt management of uterine artery embolization (UAE) is important for a good outcome. UAE is generally accepted to be a safe and reliable procedure. Objective: To estimate critical patient characteristics influencing the success of UAE for the treatment of emergent primary postpartum hemorrhage. Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional study that reviewed 121 patients who were diagnosed primary postpartum hemorrhage between February 2002 and December 2009 at a tertiary treatment center among 4,022 deliveries. We evaluated patient clinical characteristics associated with a successful surgical outcome of UAE. Results: The success rate for UAE was 96%. For two cases, UAE complication was associated with fever (>38.5oC). Five patients had problems that required admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Conclusion: To increase the surgical success rate and lower the number of ICU admissions, the decision to treat primary postpartum hemorrhage using UAE should be based on individual patient clinical findings under the direction of obstetrics staff and an interventional radiologist. PMID:24639786

  4. Meta-analysis of the role of delivery mode in postpartum depression (Iran 1997-2011)

    PubMed Central

    Bahadoran, Parvin; Oreizi, Hamid Reza; Safari, Saeideh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postpartum period is the riskiest time for mood disorders and psychosis. Postpartum depression is the most important mood disorder after delivery, which can be accompanied by mother-child and family relationship disorders. Meta-analysis with the integration of research results demonstrates to investigate the association between the mode of delivery and postpartum depression. Materials and Methods: This meta-analysis uses the Rosenthal and Robin approach. For this purpose, 18 studies which were acceptable in terms of methodology were selected and meta-analysis was conducted on them. Research instrument was a checklist of meta-analysis. After summarizing the results of the studies, effect sizes were calculated manually and combined based on meta-analysis method. Results: The findings showed that the amount of effect size (in term of Cohen d) of delivery mode on postpartum depression was 0/30 (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Delivery mode on maternal mental health is assessed medium. Meta analysis also indicates moderator variables role, and researcher must focus in these variables. PMID:25540791

  5. Obstetric Characteristics and Management of Patients with Postpartum Psychosis in a Tertiary Hospital Setting

    PubMed Central

    Shehu, C. E.; Yunusa, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Postpartum psychosis is the most severe and uncommon form of postnatal affective illness. It constitutes a medical emergency. Acute management emphasizes hospitalization to ensure safety, antipsychotic medication adherence, and treatment of the underlying disorder. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine the obstetric characteristics and management of patients with postpartum psychosis in a tertiary centre in North-Western Nigeria. Methodology. This was a 10-year retrospective study. Records of the patients diagnosed with postpartum psychosis from January 1st, 2002, to December 31st, 2011, were retrieved and relevant data extracted and analyzed using the SPSS for Windows version 16.0. Results. There were 29 cases of postpartum psychosis giving an incidence of 1.1 per 1000 deliveries. The mean age of the patients was 20.6 ± 4 years. Twelve (55%) were primiparae, 16 (72.7%) were unbooked, and 13 (59%) delivered at home. All had vaginal deliveries at term. There were 12 (52.2%) live births, and 11 (47.8%) perinatal deaths and the fetal sex ratio was equal. The most common presentation was talking irrationally. Conclusion. There is need for risk factor evaluation for puerperal psychosis during the antenatal period especially in primigravidae and more advocacies to encourage women to book for antenatal care in our environment.

  6. Screening for depression and anxiety disorders from pregnancy to postpartum with the EPDS and STAI.

    PubMed

    Tendais, Iva; Costa, Raquel; Conde, Ana; Figueiredo, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the State Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S) are widely used self-report measures that still need to be further validated for the perinatal period. The aim of this study was to examine the screening performance of the EPDS and the STAI-S in detecting depressive and anxiety disorders at pregnancy and postpartum. Women screening positive on EPDS (EPDS ? 9) or STAI-S (STAI-S ? 45) during pregnancy (n = 90), as well as matched controls (n = 58) were selected from a larger study. At 3 months postpartum, 99 of these women were reassessed. At a second stage, women were administered a clinical interview to establish a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis. Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) analysis yielded areas under the curve higher than .80 and .70 for EPDS and STAI-S, respectively. EPDS and STAI-S optimal cut-offs were found to be lower at postpartum (EDPS = 7; STAI-S = 34) than during pregnancy (EPDS = 9; STAI-S = 40). EPDS and STAI-S are reasonably valid screening tools during pregnancy and the postpartum. PMID:25012783

  7. Late Holocene shoreline behavior in embayments of Lake Michigan: Influence of quasi-periodic lake-level variations and sediment supply

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, T.A.; Baedke, S.J. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Indiana Geological Survey)

    1994-04-01

    Lake Michigan contains numerous former embayments into glacial deposits or bedrock. Many of the embayments contain dunes, spits, and captured lakes, but others contain arcuate strandplains of beach ridges. The strandplains are a geologic record of shoreline behavior and lake-level variation throughout the late Holocene. The larger strandplains show similar long-term patterns of beach-ridge development. The similar patterns are expected because variations in lake level are a primary control on shoreline behavior, and all embayments would have experienced relatively the same lake-level changes. Some variations in the long-term pattern of shoreline development do occur between strandplains. These dissimilarities are primarily a function of different rates of sediment supply to the shoreline of each embayment. Beach-ridge development within embayments can be represented on a rate of water level change versus rate of sediment supply diagram (Curray diagram) as three superimposed ovals on the positive rate of sediment supply side of the diagram. The three stacked ovals represent the three quasi-periodic lake-level variations defined by Thompson (1992) and show the position of the shoreline for a given time within the Curray diagram fields. For shorelines with a high rate of sediment supply, only the 30-year quasi-periodic variation would reach the aggradation line. For shorelines having significantly less sediment supply, rising lake level on the 150- and 600-year variations would force the 30-year oval across the aggradation line and well into the depositional and possibly the erosional transgression fields. Under these conditions erosion would occur that may remove, stack, or at least prevent one or more beach ridges from being developed.

  8. Maternal bonding in mothers with postpartum anxiety disorder: the crucial role of subclinical depressive symptoms and maternal avoidance behaviour.

    PubMed

    Tietz, A; Zietlow, A-L; Reck, C

    2014-10-01

    Hardly any research has examined the link between postpartum anxiety disorder and maternal bonding. This study examined if postpartum anxiety disorder and maternal bonding are related in the postpartum period. Thereby, subclinical depressive symptoms and specific aspects of an anxious symptomatology were also taken into consideration. The German sample of N = 78 mother-infant dyads is composed of n = 30 mothers with postpartum anxiety disorders but without major or minor depression according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-IV) and n = 48 healthy mothers. Subjects were interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders at an average infant age of M = 4.1 months. Moreover, mothers filled out the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire-16. The Anxiety Cognitions Questionnaire, the Body Sensations Questionnaire and the Mobility Inventory were chosen to assess different aspects of anxious symptomatology. To control for concurrent subclinical depressive symptoms, we used the German Edinburgh-Postnatal-Depression Scale. Mothers with postpartum anxiety disorder reported significantly lower bonding than healthy mothers. However, in a linear regression analysis, concurrent subclinical depressive symptoms and avoidance of anxiety-related situations in company explained 27 % of the overall variance in maternal bonding. The perceived lower bonding of mothers with anxiety disorder could be due to aspects of a concurrent subclinical depressive symptomatology. This notion emphasizes the need to target even mild depressive symptoms in the treatment of postpartum anxiety disorders. The outcomes also underline that the severity of anxious symptomatology, reflected by avoidance behaviour in company, puts the mother-infant bond at risk. PMID:24687168

  9. Malaria and immunity during pregnancy and postpartum: a tale of two species.

    PubMed

    McLEAN, A R D; Ataide, R; Simpson, J A; Beeson, J G; Fowkes, F J I

    2015-07-01

    It is well established that pregnant women are at an increased risk of Plasmodium falciparum infection when compared to non-pregnant individuals and limited epidemiological data suggest Plasmodium vivax risk also increases with pregnancy. The risk of P. falciparum declines with successive pregnancies due to the acquisition of immunity to pregnancy-specific P. falciparum variants. However, despite similar declines in P. vivax risk with successive pregnancies, there is a paucity of evidence P. vivax-specific immunity. Cross-species immunity, as well as immunological and physiological changes that occur during pregnancy may influence the susceptibility to both P. vivax and P. falciparum. The period following delivery, the postpartum period, is relatively understudied and available epidemiological data suggests that it may also be a period of increased risk of infection to Plasmodium spp. Here we review the literature and directly compare and contrast the epidemiology, clinical pathogenesis and immunological features of P. vivax and P. falciparum in pregnancy, with a particular focus on studies performed in areas co-endemic for both species. Furthermore, we review the intriguing epidemiology literature of both P. falciparum and P. vivax postpartum and relate observations to the growing literature pertaining to malaria immunology in the postpartum period. PMID:25731914

  10. Nighttime Breastfeeding Behavior Is Associated with More Nocturnal Sleep among First-Time Mothers at One Month Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Therese; Gay, Caryl L.; Kennedy, Holly P.; Newman, Jack; Lee, Kathryn A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: To describe sleep duration and quality in the first month postpartum and compare the sleep of women who exclusively breastfed at night to those who used formula. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal study in a predominantly low-income and ethnically diverse sample of 120 first-time mothers. Both objective and subjective measures of sleep were obtained using actigraphy, diary, and self-report data. Measures were collected in the last month of pregnancy and at one month postpartum. Infant feeding diaries were used to group mothers by nighttime breastfeeding behavior. Results: Mothers who used at least some formula at night (n = 54) and those who breastfed exclusively (n = 66) had similar sleep patterns in late pregnancy. However, there was a significant group difference in nocturnal sleep at one month postpartum as measured by actigraphy. Total nighttime sleep was 386 ± 66 minutes for the exclusive breastfeeding group and 356 ± 67 minutes for the formula group. The groups did not differ with respect to daytime sleep, wake after sleep onset (sleep fragmentation), or subjective sleep disturbance at one month postpartum. Conclusion: Women who breastfed exclusively averaged 30 minutes more nocturnal sleep than women who used formula at night, but measures of sleep fragmentation did not differ. New mothers should be encouraged to breastfeed exclusively since breastfeeding may promote sleep during postpartum recovery. Further research is needed to better understand how infant feeding method affects maternal sleep duration and fragmentation. Citation: Doan T; Gay CL; Kennedy HP; Newman J; Lee KA. Nighttime breastfeeding behavior is associated with more nocturnal sleep among first-time mothers at one month postpartum. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(3):313-319. PMID:24634630

  11. What patterns of postpartum psychological distress are associated with maternal concerns about their children's emotional and behavioural problems at the age of three years?

    PubMed Central

    Benzies, Karen; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Tough, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Mothers experiencing psychological distress in the postpartum period may have difficulties parenting their children. Inconsistent and unresponsive parenting may increase the risk of later emotional and behavioural problems in children. The purpose of this study was to identify how maternal psychological characteristics cluster at eight weeks postpartum, and whether these clusters were associated with maternal-reported child emotional and behavioural problems at the age of three years, as measured by the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) questionnaire. In a longitudinal pregnancy cohort (N?=?647), three clusters of postpartum psychological characteristics were identified. Contrary to expectations, mothers with the greatest psychological distress did not report concerns about their child's emotional and behavioural problems; rather, they reported concerns about global developmental delay. These findings suggest that infants of mothers experiencing postpartum psychological distress should receive additional follow-up to reduce the risk for global developmental delay. PMID:25544794

  12. Clinical guidelines for postpartum women and infants in primary care–a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While many women and infants have an uneventful course during the postpartum period, others experience significant morbidity. Effective postpartum care in the community can prevent short, medium and long-term consequences of unrecognised and poorly managed problems. The use of rigorously developed, evidence-based guidelines has the potential to improve patient care, impact on policy and ensure consistency of care across health sectors. This study aims to compare the scope and content, and assess the quality of clinical guidelines about routine postpartum care in primary care. Methods PubMed, the National Guideline Clearing House, Google, Google Scholar and relevant college websites were searched for relevant guidelines. All guidelines regarding routine postpartum care published in English between 2002 and 2012 were considered and screened using explicit selection criteria. The scope and recommendations contained in the guidelines were compared and the quality of the guidelines was independently assessed by two authors using the AGREE II instrument. Results Six guidelines from Australia (2), the United Kingdom (UK) (3) and the United States of America (USA) (1), were included. The scope of the guidelines varied greatly. However, guideline recommendations were generally consistent except for the use of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale for mood disorder screening and the suggested time of routine visits. Some recommendations lacked evidence to support them, and levels or grades of evidence varied between guidelines. The quality of most guidelines was adequate. Of the six AGREE II domains, applicability and editorial independence scored the lowest, and scope, purpose and clarity of presentation scored the highest. Conclusions Only one guideline provided comprehensive recommendations for the care of postpartum women and their infants. As well as considering the need for region specific guidelines, further research is needed to strengthen the evidence supporting recommendations made within guidelines. Further improvement in the editorial independence and applicability domains of the AGREE ll criteria would strengthen the quality of the guidelines. PMID:24475888

  13. Childhood sexual abuse, parenting and postpartum depression—a 3-year follow-up study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Buist; Helen Janson

    2001-01-01

    Objective: This study is the second and final phase of a 3-year follow-up study of women who had been admitted with a major depressive episode in the postpartum period, along with their children and partners where present. The effect of a maternal sexual abuse history on the women’s well-being and child outcome compared to those women without such a history

  14. Sleep and Sleepiness among First-Time Postpartum Parents: A Field- and Laboratory-Based Multimethod Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Insana, Salvatore P.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.

    2012-01-01

    The study aim was to compare sleep, sleepiness, fatigue, and neurobehavioral performance among first-time mothers and fathers during their early postpartum period. Participants were 21 first-time postpartum mother-father dyads (N=42) and seven childless control dyads (N=14). Within their natural environment, participants completed one week of wrist actigraphy monitoring, along with multi-day self-administered sleepiness, fatigue, and neurobehavioral performance measures. The assessment week was followed by an objective laboratory based test of sleepiness. Mothers obtained more sleep compared to fathers, but mothers’ sleep was more disturbed by awakenings. Fathers had greater objectively measured sleepiness than mothers. Mothers and fathers did not differ on subjectively measured sleep quality, sleepiness, or fatigue; however, mothers had worse neurobehavioral performance than fathers. Compared to control dyads, postpartum parents experienced greater sleep disturbance, sleepiness, and sleepiness associated impairments. Study results inform social policy, postpartum sleep interventions, and research on postpartum family systems and mechanisms that propagate sleepiness. PMID:22553114

  15. Sleep and sleepiness among first-time postpartum parents: a field- and laboratory-based multimethod assessment.

    PubMed

    Insana, Salvatore P; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E

    2013-05-01

    The study aim was to compare sleep, sleepiness, fatigue, and neurobehavioral performance among first-time mothers and fathers during their early postpartum period. Participants were 21 first-time postpartum mother-father dyads (N?=?42) and seven childless control dyads (N?=?14). Within their natural environment, participants completed 1 week of wrist actigraphy monitoring, along with multi-day self-administered sleepiness, fatigue, and neurobehavioral performance measures. The assessment week was followed by an objective laboratory-based test of sleepiness. Mothers obtained more sleep compared to fathers, but mothers' sleep was more disturbed by awakenings. Fathers had greater objectively measured sleepiness than mothers. Mothers and fathers did not differ on subjectively measured sleep quality, sleepiness, or fatigue; however, mothers had worse neurobehavioral performance than fathers. Compared to control dyads, postpartum parents experienced greater sleep disturbance, sleepiness, and sleepiness-associated impairments. Study results can inform social policy, postpartum sleep intervention development, and research on postpartum family systems and mechanisms that propagate sleepiness. PMID:22553114

  16. Isotopic evidence for divergent diets and mobility patterns in the Atacama Desert, northern Chile, during the Late Intermediate Period (AD 900-1450).

    PubMed

    Santana-Sagredo, Francisca; Lee-Thorp, Julia A; Schulting, Rick; Uribe, Mauricio

    2015-03-01

    The decline of the Tiwanaku state saw the emergence of two new cultures-Pica-Tarapacá and Atacama-during the Late Intermediate Period in northern Chile. Archeological evidence suggests that both groups practised maize agriculture and pastoralism, but that their interaction zones differed significantly. Marine resources are common at Pica-Tarapacá sites, even those far from coast, while Atacama sites in the desert oases and precordilleran area seem to have directed their networks towards the highlands. Here we apply stable carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotope analysis on human bone and enamel to test dietary patterns and residential mobility at two sites, Pica 8 and Quitor 6, representing the Pica-Tarapacá and Atacama cultures, respectively. Our results show that diet at the two sites indeed differed: significant but variable consumption of marine resources and maize is indicated at Pica 8, despite being an inland site, while diet at Quitor 6 was based mainly on terrestrial resources. The use of seabird guano and llama dung as fertilizers and extreme aridity may have contributed to the high nitrogen isotope values observed in Pica 8 humans. The ?(18) O values in Pica 8 individuals are generally lower than for Quitor in spite of its greater distance from the Andes. All three isotopes suggest the presence of at least five nonlocals in the 30 measured at Pica 8. This evidence for human mobility is consistent with the high levels of trade and interaction observed in the archeological record, and begins to quantify the degree of movement of specific individuals. PMID:25385676

  17. Prolonged maternal postpartum fever and neonatal herpes infection.

    PubMed

    Anyebuno, M; Lopez-Medina, E; Sánchez, P J

    2014-09-01

    Maternal postpartum fever that is suggestive of endometritis often triggers evaluation of the mother and newborn infant for bacterial infection. Two neonates whose mothers had persistent postpartum fever despite broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy developed disseminated herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. Obstetric and pediatric healthcare providers should be mindful of possible HSV infection if there is postpartum fever unresponsive to antibiotics, and both mother and neonate should be evaluated appropriately and treated promptly. PMID:25179382

  18. Postpartum Ovarian Vein and Inferior Vena Cava Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Ada, Sibel; Çelik, Sebahattin; Topta?, Tayfur

    2014-01-01

    Postpartum ovarian vein thrombosis (POVT), which generally occurs 2–15 days postpartum, is a rare complication. It can be confused with acute appendicitis, pelvic infection, ovarian torsion, tubo-ovarian abscess, and pyelonephritis. It is associated with morbidity and mortality. Here, we present a patient with postpartum OVT and IVC diagnosed by US and CT findings. She was treated successfully with no further need for any interventional procedures. PMID:25114685

  19. Body image among Turkish women during the first year postpartum.

    PubMed

    Erbil, Nülüfer; Senkul, Asuman; Ba?ara, Gül Feyza; Sa?lam, Ye?im; Gezer, Mehtap

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the body image of Turkish women in their first year postpartum. We recruited 440 postpartum women who had applied to the outpatient clinics of the Maternity and Children's Hospital in the city of Ordu, Turkey. The mean of the women's body image scores was over the "middle level." The women's body image scale (BIS) score showed a significant negative relation with age, number of births, weight before pregnancy, weight gain, during pregnancy, weight soon after childbirth, present weight, postpartum weight gain, and postpartum body mass index (BMI). PMID:22242653

  20. Fordyce happiness program and postpartum depression

    PubMed Central

    Rabiei, Leili; Mazaheri, Maryam Amidi; Masoudi, Reza; Hasheminia, Sayed Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postpartum depression is endangering the health of mothers and has negative impacts on the evolution of social communication and newborns evolution. This study was conducted to determine the effects of Fordyce Happiness program on the postpartum depression. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental intervention carried out on postpartum mothers that referred to 4 health centers in Isfahan. A total of 133 mothers were selected by convenient sampling and then randomly allocated in two groups (63 and 70 mothers for intervention and control respectively). Maternal depression 3 times before, immediate and 1 months after intervention in both groups was evaluated with Beck Depression Inventory-II-Persian standardized questionnaires. Educational sessions based on the Fordyce happiness program were conducted for intervention group. Data was analyzed in SPSS17 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Illinois) descriptive and analytic statistical tests at significance level of 0.05. Results: No significant differences in demographic variables between the two groups (P ? 0.05). No significant differences in depression scores in the two groups before training. However after 2 months a significant difference in depression score was observed between two groups (control group: 19.38 ± 3.94; intervention group: 16.24 ± 4.8; P < 0.001). Furthermore in intervention group showed significant differences in depression scores before and after intervention (19.15 ± 3.41 and 16.24 ± 4.83; P < 0.001). However in the control group had not any significant change. Conclusion: Fordyce happiness program was effective in reducing postpartum depression in our study. With attention to the effectiveness and low cost of this program, it is recommended that this program might be considered for all mothers after childbirth in health centers or other community-based settings. PMID:24949034

  1. The relationship between ovarian steroids and uterine estrogen receptors during late pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Cathey, T.M.; Chung, Kyung W. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Although a direct interdependence exists between the ovarian steroids, estrogen and progesterone, the exact role of these two hormones during pregnancy, especially late pregnancy, is not completely understood. Investigations have been conducted to determine whether the circulating levels of progesterone and estrogen or changes in the ratio of progesterone/estrogen in relation to the concentration of uterine estrogen receptors are associated with triggering parturition. Ninety-day old female rats were sacrificed at gestation days 14, 16, 18, 20 and two days post-partum. The plasma levels of estradiol and progesterone were measured by solid-phase radioimmunoassay. Uterine cytosol was subjected to a charcoal binding assay to determine the concentration of estrogen receptors. Our findings demonstrate that there is a significant drop in both plasma progesterone and estradiol during late pregnancy. Also indicated is a significant increase in uterine estrogen receptors throughout late pregnancy. Finally, during this period there is a direct correlation between the shift in the progesterone/estrogen ratio and the increase in the concentration of uterine estrogen receptors in late pregnancy.

  2. Prepartum and postpartum nutritional management to optimize fertility in high-yielding dairy cows in confined TMR systems.

    PubMed

    Drackley, J K; Cardoso, F C

    2014-05-01

    The 6 to 8-week period centered on parturition, known as the transition or periparturient period, is critical to welfare and profitability of individual cows. Fertility of high-producing cows is compromised by difficult transitions. Deficiencies in either nutritional or non-nutritional management increase risk for periparturient metabolic disorders and infectious diseases, which decrease subsequent fertility. A primary factor impeding fertility is the extent of negative energy balance (NEB) early postpartum, which may inhibit timing of first ovulation, return to cyclicity, and oocyte quality. In particular, pronounced NEB during the first 10 days to 2 weeks (the time of greatest occurrence of health problems) is critical for later reproductive efficiency. Avoiding over-conditioning and preventing cows from over-consuming energy relative to their requirements in late gestation result in higher dry matter intake (DMI) and less NEB after calving. A pooled statistical analysis of previous studies in our group showed that days to pregnancy are decreased (by 10 days) by controlling energy intake to near requirements of cows before calving compared with allowing cows to over-consume energy. To control energy intake, total mixed rations (TMR) must be well balanced for metabolizable protein, minerals and vitamins yet limit total DM consumed, and cows must uniformly consume the TMR without sorting. Dietary management to maintain blood calcium and rumen health around and after calving also are important. Opportunities may exist to further improve energy status in fresh cows. Recent research to manipulate the glucogenic to lipogenic balance and the essential fatty acid content of tissues are intriguing. High-producing cows that adapt successfully to lactation can have high reproductive efficiency, and nutritional management of the transition period both pre- and post-calving must facilitate that adaptation. PMID:24844126

  3. Modulation of the immune system during postpartum uterine inflammation.

    PubMed

    Walker, Caroline G; Meier, Susanne; Hussein, Hassan; McDougall, Scott; Burke, Chris R; Roche, John R; Mitchell, Murray D

    2015-04-01

    Postpartum uterine inflammation (endometritis) in the dairy cow is associated with lower fertility at both the time of infection and after the inflammation has resolved. We hypothesized that aberrant DNA methylation may be involved in the subfertility associated with uterine inflammation. The objective of this study was to characterize genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression in the endometrium of dairy cows with subclinical endometritis (SCE). Endometrial tissues were obtained at 29 days postpartum (n = 12), and microarrays were used to characterize transcription and DNA methylation. Analyses revealed 1,856 probes differentially expressed in animals with SCE (n = 6) compared with controls (CON, n = 6, P < 0.05, Storey Multiple testing correction) and 2,976 probes with significant correlation between gene expression and bacteriology score. No significant associations among DNA methylation and gene expression were detected. Analysis of transcription data using the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis identified several pathways and processes enriched in SCE cows, with the majority related to the immune response. Furthermore, the top ontology terms enriched in genes that had expression data correlated to bacteriology score were: Defense response, inflammatory response, and innate immune response. Gene expression profiles in cows with subclinical endometritis in this study indicate that the immune response is activated, potentially resulting in a local proinflammatory environment in the uterus. If this period of inflammation is prolonged it could result in tissue damage or failure to complete involution of the uterus, which may create a suboptimal environment for future pregnancy. PMID:25604124

  4. Simulating the Antarctic ice sheet in the Late-Pliocene warm period: PLISMIP-ANT, an ice-sheet model intercomparison project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Bas; Dolan, Aisling; Bernales, Jorge; Gasson, Edward; Goelzer, Heiko; Golledge, Nick; Sutter, Johannes; Huybrechts, Phillipe; Lohmann, Gerrit; Rogozhina, Irina; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Saito, Fuyuki; van de Wal, Roderik

    2015-04-01

    In the context of future climate change, understanding the nature and behaviour of ice sheets during warm intervals in Earth history is of fundamental importance. The Late-Pliocene warm period (also known as the PRISM interval: 3.264 to 3.025 million years before present) can serve as a potential analogue for projected future climates. Although Pliocene ice locations and extents are still poorly constrained, a significant contribution to sea-level rise should be expected from both the Greenland ice sheet and the West and East Antarctic ice sheets based on palaeo sea-level reconstructions. Here, we present results from simulations of the Antarctic ice sheet by means of an international Pliocene Ice Sheet Modeling Intercomparison Project (PLISMIP-ANT). For the experiments, ice-sheet models including the shallow ice and shelf approximations have been used to simulate the complete Antarctic domain (including grounded and floating ice). We compare the performance of six existing numerical ice-sheet models in simulating modern control and Pliocene ice sheets by a suite of four sensitivity experiments. Ice-sheet model forcing fields are taken from the HadCM3 atmosphere-ocean climate model runs for the pre-industrial and the Pliocene. We include an overview of the different ice-sheet models used and how specific model configurations influence the resulting Pliocene Antarctic ice sheet. The six ice-sheet models simulate a comparable present-day ice sheet, although the models are setup with their own parameter settings. For the Pliocene simulations using the Bedmap1 bedrock topography, some models show a small retreat of the East Antarctic ice sheet, which is thought to have happened during the Pliocene for the Wilkes and Aurora basins. This can be ascribed to either the surface mass balance, as the HadCM3 Pliocene climate shows a significant increase over the Wilkes and Aurora basin, or the initial bedrock topography. For the latter, our simulations with the recently published Bedmap2 bedrock topography indicate a significantly larger contribution to Pliocene sea-level rise from the East Antarctic ice sheet for all six models relative to the simulations with Bedmap1. Such multi-model comparison efforts will assist in providing potential model uncertainty when comparing reconstructions of the Antarctic ice sheet with available proxy data.

  5. Simulating the Antarctic ice sheet in the Late-Pliocene warm period: PLISMIP-ANT, an ice-sheet model intercomparison project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, B.; Dolan, A. M.; Bernales, J.; Gasson, E.; Goelzer, H.; Golledge, N. R.; Sutter, J.; Huybrechts, P.; Lohmann, G.; Rogozhina, I.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Saito, F.; van de Wal, R. S. W.

    2014-11-01

    In the context of future climate change, understanding the nature and behaviour of ice sheets during warm intervals in Earth history is of fundamental importance. The Late-Pliocene warm period (also known as the PRISM interval: 3.264 to 3.025 million years before present) can serve as a potential analogue for projected future climates. Although Pliocene ice locations and extents are still poorly constrained, a significant contribution to sea-level rise should be expected from both the Greenland ice sheet and the West and East Antarctic ice sheets based on palaeo sea-level reconstructions. Here, we present results from simulations of the Antarctic ice sheet by means of an international Pliocene Ice Sheet Modeling Intercomparison Project (PLISMIP-ANT). For the experiments, ice-sheet models including the shallow ice and shelf approximations have been used to simulate the complete Antarctic domain (including grounded and floating ice). We compare the performance of six existing numerical ice-sheet models in simulating modern control and Pliocene ice sheets by a suite of four sensitivity experiments. Ice-sheet model forcing fields are taken from the HadCM3 atmosphere-ocean climate model runs for the pre-industrial and the Pliocene. We include an overview of the different ice-sheet models used and how specific model configurations influence the resulting Pliocene Antarctic ice sheet. The six ice-sheet models simulate a comparable present-day ice sheet, although the models are setup with their own parameter settings. For the Pliocene simulations using the Bedmap1 bedrock topography, some models show a small retreat of the East Antarctic ice sheet, which is thought to have happened during the Pliocene for the Wilkes and Aurora basins. This can be ascribed to either the surface mass balance, as the HadCM3 Pliocene climate shows a significant increase over the Wilkes and Aurora basin, or the initial bedrock topography. For the latter, our simulations with the recently published Bedmap2 bedrock topography indicate a significantly larger contribution to Pliocene sea-level rise from the East Antarctic ice sheet for all six models relative to the simulations with Bedmap1.

  6. Postpartum thromboembolism: Severe events might be preventable using a new risk score model

    PubMed Central

    Lindqvist, Pelle G; Torsson, Jelena; Almqvist, Åsa; Björgell, Ola

    2008-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. A new risk assessment model for VTE in relation to pregnancy has been introduced in Sweden. We wished to determine the proportion of preventable VTE cases if the model had been in use and make a brief cost-benefit analysis. Methods: A hospital-based retrospective case-control study of all postpartum thromboembolic instances of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolisms during a 16-year period. Large anamnestic risk factors at the time of delivery were assessed. We correlated the findings with the new Swedish guidelines for thromboprophylaxis. Results: We found 37 cases of postpartum VTE during the study period. Nineteen of all VTE cases (51%) and eight out of eleven of cases of pulmonary embolism (73%) had two or more large anamnestic risk factors, ie, they would have been subjected to thromboprophylaxis if the new guidelines had been used. The cost of each preventable VTE was lower than treating a VTE. Conclusion: Approximately one-half of postpartum VTE cases and 70% of pulmonary emboli cases have at least two large risk factors and might be preventable using the new algorithm. From the perspective of the health care system the new recommendations appears to be cost-effective. PMID:19183756

  7. Embolization for post-partum rupture of ovarian artery aneurysm: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Isao; Ohba, Takashi; Ikeda, Osamu; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Katabuchi, Hidetaka

    2015-04-01

    Spontaneous rupture of an ovarian artery aneurysm most commonly presents with abdominal pain in a multiparous woman in the early post-partum period. Aneurysms of the ovarian artery have been reported in the published work very infrequently. In our case, a 31-year-old multiparous woman experienced sudden left lower quadrant abdominal pain on the second post-partum day. Angiography showed rupture of a left ovarian artery aneurysm, which was successfully embolized using gelatin sponge particles. The patient resumed menstruation 3 months after the embolization and concurrently conceived, ultimately giving birth at term without complications. Interventional radiology appears to be a highly safe and effective technique for diagnosis and management of a ruptured ovarian artery aneurysm with minimal risk of impairing subsequent fertility. PMID:25370370

  8. [Editing style of Imwon-Gyeongjeji, Inje-ji and inclusion of the medicinal knowledge of the late period of Joseon - Comparing mainly with Dongui-Bogam -].

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jongwook; Jo, Changrock

    2012-12-01

    Imwon-Gyeongjeji which was created by Seo Yu-gu in the first half of the 19th century is a encyclopedia of practical use in rural life. It consists of 113 volumes, 16 fields, and 2.52 million total characters. Of these, the field of medicine comes 11th of the contents covering 28 volumes and 1.1 million characters. Its name is Inje-ji. This paper examines the academic background of Seo Yu-gu and his life work briefly, and investigates the characteristics of medical knowledge of late Joseon period contained in the Imwon-Gyeongjeji, Inje-ji Here, we made key comparisons especially with Dongui-Bogam, Joseon's leading medical book. Of the pioneers of medical history studies of Joseon, a Japanese researcher Miki Sakae has made a negative evaluation to Inje-ji. But after concrete investigation we have come to conclude as follows. First, familial ancestors of Seo Yu-gu were engaged in the introduction of foreign-language books, so Seo Yu-gu as an officer of proof-reading and editing of the various books, also had a lot of knowledge on the medical books ever in history. On this background and experience, for over 36 years from 1,806 retirement from official position to his death, he had compiled and edited Imwon-Gyeongjeji. Second, unlike Dongui-Bogam which included improving health skill, Inje-ji focused on curing medicine readily accessible from the major population of that time. Its main features are as follows: i) prescriptions directly linked to the diseases and symptoms, ii) greatly increased medicinal knowledge especially on infectious diseases and trauma, iii) detailed index easy to look up for prescription and iv) his 'own opinions'[an-seol] which can indicate relevant contents within the book and organically combines the whole knowledge in it. Third, "Inje-ji" utilizing medical books in China and Korea even those of Japan, collected more massively almost all the medical knowledge, new illness, herbs of local area, private prescription. Meanwhile Inje-ji modified the errors of the older medical books like Dongui-Bogam or Bencao-Gangmu, expressed its own subjective views about controversial topics. In summary "Inje-ji" can be the last general medical book which collected and edited almost all the medical knowledge of the period in the East Asia with its own editing format. In addition it is recognized that it pursued an evidence-based medicine and the practical medicine relieving the people, rather than medico-philosophical theories in oriental traditional medicine which was criticized by many critical intellectuals afterwards. Given the scrutiny, it seems that evaluation of the "Inje-ji" by Miki Sakae should be revised by thorough investigations. We are just on the starting line of the Inje-ji research in earnest meaning, and expect this research would give more fruitful and deep perspective in the area of Korea history of medicine. PMID:23388488

  9. Postpartum Cerebral Angiopathy: Reversible Vasoconstriction Assessed by Transcranial Doppler Ultrasounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bogousslavsky; P. A. Despland; F. Regli; P. Y. Dubuis

    1989-01-01

    Postpartum cerebral angiopathy is a distinct reversible clinicoradiological syndrome which develops shortly after a normal pregnancy. It may belong to the poorly defined group of acute benign cerebral angiopathy, in which multisegmental narrowings of cerebral arteries are also reversible. In a 22-year-old woman with postpartum cerebral angiopathy, sequential transcranial Doppler ultrasounds showed that the flow disturbances began to improve 4

  10. Postpartum acyclicity in suckled beef cows: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Yavas; J. S. Walton

    2000-01-01

    Prolonged postpartum acyclicity in suckled beef cows is a source of economic loss to beef cattle producers. Duration of postpartum acyclicity is influenced by suckling status, nutritional status, calving season, age, and several other factors. Although uterine involution begins and ovarian follicular waves resume soon after parturition, dominant follicles of these waves fail to ovulate, due to a failure to

  11. Challenges in Diagnosing and Treating Postpartum Blues, Depression and Psychosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Carol A.; Byers, Alison Daly; Malard, Sarah Deann; Dawson, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    With recent media attention and a growing awareness in popular culture, the appropriate treatment for postpartum depression has taken center stage as a prevalent women's health issue. There is little agreement on the definition, existence and treatment of postpartum depression. Contributing to this factor is the lack of research that exists to…

  12. Ischemic neuropathy and rhabdomyolysis as presenting symptoms of postpartum cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Helmich, Rick C G; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; Schoonderwaldt, Hennie C; Janssen, Mirian C H

    2009-05-01

    Rhabdomyolysis and peripheral neuropathy are two distinct disease entities which are rarely encountered in combination. We present a woman with rhabdomyolysis and peripheral neuropathy 3 weeks postpartum. Her symptoms were caused by bilateral femoral artery thrombosis due to postpartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM). This demonstrates that PPCM may present with predominantly non-cardial symptoms and underscores the importance of rapidly recognizing this disorder. PMID:18581059

  13. Long-Term Efficacy of Postpartum Intravenous Iron Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Background. The potential benefits of administering a dose of intravenous iron in patients with moderate postpartum anaemia rather than oral iron alone remains unproven. Aims. To determine whether a single injection of intravenous iron followed by a 6-week course of oral iron is as effective over 6 months in restoring normal haemoglobin levels and replenishing iron stores in women with moderate postpartum anaemia as a course of oral iron alone in women with mild postpartum anaemia. Materials and Methods. Retrospective two-arm cohort study in women with mild postpartum anaemia (haemoglobin 9.6–10.5?g/dL) prescribed iron daily for 6 weeks (N = 150) and women with moderate postpartum anaemia (haemoglobin 8.5–9.5?g/dL), given a single 500?mg injection of intravenous iron followed by iron daily for 6 weeks (N = 75). Haemoglobin and ferritin were measured 6 months postpartum. Results. Haemoglobin returned to similar mean levels in both groups. Ferritin levels were statistically significantly higher in the intravenous + oral group (57.7 ± 49.3??g/L versus 32.9 ± 20.1??g/L). Conclusions. Despite lower baseline haemoglobin, intravenous iron carboxymaltose was superior to oral iron alone in replenishing iron stores in moderate postpartum anaemia and may prove similarly beneficial in mild postpartum anaemia. PMID:25431768

  14. Extended negative dietary cation-anion difference feeding does not negatively affect postpartum performance of multiparous dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Weich, W; Block, E; Litherland, N B

    2013-09-01

    Low postpartum blood calcium remains one of the largest constraints to postpartum feed intake, milk yield, and energy balance in transitioning dairy cows. Supplemental dietary anions decrease the dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) and reduce the risk for postpartum hypocalcemia. Prepartum management strategies aiming to minimize social stress and diet changes have resulted in a need to explore the effects of extended exposure to a negative DCAD (>21 d) diet. Holstein and Holstein-cross dairy cows (n=60) were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments 42 d before expected calving to evaluate effects of supplying anions for 21 or 42 d during the dry period on energy status, postpartum production, and Ca homeostasis. Treatments included (1) a control diet (CON; DCAD=12 mEq/100 g of DM), (2) a 21-d negative DCAD diet (21-ND; DCAD=12 and -16 mEq/100 g of DM), and (3) a 42-d negative DCAD diet (42-ND; DCAD=-16 mEq/100 g of DM). Cows fed CON were fed positive DCAD prepartum for 42 d. Cows fed 21-ND received the positive DCAD (12 mEq/100 g of DM) diet for the first 21 d of the dry period and the anionic diet (-16 mEq/100 g of DM) from d 22 until calving. Cows fed 42-ND received the anionic diet for the entire dry period. Control and anionic diets were formulated by using 2 isonitrogenous protein mixes: (1) 97.5% soybean meal and (2) 52.8% BioChlor (Church & Dwight Co. Inc.), 45.8% soybean meal. Supplementing anions induced a mild metabolic acidosis, reducing urine pH for 21-ND and 42-ND compared with CON. Prepartum DMI was not different among treatments. Postpartum DMI was higher for 21-ND compared with CON (20.8 vs. 18.1±1.1 kg/d), and 42-ND had similar DMI compared with 21-ND. During the first 56 d of lactation 21-ND had greater average milk production compared with CON (44.8 vs. 39.2±2.1 kg/d). Average milk production by 42-ND was similar to 21-ND. Postpartum total blood Ca concentration was greater for 42-ND. Cows fed anionic diets prepartum tended to have lower lipid accumulation in the liver after calving compared with CON. These data suggest low-DCAD diets fed for 21 or 42 d during the dry period can have positive effects on postpartum DMI, Ca homeostasis, and milk production. PMID:23831094

  15. Effects of rumen-protected methionine on plasma amino acid concentrations during a period of weight loss for late gestating beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study determined changes in plasma amino acid concentration in late-gestating (beginning 58 ± 1.02 d prior to calving), primiparous, winter-grazing range heifers receiving wheat middling based supplement without (CON) or with rumen-protected methionine (MET) to provide 15 g DL- MET each day. Pl...

  16. Baseline Results from Hawaii's N? Mikiniiki Project: A Physical Activity Intervention Tailored to Multiethnic Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Cheryl L.; Steffen, Alana D.; Novotny, Rachel; Nigg, Claudio R.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Saiki, Kara; Yamada, Paulette; Hedemark, Brooke; Maddock, Jason E.; Dunn, Andrea L.; Brown, Wendy J.

    2012-01-01

    During the postpartum period, ethnic minority women have higher rates of inactivity/under-activity than white women. The N? Mikimiki (“the active ones”) Project is designed to increase moderate-to-vigorous physical activity over 18 months among multiethnic women with infants 2–12 months old. The study was designed to test, via a randomized controlled trial, the effectiveness of a tailored telephone counseling of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity intervention compared to a print/website materials-only condition. Healthy, underactive women (mean age = 32 ± 5.6 years) with a baby (mean age = 5.7 ± 2.8 months) were enrolled from 2008–2009 (N = 278). Of the total sample, 84% were ethnic minority women, predominantly Asian–American and Native Hawaiian. Mean self-reported baseline level of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was 40 minutes/week with no significant differences by study condition, ethnicity, infant's age, maternal body mass index, or maternal employment. Women had high scores on perceived benefits, self-efficacy, and environmental support for exercise but low scores on social support for exercise. This multiethnic sample's demographic and psychosocial characteristics and their perceived barriers to exercise were comparable to previous physical activity studies conducted largely with white postpartum women. The N? Mikimiki Project's innovative tailored technology-based intervention and unique population are significant contributions to the literature on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in postpartum women. PMID:22533900

  17. Infant formula samples: perinatal sources and breast-feeding outcomes at 1 month postpartum.

    PubMed

    Thurston, Amanda; Bolin, Jocelyn H; Chezem, Jo Carol

    2013-01-01

    The purpose was to describe sources of infant formula samples during the perinatal period and assess their associations with breast-feeding outcomes at 1 month postpartum. Subjects included expectant mothers who anticipated breast-feeding at least 1 month. Infant feeding history and sources of formula samples were obtained at 1 month postpartum. Associations between sources and breast-feeding outcomes were assessed using partial correlation. Of the 61 subjects who initiated breast-feeding, most were white (87%), married (75%), college-educated (75%), and planned exclusive breast-feeding (82%). Forty-two subjects (69%) continued breast-feeding at 1 month postpartum. Subjects received formula samples from the hospital (n = 40; 66%), physician's office (n = 10; 16%), and mail (n = 41; 67%). There were no significant correlations between formula samples from the hospital, physician's office, and/or mail and any or exclusive breast-feeding at 1 month (P > .05). In addition to the hospital, a long-standing source of formula samples, mail was also frequently reported as a route for distribution. The lack of statistically significant associations between formula samples and any or exclusive breast-feeding at 1 month may be related to small sample size and unique characteristics of the group studied. PMID:24164818

  18. Role of estradiol withdrawal in ‘anhedonic’ sucrose consumption: A model of postpartum depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda D. Green; Alasdair M. Barr; Liisa A. M. Galea

    2009-01-01

    Previously, a hormone-simulated pregnancy (HSP), and the subsequent ‘postpartum’ withdrawal in estradiol has been shown to precipitate depressive-like behaviours in the forced swim test in female rats. In this study, we used the HSP and ‘postpartum’ withdrawal to investigate the impact on sucrose consumption, a model of anhedonia. Rats were assigned to “postpartum”, “postpartum”+EB (estradiol benzoate), “postpartum”+IMI (imipramine; a tricyclic

  19. Unusual high-density lipoprotein subclass distribution during late pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Silliman, K; Tall, A R; Kretchmer, N; Forte, T M

    1993-12-01

    Plasma lipoprotein distribution during late pregnancy is unusual since high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels are increased in the presence of hypertriglyceridemia; the latter is usually associated with decreases in HDL levels. To determine whether there is a relationship between late-pregnancy lipid levels and specific HDL subclasses, HDL size distribution was determined by nondenaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (GGE) in a group of 36 women at 35 to 36 weeks of gestation and again at 6 weeks' postpartum, and in a group of 10 nonpregnant women. At 35 to 36 weeks of gestation, plasma triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol concentrations were significantly increased over postpartum levels (218 +/- 62 v 112 +/- 69 mg/dL and 234 +/- 48 v 197 +/- 36 mg/dL, respectively). During late pregnancy, apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) and HDL cholesterol concentrations were also increased relative to postpartum levels (211 +/- 42 v 168 +/- 20 mg/dL and 63 +/- 13 v 53 +/- 11 mg/dL, respectively). GGE analysis indicated that at 35 to 36 weeks of gestation, 86% of the subjects had a substantial increase of the most buoyant and largest of the HDL species, HDL2b; postpartum and nonpregnant HDL subclass distribution was characterized by the predominance of HDL3a, which are smaller, more dense HDL. The shift in the HDL subclass distribution during late pregnancy was associated with significant positive correlations between HDL2b and apo A-I (r = .50, P < .05) and HDL cholesterol (r = .60, P < .001). There were significant elevations in the concentrations of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and estrogen during late pregnancy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8246775

  20. [The first labor analgesia with drug was already performed in late Meiji-Period (1868-1912): trace of opioid-scopolamine which was used in Akiko Yosano, back to its origins].

    PubMed

    Okutomi, Toshiyuki

    2013-02-01

    There have been some records of labor analgesia with intravenous or rectal anesthetics in early Showa-period (1926-1989). However, the author found that labor analgesia had been already attempted for some women in late Meiji-period (1868-1912). One of agents used was pantopon, a water-soluble opioid without serious respiratory depression as morphine. The drug was developed and produced in Germany. Some doctors applied this agent with scopolamine to labor analgesia in Europe. They also reported that this combination also conferred excellent analgesic effects without any serious complications in the mother and fetus. This combination was originally used for general surgery with inhaled anesthesia at that period. It remains uncertain how Japanese doctors got pantopon scopolamine from Germany. PMID:23479935

  1. Prenatal and postpartum care of women with substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Gopman, Sarah

    2014-06-01

    The incidence of substance abuse in pregnancy is substantial and affects pregnancy health and outcomes. Multiple challenges exist in the identification of women with substance abuse disorders in pregnancy and the provision of care. A multidisciplinary approach has been shown to be most successful in providing comprehensive and effective care. This article outlines key aspects of prenatal and postpartum care, with a brief overview provided of intrapartum care. Issues covered include screening, opioid replacement therapy, comorbid medical and psychiatric conditions, environmental stressors, parenting preparation, pain management in labor and postpartum, breastfeeding guidance, prevention of relapse, and assistance with postpartum transition to primary care. PMID:24845486

  2. Maternal depression screening during prenatal and postpartum care at a Navy and Marine Corps military treatment facility.

    PubMed

    Spooner, Shawn; Rastle, Marsha; Elmore, Kelly

    2012-10-01

    Maternal depression in the prenatal and postpartum periods is an important concern for women, infants, and families. Military family life may create some unique stressors, including operational deployment of an active duty husband, which increase perinatal depression challenges for women. This study examined depression screening scores, based on a modified Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale, among women receiving obstetric care at a military hospital serving a Navy and Marine Corps community. Among 3,882 surveys collected between 2007 and 2009 from women at various points in their prenatal or postpartum care, the proportion with scores indicative of high risk for clinical depression was relatively low at 4.6%. However, scores were significantly higher at the initial obstetric visit among women who reported their husband as currently deployed, and scores were significantly higher at the postpartum visit among women who reported their husband as currently deployed or planning to deploy. These results underscore the importance of evaluating all aspects of the military family life experience when providing perinatal care to women in military families. PMID:23113449

  3. Maternal self-confidence postpartum and at pre-school age: the role of depression, anxiety disorders, maternal attachment insecurity.

    PubMed

    Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Schlüter, Myriam Kim; Nonnenmacher, Nora; Müller, Mitho; Reck, Corinna

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of maternal postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DMS-IV on maternal self-confidence throughout infancy and early childhood. Exploratively, associations between maternal attachment insecurity and maternal self-confidence at pre-school age were examined. The sample (N = 54) of this prospective longitudinal study was comprised of n = 27 women with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV criteria and n = 27 healthy women without present or history of mental health disorders or psychotherapy. Data was collected in the postpartum period (M = 60.08 days) and at pre-school age (M = 4.7 years). Subjects were recruited between 2004 and 2011 in South Germany. Data revealed a significant difference in maternal self-confidence between clinical and control group at child's pre-school age: Women with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorder scored lower on maternal self-confidence than healthy controls, but only if they had current SCID-diagnoses or partly remitted symptoms. According to explorative analyses maternal attachment insecurity turned out to be the strongest predictor of maternal self-confidence at pre-school age besides maternal mental health status. The results emphasize the impact of attachment insecurity and maternal mental health regarding maternal self-confidence leading to potential adverse long-term consequences for the mother-child relationship. Attachment based interventions taking maternal self-confidence into account are needed. PMID:24474591

  4. Adrenal insufficiency after recurrent post-partum thyroiditis (post-partum Schmidt syndrome): a case report.

    PubMed

    Mehta, H; Badenhoop, K; Walfish, P G

    1998-03-01

    Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome (PGAS) type 2 (Schmidt syndrome) is characterized by the association of primary adrenocortical insufficiency with autoimmune thyroid disease, and/or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). In this report we describe the occurrence of two episodes of post-partum thyroiditis (PPT) after a first and second pregnancy as well the development acutely of adrenal insufficiency after a second pregnancy. A family history of autoimmune thyroid disease and IDDM as well as positive antiadrenal and antithyroid antibodies and HLA typing is evidence for an underlying polyendocrine autoimmune syndrome. This case report provides further evidence that the immune system that is suppressed in pregnancy to tolerate the fetal allograft can rebound post-partum to unmask polyendocrine autoimmune disorders such as adrenalitis and PPT in susceptible women. PMID:9545115

  5. Anthropogenic changes and environmental degradation in pre-Hispanic and post-Colonial periods: soil erosion modelled with WEPP during Late Holocene in Teotihuacán Valley (central Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lourdes González-Arqueros, M.; Mendoza Cantú, Manuel E.

    2015-04-01

    Land use changes and support practices are a worldwide significant issue in soil erosion and subsequently, land degradation. Anthropogenic changes, along different periods of the history in the last 2000 years in the Valley of Teotihuacan (central Mexico), highlight that soil erosion varies depending on how the management and the intensity of soil use is handled, considering the soils as a main resource. As a part of a broader effort to reconstruct the erosion dynamics in the Teotihuacán Valley through geoarchaeological approaches, this study apply a process-based watershed hydrology and upland erosion model, Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP). This research aims to contribute with insights through modelling and to recreate soil erosion and sedimentation dynamics in several historical periods with different environmental and anthropogenic scenarios. The Geo-spatial interface for WEPP (GeoWEPP) was used to characterize location of detachment, depositions and erosion predicted on the profile through time, based on current and hypothetical reconstructed conditions in the watershed. Climate, topography, soil and land use were used as inputs for the WEPP model to estimate runoff fluxes, soil loss rates, and sediment delivery ratio (SDR) for three historical scenarios: current period, reconstructed Teotihuacán period (AD 1-650), and reconstructed Aztec period (AD 1325-1520). Over a simulated and stablished timeframe for those social periods, the runoff, soil loss rate and SDR were estimated to be greater during the Aztec period. We assume that in general the climate conditions for this period were wetter, compared with present, in agreement with several authors that proposed climate reconstructions for the center of Mexico. It is also highlighted that support practices were more effective in this period. The next period with higher values is the current one, and fewer rates are estimated for the Teotihuacán period. This comparison release new arguments in the scientific debate about the antiquity and causes on ancient erosion in central Mexico and information for the social-cultural transition of periods. Therefore, it increases the knowledge for great periods in the Mesoamerica history through interdisciplinary approach. Nucleation of settlements, due to the Colonial policy for the nucleation and, abandonment by fall in population agree with a change in the soil use. Results show how changes in land use are one of the foremost reasons in the soil erosion, not only in nowadays conditions, but also in ancient periods.

  6. Postpartum depression in the absence of lactation: an evolutionary perspective 

    E-print Network

    Peyton, Kelly J

    1996-01-01

    It is currently estimated that up to one third of new mothers in industrialized nations suffer from moderate postpartum depression in the weeks and months following childbirth. However, cross-cultural data reveal that this condition is not nearly...

  7. [The relationship between postpartum depression and maternal emotional availability].

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Vera Regina J R M; Silva, Gabriela Andrade da; Otta, Emma

    2010-04-01

    Postpartum depression is a highly prevalent disorder that can interfere in the mother-infant relationship. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of postpartum depression in our sample to compare mother-infant interaction in depressed and non-depressed mothers and to assess the relationship between maternal depression, social support, attachment style, and emotional availability. Participants were pregnant women who planned to deliver at the University of São Paulo Hospital between December 2006 and December 2008. Postpartum depression prevalence in our sample was 28%. No difference was found in emotional availability between depressed and non-depressed mothers. There was a positive correlation between maternal sensitivity and education, and between sensitivity and some dimensions of social support and attachment styles. We conclude that postpartum depression prevalence in our sample was higher than the average international rates, but that depressive symptoms do not impair mother-infant interaction. Maternal sensitivity is affected by socio-cognitive and emotional factors. PMID:20512214

  8. Postpartum depression among African-American women.

    PubMed

    Amankwaa, Linda Clark

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the nature of postpartum depression (PPD) among African-American women. Twelve women, who had experienced PPD within the last three years, were interviewed for approximately one hour at two intervals. Nudist-4 software and the constant comparative method were used to analyze the data. Five themes "Stressing Out," "Feeling Down," "Losing It," "Seeking Help," and "Feeling Better" represented aspects of PPD as experienced by the participants. The last theme, "Dealing with It," represented the cultural ways in which African-American mothers managed their depression. These included Keeping the Faith, Trying to Be a Strong Black Woman, Living with Myths, and Keeping Secrets. Suggestions for future directions in nursing research are included. PMID:12623687

  9. Postpartum Depression and the Role of Nutritional Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle Price Judge; Cheryl Tatano Beck

    Postpartum depression is the number one complication of childbirth [1], and healthcare providers need to have a keen understanding\\u000a of the disorder in order to provide support and advice. In the first portion of this chapter, the prevalence and onset of\\u000a postpartum depression is discussed, with a consideration for risk factors that have been associated with the disorder. Within\\u000a this

  10. Postpartum Mothers’ Attitudes, Knowledge, and Trust Regarding Vaccination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann Chen Wu; Daryl J. Wisler-Sher; Katherine Griswold; Eve Colson; Eugene D. Shapiro; Eric S. Holmboe

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine attitudes and knowledge about vaccinations in postpartum mothers. Methods This cross-sectional study collected data via written survey to postpartum mothers in a large teaching hospital in Connecticut.\\u000a We used multivariable analysis to identify mothers who were less trusting with regard to vaccines. Results Of 228 mothers who participated in the study, 29% of mothers worried about vaccinating

  11. The miRNAome of the postpartum dairy cow liver in negative energy balance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Negative energy balance (NEB) is an altered metabolic state in high yielding cows that occurs during the first few weeks postpartum when energy demands for lactation and maintenance exceed the energy supply from dietary intake. NEB can, in turn, lead to metabolic disorders and to reduced fertility. Alterations in the expression of more than 700 hepatic genes have previously been reported in a study of NEB in postpartum dairy cows. miRNAs (microRNA) are known to mediate many alterations in gene expression post transcriptionally. To study the hepatic miRNA content of postpartum dairy cows, including their overall abundance and differential expression, in mild NEB (MNEB) and severe NEB (SNEB), short read RNA sequencing was carried out. To identify putative targets of differentially expressed miRNAs among differentially expressed hepatic genes reported previously in dairy cows in SNEB computational target identification was employed. Results Our results indicate that the dairy cow liver expresses 53 miRNAs at a lower threshold of 10 reads per million. Of these, 10 miRNAs accounted for greater than 95% of the miRNAome (miRNA content). Of the highly expressed miRNAs, miR-122 constitutes 75% followed by miR-192 and miR-3596. Five out of thirteen let-7 miRNA family members are also among the highly expressed miRNAs. miR-143, down-regulated in SNEB, was found to have 4 putative up-regulated gene targets associated with SNEB including LRP2 (low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 2), involved in lipid metabolism and up-regulated in SNEB. Conclusions This is the first liver miRNA-seq profiling study of moderate yielding dairy cows in the early postpartum period. Tissue specific miR-122 and liver enriched miR-192 are two of the most abundant miRNAs in the postpartum dairy cow liver. miR-143 is significantly down-regulated in SNEB and putative targets of miRNA-143 which are up-regulated in SNEB, include a gene involved in lipid metabolism. PMID:24725334

  12. Lavender Fragrance Essential Oil and the Quality of Sleep in Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarz Afshar, Mahnaz; Behboodi Moghadam, Zahra; Taghizadeh, Ziba; Bekhradi, Reza; Montazeri, Ali; Mokhtari, Pouran

    2015-01-01

    Background: Labor and delivery is a stressful stage for mothers. During these periods, sleep-related disorders have been reported. The problems of inadequate sleep include decrease in concentration, judgment, difficulty in performing daily activities, and an increase in irritability. Even the effects of moderate sleep loss on life and health quality can be similar to sleep deprivation. some research aggravated by aromatherapy on sleep quality in different periods of life so might be useful for the improve of sleep quality in postpartum women. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the effect of aromatherapy on the quality of sleep in postpartum women. The sample was recruited from medical health centers of Zanjan University of Medical Sciences. Patients and Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial with the control group. A total of 158 mothers in postpartum period (with certain inclusion criteria) were enrolled in the study and assigned randomly to two groups of control and intervention. Lavender fragrance (made by Barij Essence Pharmaceutical Co.) was used by participants in the intervention group nightly before sleeping. The fragrance was dropped on cotton balls, which were placed on a cylindrical container at mothers’ disposal. Keeping the container at a projected distance of 20 cm, the participants inhaled 10 deep breaths and then the container was placed beside their pillow until morning. This procedure was done 4 times a week for 8 weeks. For the control group, the same intervention was done with the placebo. The instrument for collecting data was Pittsburgh sleep quality index, which was completed at the baseline, fourth, and eighth weeks after the intervention. Data were analyzed using independent t test and repeated measures analysis of variance calculated by SPSS16. Results: Before the intervention, there were no significant differences between mothers in two groups (P > 0.05). After 8 weeks follow up, a significant improvement appeared in mothers’ sleep quality in the intervention group. Aromatherapy increased sleep quality mean score (±SD) from 8.2911 (± 2.1192) to 6.7975 (± 2.3663) (P < 0.05), but in the control group sleep quality mean score (±SD) changes from 8.4557 (± 2.3027) to 7.5696 (± 1.1464) (P > 0.05). Comparing sleep quality between control and intervention groups after 8 weeks from the beginning of the intervention indicated that aromatherapy was effective in the improvement of mothers’ sleep quality (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Considering the effects of aromatherapy on the improvement of mother’s sleep quality during postpartum period, aromatherapy has been suggested as a non-pharmacological method for the improvement of the maternal health. PMID:26023343

  13. Does stage-based smoking cessation advice in pregnancy result in long-term quitters? 18-month postpartum follow-up of a randomized controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terry Lawrence; Paul Aveyard; K. K. Cheng; Carl Griffin; Carol Johnson; Emma Croghan

    2005-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the effect on quitting smoking at 18 months postpartum of smoking cessation interventions based on the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) delivered in pregnancy compared to current standard care. It has been claimed that TTM-based interventions will continue to create quitters after the end of the intervention period. Design Cluster randomized trial. Setting Antenatal clinics in general practices in

  14. What Patterns of Postpartum Psychological Distress Are Associated with Maternal Concerns about Their Children's Emotional and Behavioural Problems at the Age of Three Years?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benzies, Karen; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Tough, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Mothers experiencing psychological distress in the postpartum period may have difficulties parenting their children. Inconsistent and unresponsive parenting may increase the risk of later emotional and behavioural problems in children. The purpose of this study was to identify how maternal psychological characteristics cluster at eight weeks…

  15. Mania and depression in the perinatal period among women with a history of major depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Inglis, Angela J; Hippman, Catriona L; Carrion, Prescilla B; Honer, William G; Austin, Jehannine C

    2014-04-01

    Women with a history of major depressive disorder (MDD) have increased risks for postpartum depression, but less is known about postpartum mania in this population. The objectives of this study were to prospectively determine the frequency with which mania occurs in the postpartum among women who have a history of MDD and to explore temporal relationships between onset of mania/hypomania and depression. We administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV disorders (SCID) to pregnant women with a self-reported history of MDD to confirm diagnosis and exclude women with any history of mania/hypomania. Participants completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Altman Self-Rating Mania Scale (ASRM) once during the pregnancy (?26 weeks) and 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postpartum. Among women (n?=?107) with a SCID-confirmed diagnosis of MDD, 34.6 % (n?=?37) experienced mania/hypomania (defined by an ASRM score of ?6) at ?1 time point during the postpartum, and for just over half (20/37, 54 %), onset was during the postpartum. The highest frequency of mania/hypomania (26.4 %, n?=?26) was at 1 week postpartum. Women who experienced mania/hypomania at 1 week postpartum had significantly more symptoms of mania/hypomania later in the postpartum. A substantive proportion of women with a history of MDD may experience first onset of mania/hypomania symptoms in the early postpartum, others may experience first onset during pregnancy. Taken with other recent data, these findings suggest a possible rationale for screening women with a history of MDD for mania/hypomania during the early postpartum period, but issues with screening instruments are discussed. PMID:24402681

  16. Successful catheter directed thrombolysis in postpartum deep venous thrombosis complicated by nicoumalone-induced skin necrosis and failure in retrieval of inferior vena caval filter

    PubMed Central

    Srinivas, B C; Patra, Soumya; Agrawal, Navin; Manjunath, C N

    2013-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism is an important cause for maternal morbidity and mortality in postpartum period. Though catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) is now considered as a safe and effective therapy for the management of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) but still it is not indicated in postpartum DVT. We are presenting a case of 22-year-old female patient who presented with post-partum lower limb DVT and managed successfully with CDT by using injection streptokinase and temporary inferior vena caval filter was inserted as prophylactic for pulmonary embolism as she had extensive DVT extending into inferior vena cava (IVC). During follow-up, she developed large skin necrosis in left lower limb which was managed by adding injection low-molecular-weight heparin. IVC filter also could not be retrieved even after trying all manoeuvres during follow-up after 2?weeks. PMID:23887994

  17. Risk factors for postpartum depression: the role of the Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory-Revised (PDPI-R)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Oppo; M. Mauri; D. Ramacciotti; V. Camilleri; S. Banti; C. Borri; C. Rambelli; M. S. Montagnani; S. Cortopassi; A. Bettini; S. Ricciardulli; S. Montaresi; P. Rucci; C. T. Beck; G. B. Cassano

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the frequency of the risk factors for postpartum depression (PPD) listed in the Postpartum\\u000a Depression Predictors Inventory-Revised (PDPI-R) during pregnancy and 1 month after delivery and to determine the predictive\\u000a validity of the PDPI-R. The study used a prospective cohort design. Women completed the PDPI-R at the 3rd and the 8th months\\u000a of

  18. Body temperature in early postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Burfeind, O; Suthar, V S; Voigtsberger, R; Bonk, S; Heuwieser, W

    2014-07-01

    A strategy widely adopted in the modern dairy industry is the introduction of postpartum health monitoring programs by trained farm personnel. Within these fresh cow protocols, various parameters (e.g., rectal temperature, attitude, milk production, uterine discharge, ketones) are evaluated during the first 5 to 14 days in milk (DIMs) to diagnose relevant diseases. It is well documented that 14% to 66% of healthy cows exhibit at least one temperature of 39.5 °C or greater within the first 10 DIM. Although widely adopted, data on diagnostic performance of body temperature (BT) measurement to diagnose infectious diseases (e.g., metritis, mastitis) are lacking. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify possible factors associated with BT in postpartum dairy cows. A study was conducted on a commercial dairy farm including 251 cows. In a total of 217 cows, a vaginal temperature logger was inserted from DIM 2 to 10, whereas 34 cows did not receive a temperature logger as control. Temperature loggers measured vaginal temperature every 10 minutes. Rectal temperature was measured twice daily in all cows. On DIM 2, 5, and 10, cows underwent a clinical examination. Body temperature was influenced by various parameters. Primiparous cows had 0.2 °C higher BT than multiparous cows. Multiparous cows that calved during June and July had higher BT than those that calved in May. In primiparous cows, this effect was only evident from DIM 7 to 10. Furthermore, abnormal calving conditions (i.e., assisted calving, dead calf, retained placenta, twins) affected BT in cows. This effect was more pronounced in multiparous cows. Abnormal vaginal discharge did increase BT in primiparous and multiparous cows. Primiparous cows suffering from hyperketonemia (beta-hydroxybutyrat ? 1.4 mmol/L) had higher BT than those not affected. In multiparous cows, there was no association between hyperketonemia and BT. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that BT is influenced by various parameters in dairy cows. Therefore, these parameters have to be considered when interpreting measurements of BT in dairy cows. This information helps to explain the high incidence of type I and II errors when measuring BT and clearly illustrates that measures of BT should not be used as a single criterion to decide whether or not to provide antibiotic treatment to dairy cows. However, research-based test characteristics of other parameters (e.g., vaginal discharge) alone or in combination with BT are still lacking. PMID:24742963

  19. The Technical and Financial Effects of Parenteral Supplementation with Selenium and Vitamin E during Late Pregnancy and the Early Lactation Period on the Productivity of Dairy Cattle.

    PubMed

    Bayril, T; Yildiz, A S; Akdemir, F; Yalcin, C; Köse, M; Yilmaz, O

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of parenteral selenium (Se) and vitamin E supplementation on economic impact, milk yield, and some reproductive parameters in high-yield dairy cows in the dry period and in those at the beginning of lactation. At the beginning of the dry period, cows (n = 323) were randomly divided into three groups as follows: Treatment 1 (T1), Treatment 2 (T2), and Control (C). Cows in group T1 received this preparation 21 days before calving and on calving day, and cows in group T2 received it only on calving day. The cows in the control group did not receive this preparation. Supplementation with Se increased Se serum levels of cows treated at calving day (p<0.05). Differences in milk yield at all weeks and the electrical conductivity values at the 8th and 12th weeks were significant (p<0.05). Supplementation with Se and Vitamin E decreased the incidence of metritis, the number of services per conception and the service period, but had no effects on the incidence of retained fetal membrane. A partial budgeting analysis indicated that Se supplementation was economically profitable; cows in group T1 averaged 240.6$ per cow, those in group T2 averaged 224.6$ per cow. Supplementation with Se and Vitamin E has been found to increase serum Se levels, milk yield, and has positive effects on udder health by decreasing milk conductivity values and incidence of sub-clinical mastitis. PMID:26104521

  20. The ages of pedestal craters on Mars: Evidence for a late-Amazonian extended period of episodic emplacement of decameters-thick mid-latitude ice deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadish, Seth J.; Head, James W.

    2014-02-01

    There is significant geomorphologic evidence for the past presence of longitudinally widespread, latitudinally zoned deposits composed of ice-rich material at the northern and southern mid latitudes on Mars (lobate debris aprons, lineated valley fill, concentric crater fill, pedestal craters, etc.). Among these features, pedestal craters (Pd) are impact craters interpreted to have produced a protective layer on top of decameters-thick ice deposits now missing in intercrater regions. The time during which these various deposits were present is still highly debated. To address this question we have analyzed the distribution and characteristics of pedestal craters; here, we use a population of 2287 pedestal craters (Pd) to derive a crater retention age for the entire population, obtaining a minimum timescale of formation of ~90 Myr. Given that the ice-rich deposit has not been continuously present for this duration, the timescale of formation is necessarily longer than ~100 Myr. We then compiled impact crater size-frequency distribution dates for 50 individual pedestal craters in both hemispheres to further assess the frequency distribution of individual ages. We calculated pedestal crater ages that ranged from ~1 Myr to ~3.6 Gyr, with a median of ~140 Myr. In addition, 70% of the pedestal ages are less than 250 Myr. During the 150 Myr period between 25 Ma and 175 Ma, we found at least one pedestal age every 15 Myr. This suggests that the ice-rich paleodeposit accumulated frequently during that time period. We then applied these results to the relationship between obliquity and latitudinal ice stability to suggest some constraints on the obliquity history of Mars over the past 200 Myr. Atmospheric general circulation models indicate that ice stability over long periods in the mid latitudes is favored by moderate mean obliquities in the ~35° range. Models of spin-axis/orbital parameter evolution predict that the average obliquity of Mars is ~38°. Our data represent specific observational evidence that ice-rich deposits accumulated frequently during the past 200 Myr, supporting the prediction that Mars was characterized by this obliquity range during an extensive part of that time period. Using these results as a foundation, the dating of other non-polar ice deposits will permit the specific obliquity history to be derived and lead to an assessment of volatile transport paths in the climate history of Mars.

  1. Immune, health and endocrine characteristics of depressed postpartum mothers.

    PubMed

    Groer, Maureen W; Morgan, Katherine

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine demographic, immune, endocrine, stress and health characteristics of depressed mothers, measured between 4 and 6 weeks postpartum, and compare them to non-depressed mothers. The top decile (N=25) of Profile of Mood States depression scores was used to categorize mothers as depressed and these data were then compared to means of the remaining mothers (N=175) in a study of stress and immunity during the postpartum. Depressed mothers were younger, had smaller birth weight infants, and their babies experienced more illness symptoms at 4-6 weeks postpartum. Depressed mothers were less likely to be breastfeeding and had lower serum prolactin levels. Depressed mothers were more likely to smoke, to have daytime sleepiness, and more symptoms of infection than non-depressed mothers. Depressed mothers also had higher perceived stress, postpartum stress, and negative life event reports. There was evidence suggesting that depressed mothers had a downregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, in that salivary cortisol was lower in depressed mothers. Depressed mothers also had lower serum levels of Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and a lower IFN-gamma/Interleukin-10 (IL-10) ratio in both sera and in whole blood stimulated cultures, suggesting a depressed Th1/Th2 ratio in depressed mothers. The data supports the possibility that postpartum depression may be associated with a dysregulated HPA axis and possible depressed cellular immunity. PMID:17207585

  2. [The first labor analgesia with drug was performed in late Meiji Period (1868-1912). Hypnosis also attracted attention as a method of labor analgesia in mid-Meiji Period].

    PubMed

    Okutomi, Toshiyuki

    2013-11-01

    Ether or chloroform, was in use for ambulatory surgery after 1861 in Japan. An inhalational anesthetic, especially chloroform, was administered for cesarean section in early Meiji Period (from 1868) up to 1897. According to an article in 1903, chloroform was recommended as a strategy for internal cephalic version. However, it is uncertain whether inhalational anesthetic had been utilized for vaginal deliveries before 1903. There is evidence that hypnosis had attracted attention as a method of labor analgesia around that time. PMID:24364284

  3. Reducing postpartum weight retention – a pilot trial in primary health care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tarja I Kinnunen; Matti Pasanen; Minna Aittasalo; Mikael Fogelholm; Elisabete Weiderpass; Riitta Luoto

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postpartum weight retention may contribute to the development of obesity. We studied whether individual counselling on diet and physical activity from 2 to 10 months postpartum has positive effects on diet and leisure time physical activity and increases the proportion of primiparas returning to their pre-pregnancy weight. METHODS: A controlled trial including ninety-two postpartum primiparas was conducted in three

  4. Addition of Sodium Bicarbonate to Rations of Pre and Postpartum Dairy Cows1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. H. Kilmer; L. D. Muller; P. J. Wangsness

    1980-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate was added to complete mixed rations to evaluate the effect of buffer addition on adaptation to high-energy rations by dairy cows in early lactation. Forty-five Holstein cows were assigned to one of three treatment groups: control pre- and postpartum; control prepartum, buffer postpartum; and buffer pre- and postpartum. Rations consisted of 85% chopped grass hay: 15% concentrate prepartum

  5. Comparison of two timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocols for management of first insemination postpartum.

    PubMed

    Jordan, E R; Schouten, M J; Quast, J W; Belschner, A P; Tomaszewski, M A

    2002-04-01

    Two estrus-synchronization programs were compared and factors influencing their success over a year were evaluated. All cows received a setup injection of PGF2alpha at 39 +/- 3 d postpartum. Fourteen days later they received GnRH, followed in 7 d by a second injection of PGF2alpha. Cows (n = 523) assigned to treatment 1 (modified targeted breeding) were inseminated based on visual signs of estrus at 24, 48, or 72 h after the second PGF2alpha injection. Any cow not observed in estrus was inseminated at 72 h. Cows (n = 440) assigned to treatment 2 received a second GnRH injection 48 h after the second PGF2alpha, and all were inseminated 24 h later. Treatment, season of calving, multiple birth, estrual status at insemination, number of occurrences of estrus before second PGF2alpha, prophylactic use of PGF2alpha, retained fetal membranes, and occurrence of estrus following the setup PGF2alpha influenced success. Conception rate was 31.2% (treatment 1) and 29.1% (treatment 2). A significant interaction occurred between protocol and estrual status at insemination. Cows in estrus at insemination had a 45.8% (treatment 1) or 35.4% (treatment 2) conception rate. The conception rate for cows not expressing estrus at insemination was 19.2% (treatment 1) and 27.7% (treatment 2). Provided good estrous detection exists, modified targeted breeding can be as successful as other timed artificial insemination programs. Nutritional, environmental, and management strategies to reduce postpartum disorders and to minimize the duration of postpartum anestrus are critical if synchronization schemes are used to program first insemination after the voluntary waiting period. PMID:12018411

  6. Pelvic floor muscle training for urinary incontinence postpartum.

    PubMed

    Hall, Bethany; Woodward, Sue

    2015-06-11

    The offering of pelvic floor muscle exercises to all women during their first pregnancy is recommended by National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines. Pelvic floor muscles suffer significant trauma throughout pregnancy and childbirth, which may sometimes lead to urinary incontinence postpartum. However, it is uncertain how effective pelvic floor muscle exercises are in treating this incontinence. Several trials have been analysed to try to understand this question. Issues such as when the exercises were undertaken, how often they were performed and in what circumstances they were carried out, have all been considered. While it is still uncertain whether they are effective in reducing urinary incontinence postpartum, as they are non-invasive and fairly simple to carry out, they are still the first-line management for urinary incontinence postpartum with other treatments being considered if this is ineffective. PMID:26067791

  7. Postpartum stress urinary incontinence: lessons from animal models

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Bradley C; Moore, Courtenay; Damaser, Margot S

    2010-01-01

    Postpartum stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is associated with chronic SUI in later life, which is 240% more likely to occur in women who deliver vaginally than those who did not. The etiology of SUI is multifactoral and has been associated with defects in both neuromuscular and structural components of continence. Specifically, clinical studies have demonstrated that pudendal nerve damage occurs during vaginal delivery, supporting the concept that neuromuscular damage to the continence mechanism can result in postpartum SUI. Urethral hypermobility and the loss of pelvic floor support, such as that involved in pelvic organ prolapse, have also been associated with SUI. Animal models provide an opportunity to investigate these injuries, individually and in combination, enabling researchers to gain further insight into their relative contributions to the development of SUI and the effectiveness of potential therapies for it. This article discusses the use of animal models of postpartum SUI in addition to the broad insights into treatment efficacy they provide. PMID:21113428

  8. Postpartum Depression and Role of Serum Trace Elements

    PubMed Central

    Nikseresht, Sara; Sadeghipour, Hamid Reza; Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza

    2010-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a major depressive disorder that most often emerges within 6 to 12 weeks of delivery, but can happen any time up to 1 year after birth. In developed countries, the incidence of postnatal depression is about 10–15% in adult women depending upon the diagnostic criteria, timing of screening and screening instruments used. Mothers with depressive symptoms have been found to have more complex behavioral contacts with their children; this situation can damage family relationships, and even leads to infanticide. Various pathophysiologies are proposed for postpartum depression: Nutritional deficiencies, iron deficiency anemia, rapid decrease in the levels of reproductive hormones following delivery, alterations in hypothalamic–pituitary–adernocortical mechanism and alterations in neurotransmitter levels. Among pathophysiologies of postpartum depression, the role of trace elements is highlighted. The purpose of this review is to assess the role of trace elements including zinc, magnesium, iron and copper in PPD. Zinc as a trace element has the second highest concentration of all transition metals in the brain, and its deficiency is associated with behavioral disturbances. Lower zinc blood concentration was found in women with postpartum depression. Another trace element, magnesium, also influences the nervous system via its actions on the release and metabolism of neurotransmitters. Various studies have focused on antidepressant-like effects of magnesium and its deficiency has been reported in depression. Depletion of magnesium stores during pregnancy is hypothesized to be the cause of postpartum depression. Iron deficiency is the most common single nutrient deficiency in the world. There is an association between anemia and depressive disorders. Copper has been recognized as an essential element for many years. Iron also plays a vital role in neurological disorders and its levels are relevant to postpartum depression. Involvement of trace elements can be seen in pathophysiologies of PPD in different ways. Therefore, trace element supplementation can be an alternative treatment for patients with PPD. PMID:22952489

  9. Spatial variability of the species composition, abundance, and productivity of the phytoplankton in the white sea in the late summer period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyash, L. V.; Radchenko, I. G.; Kuznetsov, L. L.; Lisitzyn, A. P.; Martynova, D. M.; Novigatskiy, A. N.; Chul'Tsova, A. L.

    2011-02-01

    The species composition, cell concentration ( N), and biomass ( B) of the phytoplankton, as well as the chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration, primary production ( PP), and the concentrations of the dissolved inorganic micronutrients (phosphorus, silica, nitrogen as nitrite), were estimated for Kandalaksha Bay (KB), Dvina Bay (DB), and the basin (Bas) of the White Sea in August of 2004. The micronutrient concentrations were lower compared to the average long-term values for the summer period. The Chl a concentration varies from 0.9 to 2.0 mg/m3 for most of the studied areas, reaching up to 7.5 mg/m3 in the Northern Dvina River estuary. The surface water layer of the DB was the most productive area, where the PP reached up to 270-375 mg C/(m3 day). The phytoplankton biomass varied from 11 to 205 mg C/m3 with the highest values observed in the Bas and DB. Three groups of stations were defined during the analysis of the phytoplankton's species composition similarity. The dinoflagellates Dinophysis norvegica and Ceratium fusus were particular to the phytoplankton assemblages in the KB; the diatom Ditylum brightwellii was particular to the upper and central parts of the DB. These three phytoplankton species were less abundant in the Bas.

  10. Family history, not lack of medication use, is associated with the development of postpartum depression in a high-risk sample.

    PubMed

    Kimmel, Mary; Hess, Edward; Roy, Patricia S; Palmer, Jennifer Teitelbaum; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Meuchel, Jennifer M; Bost-Baxter, Emily; Payne, Jennifer L

    2015-02-01

    We sought to determine clinical predictors of postpartum depression (PPD), including the role of medication, in a sample of women followed prospectively during and after pregnancy. Women with a history of mood disorder were recruited and evaluated during each trimester and 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postpartum. DSM-IV criteria for a major depressive episode were assessed by a psychiatric interview at each time point. Sixty-three women with major depression and 30 women with bipolar disorder entered the study and 75.4 % met DSM-IV criteria for a MDE during pregnancy, postpartum, or both. We modeled depression in a given time period (second trimester, third trimester, or 1 month postpartum) as a function of medication use during the preceding period (first, second, or third trimester). The odds of being depressed for those who did not use medication in the previous period was approximately 2.8 times that of those who used medication (OR 2.79, 95 % CI 1.38-5.66, p?=?0.0048). Of 38 subjects who were psychiatrically well during the third trimester, 39.5 % (N?=?15) met the criteria for a MDE by 4 weeks postpartum. In women who developed PPD, there was a high rate of a family history of PPD (53.3 %) compared to women who did not develop PPD (11.8 %, p?=?0.02). While the use of psychiatric medications during pregnancy reduced the odds of being depressed overall, the use of psychiatric medications during pregnancy may not protect against PPD in women at high risk, particularly those with a family history of PPD. PMID:24980575

  11. Postpartum intracranial haemorrhage in normotensive users of bromocriptine for ablactation.

    PubMed

    Iffy, L; Zito, G E; Jakobovits, A A; Ganesh, V; McArdle, J J

    1998-05-01

    The authors describe three cases of severe intracranial haemorrhage, associated with marked blood pressure elevation, which occurred between the 6th and 10th days postpartum in women taking bromocriptine for ablactation. All of these patients were young, normotensive and apparently healthy during the pregnancy. These incidents probably present the 10-12th reported cases of gross intracranial bleeding among users of bromocriptine in the puerperium. The results suggest that early diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention may improve the outcome for this rare but potentially catastrophic postpartum complication. PMID:15073994

  12. The Psychosocial Work Environment and Maternal Postpartum Depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rada K. Dagher; Patricia M. McGovern; Bruce H. Alexander; Bryan E. Dowd; Laurie K. Ukestad; David J. McCaffrey

    2009-01-01

    Background  Postpartum depression is a debilitating mental disorder affecting women after childbirth. This study examined the correlates\\u000a of postpartum depression at 11 weeks after childbirth, focusing on work-related stressors and applying the job demand–control–support\\u000a model.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  Investigators recruited a prospective cohort of 817 employed Minnesota women when hospitalized for childbirth in 2001. Trained\\u000a interviewers collected data in person and by telephone at enrollment

  13. Glucose intolerance in early postpartum in women with gestational diabetes: Who is at increased risk?

    PubMed

    Leuridan, Liesbeth; Wens, Johan; Devlieger, Roland; Verhaeghe, Johan; Mathieu, Chantal; Benhalima, Katrien

    2015-08-01

    Women with a history of gestational diabetes (GDM) have an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes in the years after the index pregnancy. Some women with GDM already develop glucose intolerance in early postpartum. The best screening strategy for glucose intolerance in early postpartum among women with a history of GDM is still debated. We review the most important risk factors of women with GDM to develop glucose intolerance within one year postpartum. We also discuss the current recommendations for screening in early postpartum and the many challenges to organize postpartum follow up in primary care. PMID:25899304

  14. Influence of cardiac rehabilitation in Primigravida with spontaneous coronary artery dissection during postpartum

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The physical exercise consists of trainable physical abilities such as strength and endurance. It can be inferred that the individual cardiac patient is dependent on it as an associated therapy to the drug treatment for a rapid and lasting improvement of their overall clinical status Case presentation The patient – with Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection Postpartum period – was subjected to 21 sessions of cardiac rehabilitation. A physical evaluation was performed, before and after the treatment period, for data collection: anthropometric values, flexibility, aerobic capacity and strength of grip. Conclusion The patient had a positive response in aerobic capacity, flexibility and grip strength and the anthropometric values were kept in short term rehabilitation. PMID:24829614

  15. Content analysis of motivational counseling calls targeting obesity-related behaviors among postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Price, Sarah N; McDonald, Julia; Oken, Emily; Haines, Jess; Gillman, Matthew W; Taveras, Elsie M

    2012-02-01

    Our objective was to examine mothers' perspectives of obesity-related health behavior recommendations for themselves and their 0-6 month old infants. A health educator conducted 4 motivational counseling calls with 60 mothers of infants during the first 6 months postpartum. Calls addressed 5 behaviors for infants (breastfeeding, introduction of solid foods, sleep, TV, hunger cues), and 4 for mothers (eating, physical activity, sleep, TV). We recorded detailed notes from each call, capturing responsiveness to recommendations and barriers to change. Two independent coders analyzed the notes to identify themes. Mothers in our study were more interested in focusing on their infants' health behaviors than on their own. While most were receptive to eliminating their infants' TV exposure, they resisted limiting TV for themselves. There was some resistance to following infant feeding guidelines, and contrary to advice to avoid nursing or rocking babies to sleep, mothers commonly relied on these techniques. Return to work emerged as a barrier to breastfeeding, yet facilitated healthier eating, increased activity, and reduced TV time for mothers. The early postpartum period is a challenging time for mothers to focus on their own health behaviors, but returning to work appears to offer an opportunity for positive changes in this regard. To improve weight-related infant behaviors, interventions should consider mothers' perceptions of nutrition and physical activity recommendations and barriers to adherence. PMID:21258960

  16. Attenuating type 2 diabetes with postpartum interventions following gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Wasalathanthri, Sudharshani

    2015-05-15

    Women with a history of gestational diabetes should be screened during and after the postpartum period because of a high risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although differences exist between guidelines practiced throughout various parts of the world, all recommend the use of cutoffs for fasting and/or post-load plasma glucose to diagnose diabetes or pre-diabetes. The use of these glycemic parameters could be optimized when a trend is observed, rather than considering them as isolated values at various time points. As the presence of insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction start before glycemic changes are evident, the estimation of insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function by Homeostatic Model Assessment is suggested for women who have additional risk factors for diabetes, such as obesity. Disease-modifying lifestyle intervention should be the first-line strategy to prevent or delay the onset of diabetes in women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus. Intensive lifestyle interventions are designed to decrease caloric intake and increase physical activity in order to reduce body weight and fat, which will in turn reduce insulin resistance. This article also reviews unique problems of postpartum women, which should be considered when designing and implementing an intervention. Innovative "out of the box" thinking is appreciated, as continued adherence to a program is a challenge to both the women and the health care personnel who deal with them. PMID:25987963

  17. Successful recruitment strategies for women in postpartum mental health trials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen S Peindl; Katherine L Wisner

    2003-01-01

    Recruiting women into research protocols allows investigators to examine the efficacies of treatments and to study other outcomes among women with mental illnesses. However, achieving recruitment goals has been difficult for researchers. The objective of this study was to examine the success rates of different strategies for recruiting women into clinical trials for the prevention and treatment of postpartum major

  18. Bottle feeding simulates child loss: Postpartum depression and evolutionary medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon G. Gallup Jr; R. Nathan Pipitone; Kelly J. Carrone; Kevin L. Leadholm

    2009-01-01

    summary At the level of a mother's basic biology, the decision to bottle feed unwittingly mimics conditions asso- ciated with the death of an infant. Child loss is a well documented trigger for depression particularly in mothers, and growing evidence shows that bottle feeding is a risk factor for postpartum depression. The implications of this hypothesis for infant feeding practices,

  19. Rapunzel Syndrome in a Postpartum Patient after Caesarian Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Dabbs, William; Honan, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    A trichobezoar is an immobile, indigestible collection of hair or hair-like fibers that accumulates within the GI tract. Rapunzel syndrome is a rare variant in which a trichobezoar extends into the small intestine, potentially causing obstruction. We describe the first case, to our knowledge, of Rapunzel syndrome occurring in a postpartum patient after delivery by Caesarian section.

  20. A Family Approach to Treatment of Postpartum Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Judith; Shaver-Hast, Laura; Sharnoff, Wendy; Warren, Mary Ellen; Wright, Harry

    2009-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) has an impact on the entire family. The authors describe a model of intervention that emphasizes the family system and includes mothers, fathers, and children in the treatment of PPD. The intervention is provided by a multidisciplinary team consisting of a psychiatrist, social worker, child psychologist, and therapists.…

  1. The Structure of Women's Mood in the Early Postpartum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttner, Melissa M.; O'Hara, Michael W.; Watson, David

    2012-01-01

    The "postpartum blues" is a mild, predictable mood disturbance occurring within the first several days following childbirth. Previous analyses of the "blues" symptom structure yielded inconclusive findings, making reliable assessment a significant methodological limitation. The current study aimed to explicate the symptom structure of women's mood…

  2. Pregnancy Problems, Postpartum Depression, and Early Mother-Infant Interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tiffany Field; David Sandberg; Robert Garcia; Nitza Vega-Lahr; Sheri Goldstein; Lisa Guy

    1985-01-01

    A subsample of 24 women who had received ultrasound examinations and psychological interviews during the third trimester of pregnancy was subsequently divided into one group who had reported pregnancy problems (marital difficulties and ambivalence about the child) and one group who had not. The mothers were then observed at 3 to 5 months postpartum in interactions with their infants and

  3. Return of postpartum menstruation and fertility in laboratory Macaca fascicularis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Return of postpartum menstruation and fertility in laboratory Macaca fascicularis D. C. DANG and fertility after parturition was studied in 28 heal- thy Macaca fascicularis females raised in the laboratory a mean of 61.7 ! 7.3 days and its duration was immediately normal. Fertility, which was zero before mens

  4. Trajectories of Postpartum Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Children's Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yelena P.; Selig, James P.; Roberts, Michael C.; Steele, Ric G.

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of new mothers experience at least some depressive symptoms. Postpartum maternal depressive symptoms can greatly influence children's outcomes (e.g., emotional, cognitive, language, and social development). However, there have been relatively few longitudinal studies of how maternal depressive symptoms may influence children's…

  5. Two cases of severe postpartum anaemia in Jehovah's witnesses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Rasanayagam; G. M. Cooper

    1996-01-01

    Two cases of severe postpartum anaemia are presented in Jehovah's witnesses who refused blood transfusion. Despite haemoglobin concentrations of less than 3 g\\/dl both women survived. General management was directed to maximizing oxygen delivery and minimizing oxygen consumption. The use of an emulsified perfluorocarbon was organized for one of the cases, but was not administered because a snow storm prevented

  6. The role of oxytocin in mothers' theory of mind and interactive behavior during the perinatal period.

    PubMed

    MacKinnon, Anna L; Gold, Ian; Feeley, Nancy; Hayton, Barbara; Carter, C Sue; Zelkowitz, Phyllis

    2014-10-01

    The present longitudinal study examined the relations between plasma oxytocin, theory of mind, and maternal interactive behavior during the perinatal period. A community sample of women was assessed at 12-14 weeks gestation, 32-34 weeks gestation, and 7-9 weeks postpartum. Oxytocin during late pregnancy was significantly positively correlated with a measure of theory of mind, and predicted theory of mind ability after controlling for parity, maternal education, prenatal psychosocial risk, and general anxiety, measured during the first trimester. Theory of mind was associated with less remote and less depressive maternal interactive behavior. Oxytocin, across all time points, was not directly related to maternal interactive behavior. However, there was a significant indirect effect of oxytocin during late pregnancy on depressive maternal behavior via theory of mind ability. These preliminary findings suggest that changes in the oxytocinergic system during the perinatal period may contribute to the awareness of social cues, which in turn plays a role in maternal interactive behavior. PMID:24995584

  7. Online screening and referral for postpartum depression: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Drake, Emily; Howard, Erica; Kinsey, Emily

    2014-04-01

    The fear and stigma associated with postpartum depression (PPD) is a major challenge in the treatment of this disease. Our goal is to develop innovative methods of screening women for the symptoms of PPD to facilitate referral and treatment. This study explores the efficacy of the Internet in reaching out to postpartum women in the convenience and privacy of their own homes, particularly those in rural and underserved areas. An exploratory study design was used to explore the feasibility and acceptability of online screening for PPD with postpartum women in the first 2-3 months after delivery (N = 18). In the first phase, a focus group was conducted with a small group of postpartum women; the second phase consisted of individual interviews of postpartum women in their homes; and in phase three, 10 women participated in the on-line screening intervention. PPD was measured using an online version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) a well-established instrument with reported alpha reliabilities (0.81-0.88) across studies and concurrent validity demonstrated using the gold standard, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for depression interview. Qualitative data collected from all the participants were also analyzed. The sample included women age 18-29; 70 % White/Caucasian, 50 % low income, and the majority living in rural areas. The EPDS scores ranged from 0 to 13 (mean 8.0; SD 4.76). Participants described the online PPD screening process as easy, straightforward and personalized and provided additional suggestions for improvement. PMID:23283485

  8. Oxytocin receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell are involved in the consolidation of maternal memory in postpartum rats.

    PubMed

    D'Cunha, T M; King, S J; Fleming, A S; Lévy, F

    2011-01-01

    Female rats with maternal experience display a shorter onset of maternal responsiveness compared to those with no prior experience. This phenomenon called 'maternal memory' is critically dependent on the nucleus accumbens (NA) shell. We hypothesized that activation of OT receptors in the NA shell facilitates maternal memory. In Experiment 1, postpartum female rats given 1 hour of maternal experience were infused following the experience with either a high or low dose of an OT antagonist into the NA shell and tested for maternal behavior after a 10-day pup isolation period. Females receiving a high dose of the antagonist showed a significantly longer latency to exhibit full maternal behavior after the pup isolation period compared to females that received vehicle or a high dose of antagonist in a control region. In Experiment 2, postpartum female rats were infused with either a high or low dose of OT into the NA shell after a 15-minute maternal experience and tested for maternal behavior after a 10-day pup isolation period. There were no significant differences between the females infused with OT and females treated with a vehicle infused into the NA shell or with OT infused into the control region. One possible reason for a lack of facilitation is a floor effect, since females in the control groups displayed a rapid maternal response after the pup isolation period. These findings suggest that OT receptors, likely in combination with other neurotransmitters, in the NA shell play a role in the consolidation of maternal memory. PMID:20932839

  9. The effects of bromocriptine treatment during early pregnancy on postpartum maternal behaviors in rats.

    PubMed

    Price, Anya K; Bridges, Robert S

    2014-09-01

    Prolactin, a hormone of the anterior pituitary, is involved in initiating maternal behavior, alleviating postpartum anxiety, and stimulating lactogenesis. Bromocriptine, a dopamine D2 receptor agonist, inhibits prolactin secretion. Bromocriptine administration represses postpartum maternal behaviors (pup retrieval) in mice, and causes elevated anxiety in the elevated plus maze [Larsen & Grattan (2010). Endocrinology 151(8): 3805-3814]. Whether similar effects exist in other species is unknown. The present study examined the possible involvement of prolactin during early gestation on maternal behavior and anxiety in rats. Bromocriptine given on days 2-4 of pregnancy resulted in impaired postpartum maternal behaviors in a novel environment during early lactation. However, compared to controls, bromocriptine-treated subjects did not exhibit increased postpartum anxiety in the elevated plus maze. These findings support work in mice that bromocriptine treatment during early gestation impedes postpartum maternal care, and indicate that early gestational hormonal status affects postpartum behavior more broadly in other mammals. PMID:24889499

  10. Postpartum follicular and luteal activity in Holstein-Friesian cows genetically selected for high or low mature bodyweight: Relationships with follicle stimulating hormone, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 and growth hormone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Thiengtham; TJ Parkinson; CW Holmes

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate ovarian follicular and luteal activity during the postpartum period of cows genetically selected for high or low mature bodyweight, in relation to metabolic and reproductive endocrine parameters, to determine whether there are differences between strains that could affect fertility outcomes.METHODS: The presence of follicles ?5 mm diameter and luteal structures was mapped in the ovaries of 12

  11. Postpartum depression, urge urinary incontinence, and overactive bladder syndrome: is there an association?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathie L. Hullfish; Dee E. Fenner; Serge A. Sorser; Jennifer Visger; Anita Clayton; William D. Steers

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, cross-sectional study was to determine if there was an association between postpartum depression\\u000a and symptoms of overactive bladder in postpartum women. At their 6 week postpartum visit, participants completed questionnaires\\u000a regarding lifestyle, personal health, urinary incontinence, and depression symptoms, including the Urge-Urinary Distress Inventory\\u000a (URGE-UDI), the Urge-Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (URGE-IIQ), and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale

  12. Violence Against Women and Postpartum Depression: The Experience of Chilean Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana M. Quelopana

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on the findings from a cross-sectional study of women (N?=?163) who were at least two weeks postpartum and attending primary care clinics in Arica-Chile. The study examined the prevalence of history of violence and its association with postpartum depression (PPD). The Women Abuse Screen and the Postpartum Depression Screening Scale Spanish-Version were used to assess interpersonal

  13. Predictors of Breastfeeding in Overweight and Obese Women: Data From Active Mothers Postpartum (AMP)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katrina M. KrauseCheryl; Cheryl A. Lovelady; Truls Østbye

    2011-01-01

    Excess maternal weight has been negatively associated with breastfeeding. We examined correlates of breastfeeding initiation\\u000a and intensity in a racially diverse sample of overweight and obese women. This paper presents a secondary analysis of data\\u000a from 450 women enrolled in a postpartum weight loss intervention (Active Mothers Postpartum [AMP]). Sociodemographic measures\\u000a and body mass index (BMI), collected at 6 weeks postpartum,

  14. Mastitis in post-partum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pyörälä, S

    2008-07-01

    Transition from the dry period to lactation is a high risk period for the modern dairy cow. The biggest challenge at that time is mastitis. Environmental bacteria are the most problematic pathogens around parturition. Coliforms are able to cause severe infections in multiparous cows, and heifers are likely to be infected with coagulase-negative staphylococci. During the periparturient period, hormonal and other factors make the dairy cows more or less immunocompromised. A successful mastitis control programme is focused on the management of dry and calving cows and heifers. Clean and comfortable environment, proper feeding and adequate supplementation of the diet with vitamins and trace elements are essential for maintaining good udder health. Strategies which would enhance closure of the teat canal in the beginning of the dry period and would protect teat end from bacteria until the keratin plug has formed decrease the risk for mastitis after calving. Dry cow therapy has been used with considerable success. Yet, a selective approach could be recommended rather than blanket therapy. Non-antibiotic approaches can be useful tools to prevent new infections during the dry period, in herds where the risk for environmental mastitis is high. Vaccination has been suggested as a means to support the immune defence of the dairy cow around parturition. In some countries, implementation of Escherichia coli core antigen vaccine has reduced the incidence of severe coliform mastitis after calving. PMID:18638132

  15. Postpartum Acute Pulmonary Oedema with Sub clinical Rheumatic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gande, Sri Krishna Padma Challa Rao.

    2015-01-01

    Acute dyspnea with pulmonary oedema in postpartum is uncommon but life-threatening event. Contributing factors for pulmonary oedema include, administration of tocolytics, underlying cardiac disease, iatrogenic fluid overload and preeclampsia acounting 0.08% of pregnancies. Pulmonary embolism, amniotic fluid embolism, pneumonia, aspiration and pulmonary oedema are some of the potentially devastating conditions that should be considered by the attending physician. Here, we report a case of postpartum acute pulmonary oedema referred to causality after an emergency caesarean section in a private hospital. No matter what the underlying pathology, prompt administration and appropriate resuscitation is always the first priority. Only after the patient has been stabilized attention must be turned to diagnosis and specific treatment. A diagnosis of severe Mitral Stenosis, probably of rheumatic origin was made after stabilizing the patient. PMID:25859501

  16. Changes in Maternal Depressive Symptoms Across the Postpartum Year at Well Childcare Visits

    PubMed Central

    Chaudron, Linda H.; Kitzman, Harriet J.; Szilagyi, Peter G.; Sidora-Arcoleo, Kimberly; Anson, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Background: Postpartum depression, which affects 10-15% of childbearing women, can have detrimental effects on child development. Despite clinicians’ need to understand the course of postpartum depressive symptoms to incorporate optimal screening protocols, little is known about changes in symptoms across the postpartum year, particularly among low-income, minority women. Objective: To describe the incidence, continuation, and resolution of symptoms during the postpartum year in urban women experiencing high depressive symptom levels at one or more well childcare visits. Design: As part of a prior study of postpartum depressive symptoms, demographic data and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) were systematically collected from pediatric records of a clinic that routinely screens mothers with the EPDS at each first year well childcare visit. To explore the course of depressive symptoms throughout the postpartum year in this pilot study, we included only data from the records that had at least one EPDS ? 10 (N=100), a score indicating a high likelihood for clinically significant depressive symptoms. Results: Among 49 women who completed the EPDS at least once before 3 months and between 3 and 11 months postpartum, 33% had high symptom levels throughout the year, 41% improved after the first three months, and 26% developed high symptom levels after the first three months. Conclusions: Postpartum depressive symptoms persist in many women throughout the postpartum year. Routine screening throughout the year might better identify both a subgroup of women who develop new symptoms during the year, as well as the women whose symptoms persist. PMID:16843254

  17. A history of personal violence and postpartum depression: is there a link?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Cohen; B. Schei; D. Ansara; R. Gallop; N. Stuckless; D. E. Stewart

    2002-01-01

    Summary  \\u000a \\u000a Background: A link between violence and depression has been shown, but not a link between violence and postpartum depression. This study\\u000a sought to determine if there is an association between a history of abuse (physical, sexual, emotional as a child or adult)\\u000a and postpartum depression (PPD).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method: 200 postpartum women were recruited from 6 hospitals. At 8–10 weeks postpartum,

  18. Benign cerebral angiopathy; postpartum cerebral angiopathy: Characteristics and treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sofia Calado; Miguel Viana-Baptista

    2006-01-01

    Opinion statement  Benign cerebral angiopathy and postpartum cerebral angiopathy are reversible cerebral arterial vasoconstriction syndromes.\\u000a Presentation includes recurrent severe headaches, altered consciousness, and focal neurologic deficits; ischemic and\\/or hemorrhagic\\u000a strokes can occur. No standard management has been established, but most authors agree that 1) acute-phase treatment includes\\u000a cessation of vasoconstrictors, treatment of associated conditions, vasospasm treatment (calcium channel antagonists), and\\u000a corticosteroids;

  19. Group treatment for postpartum depression: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janice H. Goodman; Gabrielle Santangelo

    2011-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a serious public health problem affecting 10% to 15% of women during the first year after delivery\\u000a with negative consequences for both mother and infant. There is a need for evidence-based interventions to treat this disorder.\\u000a Thus, the purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature regarding group treatment for PPD to determine\\u000a the

  20. A fatal case of postpartum cerebral angiopathy with literature review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy L. Williams; Timothy G. Lukovits; Brent T. Harris; C. Harker Rhodes

    2007-01-01

    Introduction  Postpartum cerebral angiopathy (PCA) is a rare and pathophysiologically ill-characterized cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, occurring within 30 days of a usually uncomplicated pregnancy and delivery. Its onset has been associated with the use of vasoactive medications, particularly ergot alkaloids. Other cases have occurred in the absence of these medications, prompting conjecture into possible overlap between PCA and other conditions known to cause

  1. Patient choice of treatment for postpartum depression: a pilot study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. B. Pearlstein; C. Zlotnick; C. L. Battle; S. Stuart; M. W. O’Hara; A. B. Price; M. A. Grause; M. Howard

    2006-01-01

    Summary  \\u000a Objective: The lack of systematic efficacy research makes the selection of optimal treatment for postpartum depression (PPD) difficult.\\u000a Moreover, the treatment decisions for women with PPD who are breastfeeding are heavily influenced by their concerns about\\u000a infant exposure to antidepressant medication. The objective of this pilot trial was to examine the clinical characteristics\\u000a of women with PPD associated with

  2. Postpartum mental health after Hurricane Katrina: A cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Harville, Emily W; Xiong, Xu; Pridjian, Gabriella; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen; Buekens, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Background Natural disaster is often a cause of psychopathology, and women are vulnerable to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Depression is also common after a woman gives birth. However, no research has addressed postpartum women's mental health after natural disaster. Methods Interviews were conducted in 2006–2007 with women who had been pregnant during or shortly after Hurricane Katrina. 292 New Orleans and Baton Rouge women were interviewed at delivery and 2 months postpartum. Depression was assessed using the Edinburgh Depression Scale and PTSD using the Post-Traumatic Stress Checklist. Women were asked about their experience of the hurricane with questions addressing threat, illness, loss, and damage. Chi-square tests and log-binomial/Poisson models were used to calculate associations and relative risks (RR). Results Black women and women with less education were more likely to have had a serious experience of the hurricane. 18% of the sample met the criteria for depression and 13% for PTSD at two months postpartum. Feeling that one's life was in danger was associated with depression and PTSD, as were injury to a family member and severe impact on property. Overall, two or more severe experiences of the storm was associated with an increased risk for both depression (relative risk (RR) 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–2.89) and PTSD (RR 3.68, 95% CI 1.80–7.52). Conclusion Postpartum women who experience natural disaster severely are at increased risk for mental health problems, but overall rates of depression and PTSD do not seem to be higher than in studies of the general population. PMID:19505322

  3. The relationship between attachment style and postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Mari; Hayashi, Momoko; Kamibeppu, Kiyoko

    2014-01-01

    Although an increasing number of studies show an association between adult attachment style and mood disorders, the relationship between adult attachment style and depression associated with childbirth is largely unknown. This study investigated the association between women's attachment style, postpartum depression (PPD), and other risk factors. During the 32nd week of pregnancy, 84 women were interviewed using the Attachment Style Interview. Participants also completed self-report questionnaires about reaction to pregnancy, family relationships, current life stresses, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. At one-month postpartum, they were evaluated for postpartum depressive symptoms using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Eighty-two women completed the second self-report questionnaires and were evaluated for PPD. The data of 76 women were eligible for analysis. PPD was present in 21%. An insecure attachment style was significantly related to depression. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed significant effects for insecure attachment, social economic status, and antenatal depression on PPD. Adding the insecure attachment style factor to the logistic model that predicted PPD increased the area under the curve to 0.87 (95% CI .77-.98; p < .05). The inclusion of attachment styles in assessments of perinatal depressive disorders could improve screening and the design of interventions. PMID:25098625

  4. Maternal depressive symptoms and parenting practices 3-months postpartum.

    PubMed

    Balbierz, Amy; Bodnar-Deren, Susan; Wang, Jason J; Howell, Elizabeth A

    2015-06-01

    Using data from two postpartum depression randomized trials, we examined the association between postpartum depressive symptoms and parenting practices among a diverse group of mothers. We examined the association between safety practices (back sleep position, car seat use, smoke alarm), feeding practices (breastfeeding, infant intake of cereal, juice, water), and health care practices (routine well child and Emergency Room (ER) visits) with 3-month postpartum depressive symptoms assessed using the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EPDS ?10). Fifty-one percent of mothers were black or Latina, 33 % had Medicaid, and 30 % were foreign born. Depressed mothers were less likely to have their infant use back sleep position (60 vs. 79 %, p < .001), always use a car seat (67 vs. 84 %, p < .001), more likely to feed their infants water, juice, or cereal (36 vs. 25 %, p = .04 respectively), and to bring their babies for ER visits (26 vs. 16 %, p = .03) as compared with non-depressed mothers. In multivariable model, depressed mothers remained less likely to have their infant use the back sleep position, to use a car seat, and to have a working smoke alarm in the home. Findings suggest the need to intervene early among mothers with depressive symptoms and reinforce positive parenting practices. PMID:25374288

  5. Prevalence of postpartum infections: a population-based observational study.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, Daniel; Blomberg, Marie

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the prevalence of postpartum infections among women giving birth during 1 year in a population-based observational/questionnaire study at seven hospitals in the southeast region of Sweden. Of the women >99% (n = 11,124) received a questionnaire to inquire if they had endometritis, mastitis, or wound, urinary tract or any other infection within 2 months postpartum and whether they received antibiotics for this. Prevalence rates for infections and antibiotic treatment were estimated. The response rate was 60.1%. At least one infectious episode was reported by 10.3% of the women and 7.5% had received antibiotics. The prevalence for infections with and without antibiotics were, respectively, mastitis 4.7% and 2.9%, urinary tract infection 3.0% and 2.4%, endometritis 2.0% and 1.7%, wound infection 1.8% and 1.2%. There was no inter-county difference in infection prevalence. Clinical postpartum infections in a high-resource setting are relatively common. PMID:25132521

  6. Postpartum Depression: Screening, Diagnosis, and Management Programs 2000 through 2010.

    PubMed

    Yawn, Barbara P; Olson, Ardis L; Bertram, Susan; Pace, Wilson; Wollan, Peter; Dietrich, Allen J

    2012-01-01

    The value and appropriateness of universal postpartum depression (PPD) screening remains controversial in the United States. To date, several PPD screening programs have been introduced and a few have been evaluated. Among those programs that have been evaluated, most report screening rates, diagnosis rates, or treatment initiation rates. Only four studies included patient outcomes such as the level of depressive symptoms at 6 to 12 months postpartum, and only two reported success in improving outcomes. Program characteristics that appear to result in low rates of diagnosis and followup after PPD screening include requirements for a formal psychiatric evaluation, the need to refer women to another site for therapy, and failure to integrate the PPD screening into the care provided at the woman's or her child's medical home. The two programs that reported improved outcomes were both self-contained within primary care and included specific followup, management, and therapy procedures. Both resulted in the need for outside referrals in less than 10% of women diagnosed with postpartum depression. Future studies should be based on the successful programs and their identified facilitators while avoiding identified barriers. To affect policies, the future program must report maternal outcomes going beyond the often reported process outcomes of screening, referral, and therapy initiation rates. PMID:22900157

  7. Driving through: postpartum care during World War II.

    PubMed Central

    Temkin, E

    1999-01-01

    In 1996, public outcry over shortened hospital stays for new mothers and their infants led to the passage of a federal law banning "drive-through deliveries." This recent round of brief postpartum stays is not unprecedented. During World War II, a baby boom overwhelmed maternity facilities in American hospitals. Hospital births became more popular and accessible as the Emergency Maternal and Infant Care program subsidized obstetric care for servicemen's wives. Although protocols before the war had called for prolonged bed rest in the puerperium, medical theory was quickly revised as crowded hospitals were forced to discharge mothers after 24 hours. To compensate for short inpatient stays, community-based services such as visiting nursing care, postnatal homes, and prenatal classes evolved to support new mothers. Fueled by rhetoric that identified maternal-child health as a critical factor in military morale, postpartum care during the war years remained comprehensive despite short hospital stays. The wartime experience offers a model of alternatives to legislation for ensuring adequate care of postpartum women. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:10191809

  8. Uterine artery impedance during the first eight postpartum weeks

    PubMed Central

    Guedes-Martins, L.; Gaio, A. R.; Saraiva, J.; Cunha, A.; Macedo, F.; Almeida, H.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to construct reference ranges for the uterine artery (UtA) mean pulsatility (PI) and resistance (RI) indices from 1–8 weeks postpartum. A prospective, cross-sectional, and observational study was performed with 320 healthy women from week 1 through week 8 postpartum. UtAs were examined transvaginally using colour and pulsed Doppler imaging, and the means of the right and left values of the PI and RI, as well as the presence or absence of a bilateral protodiastolic notch, were recorded. The 5th, 50th and 95th reference percentile curves for the UtA-PI and UtA-RI were derived using regression models. The adjusted reference intervals uncovered a convergence trend at the week 8 time-point, although impedance was lower at the week 1 time-point in multiparous women compared with primiparous women. The notching prevalence was 22.5% (9/40) at week 1 and 95.0% (38/40) at week 8. The study revealed consistent evidence of a progressive increase of postpartum uterine impedance and provided new average UtA-PI and UtA-RI reference charts for weeks 1 through 8. Multiparity does not change the trend but does impart a lower rate of increase, likely as a consequence of previous vascular structural and functional differences. PMID:25739463

  9. Maternal postpartum complications according to delivery mode in twin pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Stach, Sonia Leme; Liao, Adolfo Wenjaw; de Lourdes Brizot, Maria; Francisco, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira; Zugaib, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine maternal postpartum complications of twin deliveries according to mode of delivery and investigate the associated risk factors. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort review of twin pregnancies with delivery after 26 weeks at a tertiary teaching hospital (1993-2008). The rates of maternal postpartum complications were compared among vaginal, elective cesarean and emergency cesarean deliveries. Significant predictors of complications were investigated with stepwise regression analysis and relative risks were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 90 complications were observed in 56/817 (6.9%) deliveries: 7/131 (5.3%) vaginal, 10/251 (4.0%) elective cesarean and 39/435 (9.0%) emergency cesarean deliveries. Significant predictors included high-risk pregnancy, gestational age at birth and delivery mode. The occurrence of complications was significantly increased in emergency compared to elective cesarean deliveries (RR?=?2.34). CONCLUSIONS: Maternal postpartum complications in twin pregnancies are higher in emergency compared to elective cesarean deliveries and are also related to preexisting complications and earlier gestational age at delivery. PMID:25029574

  10. Risk factors for postpartum problems in dairy cows: explanatory and predictive modeling.

    PubMed

    Vergara, C F; Döpfer, D; Cook, N B; Nordlund, K V; McArt, J A A; Nydam, D V; Oetzel, G R

    2014-07-01

    The postpartum period is associated with a high incidence of most dairy cattle diseases and a high risk of removal from the herd. Postpartum diseases often share risk factors, and these factors may trigger a cascade of other diseases. The objective of this cohort study was to derive explanatory and predictive models for treatment or removal from the herd within the first 30 d in milk (TXR30). The TXR30 outcome was specifically defined as ?1 treatment for ?1 occurrence of milk fever, retained placenta, metritis, ketosis, displaced abomasum, lameness, or pneumonia; removal from the herd (sold or died); or both treatment and later herd removal. The study population consisted of 765 multiparous and 544 primiparous cows (predominantly Holstein) from 4 large commercial freestall-housed dairy herds. Treatment or removal from the herd was recorded as a binary outcome for each cow. Potential explanatory and predictive variables were limited to routine cow data that could be collected either before or within 24 h of calving. Models for multiparous and primiparous cows were developed separately because previous lactation variables are available only for multiparous cows. Adjusted odds ratios for TXR30 in the explanatory model for the multiparous cohort were 2.1 for lactation 3 compared with lactation 2, and 2.3 for lactation 4 or greater compared with lactation 2; 2.3 for locomotion score 3 or 4 compared with score 1; 3.3 for an abnormality at calving compared with no calving abnormality; 1.8 for each 1-standard deviation increase in previous lactation length; and 0.4 for each 5,000-kg increment in previous lactation milk yield in cows with longer previous lactation length. The final predictive model for TXR30 in multiparous cows included predictors similar but not identical to those included in the explanatory model. The area under the curve for the receiver operating characteristic curve from the final predictive model for the multiparous cohort was 0.70, with 60% sensitivity. For the primiparous cohort, calving abnormality increased the odds of TXR30 and was the only variable included in both the explanatory and predictive models. The area under the curve for the receiver operating characteristic curve from the final predictive model for the primiparous cohort was 0.66, with 35% sensitivity. This study identified key risk factors for TXR30 and developed equations for the prediction of TXR30. This information can help dairy producers better understand causes of postpartum problems. PMID:24792805

  11. 24 CFR 203.265 - Mortgagee's late charge and interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Mortgagee's late charge and interest. 203.265 Section...Premiums-Periodic Payment § 203.265 Mortgagee's late charge and interest. (a) Periodic...203.262 and 203.264 shall include a late charge of four percent of the amount...

  12. Changes of Adipose Tissue Morphology and Composition during Late Pregnancy and Early Lactation in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Kenéz, Ákos; Kulcsár, Anna; Kluge, Franziska; Benbelkacem, Idir; Hansen, Kathrin; Locher, Lena; Meyer, Ulrich; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven; Huber, Korinna

    2015-01-01

    Dairy cows mobilize large amounts of body fat during early lactation to overcome negative energy balance which typically arises in this period. As an adaptation process, adipose tissues of cows undergo extensive remodeling during late pregnancy and early lactation. The objective of the present study was to characterize this remodeling to get a better understanding of adaptation processes in adipose tissues, affected by changing metabolic conditions including lipid mobilization and refilling as a function of energy status. This was done by determining adipocyte size in histological sections of subcutaneous and retroperitoneal adipose tissue biopsy samples collected from German Holstein cows at 42 days prepartum, and 1, 21, and 100 days postpartum. Characterization of cell size changes was extended by the analysis of DNA, triacylglycerol, and protein content per gram tissue, and ?-actin protein expression in the same samples. In both adipose tissue depots cell size was becoming smaller during the course of the study, suggesting a decrease in cellular triacylglycerol content. Results of DNA, triacylglycerol, and protein content, and ?-actin protein expression could only partially explain the observed differences in cell size. The retroperitoneal adipose tissue exhibited a greater extent of time-related differences in cell size, DNA, and protein content, suggesting greater dynamics and metabolic flexibility for this abdominal depot compared to the investigated subcutaneous depot. PMID:25978720

  13. Postpartum Pyomyoma, a Rare Complication of Sepsis Associated with Chorioamnionitis and Massive Postpartum Haemorrhage Treated with an Intrauterine Balloon

    PubMed Central

    Kaler, Mandeep; Gailer, Ruth; Iskaros, Joseph; David, Anna L.

    2015-01-01

    We report the successful treatment of a postpartum pyomyoma, a rare but serious complication of uterine leiomyomata in a 28-year-old primigravida. The patient was treated for an Escherichia Coli (E. Coli) urinary tract infection (UTI) at 16 weeks of gestation. She had asymptomatic short cervical length on ultrasound scan at 20 weeks that was managed conservatively due to the presence of further UTI and received antibiotics. She was known to have a left sided intramural leiomyoma. She presented with abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding at 23+1 weeks of gestation and the next day she had spontaneous vaginal delivery and collapsed with E. Coli septic shock, massive postpartum haemorrhage, and disseminated intravascular coagulation and was successfully treated with oxytocic drugs, a Rusch intrauterine balloon, and intravenous antibiotics. Eleven days postnatally she re-presented with systemic sepsis and was treated for retained products of conception. Sepsis persisted and investigations showed a postpartum pyomyoma that was initially managed with intravenous antibiotics to avoid surgery. Ultimately she required laparotomy, drainage of pyomyoma, and myomectomy. Postoperative recovery was good and the patient had a successful pregnancy two years later. PMID:26199774

  14. Late Cretaceous

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ron Blakey

    This site provides a list of links to paleogeographic reconstructions for several time slices within the Cretaceous Period. These include 100 million, 90 million, 80 million and 70 million years ago. Paleogeographic maps are arranged by age and emphasize tectonics, depositional systems and paleogeography. Short discussions of paleogeography, tectonic evolution and historical geology accompany some of the maps.

  15. Effect of butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin on postpartum metabolism and milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pereira, R A; Silveira, P A S; Montagner, P; Schneider, A; Schmitt, E; Rabassa, V R; Pfeifer, L F M; Del Pino, F A B; Pulga, M E; Corrêa, M N

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin (BTPC) supplementation on plasma metabolites and milk production in postpartum dairy cows. A total of fifty-two Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive either: (1) 10 ml of saline (NaCl 0.9%, control group); (2) 1000 mg of butaphosphan and 0.5 mg of cyanocobalamin (BTPC1 group); and (3) 2000 mg of butaphosphan and 1.0 mg of cyanocobalamin (BTPC2 group). All cows received injections every 5 days from calving to 20 days in milk (DIM). Blood samples were collected every 15 days from calving until 75 DIM to determine serum concentration of glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), cholesterol, urea, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), aminotransferase aspartate (AST) and ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT). The body condition score (BCS) and milk production were evaluated from calving until 90 DIM. Increasing doses of BTPC caused a linear reduction in plasma concentrations of NEFA and cholesterol. Supplementation of BTPC also reduced concentrations of BHB but it did not differ between the two treatment doses. Milk yield and milk protein had a linear increase with increasing doses of BTPC. A quadratic effect was detected for milk fat and total milk solids according to treatment dose, and BTPC1 had the lowest mean values. Concentrations of glucose, urea, P, Mg, AST, GGT, milk lactose and BCS were not affected by treatment. These results indicate that injections of BTPC during the early postpartum period can reduce NEFA and BHB concentrations and increase milk production in Holstein cows. PMID:23360824

  16. Peripartum cardiomyopathy: postpartum decompensation and use of non-invasive cardiac output monitoring.

    PubMed

    Lorello, G; Cubillos, J; McDonald, M; Balki, M

    2014-02-01

    The utility of a non-invasive cardiac output monitor (NICOM™) in guiding the peripartum management and identification of postpartum complications in a patient with severe peripartum cardiomyopathy is reported. A 31-year-old nulliparous woman at 35 weeks of gestation presented with a three-week history of worsening dyspnea and progressive functional deterioration. A transthoracic echocardiogram showed severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction with an ejection fraction <20%. Cardiac status was monitored using NICOM™ during labor and delivery. The baseline values were: cardiac output 5.3 L/min, total peripheral resistance 1549 dynes.sec/cm(5), stroke volume 42.1 mL and stroke volume variation 18%. She received early epidural analgesia during labor, titrated slowly with a loading dose of 0.0625% bupivacaine 10 mL and fentanyl 25 ?g, followed by patient-controlled epidural analgesia (0.0625% bupivacaine with fentanyl 2 ?g/mL, infusion at 10 mL/h, bolus dose 5 mL and lockout interval 10 min). After epidural drug administration, total peripheral resistance decreased, cardiac output increased, and satisfactory analgesia was obtained. She had an uneventful vaginal delivery with a forceps-assisted second stage after prophylactic administration of furosemide 20 mg. NICOM™ was discontinued after delivery. Fifteen hours post-delivery, the patient developed cardiogenic shock, which resolved after aggressive therapy with inotropes and furosemide. NICOM™ can be used to guide treatment during labor and delivery in patients with critical peripartum cardiomyopathy. We suggest that use of NICOM™ be extended into the postpartum period to detect signs of cardiac decompensation in such patients. PMID:24360329

  17. Maternal postpartum behavior and the emergence of infant-mother and infant-father synchrony in preterm and full-term infants: the role of neonatal vagal tone.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Ruth; Eidelman, Arthur I

    2007-04-01

    Relations between maternal postpartum behavior and the emergence of parent-infant relatedness as a function of infant autonomic maturity were examined in 56 premature infants (birthweight = 1000-1500 g) and 52 full-term infants. Maternal behavior, mother depressive symptoms, and infant cardiac vagal tone were assessed in the neonatal period. Infant-mother and infant-father synchrony, maternal and paternal affectionate touch, and the home environment were observed at 3 months. Premature birth was associated with higher maternal depression, less maternal behaviors, decreased infant alertness, and lower coordination of maternal behavior with infant alertness in the neonatal period. At 3 months, interactions between premature infants with their mothers and fathers were less synchronous. Interaction effects of premature birth and autonomic maturity indicated that preterm infants with low vagal tone received the lowest amounts of maternal behavior in the postpartum and the least maternal touch at 3 months. Infant-mother and infant-father synchrony were each predicted by cardiac vagal tone and maternal postpartum behavior in both the preterm and full-term groups. Among preterm infants, additional predictors of parent-infant synchrony were maternal depression (mother only) and the home environment (mother and father). Findings are consistent with evolutionary perspectives on the higher susceptibility of dysregulated infants to rearing contexts and underscore the compensatory mechanisms required for social-emotional growth under risk conditions for parent-infant bonding. PMID:17380505

  18. Early and Late Onset Sepsis in Late Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Moran, Cassandra; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Cotten, C. Michael; Clark, Reese H.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Smith, P. Brian

    2009-01-01

    Background Preterm birth is increasing worldwide, and late preterm births, which comprise more than 70% of all preterm births, account for much of the increase. Early and late onset sepsis results in significant mortality in extremely preterm infants, but little is known about sepsis outcomes in late preterm infants. Methods This is an observational cohort study of infants < 121 days of age (119,130 infants less than or equal to 3 days of life and 106,142 infants between 4 and 120 days of life) with estimated gestational age at birth between 34 and 36 weeks, admitted to 248 neonatal intensive care units in the United States between 1996 and 2007. Results During the study period, the cumulative incidence of early and late onset sepsis was 4.42 and 6.30 episodes per 1000 admissions, respectively. Gram-positive organisms caused the majority of early and late onset sepsis episodes. Infants with early onset sepsis caused by Gram-negative rods and infants with late onset sepsis were more likely to die than their peers with sterile blood cultures (OR 4.39, 95% CI 1.71–11.23, P=0.002; and OR 3.37, 95% CI 2.35–4.84, P<0.001, respectively). Conclusion Late preterm infants demonstrate specific infection rates, pathogen distribution, and mortality associated with early and late onset sepsis. The results of this study are generalizable to late preterm infants admitted to the special care nursery or neonatal intensive care unit. PMID:19953725

  19. Postpartum practices of puerperal women and their influencing factors in three regions of Hubei, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nian Liu; Limei Mao; Xiufa Sun; Liegang Liu; Banghua Chen; Qiang Ding

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: 'Sitting month' is a Chinese tradition for women's postpartum custom. The present study aims to explore the postpartum dietary and health practices of puerperal women and identify their influential factors in three selected regions of Hubei, China. METHODS: A cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted in the selected urban, suburban and rural areas in the province of Hubei from 1

  20. Addition of Sodium Bicarbonate to Rations of Postpartum Dairy Cows: Physiological and Metabolic Effects1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. H. Kilmer; L. D. Muller; T. J. Snyder

    1981-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate was added to complete mixed rations to characterize physiological, metabolic, and ruminal changes immediately postpartum when dairy cows are switched abruptly from a low energy ration prepartum to a high energy ration postpartum. Twelve Holstein cows were paired and assigned randomly to either a control or buffered ration containing .8% sodium bicarbonate. Ra- tions consisted of 50% corn

  1. Accumbal dopamine function in postpartum rats that were raised without their mothers

    E-print Network

    Sokolowski, Marla

    Accumbal dopamine function in postpartum rats that were raised without their mothers Veronica M-saliency Nucleus accumbens Prolonged estrogen Progesterone withdrawal Postpartum rats that had been previously) rats, nucleus accumbens (NAC) dopamine (DA) responses to pups evoke a robust sustained rise during

  2. Evaluation of early reproductive performance in the postpartum alpaca by progesterone concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Walter Bravo; D. Pezo; V. Alarcon

    1995-01-01

    The proportion of female alpacas ovulating, conceiving and remaining pregnant up to 40 days after copulation was evaluated using progesterone concentrations. One hundred and seventy six parous, postpartum alpacas were divided into three groups for breeding at 10, 20, and 30 days postpartum at the La Raya research station, Cusco, Peru. Females were further subdivided into three groups to allow

  3. A randomized trial of a program of early postpartum discharge with nurse visitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita J. Gagnon; Linda Edgar; Michael S. Kramer; Apostolos Papageorgiou; Kathy Waghorn; Michael C. Klein

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to compare an early postpartum discharge program versus standard postpartum care. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial in a 637-bed university hospital included 175 healthy women recruited at 32 to 38 weeks gestation from physicians' offices and sonograms. Experimental intervention consisted of discharge 6 to 36 hours post partum with nursing care available by telephone or

  4. Can critically timed sleep deprivation be useful in pregnancy and postpartum depressions?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara L Parry; Megan L Curran; Christine A Stuenkel; Megumi Yokimozo; Leslie Tam; Katherine A Powell; J. Christian Gillin

    2000-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of critically timed sleep deprivation in major mood disorders (MMD) occurring during pregnancy and postpartum. Methods: Nine women who met DSM-IV criteria for a MMD with onset during pregnancy or within 1 year postpartum underwent a trial of either early-night sleep deprivation (ESD), in which they were sleep deprived

  5. Gestational Diabetes and Postpartum Physical Activity: Evidence of Lifestyle Change 1 Year After Delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ravi Retnakaran; Ying Qi; Mathew Sermer; Philip W. Connelly; Bernard Zinman; Anthony J. Hanley

    2010-01-01

    Although women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are advised to incorporate physical activity into their lifestyle in order to reduce their risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2DM), it is recognized that new mothers face barriers to postpartum exercise. Thus, we sought to determine whether, following the diagnosis of GDM, women indeed alter their postpartum physical activity patterns, as compared

  6. Oxytocin and postpartum depression: Delivering on what's known and what's not

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of oxytocin in the treatment of postpartum depression has been a topic of growing interest. This subject carries important implications, given that postpartum depression can have detrimental effects on both the mother and her infant, with life long consequences for infant socioemotional and...

  7. Psychosocial risk and protective factors for postpartum depression in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Aisha; Tamim, Hani

    2011-04-01

    Limited research has been conducted in the United Arab Emirates in relation to postpartum depression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk and protective factors of postpartum depression in women in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. We carried out a prospective study in which we followed women from the second trimester of pregnancy until 4 months postpartum. Data were collected during the second and third trimesters and then at 2- and 4- months postpartum. The risk/protective factors that were investigated included: depression and anxiety during pregnancy, stressful life events, breastfeeding, employment status following delivery, religiosity, and socio-demographic variables. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (screening) and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory (diagnostic) were used as outcome variables. Using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory (diagnostic), 10% of the 137 participants in the study were diagnosed with postpartum depression. The following variables were found to be predictive of postpartum depression: depression during pregnancy in both the second and third trimesters: number of children, religion, and use of formula for feeding. Several factors were of borderline significance including educational level of mother, lack of breastfeeding, personal stressful life events, and employment status following delivery. These risk factors are important as they indicate potential areas for early identification. Screening of pregnant women during pregnancy and in the postpartum phase would be important. This study forms the foundation for further research and development related to prevention and intervention for postpartum depression in this Arab context. PMID:21063891

  8. Effectiveness of a facebook-delivered physical activity intervention for post-partum women: a randomized controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical activity is reduced during the post-partum period. Facebook is frequently used by Australian mothers, and offers flexibility, high levels of engagement and the ability to disseminate information and advice via social contacts. The Mums Step it Up Program is a newly developed 50 day team-based physical activity intervention delivered via a Facebook app. The program involves post-partum women working in teams of 4–8 friends aiming to achieve 10,000 steps per day measured by a pedometer. Women are encouraged to use the app to log their daily steps and undertake social and supportive interactions with their friends and other participants. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the Mums Step it Up Program. Method/design A sample of 126 women up to 12 months post-partum will be recruited through community-based health and family services. Participants will be randomly allocated into one of three groups: control, pedometer only and the Mums Step it Up Program. Assessments will be completed at baseline, 6 weeks and 6 months. The primary outcome (objective physical activity) and the secondary outcomes (sleep quality and quantity, depressive symptoms, weight and quality of life) will be used to determine the effectiveness of the Mums Step it Up Program compared with the control and pedometer only groups. Analyses will be undertaken on an intention-to-treat-basis using random effects mixed modeling. The effect of theorized mediators (physical activity attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control) will also be examined. Discussion This study will provide information about the potential of a Facebook app for the delivery of health behavior interventions. If this intervention proves to be effective it will be released on a mass scale and promoted to the general public. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register: ACTRN12613000069752 PMID:23714411

  9. Resilience after Hurricane Katrina among pregnant and postpartum women

    PubMed Central

    Harville, Emily W.; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre; Pridjian, Gabriella; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Background Although disaster causes distress, many disaster victims do not develop long-term psychopathology. Others report benefits after traumatic experiences (post-traumatic growth). The objective of this study was to examine demographic and hurricane-related predictors of resilience and post-traumatic growth. Methods 222 pregnant southern Louisiana women were interviewed, and 292 postpartum women completed interviews at delivery and eight weeks later. Resilience was measured by scores lower than a non-affected population, using the Edinburgh Depression Scale and the Post-Traumatic Stress Checklist (PCL). Post-traumatic growth was measured by questions about perceived benefits of the storm. Women were asked about their experience of the hurricane, addressing danger, illness/injury, and damage. Chi-square tests and log-Poisson models were used to calculate associations and relative risks (RR) for demographics, hurricane experience, and mental health resilience and perceived benefit. Findings 35% of pregnant and 34% of the postpartum women were resilient from depression, while 56% and 49% were resilient from post-traumatic stress disorder. Resilience was most likely among white women, older women, and women who had a partner. A greater experience of the storm, particularly injury/illness or danger, was associated with lower resilience. Experiencing damage due to the storm was associated with increased report of some perceived benefits. Conclusions Many pregnant and postpartum women are resilient from the mental health consequences of disaster, and perceive benefits after a traumatic experience. Certain aspects of experiencing disaster reduce resilience, but may increase perceived benefit. PMID:20123173

  10. Prevention of postpartum haemorrhage with the oxytocin analogue carbetocin.

    PubMed

    Rath, Werner

    2009-11-01

    Postpartum haemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide: 67-80% of cases are caused by uterine atony. Preventive measures include prophylactic drug use to aid uterine contraction after delivery, thus avoiding severe blood loss and reducing maternal morbidity and mortality. Carbetocin is a synthetic analogue of oxytocin with a half-life approximately 4-10 times longer than that reported for oxytocin. It combines the safety and tolerability profile of oxytocin with the sustained uterotonic activity of injectable ergot alkaloids. Furthermore, carbetocin can be administered as a single dose injection either intravenously or intramuscularly rather than as an infusion over several hours as is the case with oxytocin. Carbetocin is currently indicated for prevention of uterine atony after delivery by caesarean section in spinal or epidural anaesthesia. Data from three randomised controlled trials in caesarean delivery and a meta-analysis indicate that carbetocin significantly reduces the need for additional uterotonic agents or uterine massage to prevent excessive bleeding compared with placebo or oxytocin. The risk of headache, tremor, hypotension, flushing, nausea, abdominal pain, pruritus and feeling of warmth was similar in women who received carbetocin or oxytocin. The findings from two more recent double-blind randomised trials and one retrospective study suggest that carbetocin may also represent a good alternative to conventional uterotonic agents for prevention of postpartum haemorrhage after vaginal deliveries. A reduced need for additional uterotonics was observed with carbetocin vs. oxytocin in high-risk women and carbetocin was at least as effective as syntometrine in low-risk women. In these studies of vaginal deliveries, carbetocin was associated with a low incidence of adverse effects and demonstrated a better tolerability profile than syntometrine. Carbetocin had a long duration of action compared with intravenous oxytocin alone and a better cardiovascular side effect profile compared with syntometrine. In addition to being an effective treatment for the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage following caesarean delivery, carbetocin may also become the drug of choice for postpartum haemorrhage prevention after vaginal delivery in high-risk women and those who suffer from hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Preeclampsia is still a contraindication to the administration of carbetocin in the EU, and further studies would be required to assess the cardiovascular effects of carbetocin before it can be advocated for routine use in preeclamptic patients. Further research is required to assess whether prophylactic carbetocin is superior to conventional uterotonic agents following vaginal delivery in low-risk women. PMID:19616358

  11. Diagnosis and management of post-partum disorders: a review

    PubMed Central

    Brockington, Ian

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the psychiatry of the puerperium, in the light of work published during the last eight years. Many distinct disorders are seen. In addition to various psychoses and a heterogeneous group of depressions, there are specific anxiety, obsessional and stress-related disorders. It is important to identify severe disorders of the mother-infant relationship, which usually respond to treatment, but have pernicious effects if untreated. The complexity of post-partum psychiatry requires the deployment of multidisciplinary specialist teams, which can handle the challenges of therapy, prevention, training, research and service development. PMID:16633463

  12. La symphysite pubienne du post-partum: un diagnostic difficile

    PubMed Central

    Kehila, Mehdi; Majdoub, Manel; Zegha, Dorra; Khedher, Sonia Ben; Cheour, Elhem; Mahjoub, Sami

    2013-01-01

    La symphysite pubienne est une localisation rare de l'arthrite septique. Son association à la grossesse est exceptionnelle. Nous rapportons un cas de symphysite pubienne survenant dans les suites d'un accouchement par voie basse. Le diagnostic est difficile en post-partum. Il faut savoir l'évoquer devant toute douleur pubienne atypique dans sa présentation ou dans son évolution. Le diagnostic doit être posé de façon précoce car l'évolution peut se faire dans le cas contraire vers la chronicité. PMID:24498463

  13. The medial preoptic area is necessary for motivated choice of pup- over cocaine-associated environments by early postpartum rats

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Mariana; Morrell, Joan I.

    2010-01-01

    Converging evidence suggests that the motivation to seek cocaine during the postpartum period is significantly impacted by the competing incentives of offspring, a stimulus unique to this life stage. In the present study, the functional role of the medial preoptic area (mPOA), a critical site involved in maternal responsiveness, on processing incentive value of pup-associated cues and influencing response allocation for pup- over cocaine-associated environments was investigated using a concurrent pup/cocaine choice conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Early postpartum females with bilateral guide cannulae aimed into the mPOA or into anatomical control sites were conditioned, from postpartum days (PPD) 4 to 7, to associate different uniquely featured environments with pups or cocaine. CPP was tested on PPD8 following intra-mPOA infusions of either 2% bupivacaine or saline vehicle. In two additional experiments, the effects of intra-mPOA infusions of bupivacaine on expression of conditioned responding induced by environments associated with either pups or cocaine were examined separately. Transient inactivation of the mPOA selectively blocked the conditioned preferences for pup-associated environments, significantly contrasting the robust pup-CPP found in non-surgical and intra-mPOA vehicle-treated females. In contrast, mPOA inactivation failed to alter cocaine-CPP in postpartum females. When given a choice between environments associated with pups or cocaine, transient functional inactivation of the mPOA altered choice behavior, biasing the preference of females toward cocaine-associated environments, such that almost all preferred cocaine- and none the pup-associated option. The anatomical specificity was revealed when inactivation of adjacent regions to the mPOA did not affect CPP responses for pups. The findings support a critical role for the mPOA in mediating pup-seeking behavior, and further suggest that the competing properties of pups over alternative incentives, including drugs of abuse, rely on mPOA integrity to provide relevant pup-related information to the circuitry underlying the choice behavior between pups and alternative stimuli. PMID:20156528

  14. Relationship between body condition score at calving and reproductive performance in young postpartum cows grazing native range.

    PubMed

    Mulliniks, J T; Cox, S H; Kemp, M E; Endecott, R L; Waterman, R C; Vanleeuwen, D M; Petersen, M K

    2012-08-01

    Body condition score is used as a management tool to predict competency of reproduction in beef cows. Therefore, a retrospective study was performed to evaluate association of BCS at calving with subsequent pregnancy rate, days to first postpartum ovulation, nutrient status (assessed by blood metabolites), and calf BW change in 2- and 3-yr-old cows (n = 351) managed and selected to fit their environment of grazing native range over 6 yr at the Corona Range and Livestock Research Center, Corona, NM. Cows were managed similarly before calving, without manipulation of management, to achieve predetermined BCS at parturition. Palpable BCS (scale of 1 to 9) were determined by 2 experienced technicians before calving. Cows were classified to 1 of 3 BCS groups prior calving: BCS 4 (mean BCS = 4.3 ± 0.02), 5 (mean BCS = 5.0 ± 0.03), or 6 (mean BCS = 5.8 ± 0.06). Cows were weighed weekly after calving and serum was collected once weekly (1 yr) or twice weekly (5 yr) for progesterone analysis to estimate first postpartum ovulation beginning 35 d postpartum. Year effects also were evaluated, with years identified as either above or below average precipitation. Days to first postpartum ovulation did not differ among calving BCS groups (P = 0.93). Pregnancy rates were not influenced by calving BCS (P = 0.83; 92%, 91%, 90% for BCS 4, 5, and 6, respectively). Days to BW nadir was not influenced by BCS at calving (P = 0.95). Cow BW was different at all measuring points (P < 0.01) with BCS 6 cows having the heaviest BW and cows with BCS 4 the lightest. Cows with calving BCS 4 and 5 lost more (P = 0.06) BW from the initiation of the study to the end of breeding than cows with BCS 6. However, cow BW change at all other measurement periods was not different (P ? 0.49) among calving BCS groups. Serum glucose and NEFA concentrations were not influenced by calving BCS (P ? 0.51). Calf BW at birth (P = 0.60), branding (55-d BW; P = 0.76), and weaning (205-d BW; P = 0.60) were not impacted by cow calving BCS. Body condition score did not influence overall pregnancy rates, indicating that young cows can have a reduced BCS and still be reproductively punctual. Therefore, these results indicate that reproductive performance of young cows with reduced BCS may not be affected when managed in extensive range conditions. PMID:22665663

  15. Effects of chromium propionate supplementation during the periparturient period and early lactation on metabolism, performance, and cytological endometritis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Yasui, T; McArt, J A A; Ryan, C M; Gilbert, R O; Nydam, D V; Valdez, F; Griswold, K E; Overton, T R

    2014-10-01

    Multiparous Holstein cows (n=61) were used to determine the effects of chromium propionate (Cr-Pro) supplementation during the periparturient period and early lactation on metabolism, performance, and the incidence of cytological endometritis (CE). After a 1-wk preliminary period, cows were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 treatments from 21 d before expected calving through 63 d postpartum: (1) control (n=31) and (2) Cr-Pro (n=30) administered by daily topdress at a rate of 8 mg/d of Cr. A tendency was detected for increased dry matter intake (DMI) during the prepartum period for cows fed Cr-Pro. Moreover, cows fed Cr-Pro tended to have lower plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids during the prepartum period. However, effects of Cr-Pro supplementation on postpartum DMI and milk yield were not significant. Cows fed Cr-Pro tended to have higher urea N concentrations in milk. An interaction of treatment and day existed during the postpartum period, such that cows fed Cr-Pro had lower plasma glucose concentrations within the first day postpartum compared with controls. Plasma haptoglobin concentration was not affected by treatment during the postpartum period. Blood neutrophil glycogen concentrations were not affected by treatment when sampled at either 7 d postpartum or on one day between 40 and 60 d (48 d ± 0.44 standard error) postpartum. Evaluation of endometrial cytology by low volume lavage at 7 d postpartum (first lavage) and on one day between 40 and 60 d (second lavage) postpartum revealed that cows fed Cr-Pro tended to have a higher percentage of neutrophils at first lavage and decreased incidence of CE as assessed at second lavage. In conclusion, supplementation with Cr-Pro resulted in trends for increased DMI and lower plasma nonesterified fatty acids prepartum. Postpartum production and energy metabolism were not affected by treatment; however, Cr-Pro supplementation tended to affect the postpartum influx of neutrophils into the uterus and decreased the incidence of CE, suggesting positive effects of Cr-Pro supplementation on uterine health. PMID:25087037

  16. Modification and preliminary use of the five-minute speech sample in the postpartum: associations with postnatal depression and posttraumatic stress.

    PubMed

    Iles, Jane; Spiby, Helen; Slade, Pauline

    2014-10-01

    Little is known about what constitutes key components of partner support during the childbirth experience. This study modified the five minute speech sample, a measure of expressed emotion (EE), for use with new parents in the immediate postpartum. A coding framework was developed to rate the speech samples on dimensions of couple support. Associations were explored between these codes and subsequent symptoms of postnatal depression and posttraumatic stress. 372 couples were recruited in the early postpartum and individually provided short speech samples. Posttraumatic stress and postnatal depression symptoms were assessed via questionnaire measures at six and thirteen weeks. Two hundred and twelve couples completed all time-points. Key elements of supportive interactions were identified and reliably categorised. Mothers' posttraumatic stress was associated with criticisms of the partner during childbirth, general relationship criticisms and men's perception of helplessness. Postnatal depression was associated with absence of partner empathy and any positive comments regarding the partner's support. The content of new parents' descriptions of labour and childbirth, their partner during labour and birth and their relationship within the immediate postpartum may have significant implications for later psychological functioning. Interventions to enhance specific supportive elements between couples during the antenatal period merit development and evaluation. PMID:24477915

  17. Hospitalization-based treatment for postpartum depressed mothers and their babies: rationale, principles, and preliminary follow-up data.

    PubMed

    Vliegen, Nicole; Casalin, Sara; Luyten, Patrick; Docx, Ria; Lenaerts, Marijs; Tang, Eileen; Kempke, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the rationale and treatment principles of a mother-infant unit for severely depressed mothers and their infants in Flanders (Belgium). The unit integrates systemic, psychodynamic, and cognitive behavioral treatment approaches, and aims at improvements on three levels: (1) improving mood and interpersonal relationships in depressed mothers, (2) fostering a positive mother infant relationship, and (3) establishing a supportive environment outside the treatment setting for both mother and infant. In addition, we present preliminary data of a 3.5-year naturalistic follow-up study of postpartum depressed mothers (n = 41) admitted at this mother-infant unit between April 2003 and April 2005. Results showed that at 3.5-year follow-up a considerable subgroup of mothers (61%) were functioning relatively well, as indicated by low levels of depressive symptoms, anxiety and anger, negative affect, and relatively high levels of positive affect. Yet, in line with other studies, a relatively large subgroup of mothers (39%) continued to suffer from (severe) depression during follow-up. Using a Life History Calendar method, it was found that, compared to currently nondepressed mothers, mothers who were depressed at follow-up did not have more depressive episodes but had longer depressive episodes, received more psychotherapy after hospitalization, and experienced more negative life events during the 3.5-year follow-up period. Implications of these findings for future research and intervention strategies in postpartum depression are discussed. PMID:23631545

  18. Concise review for physicians and other clinicians: postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Bobo, William V; Yawn, Barbara P

    2014-06-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common, potentially disabling, and, in some cases, life-threatening condition. Fortunately, PPD is also readily detectable in routine practice and is amenable to treatment by a wide variety of modalities that are effective for treating nonpuerperal major depression. Postpartum depression screening can improve case identification (an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of ? 13 indicates a high risk of PPD) and, when associated with a diagnostic and follow-up program, leads to improved clinical outcomes. Symptom severity, patient preference, past response to treatment, availability of local mental health care resources, and patient decisions about breast-feeding will drive management decisions. In general, cognitive-behavioral therapy and interpersonal therapy are preferred psychotherapies for women with mild to moderate PPD, whereas antidepressants are appropriate in more severe cases. Many patients will require other types of assistance, such as parenting support, case management, or care coordination because many barriers to receiving adequate PPD treatment must still be overcome. PMID:24943697

  19. How does early cognitive behavioural therapy reduce postpartum depression?

    PubMed

    Carta, G; D'Alfonso, A; Parisse, V; Di Fonso, A; Casacchia, M; Patacchiola, F

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a frequent mood disorder. Early identification of mothers at risk is crucial to successful prevention. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is an effective preventing therapy. Objectives of this study are to identify mothers at risk for PPD using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and evaluate the efficacy of CBT for the prevention of PPD in these mothers. Women were recruited during their second postpartum day. Two groups were selected: mothers with high risk (EPDS score ? 10) and mothers with low risk (EPDS score < 10) of PPD. The first group underwent CBT. Follow up was carried out at 40 days, three, six, and 12 months after childbirth. APGAR score, neonatal hospitalization, delayed breastfeeding, and cesarean section were significant obstetric risk factors. Mothers at high risk of PPD presented a statistically valid improvement of EPDS score. Mothers with low risk of PPD did not have CBT and showed a higher EPDS score than mother at high risk at 12 months. PPD prevention is possible through early identification of mothers at risk and early cognitive behavioural therapy. PMID:25864281

  20. Women's intimate partner violence perpetration during pregnancy and postpartum.

    PubMed

    Hellmuth, Julianne C; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Stuart, Gregory L; Moore, Todd M

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine the prevalence of women's psychological, minor physical, and severe physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration during the first 18 weeks of pregnancy and at 6 weeks postpartum and to compare women who used each type of IPV to those who did not. Women who increased their IPV perpetration over time were also compared to women who decreased or did not change their IPV perpetration over time. A sample of 180 women participated in a larger study of the well-being of pregnant women. Data were collected via self-report survey and 122 participants were retained at follow-up. At both time points, more women in the sample reported IPV perpetration (baseline n = 132; follow-up n = 73) than IPV victimization (baseline n = 114; follow-up n = 66). Women who perpetrated IPV reported higher levels of IPV victimization, reported partner alcohol misuse, stress, depression, and lower dyadic adjustment compared to women who did not. Women's IPV perpetration was associated with several negative outcomes. Findings suggest that IPV screening during pregnancy and postpartum should include women's IPV perpetration and should be conducted at multiple time points, since women's IPV experiences may change over time. PMID:23054448

  1. Transdermal estradiol for postpartum depression: A promising treatment option

    PubMed Central

    Moses-Kolko, Eydie L.; Berga, Sarah L.; Kalro, Brinda; Sit, Dorothy K.Y.; Wisner, Katherine L.

    2009-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is the most common complication of childbirth and affects one out of seven childbearing women. While conventional pharmacological and psychotherapeutic antidepressant treatments are effective for PPD, a natural alternative may be preferred by postpartum women, especially those who breastfeed their infants. The treatment of PPD with synthetic forms of naturally occurring estrogen is mechanistically appealing because PPD occurs in the context of estrogen withdrawal at parturition. Preliminary evidence suggests that PPD is a disorder of hormone-related mood dysregulation (similar to perimenopausal depression) that can be effectively treated with estrogen. This review provides the basic science and clinical background as well as safety considerations to support the application of transdermal estradiol as a treatment for PPD. We conclude that estradiol treatment for PPD requires confirmation of efficacy in a randomized clinical trial prior to routine clinical use as monotherapy. Additional data regarding maternal tolerability of cyclic progestins, long-term safety of estradiol treatment, estradiol passage into breastmilk and infants, and interdisciplinary collaboration among psychiatrists and gynecologists is also needed before estradiol is used in women who decline or fail to respond to first-line antidepressant treatments, or as an augmentation of conventional antidepressant treatment. PMID:19661765

  2. Zero in on postpartum hemorrhage to reduce Cuba's maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Águila, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the most frequent cause of severe maternal morbidity (SMM) and the first direct cause of maternal death in most countries. In Africa and Asia, it accounts for about one third of all maternal deaths. Put more graphically: worldwide, one woman dies every minute from PPH. Defined as blood loss of ?500 mL after vaginal birth or ?1000 mL after cesarean delivery, PPH can be fatal in just two hours. In Cuba, between 2000 and 2012, maternal deaths directly related to obstetric causes totaled 410, 24.1% of which occurred postpartum, with PPH the leading cause.[1] While Cuba is among the Latin American countries with lowest maternal mortality, the decline has been slow over the last 20 years: in 1998, direct maternal mortality was 26.5 per 100,000 live births and in 2012, the rate was 21.5. This is troubling and deserves careful study, especially given that Cuba has a single, unified health system supported by significant political will-determining factors in important advances made in maternal-child health on par with wealthier countries. PMID:25725772

  3. Chiropractic management of postpartum pubic symphysis diastasis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Lucian

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes the chiropractic management of a 30-year-old female patient with severe postpartum pelvic pain secondary to pubic symphysis diastasis. No literature was found on the chiropractic management of postpartum symphysis pubis diastasis. The existing literature concerning chiropractic care for symphysis pubis dysfunction during pregnancy is limited and indicates a potential benefit. Separation of the pubic symphysis may include ligamentous injury to the sacroiliac joints and may lead to chronic pain. Pubic symphysis separation of 17 millimeters was present on digital radiograph. Management consisted of chiropractic adjustments, trigger point release, electrical stimulation, moist heat, sacroiliac belt, and specific stabilizing exercises. The patient’s pain improved immediately following treatment on the initial visit. Pain was reduced from 8/10 VAS at the first visit to 2/10 at the fourth visit. She was able to resume normal activities and reached a final pain level of 1/10. The diastasis was reduced by 7 millimeters at 14-weeks post radiograph for a final separation of just under 10 millimeters. Collaboration between obstetricians, midwives and chiropractors may be warranted. PMID:25729083

  4. Is primary postpartum haemorrhage a good predictor of inherited bleeding disorders?

    PubMed

    Kadir, R A; Kingman, C E C; Chi, C; Lee, C A; Economides, D L

    2007-03-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the value of screening for inherited bleeding disorders in women with primary postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). Over a 2-year period, women identified to have PPH (defined as >500 mL blood loss for spontaneous vaginal delivery, >700 mL for instrumental deliveries and >1000 mL for caesarean sections within 24 h of delivery) were invited to participate in this study testing for a possible underlying bleeding disorder at 3-9 months post-delivery. Women known to have an inherited bleeding disorder were excluded. Of the 5744 deliveries in our unit during the study period, 152 (3%) fulfilled the criteria for primary PPH and 50 women agreed to participate in the study. Of these, 25 (50%) had a spontaneous vaginal delivery, 8 (16%) had an instrumental delivery and 17 (34%) had a caesarean section. Half of the women were multiparous and five (20%) had PPH in their previous pregnancy. Nineteen (38%) and 12 (24%) reported at least one significant personal and family bleeding history, respectively. One (2%) woman was identified to have von Willebrand disease. In conclusion, primary PPH does not appear to be a strong predictor of inherited bleeding disorders. Further studies are required to assess the prevalence of inherited bleeding disorders among these women. PMID:17286771

  5. Cyclooxygenase-2–dependent lymphangiogenesis promotes nodal metastasis of postpartum breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Traci R.; Borges, Virginia F.; Betts, Courtney B.; Guo, Qiuchen; Kapoor, Puja; Martinson, Holly A.; Jindal, Sonali; Schedin, Pepper

    2014-01-01

    Breast involution following pregnancy has been implicated in the high rates of metastasis observed in postpartum breast cancers; however, it is not clear how this remodeling process promotes metastasis. Here, we demonstrate that human postpartum breast cancers have increased peritumor lymphatic vessel density that correlates with increased frequency of lymph node metastases. Moreover, lymphatic vessel density was increased in normal postpartum breast tissue compared with tissue from nulliparous women. In rodents, mammary lymphangiogenesis was upregulated during weaning-induced mammary gland involution. Furthermore, breast cancer cells exposed to the involuting mammary microenvironment acquired prolymphangiogenic properties that contributed to peritumor lymphatic expansion, tumor size, invasion, and distant metastases. Finally, in rodent models of postpartum breast cancer, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition during the involution window decreased normal mammary gland lymphangiogenesis, mammary tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis, tumor cell invasion into lymphatics, and metastasis. Our data indicate that physiologic COX-2–dependent lymphangiogenesis occurs in the postpartum mammary gland and suggest that tumors within this mammary microenvironment acquire enhanced prolymphangiogenic activity. Further, our results suggest that the prolymphangiogenic microenvironment of the postpartum mammary gland has potential as a target to inhibit metastasis and suggest that further study of the therapeutic efficacy of COX-2 inhibitors in postpartum breast cancer is warranted. PMID:25133426

  6. Vitamin D Status in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus during Pregnancy and Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Pleska?ová, Anna; Bartáková, Vendula; Pácal, Lukáš; B?lobrádková, Jana; Tomandl, Josef; Ka?ková, Kate?ina

    2015-01-01

    Of many vitamin D extraskeletal functions, its modulatory role in insulin secretion and action is especially relevant for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The aims of the present study were to determine midgestational and early postpartum vitamin D status in pregnant women with and without GDM and to describe the relationship between midgestational and postpartum vitamin D status and parallel changes of glucose tolerance. A total of 76 pregnant women (47 GDM and 29 healthy controls) were included in the study. Plasma levels of 25(OH)D were measured using an enzyme immunoassay. Vitamin D was not significantly decreased in GDM compared to controls during pregnancy; however, both groups of pregnant women exhibited high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency. Prevalence of postpartum 25(OH)D deficiency in post-GDM women remained significantly higher and their postpartum 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower compared to non-GDM counterparts. Finally, based on the oGTT repeated early postpartum persistent glucose abnormality was ascertained in 15% of post-GDM women; however, neither midgestational nor postpartum 25(OH)D levels significantly differed between subjects with GDM history and persistent postpartum glucose intolerance and those with normal glucose tolerance after delivery. PMID:26000285

  7. Poor Sleep Quality of Third-Trimester Pregnancy is a Risk Factor for Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Meifen; Li, Xiaoyi; Feng, Bin; Wu, Hao; Qiu, Chunbo; Zhang, Weifeng

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate whether poor sleep quality of third-trimester pregnancy is a risk factor for postpartum depression. Material/Methods Third-trimester pregnant women (T0, n=293) were tested using the first socio-demographic, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale assessments, and received a diagnosis of depression. Three months (T1, n=223) after delivery, scale filling was finished and the structured interview was performed again. Results We found that 73 persons (32.7%) were low income, 84 persons (37.7%) were middle-income, and 66 persons (29.6%) were higher income. The overall prevalence of postpartum depression was 9.4% (21 persons). After controlling for other factors, age, household income, marital satisfaction, and sleep quality were significantly related to postpartum depression, in which age and sleep quality scores (a higher score was associated with poorer sleep quality) were positively related to postpartum depression, and household income and marital satisfaction were negatively related to postpartum depression. Moreover, third-trimester sleep quality score was positively related to postpartum depressive symptoms. Conclusions Poor third-trimester subjective sleep quality is a risk factor for postpartum depression. PMID:25526703

  8. Relationship between social support during pregnancy and postpartum depressive state: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Morikawa, Mako; Okada, Takashi; Ando, Masahiko; Aleksic, Branko; Kunimoto, Shohko; Nakamura, Yukako; Kubota, Chika; Uno, Yota; Tamaji, Ai; Hayakawa, Norika; Furumura, Kaori; Shiino, Tomoko; Morita, Tokiko; Ishikawa, Naoko; Ohoka, Harue; Usui, Hinako; Banno, Naomi; Murase, Satomi; Goto, Setsuko; Kanai, Atsuko; Masuda, Tomoko; Ozaki, Norio

    2015-01-01

    Although the association between social support and postpartum depression has been previously investigated, its causal relationship remains unclear. Therefore, we examined prospectively whether social support during pregnancy affected postpartum depression. Social support and depressive symptoms were assessed by Japanese version of Social Support Questionnaire (J-SSQ) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), among 877 pregnant women in early pregnancy and at one month postpartum. First, J-SSQ was standardized among peripartum women. The J-SSQ was found to have a two-factor structure, with Number and Satisfaction subscales, by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Analysis of covariance was performed to examine how EPDS and J-SSQ scores during pregnancy affected the EPDS score at postpartum. Significant associations were found between postpartum EPDS score and both EPDS and total scores on the Number subscales during pregnancy (??=?0.488 and -0.054, ps?postpartum EPDS score. These results suggest that having a larger number of supportive persons during pregnancy helps protect against postpartum depression, and that this effect is greater in depressive than non-depressive pregnant women. This finding is expected to be vitally important in preventive interventions. PMID:26022720

  9. Genetic merit for fertility traits in Holstein cows: IV. Transition period, uterine health, and resumption of cyclicity.

    PubMed

    Moore, S G; Fair, T; Lonergan, P; Butler, S T

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor the dry matter intake (DMI), metabolic status, uterine health, and resumption of cyclicity in cows with similar genetic merit for milk production traits but with either good (Fert+) or poor genetic merit (Fert-) for fertility traits. Twenty-six cows were enrolled in the study and data are reported for 15 Fert+ and 10 Fert- cows that completed the study. All cows received a total mixed ration diet during early lactation and were turned out to pasture in late spring. Dry matter intake was recorded daily from wk -2 to 5 relative to parturition. Blood metabolites and metabolic hormones were measured from wk -2 to 8 relative to parturition. Milk production, body condition score, and body weight until wk 35 of lactation are reported. To monitor uterine health, vaginal mucus was scored weekly on a scale of 0 (no pus) to 3 (? 50% pus) from parturition to wk 8 and uterine polymorphonuclear neutrophil count was measured at wk 3 and 6 postpartum. Prepartum DMI was similar between genotypes, but Fert+ cows had significantly greater DMI than Fert- cows (19.7 vs. 16.8 kg of dry matter/d) during the postpartum period. Energy balance at wk 1 was significantly greater in Fert+ cows than in Fert- cows [2.3 vs. -1.12 unité fourragère lait (UFL)/d]. The Fert+ cows had significantly greater daily milk solids production (1.89 vs. 1.74 kg/d) and tended to have greater daily milk yield (24.2 vs. 22.3 kg/d). The Fert+ cows had significantly greater mean circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (102.62 vs. 56.85 ng/mL) and tended to have greater mean circulating insulin (3.25 vs. 2.62 ?IU/mL) compared with Fert- cows from wk -2 to 8 relative to parturition. Mean circulating glucose (3.40 vs. 3.01 mmol/L) concentrations were significantly greater in Fert+ cows compared with Fert- cows from wk -2 to 3 relative to parturition. The Fert+ cows maintained significantly greater mean body condition score throughout lactation compared with Fert- cows (2.98 vs. 2.74 units). Moreover, Fert+ cows had better uterine health compared with Fert- cows, as evidenced by lower weekly vaginal mucus scores from wk 2 to 6 postpartum and, based on uterine cytology, smaller proportions were classified as having endometritis at wk 3 (0.42 vs. 0.78) and 6 (0.25 vs. 0.75). Also, a significantly greater proportion of Fert+ cows had resumed cyclicity by wk 6 postpartum (0.86 vs. 0.20) compared with Fert- cows. Hence, we report for the first time that genetic merit for fertility traits is associated with postpartum uterine health status. Superior uterine health and earlier resumption of cyclicity may be mediated through differences in DMI, energy balance, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, and body condition score profiles. Importantly, phenotypic improvement in fertility traits was achieved without antagonizing milk production. PMID:24630663

  10. Protein Density and Its Influence on Metabolite Concentration and Nitrogen Retention by Holstein Cows in Late Gestation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Putnam; G. A. Varga

    1998-01-01

    Multiparous Holstein cows in late gestation were used in a completely randomized design to test the effects of prepartum protein supply on prepartum N balance, blood metabolite and hormone concentra- tions, and postpartum intake and milk production. Cows were assigned to one of three isocaloric diets that differed in amount of total dietary crude protein (CP) (10.6, 12.7, or 14.5%

  11. Effect of heat stress on body temperature in healthy early postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Burfeind, O; Suthar, V S; Heuwieser, W

    2012-12-01

    Measurement of body temperature is the most common method for an early diagnosis of sick cows in fresh cow protocols currently used on dairy farms. Thresholds for fever range from 39.4 °C to 39.7 °C. Several studies attempted to describe normal temperature ranges for healthy dairy cows in the early puerperium. However, the definition of a healthy cow is variable within these studies. It is challenging to determine normal temperature ranges for healthy cows because body temperature is usually included in the definition. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify factors that influence body temperature in healthy dairy cows early postpartum and to determine normal temperature ranges for healthy cows that calved in a moderate (temperature humidity index: 59.8 ± 3.8) and a hot period (temperature humidity index: 74.1 ± 4.4), respectively, excluding body temperature from the definition of the health status. Furthermore, the prevalence of fever was calculated for both periods separately. A subset of 17 (moderate period) and 15 cows (hot period) were used for analysis. To ensure their uterine health only cows with a serum haptoglobin concentration ? 1.1 g/L were included in the analysis. Therefore, body temperature could be excluded from the definition. A vaginal temperature logger that measured vaginal temperature every 10 min was inserted from Day 2 to 10 after parturition. Additionally rectal temperature was measured twice daily. Day in milk (2 to 10), period (moderate and hot), and time of day had an effect on rectal and vaginal temperature. The prevalence of fever (? 39.5 °C) was 7.4% and 28.1% for rectal temperature in the moderate and hot period, respectively. For vaginal temperature (07.00 to 11.00 h) it was 10% and 33%, respectively, considering the same threshold and period. This study demonstrates that body temperature in the early puerperium is influenced by several factors (day in milk, climate, time of day). Therefore, these factors have to be considered when interpreting body temperature measures to identify sick cows. Furthermore, the prevalence of fever considering different thresholds is higher during hot than moderate periods. However, even in a moderate period healthy cows can exhibit a body temperature that is considered as fever. This fact clearly illustrates that fever alone should not be considered the decision criterion whether a cow is allocated to an antibiotic treatment, although it is the most important one that is objectively measurable. PMID:23043945

  12. 7 CFR 1437.103 - Late-planted acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Late-planted acreage. 1437.103 Section...Actual Production History § 1437.103 Late-planted acreage. (a) Producers...after the final planting date and during the late planting period, as determined by...

  13. Public Schools in Australia from the Late 1970s to the Late 1980s: The Seeds of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcan, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The period from the late 1970s to the late 1980s were transition years for most public(government) school systems in Australia. A reaction was developing against the neo-progressive and radical (neo-Marxist) innovations of the late 1960s and 1970s such as school-based curricula, activity methods, and "open education". By the early 1980s the…

  14. Use of recombinant activated factor VII in a case of severe postpartum haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Verre, M; Bossio, F; Mammone, A; Piccirillo, M; Tancioni, F; Varano, M

    2006-02-01

    We describe the case of a 24 year old woman, affected by haemorrhagic shock due to post-partum uterine atony, who underwent an emergency hysterectomy with persistent postoperative bleeding, successfully treated with recombinant activated factor VII (Novoseven). PMID:16498374

  15. State of the Science on postpartum depression: what nurse researchers have contributed--part 1.

    PubMed

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano

    2008-01-01

    Postpartum depression has been described as a thief that steals motherhood. It can result in tragedy and sometimes in headline-gripping maternal suicide or infanticide. Because one of the highest priorities for nursing is to continually advance the knowledge that underlies nursing practice, it is essential that we understand what nurse researchers have done to advance the knowledge base of postpartum depression. This integrative review is a two-part series for MCN that summarizes 141 postpartum depression studies conducted by nurse researchers from around the globe, including United States, Australia, Canada, China (Hong Kong, Taiwan), Finland, Iceland, Sweden, Turkey, and Malaysia. Specific areas of postpartum depression to which nurse researchers have devoted their primary attention include epidemiology, risk factors, transcultural perspectives, instrument development, screening, interventions, and mother-infant interactions. PMID:18327112

  16. Preventing Repeat Teen Pregnancy: Postpartum Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate, Oral Contraceptive Pills, or the Patch?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Ries Thurman; Natalie Hammond; Helen E. Brown; Mary Ellen Roddy

    2007-01-01

    Study ObjectiveTo prospectively evaluate the repeat teen pregnancy rates, within one year of delivery, among adolescents who choose the contraceptive patch (Ortho Evra) versus oral contraceptive pills (OCP) versus Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (Depo Provera, DMPA) for postpartum contraception.

  17. Persistent headache in a postpartum patient: the investigation and management

    PubMed Central

    Gonen, Korcan Aysun; Taskapilioglu, Ozlem; Dusak, Abdurrahim; Hakyemez, Bahattin

    2013-01-01

    Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) is the most common complication of obstetric regional anaesthesia and the most likely cause of headache in a woman who underwent epidural anaesthesia during delivery. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is an uncommon cause of postpartum headache. Anaesthesia in obstetrics may lead to long-lasting intracranial hypotension resulting in CVST. CVST is a serious pathology with high mortality if misdiagnosed, but its correct and rapid diagnosis offers the opportunity for early treatment. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important modality in the diagnosis of both CVST and intracranial hypotension. The latter condition may be treated either by an epidural blood patch or bed rest and hydration. We report a case of a 36-year-old woman who developed CVST and multiple venous infarcts after an attempted epidural procedure during delivery. She was treated conservatively with bed rest, hydration and low-molecular-weight heparin and the patient recovered completely. PMID:23813512

  18. Transdermal Estradiol Treatment for Postpartum Depression: A Pilot, Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Wisner, Katherine L; Sit, Dorothy K Y; Moses-Kolko, Eydie L; Driscoll, Kara E; Prairie, Beth A; Stika, Catherine S; Eng, Heather F; Dills, John L; Luther, James F; Wisniewski, Stephen R

    2015-08-01

    Postpartum depression occurs in 14.5% of women in the first 3 months after birth. This study was an 8-week acute phase randomized trial with 3 cells (transdermal estradiol [E2], sertraline [SERT], and placebo [PL]) for the treatment of postpartum major depressive disorder. However, the study was stopped after batch analysis revealed that the E2 serum concentrations were lower than prestudy projections. This paper explores our experiences that will inform future investigations of therapeutic E2 use. Explanations for the low E2 concentrations were as follows: (1) study patch nonadhesion, which did not explain the low concentrations across the entire sample. (2) Ineffective transdermal patch preparations, although 2 different patch preparations were used and no significant main effect of patch type on E2 concentrations was found. (3) Obesity, at study entry, E2-treated women had body mass index of 32.9 (7.4) (mean [SD]). No pharmacokinetic data comparing E2 concentrations from transdermal patches in obese women versus normal weight controls are available. (4) Induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) 3A4 and other E2 elimination pathways in pregnancy. CYP4503A4 is induced in pregnancy and is a pathway for the metabolism of E2. Conversion to estrone and phase II metabolism via glucuronidation and sulfation, which also increase in pregnancy, are routes of E2 elimination. The time required for these pathways to normalize after delivery has not been elucidated. The observation that transdermal E2 doses greater than 100 ?g/d did not increase serum concentrations was unexpected. Another hypothesis consistent with this observation is suppression of endogenous E2 secretion with increasing exogenous E2 dosing. PMID:26061609

  19. Adolescent satisfaction with postpartum contraception and body weight concerns.

    PubMed

    Hellerstedt, W L; Story, M

    1998-06-01

    Factors having a potential effect on adolescents' use of and satisfaction with postpartum contraceptive methods were assessed in three focus groups involving 22 adolescent mothers of an infant under 12 months of age recruited from a Minnesota (US) clinic specializing in the prenatal and postpartum care of adolescent women. The average age of study participants was 17 years (range, 13-19 years). All adolescents chose to use contraception after delivery. 16 (73%) were using Depo-Provera, 3 were using oral contraceptives, and 3 were using condoms/foam. Most Depo-Provera users made their decision to accept this method with their prenatal care provider during pregnancy. Many had taken the pill at some point, but reported it was hard for them to take it every day. Despite concerns about side effects (especially increased hunger/weight gain and irregular menstrual bleeding), adolescent Depo-Provera acceptors preferred this method because it did not require daily compliance. 16 women (73%) considered themselves overweight, and they attributed this to both their pregnancy weight gain and their contraceptive method. Skepticism regarding their ability to lose weight through healthy eating and exercise was widespread. However, the desire to prevent another pregnancy through use of an effective method such as Depo-Provera was stronger than the desire to return to one's pre-pregnancy body weight. Overall, these adolescent mothers seemed resigned about their inability as a result of the demands of motherhood to resolve their malaise, fatigue, and sense of not being physically fit. These findings suggest a need for effective weight management and health-promoting programs for adolescent mothers that take into account their multiple role demands and generally limited financial resources. PMID:9627814

  20. Effects of pre- or postpartum selenium supplementation on selenium status in beef cows and their calves.

    PubMed

    Enjalbert, F; Lebreton, P; Salat, O; Schelcher, F

    1999-01-01

    The effect of Se supplementation before or after calving on Se status in deficient cows and their calves was studied using 72 beef cows in two experiments. In Exp. 1, cows calving in February or March 1997 were supplemented orally for 15 d in late pregnancy with 13.0, 32.5, or 45.5 mg of Se/d as sodium selenite. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were measured in red blood cells (RBC) or plasma of cows and calves at d 15 and between d 17 and 88 after calving. In Exp. 2, cows calving in January 1997 were supplemented orally with .0, 13.0, or 32.5 mg of Se/d for 15 d postpartum, and calves were injected with 1.38 mg of Se when 2 d old and at an average age of 49 d. The GSH-Px activities were measured in 30-d-old calves and in cows and calves between d 77 and 115 after calving. In both experiments, Se supplementation resulted in adequate Se status for the dams. The increase in RBC GSH-Px activity was faster with 45.5 mg of Se/d, and GSH-Px activities remained high for up to 98 d after the end of supplementation. The improvement in Se status in calves as a result of maternal supplementation was greater in Exp. 1 than in Exp. 2, suggesting that the placental transfer of Se is more efficient than milk transfer. Prepartum oral Se supplementation of deficient beef cows with 13.0 mg of Se/d for 15 d allowed adequate Se status of dams and calves, and 45.5 mg of Se/d resulted in a faster improvement of Se status. Parenteral administration of 1.38 mg of Se to newborn calves did not sustain normal Se status in calves issued from deficient cows. PMID:10064048

  1. A randomised comparison of three doses of sublingual misoprostol on postpartum myometrial contractility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AA Elati

    2010-01-01

    ObjectivesTo compare the postpartum uterine activity and side effects of various doses of sublingual misoprostol with intramuscular oxytocin.Methods35 women who did not require augmentation and who delivered vaginally were randomised to receive 200, 400 or 600 ?g of sublingual misoprostol Postpartum haemorrhage prophylaxis. These were compared with 14 women given 10 IU of intramuscular oxytocin. Immediately after placental delivery, a

  2. Hormone treatments and short term calf removal in postpartum beef cows 

    E-print Network

    Smith, Michael Fielding

    1976-01-01

    the greatest effect on the postpartum interval length. Dunn (1975) observed that cows receiving a high prepartum nutritional level had shorter postpartum intervals and Wiltbank et al. (1964) noted that high postcalving nutrition levels did not shorten... in underfed cows ap- pear to occur because of a decrease in ovarian activity. Bond et al. (1958) noted that prolonged restricted feeding decreased ovarian activity in beef heifers whereas a high nutritional level did not decrease ovarian size (Spitzer...

  3. Ovarian activity patterns of postpartum Holstein and Jersey cows of diverse genetic abilities for milk 

    E-print Network

    Dachir, Shlomit

    1983-01-01

    OVARIAN ACTIVITY PATTERNS QF POSTPARTUM HOLSTEIN ANO JERSEY COWS QF OIVERSE GENETIC ABILITIES FQR MILK A Thesis by SHLQMIT OACHIR Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER QF SCIENCE August 1983 Major Subject: Physiology of Reproduction OVARIAN ACTIVITY PATTERNS OF POSTPARTUM HOLSTEIN ANO JERSEY COIAIS OF OIVERSE GENETIC ABILITIES FOR MILK A Thesis by SHLOMIT OACHIR Approved as to style...

  4. Health status and quality of life in postpartum women: a systematic review of associated factors.

    PubMed

    Van der Woude, Daisy A A; Pijnenborg, Johanna M A; de Vries, Jolanda

    2015-02-01

    Since health care is becoming more and more patient centered, patient-reported outcomes such as quality of life (QOL) and health status (HS) are becoming increasingly important. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of physical, psychological, and social domains of QOL and HS in postpartum women, and to assess which factors are associated with QOL and HS domains postpartum. A computerized literature search was performed using the PubMed, PsycINFO, and Cochrane databases. Studies were selected if the three domains of QOL or HS were measured in a (sub)group of postpartum women, by using validated standardized questionnaires. The methodological quality of the 66 included studies was examined by two independent reviewers. All three domains of QOL were impaired in postpartum women with urinary incontinence, with even worse QOL in women with mixed urinary incontinence. Mental QOL was impaired in women with urge urinary incontinence after cesarean section. Social QOL was decreased in HIV-positive women. HS was impaired in all three domains in postpartum depressed women. Physical HS was impaired after cesarean section for at least two months postpartum. Additional supportive interventions from health care social support were not associated with improved HS. Urinary incontinence and being HIV-positive seemed to be associated with impaired QOL. Postpartum depression and a cesarean section seemed to be associated with impaired HS. Prospective longitudinal research is needed in order to draw valid conclusions regarding postpartum HS and QOL, and the predictive value of the associated factors. PMID:25522118

  5. Acceptability for the Use of Postpartum Intrauterine Contraceptive Devices: Assiut Experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Safwat A. Mohamed; Momen A. Kamel; Omar M. Shaaban; Hossam T. Salem

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the acceptance of postpartum intrauterine contraceptive devices (PPIUCD) among the inhabitants of Assiut governorate, Egypt and to study the factors that influence this acceptance. Subjects and Methods: Contraceptive counseling was given to 3,541 clients: 1,880 and 1,661 during the antenatal visits and postpartum hospitalization, respectively. Acceptors during antenatal counseling were to receive IUCDs via postplacental insertion in

  6. Screening for Postpartum Depression Among Low-Income Mothers Using an Interactive Voice Response System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen G. KimJoni; Joni Geppert; Tu Quan; Yiscah Bracha; Virginia Lupo; Diana B. Cutts

    This study tested the feasibility of using an interactive voice response (IVR) phone system to screen for postpartum depression\\u000a among low-income, English- and Spanish-speaking mothers. Newly delivered mothers were interviewed in the hospital. Consenting\\u000a subjects completed a background questionnaire and were asked to call an automated phone system 7 days postpartum to complete\\u000a an IVR version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression

  7. Postpartum endocrinology and sexual behavior relative to lactation in collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu)

    E-print Network

    Franchek, Kathleen Mary

    1989-01-01

    that prolactin levels in lactating females did not inhibit ovarian activity. The increase in interbirth intervals in 57% of the cases was not associated with behavioral causes. Proceptivity and rejection indices did not differ significantly between... the histological characteristics of the postpartum uterus to determine if the uterus can support a fertilized ovum or ova; and (c) determine ovarian responsiveness to anterior pituitary hormones postpartum. Behavior of male collared peccaries may be used as a...

  8. Ovarian activity patterns of postpartum Holstein and Jersey cows of diverse genetic abilities for milk

    E-print Network

    Dachir, Shlomit

    1983-01-01

    OVARIAN ACTIVITY PATTERNS QF POSTPARTUM HOLSTEIN ANO JERSEY COWS QF OIVERSE GENETIC ABILITIES FQR MILK A Thesis by SHLQMIT OACHIR Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER QF SCIENCE August 1983 Major Subject: Physiology of Reproduction OVARIAN ACTIVITY PATTERNS OF POSTPARTUM HOLSTEIN ANO JERSEY COIAIS OF OIVERSE GENETIC ABILITIES FOR MILK A Thesis by SHLOMIT OACHIR Approved as to style...

  9. Postpartum endocrinology and sexual behavior relative to lactation in collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) 

    E-print Network

    Franchek, Kathleen Mary

    1989-01-01

    , which live in patchy arboreal environments, e. g. , cotton-top tamarins, (French, 1983), common marmosets (Lunn and McNeilly, 1981; McNeilly et al. , 1981; French, 1983) and golden lion tamarins (Rothe, 1975; Wilson, 1978) exhibit a postpartum estrus.... Lactation does not seem to influence the interval from parturition to estrus in marmosets and tamarins (Table 1). TABLE 1. Comparative analysis of Orders within Class Mammalia to differentiate patterns of postpartum lactational inhibition. Species...

  10. Inpatient treatment of women with postpartum psychiatric disorders – the role of the male partners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Grube

    2005-01-01

    Summary Postpartum psychiatric disorders are stressful events for all members of the family. The male partners contribute to the women’s coping process. To evaluate the men’s supportive function we investigated 31 partners of 34 women with postpartum psychiatric disorders. Three male partners were unreachable although we tried to contact them intensively. All the women examined were in-patients of a mother-child

  11. Early post-partum hematological changes in Holstein dairy cows with retained placenta.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Pierangelo; Probo, Monica; Morandi, Nicola; Trevisi, Erminio; Ferrari, Annarita; Minuti, Andrea; Venturini, Monica; Paltrinieri, Saverio; Giordano, Alessia

    2015-01-01

    Retained placenta (RP) occurs frequently in dairy cattle but little is known about the pathogenic or prognostic role of the hematological changes in this disease. This retrospective study was designed to investigate the hematological changes associated with RP in the immediate post-partum period and to assess whether these changes are associated with an acute phase reaction. Data concerning hematology, acute phase proteins, markers of inflammation and serum biochemistry performed on cows at 3±1 days in milk (DIM) from two intensive farms were extracted from the database of the ProZoo project, a research project aimed to investigate the relationship between genomic traits and bovine health and production. After application of restrictive inclusion criteria, data from 45 cows, 22 with RP and 23 controls, were statistically compared. RBC count, d-ROMs concentration, and AST activity were significantly higher in the RP group than controls. Conversely, neutrophils, thiol groups, and serum zinc concentration were significantly lower in the RP group than controls. In conclusion, although retained placenta has to be considered as a syndrome with multifactorial causes, neutropenia may be a co-factor involved in its pathogenesis. Further studies are needed to clarify whether neutropenia acts as a contributor in the pathogenesis of RP or if it is a very early consequence of the syndrome, preceding any other inflammatory changes in blood. PMID:25515153

  12. From goat colostrum to milk: physical, chemical, and immune evolution from partum to 90 days postpartum.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Macías, D; Moreno-Indias, I; Castro, N; Morales-Delanuez, A; Argüello, A

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the study of the changes originated in the milk from partum until d 90 of lactation. Ten multiparous Majorera goats, bred carefully under animal health standards, with a litter size of 2 kids (the average in this breed is 1.83 prolificacy) and similar gestation length (149 ± 1 d) were used. Goat kids were removed from their dams to avoid interferences with the study. Compositional content (fat, protein, and lactose) were measured, as well as some other properties, including pH, density, titratable acidity, ethanol stability, rennet clotting time, and somatic cell count. Moreover, immunity molecules (IgG, IgA, and IgM concentrations and chitotriosidase activity) received great attention. Fat and protein content were higher in the first days postpartum, whereas lactose content was lower. Density, titratable acidity, rennet clotting time, and somatic cell count decreased throughout the lactation period, whereas pH and ethanol stability increased. Relative to the immunological parameters, each measured parameter obtained its maximum level at d 0, showing the first milking as the choice to provide immunity to the newborn kids. On the other hand, this study might be used to establish what the best use is: processing or kid feeding. PMID:24183682

  13. Spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection: an uncommon cause of recurrent postpartum headache.

    PubMed

    Stamboulis, Elefterios; Raptis, Georgios; Andrikopoulou, Athina; Arvaniti, Chrisa; Brountzos, Elias; Oikonomopoulos, Nikos; Stefanis, Leonidas; Voumvourakis, Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    Postpartum spontaneous cervicocephalic artery dissection is an uncommon, poorly understood condition following pregnancy. We report a case of a 32-year-old woman with no history of trauma, chiropractic manipulation, connective tissue disorder, or previous headache who developed a mild, unilateral headache 7 days after the uneventful delivery of her third child (no general or neuraxial anesthesia was delivered). Seven days latter she presented to our emergency department complaining of recurrent episodes of right-sided headache coupled with a transient episode of sensory deficits in her left lower limb. Brain magnetic resonance imaging disclosed small infarctions in the internal watershed distribution of right internal carotid artery (ICA). Carotid artery dissection was diagnosed using DSA and T1 FAT-SAT sequences for the depiction of intramural hematoma. The patient was placed under oral anticoagulation and remained asymptomatic during a follow-up period of 6 months. The present case report highlights that cervicocephalic artery dissection is a condition that should be looked for in women with persisting or remitting unilateral headache following childbirth. PMID:19453826

  14. Post-partum sequential occurrence of two diverse transfusion reactions (transfusion associated circulatory overload and transfusion related acute lung injury).

    PubMed

    Haldar, Rudrashish; Samanta, Sukhen

    2013-10-01

    Transfusion associated circulatory overload (TACO) and transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) are two dissimilar pathological conditions associated with transfusion of blood products where the time course of the events and clinical presentation overlap leading to uncertainty in establishing the diagnosis and initiating the treatment, which otherwise differs. We encountered a case where a patient of post-partum hemorrhage developed TACO in the immediate post-operative period due to aggressive resuscitative attempts with blood products. The patient's condition was appropriately diagnosed and was managed according to the clinical scenario, and the condition abated. Subsequently, on the third post-operative day the patient again required blood product transfusions following which the patient developed TRALI, the diagnosis of which was also established and adequate treatment strategy was undertaken. PMID:24339663

  15. Cardiovascular disease risk factors after early-onset preeclampsia, late-onset preeclampsia, and pregnancy-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Veerbeek, Jan H W; Hermes, Wietske; Breimer, Anath Y; van Rijn, Bas B; Koenen, Steven V; Mol, Ben W; Franx, Arie; de Groot, Christianne J M; Koster, Maria P H

    2015-03-01

    Observational studies have shown an increased lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women who experienced a hypertensive disorder in pregnancy. This risk is related to the severity of the pregnancy-related hypertensive disease and gestational age at onset. However, it has not been investigated whether these differences in CVD risk factors are already present at postpartum cardiovascular screening. We evaluated postpartum differences in CVD risk factors in 3 subgroups of patients with a history of hypertensive pregnancy. We compared the prevalence of common CVD risk factors postpartum among 448 women with previous early-onset preeclampsia, 76 women with previous late-onset preeclampsia, and 224 women with previous pregnancy-induced hypertension. Women with previous early-onset preeclampsia were compared with women with late-onset preeclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension and had significantly higher fasting blood glucose (5.29 versus 4.80 and 4.83 mmol/L), insulin (9.12 versus 6.31 and 6.7 uIU/L), triglycerides (1.32 versus 1.02 and 0.97 mmol/L), and total cholesterol (5.14 versus 4.73 and 4.73 mmol/L). Almost half of the early-onset preeclampsia women had developed hypertension, as opposed to 39% and 25% of women in the pregnancy-induced hypertension and late-onset preeclampsia groups, respectively. Our data show differences in the prevalence of common modifiable CVD risk factors postpartum and suggest that prevention strategies should be stratified according to severity and gestational age of onset for the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. PMID:25561694

  16. Altered functional and immunophenotypical properties of neutrophilic granulocytes in postpartum cows associated with fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Zerbe, H; Schneider, N; Leibold, W; Wensing, T; Kruip, T A; Schuberth, H J

    2000-09-15

    The intention of the study was to analyze the relationship between liver triacyl glycerol content (liver TAG content) and immunophenotypical and functional properties of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes (PMN) of dairy cows in the peripartum period. We investigated characteristics of bovine PMN from the blood and uterus of clinically healthy cows in the periparturient period. The numbers of circulating leukocytes and segmented granulocytes continuously increased until parturition and declined afterwards to starting values. This was independent of the liver TAG content and mainly affected neutrophils. The liver TAG content exceeded 40 mg/g liver, the reference value, in 12 of 19 cows in the first two weeks postpartum. Increased liver TAG content, > 40 mg/g, went in parallel with a reduced expression of function-associated surface molecules on blood neutrophils (e.g. CD11b/CD18 = CR3 and CD11c/CD18 = CR4). Moreover, in cows with high liver TAG levels the antibody-independent and -dependent cellular cytotoxicity (AICC, ADCC) of blood PMN was markedly reduced. PMN also were less capable of ROS generation after stimulation with Phorbol Myristate Acetate (PMA). In comparison with contemporarily harvested blood PMN, neutrophils recovered from the uterine lumen showed a decreased expression of 4/6 examined surface structures. Only the expression densities of CR3 molecules and those detected by mAb IL-A110 were enhanced on uterine PMN. The cytotoxic capacity and the ROS generation were significantly lower for uterine PMN than for blood PMN. The results suggest that increased liver TAG content in the first and second week after calving is associated with decreased functional capacities of PMN derived from blood and uterus. This may help to explain why cows who are too fat at calving (who therefore have an increased liver TAG content) have a higher incidence of infectious diseases such as endometritis PMID:11101037

  17. Addiction and reward-related genes show altered expression in the postpartum nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Changjiu; Eisinger, Brian Earl; Driessen, Terri M.; Gammie, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    Motherhood involves a switch in natural rewards, whereby offspring become highly rewarding. Nucleus accumbens (NAC) is a key CNS region for natural rewards and addictions, but to date no study has evaluated on a large scale the events in NAC that underlie the maternal change in natural rewards. In this study we utilized microarray and bioinformatics approaches to evaluate postpartum NAC gene expression changes in mice. Modular Single-set Enrichment Test (MSET) indicated that postpartum (relative to virgin) NAC gene expression profile was significantly enriched for genes related to addiction and reward in five of five independently curated databases (e.g., Malacards, Phenopedia). Over 100 addiction/reward related genes were identified and these included: Per1, Per2, Arc, Homer2, Creb1, Grm3, Fosb, Gabrb3, Adra2a, Ntrk2, Cry1, Penk, Cartpt, Adcy1, Npy1r, Htr1a, Drd1a, Gria1, and Pdyn. ToppCluster analysis found maternal NAC expression profile to be significantly enriched for genes related to the drug action of nicotine, ketamine, and dronabinol. Pathway analysis indicated postpartum NAC as enriched for RNA processing, CNS development/differentiation, and transcriptional regulation. Weighted Gene Coexpression Network Analysis (WGCNA) identified possible networks for transcription factors, including Nr1d1, Per2, Fosb, Egr1, and Nr4a1. The postpartum state involves increased risk for mental health disorders and MSET analysis indicated postpartum NAC to be enriched for genes related to depression, bipolar disorder (BPD), and schizophrenia. Mental health related genes included: Fabp7, Grm3, Penk, and Nr1d1. We confirmed via quantitative PCR Nr1d1, Per2, Grm3, Penk, Drd1a, and Pdyn. This study indicates for the first time that postpartum NAC involves large scale gene expression alterations linked to addiction and reward. Because the postpartum state also involves decreased response to drugs, the findings could provide insights into how to mitigate addictions. PMID:25414651

  18. Integrating family planning into postpartum care through modern quality improvement: experience from Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Youssef; Rahimzai, Mirwais; Ahmadzai, Malalah; Clark, Phyllis Annie; Kamgang, Evelyn

    2014-05-01

    To address low contraceptive use in Afghanistan, we supported 2 large public maternity hospitals and 3 private hospitals in Kabul to use modern quality improvement (QI) methods to integrate family planning into postpartum care. In 2012, QI teams comprising hospital staff applied root cause analysis to identify barriers to integrated postpartum family planning (PPFP) services and to develop solutions for how to integrate services. Changes made to service provision to address identified barriers included creating a private counseling space near the postpartum ward, providing PPFP counseling training and job aids to staff, and involving husbands and mothers-in-law in counseling in person or via mobile phones. After 10 months, the proportion of postpartum women who received family planning counseling before discharge in the 5 hospitals increased from 36% to 55%, and the proportion of women who received family planning counseling with their husbands rose from 18% to 90%. In addition, the proportion of postpartum women who agreed to use family planning and left the hospital with their preferred method increased from 12% to 95%. Follow-up telephone surveys with a random sample of women who had received PPFP services in the 2 public hospitals and a control group of postpartum women who had received routine hospital services found significant differences in the proportion of women with self-reported pregnancies: 3% vs. 15%, respectively, 6 months after discharge; 6% vs. 22% at 12 months; and 14% vs. 35% at 18 months (P < .001). Applying QI methods helped providers recognize and overcome barriers to integration of family planning and postpartum services by testing changes they deemed feasible. PMID:25276580

  19. Pregnancy in early and late adolescence.

    PubMed

    De Anda, D

    1983-02-01

    The degree to which adolescent pregnancy is viewed as a social problem varies with the age of the adolescent: the younger the adolescent, the greater the perceived risks and costs. The young adolescent has been found to be at greater risk medically; both the young adolescent and her infant are subject more frequently to prenatal and postpartum complications. A sample of 130 pregnant adolescents and adolescent mothers was surveyed to determine the factors that discriminate between girls who become pregnant in early years versus late adolescence. The younger group had begun dating and particularly steady dating at a significantly earlier age than the older group. The age discrepancy between the groups is even greater for the average age at which subjects began steady dating, that is, dating 1 boyfriend exclusively. While ages at which the adolescent began dating and particularly steady dating were found to be significantly related to early pregnancy, this vulnerability was increased by the subjects' lack of knowledge and use of birth control. Subjects in both groups reported that prior to pregnancy they desired quite frequently to leave their parents' home and be on their own. Early pregnancy appeared instead to have increased the adolescents' dependence upon her parents, especially the mother. The findings point to a need for instruction in reproduction and birth control to begin at an earlier age. Opportunity is needed for guided discussion among peers about their feelings regarding the costs and benefits of relationships and how one might deal with potential problems. PMID:12265088

  20. Influence of day of postpartum breeding on pregnancy rate, pregnancy loss rate, and foaling rate in Thoroughbred mares.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, T L; Thompson, J A; Love, C C; Brinsko, S P; Ramsey, J; O'Meara, A; Varner, D D

    2012-04-15

    Records (years 2005-2007) were analyzed from a Thoroughbred stud farm in central Kentucky. Data from all breeding cycles of foaling mares were tabulated (3184 cycles of 2003 foaling mares bred between 7 and 163 days postpartum). A multiple logistic regression model employing Bayesian statistics was used to adjust for factors that significantly affected outcome; odds ratios (ORs) for pregnancy rate, pregnancy loss rate, and foaling rate were determined to examine the influence of day of postpartum breeding on these parameters. Mares bred before Day 22 (Day 0 = day of foaling) postpartum had a decreased OR for becoming pregnant (P < 0.05); the median OR for becoming pregnant (1.00) was not reached until Day 46 postpartum. Mares bred before Day 13 postpartum had an increased OR for pregnancy loss (P < 0.05). The median OR for pregnancy loss did not decline below 1.00 until Day 78 postpartum. Mares bred before Day 20 postpartum had a decreased OR for producing a foal (P < 0.05). The median OR for producing a foal (1.00) was not reached until Day 75 postpartum. We concluded that fertility (in terms of a higher OR for becoming pregnant and a lower OR for pregnancy loss, resulting in a higher OR for producing a foal) continued to improve in Thoroughbred mares for approximately 2.5 mo postpartum. These findings are of importance to management strategies directed at early postpartum breeding, and explain some of the reported drift in subsequent foaling dates of Thoroughbred mares, despite management practices that employ early postpartum breeding. PMID:22225688

  1. Late Onset Clozapine Induced Agranulocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Velayudhan, Rajmohan; Kakkan, Sushil

    2014-01-01

    Agranulocytosis is defined as an absolute neutrophil count less than 100/mm3 in association with infectious disease. The risk of agranulocytosis is 0.38% of all clozapine treated cases and there is a relatively lesser incidence in Indian population. The risk of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis and neutropenia is highest in the first 6 months and higher in the initial 18 months after the onset of treatment. There have been very few reports of neutropenia and agranulocytosis after this period. There have so far been no reports of late onset clozapine induced agranulocytosis has been reported from India. A case of late onset clozapine induced agranulocytosis with possible mechanism of the same is reported. PMID:25336778

  2. Primary postpartum haemorrhage in women with von Willebrand disease or carriership of haemophilia despite specialised care: a retrospective survey.

    PubMed

    Stoof, S C M; van Steenbergen, H W; Zwagemaker, A; Sanders, Y V; Cannegieter, S C; Duvekot, J J; Leebeek, F W G; Peters, M; Kruip, M J H A; Eikenboom, J

    2015-07-01

    Pregnant women with bleeding disorders require specialised peripartum care to prevent postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). If third trimester coagulation factor levels are <0.50 IU mL(-1) , prophylactic treatment is indicated and administered according to international guidelines. However, optimal dose and duration are unknown and bleeding may still occur. The aim of this study was to investigate the outcome in women with von Willebrand disease (VWD) or haemophilia carriership treated according to current practice guidelines. From the period 2002-2011, 185 deliveries in 154 VWD women or haemophilia carriers were retrospectively included. Data on blood loss, bleeding disorder characteristics and obstetric risk factors were obtained. The outcome was primary PPH, defined as blood loss ?500 mL within 24 h postpartum and severe PPH as blood loss ?1000 mL. Primary PPH was observed in 62 deliveries (34%), 14 (8%) of which resulted in severe PPH. In 26 deliveries prophylactic treatment was administered due to factor levels below the 0.50 IU mL(-1) cut-off in the third trimester, 14 of which (54%) were complicated by PPH. We found an increased PPH risk in deliveries given prophylactic treatment compared with deliveries without (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2-6.3). In conclusion, PPH incidence was highest in deliveries with the lowest factor levels in the third trimester. Currently, delivery outcome in women with bleeding disorders is unsatisfactory, given the high PPH incidence despite specialised care. Future studies are required to optimise management of deliveries in this patient population. PMID:25688733

  3. The effect of injectable butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin on postpartum serum beta-hydroxybutyrate, calcium, and phosphorus concentrations in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Rollin, E; Berghaus, R D; Rapnicki, P; Godden, S M; Overton, M W

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of an injection of 10% butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin (Catosal, Bayer, Shawnee Mission, KS) on the day of calving and 1 d later on the prevalence of subclinical ketosis in dairy cattle in the early postpartum period. Cows from 4 herds (n=1,122) were randomized to receive either 25mL of 10% butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin or 25mL of sterile water subcutaneously on both days. Each milliliter of Catosal contained 0.05mg of cyanocobalamin and 100mg of butaphosphan, which provided 17.3mg of P in the form of [1-(butylamino)-1-methylethyl]-phosphonic acid. Serum was sampled for beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration at calving (pretreatment) and again between 3 and 10 d in milk. A subset of samples from mature cows was also evaluated for serum Ca and P concentrations. When cows from all age groups were included in the analysis, there was no difference between the median serum BHBA concentrations of cows in the 2 treatment groups, and no difference in the proportion of hyperketonemic cows (serum BHBA >or=1,200micromol/L) during the first week postpartum. When the analysis was restricted to mature cows (lactation >or=3), both the median BHBA concentration and the proportion of hyperketonemic cows were significantly lower in the treatment group than in the placebo group. Serum Ca and P concentrations did not differ between treatment groups. Our results suggest that injection of butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin on the day of calving and 1 d later may decrease the prevalence of subclinical ketosis during the week after calving in mature dairy cows, but not in first- and second-lactation animals. PMID:20172218

  4. Effects of body composition, pre- and postpartum energy intake and stage of production of energy utilization by beef cows.

    PubMed

    Houghton, P L; Lemenager, R P; Hendrix, K S; Moss, G E; Stewart, T S

    1990-05-01

    Mature Charolais x Angus cows (n = 128) were adjusted to a body condition score (BCS) of 3 (1 = very thin, 3 = moderate, 5 = very fat) between 130 and 190 d of gestation. When cows averaged 190 d of gestation, they were assigned randomly to a maintenance energy diet (ME) or to a diet very low in energy (LE). Cows were allotted within these prepartum (PRP) diets to a high-energy (HE) or LE diet at parturition. At 30 d postpartum (PP), cows were allotted to four treatments: a) slaughter at 0 (n = 32) or b) 48 h after calf removal (n = 32), c) cows whose calves were early weaned at 30 d PP (n = 32) or d) normally weaned at 205 d PP (n = 32). Low energy PRP intake reduced (P less than .01) BCS, cow weight, total empty body lipid (TEBL), body energy (BE) and daily predicted maintenance energy (PME)/W.75 by parturition. Pre- and postpartum energy intake combined to affect (P less than .10) these same factors in a similar manner at 30 d PP. From 30 to 60 d PP, early weaning reduced (P less than .05) PME/W.75. Cow BCS at 190 d of gestation had little effect (P greater than .10) on PME/W.75 or PME/Mcal of BE. Body condition score at parturition, however, affected (P less than .05) delta BCS, delta BE and PME/Mcal of BE by 30 and 60 d PP, with thinner cows losing less condition and requiring more PME/Mcal of BE. Cow BCS had a similar effect from 30 to 60 d PP. Total daily PME was greater for the fat cows during both the PRP and PP periods. Body composition, PRP and PP energy intake and early weaning affect energy requirements and energetic efficiency of beef cows. PMID:2365655

  5. Post-partum sacral fracture associated with heparin treatment.

    PubMed

    Goëb, Vincent; Strotz, Victor; Verdet, Mathieu; Le Loët, Xavier; Vittecoq, Olivier

    2008-12-01

    We report the case of a 19-year-old woman who consulted for low-back pain 3 weeks after her first delivery. This young woman had a personal history of protein C deficiency and was treated daily during her pregnancy with low-molecular-weight heparin. Her body mass index was 34 and she only gained 10 kg during her pregnancy. Since the delivery - which occurred without any complication - she had suffered from a gradually increasing right-buttock pain and limp. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a fracture of the right sacral ala. After analgesia and 1 month of home relative bed rest, the patient recovered her functional capacities. Regarding our patient, who had no potential clinical risk factors for osteoporosis, the causal effect of heparin is thus possible but not certain. This case report illustrates the fact that clinicians should have a high suspicion of pelvic fracture in post-partum women, even in very young ones, presenting sudden onset of low back and pelvic pain, especially when they have received heparin during pregnancy. MRI seems to be the key exam because it is able to detect and stage fractures or microfractures. PMID:18458990

  6. Tranexamic acid for the prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Sentilhes, L; Lasocki, S; Ducloy-Bouthors, A S; Deruelle, P; Dreyfus, M; Perrotin, F; Goffinet, F; Deneux-Tharaux, C

    2015-04-01

    Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a major cause of maternal mortality, accounting for one-quarter of all maternal deaths worldwide. Uterotonics after birth are the only intervention that has been shown to be effective for PPH prevention. Tranexamic acid (TXA), an antifibrinolytic agent, has therefore been investigated as a potentially useful complement to this for both prevention and treatment because its hypothesized mechanism of action in PPH supplements that of uterotonics and because it has been proved to reduce blood loss in elective surgery, bleeding in trauma patients, and menstrual blood loss. This review covers evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for PPH prevention after caesarean (n=10) and vaginal (n=2) deliveries and for PPH treatment after vaginal delivery (n=1). It discusses its efficacy and side effects overall and in relation to the various doses studied for both indications. TXA appears to be a promising drug for the prevention and treatment of PPH after both vaginal and caesarean delivery. Nevertheless, the current level of evidence supporting its efficacy is insufficient, as are the data about its benefit:harm ratio. Large, adequately powered multicentre RCTs are required before its widespread use for preventing and treating PPH can be recommended. PMID:25571934

  7. Breastfeeding, retinoids, and postpartum depression: a new theory.

    PubMed

    Mawson, Anthony R; Xueyuan, Wang

    2013-09-25

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is an international public health problem affecting at least 1 in 8 mothers. Known risk factors include: giving birth to a preterm or low birth weight infant, babies with greater symptoms of illness at age 4-6 weeks, formula feeding, younger maternal age, smoking, and fatigue. Prolonged breastfeeding is associated with a reduced risk of PPD but the mechanisms are not well understood. Interventions for PPD focusing on psychosocial risk factors have been largely unsuccessful, suggesting that the condition has a mainly biological basis. The hypothesis proposed for consideration is that breastfeeding protects against PPD by maintaining endogenous retinoids (vitamin A-related compounds) below a threshold concentration. In fact, breast milk is rich in retinoids; pregnant women accumulate retinoids in liver and breast in preparation for lactation; there is increasing evidence that retinoids in higher concentration are associated with cognitive disturbances and mood disorders, including depression and suicide; and prolonged lactation reduces maternal stores of retinoids. Consistent with this hypothesis, it is estimated that an amount of vitamin A is transferred from mother to infant during the first six months of exclusive breastfeeding equivalent to 76% of a dose known to cause acute vitamin A poisoning in an adult. Breastfeeding may thus have evolutionary-adaptive functions for both mother and infant, transferring vital nutrients to an infant unable to feed itself, yet at the same time providing a natural means of reducing potentially toxic concentrations of retinoids in the mother. PMID:23816449

  8. Predictors of breastfeeding in overweight and obese women: data from Active Mothers Postpartum (AMP).

    PubMed

    Krause, Katrina M; Lovelady, Cheryl A; Østbye, Truls

    2011-04-01

    Excess maternal weight has been negatively associated with breastfeeding. We examined correlates of breastfeeding initiation and intensity in a racially diverse sample of overweight and obese women. This paper presents a secondary analysis of data from 450 women enrolled in a postpartum weight loss intervention (Active Mothers Postpartum [AMP]). Sociodemographic measures and body mass index (BMI), collected at 6 weeks postpartum, were examined for associations with breastfeeding initiation and lactation score (a measure combining duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding until 12 months postpartum). Data were collected September 2004-April 2007. In multivariable analyses, BMI was negatively associated with both initiation of breastfeeding (OR: .96; CI: .92-.99) and lactation score (? -0.22; P = 0.01). Education and infant gestational age were additional correlates of initiation, while race, working full-time, smoking, parity, and gestational age were additional correlates of lactation score. Some racial differences in these correlates were noted, but were not statistically significant. Belief that breastfeeding could aid postpartum weight loss was initially high, but unrelated to breastfeeding initiation or intensity. Maintenance of this belief over time, however, was associated with lower lactation scores. BMI was negatively correlated with breastfeeding initiation and intensity. Among overweight and obese women, unrealistic expectations regarding the effect of breastfeeding on weight loss may negatively impact breastfeeding duration. In general, overweight and obese women may need additional encouragement to initiate breastfeeding and to continue breastfeeding during the infant's first year. PMID:20821042

  9. Preventing postpartum smoking relapse among diverse low-income women: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Businelle, Michael S.; Kendzor, Darla E.; Costello, Tracy J.; Daza, Patricia; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Velasquez, Mary M.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Wetter, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Postpartum relapse rates are high among women who spontaneously quit smoking during pregnancy. This randomized clinical trial tested a Motivation and Problem-Solving (MAPS) treatment for reducing postpartum relapse among diverse low-income women who quit smoking during pregnancy (N = 251; 32% Black, 30% Latino, and 36% White; 55% <$30,000/year household income). Methods: Pregnant women were randomly assigned to MAPS/MAPS+ or Usual Care (UC). Continuation ratio logit models were used to examine differences in biochemically confirmed continuous abstinence at Weeks 8 and 26 postpartum by treatment group and moderators of the treatment effect. Analyses controlled for age, race/ethnicity, partner status, education, smoking rate, and the number of smokers in the participant’s environment. Results: MAPS/MAPS+ was more efficacious than UC in the prevention of postpartum relapse (p = .05). An interaction between treatment and the number of cigarettes smoked per day before quitting approached significance (p = .09), suggesting that the MAPS/MAPS+ treatment effect was stronger among women who smoked more cigarettes per day. Discussion: MAPS, a holistic and dynamic approach to changing behavior using a combined motivational enhancement and social cognitive approach, is a promising intervention for postpartum smoking relapse prevention among low-income women, which may have particular relevance for women with higher prequit smoking rates. PMID:20154055

  10. Self-Help Booklets for Preventing Postpartum Smoking Relapse: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Vani Nath; Meade, Cathy D.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Lopez Khoury, Elena N.; Sutton, Steven K.; Lee, Ji-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We tested a series of self-help booklets designed to prevent postpartum smoking relapse. Methods. We recruited 700 women in months 4 through 8 of pregnancy, who quit smoking for their pregnancy. We randomized the women to receive either (1) 10 Forever Free for Baby and Me (FFB) relapse prevention booklets, mailed until 8 months postpartum, or (2) 2 existing smoking cessation materials, as a usual care control (UCC). Assessments were completed at baseline and at 1, 8, and 12 months postpartum. Results. We received baseline questionnaires from 504 women meeting inclusion criteria. We found a main effect for treatment at 8 months, with FFB yielding higher abstinence rates (69.6%) than UCC (58.5%). Treatment effect was moderated by annual household income and age. Among lower income women (postpartum, with respective abstinence rates of 72.2% and 72.1% for FFB and 53.6% and 50.5% for UCC. No effects were found for higher income women. Conclusions. Self-help booklets appeared to be efficacious and offered a low-cost modality for providing relapse-prevention assistance to low-income pregnant and postpartum women. PMID:22994170

  11. Latent Transition Models to Study Women's Changing of Dietary Patterns From Pregnancy to 1 Year Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Herring, Amy H.; Siega-Riz, Anna-Maria

    2013-01-01

    Latent class models are useful for classifying subjects by dietary patterns. Our goals were to use latent transition models to identify dietary patterns during pregnancy and postpartum, to estimate the prevalence of these dietary patterns, and to model transition probabilities between dietary patterns as a function of covariates. Women who were enrolled in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study (University of North Carolina, 2000–2005) were followed for 1 year postpartum, and their diets were assessed in the second trimester and at 3 and 12 months postpartum (n = 519, 484, and 374, respectively) by using a food frequency questionnaire. After adjusting for energy intake, parity, smoking status, race, and education, we identified 3 dietary patterns and named them “prudent,” “health conscious Western,” and “Western.” Nulliparas were 2.9 and 2.1 times more likely to be in the “prudent” class than the “health conscious Western” or the “Western” class, respectively. The 3 dietary patterns were very stable, with the “health conscious Western” class being the least stable; the probability for staying in the same class was 0.74 and 0.87 at 3 and 12 months postpartum, respectively. Breastfeeding mothers were more likely than nonbreastfeeding mothers to switch dietary pattern class (P = 0.0286). Except for breastfeeding mothers, most women did not switch dietary patterns from pregnancy to postpartum. PMID:23538942

  12. Postpartum Triage, Services Provided, and Length of Stay for Infants Born At 35 Weeks Gestation.

    PubMed

    Hagadorn, James I; Salikooti, Saritha; Pappagallo, Mariann; Arias-Camison, Jose; Weiner, Scott; Alba, Jorge; Herson, Victor

    2015-07-01

    Objectives?The aim of this article is to (1) compare the care setting to which 35-week infants are initially triaged postpartum to the level of services subsequently provided; and (2) identify factors known at delivery or immediately postpartum associated with services received and length of stay during the birth hospitalization. Study Design?In this multicenter retrospective study of 35-week infants born between 2007 and 2008, service capabilities of the initial postpartum care setting were categorized as level 1 or neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) using American Academy of Pediatrics definitions. Subsequent services actually provided were categorized as routine care, level 1, or >level 1. Results?Over half of 431 studied infants were sent to a level 1 nursery postpartum. Of these, over 90% ultimately received routine care or level 1 services. Of 200 infants triaged to a NICU, the majority received only routine care or level 1 services. The great majority of infants requiring?>?level 1 services were identified promptly postpartum. Initial triage to the NICU was associated with significantly (p?

  13. Postpartum urinary retention after vaginal delivery: Assessment of risk factors in a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Cavkaytar, Sabri; Kokanal?, Mahmut Kuntay; Baylas, Ay?egül; Topçu, Hasan Onur; Laleli, Bergen; Ta?ç?, Yasemin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the obstetrics risk factors for postpartum urinary retention after vaginal delivery. Material and Methods Of 234 women with a vaginal delivery, 19 (8.1%) women who had postpartum urinary retention were cases, and 215 (91.9%) women who did not were controls. Postpartum urinary retention was defined as the presence of postvoid residual bladder volume ?150 mL or the inability to void within 6 hours after vaginal delivery. Logistic regression analysis identified risk factors for urinary retention. Results Prolonged duration of the second stage of labor (OR=0.46, 95% CI for OR=0.06–3.67, p<0.001), presence of episiotomy (OR=0.07, 95% CI for OR=0.01–0.68, p=0.022) and perineal laceration (OR=97.09, 95% CI for OR=7.93–1188.93, p<0.001), and birth weight of >4000 g for the newborn (OR=0.04, 95% CI for OR=0.01–0.20, p<0.001) were found as independent risk factors for postpartum urinary retention after vaginal delivery. Conclusion Postpartum urinary retention after vaginal delivery is a relatively common condition. Awareness of risk factors, including prolonged second stage of labor, episiotomy, perineal lacerations, and macrosomic birth, may allow us to take the necessary precautions against this complication. PMID:25317040

  14. Postpartum anoestrus is reduced by increasing the within-day milking to suckling interval in dual purpose cows.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Hernández, P; García-Winder, M; Gallegos-Sánchez, J

    2002-10-16

    In the dual purpose milk/beef production system practised in Mexico, the cows are milked once a day in the presence of the calf and then the calf suckles for the next 1-8 h. It was hypothesised that the imposition of milking and suckling in close succession contributes to the long postpartum anoestrous periods experienced by cows in this system. Therefore, separating these two inhibiting factors, by delaying the start of suckling after milking would lower the impact on the hypothalamus-hypophysial axis and allow it to recover more readily. This hypothesis was tested in two experiments using Bostaurus x Bosindicus cows which weighed 541.3 +/- 12.7 kg (mean +/- S.E.M.; experiment 1) and 537.8 +/- 10.6 kg (experiment 2) and had a body condition score of 5-6 (scale 1-9) at calving. The cows and calves were maintained on separate pastures and the cows were offered concentrate supplements. Experiment 1 was conducted in the dry season and cows were offered a daily supplement of 3 kg of 17% crude protein (CP) concentrates plus 1 kg molasses per cow. Experiment 2 was conducted during the wet season and the nutritional supplement consisted of only 1 kg of 17% CP plus 1 kg molasses per cow per day. Each experiment lasted for the first 100 days postpartum and the cows were not mated during this time. Cows were hand-milked once a day in the presence of the calf to stimulate milk let-down. In experiment 1, 30 multiparous cows were assigned at random by date of calving, to one of three treatments: controlled suckling (CS; n = 10), delayed suckling (DS; n = 10) and prolonged delayed suckling (PDS; n = 10). The suckling period on all treatments lasted for 2 h and started at 0 h (CS), 4 h (DS) or 8 h (PDS) after milking. In experiment, 34 multiparous cows were assigned at random to three treatments: CS (n = 11), PDS (n = 11) or prolonged delayed short suckling (PDSS; n = 12), in this last treatment the suckling period was reduced to only 30 min. In both experiments, one quarter of the udder of cows on treatment CS was not milked but all the udder was milked on the other treatments. Body weights of cows and calves and cow milk yields were recorded. Weekly blood samples were collected for plasma progesterone assay to detect the first postpartum corpus luteum. Data were analysed by ANOVA and chi-square test. Cows in experiment 1 had similar weight changes during the first 100 days postpartum. Milk production was higher for DS (8.0 +/- 0.7 kg per day) and PDS (7.0 +/- 0.5 kg per day) cows than for CS (5.2 +/- 0.7 kg per day) cows (P < 0.01). Calf daily gain was greater (P < 0.05) for PDS (827 +/- 35 g per day), than CS (702 +/- 26 g per day) or DS (715 +/- 29 g per day). The proportion of cows ovulating during the first 100 days postpartum were 50.0, 70.0 and 100.0%, for CS, DS and PDS, respectively (P < 0.05). The intervals from calving to first significant rise in progesterone were 70.4 +/- 1.6, 72.1 +/- 1.3 and 64.6 +/- 1.5 days for CS, DS and PDS (P > 0.05), respectively. In experiment 2, cow body weight during the first 100 days postpartum did not differ between treatments. Milk production was not significantly different between CS (7.3 +/- 1.0 kg per day) and PDSS (6.8 +/- 1.0 kg per day), but was higher (P < 0.05) for CS than PDS (5.2 +/- 1.0 kg per day). Calf daily gain was lower for CS (576 +/- 31 g per day; P < 0.05) than PDS (779 +/- 38 g per day) and PDSS (780 +/- 20 g per day). The proportion of cows ovulating was higher (P < 0.05) for treatments PDS (100%) and CS (81.8%) than PDSS (50%). Calving to first ovulation interval was shorter (P < 0.05) for PDS (57.3 +/- 4.5 days) and PDSS (49.7 +/- 3.0 days) cows than CS (72.1 +/- 3.5 days) cows. It is concluded that delaying suckling for 8 h after milking, increases the proportion of cows ovulating within 100 days of calving, shortened the calving to first ovulation interval and improved calf performance without adversely affecting cow milk yield or body weight change. PMID:12363440

  15. Assessment of progesterone profiles and postpartum onset of luteal activity in spring calving Hereford beef suckler cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam D Martin; Marit L Lystad; Olav Reksen; Erik Ropstad; Andres Waldmann; Ola Nafstad; Knut Karlberg

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reproduction is the single greatest factor limiting beef cattle production. Previous research on beef suckler luteal activity has largely focused on the mechanisms, and duration, of postpartum anoestrus. However, the temporal pattern of luteal activity after resumption of post-partum ovarian activity, and the impact of pattern type on days open (DO) in purebred beef suckler cows, are unknown. METHODS:

  16. Zhang et al Effect of a collector bag for measurement of postpartum blood loss after vaginal1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Zhang et al 1 Effect of a collector bag for measurement of postpartum blood loss after vaginal1 collector bag for measurement of postpartum blood loss after vaginal delivery in reducing the6 incidence maternity units and 25381 women who had a vaginal delivery10 Interventions- Maternity units were randomly

  17. Plant use in a city in Northern Italy during the late Mediaeval and Renaissance periods: results of the archaeobotanical investigation of “The Mirror Pit” (14th–15th century a.d .) in Ferrara

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marta Bandini Mazzanti; Giovanna Bosi; Anna Maria Mercuri; Carla Alberta Accorsi; Chiara Guarnieri

    2005-01-01

    Results are presented from archaeobotanical analyses carried out in ‘The Mirror Pit’, a rectangular pit, situated in the city\\u000a of Ferrara, in Emilia Romagna—Northern Italy. The study is part of wider research focused on the Mediaeval period of this\\u000a city. The pit belongs to a building which was in use from the second half of 14th to the end of

  18. The transition from pregnancy to postpartum in previously infertile women: a focus on depression.

    PubMed

    Olshansky, Ellen; Sereika, Susan

    2005-12-01

    Women with previous infertility may be at risk for developing depression during pregnancy (Olshansky, E. (2003). A theoretical explanation for previously infertile mothers' vulnerability to depression. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 35(3), 23-268) and postpartum, a possibility often overlooked in this population. There is a dearth of research about depression in women during the transition from pregnancy to postpartum. This pilot longitudinal, cohort design study examined this transition, focusing on potential predictors of postpartum depression (PPD) in previously infertile women. Two significant variables, marital satisfaction and the "divided self," a condition in which women present an outer compliant self while experiencing internal anger, may be predictors of the development of PPD in new mothers with a history of infertility. Additional research is needed to confirm these preliminary findings. PMID:16308127

  19. Paternal Psychopathology and Maternal Depressive Symptom Trajectory During the First Year Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Zerbe, Gary O.; Hunter, Sharon K.; Ross, Randal G.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding parental psychopathology interaction is important in preventing negative family outcomes. This study investigated the effect of paternal psychiatric history on maternal depressive symptom trajectory from birth to 12 months postpartum. Maternal Edinburgh Postpartum Depression screens were collected at 1, 6 and 12 months and fathers’ psychiatric diagnoses were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV from 64 families. There was not a significant difference in the trajectory of maternal depressive symptoms between mothers with partners with history of or a current psychiatric condition or those without a condition. However, mothers with partners with substance abuse history had higher levels of depressive symptoms relative to those affected by mood/anxiety disorders or those without a disorder. Our results call for a closer look at paternal history of substance abuse when treating postpartum maternal depression. PMID:25478124

  20. Hypertriglyceridemia and unusual lipoprotein subclass distributions associated with late pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Forte, T.M.; Kretchmer, N.; Silliman, K. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1991-03-15

    In the human adult population elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) levels are associated with decreased high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and decreased HDL and LDL particle sizes. Late pregnancy is a hypertriglyceridemic state where little is known about LDL and HDL subpopulation distribution. Plasma lipids, apolipoproteins (apo) and lipoprotein subpopulations were examined in 36 pregnant women at 36 wk pregnancy and 6 wk postpartum and correlated with HDL and LDL size. There was a significant decrease in LDL diameter at 36 wk pre, 25 {plus minus} 0.7 nm compared, with 6 wk post, 26.4 {plus minus} 0.8 nm. A total of 97% of the 36 wk pre subjects had small dense LDL which paralleled increases in apoB concentration. Unlike LDL HDL at 36 wks pre showed a significant increase in larger sized particles where HDL{sub 2b} predominated. There was a positive correlation between HDL{sub 2b} mass and apoAl and HDL-C concentrations. Late pregnancy is a metabolic state where the predominance of large, HDL{sub 2b} particles is discordant with the predominance of small LDL and elevated TG. This annual metabolic pattern may in part be due to hormonal changes occurring in late pregnancy.

  1. Bidimensional and Doppler ultrasonographic evaluation of postpartum uterine involution in the queen.

    PubMed

    Blanco, P G; Rodríguez, R; Batista, P R; Barrena, J P; Arias, D O; Gobello, C

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to describe bidimensional and Doppler ultrasonographic changes of uterine involution during normal feline puerperium. Secondary, the postpartum vaginal discharge was described. Twelve pregnant female cats were included in this study. After queening, vulvar discharge was grossly and microscopically examined daily. Bidimensional and Doppler ultrasonographic examinations of the uterus were performed on Days -4 to -2, 4, 11, 18, and 25 from parturition. Total uterine diameter, uterine wall thickness, uterine lumen contents, peak systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity, and resistance index of uterine arteries were measured. The cats presented serosanguineous vulvar discharge for a mean of 3 ± 1 days after parturition, and the cytology revealed 70% to 80% of erythrocytes, which progressively decreased up to Day 13. Immediately after parturition, there were less than 20% neutrophils, and this percentage gradually diminished to 0% to 1% at the end of the study. Uterine total diameter diminished up to Day 25 (P < 0.01), when ultrasonographic uterine dimensions were similar to that of anestrus. A progressive decrease of uterine wall thickness (P < 0.05), uterine lumen contents (P < 0.01), peak systolic velocity (P < 0.01), and end diastolic velocity (P < 0.01) was found throughout the study period. Conversely, resistance index increased during the first week after parturition (P < 0.01). It is concluded that the uterine artery blood flow progressively decreased during the first 25 days after parturition, which was associated with the bidimensional ultrasonographic regression of the organ. Although lochial discharge disappeared far before ultrasonographic involution, cytologic findings further corroborated the duration of this regression process. PMID:25770977

  2. A Pregnancy and Postpartum Lifestyle Intervention in Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Reduces Diabetes Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Ferrara, Assiamira; Hedderson, Monique M.; Albright, Cheryl L.; Ehrlich, Samantha F.; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Peng, Tiffany; Feng, Juanran; Ching, Jenny; Crites, Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To pilot, among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), the feasibility of a prenatal/postpartum intervention to modify diet and physical activity similar to the Diabetes Prevention Program. The intervention was delivered by telephone, and support for breastfeeding was addressed. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The goal was to help women return to their prepregnancy weight, if it was normal, or achieve a 5% reduction from prepregnancy weight if overweight. Eligible participants were identified shortly after a GDM diagnosis; 83.8% consented to be randomly assigned to intervention or usual medical care (96 and 101 women, respectively). The retention was 85.2% at 12 months postpartum. RESULTS The proportion of women who reached the postpartum weight goal was higher, although not statistically significant, in the intervention condition than among usual care (37.5 vs. 21.4%, absolute difference 16.1%, P = 0.07). The intervention was more effective among women who did not exceed the recommended gestational weight gain (difference in the proportion of women meeting the weight goals: 22.5%, P = 0.04). The intervention condition decreased dietary fat intake more than the usual care (condition difference in the mean change in percent of calories from fat: ?3.6%, P = 0.002) and increased breastfeeding, although not significantly (condition difference in proportion: 15.0%, P = 0.09). No differences in postpartum physical activity were observed between conditions. CONCLUSIONS This study suggests that a lifestyle intervention that starts during pregnancy and continues postpartum is feasible and may prevent pregnancy weight retention and help overweight women lose weight. Strategies to help postpartum women overcome barriers to increasing physical activity are needed. PMID:21540430

  3. Mediators of the Association of Major Depressive Syndrome and Anxiety Syndrome with Postpartum Smoking Relapse

    PubMed Central

    Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Ji, Lingyun; Castro, Yessenia; Heppner, Whitney L.; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Costello, Tracy J.; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Velasquez, Mary M.; Greisinger, Anthony; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Based on conceptual models of addiction and affect regulation, this study examined the mechanisms linking current major depressive syndrome (MDS) and anxiety syndrome (AS) to postpartum smoking relapse. Method Data were collected in a randomized clinical trial from 251 women who quit smoking during pregnancy. Simple and multiple mediation models of the relations of MDS and AS with postpartum relapse were examined using linear regression, continuation ratio logit models, and a Bootstrapping procedure to test the indirect effects. Results Both MDS and AS significantly predicted postpartum smoking relapse. After adjusting for MDS, AS significantly predicted relapse. However, after adjusting for AS, MDS no longer predicted relapse. Situationally-based self-efficacy, expectancies of controlling negative affect by means other than smoking, and various dimensions of primary and secondary tobacco dependence individually mediated the effect of both MDS and AS on relapse. In multiple mediation models, self-efficacy in negative/affective situations significantly mediated the effect of MDS and AS on relapse. Conclusion The findings underscore the negative impact of depression and anxiety on postpartum smoking relapse, and suggest that the effects of MDS on postpartum relapse may be largely explained by comorbid AS. The current investigation provided mixed support for affect regulation models of addiction. Cognitive and tobacco dependence-related aspects of negative and positive reinforcement significantly mediated the relationship of depression and anxiety with relapse, while affect and stress did not. The findings emphasize the unique role of low agency with respect to abstaining from smoking in negative affective situations as a key predictor of postpartum smoking relapse. PMID:22390410

  4. Genetic contribution to postpartum haemorrhage in Swedish population: cohort study of 466?686 births

    PubMed Central

    Hernandéz-Dia?, Sonia; Frisell, Thomas; Greene, Michael F; Almqvist, Catarina; Bateman, Brian T

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the familial clustering of postpartum haemorrhage in the Swedish population, and to quantify the relative contributions of genetic and environmental effects. Design Register based cohort study. Setting Swedish population (multi-generation and medical birth registers). Main outcome measure Postpartum haemorrhage, defined as >1000 mL estimated blood loss. Participants The first two live births to individuals in Sweden in 1997-2009 contributed to clusters representing intact couples (n=366?350 births), mothers with separate partners (n=53?292), fathers with separate partners (n=47?054), sister pairs (n=97?228), brother pairs (n=91?168), and mixed sibling pairs (n=177?944). Methods Familial clustering was quantified through cluster specific tetrachoric correlation coefficients, and the influence of potential sharing of known risk factors was evaluated with alternating logistic regression. Relative contributions of genetic and environmental effects to the variation in liability for postpartum haemorrhage were quantified with generalised linear mixed models. Results The overall prevalence of postpartum haemorrhage after vaginal deliveries in our sample was 4.6%. Among vaginal deliveries, 18% (95% confidence interval 9% to 26%) of the variation in postpartum haemorrhage liability was attributed to maternal genetic factors, 10% (1% to 19%) to unique maternal environment, and 11% (0% to 26%) to fetal genetic effects. Adjustment for known risk factors only partially explained estimates of familial clustering, suggesting that the observed shared genetic and environmental effects operate in part through pathways independent of known risk factors. There were similar patterns of familial clustering for both of the main subtypes examined (atony and retained placenta), though strongest for haemorrhage after retained placenta. Conclusions There is a maternal genetic predisposition to postpartum haemorrhage, but more than half of the total variation in liability is attributable to factors that are not shared in families. PMID:25121825

  5. Gender differences in postpartum depression: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Artazcoz, Lucía

    2010-01-01

    Background The course of depression from pregnancy to 1?year post partum and risk factors among mothers and fathers are not known. Aims (1) To report the longitudinal patterns of depression from the third trimester of pregnancy to 1?year after childbirth; (2) to determine the gender differences between women and their partners in the effect of psychosocial and personal factors on postpartum depression. Methods A longitudinal cohort study was carried out over a consecutive sample of 769 women in their third trimester of pregnancy and their partners attending the prenatal programme in the Valencian Community (Spain) and follow-up at 3 and 12?months post partum. The outcome variable was the presence of depression at 3 or 12?months post partum measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Predictor variables were: psychosocial (marital dissatisfaction, confidant and affective social support) and personal (history of depression, partner's depression and negative life events, depression during the third trimester of pregnancy) variables. Logistic regression models were fitted via generalised estimating equations. Results At 3 and 12?months post partum, 9.3% and 4.4% of mothers and 3.4% and 4.0% of fathers, respectively, were newly diagnosed as having depression. Low marital satisfaction, partner's depression and depression during pregnancy increased the probability of depression during the first 12?months after birth in mothers and fathers. Negative life events increased the risk of depression only among mothers. Conclusions Psychosocial and personal factors were strong predictors of depression during the first 12?months post partum for both mothers and fathers. PMID:20515899

  6. Postpartum impairment of pelvic floor muscle function: factors involved and association with prolapse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irene Diez-Itza; Miren Arrue; Larraitz Ibañez; Jone Paredes; Arantzazu Murgiondo; Cristina Sarasqueta

    Introduction and hypothesis  The aim of this study is to assess factors involved in the impairment of pelvic floor muscle (PFM) function from antepartum\\u000a to 6 months postpartum. We also investigated whether reduced PFM strength was associated with pelvic organ prolapse (POP)\\u000a postpartum.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This was a prospective cohort study including 319 primigravid women delivered vaginally. PFM function was assessed in pregnant\\u000a women

  7. A qualitative study of treatment needs among pregnant and postpartum women with substance use and depression.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Caroline; Schonbrun, Yael Chatav; Zlotnick, Caron; Bates, Nicole; Todorova, Ralitsa; Kao, Jennifer Chien-Wen; Johnson, Jennifer

    2013-12-01

    Little is known about treatment for pregnant and postpartum women with co-occurring substance use and depression. Funded by the National Institute of Drug Abuse, we conducted three focus groups with 18 pregnant and postpartum women in 2011 at an urban substance use treatment clinic. A semi-structured discussion guide probed for factors impacting treatment outcomes and needs. Data were analyzed using grounded theory. Women identified motivational, family, friend, romantic, and agency characteristics as facilitative or challenging to their recoveries, and desired structure (group treatment, a safe environment, and transportation) and content (attention to mental health, family, and gender-specific issues) of treatment. PMID:23819737

  8. A qualitative study of treatment needs among pregnant and postpartum women with substance use and depression

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Caroline; Schonbrun, Yael Chatav; Zlotnick, Caron; Bates, Nicole; RalitsaTodorova; Chien-Wen Kao, Jennifer; Johnson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about treatment for pregnant and postpartum women with co-occurring substance use and depression. Funded by the National Institute of Drug Abuse, we conducted three focus groups with 18 pregnant and postpartum women in 2011 at an urban substance use treatment clinic. A semi-structured discussion guide probed for factors impacting treatment outcomes and needs. Data were analyzed using grounded theory. Women identified motivational, family, friend, romantic, and agency characteristics as facilitative or challenging to their recoveries, and desired structure (group treatment, a safe environment, transportation) and content (attention to mental health, family, and gender-specific issues) of treatment. PMID:23819737

  9. Biochemical markers of bone turnover in the dairy cow during lactation and the dry period

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Holtenius; A. Ekelund

    2005-01-01

    We measured a bone-formation marker recognizing osteocalcin, and a bone-resorption marker recognizing C-telopeptide (CTx) fragments of collagen type I, in a longitudinal study. The levels of these markers in the plasma of dairy cows (n=11) were recorded over a 12 month postpartum period, including a full lactation and a dry period. The plasma concentration of CTx was highest in the

  10. Critical developmental periods for effects on male rat genitalia induced by finasteride, a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Clark, R L; Anderson, C A; Prahalada, S; Robertson, R T; Lochry, E A; Leonard, Y M; Stevens, J L; Hoberman, A M

    1993-03-01

    The conversion of testosterone to 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone by the enzyme 5 alpha-reductase is inhibited by finasteride. In a study in which maternal dosing with finasteride commenced on Gestational Day 15 and terminated on Postpartum Day 21, there were 13 and 27% decreases in anogenital distance of male pups on Postnatal Day 1 at 0.03 and 3 mg/kg/day, respectively. These decreases were largely reversed by Postnatal Day 22 even though treatment of the dams continued. Treatment at 3 mg/kg/day also resulted in hypospadias with cleft prepuce and a 5-day delay in the separation of the prepuce from the glans penis in those animals without hypospadias. A second study in which 20 mg/kg/day finasteride was administered on successive 2-day periods during late gestation in rats demonstrated that the period of Gestational Days 16 to 17 was the most sensitive (critical period) for finasteride-induced hypospadias, cleft prepuce, decreased anogenital distance, reduced prostate weight, and nipple formation in F1 male offspring. This critical period is just prior to the appearance on Day 18 of gestation of a midline mesenchymal plate between the urogenital sinus and the rectum in normal male fetuses. This midline plate does not appear in finasteride-exposed fetuses destined to have hypospadias as demonstrated in a previous study. Based on these observations, we hypothesize that finasteride causes hypospadias by preventing the formation of the medial mesenchymal plate which is necessary for assisting the movement of the urogenital sinus from the base to the tip of the genital tubercle. PMID:8385814

  11. Periodic functions with variable period

    E-print Network

    M. V Pryjmak

    2010-06-08

    The examples of rhythmical signals with variable period are considered. The definition of periodic function with the variable period is given as a model of such signals. The examples of such functions are given and their variable periods are written in the explicit form. The system of trigonometric functions with the variable period is considered and its orthogonality is proved. The generalized system of trigonometric functions with the variable period is also suggested; some conditions of its existence are considered.

  12. Curtis CR, Erb HN, Sniffen CJ, Smith RD, Kron-feld DJ (1985) Path analysis of dry period

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1985-01-01

    period nutrition, postpartum metabolic and repro- ductive disorders, and mastitis in Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci, 68, 2347-2360 Espinasse J (1985) Mieux connaitre, comprendre et maitriser la fécondité bovine influengant la repro- duction des troupeaux allaitants. In: Annuel pourl'eleveurde bovins ITEB ed, 41

  13. Transient nature of late Pleistocene climate variability

    E-print Network

    LETTERS Transient nature of late Pleistocene climate variability Thomas J. Crowley1 & William T. Hyde2 Climate in the early Pleistocene1 varied with a period of 41 kyr and was related to variations. There is an increase in variability after the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary (,1.8 Myr ago), with clear evidence

  14. The relationship between maternal attitudes and symptoms of depression and anxiety among pregnant and postpartum first-time mothers.

    PubMed

    Sockol, Laura E; Epperson, C Neill; Barber, Jacques P

    2014-06-01

    Two studies examined the relationship between maternal attitudes and symptoms of depression and anxiety during pregnancy and the early postpartum period. In the first study, a measure of maternal attitudes, the Attitudes Toward Motherhood Scale (AToM), was developed and validated in a sample of first-time mothers. The AToM was found to have good internal reliability and convergent validity with cognitive biases and an existing measure of maternal attitudes. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses determined that the measure comprises three correlated factors: beliefs about others' judgments, beliefs about maternal responsibility, and maternal role idealization. In the second study, we used the AToM to assess the relationship between maternal attitudes and other psychological variables. The factor structure of the measure was confirmed. Maternal attitudes predicted symptoms of depression and anxiety, and these attitudes had incremental predictive validity over general cognitive biases and interpersonal risk factors. Overall, the results of these studies suggest that maternal attitudes are related to psychological distress among first-time mothers during the transition to parenthood and may provide a useful means of identifying women who may benefit from intervention during the perinatal period. PMID:24643422

  15. A new carnivorous dinosaur from the Late Jurassic Solnhofen archipelago

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ursula B. Göhlich; Luis M. Chiappe

    2006-01-01

    Small Late Jurassic theropod dinosaurs are rare worldwide. In Europe these carnivorous dinosaurs are represented primarily by only two skeletons of Compsognathus, neither of which is well preserved. Here we describe a small new theropod dinosaur from the Late Jurassic period of Schamhaupten in southern Germany. Being exquisitely preserved and complete from the snout to the distal third of the

  16. Relationship of Plasma Nonesterified Fatty Acids and Walking Activity in Postpartum Dairy Cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Adewuyi; J. B. Roelofs; E. Gruys; M. J. M. Toussaint; Eerdenburg van F. J. C. M

    2006-01-01

    To survive and produce milk, postpartum dairy cows use their reserves through lipolysis. If the negative energy balance is severe, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) are formed that can impair several physiological processes. A pilot study suggested that increased walking activity after calving may be related to a reduced serum concentration of NEFA. The objective of this study was to determine

  17. Antenatal risk factors for postpartum depression: a synthesis of recent literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emma Robertson; Sherry Grace; Tamara Wallington; Donna E Stewart

    2004-01-01

    Postpartum nonpsychotic depression is the most common complication of childbearing, affecting approximately 10–15% of women and, as such, represents a considerable health problem affecting women and their families. This systematic review provides a synthesis of the recent literature pertaining to antenatal risk factors associated with developing this condition. Databases relating to the medical, psychological, and social science literature were searched

  18. The occurrence of permanent thyroid failure in patients with subclinical postpartum thyroiditis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Azizi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The long-term effect of the subclinical form of postpartum thyroid dysfunction (PPTD) has not been well established. This study was conducted to evaluate the outcome of permanent hypothyr- oidism in a large cohort of women with PPTD. Design and methods: Of 213 women with PPTD, 172 (81%) returned for follow-up. There were 27 (16%) with subclinical (group 1) and

  19. Perceptions and Satisfaction with Father Involvement and Adolescent Mothers' Postpartum Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jay; Lee, Yookyong

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations between adolescent mothers' postpartum depressive symptoms and their perceptions of amount of father care giving and satisfaction with father involvement with the baby. The sample included 100 adolescent mothers (ages 13-19; mainly African-American and Latina) whose partners were recruited for a randomized…

  20. The Relationship Between Sleep Characteristics and Fatigue In Healthy Postpartum Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacqueline Rychnovsky; Lauren P. Hunter

    2009-01-01

    Background. Postpartum sleep is a difficult and complicated concept to measure owing to the intrusive nature of research at a sensitive and private time for new families. Nurses often find themselves advising mothers on ways to improve sleep and reduce fatigue based on teachings that are not evidence based. The purpose of this secondary analysis of a larger study of

  1. Anxiety and stress in the postpartum: Is there more to postnatal distress than depression?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renée L Miller; Julie F Pallant; Lisa M Negri

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postnatal depression has received considerable research and clinical attention, however anxiety and stress in the postpartum has been relatively ignored. Along with the widespread use of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), depression has become the marker for postnatal maladjustment. Symptoms of anxiety tend to be subsumed within diagnoses of depression, which can result in anxiety being minimized or

  2. Use of Transabdominal Ultrasound Imaging in Retraining the Pelvic-Floor Muscles of a Woman Postpartum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allison Ariail; Trace Sears; Elizabeth Hampton

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Postpartum stress urinary incontinence (SUI) of- ten compromises a woman's ability to participate in normal daily routines or physical activities. Pelvic-floor muscle (PFM) training has been shown to be effective in improving urinary incontinence. Transabdominal ultrasound (TAUS) imaging is a new, noninvasive method for assessing the function of the PFMs. This case report describes the use of

  3. Not Just a Middle-Class Affliction: Crafting a Social Work Research Agenda on Postpartum Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Laura S.; Curran, Laura

    2007-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a major mental health disorder that affects at least 13 percent of new mothers and has detrimental consequences for populations that are of concern to social workers, such as low-income women, women of color, young women, and single mothers. Despite the relevance of PPD to multiple social work problems and…

  4. The effects of adrenalectomy and corticosterone replacement on maternal memory in postpartum rats

    E-print Network

    Sokolowski, Marla

    The effects of adrenalectomy and corticosterone replacement on maternal memory in postpartum rats M prime rats to behave maternally, although hormonal changes are not necessary for these behaviors with corticosterone or vehicle pellets being given to adrenalectomized rats. Pups were removed immediately following

  5. Objective sleep of older primiparous Japanese women during the first 4 months postpartum: an actigraphic study.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Hiroko; Mori, Emi; Tsuchiya, Miyako; Sakajo, Akiko; Saeki, Akiko; Maehara, Kunie; Ozawa, Harumi; Morita, Akiko; Maekawa, Tomoko

    2015-03-01

    This longitudinal study was designed to examine objective sleep parameters of older primiparous Japanese women during the first 4 months postpartum using actigraphy. The participants were 18 older primiparae (Mean (SD)?=?37.06 (2.62) years, range 35-44 years) who gave birth to healthy neonates at one of three urban Japanese hospitals. Objective sleep quality was measured using actigraphy for 48?h at 1, 2 and 4 months postpartum. The Friedman test was used to test for differences in sleep parameters across time. Sleep duration (SMIN) increased significantly from 2 months (Mean (M)?=?301.94?min) to 4 months (M?=?372.78?min). Sleep efficiency (SE) increased significantly from 1 month (73.52%) to 2 (86.66%) and 4 months (89.05%). Waking after sleep onset (WASO) decreased significantly from 1 month (M?=?114.64?min) to 2 (M?=?40.18?min) and 4 months (M?=?38.36?min) and long waking episodes (LWEP) significantly decreased from 1 month (4.67) to 2 (2.69) and 4 months (3.12). Persistent postpartum sleep problems can be a sign of postpartum depression as well as health problems among infants. PMID:25759196

  6. Antepartum and Postpartum Exposure to Maternal Depression: Different Effects on Different Adolescent Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Dale F.; Pawlby, Susan; Waters, Cerith S.; Sharp, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Background: Postpartum depression (PPD) is considered a major public health problem that conveys risk to mothers and offspring. Yet PPD typically occurs in the context of a lifelong episodic illness, and its putative effects might derive from the child's exposure to other episodes, in pregnancy or later childhood. The aim of the study is to test…

  7. Assessment of quality of care in postpartum wards of Shaheed Beheshti Medical Science University hospitals, 2004

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Simbar; Z. Alizadeh Dibazari; J. Abed Saeidi; H. Alavi Majd

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – Despite 77 per cent antenatal care coverage and 90 per cent skilled attendant at delivery, adjusted maternal mortality in Iran is 76 per 100,000 births. Low quality of maternal health services is one cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. However, few and limited studies have been devoted to the quality of postpartum care in Iran. This study aims

  8. INFLUENCE OF FEVER AND METABOLIC DISORDERS ON MILK YIELD AND REPRODUCTION IN POSTPARTUM COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field trial was conducted to monitor body temperature and identify metabolic disorders (MD) on 135 Holstein cows (42 primiparous and 93 multiparous) for 7 d postpartum (PP). Effects of fever and MD on reproductive performance and subsequent milk production (November through July) of cows were dete...

  9. Knowledge and willingness to use emergency contraception among low-income post-partum women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca Jackson; Eleanor Bimla Schwarz; Lori Freedman; Philip Darney

    2000-01-01

    We performed a multivariate analysis to determine factors associated with knowledge and willingness to use emergency contraception in a consecutive sample of 371 post-partum women from an inner-city public hospital. Women were queried about previous contraceptive use, pregnancy history including abortions and unplanned pregnancies, and demographic characteristics. Outcomes included knowledge of emergency contraception and willingness to use it. Questionnaires were

  10. Management and evolution of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia during pregnancy and postpartum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evangelos Paraskevaidis; George Koliopoulos; Sophia Kalantaridou; Lambrini Pappa; Iordanis Navrozoglou; Kostas Zikopoulos; Dimitrios E Lolis

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the evolution of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and to evaluate the safety of cytological and colposcopical surveillance of women with CIN during pregnancy. Study design: Ninety-eight women with antenatal cytological and\\/or colposcopical impression of CIN were followed up during pregnancy with cytology and colposcopy every 2 months. A cytological and colposcopical reevaluation 2 months postpartum was done,

  11. Uptake of contraception during postpartum amenorrhoea: Understandings and preferences of poor, urban women in Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Salway; Sufia Nurani

    1998-01-01

    In urban Bangladesh, as in many other settings, an immediate postpartum family planning strategy prevails, where providers seek to promote and provide contraception at 40–45 days following birth to women regardless of their breastfeeding or menstrual status. Despite such practices, the majority of women choose to delay the initiation of contraception until menses resumes, often several months after birth. The

  12. Prevalence and characteristics of Postpartum Depression symptomatology among Canadian women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study aims to look at the prevalence and characteristics of postpartum depression symptomatology (PPDS) among Canadian women. Studies have found that in developed countries, 10-15% of new mothers were affected by major postpartum depression. Mothers who suffer from postpartum depression may endure difficulties regarding their ability to cope with life events, as well as negative clinical implications for maternal-infant attachment. Methods An analysis based on 6,421 Canadian women, who had a live birth between 2005 and 2006 and were part of the Maternity Experience Survey (MES), was performed. PPDS was measured based on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Various factors that assessed socio-economic status, demographic factors, and maternal characteristics were considered for the multinomial regression model. Results The national prevalence of minor/major and major PPDS was found to be 8.46% and 8.69% respectively. A mother's stress level during pregnancy, the availability of support after pregnancy, and a prior diagnosis of depression were the characteristics that had the strongest significant association with the development of PPDS. Conclusions A significant number of Canadian women experience symptoms of postpartum depression. Findings from this study may be useful to increase both the attainment of treatment and the rate at which it can be obtained among new mothers. Interventions should target those with the greatest risk of experiencing PPDS, specifically immigrant and adolescent mothers. PMID:21569372

  13. Comprehensive Treatment of Women with Postpartum Psychosis across Health Care Systems from Swedish Psychiatrists' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engqvist, Inger; Ahlin, Arne; Ferszt, Ginette; Nilsson, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    Studies concerning the psychiatrist's experiences of treating women with postpartum psychosis (PPP) or how they react to these women are limited in the literature. In this study a qualitative design is used. Data collection includes semi-structured interviews with nine Swedish psychiatrists working in psychiatric hospitals. The audio-taped…

  14. Subclinical Mastitis Is Common Among Ghanaian Women Lactating 3 to 4 Months Postpartum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richmond N. O. Aryeetey; Grace S. Marquis; Leo Timms; Anna Lartey; Lucy Brakohiapa

    2008-01-01

    Subclinical mastitis (SCM) is an asymptomatic inflammation of mammary tissue and has been associated with lactation failure, suboptimal growth in early infancy, and increased risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV via breast milk. A rapid survey was carried out to determine the prevalence of SCM among lactating Ghanaian women between 3 and 4 months postpartum. Bilateral breast milk samples were

  15. Role of uterine contraction in regeneration of the murine postpartum endometrium.

    PubMed

    Yoshii, Asuka; Kitahara, Shuji; Ueta, Hisashi; Matsuno, Kenjiro; Ezaki, Taichi

    2014-08-01

    The endometrium undergoes continuous repair and regeneration without scarring throughout the reproductive life of women. However, the mechanisms responsible for this complete restoration remain mostly unexplored. We hypothesized that the ischemic state and local hypoxia present after parturition may create a special microenvironment for endometrial healing, and that this ischemia might be caused by reduction in organ volume via postpartum uterine contraction. Here, we developed a mouse model using a combination of cesarean section and the administration of a beta 2 adrenergic receptor agonist (ritodrine hydrochloride) in postpartum mice that had been ovariectomized to exclude the effect of ovarian hormones. Our results revealed that transient hypoxia indeed occurred in postpartum uteri. Furthermore, we found that the number of M2 macrophages, which play a central role in wound healing, peaked on Postpartum Day 3 and gradually decreased thereafter in hypoxic injury sites. Almost concurrently, significant upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) was observed. In particular, the antifibrotic factor TGFbeta3 was released during the endometrial healing process. These changes were significantly suppressed by inhibition of uterine contraction. Taken together, these results suggest that uterine contraction is essential, not only for hemostasis, but also for endometrial regeneration, leading to a process that involves the activation of macrophages, increased endometrial cell proliferation, and upregulation of nonfibrotic growth factors. This study paves the way to a novel approach for investigating the process of scarless wound healing. PMID:24966392

  16. Childhood Sexual Abuse as a Predictor of Birth-Related Posttraumatic Stress and Postpartum Posttraumatic Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Daphna-Tekoah, Shir; Hallak, Mordechai

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the extent to which childbirth may function as a retraumatization of childhood sexual abuse, and may exacerbate postpartum posttraumatic stress reactions. Methods: Data was obtained from a convenience sample of 837 women in mid-pregnancy, at 2 and 6 months following childbirth. Three groups were drawn from this sample:…

  17. Effects of overfeeding antepartum and underfeeding postpartum on milk production and excretion

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Effects of overfeeding antepartum and underfeeding postpartum on milk production and excretion of ketone bodies in milk P Miettinen Department of Anatomy, University of Kuopio, SF 70211 Kuopio, Finland, there is no data available about the total amount of ketone bodies excreted in milk at different feeding levels

  18. ARGININE FLUX AND NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION DURING HUMAN PREGNANCY AND POSTPARTUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To compare second-trimester, third-trimester, and postpartum arginine flux and nitric oxide production using infusions of the stable isotope L-[(15)N(2)]-arginine in normal human gestation, kinetic measurements were made in pregnant volunteers with uncomplicated singleton gestations in mid gestation...

  19. Effect of propylene glycol on pre- and postpartum performance by dairy ewes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Chiofalo; M. Todaro; L. Liotta; S. Margiotta; T. Manzo; G. Leto

    2005-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to determine the effects, after feeding propylene glycol to Valle del Belice ewes 30 days prepartum and 30 days postpartum, on metabolic profiles, body-condition score, milk yield, milk composition, milk clotting ability and the performance of suckling lambs. Ewes were blocked by parity, body-condition score and previous milk production, and assigned randomly to

  20. Postpartum Depression Prevention for Reservation-Based American Indians: Results from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Barlow, Allison; Goklish, Novalene; Hastings, Ranelda; Baker, Elena Varipatis; Mullany, Britta; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Walkup, John

    2012-01-01

    Background: Postpartum depression is a devastating condition that affects a significant number of women and their offspring. Few preventive interventions have targeted high risk youth, such as American Indians (AIs). Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of a depression prevention program for AI adolescents and young adults. Methods: Expectant AI…

  1. Cross-cultural and social diversity of prevalence of postpartum depression and depressive symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uriel Halbreich; Sandhya Karkun

    2006-01-01

    BackgroundThe prevalence of postpartum depression (PPD) is currently considered to be 10–15%. Most studies were performed with a brief unidimensional instruments (mostly the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale—EPDS) with focus on depression and not on other symptoms and disorders. Most cited studies were conducted in Western economically developed countries.

  2. Prenatal micronutrient supplementation and postpartum depressive symptoms in a pregnancy cohort

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Postpartum depression is a serious problem for women and their offspring. Micronutrient supplements are recommended for pregnant women because of their documented protective effects for the offspring, but their potential beneficial effects on maternal mental health are unknown. This study investigated the association between prenatal micronutrient supplementation and the risk for symptoms of postpartum depression in a longitudinal pregnancy cohort from the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study. Methods Participants came from a cohort of the first 600 APrON women. Supplemental nutrient intake and symptoms of depression (measured with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)) were collected at each trimester and 12 weeks postpartum. Results Of the 475 participants who completed the EPDS at least twice in pregnancy and at 12 weeks postpartum, 416 (88%) scored <10 and 59 (12%) scored ?10, where an EPDS ?10 is considered to be “at least probable minor depression”. Mean nutrient intakes from supplements were higher in women with lower EPDS scores, particularly selenium (p = 0.0015) and omega-3s (p = 0.01). Bivariate analyses showed that several demographic and social/lifestyle variables were associated with EPDS ?10: not having been born in Canada (p = 0.01), greater number of chronic conditions (p = 0.05), greater number of stressful life events during this pregnancy (p = 0.02), and lower prenatal and postnatal support (p = 0.0043 and p = 0.0001, respectively). Adjusting for covariates and nutrients known to be associated with postpartum depression, logistic regression showed that having a prenatal EPDS ? 10 increased the odds of postpartum depressive symptoms (second and third trimester OR = 3.29, 95% CI = 1.55 - 7.01, p = 0.004 and OR = 4.26, 95% CI = 2.05 - 8.85, p < 0.0001, respectively), while prenatal supplemental selenium (per 10 mcg, OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.74 - 0.78, p = 0.0019) and postnatal social support (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.78 - 0.97, p = 0.0015) were protective. Conclusions Multiple factors, including supplementary selenium intake, are associated with the risk of postpartum depressive symptoms. Future research on dietary supplementation in pregnancy with special attention to selenium intake is warranted. PMID:23324464

  3. Period Cramps

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Games Kids' Medical Dictionary En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Girls and Puberty Boys and Puberty ... help push the blood out through a girl's vagina during her period . You probably know periods usually ...

  4. [Peripartum period and hemophilia carriers].

    PubMed

    Bonnet, A; Chevalier, Y; Wallon, G; Huissoud, C; Aubrun, F

    2013-11-01

    Women who are carriers for hemophilia are usually considered as safe carriers. However, they can present hemorragic symptoms associated with low factor VIII or IX levels. During pregancy, factor VIII increases whereas factor IX does not. The peripartum period is at risk of increased bleeding in these women. Here are presented reports of clinical data concerning two hemophilia carriers with low factor VIII or IX (30-40%) during the peripartum period. They received remifentanil and ketamine for labor pain management because of contraindication of epidural and spinal analgesia. Delivery occured quickly but they presented immediate moderate postpartum haemorrage. They did not necessitate blood transfusion. The one with hemophilia A received desmopressin just after delivery and the other one received factor IX when she arrived in delivery room. Blood factor VIII or IX has to be assessed in these women with familial history of hemophilia and bleeding. During pregnancy, factor VIII increases and can be assessed many times during pregnancy expecting a level over 50%. Factor IX does not really increase during pregancy and hemorrage can occur. Epidural and spinal anesthesia seem to be contraindicated as far as recommandations are concerned. Coagulation factor substitution is a mean of increasing factor level before these anaesthesias and can be discussed for each case. PMID:24161296

  5. Ghrelin and peptide YY in postpartum lactating and nonlactating women123

    PubMed Central

    Ravussin, Eric; Heilbronn, Leonie; DeJonge, Lilian

    2010-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic studies suggest that childbearing is an important contributor to the development of obesity in many women and that breastfeeding may be protective. Ghrelin and peptide YY (PYY) are gut hormones involved in appetite regulation and energy homeostasis and are biological neuroendocrine signals that potentially affect body weight and adiposity. Objective: This study evaluated whether fasting or postprandial ghrelin or PYY is different between lactating and nonlactating postpartum women matched for age, body weight, and adiposity. Design: Ten postpartum lactating women (mean ± SD: 28.1 ± 4.9 y of age, 69.2 ± 11.3 kg, 35.4 ± 6.6% body fat) and 8 nonlactating women (28.8 ± 7.6 y of age, 75.6 ± 13.7 kg, 37.5 ± 6.5% body fat) at 4–5 wk postpartum underwent measurements of body weight, body composition, and ghrelin and PYY responses to a standardized meal (350 kcal). Seven never-pregnant women served as control subjects (29.7 ± 4.1 y of age, 60.4 ± 4.8 kg, 25.5 ± 2.0% body fat). Results: Ghrelin concentrations decreased, whereas PYY concentrations increased significantly (P < 0.05) in response to the meal, but fasting or meal-induced changes were not significantly different between lactating and nonlactating women. The fasting ghrelin concentration correlated with body mass index (r = ?0.53, P < 0.05) and was significantly lower in postpartum than in control women (894.9 ± 247.7 compared with 1316.9 ± 241.0 pg/mL), even after adjustment for body mass index. Conclusions: Our data do not support the notion that ghrelin, PYY, or both are plausible neuroendocrine signals that influence body weight regulation during lactation. They suggest, however, that ghrelin may change with increased adiposity in the postpartum state and may potentially play a role in body weight regulation after child birth. PMID:20007306

  6. Technical note: The use of a sonomicrometry system for monitoring uterine involution in postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Heppelmann, M; Krach, K; Krüger, L; Benz, P; Herzog, K; Piechotta, M; Hoedemaker, M; Bollwein, H

    2015-03-01

    Sonomicrometry allows the measurement of the distance between 2 piezoelectric crystals and has been widely used to investigate the contractility of the heart and gastrointestinal tract. The objective of this study was to determine whether this method can be used to quantify the reduction in uterine size in cows postpartum. Seven healthy pluriparous Holstein Friesian cows (3.7±0.7 yr old, parity 2.4±0.5, mean±SD) were used. Three weeks before calving, 4 piezoelectric crystals were implanted via laparotomy in the myometrium of the greater curvature of the pregnant uterine horn in a longitudinal direction. Sonometric measurements were conducted daily from 2 d before parturition until 14 d after calving, followed by measurements every other day until d 28. Changes in the distance between neighboring crystals were presented as relative changes (%) from baseline values before parturition. The diameter of the previously pregnant uterine horn was measured using transrectal B-mode sonography from d 10 to 28 after calving. The cows were slaughtered 39±6 d postpartum and the uterus was evaluated for fixation of the crystals. The distances between neighboring crystals underwent changes with a reduction of greater than 50% until d 1 postpartum, but no further changes were recorded from d 1 to 7. In the second week, changes in all distances were affected by day postpartum. One distance was affected by day postpartum in wk 3 and 4. There was a positive correlation between the diameter of the previously pregnant horn and the distances between the crystals. Examination of the uterus after slaughter of the cows revealed that 8 crystals (29%) were no longer fixed in the myometrium. Seven of these (25%) could be evaluated completely or partially and 1 (4%) could not be analyzed. Sonomicrometry seems to be suitable for the objective measurement of reduction in uterine length in cows. PMID:25529413

  7. Oxidative stress index (OSi) as a new tool to assess redox status in dairy cattle during the transition period.

    PubMed

    Abuelo, A; Hernández, J; Benedito, J L; Castillo, C

    2013-08-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) plays a key role in the initiation or progression of numerous diseases, and dairy cows undergo OS at the transition period. However, discrepancies between methodologies make it difficult to make comparisons between studies, and therefore research on this topic may not be implemented in farms. This study aims to test under field conditions the use of an oxidative stress index (OSi) as a combined measurement through a ratio between pro-oxidants and antioxidants throughout the transition period in dairy farms. Serum samples of high-yielding dairy cows were taken, and markers of oxidative damage and antioxidant capacity were measured in four different production stages: (i) late lactation (LL; -2 to -1 months); (ii) prepartum (PrP; -1 month until parturition); (iii) postpartum (PsP; delivery to +1 month); and (iv) peak of lactation (PkL; +1 to +2.5 months). Values were compared between production stages and against a metabolic baseline status (CTR, 4th to 5th month of gestation). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature that discusses the values of these oxidative stress biomarkers (and the OS index) for cows with low metabolic demands, as to date most research in this area has focused on the transition period. With the joint evaluation through the OSi, differences were found that were not present with the separate evaluation of pro-oxidants or antioxidants, thus supporting our hypothesis that the OSi indicates more accurately the oxidative status of the animals. It was also confirmed that dairy cows undergo OS after parturition, and that antioxidant supplementation from 1 month before parturition until the peak of lactation may be needed to reduce the risk of OS. PMID:23510791

  8. Periodic Table

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Using the Macromedia Shockwave Player, this American Chemical Society website offers three interactive periodic tables. Students can find the basic data on each element including its atomic radius, stable isotopes, melting point, and density in the first periodic table tab. The website identifies different elemental groups by color. Users can view the electron configuration by selecting elements on the periodic table in the second tab. The last tab offers plots of the elements' electronegativity, ionization energy, and other properties.

  9. Dopamine or thyrotropin-releasing hormone effects on luteinizing hormone secretion in heifers and on the postpartum interval in cows 

    E-print Network

    Lovin, Jeffrey Clay

    1984-01-01

    DOPAMINE OR THYROTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE EFFECTS ON LUTEINIZING HORMONE SECRETION IN HEIFERS AND ON THE POSTPARTUM INTERVAL IN COWS A Thesis by Jeffrey Clay Lovin Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial... fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1984 Major Subject: Physiology of Reproduction DOPAMINE OR THYROTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE EFFECTS ON LUTEINIZING HORMONE SECRETION IN HEIFERS AND ON THE POSTPARTUM INTERVAL...

  10. Are prenatal, obstetric, and infant complications associated with postpartum psychosis among women with pre-conception psychiatric hospitalisations?

    PubMed Central

    Hellerstedt, WL; Phelan, SM; Cnattingius, S; Hultman, CM; Harlow, BL

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations of maternal and infant complications with postpartum hospitalisation for psychosis in women with a pre-conception history of psychiatric hospitalisation. Design Population-based study. Setting Swedish medical birth register. Population Primiparous women who gave birth between 1 January 1987 and 31 December 2001, and who had a pre-conception history of psychiatric hospitalisation but who were not hospitalised during pregnancy (n = 1842). Methods International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes were used to identify prenatal, obstetric, postpartum maternal complications, and newborn health conditions. We used multivariable logistic regression to describe the associations between maternal and infant health conditions and the odds for postpartum hospitalisation for psychosis. Main outcome measure Psychiatric hospitalisation within 90 days of delivery. Results Compared with women who did not have a postpartum psychiatric hospitalisation, hospitalised women were at 2.3 times higher odds (95% CI 1.0–4.9) of having non-psychiatric puerperium complications (e.g. infection, lactation problems or venous complications). No other maternal complications were associated with postpartum psychiatric hospitalisation. Although their infants were at no higher odds for health complications, the offspring of women who had a postpartum psychiatric hospitalisation were at 4.1 times higher odds (95% CI 1.3–12.6) of death within the first 365 days of life than those of women who were not hospitalised. Conclusions We found no prenatal indicators of postpartum risk for psychiatric hospitalisation among high-risk women, but they had higher odds of postpartum pregnancy-related medical problems and, rarely, offspring death. PMID:23194279

  11. Effect of temporary weaning duration on tonic LH secretion, estrus, and ovulation in anestrous postpartum beef cows 

    E-print Network

    Shively, Tandy Elizabeth

    1987-01-01

    of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December t 987 Major Subject: Physiology of Reproduction EFFECT OF TEMPORARY WEANING DURATION ON TONIC LH SECRETION, ESTRUS AND OVULATION IN ANESTROUS POSTPARTUM BEEF COWS A Thesis by TANDY ELIZABETH... to thank her parents Joe and Wanda Shively and the rest of her family for providing both moral and financial support throughout the years. TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION. . LITERATURE REVIEW. Postpartum Reproduction in Bovine Females. Factors...

  12. Effect of body condition and dietary lipid intake on lipid metabolism, gonadotropin secretion and luteal activity in postpartum beef cows 

    E-print Network

    Morgan, Allan Rae

    1989-01-01

    and This thesis was written in the style of the Journal of Animal Science. Ins keep, 1989). Both pre- and postpartum body condition (BC) can be used as functional predictors of postpartum reproductive performance (Dunn and Kaltenbach, 1980). Cows calving... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1989 Major Subject: Physiology of Reproduction EFFECT OF BODY CONDITION AND DIETARY LIPID INTAKE ON LIPID METABOLISM, GONADOTROPIN SECRETION AND LUTEAL ACTIVITY...

  13. Antepartum or immediate postpartum renal biopsies in preeclampsia/eclampsia of pregnancy: new morphologic and clinical findings

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lei; Yang, Zhiling; Li, Kailong; Zou, Jiaqun; Li, Hongmei; Han, Jian; Zhou, Lijuan; Liu, Xiaojie; Zhang, Xin; Zheng, Yingru; Yu, Lili; Li, Li

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia (PE) and eclampsia remain leading causes of maternal and fetal mortality worldwide. The kidney is considered the first and most severely affected organ in women with PE/eclampsia. In this study, we analyzed new morphologic features of kidney biopsies and clinical findings in patients with PE or eclampsia at our hospital. Methods: Eight patients with PE/eclampsia underwent renal biopsies during the antepartum (3/8) or postpartum (5/8) period. Maternal clinical findings, major serological indices, neonatal outcomes, and renal histopathologic and immunofluorescent characteristics were reviewed for each case. Results: Most patients had abnormal serum cholesterol (8/8), triglyceride (6/8), albumin (7/8), and uric acid (5/8). The ratio of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) to serum creatinine (SCr) was elevated in all patients. Five of eight newborns survived. Various degrees of morphologic change were present in the renal glomeruli, and were associated with proteinuria. All patients had deposition of complement factor 4 (C4) in the renal glomeruli and seven had deposition of immunoglobulin M (IgM). Conclusion: Endotheliosis, vacuolation of podocytes, proliferation of mesangial cells, and protein casts in the tubule lumens were found in the kidneys of women with PE/eclampsia. Immune depositions of C4 and IgM are major contributors to renal lesions in preeclamptic patients, whose neonates can generally survive. Eclampsia can occur without increased blood pressure. PMID:25197387

  14. Breastfeeding Practices During the First Month Postpartum and Associated Factors: Impact on Breastfeeding Survival

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Forough; Mousavi, Seyed Abbas; Chaman, Reza; Wambach, Karen Ann; Mortazavi, Saideh Sadat; Khosravi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: The introduction of fluids to infants during the first days postpartum, which may be harmful to infant health, is a common practice in Iran. Objectives: This study aimed to find the prevalence of breastfeeding practices using monthly dietary recall and factors associated with introduction of fluids during the first month of life and determine the effects of these supplementations on breastfeeding survival. Patients and Methods: This longitudinal study carried out in Shahroud, Iran from May 2011 to October 2013. Using convenient sampling strategy, 358 mothers in their third trimester of pregnancy were enrolled in the study and completed the questionnaires. Then the data regarding the introduction of fluids during first month postpartum was collected. We followed women monthly up to breastfeeding cessation. Kaplan-Meier and time-to-event methods were used to assess breastfeeding survival. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to identify the variables that determined breastfeeding practices at the first month postpartum. The Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the effect of variables on breastfeeding survival. Results: The prevalence of exclusive, predominant, and partial breastfeeding during the first month postpartum were 33.1%, 58.2%, and 8.6%, respectively. Predominant breastfeeding was associated with the lack of breastfeeding experience (OR = 1.93; 95% CI [1.02 - 3.66]). Partial breastfeeding was associated with the maternal age ? 30 y (OR = 5.96; CI [1.66 - 21.37]), family income higher than the mean (OR = 3.39; 95% CI [1.17 - 9.81]), and breastfeeding difficulties score higher than mean (OR = 3.09; 95% CI [1.10 - 8.71]). The Cox regression analysis revealed that breastfeeding practices at the first month was associated with an increased risk for breastfeeding discontinuation. The hazard ratio of breastfeeding discontinuation for predominant and partial breastfeeding groups were 1.11 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.51; P = 0.49) and 2.23 (95% CI: 1.39, 3.58; P = 0.001), respectively compared to the exclusive group. Conclusions: The prevalence of predominant breastfeeding during the first month postpartum is high in Shahroud. Interventions to strengthen adherence to WHO guidelines for breastfeeding should be considered. Breastfeeding education providers at the hospitals should emphasize the effects of formula on breastfeeding continuation at early postpartum. PMID:26023352

  15. Bull exposure and an increased within-day milking to suckling interval reduced postpartum anoestrus in dual purpose cows.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Hernández, P; García-Winder, M; Gallegos-Sánchez, J

    2002-12-16

    It is hypothesized that the combined effects of suckling and milking in the dual purpose cows is one of the main suppressors of reproductive efficiency in this production system. The experiment described here examined whether managing the interval between milking and suckling could reduce the postpartum anoestrous period and whether the presence of a teaser bull could enhance the effects of these managements. The experiment involved 39 Bos taurus x Bos indicus cows which had an average weight of 523.0 +/- 12.8 kg (mean +/- S.E.M.) and body condition score of 5-7 (scale 1-9) at calving. The cows and calves grazed separate pastures and the cows were supplemented with 2 kg 17% CP concentrates and 1 kg molasses per cow per day. The experiment was conducted over the first 100 days postpartum. Cows were hand-milked once per day in the presence of the calf to stimulate milk release. The factors in the 2 x 2 design were the milking to suckling interval (0 h, control suckling; CS versus 8 h prolonged-delay suckling; PDS) and no exposure versus exposure to a teaser bull (B). Cows were assigned at random within calving date to the four treatments: CS (n = 10), PDS (n = 10), CS-B (n = 9) and PDS-B (n = 10). Cows on treatments CS and CS-B had three-quarters of the udder milked and one-quarter was not milked. The entire udder was milked on those treatments where there was an interval between milking and suckling. The bull was introduced 7 days after calving in treatments where the cows were exposed to a teaser bull. Body weights of cows and calves and cow milk yield were recorded. Weekly blood samples were collected for plasma progesterone assay. Data were analyzed by ANOVA in a 2 x 2 factorial design and by chi(2)-test. There were no statistically significant differences between treatments in cow body weight at calving and at 100 days postpartum, nor in milk yield (overall mean 6.0 +/- 1.1 kg per day). Calf daily gain was 598 +/- 25 g for treatments CS and CS-B in which suckling immediately followed milking and 833 +/- 24 g for treatments PDS and PDS-B (P < 0.001). The proportion of cows ovulating was CS 80.0%, PDS 100.0%, CS-B 88.8% and PDS-B 100.0%. The difference between CS and PDS or PDS-B was significant (P < 0.05). CS-B did not differ significantly from the other three treatments. The calving to first ovulation interval was not improved when the interval between milking and suckling was increased from 0 h (56.5 +/- 5.0 days) to 8 h (64.8 +/- 4.5 days). Exposure to a teaser bull, however, significantly (P < 0.001) reduced this interval from 77.0 +/- 2.7 days (no bull exposure) to 44.4 +/- 2.7 days (exposure to teaser bull). Exposure to a teaser bull significantly reduced the calving to first anoestrus interval. Delaying the start of suckling after milking did not improve the reproductive performance of the cows or alter the effect of bull exposure, however, delaying suckling after milking improved the performance of the calves without affecting milk yield. PMID:12417114

  16. Intimate partner violence as a risk factor for postpartum depression among Canadian women in the Maternity Experience Survey

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, Hind A.; Al-Sahab, Ban; Beydoun, May A.; Tamim, Hala

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Intimate partner violence is a worldwide public health concern predominantly affecting women of reproductive age. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of exposure to intimate partner violence before, during or after pregnancy on postpartum depression in a nationally representative sample of Canadian women. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was performed using data from the Maternity Experience Survey conducted by Statistics Canada in 2006. A population-based sample of 8,542 women 15 years and older who delivered singleton live births was selected from all Canadian provinces and territories; of those, 6,421 completed a computer-assisted telephone interview. Recent experiences with and threats of physical or sexual violence by an intimate partner were examined in relation to postpartum depression assessed through the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale. Results The prevalence of postpartum depression was 7.5% (95% CI: 6.8, 8.2). Controlling for confounders, odds of postpartum depression were significantly higher among women who reported partner violence in the past two years as opposed to those who did not (adjusted OR=1.61; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.45). Conclusions Intimate partner violence is positively associated with postpartum depression among Canadian women. Implications for healthcare practice are discussed. PMID:20609336

  17. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Date reviewed: October 2013 Back 1 ? 2 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Gyn Checkups I'm 14 and I Don't Have My Period Yet. Is This Normal? Can a Girl Get Pregnant if She Has Sex During Her Period? Birth Control Pill Coping With ...

  18. Napoleonic Period Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Napoleon Bonaparte never visited the part of North America that would later become Washington State, but he probably would have been intrigued by this online collection created by the good folks at the University of Washington Libraries Digital Collection project. This latest collection brings together 83 satirical drawings from the Napoleonic period, and there are a number of real gems amidst this visually arresting collection. As might be expected they all offer a variety of political commentary on various events during this period. The site includes information about the Napoleonic Era, complete with a nice timeline, and a comparison between the French and English drawings is included in this trove of visual ephemera. Finally, the site also contains a brief piece on the publishing scene of the late 18th and early 19th centuries, along with a very nice bibliography of additional resources.

  19. Late Second Intermediate Period to Early New Kingdom

    E-print Network

    Popko, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    2004 Aspects of Egyptian foreign policy in the 18 th Dynastyand the evolution of foreign policy in Egypt’s New Kingdom.foreign rule resulted in a highly militaristic and sometimes imperialistic policy.

  20. Understanding Postpartum Healthcare Services and Exploring the Challenges and Motivations of Maternal Health Service Providers in the Philippines: a Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Tadashi; Suplido, Sherri Ann; Llave, Cecilia; Tuliao, Maria Teresa R.; Tanaka, Yuko; Matsuo, Hiroya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Given the shortage of medical professionals in the Philippines, Barangay Health Workers (BHWs) may play a role in providing postpartum healthcare services. However, as there are no reports regarding BHW activities in postpartum healthcare, we conducted this study to understand postpartum healthcare services and to explore the challenges and motivations of maternal health service providers. Methods: Focus group interview (FGI) of 13 participants was conducted as qualitative research methodology at Muntinlupa City. The results were analyzed according to the interview guide. The proceedings of the FGI were transcribed verbatim, and researchers read and coded the transcripts. The codes were then used to construct categories. Results: Four important activities were highlighted among 11 analysis codes. These activities were “Assessment of postpartum women’s conditions,” “Recommendation to visit a health facility,” “Measurement of blood-pressure and vitamin intake,” and “Providing postpartum health information.” Among five analysis codes, we identified three challenges that BHWs face, which were “No current information regarding postpartum care,” “Some postpartum women do not want to receive healthcare services from BHW,” and “Too many assigned postpartum women.” Among five analysis codes, we identified two reasons for continuing BHW activities, which were “Hospitality to help postpartum women and their family in the community” and “Performance of mission in providing BHW services.” Conclusion: This study is the first to evaluate BHW activities in postpartum healthcare services. Our results indicate that BHWs play a potentially important role in evaluating postpartum women’s physical and mental conditions through home-visiting services. However, several difficulties adversely affected their activities, and these must be addressed to maximize the contributions of BHWs to the postpartum healthcare system.

  1. Postpartum women's evaluations of an audio/video computer-assisted perinatal violence screen.

    PubMed

    Renker, Paula Rinard; Tonkin, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    For universal screening to become a reality, research must first validate the effectiveness and acceptability of violence screening. This study describes postpartum women's perceptions of an anonymous computer-assisted self-interview for perinatal violence screening. A sample of 519 postpartum women completed interviews that included audio and video enhancements. Post-response evaluations were positive with most women, indicating that they preferred computer interviews to face-to-face or written abuse screening. In addition, participants indicated that the computer format and associated anonymity positively influenced their willingness to answer the violence questions truthfully. Computer interviews offer an alternative approach to violence screening that may help women who are hesitant to disclose abuse directly to their healthcare providers. PMID:17496478

  2. Exploration of theoretical models: postpartum weight retention in african american adolescents.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Thelma M

    2014-10-01

    Obesity presents a public health challenge and is a serious chronic medical condition, associated with multiple co-morbidities and reduced survivability and longevity. Obesity accounts for about 300,000 deaths each year and is expected to cost the United States healthcare system almost 237 million dollars within the next decade. African American adolescents who retain weight after pregnancy are at the highest risk of becoming obese adults with the potential to develop chronic diseases or serious illnesses. The author explores non-nursing and nursing theories that could guide needed research to help understand the barriers that prevent weight loss and raise the risk of obesity among postpartum adolescents. After the exploration, Orem's self-care theory was selected for the proposed study based on nursing interventions that could facilitate postpartum adolescents' self-care and weight control behaviors. PMID:25248775

  3. Postpartum depression in refugee and asylum-seeking women in Canada: A critical health psychology perspective.

    PubMed

    Brown-Bowers, Amy; McShane, Kelly; Wilson-Mitchell, Karline; Gurevich, Maria

    2015-05-01

    Canada has one of the world's largest refugee resettlement programs in the world. Just over 48 percent of Canadian refugees are women, with many of them of childbearing age and pregnant. Refugee and asylum-seeking women in Canada face a five times greater risk of developing postpartum depression than Canadian-born women. Mainstream psychological approaches to postpartum depression emphasize individual-level risk factors (e.g. hormones, thoughts, emotions) and individualized treatments (e.g. psychotherapy, medication). This conceptualization is problematic when applied to refugee and asylum-seeking women because it fails to acknowledge the migrant experience and the unique set of circumstances from which these women have come. The present theoretical article explores some of the consequences of applying this psychiatric label to the distress experienced by refugee and asylum-seeking women and presents an alternative way of conceptualizing and alleviating this distress. PMID:25389234

  4. Blood and milk oxidative status after administration of different antioxidants during early postpartum in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, A; Pantaleo, M; Mutinati, M; Minoia, G; Trisolini, C; Ceci, E; Sciorsci, R L

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes serum and milk oxidative profiles during early postpartum (10th-16th day) of dairy cows, after three different treatments: ?-carotene and ?-tocopherol (Dalmavital®, Fatro, Italy) (VAE Group); L-carnitine, d, L-acetylmethionine, cyanocobalamin (Adiuxan®, Ceva Vetem, Italy) (LCAR Group) and Dalmavital®+Adiuxan® (VAE/LCAR Group). Antioxidant administrations resulted in a general reduction in ROS concentrations which decreased more after a single drug administration (VAE and LCAR Groups) vitamin A and E serum levels increased in the three treated groups compared to control one (p < 0.05). Milk lipoperoxide content was statistically lower in treated cows than in control ones, whereas, as to vitamins, only vitamin E increased in all the treated groups compared to control. Taken together, the results of this study confirm the efficacy of antioxidant administration in the early postpartum of dairy cows and suggest that an excess in antioxidant administration may result, paradoxically, in an increase in ROS generation. PMID:23962855

  5. Women's descriptions of postpartum health problems: preliminary findings from Matlab, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Lynn M; Blum, Lauren S; Kalim, Nahid; Hruschka, Daniel; Edmonds, Joyce K; Koblinsky, Marge

    2007-01-01

    Complications of childbirth kill more than 500,000 women each year. Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of death. Because nearly half the women who give birth at home in developing countries are cared for by unskilled attendants, it is critical to understand how women and their caregivers recognize bleeding and decide to seek help when needed. Using an approach that combined systematic qualitative data collection and multivariate analysis, we identified local cultural theories that women and traditional birth attendants in rural Bangladesh use to recognize and care for postpartum problems, including PPH. These preliminary findings will be used to further explore cultural norms related to PPH and their possible modes of transmission. The overall approach may be used to develop or improve birth preparedness and complication readiness, a core global safe motherhood intervention. PMID:17603957

  6. Perinatal Dyadic Psychotherapy for postpartum depression: a randomized controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Janice H; Prager, Joanna; Goldstein, Richard; Freeman, Marlene

    2015-06-01

    An integrated approach addressing maternal depression and associated mother-infant relationship dysfunction may improve outcomes. This study tested Perinatal Dyadic Psychotherapy (PDP), a dual-focused mother-infant intervention to prevent/decrease maternal postpartum depression and improve aspects of the mother-infant relationship related to child development. Women recruited from hospital postpartum units were screened using a three-stage process. Forty-two depressed first-time mothers and their 6-week-old infants were enrolled and randomized to receive the PDP intervention or usual care plus depression monitoring by phone. The intervention consisted of eight home-based, nurse-delivered mother-infant sessions consisting of (a) supportive, relationship-based, mother-infant psychotherapy, and (b) a developmentally based infant-oriented component focused on promoting positive mother-infant interactions. Data collected at baseline, post-intervention, and three-month follow-up included measures of maternal depression, anxiety, maternal self-esteem, parenting stress, and mother-infant interaction. Depression and anxiety symptoms and diagnoses decreased significantly, and maternal self-esteem increased significantly across the study time frame with no between-group differences. There were no significant differences between groups on parenting stress or mother-infant interaction at post-intervention and follow-up. No participants developed onset of postpartum depression during the course of the study. PDP holds potential for treating depression in the context of the mother-infant relationship; however, usual care plus depression monitoring showed equal benefit. Further research is needed to explore using low-intensity interventions as a first step in a stepped care approach and to determine what subset of at-risk or depressed postpartum mothers might benefit most from the PDP intervention. PMID:25522664

  7. Postpartum serum progesterone and 20 †-hydroxyprogesterone in nonsuckled primiparous Hereford heifers 

    E-print Network

    Castenson, Paul Edward

    1974-01-01

    is operating on a small margin. As operation expenses increase, it becomes extremely important for the producer to maximize his production as one means of increasing profits. Breeding heifers to calve at two years of age has increased calf production 0. 6... the Postpartum Interval III MATERIALS AND METHODS 12 Experimental Animals Sample Collection Surgery. Glassware. Organic Solvents Phosphate Assay Buffer Steroids Antibody Serum Extraction Column Chromatography Preparation of the Standard Curve...

  8. A systematic review of home-based interventions to prevent and treat postpartum depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie A. Leis; Tamar Mendelson; S. Darius Tandon; Deborah F. Perry

    2009-01-01

    This systematic review evaluated randomized controlled trials assessing home-based psychological interventions to prevent\\u000a and treat postpartum depression (PPD). Six studies meeting inclusion criteria were identified, five assessing treatments for\\u000a PPD and one assessing a preventive intervention for PPD. Interventions used cognitive behavioral, psychodynamic, and non-directive\\u000a counseling approaches. Of the six studies reviewed, four reported statistically significant treatment effects on PPD

  9. Postpartum traditions and nutrition practices among urban Lao women and their infants in Vientiane, Lao PDR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Barennes; C Simmala; P Odermatt; T Thaybouavone; J Vallee; B Martinez-Ussel; P N Newton; M Strobel

    2009-01-01

    Background\\/Objective:To assess the traditional postpartum practices, mother and child nutritional status and associated factors.Subjects\\/Methods:A cross-sectional study in 41 randomly selected villages on the outskirts of Vientiane capital city, Lao PDR (Laos). 300 pairs of infants (<6 months of age) and their mothers were enrolled. Information was collected about pregnancy, delivery and traditional practices through a standardized questionnaire. Dietary intake and

  10. Postpartum Early DischargeImpact on Maternal Fatigue and Functional Ability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline Smith-Hanrahan; Denise Deblois

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a postpartum early discharge program, with home follow-up by hospital nursing staff, on the maternal fatigue and functional ability of low-risk mothers with healthy neonates. A quasi-experimental design was used. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups receiving the early-discharge program (hospital stay less than 60 hours

  11. Postpartum Mastitis and Community-acquired Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pavani Reddy; Chao Qi; Teresa Zembower; Gary A. Noskin; Maureen Bolon

    2007-01-01

    This single-center, case-control study documents a relative increase in methicillin resistance among 48 cases of Staphylococcus aureus-associated postpartum mastitis during 1998-2005. Of 21 cases with methicillin resistance, 17 (81%) occurred in 2005. Twenty (95%) isolates con- tained the Staphylococcus cassette chromosome mec type IV gene; this suggests that the increase is due to community-acquired methicillin-resistant S.aureus.

  12. Urut Melayu, the Traditional Malay Massage, as a Complementary Rehabilitative Care in Postpartum Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Anuar, Haniza Mohd; Ismail, Suhaila; Abd Ghani, Norsuria; Ahmad, Norlaili

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The case of a 32-year-old Malay woman who developed postpartum stroke is reported. Methods The patient received a series of urut Melayu, the traditional Malay massage, sessions at one of the newly established integrated hospitals in the country. Results After 14 urut Melayu sessions, she improved tremendously in her speech and fine motor skills and regained her activities of daily living. Conclusions This use of urut Melayu to complement rehabilitation care in patients poststroke is promising. PMID:22401300

  13. The association of depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms and postpartum relapse to smoking: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yuchiao; Quinn, Virginia; Regan, Susan; Cohen, Lee; Viguera, Adele; Psaros, Christina; Ross, Kaile; Rigotti, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this prospective repeated measures, mixed-methods observational study was to assess whether depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms are associated with postpartum relapse to smoking. Methods A total of 65 women who smoked prior to pregnancy and had not smoked during the last month of pregnancy were recruited at delivery and followed for 24 weeks. Surveys administered at baseline and at 2, 6, 12, and 24 weeks postpartum assessed smoking status and symptoms of depression (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]), anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory [BAI]), and stress (Perceived Stress Scale [PSS]). In-depth interviews were conducted with women who reported smoking. Results Although 92% of the participants reported a strong desire to stay quit, 47% resumed smoking by 24 weeks postpartum. Baseline factors associated with smoking at 24 weeks were having had a prior delivery, not being happy about the pregnancy, undergoing counseling for depression or anxiety during pregnancy, and ever having struggled with depression (p < .05). In a repeated measures regression model, the slope of BDI scores from baseline to the 12-week follow-up differed between nonsmokers and smokers (?0.12 vs. +0.11 units/week, p?=?.03). The slope of PSS scores also differed between nonsmokers and smokers (?0.05 vs. +0.08 units/week, p?=?.04). In qualitative interviews, most women who relapsed attributed their relapse and continued smoking to negative emotions. Discussion Among women who quit smoking during pregnancy, a worsening of depressive and stress symptoms over 12 weeks postpartum was associated with an increased risk of smoking by 24 weeks. PMID:19436040

  14. Effect of postpartum practices of doing the month on Chinese women's physical and psychological health.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan Qun; Maloni, Judith A; Petrini, Marcia A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe Chinese women's postpartum physiological and psychological health and adherence to "doing-the-month" practices. A descriptive repeated measures design was used, with data collected at 3 days and 6 weeks postpartum. The convenience sample consisted of 198 healthy childbearing women with a term birth. Maternal physical health was measured by the Six-Minute Walk (endurance), Chair Stand test (muscle strength), severity of physical symptoms, and physical health subscales of SF36v2. Maternal psychological health was measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression scale. Adherence was measured by the Adherence to Doing-the-Month Practices questionnaire. Aerobic endurance and lower-body muscle strength improved significantly across time (p < .001) but remained suboptimal for maternal age. Women who delivered by Cesarean section had significantly poorer physical health than those who had a vaginal delivery. Physical functioning significantly increased, but general health and role limitations due to physical health significantly decreased over time. Postpartum physical symptoms decreased in number and severity. Depression increased over time (p < .001). Adherence to doing the month was negatively correlated with aerobic endurance and positively correlated with depression at 6 weeks (p < .05). These findings challenge the assumption that practices of doing the month are healthy for Chinese women's recovery after childbirth. Research-based evidence needs to be integrated into doing-the-month practices. Education of Chinese women and families, whether living at home or abroad, is needed about the adverse health effects of doing the month. Routine screening for postpartum depression is also advised. PMID:23132403

  15. Postpartum teens' breakfast consumption is associated with snack and beverage intake and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Haire-Joshu, Debra; Schwarz, Cynthia; Budd, Elizabeth; Yount, Byron W; Lapka, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Addressing high-risk dietary patterns among postpartum teens may help reduce weight retention and prevent intergenerational obesity. The objective of this study was to describe the relationship between breakfast consumption and outcomes of snack and beverage intake and body mass index (BMI) among postpartum teens. During 2007-2009, 1,330 postpartum teens across 27 states participated in a cross-sectional, baseline assessment of a group-randomized, nested cohort study. Participants were enrolled in the Parents as Teachers Teen Program and completed a 7-day recall of breakfast, snack, and beverage consumption. BMI was calculated from heights and weights obtained by on-site staff. Sample descriptives were compared across breakfast consumption frequency groupings by one-way analysis of variance tests or ?² tests. General linear models assessed relationships between breakfast consumption and measures of snack and sweetened beverage intake, water consumption, and BMI-for-age percentile. Almost half (42%) of the sample consumed breakfast fewer than 2 days per week. Those who ate breakfast 6 to 7 days/week consumed 1,197 fewer kilocalories per week from sweet and salty snacks, 1,337 fewer kilocalories per week from sweetened drinks, and had a lower BMI compared to those who ate breakfast fewer than 2 days per week (P < 0.05). Consumption of fruit, vegetables, milk, water, and cereal as a snack were higher among regular breakfast consumers (P < 0.05). Although breakfast consumption among postpartum teens is low, those who regularly consume breakfast had healthier snacking behaviors and weight. Interventions are needed to encourage breakfast consumption among teen mothers. PMID:21185974

  16. The Role of Social Networks and Support in Postpartum Women's Depression: A Multiethnic Urban Sample

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela J. Surkan; Karen E. Peterson; Michael D. Hughes; Barbara R. Gottlieb

    2006-01-01

    \\u000a Objectives: This study examined the relationship of social support, and of social networks, to symptoms of depression in a multiethnic sample of women having recently given birth. Methods: Women at community health centers in a Northeastern city were randomly sampled from groups stratified by race\\/ethnicity (African American, Hispanic, and White) and postpartum interval. Mother's score on the Center for Epidemiologic

  17. Postpartum ovarian activity in nonsuckled primiparous Hereford heifers: a histological study.

    E-print Network

    Cobos, Charles Rene

    1974-01-01

    contvnt by: {I. Ii! 1 (', 'lan nf Cc!!nil t tnc (II '. . d of DQPa& 4!Qn t) ABSTRACT Postpartum Ovarian Activity in Honsuckled Primiparous Hereford Halfers: A Histological Study. (December 1974) Charles Rene Cobos, B. S, , Texas A%4 University... uirmunoassay of serum progesterone levels by another re- searche~ . Po" tpartu a ovarian follicular acti vi ty, ovarian vo lcm, ~ chnivii s, and uterine involution were monitored by rectal palpation . In seven of the eight heifers, the first luteal tissue...

  18. Comparison of Two Timed Artificial Insemination (TAI) Protocols for Management of First Insemination Postpartum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. R. Jordan; M. J. Schouten; J. W. Quast; A. P. Belschner; M. A. Tomaszewski

    2002-01-01

    Two estrus-synchronization programs were com- pared and factors influencing their success over a year were evaluated. All cows received a setup injection of PGF2? at 39 ± 3 d postpartum. Fourteen days later they received GnRH, followed in 7 d by a second injection of PGF2?.Cows(n =523)assignedtotreatment1(modified targeted breeding) were inseminated based on visual signs of estrus at 24, 48,

  19. [Pulmonary microembolism with particles of synthetic polymer "Polysorb"in the treatment of postpartum endometritis].

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, V L; Lesnykh, A Iu; Katochkova, I M; Efremov, O T

    2000-01-01

    A case of fatal massive pulmonary microembolism with particles of the synthetic polymer preparation in a female of 26 early after delivery is reported. The case is interpreted as a maternal death of the 1st group due to occasional damage in the process of uterine cavity washing with a suspension of a synthetic polymer preparation polysorb in the treatment of purulent postpartum endometritis. PMID:10897439

  20. Influence of integrated services on postpartum family planning use: a cross-sectional survey from urban Senegal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the majority of postpartum women indicate a desire to delay a next birth, family planning (FP) methods are often not offered to, or taken up by, women in the first year postpartum. This study uses data from urban Senegal to examine exposure to FP information and services at the time of delivery and at child immunization appointments and to determine if these points of integration are associated with greater use of postpartum FP. Methods A representative, household sample of women, ages 15–49, was surveyed from six cities in Senegal in 2011. This study focuses on women who were within two years postpartum (n?=?1879). We also include women who were surveyed through exit interviews after a visit to a high volume health facility in the same six cities; clients included were visiting the health facility for delivery, post-abortion care, postnatal care, and child immunization services (n?=?794). Descriptive analyses are presented to examine exposure to FP services among postpartum women and women visiting the health facility. Logistic regression models are used to estimate the effect of integrated services on postpartum FP use in the household sample of women. Analyses were conducted using Stata version 12. Results Among exit interview clients, knowledge of integrated services is high but only a few reported receiving FP services. A majority of the women who did not receive FP services indicated an interest in receiving such information and services. Among the household sample of women up to two-years postpartum, those who received FP information at the time of delivery are more likely to be using modern FP postpartum than their counterparts who also delivered in a facility but did not receive such information. Exposure to FP services at an immunization visit was not significantly related to postpartum FP use. Another key finding is that women with greater self-efficacy are more likely to use a modern FP method. Conclusion This study’s findings lend strong support for the need to improve integration of FP services into maternal, newborn, and child health services with the goal of increasing postpartum women’s use of FP methods in urban Senegal. PMID:23941611

  1. The Late Triassic and Late Jurassic stress fields and tectonic transmission of North China craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Guiting; Wang, Yanxin; Hari, K. R.

    2010-09-01

    The transmission of the tectonic regime from the Paleo-Asian Ocean to the Pacific Ocean during Mesozoic era was reconstructed using the modeling of Late Triassic (T 3) and Late Jurassic (J 3) stress fields employing two dimensional linear finite element models (2-D FEM). The model at T 3 proposes that Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogens coevally collided and the model J 3 proposes that Subei block continued to collide with the North China block along the Sulu orogen while the collision of the Qinling-Dabie orogen was terminated. The stress fields at T 3 and J 3 during the two episodes were calculated based on mechanical conditions under different deviatoric stresses acting along the boundaries of the North China craton by elastic finite modeling. The transmission between two episodes of stress fields resulted from Qinling-Dabie-Sulu collision between North China and South China in the Late Triassic period, and from continued collision between the Subei block and North China by the NW-trending movement of Izanagi plate during Late Jurassic. The results from modeling of the Mesozoic stress fields of the North China suggest that late Jurassic was the key transmission period of the tectonic regime of the North China block when large scale thrusting triggered the subsequent destruction of the North China craton.

  2. Considering a Relational Model for Depression in Women with Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Reg A.; Seng, Julia S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To extend testing of a relational theory that a low sense of belonging, delayed or impaired bonding, and loneliness are salient risk factors for postpartum depression (PPD) in women. Methods Data for this theory-testing analysis came from a larger prospective longitudinal cohort study and included women who were retained to the end of the study at the 6 week postpartum interview (n=564). Structural equation modeling was used to test the “fit” of the model and determine significance of direct and indirect paths. Results The model explained 35% of the variance in postpartum depression with impaired bonding and loneliness as the strongest indicators. Lower sense of belonging, less perceived social support from a healthcare practitioner and a partner, and lower parenting sense of competence were additional predictors. Conclusion Study findings challenge current thinking about the relationship between impaired bonding and PPD as this study raises the possibility that impaired bonding is a risk for PPD as opposed to the reverse relationship. The study provided evidence of the importance of healthcare practitioners’ alliance with patients. This paper contributes to advancing the science of women’s mental health in relation to depression by considering additional predictors which might be amenable to intervention. PMID:25705566

  3. Influencing factors on the cord-blood donation of post-partum women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miok; Han, Seungchul; Shin, Minho

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to identify the factors on the cord-blood donation of Korean post-partum women, who may store, donate, or discard their infant's cord blood. This descriptive research assesses the level of knowledge and attitude of post-partum women in Korea, regarding cord blood and its usage. The participants in this study were 320 post-partum women of which 109 stored, 34 donated, and 177 discarded their cord blood. The knowledge level of women who donated or stored their cord blood was higher than that of those who discarded. The attitude level of the women who donated was higher than that of those who stored or discarded. Knowledge, attitude, income, and source of information were the factors on the cord-blood donation; high knowledge, high attitude, low income, and information source from mass media contributes to cord-blood donation. In order to promote the cord-blood donation, it is necessary to develop guidelines for cord-blood education to improve the knowledge and attitudes of child-bearing women and healthcare professionals. PMID:25912386

  4. Treatment-resistant, five-year long, postpartum-onset Capgras episode resolving after electroconvulsive therapy.

    PubMed

    Rapinesi, Chiara; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Casale, Antonio Del; Ferri, Vittoria Rachele; Di Pietro, Simone; Scatena, Paola; Serata, Daniele; Danese, Emanuela; Sani, Gabriele; Koukopoulos, Alexia E; Angeletti, Gloria; Girardi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum psychosis, which rarely presents with Capgras syndrome (delusional misidentification), requires rapid symptom resolution. First-line drugs have important drawbacks, such as delayed onset of clinical response and secretion in breast milk. In this report, we report successful treatment of a treatment-resistant woman presenting with treatment-resistant Capgras syndrome, with onset during postpartum. A 36-year-old woman had presented with Capgras syndrome during postpartum. For more than five years, she believed her son and other family members were substituted by impostors. All adequately administrated treatments were unsuccessful. We suggested electroconvulsive therapy to overcome treatment resistance. After six electroconvulsive therapy sessions, delusions of doubles subsided and other symptoms improved. She was discharged two weeks later with a mood stabilizer and low-dose atypical antipychotic combination and is well at the one-and-a-half-year follow-up. Electroconvulsive therapy followed by a mood stabilizer-antipsychotic drug combination showed rapid, permanent, and effective control of long-standing Capgras syndrome in a young woman. PMID:25926594

  5. Genetic background and risk of postpartum haemorrhage: results from an Italian cohort of 3219 women.

    PubMed

    Biguzzi, E; Franchi, F; Acaia, B; Ossola, W; Nava, U; Paraboschi, E M; Asselta, R; Peyvandi, F

    2014-11-01

    Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal mortality, particularly in the developing countries, and of severe maternal morbidity worldwide. To investigate the impact of genetic influences on postpartum haemorrhage, in association with maternal and intrapartum risk factors, using a candidate gene approach. All women (n = 6694) who underwent a vaginal delivery at the Obstetric Unit of a large University hospital in Milan (Italy) between July 2007 and September 2009 were enrolled. The first consecutive 3219 women entered the genetic study. Postpartum haemorrhage was defined as ?500 mL blood loss. Eight functional polymorphisms in seven candidate genes were chosen because of their potential role in predisposing to or protecting from haemorrhagic conditions: tissue factor (F3), factor V (F5), tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), platelet glycoprotein Ia/IIa (ITGA2), prothrombin (F2), platelet glycoproteins Ib? (GP1BA) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). After correction for the already known PPH risk factors, only the promoter polymorphism of the tissue factor gene (F3 -603A>G) showed a significant association with PPH, the G allele exerting a protective effect (P = 0.00053; OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.69-0.90). The protective effect against PPH of the TF -603A>G polymorphism is biologically plausible since the G allele is associated with an increased protein expression and Tissue Factor is strongly represented in the placenta at term, particularly in decidual cells of maternal origin. PMID:25333208

  6. Development of the Childbirth Perception Scale (CPS): perception of delivery and the first postpartum week.

    PubMed

    Truijens, Sophie E M; Wijnen, Hennie A; Pommer, Antoinette M; Oei, S Guid; Pop, Victor J M

    2014-10-01

    Some caregivers suggest a more positive experience of childbirth when giving birth at home. Since properly developed instruments that assess women's perception of delivery and the early postpartum are missing, the aim of the current study is to develop a Childbirth Perception Scale (CPS). Three focus groups with caregivers, pregnant women, and women who recently gave birth were conducted. Psychometric properties of 23 candidate items derived from the interviews were tested with explorative factor analysis (EFA) (N = 495). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed in another sample of women (N = 483) and confirmed a 12-item CPS. The EFA in sample I suggested a two-component solution: a subscale 'perception of delivery' (six items) and a subscale 'perception of the first postpartum week' (six items). The CFA in sample II confirmed an adequate model fit and a good internal consistency (? = .82). Multivariate linear regression showed a positive effect of home delivery on perception of delivery in multiparous but not in primiparous women. The 12-item CPS with two dimensions (perception of delivery and perception of first postpartum week) has adequate psychometric properties. In multiparous women, home delivery showed to be independently related to more positive perception of delivery. PMID:24663684

  7. Spouses' experiences during pregnancy and the postpartum: a program of research and theory development.

    PubMed

    Fawcett, J

    1989-01-01

    A program of nursing research was established to test a theory proposing that wives and husbands have similar pregnancy-related experiences. The research was guided by a conceptual framework of the family as a living open system. Findings were conflicting from three studies that investigated the relationship between spouses' strength of identification and similarities in changes in various body image components during and after pregnancy; taken together the findings suggested that spouses do not have similar patterns of change in their body images during pregnancy and the postpartum. Two other studies investigated the relationship between spouses' strength of identification and similarities in their reports of physical and psychological symptoms during pregnancy and the postpartum. In these studies the spouses reported similar physical and psychological symptoms during pregnancy and the postpartum. There was no evidence, however, in any of the studies of a relationship between spouses' strength of identification and similarities in their pregnancy-related experiences. The validity of the theory of similar pregnancy-related experiences and the credibility of the conceptual framework of the family as an open system are questioned. PMID:2777290

  8. Postpartum depression screening by telephone: a good alternative for public health and research.

    PubMed

    de Figueiredo, Felipe Pinheiro; Parada, Ana Paula; Cardoso, Viviane Cunha; Batista, Rosângela Fernandes Lucena; da Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura; Barbieri, Marco Antônio; Cavalli, Ricardo de Carvalho; Bettiol, Heloisa; Del-Ben, Cristina Marta

    2015-06-01

    This study verified the reliability and validity of the Edinburg Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) administered by telephone interviews. In a cross-sectional study of a cohort from Brazil (BRISA), the EPDS was administered by telephone to 1,083 women within 12 months postpartum, and 257 (23.7 %) participants had an EPDS score ?10. At 67?±?48 days after their telephone interview, 199 (EPDS ?10?=?96; EPDS <10?=?103) participants were interviewed face-to-face using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) and completed the EPDS again by self-report. In 90 participants, the diagnosis of major depressive episode was confirmed by the SCID (EPDS ?10?=?65; EPDS <10?=?25). The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.861. The Spearman's correlation between the EPDS administered by telephone and the self-reported EPDS was 0.69 (p?postpartum depression. PMID:25380783

  9. Cultural theories of postpartum bleeding in Matlab, Bangladesh: implications for community health intervention.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Lynn M; Hruschka, Daniel; Kalim, Nahid; Khan, Jasmin; Paul, Moni; Edmonds, Joyce K; Koblinsky, Marjorie A

    2009-06-01

    Early recognition can reduce maternal disability and deaths due to postpartum haemorrhage. This study identified cultural theories of postpartum bleeding that may lead to inappropriate recognition and delayed care-seeking. Qualitative and quantitative data obtained through structured interviews with 149 participants living in Matlab, Bangladesh, including women aged 18-49 years, women aged 50+ years, traditional birth attendants (TBAs), and skilled birth attendants (SBAs), were subjected to cultural domain. General consensus existed among the TBAs and lay women regarding signs, causes, and treatments of postpartum bleeding (eigenvalue ratio 5.9, mean competence 0.59, and standard deviation 0.15). Excessive bleeding appeared to be distinguished by flow characteristics, not colour or quantity. Yet, the TBAs and lay women differed significantly from the SBAs in beliefs about normalcy of blood loss, causal role of the retained placenta and malevolent spirits, and care practices critical to survival. Cultural domain analysis captures variation in theories with specificity and representativeness necessary to inform community health intervention. PMID:19507753

  10. Incised marks on Late Helladic and Late Minoan III pottery

    E-print Network

    Hirschfeld, Nicolle Elise

    1990-01-01

    INICISED MARKS ON LATE HELLADIC AND LATE MINOAN III POTTERY A Thesis by NICOLLE ELISE HIRSCHFELD Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the dey'ee of MASTER OF ARTS... December 1990 Major Subject: Anthropology INCISED MARKS ON LATE HELLADIC AND LATE MINOAN III POTTERY A Thesis by NICOLLE ELISE HIRSCHFELD Approved as to style and content by: George F, Bass (Chair of Committee) c~) Frederick H. van Doorninck, Jr...

  11. Physiological parameters in lambs during the first 30 days postpartum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Piccione; M. Borruso; F. Fazio; C. Giannetto; G. Caola

    2007-01-01

    The transition from a fetus, protected and nourished within the uterus in an almost parasitic state, to the free-living neonatal lamb is probably the most profound change the lamb ever has to face. The newborn becomes engaged in a series of profound metabolic and morphological changes, and the immediate postnatal period is characterized by temporary internal instability. The goal of

  12. Childhood sexual abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder among pregnant and postpartum women: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wosu, Adaeze C; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-02-01

    The aims of this review are (i) to summarize and evaluate current knowledge on the association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in pregnant and postpartum women, (ii) to provide suggestions for future research on this topic, and (iii) to highlight some clinical implications. Relevant publications were identified through literature searches of four databases (PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES) using keywords such as "child abuse," "posttraumatic stress," "pregnancy," and "postpartum". Five studies were included in this review. Findings across all studies were consistent with higher prevalence of PTSD diagnosis or symptomatology among women with history of CSA. However, only findings from two studies were statistically significant. One study observed higher overall PTSD scores in women with CSA history compared to women with non-CSA trauma history or no trauma history during pregnancy (mean?±?SD 1.47 (0.51) vs. 1.33 (0.41) vs. 1.22 (0.29), p?postpartum (mean?±?SD 1.43 (0.49) vs. 1.26 (0.38) vs. 1.19 (0.35), p?postpartum (mean?±?SD 1.36 (1.43) vs. 1.20 (0.33) vs. 1.14 (0.27), p?postpartum women. PMID:25380784

  13. Late Cretaceous^Cenozoic deformation of northeast Asia C. Gaina a;

    E-print Network

    Müller, Dietmar

    . A period of compression in the Late Cretaceous (14 mm/yr in the Laptev Sea to 20 mm/yr in Kamchatka) ledLate Cretaceous^Cenozoic deformation of northeast Asia C. Gaina a;Ã , W.R. Roest b , R.D. Mu. 102 (1997) 10039^10054] can be used to unravel, with tight confidence limits, successive periods

  14. Effect of feeding calcareous marine algae to Holstein cows prepartum or postpartum on serum metabolites and performance.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z; Bernard, J K; Taylor, S J

    2015-07-01

    Thirty-six multiparous Holstein cows and 12 springing heifers were used in a 9-wk randomized design trial to determine the response of cows fed calcareous marine algae (CMA) beginning 3wk prepartum or after parturition through 6wk postpartum on dry matter intake (DMI), blood and urine metabolites, and milk yield and composition. Within parity and expected calving date, cows were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 treatments with a 2×2 factorial arrangement. Prepartum diets were supplemented with calcium carbonate (CON) or 50g/d of CMA with a resulting dietary cation-anion difference of -5.17 and -3.99mEq/100g, respectively. Postpartum diets were formulated to provide either 317g/d of sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate (NBC) or 100g/d of CMA, providing a dietary cation-anion difference of 35.58 and 15.64mEq/100g, based on 25kg/d of DMI, respectively. No differences were observed in prepartum DMI or postpartum DMI, milk yield, percentage of milk fat, protein, lactose, and solids-not fat among treatments. Milk protein yield was higher for cows fed CMA prepartum compared with CON. Interactions of prepartum treatment and week were observed for yield of milk fat and energy-corrected milk because of higher yields for cows fed CMA during wk 2 and 6 compared with CON. Serum Na concentrations were greater for cows fed CON prepartum or NBC postpartum compared with CMA. Postpartum urinary concentrations of Na exhibited an interaction among treatments and were higher for CON-NBC and CMA-NBC compared with CON-CMA and CMA-CMA. Similar interactions of treatments were also observed for serum urea N and creatinine postpartum. Postpartum urinary K concentrations were higher for cows fed CMA postpartum compared with NBC. Results of this trial indicate that feeding cows CMA prepartum does not affect DMI or serum metabolites prepartum, but does support higher milk protein yield. Performance and serum metabolite concentrations of cows fed CMA postpartum were comparable with that of cows fed NBC, except for changes in serum and urinary concentration of Na, which was a function of dietary Na intake. PMID:25935240

  15. Electrochemical Periodicities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. V. Butler; G. Armstrong

    1932-01-01

    IN the course of experiments on the anodic polarisation of platinum electrodes in dilute sulphuric acid solutions saturated with hydrogen, we have observed, at small current densities, some striking periodicities. The change of potential difference with time in a typical experiment is shown in Fig. 1. In this case the electrode potential falls continuously with a marked break at EH

  16. The Late Pleistocene-Holocene history of the Caspian Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Mamedov

    1997-01-01

    Repeated fluctuations of the Caspian Sea are correlated with climate fluctuations, with transgressions associated with climatic warming and regressions characteristic of cooler periods. During the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, transgressions are associated with the Early Khvalynian (32-24 ka) and Late Khvalynian (16-8 ka), corresponding to the Bryansk interstaidal and final deglaciation, respectively. Regressions occured during the Yenotavian event (24-17 ka),

  17. Neurobehavior of Late Preterm Infants of Adolescent Mothers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina C. M. Barros; Sandro Mitsuhiro; Elisa Chalem; Ronaldo R. Laranjeira; Ruth Guinsburg

    2011-01-01

    Background: Late preterm infants have higher morbidity in the neonatal period and difficulties at school age. There are few data about neonatal neurobehavior performance that may interfere in their development. Objectives: To compare the neurobehavior of healthy late preterm and full-term neonates born to adolescent mothers. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study included infants with a gestational age of 400\\/7–406\\/7 weeks

  18. Managing posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression in women veterans during the perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Shivakumar, Geetha; Anderson, Elizabeth H; Surís, Alina M

    2015-01-01

    The recent surge in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND) era women Veterans, most of whom are younger compared to other women Veterans, presenting with mental health issues is expected to pose new clinical challenges. Treatment of mental health conditions in women Veterans is not considered comprehensive without adequate examination of the impact of reproductive events across the life span, such as their menstrual cycle, pregnancy and postpartum period, and menopausal transition. The overarching aim of this article is to discuss emerging clinical issues in managing common psychiatric conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression during pregnancy and postpartum period in the VA healthcare system and secondly, to identify steps to advance the knowledge and understanding of these complex issues. Information to be gained in this area has immediate clinical application in the overall management of major psychiatric conditions in women Veterans during pregnancy and postpartum, and implications for policy-making decisions. PMID:25560190

  19. The Clinical and Morphological Characteristics of the Uterus of the Goat during the Period of Involution

    PubMed Central

    Tielgy, A. H.; Fathalla, M.; Omar, M. A.; Al-Dahash, S.

    1982-01-01

    Two goats were slaughtered at zero, 24, 62 hours and five, seven, nine, 12, 15, 18, 21, 25, 28, 32 and 36 days after kidding in order to study the involutionary changes of the uterus. Uterine and vaginal discharges were varied in volume and nature and ceased before the end of day 5 postpartum. Uterine contents were found in greater volumes on days 7 to 9, in lesser volumes thereafter until no longer present on days 12 to 15 postpartum. Dimensions and weights of the genital tracts were returned to their initial nonpregnant state within a period of 28 days after kidding. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:17422134

  20. Periodic Monopoles

    E-print Network

    R. S. Ward

    2005-12-28

    This paper deals with static BPS monopoles in three dimensions which are periodic either in one direction (monopole chains) or two directions (monopole sheets). The Nahm construction of the simplest monopole chain is implemented numerically, and the resulting family of solutions described. For monopole sheets, the Nahm transform in the U(1) case is computed explicitly, and this leads to a description of the SU(2) monopole sheet which arises as a deformation of the embedded U(1) solution.

  1. Representations of Celebrities’ Weight and Shape during Pregnancy and Postpartum: A Content Analysis of Three Entertainment Magazine Websites

    PubMed Central

    Gow, Rachel W.; Lydecker, Janet A.; Lamanna, Jennifer D.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.

    2011-01-01

    Entertainment magazine websites provide a continuous stream of celebrity news accessed by over 13 million unique viewers each month. Celebrities’ experiences of pregnancy and new motherhood appear to be popular topics within these media outlets; however, little research has investigated the content of this coverage. In this study, investigators coded articles (N = 387) published between August 1, 2007 and August 1, 2008 on three popular entertainment magazine websites. Relatively few articles about celebrities’ pregnancies discussed weight (13%) or shape (30%), and an even smaller proportion (6.2%) included any discussion of postpartum body dissatisfaction. This suggests a gap between portrayal of celebrities’ pregnancies and postpartum experiences and those of non-celebrity women. This disparity is concerning as it might lead to unrealistic expectations about pregnancy and postpartum for both pregnant readers and a more general audience. This study provides important initial information about the messages these media provide regarding pregnancy-related appearance. PMID:21873126

  2. Immediate and long-term complications of delayed surgical management in the postpartum period: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Hooker, Angelo B; Muller, Linda T; Paternotte, Emma; Thurkow, Andreas L

    2014-10-20

    Abstract Objective: To assess the rate of complications of surgical interventions delayed more than 24?h after delivery in women suspected of placental remnants. Methods: A retrospective review was performed to analyse complications of delayed surgical interventions. Women were identified from the operation database and their medical records were reviewed to determine the rate of immediate and long-term complications, including reproductive outcome. Result: A total of 127 women were evaluated. The median interval between delivery and surgery was 42 days. Immediate complications were registered in 22.0% and re-interventions in 16.5%. Placental remnants were histologically confirmed in 63.8%. Intrauterine adhesions (IUAs), only of the severe type, were recorded in 20.5%, although a minority of women was hysteroscopically revised. The difference between women treated by dilatation and curettage (D&C) and hysteroscopy was not statistically significant. Similar reproductive outcomes were encountered in women treated by D&C and hysteroscopy and in women with and without IUAs, although the samples were small. Conclusion: Identification of placental remnants remains difficult while delayed interventions are associated with significant immediate and long-term complications. The impact on reproductive performance remains unclear. Further research is necessary to examine treatment options in relation to complications and reproductive outcome. PMID:25308205

  3. Increased Risk for Postpartum Psychiatric Disorders Among Women with Past Pregnancy Loss

    PubMed Central

    Cerulli, Catherine; Anson, Elizabeth; Chaudron, Linda H.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Scant literature exists on whether prior pregnancy loss (miscarriage, stillbirth, and/or induced abortion) increases the risk of postpartum psychiatric disorders—specifically depression and anxiety—after subsequent births. This study compares: (1) risk factors for depression and/or anxiety disorders in the postpartum year among women with and without prior pregnancy loss; and (2) rates of these disorders in women with one versus multiple pregnancy losses. Methods One-hundred-ninety-two women recruited at first-year pediatric well-child care visits from an urban pediatric clinic provided demographic information, reproductive and health histories. They also completed depression screening tools and a standard semi-structured psychiatric diagnostic interview. Results Almost half of the participants (49%) reported a previous pregnancy loss (miscarriage, stillbirth, or induced abortion). More than half of those with a history of pregnancy loss reported more than one loss (52%). Women with prior pregnancy loss were more likely to be diagnosed with major depression (p=0.002) than women without a history of loss. Women with multiple losses were more likely to be diagnosed with major depression (p=0.047) and/or post-traumatic stress disorder (Fisher's exact [FET]=0.028) than women with a history of one pregnancy loss. Loss type was not related to depression, although number of losses was related to the presence of depression and anxiety. Conclusions Low-income urban mothers have high rates of pregnancy loss and often have experienced more than one loss and/or more than one type of loss. Women with a history of pregnancy loss are at increased risk for depression and anxiety, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), after the birth of a child. Future research is needed to understand the reasons that previous pregnancy loss is associated with subsequent postpartum depression and anxiety among this population of women. PMID:24007380

  4. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial of Sertraline for Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Hantsoo, Liisa; Ward-O’Brien, Deborah; Czarkowski, Kathryn A.; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Price, Lawrence H.; Epperson, C. Neill

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Postpartum depression (PMD) occurs in roughly 10% of postpartum women and negatively impacts the mother and her offspring, but there are few placebo-controlled studies of antidepressant treatment in this population. Objectives To compare the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) sertraline to placebo for treating PMD. Methods This was a single-center, 6-week, randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of sertraline with a one-week placebo lead-in. Participants (n=38) were women with depression onset within 3 months of delivery; a subset (n=27) met strict DSM-IV criteria for PMD (onset within 4 weeks of delivery). Participants were prescribed sertraline 50 mg or placebo daily, to a maximum of 200 mg/day. Primary outcome variables were the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) and Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) scores, which were used to determine rates of response and remission. Results Sertraline produced a significantly greater response rate (59%) than placebo (26%) and a more than 2-fold increased remission rate (53% vs. 21%). Mixed models did not reveal significant group by time effects, although in the subset of women who met DSM-IV criteria, there was a statistically significant group by time effect for the HAM-D, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) and CGI. Conclusions Women with PMD are more likely to have a remission of their depression with sertraline treatment, a finding that is more pronounced in women who have onset of depression within 4 weeks of childbirth. These data support the continued use of 4 weeks for the DSM-5 postpartum onset specifier for major depressive disorder. PMID:24173623

  5. Length of Stay for Mental and Behavioural Disorders Postpartum in Primiparous Mothers: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fenglian; Austin, Marie-Paule; Reilly, Nicole; Hilder, Lisa; Sullivan, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous research showed that there was a significant increase in psychiatric hospital admission of postpartum mothers. The aim of the current study is to describe the length of hospital stays and patient days for mental and behavioural disorders (MBD) of new mothers in the first year after birth. Method: This was a cohort study based on linked population data between the New South Wales (NSW) Midwives Data Collection (MDC) and the NSW Admitted Patients Data Collection (APDC). The study population included primiparous mothers aged from 18 to 44 who gave birth between 1 July 2000 and 31 December 2005. The Kaplan–Meier method was used to describe the length of hospital stay for MBD. Results: For principal diagnoses of MBD, the entire length of hospital stay in the first year postpartum was 11.38 days (95% CI: 10.70–12.06) for mean and 6 days (95% CI: 5.87–6.13) for median. The length of hospital stay per admission was 8.47 days (95% CI: 8.03–8.90) for mean and 5 days (95% CI: 4.90–5.10) for median. There were 5,129 patient days of hospital stay per year for principal diagnoses of postpartum MBD in new mothers between 1 July 2000 and 31 December 2005 in NSW, Australia. Conclusions: MBD, especially unipolar depressions, adjustment disorders, acute psychotic episodes, and schizophrenia, or schizophrenia-like disorders during the first year after birth, placed a significant burden on hospital services due to long hospital stays and large number of admissions. PMID:24681554

  6. A new Late Carboniferous Pangea reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, X.

    2014-12-01

    Paleomagnetically reconstructed Laurasia and Gondwana are well satisfied. However, the Pangea reconstruction remains controversial. The Late Triassic-Early Jurassic reconstruction, Pangea A, is consistent with one derived by closure of the Atlantic Ocean. As going back to older Period, the Pangea A reconstruction cannot stand. Particularly, the Late Carboniferous and Permian reconstruction, Pangea B, placed Gondwana ~3500 km eastward relative to its Pangea A configuration. This might indicate that the super continent was tectonically evolving during the period. For instance, an intra Pangean megashear zone has been proposed to show the evolution from Pangea B to Pangea A. On the other hand, researchers suspected that the Pangea B reconstruction is not accurate, because of several factors, i.e., the effect of persistent, large non-dipole field, remagnetization, errors in paleomagnetic record (inclination shallowing), and so on. To test the effect of inclination shallowing on the Pangea reconstruction, we here focus on the Late Carboniferous time, because, the Laurasian poles are mainly from volcanic rocks, and the Gondwana poles dominantly from sediments. This makes the test rather simple. Assuming a flattening factor of 0.5, we corrected the paleomagnetic inclinations of the Late Carboniferous results from Gondwana, and the inclination-corrected poles are thus achieved. The mean Laurasia and Gondwana poles can largely be accommodated by closure of the Atlantic Ocean, and the remaining offset may be solved by a ~15 degree relative rotation between the two continents. Relative rotation is often observed during continental collision (e.g., the collision between the North and South China blocks, the India-Asia collision, and so on), and more likely than the large scale shear. Our test indicates that Pangea B is probably the artifact of paleomagnetic inclination shallowing in sedimentary rocks.

  7. Applying lean management principles to the creation of a postpartum hemorrhage care bundle.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Beth

    2013-10-01

    A lean management process is a set of interventions, each of which creates value for the customer. Lean management is not a new concept, but is relatively new to health care. Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the most common cause of maternal death worldwide in both developing and developed countries. We applied lean management principles as an innovative approach to improving outcomes in patients with PPH. Initial results using principles of lean management indicated significant improvements in response time and family-centered care. When applied rigorously and throughout the organization, lean principles can have a dramatic effect on productivity, cost and quality. PMID:24138659

  8. New Evidence on Breastfeeding and Postpartum Depression: The Importance of Understanding Women's Intentions

    E-print Network

    Borra, C.; Iacovou, M.; Sevilla, A.

    2014-01-01

    of postnatal depression sig- nificant in the UK’’, PharmacoEconomics and Outcomes News, 1(399): 7-7(1). 8. Knapp, M., McDaid, D., & Parsonage, M. (Eds.). (2011). Mental health promotion and mental illness prevention: the economic case. London: Department... persistence, sexuality and mood in postpartum women. Psychological Medicine, 18(2), 389–396. 17. Chung, E. K., McCollum, K. F., Elo, I. T., Lee, H. J., & Culhane, J. F. (2004). Maternal depressive symptoms and infant health practices among low-income women...

  9. Severe Maternal Pre- and Postpartum Intra-Abdominal Bleeding due to Deciduosis

    PubMed Central

    Lüdders, D. W.; Henke, R.-P.; Saba, M.; Raddatz, L.; Soliman, A.; Malik, E.

    2015-01-01

    The term “deciduosis” is used to describe the severe pregnancy-associated occurrence of ectopic decidua with a usually asymptomatic course. We report on two cases of massive maternal intra-abdominal bleeding due to such symptomatic changes. The complications arose at different time points for the two cases: prepartum (26th week of pregnancy) or, respectively, – reported here for the first time – seven days postpartum. As well as differential diagnostic aspects we describe the management of the disease and its possible effects on subsequent pregnancies. PMID:25914420

  10. Web recruitment and internet use and preferences reported by women with postpartum depression after pregnancy complications.

    PubMed

    Maloni, Judith A; Przeworski, Amy; Damato, Elizabeth G

    2013-04-01

    Nearly one million women each year have pregnancy complications that cause antepartum and postpartum anxiety and depression. This exploratory study determined 1) feasibility of using social media to recruit women with depressive symptoms following high risk pregnancy, 2) women's barriers to treatment, 3) use of online resources for assistance with PPD, and 4) preferences for internet treatment. Among a national sample of 53 women, nearly 70% had major depression. Common barriers were lack of time and stigma. Over 90% of women would use the internet to learn coping strategies for PPD. Women expressed interest in web-based PPD treatment and identified desired characteristics of an intervention. PMID:23540519

  11. Postpartum follow-up of hepatic calcification detected by prenatal ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Arda, K; Ozdemirel, D; Tosun; Olçer, T

    2000-10-01

    The causes of parenchymal hepatic calcification are mostly transplacental infection of TORCH complex, ischaemic necrosis, or tumours of foetal liver including haemangioma, hamartoma, teratoma, hepatoma, and hemangioendothelioma. Vascular pathologies like hepatic artery aneurysm, haematoma, calcified thromboemboli of portal vein and hepatic veins can also cause hepatic calcification. We present a case of hepatic calcification which was first diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound. In the postpartum follow-up, we observed that the calcifications had decreased in number and size. The causes and results of hepatic calcification or underlying disease are discussed with analysis of the literature. PMID:11201536

  12. Superovulation, non surgical embryo collection, transfer and rebreeding of early postpartum brangus cows 

    E-print Network

    Stone, Guy

    1983-01-01

    . The postpartum interval combined with percent calf crop at weaning determine the reproductive efficiency of a cow herd. The citations on the following pages follow the style of the Journal of Animal Science. There is a high incidence of silent estrus...:321. Gerrits, R. J. , T. H. Bossier, H. G. Purchase, C. E. Terrill and E. J. Warwick. 1979. Economics of improving reproductive efficiency in farm animals. In: H. W. Hawk, C. A. Kiddy and H. E. Cecil (Ed. ) Beltsville Symposia in Agricultural' Research. 3...

  13. Spontaneous postpartum rupture of an intact uterus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mavromatidis, George; Karavas, George; Margioula-Siarkou, Chrysoula; Petousis, Stamatios; Kalogiannidis, Ioannis; Mamopoulos, Apostolos; Rousso, David

    2015-01-01

    Rupture of uterus is an obstetrical complication characterized by a breach in the uterine wall and the overlying serosa. We report an unusual case of spontaneous rupture of an unscarred uterus in a 33-year-old woman, a day after her third successful vaginal delivery. A 33-year-old pregnant woman, gravid 3, para 3, was referred to our department at 39 gestational week because of rupture of membranes. Despite tocolysis administration, her pregnancy was delivered vaginally after 2 days, giving birth to a male neonate of 3,020 g with normal Apgar scores at first and fifth minute. Her uterus was intact and gynecological examination after delivery was normal without any potential signs or symptoms of pathology. However, the day following her labor, patient complained of left iliac fossa pain. Her blood tests revealed a CRP value at 27.6 mg/L, whereas the X-rays revealed an extensive impacted fecal mass in the colon. MRI revealed that the left lower myometrial part of the uterus was depicted abrupt, with simultaneous presence of hemorrhagic stuff. The decision of laparotomy was therefore made in order to further evaluate rupture of uterus and properly treat patient. And subtotal hysterectomy was performed. Postoperative follow-up period was not characterized by any complications and patient was finally discharged 4 days after hysterectomy. PMID:25368704

  14. The late-M dwarfs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Bessell

    1991-01-01

    Far-red spectra and VRIJHK photometry have been obtained for a sample of late-M dwarfs selected on the basis of large reduced red magnitudes from the LHS Catalog. Half of the stars in the three faintest 1 mag bins are late-M stars, the other red stars are metallic-hydride subdwarfs. Relations between various colors for the late-M dwarfs are investigated. Of all

  15. Spirituality in late adulthood.

    PubMed

    Heintz, L M; Baruss, I

    2001-06-01

    MacDonald's Expressions of Spirituality Inventory was used to examine spirituality in late adulthood using a sample of 30 people (22 women, 8 men) whose mean age was 72.6 yr. While average scores are higher on scales measuring spiritual and religious beliefs and practices for the sample than for a standardization group of undergraduate students with a mean age of 21.0 yr., means are lower on scales measuring paranormal beliefs. Low scores on death anxiety are correlated only with Existential Well-being and age. And, while some religious behaviors such as frequent religious practice, prayer, and church attendance are correlated with some of the dimensions of spirituality, many of the scores on the Expressions of Spirituality Inventory scales are independent of self-reported religious behaviors. PMID:11507998

  16. Immune response of postpartum dairy cows fed flaxseed.

    PubMed

    Lessard, M; Gagnon, N; Petit, H V

    2003-08-01

    Thirty Holstein cows were allotted at calving to 10 groups of three cows blocked for similar calving dates to determine the effects of dietary fatty acids on functional properties of immunocompetent cells in early lactation and at breeding. Cows were assigned at calving to one of three isonitrogenous, isoenergetic, and isolipidic supplements based on either calcium salts of palm oil, Megalac, micronized soybeans, or whole flaxseed. On the day of AI and 20 d later, cows were injected with ovalbumin to measure the antibody response. Blood samples were taken at different times after calving (d 5, 21, 42, and 105) and after AI (d 0, 10, 20, and 40) for quantification of serum progesterone, fatty acids, and prostaglandin E2 concentrations. Isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured to evaluate the proliferative response to concanavalin A and in vitro productions of interferon-gamma and prostaglandin E2. In general, feeding flaxseed increased serum omega-3 fatty acids concentration compared with feeding Megalac or soybeans, which decreased the omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids ratio. There was a significant diet x day interaction for the proliferative response of mononuclear cells after calving and AI, indicating that cell responses from cows fed flaxseed were transiently reduced compared with those fed Megalac and soybeans. Moreover, during the breeding period, serum progesterone concentration was significantly greater in cows fed flaxseed compared with those fed Megalac, whereas serum concentration of prostaglandin E2 was significantly lower in cows fed flaxseed than in those fed Megalac or soybeans. Dietary treatments had no effect on the antibody response to ovalbumin and on in vitro productions of interferon-gamma and prostaglandin E2. However, interferon-gamma and prostaglandin E2 were impaired in the first 3 wk after parturition regardless of dietary treatment. These results suggest that changes in fatty acids, progesterone, and prostaglandins E2 concentrations in serum due to dietary treatment and physiological status influenced systemic immunity as shown by reduced proliferative response. However, other mechanisms must be considered and are discussed to explain dietary effect on lymphocyte proliferative response to mitogenic stimulation and other immune functions. PMID:12939089

  17. [Anthropometric methods used in the evaluation of the postpartum weight retention: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Jamile Lima; Saunders, Cláudia; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2015-02-01

    This paper is a systematic review of scientific papers that studied postpartum weight retention. The identification of the studies was conducted in the Medline, Lilacs and Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations databases between 2000 until 2013. The main information evaluated was: author, year of publication, sample size, year of data collection, losses and analysis thereof, age, follow-up time, weight in the baseline and in the postpartum, assessment methods of weight retention and main results. Twenty studies were selected, of which 25% (n = 5) were national. Regarding the mode of analysis, in some works the result was analyzed in different ways as continuous and categorical. Of the selected papers, 45% (n = 9) analyzed the retained weight only continuously, 5% (n = 1) only categorically and 40% (n = 8) both ways. One of the studies used distribution in percentiles and the other evaluated continuously, categorical and by indicators of absolute and relative weight reduction. In conclusion, the results found reveal a lack of well-defined information about the forms of anthropometric measurements of women after delivery, indicating the need for developing national proposals, consistent with the reality of our population. PMID:25715134

  18. Disposition of ampicillin trihydrate in plasma, uterine tissue, lochial fluid, and milk of postpartum dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Credille, B C; Giguère, S; Vickroy, T W; Fishman, H J; Jones, A L; Mason, M E; DiPietro, R O; Ensley, D T

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the disposition of ampicillin in plasma, uterine tissue, lochial fluid, and milk of postpartum dairy cattle. Ampicillin trihydrate was administered by intramuscular (i.m.) injection at a dose of 11 mg/kg of body weight every 24 h (n = 6, total of 3 doses) or every 12 h (n = 6, total of 5 doses) for 3 days. Concentrations of ampicillin were measured in plasma, uterine tissue, lochial fluid, and milk using HPLC with ultraviolet absorption. Quantifiable ampicillin concentrations were found in plasma, milk, and lochial fluid of all cattle within 30 min, 4 h, and 4 h of administration of ampicillin trihydrate, respectively. There was no significant effect of dosing interval (every 12 vs. every 24 h) and no significant interactions between dosing interval and sampling site on the pharmacokinetic variable measured or calculated. Median peak ampicillin concentration at steady-state was significantly higher in lochial fluid (5.27 ?g/mL after q 24 h dosing) than other body fluids or tissues and significantly higher in plasma (3.11 ?g/mL) compared to milk (0.49 ?g/mL) or endometrial tissue (1.55 ?g/mL). Ampicillin trihydrate administered once daily by the i.m. route at the label dose of 11 mg/kg of body weight achieves therapeutic concentrations in the milk, lochial fluid, and endometrial tissue of healthy postpartum dairy cattle. PMID:25376083

  19. Effects of a New Patient Safety-Driven Oxytocin Dosing Protocol on Postpartum Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, David S.; Rudinsky, Kari; Sonek, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine if there was an increase in postpartum (PP) hemorrhage after decreasing the PP oxytocin dose from 40 to 30 units. Study Design. Retrospective cohort study comparing 8 months before to 8 months after the change. PP day 1 hemoglobin was subtracted from admission hemoglobin. Mean change was compared by Student's t-test. The best fit polynomial was analyzed for trends between the two time frames. Women who received blood transfusions were excluded. Results. 73/3564 (2.0%) women received blood transfusions in the pre group and 64/3295 (1.9%) women in the post group, P = 0.8. Mean hemoglobin change ± standard deviation was 1.53 ± 0.03?g/dL for pre versus 1.52 ± 0.05?g/dL for post, P = 0.68. 1003/3114 (32.2%) in the pre group had a hemoglobin decrease of ?2?g/dL compared to 918/2895 (31.7%) in the post group, P = 0.7. 261/3114 (8.4%) in the pre group had a hemoglobin decrease of ?3?g/dL compared to 252/2895 (8.7%), P = 0.7. There were no significant trends between the two time frames. Conclusion. The change in the dose of PP oxytocin did not result in an increase in postpartum hemorrhage or an increase in the need for blood transfusion. PMID:24868465

  20. Misoprostol for preventing and treating postpartum hemorrhage in the community: a closer look at the evidence.

    PubMed

    Oladapo, Olufemi T

    2012-11-01

    The lack of clear interpretation of clinical and operational evidence on misoprostol use for postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) in the community may jeopardize the realization of its full potential for improving women's survival. This paper highlights the usefulness of misoprostol in addressing PPH in the community within the limits of available research evidence. There is now substantial evidence to support the beneficial effects of 600 ?g of oral misoprostol for PPH prevention in the community, with a trend toward better protection against severe PPH morbidity, and particularly when administered by less skilled or lay caregivers. Although there is tangible evidence to show that 800 ?g of sublingual misoprostol has important benefits for PPH treatment where there is no access to oxytocin, there is presently no direct evidence to indicate that less skilled or lay caregivers can safely use it to treat PPH in the community. Operational research evidence indicates that advance community distribution of misoprostol to pregnant women for postpartum self-use is a feasible strategy to ensure availability of the drug at the time of birth. The evidence is, however, limited by its quality to establish whether the benefits of such a strategy truly outweigh the potential harms. It is time for the international community to focus on improving PPH-related outcomes by scaling up what is currently guided by hard evidence and join forces to address unanswered questions through high-quality research. PMID:22968139