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1

Hemostatic profile during late pregnancy and early postpartum period in mares.  

PubMed

Hemostasis is a physiological process that prevents excessive blood loss and represents a protective mechanism at the time of delivery. Peripartum hemorrhage is a recurring hazardous condition to mare's health; therefore, we aimed to study mares' hemostatic profile to investigate whether physiological adjustments occur during late pregnancy and early postpartum. Fifteen pregnant mares have been monitored from the 34th week of pregnancy until the third week after foaling. Fifteen nonpregnant mares were used as control group. Jugular blood samples were analyzed for platelet count (Plt), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and fibrinogen (Fb). Platelet count showed significant changes at foaling (P < 0.05) and a negative correlation (r = -0.968; P = 0.032) with postpartum. Prothrombin time changed (P < 0.05) showing a significant correlation (r = 0.675; P = 0.016) with late pregnancy. Fibrinogen concentrations changed throughout the experimental period (P < 0.0001). The linear regression model revealed a positive correlation (r = 0.9210; P < 0.0001) between Fb and late pregnancy and a negative correlation (r = -0.9583; P = 0.042) between Fb and early postpartum. The shortening in PT recorded in the imminence of parturition along with the increase in Plt and Fb at foaling might reflect a physiological hypercoagulable state that constrains excessive bleeding, enhancing mares' odds of surviving. Our research improves the knowledge about blood coagulation in periparturient mares providing specific information on routine coagulation tests that may support in monitoring mare's hemostatic profile during late pregnancy and early postpartum. PMID:24388675

Bazzano, M; Giannetto, C; Fazio, F; Marafioti, S; Giudice, E; Piccione, G

2014-03-01

2

Composition of Colostrum from Dairy Heifers Exposed to High Air Temperatures During Late Pregnancy and the Early Postpartum Period1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of heat stress on composition of colostrum from primiparous cows dur- ing late pregnancy and the early postpartum period. Two groups of 6 Holstein heifers were utilized. During the last 3 wk of pregnancy and during the first 36 h after calving, one group was exposed to thermal com- fort (temperature-humidity index = 65); the

A. Nardone; N. Lacetera; U. Bernabucci; B. Ronchi

1997-01-01

3

Oral contraceptives in the immediate postpartum period.  

PubMed

Although there is a critical need for effective contraception in the immediate postpartum period for women who are not breastfeeding, this need must be balanced against the inherent risks. The most effective form of contraceptive protection--oral contraceptives (OCs)--can present an increased risk of thromboembolism in the period after delivery. The thrombotic changes associated with pregnancy, and the statistics and vascular damage following a delivery, can combine to create greater potential for thromboembolism after delivery than during pregnancy. Reported here is the case of a 21-year-old woman who, 4 weeks postpartum, developed pain and swelling in the right lower calf and mottled discoloration extending from the proximal thigh to the toes. A diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis was made and heparin was administered. In the hospital, the patient experienced pleuritic chest pain and diaphoresis. A ventilation-perfusion scan indicated a pulmonary embolism. 1 week after delivery, the patient had initiated use of Triphasil. Although this woman had other risk factors (obesity, light cigarette smoking, and a sedentary life-style), OC use in the immediate postpartum period may have been the final factor precipitating the thromboembolic event. It is recommended that OC use should be delayed until at least 2 weeks postpartum in women without other risk factors for thromboembolism and until 4-6 weeks postpartum in those with such factors. PMID:2010744

Hume, A L; Hijab, J C

1991-04-01

4

Perinatal stress, fatigue, depressive symptoms, and immune modulation in late pregnancy and one month postpartum.  

PubMed

Stress and fatigue are common complaints of pregnant and postpartum women as is depression. These symptoms may be related to immunomodulation. However, few studies have examined these relationships. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among stress, fatigue, depression, and cytokines as markers of immune modulation in prenatal and postpartum women. Women completed questionnaires and gave blood samples during late pregnancy and again at 4-6 weeks postpartum. Blood was analyzed for cytokines as measures of immune modulation. Stress, fatigue, and depression were experienced at moderately high levels, with higher levels of fatigue and depression in the postpartum but higher stress in the prenatal period. Levels of several cytokines were increased in the postpartum over the prenatal period. Stress and depression were related in the prenatal period and stress, depression, and fatigue were related in the postpartum. While various cytokines were related to each other in both periods, only stress was related to MIP-1?, a cytokine that may be important for childbirth processes. More studies, especially longitudinal and interventional studies, are needed to increase our knowledge about etiology, patterns, symptoms, factors, and management of maternal distress. The search for reliable biomarkers for at-risk mothers remains a priority. PMID:24587741

Cheng, C Y; Pickler, R H

2014-01-01

5

Interleukin1ß elevation during the postpartum period  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the postpartum period, women frequently report increased fatigue, which, if severe, may interfere with maternal-child\\u000a bonding, delay a new mother’s return to her activities of daily living, and contribute to depression. Several studies have\\u000a sought to determine psychosocial contributions to fatigue during the postpartum period, but few evaluate any physiological\\u000a changes that may contribute to fatigue during this time.

Elizabeth J. Corwin; Ingrid Bozoky; Linda C. Pugh; Nancy Johnston

2003-01-01

6

Late postpartum eclampsia as an obstetric complication seen in the ED  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preeclampsia is a complication of pregnancy associated with hypertension and proteinuria. Preeclampsia may be associated with grand mal seizures and is termed eclampsia. Historically, eclampsia occurring more than 48 hours after delivery, known as late postpartum eclampsia, was thought to be uncommon; however, recent evidence suggests that its incidence is increasing. In addition, the presentation of late postpartum preeclampsia-eclampsia may

Brendon Graeber; Tamara Vanderwal; Robert J. Stiller; Michael J. Werdmann

2005-01-01

7

The prenatal and immediate postpartum periods  

PubMed Central

A mother's nutritional status during pregnancy has important implications for both her own health and her ability to produce and breast-feed a healthy infant. Knowledge about adequate maternal nutrition during pregnancy is incomplete, however, and there is still considerable debate about the level of extra energy needed by a pregnant woman. A woman's usual nutritional requirements increase during pregnancy to meet her needs and those of the growing fetus. Additional energy is needed because of increased basal metabolism, the greater cost of physical activity, and the normal accumulation of fat as the energy reserve. The protein, vitamin and mineral requirements of the mother also increase during pregnancy, but the precise amounts for the last two are still a matter for discussion. A woman's weight increments during pregnancy vary between privileged and underprivileged communities. In addition to calcium, phosphorus and iron, a mother provides considerable amounts of protein and fat for fetal growth. Placental metabolism and placental blood flow, which are interrelated, are the most critical factors for fetal development. The nutritional requirements of healthy newborns vary widely according to their weight, gestational age, rate of growth, as well as environmental factors. However, recommendations for some components may be derived from the average composition of early human milk and the amounts consumed by healthy, mature newborns who are following a normal postpartum clinical course. The water requirements of infants are related to their caloric consumption, activity, rate of growth, and the ambient temperature. A postnatal weight loss of 5-8% of body weight is usual during the first few days of life in mature newborn infants; in contrast, infants who experienced intrauterine malnutrition lose little or no weight at all. The dynamic process of mother—newborn interaction from the first hours of life is intimately related to successful early breast-feeding. If this process is delayed, however, it may take longer and may be more difficult to achieve. Close mother—infant contact immediately after birth also helps infants to adapt to their new unsterile environment. Because drugs can interfere with bonding and breast-feeding, such substances should be given only when necessary and their effects should be evaluated. In general, young infants, especially newborns, have very irregular feeding intervals. It is advisable for numerous reasons to feed them whenever they indicate a need. PMID:2702124

1989-01-01

8

Problem-Solving Appraisal and the Prediction of Depression during Pregnancy and in the Postpartum Period.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested hypothesis that higher levels of positive affect and lower levels of negative affect would predict depression during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. Analysis of 100 women indicated that women at risk for depression during pregnancy and in the postpartum period may exhibit heightened negative moods and a dearth of positive affective…

Elliott, Timothy R.; And Others

1996-01-01

9

Late Postpartum HELLP Syndrome 60 Hours after Delivery Associated with Mild Pre-eclampsia  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this report is to present a case of mild Pre-eclampsia which was complicated with postpartum HELLP syndrome. A 25-years-old pregnant woman with mild Pre-eclampsia at 36 weeks of gestation was admitted to our clinic with uterine contractions. A caesarean section was performed, due to her previous caesarean section history. Postpartum period was uneventful until the 2nd day after the caesarean section. Epigastric pain, nausea and vomiting appeared two days after her delivery. In evaluation of the case, laboratory findings which were associated with HELLP syndrome were found to include haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet counts. The general condition and laboratory findings of the case returned to normal with supportive and steroid treatment after 3 days. It should be noted that HELLP syndrome can develop in the postpartum period. Therefore, caution should be exercised in patients with pre-eclampsia, for the development of the postpartum HELLP syndrome. PMID:24551706

Cakmak, Bulent; Toprak, Muhammet; Nacar, Mehmet Can; Karatas, Ahmet

2013-01-01

10

Incentive salience of cocaine across the postpartum period of the female rat  

PubMed Central

Rationale–Objectives Our prior conditioned place preference (CPP) work demonstrates that late (day16) postpartum female rats consistently prefer cocaine- over pup-associated chambers, whereas far fewer early postpartum (day8) females prefer the cocaine-associated chamber. The present study examines early and late postpartum females’ preference for a cocaine-associated chamber when contrasted with a chamber associated with saline (rather than pups). Materials and methods Postpartum females were tested for conditioned preference for chambers associated with cocaine (10 mg/kg subcutaneous (SC) or 0.5, 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg intraperitoneal (IP) injections) versus saline; preferences of virgin female and male rats for select cocaine stimuli (10mg/kg SC or IP) were also tested. Locomotion was recorded during CPP conditioning and testing. Results Early and late postpartum females expressed strikingly similar preference for the cocaine-associated chamber across all administration routes and doses. IP cocaine produced an orderly, inverted U-shaped dose-preference curve, with preference peaking at the 5 mg/kg dose (83% of females). While many postpartum females preferred 10mg/kg cocaine administered either SC or IP, both virgin females and males expressed strong aversion to SC cocaine and, while virgin females strongly preferred IP cocaine, males remained relatively indifferent. Across 10mg/kg IP cocaine-conditioning sessions, locomotor sensitization occurred exclusively in cocaine- but not saline-preferring postpartum females. Locomotor rate was lower in preferred versus nonpreferred chambers at CPP test. Conclusions Early and late postpartum females may be equally and uniquely susceptible to sampling and/or abuse of modestly salient doses of cocaine (10mg/kg SC; 5mg/kg IP) compared to virgin females and/or males. PMID:18470696

Seip, Katharine M.; Pereira, Mariana; Wansaw, Michael P.; Reiss, Jenny I.; Dziopa, Eugenia I.; Morrell, Joan I.

2008-01-01

11

A Multimethod Perspective on Emotional Availability in the Postpartum Period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. This study investigates observed and self-reported emotional availability in clinically depressed and nondepressed mother–infant pairs. Design. Observations of mother–infant interaction were made during 30-min free-play interaction during the first year of life in clinically postpartum depressed (n = 49) and nondepressed mothers (n = 35) in Flanders (Belgium). Results. Postpartum depressed mothers had significantly lower scores on most emotional

Nicole Vliegen; Patrick Luyten; Zeynep Biringen

2009-01-01

12

Successful Intra-Arterial Thrombolysis for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Immediate Postpartum Period: Case Report  

SciTech Connect

Stroke in pregnancy and the puerperium is a rare but potentially devastating event. We present the case of a previously healthy woman who underwent a cesarean delivery and experienced a middle cerebral artery thrombosis in the immediate postpartum period that was subsequently lysed with intra-arterial urokinase. The patient made a complete neurologic recovery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of successful intra-arterial thrombolysis for ischemic stroke in the postpartum period.

Mendez, Jose C. [Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Department of Neuroradiology (Spain)], E-mail: jmendezce@hotmail.com; Masjuan, J.; Garcia, N.; Lecinana, M. de [Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Department of Neurology (Spain)

2008-01-15

13

Bipolar disorder in the postpartum period: management strategies and future directions.  

PubMed

Bipolar I and II disorder are chronic and severe psychiatric illnesses that affect many women. Furthermore, women are at increased risk for mood episodes during the postpartum period compared with non-postpartum periods. Unfortunately, identification of clinically significant depressive or (hypo)manic episodes can be challenging. Delays in detection, as well as misdiagnosis, put women at risk of many negative consequences, such as symptom exacerbation and treatment refractoriness. Early and accurate detection of bipolar I or II disorder in the postpartum period is critical to improve prognosis. At this time, limited recommendations can be made due to a paucity of research. Further research on postpartum bipolar I or II disorder focusing on its identification, consequences and treatment is urgently needed to allow for empirically informed clinical decision-making. PMID:25259898

Pope, Carley J; Sharma, Verinder; Mazmanian, Dwight

2014-07-01

14

Plasma patterns of biologically and immunologically active luteinizing hormone during late gestation and early postpartum in the bovine  

E-print Network

PLASMA PATTERNS OF BIOLOGICALLY AND IMMUNOLOGICALLY ACTIVE LUTEINIZING HORMONE DURING LATE GESTATION AND EARLY POSTPARTUM IN THE BOVINE A Thesis GARY DUANE WEESNER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A k M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE AUGUST 1986 Major Subjects Physiology of Reproduction PLASMA PATTERNS OF BIOLOGICALLY AND IMMUNOLOGICALLY ACTIVE LUTEINIZING HORMONE DURING LATE GESTATION AND EARLY POSTPARTUM...

Weesner, Gary Duane

2012-06-07

15

Improving Energy Supply to Late Gestation and Early Postpartum Dairy Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty-five multiparous Holstein cows were used to test the effects of feeding diets of varied ruminal carbohydrate availability during the transition period on dry matter intake, blood metabolites, and lacta- tional performance. Cows received total mixed rations containing either cracked corn or steam-flaked corn beginning 28 d prior to expected calving date. At parturition, cows were assigned to a postpartum

H. M. Dann; G. A. Varga; D. E. Putnam

1999-01-01

16

Cerebrovascular complications of pregnancy and the postpartum period.  

PubMed

Cerebrovascular complications of pregnancy, though uncommon, threaten women with severe morbidity or death, and they are the main causes of major long-term disability associated with pregnancy. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, presentation and diagnosis, and management and outcomes of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke and cerebral venous thrombosis. We also discuss the posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, the reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome including postpartum cerebral angiopathy, and their relationship as overlapping manifestations of pre-eclampsia-eclampsia. PMID:25239155

Razmara, Ali; Bakhadirov, Khamid; Batra, Ayush; Feske, Steven K

2014-10-01

17

Heart rate variability biofeedback intervention for reduction of psychological stress during the early postpartum period.  

PubMed

This study examined the effectiveness of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback intervention for reduction of psychological stress in women in the early postpartum period. On postpartum day 4, 55 healthy subjects received a brief explanation about HRV biofeedback using a portable device. Among them, 25 mothers who agreed to implement HRV biofeedback at home were grouped as the biofeedback group, and other 30 mothers were grouped as the control group. At 1 month postpartum, there was a significant decrease in total Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score (P < 0.001) in the biofeedback group; this change was brought about mainly by decreases in items related to anxiety or difficulty sleeping. There was also a significant increase in standard deviation of the normal heartbeat interval (P < 0.01) of the resting HRV measures in the biofeedback group after adjusting for potential covariates. In conclusion, postpartum women who implemented HRV biofeedback after delivery were relatively free from anxiety and complained less of difficulties sleeping at 1 month postpartum. Although the positive effects of HRV biofeedback may be partly attributable to intervention effects, due to its clinical outcome, HRV biofeedback appears to be recommendable for many postpartum women as a feasible health-promoting measure after childbirth. PMID:25239433

Kudo, Naoko; Shinohara, Hitomi; Kodama, Hideya

2014-12-01

18

Metabolic profile of broodmares during late pregnancy and early post-partum.  

PubMed

Pregnancy represents a specific physiological status characterized by continuous adjustments that affect maternal metabolism of all nutrients. In the last trimester of pregnancy, mare's nutrient requirements greatly increase and most pregnancy-associated diseases are likely to occur. Therefore, we aimed to assess the metabolic profile of broodmares focusing on the last 3 months of pregnancy and the early post-partum. Fifteen pregnant mares (Group A) were monitored from 263 ± 3 days of pregnancy until 21 days after foaling. Seven non-pregnant mares (Group B) were used as the control group. Blood samples were collected weekly by jugular venipuncture throughout the experimental period, and additional blood samples were collected within 24 ± 12 h of foaling. Obtained sera were analyzed for urea (Ur), creatinine (Cre), total protein (TP), total, direct and indirect bilirubin (tB, dB, iB), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (tChol) and ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). During pregnancy, Ur (p = 0.015) and dB (p = 0.028) were higher in Group A than Group B. Serum Cre, tB, iB and TG (p < 0.001) decreased after foaling; furthermore, Group A exhibited lower tChol (p < 0.001) and higher BHB (p < 0.001) than Group B during the study. There were significant interactions of time × peripartum on Ur (p = 0.007), Cre (p < 0.001), tB (p = 0.018), TG (p < 0.001) and tChol (p < 0.001). These results can be used in the interpretation of biochemical studies in late gestation mares which develop systemic disease. The improved understanding of the metabolic profile during the peripartum might assist in monitoring the health status of the broodmares to promote foetal growth and well-being. PMID:25251226

Bazzano, M; Giannetto, C; Fazio, F; Arfuso, F; Giudice, E; Piccione, G

2014-12-01

19

The Postpartum Period of Pregnancy Worsens Brain Injury and Functional Outcome After Cerebellar Hemorrhage in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is one of the most common causes of maternal deaths related to the postpartum period. This is a devastating form of stroke for which there is no available treatment. Although premenopausal females tend to have better outcomes after most forms of brain injury, the effects of pregnancy and child birth lead to wide maternal physiological changes that may predispose the mother to an increased risk for stroke and greater initial injury. Methods Three different doses of collagenase were used to generate models of mild, moderate and severe cerebellar hemorrhage in postpartum female and male control rats. Brain water, blood-brain barrier rupture, hematoma size and neurological evaluations were performed 24 h later. Results Postpartum female rats had worsened brain water, blood-brain barrier rupture, hematoma size and neurological evaluations compared to their male counterparts. Conclusion The postpartum state reverses the cytoprotective effects commonly associated with the hormonal neuroprotection of (premenopausal) female gender, and leads to greater initial injury and worsened neurological function after cerebellar hemorrhage. This experimental model can be used for the study of future treatment strategies after postpartum brain hemorrhage, to gain a better understanding of the mechanistic basis for stroke in this important patient subpopulation. PMID:21725729

Lekic, Tim; Ostrowski, Robert P.; Suzuki, Hidenori; Manaenko, Anatol; Rolland, William; Fathali, Nancy; Tang, Jiping

2013-01-01

20

Relationship between Fathers' Depression and Perceived Social Support and Stress in Postpartum Period  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The evidence suggests that some men experience depression after the childbirth of their wife, and this real and unknown phenomenon will adversely affect them as well as their families. Regarding the lack of understanding about the paternal depression and its complex and multifaceted etiology, the present study was done to assess the paternal postpartum depression and its relationship with perceived stress and social support components. Methods: In this descriptive study, 205 new fathers were assessed from 6th to 12th week postpartum in seven health centers, affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University. Collected data with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, and the Perceived Social Support Scale were analyzed by descriptive statistics, correlation tests and linear regression analysis. Results: 11.7% of the fathers scored 12 or above in the Edinburgh scale, which indicated depression symptom. The postnatal depression scores had a significant positive correlation with the perceived stress scores and a significant negative correlation with the perceived social support components scores. Perceived stress was key predictor of paternal postpartum depression. Perceived social support components cannot significantly predict the paternal postpartum depression. Conclusion: Assessment of paternal postpartum depression and its risk factors is recommended. Healthcare providers should pay more attention to the increasing public awareness, stress management and communication skills training, and support of fathers during the postnatal period.

Kamalifard, Mahin; Hasanpoor, Shirin; Babapour Kheiroddin, Jalil; Panahi, Samira; Bayati Payan, Somayeh

2014-01-01

21

Female genital mutilation (FGM) management during pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a traditional practice with serious health consequences to women that is still practiced in 28 countries with approximately 2 million girls exposed to the practice annually. The complications of FGM cause suffering to the woman all her life. Pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period are particularly important as there is increased risk of mortality and

H Rushwan

2000-01-01

22

The relation between prepregnancy sexuality and sexual function during pregnancy and the postpartum period: a prospective study.  

PubMed

This study examined the relation between sexual functions of women in prepregnancy (before conception) and during pregnancy and the postpartum period. This study was conducted on 59 healthy pregnant women. Participants were followed from the eighth week of gestation to 6 months after delivery. Sexual function during pregnancy and the postpartum period was shown to have a significant linear correlation with prepregnancy sexuality. There was no relation between pregnancy and postpartum sexuality. All of the participants who had prepregnancy sexual dysfunction continued to experience it during pregnancy, and the majority of them had a significant level of sexual dysfunction in the postpartum period. Our results showed that prepregnancy sexuality plays an important role in maintaining sexuality during pregnancy and the postpartum period. PMID:24328753

Y?ld?z, Hatice

2015-01-01

23

Within-woman change in regulatory T cells from pregnancy to the postpartum period  

PubMed Central

Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) are an important area of investigation in human health and disease. In this study, the trajectory of percentage of Treg cells (defined as CD4+CD25+Foxp3+CD127? lymphocytes) was measured in the blood of 208 women during pregnancy and up to 3 additional times in the postpartum period (1, 6 and 12 months postpartum). Whether the trajectory was affected by gravidity, parity, neonatal sex, pet exposure, maternal atopic and asthma status, smoking, maternal race or other pregnancy factors was examined. Multilevel models were fit using full maximum likelihood methods and included both random and fixed effects. Overall, percentages of Treg cells increased from the prenatal to the postpartum period. Among women who were not atopic, nulliparous women had lower percentages of Treg cells over time compared with parous women. Atopic women with pets in the home during pregnancy had lower percentages of Treg cells than atopic women who did not have pets. The trajectory was not affected by the other factors investigated. We conclude that within-woman change in percentages of Treg cells may vary by time in relation to delivery, as well as by maternal atopic status and exposure to pets and number of prior births. The data did not indicate an overall decline in Treg cells in the postpartum period. Future work to better identify the role of Treg cells in successful pregnancy would ideally include a set of well characterized women sampled serially starting prior to pregnancy and throughout the postpartum period. PMID:20961621

Wegienka, Ganesa; Havstad, Suzanne; Bobbitt, Kevin R.; Woodcroft, Kimberley J.; Zoratti, Edward M.; Ownby, Dennis R.; Johnson, Christine Cole

2010-01-01

24

Severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM) in postpartum period requiring tertiary Hospital care  

PubMed Central

Background: Postpartum period is the critically important part of obstetric care but most neglected period for majority of Pakistani women. Only life threatening complications compel them to seek for tertiary hospital care. We describe the nature of these obstetric morbidities in order to help policymakers in improving prevailing situation. Objective: To find out the frequency and causes of severe post-partum maternal morbidity requiring tertiary hospital care and to identify the demographic and obstetrical risk factors and adverse fetal outcome in women suffering from obstetric morbidities. Materials and Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Liaquat University Hospital Hyderabad, between April 2008-July 2009. The subjects comprised of all those women who required admission and treatment for various obstetrical reasons during their postpartum period. Women admitted for non-obstetrical reasons were excluded. A structured proforma was used to collect data including demographics, clinical diagnosis, obstetrical history and feto-maternal outcome of index pregnancy, which was then entered and analyzed with SPSS version 11. Results: The frequency of severe postpartum maternal morbidity requiring tertiary hospital care was 4% (125/3292 obstetrical admissions). The majority of them were young, illiterate, multiparous and half of them were referred from rural areas. Nearly two third of the study population had antenatal visits from health care providers and delivered vaginally at hospital facility by skilled birth attendants. The most common conditions responsible for life threatening complications were postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) (50%), preeclampsia and eclampsia (30%) and puerperal pyrexia 14%. Anemia was associated problem in 100% of cases. Perinatal death rate was 27.2% (34) and maternal mortality rate was 4.8%. Conclusion: PPH, Preeclampsia, sepsis and anemia were important causes of maternal ill health in our population. Perinatal mortality was high. PMID:25242979

Bibi, Seema; Ghaffar, Saima; Memon, Shazia; Memon, Shaneela

2012-01-01

25

Ruptured Sinus of Valsalva Aneurysm and Coarctation of Aorta in a Woman at Early Postpartum Period  

PubMed Central

Coarctation of aorta and sinus of Valsalva aneurysm are frequently missed congenital cardiac defects that their diagnosis might be delayed. To our knowledge, coincidence of these cardiac defects is unusual and has not been reported in the literature before. Here, we present a patient with coarctation of aorta and ruptured noncoronary sinus of Valsalva aneurysm leading to aorto-right atrial fistula in the early postpartum period and our management of this unusual case. PMID:24715919

Sener, Erol; Kucuker, Aslihan; Kurt, Kadir; Uguz, Emrah; Saglam, Muhammed Fethi

2014-01-01

26

Postpartum responses of dairy cows supplemented with n-3 fatty acids for different durations during the peripartal period.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different durations of n-3 supplementation during the peripartal period on production and reproduction performance of Holstein dairy cows. Thirty-two Holstein dry cows (16 multiparous and 16 primiparous) were blocked within parity for similar expected calving dates 8 wk before calving. Cows within blocks were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 treatments: (1) control without n-3 fatty acid (FA) supplementation during the dry period; (2) n-3 FA supplementation during the whole dry period (8 wk); and (3) n-3 FA supplementation during the early dry period (first 5 wk; far-off), or (4) n-3 FA supplementation during the late dry period (last 3 wk; close-up). All cows received the same diet without n-3 FA after calving for the first 6 wk of lactation. Ovaries of each cow were examined 10, 17, 24, and 34 d from calving (calving=d 0) by transrectal ultrasonography to determine follicular development. Blood samples were collected at 14-d intervals starting on the first day of the dry period (8 wk before expected calving) to determine plasma concentrations of glucose, ?-hydroxybutyrate, nonesterified fatty acids, urea N, aspartate aminotransferase, and insulin. Blood samples were also collected on d 1, 10, 17, 24, 31, and 38 postpartum for determination of progesterone concentration. Milk yield was recorded daily throughout the experiment and samples were taken twice weekly (Monday and Thursday mornings) for analysis of fat, protein, and lactose. Yields of milk and 4% fat-corrected milk and milk composition were similar among treatments except for fat proportion, which tended to be lower in cows that were fed n-3 FA throughout the dry period. We observed no differences among treatments for plasma concentrations of metabolites and hormones. The cows that were fed in the 3 n-3 FA treatments had larger ovulatory follicles compared with those fed the controlled diet. Treatments did not differ significantly in terms of the number of days open, day to first service, or number of services per pregnancy. In conclusion, n-3 FA supplementation throughout the dry period or in the early or late prepartal period had no carryover reproductive postpartum benefits and no effect on the production of Holstein dairy cows. PMID:25064653

Badiei, A; Aliverdilou, A; Amanlou, H; Beheshti, M; Dirandeh, E; Masoumi, R; Moosakhani, F; Petit, H V

2014-10-01

27

Reversal of Peripheral Nerve Injury-induced Hypersensitivity in the Postpartum Period: Role of Spinal Oxytocin  

PubMed Central

Background Physical injury, including surgery, can result in chronic pain; yet chronic pain following childbirth, including cesarean delivery in women, is rare. The mechanisms involved in this protection by pregnancy or delivery have not been explored. Methods We examined the effect of pregnancy and delivery on hypersensitivity to mechanical stimuli of the rat hindpaw induced by peripheral nerve injury (spinal nerve ligation) and after intrathecal oxytocin, atosiban and naloxone. Additionally, oxytocin concentration in lumbar spinal cerebrospinal fluid was determined. Results Spinal nerve ligation performed at mid-pregnancy resulted in similar hypersensitivity to nonpregnant controls, but hypersensitivity partially resolved beginning after delivery. Removal of pups after delivery prevented this partial resolution. Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of oxytocin were greater in normal postpartum rats prior to weaning. To examine the effect of injury at the time of delivery rather than during pregnancy, spinal nerve ligation was performed within 24 h of delivery. This resulted in acute hypersensitivity that partially resolved over the next 2–3 weeks. Weaning of pups resulted only in a temporary return of hypersensitivity. Intrathecal oxytocin effectively reversed the hypersensitivity following separation of the pups. Postpartum resolution of hypersensitivity was transiently abolished by intrathecal injection of the oxytocin receptor antagonist, atosiban. Conclusions These results suggest that the postpartum period rather than pregnancy protects against chronic hypersensitivity from peripheral nerve injury and that this protection may reflect sustained oxytocin signaling in the central nervous system during this period. PMID:23249932

Gutierrez, Silvia; Liu, Baogang; Hayashida, Ken-ichiro; Houle, Timothy T.; Eisenach, James C.

2012-01-01

28

Female genital mutilation (FGM) management during pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period.  

PubMed

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a traditional practice with serious health consequences to women that is still practiced in 28 countries with approximately 2 million girls exposed to the practice annually. The complications of FGM cause suffering to the woman all her life. Pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period are particularly important as there is increased risk of mortality and morbidity from FGM complications. Although the overall strategy should be to eliminate the practice completely, the healthcare providers and policy makers in the meantime should not only be aware but also well trained in the management of FGM complications to decrease the risk of mortality and serious morbidity. PMID:10884538

Rushwan, H

2000-07-01

29

Declining levels of erythrocyte folate during the postpartum period among Hispanic women living on the Texas-Mexico border.  

PubMed

Hispanic women have higher parity and shorter interbirth intervals than women of other ethnic groups. Thus, they are more likely to become pregnant relatively soon after giving birth, which may place these women at risk of low or deficient levels of specific nutrients. Folic acid is of particular concern because recent studies suggest that maternal use of folic acid supplements may be associated with better reproductive outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess folic acid levels in postpartum Hispanic women. Using a cross-sectional design, we measured erythrocyte folate values for 188 low-income Hispanic women 1-12 months postpartum who were receiving services at the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics in El Paso, Texas. An interview was administered to collect information on diet, vitamin use, and method of infant feeding. Mean erythrocyte folate levels decreased from >1300 ng/ml during the first 4 months postpartum to a low of 1017 ng/ml by 12 months postpartum, for an overall decrease of approximately 23% (p = 0.004). Use of postpartum vitamin supplements was significantly associated with higher folate levels. However, only 35% of mothers used vitamins beyond 1 month postpartum. Study results suggest that these mothers may be at risk of developing low or deficient levels of folic acid during the postpartum period. Educational campaigns targeting these women as well as other groups of postpartum women should encourage them to comply with the U.S. Public Health Service recommendation that women of childbearing age consume 0.4 mg of folic acid daily. PMID:10868612

O'Rourke, K M; Redlinger, T E; Waller, D K

2000-05-01

30

Factors associated with depressive symptoms in the early postpartum period among women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have a substantial risk of subsequently developing type 2 diabetes. This risk may be mitigated by engaging in healthy eating, physical activity, and weight loss when indicated. Since postpartum depressive symptoms may impair a woman's ability to engage in lifestyle changes, we sought to identify factors associated with depressive symptoms in the early postpartum period among women with recent GDM. The participants are part of the baseline cohort of the TEAM GDM (Taking Early Action for Mothers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus) study, a one-year randomized trial of a lifestyle intervention program for women with a recent history of GDM, conducted in Boston, Massachusetts between June 2010 and September 2012. We administered the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 4-15 weeks postpartum to women whose most recent pregnancy was complicated by GDM (confirmed by laboratory data or medical record review). An EPDS score ?9 indicated depressive symptoms. We measured height and thyroid stimulating hormone, and administered a questionnaire to collect demographic data and information about breastfeeding and sleep. We calculated body mass index (BMI) using self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and measured height. We reviewed medical records to obtain data about medical history, including history of depression, mode of delivery, and insulin use during pregnancy. We conducted bivariable analyses to identify correlates of postpartum depressive symptoms, and then modeled the odds of postpartum depressive symptoms using multivariable logistic regression. Our study included 71 women (mean age 33 years ± 5; 59 % White, 28 % African-American, 13 % Asian, with 21 % identifying as Hispanic; mean pre-pregnancy BMI 30 kg/m(2) ± 6). Thirty-four percent of the women scored ?9 on the EPDS at the postpartum visit. In the best fit model, factors associated with depressive symptoms at 6 weeks postpartum included cesarean delivery (aOR 4.32, 95 % CI 1.46, 13.99) and gestational weight gain (aOR 1.21 [1.02, 1.46], for each additional 5 lbs gained). Use of insulin during pregnancy, breastfeeding, personal history of depression, and lack of a partner were not retained in the model. Identifying factors associated with postpartum depression in women with GDM is important since depression may interfere with lifestyle change efforts in the postpartum period. In this study, cesarean delivery and greater gestational weight gain were correlated with postpartum depressive symptoms among women with recent GDM (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01158131). PMID:23124798

Nicklas, Jacinda M; Miller, Laura J; Zera, Chloe A; Davis, Roger B; Levkoff, Sue E; Seely, Ellen W

2013-11-01

31

Postpartum Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... Sections Symptoms Multimedia Table Index In This Topic Women's Health Issues Postdelivery Period Postpartum Infections Back to Top ... Older People's Health Issues Skin Disorders Special Subjects Women's Health Issues Chapters in Women's Health Issues Biology of ...

32

Oxytocin in the medial prefrontal cortex regulates maternal care, maternal aggression and anxiety during the postpartum period.  

PubMed

The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) acts on a widespread network of brain regions to regulate numerous behavioral adaptations during the postpartum period including maternal care, maternal aggression, and anxiety. In the present study, we examined whether this network also includes the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We found that bilateral infusion of a highly specific oxytocin receptor antagonist (OTR-A) into the prelimbic (PL) region of the mPFC increased anxiety-like behavior in postpartum, but not virgin, females. In addition, OTR blockade in the postpartum mPFC impaired maternal care behaviors and enhanced maternal aggression. Overall, these results suggest that OT in the mPFC modulates maternal care and aggression, as well as anxiety-like behavior, during the postpartum period. Although the relationship among these behaviors is complicated and further investigation is required to refine our understanding of OT actions in the maternal mPFC, these data nonetheless provide new insights into neural circuitry of OT-mediated postpartum behaviors. PMID:25147513

Sabihi, Sara; Dong, Shirley M; Durosko, Nicole E; Leuner, Benedetta

2014-01-01

33

Determinants of bone and blood lead concentrations in the early postpartum period  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—This study investigated determinants of bone and blood lead concentrations in 430 lactating Mexican women during the early postpartum period and the contribution of bone lead to blood lead.?METHODS—Maternal venous lead was measured at delivery and postpartum, and bone lead concentrations, measured with in vivo K-x ray fluorescence, were measured post partum. Data on environmental exposure, demographic characteristics, and maternal factors related to exposure to lead were collected by questionnaire. Linear regression was used to examine the relations between bone and blood lead, demographics, and environmental exposure variables.?RESULTS—Mean (SD) blood, tibial, and patellar lead concentrations were 9.5 (4.5) µg/dl, 10.2 (10.1) µg Pb/g bone mineral, and 15.2 (15.1) µg Pb/g bone mineral respectively. These values are considerably higher than values for women in the United States. Older age, the cumulative use of lead glazed pottery, and higher proportion of life spent in Mexico City were powerful predictors of higher bone lead concentrations. Use of lead glazed ceramics to cook food in the past week and increased patellar lead concentrations were significant predictors of increased blood lead. Patellar lead concentrations explained one third of the variance accounted for by the final blood lead model. Women in the 90th percentile for patella lead had an untransformed predicted mean blood lead concentration 3.6 µg/dl higher than those in the 10th percentile.?CONCLUSIONS—This study identified the use of lead glazed ceramics as a major source of cumulative exposure to lead, as reflected by bone lead concentrations, as well as current exposure, reflected by blood lead, in Mexico. A higher proportion of life spent in Mexico City, a proxy for exposure to leaded gasoline emissions, was identified as the other major source of cumulative lead exposure. The influence of bone lead on blood lead coupled with the long half life of lead in bone has implications for other populations and suggests that bone stores may pose a threat to women of reproductive age long after exposure has declined.???Keywords: postpartum; blood lead; bone lead PMID:10896960

Brown, M. J.; Hu, H.; Gonzales-Cossio, T.; Peterson, K.; Sanin, L.; Kageyama, M. d.; Palazuelos, E.; Aro, A.; Schnaas, L.; Hernandez-Avila, M.

2000-01-01

34

Efficacy of Enhanced HIV Counseling for Risk Reduction during Pregnancy and in the Postpartum Period: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Pregnancy and the postpartum period present important intervention opportunities. Counseling can leverage the motivation women have during this time to change behaviors that may negatively affect their health and the heath of their infants. Methods Pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in South Africa were randomly allocated to treatment (n?=?733) and control arms (n?=?747). Treatment arm participants received enhanced HIV pre- and post-test counseling, legal support and access to support groups at baseline, which occurred at the first antenatal visit, and then six and ten weeks postpartum. Control arm participants received standard HIV testing and counseling (HTC) and two postpartum attention control sessions. Outcomes were incidence of sexually transmitted infection (STI) by 14 weeks postpartum and past 30-day inconsistent condom use at 14 weeks and 9 months postpartum. Results There were no intervention effects on incident STIs for either HIV-negative (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 1.01, 95% CI 0.71–1.44) or HIV-positive participants (aRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.61–1.23). The intervention was associated with a 28% decrease in risk of past 30-day inconsistent condom use at nine-months among HIV-negative women (aRR 0.72,95% CI 0.59–0.88), but did not affect inconsistent condom use among HIV-positive women (aRR1.08; 95% CI 0.67–1.75). Discussion An enhanced counseling intervention during pregnancy and the postpartum period can lead to reductions in inconsistent condom use among HIV-negative women. Results underscore the importance of the counseling that accompanies HIV HTC. More work is needed to understand how to promote and sustain risk reduction among HIV-positive women. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01683461 PMID:24824050

Maman, Suzanne; Moodley, Dhayendre; McNaughton-Reyes, Heathe Luz; Groves, Allison K.; Kagee, Ashraf; Moodley, Prashini

2014-01-01

35

Understanding and meeting the needs of women in the postpartum period: the Perinatal Maternal Health Promotion Model.  

PubMed

A new model for the care of women in the postpartum focuses on the development of life skills that promote complete well-being. The year following childbirth is a time of significant transition for women. In addition to the physiologic changes associated with the postpartum period, a woman undergoes marked psychosocial changes as she transitions into a motherhood role, reestablishes relationships, and works to meet the physical and emotional needs of her infant and other family members. It is a time when women are vulnerable to health problems directly related to childbirth and to compromised self-care, which can manifest in the development or reestablishment of unhealthy behaviors such as smoking and a sedentary lifestyle. In addition to long-term implications for women, compromised maternal health in the postpartum period is associated with suboptimal health and developmental outcomes for infants. Maternal health experts have called for a change in how care is provided for women in the postpartum period. This article presents the rationale for a health promotion approach to meeting the needs of women in the postpartum period and introduces the Perinatal Maternal Health Promotion Model. This conceptual framework is built around a definition of maternal well-being that asserts that health goes beyond merely the absence of medical complications. In the model, the core elements of a healthy postpartum are identified and include not only physical recovery but also the ability to meet individual needs and successfully transition into motherhood. These goals can best be achieved by helping women develop or strengthen 4 key individual health-promoting skills: the ability to mobilize social support, self-efficacy, positive coping strategies, and realistic expectations. While the model focuses on the woman, the health promotion approach takes into account that maternal health in this critical period affects and is affected by her family, social network, and community. Clinical implications of the model are addressed, including specific health promotion strategies that clinicians can readily incorporate into antepartum and postpartum care. PMID:24320095

Fahey, Jenifer O; Shenassa, Edmond

2013-01-01

36

The association between physical activity and maternal sleep during the postpartum period.  

PubMed

Physical activity is associated with improved sleep quality and duration in the general population, but its effect on sleep in postpartum women is unknown. We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between hours/week of self-reported domain-specific and overall moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sleep quality and duration at 3- and 12-months postpartum among a cohort of 530 women in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Postpartum Study. MVPA was not associated with sleep quality or duration at 3-months postpartum. At 12-months postpartum, a 1 h/week increase in recreational MVPA was associated with higher odds of good (vs. poor) sleep quality (odds ratio, OR 1.14; 95 % confidence interval, CI, 1.03-1.27) and a 1 h/week increase in child/adult care MVPA was associated with lower odds of good (vs. poor) sleep quality (OR = 0.93; 95 % CI 0.88-0.99). A 1 h/week increase in child/adult care MVPA (OR 1.08, 95 % CI 1.00-1.16) was associated with higher odds of long sleep duration and 1 h/week increases in indoor household (OR 1.09, 95 % CI 1.01-1.18) and overall MVPA (OR 1.04, 95 % CI 1.01-1.07) were associated with higher odds of short (vs. normal) sleep duration. Comparing 3-months postpartum to 12-months postpartum, increased work MVPA was associated with good sleep quality (OR 2.40, 95 % CI 1.12-5.15) and increased indoor household MVPA was associated with short sleep duration (OR 1.85, 95 % CI 1.05-3.27) as measured at 12-months postpartum. Selected domains of MVPA and their longitudinal increases were associated with sleep quality and duration at 12-months postpartum. Additional research is needed to elucidate whether physical activity can improve postpartum sleep. PMID:24577601

Vladutiu, Catherine J; Evenson, Kelly R; Borodulin, Katja; Deng, Yu; Dole, Nancy

2014-11-01

37

[Postpartum adjustment of women who were home during the "traditional Chinese one month postpartum period of confinement" and those who were in maternity care centers].  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore the difference in postpartum adjustment between women who were at home for there "doing the month" and those who stayed in a maternity care center. A repeated measures design was conducted, with data collected at 1 and 4 weeks postpartum. A total of 120 postpartum women participated in this study. Data were analyzed by factor analysis to determine the relationships within categories of postpartum strssors and depression. Then, the data were analyzed by 2 x 2 repeated measure MANOVA to determine the variations among groups and time. The results indicated that women who were in maternity centers for the "doing the month" perceived significantly higher stress than did the home group, and that women perceived higher stress at 4 weeks postpartum than at 1 week postpartum. Factor analysis of the data defined four categories of postpartum stress. It was found that women at maternity care centers perceived significantly higher stress from factors named, "stress from lacking of support system" and "stress from identifying maternal role". In addition, women doing the month at maternity care centers showed significantly higher depression level than women doing the month at home. However, there is no significant difference in postpartum stress and postpartum depression between time 1 (1 week postpartum) and time 2 (4 weeks postpartum). PMID:7799467

Tseng, Y F; Chen, C H; Wang, H J; Tsai, C Y

1994-08-01

38

Prevalence and risk factors concerning postpartum depression among women within early postnatal periods in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Postpartum depression (PPD) stands out as an important health issue that affects not only the mother but her partner and the\\u000a entire family.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a A few studies from Turkey have found the high prevalence for PPD. In the current study we aimed: (1) to report the prevalence\\u000a of postpartum depression among Turkish women in Manisa province; (2) description of the association

Ferda Özba?aran; Ayden Çoban; Mert Kucuk

2011-01-01

39

A depressive symptoms responsiveness model for differentiating fatigue from depression in the postpartum period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Fatigue is both a symptom and a predictor of depression in women after childbirth. At the same time, postpartum fatigue is\\u000a experienced by most non-depressed women. Health care providers experientially know that not all women who experience postpartum\\u000a fatigue will manifest depression. However, while researchers agree that fatigue and depression are distinct concepts, they\\u000a have not yet identified a means

J. J. Runquist

2007-01-01

40

Relationship Factors and Trajectories of Intimate Partner Violence among South African Women during Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period  

PubMed Central

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem in South Africa. However, there is limited research on whether and how IPV changes during pregnancy and the postpartum period and on the factors that might affect women's risk during this time. In this study, we describe the mean trajectories of physical and psychological IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period and examine whether relationship power, partner social support, and relationship stress are associated with women's trajectories of IPV. Data come from a longitudinal study with 1,480 women recruited during pregnancy between May 2008 and June 2010 at a public clinic in Durban. Women completed behavioral assessments at their first antenatal visit, at fourteen weeks and at nine months postpartum. Women's experiences of IPV were measured at all three time points and relationship power, partner social support and relationship stress were each measured at the baseline assessment. We used multilevel random coefficients growth modeling to build our models. The mean trajectory for both types of IPV was flat which means that, on average, there was not significant change in levels of IPV over pregnancy and the postpartum period. However, there was significant individual variability in trajectories of IPV over the study period. Women who had higher relationship power had lower levels of physical and psychological IPV over time than women with lower relationship power. Additionally, women with higher relationship stress and lower partner support had higher levels of psychological IPV at pregnancy. Interventions that maximize women's relationship power and partner social support and minimize relationship stress during this transformative time are needed. PMID:25268363

Groves, Allison K.; McNaughton-Reyes, H. Luz; Foshee, Vangie A.; Moodley, Dhayendre; Maman, Suzanne

2014-01-01

41

Relationship Factors and Trajectories of Intimate Partner Violence among South African Women during Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period.  

PubMed

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem in South Africa. However, there is limited research on whether and how IPV changes during pregnancy and the postpartum period and on the factors that might affect women's risk during this time. In this study, we describe the mean trajectories of physical and psychological IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period and examine whether relationship power, partner social support, and relationship stress are associated with women's trajectories of IPV. Data come from a longitudinal study with 1,480 women recruited during pregnancy between May 2008 and June 2010 at a public clinic in Durban. Women completed behavioral assessments at their first antenatal visit, at fourteen weeks and at nine months postpartum. Women's experiences of IPV were measured at all three time points and relationship power, partner social support and relationship stress were each measured at the baseline assessment. We used multilevel random coefficients growth modeling to build our models. The mean trajectory for both types of IPV was flat which means that, on average, there was not significant change in levels of IPV over pregnancy and the postpartum period. However, there was significant individual variability in trajectories of IPV over the study period. Women who had higher relationship power had lower levels of physical and psychological IPV over time than women with lower relationship power. Additionally, women with higher relationship stress and lower partner support had higher levels of psychological IPV at pregnancy. Interventions that maximize women's relationship power and partner social support and minimize relationship stress during this transformative time are needed. PMID:25268363

Groves, Allison K; McNaughton-Reyes, H Luz; Foshee, Vangie A; Moodley, Dhayendre; Maman, Suzanne

2014-01-01

42

Update to CDC's U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010: revised recommendations for the use of contraceptive methods during the postpartum period.  

PubMed

Initiation of contraception during the postpartum period is important to prevent unintended pregnancy and short birth intervals, which can lead to negative health outcomes for mother and infant. In 2010, CDC published U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010 (US MEC), providing evidence-based guidance for choosing a contraceptive method based on the relative safety of contraceptive methods for women with certain characteristics or medical conditions, including women who are postpartum. Recently, CDC assessed evidence regarding the safety of combined hormonal contraceptive use during the postpartum period. This report summarizes that assessment and the resulting updated guidance. These updated recommendations state that postpartum women should not use combined hormonal contraceptives during the first 21 days after delivery because of the high risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) during this period. During 21-42 days postpartum, women without risk factors for VTE generally can initiate combined hormonal contraceptives, but women with risk factors for VTE (e.g., previous VTE or recent cesarean delivery) generally should not use these methods. After 42 days postpartum, no restrictions on the use of combined hormonal contraceptives based on postpartum status apply. PMID:21734635

2011-07-01

43

Food deprivation and restriction during late gestation affects the sexual behavior of postpartum female meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus  

PubMed Central

In many species of small mammals, including meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, females come into postpartum estrus (PPE) within 12–24 h of giving birth, allowing them to mate and become pregnant while raising the current litter. PPE females show increases in attractivity, proceptivity, and receptivity, the three components of sexual behavior, relative to females not in PPE. Several studies have shown that food deprivation and restriction reduce attractivity, proceptivity, and receptivity of females not in PPE. We tested the hypothesis that food deprivation and restriction during late gestation causes deficits and decreases the attractivity, proceptivity, and receptivity of females when they enter PPE. Our data support the hypothesis. On day 1 of lactation, females that were food deprived and food restricted produced scent marks that were significantly less attractive as those produced by control PPE females. Food deprivation but not food restriction caused females to no longer display significant preferences for the scent marks of males over those of females (proceptivity). Food deprivation and food restriction were sufficient to induce females to become significantly less sexually receptive than control females. Eleven of 12 control PPE females mated, 4 of 12 food-restricted females mated, and 3 of 12 food-deprived females mated. Dams facing food deprivation or restriction during late gestation may have to balance the benefits of mating during PPE with the increased costs associated with getting pregnant while they are lactating. PMID:24415820

Sabau, Ramona M.; Ferkin, Michael H.

2013-01-01

44

Postpartum Depression  

MedlinePLUS

... for herself or her family. What is postpartum depression? Postpartum depression is a mood disorder that can ... for themselves or for others. What causes postpartum depression? Postpartum depression does not have a single cause, ...

45

Postpartum Depression  

MedlinePLUS

... 2 weeks without any treatment. What is postpartum depression? Women with postpartum depression have intense feelings of sadness, anxiety, or despair ... to do their daily tasks. When does postpartum depression occur? Postpartum depression can occur up to 1 ...

46

Onset and Exacerbation of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period  

PubMed Central

Background The primary goal of this study was to examine the impact of pregnancy, childbirth and menstruation on the onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and/or exacerbation of OCD symptoms. Method One hundred twenty-six women attending a university-based OCD clinic aged 18-69 years who met DSM-IV criteria for OCD according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders were interviewed retrospectively to assess OCD onset and symptom exacerbation in relationship to reproductive events. Women were placed into two groups: ever pregnant (Preg) and never pregnant (NPreg). The Preg group was further subdivided into those who reported onset of OCD in the perinatal period (perinatal-related, PR) and those that denied onset related to pregnancy (non-perinatal-related, NR). Between groups comparisons were done using a Student’s t-test for continuous measures and categorical variables were assessed using the chi-square test. Results Of the 76 women in the Preg group, 32.1% (N = 25) had OCD onset in the perinatal period (PR group), 15.4% in pregnancy, 15.4% at postpartum, and 1.3% following miscarriage. Out of 132 total pregnancies, 34.1% involved an exacerbation of symptoms, 22.0% involved an improvement in OCD symptoms, and 43.9% did not change symptom severity in women with pre-existing illness. Women in the PR group and women with perinatal worsening of pre-existing OCD were more likely to have premenstrual worsening of OCD symptoms compared to NR women (65.5% vs. 39.3%, p = 0.047). Conclusion Findings from this study provide additional evidence that pregnancy and childbirth are frequently associated with the onset of OCD or worsening of symptoms in those with pre-existing disorder. In addition, there appears to be continuity between OCD onset and/or exacerbation across the reproductive life cycle, at least with menstruation and pregnancy. PMID:20492843

Forray, Ariadna; Focseneanu, Mariel; Pittman, Brian; McDougle, Christopher J.; Epperson, C. Neill

2014-01-01

47

A Population-Based Study of Breastfeeding in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Initiation, Duration, and Effect on Disease in the Postpartum Period  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:We aimed to assess breastfeeding practices and the impact of breastfeeding on disease flare during the postpartum year in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).METHODS:Women of childbearing age from 1985 to 2005 were identified from the University of Manitoba IBD Research Registry. Questionnaires were completed regarding pregnancy and the postpartum period. Data for initiation and duration of breastfeeding were compared with population-based

Dana C Moffatt; Alexandra Ilnyckyj; Charles N Bernstein

2009-01-01

48

Language Acquisition in Late Critical Period: A Case Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies carried out to support the existence of a critical period for language acquisition have concentrated mainly on the case of being in total deprivation from language contact, and in particular deprivation from auditory input in the entire time span before puberty. While arguing for a useful distinction between early and late critical…

Gheitury, Amer; Sahraee, Ahmad Hosein; Hoseini, Maryam

2012-01-01

49

Bioelectrical impedance among rural Bangladeshi Women during pregnancy and in the postpartum period.  

PubMed

Properties of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) reflect body-composition and may serve as stand-alone indicators of maternal health. Despite these potential roles, BIA properties during pregnancy and lactation in rural South Asian women have not been described previously, although pregnancy and infant health outcomes are often compromised. This paper reports the BIA properties among a large sample of pregnant and postpartum women of rural Bangladesh, aged 12-46 years, participating in a substudy of a community-based, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation. Anthropometry and single frequency (50 kHz) BIA were assessed in 1,435 women during the first trimester (< or =12 weeks gestation), in 1237 women during the third trimester (32-36 weeks gestation), and in 1,141 women at 12-18 weeks postpartum. Resistance and reactance were recorded, and impedance and phase angle were calculated. Data were examined cross-sectionally to maximize sample-size at each timepoint, and the factors relating to BIA properties were explored. Women were typically young, primiparous and lacking formal education (22.2 +/- 6.3 years old, 42.2% primiparous, and 39.7% unschooled among the first trimester participants). Weight (kg), resistance (omega), and reactance (omega) were 42.1 +/- 5.7, 688 +/- 77, and 73 +/- 12 in the first trimester; 47.7 +/- 5.9, 646 +/- 77, and 64 +/- 12 in the third trimester; and 42.7 +/- 5.6, 699 +/- 79, and 72 +/- 12 postpartum respectively. Resistance declined with age and increased with body mass index. Resistance was higher than that observed in other, non-Asian pregnant populations, likely reflecting considerably smaller body-volume among Bangladeshi women. Resistance and reactance decreased in advanced stage of pregnancy as the rate of gain in weight increased, returning to the first trimester values by the three months postpartum. Normative distributions of BIA properties are presented for rural Bangladeshi women across a reproductive cycle that may be related to pregnancy outcomes and ultimately be used for assessing body-composition in this population. PMID:21766559

Shaikh, Saijuddin; Schulze, Kerry J; Ali, Hasmot; Labrique, Alain B; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Rashid, Mahbubur; Mehra, Sucheta; Christian, Parul; West, Keith P

2011-06-01

50

A prospective study of thoughts of self-harm and suicidal ideation during the postpartum period in women with mood disorders.  

PubMed

Individuals with mood disorders are at higher risk for self-harm and suicidal ideation than other psychiatric group. However, the risk of self-harm and suicidal ideation after pregnancy for women with mood disorders is unknown. This investigation assessed the prevalence of thoughts of self-harm and suicidal ideation during the 1-year postpartum period in women with major depressive disorder or bipolar II disorder. Data were collected between June 2005 and March 2010 from a convenience sample of women participating in a study on the course of mood disorders during pregnancy and postpartum. Participant diagnosis was confirmed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Thoughts of self-harm were assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale item 10 and suicidal ideation was assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale item 3. During the 1-year postpartum period, 16.97 % reported thoughts of self-harm while 6.16 % reported suicidal ideation. Further, those reporting thoughts of self-harm or suicidal ideation postpartum also reported higher levels of depression and hypomanic symptoms. We found that a number of women in our sample of women with a diagnosed mood disorder report experiencing thoughts of self-harm and suicidal ideation during the postpartum. PMID:23784481

Pope, Carley J; Xie, Bin; Sharma, Verinder; Campbell, M Karen

2013-12-01

51

Mental health of HIV-seropositive women during pregnancy and postpartum period: a comprehensive literature review.  

PubMed

With growing numbers of HIV-seropositive (HIV+) women of child-bearing age and increased access to effective clinical protocols for preventing mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV, mental health-related factors have become increasingly relevant due to their potential to affect the women's quality of life, obstetric outcomes and risk of MTCT. This review synthesizes evidence from 53 peer-reviewed publications examining mental health-related variables in pregnant and postpartum HIV+ women. The presentation of results is organized by the level of socioeconomic resources in the countries where studies were conducted (i.e., high-, middle-, and low-income countries). It is concluded that psychiatric symptoms, particularly depression, and mental health vulnerabilities (e.g., inadequate coping skills) are widespread among pregnant HIV+ women globally and have a potential to affect psychological well-being, quality of life and salient clinical outcomes. The current body of evidence provides rationale for developing and evaluating clinical and structural interventions aimed at improving mental health outcomes and their clinical correlates in pregnant HIV+ women. PMID:24584458

Kapetanovic, Suad; Dass-Brailsford, Priscilla; Nora, Diana; Talisman, Nicholas

2014-06-01

52

Iatromathematica (medical astrology) in late antiquity and the Byzantine period.  

PubMed

Byzantium inherited the rich astrological tradition of Late Antiquity, especially that of Alexandria, where even in the 6th century A.D., astrology was taught in philosophical schools. The great number of Byzantine astrological MSS, which preserve works of famous authors and many anonymous treatises, shows the survival and continuity of astrology in Byzantium. Through medical astrology physicians can better understand the temperament of an individual man and find out about his bodily constitution and psychic faculties, his inclination to chronic and acute diseases, the possibilities of curable or incurable cases, and finally the periods of major danger for his health. They can conjecture about the evolution of a disease, choose a favorable time for an operation, or initiate a cure. PMID:11624570

Papathanassiou, M

1999-01-01

53

High HIV incidence in the postpartum period sustains vertical transmission in settings with generalized epidemics: a cohort study in Southern Mozambique  

PubMed Central

Introduction Acute infection with HIV in the postpartum period results in a high risk of vertical transmission through breastfeeding. A study was done to determine the HIV incidence rate and associated risk factors among postpartum women in Southern Mozambique, where HIV prevalence among pregnant women is 21%. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted in six rural health facilities in Gaza and Maputo provinces from March 2008 to July 2011. A total of 1221 women who were HIV-negative on testing at delivery or within two months postpartum were recruited and followed until 18 months postpartum. HIV testing, collection of dried blood spot samples and administration of a structured questionnaire to women were performed every three months. Infant testing by DNA-PCR was done as soon as possible after identification of a new infection in women. HIV incidence was estimated, and potential risk factors at baseline were compared using Poisson regression. Results Data from 957 women were analyzed with follow-up after the enrolment visit, with a median follow-up of 18.2 months. The HIV incidence in postpartum women is estimated at 3.20/100 women-years (95% CI: 2.30–4.46), with the highest rate among 18- to 19-year-olds (4.92 per 100 women-years; 95% CI: 2.65–9.15). Of the new infections, 14 (34%) were identified during the first six months postpartum, 11 (27%) between 6 and 12 months and 16 (39%) between 12 and 18 months postpartum. Risk factors for incident HIV infection include young age, low number of children, higher education level of the woman's partner and having had sex with someone other than one's partner. The vertical transmission was 21% (95% CI: 5–36) among newly infected women. Conclusions Incidence of HIV is high among breastfeeding women in Southern Mozambique, contributing to increasing numbers of HIV-infected infants. Comprehensive primary prevention strategies targeting women of reproductive age, particularly pregnant and postpartum women and their partners, will be crucial for the elimination of paediatric AIDS in Africa. PMID:24629842

De Schacht, Caroline; Mabunda, Nedio; Ferreira, Orlando C; Ismael, Nalia; Calu, Nurbai; Santos, Iolanda; Hoffman, Heather J; Alons, Catharina; Guay, Laura; Jani, Ilesh V

2014-01-01

54

Postpartum Depression  

MedlinePLUS

... do not need treatment. The symptoms of postpartum depression last longer and are more severe. You may ... treatment right away, often in the hospital. Postpartum depression can begin anytime within the first year after ...

55

Variation of Transaminases, HCV-RNA Levels and Th1/Th2 Cytokine Production during the Post-Partum Period in Pregnant Women with Chronic Hepatitis C  

PubMed Central

This study analyses the evolution of liver disease in women with chronic hepatitis C during the third trimester of pregnancy and the post-partum period, as a natural model of immune modulation and reconstitution. Of the 122 mothers recruited to this study, 89 were HCV-RNA+ve/HIV-ve and 33 were HCV-RNA-ve/HIV-ve/HCVantibody+ve and all were tested during the third trimester of pregnancy, at delivery and post-delivery. The HCV-RNA+ve mothers were categorized as either Type-A (66%), with an increase in ALT levels in the post-partum period (>40 U/L; P<0.001) or as Type-B (34%), with no variation in ALT values. The Type-A mothers also presented a significant decrease in serum HCV-RNA levels in the post-delivery period (P<0.001) and this event was concomitant with an increase in Th1 cytokine levels (INF?, P?=?0.04; IL12, P?=?0.01 and IL2, P?=?0.01). On the other hand, the Type-B mothers and the HCV-RNA-ve women presented no variations in either of these parameters. However, they did present higher Th1 cytokine levels in the partum period (INF? and IL2, P<0.05) than both the Type-A and the HCV-RNA-ve women. Cytokine levels at the moment of delivery do not constitute a risk factor associated with HCV vertical transmission. It is concluded that differences in the ALT and HCV-RNA values observed in HCV-RNA+ve women in the postpartum period might be due to different ratios of Th1 cytokine production. In the Type-B women, the high partum levels of Th1 cytokines and the absence of post-partum variation in ALT and HCV-RNA levels may be related to permanent Th1 cytokine stimulation. PMID:24130726

Ruiz-Extremera, Angeles; Munoz-Gamez, Jose Antonio; Abril-Molina, Ana; Salmeron-Ruiz, Maria Angustias; Munoz-de-Rueda, Paloma; Pavon-Castillero, Esther Jose; Quiles-Perez, Rosa; Carazo, Angel; Gila, Ana; Jimenez-Ruiz, Sergio Manuel; Casado, Jorge; Martin, Ana Belen; Sanjuan-Nunez, Laura; Ocete-Hita, Esther; Viota, Julian Lopez; Leon, Josefa; Salmeron, Javier

2013-01-01

56

Psychological Distress in the Postpartum Period: The Significance of Social Support.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined changes in the psychological distress of 280 new mothers over a one-year period. Regression analyses showed mother's social network had no impact on changes in psychological distress. However, the cognitive experience of social support and the degree of marital intimacy make significant independent contributions to changes in…

Stemp, Peter S.; And Others

1986-01-01

57

European indicators of health care during pregnancy delivery and the postpartum period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Objectives: To describe variation across Europe in PERISTAT indicators of health care in the perinatal period, and to assess the comparability of these indicators. Study design: The PERISTAT feasibility study provides the source for this descriptive study, covering 15 European countries. Comparative analysis includes descriptions of births following management of sub-fertility, timing of first antenatal visit, onset of labour,

Katherine Wildman; B Eatrice Blondel; Jan Nijhuis; Paul Defoort; Chryssa Bakoula

58

European indicators of health care during pregnancy, delivery and the postpartum period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To describe variation across Europe in PERISTAT indicators of health care in the perinatal period, and to assess the comparability of these indicators. Study design: The PERISTAT feasibility study provides the source for this descriptive study, covering 15 European countries. Comparative analysis includes descriptions of births following management of sub-fertility, timing of first antenatal visit, onset of labour, mode

Katherine Wildman; Béatrice Blondel; Jan Nijhuis; Paul Defoort; Chryssa Bakoula

2003-01-01

59

Postpartum depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to explore the lived experiences of postpartum depression among the Middle Eastern women living in Sydney, Australia. A phenomenologic research design was used to conduct in-depth, unstructured interviews with a purposive sample of 45 mothers who had experienced postpartum depression. The interviews were conducted in the mothers’ homes. Transcriptions of these interviews were analyzed

Violeta Lopez Nahas; Sharon Hillege; Nawal Amasheh

1999-01-01

60

Postpartum Depression  

MedlinePLUS

... within 10 days after delivery. What is postpartum depression? Some womens have more severe symptoms of the baby blues ... have any of the other symptoms of postpartum depression, remember that many other women have had the same experience. You're not " ...

61

Evaluation of reproductive tract infection during early post-partum period and its relationship with subsequent reproductive performance in high milk producing dairy cows.  

PubMed

Clinically normal Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 43) were used to establish a relationship between the evaluations of the uterine condition by vaginoscopy, Metricheck, endometrial cytology (EC) and ultrasonography (US) during post-partum period (pp), and subsequent reproductive performance. The uterine status of the selected cows was evaluated by EC, Metricheck, US and vaginoscopy on a weekly basis from the third week (W3) to the seventh week (W7) pp. The animals were bred after a voluntary waiting period of 45-60 days pp and diagnosed for pregnancy status at 45 days after breeding by US. First service conception rate (FSCR) of bred animals was 32.6% (14/43). There was no significant difference in polymorphonuclear leucocyte percentage between conceived and non-conceived cows during different weeks post-partum. First service conception rate in animals with normal vaginal discharge as detected by Metricheck was significantly low when compared to those of abnormal discharge during W3 (2.3% vs 30.3%; p?post-partum. Using US, the number of pregnant cows having fluid in uterus (FIU) during W6 (p?post-partum was significantly lower (2/34, 4.7% and 1/43, 2.3%, respectively) than those that had no FIU (12/43, 27.9% and 13/43, 30.3%, respectively). Using vaginoscopy, FSCR in animals having abnormal discharge was significantly (p?post-partum. In conclusion, Metricheck during W3 and W4 and detection of FIU by US and vaginoscopy during W6 and W7?pp can be used as good predictive tools to anticipate the future reproductive performance of dairy cattle. PMID:21707786

Senosy, W; Uchiza, M; Tameoka, N; Izaike, Y; Osawa, T

2012-04-01

62

Predictors of body image during the first year postpartum:a prospective study.  

PubMed

This longitudinal study investigated body image changes and possible predictors of multiple dimensions of body image in the first year postpartum. Women (N = 79) who had been followed up since early pregnancy (including reporting retrospectively about pre-pregnancy and concurrently about late pregnancy) completed questionnaires at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months postpartum that focussed on body image measures of feeling fat, attractiveness, salience of shape and weight, and strength and fitness. Women experienced greater body dissatisfaction in the postpartum in comparison to pre-pregnancy and late pregnancy, with 6 months postpartum being the time of most body concern. In ratings of perceived current and ideal figure size, women decreased their current size ratings over the postpartum period; however, ratings of ideal figure remained stable over the three time points. The findings also revealed that higher frequency of physical comparison tendencies at 6 weeks postpartum, and depressive symptoms and dieting behaviours at 6 months postpartum were predictors of body image of different types at 12 months post birth. PMID:17613464

Rallis, Sofia; Skouteris, Helen; Wertheim, Eleanor H; Paxton, Susan J

2007-01-01

63

Barriers to adopting a healthy lifestyle: insight from postpartum women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Postpartum weight retention can contribute to obesity. There may be unique barriers to weight loss in this period. FINDINGS: Cases are presented for three postpartum women who declined to participate in a postpartum weight loss intervention. Despite their desire to engage in healthier behaviors, or partake in an intervention uniquely designed to promote healthy lifestyles for postpartum women, some

Lori Carter-Edwards; Truls Østbye; Lori A Bastian; Kimberly SH Yarnall; Katrina M Krause; Tia-Jane'l Simmons

2009-01-01

64

Postpartum Thyroiditis  

MedlinePLUS

... high thyroid hormone levels in the blood) and hypothyroidism (low thyroid hormone levels in the blood). In postpartum thyroiditis, thyrotoxicosis occurs first followed by hypothyroidism. What is the thyroid gland? The thyroid gland ...

65

The initial period function of late-type binary stars and its variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variation in the period distribution function of late-type binaries is studied. It is shown that the Taurus-Auriga pre-main-sequence population and the main-sequence G dwarf sample do not stem from the same parent period distribution with better than 95 per cent confidence probability. The Lupus, Upper Scorpius A, and Taurus-Auriga populations are shown to be compatible with being drawn from

Pavel Kroupa; M. G. Petr-Gotzens

2011-01-01

66

Origin of the cataclysmic Late Heavy Bombardment period of the terrestrial planets  

E-print Network

, the planetesimal disk outside the orbits of the planets was destabilized, causing a sudden massive deliveryOrigin of the cataclysmic Late Heavy Bombardment period of the terrestrial planets R. Gomes1,2 , H that a cataclysmic spike in the cratering rate occurred ,700 million years after the planets formed1 ; this event

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

67

DEDICATION, TERMINATION AND PERPETUATION: A LATE CLASSIC PERIOD SHRINE AT SAN BARTOLO, PETEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research at San Bartolo has continued providing evidence of the use of ceremonial conduct to maintain social, political and spiritual order at the site. Evidence of such activities was found both through space and time, suggesting continuity in the cosmovision of San Bartolo along its entire development. While the amazing Late Preclassic period murals still narrate the histories of mythology

Jessica H. Craig

68

Assessing postpartum family functioning.  

PubMed

The birth of a child requires adaptation and reorganization within the family system in order to accommodate the new family member and to allow the family to continue in its psychosocial development. Knowledge of the normative and transitional changes required at this stage of family life will enhance family practitioners' understanding of some of the common concerns and complaints related to them by various family members during the postpartum period. The Family FIRO model represents a helpful conceptual framework to increase the family physician's understanding of the issues of inclusion, control, and intimacy that are highlighted during the transition to parenthood. The authors briefly present this model and discuss its application to postpartum adjustment and its implications for health-care professionals. PMID:21253238

Midmer, D; Talbot, Y

1988-09-01

69

Assessing Postpartum Family Functioning  

PubMed Central

The birth of a child requires adaptation and reorganization within the family system in order to accommodate the new family member and to allow the family to continue in its psychosocial development. Knowledge of the normative and transitional changes required at this stage of family life will enhance family practitioners' understanding of some of the common concerns and complaints related to them by various family members during the postpartum period. The Family FIRO model represents a helpful conceptual framework to increase the family physician's understanding of the issues of inclusion, control, and intimacy that are highlighted during the transition to parenthood. The authors briefly present this model and discuss its application to postpartum adjustment and its implications for health-care professionals. PMID:21253238

Midmer, Deana; Talbot, Yves

1988-01-01

70

Congratulations: GSOGA Winners for early and late fall 2012 and early spring 2013 Organization Period Funded  

E-print Network

Late fall 2012 EAS Late fall 2012 ESL GO Late fall 2012 GSEC Late fall 2012 HK Late fall 2012 MSEGSA Late fall 2012 PSGSA Late fall 2012 AGSO Early spring 2013 Art of Living Early spring 2013 BDSA Early spring 2013 EARG Early spring 2013 ESL GO Early spring 2013 PLU Early spring 2013 #12;

Ginzel, Matthew

71

Low Omega-3 Index in Pregnancy Is a Possible Biological Risk Factor for Postpartum Depression  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is a common disorder affecting 10–15% women in the postpartum period. Postpartum depression can disrupt early mother-infant interaction, and constitutes a risk factor for early child development. Recently, attention has been drawn to the hypothesis that a low intake of seafood in pregnancy can be a risk factor for postpartum depression. Seafood is a unique dietary source of the marine omega-3 fatty acids and is a natural part of a healthy balanced diet that is especially important during pregnancy. Methods In a community based prospective cohort in a municipality in Western Norway, we investigated both nutritional and psychological risk factors for postpartum depression. The source population was all women who were pregnant within the period November 2009 - June 2011. The fatty acid status in red blood cells was assessed in the 28th gestation week and participants were screened for postpartum depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) three months after delivery. The aim of the present study was to investigate if a low omega-3 index in pregnancy is a possible risk factor for postpartum depression. Results In a simple regression model, the omega-3 index was associated with the EPDS score in a nonlinear inverse manner with an R square of 19. Thus, the low omega-3 index explained 19% of the variance in the EPDS score. The DPA content, DHA content, omega-3 index, omega-3/omega-6 ratio, total HUFA score, and the omega-3 HUFA score were all inversely correlated with the EPDS score. The EPDS scores of participants in the lowest omega-3 index quartile were significantly different to the three other omega-3 index quartiles. Conclusion In this study population, a low omega-3 index in late pregnancy was associated with higher depression score three months postpartum. PMID:23844041

Markhus, Maria Wik; Skotheim, Siv; Graff, Ingvild Eide; Fr?yland, Livar; Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Malde, Marian Kjellevold

2013-01-01

72

Chronic Gestational Stress Leads to Depressive-Like Behavior and Compromises Medial Prefrontal Cortex Structure and Function during the Postpartum Period  

PubMed Central

Postpartum depression, which affects approximately 15% of new mothers, is associated with impaired mother-infant interactions and deficits in cognitive function. Exposure to stress during pregnancy is a major risk factor for postpartum depression. However, little is known about the neural consequences of gestational stress. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a brain region that has been linked to stress, cognition, maternal care, and mood disorders including postpartum depression. Here we examined the effects of chronic gestational stress on mPFC function and whether these effects might be linked to structural modifications in the mPFC. We found that in postpartum rats, chronic gestational stress resulted in maternal care deficits, increased depressive-like behavior, and impaired performance on an attentional set shifting task that relies on the mPFC. Furthermore, exposure to chronic stress during pregnancy reduced dendritic spine density on mPFC pyramidal neurons and altered spine morphology. Taken together, these findings suggest that pregnancy stress may contribute to postpartum mental illness and its associated symptoms by compromising structural plasticity in the mPFC. PMID:24594708

Leuner, Benedetta; Fredericks, Peter J.; Nealer, Connor; Albin-Brooks, Christopher

2014-01-01

73

Efficacy of the kampo medicine xiong-gui-tiao-xue-yin (kyuki-chouketsu-in), a traditional herbal medicine, in the treatment of maternity blues syndrome in the postpartum period.  

PubMed

This study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of Xiong-gui-tiao-xue-yin (Kyuki-chouketsu-in), a Japanese traditional herbal medicine, in stabilizing postpartum psychological state. We enrolled 268 women who had a normal delivery in Osaka Medical College Hospital or its affiliated clinics and randomly assigned them to the following two groups: a group of 134 women who received Xiong-gui-tiao-xue-yin (Kyuki-chouketsu-in) at a dose of 6.0 g/day and another group of 134 women without Xiong-gui-tiao-xue-yin (Kyuki-chouketsu-in) (control group). We observed 2.06-fold and 1.67-fold higher incidences of depressive mood and nervousness, respectively, after delivery in the control group than in the Xiong-gui-tiao-xue-yin (Kyuki-chouketsu-in) group. Within 3 weeks of postpartum, there was a significant difference in the incidences of maternity blues between the Xiong-gui-tiao-xue-yin (Kyuki-chouketsu-in) group (15.7%; 21/134) and the control group (32.1%; 43/134) (p = 0.0195). No adverse effects were observed in this study. The results of this study demonstrate the beneficial clinical effects of Xiong-gui-tiao-xue-yin (Kyuki-chouketsu-in) in stabilizing psychological state in the postpartum period. Xiong-gui-tiao-xue-yin (Kyuki-chouketsu-in) can be expected to improve the mental health of women in the postpartum period and prevent maternity blues. PMID:15844839

Ushiroyama, Takahisa; Sakuma, Kou; Ueki, Minoru

2005-01-01

74

Detachment and dislocation of thermoreactive clips from sternum in late postoperative period due to misuse  

PubMed Central

Median sternotomy is the most common method of access to the heart and great vessels in cardiac surgical procedures. However, particularly in obese and diabetic patients, complications such as dehiscence, osteomyelitis, mediastinitis and superficial wound infection or fistula formation may be encountered. To overcome these complications, some alternative surgical techniques and surgical equipment are designed for sternal closure. ‘Nitinol thermoreactive clips’ is one of them. In this study, we report a patient with detachment of thermoreactive clips from sternum in the late postoperative period due to wrong measurement of distance between intercostal spaces. PMID:22279118

Tavlasoglu, Murat; Kurkluoglu, Mustafa; Arslan, Zekeriya; Durukan, Ahmet Bar?s

2012-01-01

75

Maternal stress predicts postpartum weight retention.  

PubMed

Postpartum weight retention (PPWR) is a significant contributor to the development of overweight and obesity in women of childbearing age. Stress may be a key mechanism making it more difficult for mothers to lose weight in the year following delivery. The aim of this study was to assess whether specific aspects of parenting stress and life stress influence postpartum weight retention in new mothers. Women in late pregnancy or up to 2 months postpartum (n = 123) were enrolled in the study and followed through the first year postpartum. Linear regression models evaluated the associations of parenting stress (isolation, attachment and depressive symptoms) as well as overall life stress at 2, 6, and 12 months postpartum with PPWR at 6 and 12 months. During the first year postpartum, higher depression and life stress were significantly associated with greater PPWR. As the effect of depression diminished, the effect of life stress became significant. Contrary to hypothesized relationships, fewer problems with attachment and less social isolation were significantly associated with greater PPWR. Higher gestational weight gain and African American race were also significantly associated with greater PPWR at both 6 and 12 months. Different types of stress predict weight retention in first time mothers during the first year postpartum. Understanding the relationships between parenting stress, concurrent life stress and PPWR can enhance the development of future interventions that specifically target self-identified stressors, leading to improved weight related outcomes. PMID:24760321

Whitaker, Kara; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Vernon, Marlo; Wilcox, Sara

2014-11-01

76

Prenatal immunologic predictors of postpartum depressive symptoms: a prospective study for potential diagnostic markers.  

PubMed

In postpartum depression (PPD), immunologic changes have been proposed to be involved in the disease pathology. The study evaluates the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune response over the course of late pregnancy and postpartum period and their association with the development of postpartum depressive symptoms. Furthermore, prenatal immunologic markers for a PPD were investigated. Hundred pregnant women were included. At 34th and 38th week of pregnancy as well as 2 days, 7 weeks and 6 months postpartum, immune parameters (neopterin, regulatory T cells, CXCR1, CCR2, MNP1 and CD11a) were measured by flow cytometry/ELISA, and the psychopathology was evaluated. We found that regulatory T cells were significantly increased prenatal (p = 0.011) and postnatal (p = 0.01) in mothers with postnatal depressive symptoms. The decrease in CXCR 1 after delivery was significantly higher in mother with postnatal depressive symptoms (p = 0.032). Mothers with postnatal depressive symptoms showed already prenatal significantly elevated neopterin levels (p = 0.049). Finally, regulatory T cells in pregnancy strongly predict postnatal depressive symptoms (p = 0.004). The present study revealed that prenatal and postnatal immunologic parameters are associated with postpartum depressive symptoms in mothers. In addition, we found immune markers that could eventually be the base for a biomarker set that predicts postnatal depressive symptoms already during pregnancy. PMID:24595743

Krause, Daniela; Jobst, Andrea; Kirchberg, Franka; Kieper, Susann; Härtl, Kristin; Kästner, Ralph; Myint, Aye-Mu; Müller, Norbert; Schwarz, Markus J

2014-10-01

77

The initial period function of late-type binary stars and its variation  

E-print Network

The variation of the period distribution function of late-type binaries is studied. It is shown that the Taurus--Auriga pre-main sequence population and the main sequence G dwarf sample do not stem from the same parent period distribution with better than 95 per cent confidence probability. The Lupus, Upper Scorpius A and Taurus--Auriga populations are shown to be compatible with being drawn from the same initial period function (IPF), which is inconsistent with the main sequence data. Two possible IPF forms are used to find parent distributions to various permutations of the available data which include Upper Scorpius B (UScB), Chameleon and Orion Nebula Cluster pre-main sequence samples. All the pre-main sequence samples studied here are consistent with the hypothesis that there exists a universal IPF which is modified through binary-star disruption if it forms in an embedded star cluster leading to a general decline of the observed period function with increasing period. The pre-main sequence data admit a ...

Kroupa, Pavel

2011-01-01

78

Postpartum Support International  

MedlinePLUS

... those who need it Get involved DONATE Welcome. Postpartum Support International is dedicated to helping women suffering from perinatal mood and anxiety disorders, including postpartum depression, the most common complication of childbirth. We ...

79

Pulmonary embolus arising from sloughed off myoma in late puerperium  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary embolus is a rare and serious complication of myoma uteri in the puerperium that resulted in late postpartum hysterectomy A 38-year-old, multiparous woman with a large myoma located on the left lateral wall of the uterus underwent emergency cesarean section due to fetal distres at 28 weeks. During the operation, a 15 cm sized intramural myoma was left without any intervention. On the 40th day postpartum the patient returned to the clinic with sepsis and pulmonary embolus because of obstruction of lochia drainage by the sloughed off myoma. The patient underwent hysterectomy and medical therapy for pulmonary embolus. We presented an unusual complication of uterine leiomyoma in the late postpartum period after cesarean section. Whatever the mode of sloughing off of the myoma, the results of the obstruction of lochia drainage may be devastating as in our case. To avoid these complications, clinicians must be aware of these symptoms and prompt intervention is essential. PMID:24591925

Ergenoglu, Ahmet Mete; Yeniel, Ahmet Ozgur; Ulukus, Murat; Askar, Niyazi

2010-01-01

80

The initial period function of late-type binary stars and its variation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variation in the period distribution function of late-type binaries is studied. It is shown that the Taurus-Auriga pre-main-sequence population and the main-sequence G dwarf sample do not stem from the same parent period distribution with better than 95 per cent confidence probability. The Lupus, Upper Scorpius A, and Taurus-Auriga populations are shown to be compatible with being drawn from the same initial period function (IPF), which is inconsistent with the main-sequence data. Two possible IPF forms are used to find parent distributions to various permutations of the available data, which include Upper Scorpius B (UScB), Chameleon, and Orion Nebula Cluster pre-main-sequence samples. All the pre-main-sequence samples studied here are consistent with the hypothesis that there exists a universal IPF that is modified by binary-star disruption if it forms in an embedded star cluster leading to a general decline of the observed period function with increasing period. The pre-main-sequence data admit a log-normal IPF similar to that arrived at by Duquennoy & Mayor (1991, A&A, 248, 485) for main-sequence stars, provided the binary fraction among pre-main-sequence stars is significantly higher. However, for consistency with proto-stellar data, the possibly universal IPF ought to be flat along the log-P or log-semi-major axis and must be similar to the K1 IPF form derived by means of inverse dynamical population synthesis, which has been shown to lead to the main-sequence period function if most stars form in typical embedded clusters.

Kroupa, P.; Petr-Gotzens, M. G.

2011-05-01

81

Discovery of a short-necked sauropod dinosaur from the Late Jurassic period of Patagonia.  

PubMed

Sauropod dinosaurs are one of the most conspicuous groups of Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrates. They show general trends towards an overall increase in size and elongation of the neck, by means of considerable elongation of the length of individual vertebrae and a cervical vertebra count that, in some cases, increases to 19 (ref. 1). The long neck is a particular hallmark of sauropod dinosaurs and is usually regarded as a key feeding adaptation. Here we describe a new dicraeosaurid sauropod, from the latest Jurassic period of Patagonia, that has a particularly short neck. With a neck that is about 40% shorter than in other known dicraeosaurs, this taxon demonstrates a trend opposite to that seen in most sauropods and indicates that the ecology of dicraeosaurids might have differed considerably from that of other sauropods. The new taxon indicates that there was a rapid radiation and dispersal of dicraeosaurids in the Late Jurassic of the Southern Hemisphere, after the separation of Gondwana from the northern continents by the late Middle Jurassic. PMID:15931221

Rauhut, Oliver W M; Remes, Kristian; Fechner, Regina; Cladera, Gerardo; Puerta, Pablo

2005-06-01

82

[Variants of the clinical course of the late period of military closed craniocerebral injuries].  

PubMed

As a result of a comprehensive psychoneurological examination of 160 war veterans who had sustained a cranicocerebral trauma of a mild or moderate degree during the Great Patriotic War, the authors identified 3 variants of the clinical course of its long-term period: (1) late (at the age of 45-59 years), protracted (of many years) decompensation of a complex (polymorphic) posttraumatic neuropsychic defect; (2) a comparatively early (by age) and accelerated development of cerebral atherosclerosis and arterial hypertension with unstable compensation of posttraumatic cerebral, predominantly vegetative-angiodystonic disorders; (3) the prevalence in the clinical picture of the disease of marked manifestations of chronic cerebrovascular failure or stable sequels of brain stroke in the presence of individual reduced psychopathological posttraumatic symptoms. The article also presents electrophysiological, biochemical and psychological changes characteristic of each variant of the course, which should be taken into consideration in making the diagnosis and predicting the clinical and employment-related outcome. PMID:4024785

Burtsev, E M; Bobrov, A S

1985-01-01

83

Endogenous release of prostaglandin F?[a?lpha] during the postpartum period and its relationship with resumption of ovarian activity in mature Brahman cows  

E-print Network

of Advisory Committee: Dr. Ronald Randel Experiments were conducted to:1) determine the relationships between plasma progesterone (P4), estrogen (E2) and 13-14-Dihydro-15 ? keto ? prostaglandin F26 (PGFM) during the first 21 days after parturition... and postpartum interval as well as corpus luteum function after the first postcalving estrus. 2) to evaluate the relationship between plasma concentrations of PGFM, E2 and Pq prior to and during the first estrous cycle after calving in cows with short lived...

Velez, Juan Santiago

2012-06-07

84

Postpartum Substance Use and Depressive Symptoms: A Review  

PubMed Central

National survey data suggest that new mothers have high prevalences of alcohol and illicit drug use. Depression correlates with substance use, and new mothers with postpartum depression (PPD) may be at high risk for substance use. Understanding postpartum substance use and its relationship to PPD can inform future research and intervention. A literature search was conducted resulting in 12 studies published from 1999–2012 examining postpartum alcohol use, drug use, or combined postpartum depression and substance use. Postpartum alcohol (prevalence range 30.1%?49%) and drug use (4.5%–8.5%) were lower than use among not pregnant, not postpartum women (41.5%–57.5%; 7.6%–10.6%, respectively) but higher than use among pregnant women (5.4%–11.6%; 3.7%–4.3%, respectively). Correlates of postpartum problem drinking were being unemployed, unmarried, and a cigarette smoker. Prevalence of drug use was highest among white new mothers, followed by Blacks and Hispanics, but Black new mothers appeared at greater risk of drug use. No identified studies examined correlates of postpartum drug use beyond race/ethnicity. Postpartum depressive symptoms were prevalent among postpartum substance users and those with a substance use history (19.7%–46%). The postpartum period is a critical time. Prevalent substance use and the scarcity of studies warrant research to identify means to reduce maternal substance use. PMID:23879459

Chapman, Shawna L. Carroll; Wu, Li-Tzy

2013-01-01

85

Direct and indirect climate impact on the lake ecosystem during Late Glacial Period.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate was the main factor that influenced environment in Late Glacial. The general warming trend was interrupted by cooling periods. This fluctuations had a great impact on the lakes environment not only directly by the changing temperature and precipitation but also indirectly influencing, among others, vegetation cover changes and intensity of erosion which consecutively effected lake productivity. In this study we analyzed the sediments of Lake ?ukie located in East part of Poland in ??czna-W?odawa Lake District, beyond the reach of the last glaciation. In present time lake ?ukie is shallow, eutrophic lake and its area do not extend 140ha. The aim of this study was to find out how lake ecosystem changed in Late Glacial under the influence of the climate. In order to reconstruct those changes we did several analysis: subfossil Cladocera, macrofossil, pollen, chemical composition of the sediment (TOC, OC, IC, SiO2biog, SiO2ter). The chronology was based on palinology and correlated with the lake Perespilno chronology which was based on the laminated sediments and several 14C data (lake Perespilno is located 30 km east of ?ukie lake). Our results show that during Late Glacial lake ?ukie ecosystem changed dynamically. Its history started in Older Dryas, whan the lake was shallow with low biodiversity. The erosion played very important role in the sediment formation as the vegetation cover was sparse, dominated by shrubs and grasses. The Allerod warming caused the deepening of the lake and the increase of biodiversity and productivity. The pine - birch forests developed. At the end of this period fishes appeared in the lake. The Younger Dryas cooling marked very visibly in all the results but though the productivity decreased the biodiversity maintained high. The vegetation cover become more open, with high share of grasses, which caused the increase in the erosion of the catchment. At the end on YD sudden change in lake ecosystem happened, probably caused by the water level drop. This dramatic event was probably caused by the changes in the ground water circulation connected with the permafrost disappearance.

Zawiska, Izabela; S?owi?ski, Micha?; Obremska, Milena; Woszczyk, Micha?; Milecka, Krystyna

2013-04-01

86

Review of screening instruments for postpartum depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper presents a review and discussion of eight self-report measures used to assess for depressive symptoms in the postpartum period. Because postpartum depression is a significant mental health problem, there is a need for reliable and valid screening instruments. Published psychometric data (e.g., reliability, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, concurrent validity) of each self-report instrument are presented and

R. C. Boyd; H. N. Le; R. Somberg

2005-01-01

87

A sensitive period for language in the visual cortex: Distinct patterns of plasticity in congenitally versus late blind adults  

E-print Network

in congenitally versus late blind adults Marina Bedny a, , Alvaro Pascual-Leone b,c , Swethasri Dravida Development Sensitive-period Critical-period Language evolution Visual cortex Blind Sentence comprehension Foveal Pericalcarine a b s t r a c t Recent evidence suggests that blindness enables visual circuits

Saxe, Rebecca

88

Prevalence of Urinary Incontinence During Pregnancy and Postpartum  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   The purpose of the study was to investigate the prevalence of urinary incontinence during pregnancy and the postpartum, and\\u000a to examine postpartum pelvic floor muscle strength. Eight weeks postpartum the prevalence of urinary incontinence and pelvic\\u000a floor muscle strength was registered. All women in a Norwegian community, delivering at the local hospital during a 1-year\\u000a period, were included in

S. Mørkved; K. Bø

1999-01-01

89

Women’s Perceptions of Postpartum Stress: A Narrative Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of stress on the health of postpartum mothers is poorly understood. Although the postpartum period increases risk for stress related diseases such as depression and autoimmune disorders, little qualitative research has focused on women’s perceptions of postpartum stressors.\\u000aA constant comparative content analysis using Atlas.Ti was done on data collected by Groer (NIH R01 NR05000“Influence of Lactation on

Nancy Gilbert Crist

2010-01-01

90

Ecosystem responses during Late Glacial period recorded in the sediments of Lake ?ukie (East Poland)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objectives of this study was to reconstruct climate impact on the functioning of Lake ?ukie and its catchment (??czna W?odawa Lake District, East European Plain) during Late Glacial period. In order to reconstruct climatic fluctuations and corresponding ecosystem responses, we analysed lake sediments for pollen, subfossil Cladocera, plant macrofossils and chemical composition of the sediment. Of these, plant macrofossils and Cladocera were used to infer minimum and mean July temperatures and ordination analysis was used to examine biotic community shifts. Multiproxy analyses of late-glacial sediments of Lake ?ukie clearly show that the main driver of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems as well as geomorphological processes in the catchment was climate variation. The history of the lake initiated during the Older Dryas. In that period, ??czna W?odawa Lake District was covered by open habitats dominated by grasses (Poaceae), humid sites were occupied by tundra plant communities with less clubmoss (Selaginella selaginoides), dry sites by dominated by steppe-like vegetation with light-demanding species such as Helianthemum, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, and juniper bushes (Juniperus). Cold climate limited the growth and development of organisms in the lake, Cladocera community species composition was poor, with only few species present there all the time. During this time period, permafrost was still present in the ground limiting infiltration of rainwater and causing high erosion in the catchment area. Surface runoff is confirmed by the presence of sclerotia of Cenococcum geophilum and high terrigenous silica content. The warming of the early Allerød caused a remarkable change in the natural environment of this area. This is in accordance with the temperature rise reconstructed with the use of plant macrofossils though the Cladocera reconstruction did not recorded the rise than. This temperature increase resulted in turnover of vegetation in the catchment of Lake ?ukie, pioneer birch-pine forests dominated, later replaced by pine-birch forests. Consequently this limited the erosion. The results of all proxy suggest the water-lever rise in lake ?ukie. The Younger Dryas cooling in the region began about 12 630 14C years BP and recorded in significant drop in temperature reconstructed with plant macrofossils and Cladocera. The cooling resulted in a decline of forest communities and development of open habitats with grasses (Poaceae), Artemisia, and Chenopodiaceae), as well as juniper thickets (Juniperus) At the end of the Younger Dryas, plant communities changed, the non-arborescent pollen declined, while pollen of trees (especially Pinus) became more abundant. This change was more abruptly reflected in Cladocera and aquatic pollen results and is probably related to gradual climate warming. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute ICLEA (Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis) funded by the Helmholtz Association, projects UMO-2011/01/B/ST10/07367 and N N306 036436 founded by National Science Center, Poland.

Zawiska, Izabela; S?owi?ski, Micha?; Correa-Metrio, Alex; Obremska, Milena; Luoto, Tomi; Nevalainen, Liisa; Woszczyk, Micha?; Milecka, Krystyna

2014-05-01

91

Unstable sleep and higher sympathetic activity during late-sleep periods of rats: implication for late-sleep-related higher cardiovascular events.  

PubMed

We proposed that the higher incidence of sleep fragmentation, sympathovagal imbalance and baroreceptor reflex impairment during quiet sleep may play a critical role in late-sleep-related cardiovascular events. Polysomnographic recording was performed through wireless transmission using freely moving Wistar-Kyoto rats over 24 h. The low-frequency power of arterial pressure variability was quantified to provide an index of vascular sympathetic activity. Spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity was assessed by slope of arterial pressure-RR linear regression. As compared with early-light period (Zeitgeber time 0-6 h), rats during the late-light period (Zeitgeber time 6-12 h) showed lower accumulated quiet sleep time and higher paradoxical sleep time; furthermore, during quiet sleep, the rats showed a lower ?% of electroencephalogram, more incidents of interruptions, higher ?% and higher ?% of electroencephalogram, raised low-frequency power of arterial pressure variability value and lower baroreflex sensitivity parameters. During the light period, low-frequency power of arterial pressure variability during quiet sleep had a negative correlation with accumulated quiet sleep time and ?% of electroencephalogram, while it also had a positive correlation with ?% and ?% of electroencephalogram and interruption events. However, late-sleep-related raised sympathetic activity and sleep fragmentation diminished when an ?1-adrenoceptor antagonist was given to the rats. Our results suggest that the higher incidence of sleep fragmentation and sympathovagal imbalance during quiet sleep may play a critical role in late-sleep-related cardiovascular events. Such sleep fragmentation is coincident with an impairment of baroreflex sensitivity, and is mediated via ?1-adernoceptors. PMID:22957846

Kuo, Terry B J; Lai, Chun-Ting; Chen, Chun-Yu; Lee, Guo-She; Yang, Cheryl C H

2013-02-01

92

Management of Postpartum Depression  

PubMed Central

Postpartum depression, now termed peripartum depression by the DSM-V, is one of the most common complications in the postpartum period and has potentially significant negative consequences for mothers and their families. This article highlights common clinical challenges in the treatment of peripartum depression and reviews the evidence for currently available treatment options. Psychotherapy is the first-line treatment options for women with mild-to-moderate peripartum depression. Antidepressant medication in combination with therapy is recommended for women with moderate-to-severe depression. While pooled case reports and small controlled studies have demonstrated undetectable infant serum levels and no short-term adverse events in infants of mothers breastfeeding while taking sertraline (Zoloft) and paroxetine (Paxil), further research is needed including larger samples and long-term follow-up of infants exposed to antidepressants via breastfeeding with control for maternal depression. Pharmacological treatment recommendations in women who are lactating must include discussion with the patient regarding the benefits of breastfeeding, risks of antidepressant use during lactation and risks of untreated illness. There is a growing evidence base for non-pharmacological interventions including repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) which may offer an attractive option for women who wish to continue to breastfeed and are concerned about exposure of medication to their infant. Among severe cases of peripartum depression with psychosis referral to a psychiatrist or psychiatric APRN is warranted. Suicidal or homicidal ideation with a desire, intent or plan to harm oneself or anyone one else, including the infant, is a psychiatric emergency, and an evaluation by a mental health professional should be conducted immediately. Peripartum depression treatment research is limited by small samples sizes and few controlled studies. Much work is still needed to better understand which treatments women prefer and are the most effective in ameliorating the symptoms and disease burden associated with peripartum depression. PMID:24131708

Guille, Constance; Newman, Roger; Fryml, Leah D.; Lifton, Clay K.; Epperson, C. Neill

2013-01-01

93

Physical Activity Beliefs, Barriers, and Enablers among Postpartum Women  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background and Methods Physical activity during postpartum is both a recommended and an essential contributor to maternal health. Understanding the beliefs, barriers, and enablers regarding physical activity during the postpartum period can more effectively tailor physical activity interventions. The objective of this study was to document self-reported beliefs, barriers, and enablers to physical activity among a cohort of women queried at 3 and 12 months postpartum. Five questions about beliefs and two open-ended questions about their main barriers and enablers regarding physical activity and exercise were asked of 667 women at 3 months postpartum. Among the sample, 530 women answered the same questions about barriers and enablers to physical activity at 12 months postpartum. Results Agreement on all five beliefs statements was high (?89%), indicating that women thought that exercise and physical activity were appropriate at 3 months postpartum, even if they continued to breastfeed. For the cohort, the most common barriers to physical activity at both 3 and 12 months postpartum were lack of time (47% and 51%, respectively) and issues with child care (26% and 22%, respectively). No barrier changed by more than 5% from 3 to 12 months postpartum. For the cohort, the most common enablers at 3 months postpartum were partner support (16%) and desire to feel better (14%). From 3 to 12 months postpartum, only one enabler changed by >5%; women reported baby reasons (e.g., baby older, healthier, not breastfeeding, more active) more often at 12 months than at 3 months postpartum (32% vs. 10%). Environmental/policy and organizational barriers and enablers were reported less often than intrapersonal or interpersonal barriers at both time points. Conclusions A number of barriers and enablers were identified for physical activity, most of which were consistent at 3 and 12 months postpartum. This study provides information to create more successful interventions to help women be physically active postpartum. PMID:20044854

Aytur, Semra A.; Borodulin, Katja

2009-01-01

94

Postpartum Psychosis: Risk Factors Identification  

PubMed Central

Background: A better understanding of risk factors associated with postpartum psychosis may contribute to the better management. Aims: This study was to identify the risk factors contributing to postpartum psychosis. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional, case control study 100 patients of postpartum psychosis (PP) were compared with the healthy controls. Risk factors explored were sociodemographic factors (age, education, occupation, income, and family type); positive family history; pregnancy and perinatal factors (number of antenatal check-up, parity, and complications during pregnancy, perinatal phase or in newborn); and presence of husband during peripartum period. Data were analyzed by graph pad instat software using chi square test and Fisher's exact test. Results: Total of 64% patients and 42% controls were less than 25 years of age (P = 0.001). Among the patients, 62% were primiparae compared with 46% in the controls (P = 0.02). Per capita family income was less than 5000 INR in 72% patients and 56% controls (P = 0.01). Maternal complications during perinatal period were observed in 38% patients and 22% controls (P = 0.01), while the complications in newborns were seen in 21% patients and 8% controls (P = 0.009). Husband was present in 58% patients and 76% controls. (P = 0.006). Conclusions: The risk factors related to PP were younger age, lower per capita income, perinatal and neonatal complications, and absence of husband in peripartum phase. PMID:25006563

Upadhyaya, Suneet Kumar; Sharma, Archana; Raval, Chintan M

2014-01-01

95

A Sensitive Period for Language in the Visual Cortex: Distinct Patterns of Plasticity in Congenitally versus Late Blind Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent evidence suggests that blindness enables visual circuits to contribute to language processing. We examined whether this dramatic functional plasticity has a sensitive period. BOLD fMRI signal was measured in congenitally blind, late blind (blindness onset 9-years-old or later) and sighted participants while they performed a sentence…

Bedny, Marina; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Dravida, Swethasri; Saxe, Rebecca

2012-01-01

96

Assessing the measurement invariance of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale across immigrant and non-immigrant women in the postpartum period.  

PubMed

To assess the measurement invariance of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) 2 months after delivery in 656 English-speaking immigrant and non-immigrant women who had at least one other child under 16 and who gave birth in one of two urban Canadian centers. We also compared levels of depression in these two groups using this scale. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis showed that configural, metric and partial scalar invariances were present and allowed for meaningful substantive comparisons to be made between immigrants and non-immigrants using linear and logistic regressions on an invariant 15-item version of the scale. We observed a novel 4-factor structure for the CES-D in postpartum women and established a 15-item version of this scale that was invariant across immigrant and non-immigrant groups. This suggests that women conceptualize postpartum depression (PPD) in similar ways using the 15-item version of this scale and that meaningful substantive comparisons can be made using it. Indeed, immigrants manifested higher levels of depressive symptoms than non-immigrants (unstandardized b?=?1.34, p?=?0.02) and an increased risk of being a potential case of PPD (OR?=?2.16, 95%CI 1.10-4.19), even after adjustment for other risk factors. Immigrant and non-immigrant women appear to conceptualize PPD in similar ways using this 15-item version of the CES-D. Immigrants may develop more depressive symptoms and be at increased risk of developing an episode of PPD. PMID:21932024

Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Cleverley, Kristin; Jenkins, Jennifer M; Georgiades, Katholiki

2011-10-01

97

Reproductive performance of postpartum Awassi ewes under different lambing regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive performance was studied in 40 multiparous Awassi ewes, weaned during their first week postpartum (Regime A), or at 2 months postpartum (Regime B). In both regimes, ewes were simultaneously exposed to rams after weaning, for a period of 48 days. In Regime A, early weaning did not improve reproductive performance in fertility and prolificacy; however, it indicated their potential

S. K. Hamadeh; E. K. Barbour; M. Abi Said; K. Daadaa

1996-01-01

98

Validation of a Laboratory Method of Measuring Postpartum Blood Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory methods give more accurate measurement of blood loss in the postpartum period than visual estimation. In order to evaluate a laboratory method used to quantify blood loss postpartum, blood lost at gynecological operations was collected in a measuring bottle. The measured amount of blood (50–1,000 ml) was then poured onto absorbent paper towels and sanitary pads, in order to

S. Chua; L. M. Ho; K. Vanaja; L. Nordstrom; A. C. Roy; S. Arulkumaran

1998-01-01

99

Postpartum depression: A comparison of screening and routine clinical evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study compared the efficacy of routine clinical evaluation with that of screening with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale for the detection of postpartum depression in a residency training program practice. Study Design: Three hundred ninety-one patients during a period of 1 year were assigned according to delivery date to screening for postpartum depression with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression

Grace G. Evins; James P. Theofrastous; Shelley L. Galvin

2000-01-01

100

Epidemiological characteristics and predictors of late presentation of HIV infection in Barcelona (Spain) during the period 2001-2009  

PubMed Central

Background Early diagnosis of HIV infection can prevent morbidity and mortality as well as reduce HIV transmission. The aim of the present study was to assess prevalence, describe trends and identify factors associated with late presentation of HIV infection in Barcelona (Spain) during the period 2001-09. Methods Demographic and epidemiological characteristics of cases reported to the Barcelona HIV surveillance system were analysed. Late presentation was defined for individuals with a CD4 count below 350 cells/ml upon HIV diagnosis or diagnosis of AIDS within 3 months of HIV diagnosis. Multivariate logistic regression were used to identify predictors of late presentation. Results Of the 2,938 newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals, 2,507 (85,3%) had either a CD4 cell count or an AIDS diagnosis available. A total of 1,139 (55.6%) of the 2,507 studied cases over these nine years were late presenters varying from 48% among men who have sex with men to 70% among heterosexual men. The proportion of late presentation was 62.7% in 2001-2003, 51.9% in 2004-2005, 52.6% in 2006-2007 and 52.1% in 2008-2009. A decrease over time only was observed between 2001-2003 and 2004-2005 (p = 0.001) but remained constant thereafter (p = 0.9). Independent risk factors for late presentation were older age at diagnosis (p < 0.0001), use of injected drugs by men (p < 0.0001), being a heterosexual men (p < 0.0001), and being born in South America (p < 0.0001) or sub-Saharan Africa (p = 0.002). Conclusion Late presentation of HIV is still too frequent in all transmission groups in spite of a strong commitment with HIV prevention in our city. It is necessary to develop interventions that increase HIV testing and facilitate earlier entry into HIV care. PMID:21729332

2011-01-01

101

Grant Title: WOMEN'S MENTAL HEALTH DURING PREGNANCY AND THE POSTPARTUM PERIOD (R01, Funding Opportunity Number: R01: PA-12-216. R21: PA-12-215. CFDA Number(s): 93.242, 93.279, 93.865.  

E-print Network

Grant Title: WOMEN'S MENTAL HEALTH DURING PREGNANCY AND THE POSTPARTUM PERIOD (R01, R21) Funding/Department: Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Institute of Mental), National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Area of Research: Research addressing women's mental health

Farritor, Shane

102

POSTPARTUM GAD IS A RISK FACTOR FOR POSTPARTUM MDD: THE COURSE AND LONGITUDINAL RELATIONSHIPS OF POSTPARTUM GAD AND MDD  

PubMed Central

Background The objective was to examine the course and longitudinal associations of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) in mothers over the postpartum 2 years. Method Using a prospective naturalistic design, 296 mothers recruited from a large community pool were assessed for GAD and MDD at 3, 6, 10, 14, and 24 months postpartum. Structured clinical interviews were used for diagnoses, and symptoms were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine diagnostic stability and longitudinal relations, and latent variable modeling was employed to examine change in symptoms. Results MDD without co-occurring GAD, GAD without co-occurring MDD, and co-occurring GAD and MDD, displayed significant stability during the postpartum period. Whereas MDD did not predict subsequent GAD, GAD predicted subsequent MDD (in the form of GAD + MDD). Those with GAD + MDD at 3 months postpartum were significantly less likely to be diagnosis free during the follow-up period than those in other diagnostic categories. At the symptom level, symptoms of GAD were more trait-like than those of depression. Conclusions Postpartum GAD and MDD are relatively stable conditions, and GAD is a risk factor for MDD but not vice versa. Given the tendency of MDD and GAD to be persistent, especially when comorbid, and the increased risk for MDD in mothers with GAD, as well as the potential negative effects of cumulative exposure to maternal depression and anxiety on child development, the present findings clearly highlight the need for screening and treatment of GAD in addition to MDD during the postpartum period. PMID:23288653

Prenoveau, Jason; Craske, Michelle; Counsell, Nicholas; West, Valerie; Davies, Beverley; Cooper, Peter; Rapa, Elizabeth; Stein, Alan

2013-01-01

103

Use of regenerating clearcuts by late-successional bird species and their young during the post-fledging period  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1995 to 1999, we mist-netted birds in regenerating clearcuts within a primarily forested landscape of West Virginia and Virginia to determine the extent that both resident and migrant birds and their young use this type of early-successional habitat during the post-fledging period. Our primary objective was to document whether or not birds typically considered mature or late-successional forest breeders

Matthew R. Marshall; Jennifer A. DeCecco; Alan B. Williams; George A. Gale; Robert J. Cooper

2003-01-01

104

Postpartum intimate partner violence and health risks among young mothers in the United States: a prospective study.  

PubMed

The study assessed the relationship between postpartum intimate partner violence (IPV) and postpartum health risks among young mothers over time. Data were collected from 2001 to 2005 on young women aged 14-25 attending obstetrics and gynecology clinics in two US cities. Postpartum IPV (i.e., emotional, physical, sexual) was assessed at 6 and 12 months after childbirth (n = 734). Four types of postpartum IPV patterns were examined: emerged IPV, dissipated IPV, repeated IPV, and no IPV. Emerged IPV occurred at 12 months postpartum, not 6 months postpartum. Dissipated IPV occurred at 6 months postpartum, not 12 months postpartum. Repeated IPV was reported at 6 months and 12 months postpartum. Postpartum health risks studied at both time points were perceived stress, depression, fear of condom negotiation, condom use, infant sleeping problems, and parental stress. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used. The proportion of young mothers reporting IPV after childbirth increased from 17.9 % at 6 months postpartum to 25.3 % at 12 months postpartum (P < 0.001). Emerged and/or repeated postpartum IPV were associated with increased perceived stress, depression, fear of condom negotiation, and infant sleeping problems as well as decreased condom use (P < 0.05). Dissipated postpartum IPV was associated with decreased depression (P < 0.05). IPV screening and prevention programs for young mothers may reduce health risks observed in this group during the postpartum period. PMID:24562504

Agrawal, Alpna; Ickovics, Jeannette; Lewis, Jessica B; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace S

2014-10-01

105

Postpartum Intimate Partner Violence and Health Risks Among Young Mothers in the United States: A Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

The study assessed the relationship between postpartum intimate partner violence (IPV) and postpartum health risks among young mothers over time. Data were collected from 2001 to 2005 on young women aged 14–25 attending obstetrics and gynecology clinics in two US cities. Postpartum IPV (i.e., emotional, physical, sexual) was assessed at 6 and 12 months after childbirth (n = 734). Four types of postpartum IPV patterns were examined: emerged IPV, dissipated IPV, repeated IPV, and no IPV. Emerged IPV occurred at 12 months postpartum, not 6 months postpartum. Dissipated IPV occurred at 6 months postpartum, not 12 months postpartum. Repeated IPV was reported at 6 months and 12 months postpartum. Postpartum health risks studied at both time points were perceived stress, depression, fear of condom negotiation, condom use, infant sleeping problems, and parental stress. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used. The proportion of young mothers reporting IPV after childbirth increased from 17.9 % at 6 months postpartum to 25.3 % at 12 months postpartum (P < 0.001). Emerged and/or repeated postpartum IPV were associated with increased perceived stress, depression, fear of condom negotiation, and infant sleeping problems as well as decreased condom use (P < 0.05). Dissipated postpartum IPV was associated with decreased depression (P < 0.05). IPV screening and prevention programs for young mothers may reduce health risks observed in this group during the postpartum period. PMID:24562504

Ickovics, Jeannette; Lewis, Jessica B.; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace S.

2014-01-01

106

Long-Lasting Changes in Morphine-Induced Locomotor Sensitization and Tolerance in Long-Evans Mother Rats as a Result of Periodic Postpartum Separation from the Litter: A Novel Model of Increased Vulnerability to Drug Abuse?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily postpartum separations from the litter produce enduring changes in anxiety and sensitivity to the antinociceptive effects of morphine in Long-Evans dams. We tested whether postpartum experience alters sensitivity to the effects of morphine on locomotor activity. Dams were tested 4–6 weeks after their pups were weaned, and had one of the following backgrounds: daily separation from the litter on

Mikhail Kalinichev; Keith W Easterling; Stephen G Holtzman

2003-01-01

107

The introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy — Audit of transition period with late follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The operative treatment of 356 consecutive patients with gallstone related disease who presented in the thirty months following\\u000a the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy was reviewed. A standard questionnaire, with emphasis on total hospital stay\\u000a (including convalescence), late post-operative morbidity and time to return to work\\/full activity was sent to all patients.\\u000a Two hundred and ninety-eight patients responded (83%). The median

P. Kent; C. A. Bannon; O. Beausang; P. R. O’Connell; T. P. Corrigan; T. F. Gorey

1995-01-01

108

Postpartum female sexual function: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many women experience sexual problems in the postpartum period, research in this subject is under-explored. Embarrassment and preoccupation with the newborn are some of the reasons why many women do not seek help. Furthermore, there is a lack of professional awareness and expertise and recognition that a prerequisite in the definition of sexual dysfunction is that it must cause

Zeelha Abdool; Ranee Thakar; Abdul H. Sultan

109

Postpartum Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections that are diagnosed during the postpartum period (defined as the 3 months after delivery). Study Design: This was a retrospective cohort study of women delivered of infants at ?28 weeks of gestation at an urban hospital from 1992 through 1998, including each woman's first delivery

Barbara E. Mahon; Marc B. Rosenman; Marilyn F. Graham; J. Dennis Fortenberry

2002-01-01

110

Maternal Postpartum Role Collapse as a Theory of Postpartum Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development of a theory of maternal postpartum role collapse. The influences of traditional role theory and symbolic interactionism are presented. The development of the maternal postpartum role collapse theory emerged from the study of postpartum depression among African-American women (Amankwaa, 2000).…

Amankwaa, Linda Clark

2005-01-01

111

Anxiety During Pregnancy and Postpartum  

MedlinePLUS

... Disorder . Learn more about it here. Postpartum and antepartum anxiety are temporary and treatable with professional help. ... Disorder . Learn more about it here. Postpartum and antepartum anxiety are temporary and treatable with professional help. ...

112

Quantitative assessment of regulatory proteins in blood as markers of radiation effects in the late period after occupational exposure.  

PubMed

The objective of this research was quantitative assessment of serum and membrane regulatory proteins in blood from nuclear workers as markers of radiation-induced alterations in immune homeostasis in the late period after protracted exposure of nuclear workers with different doses. The effector and regulatory lymphocytes were measured using a flow cytofluorometer in workers from the main facilities of the Mayak PA (aged ?60 y up to 80 y) in the late period after combined exposure to external gamma-rays and internal alpha-radiation from incorporated 239Pu. The control group included non-occupationally exposed members of the Ozyorsk population matched by gender and age to the group of Mayak workers. Thirty serum proteins involved in regulation of immune homeostasis, such as growth factors, multifunctional interleukins, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and their receptors, were measured using ELISA in blood serum specimens from the Radiobiology Human Tissue Repository. The dosimetry estimates were obtained using Doses-2005. The correlation analysis revealed a statistically significant direct relationship of T-killers and plutonium body burden and a decreasing level of T-helpers with accumulated external dose in exposed individuals. There were differences in expression of membrane markers in young regulatory cells (double null T-lymphocytes, NKT-lymphocytes, regulatory T-cells, and an increase of activated forms of T-lymphocytes), which indicated an active role of regulatory cells in maintaining immune homeostasis in terms of protracted exposure. The assessment of regulatory proteins in blood indicated that growth factors (EGF, TGF-?1, PDGF), multifunctional interleukins (IL-17A, IL-18), and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1? and INF-?) could be potential markers of radiation-induced alterations in protein status. An imbalance of pro- and antiinflammatory proteins in blood and variations of protein profiles at the lower exposure levels (gamma-ray dose <1 Gy, plutonium body burden <0.74 kBq) in the late period after protracted exposure were less pronounced than at the higher exposure levels, which was probably explained by compensatory-adaptive responses in the late period among senile individuals with polypathology. PMID:22647909

Kirillova, Evgenia N; Zakharova, Maria L; Muksinova, Klara N; Drugova, Elena D; Pavlova, Olga S; Sokolova, Svetlana N

2012-07-01

113

On the interpretation of new late B and early A periodic variable stars in NGC~3766  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate possible interpretations for the periodic B- and A-type variable stars that were newly discovered in NGC 3766. In the H-R diagram they lie between slowly pulsating B and ? Sct stars, which is the region where standard models of pulsating stars predict that there is no pulsation. We show that the other two possible causes of periodic light curve variations (rotational modulation and binarity) cannot provide a satisfactory explanation for all the properties that have been observed in those stars. The question of their origin is thus a current open issue.

Mowlavi, N.; Saesen, S.; Barblan, F.; Eyer, L.

2014-11-01

114

Steroid concentrations in antepartum and postpartum saliva: normative values in women and correlations with serum  

PubMed Central

Background Saliva has been advocated as an alternative to serum or plasma for steroid monitoring. Little normative information is available concerning expected concentrations of the major reproductive steroids in saliva during pregnancy and the extended postpartum. Methods Matched serum and saliva specimens controlled for time of day and collected less than 30?minutes apart were obtained in 28 women with normal singleton pregnancies between 32 and 38?weeks of gestation and in 43 women during the first six months postpartum. Concentrations of six steroids (estriol, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone) were quantified in saliva by enzyme immunoassay. Results For most of the steroids examined, concentrations in antepartum saliva showed linear increases near end of gestation, suggesting an increase in the bioavailable hormone component. Observed concentrations were in agreement with the limited data available from previous reports. Modal concentrations of the ovarian steroids were undetectable in postpartum saliva and, when detectable in individual women, approximated early follicular phase values. Only low to moderate correlations between the serum and salivary concentrations were found, suggesting that during the peripartum period saliva provides information that is not redundant to serum. Conclusions Low correlations in the late antepartum may be due to differential rates of change in the total and bioavailable fractions of the circulating steroid in the final weeks of the third trimester as a consequence of dynamic changes in carrier proteins such as corticosteroid binding globulin. PMID:23575245

2013-01-01

115

[Longitudinal study of postpartum women knowledge needs--parity and time series perspectives].  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore the knowledge needs of postpartum women. A postpartum knowledge needs questionnaire was administered to 70 postpartum women during the 1st and 4th week postpartum. Data were analyzed by factor analysis to determine the relationships within categories of knowledge needs. Data were also analyzed by 2-factor repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA). The two factors included parity and time (period of measurement). The results indicated that the knowledge needs of postpartum women can be categorized as follows: (1) Knowledge of caring for the baby, (2) Knowledge of caring for one's self and (3) Knowledge of caring for other family members. The women during the 1st week postpartum reported a significantly higher need in knowledge of infant care than women during the 4th week postpartum. Multiparas showed a significantly higher need in knowledge of caring for other family members than primiparas. PMID:7629920

Yang, Y O; Chen, C H

1995-06-01

116

Late Devonian glacial deposits from the eastern United States signal an end of the mid-Paleozoic warm period  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A Late Devonian polymictic diamictite extends for more than 400??km from northeastern Pennsylvania across western Maryland and into east-central West Virginia. The matrix-supported, unbedded, locally sheared diamictite contains subangular to rounded clasts up to 2??m in diameter. The mostly rounded clasts are both locally derived and exotic; some exhibit striations, faceting, and polish. The diamictite commonly is overlain by laminated siltstone/mudstone facies associations (laminites). The laminites contain isolated clasts ranging in size from sand and pebbles to boulders, some of which are striated. The diamictite/laminite sequence is capped by massive, coarse-grained, pebbly sandstone that is trough cross-bedded. A stratigraphic change from red, calcic paleo-Vertisols in strata below the diamictite to non-calcic paleo-Spodosols and coal beds at and above the diamictite interval suggests that the climate became much wetter during deposition of the diamictite. The diamictite deposit is contemporaneous with regressive facies that reflect fluvial incision during the Late Devonian of the Appalachian basin. These deposits record a Late Devonian episode of climatic cooling so extreme that it produced glaciation in the Appalachian basin. Evidence for this episode of climatic cooling is preserved as the interpreted glacial deposits of diamictite, overlain by glaciolacustrine varves containing dropstones, and capped by sandstone interpreted as braided stream outwash. The Appalachian glacigenic deposits are contemporaneous with glacial deposits in South America, and suggest that Late Devonian climatic cooling was global. This period of dramatic global cooling may represent the end of the mid-Paleozoic warm interval that began in the Middle Silurian. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Brezinski, D. K.; Cecil, C. B.; Skema, V. W.; Stamm, R.

2008-01-01

117

[Effects of the periodical spread of rinderpest on famine, epidemic, and tiger disasters in the late 17th Century].  

PubMed

This study clarifies the causes of the repetitive occurrences of such phenomena as rinderpest, epidemic, famine, and tiger disasters recorded in the Joseon Dynasty Chronicle and the Seungjeongwon Journals in the period of great catastrophe, the late 17th century in which the great Gyeongsin famine (1670~1671) and the great Eulbyeong famine (1695~1696) occurred, from the perspective that they were biological exchanges caused by the new arrival of rinderpest in the early 17th century. It is an objection to the achievements by existing studies which suggest that the great catastrophes occurring in the late 17th century are evidence of phenomena in a little ice age. First of all, rinderpest has had influence on East Asia as it had been spread from certain areas in Machuria in May 1636 through Joseon, where it raged throughout the nation, and then to the west part of Japan. The new arrival of rinderpest was indigenized in Joseon, where it was localized and spread periodically while it was adjusted to changes in the population of cattle with immunity in accordance with their life spans and reproduction rates. As the new rinderpest, which showed high pathogenicity in the early 17th century, was indigenized with its high mortality and continued until the late 17th century, it broke out periodically in general. Contrastively, epidemics like smallpox and measles that were indigenized as routine ones had occurred constantly from far past times. As a result, the rinderpest, which tried a new indigenization, and the human epidemics, which had been already indigenized long ago, were unexpectedly overlapped in their breakout, and hence great changes were noticed in the aspects of the human casualty due to epidemics. The outbreak of rinderpest resulted in famine due to lack of farming cattle, and the famine caused epidemics among people. The casualty of the human population due to the epidemics in turn led to negligence of farming cattle, which constituted factors that triggered rage and epidemics of rinderpest. The more the number of sources of infection and hosts with low immunity increased, the more lost human resources and farming cattle were lost, which led to a great famine. The periodic outbreak of the rinderpester along with the routine prevalence of various epidemics in the 17thcentury also had influenced on domestic and wild animals. Due to these phenomenon, full-fledged famines occurred that were incomparable with earlier ones. The number of domestic animals that were neglected by people who, faced with famines, were not able to take care of them was increased, and this might have brought about the rage of epidemics like rinderpest in domestic animals like cattle. The great Gyeongsin and Eulbyeong famines due to reoccurrence of the rinderpest in the late 17th century linked rinderpester, epidemics and great famines so that they interacted with each other. Furthermore, the recurring cycle of epidemics-famines-rinderpest-great famines constituted a great cycle with synergy, which resulted in eco-economic-historical great catastrophes accompanied by large scale casualties. Therefore, the Gyeongsin and Eulbyeong famines occurring in the late 17th century can be treated as events caused by the repetition of various periodic disastrous factors generated in 1670~1671 and in 1695~1696 respectively, and particularly as phenomena caused by biological exchanges based on rinderpester., rather than as little ice age phenomena due to relatively long term temperature lowering. PMID:24804681

Kim, Dong Jin; Yoo, Han Sang; Lee, Hang

2014-04-01

118

Is Shade Beneficial for Mediterranean Shrubs Experiencing Periods of Extreme Drought and Late-winter Frosts?  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Plants are naturally exposed to multiple, frequently interactive stress factors, most of which are becoming more severe due to global change. Established plants have been reported to facilitate the establishment of juvenile plants, but net effects of plant–plant interactions are difficult to assess due to complex interactions among environmental factors. An investigation was carried out in order to determine how two dominant evergreen shrubs (Quercus ilex and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) co-occurring in continental, Mediterranean habitats respond to multiple abiotic stresses and whether the shaded understorey conditions ameliorate the negative effects of drought and winter frosts on the physiology of leaves. Methods Microclimate and ecophysiology of sun and shade plants were studied at a continental plateau in central Spain during 2004–2005, with 2005 being one of the driest and hottest years on record; several late-winter frosts also occurred in 2005. Key Results Daytime air temperature and vapour pressure deficit were lower in the shade than in the sun, but soil moisture was also lower in the shade during the spring and summer of 2005, and night-time temperatures were higher in the shade. Water potential, photochemical efficiency, light-saturated photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and leaf 13C composition differed between sun and shade individuals throughout the seasons, but differences were species specific. Shade was beneficial for leaf-level physiology in Q. ilex during winter, detrimental during spring for both species, and of little consequence in summer. Conclusions The results suggest that beneficial effects of shade can be eclipsed by reduced soil moisture during dry years, which are expected to be more frequent in the most likely climate change scenarios for the Mediterranean region. PMID:18819947

Valladares, Fernando; Zaragoza-Castells, Joana; Sanchez-Gomez, David; Matesanz, Silvia; Alonso, Beatriz; Portsmuth, Angelika; Delgado, Antonio; Atkin, Owen K.

2008-01-01

119

Barriers to adopting a healthy lifestyle: insight from postpartum women  

PubMed Central

Background Postpartum weight retention can contribute to obesity. There may be unique barriers to weight loss in this period. Findings Cases are presented for three postpartum women who declined to participate in a postpartum weight loss intervention. Despite their desire to engage in healthier behaviors, or partake in an intervention uniquely designed to promote healthy lifestyles for postpartum women, some find it too difficult to make such commitments. Barriers women face in adopting a healthier lifestyle in this period include 1) time availability; 2) prioritizing other competing life responsibilities above their own health; 3) support from family members, friends, and/or co-workers; and 4) lack of flexibility in the intervention structure. These illustrations describe their perspectives in the context of life balance, perceived health, and support, and reflect the multi-dimensional nature of their lives during the life cycle change of the postpartum period. Conclusion Postpartum women face difficult and complex challenges to prioritizing their health and their weight management. PMID:19686601

Carter-Edwards, Lori; ?stbye, Truls; Bastian, Lori A; Yarnall, Kimberly SH; Krause, Katrina M; Simmons, Tia-Jane'l

2009-01-01

120

Causes of late diagnosis in cases of colorectal cancer seen in a district general hospital over a 2-year period.  

PubMed

Our aim in this prospective study was to identify those patients who were found to have a colorectal cancer after a delay we considered unacceptable; this was taken as 6 months or more from initial presentation to a physician to diagnosis. It was then possible to determine the presenting complaints (always multiple) and the reasons for delay, in the hope that recommendations could be made regarding appropriate, rapid and thorough investigation of patients suspected of having a colorectal cancer. Of the total of 141 patients with colorectal cancer (108 elective, 33 emergency cases) under the care of one consultant during the period studied, 17 patients (12%) (10 men and 7 women), satisfied the criteria for late diagnosis. The mean age was 72.4 years (range 43-86 years). Five common presenting complaints were identified. They were, symptomatic iron deficiency anaemia, rectal bleeding, change in bowel habit, abdominal pain and weight loss. Incomplete imaging of the colon in patients with sinister presenting symptoms was the most commonly identified factor in delay of diagnosis. Inappropriate iron therapy and false-negative reporting of double contrast barium enema investigations were both seen in a number of cases. Other causes were, inappropriate surgical treatment and both clerical error and delay. The mean time for delay was 17.6 months (median 15 months). Late diagnosed cancers were most commonly found in the caecum and least commonly in the rectum. Colonic tumours of each Dukes' stage were identified, Dukes' B most common and Dukes' A least. PMID:9771221

Harris, G J; Simson, J N

1998-07-01

121

Causes of late diagnosis in cases of colorectal cancer seen in a district general hospital over a 2-year period.  

PubMed Central

Our aim in this prospective study was to identify those patients who were found to have a colorectal cancer after a delay we considered unacceptable; this was taken as 6 months or more from initial presentation to a physician to diagnosis. It was then possible to determine the presenting complaints (always multiple) and the reasons for delay, in the hope that recommendations could be made regarding appropriate, rapid and thorough investigation of patients suspected of having a colorectal cancer. Of the total of 141 patients with colorectal cancer (108 elective, 33 emergency cases) under the care of one consultant during the period studied, 17 patients (12%) (10 men and 7 women), satisfied the criteria for late diagnosis. The mean age was 72.4 years (range 43-86 years). Five common presenting complaints were identified. They were, symptomatic iron deficiency anaemia, rectal bleeding, change in bowel habit, abdominal pain and weight loss. Incomplete imaging of the colon in patients with sinister presenting symptoms was the most commonly identified factor in delay of diagnosis. Inappropriate iron therapy and false-negative reporting of double contrast barium enema investigations were both seen in a number of cases. Other causes were, inappropriate surgical treatment and both clerical error and delay. The mean time for delay was 17.6 months (median 15 months). Late diagnosed cancers were most commonly found in the caecum and least commonly in the rectum. Colonic tumours of each Dukes' stage were identified, Dukes' B most common and Dukes' A least. PMID:9771221

Harris, G. J.; Simson, J. N.

1998-01-01

122

Recurrent Intracranial Hemorrhage Due to Postpartum Cerebral Angiopathy Implications for Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Postpartum cerebral angiopathy as a cause of hemorrhagic stroke in young women is not well recognized. It is unknown whether this disorder represents a true inflammatory vasculitis or transient vasoconstriction related to the hormonal events of pregnancy and the postpartum period. Case Description—A 39-year-old woman presented with postpartum intracranial hemorrhage and, 32 months later, with subarachnoid hemorrhage, following normal pregnancies.

Melanie R. Ursell; Connie L. Marras; Richard Farb; David W. Rowed; Sandra E. Black; James R. Perry

123

Rock-inhabiting fungi originated during periods of dry climate in the late Devonian and middle Triassic.  

PubMed

Non-lichenized rock-inhabiting fungi (RIF) are slow-growing melanized ascomycetes colonizing rock surfaces in arid environments. They possess adaptations, which allow them to tolerate extreme abiotic conditions, such as high UV radiations and extreme temperatures. They belong to two separate lineages, one consisting in the sister classes Dothideomycetes and Arthoniomycetes (Dothideomyceta), and the other consisting in the order Chaetothyriales (Eurotiomycetes). Because RIF often form early diverging groups in Chaetothyriales and Dothideomyceta, the ancestors of these two lineages were suggested to most likely be rock-inhabitants. The lineage of RIF related to the Chaetothyriales shows a much narrower phylogenetic spectrum than the lineage of RIF related to Dothideomyceta, suggesting a much more ancient origin for the latter. Our study aims at investigating the times of origin of RIF using a relaxed clock model and several fossil and secondary calibrations. Our results show that the RIF in Dothideomyceta evolved in the late Devonian, much earlier than the RIF in Chaetothyriales, which originated in the middle Triassic. The origin of the chaetothyrialean RIF correlates well with a period of recovery after the Permian-Triassic mass extinction and an expansion of arid landmasses. The period preceding the diversification of the RIF related to Dothideomyceta (Silurian--Devonian) is also characterized by large arid landmasses, but temperatures were much cooler than during the Triassic. The paleoclimate record provides a good explanation for the diversification of fungi subjected to abiotic stresses and adapted to life on rock surfaces in nutrient-poor habitats. PMID:21944211

Gueidan, Cécile; Ruibal, Constantino; de Hoog, G S; Schneider, Harald

2011-10-01

124

Dynamics of Late Quaternary North African humid periods documented in the clay mineral record of central Aegean Sea sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ratio between the clay minerals kaolinite and chlorite has been investigated in high resolution in a late Quaternary sediment core from the central Aegean Sea. The record spans the last ca. 105 ka. The kaolinite/chlorite ratio was used to reconstruct the fine-grained aeolian dust influx from the North African deserts, mainly derived from desiccated lake depressions. It therewith can be used as a proxy for wind activity, aridity and vegetation cover in the source area. The data document three major humid phases in North Africa bracketing the formation of sapropel layers S4, S3 and S1. They occur at > 105-95 ka, 83.5-72 ka and 14-2 ka. The first two phases are characterised by relatively abrupt lower and upper boundaries suggesting a non-linear response of vegetation to precipitation, with critical hydrological thresholds. In contrast, the onset and termination of the last humid period were more gradual. Highest kaolinite/chlorite ratios indicating strongest aeolian transport and aridity occur during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5b, at ca. 95-84 ka. The long-term decrease in kaolinite/chlorite ratios during the last glacial period indicates a gradual decline of deflatable lake sediments in the source areas.

Ehrmann, Werner; Seidel, Martin; Schmiedl, Gerhard

2013-08-01

125

Serum oxidant and antioxidant status during early and late recovery periods following an all-out 21-km run in trained adolescent runners  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well documented that intense exercise precipitates oxidative stress in adults. However, there is lack of related studies\\u000a concerning oxidant and antioxidant status during early and late recovery periods in adolescent athletes, following endurance\\u000a exercise in particular. This study investigated aspects of the serum oxidant and antioxidant status of 12 male adolescent\\u000a (16.2 ± 0.6 years) trained runners during early and late

Ye Tian; Jinlei Nie; Tom K. Tong; Julien S. Baker; Non Eleri Thomas; Qingde Shi

2010-01-01

126

[Influence of compendium of Materia Medica on the materia medica in the late period of the Chosun Dynasty].  

PubMed

In this paper, I investigated the influence of Compendium of Materia Medica (CM) on Records for Rural Life of Chosun Gentlemen (RRC), and refuted Miki Sakae's opinion, CM did not have much impact on the Materia Medica in the late period of the Chosun Dynasty. When Li Shizhen published CM, it resulted in a shift of mainstream of Materia Medica in Eastern Asia from Classified Emergency Materia Medica to CM and a new categorizing system of Materia Medica by CM led to the division of Materia Medica into medicine and natural history. It is obvious that doctors of the Chosun Dynasty also adopted the latest achievements of Materia Medica by CM, but so far there have been few studies to clarify this. Seo yugu was a scholar of the Realist School of Confucianism during the late period of the Chosun Dynasty, and RRC is his representative work. RRC is a massive encyclopedia of natural history that covers vast areas of science from agriculture, floriculture, writing and drawing, architecture, diet, and medicine, among others which absorbed the achievements of CM, the best Materia Medica book at that time. Miki Sakae also highly regarded the encyclopedic knowledge of RRC, but devalued the results of Materia Medica. He only described a part of RRC's Materia Medica, nurturing volume, on the view of life nurturing and mentioned that it had been strongly influenced by China. According to this study, a large portion of RRC, especially regarding Materia Medica, depends on CM. Seo yugu had accepted the categorizing system and new medicinal information of CM, at the same time he modified the categorizing system of CM practically by the subject of each volume of RRC. We can find many quotations of CM except the nurturing volume, but other books, Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine, Materia Medica for Relief of Famines are also quoted. Furthermore, Seo yugu emphasized the differences of natural environments between Chosun and China, and specified the editing criteria, "to be useful in Chosun." This is the most obvious evidence that Materia Medica of Chosun had not remained in the framework of Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine which succeeded Classified Emergency Materia Medica, but had been developed into medicine and natural history based on CM. PMID:22948165

Oh, Chae-Kun

2012-08-31

127

Sarcoidosis in Pregnancy and Postpartum Period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic disease of unknown etiology, characterized by granulomatous inflammation. It typically presents between the ages of 20 to 40 years old. An estimated 0.02% to 0.05% of pregnancies occur in patients with sarcoidosis. Although fetal loss has been reported in mothers with sarcoidosis, limited studies do not suggest an in- crease risk of fetal or neonatal complications.

Bobbak Vahid; Neil Mushlin; Sandra Weibel

2007-01-01

128

Relapsing Guillain-Barre syndrome in pregnancy and postpartum.  

PubMed

Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) rarely complicates pregnancy, but can be associated with high maternal and perinatal morbidity if not properly identified and treated. A high index of suspicion, supportive measures, access to intensive care unit and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy are cornerstones of management in GBS complicating pregnancy. Neurologists and Obstetricians should be aware of the risks of relapsing GBS in the immediate postpartum period. Surgery and anesthesia may be triggers for relapse in association with an overall increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines in the postpartum period. We report a unique case of GBS complicating pregnancy in the third trimester followed by a relapse in the postpartum period. She made a good recovery with supportive measures and a repeat course of IVIG during the relapse. PMID:25221412

Meenakshi-Sundaram, S; Swaminathan, K; Karthik, S N; Bharathi, S

2014-07-01

129

Effects of Catechins and Wheat Bran on the Beef Color in the Late Fattening Period of Hanwoo Steers  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of catechins and wheat bran on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat color using forty-eight Hanwoo steers. Each steer was randomly assigned to one of four treatments. Treatments were as follows: control, catechins, wheat bran, and catechins+wheat bran (CW). At the end of the feeding trial, blood samples were collected for analysis of hemoglobin and iron concentration, and then steers were slaughtered at a commercial abattoir. Catechins, wheat bran, and CW had no effect on growth performance and carcass characteristics. Percentage of myoglobin in M. longissimus dorsi was not affected by treatments. Percentage of oxymyoglobin was increased (p<0.05) by CW and maintained at the highest level (p<0.05) for CW during meat display time up to 24 h. Percentage of metmyoglobin was the lowest (p<0.05) for CW between 5 and 24 h during display time. Although blood iron concentration was not affected by treatments, total concentration of muscle iron was the lowest (p<0.05) for CW compared with that of other treatments. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that CW may provide good protection against oxidation of myoglobin, and might be an effective dietary supplement for improving meat color in the late fattening period of Hanwoo steers. PMID:25049634

Kim, Do Hyung; Oh, Young Kyoon; Jang, Sun Sik; Kwon, Eung Gi; Seol, Yong Joo; Ok, Ji Un; Park, Keun Kyu; Lee, Sung Sill; Kim, Kyoung Hoon

2012-01-01

130

Trepanation in South-Central Peru during the early late intermediate period (ca. AD 1000-1250).  

PubMed

This study evaluates trepanations from five well-contextualized prehistoric sites in the south-central highlands of Andahuaylas, Peru. The emergence of trepanation in this region coincides with the collapse of the Wari Empire, ca. ad 1000. Thirty-two individuals from Andahuaylas, AMS radiocarbon dated to the early Late Intermediate Period (ca. ad 1000-1250), were found to have 45 total trepanations. Various surgical techniques were being employed concurrently throughout the region. Scraping trepanations evinced the highest survival rate; circular grooving, drilling and boring, and linear cutting were far less successful. Evidence of perioperative procedures like hair shaving, poultice application, and possible cranioplasty use aimed to ensure the survival of a trepanation recipient. Postmortem trepanations, also present in Andahuaylas, were likely executed on corpses as a means of better understanding cranial anatomy and improving techniques. Similarities in trepanation patterns throughout the region attest to common motivations to engage in surgery. Although moderate physical head trauma seems to be the impetus for intervention in many cases of trepanation, other motivations included physiological and possibly psychosomatic factors. Nevertheless, treatment was not for everyone. In Andahuaylas, trepanations were withheld from subadults, females, and those individuals who practiced cranial modification. PMID:24142537

Kurin, Danielle S

2013-12-01

131

Developmental Profile of Infants Born to Mothers with Postpartum Depression and Anxiety: A Comparative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Postpartum period is associated with higher rates for depression, blues and psychosis. Anxiety is also significant. These disorders may have serious implications in the cognitive development of the infant. There is relative lack of data in this area. So we tried to estimate postpartum anxiety and depression in a group of women and…

Kalita, Kamal Narayan

2010-01-01

132

Patterns of behaviour during postpartum oestrus in prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social and sexual behaviour during postpartum oestrus in prairie voles was monitored using time-lapse videotaping over a period of at least 24 h. Behaviour was measured as a function of the familiarity and social history of the male partner and as a function of the presence or absence of pups. In general, postpartum oestrus was shorter than male-induced oestrus. When

D WITT; C. SUE CARTER; R CHAYER; K ADAMS

1990-01-01

133

Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, vitamin A and vitamin E levels and resumption of postpartum ovarian activity in dairy cows.  

PubMed

Vitamins with antioxidative functions are commonly used as supplements to improve fertility in dairy cows. However, according to field test results uncertainty exists about the effect of these vitamins, especially in vitamin A and vitamin E, on ovarian functional activity. This study was performed to reveal the physiological characteristics of cows receiving enough feed and the ovaries of which were activated in the early postpartum period. Six of 12 primiparous cows showing the corpus luteum on 25 to 27 days after parturition were classified as early responders (PER); the remaining six were classified as late responders (PLR). Among 11 multiparous cows, nine were early responders (MER), and the remaining two were late responders (MLR). Plasma concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in the PER were lower than those in the PLR (P<0.01). The ratio of plasma all-trans-retinol to intake ?-tocopherol or ?-carotene were increased in the following order: MERlate responders. These may have been associated with the availability of vitamins or energy balance. Thus, we suggest the possibility that the cows which were able to utilize antioxidants and energy from the feed efficiently may have earlier resumption of ovaries postpartum. PMID:24506096

Aoki, Mari; Ohshita, Tomoko; Aoki, Yasuhiro; Sakaguchi, Minoru

2014-05-01

134

Disengagement of HIV-positive pregnant and postpartum women from antiretroviral therapy services: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Recent international guidelines call for expanded access to triple-drug antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-positive women during pregnancy and postpartum. However, high levels of non-adherence and/or disengagement from care may attenuate the benefits of ART for HIV transmission and maternal health. We examined the frequency and predictors of disengagement from care among women initiating ART during pregnancy in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods We used routine medical records to follow-up pregnant women initiating ART within prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV services in Cape Town, South Africa. Outcomes assessed through six months postpartum were (1) disengagement (no attendance within 56 days of a scheduled visit) and (2) missed visits (returning to care 14–56 days late for a scheduled visit). Results A total of 358 women (median age, 28 years; median gestational age, 26 weeks) initiated ART during pregnancy. By six months postpartum, 24% of women (n=86) had missed at least one visit and an additional 32% (n=115) had disengaged from care; together, 49% of women had either missed a visit or had disengaged by six months postpartum. Disengagement was more than twice as frequent postpartum compared to in the antenatal period (6.2 vs. 2.4 per 100 woman-months, respectively; p<0.0001). In a proportional hazards model, later gestational age at initiation (HR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.00–1.07; p=0.030) and being newly diagnosed with HIV (HR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.07–2.33; p=0.022) were significant predictors of disengagement after adjusting for patient age, starting CD4 cell count and site of ART initiation. Conclusions These results demonstrate that missed visits and disengagement from care occur frequently, particularly post-delivery, among HIV-positive women initiating ART during pregnancy. Women who are newly diagnosed with HIV may be particularly vulnerable and there is an urgent need for interventions both to promote retention overall, as well as targeting women newly diagnosed with HIV during pregnancy. PMID:25301494

Phillips, Tamsin; Thebus, Elizabeth; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Mcintyre, James; Abrams, Elaine J; Myer, Landon

2014-01-01

135

Timing and Variability of Postpartum Sleep in Relation to Daytime Performance  

PubMed Central

Postpartum women have highly disturbed sleep, also known as sleep fragmentation. Fragmentation extends their total sleep period, also disrupting sleep timing. A stable and earlier sleep period among non-postpartum populations are related to better performance, physical health, and mental health. However, sleep timing has not been examined among postpartum women who are also vulnerable to daytime impairment. The study objective was to examine how the timing and regularity of sleep during the early postpartum period are related to daytime functioning across postpartum weeks 2-13. In this field-based study, 71 primiparous women wore an actigraph, a small wrist-worn device that monitors sleep and sleep timing, for the 12-week study period. Mothers self-administered a 5-minute psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) each morning to evaluate the number of >500ms response lapses. They also completed a Morningness-Eveningness scale at the beginning of the study to identify chronotype. After controlling for maternal age, earlier sleep timing was associated with significantly fewer PVT lapses at postpartum weeks 9,12; a more stable sleep midpoint was associated with significantly fewer PVT lapses at postpartum weeks 2,5-13. Earlier sleep midpoints were related to more stable sleep midpoints at postpartum week 2 and a morning-type chronotype. An earlier sleep midpoint was also associated with a reduced slope of worsening PVT lapses across weeks. Across the first 12 postpartum weeks, women with earlier or more stable sleep periods had less daytime impairment than women with later or more variable sleep midpoints. Postpartum women with earlier sleep midpoints also showed less severe decrements in performance across time, which has been attributed to cumulative impacts of sleep disturbance. These data suggest the sleep period, in addition to sleep duration and fragmentation, should be more closely examined, particularly among vulnerable women, as it may affect the neurobehavioral performance of new mothers. PMID:24041725

McBean, Amanda L.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.

2013-01-01

136

Periodization  

PubMed Central

Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982

Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

2010-01-01

137

Principals in Late Career: Toward a Conceptualization of Principals' Tasks and Experiences in the Pre-Retirement Period  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To fill the gap in theoretical and empirical knowledge on late career in principalship, the aim of this study was to explore the career experiences, needs, and behaviors of principals at this stage. Research method: Life history and semistructured interviews were conducted with 20 late-career principals, 20 schoolteachers, and 10…

Oplatka, Izhar

2010-01-01

138

Periodicity in Sediments from the Baltic Sea and in Greenland Ice as Climate Signals for the Late Quaternary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climatic records from Greenland ice and Baltic Sea provide as well information about global climate changes as about local basin peculiarities. Late Quaternary sediments have been accumulated in the Baltic Basin with high accumulation rates, qualifying them for the study of late Pleistocene to Holocene climate and environmental history in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic realm. Physical and geochemical

J. Harff; R. Endler; S. Kotov; T. Leipe; A. Witkowski

2009-01-01

139

Maternal Postpartum Quality of Life Questionnaire.  

PubMed

This article summarizes the development and psychometric properties of the first self-administered, paper-and-pencil instrument that measures maternal quality of life during the early postpartum period. The definition, domains, and conceptual model by Ferrans and Powers (QLI) were used to develop the Maternal Postpartum Quality of Life (MAPP-QOL) tool. A convenience sample of 184 mothers completed the MAPP-QOL at week 1 and 3 postpartum. Component analysis revealed five domains: psychological/baby; socioeconomic; relational/spouse-partner; relational/family-friends; and health & functioning. Internal consistency reliability for the five subscales resulted in Cronbach's alpha coefficients ranging from .82 to .96. Stability reliability ranged from .66 to .76. The MAPP-QOL and a single-item measure of life satisfaction correlated (r = .69), suggesting convergent validity; discriminant validity was supported by negative correlations with the three negative mood states of the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List-Revised (MAACL-R) as well as poor sleep and fatigue scores. Acceptable reliability and construct validity suggest that the MAPP-QOL may be used in research. Further testing with larger and more diverse samples is recommended. PMID:17278340

Hill, Pamela D; Aldag, Jean C; Hekel, Barbara; Riner, Gina; Bloomfield, Pamela

2006-01-01

140

Women with postpartum depression: "my husband" stories  

PubMed Central

Background The research on Postpartum Depression (PPD) to date suggests that there is a knowledge gap regarding women's perception of their partners' role as carer and care activities they perform. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe women's understanding of their partners' or husbands' involvement in the midst of PPD. Methods This study used interview data from a larger study of northern and rural Ontario women's stories of help-seeking for PPD. The interpretive description approach was used to illustrate the complexity of women's spousal connections in PPD. Data from a purposive community sample of 27 women who self-identified as having been diagnosed with PPD was used. From the verbatim transcribed interviews a number of data excerpts were identified and labeled as "my husband" stories. Narrative analysis was employed to examine these stories. Results During this time of vulnerability, the husbands' physical, emotional and cognitive availability positively contributed to the women's functioning and self-appraisals as wife and mother. Their representations of their husbands' 'doing for' and/or 'being with' promoted their well-being and ultimately protected the family. Conclusion Given that husbands are perceived to be central in mitigating women's suffering with PPD, the consistent implementation of a triad orientation, that includes woman, child and partner rather than a more traditional and convenient dyadic orientation, is warranted in comprehensive postpartum care. Finally, this study contributes a theoretical understanding of responsive as well as reactive connections between women and family members during the postpartum period. PMID:19732461

Montgomery, Phyllis; Bailey, Pat; Purdon, Sheri Johnson; Snelling, Susan J; Kauppi, Carol

2009-01-01

141

Periodicity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In thinking about a title for this chapter, the word periodicity came to mind. I was sure this had some kind of pop culture reference. After discussing this with my wife, we figured I was thinking of synchronicity, which is a reference to music by the band, The Police. Looking the word Periodicity up on the internet, I found that I was, in fact, a science geek and had not made a hip reference. Periodicity refers mainly to the Periodic Table, which is a focus of this chapter. No music, just science.

Robertson, William C.

2007-01-01

142

Association of Maternal Short Sleep Duration with Adiposity and Cardio-Metabolic Status at 3 Years Postpartum  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine the association of short sleep duration among women in the first year postpartum with adiposity and cardio-metabolic status at 3-years postpartum. We studied 586 women in Project Viva, a prospective cohort. At 6 months and 1 year postpartum, women reported the number of hours they slept in a 24-hour period, from which we calculated a weighted average of daily sleep. We used multivariable regression analyses to predict the independent effects of short sleep duration (? 5 h/d v.> 5 h/d) on adiposity, glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and adipokines at 3-years postpartum. Women’s mean (SD) hours of daily sleep in the first year postpartum was 6.7 (0.97) hours. After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and excessive gestational weight gain, we found that postpartum sleep ? 5 h/d was associated with higher postpartum weight retention (? 1.50 kg; 95% CI: 0.02, 2.86), higher subscapular + triceps skinfold thickness (? 3.94 mm; 95% CI: 1.27, 6.60) and higher waist circumference (? 3.10 cm; 95% CI: 1.25, 4.94) at 3-years postpartum. We did not observe associations of short sleep duration with measures of cardio-metabolic status at 3-years postpartum. In conclusion, short sleep duration in the first year postpartum is associated with higher adiposity at 3-years postpartum. PMID:20489690

Taveras, Elsie M.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Gunderson, Erica P.; Stuebe, Alison M.; Mantzoros, Christos S.

2011-01-01

143

The novel, major locus Rpi-phu1 for late blight resistance maps to potato chromosome IX and is not correlated with long vegetation period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the long history of breeding potatoes resistant to Phytophthora infestans, this oomycete is still economically the most important pathogen of potato worldwide. The correlation of high levels of resistance to late blight with a long vegetation period is one of the bottlenecks for progress in breeding resistant cultivars of various maturity types. Solanum phureja was identified as a source

J. ?liwka; H. Jakuczun; R. Lebecka; W. Marczewski; C. Gebhardt; E. Zimnoch-Guzowska

2006-01-01

144

A Retrospective Study on Magnitude and Factors Associated with Anemia in Postnatal Period from Coastal South India  

PubMed Central

Background: Anemia in the postnatal period is a common problem, which has been subject of research recently. Though, it is a common problem, it is a less researched topic in India. Hence, this study was undertaken. Aim: The aim was to know the clinic-social factors associated with anemia in the postpartum period. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective record-based study conducted in Government Lady Goschen Hospital, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore. All the women in the postpartum period who had hemoglobin (%) <11 g/dl were included for the study. Information about various social and clinical factors was collected on a pretested semi-structured proforma. Multivariate analyses were used to get adjusted odds ratio. P < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: About 16.7% (165/988) had moderate anemia. The rest that is 83.3% (823/988) had mild anemia. Multivariate analysis reveals that following factors were significantly associated with moderate anemia: Illiterate mothers, parity (?3), short interpregnancy interval (<3 years), presence of anemia in the antenatal period, late diagnosis in the antenatal period and poor compliance with treatment. Conclusion: Majority had mild anemia. Further research should be focused to (1) reasons for persistence of anemia from antenatal to postpartum period. (2) Find out the reason for failure to come for follow-up in the postpartum period even though services are free.

Harsha Kumar, HN; Gupta, S; Ruhela, S; Tanya, S

2014-01-01

145

Postabortal and postpartum contraception.  

PubMed

Healthcare providers often underestimate a woman' need for immediate effective contraception after an abortion or childbirth. Yet, these are times when women may be highly motivated to avoid or delay another pregnancy. In addition, starting the most effective long-acting reversible methods (i.e. the intrauterine device, intrauterine system or implants) at these times, is safe, with low risk of complications. Good evidence shows that women choosing long-acting reversible contraceptives at the time of an abortion are at significantly lower risk of another abortion, compared with counterparts choosing other methods. Uptake of long-acting reversible methods postpartum can also prevent short inter-pregnancy intervals, which have negative consequences for maternal and child health. It is important, therefore, that providers of abortion and maternity care are trained and funded to be able to provide these methods for women immediately after an abortion or childbirth. PMID:24951405

Cameron, Sharon

2014-08-01

146

Prospective Study on the Association between Harm Avoidance and Postpartum Depressive State in a Maternal Cohort of Japanese Women  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies have displayed increased interest in examining the relationship between personality traits and the onset, treatment response patterns, and relapse of depression. This study aimed to examine whether or not harm avoidance (HA) was a risk factor for postpartum depression measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the state dependency of HA. Methods Pregnant women (n=460; mean age 31.9±4.2 years) who participated in a prenatal program completed the EPDS as a measure of depressive state and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) as a measure of HA during three periods: early pregnancy (T1), late pregnancy (around 36 weeks), and 1 month postpartum (T2). Changes in EPDS and HA scores from T1 to T2 were compared between the non depressive (ND) group and the postpartum depressive (PD) group. Results There was no significant difference in the level of HA between the ND and PD groups at T1. In the ND group, EPDS and HA scores did not change significantly from T1 to T2. In the PD group, both scores increased significantly from T1 to T2 (EPDS, p<0.0001; HA, p<0.048). In the ND and PD groups, a significant positive correlation was observed in changes in EPDS and HA scores from T1 to T2 (r=0.31, p=0.002). Conclusions These results suggest that HA cannot be considered a risk factor for the development of postpartum depression measured by EPDS. Furthermore, HA may be state dependent. PMID:22506046

Okada, Takashi; Murase, Satomi; Aleksic, Branko; Hayakawa, Norika; Shiino, Tomoko; Nakamura, Yukako; Tamaji, Ai; Ishikawa, Naoko; Ohoka, Harue; Usui, Hinako; Banno, Naomi; Morita, Tokiko; Goto, Setsuko; Kanai, Atsuko; Masuda, Tomoko; Ozaki, Norio

2012-01-01

147

Antiretroviral Adherence During Pregnancy and Postpartum in Latin America  

PubMed Central

Abstract Adherence to antiretrovirals by pregnant women (and postpartum women if breastfeeding) is crucial to effectively decrease maternal viral load and decrease the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Our objectives were to describe self-reported adherence to antiretrovirals during the antepartum (after 22 weeks of pregnancy) and postpartum periods (6–12 weeks and 6 months), and identify predictors of adherence among HIV-infected women enrolled and followed in a prospective cohort study from June 2008 to June 2010 at multiple sites in Latin America. Adherence was evaluated using the number of missed and expected doses during the 3 days before the study visit. At the pre-delivery visit, 340 of 376 women (90%) reported perfect adherence. This rate significantly decreased by 6–12 weeks (171/214 [80%]) and 6 months postpartum (163/199 [82%], p<0.01). The odds for less than perfect adherence at the pre-delivery visit was significantly higher for pregnant women with current tobacco use (odds ratio [OR]=2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.46–6.14; p=0.0029). At 6–12 weeks postpartum, the probability of non-perfect adherence increased by 6% for each 1 year increase in age (OR=1.06, 95% CI: 1.00–1.12, p=0.0497). At 6 months postpartum, the odds of nonperfect adherence was higher for those who were currently using alcohol (OR=3.04, 95% CI: 1.34–6.90; p=0.0079). Although a self-report measure of adherence based on only 3 days may lead to overestimation of actual adherence over time, women with perfect adherence had lower viral loads and higher CD4 counts. Adherence to antiretrovirals decreased significantly postpartum. Interventions should target women at high risk for lower adherence during pregnancy and postpartum, including tobacco and alcohol users. PMID:22663185

Harris, D. Robert; Kakehasi, Fabiana; Haberer, Jessica E.; Cahn, Pedro; Losso, Marcelo; Teles, Elizabete; Pilotto, Jose H.; Hofer, Cristina B.; Read, Jennifer S.

2012-01-01

148

Practices related to postpartum uterine involution in the Western Highlands of Guatemala  

PubMed Central

Background Guatemala has the third highest level of maternal mortality in Latin America. Postpartum haemorrhage is the main cause of maternal mortality. In rural Guatemala, most women rely on Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) during labour, delivery, and the postpartum period. Little is known about current postpartum practices that may contribute to uterine involution provided by Mam- and Spanish-speaking TBAs in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. Methods a qualitative study was conducted with 39 women who participated in five focus groups in the San Marcos Department of Guatemala. Questions regarding postpartum practices were discussed during four focus groups of TBAs and one group of auxiliary nurses. Results three postpartum practices believed to aid postpartum uterine involution were identified: use of the chuj (Mam) (Spanish, temazcal), a traditional wood-fired sauna-bath used by Mam-speaking women; herbal baths and teas; and administration of biomedicines. Conclusions TBAs provide the majority of care to women during childbirth and the postpartum period and have developed a set of practices to prevent and treat postpartum haemorrhage. Integration of these practices may prove an effective method to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. PMID:22762787

Radoff, K.A.; Thompson, Lisa M.; Bly, KC; Romero, Carolina

2013-01-01

149

Postpartum nursing for Korean mothers.  

PubMed

Growing numbers of Korean-Americans require US health care workers to become knowledgeable of and sensitive to the cultural beliefs and customs of Korean patients. To further such understanding, health behaviors related to infant care and family involvement in the postpartum period were observed in a Los Angeles, California, hospital located in a Korean community. Notable in unassimilated Korean families were the power of the mother-in-law to assume control of decisions regarding infant care and the tendency of new mothers to defer to their mothers-in-law rather than ask nurses for advice. There is a cultural perception that the new mother is sick and unable to handle her infant. Other practices identified include a special diet of seaweed soup, avoidance of cold (including the rejection of ice packs against pain), resistance to breast feeding, preference for a male child, and modesty in the presence of men. In some cases, clinical considerations conflicted with cultural traditions. Respectful teaching, in nonverbal ways if there is a language barrier, and modeling of infant care techniques are recommended. Disregard for childbirth-associated cultural traditions on the part of medical staff can only increase the stress for the infant and family. PMID:8857400

Schneiderman, J U

1996-01-01

150

Postpartum Early and Extended Contact: Quality, Quantity or Both?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of early vs. extended mother-infant contact on infant, maternal and interactional outcomes in the lying-in period for 104 lower class mother-infant dyads. The early contact treatment consisted of placing the mother and neonate together for 10 to 45 minutes within the first 3 postpartum hours. The extended contact…

Hopkins, John B.; Vietze, Peter M.

151

Promoting Postpartum Exercise: An Opportune Time for Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the postpartum period clinicians can promote the importance of physical fitness, help patients incorporate exercise into lifestyle changes, and encourage them to overcome barriers to exercise. New responsibilities, physical changes, and time constraints may make exercise seem impossible. By emphasizing weight control, stress reduction, and…

Ringdahl, Erika N.

2002-01-01

152

Correlates of gender role orientation during pregnancy and the postpartum  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to examine the relationship between gender role orientation and psychological adjustment during pregnancy and the postpartum period in a large sample of French-speaking Caucasian mothers. Gender role was assessed with the Bem Sex Role Inventory, which classifies subjects into four categories: androgynous, masculine, feminine, and undifferentiated. A discriminant analysis showed a relationship between androgyny and the

Marc Berthiaume; Hélène David; Jean-François Saucier; François Borgeat

1996-01-01

153

Depressive Symptomatology in the Immediate Postnatal Period: Identifying Maternal Characteristics Related to True and False-Positive Screening Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether true- and false-positive postnatal depression screening scores can be distinguished during the early postpartum period by examining characteristic differences between 2 groups: 1) women with depressive symptomatology at 1 week postpartum who continue to exhibit symptoms at 8 weeks postpartum, compared with those who do not; and 2) women with depressive symptomatology at 8 weeks postpartum

Cindy-Lee Dennis; Lori E Ross

154

Estudio Parto: postpartum diabetes prevention program for hispanic women with abnormal glucose tolerance in pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial - study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes and obesity have reached epidemic proportions in the U.S. with rates consistently higher among Hispanics as compared to non-Hispanic whites. Among Hispanic women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), 50% will go on to develop type 2 diabetes within 5?years of the index pregnancy. Although randomised controlled trials among adults with impaired glucose tolerance have shown that diet and physical activity reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes, such programs have not been tested in high-risk postpartum women. The overall goal of this randomised controlled trial is to test the efficacy of a culturally and linguistically modified, individually-tailored lifestyle intervention to reduce risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease among postpartum Hispanic women with a history of abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy. Methods/Design Hispanic pregnant women who screen positive for GDM will be recruited and randomly assigned to a Lifestyle Intervention (n?=?150) or a Health & Wellness (control) Intervention (n?=?150). Multimodal contacts (i.e., in-person, telephone, and mailed materials) will be used to deliver the intervention from late pregnancy (29?weeks gestation) to 12?months postpartum. Targets of the intervention are to achieve Institute of Medicine Guidelines for postpartum weight loss; American Congress of Obstetrician and Gynecologist guidelines for physical activity; and American Diabetes Association guidelines for diet. The intervention draws from Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model and addresses the specific cultural and environmental challenges faced by low-income Hispanic women. Assessments will be conducted at enrollment, and at 6-weeks, 6-months, and 12-months postpartum by trained bicultural and bilingual personnel blinded to the intervention arm. Efficacy will be assessed via postpartum weight loss and biomarkers of insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk. Changes in physical activity and diet will be measured via 7-day actigraph data and three unannounced 24-hour dietary recalls at each assessment time period. Discussion Hispanic women are the fastest growing minority group in the U.S. and have the highest rates of sedentary behavior and postpartum diabetes after a diagnosis of GDM. This randomised trial uses a high-reach, low-cost strategy that can readily be translated into clinical practice in underserved and minority populations. Trial registration NCT01679210 PMID:24606590

2014-01-01

155

Effect of bypass protein and lasalocid on reproductive function in the postpartum Brahman cow  

E-print Network

the postpartum period must reach a certain low threshold prior to reinitiat. ion of estrous cyclicity (Kindahl et al. , 1982; Thatcher et. al. , 1982). Hysterectomy in dairy cows, performed within 5 hours of parturition, resulted in an immediate decrease... the postpartum period must reach a certain low threshold prior to reinitiat. ion of estrous cyclicity (Kindahl et al. , 1982; Thatcher et. al. , 1982). Hysterectomy in dairy cows, performed within 5 hours of parturition, resulted in an immediate decrease...

Carpena, Mario Luis

2012-06-07

156

Relic Late Pleistocene fluvial forms as geomorphic archives indicating periods of high climatic runoff over the East European Plain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In water balance estimations within palaeoenvironmental studies river runoff is estimated as the difference between precipitation and evapotranspiration. The other technique is numerical modeling using general circulation models. Both approaches fail to recognize epochs of extremely high surface runoff characteristic for the Pleistocene cold epochs and recorded in geomorphic outcomes of this runoff. We have studied two kinds of such archives that have wide spatial coverage over the East European Plain (EEP). 1. Post-LGM large palaeochannels (macromeanders) in river valleys with channel width and meander wavelength 5-15 times as great as that of modern rivers. Massive measurements of their parameters and application of specially constructed transfer function provided estimations of palaeo-runoff from large river basins: in the Black Sea and Caspian Sea catchments it carried from 2.2 (Kama River) to 3.1 (Don, Dnieper Rivers) times as great as modern runoff. High runoff lasted long enough to provide formation of 2-3 generations of macromeanders characteristic for many valleys. Macromeanders were radiocarbon dated at 6 sites over EEP in the range 13-19 cal ka BP, but it is not clear whether high runoff was characteristic for the entire period or it performed during short isolated epochs within this interval. Therefore, it is not clear to what exact time palaeohydrological estimations should be attributed. 2. Dendritic and parallel systems of gentle hollows clearly designated in vegetation-free areas south from 55-57ºN. Distinctive spatial patterns and full integration into water transportation through modern fluvial landscapes provides interpretation of these hollow systems as partially or totally buried networks of small dry valleys (balkas). It is supported by revelation of buried incisions up to 10 m deep by coring and trenching across hollows. Ancient erosion network demonstrates erosion density much higher and Horton's "belt of no erosion" much narrower and therefore exhibits much abundant surface runoff than those at present. Dating of buried balkas has until recent times been based either on pollen spectra from peat deposits (in central EEP), or on stratigraphy of paleosoils found in the bottom of paleoforms (in southern EEP). Both markers point at Eemian (MIS 5e) age of their stabilization and therefore pre-Eemian (late MIS 6?) age of incision. However first attempt of OSL dating gave the contradictory result of filling of a 6-m deep balka by slopewash sediments during 80-70 ka BP. Questionable is the >30-ka delay between the soil formation in the balka bottom and start of its filling. It may mean either post-Eemian age of the soil, which would be unfortunate for the regional soil stratigraphy, or insufficient sensitivity of local quartz at ages close to Eemian. The conclusion is that geomorphic evidences make unique palaeohydrological archives that document changes not recorded in other types of palaeoenvironmental data, but they suffer from uncertainties and low resolution of dating. This presentation contributes to RFBR Projects 14-05-00119 and 14-05-00146.

Panin, Andrei; Belyaev, Yury; Eremenko, Ekaterina; Sidorchuk, Alexei

2014-05-01

157

Postpartum Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... simply adjusting to life with a baby. Postpartum Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Approximately 1-6% of women experience postpartum post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following childbirth. Most often, ...

158

Postpartum and Depression Status are Associated With Lower [11C]raclopride BPND in Reproductive-Age Women  

PubMed Central

The early postpartum period is associated with increased risk for affective and psychotic disorders. Because maternal dopaminergic reward system function is altered with perinatal status, dopaminergic system dysregulation may be an important mechanism of postpartum psychiatric disorders. Subjects included were non-postpartum healthy (n=13), postpartum healthy (n=13), non-postpartum unipolar depressed (n=10), non-postpartum bipolar depressed (n=7), postpartum unipolar (n=13), and postpartum bipolar depressed (n=7) women. Subjects underwent 60?min of [11C]raclopride–positron emission tomography imaging to determine the nondisplaceable striatal D2/3 receptor binding potential (BPND). Postpartum status and unipolar depression were associated with lower striatal D2/3 receptor BPND in the whole striatum (p=0.05 and p=0.02, respectively) that reached a maximum of 7–8% in anteroventral striatum for postpartum status (p=0.02). Unipolar depression showed a nonsignificant trend toward being associated with 5% lower BPND in dorsal striatum (p=0.06). D2/3 receptor BPND did not differ significantly between unipolar depressed and healthy postpartum women or between bipolar and healthy subjects; however, D2/3 receptor BPND was higher in dorsal striatal regions in bipolar relative to unipolar depressives (p=0.02). In conclusion, lower striatal D2/3 receptor BPND in postpartum and unipolar depressed women, primarily in ventral striatum, and higher dorsal striatal D2/3 receptor BPND in bipolar relative to unipolar depressives reveal a potential role for the dopamine (DA) system in the physiology of these states. Further studies delineating the mechanisms underlying these differences in D2/3 receptor BPND, including study of DA system responsivity to rewarding stimuli, and increasing power to assess unipolar vs bipolar-related differences, are needed to better understand the affective role of the DA system in postpartum and depressed women. PMID:22257897

Moses-Kolko, Eydie L; Price, Julie C; Wisner, Katherine L; Hanusa, Barbara H; Meltzer, Carolyn C; Berga, Sarah L; Grace, Anthony A; di Scalea, Teresa Lanza; Kaye, Walter H; Becker, Carl; Drevets, Wayne C

2012-01-01

159

The Heritability of Postpartum Depression  

PubMed Central

Postpartum depression (PPD) is a serious mood disorder that may carry life-long consequences for a woman and her family. Multiple risk factors for PPD have been identified, including psychosocial, situational, and biological stimuli, several of which are experienced by most, if not all, postpartum women. Given the commonality of these risk factors, it is unclear why fewer than 20% of postpartum women actually develop PPD. In this review, we suggest that different susceptibility to PPD among postpartum women may be explained by the presence or absence of genetic variants that confer increased risk. We review three categories of genes known to code for proteins associated with depression in the general population or proteins known to be affected by childbirth for their possible association with PPD, including genes related to central nervous system monoamine availability, proinflammatory cytokines, and brain neuropeptides. Only two studies are available in the literature to date specifically looking at polymorphisms in postpartum women as related to PPD; both are concerned with monoamine availability. These are discussed in further depth. Conclusions regarding the contribution of genetic polymorphisms to the development of PPD are mixed. Ultimately, the complexity of the disorder and the interrelationships among different genes thought to contribute to depression suggest that much more research is required to understand the heritability of PPD. The complexity of the disorder also suggests that epigenetic influences must be considered as well when discussing susceptibility. PMID:20453020

Corwin, Elizabeth J.; Kohen, Ruth; Jarrett, Monica; Stafford, Brian

2012-01-01

160

Sustained high levels of serum leptin rather than IL-6 observed in patients with postpartum thyroiditis during their first postpartum year.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study is to explore the roles of leptin and interleukin-6 (IL-6) during the first postpartum year in the occurrence and development of postpartum thyroiditis (PPT). We retrospectively collected serum samples from 57 PPT patients consisting of 34 overt PPT (O-PPT) and 23 subclinical PPT (S-PPT) in addition to 37 healthy postpartum women at four postpartum time points, i.e., 3-day and 3, 6, 12-month postpartum. Serum leptin and IL-6 levels were measured by radioimmunoassay and ELISA assay, respectively. Leptin level and leptin/BMI (LEP/BMI) ratio were higher in PPT patients than in control during the first postpartum year, but were not significantly different between O-PPT and S-PPT. However, a similar trend but did not reach significant difference in IL-6 level was observed during the postpartum period in PPT patients and control women. We conclude that a sustained high level of serum leptin after delivery may be involved in the pathogenesis of PPT. IL-6 does not contribute to the development of PPT. PMID:24573491

Guo, Huiling; Liu, Xiu; Li, Chenyang; Li, Yushu; Sang, Miao; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping; Guan, Haixia

2014-11-01

161

Nonpsychotic Postpartum Depression Among Adolescent Mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the extent to which childbearing increases vulnerability to clinical depression and depressive symptomatology among primiparous adolescent girls (ages 14 to 18). Childbearing Ss (n = 128) were assessed during pregnancy, 6 weeks postpartum, and 1 year postpartum. Matched nonchildbearing Ss (n = 114) were assessed at corresponding time points. Six weeks postpartum, 6% of the childbearing adolescents

Beth R. Troutman; Carolyn E. Cutrona

1990-01-01

162

Efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Postpartum Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Postpartum depression causes women great suffering and has negative consequences for their social relationships and for the development of their in- fants. Research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of psy- chotherapy for postpartum depression. Methods: A total of 120 postpartum women meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depression were recruited from the community and randomly assigned to 12 weeks

Michael W. O'Hara; Scott Stuart; Laura L. Gorman; Amy Wenzel

2000-01-01

163

Plants used during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum healthcare in Lao PDR: A comparative study of the Brou, Saek and Kry ethnic groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In many Southeast Asian cultures the activities and diet during the postpartum period are culturally dictated and a period of confinement is observed. Plants play an important role in recovery during the postpartum period in diet, traditional medicine, steam bath and mother roasting (where mother and child placed on a bed above a brazier with charcoal embers on which

Hugo de Boer; Vichith Lamxay

2009-01-01

164

Validation of the Arabic version of the Cohen perceived stress scale (PSS10) among pregnant and postpartum women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to evaluate the validity of the Arabic translation of the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) in pregnant and postpartum women. METHODS: A sample of 268 women participated. These included 113 women in their third trimester of pregnancy, 97 in the postpartum period and 58 healthy female university students. GHQ-12 and EPDS were also administered to

Monique Chaaya; Hibah Osman; Georges Naassan; Ziyad Mahfoud

2010-01-01

165

The Effect of Telephone Support on Postpartum Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Postpartum depression is a common disorder. Systematic reviews emphasized the need to conduct more trials about interventions to prevent postpartum depression. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of postpartum telephone support on maternal depression. Methods: 366 postpartum women with no history of known depression were randomly assigned into control (244 subjects) and intervention (122 subjects) groups. The control group received only routine postpartum care. In the intervention group, telephone support was provided twice in the first week and once a week during the second to sixth week of postpartum by a trained midwife in addition to the routine care. In order to meet their unpredicted needs, the mothers could contact the consultant 24 hours a day. Postpartum depression was assessed using the self-administered Edinburgh Depression Scale at 60 to 65 days of postpartum. Mothers with scores of 13 and above were considered to have depression. Logistic regression and Student's t-test were used for the data analysis. Results: There was no significant difference regarding frequency of depression between the intervention and control groups (29.9% vs. 31.6%; Odds ratio 0.91, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.49). Mean of depression score was not significantly different between the groups [9.2 (6.1) vs. 10.4 (5.8); mean difference -1.19, 95%CI -2.5 to 0.13]. Conclusion: This study did not provide evidence to show that telephone support of a midwife during postpartum period have a preventive effect on postpartum depression.

Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Sakineh; Malakoti, Jamileh; Sohrabi, Faramarz; Shokranian, Nafiseh

2013-01-01

166

Effect of Dietary Fat Supplementation during Late Pregnancy and First Six Months of Lactation on Maternal and Infant Vitamin A Status in Rural Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Dietary fat intake is extremely low in most communities with vitamin A deficiency. However, its role in vitamin A status of pregnant and lactating women is poorly understood. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of supplementing women with fat from mid-/late pregnancy until six months postpartum on their vitamin A status and that of their infants. Women recruited at 5-7 months of gestation were supplemented daily with 20 mL of soybean-oil (n=248) until six months postpartum or received no supplement (n=251). Dietary fat intake was assessed by 24-hour dietary recall at enrollment and at 1, 3 and 6 months postpartum. Concentrations of maternal plasma retinol, ?-carotene, and lutein were measured at enrollment and at 1, 3 and 6 months postpartum, and those of infants at six months postpartum. Concentration of breastmilk retinol was measured at 1, 3 and 6 months postpartum. The change in concentration of plasma retinol at three months postpartum compared to pregnancy was significantly higher in the supplemented compared to the control women (+0.04 vs -0.07 ?mol/L respectively; p<0.05). Concentrations of plasma ?-carotene and lutein declined in both the groups during the postpartum period but the decline was significantly less in the supplemented than in the control women at one month (?-carotene -0.07 vs -0.13 ?mol/L, p<0.05); lutein -0.26 vs -0.49 ?mol/L, p<0.05) and three months (?-carotene -0.04 vs -0.08 ?mol/L, p<0.05; lutein -0.31 vs -0.47 ?mol/L, p<0.05). Concentration of breastmilk retinol was also significantly greater in the supplemented group at three months postpartum than in the controls (0.68±0.35 vs 0.55±0.34 ?mol/L respectively, p<0.03). Concentrations of infants’ plasma retinol, ?-carotene, and lutein, measured at six months of age, did not differ between the groups. Fat supplementation during pregnancy and lactation in women with a very low intake of dietary fat has beneficial effects on maternal postpartum vitamin A status. PMID:20824976

van Raaij, Joop M.A.; Hautvast, Joseph G.A.J.; Yunus, M.; Wahed, M.A.; Fuchs, G.J.

2010-01-01

167

Haootia quadriformis n. gen., n. sp., interpreted as a muscular cnidarian impression from the Late Ediacaran period (approx. 560 Ma).  

PubMed

Muscle tissue is a fundamentally eumetazoan attribute. The oldest evidence for fossilized muscular tissue before the Early Cambrian has hitherto remained moot, being reliant upon indirect evidence in the form of Late Ediacaran ichnofossils. We here report a candidate muscle-bearing organism, Haootia quadriformis n. gen., n. sp., from approximately 560 Ma strata in Newfoundland, Canada. This taxon exhibits sediment moulds of twisted, superimposed fibrous bundles arranged quadrilaterally, extending into four prominent bifurcating corner branches. Haootia is distinct from all previously published contemporaneous Ediacaran macrofossils in its symmetrically fibrous, rather than frondose, architecture. Its bundled fibres, morphology, and taphonomy compare well with the muscle fibres of fossil and extant Cnidaria, particularly the benthic Staurozoa. Haootia quadriformis thus potentially provides the earliest body fossil evidence for both metazoan musculature, and for Eumetazoa, in the geological record. PMID:25165764

Liu, Alexander G; Matthews, Jack J; Menon, Latha R; McIlroy, Duncan; Brasier, Martin D

2014-10-22

168

Haootia quadriformis n. gen., n. sp., interpreted as a muscular cnidarian impression from the Late Ediacaran period (approx. 560 Ma)  

PubMed Central

Muscle tissue is a fundamentally eumetazoan attribute. The oldest evidence for fossilized muscular tissue before the Early Cambrian has hitherto remained moot, being reliant upon indirect evidence in the form of Late Ediacaran ichnofossils. We here report a candidate muscle-bearing organism, Haootia quadriformis n. gen., n. sp., from approximately 560 Ma strata in Newfoundland, Canada. This taxon exhibits sediment moulds of twisted, superimposed fibrous bundles arranged quadrilaterally, extending into four prominent bifurcating corner branches. Haootia is distinct from all previously published contemporaneous Ediacaran macrofossils in its symmetrically fibrous, rather than frondose, architecture. Its bundled fibres, morphology, and taphonomy compare well with the muscle fibres of fossil and extant Cnidaria, particularly the benthic Staurozoa. Haootia quadriformis thus potentially provides the earliest body fossil evidence for both metazoan musculature, and for Eumetazoa, in the geological record. PMID:25165764

Liu, Alexander G.; Matthews, Jack J.; Menon, Latha R.; McIlroy, Duncan; Brasier, Martin D.

2014-01-01

169

[HUANG Yu-jie, the famous traditional Chinese medical physician of Taiwan in the late Qing dynasty and early republican period of China].  

PubMed

HUANG Yu-jie, the famous TCM physician of Taiwan in the late Qing dynasty and early Republican period of China, was a physician with noble medical morality and perfect medical skill. He made distinguished contributions especially to the prevention and treatment of epidemic disease. During the time he undertook the medical work, he also actively took part in the social activities and made changes in customs and traditions to promote the development of society. His medical morality and skill not only were the model for the medical field at that time but also had an extensive and profound impact on the common people. PMID:19930943

Xiao, Lin-rong; Zhang, Yong-xian

2009-07-01

170

The Effects of Supplementation of Humate and Probiotic on Egg Production and Quality Parameters During the Late Laying Period in Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This study,was,designed,to investigate whether,inclusions of humate,and probiotic into diets of hens during,the late laying period increases egg produc- tion and improves,egg quality. Hisex Brown,layers (n = 300), 54 wk of age, were fed a control diet, 0.1% humate, 0.2% humate, 0.1% probiotic, or 0.2% probiotic for 75 d. Active ingredients,of humate,and,probiotic were,poly- meric polyhydroxy acids (humic, fulvic, ulmic, and

M. A. Yo Ruk; M. Gul; A. Hayirli; M. Macit

171

Depression during pregnancy and postpartum: Contribution of stress and ovarian hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depression is the most common psychiatric disease among women, exhibiting a prevalence which is 2–3× higher than in men. The postpartum period is considered the time of greatest risk for women to develop major depression and postpartum depression affects approximately 15% of women. A dysregulation of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis is the most prominent endocrine change seen in depression and

S. Brummelte; Liisa A. M. Galea

2010-01-01

172

Postpartum anaemia is not related to maternal iron status in the third trimester  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether the maternal haemoglobin and iron stores of non-anaemic mothers (haemoglobin ? 10 g\\/dl) who developed postpartum anaemia were lower compared to mothers who did not develop postpartum anaemia. Study design: A prospective study was conducted in a teaching hospital on 467 low-risk mothers recruited from the antenatal clinic over a 3-month period, who were given only

Terence T. Lao; Chin-Peng Lee; Wai-Ping Mak

1996-01-01

173

Longitudinal change in sleep and daytime sleepiness in postpartum women.  

PubMed

Sleep disruption strongly influences daytime functioning; resultant sleepiness is recognised as a contributing risk-factor for individuals performing critical and dangerous tasks. While the relationship between sleep and sleepiness has been heavily investigated in the vulnerable sub-populations of shift workers and patients with sleep disorders, postpartum women have been comparatively overlooked. Thirty-three healthy, postpartum women recorded every episode of sleep and wake each day during postpartum weeks 6, 12 and 18. Although repeated measures analysis revealed there was no significant difference in the amount of nocturnal sleep and frequency of night-time wakings, there was a significant reduction in sleep disruption, due to fewer minutes of wake after sleep onset. Subjective sleepiness was measured each day using the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale; at the two earlier time points this was significantly correlated with sleep quality but not to sleep quantity. Epworth Sleepiness Scores significantly reduced over time; however, during week 18 over 50% of participants were still experiencing excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Score ?12). Results have implications for health care providers and policy makers. Health care providers designing interventions to address sleepiness in new mothers should take into account the dynamic changes to sleep and sleepiness during this initial postpartum period. Policy makers developing regulations for parental leave entitlements should take into consideration the high prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness experienced by new mothers, ensuring enough opportunity for daytime sleepiness to diminish to a manageable level prior to reengagement in the workforce. PMID:25078950

Filtness, Ashleigh J; MacKenzie, Janelle; Armstrong, Kerry

2014-01-01

174

Traditions and plant use during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum recovery by the Kry ethnic group in Lao PDR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Activities and diet during the postpartum period are culturally dictated in many Southeast Asian cultures, and a period of\\u000a confinement is observed. Plants play an important role in recovery during the postpartum period in diet and traditional medicine.\\u000a Little is known of the Kry, a small ethnic group whose language was recently described, concerning its traditions and use\\u000a of plants

Vichith Lamxay; Hugo J de Boer; Lars Björk

2011-01-01

175

Towards an Understanding of Change in Physical Activity from Pregnancy Through Postpartum  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this paper was to describe the rationale, data collection, and proposed analyses for examination of mediators of change in physical activity from pregnancy to postpartum among a cohort of pregnant women. Method The Pregnancy Infection and Nutrition 3 (PIN3) Study enrolled 2006 pregnant women into the cohort from 2001 to 2005. All women lived in central North Carolina upon enrollment. Physical activity was assessed using a self-reported one week recall, measured twice during pregnancy and once each at 3- and 12-months postpartum. On a subset of women, one-week accelerometer measures were also collected during the two postpartum time periods. Potential mediators (intrapersonal, interpersonal, community) were collected during pregnancy and postpartum through interviews and take home questionnaires. Results To assess mediation of physical activity among our cohort, we will first describe change in physical activity and the mediators, as well as their associations, through pregnancy into the postpartum period. Following this, the product of coefficients approach will be applied to examine whether each measure had indirect effects on change in physical activity. Each individual level mediator will be examined one at a time and across the time points in which it was available. The Sobel standard error approximation formula will be used to test for significance of the mediation effect. Conclusions This study will provide evidence to develop appropriate interventions targeted at physical activity and will help focus efforts on the appropriate time periods between pregnancy and postpartum. PMID:21278835

Evenson, Kelly R.

2010-01-01

176

Your Postpartum Checkup  

MedlinePLUS

... Frequently Asked Questions Can I get pregnant while breastfeeding? Yes. Breastfeeding may decrease the odds of getting pregnant by ... the return of a woman's menstrual period. However, breastfeeding does not prevent pregnancy, even if the mother ...

177

Determining an Optimal Testing Strategy for Infants at Risk for Mother-to-child Transmission of HIV-1 During the Late Postnatal Period  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the optimal time for a second HIV-1 nucleic acid amplification assay to detect late postnatal transmission of HIV-1 (first negative test at 4–8 weeks of age) in resource limited settings. Design A longitudinal analysis of data from HPTN 024 Methods Children born to HIV-1 infected mothers enrolled in the HIV Prevention Trial Network trial 024 (HPTN 024) were tested for HIV-1 infection at six intervals within the first year of life. Mothers and infants received nevirapine prophylaxis. We estimated the probability of being alive and having a positive test in each interval after 4–8 weeks and at 30 days post-weaning, conditional on having acquired HIV during the late postnatal period. The interval with the highest probability was taken to be the optimal visit interval. Results A total of 1609 infants from HPTN 024 had at least one HIV-1 diagnostic test and were included in the analysis. We found that testing at one month after weaning or 12 months of age (whichever comes first), identified 81% of those infected during the late postnatal period (after 4–8 weeks) through breastfeeding. In total, 93% (95% CI: 89,98) of all infected infants would be detected if tests were performed at these two time points. Conclusions In resource-limited settings, HIV-1 PCR testing at 4–8 weeks followed by a second test at one month after weaning or at one year of age (whichever comes first), led to the identification of the vast majority of HIV-1 infected infants. PMID:18981773

Brown, Elizabeth; Chi, Benjamin H.; Read, Jennifer S.; Taha, Taha E.; Sharma, Usha; Hoffman, Irving F.; Pikora, Cheryl; Goldenberg, Robert; Fiscus, Susan A.

2009-01-01

178

[Change in the catecholamine balance of rat hypothalamus at late periods following local irradiation and its correction with etimizol].  

PubMed

A local exposure (15 Gy) of chest caused a disturbance in the metabolism of adrenergic mediators of hypothalamus at later times (1-12 months) after irradiation: this was manifested by a decrease in the noradrenaline level 1 month following irradiation, and by phase changes in the dopamine content and considerable deficiency of deoxyphenylatanine throughout the entire period of observation. The treatment with etymisol normalized the catecholamine balance. PMID:3975378

Bazaova, N V; Prokudina, E A

1985-01-01

179

Maternal Short Sleep Duration is associated with Increased Levels of Inflammatory Markers at 3 Years Postpartum  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the association of short sleep duration among women in the first year postpartum with inflammation at 3-years postpartum. Methods We studied 479 women in Project Viva, a prospective cohort. At 6 months and 1 year postpartum, women reported the number of hours they slept in a 24-hour period, from which we calculated a weighted average of daily sleep. We used multivariable median regression analyses to predict the independent effects of short sleep duration (? 5 h/d v.> 5 h/d) on markers of inflammation, e.g. interleukin-6 [IL6] and C-reactive protein [CRP] at 3-years postpartum. Results Women's mean (SD) hours of daily sleep in the first year postpartum was 6.7 (0.96) hours. After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index, excessive gestational weight gain and gestational age at delivery, we found that postpartum sleep ? 5 h/d was associated with elevated IL6 (? 0.25 pg/mL; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.43) compared with > 5 h/d. Although postpartum sleep ? 5 h/d appeared to also be associated with elevated CRP (? 0.15 mg/dL; 95% CI: ?0.08, 0.52), these results did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion Short sleep duration in the first year postpartum is associated with elevated levels of the pro-inflammatory marker, IL6, at 3-years postpartum. PMID:21040938

Taveras, Elsie M.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Mantzoros, Christos S.

2010-01-01

180

Risk factors and effects of postpartum anovulation in dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objectives were to identify risk factors for and to quantify the effect of postpartum anovulation on reproductive performance in dairy cows. Data from 2,178 Holstein cows in 6 commercial herds enrolled in a randomized clinical trial were used. Data on periparturient disease incidence, calving history, and body condition score were collected. Cows were examined at wk 5 postpartum for reproductive tract disease; cytological endometritis was defined as ?6% polymorphonuclear cells in endometrial cytology, and purulent vaginal discharge was defined as the presence of mucopurulent or purulent vaginal discharge. Cows were followed until 300 d in milk (DIM) for reproductive performance. Serum nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentration was measured once during the week before expected calving. Serum ?-hydroxybutyrate, NEFA, and haptoglobin were measured at wk 1, 2, and 3 postpartum. Serum progesterone (P4) was measured at wk 3, 5, 7, and 9 postpartum. The end of the postpartum anovulation period was defined as the first sampling time at which P4 was >1 ng/mL. Statistical analyses were performed using logistic regression models and Cox proportional hazard models. The prevalence of anovulation was 72, 44, 26, and 17% at wk 3, 5, 7, and 9, respectively. Cows were classified according to their ovulatory status as having luteal function at 21 DIM (Cyc21), as having low P4 at 21 DIM but having luteal function at least once at 35 or 49 or 63 DIM (Cyc63), or being anovulatory at 63 DIM (Anov63; no samples with P4 >1 ng/mL). Factors associated with early ovulation (Cyc21) included season, parity, decreased haptoglobinemia, and decreased serum NEFA concentration before and after parturition. Risk factors for prolonged anovulation (Anov63) included cytological endometritis, increased haptoglobinemia, and greater serum NEFA concentrations before and after parturition. Cows classified as Anov63 had an increased median time to first breeding compared with Cyc63 (74.1 vs. 73.2 d). The effect of prolonged postpartum anovulation on median time to pregnancy was conditional on parity group; a detrimental effect was present in cows of parity ?3 (129 d for Cyc21, 151 d for Cyc63, and 180 d for Anov63), but no effect was observed in cows of parity ?2. Overall, these findings suggest that postpartum anovulation was associated with indicators of energy balance and uterine inflammation, and with detrimental effects on reproductive performance. PMID:22459832

Dubuc, J; Duffield, T F; Leslie, K E; Walton, J S; LeBlanc, S J

2012-04-01

181

Women’s Challenges with Postpartum Weight Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to examine women’s experiences of weight loss during the postpartum period. Understanding women’s\\u000a positive and negative experiences can assist health care providers to successfully intervene in helping women lose weight\\u000a following pregnancy and avoid long-term weight gain and obesity development. Design: Phenomenology, according to Husserl’s\\u000a perspective. Setting: Private location of the women’s choosing. Participants: Twenty-six women,

Kristen S. MontgomeryTracy; Tracy D. Bushee; Jennifer D. Phillips; Terrie Kirkpatrick; Courtney Catledge; Kristin Braveboy; Carol O’Rourke; Neema Patel; Malshundria Prophet; Anita Cooper; Lori Mosley; Christie Parker; Gaye M. Douglas

182

Predictors of Mothers' Postpartum Body Dissatisfaction  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate changes in mothers’ body dissatisfaction from delivery to 9 months postpartum, and the relationship of postpartum body dissatisfaction to weight, other health, and social characteristics. Methods In this prospective longitudinal study, 506 mothers completed surveys at 0-1 and 9 months postpartum. Postpartum changes in body dissatisfaction and weight were evaluated by paired t-tests, and predictors of postpartum body dissatisfaction were identified by stepwise multiple regression analysis. Results Mothers’ body dissatisfaction increased significantly from 0-1 to 9 months postpartum (mean scores of 15.2 and 18.2, respectively, p < .001). Although women lost an average of 10.1 pounds (sd = 16.3) or 4.6 kg. (sd = 7.4) between 0-1 and 9 months postpartum (p < .001), their weight at 9 months postpartum remained an average of 5.4 pounds (sd = 15.6) or 2.5 kg (sd = 7.1) above their pre-pregnancy weights (p < .001). Body dissatisfaction at 9 months postpartum was associated with overeating or poor appetite, higher current weight, worse mental health (SF-36 Mental Health scale), race other than black, bottle-feeding (vs. breastfeeding), being single (vs. married), and having fewer children,. Conclusions Mothers’ body satisfaction worsened from 1 to 9 months postpartum, and 9-month body dissatisfaction was associated with eating/appetite abnormalities, greater weight, worse mental health, non-black race, non-breastfeeding status, and fewer immediate family relationships. Given these relationships, it is important to educate women about expected postpartum weight and body changes, and to find ways to enhance mothers’ postpartum self-esteem and body satisfaction. PMID:20013517

Gjerdingen, Dwenda; Fontaine, Patricia; Crow, Scott; McGovern, Patricia; Center, Bruce; Miner, Michael

2009-01-01

183

The effect of health and nutrition education intervention on women's postpartum beliefs and practices: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background 'Sitting month' is the Chinese tradition for postpartum customs. Available studies indicate that some of the traditional postpartum practices are potentially harmful for women's health. However, no intervention study aiming at postpartum practices has been performed. In this paper we evaluated the effect of a health and nutrition education intervention, which focused on improving postpartum dietary quality and optimal health behaviors. Methods The study design was a randomized controlled trial conducted in both urban and rural area of Hubei between August 2003 and June 2004. A total of 302 women who attended the antenatal clinic during the third trimester with an uncomplicated pregnancy were recruited. Women randomized to the education intervention group in both urban and rural area received two two-hour prenatal education sessions and four postpartum counseling visits. Control group women received usual health care during pregnancy and postpartum period. Women were followed up until 42 days postpartum. Outcome measures were nutrition and health knowledge, dietary behavior, health behavior and health problems during the postpartum period. Results Women in the intervention groups exhibited significantly greater improvement in overall dietary behaviors such as consumption of fruits, vegetables, soybean and soybean products as well as nutrition and health knowledge than those in the control groups. Significantly more women in the intervention groups give up the traditional behavior taboos. The incidence of constipation, leg cramp or joint pain and prolonged lochia rubra was significantly lower in the intervention groups as compared with the control groups. Conclusion The study shows that health and nutrition education intervention enable the women take away some of the unhealthy traditional postpartum practices and decrease the prevalence of postpartum health problems. The intervention has potential for adaptation and development to large-scale implementation. Trial registration number klACTRN12607000549426 PMID:19183504

Liu, Nian; Mao, Limei; Sun, Xiufa; Liu, Liegang; Yao, Ping; Chen, Banghua

2009-01-01

184

Simulating the Antarctic ice sheet in the Late-Pliocene warm period: PLISMIP-ANT, an ice-sheet model intercomparison project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of future climate change, understanding the nature and behaviour of ice sheets during warm intervals in Earth history is of fundamental importance. The Late-Pliocene Warm Period (also known as the PRISM interval: 3.29 to 2.97 million years before present) can serve as a potential analogue for projected future climates, with a global annual mean surface-air temperature warming of 1.76 °C. Although Pliocene ice locations and surface extents are still poorly constrained, a significant contribution to sea-level rise should be expected from Greenland and West and, possibly, East Antarctica based on palaeo sea-level reconstructions. Here, we present results from simulations of the Antarctic ice sheet by means of an international Pliocene Ice Sheet Modeling Intercomparison Project (PLISMIP-ANT). We include an overview of the different ice-sheet models used and how specific model configurations influence the resulting Pliocene Antarctic ice sheet. For the experiments, ice-sheet models including the shallow ice and shelf approximations have been used to simulate the complete Antarctic domain (including grounded and floating ice). We compare the performance of the ice-sheet models in simulating modern control and Pliocene ice sheets by a suite of sensitivity experiments. Ice-sheet model forcing fields are taken from the PlioMIP results incorporating multiple coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (GCM). We show that ice-sheet models simulate a present-day ice sheet which is comparable to the observations, and find no systematic biases introduced when using different GCM forcing relative to observational climate forcing. This project includes multiple ice-sheet models forced with multiple climate model output, from which a comprehensive assessment can be made as to the uncertainties of ice-sheet extent on Antarctica. These results may eventually serve as a new constraint on the extent of the Antarctic ice sheet during the Late-Pliocene Warm Period for use in climate modelling experiments.

de Boer, Bas; Dolan, Aisling M.; Hill, Daniel J.; van de Wal, Roderik S. W.

2014-05-01

185

The Relationship Between Depressive/Anxiety Symptoms During Pregnancy/Postpartum and Sexual Life Decline after Delivery  

PubMed Central

Introduction Several factors have been found to be independently associated with decline in sexual activity after delivery. However, the association between depression in pregnancy/postpartum and sexual problems is less clear. Aim To prospectively evaluate the relationship between depressive/anxiety symptoms (DAS) during the perinatal period and sexual life in the postpartum period. Methods A prospective cohort study conducted between May 2005 and March 2007 included 831 pregnant women recruited from primary care clinics of the public sector in São Paulo, Brazil. Four groups with DAS during antenatal and postpartum periods were identified using the Self Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20): absence of both antenatal and postpartum DAS; presence of antenatal DAS only; presence of postpartum DAS only; and presence of both antenatal and postpartum DAS. The primary outcome was perception of sexual life decline (SLD) before and after pregnancy/delivery. Crude and adjusted risk ratios (RR), with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), were calculated using Poisson regression to examine the associations between DAS and SLD. Main Outcome Measure The main outcome measure of this study is the perception of SLD before and after pregnancy/delivery. Results SLD occurred in 21.1% of the cohort. In the multivariable analysis, the following variables were independently associated with SLD: DAS during both pregnancy and postpartum (RR: 3.17 [95% CI: 2.18–4.59]); DAS during only the postpartum period (RR: 3.45 [95% CI: 2.39–4.98]); a previous miscarriage (RR: 1.54 [95% CI: 1.06–2.23]); and maternal age (RR: 2.11 [95% CI: 1.22–3.65]). Conclusions Postpartum women with DAS have an increased likelihood for SLD up to 18 months after delivery. Efforts to improve the rates of recognition and treatment of perinatal depression/anxiety in primary care settings have the potential to preserve sexual functioning for low-income mothers. PMID:23433352

Faisal-Cury, Alexandre; Huang, Hsiang; Chan, Ya-Fen; Menezes, Paulo Rossi

2013-01-01

186

Postpartum Spontaneous Subcapsular Hepatic Hematoma Related to Preeclampsia  

PubMed Central

Subcapsular hematoma of the liver represents an unusual clinical phenomenon in the pregnancy and postpartum period with serious complications in terms of fetal and maternal mortality. Here we report a case of a 32-year-old primiparous female at 36 weeks of gestation, admitted to a maternity ward of a private clinic for preeclampsia. The woman underwent an emergency caesarean section with the extraction of an alive foetus. A few hours after delivery, she was transferred to the emergency department of our institution complaining of severe epigastric pain. Diagnostic work-up was suggestive of a subcapsular right lob hepatic hematoma which was successfully managed conservatively. Timely diagnosis is necessary for the prevention of life-threatening events in mother and fetus. For this reason acute care physicians have to be vigilant of the condition and consider this in the differential diagnosis of epigastric pain during pregnancy and postpartum. PMID:25202460

Anyfantakis, Dimitrios; Kastanakis, Miltiades; Fragiadakis, Georgios; Karona, Paraskevi; Katsougris, Nikolaos; Bobolakis, Emmanouil

2014-01-01

187

An Integrated Intervention in Pregnant African Americans Reduces Postpartum Risk: A Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the efficacy of an integrated multiple risk intervention delivered mainly during pregnancy, in reducing such risks (smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, depression and intimate partner violence) postpartum. Design Data from this randomized controlled trial were collected prenatally and on average 10 weeks postpartum in six prenatal care sites in the District of Columbia. African Americans were screened, recruited and randomly assigned to the behavioral intervention or usual care. Clinic-based, individually tailored counseling was delivered to intervention women. The outcome measures were number of reisks reported postpartum and reduction of these risks between baseline and postpartum. Results The intervention was effective in significantly reducing the number of risks reported in the postpartum period. In Bivariate analyses, the intervention group was more successful in resolving all risks (47% compared with 35%, p=0.007), number needed to treat=9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 5-31) and in resolving some risks (63% compared with 54%, p=0.009), number needed to treat=11, 95% CI 7-43) as compared with the usual care group. In logistical regression analyses, women in the intervention group were more likely to resolve all risks (OR=1.86, 95% CI: 1.25-2.75) and in resolving at least one risk (OR=1.6, 95% CI: 1.15-2.22). Conclusions An integrated multiple risk factor intervention addressing psychosocial and behavioral risks delivered mainly during pregnancy can have beneficial effects in risk reduction postpartum. PMID:18757660

El-Mohandes, Ayman A.E.; Kiely, Michele; Joseph, Jill G.; Subramanian, Siva; Johnson, Allan A.; Blake, Susn M.; Gantz, Marie G.; El-Khorazaty, M. Nabil

2010-01-01

188

Predictors of Recovery from Prenatal Depressive Symptoms from Pregnancy Through Postpartum  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Identifying predictors of the course of depressive symptoms from pregnancy through postpartum is important to inform clinical interventions. Methods This longitudinal study investigated predictors of recovery from prenatal elevated depressive symptoms in the postpartum period. Forty-one pregnant women completed demographic, interpersonal, and psychosocial self-report assessment measures at 32 weeks of gestation and again 12 weeks postpartum. Results Of those with elevated depressive symptoms, defined as a Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) score ?10, at the prenatal baseline, 39% (n=16) recovered to nonelevated symptom levels postpartum, whereas 61% (n=25) experienced sustained elevated symptoms. Women who recovered evidenced significantly lower baseline depression severity and more frequent engagement in physical activity and cohabitated with a romantic partner. In multiparous women (n=25), history of past postpartum depression (PPD) differentiated between those with transient and those with persisting symptoms, although history of lifetime depression did not. None of the additional demographic, interpersonal, or psychosocial variables investigated differentiated between groups. Logistic regression analysis showed prenatal depression severity and exercise frequency as predictors of recovery postpartum. Conclusions Results suggest most women will not experience spontaneous recovery. Women with prenatal heightened symptom severity and previous experiences with PPD are acutely vulnerable to experience sustained symptoms. In contrast, having a cohabitating partner and engagement in prenatal exercise predicted symptom improvement. Physical exercise may be an important clinical recommendation, as it may improve mood. Given the small sample size, these results are preliminary. Implications and future research recommendations are discussed. PMID:22060255

Flynn, Heather A.; Lancaster, Christie; Marcus, Sheila M.; McDonough, Susan C.; Volling, Brenda L.; Lopez, Juan F.; Kaciroti, Niko; Vazquez, Delia M.

2012-01-01

189

Jordanian women's postpartum beliefs: an exploratory study.  

PubMed

This study was aimed to determine the beliefs among Jordanian women regarding 10 selected postpartum behaviours. Following Human Subjects approval, a descriptive quantitative questionnaire was administered to 40 postpartum women, 20 from two rural communities and 20 from two urban communities. The majority believed, incorrectly, in prolonged bed rest, that the baby's exhalation on the mother's breast can lead to infection, that kofaleyas (tightly secured wraps around the baby) do not harm newborns, that observation by others while nursing might 'steal' the mother's milk, and that a belt around the mother's abdomen will tighten muscles. The majority correctly believed that dieting affects breast-feeding. Most postpartum women could benefit from increased education about postpartum practices. Educational programmes can help women differentiate between helpful postpartum practices and those which might have adverse effects on the health of a mother and her newborn. PMID:17883715

Jarrah, Samiha; Bond, A Elaine

2007-10-01

190

Associations between Maternal Childhood Maltreatment and Psychopathology and Aggression during Pregnancy and Postpartum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study examines the association between maternal childhood maltreatment and psychopathology and aggression in intimate relationships during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Method: Forty-four pregnant women who were recruited from an obstetric clinic and local advertising periodical completed questionnaires about childhood…

Lang, Ariel J.; Rodgers, Carie S.; Lebeck, Meredith M.

2006-01-01

191

Should antiplatelet therapy be interrupted in drug eluting stent recipients throughout the periendoscopic period? A very late stent thrombosis case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

In-stent thrombosis after cessation of antiplatelet medications in patients with drug-eluting stents (DES) is a significant problem in medical practice, particularly in the perioperative period. We report a case of an 87-year-old man with a medical history of hypertension, coronary artery disease and chronic atrophic gastritis. Very late thrombosis of a sirolimus-eluting stent occurred 1207 days after implantation, seven months after discontinuation of clopidogrel, and the interruption of aspirin 13 days in preparation of an elective endoscopic gastrointestinal procedure presented with acute myocardial infarction. The patient was treated with thrombectomy and successfully revascularized with superimposition of two sirolimus-eluting stents. Medications administered in the catheterization laboratory included low molecular weight heparin and nitroglycerin. Flow was defined as grade 2 according to the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction scale. Electrocardiogram after the procedure revealed persistent, but decreased, ST-segment elevation in the anterolateral leads. The patient recovered and was discharged on aspirin and clopidogrel indefinitely. There was no cardiac event during the two year follow-up period. This case underlines the importance of maintaining the balance of thrombosis and bleeding during perioperation of non-cardiac procedure and the possible need for continuation of aspirin therapy during periendoscopic procedures among patients with low bleeding risks who received DES. PMID:25278977

Dong, Peng; Yang, Xin-Chun; Bian, Su-Yan

2014-01-01

192

The Effects of Rhodobacter capsulatus KCTC-2583 on Cholesterol Metabolism, Egg Production and Quality Parameters during the Late Laying Periods in Hens.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of Rhodobacter capsulatus KCTC-2583 on egg-yolk and serum cholesterol, egg production and quality parameters during the late laying periods in hens. A total of 160 Hy-Line Brown layers (54 wk-old) were randomly allotted to 4 treatment groups on the basis of laying performance. Each treatment had 4 replicates with 10 birds each (40 birds per treatment). Two hens were confined individually with cage size 35×35×40 cm and each 10 birds (5 cages) shared a common feed trough between them forming one experimental unit. Dietary treatments were; basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15% R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Experimental diets were fed in meal form for 56 d. Dietary supplementation of increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 reduced (linear, p<0.05) egg-yolk cholesterol and triglycerides (d 28, 42 and 56) concentrations. Also, serum cholesterol and triglycerides (d 21, 42 and 56) concentrations were linearly reduced (p<0.05) with increasing dietary R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Laying hens fed a diet supplemented with increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 had increased (linear; p<0.05) overall egg production, egg weight, egg mass and feed efficiency. However, dietary treatments had no effect (linear or quadratic; p>0.05) on feed intake of laying hens. At d 28 and 56, breaking strength and yolk colour of eggs were linearly improved (p<0.05) in laying hens fed dietary increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Dietary treatment had no effects (linear or quadratic; p>0.05) on albumin height, shell thickness and shell weight at any period of experiment. These results indicate that dietary supplementation of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 has the potential to improve the laying hen performance and lead to the development of low cholesterol eggs during late laying period in Hy-Line Brown hens. PMID:25049857

Lokhande, Anushka; Ingale, S L; Lee, S H; Kim, J S; Lohakare, J D; Chae, B J; Kwon, I K

2013-06-01

193

Single rice growth period was prolonged by cultivars shifts, but yield was damaged by climate change during 1981-2009 in China, and late rice was just opposite.  

PubMed

Based on the crop trial data during 1981-2009 at 57 agricultural experimental stations across the North Eastern China Plain (NECP) and the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River (MLRYR), we investigated how major climate variables had changed and how the climate change had affected crop growth and yield in a setting in which agronomic management practices were taken based on actual weather. We found a significant warming trend during rice growing season, and a general decreasing trend in solar radiation (SRD) in the MLRYR during 1981-2009. Rice transplanting, heading, and maturity dates were generally advanced, but the heading and maturity dates of single rice in the MLRYR (YZ_SR) and NECP (NE_SR) were delayed. Climate warming had a negative impact on growth period lengths at about 80% of the investigated stations. Nevertheless, the actual growth period lengths of YZ_SR and NE_SR, as well as the actual length of reproductive growth period (RGP) of early rice in the MLRYR (YZ_ER), were generally prolonged due to adoption of cultivars with longer growth period to obtain higher yield. In contrast, the actual growth period length of late rice in the MLRYR (YZ_LR) was shortened by both climate warming and adoption of early mature cultivars to prevent cold damage and obtain higher yield. During 1981-2009, climate warming and decrease in SRD changed the yield of YZ_ER by -0.59 to 2.4%; climate warming during RGP increased the yield of YZ_LR by 8.38-9.56%; climate warming and decrease in SRD jointly reduced yield of YZ_SR by 7.14-9.68%; climate warming and increase in SRD jointly increased the yield of NE_SR by 1.01-3.29%. Our study suggests that rice production in China has been affected by climate change, yet at the same time changes in varieties continue to be the major factor driving yield and growing period trends. PMID:23661287

Tao, Fulu; Zhang, Zhao; Shi, Wenjiao; Liu, Yujie; Xiao, Dengpan; Zhang, Shuai; Zhu, Zhu; Wang, Meng; Liu, Fengshan

2013-10-01

194

Comparison of shortened and conventional dry period management strategies.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare 2 dry-cow management strategies and evaluate the effect of shortened dry period strategy on feed intake, metabolism, and postpartum performance of dairy cows in early lactation. Twenty-nine high-yielding dairy cows were divided into 2 groups. The control (CON) group (n=14) was assigned to a traditional dry period of approximately 60 d (57±5.9 d) and was fed a far-off dry cow ration from dry-off to -21 d relative to expected parturition. From d -21 relative to expected parturition, the cows were switched to a precalving ration containing an additional 3kg of concentrates. The cows of the experimental group (n=15) were assigned to a shortened dry period (SDP; 35±6.3 d) and were continuously fed a late-lactation diet from d -60 d relative to expected parturition until calving. After calving, both groups were fed the same lactation diet corresponding to their lactation requirements and cows were followed for 100 d of lactation. Prepartum dry matter intake of the cows assigned to an SDP and fed a late-lactation diet was approximately 4.11kg/cow per day greater compared with the CON group during the 60 d. However, no effect of dry period strategy on postpartum dry matter intake was detected. The cows with an SDP produced approximately 2.78kg/d (6.9%) less milk in the first 100 d of lactation than CON cows; the difference was not statistically significant. No differences were observed in live body weight, body condition score, or back-fat thickness between the treatments. Similarly, no differences existed in concentrations of plasma metabolites. The cows of the SDP group showed lower pH and increased concentrations of lactic acid and volatile fatty acids prepartum than the CON cows. Postpartum concentrations of lactic acid, volatile fatty acids, and NH3 and pH in rumen fluid did not differ between the treatments. Shortening of the dry period did not affect the colostrum quality or birth weights of the calves. Based on the results of this study, a traditional dry period management strategy appeared to be more favorable, considering the dry matter intake and milk production, compared with an SDP and feeding a late-lactation diet throughout the dry period. PMID:24997667

Cermakova, J; Kudrna, V; Simeckova, M; Vyborna, A; Dolezal, P; Illek, J

2014-09-01

195

Programmatic aspects of postpartum family planning in developing countries: a qualitative analysis of key informant interviews in Kenya and Ethiopia.  

PubMed

To achieve the improved maternal and child outcomes of birth spacing, family planning in the postpartum period is essential. The objective of this study is to determine the perceptions regarding programmatic aspects of postpartum family planning by key informants in 17 countries determined to have high unmet need for postpartum family planning. We present interim data from structured interviews of key informants in Kenya and Ethiopia. Important themes included the need for documentation of contraceptive use to aid in commodity assessment and delivery, need for additional informational materials, and challenges of delivering services to those women who deliver away from a health care facility. PMID:24069767

Sonalkar, Sarita; Mody, Sheila; Phillips, Sharon; Gaffield, Mary E

2013-09-01

196

Postpartum practices of puerperal women and their influencing factors in three regions of Hubei, China  

PubMed Central

Background 'Sitting month' is a Chinese tradition for women's postpartum custom. The present study aims to explore the postpartum dietary and health practices of puerperal women and identify their influential factors in three selected regions of Hubei, China. Methods A cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted in the selected urban, suburban and rural areas in the province of Hubei from 1 March to 30 May 2003. A total of 2100 women who had given birth to full-term singleton infants in the past two years were selected as the participants. Data regarding postpartum practices and potentially related factors were collected through questionnaire by trained investigators. Results During the puerperium, 18% of the participants never ate vegetables, 78.8% never ate fruit and 75.7% never drank milk. Behaviour taboos such as no bathing, no hair washing or teeth brushing were still popular among the participants. About half of the women didn't get out of the bed two days after giving birth. The average time they stayed in bed during this period was 18.0 h. One third of them didn't have any outdoor activities in that time periods. The educational background of both women and their spouses, location of their residence, family income, postnatal visit, nutrition and health care educational courses were found to be the influencing factors of women's postpartum practices. Conclusion Traditional postpartum dietary and health behaviours were still popular among women in Hubei. Identifying the factors associated with traditional postpartum practices is critical to develop better targeting health education programs. Updated Information regarding postpartum dietary and health practices should be disseminated to women. PMID:17087836

Liu, Nian; Mao, Limei; Sun, Xiufa; Liu, Liegang; Chen, Banghua; Ding, Qiang

2006-01-01

197

A natural model of behavioral depression in postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).  

PubMed

Postpartum depression (PPD) is a modified form of major depressive disorders (MDD) that can exert profound negative effects on both mothers and infants than MDD. Within the postpartum period, both mothers and infants are susceptible; but because PPD typically occurs for short durations and has moderate symptoms, there exists challenges in exploring and addressing the underlying cause of the depression. This fact highlights the need for relevant animal models. In the present study, postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) living in breeding groups were observed for typical depressive behavior. The huddle posture behavior was utilized as an indicator of behavioral depression postpartum (BDP) as it has been established as the core depressive-like behavior in primates. Monkeys were divided into two groups: A BDP group (n=6), which were found to spend more time huddling over the first two weeks postpartum than other individuals that formed a non-depression control group (n=4). The two groups were then further analyzed for locomotive activity, stressful events, hair cortisol levels and for maternal interactive behaviors. No differences were found between the BDP and control groups in locomotive activity, in the frequencies of stressful events experienced and in hair cortisol levels. These findings suggested that the postpartum depression witnessed in the monkeys was not related to external factors other than puerperium period. Interestingly, the BDP monkeys displayed an abnormal maternal relationship consisting of increased infant grooming. Taken together, these findings suggest that the adult female cynomolgus monkeys provide a natural model of behavioral postpartum depression that holds a number of advantages over commonly used rodent systems in PPD modeling. The cynomolgus monkeys have a highly-organized social hierarchy and reproductive characteristics without seasonal restriction-similar to humans-as well as much greater homology to humans than rodents. As such, this model may provide a greater translational efficiency and research platform for systematically investigating the etiology, treatment, prevention of PPD. PMID:24866487

Chu, Xun-Xun; Dominic Rizak, Joshua; Yang, Shang-Chuan; Wang, Jian-Hong; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Hu, Xin-Tian

2014-05-18

198

Oxytocin in Pregnancy and the Postpartum: Relations to Labor and Its Management  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine variations in endogenous oxytocin levels in pregnancy and postpartum state. We also explored the associations between delivery variables and oxytocin levels. A final sample of 272 mothers in their first trimester of pregnancy was included for the study. Blood samples were drawn during the first trimester and third trimester of pregnancy and at 8?weeks postpartum. Socio-demographic data were collected at each time point and medical files were consulted for delivery details. In most women, levels of circulating oxytocin increased from the first to third trimester of pregnancy followed by a decrease in the postpartum period. Oxytocin levels varied considerably between individuals, ranging from 50?pg/mL to over 2000?pg/mL. Parity was the main predictor of oxytocin levels in the third trimester of pregnancy and of oxytocin level changes from the first to the third trimester of pregnancy. Oxytocin levels in the third trimester of pregnancy predicted a self-reported negative labor experience and increased the chances of having an epidural. Intrapartum exogenous oxytocin was positively associated with levels of oxytocin during the postpartum period. Our exploratory results suggest that circulating oxytocin levels during the third trimester of pregnancy may predict the type of labor a woman will experience. More importantly, the quantity of intrapartum exogenous oxytocin administered during labor predicted plasma oxytocin levels 2?months postpartum, suggesting a possible long-term effect of this routine intervention, the consequences of which are largely unknown. PMID:24479112

Prevost, Marie; Zelkowitz, Phyllis; Tulandi, Togas; Hayton, Barbara; Feeley, Nancy; Carter, C. Sue; Joseph, Lawrence; Pournajafi-Nazarloo, Hossein; Yong Ping, Erin; Abenhaim, Haim; Gold, Ian

2014-01-01

199

Effect of temporary weaning duration on tonic LH secretion, estrus, and ovulation in anestrous postpartum beef cows  

E-print Network

degree the post-weaning rise of tonic LH secretion can be reversed or blunted by replacing calves at different intervals. This knowledge would be of both fundamental and practical value in our attempts to understand and to control postpartum anestrus... onset of ovarian activity and estrus in cows (23, 24). These factors act both independently and together to extend the anestrous period. Both pre- and post-calving energy restrictions can drastically affect postpartum reproductive activity. Wetteman...

Shively, Tandy Elizabeth

2012-06-07

200

Late Holocene shoreline behavior in embayments of Lake Michigan: Influence of quasi-periodic lake-level variations and sediment supply  

SciTech Connect

Lake Michigan contains numerous former embayments into glacial deposits or bedrock. Many of the embayments contain dunes, spits, and captured lakes, but others contain arcuate strandplains of beach ridges. The strandplains are a geologic record of shoreline behavior and lake-level variation throughout the late Holocene. The larger strandplains show similar long-term patterns of beach-ridge development. The similar patterns are expected because variations in lake level are a primary control on shoreline behavior, and all embayments would have experienced relatively the same lake-level changes. Some variations in the long-term pattern of shoreline development do occur between strandplains. These dissimilarities are primarily a function of different rates of sediment supply to the shoreline of each embayment. Beach-ridge development within embayments can be represented on a rate of water level change versus rate of sediment supply diagram (Curray diagram) as three superimposed ovals on the positive rate of sediment supply side of the diagram. The three stacked ovals represent the three quasi-periodic lake-level variations defined by Thompson (1992) and show the position of the shoreline for a given time within the Curray diagram fields. For shorelines with a high rate of sediment supply, only the 30-year quasi-periodic variation would reach the aggradation line. For shorelines having significantly less sediment supply, rising lake level on the 150- and 600-year variations would force the 30-year oval across the aggradation line and well into the depositional and possibly the erosional transgression fields. Under these conditions erosion would occur that may remove, stack, or at least prevent one or more beach ridges from being developed.

Thompson, T.A.; Baedke, S.J. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Indiana Geological Survey)

1994-04-01

201

Traditions and plant use during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum recovery by the Kry ethnic group in Lao PDR  

PubMed Central

Background Activities and diet during the postpartum period are culturally dictated in many Southeast Asian cultures, and a period of confinement is observed. Plants play an important role in recovery during the postpartum period in diet and traditional medicine. Little is known of the Kry, a small ethnic group whose language was recently described, concerning its traditions and use of plants during pregnancy, parturition, postpartum recovery and infant healthcare. This research aims to study those traditions and identify medicinal plant use. Methods Data were collected in the 3 different Kry villages in Khammouane province, Lao PDR, through group and individual interviews with women by female interviewers. Results A total of 49 different plant species are used in women's healthcare. Plant use is culturally different from the neighboring Brou and Saek ethnic groups. Menstruation, delivery and postpartum recovery take place in separate, purpose-built, huts and a complex system of spatial restrictions is observed. Conclusions Traditions surrounding childbirth are diverse and have been strictly observed, but are undergoing a shift towards those from neighboring ethnic groups, the Brou and Saek. Medicinal plant use to facilitate childbirth, alleviate menstruation problems, assist recovery after miscarriage, mitigate postpartum haemorrhage, aid postpartum recovery, and for use in infant care, is more common than previously reported (49 species instead of 14). The wealth of novel insights into plant use and preparation will help to understand culturally important practices such as traditional delivery, spatial taboos, confinement and dietary restrictions, and their potential in modern healthcare. PMID:21569234

2011-01-01

202

Family planning via the postpartum approach.  

PubMed

Since motivation for family planning is extremely high after delivery or abortion, women should be consulted about the use of contraception within 3 months postpartum. The International Postpartum Family Planning Program began in 1966 and now provides family planning information and services in 26 urban hospitals in 15 countries for women of low socioeconomic status. In the first 2 years, 236,000 acceptors were enrolled in the program out of an estimated target in developing countries of 1,870,000 women. Home visit follow up surveys found that 82% were continuing some method of contraception 18 months after initial acceptance. The cost has been $3.20 per acceptor. The rates of postpartum return visits have increased since the initiation of the postpartum family planning program. The Population Council is now extending the program to other countries of the developing world to work in rural as well as in urban areas. PMID:12177898

Zatuchni, G I

1969-10-01

203

Maternal postpartum morbidity in Marrakech: what women feel what doctors diagnose?  

PubMed Central

Background Information about postpartum maternal morbidity in developing countries is limited and often based on information obtained from hospitals. As a result, the reports do not usually reflect the true magnitude of obstetric complications and poor management at delivery. In Morocco, little is known about obstetric maternal morbidity. Our aim was to measure and identify the causes of postpartum morbidity 6 weeks after delivery and to compare women’s perception of their health during this period to their medical diagnoses. Methods We did a cross-sectional study of all women, independent of place of delivery, in Al Massira district, Marrakech, from December 2010 to March 2012. All women were clinically examined 6 to 8 weeks postpartum for delivery-related morbidities. We coupled a clinical examination with a questionnaire and laboratory tests (hemoglobin). Results During postpartum consultation, 44% of women expressed at least one complaint. Complaints related to mental health were most often reported (10%), followed by genital infections (8%). Only 9% of women sought treatment for their symptoms before the postpartum visit. Women who were aged ?30 years, employed, belonged to highest socioeconomic class, and had obstetric complications during birth or delivered in a private facility or at home were more likely to report a complaint. Overall, 60% of women received a medical diagnosis related to their complaint, most of which were related to gynecological problems (22%), followed by laboratory-confirmed anemia (19%). Problems related to mental health represented only 5% of the diagnoses. The comparative analysis between perceived and diagnosed morbidity highlighted discrepancies between complaints that women expressed during their postpartum consultation and those they received from a physician. Conclusions A better understanding of postpartum complaints is one of the de facto essential elements to ensuring quality of care for women. Sensitizing and training clinicians in mental health services is important to respond to women’s needs and improve the quality of maternal care. PMID:24314155

2013-01-01

204

Eating Disorders in Pregnancy and the Postpartum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorders are most often diagnosed during the childbearing years. Pregnancy and postpartum issues for women with eating\\u000a disorders are discussed with regard to symptoms, complications, course of pregnancy, delivery, breast-feeding, and postpartum\\u000a depression (PPD). Research findings indicate that women with eating disorders during pregnancy may be at risk for a variety\\u000a of pregnancy and obstetric complications. Moreover, there appears

Debra L. Franko

205

Postpartum depression: psychoneuroimmunological underpinnings and treatment  

PubMed Central

Postpartum depression (PPD) is common, occurring in 10%–15% of women. Due to concerns about teratogenicity of medications in the suckling infant, the treatment of PPD has often been restricted to psychotherapy. We review here the biological underpinnings to PPD, suggesting a powerful role for the tryptophan catabolites, indoleamine 2,3-dixoygenase, serotonin, and autoimmunity in mediating the consequences of immuno-inflammation and oxidative and nitrosative stress. It is suggested that the increased inflammatory potential, the decreases in endogenous anti-inflammatory compounds together with decreased omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids, in the postnatal period cause an inflammatory environment. The latter may result in the utilization of peripheral inflammatory products, especially kynurenine, in driving the central processes producing postnatal depression. The pharmacological treatment of PPD is placed in this context, and recommendations for more refined and safer treatments are made, including the better utilization of the antidepressant, and the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of melatonin. PMID:23459664

Anderson, George; Maes, Michael

2013-01-01

206

Effects of prenatal care on maternal postpartum behaviors  

PubMed Central

Most research on the effectiveness of prenatal care has focused on birth outcomes and has found small or no effects. It is possible, however, that prenatal care is “too little too late” to improve pregnancy outcomes in the aggregate, but that it increases the use of pediatric health care or improves maternal health-related parenting practices and, ultimately, child health. We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing birth cohort study that have been augmented with hospital medical record data to estimate effects of prenatal care timing on pediatric health care utilization and health-related parenting behaviors during the first year of the child’s life. We focus on maternal postpartum smoking, preventive health care visits for the child, and breastfeeding. We use a multi-pronged approach to address the potential endogeneity of the timing of prenatal care. We find that first trimester prenatal care appears to decrease maternal postpartum smoking by about 5 percentage points and increase the likelihood of 4 or more well-baby visits by about 1 percentage point, and that it may also have a positive effect on breastfeeding. These findings suggest that there are benefits to standard prenatal care that are generally not considered in evaluations of prenatal care programs and interventions. PMID:20582158

Reichman, Nancy E.; Corman, Hope; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira

2010-01-01

207

Diverse developmental toxicity of di-n-butyl phthalate in both sexes of rat offspring after maternal exposure during the period from late gestation through lactation.  

PubMed

To evaluate developmental toxicity of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) with exposure during the period from late gestation to following lactation, maternal rats were given DBP at dietary concentrations of 0, 20, 200, 2000 and 10,000 ppm from gestational day 15 to postnatal day (PND) 21. At 10,000 ppm, male offspring showed a decreased neonatal anogenital distance and retention of nipples (PND 14), while females showed a slight non-significant delay in the onset of puberty. At PND 21, reduction of testicular spermatocyte development was evident from 20 ppm, as well as mammary gland changes at low incidence in both sexes. At this time point, population changes of pituitary hormone-immunoreactive cells were observed at 10,000 ppm with a similar pattern of increase in the percentages of luteinizing hormone (LH)-positive and decrease in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin producing cells in both sexes, effects also being evident on FSH from 200 ppm and LH from 2000 ppm in females. During postnatal week (PNW) 8-11, marginal increase of the number of cases with extended diestrus was found at 10,000 ppm. At adult stage necropsy, testicular lesions appeared to be very faint in most cases, but degeneration and atrophy of mammary gland alveoli were observed in males from 20 ppm. Although without clear monotonic dose-dependence, relative pituitary weights were increased with the intermediate doses in males at PNW 11. In females, relative pituitary weights were decreased after 10,000 ppm at PNW 11, and from 200 ppm at PNW 20. The proportion of FSH-positive cells in the pituitaries at PNW 11 was increased in both sexes at 10,000 ppm. Thus, developmental exposure to DBP affected female sexual development involving pituitary function, while in males testicular toxicity was mostly reversible but mammary gland toxicity was persistent at a dose level as low as 20 ppm. PMID:15363597

Lee, Kyoung-Youl; Shibutani, Makoto; Takagi, Hironori; Kato, Natsumi; Takigami, Shu; Uneyama, Chikako; Hirose, Masao

2004-10-15

208

Delay discounting predicts postpartum relapse to cigarette smoking among pregnant women.  

PubMed

Delay discounting (DD), a measure of impulsivity, describes the rate at which rewards lose value as the delay to their receipt increases. Greater discounting has been associated with cigarette smoking and various other types of drug abuse in recent research. The present study examined whether DD predicts treatment outcome among cigarette smokers. More specifically, the authors examined whether baseline discounting for hypothetical monetary rewards predicted smoking status at 24 weeks postpartum among women who discontinued smoking during pregnancy. Participants were 48 pregnant women (10.5 = 4.1 weeks gestational age at study entry) who participated in a clinical trial examining the use of incentives to prevent postpartum relapse. Several sociodemographic characteristics (being younger, being less educated, and reporting a history of depression) assessed at study entry were associated with increased baseline DD, but in multivariate analyses only DD predicted smoking status at 24 weeks postpartum. Greater baseline DD was a significant predictor of smoking status at 24 weeks postpartum. DD was reassessed periodically throughout the study and did not significantly change over time among those who eventually resumed smoking or those who sustained abstinence. The results extend the association of DD with risk for substance abuse to pregnant and recently postpartum cigarette smokers and demonstrate a significant relationship between DD and treatment outcome. PMID:17469941

Yoon, Jin H; Higgins, Stephen T; Heil, Sarah H; Sugarbaker, Rena J; Thomas, Colleen S; Badger, Gary J

2007-04-01

209

Postpartum Exercise among Nigerian Women: Issues Relating to Exercise Performance and Self-Efficacy  

PubMed Central

Physical exercise during postpartum period is beneficial to mothers, and the health gains are abundantly reported. This study characterises the postpartum exercise profile of a group of Nigerian women and reports how their exercise self-efficacies are influenced by sociodemographic characteristics. Participants were women attending the two largest postnatal clinics in Ibadan, south-western Nigeria. A self-developed questionnaire assessed the socio-demographic and exercise profile of participants, while the Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale assessed their exercise self-efficacy. About two-third (61.0%) of the participants were not aware that they could undertake physical exercise to enhance postpartum health, and 109 (47.8%) were not engaged in any exercise. Those who exercised did so for less than three days/week, and 89% of the women did not belong to any exercise support group. Exercise self-efficacy was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with being in an exercise programme, age, employment, work hours/week, monthly income, and number of pregnancies. Most of the women were not aware they could engage in postpartum exercise, and about half were not undertaking it. More women with high compared to moderate exercise self-efficacy undertook the exercise. Efforts at increasing awareness, improving exercise self-efficacy and adoption of postpartum exercise are desirable among the Nigerian women. PMID:23844290

Adeniyi, A. F.; Ogwumike, O. O.; Bamikefa, T. R.

2013-01-01

210

Assessment of noninvasive, percutaneous hemoglobin measurement in pregnant and early postpartum women  

PubMed Central

Purpose Using the Pronto-7® analyzer, we measured percutaneous hemoglobin (SpHb) noninvasively in pregnant and early postpartum women, and assessed the accuracy of the measurements by comparing them with laboratory measurements of hemoglobin. Methods We obtained SpHb measurements from 193 pregnant women, 269 early postpartum women, and 76 nonpregnant women. A laboratory total hemoglobin (tHb) measurement, from venous blood sampling, was obtained immediately prior to the SpHb measurement. The total number of measurements obtained from the nonpregnant, pregnant, and postpartum women was 76, 438, and 347, respectively. Results The mean biases (SpHb ? tHb) among the nonpregnant, first trimester, second trimester, third trimester, and early postpartum women were ?0.20, 0.19, 1.01, 1.32, and 1.10 g/dL, respectively. The Bland–Altman comparison showed neither the tendency of a fixed bias nor proportional biases among the measurements in the category of nonpregnant and first trimester women. But in the second and third trimester and postpartum category, a significant fixed bias was noted, without any tendencies of proportional bias. Conclusion In this study, we found higher hemoglobin values with the Pronto-7 analyzer than were measured in the laboratory. We consider that the device has certain limitations in obstetrical utility and requires further modifications for use in the perinatal period. PMID:24470779

Yoshida, Atsushi; Saito, Keiko; Ishii, Kenji; Azuma, Isao; Sasa, Hidenori; Furuya, Kenichi

2014-01-01

211

An examination of prenatal and postpartum depressive symptoms among women served by urban community health centers.  

PubMed

We characterized depressive symptoms in the prenatal and/or postpartum periods and examined associated risk factors among 594 women who received care at community health care centers. Women were screened with comprehensive risk assessments, which included the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 depression screen, during pregnancy and at least 4 weeks after delivery. Fifteen percent had depressive symptoms in the prenatal period only; 6 % in the postpartum period only, and 8 % had depressive symptoms in both periods. Risk markers varied for women who reported depressive symptoms at one period only compared with those who reported persistent depressive symptoms. Age (25 years versus younger), having experienced abuse, not living with the infant's father, and cigarette smoking were associated with depressive symptoms at both periods; being US-born, lacking social support, and experiencing food insecurity were associated with reporting symptoms only in the prenatal period, and lack of phone access was associated with risk only in the postpartum period. Our findings confirm the importance of repeated screenings for depressive symptoms during the perinatal period. The variability in risk markers associated with periods of reported depressive symptoms may reflect their varying associations with persistence, new onset, or recovery from depressive symptoms. PMID:24037098

Sidebottom, Abbey C; Hellerstedt, Wendy L; Harrison, Patricia A; Hennrikus, Deborah

2014-02-01

212

Impact of Psychological Disorders on Postpartum Mothers and Child: Current Issue in Remediation in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is a multicultural, multiethnic, pluralistic society with enormous socioeconomic disparities, and it is a formidable task to provide affordable and effective mental health care, especially to the remote rural corners of the country. The unfortunate aspect of the Indian mental health scenario is that there exists very poor awareness of the maternal health risks of the postpartum period. It

Elizabeth Daniel

2008-01-01

213

Adherence to antiretroviral treatment among pregnant and postpartum HIV-infected women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among women with HIV infection, pregnancy is a time when maintenance of maternal health and reduction of vertical HIV transmission are primary concerns. Few studies have examined adherence to Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) during pregnancy and in the postpartum period when the demands of childcare may significantly interfere with women's self-care behaviors. This study examined ART use and adherence in HIV-infected

C. A. Mellins; C. Chu; K. Malee; S. Allison; R. Smith; L. Harris; A. Higgins; C. Zorrilla; S. Landesman; L. Serchuck; P. Larussa

2008-01-01

214

Health versus appearance messages, self?monitoring and pregnant women’s intentions to exercise postpartum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the confirmed health benefits of exercise during the postpartum period, many new mothers are not sufficiently active. The present research compared the effectiveness of two types of messages (health versus appearance) and the moderating role of self?monitoring (SM) on attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and intention to exercise after giving birth in two groups of pregnant women (low

Anca Gaston; Kimberley L. Gammage

2010-01-01

215

Women's verbal estimation of a 40-second interval during the first week postpartum: a replication.  

PubMed

In this replication research 49 mothers verbally estimated a 40-sec. interval each day for the first seven days after delivery. Throughout this postpartum period mothers overestimated the time interval. Findings of this study confirmed the results of the original 1987 research. PMID:1561037

Beck, C T; Reynolds, M A; Rutowski, P

1992-02-01

216

Effects of Space Flight on Ovarian-Hypophyseal Function in Postpartum Rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of space flight in a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) shuttle was studied in pregnant rats. Rats were launched on day 9 of gestation and recovered on day 20 of gestation. On day 20 of gestation, rats were unilaterally hysterectomized and subsequently allowed to go to term and deliver vaginally. There was no effect of space flight on pituitary and ovary mass postpartum. In addition, space flight did not alter healthy and atretic ovarian antral follicle populations, fetal wastage in utero, plasma concentrations of progesterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) or pituitary content of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). Space flight significantly increased plasma concentrations of FSH and decreased pituitary content of LH at the postpartum sampling time. Collectively, these data show that space flight, initiated during the postimplantation period of pregnancy, and concluded before parturition, is compatible with maintenance of pregnancy and has minimal effects on postpartum hypophyseal parameters; however, none of the ovarian parameters examined was altered by space flight.

Burden, H. W.; Zary, J.; Lawrence, I. E.; Jonnalagadda, P.; Davis, M.; Hodson, C. A.

1997-01-01

217

Physical activity patterns during pregnancy through postpartum  

PubMed Central

Background Realizing the importance of regular physical activity, particularly in the prevention of chronic diseases and unhealthy weight gain, it is important to study how physical activity changes during and after pregnancy using prospective study designs. The aim of this study was to describe the mode, duration, intensity, and changes in physical activity during pregnancy through one year postpartum among a cohort of women. Methods This study was part of the third Pregnancy, Infection and Nutrition Postpartum Study at the University of North Carolina Hospitals. A cohort of 471 women was followed at 17-22 and 27-30 weeks' gestation and at 3 and 12 months postpartum. The participants reported the mode, frequency, duration, and intensity of all physical activities that increased their breathing and heart rate in the past week. Results Overall physical activity for the cohort decreased from 17-22 weeks to 27-30 weeks of gestation, but rebounded up at 3 months postpartum and remained stable at 12 months postpartum. The mean MET h/wk values for each time point were 24.7 (standard deviation, SD 26.8), 19.1 (SD 18.9), 25.7 (SD 29.3), and 26.7 (SD 31.5). In postpartum, women reported more care-giving and recreational activity and less indoor household activity, as compared to their activity level during pregnancy. Conclusion For health benefits and weight management, health care professionals are encouraged to provide pregnant and postpartum women with information on recommendations of physical activity, particularly regarding the minimum duration and intensity level. PMID:19925650

2009-01-01

218

Early Postpartum Maternal Morbidity among Rural Women of Rajasthan, India: A Community-based Study  

PubMed Central

The first postpartum week is a high-risk period for mothers and newborns. Very few community-based studies have been conducted on patterns of maternal morbidity in resource-poor countries in that first week. An intervention on postpartum care for women within the first week after delivery was initiated in a rural area of Rajasthan, India. The intervention included a rigorous system of receiving reports of all deliveries in a defined population and providing home-level postpartum care to all women, irrespective of the place of delivery. Trained nurse-midwives used a structured checklist for detecting and managing maternal and neonatal conditions during postpartum-care visits. A total of 4,975 women, representing 87.1% of all expected deliveries in a population of 58,000, were examined in their first postpartum week during January 2007–December 2010. Haemoglobin was tested for 77.1% of women (n=3,836) who had a postnatal visit. The most common morbidity was postpartum anaemia—7.4% of women suffered from severe anaemia and 46% from moderate anaemia. Other common morbidities were fever (4%), breast conditions (4.9%), and perineal conditions (4.5%). Life-threatening postpartum morbidities were detected in 7.6% of women—9.7% among those who had deliveries at home and 6.6% among those who had institutional deliveries. None had a fistula. Severe anaemia had a strong correlation with perinatal death [p<0.000, adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-2.99], delivery at home [p<0.000, AOR=1.64 (95% CI 1.27-2.15)], socioeconomically-underprivileged scheduled caste or tribe [p<0.000, AOR=2.47 (95% CI 1.83-3.33)], and parity of three or more [p<0.000, AOR=1.52 (95% CI 1.18-1.97)]. The correlation with antenatal care was not significant. Perineal conditions were more frequent among women who had institutional deliveries while breast conditions were more common among those who had a perinatal death. This study adds valuable knowledge on postpartum morbidity affecting women in the first few days after delivery in a low-resource setting. Health programmes should invest to ensure that all women receive early postpartum visits after delivery at home and after discharge from institution to detect and manage maternal morbidity. Further, health programmes should also ensure that women are properly screened for complications before their discharge from hospitals after delivery. PMID:22838163

2012-01-01

219

Postpartum evaluation of stress urinary incontinence among primiparas  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo assess the prevalence of postpartum stress urinary incontinence (SUI); the relationship between postpartum SUI and mode of delivery; and the association between SUI and other obstetric factors.

T. Eftekhar; B. Hajibaratali; F. Ramezanzadeh; M. Shariat

2006-01-01

220

Predictors of postpartum depression: prospective study of 264 women followed during pregnancy and postpartum.  

PubMed

The prevalence of postpartum depression is approximately 13%. Postpartum depression is associated with a higher maternal morbidity and mortality, and also with pervasive effects on the emotional, cognitive and behavioral development of the child. The aim of our study was to identify socio-demographic, psychosocial and obstetrical risk factors of postpartum depression in a middle class community sample, using a prospective design. We enrolled consecutively 312 pregnant outpatients in a single maternity unit. The first assessment was conducted between 32 and 41 weeks gestation, and a second time between 6 and 8 weeks after delivery. Depressive symptoms were measured using the French version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). A cut-off score of 12/30 or above was considered as indicative of Major Depression. Of the initial sample of 312 women, 264 (84.6%) were followed-up between 6 and 8 weeks after delivery and considered for analysis. Depression during pregnancy, migrant status, and physical abuse by the partner were independently associated with postpartum depression when considered together, whereas physical complications were significantly associated with postpartum depression only when adjusting for antenatal depression. Depression during pregnancy, history of physical abuse, migrant status and postpartum physical complications are four major risk factors for postpartum depression. PMID:24370337

Gaillard, Adeline; Le Strat, Yann; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Keïta, Hawa; Dubertret, Caroline

2014-02-28

221

Advance distribution of misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) at home births in two districts of Liberia  

PubMed Central

Background A postpartum hemorrhage prevention program to increase uterotonic coverage for home and facility births was introduced in two districts of Liberia. Advance distribution of misoprostol was offered during antenatal care (ANC) and home visits. Feasibility, acceptability, effectiveness of distribution mechanisms and uterotonic coverage were evaluated. Methods Eight facilities were strengthened to provide PPH prevention with oxytocin, PPH management and advance distribution of misoprostol during ANC. Trained traditional midwives (TTMs) as volunteer community health workers (CHWs) provided education to pregnant women, and district reproductive health supervisors (DRHSs) distributed misoprostol during home visits. Data were collected through facility and DRHS registers. Postpartum interviews were conducted with a sample of 550 women who received advance distribution of misoprostol on place of delivery, knowledge, misoprostol use, and satisfaction. Results There were 1826 estimated deliveries during the seven-month implementation period. A total of 980 women (53.7%) were enrolled and provided misoprostol, primarily through ANC (78.2%). Uterotonic coverage rate of all deliveries was 53.5%, based on 97.7% oxytocin use at recorded facility vaginal births and 24.9% misoprostol use at home births. Among 550 women interviewed postpartum, 87.7% of those who received misoprostol and had a home birth took the drug. Sixty-three percent (63.0%) took it at the correct time, and 54.0% experienced at least one minor side effect. No serious adverse events reported among enrolled women. Facility-based deliveries appeared to increase during the program. Conclusions The program was moderately effective at achieving high uterotonic coverage of all births. Coverage of home births was low despite the use of two channels of advance distribution of misoprostol. Although ANC reached a greater proportion of women in late pregnancy than home visits, 46.3% of expected deliveries did not receive education or advance distribution of misoprostol. A revised community-based strategy is needed to increase advance distribution rates and misoprostol coverage rates for home births. Misoprostol for PPH prevention appears acceptable to women in Liberia. Correct timing of misoprostol self-administration needs improved emphasis during counseling and education. PMID:24894566

2014-01-01

222

Immunomodulatory Agents and Risk of Postpartum Multiple Sclerosis Relapses  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine whether treatment with an interferon beta or glatiramer acetate shortly after delivery reduces the otherwise increased risk of postpartum relapses of multiple sclerosis. Methods: In a retrospective cohort of 112 women with multiple sclerosis and live births from Kaiser Permanente Southern California, complete medical and pharmacy records of the mothers and infants were reviewed. Propensity score-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of time to first postpartum relapse were calculated. Results: Of 80 women who breastfed little or not at all, 55 (69%) resumed treatment within 1 year postpartum, of whom 26 (47%) relapsed within 6 months postpartum. Resuming treatment within 2 weeks postpartum did not decrease the risk of relapse in the 2 years postpartum compared with women who resumed treatment later in the postpartum year (propensity score-adjusted HR = 1.3, 95% confidence interval = 0.5–3.4, p = 0.6). There was no difference in relapse rates between the groups in the first 6 months postpartum. However, later in the postpartum year those who resumed treatment early had fewer relapses (p = 0.08, Poisson regression). Conclusions: Among women who breastfeed little or not at all, starting treatment with interferon beta or glatiramer acetate within two weeks postpartum does not reduce the risk of postpartum relapse of multiple sclerosis but may reduce the risk of subsequent relapses in the postpartum year. PMID:24626066

Beaber, Brandon Emet; Chi, Margaret D; Brara, Sonu Malik; Zhang, Jian Liang; Langer-Gould, Annette M

2014-01-01

223

Psychosocial predictors of depressive symptomatology level in postpartum women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored a multifactorial model for the prediction of the intensity of depressive symptoms in postpartum women. Data were gathered from 213 pregnant women during the second trimester of pregnancy and at 6 months postpartum. Participants were assessed according to a number of psychosocial variables. A path analysis indicated that four variables had a direct effect on postpartum depressive

Odette Bernazzani; Jean-François Saucier; Hélène David; François Borgeat

1997-01-01

224

The relationship between breastfeeding and postpartum weight change-a systematic review and critical evaluation.  

PubMed

Pregnancy and the postpartum period is a time of increased vulnerability for retention of excess body fat in women. Breastfeeding (BF) has been shown to have many health benefits for both mother and baby; however, its role in postpartum weight management is unclear. Our aim was to systematically review and critically appraise the literature published to date in relation to the impact of BF on postpartum weight change, weight retention and maternal body composition. Electronic literature searches were carried out using MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, BIOSIS, CINAHL and British Nursing Index. The search covered publications up to 12 June 2012 and included observational studies (prospective and retrospective) carried out in BF mothers (either exclusively or as a subgroup), who were ? 2 years postpartum and with a body mass index (BMI) >18.5 kg m(-2), with an outcome measure of change in weight (including weight retention) and/or body composition. Thirty-seven prospective studies and eight retrospective studies were identified that met the selection criteria; studies were stratified according to study design and outcome measure. Overall, studies were heterogeneous, particularly in relation to sample size, measurement time points and in the classification of BF and postpartum weight change. The majority of studies reported little or no association between BF and weight change (n=27, 63%) or change in body composition (n=16, 89%), although this seemed to depend on the measurement time points and BF intensity. However, of the five studies that were considered to be of high methodological quality, four studies demonstrated a positive association between BF and weight change. This systematic review highlights the difficulties of examining the association between BF and weight management in observational research. Although the available evidence challenges the widely held belief that BF promotes weight loss, more robust studies are needed to reliably assess the impact of BF on postpartum weight management. PMID:23892523

Neville, C E; McKinley, M C; Holmes, V A; Spence, D; Woodside, J V

2014-04-01

225

?-Methyldopa-induced hepatitis during the postpartum period.  

PubMed

A 34-year-old woman, with a history of pre-eclampsia, was diagnosed with ?-methyldopa-induced hepatotoxicity, after she presented with severe jaundice and hepatitis 8 weeks following delivery. Laboratory investigations and liver biopsy ruled out other causes of hepatitis. She continued to improve clinically after cessation of ?-methyldopa, and was discharged 10 days after admission. This case report emphasises that it may not be possible to predict which patients may develop ?-methyldopa-induced hepatitis, hence regular monitoring of liver function tests during treatment should be implemented. PMID:24577181

Kashkooli, Soleiman; Baraty, Brandon; Kalantar, Jamshid

2014-01-01

226

Unmet need for family planning in Nepal during the first two years postpartum.  

PubMed

Contraceptive use during the postpartum period is critical for maternal and child health. However, little is known about the use of family planning and the determinants in Nepal during this period. This study explored pregnancy spacing, unmet need, family planning use, and fertility behaviour among postpartum women in Nepal using child level data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys 2011. More than one-quarter of women who gave birth in the last five years became pregnant within 24 months of giving birth and 52% had an unmet need for family planning within 24 months postpartum. Significantly higher rates of unmet need were found among rural and hill residents, the poorest quintile, and Muslims. Despite wanting to space or limit pregnancies, nonuse of modern family planning methods by women and returned fertility increased the risk of unintended pregnancy. High unmet need for family planning in Nepal, especially in high risk groups, indicates the need for more equitable and higher quality postpartum family planning services, including availability of range of methods and counselling which will help to further reduce maternal, perinatal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality in Nepal. PMID:25003125

Mehata, Suresh; Paudel, Yuba Raj; Mehta, Ranju; Dariang, Maureen; Poudel, Pradeep; Barnett, Sarah

2014-01-01

227

Impact of antenatal and postpartum maternal mental illness: how are the children?  

PubMed

Prospective studies that begin during pregnancy and follow the mothers and children into adolescence have shown that maternal mental illness during the antenatal and postpartum period can have long-lasting negative consequences on the developing child. The findings from these prospective studies and a discussion of the consistencies and inconsistencies in the current literature are presented. The effects of maternal anxiety and depression during the perinatal period on cognitive, behavioral, and psychologic development from infancy through adolescence are examined. PMID:19661760

Brand, Sarah R; Brennan, Patricia A

2009-09-01

228

Measuring the risk factors for postpartum depression: development of the Japanese version of the Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory-Revised (PDPI-R-J)  

PubMed Central

Background Postpartum depression (PPD) is a global phenomenon. Depression in the first month following delivery is experienced by 20% of mothers in Japan. Therefore, a screening instrument that identifies the risk for depression during pregnancy and in the early postpartum period is required for primary prevention. The aims of this study were to develop the Japanese version of the Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory-Revised (PDPI-R-J) and determine its predictive validity during pregnancy and one month after delivery. Methods In order to develop the inventory, two bilingual translators translated the PDPI-R into Japanese. Then, back translation was done and a thorough discussion with the original developer was conducted in order to establish semantic equivalence. After the PDPI-R-J was developed, the study used a prospective cohort design. A total of 84 women in their eighth month of pregnancy participated in the study. Seventy-six mothers completed the PDPI-R-J at the first month after childbirth. Women were diagnosed using Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) to determine the presence of minor or major depression at the first month after childbirth and the receiver operating characteristic curve was plotted to evaluate the predictive capacity of PDPI-R-J. Results Of the 76 mothers who completed the PDPI-R-J during the first-month assessment, 16 mothers (21%) met the PPD criteria. The prenatal version of the PDPI-R-J administered during pregnancy accurately predicted 62.8% of PPD (95% CI 0.48–0.77) and the postpartum version administered at the first month after delivery predicted 82.0% of PPD (95% CI 0.71–0.93). The cutoffs identified were 5.5 for the prenatal version and 7.5 for the postpartum version. The PDPI-R-J postpartum version, which includes items relating to the infant, increased the predictive validity of PPD (0.67 to 0.82). Comments from the participants included that the use of the PDPI-R-J enhanced the chance to openly communicate about their history and risks for depression with the researchers, if any existed. Conclusions The PDPI-R-J was found to be a useful and valid screening tool for predicting PPD. Both the prenatal and postpartum versions should be continuously administered to mothers because delivery and infant-related factors affect the potential for PPD. PMID:23672472

2013-01-01

229

Distribution of postpartum amenorrhea in rural Bangladeshi women.  

PubMed

Previous studies of postpartum amenorrhea (PPA) demonstrated distinct subgroups of women with short and long durations of amenorrhea. This phenomenon was attributed to cases where breastfeeding is absent because of pregnancy loss or infant death, or confusion of postpartum bleeding with resumption of menses. We explored these ideas using data from an 11-month prospective study in Bangladesh in which 858 women provided twice-weekly interviews and urine specimens for up to 9 months; 300 women were observed while experiencing PPA. The resulting exact, interval-censored, or right-censored durations were used to estimate parameters of two-component mixture models. A mixture of two Weibull distributions provided the best fit to the observations. The long-duration subgroup made up 84% (+/- 4% SE) of the population, with a mean duration of 457 (+/- 31) days. The short-duration subgroup had a mean duration of 94 (+/- 17) days. Three covariates were associated with the duration of PPA: women whose husbands had high-wage employment had a greater probability of falling in the short-duration subgroup; women in the long-duration subgroup whose husbands seasonally migrated had shorter periods of PPA within the subgroup; and mothers in the short-duration subgroup who gave birth during the monsoon season experienced a shortened duration of PPA within the subgroup. We conclude that the bimodal distribution of PPA reflects biological or behavioral heterogeneity rather than shortcomings of data collection. PMID:16345064

Holman, Darryl J; Grimes, Michael A; Achterberg, Jerusha T; Brindle, Eleanor; O'Connor, Kathleen A

2006-04-01

230

A controlled study of postpartum depression in adult women.  

PubMed

The main purpose of the study was to examine the hypothesis that the postpartum period represents a time of increased risk for depression. The other psychosocial variables on stress, social support and self-esteem were also measured. Adult women, ranging in age from 22 to 45 years, comprised two samples: 148 postnatal women (22 to 44 years) and 148 controls (22 to 45 years). Five sets of instruments were used to collect data: the Demographic Data Form, the Perceived Stress Scale, the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List, the Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory. Although the postnatal group tended to have a higher rate of depression, the difference was not statistically significant. No significant differences in stress, social support, self-esteem or depression were found between these two groups. However, postnatal women reported significantly higher somatic symptoms of depression than controls. Results of the stepwise multiple regression indicated that the best subset to predict postpartum depression was self-esteem, stress, postnatal complication and work status. The best subset to predict depression of controls included self-esteem, social support, socioeconomic status and stress. Our data indicate that the psychosocial health status of postnatal women is not significantly different from the controls, although the postnatal women complain more about the loss of bodily functions. The possible explanations deserve further research. PMID:10846352

Chen, C H; Wang, S Y; Hwu, H G; Chou, F H

2000-03-01

231

Depression as bargaining The case postpartum$  

E-print Network

Depression as bargaining The case postpartum$ Edward H. Hagen* Institute for Theoretical Biology; accepted 4 December 2001 Abstract It was recently hypothesized that depression might function, in part. Hum. Behav. 20 (1999) 325.]. If so, such social constraints should be associated with depression

232

Uterine artery embolization for primary postpartum hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background: Postpartum hemorrhage is the leading cause of severe maternal morbidity and death. A prompt management of uterine artery embolization (UAE) is important for a good outcome. UAE is generally accepted to be a safe and reliable procedure. Objective: To estimate critical patient characteristics influencing the success of UAE for the treatment of emergent primary postpartum hemorrhage. Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional study that reviewed 121 patients who were diagnosed primary postpartum hemorrhage between February 2002 and December 2009 at a tertiary treatment center among 4,022 deliveries. We evaluated patient clinical characteristics associated with a successful surgical outcome of UAE. Results: The success rate for UAE was 96%. For two cases, UAE complication was associated with fever (>38.5oC). Five patients had problems that required admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Conclusion: To increase the surgical success rate and lower the number of ICU admissions, the decision to treat primary postpartum hemorrhage using UAE should be based on individual patient clinical findings under the direction of obstetrics staff and an interventional radiologist. PMID:24639786

Kim, Tae-Hee; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Kim, Jun-Mo; Ryu, Ae-Li; Chung, Soo-Ho; Seok Lee, Woo

2013-01-01

233

Postpartum consultation: Occurrence, requirements and expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: As a matter of routine, midwives in Sweden have spoken with women about their experiences of labour in a so-called 'postpartum consultation'. However, the possibility of offering women this kind of consultation today is reduced due to shortage of both time and resources. The aim of this study was to explore the occurrence, women's requirements of, and experiences of

Ingrid Carlgren; Marie Berg

2008-01-01

234

Symptoms and Signs Associated with Postpartum Thyroiditis  

PubMed Central

Background. Postpartum thyroiditis (PPT) is a common triphasic autoimmune disease in women with thyroid peroxidase (TPO) autoantibodies. This study evaluated women's thyroid disease symptoms, physical findings, stress levels, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels across six postpartum months in three groups, TPO negative, TPO positive, and PPT positive women. Methods. Women were recruited in midpregnancy (n = 631) and TPO status was determined which then was used to form the three postpartum groups. The three groups were compared on TSH levels, thyroid symptoms, weight, blood pressure, heart rate, a thyroid exam, and stress scores. Results. Fifty-six percent of the TPO positive women developed PPT. Hypothyroid group (F (2, 742) = 5.8, P = .003) and hyperthyroid group (F (2, 747) = 6.6, P = .001) subscale scores differed by group. Several symptoms and stress scores were highest in the PPT group. Conclusions. The normal postpartum is associated with many symptoms that mimic thyroid disease symptoms, but severity is greater in women with either TPO or PPT positivity. While the most severe symptoms were generally seen in PPT positive women, even TPO positive women seem to have higher risk for these signs and symptoms.

2014-01-01

235

Four wells exposed — Waterlogged and charred plant remains and preliminary environmental data on the Middle\\/Late Bronze Age and Roman period in the Laßnitztal (western Styria, Austria)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant macroremains from two middle to late Bronze Age and two Roman wells add up to the current state of research on vegetation and settlement history in western Styria (Austria), close to today’s municipalities of Wettmannstät-ten\\/Wohlsdorf and Hengsberg\\/Schönberg: the four objects, acting as sediment traps during the last phases of their use and after their abandonment, preserved a large number

Andreas G. Heiss; Ruth Drescher-Schneider; Ilona Szunyogh; Walter R. Bielowski; Gerald Fuchs

2013-01-01

236

Hints of economic change during the late Roman Empire period in central Italy: a study of charred plant remains from “La Fontanaccia”, near Rome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The archaeobotanical study of the charred macro-remains recovered from the burnt settlement of La Fontanaccia, Allumiere,\\u000a 50 km northwest of Rome, a small hut from the time of the end of the late Roman Empire, provided results on the use of food\\u000a of its inhabitants, their living conditions, and the natural environment. The fire which destroyed the small settlement was\\u000a archaeologically

Laura Sadori; Francesca Susanna

2005-01-01

237

Plasticity and constraint in response to early-life stressors among late/final jomon period foragers from Japan: Evidence for life history trade-offs from incremental microstructures of enamel.  

PubMed

This study evaluates two hypotheses that address how Late/Final Jomon period people responded to early-life stress using linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) and incremental microstructures of enamel. The first hypothesis predicts that Jomon people who experienced early-life stressors had greater physiological competence in responding to future stress events (predictive adaptive response). The second hypothesis predicts that Jomon people traded-off in future growth and maintenance when early investment in growth and survival was required (plasticity/constraint). High resolution tooth impressions were collected from intact, anterior teeth and studied under an engineer's measuring microscope. LEH were identified based on accentuated perikymata and depressions in the enamel surface profile. Age of formation for each LEH was estimated by summing counts of perikymata and constants associated with crown initiation and cuspal enamel formation times. The relationship between age-at-first-defect formation, number of LEH, periodicity between LEH, and mortality was evaluated using multiple regression and hazards analysis. A significant, positive relationship was found between age-at-death relative to age-at-first-defect formation and a significant, negative relationship was found between number of LEH relative to age-at-first-defect formation. Individuals with earlier forming defects were at a significantly greater risk of forming defects at later stages of development and dying at younger ages. These results suggest that Late/Final Jomon period foragers responded to early-life stressors in a manner consistent with the plasticity/constraint hypothesis of human life history. Late/Final Jomon period individuals were able to survive early-life stressors, but this investment weakened responses to future stress events and exacerbated mortality schedules. Am J Phys Anthropol 155:537-545, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25156299

Temple, Daniel H

2014-12-01

238

Oestrogen-dependent suppression of pulsatile luteinising hormone secretion and kiss1 mRNA expression in the arcuate nucleus during late lactation in rats.  

PubMed

Follicular development and ovulation are strongly suppressed during lactation in mammals via a profound suppression of gonadotrophin secretion. The present study aimed to examine the role of oestrogen feedback action in suppressing luteinising hormone (LH) secretion and hypothalamic kisspeptin expression during the latter half of lactation. Plasma LH concentrations kept at low levels throughout the lactating period in intact and oestrogen-replaced ovariectomised (OVX) lactating rats, whereas plasma LH concentrations gradually elevated from day 10 postpartum in lactating OVX rats. OVX lactating rats showed frequent LH pulses at late lactation, although the LH pulses were significantly inhibited by an oestrogen replacement, which is much less effective on LH release in nonlactating rats. Oestrogen replacement in lactating OVX rats significantly reduced the number of Kiss1 mRNA-expressing cells in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) at late lactation, although the same oestrogen treatment did not affect the number of Kiss1-expressing cells in nonlactating controls. Exogenous kisspeptin challenge (0.2 nmol) into the third cerebroventricle significantly increased LH secretion in lactating OVX, lactating OVX + subcutaneous 17?-oestradiol and intact lactating rats at day 16 postpartum. These results suggest that LH pulse suppression during late lactation could be a result of the enhanced oestrogen-dependent suppression of ARC kisspeptin expression. PMID:22536815

Yamada, S; Uenoyama, Y; Deura, C; Minabe, S; Naniwa, Y; Iwata, K; Kawata, M; Maeda, K-I; Tsukamura, H

2012-09-01

239

Management of Acute Postpartum Pain in Patients Maintained on Methadone or Buprenorphine During Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background Empirical evidence is needed to guide adequate post-partum pain relief of methadone and buprenorphine stabilized patients. Objectives To first determine the adequacy of pain control using non-opioid and opioid medication in participants stabilized on buprenorphine or methadone before a vaginal delivery. Second, to compare the amount of non-opioid and opioid medication needed for adequate pain control for buprenorphine-and methadone-maintained patients during the immediate post-partum period. Methods Pain control adequacy and amount of non-opioid and opioid medication needed in buprenorphine- (n=8) and methadone-maintained (n=10) patients over the first five days post-partum were examined. Results Pain ratings and number of opioid medication doses decreased over time in both medication groups. While the buprenorphine and methadone groups began with similar mean daily ibuprofen (IB) doses, the buprenorphine group decreased its IB use, while the methadone group increased its IB use. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Patients treated daily with either buprenorphine or methadone can have adequate pain control post-partum with opioid medication and IB. Pain control is dependent on the opioid-agonist medication in use at delivery, and must be individualized. PMID:19462298

Jones, Hendree E.; O'Grady, Kevin; Dahne, Jennifer; Johnson, Rolley; Lemoine, Laetitia; Milio, Lorriane; Ordean, Alice; Selby, Peter

2010-01-01

240

Nighttime Breastfeeding Behavior Is Associated with More Nocturnal Sleep among First-Time Mothers at One Month Postpartum  

PubMed Central

Study Objective: To describe sleep duration and quality in the first month postpartum and compare the sleep of women who exclusively breastfed at night to those who used formula. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal study in a predominantly low-income and ethnically diverse sample of 120 first-time mothers. Both objective and subjective measures of sleep were obtained using actigraphy, diary, and self-report data. Measures were collected in the last month of pregnancy and at one month postpartum. Infant feeding diaries were used to group mothers by nighttime breastfeeding behavior. Results: Mothers who used at least some formula at night (n = 54) and those who breastfed exclusively (n = 66) had similar sleep patterns in late pregnancy. However, there was a significant group difference in nocturnal sleep at one month postpartum as measured by actigraphy. Total nighttime sleep was 386 ± 66 minutes for the exclusive breastfeeding group and 356 ± 67 minutes for the formula group. The groups did not differ with respect to daytime sleep, wake after sleep onset (sleep fragmentation), or subjective sleep disturbance at one month postpartum. Conclusion: Women who breastfed exclusively averaged 30 minutes more nocturnal sleep than women who used formula at night, but measures of sleep fragmentation did not differ. New mothers should be encouraged to breastfeed exclusively since breastfeeding may promote sleep during postpartum recovery. Further research is needed to better understand how infant feeding method affects maternal sleep duration and fragmentation. Citation: Doan T; Gay CL; Kennedy HP; Newman J; Lee KA. Nighttime breastfeeding behavior is associated with more nocturnal sleep among first-time mothers at one month postpartum. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(3):313-319. PMID:24634630

Doan, Therese; Gay, Caryl L.; Kennedy, Holly P.; Newman, Jack; Lee, Kathryn A.

2014-01-01

241

[The first labor analgesia with drug was already performed in late Meiji-Period (1868-1912): trace of opioid-scopolamine which was used in Akiko Yosano, back to its origins].  

PubMed

There have been some records of labor analgesia with intravenous or rectal anesthetics in early Showa-period (1926-1989). However, the author found that labor analgesia had been already attempted for some women in late Meiji-period (1868-1912). One of agents used was pantopon, a water-soluble opioid without serious respiratory depression as morphine. The drug was developed and produced in Germany. Some doctors applied this agent with scopolamine to labor analgesia in Europe. They also reported that this combination also conferred excellent analgesic effects without any serious complications in the mother and fetus. This combination was originally used for general surgery with inhaled anesthesia at that period. It remains uncertain how Japanese doctors got pantopon scopolamine from Germany. PMID:23479935

Okutomi, Toshiyuki

2013-02-01

242

Lactation Delays Postpartum Bone Mineral Accretion and Temporarily Alters Its Regional Distribution in Women 1,2,3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to compare long-term changes in bone mineral in lactating (L) and nonlactating (NL) women for 2 y postpartum. The 40 L women (mean duration of breastfeeding 345 6 177 d) and 36 NL women were enrolled during late pregnancy. Subjects were healthy and nonsmoking with a mean age of 28.8 6 4.1 y. Bone

Judy M. Hopkinson; Nancy F. Butte; Kenneth Ellis; E. O'Brian Smith

243

Visual Acuity Changes during Pregnancy and Postpartum: A Cross-Sectional Study in Iran  

PubMed Central

In this research, we represent the changes in visual acuity during pregnancy and after delivery. Changes as myopic shift start during second trimester and will be stopped after delivery; however it is obtained that women will have the same refractive error as what they had in the first trimester, after postpartum. So, any change in their spectacle prescription during this period is forbidden. As a result, not only changing in hormones can cause myopic shift in vision, but also overweight has its retributive role. What we are trying to do is to notify gynecologists and optometrists to be aware of these changes, so as to leave spectacle prescription writing to the session after postpartum period. PMID:25328705

Chaichian, Shahla; Mehdizadehkashi, Abolfazl; Jafarzadepour, Ebrahim; Tamannaie, Zeinab; Moazzami, Bahram; Pishgahroudsari, Mohaddeseh

2014-01-01

244

Resumption of postpartum ovarian cyclicity in high-producing Holstein cows.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the resumption of ovarian cyclicity postpartum in high-producing dairy cows in commercial dairy farms under subtropical conditions. The cows were kept in a free-stall or tie-stall barn. Milk samples were collected from cows twice weekly, and progesterone in the skim milk was assayed by double-antibody ELISA. Cows were examined rectally and vaginoscopically at 2-week intervals after calving. Body condition score (BCS) and body weights were taken before and after calving. A cow was considered to have resumed ovarian cyclicity on the day of ovulation if followed by regular ovarian cycles. Thirty seven percent (n=20/54) of the cows had normal resumption of ovarian cyclicity (resumption within 45 days after calving), and 63% (n=34/54) had delayed resumption (resumption did not occur until >45 days after calving). Delayed resumption Type I (one or more ovarian cycles with luteal phase >20 days, i.e. prolonged luteal phase; 31.5%) and delayed resumption Type II (first ovulation did not occur until > or =45 days after calving, i.e. delayed first ovulation; 24.1%) were the most common types of delayed resumptions. Almost half (46.3%) of the cows did not resume their ovarian cyclicity until >65 days postpartum. Cows with delayed resumption Type I had a higher incidence of abnormal cervico-vaginal discharge (64.7%) and incomplete uterine involution (94.1%) compared to cows with normal resumption (P<0.01). The BCS of cows with delayed resumption Type II were lower than those of normal resumption cows at 5 weeks and later in the postpartum period (P<0.05). Approximately two-thirds of high-producing cows had delayed resumption of ovarian cyclicity postpartum. Prolonged luteal phase and delayed first ovulation were two important ovarian dysfunctions that delayed postpartum resumption of cyclicity in high-producing dairy cows. PMID:14698054

Shrestha, Hemanta Kumar; Nakao, Toshihiko; Higaki, Tsuneo; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Akita, Masashi

2004-02-01

245

Evaluation of Postpartum Reproductive Performance in Brahman Females with Divergent Residual Feed Intake  

E-print Network

concentrations, BW and BCS in multiparous Brahman females during the postpartum period ....................................... 75 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction Beef cattle production represents the largest sector... for the beef industry it has becoming increasingly important for producers to implement and utilize a system that identifies more efficient animals in their utilization of nutrients and feedstuffs. 5 The first such system that attempted to identify...

Poovey, Anna Kathryn

2011-10-21

246

Baseline Results from Hawaii's N? Mikimiki Project: A Physical Activity Intervention Tailored to Multiethnic Postpartum Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the postpartum period, ethnic minority women have higher rates of inactivity\\/under-activity than White women. The N? Mikimiki (“the active ones”) Project is designed to increase moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) over 18 months among multiethnic women with infants 2–12 months old. The study was designed to test, via a randomized controlled trial, the effectiveness of a tailored telephone counseling MVPA

Cheryl L. Albright; Alana D. Steffen; Rachel Novotny; Claudio R. Nigg; Lynne R. Wilkens; Kara Saiki; Paulette Yamada; Brooke Hedemark; Jason E. Maddock; Andrea L. Dunn; Wendy J. Brown

2012-01-01

247

Modifiable factors associated with changes in postpartum depressive symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Up to 50% of mothers report postpartum depressive symptoms yet providers do a poor job predicting and preventing their occurrence.\\u000a Our goal was to identify modifiable factors (situational triggers and buffers) associated with postpartum depressive symptoms.\\u000a Observational prospective cohort telephone study of 563 mothers interviewed at 2 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Mothers reported\\u000a on demographic factors, physical and emotional symptoms, daily

Elizabeth A. Howell; Pablo A. Mora; Marco D. DiBonaventura; Howard Leventhal

2009-01-01

248

Effectiveness of a Combined Prenatal and Postpartum Smoking Cessation Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women frequently quit smoking during pregnancy but then relapse postpartum. The BABY & ME—Tobacco Free program combines prenatal\\u000a and postpartum smoking cessation counseling and biomarker feedback with monthly postpartum incentives. The settings included\\u000a 22 sites (WIC offices and prenatal clinics) in upstate New York. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate this intervention,\\u000a that included four face-to-face prenatal sessions with

Anne Gadomski; Laurie Adams; Nancy Tallman; Nicole Krupa; Paul Jenkins

2011-01-01

249

Weight concerns affect motivation to remain abstinent from smoking postpartum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although many women quit smoking during pregnancy, most resume smoking postpartum. One factor that may be important in postpartum\\u000a relapse is a pregnant woman's motivation to remain abstinent after delivery.Purpose: We assessed motivation for postpartum abstinence among pregnant women who had quit smoking and examined the relationship\\u000a of weight concerns and mood to abstinence motivation.Methods: Pregnant former smokers, recruited

Michele D. Levine; Marsha D. Marcus; Melissa A. Kalarchian; Lisa Weissfeld; Li Qin

2006-01-01

250

Postpartum thyroid dysfunction in Mid Glamorgan  

PubMed Central

A high prevalence of postpartum thyroid dysfunction has been reported in several countries, but there have been no systematic studies of its prevalence in Britain. Among a group of 901 consecutive, unselected pregnant women thyroid autoantibodies were detected in 117 (13%) at booking. The clinical course of postpartum thyroid dysfunction, factors associated with its development, and its likely prevalence were defined in 100 of these women with thyroid antibodies and 120 women with no such antibodies who were matched for age. None of the women had a history of autoimmune thyroid disease. Normal reference ranges for thyroid function during pregnancy and post partum were established in the 120 women negative for thyroid antibodies. On the basis of these observations postpartum thyroid dysfunction was observed in 49 (22%) of the 220 women studied, and the prevalence in the total group of 901 women was estimated to be 16·7%. Thyroid dysfunction, mainly occurring in the first six months post partum, was usually transient and included both destruction induced hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. The development of the syndrome was significantly related to smoking more than 20 cigarettes a day and the presence of thyroid microsomal autoantibodies at booking. Of the 16 women with a family history of thyroid disease in whom thyroid microsomal autoantibody activity was detectable at booking, 11 developed thyroid dysfunction. Age, parity, presence of goitre at presentation, duration of breast feeding, and the sex and birth weight of the infant were not associated with the development of postpartum thyroid dysfunction. The mood changes experienced by women post partum may in part be associated with altered thyroid function during this time. PMID:3124900

Fung, Hedy Y M; Kologlu, Minosh; Collison, Kate; John, R; Richards, C J; Hall, R; McGregor, A M

1988-01-01

251

Effectiveness of Web-Based Multimedia Health Education Program on Maternal Role Strain, Role Attainment and Postpartum Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Information technology offers an innovative tool for effective and efficient maternal and child health education. The objective of this study was to evaluate a web-based maternal education program developed for mothers in the postpartum period to provide more information on maternal role strain and help enhance mothering skills. A quasi-experimental design was used. The target population was primipara mothers

Jeongyee Bae

2009-01-01

252

Preventing postpartum depression: A meta-analytic review  

PubMed Central

This meta-analysis assessed the efficacy of a wide range of preventive interventions designed to reduce the severity of postpartum depressive symptoms or decrease the prevalence of postpartum depressive episodes. A systematic review identified 37 randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials in which an intervention was compared to a control condition. Differences between treatment and control conditions in the level of depressive symptoms and prevalence of depressive episodes by 6 months postpartum were assessed in separate analyses. Depressive symptoms were significantly lower at post-treatment in intervention conditions, with an overall effect size in the small range after exclusion of outliers (Hedges' g = 0.18). There was a 27% reduction in the prevalence of depressive episodes in intervention conditions by 6 months postpartum after removal of outliers and correction for publication bias. Later timing of the postpartum assessment was associated with smaller differences between intervention and control conditions in both analyses. Among studies that assessed depressive symptoms using the EPDS, higher levels of depressive symptoms at pre-treatment were associated with smaller differences in depressive symptoms by 6 months postpartum. These findings suggest that interventions designed to prevent postpartum depression effectively reduce levels of postpartum depressive symptoms and decrease risk for postpartum depressive episodes. PMID:24211712

Sockol, Laura E.; Epperson, C. Neill; Barber, Jacques P.

2014-01-01

253

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in the treatment of postpartum psychosis.  

PubMed

Postpartum psychosis is one of the most severe manifestations of postpartum mental illness. A psychiatric emergency, the prompt recognition and treatment of postpartum psychosis is essential in insuring maternal and infant well-being and safety. Here, we review the literature on the phenomenology of postpartum psychosis and the prevalence of use, safety, and efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy as a treatment. Studies were searched using CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and PubMed databases. Based on our review, we argue that for some patients, electroconvulsive therapy should be the treatment of choice. PMID:22330704

Focht, Amanda; Kellner, Charles H

2012-03-01

254

Periodic isolation of the southern coastal plain of South Africa and the evolution of modern humans over late Quaternary glacial to interglacial cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humans evolved in Africa, but where in Africa and by what mechanisms remain unclear. The evolution of modern humans over the last million years is associated with the onset of major global climate fluctuations, glacial to interglacial cycles, related to the build up and melting of large ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere. During interglacial periods, such as today, warm and wet climates favored human expansion but during cold and dry glacial periods conditions were harsh and habitats fragmented. These large climate fluctuations periodically expanded and contracted African ecosystems and led to human migrations to more hospitable glacial refugia. Periodic isolation of relatively small numbers of humans may have allowed for their rapid evolutionary divergence from the rest of Africa. During climate transitions these divergent groups may have then dispersed and interbred with other groups (hybridization). Two areas at the opposite ends of Africa stand out as regions that were periodically isolated from the rest of Africa: North Africa (the Maghreb) and the southern coastal plain (SCP) of South Africa. The Maghreb is isolated by the Sahara Desert which periodically greens and is reconnected to the rest of Africa during the transition from glacial to interglacial periods. The SCP of South Africa is isolated from the rest of Africa by the rugged mountains of the Cape Fold Belt associated with inedible vegetation and dry climates to the north. The SCP is periodically opened when sea level falls by up to 130 m during glacial maxima to expose the present day submerged inner continental shelf. A five-fold expansion of the SCP receiving more rainfall in glacial periods may have served as a refuge to humans and large migratory herds. The expansive glacial SCP habitat abruptly contracts, by as much as one-third in 300 yr, during the rapid rise in sea level associated with glacial terminations. Rapid flooding may have increased population density and competition on the SCP to select for humans who expanded their diet to include marine resources or hunted large animals. Modest expansion of the coastal plain off Morocco and more extensive expansion off Tunisia would have similarly provided potential refugia for human groups during glacial periods. Other refugia in the African interior included the Ethiopian Highlands and the East African lakes; however, most of these regions probably had more diffuse barriers connected by river valley corridors. The earliest yet reported occurrence of symbolic artifacts from both North Africa and the SCP coastal caves of South Africa suggest that human populations in these areas were under shared selection pressures to adapt to increasing population densities associated with the transition from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6 to 5, 135 to 130 thousand years ago. The hypothesis that periodic expansion and contraction of the coastal plains of South Africa and North Africa contributed to the stepwise origin of our species over the last 800 thousand years is evaluated by comparing the archeological, DNA and sea-level records.

Compton, J. S.

2012-04-01

255

Kinetics of telencephalic neural cell proliferation during the fetal regeneration period following a single X-irradiation at the late organogenesis stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Autoradiographic studies were conducted at the cerebral hemispheres of mouse embryos X-irradiated on day 12 of gestation and of normal litter mates during the subsequent developmental period. By counting the percentage of labeled mitoses the generation time, the potential doubling time, the growth fraction, as well as the length of the individuall cell cycle stages of the neuroblast cells

W. Schmahl

1983-01-01

256

Prepartum and postpartum nutritional management to optimize fertility in high-yielding dairy cows in confined TMR systems.  

PubMed

The 6 to 8-week period centered on parturition, known as the transition or periparturient period, is critical to welfare and profitability of individual cows. Fertility of high-producing cows is compromised by difficult transitions. Deficiencies in either nutritional or non-nutritional management increase risk for periparturient metabolic disorders and infectious diseases, which decrease subsequent fertility. A primary factor impeding fertility is the extent of negative energy balance (NEB) early postpartum, which may inhibit timing of first ovulation, return to cyclicity, and oocyte quality. In particular, pronounced NEB during the first 10 days to 2 weeks (the time of greatest occurrence of health problems) is critical for later reproductive efficiency. Avoiding over-conditioning and preventing cows from over-consuming energy relative to their requirements in late gestation result in higher dry matter intake (DMI) and less NEB after calving. A pooled statistical analysis of previous studies in our group showed that days to pregnancy are decreased (by 10 days) by controlling energy intake to near requirements of cows before calving compared with allowing cows to over-consume energy. To control energy intake, total mixed rations (TMR) must be well balanced for metabolizable protein, minerals and vitamins yet limit total DM consumed, and cows must uniformly consume the TMR without sorting. Dietary management to maintain blood calcium and rumen health around and after calving also are important. Opportunities may exist to further improve energy status in fresh cows. Recent research to manipulate the glucogenic to lipogenic balance and the essential fatty acid content of tissues are intriguing. High-producing cows that adapt successfully to lactation can have high reproductive efficiency, and nutritional management of the transition period both pre- and post-calving must facilitate that adaptation. PMID:24844126

Drackley, J K; Cardoso, F C

2014-05-01

257

Associations Between Physical Activity and Postpartum Depressive Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Postpartum women are at increased risk for developing depression, which can contribute to the ill health of the mother and her family. Previous research indicates that mothers who are physically active during leisure experience lower levels of postpartum depressive symptoms than do inactive mothers. The objective of this investigation was to examine the associations between total and domain-specific moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and depressive symptoms postpartum. Methods Data were obtained from 550 women who participated in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition (PIN) Postpartum Study, a prospective cohort of mothers who delivered liveborn infants from October 2002 to December 2005 in North Carolina. Three-month postpartum MVPA was investigated as a predictor of 12-month postpartum depressive symptoms. Results Those who participated in MVPA had two times the odds of developing elevated depressive symptoms at 12 months postpartum than those with no MVPA (odds ratio [OR] 2.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71-6.75). Different associations were suggested when examining domain-specific MVPA. Those participating in adult and child care and indoor household MVPA at 3 months postpartum had more than double the odds of developing elevated depressive symptoms at 12 months postpartum (OR 2.66, 95% CI 1.03, 8.11 and OR 2.72, 95% CI 0.96-10.18, respectively). Work MVPA conferred a doubling of the odds (OR 1.95, 95% CI 0.46-7.13), but recreational and outdoor household MVPA showed no associations with depressive symptoms. Conclusions Associations between MVPA and depressive symptoms differed by domain among postpartum women. Future studies of postpartum depressive symptoms should explore reasons for differences in physical activity by domain. PMID:21668353

Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Evenson, Kelly R.; Herring, Amy H.; Dole, Nancy; Gaynes, Bradley N.

2011-01-01

258

Occurrence and Determinants of Postpartum Maternal Morbidities and Disabilities among Women in Matlab, Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

The burden of maternal ill-health includes not only the levels of maternal mortality and complications during pregnancy and around the time of delivery but also extends to the standard postpartum period of 42 days with consequences of obstetric complications and poor management at delivery. There is a dearth of reliable data on these postpartum maternal morbidities and disabilities in developing countries, and more research is warranted to investigate these and further strengthen the existing safe motherhood programmes to respond to these conditions. This study aims at identifying the consequences of pregnancy and delivery in the postpartum period, their association with acute obstetric complications, the sociodemographic characteristics of women, mode and place of delivery, nutritional status of the mother, and outcomes of birth. From among women who delivered between 2007 and 2008 in the icddr,b service area in Matlab, we prospectively recruited all women identified with complicated births (n=295); a perinatal mortality (n=182); and caesarean-section delivery without any maternal indication (n=147). A random sample of 538 women with uncomplicated births, who delivered at home or in a facility, was taken as the control. All subjects were clinically examined at 6-9 weeks for postpartum morbidities and disabilities. Postpartum women who had suffered obstetric complications during birth and delivered in a hospital were more likely to suffer from hypertension [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=3.44; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.14-10.36], haemorrhoids (AOR=1.73; 95% CI=1.11-3.09), and moderate to severe anaemia (AOR=7.11; 95% CI=2.03-4.88) than women with uncomplicated normal deliveries. Yet, women who had complicated births were less likely to have perineal tears (AOR=0.05; 95% CI=0.02-0.14) and genital prolapse (AOR=0.22; 95% CI=0.06-0.76) than those with uncomplicated normal deliveries. Genital infections were more common amongst women experiencing a perinatal death than those with uncomplicated normal births (AOR=1.92; 95% CI=1.18-3.14). Perineal tears were significantly higher (AOR=3.53; 95% CI=2.32-5.37) among those who had delivery at home than those giving birth in a hospital. Any woman may suffer a postpartum morbidity or disability. The increased likelihood of having hypertension, haemorrhoids, or anaemia among women with obstetric complications at birth needs specific intervention. A higher quality of maternal healthcare services generally might alleviate the suffering from perineal tears and prolapse amongst those with a normal uncomplicated delivery. PMID:22838157

Ahmed, A.; Dasgupta, S.K.; Jahan, M.; Huda, F.A.; Ronsmans, C.; Koblinsky, M.; Chowdhury, M.E.

2012-01-01

259

The ages of pedestal craters on Mars: Evidence for a late-Amazonian extended period of episodic emplacement of decameters-thick mid-latitude ice deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is significant geomorphologic evidence for the past presence of longitudinally widespread, latitudinally zoned deposits composed of ice-rich material at the northern and southern mid latitudes on Mars (lobate debris aprons, lineated valley fill, concentric crater fill, pedestal craters, etc.). Among these features, pedestal craters (Pd) are impact craters interpreted to have produced a protective layer on top of decameters-thick ice deposits now missing in intercrater regions. The time during which these various deposits were present is still highly debated. To address this question we have analyzed the distribution and characteristics of pedestal craters; here, we use a population of 2287 pedestal craters (Pd) to derive a crater retention age for the entire population, obtaining a minimum timescale of formation of ~90 Myr. Given that the ice-rich deposit has not been continuously present for this duration, the timescale of formation is necessarily longer than ~100 Myr. We then compiled impact crater size-frequency distribution dates for 50 individual pedestal craters in both hemispheres to further assess the frequency distribution of individual ages. We calculated pedestal crater ages that ranged from ~1 Myr to ~3.6 Gyr, with a median of ~140 Myr. In addition, 70% of the pedestal ages are less than 250 Myr. During the 150 Myr period between 25 Ma and 175 Ma, we found at least one pedestal age every 15 Myr. This suggests that the ice-rich paleodeposit accumulated frequently during that time period. We then applied these results to the relationship between obliquity and latitudinal ice stability to suggest some constraints on the obliquity history of Mars over the past 200 Myr. Atmospheric general circulation models indicate that ice stability over long periods in the mid latitudes is favored by moderate mean obliquities in the ~35° range. Models of spin-axis/orbital parameter evolution predict that the average obliquity of Mars is ~38°. Our data represent specific observational evidence that ice-rich deposits accumulated frequently during the past 200 Myr, supporting the prediction that Mars was characterized by this obliquity range during an extensive part of that time period. Using these results as a foundation, the dating of other non-polar ice deposits will permit the specific obliquity history to be derived and lead to an assessment of volatile transport paths in the climate history of Mars.

Kadish, Seth J.; Head, James W.

2014-02-01

260

Chronologic evidence for multiple periods of loess deposition during the Late Pleistocene in the Missouri and Mississippi River Valley, United States: Implications for the activity of the Laurentide ice sheet  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The loess stratigraphy of the mid-continental U.S. is an important proxy record for the activity of the Laurentide Ice Sheet in North America. One of the most outstanding problems is deciphering the age of loess deposits in this area during the late Pleistocene. Radiocarbon dating of snails and thermoluminescence dating of the fine-silt fraction (4-11 ??m) from loess at the Loveland Loess type section, Loveland, Iowa and a recent excavation at the Pleasant Grove School section. Madison County, Illinois provide new chronologic control on loess deposition in the Mississippi/Missouri River Valley chronology indicates that the Loveland Loess is Illinoian in age (135??20 ka) but is not correlative with the Teneriffe Silt which is dated to 77 ?? 8 ka. Concordant radiocarbon and thermoluminescence age estimates demonstrate that the Roxana Silt and a correlative loess in Iowa, the Pisgah Formation, is probably 40-30 ka old. These age estimates in conjunction with previous results indicate that there were four periods of loess deposition during the last 150 ka at 25-12 ka, 45-30 ka, 85-70 ka and at ca. 135 ?? 20 ka. This chronology of loess deposition supports the presence of both a late Illinoian and early Wisconsinan loess and associated soils. Thus, there may be more than one soil in the loess stratigraphy of the mid-continental U.S. with morphologies similar to the Sangamon Soil. The last three periods of loess deposition may be correlative with periods of elevated dust concentrations recorded in the Dye 3 ice core from southern Greenland. This is particularly significant because both areas possibly had the same source for eolian particles. Reconstructions of atmospheric circulation for glacial periods show a southerly deflected jet stream that could have transported dust from the mid-continental USA to southern Greenland. Lastly, the inferred record of loess deposition is parallel to a chronology for deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet deciphered from chronologic and stratigraphic studies of raised glacial and marine sediments in the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada. These chronologies indicate that the Laurentide Ice Sheet was quite dynamic during the late Pleistocene, advancing and retreating across North America at least four times during the last 150 ka. ?? 1992.

Forman, S.L.; Bettis, E. Arthur, III; Kemmis, T.J.; Miller, B.B.

1992-01-01

261

Postpartum depression in women with epilepsy: influence of antiepileptic drugs in a prospective study.  

PubMed

Patients with epilepsy are at high risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) and, according to one report, postpartum depression (PPD) as well. The study described here sought to determine the prevalence and risk factors for PPD among women with epilepsy. Fifty-six women with epilepsy participating in a prospective study of perinatal antiepileptic drug (AED) pharmacokinetics were included. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Fourteen participants (25.0%) had a postnatal BDI score > or =12 indicative of PPD. Logistic regression indicated that significant risk factors for PPD among women with epilepsy included multiparity (odds ratio=12.5) and AED polytherapy (odds ratio=9.3). The rate of PPD was unaffected by the use of specific AEDs. In conclusion, PPD rates are higher among women with epilepsy than the general population, particularly those who are multiparous or receiving AED polytherapy, and there is no evidence that AED selection modifies this risk. PMID:19854113

Galanti, Melanie; Newport, D Jeffrey; Pennell, Page B; Titchner, Denicia; Newman, Melanee; Knight, Bettina T; Stowe, Zachary N

2009-11-01

262

Postpartum depression in women with epilepsy: Influence of antiepileptic drugs in a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Patients with epilepsy are at high risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) and, according to one report, postpartum depression (PPD) as well. The study described here sought to determine the prevalence and risk factors for PPD among women with epilepsy. Fifty-six women with epilepsy participating in a prospective study of perinatal antiepileptic drug (AED) pharmacokinetics were included. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Fourteen participants (25.0%) had a postnatal BDI score ?12 indicative of PPD. Logistic regression indicated that significant risk factors for PPD among women with epilepsy included multiparity (odds ratio = 12.5) and AED polytherapy (odds ratio = 9.3). The rate of PPD was unaffected by the use of specific AEDs. In conclusion, PPD rates are higher among women with epilepsy than the general population, particularly those who are multiparous or receiving AED polytherapy, and there is no evidence that AED selection modifies this risk. PMID:19854113

Galanti, Melanie; Newport, D. Jeffrey; Pennell, Page B.; Titchner, Denicia; Newman, Melanee; Knight, Bettina T.; Stowe, Zachary N.

2013-01-01

263

Bovine intramammary Escherichia coli challenge infections in late gestation demonstrate a dominant antiinflammatory immunological response.  

PubMed

Coliform mastitis that presents itself at parturition or in the early weeks of bovine lactation is often characterized by severe inflammation and impaired milk production and can lead to death of the animal. Chronic intramammary infections caused by persistent strains of Escherichia coli may result in high production losses. The aim of this study was to determine the inflammatory response to a teat-canal challenge of bovine mammary glands with a persistent strain of E. coli during late gestation (dry period) and into early lactation. Two weeks before parturition, animals were challenged in 2 quarters with 30 cfu of a persistent strain of E. coli; control quarters were vehicle-infused and not infused, respectively. Samples of dry cow secretions were taken from all quarters before challenge and at 6, 12, 18, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h following challenge. Colostrum samples and milk samples were taken from all quarters at parturition and 6, 12, 18, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h postpartum. Bacterial culture, combined with random amplified polymorphic DNA genetic strain-typing analysis, indicated recovery of the bacterial challenge strain until 48 to 96 h postchallenge, and again at parturition and up to 6 and 12h postpartum. One animal exhibited clinical mastitis and the bacterial challenge strain was evident to at least 12 d postpartum. During twice-daily milkings, production levels were lower in bacteria-challenged quarters compared with controls. Somatic cell counts decreased to normal levels at a slower rate in challenged quarters compared with control quarters. Cytokine analysis indicated a minimal proinflammatory cytokine response, including interleukin-1? and tumor necrosis factor-? in challenged-quarter dry cow samples up to 120 h postchallenge. Interleukin-10 levels were significantly increased by 12h postchallenge in secretions from challenged and control quarters. These preliminary results in 2 cows indicate that proinflammatory signaling after intramammary bacterial infection may be actively suppressed during late gestation. We hypothesize that this immune-inhibitory response allows intramammary infections to become persistent in the dry period and cause clinical signs immediately after parturition. PMID:22192191

Quesnell, R R; Klaessig, S; Watts, J L; Schukken, Y H

2012-01-01

264

Anxiety symptoms and disorders at eight weeks postpartum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the prevalence, risk factors for, and consequences of postpartum depression have been studied extensively, little work has examined the nature of postpartum anxiety disorders in community samples. In the present study, 147 community women completed a diagnostic interview and a battery of self-report inventories approximately eight weeks after childbirth. The rate of generalized anxiety disorder was elevated as compared

Amy Wenzel; Erin N. Haugen; Lydia C. Jackson; Jennifer R. Brendle

2005-01-01

265

Efferocytosis produces a prometastatic landscape during postpartum mammary gland involution.  

PubMed

Breast cancers that occur in women 2-5 years postpartum are more frequently diagnosed at metastatic stages and correlate with poorer outcomes compared with breast cancers diagnosed in young, premenopausal women. The molecular mechanisms underlying the malignant severity associated with postpartum breast cancers (ppBCs) are unclear but relate to stromal wound-healing events during postpartum involution, a dynamic process characterized by widespread cell death in milk-producing mammary epithelial cells (MECs). Using both spontaneous and allografted mammary tumors in fully immune-competent mice, we discovered that postpartum involution increases mammary tumor metastasis. Cell death was widespread, not only occurring in MECs but also in tumor epithelium. Dying tumor cells were cleared through receptor tyrosine kinase MerTK-dependent efferocytosis, which robustly induced the transcription of genes encoding wound-healing cytokines, including IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, and TGF-?. Animals lacking MerTK and animals treated with a MerTK inhibitor exhibited impaired efferocytosis in postpartum tumors, a reduction of M2-like macrophages but no change in total macrophage levels, decreased TGF-? expression, and a reduction of postpartum tumor metastasis that was similar to the metastasis frequencies observed in nulliparous mice. Moreover, TGF-? blockade reduced postpartum tumor metastasis. These data suggest that widespread cell death during postpartum involution triggers efferocytosis-induced wound-healing cytokines in the tumor microenvironment that promote metastatic tumor progression. PMID:25250573

Stanford, Jamie C; Young, Christian; Hicks, Donna; Owens, Philip; Williams, Andrew; Vaught, David B; Morrison, Meghan M; Lim, Jiyeon; Williams, Michelle; Brantley-Sieders, Dana M; Balko, Justin M; Tonetti, Debra; Earp, H Shelton; Cook, Rebecca S

2014-11-01

266

Characterizing and Predicting Postpartum Depression from Shared Facebook Data  

E-print Network

; emotion; health; language; postpartum; social media; Twitter; wellness ACM Classification Keywords H.3 mothers experience a mood disorder of greater severity and duration called postpartum depression (http://www.cdc.gov/ reproductivehealth/Depression/). PPD is marked by symptoms such as sadness, fatigue, changes in sleeping and eating

Horvitz, Eric

267

Challenges in Diagnosing and Treating Postpartum Blues, Depression and Psychosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With recent media attention and a growing awareness in popular culture, the appropriate treatment for postpartum depression has taken center stage as a prevalent women's health issue. There is little agreement on the definition, existence and treatment of postpartum depression. Contributing to this factor is the lack of research that exists to…

Lewis, Carol A.; Byers, Alison Daly; Malard, Sarah Deann; Dawson, Gregory A.

2010-01-01

268

Maternal Diet and Weight at 3 Months Postpartum Following a Pregnancy Intervention with a Low Glycaemic Index Diet: Results from the ROLO Randomised Control Trial  

PubMed Central

Pregnancy increases the risk of being overweight at a later time period, particularly when there is excessive gestational weight gain. There remains a paucity of data into the effect of low glycaemic index (GI) pregnancy interventions postpartum. Aim: To examine the impact of a low glycaemic index diet during pregnancy on maternal diet 3 months postpartum. Methodology: This analysis examined the diet, weight and lifestyle of 460 participants of the ROLO study 3 months postpartum. Questionnaires on weight, physical activity, breastfeeding, supplement use, food label reading and dietary habits were completed. Results: The intervention group had significantly greater weight loss from pre-pregnancy to 3 months postpartum than the control group (1.3 vs. 0.1 kg, p = 0.022). The intervention group reported greater numbers following a low glycaemic index diet (p < 0.001) and reading food labels (p = 0.032) and had a lower glycaemic load (GL) (128 vs. 145, p = 0.014) but not GI (55 vs. 55, p = 0.809) than controls. Conclusions: Low GI dietary interventions in pregnancy result in improved health-behaviours and continued reported compliance at 3 months postpartum possibly through lower dietary GL as a result of portion control. Greater levels of weight loss from pre-pregnancy to 3 months postpartum in the intervention group may have important positive implications for overweight and obesity. PMID:25057103

Horan, Mary K.; McGowan, Ciara A.; Gibney, Eileen R.; Donnelly, Jean M.; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.

2014-01-01

269

Pathways Linking Socioeconomic Status and Postpartum Smoking Relapse  

PubMed Central

Background Low socioeconomic status (SES) exacerbates the high rate of smoking relapse in women following childbirth. Purpose This study examined multiple models of potential mechanisms linking SES and postpartum smoking relapse among women who quit smoking due to pregnancy. Methods Participants were 251 women enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of a new postpartum smoking relapse prevention intervention. Four models of the prepartum mechanisms linking SES and postpartum smoking relapse were evaluated using a latent variable modeling approach. Results Each of the hypothesized models were a good fit for the data. As hypothesized, SES indirectly influenced postpartum smoking relapse through increased prepartum negative affect/stress, reduced sense of agency, and increased craving for cigarettes. However, the model that included craving as the sole final pathway between SES and relapse demonstrated superior fit when compared with all other models. Conclusions Findings have implications for future interventions that aim to reduce postpartum relapse. PMID:23086590

Businelle, Michael S.; Kendzor, Darla E.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Castro, Yessenia; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Velasquez, Mary M.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Greisinger, Anthony J.; Wetter, David W.

2012-01-01

270

Overweight and obesity in postpartum Hispanic women.  

PubMed

Overweight and obesity vary in prevalence among particular groups, and are especially problematic for childbearing Hispanic women. The complex interaction between physical changes associated with pregnancy, role changes accompanying birth, and family and cultural values related to childbearing are superimposed upon the underlying mechanisms that create or perpetuate obesity. In this article we review biological and behavioral research on obesity in postpartum Hispanic women to identify critical components for intervention studies focused on weight management. Recommendations are offered for health care providers and researchers. PMID:18569049

Records, Kathie; Keller, Colleen; Ainsworth, Barbara; Permana, Paska A

2008-07-01

271

Csarienne et troubles gnito-sexuels du post-partum Cesarean and postpartum genito-sexual disorders  

E-print Network

Titre Césarienne et troubles génito-sexuels du post-partum Cesarean and postpartum genito resulting from childbirth. Cesarean delivery that avoids perineal trauma should less disturb sexual function between women given birth by caesarean section and women have given birth through the natural way

Boyer, Edmond

272

Effects of hypergravity on ovarian-hypophyseal function in antepartum and postpartum rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: Rats exposed to microgravity during the post-implantation phase of pregnancy had minimal alterations in ovarian and hypophyseal parameters during the antepartum and postpartum periods. In the current study, a similar parallel experimental design was employed to ascertain the effects of hypergravity on ovarian and hypophyseal function. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that hypergravity exposure during the post-implantation stage of pregnancy would not alter antepartum and postpartum ovarian and hypophyseal function. METHODS: Pregnant rats were assigned to hypergravity (1.5 G, 1.75 G, or 2.0 G), rotational control, or stationary control groups (n = 10 each group) beginning on gestation day 11 and ending on day 20. Hypophyseal and ovarian analyses were conducted on 5 of the animals from each group at day 20. The remaining animals in each group were allowed to go to term and the same analyses were conducted 3 h postpartum. RESULTS: Hypergravity at all levels decreased the percent body mass gain from gestation day 11 to 20 (p < 0.05); however, the wet weight of the pituitaries and ovaries was not changed. There was no effect of hypergravity on the number of healthy or atretic antral follicles of any size at gestation day 20 or postpartum. The number of corpora lutea of pregnancy was decreased in all hypergravity groups, but the number of live fetuses at gestation day 20 or pups at term was not altered. Plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin, and progesterone were not changed at gestation day 20 or postpartum. Pituitary content of LH, FSH, and prolactin was not altered by hypergravity at gestation day 20, but LH content was significantly increased (p < 0.05) at 1.5 and 1.75 G postpartum. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that hypergravity, up to and including 2.0 G, is compatible with maintenance of pregnancy and has minimal effects on hypophyseal parameters. Ovarian follicles are not altered by hypergravity, but corpora lutea may regress at a more rapid rate.

Burden, Hubert W.; Zary, Joan T.; Hodson, Charles A.; Gregory, Heather L.; Baer, Lisa A.; Ronca, April E.

2003-01-01

273

Interrelationships between ambient temperature, age at calving, postpartum reproductive events and reproductive performance in dairy cows: a path analysis.  

PubMed Central

Path analysis was used to determine the interrelationships between ambient temperature, age at calving, postpartum reproductive events and reproductive performance in dairy cows. The data used in the analysis were collected on 226 Holstein-Friesian cows calving in a commercial dairy herd during a 17 month period (May 1, 1981 to October 1, 1982). The data were obtained from a double blind study evaluating the effects of gonadotrophin releasing hormone and cloprostenol in postpartum cows. Rectal palpation to assess uterine involution and ovarian activity was performed on each cow on days 15, 24 and 28 postpartum. At the same time, blood samples were collected for subsequent progesterone assay. Data were recorded on the occurrence of reproductive diseases and events from the time of parturition until the diagnosis of pregnancy or until the cow left the herd in the case of culled cows. There was an increase in the incidence of retained placenta, in the percentage of cows with abnormal vaginal discharge in the early postpartum period as well as a delay in uterine involution during the winter months. In addition, cows calving during the winter had prolonged intervals to first estrus, first service and conception compared to cows calving during the summer. (Cows calving during the warmest months, on average, were seen in estrus 24 days sooner, received first service 42 days sooner and conceived 27 days sooner than cows calving during the coldest months of the year).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4041971

Etherington, W G; Martin, S W; Dohoo, I R; Bosu, W T

1985-01-01

274

Spatial variability of the species composition, abundance, and productivity of the phytoplankton in the white sea in the late summer period  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The species composition, cell concentration ( N), and biomass ( B) of the phytoplankton, as well as the chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration, primary production ( PP), and the concentrations of the dissolved inorganic micronutrients (phosphorus, silica, nitrogen as nitrite), were estimated for Kandalaksha Bay (KB), Dvina Bay (DB), and the basin (Bas) of the White Sea in August of 2004. The micronutrient concentrations were lower compared to the average long-term values for the summer period. The Chl a concentration varies from 0.9 to 2.0 mg/m3 for most of the studied areas, reaching up to 7.5 mg/m3 in the Northern Dvina River estuary. The surface water layer of the DB was the most productive area, where the PP reached up to 270-375 mg C/(m3 day). The phytoplankton biomass varied from 11 to 205 mg C/m3 with the highest values observed in the Bas and DB. Three groups of stations were defined during the analysis of the phytoplankton's species composition similarity. The dinoflagellates Dinophysis norvegica and Ceratium fusus were particular to the phytoplankton assemblages in the KB; the diatom Ditylum brightwellii was particular to the upper and central parts of the DB. These three phytoplankton species were less abundant in the Bas.

Ilyash, L. V.; Radchenko, I. G.; Kuznetsov, L. L.; Lisitzyn, A. P.; Martynova, D. M.; Novigatskiy, A. N.; Chul'Tsova, A. L.

2011-02-01

275

Molluscs as evidence for a late Pleistocene and early Holocene humid period in the southern coastal desert of Peru (14.5°S)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southern Peruvian coastal desert around Palpa, southern Peru (14.5°S) is currently characterized by hyper-arid conditions. However, the presence of two species of molluscs ( Scutalus, Pupoides) and desert-loess deposits indicates the past development of semi-desert and grassland ecosystems caused by a displacement of the eastern desert margin due to hydrological changes. Radiocarbon dating shows that the transition to a semi-arid climate in the southern Peruvian coastal desert took place during the Greenland interstadial 1, ˜ 13.5 cal ka BP. At the beginning of the Holocene, the mollusc fauna vanished due to increasing humidity and the development of grasslands. Dust particles were fixed by the grasses, as indicated by abundant Poaceae phytoliths, and desert loess was formed. The humid period we observe here is out of phase with the palaeoenvironmental records from the Titicaca region, which indicates dry conditions at that time. This paper offers a new idea for this contradiction: an orbitally driven meridional shift of the Bolivian high might have altered the moisture supply across the Andes.

Mächtle, Bertil; Unkel, Ingmar; Eitel, Bernhard; Kromer, Bernd; Schiegl, Solveig

2010-01-01

276

Use of the principle of proprioceptive correction in the restoration of voluntary movements in the paralyzed arm in patients in the late recovery and residual post-stroke periods.  

PubMed

A specially developed proprioceptive correction costume was used for the restoration of motor functions in the proximal parts of the upper limb in central paralysis syndrome in patients in the late recovery and residual post-stroke states. The costume is a logical continuation of the Adeli and Gravistat proprioceptive correction systems, directed to restoring balance and gait in post-stroke patients. The costume consists of a waistcoat and cuffs connected by a system of elastic bands fixed around the shoulder and forearm of the paralyzed upper limb. Controlling the tension in the elastic bands allows a regime of "facilitated" work to be created, with increased loading of active movements in the proximal parts of the paralyzed arm. The effectiveness of using the proprioceptive correction costume in restoring voluntary movements in the upper limb was demonstrated during the treatment of 23 patients in the late recovery and residual post-stroke periods. In most patients, treatment resulted in significant decreases in the extent of paralysis in the arm and produced recovery rates greater than those seen in the control group. Use of the proprioceptive correction costume in the neurorehabilitation complex is advised for restoration of voluntary movements in the arms of stroke patients. PMID:18607743

Prokopenko, S V; Rudnev, V A; Arakchaa, E M; Derevtsova, S N

2008-07-01

277

[Postpartum depression: correlations and predictive factors].  

PubMed

Post-partum depression (PPD) belongs to the depressive spectrum consecutive to a pregnancy. It is important to detect it as soon as possible to avoid non-negligible consequences for the mother, the new born and close relatives. It some cases, PPD may give way to post-partum psychosis, a psychiatric emergency. The present study splits 88 women in two groups, within days of delivery, as a function of their score at the Edinburgh postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), an internationally validated scale which predicts future episodes of PPD. The two groups are then compared to a series of open items, obtained by personal interview, with the objective to better differentiate psychological and historical data giving way to this condition. Among the women, 27.3% had a score on the EPDS > or = 12 which is higher than what is generally encountered in the literature. The main results of this study are: 1) the higher percentage in the at risk group of women living with a significant other; 2) the presence of psychic or somatic issues during the pregnancy; 3) the feelings of negligence by the immediate environment; 4) auto-depreciative tendency, the ill-fulfilling of maternal function. These items are easily detectable if a little more attention was dedicated to young mothers soon after delivery. PMID:24683836

Amaru, D; Le Bon, O

2014-01-01

278

Temporal relationship between intimate partner violence and postpartum depression in a sample of low income women.  

PubMed

To estimate whether there is a temporal association between Postpartum Depression (PPD) and intimate partner violence (IPV), and to assess the potential role of social support on this relationship. A cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2006 and March 2007 with 701 low income women who received prenatal and postpartum care in primary health care units of the public sector in São Paulo, Brazil. The Self-Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20) was used to assess the presence of PPD. Structured standardized questionnaires were used to assess IPV and social support. The prevalence of PPD was estimated with a 95 % confidence interval. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios were calculated using Poisson regression to examine the association between PPD and exposure variables. Values of p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The prevalence of PPD was 27.9 % (95 %CI 24.6:31.2). The prevalence of psychological IPV was 38.6 %, physical IPV 23.4 %, and sexual IPV 7.1 %. The multivariate analysis showed that PPD was strongly associated with current psychological and physical/sexual violence, after controlling for confounding factors, and less so with past (prenatal or lifetime) IPV. Presence of social support was an independent protective factor for PPD. Identifying and addressing intimate partner violence, including psychological violence, in the postpartum period should be considered as part of a comprehensive approach to caring for new mothers. PMID:22935913

Faisal-Cury, Alexandre; Menezes, Paulo Rossi; d'Oliveira, Ana Flávia Pires Lucas; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Lopes, Claudia S

2013-09-01

279

Increased Glutamate Levels in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex in Patients with Postpartum Depression  

PubMed Central

The medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) is a key brain area in depressive symptomatology; specifically, glutamate (Glu) has been reported to play a significant role in major depression (MD) in this area. MPFC Glu levels are sensitive to ovarian hormone fluctuations and pregnancy and the postpartum period are associated with the most substantial physiological alterations of female hormones. It is therefore logical to measure MPFC Glu levels in women with postpartum depression (PPD). Using in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at a field strength of 3?T, we acquired single-voxel spectra from the MPFC of 12 women with PPD and 12 healthy controls (HCs) matched for postpartum scan timing. Water-referenced MPFC Glu levels were measured using a MRS technique that allowed us to be specific for Glu with very little glutamine contamination. The concentrations of other water-quantified brain metabolites such as glycerophosphorylcholine plus phosphorylcholine, N-acetylaspartate (NAA), and creatine plus phosphocreatine were measured in the same MR spectra. MPFC Glu levels were higher in women with PPD (7.21±1.20) compared to matched HCs (6.04±1.21). There were no differences between groups for other brain metabolites measured. These findings suggest an association between Glu dysregulation in the MPFC and PPD. Whether the pathophysiology of PPD differs from the pathophysiology of MD remains to be determined. Further investigations are needed to determine the chronological associations between the occurrence of symptoms of PPD and the onset of changes in MPFC Glu levels. PMID:22805604

McEwen, Alyssa M; Burgess, Denee T A; Hanstock, Christopher C; Seres, Peter; Khalili, Panteha; Newman, Stephen C; Baker, Glen B; Mitchell, Nicholas D; Khudabux-Der, Janisse; Allen, Peter S; LeMelledo, Jean-Michel

2012-01-01

280

Postpartum depression: perceptions of a diverse sample of low-income women.  

PubMed

Postpartum depression (PPD) continues to significantly impact women and their families during the perinatal period. Consequences of untreated PPD in the mother may lead to impaired mother-infant bonding, recurring psychiatric illness, and fewer positive parenting behaviors. North Carolina participates in the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) survey and has the second highest self-reported rate of postpartum depressive symptoms at 19.0%. The full study used both quantitative and qualitative methods. The qualitative approach, an interpretive Heideggerian perspective, elicited the postpartum clients' perceptions of risk factors, how those perceptions affected the pregnancy experience, and how self-efficacy played a role in their perceived ability to make healthy choices. The sample was comprised of 60 pregnant women between the ages of 18 and 40. Four themes were found: (1) Feeling joy and apprehension at once, (2) Depression is something you think about (3) Rearranging your thinking, and (4) Garnering support. The women in this study believed that support was an indispensable tool in dealing with feelings of sadness and depression. Critical aspects of becoming involved in their pregnancy included changing their expectations and knowing how to detect and seek help when depressive symptoms occurred. PMID:24597584

Jarosinski, Judith M; Pollard, Deborah Lynn

2014-03-01

281

A longitudinal study of women's memories of their childbirth experiences at five years postpartum  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies have investigated whether women can accurately recall their birthing experiences after a long period. We investigated the consistency of women’s memories of their childbirth experiences between those at a few days postpartum and 5 years later. Methods This prospective cohort study comprised 1,168 women who delivered at a maternity hospital and four maternity homes in Japan between May 2002 and August 2003. Data were collected using structured interviews and transcriptions from medical records. The childbirth experience was assessed using the Childbirth Experience Scale (CBE-Scale) at a few days postpartum and 5 years later. Results We obtained 584 (50.0%) valid responses from women who completed the survey at a few days postpartum and 5 years later. Significant differences were observed in 16 out of 18 items on the CBE-Scale when responses were compared at both time points. Women who answered "yes" to any item on the CBE-Scale at the baseline survey tended to demonstrate a more precise recollection for that item 5 years after childbirth than those who answered "no" for the corresponding item. Conclusions We conclude that women remember their childbirth experience clearly at 5 years after the childbirth. PMID:24996683

2014-01-01

282

Baseline results from Hawaii's N? Mikimiki Project: a physical activity intervention tailored to multiethnic postpartum women.  

PubMed

During the postpartum period, ethnic minority women have higher rates of inactivity/under-activity than white women. The N? Mikimiki ("the active ones") Project is designed to increase moderate-to-vigorous physical activity over 18 months among multiethnic women with infants 2-12 months old. The study was designed to test, via a randomized controlled trial, the effectiveness of a tailored telephone counseling of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity intervention compared to a print/website materials-only condition. Healthy, underactive women (mean age = 32 ± 5.6 years) with a baby (mean age = 5.7 ± 2.8 months) were enrolled from 2008-2009 (N = 278). Of the total sample, 84% were ethnic minority women, predominantly Asian-American and Native Hawaiian. Mean self-reported baseline level of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was 40 minutes/week with no significant differences by study condition, ethnicity, infant's age, maternal body mass index, or maternal employment. Women had high scores on perceived benefits, self-efficacy, and environmental support for exercise but low scores on social support for exercise. This multiethnic sample's demographic and psychosocial characteristics and their perceived barriers to exercise were comparable to previous physical activity studies conducted largely with white postpartum women. The N? Mikimiki Project's innovative tailored technology-based intervention and unique population are significant contributions to the literature on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in postpartum women. PMID:22533900

Albright, Cheryl L; Steffen, Alana D; Novotny, Rachel; Nigg, Claudio R; Wilkens, Lynne R; Saiki, Kara; Yamada, Paulette; Hedemark, Brooke; Maddock, Jason E; Dunn, Andrea L; Brown, Wendy J

2012-01-01

283

Spontaneous post-partum cervical carotid artery dissection in a patient with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome.  

PubMed

Post-partum cervicocephalic artery dissection (pp-CAD) is a rare and poorly understood condition. To our knowledge, only 21 cases have been reported. Reversible cerebral segmental vasoconstriction (RCSV) was first described by Call and Fleming in 1988, and its association with pp-CAD has only been reported in three cases. However, in those cases it is unclear whether the pp-CAD may have been caused by straining during labor and therefore merely coincidental to the intracranial arteriopathy. We describe a 41-year-old right-handed African-American woman who developed the syndrome of pp-CAD (headaches, trace subarachnoid hemorrhage and diffuse cerebral arteriopathy on angiogram) two weeks after delivery. In this unique case, the patient had fortuitously undergone an MR study twice over a four day period which included the carotid bifurcations. During that time the patient was an inpatient, on bed rest and subject to continuous cardiac monitoring. The interval studies documented a true spontaneous right internal carotid artery dissection occurring without obvious cause. The patient had noted moderate right neck pain developing between the two MR studies but experienced no neurological deficits. Subsequent conventional angiography confirmed the presence of postpartum cerebral arteriopathy and the cervical dissection. The patient was managed conservatively with antiplatelet medication and had an otherwise uneventful course. We hypothesize whether transient arterial wall abnormalities, postpartum hormonal changes or subtle connective tissue aberrations play a similar role in the pathogenesis of these two associated conditions. PMID:22192555

Soltanolkotabi, Maryam; Ansari, S A; Shaibani, A; Singer, T B; Hurley, M C

2011-12-01

284

Examination of premenstrual symptoms as a risk factor for depression in postpartum women.  

PubMed

Postpartum depression (PPD) is a significant public health concern with prevalence of major and minor depressions reaching 20 % in the first three postpartum months. Sociodemographic and psychopathology correlates of PPD are well established; however, information on the relationship between premenstrual disorders and the development of PPD is less well established. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the role of premenstrual syndrome (PMS)/premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) as a risk factor for PPD. Premenstrual symptoms were assessed retrospectively using the premenstrual symptoms screening tool (PSST) and depression was diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria and assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). A two-stage screening procedure was applied. In the first stage, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was employed. In the second stage, women endorsing ?5 symptoms on the PHQ-9 were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, HDRS, and PSST. Hierarchical linear regression showed that history of depression and PMS/PMDD contributed an additional 2 % of the variance (p < 0.001), beyond that of sociodemographic factor effects. The full model accounted for 13 % of the variance in postpartum depressive symptoms. Using logistic regression, a significant association also emerged between PMS/PMDD and PPD (OR = 1.97). The findings of this study suggest that PMS/PMDD is an important risk factor for PPD. Women endorsing a history of PMS/PMDD should be monitored during the perinatal period. PMID:23296333

Buttner, Melissa M; Mott, Sarah L; Pearlstein, Teri; Stuart, Scott; Zlotnick, Caron; O'Hara, Michael W

2013-06-01

285

Examination of premenstrual symptoms as a risk factor for depression in postpartum women  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Postpartum depression (PPD) is a significant public health concern with prevalence of major and minor depression reaching 20% in the first three postpartum months. Sociodemographic and psychopathology correlates of PPD are well-established; however, information on the relationship between premenstrual disorders and the development of PPD is less well-established. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the role of premenstrual syndrome (PMS)/premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) as a risk factor for PPD. METHODS Premenstrual symptoms were assessed retrospectively using the Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool (PSST) and depression was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria and assessed using the HDRS. A two-stage screening procedure was applied. In the first stage, the PHQ-9 was employed. In the second stage, women endorsing ? 5 symptoms on the PHQ-9 were administered the SCID, HDRS, and PSST. RESULTS Hierarchical linear regression showed that history of depression and PMS/PMDD contributed an additional 2% of the variance (p < .001), beyond that of sociodemographic factor effects. The full model accounted for 13% of the variance in postpartum depressive symptoms. Using logistic regression, a significant association also emerged between PMS/PMDD and PPD (OR=1.97). CONCLUSIONS The findings of this study suggest that PMS/PMDD is an important risk factor for PPD. Women endorsing a history of PMS/PMDD should be monitored during the perinatal period. PMID:23296333

Buttner, Melissa M.; Mott, Sarah L.; Pearlstein, Teri; Stuart, Scott; Zlotnick, Caron; O'Hara, Michael W.

2013-01-01

286

Aortic Dissection and Postpartum Cardiomyopathy in a Postpartum Young Woman: A Case Report Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Aortic dissection is a rare condition in young women and usually related with congenital anomalies of aorta and connective tissue disorders. We reported a 34-year-old postpartum woman with aortic dissection. Case Presentation: The patient complained of respiratory distress and weakness with no abdominal pain or chest pain 20 days after delivery and had no history of hypertension during pregnancy and perinatal or prior heart disease. Postpartum cardiomyopathy and left ventricular dysfunction were diagnosed by imaging study and cardiac enzyme level. Finally, CT-scan was performed and showed aortic dissection. The patient underwent surgery and after surgery, she was alive without any problem. Conclusions: Patients with peripartum cardiomyopathy and aortic dissection could be cured with good medical care. PMID:24910806

Jalalian, Rozita; Saravi, Mehrdad; Banasaz, Bahar

2014-01-01

287

Bacteriological findings and hormonal profiles in the postpartum Balady goats.  

PubMed

Twenty-six Balady goats categorized according to parity into primiparous and pluriparous goats were used to investigate bacterial flora of the genital tract and hormonal profiles during the postpartum (PP) period. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated in pure or mixed culture from the uterus. Arcanobacterium pyogenes was isolated from swabs obtained from the vagina and cervix of one primiparous goat. Uteri and cervices but not vaginas were free of bacterial contamination by day 10 PP except for one pluriparous goat with scanty E. coli contamination on day 25 PP. Fluctuating oestradiol 17beta (E2) levels demonstrated resumption of follicular activity as early as day 13 PP in both parity groups. Progesterone (P4) levels remained low at basal levels throughout the study period. Higher concentrations of 15-keto-13,14-dihydroprostaglandin F2alpha (PGFM) were observed during the first week PP compared with the rest of the PP period. PGFM concentrations dropped to low basal level by day 10 PP and remained constantly low throughout the study period. P4, E2 and PGFM profiles were not different between the different parity groups. In conclusion, intrauterine infection is not common in goats with normal kidding. E. coli was the most common intrauterine bacterial isolate. E2 and P4 profiles were consistent with resumption of follicular growth but not ovulation. High PGFM concentrations coincided with the fast regression phase of uterine involution. Hormonal profile and bacterial contamination and clearance were similar to those reported in other related species and not related to parity. PMID:16420321

Ababneh, M M; Degefa, T

2006-02-01

288

A Comparison of Excessive Postpartum Blood Loss Estimates Among Three Subgroups of Women Attending Births in Matlab, Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Objective Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal death and disability worldwide. Recognition depends on subjective visual quantification. This study sought to assess and compare the thresholds for excessive postpartum blood loss reported by skilled birth attendants (SBA), traditional birth attendants (TBA), and laywomen in Matlab, Bangladesh. Method Data from six questions asking about excessive blood loss in the postpartum period were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA), Hochberg test, Kruskal-Wallis and standard descriptive statistics. Results Thresholds for excessive blood loss estimated by laywomen and TBAs exceed biomedical standards for PPH. Skilled birth attendant reports are consistent with the definition of severe acute PPH. Conclusion Further research on locally validated blood collection devices, in birth kits, for diagnostic aid or referral indication is needed. Areas where coverage and uptake of skilled birth attendance are low should be targeted due to the number of home births attended by TBAs and laywomen in such settings. Precis A comparison of excessive postpartum blood loss estimates among skilled birth attendants, traditional birth attendants and laywomen in Matlab, Bangladesh. PMID:20625452

Edmonds, Joyce K.; Hruschka, Daniel; Sibley, Lynn M.

2009-01-01

289

Maternal Self-confidence Postpartum and at Pre-school Age: The Role of Depression, Anxiety Disorders, Maternal Attachment Insecurity.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of maternal postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DMS-IV on maternal self-confidence throughout infancy and early childhood. Exploratively, associations between maternal attachment insecurity and maternal self-confidence at pre-school age were examined. The sample (N = 54) of this prospective longitudinal study was comprised of n = 27 women with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV criteria and n = 27 healthy women without present or history of mental health disorders or psychotherapy. Data was collected in the postpartum period (M = 60.08 days) and at pre-school age (M = 4.7 years). Subjects were recruited between 2004 and 2011 in South Germany. Data revealed a significant difference in maternal self-confidence between clinical and control group at child's pre-school age: Women with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorder scored lower on maternal self-confidence than healthy controls, but only if they had current SCID-diagnoses or partly remitted symptoms. According to explorative analyses maternal attachment insecurity turned out to be the strongest predictor of maternal self-confidence at pre-school age besides maternal mental health status. The results emphasize the impact of attachment insecurity and maternal mental health regarding maternal self-confidence leading to potential adverse long-term consequences for the mother-child relationship. Attachment based interventions taking maternal self-confidence into account are needed. PMID:24474591

Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Schlüter, Myriam Kim; Nonnenmacher, Nora; Müller, Mitho; Reck, Corinna

2014-10-01

290

Mania and depression in the perinatal period among women with a history of major depressive disorders.  

PubMed

Women with a history of major depressive disorder (MDD) have increased risks for postpartum depression, but less is known about postpartum mania in this population. The objectives of this study were to prospectively determine the frequency with which mania occurs in the postpartum among women who have a history of MDD and to explore temporal relationships between onset of mania/hypomania and depression. We administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV disorders (SCID) to pregnant women with a self-reported history of MDD to confirm diagnosis and exclude women with any history of mania/hypomania. Participants completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Altman Self-Rating Mania Scale (ASRM) once during the pregnancy (?26 weeks) and 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postpartum. Among women (n?=?107) with a SCID-confirmed diagnosis of MDD, 34.6 % (n?=?37) experienced mania/hypomania (defined by an ASRM score of ?6) at ?1 time point during the postpartum, and for just over half (20/37, 54 %), onset was during the postpartum. The highest frequency of mania/hypomania (26.4 %, n?=?26) was at 1 week postpartum. Women who experienced mania/hypomania at 1 week postpartum had significantly more symptoms of mania/hypomania later in the postpartum. A substantive proportion of women with a history of MDD may experience first onset of mania/hypomania symptoms in the early postpartum, others may experience first onset during pregnancy. Taken with other recent data, these findings suggest a possible rationale for screening women with a history of MDD for mania/hypomania during the early postpartum period, but issues with screening instruments are discussed. PMID:24402681

Inglis, Angela J; Hippman, Catriona L; Carrion, Prescilla B; Honer, William G; Austin, Jehannine C

2014-04-01

291

[Postpartum pleated abdomen. Clinical individualization. Surgical possibilities].  

PubMed

Post-partum pleated abdomen is a polymorphic combination of skin and abdominal wall lesions which warrants an illustrated classification. It is observed in small women who have delivered large babies or twins. Various anatomo-clinical forms can be distinguished, ranging from the slightly flaccid stretched abdomen to the severely and globally pleated abdomen, involving the suprapubic region as far as the epigastrium or only consisting of segmental abdominal pleats. The operative indication should be very cautiously considered especially when the abdominal pleats are not already associated with scars. There is now a wide variety of techniques ranging from simple suprapubic modelled cutaneous resection with possible translocation of the umbilicus to bi-axial cutaneous resection which is occasionally the only logical solution for severe cases of pleated excess skin. PMID:2472101

Vandenbussche, F

1989-01-01

292

Stroke in pregnant and postpartum women.  

PubMed

Ischemic infarcts and hemorrhages are uncommon but dangerous complications of pregnancy. Their etiology is related to physiological changes during pregnancy. The majority of strokes are seen in the third trimester and postpartum and are etiologically related to three conditions: reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, preeclampsia/eclampsia and cerebral venous thrombosis. The first two conditions are etiologically connected and can lead to ischemic and hemorrhagic events, whereas cerebral sinus thrombosis is mainly related to hypercoagulation and causes venous infarcts and brain hemorrhages. MRI and CT scans are safe to use for diagnosis of stroke in pregnancy, although use of iodine-based contrast may affect thyroid function of the neonate. Management of stroke in pregnancy is specific to cause and depends on management of blood pressure and delivery in preeclampsia/eclampsia, expected management or calcium channel blockers in reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, and anticoagulation for cerebral sinus thrombosis. PMID:21932965

Sidorov, Evgeny V; Feng, Wuwei; Caplan, Louis R

2011-09-01

293

Hormone profile of crossbred goats during the periparturient period.  

PubMed

The plasma hormone profile of progesterone, 17 beta-oestradiol, prolactin, growth hormone (GH), cortisol, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and insulin were estimated by radioimmunoassay in jugular blood samples from 10 Alpine x Beetal crossbred goats during the periparturient period. The plasma progesterone concentrations declined from day 20 prior to kidding to the day of kidding and then remained at a basal level. 17 beta-Oestradiol concentrations declined from day 20 to day 4 prepartum, followed by a continuous increase to reach a peak at kidding. Plasma oestradiol declined abruptly on day 1 postpartum and remained low throughout the postpartum period. The plasma prolactin concentrations increased continuously from day 20 to day 10 prepartum but then increased to a peak on the day of kidding, followed by a transient decline by day 5 postpartum. The plasma GH concentrations varied significantly (p < 0.01) on the different days of sampling but were highest on the day of kidding. The plasma cortisol concentration declined from day 20 to day 2 prepartum, after which it abruptly increased on day 1 prepartum to reach a peak on the day of kidding. The concentrations of plasma T3 remained similar during the prepartum period but were minimal on the day of kidding and increased during the postpartum period. The concentration of plasma T4 was also lowest on the day of kidding and increased during the postpartum period. Plasma insulin concentrations were low in the day of kidding. PMID:11969112

Khan, J R; Ludri, R S

2002-03-01

294

Postpartum depression in the absence of lactation: an evolutionary perspective  

E-print Network

It is currently estimated that up to one third of new mothers in industrialized nations suffer from moderate postpartum depression in the weeks and months following childbirth. However, cross-cultural data reveal that this condition is not nearly...

Peyton, Kelly J

2012-06-07

295

Postpartum Transitions in Adolescent Mothers' Romantic and Maternal Relationships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviewed adolescent mothers at prepartum or early postpartum and 1 year later regarding maternal and romantic relationships, depression, and negative life events. Responses indicated that over time male partner support became more important than maternal support. (LBT)

Gee, Christina B.; Rhodes, Jean E.

1999-01-01

296

Using the Internet to Screen for Postpartum Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the feasibility of using the Internet to screen for postpartum depressive symptoms. Methods A total of 142 participants completed the Postpartum Depression Screening Scale (PDSS) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression\\u000a Scale on the Internet, and these findings were compared with those administered in-person by the authors of the PDSS (Beck\\u000a and Gable) in recruitment sources, demographic characteristics,

Huynh-Nhu Le; Deborah F. Perry; Xi Sheng

2009-01-01

297

Postpartum Depression and the Role of Nutritional Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postpartum depression is the number one complication of childbirth [1], and healthcare providers need to have a keen understanding\\u000a of the disorder in order to provide support and advice. In the first portion of this chapter, the prevalence and onset of\\u000a postpartum depression is discussed, with a consideration for risk factors that have been associated with the disorder. Within\\u000a this

Michelle Price Judge; Cheryl Tatano Beck

298

Postpartum Mothers’ Attitudes, Knowledge, and Trust Regarding Vaccination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine attitudes and knowledge about vaccinations in postpartum mothers. Methods This cross-sectional study collected data via written survey to postpartum mothers in a large teaching hospital in Connecticut.\\u000a We used multivariable analysis to identify mothers who were less trusting with regard to vaccines. Results Of 228 mothers who participated in the study, 29% of mothers worried about vaccinating

Ann Chen Wu; Daryl J. Wisler-Sher; Katherine Griswold; Eve Colson; Eugene D. Shapiro; Eric S. Holmboe

2008-01-01

299

[Uterine necrosis after arterial embolization for postpartum hemorrhage].  

PubMed

Radiologic embolization of the uterine arteries is increasingly used to treat severe postpartum hemorrhage, as an alternative to surgical procedures. Guidelines have been published in order to standardize the indications as well as the technique. An important objective was to limit severe complications such as uterine necrosis. We report a case of a uterine necrosis after arterial embolization for severe postpartum hemorrhage due to uterine atony on a uterus with fibroids. This complication occurred despite the use of the recommended technique. PMID:22342505

Belghiti, J; Tassin, M; Raiffort, C; Zappa, M; Poujade, O; Bout, H; Mandelbrot, L

2014-02-01

300

The psychological precipitants of transient postpartum depression: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies reporting incidence rates for the “postpartum blues” (defined as atransient depressive episode occurring in the first 10-14 days after childbirth) are surveyed, and the methodological issues involved\\u000a in collecting these data are considered. When women provide self-report ratings of depression on each day in the first postpartum\\u000a week, the incidence of the blues is about 66%. Psychological factors found

Jacqueline A. Thirkettle; Robert G. Knight

1985-01-01

301

Postpartum Daily Stress, Relationship Quality, and Depressive Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the relationships among daily stresses, specifically interpersonal conflict, the quality of supportive\\u000a spousal relationships, and the experience of postpartum depressive symptoms. In our sample of 51 women nearly 30% reported\\u000a symptoms consistent with postpartum depression. Using regression analysis and controlling for depression during pregnancy,\\u000a results suggested that arguments with family members and the depth of the spousal

Melissa Page; Mari S. Wilhelm

2007-01-01

302

Bakri balloon in the management of postpartum hemorrhage: a review.  

PubMed

Objective?The purpose of this review is to ascertain the indications, techniques, and the associated morbidity with the use of Bakri balloon. Material and Methods?A literature search using the PubMed database was conducted from 2001 to 2013. We calculated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for complications. Results?We identified 12 publications that met the inclusion criteria. Four reports provided the frequency of Bakri use during the study period, with the overall rate being 0.20% (138/69, 174; 95% CI, 0.17-0.25%). Two-thirds of use followed cesarean delivery (67%; 182/273). Uterine atony was specified as the underlying etiology of postpartum hemorrhage in 75% (9/12) of publication. The rate of balloon displacement was 10% (95% CI, 6-16%) and need for transfusion, 43% (95% CI, 32-55%). Hysterectomy was undertaken in 6% (95% CI, 4-10%). Conclusions?There is a paucity of publications on Bakri balloon. Before its utilization is recommended in guidelines, a randomized clinical trial comparing uterotonics alone versus with balloon is warranted. PMID:24705972

Wright, Cara E; Chauhan, Suneet P; Abuhamad, Alfred Z

2014-11-01

303

Inability to predict postpartum hemorrhage: insights from Egyptian intervention data  

PubMed Central

Background Knowledge on how well we can predict primary postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) can help policy makers and health providers design current delivery protocols and PPH case management. The purpose of this paper is to identify risk factors and determine predictive probabilities of those risk factors for primary PPH among women expecting singleton vaginal deliveries in Egypt. Methods From a prospective cohort study, 2510 pregnant women were recruited over a six-month period in Egypt in 2004. PPH was defined as blood loss ? 500 ml. Measures of blood loss were made every 20 minutes for the first 4 hours after delivery using a calibrated under the buttocks drape. Using all variables available in the patients' charts, we divided them in ante-partum and intra-partum factors. We employed logistic regression to analyze socio-demographic, medical and past obstetric history, and labor and delivery outcomes as potential PPH risk factors. Post-model predicted probabilities were estimated using the identified risk factors. Results We found a total of 93 cases of primary PPH. In multivariate models, ante-partum hemoglobin, history of previous PPH, labor augmentation and prolonged labor were significantly associated with PPH. Post model probability estimates showed that even among women with three or more risk factors, PPH could only be predicted in 10% of the cases. Conclusions The predictive probability of ante-partum and intra-partum risk factors for PPH is very low. Prevention of PPH to all women is highly recommended. PMID:22123123

2011-01-01

304

Interactions between metabolic and reproductive functions in the resumption of postpartum fecundity  

PubMed Central

Lactation has long been recognized as a major determinant of interbirth intervals. The temporal pattern of nursing has been proposed as the mechanism behind lactational amenorrhea. We present a new model of the dynamic regulation of lactational amenorrhea that identifies maternal energy availability as the main determinant of ovarian resumption. Variation in the intensity of lactation remains a component of the model as a determinant of the absolute energetic cost of milk production. But maternal energy supply determines net energy availability; a larger energy supply leaves a greater net energy surplus than a smaller energy supply (lactation costs being equal). We characterize the hormonal postpartum profile of 70 lactating Toba women of Argentina. We use C-peptide, which reflects maternal insulin production, as a measure of energy availability. Initially low, insulin production rises as the postpartum period progresses, reflecting the declining metabolic load of lactation. A short period of supernormal insulin production precedes menstrual resumption. The high levels of insulin may play a role in stimulating the resumption of ovarian activity, which in turn may help to resolve the transient period of insulin resistance. The dynamics of insulin sensitivity during lactation would aid in synchronizing the resumption of ovarian function with a reduction in the energy demands of milk production. This hypothesis is supported by the sustained weight gain experienced by lactating women during the months preceding the first postpartum menses. The link between fecundity and energy balance could serve as a mechanism for adjusting the duration of lactational amenorrhea to the relative metabolic load of lactation. PMID:19298003

Valeggia, Claudia; Ellison, Peter T.

2012-01-01

305

The miRNAome of the postpartum dairy cow liver in negative energy balance  

PubMed Central

Background Negative energy balance (NEB) is an altered metabolic state in high yielding cows that occurs during the first few weeks postpartum when energy demands for lactation and maintenance exceed the energy supply from dietary intake. NEB can, in turn, lead to metabolic disorders and to reduced fertility. Alterations in the expression of more than 700 hepatic genes have previously been reported in a study of NEB in postpartum dairy cows. miRNAs (microRNA) are known to mediate many alterations in gene expression post transcriptionally. To study the hepatic miRNA content of postpartum dairy cows, including their overall abundance and differential expression, in mild NEB (MNEB) and severe NEB (SNEB), short read RNA sequencing was carried out. To identify putative targets of differentially expressed miRNAs among differentially expressed hepatic genes reported previously in dairy cows in SNEB computational target identification was employed. Results Our results indicate that the dairy cow liver expresses 53 miRNAs at a lower threshold of 10 reads per million. Of these, 10 miRNAs accounted for greater than 95% of the miRNAome (miRNA content). Of the highly expressed miRNAs, miR-122 constitutes 75% followed by miR-192 and miR-3596. Five out of thirteen let-7 miRNA family members are also among the highly expressed miRNAs. miR-143, down-regulated in SNEB, was found to have 4 putative up-regulated gene targets associated with SNEB including LRP2 (low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 2), involved in lipid metabolism and up-regulated in SNEB. Conclusions This is the first liver miRNA-seq profiling study of moderate yielding dairy cows in the early postpartum period. Tissue specific miR-122 and liver enriched miR-192 are two of the most abundant miRNAs in the postpartum dairy cow liver. miR-143 is significantly down-regulated in SNEB and putative targets of miRNA-143 which are up-regulated in SNEB, include a gene involved in lipid metabolism. PMID:24725334

2014-01-01

306

Predictive factors for loss to postpartum follow-up among low income HIV-infected women in Texas.  

PubMed

Guidelines for HIV primary care include visits every 3 months (up to 6 months in those with stable HIV). During pregnancy, women with HIV commonly attend once weekly to once monthly visits; however, after delivery, many are lost to follow-up. Our goal was to assess the frequency of loss to primary care follow-up postpartum and to identify predictors of loss to care. A retrospective chart review of HIV-infected women in a Houston prenatal program was done. Optimal care was defined as one visit to HIV primary care providers (PCPs) every 6 months within the first year after delivery, and loss to follow-up as no visits within the first postpartum year. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with loss to follow-up. Charts (n=213) were analyzed for follow-up with PCPs. The loss to follow-up rate was 39% in the first postpartum year. Associated factors were younger age, black race, late entry to prenatal care, and no plans for contraception. Predictors of loss to primary care after pregnancy can be used to identify specific subpopulations of pregnant women at highest risk for falling out of care. PMID:24720630

Siddiqui, Robaab; Bell, Tanvir; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Minard, Charles; Levison, Judy

2014-05-01

307

The effect of physical exercise strategies on weight loss in postpartum women: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

For women of reproductive age, excessive gestational weight gain and/or postpartum weight retention can increase the risk of obesity. This systematic review evaluates the effectiveness of lifestyle modification control trials that utilize exercise interventions, with or without dietary intervention, on weight loss among postpartum women. A search of randomized clinical trials (RCT) was performed using the follow databases and the bibliography of candidate studies: MEDLINE, Web of Science, EMBASE, CENTRAL/Cochrane and Physiotherapy Evidence Database. English language RCT papers published up to 31 October 2012, which present changes on maternal body weight from baseline to the end of exercise intervention were included. The primary meta-analysis examined the effects of exercise interventions, with or without complementary dietary intervention, on weight loss during the postpartum period compared with usual standard of care. Five subgroup analyses were performed to examine differences in study interventions and exercise modalities: duration of intervention, quality of study methodology, supervision of exercise intervention, exercise intervention goals used and the type of dietary intervention. In total 11 studies met eligibility criteria with 769 participants, 409 under intervention and 360 in the control group. The primary meta-analysis included all 11 studies and found a mean difference (MD) on weight loss of -2.57?kg (95% CI -3.66 to -1.47). The subgroup analysis demonstrated that the most effective interventions in reducing weight in postpartum women were exercise programs with objectively defined goals, such as the use of heart rate monitors or pedometer (MD of -4.09?kg-95% CI -4.94 to -3.25, I(2)=0%) and exercise combined with intensive dietary intervention (MD of -4.34?kg-95% CI -5.15 to -3.52, I(2)=0%). Thus, there is benefit from overall lifestyle interventions on weight loss in postpartum women and exercise plus intensive diet and objective targets are the most effective intervention strategies. PMID:24048142

Nascimento, S L; Pudwell, J; Surita, F G; Adamo, K B; Smith, G N

2014-05-01

308

Postpartum Resumption of Sexual Activity, Sexual Morbidity and Use of Modern Contraceptives Among Nigerian Women in Jos  

PubMed Central

Background: Postpartum sexual abstinence until when the child is weaned from breast milk is deeply rooted in most cultures in Nigeria. Aim: The study aimed at describing the current sexual practices of postpartum women, sexual morbidity, contraceptive prevalence and predictive factors for early postpartum sexual intercourse and associated sexual problems in our setting. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among consecutive 340 women at a child welfare clinic 14 weeks after childbirth. Questionnaires were administered between January 2012 and June 2012 to ascertain their socio-demographic and obstetric features, sexual activity, time to coital resumption, reasons for resumption and non-resumption of intercourse, sexual problems encountered and contraceptive usage. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS version 16 for windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Sexual intercourse was resumed by 67.6% (230/340) of women with a mean time to resuming intercourse of 8.2 (2.9) weeks postpartum and a median time of 8.0 weeks. About 3.5% (8/230) did so within the puerperium. Sexual intercourse was initiated mainly (77.4% [178/230]) by their husbands and only 19.1% (44/230) of them were using modern contraceptives. About 62.6% (144/230) of women experienced sexual morbidities including vaginal dryness/insufficient lubrication, dyspareunia and vaginal discharge. Socio-demographic and obstetric features, menstrual and breastfeeding status were not predictive of early resumption of coitus. Vaginal delivery (OR: 3.6, 95% CI: 1.3-10.0, P = 0.01,) and previous episiotomy (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 2.0-6.1, P = 0.04,) were predictive of sexual morbidity. Conclusion: Women in our setting resume sexual intercourse early after childbirth without the use of contraception and often with associated sexual morbidity. Emphasis on sexual and contraceptive education during the immediate postpartum period is therefore imperative. PMID:24761240

Anzaku, AS; Mikah, S

2014-01-01

309

Weighing worth against uncertain work: The interplay of exhaustion, ambiguity, hope and disappointment in mothers breastfeeding late preterm infants  

PubMed Central

Poor breastfeeding outcomes among late preterm infants (LPIs) have been attributed to inadequate breast milk transfer stemming from physiological immaturities. However, breastfeeding is more than a biological phenomenon, and it is unclear how mothers of LPIs manage other factors that may also impact the breastfeeding course. Using grounded theory methods and incorporating serial postpartum interviews with several novel data collection techniques, we examined breastfeeding establishment over a 6–8 week period among 10 late preterm mother-infant dyads recruited from a maternity hospital in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. We found that breastfeeding in the LPI population was a fluctuating, cascade-like progression of trial and error, influenced by a host of contextual factors and events and culminating with breastfeeding continuation (with or without future caveats for duration or exclusivity of breastfeeding) or cessation. The trajectory was explained by the basic psychosocial process Weighing Worth against Uncertain Work, which encompassed the tension between breastfeeding motivation, the intensity of breastfeeding work, and ambiguity surrounding infant behavior and feeding cues. Several sub-processes were also identified: Playing the Game; Letting Him be the Judge vs. Accommodating Both of Us; and Questioning Worth vs. Holding out Hope. If valid, our theoretical model indicates a need for earlier, more extensive, and more qualified breastfeeding support for mothers of late preterm infants that emphasizes the connection between prematurity and observed feeding behaviors. PMID:23020593

Demirci, Jill Radtke; Happ, Mary Beth; Bogen, Debra L.; Albrecht, Susan A.; Cohen, Susan M.

2012-01-01

310

A study of psycho-behavioral patterns in patients emerging from general anesthesia using sevoflurane, propofol and their combination in early, intermediate and late post-operative period: A randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background: It has been contended the general anesthetic agents also may affect the psycho-social behavior of the patients, especially during the emergence from GA. This assumes much significance in day cases where, patients have to be roadworthy and mentally stable before discharge. Aims: We compared the psycho-behavioral effects of propofol, sevoflurane and their combination, while emerging from anesthesia. Settings and Design: The patients coming for short duration day care anesthesia were studied in a prospective randomized controlled comparison. Materials and Methods: The psycho-behavioral changes in early, intermediate and late recovery period were studied in 60 consenting patients undergoing Total Intra Venous Anesthesia (TIVA) using Propofol, Volatile Induction and Maintenance Anesthesia (VIMA) using Sevoflurane and the combination of these two agents. Statistical Analysis: Statistical Analysis of the data and application of various statistical tests was carried out with help of Statistical Package for Social Services (SPSS version 18). Data were compiled, analyzed and presented as frequency, proportions, mean and standard deviation. The tests of significance, like Chi-square test, percentages, independent sample t test, paired t test, and P value were used in the study. Results and Conclusions: Both the modalities of GA, viz; TIVA and VIMA, do produce significant psycho-behavioral changes in the patients after GA, though transiently. So it is imperative for the Clinicians to anticipate the entire aspect of Psycho-behavioral patterns before discharging the day cases from the Post anesthesia Care Unit (PACU).

Panditrao, Mridul M.; Panditrao, Minnu M.; Fernandes, Alister J.; Gill, Gurpreet Singh

2013-01-01

311

Adherence of pregnant women to Nordic dietary guidelines in relation to postpartum weight retention: results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Pregnancy is a major life event for women and often connected with changes in diet and lifestyle and natural gestational weight gain. However, excessive weight gain during pregnancy may lead to postpartum weight retention and add to the burden of increasing obesity prevalence. Therefore, it is of interest to examine whether adherence to nutrient recommendations or food-based guidelines is associated with postpartum weight retention 6 months after birth. Methods This analysis is based on data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Diet during the first 4-5 months of pregnancy was assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire and maternal weight before pregnancy as well as in the postpartum period was assessed by questionnaires. Two Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores were applied to measure compliance with either the official Norwegian food-based guidelines (HEI-NFG) or the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (HEI-NNR) during pregnancy. The considered outcome, i.e. weight retention 6 months after birth, was modelled in two ways: continuously (in kg) and categorically (risk of substantial postpartum weight retention, i.e. ??5% gain to pre-pregnancy weight). Associations between the HEI-NFG and HEI-NNR score with postpartum weight retention on the continuous scale were estimated by linear regression models. Relationships of both HEI scores with the categorical outcome variable were evaluated using logistic regression. Results In the continuous model without adjustment for gestational weight gain (GWG), the HEI-NFG score but not the HEI-NNR score was inversely related to postpartum weight retention. However, after additional adjustment for GWG as potential intermediate the HEI-NFG score was marginally inversely and the HEI-NNR score was inversely associated with postpartum weight retention. In the categorical model, both HEI scores were inversely related with risk of substantial postpartum weight retention, independent of adjustment for GWG. Conclusions Higher adherence to either the official Norwegian food guidelines or possibly also to Nordic Nutrition Recommendations during pregnancy appears to be associated with lower postpartum weight retention. PMID:24456804

2014-01-01

312

[Management of post-partum infections].  

PubMed

Post-partum endometritis are frequent and account for the fifth cause of maternal death. This disease is preventable and effective treatments are available. Streptococcus agalactiae is the primary pathogen implicated. The clinical diagnosis is usually easy and involves pelvic pain, fever and abnormal lochia. Whenever antibiotic treatment provides no clinical improvement, or in case of doubt on the vacuity of the uterus, an ultrasound exam must be performed. Likewise, a CT scan or a MRI will be performed in case of persistent fever in search of a pelvic abscess requiring a drainage, or of a pelvic thrombophlebitis. Thromboplebitis requires heparin for the duration of antibiotic therapy, or oral anticoagulants for at least 3 months in case of pulmonary embolism or extension to the vena cava. The recommended antibiotic regimen combines clindamycin with gentamicin (once daily) intravenously. In case of contraindication or breastfeeding, other regimens may be prescribed. Adequate duration of treatment has not been evaluated and a switch to oral antibiotics after clinical improvement brings no benefit. Antibioprophylaxy (mostly cephalosporins) is recommended in cases of cesarean section (at skin incision), while it is debated in case of assisted delivery or of 3rd and 4th degree perineal tears. PMID:23141132

Lamy, C; Zuily, S; Perdriolle, E; Gauchotte, E; Villeroy-de-Galhau, S; Delaporte, M-O; Wahl, D; Morel, O; Judlin, P

2012-12-01

313

Women’s exercise beliefs and behaviors during their pregnancy and postpartum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited research examines women’s beliefs about the value of exercise and their actual exercise behaviors during pregnancy and postpartum. A retrospective study of 74 postpartum women was conducted to examine women’s behavioral, normative, and control beliefs about exercising during pregnancy and postpartum and to determine their most salient beliefs. In addition, women’s prepregnancy, pregnancy, and postpartum exercise behavior was examined.

Danielle Symons Downs; Heather A. Hausenblas

2004-01-01

314

Factors influencing ovarian activity and sexual behavior of postpartum mares under farm conditions.  

PubMed

Management of the postpartum period is one of the most important factors of stud farm medicine. In horses, owing to the long gestation period, the time from parturition to repeat conception needs be short to maintain an optimal yearly foaling interval. For this reason the features of postpartum ovarian activity and sexual behavior were studied under farm conditions. During 2 consecutive breeding seasons, 107 mares on 5 commercial horse farms were monitored after parturition by regular teasing, transrectal ultrasonography and blood sampling for progesterone. Foalings took place from January 1 to June 15. Body condition scoring was carried out within 5 d and at 60 to 65 d after parturition. The first ovulation occurred within 20 d after foaling in 84.1% (90/107) of the mares. The mean intervals from foaling to the first and second ovulations were 17.8 +/- 1.6 d (+/- SEM) and 40.9 +/- 2.7 d (+/- SEM), respectively. The mean intervals from parturition to the first and second ovulation (P < 0.001), the interovulatory interval (P < 0.01), the second follicular phase (P < 0.001), and the time until the first overt estrus (P < 0.01) were significantly longer in mares foaling before the vernal equinox. In the beginning of the breeding season the intervals from parturition to the first ovulation (P < 0.01), to the second ovulation (P < 0.01), and to the first overt estrus (P < 0.001) were significantly longer for primiparous mares than for multiparous animals. There was a tendency for an increased interovulatory interval and for a longer second follicular phase in mares with decreased body condition after parturition (P = 0.069, P = 0.089, respectively). Suckling and breed had no effect on postpartum ovarian activity. We concluded that under field conditions the resumption of cyclic ovarian activity and sexual behavior in mares after foaling are strongly affected by the season of parturition and parity. In some cases, body condition change and other factors may also play a role in influencing postpartum reproductive function. PMID:10734428

Nagy, P; Huszenicza, G; Juhász, J; Kulcsár, M; Solti, L; Reiczigel, J; Abaváry, K

1998-11-01

315

Incorporating recognition and management of perinatal and postpartum depression into pediatric practice.  

PubMed

Every year, more than 400,000 infants are born to mothers who are depressed, which makes perinatal depression the most underdiagnosed obstetric complication in America. Postpartum depression leads to increased costs of medical care, inappropriate medical care, child abuse and neglect, discontinuation of breastfeeding, and family dysfunction and adversely affects early brain development. Pediatric practices, as medical homes, can establish a system to implement postpartum depression screening and to identify and use community resources for the treatment and referral of the depressed mother and support for the mother-child (dyad) relationship. This system would have a positive effect on the health and well-being of the infant and family. State chapters of the American Academy of Pediatrics, working with state Early Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) and maternal and child health programs, can increase awareness of the need for perinatal depression screening in the obstetric and pediatric periodicity of care schedules and ensure payment. Pediatricians must advocate for workforce development for professionals who care for very young children and for promotion of evidence-based interventions focused on healthy attachment and parent-child relationships. PMID:20974776

Earls, Marian F

2010-11-01

316

A universal index of uterine discharge symptoms from calving to 6 weeks postpartum.  

PubMed

In this paper, a new uterine discharge index (D-index) was created and tested. It was based on a principal component analysis (PCA) of clinical findings of classical uterine discharge symptoms and rectal temperature during the postpartum period of dairy cattle. The PCA analysis revealed how uterine discharge features relate to each other and how they cluster together possibly representing different degrees of uterine inflammation. The D-index was the result of the multivariate PCA-analysis, and the D-index gives a continuous value between 0 and 10. It was demonstrated that the same scale, i.e. the D-index, can be used without any adjustment from 1 to 6 weeks post-calving. It is valid for any type of uterine discharge without defining the type of infection or differentiating between infection and contamination. The D-index was tested using the uterine involution data. Uterine involution was significantly delayed in the high-D-index group of cows. Similarly, in the test with all cows, involution was progressively delayed and the rate of involution of the pregnant horn was slowed down with the increase of the D-index values. It is concluded that the D-index can be a new practical, universal, tool for improved management of dairy cows in the postpartum period under commercial conditions. PMID:20345584

Gorzecka, J; Friggens, N C; Ridder, C; Callesen, H

2011-02-01

317

Applying polygenic risk scores to postpartum depression.  

PubMed

The etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) is likely to be heterogeneous, but postpartum depression (PPD) is hypothesized to represent a more homogenous subset of MDD. We use genome-wide SNP data to explore this hypothesis. We assembled a total cohort of 1,420 self-report cases of PPD and 9,473 controls with genome-wide genotypes from Australia, The Netherlands, Sweden and the UK. We estimated the total variance attributable to genotyped variants. We used association results from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortia (PGC) of bipolar disorder (BPD) and MDD to create polygenic scores in PPD and related MDD data sets to estimate the genetic overlap between the disorders. We estimated that the percentage of variance on the liability scale explained by common genetic variants to be 0.22 with a standard error of 0.12, p?=?0.02. The proportion of variance (R (2)) from a logistic regression of PPD case/control status in all four cohorts on a SNP profile score weighted by PGC-BPD association results was small (0.1 %) but significant (p?=?0.004) indicating a genetic overlap between BPD and PPD. The results were highly significant in the Australian and Dutch cohorts (R (2)?>?1.1 %, p?

Byrne, Enda M; Carrillo-Roa, Tania; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Sallis, Hannah M; Viktorin, Alexander; Chapman, Brett; Henders, Anjali K; Pergadia, Michele L; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela A F; Sullivan, Patrick F; Boschloo, Lynn; van Grootheest, Gerard; McMahon, George; Lawlor, Debbie A; Landén, Mikael; Lichtenstein, Paul; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Evans, David M; Montgomery, Grant W; Boomsma, Dorret I; Martin, Nicholas G; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Wray, Naomi R

2014-12-01

318

Glucose metabolism in vivo in crossbred Holstein cattle feeding on different types of roughage during late pregnancy and early lactation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was carried out to study the glucose kinetics of crossbred Holstein cattle feeding on either hay or 5% urea treated rice straw during late pregnancy (21 days prepartum) and early lactation (30 days postpartum). In all 16 pregnant heifers (23–25 months of age) were selected for the experiments, including eight animals of two breed types, Holstein Friesian×Red Sindhi

Narongsak Chaiyabutr; Siripen Komolvanich; Suwanakiet Sawangkoon; Sumpun Preuksagorn; Somchai Chanpongsang

1998-01-01

319

Efficacy of Rectal Misoprostol for Prevention of Postpartum Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Postpartum hemorrhage is an important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality after delivery. Active management of postpartum hemorrhage by an uterotonic drug decreases the rate of postpartum hemorrhage. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of rectal misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage. This double blind randomized clinical trial was performed on full term pregnant women candidate for vaginal delivery, referred to Zahedan Imam Ali Hospital during 2008-2009. They were randomly divided into two groups of rectal misoprostol and oxytocin. The women in misoprostol group received 400 ?g rectal misoprostol after delivery and the women in oxytocin group received 3 IU oxytocin in 1 L ringer serum, intravenously. Rate of bleeding, need to any surgery interventions, rate of transfusion and changes in hemoglobin and hematocrite were compared between two groups. A total of 400 patients (200 cases in misoprostol group and 200 in oxytocin group) entered to the study. Rate of bleeding > 500 cc was significantly higher in oxytocin group than misoprostol group (33% vs. 19%) (p = 0.005). Also, need to excessive oxytocin for management of postpartum hemorrhage was significantly lower in misoprostol group than oxytocin group (18% vs. 30%) (p = 0.003). Decrease in hematocrite was significantly more observed in oxytocin group than misoprostol group (mean decrease of hematocrite was 1.3 ± 1.6 in misoprostol group and 1.6 ± 2.2 in oxytocin group). Two groups were similar in terms of side-effects. Rectal misoprostol as an uterotonic drug can decrease postpartum hemorrhage and also can prevent from decrease of hemoglobin as compared to oxytocin. PMID:24250623

Mirteimouri, Masoumeh; Tara, Fatemeh; Teimouri, Batool; Sakhavar, Nahid; Vaezi, Afsaneh

2013-01-01

320

Starting Ovsynch protocol on day 6 of first postpartum estrous cycle increased fertility in dairy cows by affecting ovarian response during heat stress.  

PubMed

The objective was to compare fertility in cows using an Ovsynch protocol starting on day 6 of first postpartum estrous cycle with an Ovsynch protocol initiated at random stages of the estrous cycle during heat stress (temperature-humidity index (THI)=77-83). Cows (n=459) at the beginning of the lactation period were randomly assigned to time-of-ovulation synchronization treatments: (1) control, Ovsynch (first GnRH treatment, PGF2? treatment 7 days later, second GnRH treatment 56h later, and TAI 16h later), initiated at random stages of the estrous cycle (40±2days postpartum, n=224) and (2) Ovsynch initiated on day 6 of first postpartum estrous cycle (estrus=day 0) based on detection of the first estrus after day 30 postpartum (O6, 35±2 postpartum, n=235). Statistical analyses were conducted using SAS. The percentage of cows responding to the initial GnRH injection using the Ovsynch protocol was greater with the O6 treatment compared to the control treatment (60.4% compared with 52.6%). The percentage of cows having a corpus luteum (CL) on the day of the PGF2? injection was not different among treatments (control=87.0% and O6=90.2%, respectively). Also more cows in the O6 treatment group responded to the second GnRH injection of the Ovsynch protocol compared with control treatments (82.5% compared with 75.8%). Treatment affected the percentage of cows diagnosed pregnant at 32±0.7days and 60±3days after the resynchronized timing of AI but pregnancy losses (5.3% compared with 6.8%) did not differ between treatment groups. It is concluded that initiating the Ovsynch protocol 6 days after estrus during the first 40 days postpartum resulted in a greater pregnancy rate at the synchronized estrus and increased fertility compared with control cows during heat stress. PMID:25129638

Dirandeh, E

2014-10-01

321

The problem of post-partum fistulas in developing countries.  

PubMed

Postpartum fistulas are frequent in the tropical environment. They are mostly found in very young women who live in remote areas. Without treatment women with fistulas will be condemned to the disconsolate life of social outcasts. Good operative treatment is crucial. The different operative methods are discussed. The operation through vaginal approach can be performed in any hospital. It does not need special surgical skill. More important than surgery is prevention of postpartum fistulas through a well-organised primary health care program which reaches out into the villages and which includes adequate prenatal controls and competent midwifery. PMID:9028407

Steiner, A K

1996-12-30

322

The presentation and management of post-partum choriocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Post-partum choriocarcinoma is a rare complication of pregnancy. We have analysed a series of nine consecutive patients presenting with choriocarcinoma after a full-term non-molar pregnancy. All patients were managed at the Supraregional Trophoblastic Disease Screening and Treatment Centre at Weston Park Hospital, Sheffield between 1987 and 1996. All presented with persistent primary or secondary post-partum haemorrhage. Treatment with multiagent chemotherapy (initially methotrexate, dactinomycin and etoposide) was successful in all cases. Early diagnosis is important because this rare condition is potentially curable with appropriate chemotherapy. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10188902

Dobson, L S; Gillespie, A M; Coleman, R E; Hancock, B W

1999-01-01

323

Late Cretaceous  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides a list of links to paleogeographic reconstructions for several time slices within the Cretaceous Period. These include 100 million, 90 million, 80 million and 70 million years ago. Paleogeographic maps are arranged by age and emphasize tectonics, depositional systems and paleogeography. Short discussions of paleogeography, tectonic evolution and historical geology accompany some of the maps.

Blakey, Ron; University, Northern A.

324

The effect of health and nutrition education intervention on women's postpartum beliefs and practices: a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: 'Sitting month' is the Chinese tradition for postpartum customs. Available studies indicate that some of the traditional postpartum practices are potentially harmful for women's health. However, no intervention study aiming at postpartum practices has been performed. In this paper we evaluated the effect of a health and nutrition education intervention, which focused on improving postpartum dietary quality and optimal

Nian Liu; Limei Mao; Xiufa Sun; Liegang Liu; Ping Yao; Banghua Chen

2009-01-01

325

Cocaine-induced postpartum coronary artery dissection: a case report and 80-year review of literature.  

PubMed

The incidence of cocaine-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in pregnancy is unknown. During the peripartum period, cocaine-abusing women are highly susceptible to MI caused by the effect of cocaine on a heart that is already stressed by hemodynamic changes of pregnancy. MI is an infrequent event during pregnancy and the peripartum period, with an estimated rate of 1 in 16,000 patients. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) can account for up to 27% of pregnancy-related MIs. We describe a case of MI diagnosed by increased troponin I levels in a postpartum patient with recent crack cocaine use in the setting of SCAD that required percutaneous coronary intervention of the left anterior descending and diagonal arteries. We also provide a comprehensive review of published literature related to this clinical entity. PMID:23913612

Katikaneni, Pavan K; Akkus, Nuri I; Tandon, Neeraj; Modi, Kalgi

2013-08-01

326

Influence of cardiac rehabilitation in Primigravida with spontaneous coronary artery dissection during postpartum  

PubMed Central

Background The physical exercise consists of trainable physical abilities such as strength and endurance. It can be inferred that the individual cardiac patient is dependent on it as an associated therapy to the drug treatment for a rapid and lasting improvement of their overall clinical status Case presentation The patient – with Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection Postpartum period – was subjected to 21 sessions of cardiac rehabilitation. A physical evaluation was performed, before and after the treatment period, for data collection: anthropometric values, flexibility, aerobic capacity and strength of grip. Conclusion The patient had a positive response in aerobic capacity, flexibility and grip strength and the anthropometric values were kept in short term rehabilitation. PMID:24829614

2014-01-01

327

Transcriptome analysis of bovine granulosa cells of preovulatory follicles harvested 30, 60, 90, and 120 days postpartum.  

PubMed

The nutritional requirements of high-producing dairy cows increase rapidly in the weeks postpartum due to elevated milk production, and most cows enter a state of negative energy balance (NEB). Cows in this condition may preferentially divert nutrients away from reproduction, thereby experiencing a period of anovulatory anestrus, delayed ovulation of large follicles, and impaired fertility. To better understand the changes occurring in these large follicles as a function of time postpartum, granulosa cells from preovulatory follicles were collected at different times after calving: 30 days, 60 days, 90 days, and 120 days from a minimum of six animals at each time point. Three subjects for each period were selected for the analysis of the transcriptome, which was performed using a global bovine oligoarray microarray to identify differences in gene expression and cellular functions that occur in the follicular microenvironment during the progressive recovery from NEB in dairy cows. The time point 120 days was chosen as a reference period, as cows are then fully recovered from NEB. Data clustering indicated that the most different period from 120 days was 60 days with several 100 genes deregulated at that time. The principal cellular functions affected were cell proliferation, which was reduced, and deregulation of steroidogenesis, indicating immaturity of the follicles from the 60-day period relative to 120 days. One of the most interesting downregulated pathways was p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, which is sensitive to the amount of retinoic acid or vitamin A, suggesting a possible treatment to improve postpartum fertility. PMID:24985356

Golini, V E; Stradaioli, G; Sirard, M A

2014-09-01

328

Disseminated intravascular coagulation in a horse with postpartum ulcerative colitis and laminitis.  

PubMed

Hemostatic studies were conducted on a five year old Belgian mare presented two days postpartum with colic and laminitis that was unresponsive to treatment.The mare was moderately thrombocytopenic with plasma fibrinogen levels more than twice that of a normal control horse. Platelet function as evaluated by aggregometry indicated that the circulating platelets were markedly hyporesponsive. Activated partial thromboplastin times and prothrombin times were prolonged. Para-coagulation tests (protamine sulfate and ethanol gelation) were strongly positive and fibrin degradation products were significantly elevated in the serum.The laboratory data suggested that the clinical bleeding was the result of the development of disseminated intravascular coagulation. The data were compatible with intravascular activation of the clotting mechanism, consumption of hemostatic factors, inhibition of platelet function and enhanced stimulation of the fibrinolytic mechanism.This report illustrates the complexity of the hemostatic abnormalities associated with pathological overactivation of the hemostatic mechanism. Factors such as tissue thromboplastins and/or endotoxins can stimulate disseminated intravascular coagulation, particularly during pregnancy or in the early postpartum period when a physiological "hypercoagulable" state already exists. PMID:17422399

Johnstone, I B; Blackwell, T E

1984-05-01

329

Influence of puerperal uterine infection on uterine involution and postpartum ovarian activity in dairy cows.  

PubMed

This article presents the results of a clinical trial designed to study the effect of puerperal uterine infection on uterine involution and on ovarian activity in dairy cows, monitored twice weekly from parturition until the sixth week postpartum (wpp). Infection significantly retarded uterine involution assessed by the uterine body diameter and a score of intrauterine fluid volume (IUFV). By the sixth wpp, cows with normal puerperium (controls) and cows that showed mild puerperal endometritis had similar uterine body diameter and IUFV, indicating spontaneous recovery within the postpartum voluntary waiting period. However, in cows with severe puerperal endometritis, although uterine body diameter had regressed to pregravid size, IUFV remained significantly higher than in control and mild endometritis cows, indicating that chronic endometritis was established. The IUFV score was positively and significantly correlated with uterine swab bacterial growth density and allowed diagnosis of endometritis after the third wpp. Cows with mild or severe endometritis had a significantly higher prevalence and persistence of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Actinomyces pyogenes, Gram-negative anaerobes - GNA) than controls. Actinomyces pyogenes was associated to GNA in 74% of isolations. Ovarian activity measured by ultrasound scanning of the ovaries and plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations was more abnormal (prolonged anoestrus, prolonged luteal phases and ovarian cysts) in cows with severe endometritis than in controls. PMID:11882243

Mateus, L; da Costa, L Lopes; Bernardo, F; Silva, J Robalo

2002-02-01

330

Men's experience of their partners' postpartum psychiatric disorders: narratives from the internet.  

PubMed

Objectives Postpartum psychiatric disorders (PPPD) can be serious and disabling, and may lead to long-term adverse consequences. Partners of women with PPPD are also affected by the illness, but their experiences are seldom described. The aim of this study was to explore men's experience of women with PPPD.Methods Eleven written narratives from the internet were used to analyse men's perceived experience of their partner's PPPDs. Data were analysed using content analysis.Results The men revealed a major disruption in their lives. They expressed fear, confusion and anger; they were also extremely concerned about their partners, and felt unable to help in overcoming the disorder. Most of the men described making sacrifices in order to hold the relationship and the family together. Although the disorder improved over time, they were left to face an uncertain future with a woman who seemed to be very different from the person they had known previously. Most of the men gained maturity and increased self-esteem, but for some the result was divorce, custody disputes and loneliness.Conclusions The men in this study experienced the woman's PPPD as a difficult time, when everything familiar was turned upside down. Health professionals should pay more attention to men's mental health in the postpartum period. Furthermore, information regarding the possibility of these disorders should be given to expectant couples in prenatal classes. Further research is needed to ascertain how and to what extent this should be included in the education. PMID:22942895

Engqvist, Inger; Nilsson, K

2011-09-01

331

Content Analysis of Motivational Counseling Calls Targeting Obesity-Related Behaviors Among Postpartum Women  

PubMed Central

Our objective was to examine mothers’ perspectives of obesity-related health behavior recommendations for themselves and their 0–6 month old infants. A health educator conducted 4 motivational counseling calls with 60 mothers of infants during the first 6 months postpartum. Calls addressed 5 behaviors for infants (breastfeeding, introduction of solid foods, sleep, TV, hunger cues), and 4 for mothers (eating, physical activity, sleep, TV). We recorded detailed notes from each call, capturing responsiveness to recommendations and barriers to change. Two independent coders analyzed the notes to identify themes. Mothers in our study were more interested in focusing on their infants’ health behaviors than on their own. While most were receptive to eliminating their infants’ TV exposure, they resisted limiting TV for themselves. There was some resistance to following infant feeding guidelines, and contrary to advice to avoid nursing or rocking babies to sleep, mothers commonly relied on these techniques. Return to work emerged as a barrier to breastfeeding, yet facilitated healthier eating, increased activity, and reduced TV time for mothers. The early postpartum period is a challenging time for mothers to focus on their own health behaviors, but returning to work appears to offer an opportunity for positive changes in this regard. To improve weight-related infant behaviors, interventions should consider mothers’ perceptions of nutrition and physical activity recommendations and barriers to adherence. PMID:21258960

McDonald, Julia; Oken, Emily; Haines, Jess; Gillman, Matthew W.; Taveras, Elsie M.

2011-01-01

332

Postpartum depression screening in yemeni and punjabi immigrant women.  

PubMed

This article describes strategies for using a postpartum depression screening tool with women from two immigrant minority populations (from Yemen and from the Punjab region of India). Techniques to maximize success while working with interpreters and with women's unique cultural considerations are presented. Two case studies provide examples of challenges presented and overcome by women from each of these populations. PMID:23773197

Fritz, Barbara; McGregor, Carole

2013-01-01

333

Functional Status Outcomes in Mothers with and without Postpartum Depression  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare functional status between women with and without postpartum depression (PPD). Methods A two-group cross-sectional design compared functional status between 23 women with and 23 women without PPD. Participants were 6 to 26 weeks postpartum, and from obstetric practices in the Northeastern United States. Structured clinical interviews were used to establish diagnoses of PPD. Participants were matched on type of delivery, weeks postpartum, and parity. Participants compared current functioning to pre-pregnancy functioning utilizing the Inventory of Functional Status After Childbirth. The Postpartum Depression Screening Scale was used to measure PPD severity. Hierarchical multiple and logistic regression models were used to analyze data. Results Controlling for infant gender, number of nighttime infant awakenings, and income, PPD predicted lower personal (P<0.001), household (P<0.05), and social functioning (P<0.001), but no difference in infant care. Women with PPD were 12 times less likely to achieve pre-pregnancy functional levels. Conclusions Interventions are needed to address household, social, and personal functioning in women with PPD. Clinicians may find functional assessment is a useful adjunct and a less threatening way to screen and monitor treatment for PPD. PMID:18586183

Posmontier, Barbara

2008-01-01

334

Two cases of severe postpartum anaemia in Jehovah's witnesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cases of severe postpartum anaemia are presented in Jehovah's witnesses who refused blood transfusion. Despite haemoglobin concentrations of less than 3 g\\/dl both women survived. General management was directed to maximizing oxygen delivery and minimizing oxygen consumption. The use of an emulsified perfluorocarbon was organized for one of the cases, but was not administered because a snow storm prevented

S. R. Rasanayagam; G. M. Cooper

1996-01-01

335

Relaxation Training and Expectation in the Treatment of Postpartum Distress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the effectiveness of relaxation training in reducing postpartum distress for 48 first-time mothers-to-be via a treatment-component strategy. Compared with nonrelaxation conditions, relaxation treatments reduced reported postpartal distress. Expectations about treatment effectiveness were not significant factors in treatment outcome.…

Halonen, Jane S.; Passman, Richard H.

1985-01-01

336

Post-partum pyogenic abscess containing Ascaris lumbricoides  

PubMed Central

We report an unusual case of multiple pyogenic liver abscesses containing Ascariasis lumbricoides in a 35-year-old post-partum female who had delivered 1 month back. Open drainage of liver abscess along with liver worm was done. Patient did well post-operatively. PMID:23961448

Hamid, Raashid; Wani, Sajad; Ahmad, Nawab; Akhter, Afrozah

2013-01-01

337

Trajectories of Postpartum Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Children's Social Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The vast majority of new mothers experience at least some depressive symptoms. Postpartum maternal depressive symptoms can greatly influence children's outcomes (e.g., emotional, cognitive, language, and social development). However, there have been relatively few longitudinal studies of how maternal depressive symptoms may influence children's…

Wu, Yelena P.; Selig, James P.; Roberts, Michael C.; Steele, Ric G.

2011-01-01

338

Physiological mechanisms controlling anestrus and infertility in postpartum beef cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Postpartum infertility is caused by four factors: general infertility, lack of uterine involution, short estrous cycles and anestrus. The general infertility component is common to any estrous cycle and reduces potential fertility by 20 to 30%. Incomplete uterine involution prevents fertilization during the first 20 d after calving but is not related to anestrus. Short estrous cycles prevent fertility

R. E. Short; R. A. Bellows; R. B. Staigmiller; J. G. Berardinelli; E. E. Custer; E. E. Custep

339

Prospective study of postpartum depression: Prevalence, course, and predictive factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

99 women (mean age 26.5 yrs) were followed from the 2nd trimester of pregnancy until about 6 mo postpartum. Depression diagnostic and severity assessments were conducted during pregnancy and after delivery. Instruments included the Beck Depression Inventory and an interview adapted from the Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Depression severity decreased steadily from the 2nd trimester until 9 wks

Michael W. OHara; Danny J. Neunaber; Ellen M. Zekoski

1984-01-01

340

Introducing Domestic Violence Assessment in a Postpartum Clinical Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Attempts to introduce assessment for exposure to domestic violence in health care settings have met with limited success, in spite of widespread knowledge of the prevalence of spousal abuse and its implications for women's health. We assessed the utility of Rogers' model of institutional change for the implementation of a universal screening program for domestic violence in postpartum clinical

Patricia A. Janssen; Victoria L. Holt; Nancy K. Sugg

2002-01-01

341

Predicting Postpartum Changes in Emotion and Behavior via Social Media  

E-print Network

Predicting Postpartum Changes in Emotion and Behavior via Social Media Munmun De Choudhury Scott}@microsoft.com ABSTRACT We consider social media as a promising tool for public health, focusing on the use of Twitter of postnatal data. The study is motivated by the opportunity to use social media to identify mothers at risk

Horvitz, Eric

342

Antepartum and postpartum depression: healthy mom, healthy baby.  

PubMed

This article summarizes the epidemiology, clinical features, and treatment of antepartum and postpartum major depression. This summary will enable primary care clinicians to recognize and screen for perinatal mood disorders and to initiate the risk-benefit decision-making process used in treatment selection. This review will also help identify patient factors that warrant psychiatric consultation. We selected and reviewed studies of antepartum and postpartum depression of greatest utility to primary care clinicians. We developed a graphical algorithm that summarizes the steps needed for the care of postpartum depressed women. The prevalence of postpartum depression ranges from 10% to 15%, with screening rates of depressive symptoms as high as 35% in African American women. The prevalence of antepartum depression is as high as 26% among women in poor, urban communities. Maternal depression is associated with adverse effects on fetal and infant development. The challenge of diagnosing perinatal major depression can be addressed by assessing for persistent cognitive and affective symptoms and functional impairment. Effective treatments include interpersonal psychotherapy and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The treatment of perinatal depression requires a unique informed consent process that is guided by a discussion of maternal preferences, the severity of maternal illness and recommended treatment, the risks of psychotropic exposure, and the risks of untreated mental illness. Rapid and effective mental health intervention in depressed expectant or new mothers not only restores maternal function, but can also prevent adverse infant neurobehavioral outcomes. PMID:15354371

Moses-Kolko, Eydie L; Roth, Erika Kraus

2004-01-01

343

Early Interactions between Infants and Their Postpartum Depressed Mothers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated whether infants of mothers who were depressed postpartum would behave like infants of non-depressed mothers who simulated depression. A total of 24 mothers and their 3-month-old infants were videotaped during face-to-face interactions. All mothers were given the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State-Trait…

Field, Tiffany

344

Effects of prepartum milking on postpartum reproduction, udder health and production performance in first-calf dairy heifers.  

PubMed

Postpartum production performance of dairy heifers may be enhanced by prepartum milking by alleviating the stress of the periparturient period. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of prepartum milking of dairy heifers on postpartum reproduction, udder health, milk production and other associated production characteristics. Pregnant heifers (Holstein, n=21; Jersey n=10) were assigned to either a prepartum milked (premilked, n=15) or control (n=16) group. Premilked heifers were milked twice daily starting 3 weeks prior to anticipated calving dates, and milk yield recorded at each milking. All heifers were evaluated on days 21, 14 and 7 before calving, and udder oedema scores and milk conductivity readings were recorded. Following calving, measurements were taken twice weekly to assess udder oedema, milk conductivity (indicative of udder infection), and reproductive health, which included palpation for uterine tone and uterine position, vaginal electrical impedance (VEI) and the quantification of cross-sectional area of the uterine horns (uterine difference) by transrectal ultrasonography. Uterine tone, uterine position, uterine difference, and VEI did not differ (P>0.10) with treatment. Overall, up to week six inclusive, postpartum premilked heifers had lower (P<0.01) udder oedema scores than control heifers and up to week five inclusive, had lower (P<0.01) milk conductivity readings (indicative of fewer incidences of udder infections) than control heifers. The premilked heifers of both breeds produced more milk (P<0.01) at calving and more milk overall from calving to day 60 postpartum than the control heifers. In summary, udder health and milk production were improved post calving in premilked heifers compared with controls. However, no overt differences in reproductive characteristics were observed between the premilked and control heifers. PMID:16569274

Bowers, Susan; Gandy, Scott; Graves, Kenneth; Eicher, Susan; Willard, Scott

2006-08-01

345

Early and Late Onset Sepsis in Late Preterm Infants  

PubMed Central

Background Preterm birth is increasing worldwide, and late preterm births, which comprise more than 70% of all preterm births, account for much of the increase. Early and late onset sepsis results in significant mortality in extremely preterm infants, but little is known about sepsis outcomes in late preterm infants. Methods This is an observational cohort study of infants < 121 days of age (119,130 infants less than or equal to 3 days of life and 106,142 infants between 4 and 120 days of life) with estimated gestational age at birth between 34 and 36 weeks, admitted to 248 neonatal intensive care units in the United States between 1996 and 2007. Results During the study period, the cumulative incidence of early and late onset sepsis was 4.42 and 6.30 episodes per 1000 admissions, respectively. Gram-positive organisms caused the majority of early and late onset sepsis episodes. Infants with early onset sepsis caused by Gram-negative rods and infants with late onset sepsis were more likely to die than their peers with sterile blood cultures (OR 4.39, 95% CI 1.71–11.23, P=0.002; and OR 3.37, 95% CI 2.35–4.84, P<0.001, respectively). Conclusion Late preterm infants demonstrate specific infection rates, pathogen distribution, and mortality associated with early and late onset sepsis. The results of this study are generalizable to late preterm infants admitted to the special care nursery or neonatal intensive care unit. PMID:19953725

Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Moran, Cassandra; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Cotten, C. Michael; Clark, Reese H.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Smith, P. Brian

2009-01-01

346

Early diagnosis of postpartum acute myocardial infarction with combined use of troponin T and heart-type fatty acid-binding protein rapid assay.  

PubMed

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) during pregnancy or in the early postpartum period is a rare event but may cause perinatal morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis of AMI is critical for appropriate treatment. We report a case of postpartum AMI in a 40-year-old multiparous woman with varicose veins. On postpartum day 3, the patient suffered severe chest pain. She had been administered oral methylergometrine. In addition to ST-segment elevation in her electrocardiogram, the patient presented with a positive result on whole blood rapid panel tests for troponin T and heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP). These findings indicated AMI in the anterolateral wall. The chest pain disappeared with the prompt administration of intravenous pentazocine hydrochloride and sublingual nitroglycerin spray. Angiography did not reveal any signs of coronary stenosis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of postpartum AMI diagnosed rapidly with combined use of troponin T and H-FABP qualitative panel tests. PMID:21564412

Kumagai, Koji; Ohnaka, Haruhiko; Okamoto, Fumio; Yasuda, Masayuki; Kamegai, Hideki; Ohmichi, Masahide

2011-10-01

347

Antidepressant Use in Pregnant and Postpartum Women  

PubMed Central

Women in their reproductive years are at increased risk of experiencing depressive and anxiety disorders. As such, it is likely that pregnant women will undergo treatment with antidepressants. We review the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and perinatal and neonatal complications of the offspring related to in utero exposure to antidepressants. The literature shows that antidepressant exposure is associated with fetal growth changes and shorter gestations, although effects are small. There are a number of reports of transitory neonatal signs after exposure to antidepressants. No specific pattern of malformations has been consistently associated with antidepressants, with the possible exception of paroxetine and cardiac malformations. There is inconclusive evidence of a link between antidepressants in late pregnancy and persistent pulmonary hypertension in the newborn. While antidepressant use in pregnancy is well studied, confounding factors that can adversely affect pregnancy and birth outcomes may contribute to some of the findings. PMID:24313569

Yonkers, Kimberly A.; Blackwell, Katherine A.; Forray, Ariadna

2014-01-01

348

Nipple Pain, Damage, and Vasospasm in the First 8 Weeks Postpartum  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background: Nipple pain and damage are common in the early postpartum period and are associated with early cessation of breastfeeding and comorbidities such as depression, anxiety, and mastitis. The incidence of nipple vasospasm has not been reported previously. This article describes nipple pain and damage prospectively in first-time mothers and explores the relationship between method of birth and nipple pain and/or damage. Subjects and Methods: A prospective cohort of 360 primiparous women was recruited in Melbourne, Australia, in the interval 2009–2011, and after birth participants were followed up six times. The women completed a questionnaire about breastfeeding practices and problems at each time point. Pain scores were graphically represented using spaghetti plots to display each woman's experience of pain over the 8 weeks of the study. Results: After birth, before they were discharged home from hospital, 79% (250/317) of the women in this study reported nipple pain. Over the 8 weeks of the study 58% (198/336) of women reported nipple damage, and 23% (73/323) reported vasospasm. At 8 weeks postpartum 8% (27/340) of women continued to report nipple damage, and 20% (68/340) were still experiencing nipple pain. Ninety-four percent (320/340) of the women were breastfeeding at the end of the study, and there was no correlation between method of birth and nipple pain and/or damage. Conclusions: Nipple pain is a common problem for new mothers in Australia and often persists for several weeks. Further studies are needed to establish the most effective means of preventing and treating breastfeeding problems in the postnatal period. PMID:24380583

Amir, Lisa H.; Cullinane, Meabh; Donath, Susan M.

2014-01-01

349

Postpartum ovarian vein thrombosis presenting as ureteral obstruction  

PubMed Central

Ovarian vein thrombosis (OVT) is a relatively uncommon but serious postpartum complication. Although infrequent, OVT may progress to involve the inferior vena cava, the renal vein or may cause sepsis and septic pulmonary embolism, all of which are potentially life-threatening. Clinical misdiagnosis is common, and, unfortunately, most affected women undergo laparotomy for possible appendicitis. We present an interesting case of OVT presenting as ureteral obstruction in a postpartum woman who was in her early 20s. Knowledge of this entity and clinical suspicion for its occurrence, in a puerperal patient with fever and abdominal pain not responding to antibiotics, should guide clinicians to appropriate diagnosis and treatment, avoiding misdiagnosis, unnecessary laparotomy and potential complications. PMID:22767678

Kolluru, Anuradha; Lattupalli, Rakesh; Kanwar, Manreet; Behera, Deepak; Kamalakannan, Desikan; Beeai, Muhammed K

2010-01-01

350

DIMINUTION OF THE IN VITRO RESPONSE TO LUTEINIZING HORMONE BY CORPORA LUTEA INDUCED BY GONADOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE TREATMENT OF POSTPARTUM SUCKLED BEEF COWS1,2, 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Ovaries were removed from eight beef cows that were exhibiting ovarian cycles and 13 that had been given 250 \\/ag gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) during the post- partum period. The two groups (estrous cycle cows and postpartum GnRH-treated cows) were further divided into subgroups, with corpora lutea (CL) removed on either day 5 or day 7 (day 5 CL

D. J. Kesler; P. G. Weston; C. A. Pimentel; T. R. Troxel; D. L. Vincent; J. E. Hixon

351

Violence Against Women and Postpartum Depression: The Experience of Chilean Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is based on the findings from a cross-sectional study of women (N?=?163) who were at least two weeks postpartum and attending primary care clinics in Arica-Chile. The study examined the prevalence of history of violence and its association with postpartum depression (PPD). The Women Abuse Screen and the Postpartum Depression Screening Scale Spanish-Version were used to assess interpersonal

Ana M. Quelopana

2012-01-01

352

Psychosocial risk and protective factors for postpartum depression in the United Arab Emirates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited research has been conducted in the United Arab Emirates in relation to postpartum depression. The purpose of this\\u000a study was to investigate the risk and protective factors of postpartum depression in women in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.\\u000a We carried out a prospective study in which we followed women from the second trimester of pregnancy until 4 months postpartum.\\u000a Data were

Aisha Hamdan; Hani Tamim

2011-01-01

353

Acculturation and Depressive Symptoms Among Pregnant and Postpartum Latinas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives Among childbearing Latinas, higher acculturation has been found to be significantly associated with increased risk for mental\\u000a health problems (Acevado (Child Abuse Neglect, 24:11–127, 2000)), although these findings have been inconsistent (Beck (Maternal\\u000a Child Nurs, 31(2), 114–120, 2006)). The aims of this study are to assess and compare the prevalence of elevated depressive\\u000a symptoms among pregnant and postpartum U.S.-

Marivel Davila; Stephanie L. McFall; Diana Cheng

2009-01-01

354

Postpartum feeding attitudes, maternal depression, and breastfeeding in Barbados  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal feeding attitudes, maternal moods and infant feeding practices during the first 6 months postpartum were assessed in 226 healthy, well-nourished Barbadian mother–infant dyads. Factor analysis of the feeding attitudes questionnaire resulted in six independent factors. The belief that breastfeeding was better than bottle-feeding was associated with higher family income, more information seeking behavior and older maternal age at the

Janina R. Galler; Robert H. Harrison; Frank Ramsey; Sonia Chawla; John Taylor

2006-01-01

355

Vaginal repair of vaginal vault dehiscence after postpartum hysterectomy  

PubMed Central

Vaginal vault dehiscence (VVD) may occur rarely after hysterectomy. Although mostly, a vaginal cuff dehiscence is seen after robotic or laparoscopic hysterectomy, it may also be observed as a complication of abdominal or vaginal hysterectomy. Vaginal repair is one of the techniques used for VVD. Here, we will describe a case of vaginally repaired VVD, associated with intra-abdominal hematoma after postpartum hysterectomy. PMID:24876366

Avc?oglu, Sumeyra Nergiz; Alt?nkaya, Sunduz Ozlem; Kucuk, Mert; Yuksel, Hasan; Demircan-Sezer, Selda

2014-01-01

356

Post-partum reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cattle on smallholder farms in sub-humid coastal Tanzania.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to monitor the reproductive performance of dairy cows in smallholder farms under the Tanga Dairy Development Project (TDDP). The findings can be used to improve reproductive efficiency. Dates of oestrus, artificial insemination (AI) or service by bull and calving were recorded, and pregnancy was diagnosed by rectal palpation. Daily milk yields, monthly body condition score (BCS) measured on the scale of 1-9, feed availability, calf rearing, and diseases were also recorded. Milk progesterone (P4) concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 1327 sequential samples collected between day 15 and 120 in 46 post-partum Zebu x Friesian crossbred dairy cows. The mean interval from calving to first P4 rise above 2 nmol/L (cyclicity) was 66.1 +/- 6.8 days. Resumption of ovarian activity postpartum was early (< 60 days) in 45%, and late (> 60 days) in 55% of the cows. In about 45% of the cows the first post-partum ovarian cycles were short (< 14 days) and had low P4 concentrations. Oestrus was missed once or several times in 34.7% of the cows, most likely indicating poor oestrus detection, silent oestrus, or farmers deliberately not taking or reporting their cows for insemination. The mean interval to conception was within 130 days postpartum. Average daily milk production was 5.7 +/- 2.2 L and the mean BCS Was 3.1 +/- 1.3. Both milk production and BCS had no clear influence on the measured reproduction parameters. Clinical uterine involution was complete within 29 +/- 2.6 days of calving in the majority of cows. Progesterone profiles and rectal palpation revealed various causes of infertility, which included anoestrus, silent oestrus, irregular oestrous cycles, and infection of the uterus. The major causes of animal culling, death, slaughter or sales include tick-borne diseases and trypanosomiasis, which have high prevalences in the area, infertility, low productivity and old age. Greater attention should be focused on reproduction and its interaction with nutrition and disease control. PMID:15080542

Lyimo, Z C; Nkya, R; Schoonman, L; van Eerdenburg, F J C M

2004-04-01

357

The relationship between attachment style and postpartum depression.  

PubMed

Although an increasing number of studies show an association between adult attachment style and mood disorders, the relationship between adult attachment style and depression associated with childbirth is largely unknown. This study investigated the association between women's attachment style, postpartum depression (PPD), and other risk factors. During the 32nd week of pregnancy, 84 women were interviewed using the Attachment Style Interview. Participants also completed self-report questionnaires about reaction to pregnancy, family relationships, current life stresses, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. At one-month postpartum, they were evaluated for postpartum depressive symptoms using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Eighty-two women completed the second self-report questionnaires and were evaluated for PPD. The data of 76 women were eligible for analysis. PPD was present in 21%. An insecure attachment style was significantly related to depression. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed significant effects for insecure attachment, social economic status, and antenatal depression on PPD. Adding the insecure attachment style factor to the logistic model that predicted PPD increased the area under the curve to 0.87 (95% CI .77-.98; p < .05). The inclusion of attachment styles in assessments of perinatal depressive disorders could improve screening and the design of interventions. PMID:25098625

Ikeda, Mari; Hayashi, Momoko; Kamibeppu, Kiyoko

2014-12-01

358

Postpartum mental health screening and diagnosis by obstetrician-gynecologists.  

PubMed

Postpartum depression (PPD) and postpartum psychosis (PPP) can impact mother, infant, and family. Obstetrician-gynecologists (ob-gyns) are often the most frequent medical contact for postpartum women, and so are in a position to identify women needing psychological care. This study assessed ob-gyns' knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding diagnosing PPD/PPP. A survey was sent to 400 members of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists who have volunteered to participate in research. Response rate was 56%. Routine screening for PPD and PPP is conducted by 72% and 30% of respondents, respectively. Personal experience (through friend, family, or self) was associated with increased screening. Perceived PPP screening barriers are similar to those found in the PPD literature: time constraints, lack of training, and lack of knowledge of diagnostic criteria. In responding to standardised vignettes, physicians were more likely to over-diagnose, than under diagnose PPD/PPP. This study is the first to provide exploratory data of ob-gyns' knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding PPD and PPP. Ob-gyns are screening for PPD/PPP, though not universally so. Future research should identify ways to mitigate screening barriers. PMID:21261561

Leddy, Meaghan; Haaga, David; Gray, James; Schulkin, Jay

2011-03-01

359

Prevalence of postpartum infections: a population-based observational study.  

PubMed

We investigated the prevalence of postpartum infections among women giving birth during 1 year in a population-based observational/questionnaire study at seven hospitals in the southeast region of Sweden. Of the women >99% (n = 11 124) received a questionnaire to inquire if they had endometritis, mastitis, or wound, urinary tract or any other infection within 2 months postpartum and whether they received antibiotics for this. Prevalence rates for infections and antibiotic treatment were estimated. The response rate was 60.1%. At least one infectious episode was reported by 10.3% of the women and 7.5% had received antibiotics. The prevalence for infections with and without antibiotics were, respectively, mastitis 4.7% and 2.9%, urinary tract infection 3.0% and 2.4%, endometritis 2.0% and 1.7%, wound infection 1.8% and 1.2%. There was no inter-county difference in infection prevalence. Clinical postpartum infections in a high-resource setting are relatively common. PMID:25132521

Axelsson, Daniel; Blomberg, Marie

2014-10-01

360

Managing Major Postpartum Haemorrhage following Acute Uterine Inversion with Rusch Balloon Catheter  

PubMed Central

Acute postpartum uterine inversion is a relatively rare complication. The uterus inverts and the uterine fundus prolapses to or through the dilated cervix. It is associated with major postpartum haemorrhage with or without shock. Shock is sometimes out of proportion to the haemorrhage. Minimal maternal morbidity and mortality can be achieved when uterine inversion is promptly and aggressively managed. We present this report of three cases of acute uterine inversion complicated with major postpartum haemorrhage and managed with Rusch balloon. The paper highlights the importance of early recognition and the safety of the use of intrauterine balloon to manage major postpartum haemorrhage in these cases. PMID:24826322

Keriakos, Remon; Chaudhuri, Smriti Ray

2011-01-01

361

Nursing regimens: effects on body condition, return to postpartum ovarian cyclicity in Santa Ines ewes, and performance of lambs.  

PubMed

The effects of nursing regimens on the body condition, onset of ovarian cyclicity postpartum and weaning weight of lambs were assessed in Santa Ines ewes. Thirty-two ewes were blocked according to parity, number of lambs, and body weight at lambing and within each block randomly allocated to treatments: continuous nursing (CN), controlled nursing (CN2) with two daily feedings for an hour after the 10th day postpartum, or early weaning (EW) with total separation from the lambs after the 10th day. The animals were evaluated from the 12th day postpartum until the first estrus or until 60th day. The dry matter and nutrients intake did not differ among treatments (P>0.05) but did differ over time (P<0.01). The weight, body condition score, serum concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids and prolactin, the percentages of ewes in estrus, of ewes that ovulated within 60th day and had ovulation silent, the period from lambing to estrus, ovulation and follicle with a diameter ?5mm and the maximum follicular diameter did not differ (P>0.05) among the treatments. The percentage of ovulation until 30th day was greater (P<0.05) in the EW group. The percentage of short luteal phases was higher in the CN2 and EW groups (P=0.07) and normal luteal phases were higher in the CN group (P=0.01). Lamb weight weaning was lower in the EW group (P<0.05). It is possible to use CN to obtain lambing periods less than eight months in Santa Ines ewes, with the advantages of simpler management and higher lamb weaning weights. PMID:23827414

Ascari, I J; Alves, A C; Pérez, J R O; Lima, R R; Garcia, I F F; Nogueira, G P; Junqueira, F B; Castro, T R; Aziani, W L B; Alves, N G

2013-08-01

362

Tobacco and alcohol use in the context of adolescent pregnancy and postpartum: a scoping review of the literature.  

PubMed

Adolescent girls are more likely than women of other ages to smoke tobacco or drink alcohol during pregnancy. The health impacts of smoking and drinking for girls and the interconnections between alcohol and tobacco use with adolescent pregnancy underscore the urgent need for integrated approaches to prevent and reduce alcohol and tobacco use among pregnant girls/young women. This article reports on the results of a scoping review of the literature focused on adolescents' use of tobacco and alcohol during pregnancy and postpartum. A search of CINAHL, Medline, Social Science Index and Web of Science identified 40 articles published in the two decades between 1990 and 2012 that met our inclusion criteria related to this age group, pregnancy/motherhood status, and use of both alcohol and tobacco. The review points to compelling gaps in our knowledge and our responsiveness to adolescents aged 19 and under who use alcohol and tobacco during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Research has been primarily descriptive, with separate, parallel streams of investigation to identify trends and predictors of alcohol and tobacco use, prior to, during and following pregnancy. There is a marked lack of effective interventions described in the literature that are designed to prevent or reduce alcohol and tobacco use during pregnancy among adolescent girls; and there are few examples of gender-informed prevention or treatment programmes for this population. Research is needed on interventions that attend to the context of adolescent girls' substance use as well as their preferences and developmental needs for support that encourage sustained behaviour change throughout pregnancy and the postpartum period and that effectively address the influence of partners and friends on use. PMID:24405036

Bottorff, Joan L; Poole, Nancy; Kelly, Mary T; Greaves, Lorraine; Marcellus, Lenora; Jung, Mary

2014-11-01

363

Differences between body condition scores and body weight changes in postpartum dairy cows in relation to parity and reproductive indices  

PubMed Central

Weekly changes in body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) were compared in relation to parity and the timing of postpartum reproductive events. To eliminate the effect of frame size, the BW loss (%) was used for analysis using 26 primiparous and 24 multiparous Holstein cows. Compared with primiparous cows, multiparous cows showed significantly lower BCS and greater BW, but had the same BW loss. Recovery from the BW nadir initiated earlier than that from the BCS nadir and was independent of parity. For the 50 cows, those showing early occurrences of first ovulation, estrus, and insemination, or conception expressed the same BCS as those showing late occurrences. However, those cows that were late in ovulating, showing estrus and being inseminated showed a more severe decline in the BW than did those that were early; there was no significant difference between early and late conceiving cows. These results suggest that the BW loss (%) could be a parity-independent indicator of certain reproductive indices. PMID:19721786

Sakaguchi, Minoru

2009-01-01

364

Postpartum Behavioral Profiles in Wistar Rats Following Maternal Separation - Altered Exploration and Risk-Assessment Behavior in MS15 Dams.  

PubMed

The rodent maternal separation (MS) model is frequently used to investigate the impact of early environmental factors on adult neurobiology and behavior. The majority of MS studies assess effects in the offspring and few address the consequences of repeated pup removal in the dam. Such studies are of interest since alterations detected in offspring subjected to MS may, at least in part, be mediated by variations in maternal behavior and the amount of maternal care provided by the dam. The aim of this study was to investigate how daily short (15 min; MS15) and prolonged (360 min; MS360) periods of MS affects the dam by examining postpartum behavioral profiles using the multivariate concentric square field (MCSF) test. The dams were tested on postpartum days 24-25, i.e., just after the end of the separation period and weaning. The results reveal a lower exploratory drive and lower risk-assessment behavior in MS15 dams relative to MS360 or animal facility reared dams. The present results contrast some of the previously reported findings and provide new information about early post-weaning behavioral characteristics in a multivariate setting. Plausible explanations for the results are provided including a discussion how the present results fit into the maternal mediation hypothesis. PMID:20617189

Daoura, Loudin; Hjalmarsson, My; Oreland, Sadia; Nylander, Ingrid; Roman, Erika

2010-01-01

365

Television News Coverage Of Postpartum Disorders and the Politics of Medicalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that although postpartum disorders can potentially disrupt the hegemonic discourse of essential\\/good motherhood, as represented in television news, such disorders are domesticated by the use of news routines and are defined as “real” diseases that are temporary disruptions in women's natural ability to mother. This understanding of postpartum disorders not only engages in a process of medicalizing

Tasha N. Dubriwny

2010-01-01

366

Latinas and Postpartum Depression: Role of Partner Relationship, Additional Children, and Breastfeeding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Breastfeeding, additional children, and partner relationship predicted postpartum depression among 59 Latinas who had an infant who was 6 months old or younger. The most powerful predictor was conflict with partner. Counselors working with Latinas experiencing postpartum depression should explore the partner relationship, particularly relationship…

Hassert, Silva; Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson

2011-01-01

367

Treating Depression during Pregnancy and the Postpartum: A Preliminary Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: This meta-analysis evaluates treatment effects for nonpsychotic major depression during pregnancy and postpartum comparing interventions by type and timing. Methods: Studies for decreasing depressive severity during pregnancy and postpartum applying treatment trials and standardized measures were included. Standardized mean differences…

Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Grote, Nancy K.

2006-01-01

368

Effects of Sheng Hua Tang on Uterine Involution and Ovarian Activity in Postpartum Dairy Cows  

PubMed Central

The effects of Sheng Hua Tang (SHT) on uterine involution and ovarian activity were investigated in postpartum dairy cows. SHT (70 g) was given to dairy cows (n = 10) to evaluate its effects for five days from the first postpartum day. Postpartum cows fed with a basal diet without SHT were used as the control group (n = 10). Ultrasounds and blood tests were recorded for four weeks from postpartum day seven with a 3-d interval. The results showed that the areas and diameters of endometria were significantly (p<0.01) reduced in the group that received SHT compared to the control group on the seventh postpartum day. The group that received SHT had an intrauterine fluid volume mean of 1.2±0.6 cm3, which was significantly lower than that of the control group, 2.3±0.8 cm3 (p<0.01) on the 13th postpartum day. In addition, the uterine tension score was a mean of 1.0±0.0 in the group that received SHT, which was also significantly lower than that of the control group, 1.5±0.5 (p<0.01) on the 19th postpartum day. Taken together, the Chinese herbal medicine remedy, SHT, promoted uterine involution and ovarian activity in postpartum dairy cows. PMID:25049906

Lee, K. H.; Lee, Y. T.; Chen, T. C.; Yeh, C. C.; Chen, J. Y.; Liu, L. Y.; Chi, C. H.

2013-01-01

369

Effects of sheng hua tang on uterine involution and ovarian activity in postpartum dairy cows.  

PubMed

The effects of Sheng Hua Tang (SHT) on uterine involution and ovarian activity were investigated in postpartum dairy cows. SHT (70 g) was given to dairy cows (n = 10) to evaluate its effects for five days from the first postpartum day. Postpartum cows fed with a basal diet without SHT were used as the control group (n = 10). Ultrasounds and blood tests were recorded for four weeks from postpartum day seven with a 3-d interval. The results showed that the areas and diameters of endometria were significantly (p<0.01) reduced in the group that received SHT compared to the control group on the seventh postpartum day. The group that received SHT had an intrauterine fluid volume mean of 1.2±0.6 cm(3), which was significantly lower than that of the control group, 2.3±0.8 cm(3) (p<0.01) on the 13th postpartum day. In addition, the uterine tension score was a mean of 1.0±0.0 in the group that received SHT, which was also significantly lower than that of the control group, 1.5±0.5 (p<0.01) on the 19th postpartum day. Taken together, the Chinese herbal medicine remedy, SHT, promoted uterine involution and ovarian activity in postpartum dairy cows. PMID:25049906

Lee, K H; Lee, Y T; Chen, T C; Yeh, C C; Chen, J Y; Liu, L Y; Chi, C H

2013-09-01

370

Developmental Transition of Motherhood: Treating Postpartum Depression Using a Feminist Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the developmental lifeline for women, some individuals are affected by postpartum depression. This article describes the treatment of a Latina woman experiencing postpartum depression. The authors illustrate the feminist approach using counseling interventions that incorporate the client's developmental level, cultural background, and…

Davis-Gage, Darcie; Kettmann, Julie Jenks; Moel, Joy

2010-01-01

371

Stability and change in level of maternal depressive symptomatology during the first postpartum year  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This study evaluated stability and change in the level of maternal depressive symptomatology over the course of the first postpartum year in a community cohort of 106 first-time mothers of full-term, healthy infants. Effects of diagnosed depression and infant gender were also assessed. Methods: At 2 months postpartum (intake), mothers were classified into one of two symptom groups on

Marjorie Beeghly; M. Katherine Weinberg; Karen L Olson; Henrietta Kernan; Joan Riley; Edward Z Tronick

2002-01-01

372

Traditional Postpartum Practices and Food Consuming Among Women in Rural Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the development in advanced medical and public health services has provided both proactive and passive postpartum care in the rural areas, the traditional practices are still influential. The objective of this study was to investigate the traditional practices and food consuming for Thai postpartum women in the rural areas. The descriptive study used both the quantitative and qualitative methods.

Supunnee Thrakul; Pranee Lundberg; Karn Chaladthanyagid; Pennapa Unsanit

373

Postpartum sexual functioning and method of delivery: Summary of the evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-term postpartum sexual problems are highly prevalent, ranging from 22% to 86%; however, there are few studies that address how mode of delivery affects sexual functioning after childbirth. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of the literature on selected postpartum sexual function outcomes as affected by cesarean, assisted vaginal, and spontaneous vaginal delivery. We searched

Tara L. Hicks; Susan Forester Goodall; Evelyn M. Quattrone; Mona T. Lydon-Rochelle

2004-01-01

374

A light in the fog: caring for women with postpartum depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is estimated that at least 1 in 10 women will experience postpartum depression, yet systematic screening for it in clinical practice is too often neglected. The foggy unreality of this affective disorder leads women to believe they are losing their minds, and their efforts to find help can be elusive. Women with postpartum depression who go undetected and untreated

Holly Powell Kennedy; Cheryl Tatano Beck; Jeanne Watson Driscoll

2002-01-01

375

Prospective Investigation of Postpartum Depression: Factors Involved in Onset and Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the role of a number of psychosocial variables in the onset of postpartum depression and in recovery from depression that occurs during pregnancy. Women (N = 730) were recruited during pregnancy and were followed through 1 month postpartum. They were assessed on demographic variables and on measures of depressive symptomatology and diagnostic status, perceived stress, marital satisfaction, perceptions

Ian H. Gotlib; Valerie E. Whiffen; Pamela M. Wallace; John H. Mount

1991-01-01

376

Gestational Diabetes and Postpartum Physical Activity: Evidence of Lifestyle Change 1 Year After Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are advised to incorporate physical activity into their lifestyle in order to reduce their risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2DM), it is recognized that new mothers face barriers to postpartum exercise. Thus, we sought to determine whether, following the diagnosis of GDM, women indeed alter their postpartum physical activity patterns, as compared

Ravi Retnakaran; Ying Qi; Mathew Sermer; Philip W. Connelly; Bernard Zinman; Anthony J. Hanley

2010-01-01

377

Physician Care Patterns and Adherence to Postpartum Glucose Testing after Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Oregon  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examines obstetrician/gynecologists and family medicine physicians' reported care patterns, attitudes and beliefs and predictors of adherence to postpartum testing in women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus. Research Design and Methods In November–December 2005, a mailed survey went to a random, cross-sectional sample of 683 Oregon licensed physicians in obstetrician/gynecologists and family medicine from a population of 2171. Results Routine postpartum glucose tolerance testing by both family physicians (19.3%) and obstetrician/gynecologists physicians (35.3%) was reportedly low among the 285 respondents (42% response rate). Factors associated with high adherence to postpartum testing included physician stated priority (OR 4.39, 95% CI: 1.69–7.94) and physician beliefs about norms or typical testing practices (OR 3.66, 95% CI: 1.65–11.69). Specialty, sex of physician, years of practice, location, type of practice, other attitudes and beliefs were not associated with postpartum glucose tolerance testing. Conclusions Postpartum glucose tolerance testing following a gestational diabetes mellitus pregnancy was not routinely practiced by responders to this survey. Our findings indicate that physician knowledge, attitudes and beliefs may in part explain suboptimal postpartum testing. Although guidelines for postpartum care are established, some physicians do not prioritize these guidelines in practice and do not believe postpartum testing is the norm among their peers. PMID:23071709

Hunsberger, Monica L.; Donatelle, Rebecca J.; Lindsay, Karen; Rosenberg, Kenneth D.

2012-01-01

378

Effects of lactation on bone mineral content in healthy postpartum women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone mineral contents were estimated by dual photon absorptiometry of the lumbar spine (L2-L4) and single photon absorptiometry of the mid- and distal radius in 19 healthy women on their second postpartum day and at 6 months postpartum. All bone mineral measurements were performed by one technician, and the single and dual photon absorptiometry results were read by one observer.

C. C. Hayslip; T. A. Klein; H. L. Wray; W. E. Duncan

1989-01-01

379

Prevalence Rates and Demographic Characteristics Associated with Depression in Pregnancy and the Postpartum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined prevalence of depression in 360 women during pregnancy and after delivery. At both assessments, approximately 25 percent reported elevated levels of depressive symptomatology. Ten percent met diagnostic criteria for depression during pregnancy; 6.8 percent were depressed postpartum. One-half of postpartum depression cases were new onset.…

Gotlib, Ian H.; And Others

1989-01-01

380

Induction of Labor and Risk of Postpartum Hemorrhage in Low Risk Parturients  

E-print Network

Induction of Labor and Risk of Postpartum Hemorrhage in Low Risk Parturients Imane Khireddine, Hospices Civils de Lyon, EA 4129 Universite´ Lyon 1, Lyon, France Abstract Objective: Labor induction sparse. Our objective was to assess the association between induction of labor and postpartum hemorrhage

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

381

Postpartum Cultural Practices are Negatively Associated with Depressive Symptoms among Chinese and Vietnamese Immigrant Mothers Married to Taiwanese Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to examine acceptance and adherence to mainstream Taiwanese postpartum cultural practices and their association with postpartum depressive symptoms among Chinese and Vietnamese immigrant mothers married to Taiwanese men. While the postpartum cultural practices in China are similar to mainstream Taiwanese practices, those of Vietnam differ from Taiwanese practices. This cross-sectional survey was conducted in

Tzu-Ling Chen; Chen-Jei Tai; Tsai-Wei Wu; Ching-Ping Chiang; Li-Yin Chien

2012-01-01

382

Effectiveness of a facebook-delivered physical activity intervention for post-partum women: a randomized controlled trial protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Physical activity is reduced during the post-partum period. Facebook is frequently used by Australian mothers, and offers flexibility, high levels of engagement and the ability to disseminate information and advice via social contacts. The Mums Step it Up Program is a newly developed 50 day team-based physical activity intervention delivered via a Facebook app. The program involves post-partum women working in teams of 4–8 friends aiming to achieve 10,000 steps per day measured by a pedometer. Women are encouraged to use the app to log their daily steps and undertake social and supportive interactions with their friends and other participants. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the Mums Step it Up Program. Method/design A sample of 126 women up to 12 months post-partum will be recruited through community-based health and family services. Participants will be randomly allocated into one of three groups: control, pedometer only and the Mums Step it Up Program. Assessments will be completed at baseline, 6 weeks and 6 months. The primary outcome (objective physical activity) and the secondary outcomes (sleep quality and quantity, depressive symptoms, weight and quality of life) will be used to determine the effectiveness of the Mums Step it Up Program compared with the control and pedometer only groups. Analyses will be undertaken on an intention-to-treat-basis using random effects mixed modeling. The effect of theorized mediators (physical activity attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control) will also be examined. Discussion This study will provide information about the potential of a Facebook app for the delivery of health behavior interventions. If this intervention proves to be effective it will be released on a mass scale and promoted to the general public. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register: ACTRN12613000069752 PMID:23714411

2013-01-01

383

Development and validation of the eating stimulus index in low-income, minority women in early postpartum.  

PubMed

Dietary modification to achieve weight loss during the postpartum period may be critical for prevention of obesity, particularly in low-income, minority women. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to develop and validate a measure to examine motivations to eat in low-income, minority women during early postpartum. A convenience sample of 179 triethnic women was recruited from the Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children clinics from June 2004 to April 2007. Subjects made one visit to a study center where they completed the Eating Stimulus Index and questions regarding individual demographic characteristics including ethnicity, age, income, education, marital status, breastfeeding, and employment status. Weight and height were also measured during this visit and used to calculate body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m(2)). An additional sample of 31 women completed the Eating Stimulus Index on two occasions with 2 weeks between to establish test-retest reliability. The factor structure of the scale was examined with principal components analysis. Total scale scores and subscale scores were calculated and Pearson's correlation and multiple regression analysis examined relationships to BMI. Principal component analysis produced an eight-factor structure with loadings >0.40. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for each subscale ranged from .54 to .89. Subscales of Convenience Eating, Emotional Eating, and Dietary Restraint were related to BMI in mothers. African-American, exclusively formula-feeding, and older women were most vulnerable to convenience eating. White women and those with the highest level of education were most vulnerable to emotional eating. The Eating Stimulus Index is a valid and reliable instrument with the ability to discriminate by weight. It can be used to assess motivations to eat in order to facilitate development of tailored weight-loss messages during early postpartum. PMID:19699840

Cahill, Jodi M; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Shah, Bijal S; Lu, Hongxing; Klohe-Lehman, Deborah M

2009-09-01

384

Public Schools in Australia from the Late 1970s to the Late 1980s: The Seeds of Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The period from the late 1970s to the late 1980s were transition years for most public(government) school systems in Australia. A reaction was developing against the neo-progressive and radical (neo-Marxist) innovations of the late 1960s and 1970s such as school-based curricula, activity methods, and "open education". By the early 1980s the…

Barcan, Alan

2010-01-01

385

Physiological mechanisms controlling anestrus and infertility in postpartum beef cattle.  

PubMed

Postpartum infertility is caused by four factors: general infertility, lack of uterine involution, short estrous cycles and anestrus. The general infertility component is common to any estrous cycle and reduces potential fertility by 20 to 30%. Incomplete uterine involution prevents fertilization during the first 20 d after calving but is not related to anestrus. Short estrous cycles prevent fertility during the first 40 d after calving by causing the cow to return to estrus before pregnancy recognition occurs. Anestrus is the major component of postpartum infertility and is affected by several minor factors: season, breed, parity, dystocia, presence of a bull, uterine palpation and carryover effects from the previous pregnancy as well as two major factors: suckling and nutrition. These major factors have direct effects on anestrus but also interact with one or more other factors to control postpartum anestrus. Physiological mechanisms associated with anestrus involve blockage of the GnRH "pulse generator" in the hypothalamus, but other pathways also must be involved because bypassing the pulse generator is not an effective treatment for all cows. The primary cause of anestrus probably is different for different stages of anestrus. The mediating mechanisms for anestrus are not involved with prolactin, oxytocin, the adrenal or direct neural input from the mammary gland but are at least partially involved with blood glucose and the endogenous opioid peptide system. Management options to decrease the impact of anestrus and infertility include: 1) restrict breeding season to less than or equal to 45 d; 2) manage nutrition so body condition score is 5 to 7 before calving; 3) minimize effects of dystocia and stimulate estrous activity with a sterile bull and estrous synchronization; and 4) judicious use of complete, partial or short-term weaning. PMID:2180877

Short, R E; Bellows, R A; Staigmiller, R B; Berardinelli, J G; Custer, E E

1990-03-01

386

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) expert system in postpartum nursing.  

PubMed

The method of TCM treatment is highly appreciated by Chinese people, because it is safe, without side effects, widely applicable, gives good results, and uses natural medicinal herbs. It is an ideal natural cure that will make contributions to the health of patients all over the world. The superiority of TCM nursing and treatment should be brought into full play--it is an active nursing method which deserves recommendation for postpartum nursing. This paper introduces the TCM expert system in postpartum nursing and discusses the features of TCM treatment and nursing by using concepts of modern cybernetics. The human body can be considered a high-level automatic control system in which there are many transinformation mediums, for example, neuro-system, humoral-system, meridian system (the response along the channels during acupuncture) etc. They stem from the very long process of evolution. Through the action of them, the body can adapt environments; keep normal metabolism and immunity; and possess the functions of compensation , learning, and self-repair, for example, conditioned reflexes, vaccination, etc. In general, the balancing tendency of dynamic body stays normal homeostate. If the body is ill, then its dynamic balancing tendency will be changed. TCM doctors can make use of remedy, acupuncture, and massage, etc. to regulate the balancing tendency of dynamic body to induce the defending ability itself and recover normal homeostate of body. The TCM nursing expert system in postpartum nursing has been finished. Its working environment must be CCDOS or UCDOS edition 3.0 and above. The hardware environment is PC/286, 386, or 486. PMID:8591359

Shi, P Y

1995-01-01

387

Risk factors for postpartum uterine diseases in dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objective of this observational study was to investigate the risk factors for metritis, purulent vaginal discharge, and cytological endometritis. The hypothesis was that purulent vaginal discharge and cytological endometritis would have different risk factors because they represent distinct manifestations of uterine disease. Data generated from 1,363 Holstein cows (3 herds) enrolled in a randomized clinical trial were used. Calving history, periparturient disease incidence, and body condition score at calving and at 63 d in milk (DIM) were recorded. Serum nonesterified fatty acid concentration was measured once during the week before expected calving. Serum nonesterified fatty acid, ?-hydroxybutyric acid, and haptoglobin (Hapto) concentrations were measured at 4 ± 3, 11 ± 3, and 18 ± 3 DIM. Serum progesterone concentration was measured at 21 ± 3, 35 ± 3, 49 ± 3, and 63 ± 3 DIM. Metritis was diagnosed by farm managers within the first 20 DIM using a standardized definition. Cows were examined at 35 ± 3 DIM by a veterinarian for purulent vaginal discharge (mucopurulent or worse vaginal discharge; Metricheck device) and cytological endometritis (? 6% polymorphonuclear cells on endometrial cytology; cytobrush device). Statistical analyses were performed using multivariable logistic regression models for each disease, accounting for the random effect of herd. Risk factors for metritis included increased nonesterified fatty acid prepartum (? 0.6 mmol/L), dystocia, retained placenta, and increased Hapto in the first week postpartum (? 0.8 g/L). Risk factors for purulent vaginal discharge included twinning, dystocia, metritis, and increased Hapto (? 0.8 g/L) in the first week postpartum. Risk factors for cytological endometritis included low body condition score at parturition (? 2.75), hyperketonemia (? 1,100 ?mol/L), and increased Hapto (? 0.8 g/L) in the first week postpartum. These results support the hypothesis that some of the risk factors for purulent vaginal discharge and cytological endometritis are different, which supports that they are distinct manifestations of uterine disease. PMID:21094748

Dubuc, J; Duffield, T F; Leslie, K E; Walton, J S; LeBlanc, S J

2010-12-01

388

Nutrition health issues in self-reported postpartum depression  

PubMed Central

Aim In this retrospective survey women with and without self-reported postpartum depression (PPD) were compared in regards to consumption-frequency of foods and supplements rich in nutrients beneficial to nervous system (NS) health, in regards to consumption-frequency of compounds which may counteract the effect of the above and in regards to nutritional support provided to them during a pregnancy between 2003 and 2008. Background Postpartum depression (PPD) is defined as a major depressive episode that begins within 1 month of delivery and is experienced by roughly 13% of mothers. Patients and methods Four Hundred participants were recruited through the internet. Data gathered via multiple choice questionnaires was statistically analyzed using SPSS and Statistical software; statistical procedures included discriminant analysis, Pearson's product moment correlation, independent t-test and cross-tabulations. Results Out of 400 participants 83 (20.8%) were affected by self-reported depression after a pregnancy between 2003 and 2008. Depressed subjects consumed oily fish and offal significantly more often than non depressed subjects. Depression was more prevalent among women with vegetarian diets. No significant difference concerning food group intake or the ratios between foods rich in nutrients beneficial to NS health and foods rich in compounds antagonising their effect were found between depressed and non depressed subjects. Iron supplementation correlated positively with zinc supplementation in both groups. Roughly 70% of women reported to have received no information about n-3 fatty acid fish oils during pregnancy; informed subjects consumed fish oils more often. The majority of subjects with self-reported depression described nutritional support during pregnancy as inadequate. Conclusion Within this Austrian sample, the prevalence rate of postpartum depression was high; while the consumption of oily fish and vegetarian diets negatively correlated with depression, Patient information positively correlated with the consumption of fish oil supplements. These results indicate that further studies will be required in order to establish the exact relationship between nutrition and mental health during and after pregnancy. PMID:24834169

Mortimore, Denise; Snow, Sarah

2011-01-01

389

Association between Maternal Anaemia and Postpartum Depression in an Urban Sample of Pregnant Women in Iran  

PubMed Central

The aim of this prospective study was to determine the relationship between anaemia during pregnancy and postpartum depression. Two hundred eighty-one non-anaemic mothers with singleton and low-risk pregnancy and no history of antidepressant-use were studied. Demographic and reproductive data at week 20 were obtained. Mothers were followed up and haemoglobin (Hb) was checked at delivery. Iranian version of Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) was completed 4-6 weeks after delivery. Mean age of the mothers was 26.6±4 years. The prevalence of postpartum depression according to EPDS was 5.5%. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that Hb <11 g/dL at delivery would increase the chance of postpartum depression (OR 4.64; 95% CI 1.33-16.08). The results show that diagnosis and treatment of physiologic factors, especially anaemia, would reduce the risk of postpartum depression. PMID:24288954

Alizadeh, Mozhgan; Gandevani, Samira Behboudi

2013-01-01

390

Health-related quality of life in postpartum depressed women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The objectives of this study were a) to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among women with postpartum depression,\\u000a b) examine the association between severity of depressive symptoms and level of impairment in physical and mental HRQoL and\\u000a c) to identify contributors to physical and mental HRQoL. Seventy-eight women scoring ?10 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression\\u000a Scale completed the questionnaires

D. Da Costa; M. Dritsa; N. Rippen; I. Lowensteyn; S. Khalifé

2006-01-01

391

Predictors of postpartum depressive symptoms in Icelandic women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Objective: The aim of the survey was to investigate the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms among Icelandic women and the\\u000a predictive capacity of parental stress and infant difficulty.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method: A sample of women (n = 734), 2–3 months after giving birth was studied by mailed questionnaires that included the Edinburgh\\u000a Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS); Parent Stress Index\\/Short Form (PSI\\/SF)

M. Thome

2000-01-01

392

[Postpartum hemorrhage by vaginal laseration: new case and improved management].  

PubMed

We describe a case of uterine necrosis, following Gelitaspon(®) embolization for postpartum hemorrhage resulting from vaginal laceration. Previous cases published help to improve the safety of this effective method by showing the risk factors, as particles sizes, ultraselective embolization, prevention of infection. Controlling bleeding by surgery is the priority when hemorragy is due to laceration without uterin atony. In case of failure, embolization is an option which should be proposed without delay. Uterine necrosis should be suspected in case of postembolization septic syndrome. PMID:23706157

Gitz, L; Picone, O; Mas, A-E; Dagher, L; Deffieux, X

2014-05-01

393

Improving Quality and Efficiency of Postpartum Hospital Education  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate the implementation of an evidence-based, streamlined, education process (comprehensive education booklet, individualized education plan, and integration of education into the clinical pathway) and nurse education to improve the quality and efficiency of postpartum education during hospitalization. A one-group pretest–posttest design was used to measure the quality of discharge teaching for new mothers and efficiency of the education process for registered nurses before and after implementation of an intervention. Results indicated that a comprehensive educational booklet and enhanced documentation can improve efficiency in the patient education process for nurses. PMID:23997552

Buchko, Barbara L.; Gutshall, Connie H.; Jordan, Elizabeth T.

2012-01-01

394

Prognostic factors for recovery from postpartum pelvic girdle pain  

PubMed Central

Pelvic girdle pain (PGP) has a high incidence during pregnancy and in some women pain will persist for years. Most studies have used pain as the outcome measure, and little attention is given to functioning or disability. A better understanding of prognostic factors for recovery seems important for clinical care and treatment. The aim of the present paper was to identify prognostic factors for recovery from postpartum PGP and disability, and to determine the impacts of prognostic factors when pain intensity and disability are used as outcome measures. Seventy-eight women with diagnosed PGP were included 6–16 weeks postpartum. Possible prognostic factors were obtained through clinical tests and questionnaires at baseline. The clinical tests were posterior pelvic pain provocation (P4) test, active straight leg raise (ASLR) test and pain provocation of long dorsal sacroiliac ligament (LDL). One year postpartum outcome measures were obtained by Oswestry disability index (ODI ver 2.0) and worst evening pain (VAS 0–100). Multiple linear regression and logistic regression analyses were used to identify significant prognostic factors. At baseline 60% believed they would recover and 40% were uncertain or believed they would not recover. Fifty per cent had a history of low back pain (LBP), and 20% had high emotional distress (HSCL25-item ?1.75). About 75% had positive LDL and P4 at both sides and 24% had pain located to all three pelvic joints. Forty per cent had ASLR scores of at least 4 (sum score range 0–10). Multivariate analyses showed consistently that ASLR and belief in improvement were statistical significant predictors for both disability and pain as outcome measures. ASLR score <4 predicted 10 points lower ODI and 19 points lower evening pain compared with having ASLR score of at least 4. Pain location was a statistical significant predictor in only one analysis. History of LBP or high psychological distress was not prognostic for recovery. ASLR test and belief in improvement are predictors of clinical significance in women having PGP postpartum. PMID:19238458

Stuge, Britt

2009-01-01

395

Effects of chromium propionate supplementation during the periparturient period and early lactation on metabolism, performance, and cytological endometritis in dairy cows.  

PubMed

Multiparous Holstein cows (n=61) were used to determine the effects of chromium propionate (Cr-Pro) supplementation during the periparturient period and early lactation on metabolism, performance, and the incidence of cytological endometritis (CE). After a 1-wk preliminary period, cows were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 treatments from 21 d before expected calving through 63 d postpartum: (1) control (n=31) and (2) Cr-Pro (n=30) administered by daily topdress at a rate of 8mg/d of Cr. A tendency was detected for increased dry matter intake (DMI) during the prepartum period for cows fed Cr-Pro. Moreover, cows fed Cr-Pro tended to have lower plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids during the prepartum period. However, effects of Cr-Pro supplementation on postpartum DMI and milk yield were not significant. Cows fed Cr-Pro tended to have higher urea N concentrations in milk. An interaction of treatment and day existed during the postpartum period, such that cows fed Cr-Pro had lower plasma glucose concentrations within the first day postpartum compared with controls. Plasma haptoglobin concentration was not affected by treatment during the postpartum period. Blood neutrophil glycogen concentrations were not affected by treatment when sampled at either 7 d postpartum or on one day between 40 and 60 d (48 d±0.44 standard error) postpartum. Evaluation of endometrial cytology by low volume lavage at 7 d postpartum (first lavage) and on one day between 40 and 60 d (second lavage) postpartum revealed that cows fed Cr-Pro tended to have a higher percentage of neutrophils at first lavage and decreased incidence of CE as assessed at second lavage. In conclusion, supplementation with Cr-Pro resulted in trends for increased DMI and lower plasma nonesterified fatty acids prepartum. Postpartum production and energy metabolism were not affected by treatment; however, Cr-Pro supplementation tended to affect the postpartum influx of neutrophils into the uterus and decreased the incidence of CE, suggesting positive effects of Cr-Pro supplementation on uterine health. PMID:25087037

Yasui, T; McArt, J A A; Ryan, C M; Gilbert, R O; Nydam, D V; Valdez, F; Griswold, K E; Overton, T R

2014-10-01