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1

[Endocrinopathies during the postpartum period. Management.  

PubMed

The various endocrinopathies that may occur during the postpartum period are described. The most important and common is gestational and pre-gestational diabetes, but other less common, and also very important ones, are mentioned such as hypopituitarism (Sheehan's syndrome and lymphocytic hypophysitis) and thyroid disorders, pre-existing (hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism), or postpartum onset (postpartum thyroiditis and Graves' disease). After describing their characteristics, the emphasis is placed on the proper management of these endocrine diseases, some of them which exclusively appear during the postpartum period. PMID:24837528

Gallo-Vallejo, J L; Gallo-Vallejo, F J

2014-05-13

2

Hormones and Cognitive Functioning During Late Pregnancy and Postpartum: A Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This longitudinal study investigated the possible influence of estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), testosterone (T), cortisol (CORT), and prolactin (PRL) levels on cognitive functioning during late pregnancy and the early postpartum period. The performance of 55 pregnant women on a battery of neuropsychological tests, tested once during the third trimester of pregnancy and once during the early postpartum period, was compared

Jessica F. Henry; Barbara B. Sherwin

2012-01-01

3

Can we identify mothers at risk for postpartum depression in the immediate postpartum period using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Postpartum depression is a major health issue for many women around the world with well-documented negative health consequences for the mother, child and family. While research has demonstrated the amenability of postpartum depression to treatment, there is preliminary evidence suggesting maternal mood in the immediate postpartum period may be predictive of postpartum depression such that secondary preventive interventions may

Cindy-Lee Dennis

2004-01-01

4

[Maternal concerns and social support during postpartum period].  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore the dimension of maternal concerns during postpartum, and the effects of parity, time and social support on maternal concerns. Ninety-four women were recruited at one to five days after giving birth, and followed up at one month postpartum. Three instruments were used for data collection: the demographic questionnaire, the Maternal Concerns Questionnaire and the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List. There were four dimensions of postpartum maternal concerns: "concerns of life and social contact", "concerns of maternal role", "physiological concerns" and "psychological concerns". The results shown that the most intensive concerns of postpartum women were about maternal role. Primiparas had more concerns about maternal role than multiparas. Physiological concerns at one-month postpartum were decreased markedly compared with the early postpartum period. Psychological concerns were increased from the early postpartum period to one-month postpartum, and in primiparas they were increased more significantly. There were no significant correlations between social support and maternal concerns. It is suggested that postpartum health education should provide more information and technical practice focusing on maternal role. Obstetric nurses and community health nurses should enhance postnatal follow-up. PMID:17953076

Cheng, H R; Chen, C H

2001-06-01

5

Does preeclampsia predict the risk of late postpartum eclampsia?  

PubMed

Objective?To investigate potential predictive symptoms of late postpartum eclampsia (LPE). Study Design?Retrospective review of patients delivered at a single academic medical center and diagnosed with eclampsia greater than 48 hours postdelivery. Results?Among 19 patients with eclampsia, 5 (26%) patients with confirmed eclampsia seized greater than 48 hours after delivery. None of these patients showed evidence of preeclampsia intrapartum or immediately postpartum and none received intrapartum magnesium sulfate. Prior to seizure activity, 4 of 5 (80%) patients had increased blood pressure and 2 of 5 (40%) had central nervous system symptoms (headache and visual changes). Conclusion?Gestational hypertension (GHTN) may be a risk factor for LPE. Consideration of seizure prophylaxis for patients with GHTN may facilitate the prevention of LPE. PMID:23943702

Wolfe, Diana S; Williams, Shauna F; Ross, Michael G; Beall, Marie H; Apuzzio, Joseph J

2013-05-01

6

Do changes in mood and concerns about weight relate to smoking relapse in the postpartum period?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The majority of women who quit smoking during pregnancy will resume smoking during the postpartum period. Little is known, however, about the predictors of postpartum relapses to smoking. Changes in mood and increases in concerns about weight are common during the postpartum period, and these factors may affect women’s postpartum smoking behavior. In this paper, we present a model

M. D. Levine; M. D. Marcus

2004-01-01

7

Late Onset Postpartum Eclampsia: It is Really Never Too Late—A Case of Eclampsia 8 Weeks after Delivery  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Eclampsia is the combination of preeclampsia and seizures. Approximately one-half of all cases of eclampsia occur postpartum. Thereby late onset postpartum eclampsia is defined by its onset more than 48 hours after delivery. Summary of Case. We report a postpartum eclampsia occurring 8 weeks after delivery, which is the latest onset ever described. The course was complicated by an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Conclusion. A late onset postpartum eclampsia even several weeks after delivery should be considered as possible diagnosis, since early treatment initiation with magnesium sulphate and antihypertensive medication prevents severe complications and reduces mortality. PMID:20798839

Minnerup, Jens; Kleffner, Ilka; Wersching, Heike; Zimmermann, Julian; Schäbitz, Wolf-Rüdiger; Niederstadt, Thomas; Dziewas, Rainer

2010-01-01

8

Women's Perceptions of Breastfeeding Barriers in Early Postpartum Period: A Qualitative Analysis Nested in Two Randomized Controlled Trials  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objectives: This study examined women's perceptions of early infant feeding experiences and identified early postpartum barriers to successful breastfeeding. Subjects and Methods: We conducted semistructured exit interviews at 6 months postpartum with a subsample of participants (n=67) enrolled in two randomized controlled trials of breastfeeding promotion. Study arms included (1) routine pre- and postnatal visits with an International Board Certified Lactation Consultant (IBCLC) (LC group), (2) electronically prompted guidance from prenatal care providers (EP group), (3) EP+LC combined, and (4) standard of care (control group). Interview transcripts were coded using grounded theory and analyzed in MAXqda. Code matrices were used to identify early postpartum breastfeeding barriers and were further examined in relation to treatment group using a mixed methods analysis. Results: The majority of the participants reported experiencing at least one barrier to breastfeeding. Barriers to breastfeeding were more commonly reported in the early postpartum than late postpartum period. The most common barrier during the early postpartum period was the perception of inadequate milk supply (“lactational”) (n=18), followed by problems with latch, medical problems that were perceived as precluding breastfeeding, and medical staff and hospital practices. Participants frequently reported that the IBCLCs assisted them in anticipating, managing, and overcoming these barriers. Conclusions: Our findings underscore the importance of integrating IBCLCs into routine pre- and postpartum care because they provide critical support that effectively addresses early postpartum barriers to breastfeeding. PMID:24304033

Barnett, Josephine; Bonuck, Karen

2014-01-01

9

Intrauterine device insertion in the postpartum period: A systematic review.  

PubMed

Objectives Given new research on postpartum placement of levonorgestrel and copper intrauterine devices (IUDs), our objective was to update a prior systematic review of the safety and expulsion rates of postpartum IUDs. Methods We searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, LILACS, POPLINE, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases for articles between the database inception until July 2013. We included studies that compared IUD insertion time intervals and routes during the postpartum period. We used standard abstract forms and the United States Preventive Services Task Force grading system to summarise and assess the quality of the evidence. Results We included 18 articles. New evidence suggests that a levonorgestrel releasing-intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) insertion within 48 hours of delivery is safe. Postplacental insertion and insertion between 10 minutes and 48 hours after delivery result in higher expulsion rates than insertion 4 to 6 weeks postpartum, or non-postpartum insertion. Insertion at the time of caesarean section is associated with lower expulsion rates than postplacental insertion at the time of vaginal delivery. Conclusions This review supports the evidence that insertion of an intrauterine contraceptive within the first 48 hours of vaginal or caesarean delivery is safe. Expulsion rates should be further studied in larger randomised controlled trials. PMID:25397890

Sonalkar, Sarita; Kapp, Nathalie

2014-11-14

10

Treatment of psychosis and mania in the postpartum period.  

PubMed

Postpartum psychosis is a severe disorder that warrants acute clinical intervention. Little is known, however, about what interventions are most effective. The authors present treatment response and remission outcomes at 9 months postpartum using a four-step algorithm in patients with first-onset psychosis or mania in the postpartum period. Treatment involved the structured sequential administration of benzodiazepines, antipsychotics, lithium, and ECT. The outcome of clinical remission was examined in 64 women consecutively admitted for postpartum psychosis. Remission was defined as the absence of psychotic, manic, and severe depressive symptoms for at least 1 week. Women who remitted on antipsychotic monotherapy were advised to continue this treatment as maintenance therapy, and women who required both antipsychotics and lithium to achieve remission were maintained on lithium monotherapy. Relapse was defined as the occurrence of any mood or psychotic episode fulfilling DSM-IV-TR criteria. Using this treatment algorithm, the authors observed that nearly all patients (98.4%) achieved complete remission within the first three steps. None of the patients required ECT. At 9 months postpartum, sustained remission was observed in 79.7%. Patients treated with lithium had a significantly lower rate of relapse compared with those treated with antipsychotic monotherapy. Multiparity and nonaffective psychosis were identified as risk factors for relapse. The authors conclude that a structured treatment algorithm with the sequential addition of benzodiazepines, antipsychotics, and lithium may result in high rates of remission in patients with first-onset postpartum psychosis and that lithium maintenance may be most beneficial for relapse prevention. PMID:25640930

Bergink, Veerle; Burgerhout, Karin M; Koorengevel, Kathelijne M; Kamperman, Astrid M; Hoogendijk, Witte J; Lambregtse-van den Berg, Mijke P; Kushner, Steven A

2015-02-01

11

Problem-Solving Appraisal and the Prediction of Depression during Pregnancy and in the Postpartum Period.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested hypothesis that higher levels of positive affect and lower levels of negative affect would predict depression during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. Analysis of 100 women indicated that women at risk for depression during pregnancy and in the postpartum period may exhibit heightened negative moods and a dearth of positive affective…

Elliott, Timothy R.; And Others

1996-01-01

12

Late Postpartum HELLP Syndrome 60 Hours after Delivery Associated with Mild Pre-eclampsia  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this report is to present a case of mild Pre-eclampsia which was complicated with postpartum HELLP syndrome. A 25-years-old pregnant woman with mild Pre-eclampsia at 36 weeks of gestation was admitted to our clinic with uterine contractions. A caesarean section was performed, due to her previous caesarean section history. Postpartum period was uneventful until the 2nd day after the caesarean section. Epigastric pain, nausea and vomiting appeared two days after her delivery. In evaluation of the case, laboratory findings which were associated with HELLP syndrome were found to include haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet counts. The general condition and laboratory findings of the case returned to normal with supportive and steroid treatment after 3 days. It should be noted that HELLP syndrome can develop in the postpartum period. Therefore, caution should be exercised in patients with pre-eclampsia, for the development of the postpartum HELLP syndrome. PMID:24551706

Cakmak, Bulent; Toprak, Muhammet; Nacar, Mehmet Can; Karatas, Ahmet

2013-01-01

13

Late Postpartum HELLP Syndrome 60 Hours after Delivery Associated with Mild Pre-eclampsia.  

PubMed

The purpose of this report is to present a case of mild Pre-eclampsia which was complicated with postpartum HELLP syndrome. A 25-years-old pregnant woman with mild Pre-eclampsia at 36 weeks of gestation was admitted to our clinic with uterine contractions. A caesarean section was performed, due to her previous caesarean section history. Postpartum period was uneventful until the 2nd day after the caesarean section. Epigastric pain, nausea and vomiting appeared two days after her delivery. In evaluation of the case, laboratory findings which were associated with HELLP syndrome were found to include haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet counts. The general condition and laboratory findings of the case returned to normal with supportive and steroid treatment after 3 days. It should be noted that HELLP syndrome can develop in the postpartum period. Therefore, caution should be exercised in patients with pre-eclampsia, for the development of the postpartum HELLP syndrome. PMID:24551706

Cakmak, Bulent; Toprak, Muhammet; Nacar, Mehmet Can; Karatas, Ahmet

2013-12-01

14

Structure of depressive symptoms in pregnancy and the postpartum period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The present study investigated the structure of depressive symptoms in the perinatal period. Method: The Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) was administered to a total of 1329 women in early, middle and late pregnancy and 5 days, 1 month, 6 months, 12 months and 18 months after the delivery. Results: A number of somatic items and the suicidal ideation

Masumi Sugawara; Shinji Sakamoto; Toshinori Kitamura; Mari Aoki Toda; Satoru Shima

1999-01-01

15

A case of neuroleptic malignant syndrome induced by olanzapine in postpartum period.  

PubMed

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening medical complication that occurs as a result of dopaminergic receptor blockage in nigrostriatal pathways. This syndrome is mainly accepted to be an idiosyncratic reaction for antipsychotic medications. Incidence of NMS induced by olanzapine - an atypical antipsychotic - is extremely rare. However, there has been contradiction on postpartum period as a risk factor for NMS. This case is of interest due to the fact that it happens on postpartum period and is induced by olanzapine. We aimed in this study to evaluate the successfully cured case of neuroleptic malignant syndrome induced by olanzapine in postpartum period with the literature view. PMID:20680143

Ustünda?, Mehmet; Orak, Murat; Gülo?lu, Cahfer; Sayhan, Mustafa Burak; Ta?, Mahmut

2007-10-01

16

A case of neuroleptic malignant syndrome induced by olanzapine in postpartum period  

PubMed Central

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening medical complication that occurs as a result of dopaminergic receptor blockage in nigrostriatal pathways. This syndrome is mainly accepted to be an idiosyncratic reaction for antipsychotic medications. Incidence of NMS induced by olanzapine - an atypical antipsychotic - is extremely rare. However, there has been contradiction on postpartum period as a risk factor for NMS. This case is of interest due to the fact that it happens on postpartum period and is induced by olanzapine. We aimed in this study to evaluate the successfully cured case of neuroleptic malignant syndrome induced by olanzapine in postpartum period with the literature view. PMID:20680143

Üstünda?, Mehmet; Orak, Murat; Gülo?lu, Cahfer; Sayhan, Mustafa Burak; Ta?, Mahmut

2007-01-01

17

Successful Intra-Arterial Thrombolysis for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Immediate Postpartum Period: Case Report  

SciTech Connect

Stroke in pregnancy and the puerperium is a rare but potentially devastating event. We present the case of a previously healthy woman who underwent a cesarean delivery and experienced a middle cerebral artery thrombosis in the immediate postpartum period that was subsequently lysed with intra-arterial urokinase. The patient made a complete neurologic recovery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of successful intra-arterial thrombolysis for ischemic stroke in the postpartum period.

Mendez, Jose C. [Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Department of Neuroradiology (Spain)], E-mail: jmendezce@hotmail.com; Masjuan, J.; Garcia, N.; Lecinana, M. de [Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Department of Neurology (Spain)

2008-01-15

18

Effect of prepartum somatotropin injection in late-pregnant Holstein heifers on metabolism, milk production and postpartum resumption of ovulation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of prepartum somatotropin injection in late-pregnant Holstein heifers on metabolism, milk production and resumption of postpartum ovulation. For this study, 31 late-pregnant Holstein heifers were used. The heifers were assigned randomly into two treatments: (1) 500 mg sc injections of somatotropin (somatotropin treatment, n = 15) at -35 and -21 days, and, if pertinent, at -7 days from expected calving date and (2) no treatment (control group, n = 16). Blood samples were collected weekly from -5 to 7 weeks after calving. Heifers with progesterone concentrations in plasma above 1 ng/ml in two consecutive postpartum samples were considered as having resumed ovarian activity. A higher proportion (P = 0.04) of heifers treated with somatotropin resumed ovarian activity in the first 7 weeks post partum (73.3%; 11/15) compared with the control group (37.5%; 6/16). A higher number (P = 0.02) of heifers in the somatotropin treatment group also ovulated during the first postpartum follicular wave (53.3%; 8/15) compared with the control group (12.5%; 2/16), as indicated by the number of heifers ovulating in the first 3 weeks post partum. Pregnancy rate was not affected by treatments (P > 0.10) and averaged 40.0% (6/15) in somatotropin-treated and 25.0% (4/16) in control heifers when evaluated up to 150 days in milk. Somatotropin treatment increased the average daily milk production by 2.8 kg/cow per day (P < 0.0001) and reduced the somatic cell count (P = 0.009). Plasma IGF-I was higher (P < 0.05) for somatotropin-treated heifers in the prepartum period. Insulin and body condition score were higher (P < 0.05) and non-esterified fatty acids were lower (P < 0.05) for somatotropin-treated cows in the early postpartum period. In conclusion, somatotropin injection during the prepartum period in late-pregnant Holstein heifers was able to increase the proportion of heifers resuming ovarian activity early post partum, inspite of higher milk production. PMID:22558964

Schneider, A; Schwegler, E; Montagner, P; Hax, L T; Schmitt, E; Pfeifer, L F M; Del Pino, F A B; Bianchi, I; Paludo, G R; Corrêa, M N

2012-06-01

19

A Counselor's Primer on Postpartum Depression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that women are particularly vulnerable to depression during the postpartum period. Distinguishes postpartum depression from normal postpartum adjustment, postpartum blues, and postpartum psychosis. Describes biological, psychodynamic, and diathesis-stress perspectives on postpartum depression. Encourages counselors to fashion individualized…

Pfost, Karen S.; And Others

1990-01-01

20

Risk factors for urinary tract infection in the postpartum period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We sought to examine risk factors for urinary tract infection in postpartum women. Study Design: Subjects (n = 931) with maternal urinary tract infections and control subjects (n = 1862) were identified by using a linked Washington State birth certificate and Birth Events Records Database for the years 1987-1993; stratified analysis was performed by using Mantel-Haenszel procedures. Results: Increased

Margot A. Schwartz; Chia C. Wang; Linda O. Eckert; Cathy W. Critchlow

1999-01-01

21

Social support during the postpartum period: Mothers’ views on needs, expectations, and mobilization of support  

PubMed Central

Objectives Research has indicated that social support is a major buffer of postpartum depression. Yet little is known concerning women’s perceptions on social support during the postpartum period. The objective of this study was to explore postpartum women’s views and experiences with social support following childbirth. Methods Four focus groups were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of women (n=33) in a large urban teaching hospital in New York City. Participants had completed participation in a postpartum depression randomized trial and were 6 to 12 months postpartum. Data transcripts were reviewed and analyzed for themes. Results The main themes identified in the focus group discussions were mother’s major needs and challenges postpartum, social support expectations and providers of support, how mothers mobilize support, and barriers to mobilizing support. Women across all groups identified receipt of instrumental support as essential to their physical and emotional recovery. Support from partners and families was expected and many women believed this support should be provided without asking. Racial/ethnic differences existed in the way women from different groups mobilized support from their support networks. Conclusions Instrumental support plays a significant role in meeting women’s basic needs during the postpartum period. In addition, women’s expectations surrounding support can have an impact on their ability to mobilize support among their social networks. The results of this study suggest that identifying support needs and expectations of new mothers is important for mothers’ recovery after childbirth. Future postpartum depression prevention efforts should integrate a strong focus on social support. PMID:22581378

Negron, Rennie; Martin, Anika; Almog, Meital; Balbierz, Amy; Howell, Elizabeth A.

2012-01-01

22

Smoking cessation intervention for pregnant women: a call for extension to the postpartum period.  

PubMed

The association between smoking during pregnancy and adverse maternal/neonatal health outcomes is widely acknowledged, and recent health care reform has filled a much-needed gap by extending prenatal smoking cessation intervention coverage to all pregnant women on Medicaid. While more extensive coverage will improve quit rates during pregnancy, there continues to be a need to address high relapse rates in the postpartum period for both the insured and the uninsured. Smoking during the postpartum period exposes infants directly and indirectly to negative health effects, and has additional costs to mothers and society. Approximately 80% of women who quit smoking during pregnancy relapse in the first year postpartum, highlighting a need for effective continuing care that supports them through the challenging postpartum period when stress is high and motivations to stay quit may change. Existing relapse prevention interventions, typically delivered during pregnancy, have been found to be of little benefit during the postpartum period, suggesting the need for a more formal continuing care approach. Phone-based protocols are promising because they address the need for flexible access, and are known to be effective at increasing quit rates and sustained cessation. PMID:21710186

Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H

2012-07-01

23

Metabolic profile of broodmares during late pregnancy and early post-partum.  

PubMed

Pregnancy represents a specific physiological status characterized by continuous adjustments that affect maternal metabolism of all nutrients. In the last trimester of pregnancy, mare's nutrient requirements greatly increase and most pregnancy-associated diseases are likely to occur. Therefore, we aimed to assess the metabolic profile of broodmares focusing on the last 3 months of pregnancy and the early post-partum. Fifteen pregnant mares (Group A) were monitored from 263 ± 3 days of pregnancy until 21 days after foaling. Seven non-pregnant mares (Group B) were used as the control group. Blood samples were collected weekly by jugular venipuncture throughout the experimental period, and additional blood samples were collected within 24 ± 12 h of foaling. Obtained sera were analyzed for urea (Ur), creatinine (Cre), total protein (TP), total, direct and indirect bilirubin (tB, dB, iB), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (tChol) and ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). During pregnancy, Ur (p = 0.015) and dB (p = 0.028) were higher in Group A than Group B. Serum Cre, tB, iB and TG (p < 0.001) decreased after foaling; furthermore, Group A exhibited lower tChol (p < 0.001) and higher BHB (p < 0.001) than Group B during the study. There were significant interactions of time × peripartum on Ur (p = 0.007), Cre (p < 0.001), tB (p = 0.018), TG (p < 0.001) and tChol (p < 0.001). These results can be used in the interpretation of biochemical studies in late gestation mares which develop systemic disease. The improved understanding of the metabolic profile during the peripartum might assist in monitoring the health status of the broodmares to promote foetal growth and well-being. PMID:25251226

Bazzano, M; Giannetto, C; Fazio, F; Arfuso, F; Giudice, E; Piccione, G

2014-12-01

24

Imaging manifestations of a dreaded obstetric complication in the immediate postpartum period.  

PubMed

HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelet) syndrome is a dreaded complication that may develop during pregnancy or in the immediate postpartum period. Rarely this syndrome manifests itself with imaging findings. We report a case of HELLP syndrome in which the diagnosis was reaffirmed via imaging findings. PMID:24688204

Levine, Harold; Zarghouni, Mehrzad; Cannon, Walter

2014-04-01

25

Depressive symptomatology during pregnancy and the postpartum period: Is the beck depression inventory applicable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), a widely used tool to assess depression during pregnancy and the postpartum period, has some item heterogeneity and contains some items that may be normative during pregnancy rather than uniquely indicative of depression. To evaluate the implications of this, we studied 62 primiparous women and a comparison group of 36 nulliparous women. Assessments were made

Lynne C. Huffman; Martine Lamour; Yvonne E. Bryan; Frank A. Pederson

1990-01-01

26

Relationship between Fathers' Depression and Perceived Social Support and Stress in Postpartum Period  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The evidence suggests that some men experience depression after the childbirth of their wife, and this real and unknown phenomenon will adversely affect them as well as their families. Regarding the lack of understanding about the paternal depression and its complex and multifaceted etiology, the present study was done to assess the paternal postpartum depression and its relationship with perceived stress and social support components. Methods: In this descriptive study, 205 new fathers were assessed from 6th to 12th week postpartum in seven health centers, affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University. Collected data with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, and the Perceived Social Support Scale were analyzed by descriptive statistics, correlation tests and linear regression analysis. Results: 11.7% of the fathers scored 12 or above in the Edinburgh scale, which indicated depression symptom. The postnatal depression scores had a significant positive correlation with the perceived stress scores and a significant negative correlation with the perceived social support components scores. Perceived stress was key predictor of paternal postpartum depression. Perceived social support components cannot significantly predict the paternal postpartum depression. Conclusion: Assessment of paternal postpartum depression and its risk factors is recommended. Healthcare providers should pay more attention to the increasing public awareness, stress management and communication skills training, and support of fathers during the postnatal period. PMID:25276749

Kamalifard, Mahin; Hasanpoor, Shirin; Babapour Kheiroddin, Jalil; Panahi, Samira; Bayati Payan, Somayeh

2014-01-01

27

The Plasticity of Human Maternal Brain: Longitudinal Changes in Brain Anatomy During the Early Postpartum Period  

PubMed Central

Animal studies suggest that structural changes occur in the maternal brain during the early postpartum period in regions such as the hypothalamus, amygdala, parietal lobe, and prefrontal cortex and such changes are related to the expression of maternal behaviors. In an attempt to explore this in humans, we conducted a prospective longitudinal study to examine gray matter changes using voxel-based morphometry on high resolution magnetic resonance images of mothers’ brains at two time points: 2–4 weeks postpartum and 3–4 months postpartum. Comparing gray matter volumes across these two time points, we found increases in gray matter volume of the prefrontal cortex, parietal lobes, and midbrain areas. Increased gray matter volume in the midbrain including the hypothalamus, substantia nigra, and amygdala was associated with maternal positive perception of her baby. These results suggest that the first months of motherhood in humans are accompanied by structural changes in brain regions implicated in maternal motivation and behaviors. PMID:20939669

Kim, Pilyoung; Leckman, James F.; Mayes, Linda C.; Feldman, Ruth; Wang, Xin; Swain, James E.

2015-01-01

28

The relation between prepregnancy sexuality and sexual function during pregnancy and the postpartum period: a prospective study.  

PubMed

This study examined the relation between sexual functions of women in prepregnancy (before conception) and during pregnancy and the postpartum period. This study was conducted on 59 healthy pregnant women. Participants were followed from the eighth week of gestation to 6 months after delivery. Sexual function during pregnancy and the postpartum period was shown to have a significant linear correlation with prepregnancy sexuality. There was no relation between pregnancy and postpartum sexuality. All of the participants who had prepregnancy sexual dysfunction continued to experience it during pregnancy, and the majority of them had a significant level of sexual dysfunction in the postpartum period. Our results showed that prepregnancy sexuality plays an important role in maintaining sexuality during pregnancy and the postpartum period. PMID:24328753

Y?ld?z, Hatice

2015-01-01

29

Rupture of renal artery aneurysm during the early post-partum period.  

PubMed

Rupture of renal artery aneurysm associated with pregnancy is an uncommon condition. It is known that almost all previously reported cases have occurred during pregnancy. We experienced a case of rupture of renal artery aneurysm during the early post-partum period which was diagnosed by computed tomography and treated by angiographic embolization. To our knowledge, only two cases of rupture of renal artery aneurysm during the post-partum period have been reported in the English-language published work. An early diagnosis of rupture of renal artery aneurysm during the post-partum period is very challenging because the clinical symptoms of this condition are acute abdominal, flank or back pain, which are relatively common signs caused by more common post-partum complications. However, rupture of renal artery aneurysm is a life-threatening emergency condition requiring prompt diagnosis and treatment. The possibility of a rupture of renal artery aneurysm should be considered in any pregnant women with symptoms of an acute abdomen with hemorrhagic shock. PMID:23855369

Nakamura, Ryo; Koyama, Shinsuke; Maeda, Munehiro; Kobayashi, Masaki; Tanaka, Yusuke; Kubota, Satoshi; Isobe, Masanori; Shiki, Yasuhiko

2013-10-01

30

Recurrence rates of bipolar disorder during the postpartum period: a study on 276 medication-free Italian women.  

PubMed

The postpartum period is considered a time of heightened vulnerability to bipolar disorder. The primary goal of this study was to examine the frequency and the polarity of postpartum episodes in a clinical sample of women with bipolar disorder who were medication-free during their pregnancies. In addition, we sought to examine whether there are differences in terms of clinical features of bipolar disorder between women with and without postpartum episodes. Lastly, we analyzed the potential relationship between polarity of the postpartum episodes and clinical features of bipolar disorder. The presence/absence of postpartum episodes and their characteristics were obtained from medical records of 276 women with bipolar disorder who were medication-free during their pregnancies. Two hundred seven women (75.0 %) had a history of one or more postpartum mood episodes: depressive (79.7 %), (hypo)manic (16.4 %), or mixed episodes (3.9 %). Psychotic symptoms during postpartum episodes were associated with depression in 37 (22.4 %) patients, with mania in 19 (67.8 %) patients, and with mixed episodes in 7 (87.5 %) patients. Postpartum manic and mixed episodes were significantly associated with type I disorder and with psychotic features. Our findings indicate high risk of clinically ascertained mood episodes during postpartum period in bipolar women who are not treated during pregnancy. PMID:24449192

Maina, Giuseppe; Rosso, Gianluca; Aguglia, Andrea; Bogetto, Filippo

2014-10-01

31

Postpartum Mood Disorders  

PubMed Central

Adjusting to the role of mother, a creative and joyous change for most women, combines with simultaneous physiological and psychological changes to develop into psychiatric problems in some women. Three common syndromes during the postpartum period are postpartum blues, postpartum depression, and postpartum psychosis. Any postpartum condition should be diagnosed rapidly to prevent short- and long-term disorders. PMID:21221273

Misri, Shaila; Burgmann, Allan J.F.

1992-01-01

32

Effects of different anesthesia protocols on lactation in the postpartum period  

PubMed Central

Objective Many factors can influence the secretion of breast milk. Cesarean section is a risk factor for late onset of breastfeeding. Material and Methods In our study, we compared the lactation process by mothers who underwent elective cesarean section under general anesthesia, spinal anesthesia, epidural anesthesia, and normal birth; 84 patients between 18–40 years of age with a risk of ASA I–II were included. Randomly patients were divided into four groups: group G (general anesthesia, n:21), group S (spinal anesthesia, n:21), group E (epidural anesthesia, n:21), and group V (vaginal birth, without anesthesia, n:21). Oxytocin and prolactin values of all patients before and after operation or birth were recorded. In addition the initiation time of lactation after delivery or cesarean section were recorded. Results In all groups, there were no significant differences among hormone levels in the prepartum period (p=0.350). Prolactin levels in group G (p=0.011) and oxytocin levels in group V (p=0.012) in the postpartum period were significantly higher than in the other groups. The start of lactation was significantly delayed in group G (p=0.003). Conclusion We consider that the onset time of lactation is delayed in patients undergoing cesarean section with general anesthesia when compared with patients who undergo cesarean section with spinal and epidural anesthesia and with patients who undergo normal vaginal birth. Because of the delay of awakening and recovery of cognitive functions in general anesthesia, communication between the mother and the newborn is delayed and so is the lactation. PMID:25584032

Kutlucan, Leyla; Seker, ?lknur S.; Demiraran, Yavuz; Ersoy, Özlem; Karagöz, ?brahim; Sezen, Gülbin; Köse, Seyit Ali

2014-01-01

33

Uterine Rupture with Massive Late Postpartum Hemorrhage due to Placenta Percreta Left Partially In Situ  

PubMed Central

Placental adhesive disorders involve the growth of placental tissue into or through the uterine wall. Among these disorders, placenta percreta is the rarest one. However, it may cause significant complications. This report aimed to report a neglected patient with placenta percreta who developed uterine rupture with life-threatening late postpartum intra-abdominal hemorrhage. On admission, the patient had acute abdomen with moderate abdominal distention and was subjected to emergency laparotomy. A full-thickness defect of the anterior uterine wall involving the hysterotomy site was seen. Placental tissues occupied both sides of the incision and posterior bladder wall was also invaded by placenta. Total abdominal hysterectomy with partial resection of the posterior bladder wall was performed. PMID:24392232

Salman, Mehmet Coskun; Calis, Pinar; Deren, Ozgur

2013-01-01

34

Bipolar disorder, affective psychosis, and schizophrenia in pregnancy and the post-partum period.  

PubMed

The perinatal period is associated with an increased risk of severe mental disorders. We summarise the evidence regarding the epidemiology, risk factors, and treatment of severe mental illness in relation to childbirth, focusing on bipolar disorder, affective psychosis, and schizophrenia. We discuss women with ongoing chronic conditions and those with the onset of new episodes of post-partum psychosis. Despite the importance of perinatal episodes, with suicide a leading cause of maternal death, few studies are available to guide the management of women with severe mental disorders in pregnancy and the post-partum period. However, general principles of management are discussed, including the need for an individual risk-benefit analysis for each woman. PMID:25455249

Jones, Ian; Chandra, Prabha S; Dazzan, Paola; Howard, Louise M

2014-11-15

35

Postpartum responses of dairy cows supplemented with n-3 fatty acids for different durations during the peripartal period.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different durations of n-3 supplementation during the peripartal period on production and reproduction performance of Holstein dairy cows. Thirty-two Holstein dry cows (16 multiparous and 16 primiparous) were blocked within parity for similar expected calving dates 8 wk before calving. Cows within blocks were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 treatments: (1) control without n-3 fatty acid (FA) supplementation during the dry period; (2) n-3 FA supplementation during the whole dry period (8 wk); and (3) n-3 FA supplementation during the early dry period (first 5 wk; far-off), or (4) n-3 FA supplementation during the late dry period (last 3 wk; close-up). All cows received the same diet without n-3 FA after calving for the first 6 wk of lactation. Ovaries of each cow were examined 10, 17, 24, and 34 d from calving (calving=d 0) by transrectal ultrasonography to determine follicular development. Blood samples were collected at 14-d intervals starting on the first day of the dry period (8 wk before expected calving) to determine plasma concentrations of glucose, ?-hydroxybutyrate, nonesterified fatty acids, urea N, aspartate aminotransferase, and insulin. Blood samples were also collected on d 1, 10, 17, 24, 31, and 38 postpartum for determination of progesterone concentration. Milk yield was recorded daily throughout the experiment and samples were taken twice weekly (Monday and Thursday mornings) for analysis of fat, protein, and lactose. Yields of milk and 4% fat-corrected milk and milk composition were similar among treatments except for fat proportion, which tended to be lower in cows that were fed n-3 FA throughout the dry period. We observed no differences among treatments for plasma concentrations of metabolites and hormones. The cows that were fed in the 3 n-3 FA treatments had larger ovulatory follicles compared with those fed the controlled diet. Treatments did not differ significantly in terms of the number of days open, day to first service, or number of services per pregnancy. In conclusion, n-3 FA supplementation throughout the dry period or in the early or late prepartal period had no carryover reproductive postpartum benefits and no effect on the production of Holstein dairy cows. PMID:25064653

Badiei, A; Aliverdilou, A; Amanlou, H; Beheshti, M; Dirandeh, E; Masoumi, R; Moosakhani, F; Petit, H V

2014-10-01

36

Reversal of Peripheral Nerve Injury-induced Hypersensitivity in the Postpartum Period: Role of Spinal Oxytocin  

PubMed Central

Background Physical injury, including surgery, can result in chronic pain; yet chronic pain following childbirth, including cesarean delivery in women, is rare. The mechanisms involved in this protection by pregnancy or delivery have not been explored. Methods We examined the effect of pregnancy and delivery on hypersensitivity to mechanical stimuli of the rat hindpaw induced by peripheral nerve injury (spinal nerve ligation) and after intrathecal oxytocin, atosiban and naloxone. Additionally, oxytocin concentration in lumbar spinal cerebrospinal fluid was determined. Results Spinal nerve ligation performed at mid-pregnancy resulted in similar hypersensitivity to nonpregnant controls, but hypersensitivity partially resolved beginning after delivery. Removal of pups after delivery prevented this partial resolution. Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of oxytocin were greater in normal postpartum rats prior to weaning. To examine the effect of injury at the time of delivery rather than during pregnancy, spinal nerve ligation was performed within 24 h of delivery. This resulted in acute hypersensitivity that partially resolved over the next 2–3 weeks. Weaning of pups resulted only in a temporary return of hypersensitivity. Intrathecal oxytocin effectively reversed the hypersensitivity following separation of the pups. Postpartum resolution of hypersensitivity was transiently abolished by intrathecal injection of the oxytocin receptor antagonist, atosiban. Conclusions These results suggest that the postpartum period rather than pregnancy protects against chronic hypersensitivity from peripheral nerve injury and that this protection may reflect sustained oxytocin signaling in the central nervous system during this period. PMID:23249932

Gutierrez, Silvia; Liu, Baogang; Hayashida, Ken-ichiro; Houle, Timothy T.; Eisenach, James C.

2012-01-01

37

Validity of Depression Rating Scales during Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period: Impact of Trimester and Parity  

PubMed Central

The objective of the current study was to delineate the optimal cutpoints for depression rating scales during pregnancy and the postpartum period and to assess the perinatal factors influencing these scores. Women participating in prospective investigations of maternal mental illness were enrolled prior to 28 weeks gestation and followed through 6 months postpartum. At each visit, subjects completed self-rated depression scales – Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and clinician-rated scales – Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD17 and HRSD21). These scores were compared to the SCID Mood Module for the presence of fulfilling diagnostic criteria for a major depressive episode (MDE) during 6 perinatal windows: preconception; first trimester; 2nd trimester; 3rd trimester; early postpartum; and later postpartum. Optimal cutpoints were determined by maximizing the sum of each scale’s sensitivity and specificity. Stratified ROC analyses determined the impact of previous pregnancy and comparison of initial to follow-up visits. A total of 534 women encompassing 640 pregnancies and 4025 follow-up visits were included. ROC analysis demonstrated that all 4 scales were highly predictive of MDE. The AUCs ranged from 0.857 to 0.971 and were all highly significant (p<0.0001). Optimal cutpoints were higher at initial visits and for multigravidas and demonstrated more variability for the self-rated scales. These data indicate that both clinician-rated and self-rated scales can be effective tools in identifying perinatal episodes of major depression. However, the results also suggest that prior childbirth experiences and the use of scales longitudinally across the perinatal period influence optimal cutpoints. PMID:20542520

Ji, Shuang; Long, Qi; Newport, D. Jeffrey; Na, Hyeji; Knight, Bettina; Zach, Elizabeth B.; Morris, Natalie J.; Kutner, Michael; Stowe, Zachary N.

2010-01-01

38

Effect of ovulatory follicle size and estradiol supplementation during the preovulatory period on pregnancy rates in postpartum beef cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In postpartum beef cows, GnRH-induced ovulation of small dominant follicles decreased pregnancy rates and increased late embryonic/fetal mortality; however, ovulatory follicle size had no apparent effect on the establishment or maintenance of pregnancy when ovulation occurred spontaneously. Further...

39

Clinical course of pelvic girdle pain postpartum - impact of clinical findings in late pregnancy.  

PubMed

The aims were to study: prevalence of pelvic girdle pain (PGP) one year postpartum; clinical course of PGP, physical functioning (PF) and bodily pain (BP) (from SF-36, 0 (worst) to 100 (best)) from gestation week (GW) 30 to one year postpartum; and whether findings at GW30 were associated with development of PF and BP from GW30 to one year postpartum. 215 pregnant women were followed from GW30 to one year postpartum. Clinical examination and questionnaire were used at GW30, questionnaire only were used at 12 weeks and one year postpartum. The women were categorised by GW30 clinical variables: self-reported PGP, pain locations in the pelvis and response to two clinical tests. Linear mixed models for repeated measures were used to study PF and BP during follow-up, within the categories of clinical variables. PGP prevalence remained unchanged from 12 weeks to one year postpartum (31-30%). PF and BP scores improved markedly from GW30 to 12 weeks postpartum, and marginally thereafter. Median PF scores were 70, 95 and 100 at GW30, 12 weeks and one year postpartum, respectively. Corresponding median BP scores were 52, 84 and 84. We found significant interactions between each clinical variable and time (P ? 0.01) for PF and BP. The most afflicted women at GW30 experienced largest improvement. Despite high PGP prevalence one year postpartum, most women recovered in terms of PF and BP scores. Unfavourable clinical course postpartum did not appear to depend on self-reported PGP, pain locations in the pelvis, or response to clinical tests at GW30. PMID:24508067

Robinson, Hilde Stendal; Vøllestad, Nina K; Veierød, Marit B

2014-06-01

40

[Women's body language during the post-partum period: language understanding based on the work of Maurice Merleau-Ponty].  

PubMed

This study aimed understanding the woman's language during the post-partum period as to her perceptions of her body language. This study was based in the work of Maurice Merleau-Pont. Ten women living in Cascavel, State of Parand, Brazil, were interviewed from February to May 2005. This study allowed the understanding of the meaning that the woman gives to her existence in the post childbirth period. This study may support training of health professionals in terms of understanding how women experience the post-partum period, thereby allowing better care of these patients. PMID:17263174

Machineski, Gicelle Galvan; Schneider, Jacó Fernando; Bastos, Carmen Célia Barradas Correia

2006-09-01

41

Depression and suicidality during the postpartum period after first time deliveries, active component service women and dependent spouses, U.S. Armed Forces, 2007-2012.  

PubMed

Although suicide is a leading cause of death among new mothers during the postpartum period, there has been limited research on self-harm in the postpartum period and associated risk factors. One potential risk factor for suicidality (completed suicides, suicide attempts, and suicide ideation including thoughts of self harm) during the postpartum period is postpartum depression (PPD). In this study of women who gave birth for the first time between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2011, 5,267 (9.9% of all who delivered) active component service women and 10,301 (8.2%) dependent spouses received incident PPD diagnoses during the one year postpartum period; 213 (0.4%) service women and 221 (0.2%) dependent spouses were diagnosed with incident suicidality. After adjusting for the effects of other covariates, service women with PPD had 42.2 times the odds to be diagnosed with suicidality in the postpartum period compared to service women without PPD; dependent spouses with PPD had 14.5 times the odds compared to those without PPD. The findings of this report suggest that a history of mental disorders was common among service women and dependent spouses with PPD in the postpartum period, and, in turn, PPD was a strong predictor for suicidality in the postpartum period. These results emphasize the importance of PPD screening during the postpartum period. They also suggest that additional focused screening for suicidal behavior among those already diagnosed with PPD may be warranted. PMID:24093957

Do, Tai; Hu, Zheng; Otto, Jean; Rohrbeck, Patricia

2013-09-01

42

Postpartum Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... Sections Symptoms Multimedia Table Index In This Topic Women's Health Issues Postdelivery Period Postpartum Infections Back to Top ... Older People's Health Issues Skin Disorders Special Subjects Women's Health Issues Chapters in Women's Health Issues Biology of ...

43

Biomarkers From Late Pregnancy to 6 Weeks Postpartum in HIV-Infected Women Who Continue Versus Discontinue Antiretroviral Therapy After Delivery  

PubMed Central

Background Women who use antiretroviral therapy (ART) solely for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV discontinue postpartum. We hypothesized that women discontinuing ART by 6 weeks postpartum (“discontinuers”) would have elevated postpartum inflammatory biomarker levels relative to women remaining on ART postpartum (“continuers”). Methods Data from HIV-infected pregnant women enrolled in the International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials Group P1025 with CD4 counts >350 cells per cubic millimeter before initiating ART or first pregnancy CD4 counts >400 cells per cubic millimeter after starting ART and with available stored plasma samples at >20 weeks of gestation, delivery, and 6 weeks postpartum were analyzed. Plasma samples were tested for highly sensitive C-reactive protein, D-dimer, and interleukin-6. We used longitudinal linear spline regression to model biomarkers over time. Results Data from 128 women (65 continuers and 63 discontinuers) were analyzed. All biomarkers increased from late pregnancy to delivery, then decreased postpartum (slopes different from 0, P < 0.001). Continuers had a steeper decrease in log D-dimer between delivery and 6 weeks postpartum than discontinuers (P = 0.002). Conclusions In contrast to results from treatment interruption studies in adults, both ART continuers and ART discontinuers had significant decreases in the levels of D-dimer, highly sensitive C-reactive protein, or interleukin-6 postpartum. Continuation was associated with a more rapid decline in D-dimer levels compared with discontinuation. PMID:23714738

Hoffman, Risa M.; Leister, Erin; Kacanek, Deborah; Shapiro, David E.; Read, Jennifer S.; Bryson, Yvonne; Currier, Judith S.

2013-01-01

44

Oral L-arginine supplementation impacts several reproductive parameters during the postpartum period in mares.  

PubMed

L-arginine is an amino acid which can alter pituitary function and increase blood flow to the reproductive tract. The objective was to determine the effect of supplementing 100g of L-arginine on plasma arginine concentrations, follicular dynamics and ovarian and uterine artery blood flow during the estrus that occurs subsequent to foaling. In Experiment 1, mares were fed 100g L-arginine for 1 day during the last 3 weeks of pregnancy and plasma samples taken for every hour for the first 4h and every other hour until 12h.L-arginine supplementation elevated plasma arginine concentrations from 1 to 8h post feeding; arginine peaked at 6h (arginine: 515±33?mol/L; control: 80±33?mol/L). In Experiment 2, mares received either 100g L-arginine or control diets beginning 21 d before the expected foaling date and continued for 30 d postpartum. The reproductive tract was evaluated by transrectal Doppler ultrasonography from Day 1 postpartum through Day 30. There were no differences in ovarian follicular dynamics, ovarian or uterine resistance indices between groups. Vascular perfusion of the F1 follicular wall was greater in L-arginine supplemented mares (37.3±2.6%) than controls (25.4±2.7%; P<0.05). L-arginine supplemented mares had a smaller uterine body and horns and accumulated less uterine fluid than controls (P<0.05). The combination of reducing uterine fluid accumulation, while not altering follicular development, raises the possible use of L-arginine supplementation as a breeding management tool during the postpartum period to increase reproductive success. PMID:23523236

Kelley, Dale E; Warren, Lori K; Mortensen, Christopher J

2013-05-01

45

Postpartum Depression  

MedlinePLUS

... postpartum depression? • When does postpartum depression occur? • What causes postpartum depression? • If I think I have postpartum depression, when ... College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists f AQ What causes postpartum depression? Postpartum depression probably is caused by a combination ...

46

Factors associated with depressive symptoms in the early postpartum period among women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Objectives Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have a substantial risk of subsequently developing type 2 diabetes. This risk may be mitigated by engaging in healthy eating, physical activity, and weight loss when indicated. Since postpartum depressive symptoms may impair a woman's ability to engage in lifestyle changes, we sought to identify factors associated with depressive symptoms in the early postpartum period among women with recent GDM. Methods The participants are part of the baseline cohort of the TEAM GDM (Taking Early Action for Mothers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus) study, a one-year randomized trial of a lifestyle intervention program for women with a recent history of GDM, conducted in Boston, Massachusetts between June 2010 and September 2012. We administered the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 4-15 weeks postpartum to women whose most recent pregnancy was complicated by GDM (confirmed by laboratory data or medical record review). An EPDS score ?9 indicated depressive symptoms. We measured height and thyroid stimulating hormone, and administered a questionnaire to collect demographic data and information about breastfeeding and sleep. We calculated body mass index (BMI) using self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and measured height. We reviewed medical records to obtain data about medical history, including history of depression, mode of delivery, and insulin use during pregnancy. We conducted bivariable analyses to identify correlates of postpartum depressive symptoms, and then modeled the odds of postpartum depressive symptoms using multivariable logistic regression. Results Our study included 71 women (mean age 33 years ±5; 59% White, 28% African-American, 13% Asian, with 21% identifying as Hispanic; mean pre-pregnancy BMI 30 kg/m2±6). Thirty-four percent of the women scored ?9 on the EPDS at the postpartum visit. In the best fit model, factors associated with depressive symptoms at 6 weeks postpartum included cesarean delivery (aOR 4.32, 95% CI 1.46, 13.99) and gestational weight gain (aOR 1.21 [1.02, 1.46], for each additional 5 lbs gained). Use of insulin during pregnancy, breastfeeding, personal history of depression, and lack of a partner were not retained in the model. Conclusions Identifying factors associated with postpartum depression in women with GDM is important since depression may interfere with lifestyle change efforts in the postpartum period. In this study, cesarean delivery and greater gestational weight gain were correlated with postpartum depressive symptoms among women with recent GDM. PMID:23124798

Nicklas, Jacinda M; Miller, Laura J; Zera, Chloe A; Davis, Roger B.; Levkoff, Sue E; Seely, Ellen W

2012-01-01

47

The use of magnesium sulfate for women with severe preeclampsia or eclampsia diagnosed during the postpartum period.  

PubMed

Abstract This was a systematic review of randomized controlled trials comparing anticonvulsants with placebo or no anticonvulsant for prevention (a) of eclampsia in women with severe preeclampsia diagnosed during the postpartum period or diagnosed before delivery but without previous treatment and (b) prevention of seizures recurrence in women with eclampsia postpartum. We did not find study with full inclusion criteria. However, a total of two randomised controlled trials meet inclusion criteria as subgroup analysis; one for severe preeclampsia diagnosed during the postpartum period and one for eclampsia postpartum. For severe preeclampsia diagnosed during postpartum, there was no clear difference between the groups reporting eclampsia (relative risk: 0.54, 95% confidence interval: 0.16-1.80). For seizure recurrence, magnesium sulfate was superior to diazepam, but there was no significant difference compared with phenytoin. No conclusion can be drawn on the role of magnesium sulfate post partum as established in antepartum pre-eclampsia/eclampsia management because of lack of powered randomised controlled trials. PMID:25373431

Vigil-De Gracia, Paulino; Ludmir, Jack

2014-11-27

48

Prevalence of endometritis during the postpartum period and its impact on subsequent reproductive performance in two Japanese dairy herds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to ascertain the prevalence of different degrees of endometritis during different periods postpartum, to define ‘clinically relevant endometritis’, to determine its impact on subsequent reproductive performance, and to determine some risk factors for the incidence of clinically relevant endometritis in dairy cows. Holstein Friesian cows (n=135) from two commercial dairy herds were examined vaginoscopically

Gokarna Gautam; Toshihiko Nakao; Muhammad Yusuf; Kana Koike

2009-01-01

49

Understanding and meeting the needs of women in the postpartum period: the Perinatal Maternal Health Promotion Model.  

PubMed

A new model for the care of women in the postpartum focuses on the development of life skills that promote complete well-being. The year following childbirth is a time of significant transition for women. In addition to the physiologic changes associated with the postpartum period, a woman undergoes marked psychosocial changes as she transitions into a motherhood role, reestablishes relationships, and works to meet the physical and emotional needs of her infant and other family members. It is a time when women are vulnerable to health problems directly related to childbirth and to compromised self-care, which can manifest in the development or reestablishment of unhealthy behaviors such as smoking and a sedentary lifestyle. In addition to long-term implications for women, compromised maternal health in the postpartum period is associated with suboptimal health and developmental outcomes for infants. Maternal health experts have called for a change in how care is provided for women in the postpartum period. This article presents the rationale for a health promotion approach to meeting the needs of women in the postpartum period and introduces the Perinatal Maternal Health Promotion Model. This conceptual framework is built around a definition of maternal well-being that asserts that health goes beyond merely the absence of medical complications. In the model, the core elements of a healthy postpartum are identified and include not only physical recovery but also the ability to meet individual needs and successfully transition into motherhood. These goals can best be achieved by helping women develop or strengthen 4 key individual health-promoting skills: the ability to mobilize social support, self-efficacy, positive coping strategies, and realistic expectations. While the model focuses on the woman, the health promotion approach takes into account that maternal health in this critical period affects and is affected by her family, social network, and community. Clinical implications of the model are addressed, including specific health promotion strategies that clinicians can readily incorporate into antepartum and postpartum care. PMID:24320095

Fahey, Jenifer O; Shenassa, Edmond

2013-01-01

50

Measurement issues in postpartum depression part 1: Anxiety as a feature of postpartum depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a We investigated the contribution of anxiety symptoms to scores on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) between\\u000a 36 weeks gestation and 16 weeks postpartum in 150 women. The 3-item anxiety subscale of the EPDS accounted for 47% of the\\u000a total score in late pregnancy, and 38% of the total score in the postpartum period. Two categories of anxiety were

L. E. Ross; S. E. Gilbert Evans; E. M. Sellers; M. K. Romach

2003-01-01

51

Endogenous CNS Expression of Neurotensin and Neurotensin Receptors Is Altered during the Postpartum Period in Outbred Mice  

PubMed Central

Neurotensin (NT) is a neuropeptide identical in mice and humans that is produced and released in many CNS regions associated with maternal behavior. NT has been linked to aspects of maternal care and previous studies have indirectly suggested that endogenous NT signaling is altered in the postpartum period. In the present study, we directly examine whether NT and its receptors exhibit altered gene expression in maternal relative to virgin outbred mice using real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) across multiple brain regions. We also examine NT protein levels using anti-NT antibodies and immunohistochemistry in specific brain regions. In the medial preoptic area (MPOA), which is critical for maternal behaviors, mRNA of NT and NT receptor 3 (Sort1) were significantly up-regulated in postpartum mice compared to virgins. NT mRNA was also elevated in postpartum females in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis dorsal. However, in the lateral septum, NT mRNA was down-regulated in postpartum females. In the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), Ntsr1 expression was down-regulated in postpartum females. Neurotensin receptor 2 (Ntsr2) expression was not altered in any brain region tested. In terms of protein expression, NT immunohistochemistry results indicated that NT labeling was elevated in the postpartum brain in the MPOA, lateral hypothalamus, and two subregions of PVN. Together, these findings indicate that endogenous changes occur in NT and its receptors across multiple brain regions, and these likely support the emergence of some maternal behaviors. PMID:24416154

Driessen, Terri M.; Zhao, Changjiu; Whittlinger, Anna; Williams, Horecia; Gammie, Stephen C.

2014-01-01

52

The association between physical activity and maternal sleep during the postpartum period.  

PubMed

Physical activity is associated with improved sleep quality and duration in the general population, but its effect on sleep in postpartum women is unknown. We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between hours/week of self-reported domain-specific and overall moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sleep quality and duration at 3- and 12-months postpartum among a cohort of 530 women in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Postpartum Study. MVPA was not associated with sleep quality or duration at 3-months postpartum. At 12-months postpartum, a 1 h/week increase in recreational MVPA was associated with higher odds of good (vs. poor) sleep quality (odds ratio, OR 1.14; 95 % confidence interval, CI, 1.03-1.27) and a 1 h/week increase in child/adult care MVPA was associated with lower odds of good (vs. poor) sleep quality (OR = 0.93; 95 % CI 0.88-0.99). A 1 h/week increase in child/adult care MVPA (OR 1.08, 95 % CI 1.00-1.16) was associated with higher odds of long sleep duration and 1 h/week increases in indoor household (OR 1.09, 95 % CI 1.01-1.18) and overall MVPA (OR 1.04, 95 % CI 1.01-1.07) were associated with higher odds of short (vs. normal) sleep duration. Comparing 3-months postpartum to 12-months postpartum, increased work MVPA was associated with good sleep quality (OR 2.40, 95 % CI 1.12-5.15) and increased indoor household MVPA was associated with short sleep duration (OR 1.85, 95 % CI 1.05-3.27) as measured at 12-months postpartum. Selected domains of MVPA and their longitudinal increases were associated with sleep quality and duration at 12-months postpartum. Additional research is needed to elucidate whether physical activity can improve postpartum sleep. PMID:24577601

Vladutiu, Catherine J; Evenson, Kelly R; Borodulin, Katja; Deng, Yu; Dole, Nancy

2014-11-01

53

Effect of Dietary Cation-Anion Difference during Prepartum and Postpartum Periods on Performance, Blood and Urine Minerals Status of Holstein Dairy Cow  

PubMed Central

Twenty four periparturient cows were used to determine the effects of DCAD on acid-base balance, plasma and urine mineral concentrations, health status, and subsequent lactation performance. Each group of 12 cows received either a diet containing ?100 DCAD or +100 DCAD for 21 d prepartum. Both anionic and cationic groups were divided into two groups, one received a +200 DCAD and the other +400 DCAD diet for 60 d postpartum. Prepartum reduction of DCAD decreased DMI, urinary and blood pH, urinary concentrations of Na or K and increased plasma and urinary Ca, Mg, Cl and S. Also cows fed ?100 DCAD diet consumed the most dry matter in the first 60 d after calving. Postpartum +400 DCAD increased milk fat and total solid percentages, urinary and blood pH and urinary Na and K concentrations, but urinary Ca, P, Cl and S contents decreased. Greater DMI, FCM yields were observed in cows fed a diet of +400 DCAD than +200 DCAD. No case of milk fever occurred for any diets but feeding with a negative DCAD diet reduced placenta expulsion time. In conclusion, feeding negative DCAD in late gestation period and high DCAD in early lactation improves performance and productivity of dairy cows. PMID:25049589

Razzaghi, A.; Aliarabi, H.; Tabatabaei, M. M.; Saki, A. A.; Valizadeh, R.; Zamani, P.

2012-01-01

54

Relationship factors and trajectories of intimate partner violence among South African women during pregnancy and the postpartum period.  

PubMed

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem in South Africa. However, there is limited research on whether and how IPV changes during pregnancy and the postpartum period and on the factors that might affect women's risk during this time. In this study, we describe the mean trajectories of physical and psychological IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period and examine whether relationship power, partner social support, and relationship stress are associated with women's trajectories of IPV. Data come from a longitudinal study with 1,480 women recruited during pregnancy between May 2008 and June 2010 at a public clinic in Durban. Women completed behavioral assessments at their first antenatal visit, at fourteen weeks and at nine months postpartum. Women's experiences of IPV were measured at all three time points and relationship power, partner social support and relationship stress were each measured at the baseline assessment. We used multilevel random coefficients growth modeling to build our models. The mean trajectory for both types of IPV was flat which means that, on average, there was not significant change in levels of IPV over pregnancy and the postpartum period. However, there was significant individual variability in trajectories of IPV over the study period. Women who had higher relationship power had lower levels of physical and psychological IPV over time than women with lower relationship power. Additionally, women with higher relationship stress and lower partner support had higher levels of psychological IPV at pregnancy. Interventions that maximize women's relationship power and partner social support and minimize relationship stress during this transformative time are needed. PMID:25268363

Groves, Allison K; McNaughton-Reyes, H Luz; Foshee, Vangie A; Moodley, Dhayendre; Maman, Suzanne

2014-01-01

55

Ovarian activity in beef and dairy cows with prolonged postpartum period and heifers that fail to conceive  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objectives of this study were to investigate incidence of abnormal ovarian cyclicity (AOC) and its type in dairy\\u000a and beef cows with prolonged postpartum period (>90 days) and in heifers that fail to conceive. A total of 53 animals were\\u000a included in the study: 17 Friesian crosses, 16 Braford crosses, eight Brangus crosses, and 12 local Kedah-Kelantan (KKX) crosses.

N. Yimer; Y. Rosnina; H. Wahid; A. A. Saharee; K. C. Yap; P. Ganesamurthi

2010-01-01

56

Christianity and Korean Higher Education in the Late Choson Period  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines particular aspects of higher education during the late Korean Choson period with descriptive analysis. The context of Roman Catholicism and Protestantism between the early 18th and the late 19th centuries is presented. Also examined is Christian higher education during these two centuries. The impact of Christianity on Korean…

Lee, Jeong-Kyu

2002-01-01

57

Postpartum Sterilization  

MedlinePLUS

... of a baby. What is the most common method of postpartum sterilization? The method used most often ... is postpartum sterilization? • What is the most common method of postpartum sterilization? • When is postpartum sterilization performed? • ...

58

Therapeutic results and safety of postoperative radiotherapy for keloid after repeated Cesarean section in immediate postpartum period  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of postoperative radiotherapy for the treatment of keloid scars administered immediately after Cesarean section. Materials and Methods A total of 26 postpartum patients with confirmed keloids resulting from previous Cesarean sections received either 12 or 15 Gy radiotherapy. The radiotherapy was divided into three 6 MeV electron beam fractions administered during the postpartum period immediately following the final Cesarean section. To evaluate ovarian safety, designated doses of radiation were estimated at the calculated depth of the ovaries using a solid plate phantom and an ionization chamber with the same lead cutout as was used for the treatment of Cesarean section operative scars and a tissue equivalent bolus. Results In total, the control rate was 77% (20 patients), while six (23%) developed focally elevated keloids (ranging from 0.5 to 2 cm in length) in the middle of the primary abdominal scar. Five patients experienced mild hyperpigmentation. Nonetheless, most patients (96%) were satisfied with the treatment results. The estimated percentage of the applied radiation doses that reached the calculated depth of the ovaries ranged from 0.0033% to 0.0062%. Conclusion When administered during the immediate postpartum period, postoperative electron beam radiotherapy for repeated Cesarean section scars is generally safe and produces good cosmetic results with minimal toxicity. PMID:22984682

Lee, Sang Hoon

2012-01-01

59

Influence of threatened miscarriage on pregnancy and early postpartum period: a case-control report.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the influence of threatened miscarriage on obstetric complications during pregnancy and early postpartum period. Methods: In this case-control study, hospital records of 12?050 first-trimester patients between January 2011 and December 2012 at the Research and Educational Hospital in Ankara, Turkey, were used. Of the 12?050 patients, 481 threatened miscarriage patients were evaluated. The control group was formed by age- and body mass index-matched cases without first trimester bleeding. Abortion, intrauterine foetal demise, preterm birth, preeclampsia, antenatal haematoma, uterine atony placental abruption and low birth-weights were compared between the study and the control group. Results: When compared with the control group, the risk of having a preterm birth (p?=?0.014; OR: 1.95; 95% CI: 1.15-3.24), low-birth-weight infant (p?=?0.001; OR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1.45-3.83) and abortion (p?=?0.00; OR: 2.55; 95% CI: 1.62-3.91) increased in cases of threatened miscarriage. However, the risk of uterine atony was decreased (p?=?0.006; OR: 0.09; 95% CI: 0.12-0.7) in the threatened miscarriage group when compared with the control group. Threatened miscarriage did not increase the risk of placenta praevia, placental abruption or intrauterine foetal demise. Conclusion: Increased complications after threatened miscarriage is probably due to the persistence of a triggering mechanism. As preterm birth and abortion rate increased, whilst uterine atony rate decreased, one of the mechanisms causing threatened miscarriage might be increased uterine contractility. PMID:25053196

Ozdemirci, Safak; Karahanoglu, Ertugrul; Esinler, Deniz; Gelisen, Orhan; Kay?kc?oglu, Fulya

2014-08-12

60

Food deprivation and restriction during late gestation affects the sexual behavior of postpartum female meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus.  

PubMed

In many species of small mammals, including meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, females come into postpartum estrus (PPE) within 12-24 h of giving birth, allowing them to mate and become pregnant while raising the current litter. PPE females show increases in attractivity, proceptivity, and receptivity, the three components of sexual behavior, relative to females not in PPE. Several studies have shown that food deprivation and restriction reduce attractivity, proceptivity, and receptivity of females not in PPE. We tested the hypothesis that food deprivation and restriction during late gestation causes deficits and decreases the attractivity, proceptivity, and receptivity of females when they enter PPE. Our data support the hypothesis. On day 1 of lactation, females that were food deprived and food restricted produced scent marks that were significantly less attractive as those produced by control PPE females. Food deprivation but not food restriction caused females to no longer display significant preferences for the scent marks of males over those of females (proceptivity). Food deprivation and food restriction were sufficient to induce females to become significantly less sexually receptive than control females. Eleven of 12 control PPE females mated, 4 of 12 food-restricted females mated, and 3 of 12 food-deprived females mated. Dams facing food deprivation or restriction during late gestation may have to balance the benefits of mating during PPE with the increased costs associated with getting pregnant while they are lactating. PMID:24415820

Sabau, Ramona M; Ferkin, Michael H

2013-01-01

61

Food deprivation and restriction during late gestation affects the sexual behavior of postpartum female meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus  

PubMed Central

In many species of small mammals, including meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, females come into postpartum estrus (PPE) within 12–24 h of giving birth, allowing them to mate and become pregnant while raising the current litter. PPE females show increases in attractivity, proceptivity, and receptivity, the three components of sexual behavior, relative to females not in PPE. Several studies have shown that food deprivation and restriction reduce attractivity, proceptivity, and receptivity of females not in PPE. We tested the hypothesis that food deprivation and restriction during late gestation causes deficits and decreases the attractivity, proceptivity, and receptivity of females when they enter PPE. Our data support the hypothesis. On day 1 of lactation, females that were food deprived and food restricted produced scent marks that were significantly less attractive as those produced by control PPE females. Food deprivation but not food restriction caused females to no longer display significant preferences for the scent marks of males over those of females (proceptivity). Food deprivation and food restriction were sufficient to induce females to become significantly less sexually receptive than control females. Eleven of 12 control PPE females mated, 4 of 12 food-restricted females mated, and 3 of 12 food-deprived females mated. Dams facing food deprivation or restriction during late gestation may have to balance the benefits of mating during PPE with the increased costs associated with getting pregnant while they are lactating. PMID:24415820

Sabau, Ramona M.; Ferkin, Michael H.

2013-01-01

62

Gestational stress induces persistent depressive-like behavior and structural modifications within the postpartum nucleus accumbens.  

PubMed

Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common complication following childbirth experienced by one in every five new mothers. Pregnancy stress enhances vulnerability to PPD and has also been shown to increase depressive-like behavior in postpartum rats. Thus, gestational stress may be an important translational risk factor that can be used to investigate the neurobiological mechanisms underlying PPD. Here we examined the effects of gestational stress on depressive-like behavior during the early/mid and late postpartum periods and evaluated whether this was accompanied by altered structural plasticity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a brain region that has been linked to PPD. We show that early/mid (postpartum day 8) postpartum female rats exhibited more depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test as compared with late postpartum females (postpartum day 22). However, 2 weeks of restraint stress during pregnancy increased depressive-like behavior regardless of postpartum timepoint. In addition, dendritic length, branching and spine density on medium spiny neurons in the NAc shell were diminished in postpartum rats that experienced gestational stress although stress-induced reductions in spine density were evident only in early/mid postpartum females. In the NAc core, structural plasticity was not affected by gestational stress but late postpartum females exhibited lower spine density and reduced dendritic length. Overall, these data not only demonstrate structural changes in the NAc across the postpartum period, they also show that postpartum depressive-like behavior following exposure to gestational stress is associated with compromised structural plasticity in the NAc and thus may provide insight into the neural changes that could contribute to PPD. PMID:25359225

Haim, Achikam; Sherer, Morgan; Leuner, Benedetta

2014-12-01

63

Depression during pregnancy and the postpartum period in adolescent and adult Portuguese mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Objective: To study prevalence as well as risk factors for pregnancy and postpartum depression in a sample of adolescent and adult Portuguese\\u000a mothers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was administered to 108 (54 adult and 54 adolescent) Portuguese women at\\u000a 24–36 weeks of pregnancy and at 2–3 months postpartum.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results: Rates for EPDS > 12 are high

B. Figueiredo; A. Pacheco; R. Costa

2007-01-01

64

Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration in First-Time Mothers: Exploring the Impact of Father Involvement in the Early Post-Partum Period  

PubMed Central

Background: The early post-partum period is a crucial time for breastfeeding support. Mothers who have physical and emotional support during this period are more likely to be successful in breastfeeding. This study examined the relationship between father involvement and support for breast feeding initiation and duration in first-time mothers. Methods: Overall, 146 women who attended a childbirth education class or breastfeeding course at BABS were asked to fill out the Childbirth Experiences Survey, which explored key topics such as (1) breastfeeding initiation, (2) early post-partum breastfeeding, (3) breastfeeding plan, (4) post-partum breastfeeding support and (5) breast feeding duration. This was a voluntary self-reported ques­tionnaire. The surveys were completed by the mothers during the post-partum period. Results: 45.9% (n=67) of mothers received helped from their husband or part­ner with breastfeeding while in the hospital, while 54.1% (n=79) of mothers did not receive support from their partners. Mothers who received early post-par­tum breastfeeding support were more likely to continue breastfeeding after leaving the hospital. Conclusion: First-time mothers who identified as having breastfeeding support from their partners, the infant’s father, during the early post-partum period were more likely to initiate breastfeeding and had longer breastfeeding durations.

Hunter, Theresa; Cattelona, Georg’ann

2014-01-01

65

The Antecedents and Consequences of Maternal Adaptation in the Postpartum Period. Project Prepare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A prospective, longitudinal investigation was made of psychological aspects of pregnancy, birth, and the first year postpartum. The majority of participants were Caucasian (90 percent) and Chinese-Canadian (5 percent) men and women and their infant children. Adult participants completed a series of psychological and attitude measures selected to…

Bradley, Christine F.

66

Factor Structure of the Japanese Version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in the Postpartum Period  

PubMed Central

Background The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is a widely used screening tool for postpartum depression (PPD). Although the reliability and validity of EPDS in Japanese has been confirmed and the prevalence of PPD is found to be about the same as Western countries, the factor structure of the Japanese version of EPDS has not been elucidated yet. Methods 690 Japanese mothers completed all items of the EPDS at 1 month postpartum. We divided them randomly into two sample sets. The first sample set (n?=?345) was used for exploratory factor analysis, and the second sample set was used (n?=?345) for confirmatory factor analysis. Results The result of exploratory factor analysis indicated a three-factor model consisting of anxiety, depression and anhedonia. The results of confirmatory factor analysis suggested that the anxiety and anhedonia factors existed for EPDS in a sample of Japanese women at 1 month postpartum. The depression factor varies by the models of acceptable fit. Conclusions We examined EPDS scores. As a result, “anxiety” and “anhedonia” exist for EPDS among postpartum women in Japan as already reported in Western countries. Cross-cultural research is needed for future research. PMID:25089523

Kubota, Chika; Okada, Takashi; Aleksic, Branko; Nakamura, Yukako; Kunimoto, Shohko; Morikawa, Mako; Shiino, Tomoko; Tamaji, Ai; Ohoka, Harue; Banno, Naomi; Morita, Tokiko; Murase, Satomi; Goto, Setsuko; Kanai, Atsuko; Masuda, Tomoko; Ando, Masahiko; Ozaki, Norio

2014-01-01

67

Glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 and 67 expression in the lateral septum is up-regulated in association with the postpartum period in mice  

PubMed Central

The postpartum period in mammals undergoes a variety of physiological adaptations, including metabolic, behavioral and neuroendocrine alterations. GABA signaling has been strongly linked to various emotional states, stress responses and offspring protection. However, whether GABA signaling may change in the lateral septum (LS), a core brain region for regulating behavioral, emotional and stress responses in postpartum mice has not previously been examined. In this study, we tested whether the expression of two isoforms of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), GAD65 (GAD2) and GAD67 (GAD1), the rate-limiting enzyme for GABA synthesis, exhibits altered expression in postpartum mice relative to nonmaternal, virgin mice. Using microdissected septal tissue from virgin and age-matched postpartum females, quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting were carried out to assess GAD mRNA and protein expression, respectively. We found both protein and mRNA expression of GAD67 in the whole septum was up-regulated in postpartum mice. By contrast, no significant difference in the whole septum was observed in GAD65 expression. We then conducted a finer level of analysis using smaller micro-dissections and found GAD67 to be significantly increased in rostral LS, but not in caudal LS or medial septum (MS). Further, GAD65 mRNA expression in rostral LS, but not in caudal LS or MS was also significantly elevated in postpartum mice. These findings suggest that an increased GABA production in rostral LS of the postpartum mice via elevated GAD65 and GAD67 expression may contribute to multiple alterations in behavioral and emotional states, and responses to stress that occur during the postpartum period. Given that rostral LS contains GABA neurons that are projection neurons or local interneurons, it still needs to be determined whether the function of elevated GABA is for local or distant action or both. PMID:22750123

Zhao, Changjiu; Driessen, Terri; Gammie, Stephen C.

2013-01-01

68

Evaluation of the French Version of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support During the Postpartum Period.  

PubMed

In the presence of physical and psychological disturbances in the postpartum period, perceived social support is often regarded as a protective factor in women's mental health. This work evaluates the psychometric properties of the French version of a questionnaire widely used internationally to measure perceived social support, which has not been yet validated in French: the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). This study collected data from 148 women (30.5 ± 5.12 years) who agreed to complete the MSPSS and a scale assessing symptoms of postpartum depression (Edinburgh Post-Natal Depression Scale, EPDS) 1 and 4 months after childbirth. The results confirm the original three-factor structure of the scale. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients are excellent. The total scale score is correlated with all three dimensions and a significantly negative correlation is found between MSPSS and EPDS. The results suggest that the French tool has generally good internal reliability. The MSPSS can provide useful data helping to identify French-speaking people at risk for negative feelings (e.g., mood disorders of perinatal period). PMID:25366102

Denis, A; Callahan, S; Bouvard, M

2014-11-01

69

[Group G streptococcal bacteremia in the post-partum period. A case report].  

PubMed

Bacteremia with streptococcus group G is a rare infection, particularly in the post-partum, but of which the incidence has been increasing since the end of the 20th century. The objective of our work is to report the clinical and the bacteriologic aspects, as well as the therapeutic modalities of an exceptional case of bacteremia with streptococcus group G, after a normal vaginal delivery, in a 26-year-old woman. Streptococcus group G being a part of the normal flora of the female genital tract, the endogenous contamination probably took place by passage in the blood circulation during the episiotomy. PMID:24342365

Verdonk, C; Botto, J-N; Worcel, I

2014-03-01

70

A complete insect from the Late Devonian period.  

PubMed

After terrestrialization, the diversification of arthropods and vertebrates is thought to have occurred in two distinct phases, the first between the Silurian and the Frasnian stages (Late Devonian period) (425-385?million years (Myr) ago), and the second characterized by the emergence of numerous new major taxa, during the Late Carboniferous period (after 345?Myr ago). These two diversification periods bracket the depauperate vertebrate Romer's gap (360-345?Myr ago) and arthropod gap (385-325?Myr ago), which could be due to preservational artefact. Although a recent molecular dating has given an age of 390?Myr for the Holometabola, the record of hexapods during the Early-Middle Devonian (411.5-391?Myr ago, Pragian to Givetian stages) is exceptionally sparse and based on fragmentary remains, which hinders the timing of this diversification. Indeed, although Devonian Archaeognatha are problematic, the Pragian of Scotland has given some Collembola and the incomplete insect Rhyniognatha, with its diagnostic dicondylic, metapterygotan mandibles. The oldest, definitively winged insects are from the Serpukhovian stage (latest Early Carboniferous period). Here we report the first complete Late Devonian insect, which was probably a terrestrial species. Its 'orthopteroid' mandibles are of an omnivorous type, clearly not modified for a solely carnivorous diet. This discovery narrows the 45-Myr gap in the fossil record of Hexapoda, and demonstrates further a first Devonian phase of diversification for the Hexapoda, as in vertebrates, and suggests that the Pterygota diversified before and during Romer's gap. PMID:22859205

Garrouste, Romain; Clément, Gaël; Nel, Patricia; Engel, Michael S; Grandcolas, Philippe; D'Haese, Cyrille; Lagebro, Linda; Denayer, Julien; Gueriau, Pierre; Lafaite, Patrick; Olive, Sébastien; Prestianni, Cyrille; Nel, André

2012-08-01

71

Plasma hormones, metabolites, milk production, and cholesterol levels in Murrah buffaloes fed with Asparagus racemosus in transition and postpartum period.  

PubMed

Ten dry and pregnant Murrah buffaloes were selected to investigate the effect of Asparagus racemosus feeding on hormones, metabolites, milk yield, and plasma cholesterol levels. The treatment groups of buffaloes were fed with A. racemosus (shatavari) @ 150 g/day/animal during prepartum and @ 300 g/day/animal during the postpartum period. Blood samples collected on -6, -4, -2-week, day of parturition (0), and +2, +4, and +6-week postpartum were analyzed for plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, low-density lipoproteins (LDL), prolactin, cortisol, and blood metabolites. Milk samples collected at weekly intervals (+1, +3, +5, and 7 weeks) were analyzed for total milk fat cholesterol. Prepartum plasma cholesterol concentrations were significantly higher in treatment group over the control (P < 0.05). Mean plasma triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, glucose, and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels varied nonsignificantly between groups. Plasma prolactin and cortisol concentrations were significantly (P < 0.01) more in treatment group than in control group. On day of parturition, plasma prolactin, cortisol, LDL, and plasma total cholesterol were higher (P < 0.01) in treatment group buffaloes in comparison to control group. A. racemosus feeding significantly (P < 0.01) increased plasma prolactin, cortisol (P < 0.01), and milk fat cholesterol (P < 0.05) without affecting total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, glucose, and NEFA concentrations. The buffaloes of treatment group produced more milk (@ 0.526 kg/animal/day) suggesting thereby that A. racemosus is galactopoietic. It was concluded that feeding of A. racemosus increases plasma prolactin and cortisol and decreased plasma total cholesterol and LDL concentration. PMID:22544434

Singh, Surendra Pratap; Mehla, Ram Kumar; Singh, Mahendra

2012-12-01

72

Association of Fewer Hours of Sleep at 6 Months Postpartum With Substantial Weight Retention at 1 Year Postpartum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shorter sleep duration is linked to obesity, coronary artery disease, and diabetes. Whether sleep deprivation during the postpartum period affects maternal postpartum weight retention remains unknown. This study examined the association of sleep at 6 months postpartum with substantial postpartum weight retention (SPPWR), defined as 5 kg or more above pregravid weight at 1 year postpartum. The authors selected 940

Erica P. Gunderson; Sheryl L. Rifas-Shiman; Emily Oken; Janet W. Rich-Edwards; Ken P. Kleinman; Elsie M. Taveras; Matthew W. Gillman

2008-01-01

73

Postpartum thyroiditis.  

PubMed

Postpartum thyroiditis (PPT) is a syndrome of transient or permanent thyroid dysfunction occurring in the first year after delivery or abortion. It is the most common thyroid disease in the postpartum period with incidence between 5 and 9%. In essence, it is an autoimmune inflammation of the thyroid, caused by changes in humoral and cell-mediated immune response. It has a characteristic biphasic course with an episode of transient thyrotoxicosis followed by transient or permanent hypothyroidism. Of all predisposing factors positive titers of thyroid peroxidase antibodies have the greatest importance. In some of the affected patients the disease course is marked by expressed hormonal disorders causing significant subjective symptoms. This underlines the need for early identification of risk groups aimed at prophylaxis and adequate treatment of thyroid dysfunction in the postpartum period. The frequency of PPT varies between analyses and studies on risk factors do not establish reliable predictive models for progression of the disease. This is due to the different methodology of research and the involvement of a number of genetic and non-genetic factors in different geographic regions. That is why implementation of mass screening programs is now controversial. The discrepancy in the opinions of researchers makes it necessary to have studies of the problem in performed in every clinical center in which the possible risk specific to the region and the population covered might be defined prognostically. The results of these studies can be used to introduce targeted and cost-effective screening for early detection of risk patients and prevention of morbidity and complications of PPT. PMID:25434070

Argatska, Antoaneta B; Nonchev, Boyan I

2014-01-01

74

Postpartum thyroiditis.  

PubMed

Postpartum thyroiditis (PPT) is a syndrome of transient or permanent thyroid dysfunction occurring in the first year after delivery or abortion. It is the most common thyroid disease in the postpartum period with incidence between 5 and 9%. In essence, it is an autoimmune inflammation of the thyroid, caused by changes in humoral and cell-mediated immune response. It has a characteristic biphasic course with an episode of transient thyrotoxicosis followed by transient or permanent hypothyroidism. Of all predisposing factors positive titers of thyroid peroxidase antibodies have the greatest importance. In some of the affected patients the disease course is marked by expressed hormonal disorders causing significant subjective symptoms. This underlines the need for early identification of risk groups aimed at prophylaxis and adequate treatment of thyroid dysfunction in the postpartum period. The frequency of PPT varies between analyses and studies on risk factors do not establish reliable predictive models for progression of the disease. This is due to the different methodology of research and the involvement of a number of genetic and non-genetic factors in different geographic regions. That is why implementation of mass screening programs is now controversial. The discrepancy in the opinions of researchers makes it necessary to have studies of the problem in performed in every clinical center in which the possible risk specific to the region and the population covered might be defined prognostically. The results of these studies can be used to introduce targeted and cost-effective screening for early detection of risk patients and prevention of morbidity and complications of PPT. PMID:25507668

Argatska, Antoaneta B; Nonchev, Boyan I

2014-01-01

75

Impact of health beliefs, social support and self-efficacy on physical activity and dietary habits during the post-partum period after gestational diabetes mellitus: study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as a glucose intolerance of variable severity occurring or diagnosed for the first time during pregnancy. Numerous epidemiological studies show that this disorder affects between 1 and 18% of pregnancies, depending on the ethnicity of the populations studied, the diagnostic criteria, or the body mass index (BMI). Its incidence is constantly rising worldwide. Patients with GDM have a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the months after delivery. For this reason, GDM patients are encouraged to practice specific health behaviors (dietary habits, physical activity) during the postpartum period. It is important to identify the factors that may impact adherence to these behaviors. Methods/Design A targeted sample size of 200 eligible pregnant women with a diagnosis of GDM will be enrolled in this prospective, cohort study. They will be recruited from 30-36 weeks of gestation as part of their diabetes consultation in Geneva University Hospital (GUH) maternity unit. Psychosocial variables that could impact adherence to health behaviors in the postpartum period (behavioral intentions, risk perceptions, general knowledge about diabetes, health beliefs, social support, self-efficacy) will be evaluated using specific tools at the end of pregnancy, at 6 weeks postpartum and at 6 months postpartum. Multiple regression analyses will be performed on SPSS. Discussion For the first time in Europe, the objective of this research is to study in women with very recent GDM the link between dietary habits, physical activity levels, and psychosocial and cognitive factors possibly involved in the adoption of health behaviors in the postpartum period. These factors have been identified in the literature, but to date have never been combined in a single study. The study will allow a predictive theoretical model of health behavior to be established and used as a basis for reflection to optimize interventions carried out on women who have had GDM. PMID:23800121

2013-01-01

76

Postpartum Sterilization  

MedlinePLUS

... used most often for postpartum sterilization is called tubal ligation. For women who have had a vaginal delivery, ... women who have had a cesarean delivery , postpartum tubal ligation can be done through the same abdominal incision ...

77

High HIV incidence in the postpartum period sustains vertical transmission in settings with generalized epidemics: a cohort study in Southern Mozambique  

PubMed Central

Introduction Acute infection with HIV in the postpartum period results in a high risk of vertical transmission through breastfeeding. A study was done to determine the HIV incidence rate and associated risk factors among postpartum women in Southern Mozambique, where HIV prevalence among pregnant women is 21%. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted in six rural health facilities in Gaza and Maputo provinces from March 2008 to July 2011. A total of 1221 women who were HIV-negative on testing at delivery or within two months postpartum were recruited and followed until 18 months postpartum. HIV testing, collection of dried blood spot samples and administration of a structured questionnaire to women were performed every three months. Infant testing by DNA-PCR was done as soon as possible after identification of a new infection in women. HIV incidence was estimated, and potential risk factors at baseline were compared using Poisson regression. Results Data from 957 women were analyzed with follow-up after the enrolment visit, with a median follow-up of 18.2 months. The HIV incidence in postpartum women is estimated at 3.20/100 women-years (95% CI: 2.30–4.46), with the highest rate among 18- to 19-year-olds (4.92 per 100 women-years; 95% CI: 2.65–9.15). Of the new infections, 14 (34%) were identified during the first six months postpartum, 11 (27%) between 6 and 12 months and 16 (39%) between 12 and 18 months postpartum. Risk factors for incident HIV infection include young age, low number of children, higher education level of the woman's partner and having had sex with someone other than one's partner. The vertical transmission was 21% (95% CI: 5–36) among newly infected women. Conclusions Incidence of HIV is high among breastfeeding women in Southern Mozambique, contributing to increasing numbers of HIV-infected infants. Comprehensive primary prevention strategies targeting women of reproductive age, particularly pregnant and postpartum women and their partners, will be crucial for the elimination of paediatric AIDS in Africa. PMID:24629842

De Schacht, Caroline; Mabunda, Nédio; Ferreira, Orlando C; Ismael, Nália; Calú, Nurbai; Santos, Iolanda; Hoffman, Heather J; Alons, Catharina; Guay, Laura; Jani, Ilesh V

2014-01-01

78

Iatromathematica (medical astrology) in late antiquity and the Byzantine period.  

PubMed

Byzantium inherited the rich astrological tradition of Late Antiquity, especially that of Alexandria, where even in the 6th century A.D., astrology was taught in philosophical schools. The great number of Byzantine astrological MSS, which preserve works of famous authors and many anonymous treatises, shows the survival and continuity of astrology in Byzantium. Through medical astrology physicians can better understand the temperament of an individual man and find out about his bodily constitution and psychic faculties, his inclination to chronic and acute diseases, the possibilities of curable or incurable cases, and finally the periods of major danger for his health. They can conjecture about the evolution of a disease, choose a favorable time for an operation, or initiate a cure. PMID:11624570

Papathanassiou, M

1999-01-01

79

Variation of Transaminases, HCV-RNA Levels and Th1/Th2 Cytokine Production during the Post-Partum Period in Pregnant Women with Chronic Hepatitis C  

PubMed Central

This study analyses the evolution of liver disease in women with chronic hepatitis C during the third trimester of pregnancy and the post-partum period, as a natural model of immune modulation and reconstitution. Of the 122 mothers recruited to this study, 89 were HCV-RNA+ve/HIV-ve and 33 were HCV-RNA-ve/HIV-ve/HCVantibody+ve and all were tested during the third trimester of pregnancy, at delivery and post-delivery. The HCV-RNA+ve mothers were categorized as either Type-A (66%), with an increase in ALT levels in the post-partum period (>40 U/L; P<0.001) or as Type-B (34%), with no variation in ALT values. The Type-A mothers also presented a significant decrease in serum HCV-RNA levels in the post-delivery period (P<0.001) and this event was concomitant with an increase in Th1 cytokine levels (INF?, P?=?0.04; IL12, P?=?0.01 and IL2, P?=?0.01). On the other hand, the Type-B mothers and the HCV-RNA-ve women presented no variations in either of these parameters. However, they did present higher Th1 cytokine levels in the partum period (INF? and IL2, P<0.05) than both the Type-A and the HCV-RNA-ve women. Cytokine levels at the moment of delivery do not constitute a risk factor associated with HCV vertical transmission. It is concluded that differences in the ALT and HCV-RNA values observed in HCV-RNA+ve women in the postpartum period might be due to different ratios of Th1 cytokine production. In the Type-B women, the high partum levels of Th1 cytokines and the absence of post-partum variation in ALT and HCV-RNA levels may be related to permanent Th1 cytokine stimulation. PMID:24130726

Ruiz-Extremera, Ángeles; Muñoz-Gámez, José Antonio; Abril-Molina, Ana; Salmerón-Ruiz, María Angustias; Muñoz-de-Rueda, Paloma; Pavón-Castillero, Esther José; Quiles-Pérez, Rosa; Carazo, Ángel; Gila, Ana; Jimenez-Ruiz, Sergio Manuel; Casado, Jorge; Martín, Ana Belén; Sanjuán-Núñez, Laura; Ocete-Hita, Esther; Viota, Julián López; León, Josefa; Salmerón, Javier

2013-01-01

80

Household Costs of Healthcare during Pregnancy, Delivery, and the Postpartum Period: A Case Study from Matlab, Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

A household survey was undertaken in Matlab, a rural area of Bangladesh, to estimate the costs incurred during pregnancy, delivery, and the postpartum period for women delivering at home and in a health facility. Those interviewed included 121 women who delivered at home, 120 who delivered in an ICDDR,B basic obstetric care (BEOC) facility, 27 who delivered in a public comprehensive obstetric care (CEOC) hospital, and 58 who delivered in private hospitals. There was no significant difference in total costs incurred by those delivering at home and those delivering in a BEOC facility. Costs for those delivering in CEOC facilities were over nine times greater than for those delivering in BEOC facilities. Costs of care during delivery were predominant. Antenatal and postnatal care added between 7% and 30% to the total cost. Services were more equitable at home and in a BEOC facility compared to services provided at CEOC facilities. The study highlights the regressive nature of the financing of CEOC services and the need for a financing strategy that covers both the costs of referral and BEOC care for those in need. PMID:17591341

Sabina, Nazme; Blum, Lauren S.; Hoque, Mohammad Enamul; Ronsmans, Carine

2006-01-01

81

Prevention and treatment of depression in pregnancy and the postpartum period – summary of a maternal depression roundtable: a U.S. perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a This article summarizes the proceedings of a roundtable sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health on January 31,\\u000a 2001. The objective of this meeting was to discuss the current status and future directions of research on the prevention\\u000a and treatment of depression in pregnancy and the postpartum period from multidisciplinary and public health perspectives.\\u000a The major foci included

R. C. Boyd; J. L. Pearson; M. C. Blehar

2002-01-01

82

A Late Silurian extinction event and anachronistic period  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resurgence of microbialites and anachronistic facies in the aftermath of Phanerozoic extinction events has hitherto only been documented among the “major five.” Based on the classical Silurian carbonate platform strata of Gotland, Sweden, a “minor” biotic event is herein for the first time related to a substantial increase in anachronistic facies. Strata deposited during and shortly after the Lau Event in the Baltic paleobasin (Eke and Burgsvik Formations) include evidence for reduced grazing and infaunal activity in contemporaneous shallow low-latitude seas, e.g., flat-pebble conglomerates, normal-marine stromatolites, mass occurrence of oncoids, and subtidal wrinkle structures (e.g., Kinneyia and microripples). The latter structures have recently been suggested to be restricted to Proterozoic Cambrian and Early Triassic time and therefore are regarded as anomalous for the Phanerozoic. The co-occurrence of these facies and global extinctions among pentamerid brachiopods and conodonts suggests that minor extinction events also resulted in anachronistic periods, less devastating but fully comparable to those in the aftermath of the end-Ordovician and end-Permian mass extinctions. A global positive stable carbon isotope excursion and the last appearance datum of the conodont Polygnathoides siluricus may facilitate identification of the Late Silurian anachronistic period elsewhere.

Calner, Mikael

2005-04-01

83

Bacteriological and cytological findings during the late puerperal period after two different treatments of retained placenta followed by acute puerperal metritis.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to compare the effect of two acute puerperal metritis (APM) treatment protocols on uterine condition during the late puerperal period (5th to 7th week). Late gestation healthy cows (n = 21) were divided randomly in three equal groups. Parturitions were induced. Treatments of APM were started on the third day postpartum (PP). Group A was treated with an oxytocin analogue carbetocin for three days and intrauterine administration of cephapirin between days 15 and 17. Group B was given intramuscular injection of ceftiofur for five days followed by two injections of prostaglandin F2alpha, at an interval of 12 h, on the eighth day PP. Group C served as the control group with no treatment. Body temperature was recorded daily for 14 days PP. Uterine biopsies for bacteriology, and uterobrush samples for cytology, were taken once a week from the 5th to 7th week postpartum. No differences were found in body temperature on day 14 PP, presence of bacteriological infections and disappearance of uterine inflammatory signs diagnosed by cytological examination between experimental groups. PMID:20550666

Jeremejeva, Julia; Orro, Toomas; Valdmann, Merle; Kask, Kalle

2010-01-01

84

Postpartum Depression  

MedlinePLUS

What are the postpartum blues? About 2–3 days after childbirth, some women begin to feel depressed, anxious, and upset. They may feel angry with ... a baby These feelings, often called the postpartum blues , may come and go in the first few ...

85

Evaluation of reproductive tract infection during early post-partum period and its relationship with subsequent reproductive performance in high milk producing dairy cows.  

PubMed

Clinically normal Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 43) were used to establish a relationship between the evaluations of the uterine condition by vaginoscopy, Metricheck, endometrial cytology (EC) and ultrasonography (US) during post-partum period (pp), and subsequent reproductive performance. The uterine status of the selected cows was evaluated by EC, Metricheck, US and vaginoscopy on a weekly basis from the third week (W3) to the seventh week (W7) pp. The animals were bred after a voluntary waiting period of 45-60 days pp and diagnosed for pregnancy status at 45 days after breeding by US. First service conception rate (FSCR) of bred animals was 32.6% (14/43). There was no significant difference in polymorphonuclear leucocyte percentage between conceived and non-conceived cows during different weeks post-partum. First service conception rate in animals with normal vaginal discharge as detected by Metricheck was significantly low when compared to those of abnormal discharge during W3 (2.3% vs 30.3%; p?post-partum. Using US, the number of pregnant cows having fluid in uterus (FIU) during W6 (p?post-partum was significantly lower (2/34, 4.7% and 1/43, 2.3%, respectively) than those that had no FIU (12/43, 27.9% and 13/43, 30.3%, respectively). Using vaginoscopy, FSCR in animals having abnormal discharge was significantly (p?post-partum. In conclusion, Metricheck during W3 and W4 and detection of FIU by US and vaginoscopy during W6 and W7?pp can be used as good predictive tools to anticipate the future reproductive performance of dairy cattle. PMID:21707786

Senosy, W; Uchiza, M; Tameoka, N; Izaike, Y; Osawa, T

2012-04-01

86

Postpartum Period: Emotions  

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87

Postpartum Period: Vaginal Bleeding  

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88

Postpartum Period: Physical Changes  

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89

Personality and risk for postpartum depressive symptoms.  

PubMed

Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common childbirth complication, affecting 10-15 % of newly delivered mothers. This study aims to assess the association between personality factors and PPD. All pregnant women during the period September 2009 to September 2010, undergoing a routine ultrasound at Uppsala University Hospital, were invited to participate in the BASIC study, a prospective study designed to investigate maternal well-being. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) while the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) was used as a diagnostic tool for major depression. Personality traits were evaluated using the Swedish Universities Scale of Personality (SSP). One thousand thirty-seven non-depressed pregnant women were included in the study. Non-depressed women reporting high levels of neuroticism in late pregnancy were at high risk of developing postpartum depressive symptoms (PPDSs) at 6 weeks and 6 months after delivery, even after adjustment for confounders (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)?=?3.4, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.8-6.5 and adjusted odds ratio (aOR)?=?3.9, 95 % CI 1.9-7.9). The same was true for a DSRS-based diagnosis of major depression at 6 months postpartum. Somatic trait anxiety and psychic trait anxiety were associated with increased risk for PPDS at 6 weeks (aOR?=?2.1, 95 % CI 1.2-3.5 and aOR?=?1.9, 95 % CI 1.1-3.1), while high scores of mistrust were associated with a twofold increased risk for PPDS at 6 months postpartum (aOR 1.9, 95 % CI 1.1-3.4). Non-depressed pregnant women with high neuroticism scores have an almost fourfold increased risk to develop depressive symptoms postpartum, and the association remains robust even after controlling for most known confounders. Clinically, this could be of importance for health care professionals working with pregnant and newly delivered women. PMID:25369905

Iliadis, S I; Koulouris, P; Gingnell, M; Sylvén, S M; Sundström-Poromaa, I; Ekselius, L; Papadopoulos, F C; Skalkidou, A

2014-11-01

90

Views of Women and Clinicians on Postpartum Preparation and Recovery  

PubMed Central

To explore important domains of women’s postpartum experiences as perceived by postpartum mothers and obstetricians/midwives, and to investigate how postpartum care could enhance patient preparation for the postpartum period. Qualitative research study was conducted to explore women’s and clinicians’ perceptions of the postpartum experience. Four focus groups of postpartum women (n = 45) and two focus groups of obstetric clinicians (n = 13) were held at a large urban teaching hospital in New York City. All focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using grounded theory. Four main themes were identified: lack of women’s knowledge about postpartum health and lack of preparation for the postpartum experience, lack of continuity of care and absence of maternal care during the early postpartum period, disconnect between providers and postpartum mothers, and suggestions for improvement. Mothers did not expect many of the symptoms they experienced after childbirth and were disappointed with the lack of support by providers during this critical time in their recovery. Differences existed in the major postpartum concerns of mothers and clinicians. However, both mothers and clinicians agreed that preparation during the antepartum period could be beneficial for postpartum recovery. Results from this study indicate that many mothers do not feel prepared for the postpartum experience. Study findings raise the hypothesis that capturing patient-centered domains that define the postpartum experience and integrating these domains into patient care may enhance patient preparation for postpartum recovery and improve postpartum outcomes. PMID:23775250

Martin, Anika; Horowitz, Carol; Howell, Elizabeth A.

2015-01-01

91

Postpartum changes in methadone maintenance dose.  

PubMed

The optimal approach to postpartum dosing among women treated with methadone maintenance is unclear. We examined doses among 101 methadone-maintained pregnant women 2, 6 and 12 weeks postpartum, and compared the incidence of having doses held for oversedation during pregnancy and postpartum. The average dose at delivery was 83.3mg, and the mean change from delivery to 12 weeks postpartum was -3.7 mg (95% CI -6.3, -1.1). The incidence of oversedation events per 10,000 days was 2.8 among pregnant women and 5.6 for postpartum women (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 2.04, 95% CI 0.66, 6.28). After adjusting for benzodiazepine prescriptions, the IRR of an oversedation event among postpartum women compared to pregnant women was 1.74 (95% CI 0.56, 5.30). In conclusion, postpartum dose changes were small in a methadone clinic using clinical assessments to determine dose. Although the incidence of oversedation events remained low postpartum, the clinically important but not statistically significant increase in events among postpartum women and those prescribed benzodiazepines requires further research. While there are not yet adequate data to support pre-specified postpartum dose reductions, the findings suggest that more frequent clinical assessments continuing as late as 12 weeks postpartum may be warranted. PMID:24953167

Pace, Christine A; Kaminetzky, Leah B; Winter, Michael; Cheng, Debbie M; Saia, Kelley; Samet, Jeffrey H; Walley, Alexander Y

2014-09-01

92

Postpartum Thyroiditis  

MedlinePLUS

... high thyroid hormone levels in the blood) and hypothyroidism (low thyroid hormone levels in the blood). In postpartum thyroiditis, thyrotoxicosis occurs first followed by hypothyroidism. What is the thyroid gland? The thyroid gland ...

93

Postpartum Depression  

MedlinePLUS

... How is postpartum depression different from the “baby blues”? The “baby blues” is a term used to describe the feelings ... about, or tired from, providing that care. Baby blues, which affects up to 80 percent of mothers, ...

94

Effects of feeding dry glycerol to primiparous Holstein dairy cows on follicular development, reproductive performance and metabolic parameters related to fertility during the early post-partum period.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of dry glycerol supplementation on follicular growth, post-partum interval to first ovulation, concentration of serum metabolites and hormones related to fertility, body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) in primiparous Holstein dairy cows. Sixty primiparous Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to two groups (control: n = 30 and glycerol supplemented: n = 30). Dry glycerol (250 g/day/cow) was fed as a top dressing to the common lactating total mixed ration (TMR) from parturition to 21 days post-partum. Ovaries were examined four times using ultrasonography on days 13, 19, 25 and 36 post-partum to determine ovarian follicular growth. Concentration of serum metabolites and hormones was determined weekly. Body condition score was evaluated weekly from weeks 1 to 5 after parturition, and BWs were recorded three times on days 1, 11 and 21 during the experimental period. The cows fed dry glycerol had more large follicles (p < 0.0001) and corpora lutea (CL) (p = 0.02) compared with the control cows. Days to the first ovulation (p = 0.06), days to first oestrus (p = 0.05), services per conception (p = 0.06) and days open (p = 0.004) were positively affected by dry glycerol supplementation. Serum concentration of glucose and insulin was higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p = 0.1; p = 0.06, respectively). Feeding glycerol had no effect on mean serum concentrations of ?-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acids and IGF-1 during the experimental period. However, significant differences were observed at concentration of BHBA and IGF-1 (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively) between two groups on day 21 after calving. The cows in the glycerol-fed group had higher serum progesterone concentrations on days 33 (p = 0.007) and 36 (p = 0.004) after calving. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1-5 after calving compared with the control cows (0.34 vs 0.41 BCS). In week 13 post-partum, the proportion of cycling cows was 83.3 and 69.9% for those which received supplemented or non-supplemented diet, respectively. These results demonstrated that feeding dry glycerol as a glucogenic supply may be useful to improve negative energy balance and reproductive efficiency in young cows which calve with high requirement of energy. PMID:23772805

Karami-Shabankareh, H; Kafilzadeh, F; Piri, V; Mohammadi, H

2013-12-01

95

How much does Low Socioeconomic Status Increase the Risk of Prenatal and Postpartum Depressive Symptoms in First Time Mothers?  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine socioeconomic status (SES) as a risk factor for depressive symptoms in late pregnancy and the early postpartum period. A secondary objective was to determine whether SES was a specific risk factor for elevated postpartum depressive symptoms beyond its contribution to prenatal depressive symptoms. Design Quantitative, secondary analysis, repeated measures, descriptive design. Setting Participants were recruited from paid childbirth classes serving upper middle class women and Medicaid-funded hospitals serving low-income clients in Northern California. Participants A sample of 198 first time mothers was assessed for depressive symptoms in their third trimester of pregnancy and at one, two, and three months postpartum. Main Outcome Measure Depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) Scale. Results Low SES was associated with increased depressive symptoms in late pregnancy and at 2 and 3 months, but not at 1 month postpartum. Women with four SES risk factors (low monthly income, less than a college education, unmarried, unemployed) were 11 times more likely than women with no SES risk factors to have clinically elevated depression scores at 3 months postpartum, even after controlling for the level of prenatal depressive symptoms. Conclusion Although new mothers from all SES strata are at risk for postpartum depression, SES factors including low education, low income, being unmarried, and being unemployed increased the risk of developing postpartum depressive symptoms in this sample. PMID:20133153

Goyal, Deepika; Gay, Caryl; Lee, Kathryn A.

2009-01-01

96

Acute subdural haemorrhage in the postpartum period as a rare manifestation of possible HELLP (haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low-platelet count) syndrome: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background The HELLP syndrome (haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low-platelet count) occurs in about 0.5 to 0.9% of all pregnancies. With occurrence of thrombocytopaenia, it signals for several potentially lethal conditions such as complete or partial HELLP syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopaenic purpura and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Case presentation A previously healthy 27-year-old, Sinhala ethnic primigravida with pregnancy-induced hypertension was admitted at 38 weeks of gestation with lower abdominal pain and a blood pressure of 140/90 mmHg. She underwent emergency Caesarian section due to faetal distress giving birth to a healthy baby girl. Since postpartum day one, she was having intermittent fever spikes. All the routine investigations were normal in the first three weeks. Platelet count started dropping from post-partum day-20 onwards. On day-23, she had developed a seizure and computed tomography scan brain showed a subdural haemorrhage. She had a platelet count of 22,000?×?109/liter and was managed conservatively. She also had elevated liver enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase and bilirubin levels. Blood picture on day-24 showed haemolytic anemia. On day- 36, patient again developed seizures and she was having intermittent fever with generalized headache and signs of meningism. Computed tomography scan revealed an acute on chronic subdural haemorrhage. Conclusions Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy should be managed as high-risk throughout the postpartum period. Development of thrombocytopaenia can be considered as an early warning sign for HELLP, thrombotic thrombocytopaenic purpura or acute fatty liver of pregnancy which are lethal conditions. Prompt recognition of intracranial haemorrhages and early neurosurgical intervention is lifesaving. PMID:24972626

2014-01-01

97

Neutrophil Functions and Cytokines Expression Profile in Buffaloes with Impending Postpartum Reproductive Disorders  

PubMed Central

The study was conducted to correlate the periparturient immune status in terms of neutrophil functions and cytokine expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture with impending postpartum reproductive disorders in buffaloes. Forty pregnant buffaloes were observed for occurrence of postpartum reproductive disorders (PRD), i.e., metritis, endometritis and delayed uterine involution etc., during one week prepartum to four weeks postpartum period. A representative number (n = 6) of buffaloes that did not develop any PRD were included in group I (healthy, control), while the animals which experienced PRD were assigned into group II (PRD, n = 8). The blood samples were collected at weekly interval from one week prepartum to four weeks postpartum period considering the day of calving as ‘d 0’. Differential leucocytes counts, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production activity in isolated neutrophils and the mRNA expression profile of cytokines i.e., IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-? in PBMC culture were studied in all the samples. A higher total leucocytes, neutrophil and band cells count along with impaired neutrophil functions i.e., lowered level of production of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide before parturition and during early postpartum period were observed in buffaloes developing PRD. Further, a lower expression of IL-2, IFN-? and IL-4 mRNA in PBMC culture was observed at calving in buffaloes that subsequently developed PRD at later postpartum. Thus, suppression in neutrophil function and cytokine expression at prepartum to early postpartum period predisposes the buffaloes to develop postpartum reproductive disorders. Hence, monitoring of neutrophils function and cytokine expression profile would be effective to predict certain reproductive disorders at late pregnancy or immediately after parturition in buffaloes. In future, this may be a novel approach for determining suitable management and therapeutic decisions for prevention of commonly occurring reproductive disorders in farm animals. PMID:25049724

Patra, Manas Kumar; Kumar, Harendra; Nandi, Sukdeb

2013-01-01

98

Origin of the cataclysmic Late Heavy Bombardment period of the terrestrialplanets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The petrology record on the Moon suggests that a cataclysmic spike in the cratering rate occurred ~700 million years after the planets formed; this event is known as the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB). Planetary formation theories cannot naturally account for an intense period of planetesimal bombardment so late in Solar System history. Several models have been proposed to explain a

R. Gomes; H. F. Levison; K. Tsiganis; A. Morbidelli

2005-01-01

99

Pulmonary infections in the late period after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: chest radiography versus computed tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose:To analyze the capabilities of chest roentgenogram (CXR) and computed tomography (CT) in the evaluation of pulmonary infectious disease in the late period (>100 days) after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT).

Gerd Schueller; Wolfgang Matzek; Peter Kalhs; Cornelia Schaefer-Prokop

2005-01-01

100

The postpartum period in dromedary camels: Uterine involution, ovarian activity, hormonal changes, and response to GnRH treatment.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the time for complete uterine involution and resumption of ovarian activity in postpartum dromedary camels, relative to hormonal changes. A total of six females were examined by ultrasonography twice weekly starting 3d after parturition. GnRH was administered when the follicles reached ?0.9cm diameter. Blood samples were collected for hormonal analysis. Results revealed that the mean intervals for complete involution of the previously gravid horn, non-gravid horn, and cervix were 34.33±3.9, 29.01±0.81, and 28.71±1.51d, respectively. After GnRH treatment (Days 17-34), five of the six camels had ovulated. The corpus luteum was detected by Day 4.1±1.6 after GnRH treatment and lasted for 6±1.1d. Serum progesterone (P4) was basal and increased only after GnRH treatment. Serum estradiol 17-? (E2) peaked twice: when a large follicle was detected and 8.5±2.8d post-GnRH treatment. The serum FSH pattern was biphasic, with two peaks just before the recruitment of small follicles and 4.67±4.1d after GnRH treatment. The five ovulating females were mated; two conceived after the first service and three after the second service. The interval from calving to conception was 78.16±3.71d. It was concluded that in dromedary camels, involution of the uterus is completed by the 5th week postpartum, these camels are highly responsive to early GnRH treatment, and they can be mated between the 5th and 6th week after parturition with encouraging conception rates. PMID:25465362

Derar, R; Ali, A; Al-Sobayil, F A

2014-12-30

101

Postpartum female sexual function.  

PubMed

Although many women experience sexual problems in the postpartum period, research in this subject is under-explored. Embarrassment and preoccupation with the newborn are some of the reasons why many women do not seek help. Furthermore, there is a lack of professional awareness and expertise and recognition that a prerequisite in the definition of sexual dysfunction is that it must cause distress to the individual (not her partner). Sexual dysfunction is classified as disorders of sexual desire, arousal, orgasm and pain. However, in the postpartum period the most common disorder appears to be that of sexual pain as a consequence of perineal trauma. Health care workers need to be made aware of this silent affliction as sexual morbidity can have a detrimental effect on a women's quality of life impacting on her social, physical and emotional well-being. PMID:19481858

Abdool, Zeelha; Thakar, Ranee; Sultan, Abdul H

2009-08-01

102

Prevalence and risk factors of diastasis recti abdominis from late pregnancy to 6 months postpartum, and relationship with lumbo-pelvic pain.  

PubMed

Diastasis recti abdominis (DRA) is an impairment characterized by a midline separation of the rectus abdominis muscles along the linea alba. It has its onset during pregnancy and the first weeks following childbirth. There is scant knowledge on both prevalence and risk factors for development of the condition. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of DRA at gestational week 35 and three timepoints postpartum, possible risk factors, and the relationship between DRA and lumbo-pelvic pain. Ultrasound images of inter rectus distance (IRD) were recorded in 84 healthy primiparous women, at three locations on the linea alba. The IRD was measured at: gestational week 35 and 6-8, 12-14, and 24-26 weeks postpartum. Diagnosis of DRA was defined as 16 mm at 2 cm below the umbilicus. Independent sample t-test and binary logistic regression was used to assess differences and risk factors in women with and without DRA and women with and without lumbo-pelvic pain. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The prevalence of DRA decreased from 100% at gestational week 35-39% at 6 months postpartum. No statistically significant differences were found in prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), weight gain, baby's birth weight or abdominal circumference between women with and without DRA at 6 months postpartum. Women with DRA at 6 months postpartum were not more likely to report lumbo-pelvic pain than women without DRA. DRA is prevalent at 6 months postpartum, but is not linked with lumbo-pelvic pain. PMID:25282439

Mota, Patrícia Gonçalves Fernandes da; Pascoal, Augusto Gil Brites Andrade; Carita, Ana Isabel Andrade Dinis; Bø, Kari

2015-02-01

103

Postpartum Depression Action Plan  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Postpartum Depression | Postpartum Depression Action Plan Patient __________________________ Physician/NP/PA __________________ Clinic ____________________________ Phone Number ____________________ Choose one area and add other ...

104

Postpartum Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)  

MedlinePLUS

Frequently Asked Questions Depression During Pregnancy & Postpartum Anxiety During Pregnancy & Postpartum Pregnancy or Postpartum OCD Postpartum Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Bipolar Mood Disorders Postpartum Psychosis Useful ...

105

Low Omega-3 Index in Pregnancy Is a Possible Biological Risk Factor for Postpartum Depression  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is a common disorder affecting 10–15% women in the postpartum period. Postpartum depression can disrupt early mother-infant interaction, and constitutes a risk factor for early child development. Recently, attention has been drawn to the hypothesis that a low intake of seafood in pregnancy can be a risk factor for postpartum depression. Seafood is a unique dietary source of the marine omega-3 fatty acids and is a natural part of a healthy balanced diet that is especially important during pregnancy. Methods In a community based prospective cohort in a municipality in Western Norway, we investigated both nutritional and psychological risk factors for postpartum depression. The source population was all women who were pregnant within the period November 2009 - June 2011. The fatty acid status in red blood cells was assessed in the 28th gestation week and participants were screened for postpartum depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) three months after delivery. The aim of the present study was to investigate if a low omega-3 index in pregnancy is a possible risk factor for postpartum depression. Results In a simple regression model, the omega-3 index was associated with the EPDS score in a nonlinear inverse manner with an R square of 19. Thus, the low omega-3 index explained 19% of the variance in the EPDS score. The DPA content, DHA content, omega-3 index, omega-3/omega-6 ratio, total HUFA score, and the omega-3 HUFA score were all inversely correlated with the EPDS score. The EPDS scores of participants in the lowest omega-3 index quartile were significantly different to the three other omega-3 index quartiles. Conclusion In this study population, a low omega-3 index in late pregnancy was associated with higher depression score three months postpartum. PMID:23844041

Markhus, Maria Wik; Skotheim, Siv; Graff, Ingvild Eide; Frøyland, Livar; Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Malde, Marian Kjellevold

2013-01-01

106

Effects of different polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementations during the postpartum periods of early lactating dairy cows on milk yield, metabolic responses, and reproductive performances.  

PubMed

In spite of the difficulties in delivering PUFA to ruminants, studies have generally indicated that the PUFA of the omega-6 (linoleic acid) and omega-3 [?-linolenic acid; eicosapentaenoic (EPA), C20:5 omega-3; docosahexaenoic (DHA), C22:6 omega-3] families are the most beneficial to improving reproduction in cows. The objectives were to determine if a diet enriched in ?-linolenic acid (omega-3) or linoleic acid (omega-6) would influence milk production and composition, metabolic status, and reproductive performance in lactating dairy cows. High-yielding multiparous Holstein dairy cows (n = 120) with no overt clinical illnesses were blocked according to calving date and parity. Cows were assigned randomly to be fed 1) soybean whole roast (Soy, omega-6, n = 40) or 2) linseed (Lin, omega-3, n = 40) or 3) palm oil as a source of SFA (PO, n = 40) from calving until first heat after 40 d postpartum (dpp), and then half of the cows in each treatment group were switched to receive either Lin or SFA (PO) from first heat after d 40 to 120 dpp. Blood was collected from a subsample of cows. Blood was collected at 14 d intervals for 12 wk, starting on the day of calving. Results showed milk yield and DMI were not affected. Milk compositions were similar (P > 0.08) among diets, except concentration and yield of milk fat percentage, which was less in cows fed Lin (P < 0.05). Uterine involution in cows fed Soy occurred earlier (P < 0.05). Diets affected day to first estrus and day to first insemination in cows (P < 0.05). There were no differences among treatments for percent heat detection, percent pregnancy per first insemination, and percent conception per AI at estrus. Also, there is a trend of pregnancy by 120 d, which is 66.7% for the Lin group vs. 50.91% for the PO group (P < 0.08). Of the 4 pregnancy losses, 2 occurred in PO-PO group and 2 occurred in Soy-PO group, and none occurred in the other 4 treatments. In conclusion, our study showed feeding omega-6 fatty acids during 40 dpp could be a good treatment for early postpartum periods, and a shift to omega-3 fatty acids until 40 d after AI can be considered as a strategy for improving fertility in lactating dairy cows. PMID:23148256

Dirandeh, E; Towhidi, A; Zeinoaldini, S; Ganjkhanlou, M; Ansari Pirsaraei, Z; Fouladi-Nashta, A

2013-02-01

107

Prenatal immunologic predictors of postpartum depressive symptoms: a prospective study for potential diagnostic markers.  

PubMed

In postpartum depression (PPD), immunologic changes have been proposed to be involved in the disease pathology. The study evaluates the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune response over the course of late pregnancy and postpartum period and their association with the development of postpartum depressive symptoms. Furthermore, prenatal immunologic markers for a PPD were investigated. Hundred pregnant women were included. At 34th and 38th week of pregnancy as well as 2 days, 7 weeks and 6 months postpartum, immune parameters (neopterin, regulatory T cells, CXCR1, CCR2, MNP1 and CD11a) were measured by flow cytometry/ELISA, and the psychopathology was evaluated. We found that regulatory T cells were significantly increased prenatal (p=0.011) and postnatal (p=0.01) in mothers with postnatal depressive symptoms. The decrease in CXCR 1 after delivery was significantly higher in mother with postnatal depressive symptoms (p=0.032). Mothers with postnatal depressive symptoms showed already prenatal significantly elevated neopterin levels (p=0.049). Finally, regulatory T cells in pregnancy strongly predict postnatal depressive symptoms (p=0.004). The present study revealed that prenatal and postnatal immunologic parameters are associated with postpartum depressive symptoms in mothers. In addition, we found immune markers that could eventually be the base for a biomarker set that predicts postnatal depressive symptoms already during pregnancy. PMID:24595743

Krause, Daniela; Jobst, Andrea; Kirchberg, Franka; Kieper, Susann; Härtl, Kristin; Kästner, Ralph; Myint, Aye-Mu; Müller, Norbert; Schwarz, Markus J

2014-10-01

108

Postpartum pyomyoma.  

PubMed Central

Leiomyomata are common benign tumors of the uterus and female pelvis. Myomas have been reported in 25% of Caucasian American women and 50% of African-American women. The true incidence is unknown, but descriptions of 50% have been found at postmortem examinations. Considering the high incidence of uterine myomata in women of reproductive age, they are reported as complications in only 2% of pregnancies. Pyomyoma (suppurative leiomyoma) a rare complication results from infarction and infection of a leiomyoma. Without a strong clinical suspicion and surgical intervention, fatalities may occur. Since 1945, only 15 cases have been described in the literature, mostly in pregnant or postmenopausal women after ascending infection. This report documents a pyomyoma that presented as a postpartum enlargement of a previously known leiomyoma. This case is unique because the patient did not undergo a hysterectomy at the time of exploratory laparotomy. Six months after the procedure, normal cyclic bleeding was noted. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:16035584

Mason, Tina C.; Adair, Jamie; Lee, Yi Chun

2005-01-01

109

High-precision constraints on timing of Alpine warm periods during the middle to late Pleistocene using speleothem growth periods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long-standing problem in the reconstruction of warm climate periods during the late Quaternary is the difficulty of determining absolute ages for undisturbed terrestrial climate archives. Speleothems offer an important source of information about the timing and duration of middle and late Pleistocene warm phases. A flowstone from the high-elevation Spannagel Cave (Zillertal Alps, Austria) provides a new absolutely dated climate record, which includes the most prominent warm phases between ˜260 and 50 ka before present. New data from the Penultimate Interglacial improve our knowledge about the timing and progression of warm periods in the Alps corresponding to marine isotope stages 7 and 8. Speleothem growth phases were identified from ˜261 to 249, from ˜236 to 229, and from ˜200 to 192 ka. An early onset of the Last Interglacial is corroborated by a growth phase commencing at 136.7 ± 2.8 ka and the youngest section of the flowstone provides further evidence for an Alpine climate during time intervals corresponding to marine isotope stages 5a and 3 sufficiently warm to allow speleothems to grow. The high-resolution stable isotope profile taken along the growth axis of the flowstone provides information about the hydrological conditions during the growth phases.

Holzkämper, Steffen; Spötl, Christoph; Mangini, Augusto

2005-08-01

110

Maternal stress predicts postpartum weight retention.  

PubMed

Postpartum weight retention (PPWR) is a significant contributor to the development of overweight and obesity in women of childbearing age. Stress may be a key mechanism making it more difficult for mothers to lose weight in the year following delivery. The aim of this study was to assess whether specific aspects of parenting stress and life stress influence postpartum weight retention in new mothers. Women in late pregnancy or up to 2 months postpartum (n = 123) were enrolled in the study and followed through the first year postpartum. Linear regression models evaluated the associations of parenting stress (isolation, attachment and depressive symptoms) as well as overall life stress at 2, 6, and 12 months postpartum with PPWR at 6 and 12 months. During the first year postpartum, higher depression and life stress were significantly associated with greater PPWR. As the effect of depression diminished, the effect of life stress became significant. Contrary to hypothesized relationships, fewer problems with attachment and less social isolation were significantly associated with greater PPWR. Higher gestational weight gain and African American race were also significantly associated with greater PPWR at both 6 and 12 months. Different types of stress predict weight retention in first time mothers during the first year postpartum. Understanding the relationships between parenting stress, concurrent life stress and PPWR can enhance the development of future interventions that specifically target self-identified stressors, leading to improved weight related outcomes. PMID:24760321

Whitaker, Kara; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Vernon, Marlo; Wilcox, Sara

2014-11-01

111

Use of postpartum care: predictors and barriers.  

PubMed

This study aimed to identify actual and perceived barriers to postpartum care among a probability sample of women who gave birth in Los Angeles County, California in 2007. Survey data from the 2007 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) study (N = 4,075) were used to identify predictors and barriers to postpartum care use. The LAMB study was a cross-sectional, population-based study that examined maternal and child health outcomes during the preconception, prenatal, and postpartum periods. Multivariable analyses identified low income, being separated/divorced and never married, trying hard to get pregnant or trying to prevent pregnancy, Medi-Cal insurance holders, and lack of prenatal care to be risk factors of postpartum care nonuse, while Hispanic ethnicity was protective. The most commonly reported barriers to postpartum care use were feeling fine, being too busy with the baby, having other things going on, and a lack of need. Findings from this study can inform the development of interventions targeting subgroups at risk for not obtaining postpartum care. Community education and improved access to care can further increase the acceptability of postpartum visits and contribute to improvements in women's health. Postpartum care can serve as a gateway to engage underserved populations in the continuum of women's health care. PMID:24693433

DiBari, Jessica N; Yu, Stella M; Chao, Shin M; Lu, Michael C

2014-01-01

112

Postpartum Depression: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Occurring in about 12 percent of postpartum women, postpartum depression has been focus of considerable research. Variables that have been correlated with postpartum depression range from biological causes, to lack of social support, to relationship with husband, to attributional styles, to psychodynamic explanations. There is need for more…

Albright, Angela

1993-01-01

113

Rotation periods for nearby, mid-to-late M dwarfs estimated from the MEarth Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of M dwarfs' rotation is essential to understanding the generation of their magnetic fields and the mechanism by which they lose angular momentum. It is also important for characterizing the environment of planets that might orbit them. The most direct way to infer rotation periods is from variations in stars' brightnesses as dark spots rotate in and out of view. Most rotation periods estimated prior to this decade are the result of dedicated photometric studies. If care is taken to preserve astrophysical variability and limit systematics, transiting planet surveys generate the high-cadence monitoring required to estimate stellar rotation periods. While targeted surveys of clusters have provided data at young ages, observations of field M dwarfs are required to constrain their late-term evolution. Rotation periods of the smallest stars are also needed: the Kepler mission produced exquisite light curves of several thousand cool dwarfs, but field stars below 0.3 solar masses are not well-represented in the sample. The MEarth Project is a transiting planet survey targeting mid-to-late M dwarfs within 33 parsecs; it provides a unique data set for exploring rotation in a large sample of fully convective stars. We present a catalog of rotation periods for these stars. Our measurements are particularly useful because many of the MEarth targets have parallaxes, multi-wavelength photometry, and optical and near-infrared spectra. We present our methods for estimating rotation periods and quantifying our uncertainties, and discuss our results in the context of other surveys.The MEarth project gratefully acknowledges funding from the David and Lucile Packard Fellowship for Science and Engineering, the National Science Foundation under grants AST-0807690, AST-1109468, and AST-1004488, and the John Templeton Foundation

Newton, Elisabeth R.; Irwin, Jonathan; Charbonneau, David; Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.; Dittmann, Jason

2015-01-01

114

Postpartum anemia II: prevention and treatment.  

PubMed

This review focuses on the prevention and treatment of anemia in women who have just given childbirth (postpartum anemia). The problem of anemia both prepartum and postpartum is far more prevalent in developing countries than in the Western societies. The conditions for mother and child in the postpartum, nursing, and lactation period should be as favorable as possible. Many young mothers have a troublesome life due to iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) causing a plethora of symptoms including fatigue, physical disability, cognitive problems, and psychiatric disorders. Routine screening for postpartum anemia should be considered as part of the national maternal health programs. Major causes of postpartum anemia are prepartum iron deficiency and IDA in combination with excessive blood losses at delivery. Postpartum anemia should be defined as a hemoglobin level of <110 g/l at 1 week postpartum and <120 g/l at 8 weeks postpartum. Bleeding exceeding normal blood losses of approximately 300 ml may lead to rapid depletion of body iron reserves and may, unless treated, elicit long-standing iron deficiency and IDA in the postpartum period. The prophylaxis of postpartum anemia should begin already in early pregnancy in order to ensure a good iron status prior to delivery. The most reliable way to obtain this goal is to give prophylactic oral ferrous iron supplements 30-50 mg daily from early pregnancy and take obstetric precautions in pregnancies at risk for complications. In the treatment of slight-to-moderate postpartum IDA, the first choice should be oral ferrous iron 100 to 200 mg daily; it is essential to analyze hemoglobin after approximately 2 weeks in order to check whether treatment works. In severe IDA, intravenous ferric iron in doses ranging from 800 to 1,500 mg should be considered as first choice. In a few women with severe anemia and blunted erythropoiesis due to infection and/or inflammation, additional recombinant human erythropoietin may be considered. Blood transfusion should be restricted to women who develop circulatory instability due to postpartum hemorrhage. National health authorities should establish guidelines to combat iron deficiency in pregnancy and postpartum in order to facilitate a prosperous future for both mothers and children in a continuing globalized world. PMID:22160256

Milman, Nils

2012-02-01

115

Review of screening instruments for postpartum depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper presents a review and discussion of eight self-report measures used to assess for depressive symptoms in the postpartum period. Because postpartum depression is a significant mental health problem, there is a need for reliable and valid screening instruments. Published psychometric data (e.g., reliability, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, concurrent validity) of each self-report instrument are presented and

R. C. Boyd; H. N. Le; R. Somberg

2005-01-01

116

Postpartum Period: Discomfort and Recovery  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... opportunities Advocacy in government For health professionals General health information I have personal experience with: Prematurity NICU experience Birth Defects High-risk pregnancy Loss Infertility Multiples None Of Above March ...

117

Sleep Disturbance and Neurobehavioral Performance among Postpartum Women  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Sleep disturbances cause neurobehavioral performance and daytime functioning impairments. Postpartum women experience high levels of sleep disturbance. Thus, the study objective was to describe and explore the relation between neurobehavioral performance and sleep among women during the early postpartum period. Design: Longitudinal field-based study. Participants: There were 70 primiparous women and nine nulliparous women in a control group. Interventions: None. Methods and Results: During their first 12 postpartum weeks, 70 primiparous women wore continuous wrist actigraphy to objectively monitor their sleep. Each morning they self-administered the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) to index their neurobehavioral performance. Nine nulliparous women in a control group underwent the same protocol for 12 continuous weeks. Postpartum PVT mean reciprocal (1/RT) reaction time did not differ from that of women in the control group at postpartum week 2, but then worsened over time. Postpartum slowest 10% 1/RT PVT reaction time was significantly worse than that of women in the control group at all weeks. Despite improvements in postpartum sleep, neurobehavioral performance continued to worsen from week 2 through the end of the study. Across the first 12 postpartum weeks, PVT measures were more frequently associated with percent sleep compared with total sleep time, highlighting the deleterious consequences of sleep disruption on maternal daytime functioning throughout the early postpartum period. Conclusions: Worsened maternal neurobehavioral performance across the first 12 postpartum weeks may have been influenced by the cumulative effects of sleep disturbance. These results can inform future work to identify the particular sleep profiles that could be primary intervention targets to improve daytime functioning among postpartum women, and indicate need for further research on the effectiveness of family leave policies. The time when postpartum women return to control-level daytime functioning is unknown. Citation: Insana SP; Williams KB; Montgomery-Downs HE. Sleep disturbance and neurobehavioral performance among postpartum women. SLEEP 2013;36(1):73–81. PMID:23288973

Insana, Salvatore P.; Williams, Kayla B.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.

2013-01-01

118

Endogenous release of prostaglandin F?[a?lpha] during the postpartum period and its relationship with resumption of ovarian activity in mature Brahman cows  

E-print Network

PGFM was higher (P&. 03) for SCL than for CL and NOCL particularly at d 9 after first estrus. Uterine manipulation did not affect pregnancy rates of first calf heifers. However, pregnancy rates were decreased (P&. 01) in mature cows which received... postpartum estrus in some studies, when partial weaning was extended beyond 10 days (Baud and Cummins, 1977; Randel, 1981; Stuedemann et al. , 1981; Montgomery et al. 1982, Bluntzer et al. 1989) . Limiting suckling to twice daily has yielded inconsistent...

Velez, Juan Santiago

1991-01-01

119

Discovery of a short-necked sauropod dinosaur from the Late Jurassic period of Patagonia.  

PubMed

Sauropod dinosaurs are one of the most conspicuous groups of Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrates. They show general trends towards an overall increase in size and elongation of the neck, by means of considerable elongation of the length of individual vertebrae and a cervical vertebra count that, in some cases, increases to 19 (ref. 1). The long neck is a particular hallmark of sauropod dinosaurs and is usually regarded as a key feeding adaptation. Here we describe a new dicraeosaurid sauropod, from the latest Jurassic period of Patagonia, that has a particularly short neck. With a neck that is about 40% shorter than in other known dicraeosaurs, this taxon demonstrates a trend opposite to that seen in most sauropods and indicates that the ecology of dicraeosaurids might have differed considerably from that of other sauropods. The new taxon indicates that there was a rapid radiation and dispersal of dicraeosaurids in the Late Jurassic of the Southern Hemisphere, after the separation of Gondwana from the northern continents by the late Middle Jurassic. PMID:15931221

Rauhut, Oliver W M; Remes, Kristian; Fechner, Regina; Cladera, Gerardo; Puerta, Pablo

2005-06-01

120

Physical Activity Beliefs, Barriers, and Enablers among Postpartum Women  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background and Methods Physical activity during postpartum is both a recommended and an essential contributor to maternal health. Understanding the beliefs, barriers, and enablers regarding physical activity during the postpartum period can more effectively tailor physical activity interventions. The objective of this study was to document self-reported beliefs, barriers, and enablers to physical activity among a cohort of women queried at 3 and 12 months postpartum. Five questions about beliefs and two open-ended questions about their main barriers and enablers regarding physical activity and exercise were asked of 667 women at 3 months postpartum. Among the sample, 530 women answered the same questions about barriers and enablers to physical activity at 12 months postpartum. Results Agreement on all five beliefs statements was high (?89%), indicating that women thought that exercise and physical activity were appropriate at 3 months postpartum, even if they continued to breastfeed. For the cohort, the most common barriers to physical activity at both 3 and 12 months postpartum were lack of time (47% and 51%, respectively) and issues with child care (26% and 22%, respectively). No barrier changed by more than 5% from 3 to 12 months postpartum. For the cohort, the most common enablers at 3 months postpartum were partner support (16%) and desire to feel better (14%). From 3 to 12 months postpartum, only one enabler changed by >5%; women reported baby reasons (e.g., baby older, healthier, not breastfeeding, more active) more often at 12 months than at 3 months postpartum (32% vs. 10%). Environmental/policy and organizational barriers and enablers were reported less often than intrapersonal or interpersonal barriers at both time points. Conclusions A number of barriers and enablers were identified for physical activity, most of which were consistent at 3 and 12 months postpartum. This study provides information to create more successful interventions to help women be physically active postpartum. PMID:20044854

Aytur, Semra A.; Borodulin, Katja

2009-01-01

121

[The emergence of Korean modern hospitals: hospitals in the late period of Chosun Dynasty].  

PubMed

Hospitals are confronting in the transforming or reforming period to cope with the rapid social and environmental changes worldwide. By the researches in the history of Korean health, we could understand the context of the introduction of Western medicine and institutions to Korea. However there have been few studies on the historical review of hospitals in relations to their roles in the modern medicine. This article is to review the issues around the rise of modern hospitals in Korean history of health affairs. The introduction of Western medicine in Korea was on the road with the establishment of Kwanghyewon, the Royal Hospital, which was possible due to favorable conditions under the Korean socio-political background for the emerging and accepting the entirely new medical system. And also the emergence of modern and transformed the Korean traditional health system from the fundamentals through the corruption of the old dynasty to nowadays. Most national health affairs including medical services, prevention of diseases, health promotion, and the training of health personnels have performed along with the development of modern hospitals, which have the roots in the period after the end of 19th century. Thus the Korean history of health care around the end of 19th century and beginning of 20th century could be defined as a period of emergence of modern hospitals. The hospitals also have played core roles in establishing the Korean modern health system and culture. Compared to the cases of Western countries, Korean modern hospitals were emerged with the exogenous factors in the turbulence of political and cultural changes in the world system. In sum, Korean modern hospitals in the period of late Chosun have the great meaning in that they are the beginning point to shape the current Korean health care system and the driving forces or carriers of this new system. PMID:12619632

Cho, Woo Hyun; Park, Chong Yon; Park, Chun Sun

2002-06-01

122

The effect of ram exposure on uterine involution and luteal function during the postpartum period of hair sheep ewes in the tropics.  

PubMed

St. Croix White hair sheep ewes lambing in July (n = 20) or November (n = 26) were used to evaluate the effect of ram exposure on uterine involution and postpartum luteal function. Ewes were exposed to an epididymectomized ram (EXPOSED) beginning on d 7 after lambing (d 0) or kept isolated from rams (CONTROL) through d 63. The width of each uterine horn was measured using transrectal ultrasonography at 3.5-d intervals beginning within 3 d after lambing. Jugular blood samples were also collected at these times, and plasma was harvested for progesterone (P4) analysis. Days to first estrus postpartum was not different (P > .10) between EXPOSED ewes that lambed in July or November (39.3 +/- 3.1 vs 44.2 +/- 3.8 d, respectively). Cross-sectional area of uterine horns was not different (P > .10) between EXPOSED and CONTROL ewes, ewes bearing one or two lambs, or ewes that lambed in November or July. Cross-sectional area of uterine horns in EXPOSED and CONTROL ewes had decreased to < 30% of initial values by 28 d postpartum (P < .0001). Ewes exposed to rams had a P4 concentration greater than 1 ng/mL sooner postpartum (P < .006) than CONTROL ewes (32.4 +/- 2.4 vs 42.1 +/- 2.3 d, respectively). The P4 concentration in the first sample greater than 1 ng/mL was greater (P < .06) in EXPOSED ewes than in CONTROL ewes (3.3 +/- .4 vs 2.3 +/- .4 ng/mL, respectively). In July, ewes exposed to rams had greater (P < .03) P4 concentrations than CONTROL ewes during the 63 d after parturition, but this difference was not apparent (P > .10) in ewes that lambed in November. Ram exposure did not hasten uterine involution in hair sheep ewes in the tropics. Luteal function, determined by plasma P4 concentrations, was enhanced by ram exposure during July but not during November. The lack of seasonality of hair sheep in the tropics does not seem to totally inhibit the response of ewes to ram exposure. PMID:9928614

Godfrey, R W; Gray, M L; Collins, J R

1998-12-01

123

Management of Postpartum Depression  

PubMed Central

Postpartum depression, now termed peripartum depression by the DSM-V, is one of the most common complications in the postpartum period and has potentially significant negative consequences for mothers and their families. This article highlights common clinical challenges in the treatment of peripartum depression and reviews the evidence for currently available treatment options. Psychotherapy is the first-line treatment options for women with mild-to-moderate peripartum depression. Antidepressant medication in combination with therapy is recommended for women with moderate-to-severe depression. While pooled case reports and small controlled studies have demonstrated undetectable infant serum levels and no short-term adverse events in infants of mothers breastfeeding while taking sertraline (Zoloft) and paroxetine (Paxil), further research is needed including larger samples and long-term follow-up of infants exposed to antidepressants via breastfeeding with control for maternal depression. Pharmacological treatment recommendations in women who are lactating must include discussion with the patient regarding the benefits of breastfeeding, risks of antidepressant use during lactation and risks of untreated illness. There is a growing evidence base for non-pharmacological interventions including repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) which may offer an attractive option for women who wish to continue to breastfeed and are concerned about exposure of medication to their infant. Among severe cases of peripartum depression with psychosis referral to a psychiatrist or psychiatric APRN is warranted. Suicidal or homicidal ideation with a desire, intent or plan to harm oneself or anyone one else, including the infant, is a psychiatric emergency, and an evaluation by a mental health professional should be conducted immediately. Peripartum depression treatment research is limited by small samples sizes and few controlled studies. Much work is still needed to better understand which treatments women prefer and are the most effective in ameliorating the symptoms and disease burden associated with peripartum depression. PMID:24131708

Guille, Constance; Newman, Roger; Fryml, Leah D.; Lifton, Clay K.; Epperson, C. Neill

2013-01-01

124

Postpartum depression: A comparison of screening and routine clinical evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study compared the efficacy of routine clinical evaluation with that of screening with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale for the detection of postpartum depression in a residency training program practice. Study Design: Three hundred ninety-one patients during a period of 1 year were assigned according to delivery date to screening for postpartum depression with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression

Grace G. Evins; James P. Theofrastous; Shelley L. Galvin

2000-01-01

125

Factors Influencing Physical Activity among Postpartum Iranian Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Postpartum women are a population at risk for sedentary living. Physical activity (PA) prior to pregnancy may be effective in predicting similar behaviour in the postpartum period. Objective: To test a composite version of the extended transtheoretical model (TTM) by adding "past behaviour" in order to predict PA behaviour…

Roozbahani, Nasrin; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Eftekhar Ardabili, Hassan; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

2014-01-01

126

Monthly mean pressure reconstruction for the Late Maunder Minimum Period (AD 1675-1715)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Late Maunder Minimum (LMM; 1675-1715) delineates a period with marked climate variability within the Little Ice Age in Europe. Gridded monthly mean surface pressure fields were reconstructed for this period for the eastern North Atlantic-European region (25°W-30°E and 35-70°N). These were based on continuous information drawn from proxy and instrumental data taken from several European data sites. The data include indexed temperature and rainfall values, sea ice conditions from northern Iceland and the Western Baltic. In addition, limited instrumental data, such as air temperature from central England (CET) and Paris, reduced mean sea level pressure (SLP) at Paris, and monthly mean wind direction in the Øresund (Denmark) are used. The reconstructions are based on a canonical correlation analysis (CCA), with the standardized station data as predictors and the SLP pressure fields as predictand. The CCA-based model was performed using data from the twentieth century. The period 1901-1960 was used to calibrate the statistical model, and the remaining 30 years (1961-1990) for the validation of the reconstructed monthly pressure fields. Assuming stationarity of the statistical relationships, the calibrated CCA model was then used to predict the monthly LMM SLP fields. The verification results illustrated that the regression equations developed for the majority of grid points contain good predictive skill. Nevertheless, there are seasonal and geographical limitations for which valid spatial SLP patterns can be reconstructed. Backward elimination techniques indicated that Paris station air pressure and temperature, CET, and the wind direction in the Øresund are the most important predictors, together sharing more than 65% of the total variance. The reconstructions are compared with additional data and subjectively reconstructed monthly pressure charts for the years 1675-1704. It is shown that there are differences between the two approaches. However, for extreme years the reconstructions are in good agreement.

Luterbacher, J.; Rickli, R.; Tinguely, C.; Xoplaki, E.; Schüpbach, E.; Dietrich, D.; Hüsler, J.; Ambühl, M.; Pfister, C.; Beeli, P.; Dietrich, U.; Dannecker, A.; Davies, T. D.; Jones, P. D.; Slonosky, V.; Ogilvie, A. E. J.; Maheras, P.; Kolyva-Machera, F.; Martin-Vide, J.; Barriendos, M.; Alcoforado, M. J.; Nunes, M. F.; Jónsson, T.; Glaser, R.; Jacobeit, J.; Beck, C.; Philipp, A.; Beyer, U.; Kaas, E.; Schmith, T.; Bärring, L.; Jönsson, P.; Rácz, L.; Wanner, H.

2000-08-01

127

Postpartum Depression and Child Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Only recently has the research on postpartum depression dealt with the disorder's effects on child development. This book explores the impact of postpartum depression on mother-infant interaction and child development, its treatment, and postpartum psychosis. The chapters are: (1) "The Nature of Postpartum Depressive Disorders" (Michael O'Hara);…

Murray, Lynne, Ed.; Cooper, Peter J., Ed.

128

Ontogeny of limb proportions in late through final Jomon period foragers.  

PubMed

This study reports on developmental patterning in the intralimb indices of Late/Final Jomon period (4000-2300 BP) people. Jomon foragers represent the descendants of migrants from Northeast Asia, who arrived in the Japanese Islands around 20,000 BP. Among adults, Jomon brachial indices are elevated and similar to warm adapted, low latitude people, while crural indices are intermediate and similar to people from moderate latitudes. Two hypotheses regarding the development of intralimb indices among Jomon period foragers are tested: (1) intralimb indices of Jomon people maintain predicted ecogeographic relationships over ontogeny; (2) greater evolvability will be observed in the brachial index, while greater developmental constraint will be observed in the crural index. Changes in intralimb proportions in a Jomon skeletal growth series are compared to those in two contrasting samples: Inuit from Point Hope (cold adapted) and Nubians from Kulubnarti (warm adapted). A quadratic equation best describes the ontogeny of brachial and crural indices, with high indices in infancy followed by a decline in childhood and an increase in adolescence. Despite these shifts, ecogeographically predicted differences and similarities in the indices are maintained between samples throughout ontogeny. In addition, radial relative to humeral length is significantly less correlated than tibial relative to femoral length. These results suggest genetic conservation of intralimb indices over the course of development. However, radial and humeral lengths are less correlated than tibial and femoral lengths among Jomon subadults and adults, potentially suggesting greater evolvability of the brachial index and more developmental constraint on the crural index. PMID:21541923

Temple, Daniel H; Okazaki, Kenji; Cowgill, Libby W

2011-07-01

129

The Wandering Indian Plate and Its Changing Biogeography During the Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary Period  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Palaeobiogeographic analysis of Indian tetrapods during the Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary time has recognized that both vicariance\\u000a and geodispersal have played important roles in producing biogeographic congruence. The biogeographic patterns show oscillating\\u000a cycles of geodispersal (Late Cretaceous), followed by congruent episodes of vicariance and geodispersal (Early Eocene), followed\\u000a by another geodispersal event (Middle Eocene). New biogeographic synthesis suggests that the Late

Sankar Chatterjee; Christopher Scotese

2010-01-01

130

Ecosystem responses during Late Glacial period recorded in the sediments of Lake ?ukie (East Poland)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objectives of this study was to reconstruct climate impact on the functioning of Lake ?ukie and its catchment (??czna W?odawa Lake District, East European Plain) during Late Glacial period. In order to reconstruct climatic fluctuations and corresponding ecosystem responses, we analysed lake sediments for pollen, subfossil Cladocera, plant macrofossils and chemical composition of the sediment. Of these, plant macrofossils and Cladocera were used to infer minimum and mean July temperatures and ordination analysis was used to examine biotic community shifts. Multiproxy analyses of late-glacial sediments of Lake ?ukie clearly show that the main driver of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems as well as geomorphological processes in the catchment was climate variation. The history of the lake initiated during the Older Dryas. In that period, ??czna W?odawa Lake District was covered by open habitats dominated by grasses (Poaceae), humid sites were occupied by tundra plant communities with less clubmoss (Selaginella selaginoides), dry sites by dominated by steppe-like vegetation with light-demanding species such as Helianthemum, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, and juniper bushes (Juniperus). Cold climate limited the growth and development of organisms in the lake, Cladocera community species composition was poor, with only few species present there all the time. During this time period, permafrost was still present in the ground limiting infiltration of rainwater and causing high erosion in the catchment area. Surface runoff is confirmed by the presence of sclerotia of Cenococcum geophilum and high terrigenous silica content. The warming of the early Allerød caused a remarkable change in the natural environment of this area. This is in accordance with the temperature rise reconstructed with the use of plant macrofossils though the Cladocera reconstruction did not recorded the rise than. This temperature increase resulted in turnover of vegetation in the catchment of Lake ?ukie, pioneer birch-pine forests dominated, later replaced by pine-birch forests. Consequently this limited the erosion. The results of all proxy suggest the water-lever rise in lake ?ukie. The Younger Dryas cooling in the region began about 12 630 14C years BP and recorded in significant drop in temperature reconstructed with plant macrofossils and Cladocera. The cooling resulted in a decline of forest communities and development of open habitats with grasses (Poaceae), Artemisia, and Chenopodiaceae), as well as juniper thickets (Juniperus) At the end of the Younger Dryas, plant communities changed, the non-arborescent pollen declined, while pollen of trees (especially Pinus) became more abundant. This change was more abruptly reflected in Cladocera and aquatic pollen results and is probably related to gradual climate warming. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute ICLEA (Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis) funded by the Helmholtz Association, projects UMO-2011/01/B/ST10/07367 and N N306 036436 founded by National Science Center, Poland.

Zawiska, Izabela; S?owi?ski, Micha?; Correa-Metrio, Alex; Obremska, Milena; Luoto, Tomi; Nevalainen, Liisa; Woszczyk, Micha?; Milecka, Krystyna

2014-05-01

131

Postpartum Intimate Partner Violence and Health Risks Among Young Mothers in the United States: A Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

The study assessed the relationship between postpartum intimate partner violence (IPV) and postpartum health risks among young mothers over time. Data were collected from 2001 to 2005 on young women aged 14–25 attending obstetrics and gynecology clinics in two US cities. Postpartum IPV (i.e., emotional, physical, sexual) was assessed at 6 and 12 months after childbirth (n = 734). Four types of postpartum IPV patterns were examined: emerged IPV, dissipated IPV, repeated IPV, and no IPV. Emerged IPV occurred at 12 months postpartum, not 6 months postpartum. Dissipated IPV occurred at 6 months postpartum, not 12 months postpartum. Repeated IPV was reported at 6 months and 12 months postpartum. Postpartum health risks studied at both time points were perceived stress, depression, fear of condom negotiation, condom use, infant sleeping problems, and parental stress. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used. The proportion of young mothers reporting IPV after childbirth increased from 17.9 % at 6 months postpartum to 25.3 % at 12 months postpartum (P < 0.001). Emerged and/or repeated postpartum IPV were associated with increased perceived stress, depression, fear of condom negotiation, and infant sleeping problems as well as decreased condom use (P < 0.05). Dissipated postpartum IPV was associated with decreased depression (P < 0.05). IPV screening and prevention programs for young mothers may reduce health risks observed in this group during the postpartum period. PMID:24562504

Ickovics, Jeannette; Lewis, Jessica B.; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace S.

2014-01-01

132

Postpartum intimate partner violence and health risks among young mothers in the United States: a prospective study.  

PubMed

The study assessed the relationship between postpartum intimate partner violence (IPV) and postpartum health risks among young mothers over time. Data were collected from 2001 to 2005 on young women aged 14-25 attending obstetrics and gynecology clinics in two US cities. Postpartum IPV (i.e., emotional, physical, sexual) was assessed at 6 and 12 months after childbirth (n = 734). Four types of postpartum IPV patterns were examined: emerged IPV, dissipated IPV, repeated IPV, and no IPV. Emerged IPV occurred at 12 months postpartum, not 6 months postpartum. Dissipated IPV occurred at 6 months postpartum, not 12 months postpartum. Repeated IPV was reported at 6 months and 12 months postpartum. Postpartum health risks studied at both time points were perceived stress, depression, fear of condom negotiation, condom use, infant sleeping problems, and parental stress. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used. The proportion of young mothers reporting IPV after childbirth increased from 17.9 % at 6 months postpartum to 25.3 % at 12 months postpartum (P < 0.001). Emerged and/or repeated postpartum IPV were associated with increased perceived stress, depression, fear of condom negotiation, and infant sleeping problems as well as decreased condom use (P < 0.05). Dissipated postpartum IPV was associated with decreased depression (P < 0.05). IPV screening and prevention programs for young mothers may reduce health risks observed in this group during the postpartum period. PMID:24562504

Agrawal, Alpna; Ickovics, Jeannette; Lewis, Jessica B; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace S

2014-10-01

133

Grant Title: WOMEN'S MENTAL HEALTH DURING PREGNANCY AND THE POSTPARTUM PERIOD (R01, Funding Opportunity Number: R01: PA-12-216. R21: PA-12-215. CFDA Number(s): 93.242, 93.279, 93.865.  

E-print Network

Grant Title: WOMEN'S MENTAL HEALTH DURING PREGNANCY AND THE POSTPARTUM PERIOD (R01, R21) Funding/Department: Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Institute of Mental), National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Area of Research: Research addressing women's mental health

Farritor, Shane

134

Organic matter production during late summer-winter period in a temperate sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quantity and quality of fresh organic matter (OM) formed by primary production in relation to phytoplankton community structure was calculated for the late summer-winter 2009/2010 in the northern Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean). Phytoplankton species, as a direct measure of fresh OM, chlorophyll a, the OM pool (DOC and POC) and lipids, including classes, were analyzed. Data for temperature, salinity and nutrients enabled deeper insight into the conditions that promoted fresh OM production and associated processes at two stations of different trophic status. Phytoplankton growth was controlled by bottom regenerated nutrients and to lesser extent by riverine nutrients. The phytoplankton community was mainly dominated by nanoplankton. Species of moderate carbon content Chaetoceros compressus, Asterionellopsis glacialis, Leptocylindrus danicus and Bacteriastrum jadranum dominated the microplankton fraction. Availability of orthophosphates was the key factor influencing fresh OM production. POC varied from 37-522 ?g l-1. Freshphyto POC, i.e. carbon fixed in phytoplankton cells, contributed 7-79% to the POC pool. The DOC (890-1560 ?g l-1) level decreased during the investigated period. Calculation of fresh DOC, i.e. carbon fixed during primary production and released as dissolved OM, revealed it as a minor part (0-2%) of the DOC pool. Lipid concentrations varied from 9.9-55.0 ?g l-1 and 20.0-40.2 ?g l-1 in the particulate and dissolved fractions, respectively. Nutrient limitation caused increased synthesis of lipids, among which energy reserve lipids triacylglycerols, which are further immobilized for the construction of glycolipids with increasing depletion of orthophosphates.

Mari?, Daniela; Frka, Sanja; Godrijan, Jelena; Tomaži?, Igor; Penezi?, Abra; Djakovac, Tamara; Vojvodi?, Vjero?ka; Precali, Robert; Gašparovi?, Blaženka

2013-03-01

135

Management of postpartum depression.  

PubMed

The mainstays of treatment for peripartum depression are psychotherapy and antidepressant medications. More research is needed to understand which treatments are safe, preferable, and effective. Postpartum depression, now termed peripartum depression by the DSM-V, is one of the most common complications in the postpartum period and has potentially significant negative consequences for mothers and their families. This article highlights common clinical challenges in the treatment of peripartum depression and reviews the evidence for currently available treatment options. Psychotherapy is the first-line treatment option for women with mild to moderate peripartum depression. Antidepressant medication in combination with therapy is recommended for women with moderate to severe depression. Although pooled case reports and small controlled studies have demonstrated undetectable infant serum levels and no short-term adverse events in infants of mothers breastfeeding while taking sertraline (Zoloft) and paroxetine (Paxil), further research is needed including larger samples and long-term follow-up of infants exposed to antidepressants via breastfeeding controlling for maternal depression. Pharmacologic treatment recommendations for women who are lactating must include discussion with the patient regarding the benefits of breastfeeding, risks of antidepressant use during lactation, and risks of untreated illness. There is a growing evidence base for nonpharmacologic interventions including repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, which may offer an attractive option for women who wish to continue to breastfeed and are concerned about their infants being exposed to medication. Among severe cases of peripartum depression with psychosis, referral to a psychiatrist or psychiatric advanced practice registered nurse is warranted. Suicidal or homicidal ideation with a desire, intent, or plan to harm oneself or anyone else, including the infant, is a psychiatric emergency, and an evaluation by a mental health professional should be conducted immediately. Peripartum depression treatment research is limited by small sample sizes and few controlled studies. Much work is still needed to better understand which treatments women prefer and are the most effective in ameliorating the symptoms and disease burden associated with peripartum depression. PMID:24131708

Guille, Constance; Newman, Roger; Fryml, Leah D; Lifton, Clay K; Epperson, C Neill

2013-01-01

136

Postpartum Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections that are diagnosed during the postpartum period (defined as the 3 months after delivery). Study Design: This was a retrospective cohort study of women delivered of infants at ?28 weeks of gestation at an urban hospital from 1992 through 1998, including each woman's first delivery

Barbara E. Mahon; Marc B. Rosenman; Marilyn F. Graham; J. Dennis Fortenberry

2002-01-01

137

Postpartum female sexual function: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many women experience sexual problems in the postpartum period, research in this subject is under-explored. Embarrassment and preoccupation with the newborn are some of the reasons why many women do not seek help. Furthermore, there is a lack of professional awareness and expertise and recognition that a prerequisite in the definition of sexual dysfunction is that it must cause

Zeelha Abdool; Ranee Thakar; Abdul H. Sultan

138

Modern use of extracorporeal life support in pregnancy and postpartum.  

PubMed

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) use during pregnancy and the postpartum period are thought to be associated with an increased risk for maternal or fetal bleeding complications. We present our recent institutional experience in managing pregnant and postpartum patients with ECMO. We also performed a literature review of modern use of ECMO in pregnant and postpartum patients utilizing Pubmed and Embase databases. ECMO was used for severe cardiopulmonary failure due to multiple conditions. Based on published reports, overall maternal and fetal survival on ECMO were 80% and 70%, respectively. Mild-to-moderate vaginal bleeding was reported in a few cases, with rare occurrences of catastrophic postpartum hemorrhage. There was no consensus on an optimal anticoagulation strategy in these patients, though most preferred to keep anticoagulation at lower therapeutic levels. We conclude that ECMO, in well-selected pregnant and postpartum patients, appears to be safe and associated with low risk of maternal and fetal complications. PMID:25248040

Sharma, Nirmal S; Wille, Keith M; Bellot, Scott C; Diaz-Guzman, Enrique

2015-01-01

139

Maternal Postpartum Role Collapse as a Theory of Postpartum Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development of a theory of maternal postpartum role collapse. The influences of traditional role theory and symbolic interactionism are presented. The development of the maternal postpartum role collapse theory emerged from the study of postpartum depression among African-American women (Amankwaa, 2000).…

Amankwaa, Linda Clark

2005-01-01

140

Anxiety During Pregnancy and Postpartum  

MedlinePLUS

... or simply adjusting to life with a baby. Anxiety During Pregnancy & Postpartum Approximately 6% of pregnant women and 10% of postpartum women develop anxiety. Sometimes they experience anxiety alone, and sometimes they ...

141

Use of regenerating clearcuts by late-successional bird species and their young during the post-fledging period  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1995 to 1999, we mist-netted birds in regenerating clearcuts within a primarily forested landscape of West Virginia and Virginia to determine the extent that both resident and migrant birds and their young use this type of early-successional habitat during the post-fledging period. Our primary objective was to document whether or not birds typically considered mature or late-successional forest breeders

Matthew R. Marshall; Jennifer A. DeCecco; Alan B. Williams; George A. Gale; Robert J. Cooper

2003-01-01

142

Wood resources in north-west Portugal: their availability and use from the late Bronze Age to the Roman period  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of archaeological charcoal is used to reconstruct the wood resources in north-west Portugal from the late Bronze\\u000a Age to the Roman period. In this paper, the results obtained from 12 sites are considered, and their implications for interpreting\\u000a historical human behaviour towards the natural environment and vegetation are discussed. The results indicate a similar kind\\u000a of exploitation of

Isabel Figueiral

1996-01-01

143

The Earth-Moon system during the late heavy bombardment period -Geochemical support for impacts dominated by comets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solid planets assembled 4.57 Gyr ago during a period of less than 100 Myr, but the bulk of the impact craters we see on the inner planets formed much later, in a narrow time interval between 3.8 and 3.9 Gyr ago, during the so-called late heavy bombardment (LHB). It is not certain what caused the LHB, and it has

Uffe Gråe Jørgensen; Peter W. U. Appel; Yuichi Hatsukawa; Robert Frei; Masumi Oshima; Yosuke Toh; Atsushi Kimura

2009-01-01

144

Eclipses in the Middle East from the Late Medieval Islamic Period to the Early Modern Period. Part 1: The observation of six lunar eclipses from the Late Medieval Islamic Period  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the analysis of data obtained from observations of two sets of three lunar eclipses in the Late Medieval Islamic Period. The first trio consists of the lunar eclipses of 7 March 1262, 7 April 1270 and 24 January 1274, observed by Muḥy? al-D?n al-Maghrib?; from the Maragha Observatory (in north-western Iran), and the second includes those of 2 June and 26 November 1406, and 22 May 1407, observed by Jamsh?d Ghiy?th al-D?n al-K?sh? from K?sh?n (in central Iran). The results are that al-Maghrib?'s values for the magnitudes of these eclipses agree excellently with modern data, and his values for the times when the maximum phases occurred agree to within five minutes with modern values. Al-K?sh?'s values for the times of the maximum phases show a rather larger divergence from modern data, varying from about ten minutes to about one hour. The errors in all six values both astronomers computed from their own solar parameters for the longitude of the Sun at the instant of the opposition of the Moon to the Sun in these eclipses remain below ten minutes of arc. The motivation for doing these observations was to measure the lunar epicycle radius r in the Ptolemaic model. Al-Maghrib? achieved r = 5;12 and al-K?sh? r ? 5;17,1 in terms of the radius of an orbit of R = 60 arbitrary units. It is argued that comparing with modern theory, neither of these two medieval values can be considered an improvement on Ptolemy's value of r = 5;15.

Mozaffari, S. Mohammad

2013-11-01

145

Pregnancy- and delivery-induced biomechanical changes in rat vagina persist postpartum  

PubMed Central

Introduction and hypothesis We sought to define changes in vaginal distensibility (VD) induced by pregnancy and vaginal delivery using a novel in vivo biomechanical testing protocol. Methods Under sedation, a balloon was inserted into the vagina of 27 virgin, pregnant and 4-week postpartum Long–Evans rats and incrementally distended. Pressure–volume curves were generated with slopes characterizing VD (higher slope = less distensible). One-way ANOVA with a Bonferroni post-hoc test were used for statistical analyses. Results Mean pressures at an infusion volume of 1 cc were lower in pregnant and postpartum rats than in virgins (P<0.001). VD was increased in pregnant vs. virgin rats (P<0.001) and did not recover to virgin levels post partum (P<0.001). Conclusions We have developed a test that measures VD in vivo under clinically relevant loading conditions. The increased VD in the late postpartum period defines a persistent change in biomechanical behavior of the vagina related to pregnancy and vaginal delivery. PMID:20424824

Alperin, Marianna; Feola, Andrew; Duerr, Robert; Moalli, Pamela; Abramowitch, Steven

2010-01-01

146

Epidemiology of and Surveillance for Postpartum Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

We screened automated ambulatory medical records, hospital and emer- gency room claims, and pharmacy records of 2,826 health maintenance organization (HMO) members who gave birth over a 30-month period. Full- text ambulatory records were reviewed for the 30-day postpartum period to confirm infection status for a weighted sample of cases. The overall post- partum infection rate was 6.0%, with rates

Deborah S. Yokoe; Cindy L. Christiansen; Ruth Johnson; Kenneth E. Sands; James Livingston; Ernest S. Shtatland; Richard Platt

2001-01-01

147

Postpartum beliefs and practices among non-Western cultures.  

PubMed

Postpartum health beliefs and practices among non-Western cultures are each distinct, but have many similarities. Two common belief systems surround 1) the importance of hot and cold, and 2) the necessity of confinement during a specific period of time after giving birth. This article describes common postpartum health beliefs among women in Guatemala, China, Jordan, Lebanon, Egypt, Palestine, India, and Mexico, and offers an exemplar from the author's experiences as a Korean woman giving birth in the United States. Cultural competence in the provision of postpartum care is essential for nurses in the healthcare world of the 21st century. PMID:12629311

Kim-Godwin, Yeoun Soo

2003-01-01

148

Postpartum stressors: a content analysis.  

PubMed

A qualitative content analysis was conducted on narratives written by 127 mothers at four to six weeks postpartum. This study aimed to identify and compare postpartum stressors to the Tennessee Postpartum Stress Scale (TPSS). The TPSS is a guide to common postpartum stressors and an instrument to assess postpartum stress. Most participants in this study were white (91%), married (72%), and not working (70%). Eighteen stressor categories aggregated into two themes: Stressors Arising within the Maternal-Newborn Dyad and Stressors External to the Maternal-Newborn Dyad. Sixteen of 20 items on the TPSS were identified in the narratives. No stressor categories outside the TPSS were identified. PMID:22545638

Jevitt, Cecilia M; Groer, Maureen W; Crist, Nancy F; Gonzalez, Lois; Wagner, V Doreen

2012-05-01

149

Obstetric, somatic, and demographic risk factors for postpartum depressive symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To identify and test the predictive power of potential independent risk factors of postpartum depressive symptoms during pregnancy and the perinatal period.Methods:We conducted a case-control study where 132 women with postpartum depressive symptoms were selected as an index group and 264 women without depressive symptoms as a control group. Data related to sociodemographic status, medical, gynecologic, and obstetric history, pregnancy,

Ann Josefsson; Lisbeth Angelsiöö; Göran Berg; Carl-Magnus Ekström; Christina Gunnervik; Conny Nordin; Gunilla Sydsjö

2002-01-01

150

Periodicity in Sediments from the Baltic Sea and in Greenland Ice as Climate Signals for the Late Quaternary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climatic records from Greenland ice and Baltic Sea provide as well information about global climate changes as about local basin peculiarities. Late Quaternary sediments have been accumulated in the Baltic Basin with high accumulation rates, qualifying them for the study of late Pleistocene to Holocene climate and environmental history in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic realm. Physical and geochemical properties have been successfully used as proxies for paleo-temperature, primary production, hydrographic circulation pattern. The variability of these sediment parameters mirror changing depositional conditions determined by climatically-driven sea level change and glacio-isostatic adjustment which controls the coupling of the Baltic Sea’s hydrographical regime with the world ocean. During the late Holocene when the Baltic basin was permanently connected with the Atlantic Ocean the dynamics of the atmospheric circulation of the North Atlantic, but also its modification due to the variation of Eurasian anticyclones is reflected in the facies of sediments in the Baltic Sea varying on the centennial scale. On the other hand, there are components within the sedimentary facies that express environmental parameters that are periodically changing at annual to decadal scales. Changes in the salinity of the depositional basin reconstructed by diatom analysis play an important role, here. Data records provided by the Greenland Ice Sheet Project Two serve as proxy measure of climate conditions during Holocene on the global scale. We have compared different sediment proxies from the Baltic Basin with climate relevant ice core data from Greenland. Refined with Singular Spectrum Analysis, all the records have been analyzed on periodicity via Fourier analysis. Time series analysis covering a time span of the last 11.000 years reveals different periods of climate proxy-parameters. Decomposed and noise-free signals demonstrate the obvious presence of ‘global’ components with concordant periods of about 900, 500 and 400 years in both records. Particularly prominent is a 900 year period found in Baltic, North Atlantic, and Greenland proxy data seems to be of global relevance. This period, also present in late Quaternary sun activity reconstructions, explains not only the Late Glacial to Middle Holocene record, but also to the more recent climate variations from the Dark Ages to the Medieval Climate Optimum, the Little Ice Age, and the Modern Warm Period. According to our data analysis the current phase of anthropogenic global warming coincides with a phase of naturally increasing temperature of the atmosphere. Periodicity analysis allows the development of future projections (scenarios) of the development of climate parameters based on mathematical models of proxy-data variability from sediments and ice cores. According to results of these projections, our planet is now towards the end of an ascending temperature cycle within a global process with a 900 years period.

Harff, J.; Endler, R.; Kotov, S.; Leipe, T.; Witkowski, A.

2009-12-01

151

Neonatal cause-of-death estimates for the early and late neonatal periods for 194 countries: 2000–2013  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To estimate cause-of-death distributions in the early (0–6 days of age) and late (7–27 days of age) neonatal periods, for 194 countries between 2000 and 2013. Methods For 65 countries with high-quality vital registration, we used each country’s observed early and late neonatal proportional cause distributions. For the remaining 129 countries, we used multinomial logistic models to estimate these distributions. For countries with low child mortality we used vital registration data as inputs and for countries with high child mortality we used neonatal cause-of-death distribution data from studies in similar settings. We applied cause-specific proportions to neonatal death estimates from the United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation, by country and year, to estimate cause-specific risks and numbers of deaths. Findings Over time, neonatal deaths decreased for most causes. Of the 2.8 million neonatal deaths in 2013, 0.99 million deaths (uncertainty range: 0.70–1.31) were estimated to be caused by preterm birth complications, 0.64 million (uncertainty range: 0.46–0.84) by intrapartum complications and 0.43 million (uncertainty range: 0.22–0.66) by sepsis and other severe infections. Preterm birth (40.8%) and intrapartum complications (27.0%) accounted for most early neonatal deaths while infections caused nearly half of late neonatal deaths. Preterm birth complications were the leading cause of death in all regions of the world. Conclusion The neonatal cause-of-death distribution differs between the early and late periods and varies with neonatal mortality rate level. To reduce neonatal deaths, effective interventions to address these causes must be incorporated into policy decisions.

Oza, Shefali; Lawn, Joy E; Hogan, Daniel R; Mathers, Colin

2015-01-01

152

[Postpartum hemorrhage. Current management].  

PubMed

Post-partum haemorrhage is one of the major worldwide causes of maternal mortality. Better knowledge of risk factors should limit its incidence and short term hazards. In case of excessive bleeding, classical therapeutic means continue to be of major importance. If unsuccessful, modern methods including injections of prostaglandins, vascular ligations, and arterial embolization, should be employed, preserving future fertility. PMID:8545319

Bertault, D; Pigné, A

1995-10-14

153

Does ?-hydroxybutyrate concentration influence conception date in young postpartum range beef cows?  

PubMed

Cows in negative energy balance after calving often have reduced reproductive performance, which is mediated by metabolic signals. The objective of these studies was to determine the association of serum metabolites, days to first postpartum ovulation, milk production, cow BW change, BCS, and calf performance with conception date in spring-calving 2- and 3-yr-old beef cows grazing native range. In Exp. 1, cows were classified by conception date in a 60-d breeding season as early (EARLY; conceived in first 15 d of breeding) or late conception (LATE; conceived during the last 45 d of breeding). Beginning on d 35 postpartum, blood samples were collected twice per week for serum metabolite analysis and progesterone analysis to estimate days to resumption of estrous cycles. As a chute-side measure of nutrient status and glucose sufficiency, whole-blood ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations were measured 14 ± 2 d before breeding. In Exp. 2, cows were classified by subsequent calving date resulting from a 55 ± 2 d breeding season as conceiving either early (EARLY; conceived in first 15 d of breeding) or late (LATE; conceived during the remaining breeding season). Blood samples were collected in 2 periods, 30 ± 4 d before calving and 14 ± 3 d before the initiation of breeding, to determine circulating concentrations of IGF-I and BHB. In Exp. 1, BHB and serum glucose concentrations were less (P ? 0.04) in EARLY cows than LATE cows. Serum insulin concentrations were greater (P = 0.03) in EARLY cows relative to LATE cows. Milk production and composition did not differ (P ? 0.24) by conception date groups. In Exp. 2, cow age × sample period × conception date interaction (P < 0.01) occurred for serum BHB concentrations. Serum BHB concentrations were similar (P > 0.10) for 2-yr-old cows (in greater nutritional plane compared with Exp. 1) regardless of their conception date classification and sampling period. However, precalving serum BHB concentrations were greater (P < 0.01) for LATE than EARLY in 3-yr-old cows with no difference (P = 0.86) at prebreeding. Serum IGF-1 concentrations were greater (P < 0.01) for EARLY cows relative to LATE cows at precalving and prebreeding. This study indicates that blood BHB concentrations during times of metabolic dysfunctions may provide a more sensitive indicator of energy status than body condition, predicting rebreeding competence in young beef cows as measured by interval from calving to conception. PMID:23478827

Mulliniks, J T; Kemp, M E; Endecott, R L; Cox, S H; Roberts, A J; Waterman, R C; Geary, T W; Scholljegerdes, E J; Petersen, M K

2013-06-01

154

[Effects of the periodical spread of rinderpest on famine, epidemic, and tiger disasters in the late 17th Century].  

PubMed

This study clarifies the causes of the repetitive occurrences of such phenomena as rinderpest, epidemic, famine, and tiger disasters recorded in the Joseon Dynasty Chronicle and the Seungjeongwon Journals in the period of great catastrophe, the late 17th century in which the great Gyeongsin famine (1670~1671) and the great Eulbyeong famine (1695~1696) occurred, from the perspective that they were biological exchanges caused by the new arrival of rinderpest in the early 17th century. It is an objection to the achievements by existing studies which suggest that the great catastrophes occurring in the late 17th century are evidence of phenomena in a little ice age. First of all, rinderpest has had influence on East Asia as it had been spread from certain areas in Machuria in May 1636 through Joseon, where it raged throughout the nation, and then to the west part of Japan. The new arrival of rinderpest was indigenized in Joseon, where it was localized and spread periodically while it was adjusted to changes in the population of cattle with immunity in accordance with their life spans and reproduction rates. As the new rinderpest, which showed high pathogenicity in the early 17th century, was indigenized with its high mortality and continued until the late 17th century, it broke out periodically in general. Contrastively, epidemics like smallpox and measles that were indigenized as routine ones had occurred constantly from far past times. As a result, the rinderpest, which tried a new indigenization, and the human epidemics, which had been already indigenized long ago, were unexpectedly overlapped in their breakout, and hence great changes were noticed in the aspects of the human casualty due to epidemics. The outbreak of rinderpest resulted in famine due to lack of farming cattle, and the famine caused epidemics among people. The casualty of the human population due to the epidemics in turn led to negligence of farming cattle, which constituted factors that triggered rage and epidemics of rinderpest. The more the number of sources of infection and hosts with low immunity increased, the more lost human resources and farming cattle were lost, which led to a great famine. The periodic outbreak of the rinderpester along with the routine prevalence of various epidemics in the 17thcentury also had influenced on domestic and wild animals. Due to these phenomenon, full-fledged famines occurred that were incomparable with earlier ones. The number of domestic animals that were neglected by people who, faced with famines, were not able to take care of them was increased, and this might have brought about the rage of epidemics like rinderpest in domestic animals like cattle. The great Gyeongsin and Eulbyeong famines due to reoccurrence of the rinderpest in the late 17th century linked rinderpester, epidemics and great famines so that they interacted with each other. Furthermore, the recurring cycle of epidemics-famines-rinderpest-great famines constituted a great cycle with synergy, which resulted in eco-economic-historical great catastrophes accompanied by large scale casualties. Therefore, the Gyeongsin and Eulbyeong famines occurring in the late 17th century can be treated as events caused by the repetition of various periodic disastrous factors generated in 1670~1671 and in 1695~1696 respectively, and particularly as phenomena caused by biological exchanges based on rinderpester., rather than as little ice age phenomena due to relatively long term temperature lowering. PMID:24804681

Kim, Dong Jin; Yoo, Han Sang; Lee, Hang

2014-04-01

155

Vegetation-induced warming of high-latitude regions during the Late Cretaceous period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modelling studies of pre-Quaternary (>2 million years ago) climate implicate atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations1, land elevation2 and land-sea distribution3-5 as important factors influencing global climate change over geological timescales. But during times of global warmth, such as the Cretaceous period and Eocene epoch, there are large discrepancies between model simulations of high-latitude and continental-interior temperatures and those indicated by palaeotemperature

Bette L. Otto-Bliesner; Garland R. Upchurch

1997-01-01

156

Steroid hormones in the development of postpartum depression.  

PubMed

Postpartum depression affects 10-15 % women after childbirth. There is no currently generally accepted theory about the causes and mechanisms of postpartum mental disorders. The principal hypothesis concerns the association with sudden changes in the production of hormones affecting the nervous system of the mother and, on the other hand, with the ability of receptor systems to adapt to these changes. We observed changes in steroidogenesis in the period around spontaneous delivery. We collected three samples of maternal blood. The first sampling was 4 weeks prior to term; the second sampling was after the onset of uterine contractions (the beginning of spontaneous labour); the third sampling was during the third stage of labour (immediately after childbirth). Additionally, we collected mixed umbilical cord blood. The almost complete steroid metabolome was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry followed by RIA for some steroids. Mental changes in women in the peripartum period were observed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. The local Ethics Committee approved the study. We found already the changes in androgens levels correlating with postpartum mood disorders four weeks prior to childbirth. The strongest correlations between steroid and postpartum mood change were found in venous blood samples collected from mothers after childbirth and from umbilical cord blood. The main role played testosterone, possibly of maternal origin, and estrogens originating from the fetal compartment. These results suggest that changes in both maternal and fetal steroidogenesis are involved in the development of mental changes in the postpartum period. Descriptions of changes in steroidogenesis in relation to postpartum depression could help clarify the causes of this disease, and changes in some steroid hormones are a promising marker of mental changes in the postpartum period. PMID:24908233

Pa?ízek, A; Mikešová, M; Jirák, R; Hill, M; Koucký, M; Pašková, A; Velíková, M; Adamcová, K; Šrámková, M; Jandíková, H; Dušková, M; Stárka, L

2014-01-01

157

Is Shade Beneficial for Mediterranean Shrubs Experiencing Periods of Extreme Drought and Late-winter Frosts?  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Plants are naturally exposed to multiple, frequently interactive stress factors, most of which are becoming more severe due to global change. Established plants have been reported to facilitate the establishment of juvenile plants, but net effects of plant–plant interactions are difficult to assess due to complex interactions among environmental factors. An investigation was carried out in order to determine how two dominant evergreen shrubs (Quercus ilex and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) co-occurring in continental, Mediterranean habitats respond to multiple abiotic stresses and whether the shaded understorey conditions ameliorate the negative effects of drought and winter frosts on the physiology of leaves. Methods Microclimate and ecophysiology of sun and shade plants were studied at a continental plateau in central Spain during 2004–2005, with 2005 being one of the driest and hottest years on record; several late-winter frosts also occurred in 2005. Key Results Daytime air temperature and vapour pressure deficit were lower in the shade than in the sun, but soil moisture was also lower in the shade during the spring and summer of 2005, and night-time temperatures were higher in the shade. Water potential, photochemical efficiency, light-saturated photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and leaf 13C composition differed between sun and shade individuals throughout the seasons, but differences were species specific. Shade was beneficial for leaf-level physiology in Q. ilex during winter, detrimental during spring for both species, and of little consequence in summer. Conclusions The results suggest that beneficial effects of shade can be eclipsed by reduced soil moisture during dry years, which are expected to be more frequent in the most likely climate change scenarios for the Mediterranean region. PMID:18819947

Valladares, Fernando; Zaragoza-Castells, Joana; Sánchez-Gómez, David; Matesanz, Silvia; Alonso, Beatriz; Portsmuth, Angelika; Delgado, Antonio; Atkin, Owen K.

2008-01-01

158

Pelvic inflammatory disease during the post-partum year.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the occurrence of, and risk factors for, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) occurring during the post-partum year. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data for women who delivered a term infant with 5-minute Apgar score > or = 8 from 1992 through 1999 at a large urban hospital were extracted from an electronic medical record system. RESULTS: During the study period, 15 206 deliveries occurred among 12 549 women. PID was diagnosed during the post-partum year of 148 (1.0%) deliveries. In univariate analysis, young age, black race, and both pre-delivery history and post-partum diagnosis of chlamydial and gonococcal infection were associated with PID. In multivariate analysis, only young age and a positive test for gonorrhea before delivery or post-partum were independent predictors of PID. CONCLUSIONS: Pelvic inflammatory disease was diagnosed during the post-partum year in 1% of women studied. Young maternal age was an important demographic risk factor. Further investigation of post-partum STD acquisition and progression to PID is needed to determine whether women are at increased risk following delivery. PMID:16338778

Mahon, Barbara E; Temkit, M'hamed; Wang, Jane; Rosenman, Marc B; Katz, Barry P

2005-01-01

159

Predictors of the Longitudinal Course of Postpartum Depression Following Interpersonal Psychotherapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: We examined the course and predictors of postpartum depression in the 18 months following interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT). Method: We enrolled 120 community women with major depression in a 12-week randomized trial of individual IPT during the postpartum period (O'Hara, Stuart, Gorman, & Wenzel, 2000). At 6, 12, and 18 months…

Nylen, Kimberly J.; O'Hara, Michael W.; Brock, Rebecca; Moel, Joy; Gorman, Laura; Stuart, Scott

2010-01-01

160

Developmental Profile of Infants Born to Mothers with Postpartum Depression and Anxiety: A Comparative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Postpartum period is associated with higher rates for depression, blues and psychosis. Anxiety is also significant. These disorders may have serious implications in the cognitive development of the infant. There is relative lack of data in this area. So we tried to estimate postpartum anxiety and depression in a group of women and…

Kalita, Kamal Narayan

2010-01-01

161

Lower sexual interest in postpartum women: Relationship to amygdala activation and intranasal oxytocin  

E-print Network

oxytocin Heather A. Rupp a, , Thomas W. James b , Ellen D. Ketterson c , Dale R. Sengelaub b , Beate Ditzen 18 October 2012 Keywords: Postpartum Amygdala Sexual desire Oxytocin During the postpartum period, women experience significant changes in their neuroendocrine profiles and social behavior compared

James, Thomas

162

Patterns of behaviour during postpartum oestrus in prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social and sexual behaviour during postpartum oestrus in prairie voles was monitored using time-lapse videotaping over a period of at least 24 h. Behaviour was measured as a function of the familiarity and social history of the male partner and as a function of the presence or absence of pups. In general, postpartum oestrus was shorter than male-induced oestrus. When

D WITT; C. SUE CARTER; R CHAYER; K ADAMS

1990-01-01

163

[Assessment of bronchopulmonary immunity status for Mayak PA workers at the late period after prolonged exposure].  

PubMed

Samples of induced sputum from 187 individuals were used to estimate the bronchopulmonary immunity status after a prolonged radiation exposure (120 individuals who are the Mayak main plant workers were exposed to combined internal a-radiation due to incorporated plutonium (239Pu) and external y-radiation during their career). The control group included 67 Ozersk residents of a corresponding age and gender, without any occupational exposure, who were examined at the same period. The immune system is the most important component in homeostasis. In occupational workers, the status of the systemic and bronchopulmonary immunity after 30-55 years of career was estimated by the level of regulatory proteins in the samples of blood and the induced sputum supernatant stored at low temperatures in freezers of the Radiobiological human tissue Repository, SUBI (interleukins IL-1beta, IFN-gamma, IL-12+p70, IL-15, IL-17A and growth factors EGF, TGF-beta1, FGF and PDGF-AA), as well as by the content of effector and regulatory lymphocytes in blood. After the examination period, each registrant was provided with dosimetry data: 239Pu body burden was from 0.03 kBq to 11.89 kBq, the absorbed dose to the lung from incorporated radionuclide - from 0.01 Gy to 1.38 Gy, and accumulated doses of external y-radiation during the occupational career - from 0.02 Gy to 7.91 Gy. In the case of the prolonged combined radiation, the tensioned mode of immunity cell link functioning and the increase of activated lymphocyte forms were detected. Comparison of correlation coefficients between the content oflymphocytes, the level ofinterleukins and growth factors and the dose load allowed us to find relation of these ratios to the type of exposure, Pu body burden, the absorbed 239Pu dose to the lung and the accumulated external dose. The reduced concentration of the main growth factors in the group of Mayak workers is the evidence for the declined control function of proteins and immunodeficiency. The analysis of the regulatory proteins content in blood and sputum following occupational exposure allowed us to find specific features of the protein expression in support of the local and systemic immune homeostasis. PMID:23516889

Pavlova, O S; Kirillova, E N; Luk'ianova, T V; Oslina, D S; Ryzhov, V P

2012-01-01

164

Effect of Indigenous Herbs on Growth, Blood Metabolites and Carcass Characteristics in the Late Fattening Period of Hanwoo Steers  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of indigenous herbal supplements on growth, blood metabolites and carcass characteristics in the late fattening period of Hanwoo steers. In a 6 month feeding trial, thirty Hanwoo steers (647±32 kg) were allotted to one of 5 treatment groups, control (basal diet contained lasalocid), licorice, clove, turmeric and silymarin, with six steers per pen. All groups received ad libitum concentrate and 1 kg rice straw/animal/d throughout the feeding trial. Blood samples were collected at the beginning, middle, and the end of the experiment and the steers were slaughtered at the end. Blood glucose, triglyceride, total protein, and albumin concentrations were higher in the turmeric treatment compared with other treatments. Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations were highest (p<0.003 and p = 0.071, respectively) in steers treated with silymarin. Alanine aminotransferase activity was lower (p<0.06) for licorice and silymarin compared with the control group. There were no alterations in serum aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glutamyltransferase activities as a consequence of herb treatments (p = 0.203 and 0.135, respectively). Final body weight, body weight gain, average dairy gain and dry matter intake were not significantly different among treatments. Yield grade, marbling score and quality grade were higher for silymarin group than those of the control group (p<0.05). Therefore, the results suggest that silymarin can be used an effective dietary supplement as an alternative to antibiotic feed additive and a productivity enhancer, providing safe and more consumer acceptable alternative to synthetic compounds during the late fattening period of steers. PMID:25049742

Kim, D. H.; Kim, K. H.; Nam, I. S.; Lee, S. S.; Choi, C. W.; Kim, W. Y.; Kwon, E. G.; Lee, K. Y.; Lee, M. J.; Oh, Y. K.

2013-01-01

165

Effect of indigenous herbs on growth, blood metabolites and carcass characteristics in the late fattening period of hanwoo steers.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of indigenous herbal supplements on growth, blood metabolites and carcass characteristics in the late fattening period of Hanwoo steers. In a 6 month feeding trial, thirty Hanwoo steers (647±32 kg) were allotted to one of 5 treatment groups, control (basal diet contained lasalocid), licorice, clove, turmeric and silymarin, with six steers per pen. All groups received ad libitum concentrate and 1 kg rice straw/animal/d throughout the feeding trial. Blood samples were collected at the beginning, middle, and the end of the experiment and the steers were slaughtered at the end. Blood glucose, triglyceride, total protein, and albumin concentrations were higher in the turmeric treatment compared with other treatments. Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations were highest (p<0.003 and p = 0.071, respectively) in steers treated with silymarin. Alanine aminotransferase activity was lower (p<0.06) for licorice and silymarin compared with the control group. There were no alterations in serum aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glutamyltransferase activities as a consequence of herb treatments (p = 0.203 and 0.135, respectively). Final body weight, body weight gain, average dairy gain and dry matter intake were not significantly different among treatments. Yield grade, marbling score and quality grade were higher for silymarin group than those of the control group (p<0.05). Therefore, the results suggest that silymarin can be used an effective dietary supplement as an alternative to antibiotic feed additive and a productivity enhancer, providing safe and more consumer acceptable alternative to synthetic compounds during the late fattening period of steers. PMID:25049742

Kim, D H; Kim, K H; Nam, I S; Lee, S S; Choi, C W; Kim, W Y; Kwon, E G; Lee, K Y; Lee, M J; Oh, Y K

2013-11-01

166

[Smallpox epidemics and folk's responses in the late Chos?n period].  

PubMed

Smallpox was one of the most dreadful epidemic diseases in Korea until the early twentieth century. In the Chos?n period, smallpox came to prevail more frequently and vigorously, and many people died of the disease. To cope with smallpox, the society of Chos?n had various modes of measures, though they were not always effective, which included the government's rituals, medical men's prescriptions, and folk's recipes. Among various responses to smallpox, the recipes of folklore seem to be very interesting. While attitude toward other contagious diseases (e.g., typhoid fever, or malaria) mainly consisted of exorcism, smallpox was believed to be the passage of the smallpox deity. Sonnim (which means guest), through the body of patient for certain time span, and gods of smallpox were treated hospitably. This attitude toward smallpox was deeply rooted in Korean shamanism, and partly in the natural history of the disease. From 1876 smallpox vaccination was reintroduced and practiced. There were, however, a lot of difficulties in practice of vaccination due to distrust and prejudice. and traditional dealings with smallpox, in spite of vaccination, didn't disappear even after the Japanese compulsory occupation. PMID:11618926

Kim, O J

1993-01-01

167

Postpartum depression in primiparous parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated the hypothesis that postpartum depression is a function of disruption of parents' prepartum functioning by the subsequent demands of infant caretaking. 78 primiparous middle SES married couples (mean age 25.5 yrs) completed a battery of questionnaires, including the Beck Depression Inventory, at 8 wks prepartum and 8 wks postpartum, assessing indicators of stress related to childcare. Results indicate that

A. Kathleen Atkinson; Annette U. Rickel

1984-01-01

168

Postpartum Depression Causes and Correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of explanations have been suggested to explain postpartum depression in women, including biological, psychological, social and cultural forces (Fossey, Papiernik & Bydlowski, 1987; O'Hara & Swain, 1996). This paper goes beyond biological explanations to explore psychosocial influences such as the cultural experience of giving birth, maternal expectations and the role of social support. Postpartum depression rates in Germany

Tracie Merritt; Sara Kuppin; Michelle Wolper; Bruce B. Downs

169

A transitional snake from the Late Cretaceous period of North America.  

PubMed

Snakes are the most diverse group of lizards, but their origins and early evolution remain poorly understood owing to a lack of transitional forms. Several major issues remain outstanding, such as whether snakes originated in a marine or terrestrial environment and how their unique feeding mechanism evolved. The Cretaceous Coniophis precedens was among the first Mesozoic snakes discovered, but until now only an isolated vertebra has been described and it has therefore been overlooked in discussions of snake evolution. Here we report on previously undescribed material from this ancient snake, including the maxilla, dentary and additional vertebrae. Coniophis is not an anilioid as previously thought a revised phylogenetic analysis of Ophidia shows that it instead represents the most primitive known snake. Accordingly, its morphology and ecology are critical to understanding snake evolution. Coniophis occurs in a continental floodplain environment, consistent with a terrestrial rather than a marine origin; furthermore, its small size and reduced neural spines indicate fossorial habits, suggesting that snakes evolved from burrowing lizards. The skull is intermediate between that of lizards and snakes. Hooked teeth and an intramandibular joint indicate that Coniophis fed on relatively large, soft-bodied prey. However, the maxilla is firmly united with the skull, indicating an akinetic rostrum. Coniophis therefore represents a transitional snake, combining a snake-like body and a lizard-like head. Subsequent to the evolution of a serpentine body and carnivory, snakes evolved a highly specialized, kinetic skull, which was followed by a major adaptive radiation in the Early Cretaceous period. This pattern suggests that the kinetic skull was a key innovation that permitted the diversification of snakes. PMID:22832579

Longrich, Nicholas R; Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S; Gauthier, Jacques A

2012-08-01

170

Rock-inhabiting fungi originated during periods of dry climate in the late Devonian and middle Triassic.  

PubMed

Non-lichenized rock-inhabiting fungi (RIF) are slow-growing melanized ascomycetes colonizing rock surfaces in arid environments. They possess adaptations, which allow them to tolerate extreme abiotic conditions, such as high UV radiations and extreme temperatures. They belong to two separate lineages, one consisting in the sister classes Dothideomycetes and Arthoniomycetes (Dothideomyceta), and the other consisting in the order Chaetothyriales (Eurotiomycetes). Because RIF often form early diverging groups in Chaetothyriales and Dothideomyceta, the ancestors of these two lineages were suggested to most likely be rock-inhabitants. The lineage of RIF related to the Chaetothyriales shows a much narrower phylogenetic spectrum than the lineage of RIF related to Dothideomyceta, suggesting a much more ancient origin for the latter. Our study aims at investigating the times of origin of RIF using a relaxed clock model and several fossil and secondary calibrations. Our results show that the RIF in Dothideomyceta evolved in the late Devonian, much earlier than the RIF in Chaetothyriales, which originated in the middle Triassic. The origin of the chaetothyrialean RIF correlates well with a period of recovery after the Permian-Triassic mass extinction and an expansion of arid landmasses. The period preceding the diversification of the RIF related to Dothideomyceta (Silurian--Devonian) is also characterized by large arid landmasses, but temperatures were much cooler than during the Triassic. The paleoclimate record provides a good explanation for the diversification of fungi subjected to abiotic stresses and adapted to life on rock surfaces in nutrient-poor habitats. PMID:21944211

Gueidan, Cécile; Ruibal, Constantino; de Hoog, G S; Schneider, Harald

2011-10-01

171

Psychological intervention for postpartum depression.  

PubMed

The postpartum depression outcome and the effect of psychological intervention were studied in order to reduce the occurrence and development of the postpartum depression. A survey of 4000 women within 4-6 weeks postpartum in 80 communities in Shenzhen, China was performed using random cluster sampling method. By employing Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) as a screening tool, the positive women (defined as EPDS ?10) were randomly divided into intervention group and control group at a ratio of 1:2. The women in the intervention group were treated by means of mailing postpartum depression prevention and treatment knowledge manual, face-to-face counseling, and telephone psychological counseling interventions aiming at individual risk factors, while those in the control group were treated with conventional methods. EPDS scores were assessed in these two groups again at 6th month postpartum. Totally, 3907 valid questionnaires were obtained. All the 771 positive women were divided into two groups: 257 in the intervention group, and 514 in the control group. At 6th month postpartum, the EPDS scores in the intervention group were decreased significantly, from baseline stage (12.84±3.02) to end stage (3.05±2.93), while EPDS scores in the control group were reduced from 12.44±2.78 to 6.94±4.02. There were significant differences in the EPDS scores at end stage between the two groups (t=13.059, P<0.001). Psychological intervention can reduce postpartum depression, with better maternal compliance. It is feasible and necessary to establish postpartum depression screening and psychological intervention model in community-hospital and include the postpartum depression screening, intervention, and follow-up into the conventional healthcare. PMID:24939313

Jiang, Lei; Wang, Zhu-zhen; Qiu, Li-rong; Wan, Guo-bin; Lin, Yan; Wei, Zhen

2014-06-01

172

[Influence of compendium of Materia Medica on the materia medica in the late period of the Chosun Dynasty].  

PubMed

In this paper, I investigated the influence of Compendium of Materia Medica (CM) on Records for Rural Life of Chosun Gentlemen (RRC), and refuted Miki Sakae's opinion, CM did not have much impact on the Materia Medica in the late period of the Chosun Dynasty. When Li Shizhen published CM, it resulted in a shift of mainstream of Materia Medica in Eastern Asia from Classified Emergency Materia Medica to CM and a new categorizing system of Materia Medica by CM led to the division of Materia Medica into medicine and natural history. It is obvious that doctors of the Chosun Dynasty also adopted the latest achievements of Materia Medica by CM, but so far there have been few studies to clarify this. Seo yugu was a scholar of the Realist School of Confucianism during the late period of the Chosun Dynasty, and RRC is his representative work. RRC is a massive encyclopedia of natural history that covers vast areas of science from agriculture, floriculture, writing and drawing, architecture, diet, and medicine, among others which absorbed the achievements of CM, the best Materia Medica book at that time. Miki Sakae also highly regarded the encyclopedic knowledge of RRC, but devalued the results of Materia Medica. He only described a part of RRC's Materia Medica, nurturing volume, on the view of life nurturing and mentioned that it had been strongly influenced by China. According to this study, a large portion of RRC, especially regarding Materia Medica, depends on CM. Seo yugu had accepted the categorizing system and new medicinal information of CM, at the same time he modified the categorizing system of CM practically by the subject of each volume of RRC. We can find many quotations of CM except the nurturing volume, but other books, Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine, Materia Medica for Relief of Famines are also quoted. Furthermore, Seo yugu emphasized the differences of natural environments between Chosun and China, and specified the editing criteria, "to be useful in Chosun." This is the most obvious evidence that Materia Medica of Chosun had not remained in the framework of Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine which succeeded Classified Emergency Materia Medica, but had been developed into medicine and natural history based on CM. PMID:22948165

Oh, Chae-Kun

2012-08-31

173

Practices related to postpartum uterine involution in the Western Highlands of Guatemala  

PubMed Central

Background Guatemala has the third highest level of maternal mortality in Latin America. Postpartum haemorrhage is the main cause of maternal mortality. In rural Guatemala, most women rely on Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) during labour, delivery, and the postpartum period. Little is known about current postpartum practices that may contribute to uterine involution provided by Mam- and Spanish-speaking TBAs in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. Methods a qualitative study was conducted with 39 women who participated in five focus groups in the San Marcos Department of Guatemala. Questions regarding postpartum practices were discussed during four focus groups of TBAs and one group of auxiliary nurses. Results three postpartum practices believed to aid postpartum uterine involution were identified: use of the chuj (Mam) (Spanish, temazcal), a traditional wood-fired sauna-bath used by Mam-speaking women; herbal baths and teas; and administration of biomedicines. Conclusions TBAs provide the majority of care to women during childbirth and the postpartum period and have developed a set of practices to prevent and treat postpartum haemorrhage. Integration of these practices may prove an effective method to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. PMID:22762787

Radoff, K.A.; Thompson, Lisa M.; Bly, KC; Romero, Carolina

2013-01-01

174

Proxy records of Late Holocene climate events in the eastern United States: Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are conducting a multiproxy, regional reconstruction of climate variability during the last two millennia including the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) and Little Ice Age (LIA) in eastern North America. Pollen, benthic foraminifers, ostracodes, and other proxies were analyzed from high-resolution sampling of continuous sedimentary records from lakes, wetlands, and estuaries in Florida, North Carolina, Chesapeake Bay, and Lake Champlain. These records document multi-decadal changes in vegetation, temperature, precipitation, and estuarine salinity across a latitudinal transect. During both the MWP and LIA, decreased precipitation altered plant community composition and distribution in the southeastern United States, and the LIA triggered threshold changes in vegetation that persisted until anthropogenic land-cover change overwhelmed the climate signature. In the mid-Atlantic region, progressively cooler and wetter late Holocene springs culminated in a cool, wet LIA; this trend correlates with observed oceanic changes. Trend analysis of the data suggest that inter-regional correlation of multi-decadal and centennial-scale Holocene climate events will be forthcoming.

Willard, D. A.; Cronin, T. M.; Hayo, K. M.

2006-12-01

175

Trepanation in South-Central Peru during the early late intermediate period (ca. AD 1000-1250).  

PubMed

This study evaluates trepanations from five well-contextualized prehistoric sites in the south-central highlands of Andahuaylas, Peru. The emergence of trepanation in this region coincides with the collapse of the Wari Empire, ca. ad 1000. Thirty-two individuals from Andahuaylas, AMS radiocarbon dated to the early Late Intermediate Period (ca. ad 1000-1250), were found to have 45 total trepanations. Various surgical techniques were being employed concurrently throughout the region. Scraping trepanations evinced the highest survival rate; circular grooving, drilling and boring, and linear cutting were far less successful. Evidence of perioperative procedures like hair shaving, poultice application, and possible cranioplasty use aimed to ensure the survival of a trepanation recipient. Postmortem trepanations, also present in Andahuaylas, were likely executed on corpses as a means of better understanding cranial anatomy and improving techniques. Similarities in trepanation patterns throughout the region attest to common motivations to engage in surgery. Although moderate physical head trauma seems to be the impetus for intervention in many cases of trepanation, other motivations included physiological and possibly psychosomatic factors. Nevertheless, treatment was not for everyone. In Andahuaylas, trepanations were withheld from subadults, females, and those individuals who practiced cranial modification. PMID:24142537

Kurin, Danielle S

2013-12-01

176

[Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm: an unusual cause of postpartum hemorrhage].  

PubMed

Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication of cesarean section. It can lead to severe postpartum hemorrhage. We report three cases of pseudoaneurysm diagnosed late after cesarean delivery, one followed by hemorrhagic shock. Ultrasound may point to the diagnosis, but arteriography of uterine arteries is decisive for the diagnosis. Selective artery embolization is recommended for treatment. Main advantages are complete occlusion of the pseudoaneurysm and fertility preservation. PMID:24656739

Delesalle, C; Dolley, P; Beucher, G; Dreyfus, M; Benoist, G

2015-01-01

177

Postpartum Depression: An Interactional View.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Postpartum depression is conceptualized as a predictable developmental, family crisis, which occurs when the natural difficulties of childbirth are benignly mishandled. Tactics are illustrated for interdicting maladaptive interpersonal spirals, including normalizing conflicting complaints; reframing depression as positive but costly; regulating…

Kraus, Mary Ann; Redman, E. Scott

1986-01-01

178

Postabortal and postpartum contraception.  

PubMed

Healthcare providers often underestimate a woman' need for immediate effective contraception after an abortion or childbirth. Yet, these are times when women may be highly motivated to avoid or delay another pregnancy. In addition, starting the most effective long-acting reversible methods (i.e. the intrauterine device, intrauterine system or implants) at these times, is safe, with low risk of complications. Good evidence shows that women choosing long-acting reversible contraceptives at the time of an abortion are at significantly lower risk of another abortion, compared with counterparts choosing other methods. Uptake of long-acting reversible methods postpartum can also prevent short inter-pregnancy intervals, which have negative consequences for maternal and child health. It is important, therefore, that providers of abortion and maternity care are trained and funded to be able to provide these methods for women immediately after an abortion or childbirth. PMID:24951405

Cameron, Sharon

2014-08-01

179

Estudio Parto: postpartum diabetes prevention program for hispanic women with abnormal glucose tolerance in pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial – study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes and obesity have reached epidemic proportions in the U.S. with rates consistently higher among Hispanics as compared to non-Hispanic whites. Among Hispanic women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), 50% will go on to develop type 2 diabetes within 5?years of the index pregnancy. Although randomised controlled trials among adults with impaired glucose tolerance have shown that diet and physical activity reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes, such programs have not been tested in high-risk postpartum women. The overall goal of this randomised controlled trial is to test the efficacy of a culturally and linguistically modified, individually-tailored lifestyle intervention to reduce risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease among postpartum Hispanic women with a history of abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy. Methods/Design Hispanic pregnant women who screen positive for GDM will be recruited and randomly assigned to a Lifestyle Intervention (n?=?150) or a Health & Wellness (control) Intervention (n?=?150). Multimodal contacts (i.e., in-person, telephone, and mailed materials) will be used to deliver the intervention from late pregnancy (29?weeks gestation) to 12?months postpartum. Targets of the intervention are to achieve Institute of Medicine Guidelines for postpartum weight loss; American Congress of Obstetrician and Gynecologist guidelines for physical activity; and American Diabetes Association guidelines for diet. The intervention draws from Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model and addresses the specific cultural and environmental challenges faced by low-income Hispanic women. Assessments will be conducted at enrollment, and at 6-weeks, 6-months, and 12-months postpartum by trained bicultural and bilingual personnel blinded to the intervention arm. Efficacy will be assessed via postpartum weight loss and biomarkers of insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk. Changes in physical activity and diet will be measured via 7-day actigraph data and three unannounced 24-hour dietary recalls at each assessment time period. Discussion Hispanic women are the fastest growing minority group in the U.S. and have the highest rates of sedentary behavior and postpartum diabetes after a diagnosis of GDM. This randomised trial uses a high-reach, low-cost strategy that can readily be translated into clinical practice in underserved and minority populations. Trial registration NCT01679210 PMID:24606590

2014-01-01

180

Ultrasound-accelerated catheter-directed thrombolysis for the management of postpartum deep venous thrombosis.  

PubMed

Pregnancy and the postpartum period are associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism, which remains an important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Although oral or systemic anticoagulation therapy may minimize thrombus propagation, it remains ineffective in removing thrombus burden and consequently does not prevent post-thrombotic syndrome. A novel technique, ultrasound accelerated catheter directed thrombolysis (UACDT), has been developed to rapidly and completely resolve thrombus. While pregnancy and the postpartum period are generally considered as contraindications for thrombolysis, we demonstrate in this case study the safety and effectiveness of using UACDT to treat symptomatic, postpartum, iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis after only an overnight infusion. PMID:23379969

Dumantepe, Mert; Tarhan, Ibrah?m Arif; Yurdakul, Ilhan; Ozler, Azmi

2013-05-01

181

Northern mid-latitude glaciation in the Late Amazonian period of Mars: Criteria for the recognition of debris-covered glacier and valley glacier landsystem deposits  

E-print Network

to interpreting these deposits. In particular, the High- Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on board the Mars ExpressNorthern mid-latitude glaciation in the Late Amazonian period of Mars: Criteria for the recognition 2009 Keywords: Mars lobate debris aprons lineated valley fill debris-covered glaciers glaciation rock

Marchant, David R.

182

Principals in Late Career: Toward a Conceptualization of Principals' Tasks and Experiences in the Pre-Retirement Period  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To fill the gap in theoretical and empirical knowledge on late career in principalship, the aim of this study was to explore the career experiences, needs, and behaviors of principals at this stage. Research method: Life history and semistructured interviews were conducted with 20 late-career principals, 20 schoolteachers, and 10…

Oplatka, Izhar

2010-01-01

183

Periodicity in Sediments from the Baltic Sea and in Greenland Ice as Climate Signals for the Late Quaternary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climatic records from Greenland ice and Baltic Sea provide as well information about global climate changes as about local basin peculiarities. Late Quaternary sediments have been accumulated in the Baltic Basin with high accumulation rates, qualifying them for the study of late Pleistocene to Holocene climate and environmental history in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic realm. Physical and geochemical

J. Harff; R. Endler; S. Kotov; T. Leipe; A. Witkowski

2009-01-01

184

Periodization  

PubMed Central

Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982

Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

2010-01-01

185

Sustained high levels of serum leptin rather than IL-6 observed in patients with postpartum thyroiditis during their first postpartum year.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study is to explore the roles of leptin and interleukin-6 (IL-6) during the first postpartum year in the occurrence and development of postpartum thyroiditis (PPT). We retrospectively collected serum samples from 57 PPT patients consisting of 34 overt PPT (O-PPT) and 23 subclinical PPT (S-PPT) in addition to 37 healthy postpartum women at four postpartum time points, i.e., 3-day and 3, 6, 12-month postpartum. Serum leptin and IL-6 levels were measured by radioimmunoassay and ELISA assay, respectively. Leptin level and leptin/BMI (LEP/BMI) ratio were higher in PPT patients than in control during the first postpartum year, but were not significantly different between O-PPT and S-PPT. However, a similar trend but did not reach significant difference in IL-6 level was observed during the postpartum period in PPT patients and control women. We conclude that a sustained high level of serum leptin after delivery may be involved in the pathogenesis of PPT. IL-6 does not contribute to the development of PPT. PMID:24573491

Guo, Huiling; Liu, Xiu; Li, Chenyang; Li, Yushu; Sang, Miao; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping; Guan, Haixia

2014-11-01

186

Postpartum Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... simply adjusting to life with a baby. Postpartum Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Approximately 1-6% of women experience postpartum post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following childbirth. Most often, this illness is ...

187

Seafood consumption, the DHA content of mothers’ milk and prevalence rates of postpartum depression: a cross-national, ecological analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Mothers selectively transfer docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to their fetuses to support optimal neurological development during pregnancy. Without sufficient dietary intake, mothers become depleted of DHA and may increase their risk of suffering major depressive symptoms in the postpartum period. We postulated that the DHA content of mothers’ milk and seafood consumption would both predict prevalence rates of postpartum depression

Joseph R. Hibbeln

2002-01-01

188

Etiology and treatment of postpartum depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the risk factors, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of postpartum depression. Postpartum depression\\u000a is common and occurs in up to 18% of newly delivered mothers. Though the hormonal changes occurring after childbirth are believed\\u000a to play a role in postpartum depression, no hormonal etiology has been identified. Estrogen appears somewhat helpful for postpartum\\u000a depression, but its use is

Deborah Lynne Flores; Victoria C. Hendrick

2002-01-01

189

Pharmacotherapy of Postpartum Depression  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence and recurrence rates of postpartum depression (PPD) are 13% and 25%, respectively. Despite its detrimental impact on the mother - infant dyad’s health, there is a paucity of data in the literature regarding the efficacy of pharmacological treatment of PPD. Objective 1)To review the literature on the use of antidepressants and hormonal supplements for the prevention and the treatment of PPD; 2) to provide the authors’ opinion regarding the current status of the pharmacological treatment of PPD, and 3) to discuss developments that are likely to be important in the future Methods An electronic search was performed by using PubMed, Medline, and PsychINFO. Inclusion criteria were: 1) empirical articles in peer-reviewed English language journals, 2) well validated measures of depression, and 3) uniform scoring system for depression among the sample. Results/Conclusion The electronic search yielded a total of 19 articles (12 on treatment and 7 on prevention of PPD) with the following study designs: 8 randomized clinical trials (6 usingplacebo control and 2 using active control groups), and 11 open label studies.The selection of the specific antidepressant for a woman with PPD should derive from a personalized risk-benefit analysis. PMID:19874247

Wisner, KL

2010-01-01

190

Revision of the Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postpartum depression has been described as a thief that steals motherhood. Early recognition is one of the major challenges with this devastating mood disorder. This article describes a revised version of the Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory (PDPI) based on the results of an updated meta-analysis. This revised inventory consists of 13 risk factors related to postpartum depression. Guide questions for

Cheryl Tatano Beck

2002-01-01

191

Nonpsychotic Postpartum Depression Among Adolescent Mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the extent to which childbearing increases vulnerability to clinical depression and depressive symptomatology among primiparous adolescent girls (ages 14 to 18). Childbearing Ss (n = 128) were assessed during pregnancy, 6 weeks postpartum, and 1 year postpartum. Matched nonchildbearing Ss (n = 114) were assessed at corresponding time points. Six weeks postpartum, 6% of the childbearing adolescents

Beth R. Troutman; Carolyn E. Cutrona

1990-01-01

192

Effect of Dietary Fat Supplementation during Late Pregnancy and First Six Months of Lactation on Maternal and Infant Vitamin A Status in Rural Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Dietary fat intake is extremely low in most communities with vitamin A deficiency. However, its role in vitamin A status of pregnant and lactating women is poorly understood. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of supplementing women with fat from mid-/late pregnancy until six months postpartum on their vitamin A status and that of their infants. Women recruited at 5-7 months of gestation were supplemented daily with 20 mL of soybean-oil (n=248) until six months postpartum or received no supplement (n=251). Dietary fat intake was assessed by 24-hour dietary recall at enrollment and at 1, 3 and 6 months postpartum. Concentrations of maternal plasma retinol, ?-carotene, and lutein were measured at enrollment and at 1, 3 and 6 months postpartum, and those of infants at six months postpartum. Concentration of breastmilk retinol was measured at 1, 3 and 6 months postpartum. The change in concentration of plasma retinol at three months postpartum compared to pregnancy was significantly higher in the supplemented compared to the control women (+0.04 vs -0.07 ?mol/L respectively; p<0.05). Concentrations of plasma ?-carotene and lutein declined in both the groups during the postpartum period but the decline was significantly less in the supplemented than in the control women at one month (?-carotene -0.07 vs -0.13 ?mol/L, p<0.05); lutein -0.26 vs -0.49 ?mol/L, p<0.05) and three months (?-carotene -0.04 vs -0.08 ?mol/L, p<0.05; lutein -0.31 vs -0.47 ?mol/L, p<0.05). Concentration of breastmilk retinol was also significantly greater in the supplemented group at three months postpartum than in the controls (0.68±0.35 vs 0.55±0.34 ?mol/L respectively, p<0.03). Concentrations of infants’ plasma retinol, ?-carotene, and lutein, measured at six months of age, did not differ between the groups. Fat supplementation during pregnancy and lactation in women with a very low intake of dietary fat has beneficial effects on maternal postpartum vitamin A status. PMID:20824976

van Raaij, Joop M.A.; Hautvast, Joseph G.A.J.; Yunus, M.; Wahed, M.A.; Fuchs, G.J.

2010-01-01

193

Using animal models to study post-partum psychiatric disorders.  

PubMed

The post-partum period represents a time during which all maternal organisms undergo substantial plasticity in a wide variety of systems in order to ensure the well-being of the offspring. Although this time is generally associated with increased calmness and decreased stress responses, for a substantial subset of mothers, this period represents a time of particular risk for the onset of psychiatric disorders. Thus, post-partum anxiety, depression and, to a lesser extent, psychosis may develop, and not only affect the well-being of the mother but also place at risk the long-term health of the infant. Although the risk factors for these disorders, as well as normal peripartum-associated adaptations, are well known, the underlying aetiology of post-partum psychiatric disorders remains poorly understood. However, there have been a number of attempts to model these disorders in basic research, which aim to reveal their underlying mechanisms. In the following review, we first discuss known peripartum adaptations and then describe post-partum mood and anxiety disorders, including their risk factors, prevalence and symptoms. Thereafter, we discuss the animal models that have been designed in order to study them and what they have revealed about their aetiology to date. Overall, these studies show that it is feasible to study such complex disorders in animal models, but that more needs to be done in order to increase our knowledge of these severe and debilitating mood and anxiety disorders. PMID:24527704

Perani, C V; Slattery, D A

2014-10-01

194

Postpartum glycosylated hemoglobins (HbA1): an index of glucose control in pregnancy?  

PubMed

Postpartum HbA1 levels were studied in 114 mothers with a normal pregnancy. HbA1 levels were correlated with neonatal anthropometric parameters and with maternal metabolic parameters. A strong positive correlation was found between weight gain during pregnancy and postpartum HbA1 levels. There was also an increased frequency of infants with large thoracic circumference born to mothers with HbA1 levels above 8.6%. Thus, postpartum HbA1 levels in mothers in whom the serial HbA1 determination is not possible, may be a useful index of glucose control during the gestational period. PMID:7152715

Mansani, F E; Caltabiano, M; Ceruti, M; Condemi, V

1982-01-01

195

The Identification of Postpartum Depression  

PubMed Central

Postpartum depression (PPD) is the most common medical complication of childbearing. Universal screening maximizes the likelihood of prompt identification of PPD. Obstetrician-gynecologists routinely evaluate postpartum women for a general health examination and review of family planning options at approximately 6 weeks after birth; therefore, they are well-positioned to identify PPD. In this paper, we review the diagnostic criteria for postpartum depressive disorders and clinical risk factors predictive of PPD. We examine depression screening tools, appropriate cut-points associated with positive screens, the optimal timing for screening and the acceptability of depression screening in obstetrical settings. Lastly, we explore how to manage patients who screen positive for depression and treatment options for women with PPD. PMID:19661761

Sit, Dorothy K.; Wisner, Katherine L.

2009-01-01

196

Compression fracture in postpartum osteoporosis.  

PubMed

Osteoporosis is mainly a problem in postmenopausal women. However, we had a case of postpartum compression fracture associated with osteoporosis. A 42-year-old multiparous woman had undergone tertiary cesarean section without complications 1 month before. She was breast-feeding her baby and had no other bone-related complication history. She did not exercise on a regular basis. She experienced back pain abruptly and was diagnosed with a recent compression fracture of T12, L1, and L3. We evaluated this rare case of postpartum osteoporosis and compression fracture. PMID:24524068

Kim, Tae-Hee; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Jeon, Dong-Su; Byun, Dong Won

2013-11-01

197

Critical period for adverse effects on development of reproductive system in male offspring of rats given di- n-butyl phthalate during late pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the susceptible days for the adverse effects of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) on development of reproductive system in male offspring following maternal administration on successive 3-day period during late pregnancy. Pregnant rats were given DBP by gastric intubation at 1000 or 1500 mg\\/kg on days 12–14 or 18–20 of pregnancy or at 500,

Makoto Ema; Emiko Miyawaki; Kunio Kawashima

2000-01-01

198

Utilization of Mental Health Services by Low-Income Pregnant and Postpartum Women on Medical Assistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines mental health service use among publicly insured white and African-American pregnant and postpartum women who live in a metropolitan area. The study examines the extent to which ethnicity, physical health problems, and behavioral health risk factors are associated with the probability of service use during the pre-natal-postpartum period. It also analyzes the patterns of service utilization for

Dayoung Song; Roberta G. Sands; Yin-Ling Irene Wong

2004-01-01

199

Depression during pregnancy and postpartum: Contribution of stress and ovarian hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depression is the most common psychiatric disease among women, exhibiting a prevalence which is 2–3× higher than in men. The postpartum period is considered the time of greatest risk for women to develop major depression and postpartum depression affects approximately 15% of women. A dysregulation of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis is the most prominent endocrine change seen in depression and

S. Brummelte; Liisa A. M. Galea

2010-01-01

200

Traditions and plant use during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum recovery by the Kry ethnic group in Lao PDR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Activities and diet during the postpartum period are culturally dictated in many Southeast Asian cultures, and a period of\\u000a confinement is observed. Plants play an important role in recovery during the postpartum period in diet and traditional medicine.\\u000a Little is known of the Kry, a small ethnic group whose language was recently described, concerning its traditions and use\\u000a of plants

Vichith Lamxay; Hugo J de Boer; Lars Björk

2011-01-01

201

The Earth-Moon system during the late heavy bombardment period - Geochemical support for impacts dominated by comets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solid planets assembled 4.57 Gyr ago during a period of less than 100 Myr, but the bulk of the impact craters we see on the inner planets formed much later, in a narrow time interval between 3.8 and 3.9 Gyr ago, during the so-called late heavy bombardment (LHB). It is not certain what caused the LHB, and it has not been well known whether the impactors were comets or asteroids, but our present study lend support to the idea that it was comets. Due to the Earth's higher gravity, the impactors will have hit the Earth with ˜twice the energy density that they hit the Moon, and the bombardment will have continued on Earth longer than on the Moon. All solid surface of the Earth will have been completely covered with craters by the end of the LHB. However, almost nothing of the Earth's crust from even the end of this epoch, is preserved today. One of the very few remnants, though, is exposed as the Isua greenstone belt (IGB) and nearby areas in Western Greenland. During a field expedition to Isua, we sampled three types of metasedimentary rocks, deposited ˜3.8 billion years ago, that contain information about the sedimentary river load from larger areas of surrounding land surfaces (mica-schist and turbidites) and of the contemporaneous seawater (BIF). Our samples show evidence of the LHB impacts that took place on Earth, by an average of a seven times enrichment (150 ppt) in iridium compared to present-day ocean crust (20 ppt). The clastic sediments show slightly higher enrichment than the chemical sediments, which may be due to contamination from admixtures of mafic (proto-crustal) sources. We show that this enrichment is in agreement with the lunar cratering rate and a corresponding extraterrestrial LHB contribution to the Earth's Hadean-Eoarchean crust, provided the bulk of the influx was cometary (i.e., of high velocity and low in CI abundance), but not if the impactors were meteorites (i.e. had velocities and abundances similar to present-day Earth-crossing asteroids). Our study is a first direct indication of the nature of the LHB impactors, and the first to find an agreement between the LHB lunar cratering rate and the Earth's early geochemical record (and the corresponding lunar record). The LHB comets that delivered the iridium we see at Isua will at the same time have delivered the equivalent of a ˜1 km deep ocean, and we explain why one should expect a cometary ocean to become roughly the size of the Earth's present-day ocean, not only in terms of depth but also in terms of the surface area it covers. The total impacting mass on the Earth during the LHB will have been ˜1000 tons/m 2.

Gråe Jørgensen, Uffe; Appel, Peter W. U.; Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Frei, Robert; Oshima, Masumi; Toh, Yosuke; Kimura, Atsushi

2009-12-01

202

Relic Late Pleistocene fluvial forms as geomorphic archives indicating periods of high climatic runoff over the East European Plain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In water balance estimations within palaeoenvironmental studies river runoff is estimated as the difference between precipitation and evapotranspiration. The other technique is numerical modeling using general circulation models. Both approaches fail to recognize epochs of extremely high surface runoff characteristic for the Pleistocene cold epochs and recorded in geomorphic outcomes of this runoff. We have studied two kinds of such archives that have wide spatial coverage over the East European Plain (EEP). 1. Post-LGM large palaeochannels (macromeanders) in river valleys with channel width and meander wavelength 5-15 times as great as that of modern rivers. Massive measurements of their parameters and application of specially constructed transfer function provided estimations of palaeo-runoff from large river basins: in the Black Sea and Caspian Sea catchments it carried from 2.2 (Kama River) to 3.1 (Don, Dnieper Rivers) times as great as modern runoff. High runoff lasted long enough to provide formation of 2-3 generations of macromeanders characteristic for many valleys. Macromeanders were radiocarbon dated at 6 sites over EEP in the range 13-19 cal ka BP, but it is not clear whether high runoff was characteristic for the entire period or it performed during short isolated epochs within this interval. Therefore, it is not clear to what exact time palaeohydrological estimations should be attributed. 2. Dendritic and parallel systems of gentle hollows clearly designated in vegetation-free areas south from 55-57ºN. Distinctive spatial patterns and full integration into water transportation through modern fluvial landscapes provides interpretation of these hollow systems as partially or totally buried networks of small dry valleys (balkas). It is supported by revelation of buried incisions up to 10 m deep by coring and trenching across hollows. Ancient erosion network demonstrates erosion density much higher and Horton's "belt of no erosion" much narrower and therefore exhibits much abundant surface runoff than those at present. Dating of buried balkas has until recent times been based either on pollen spectra from peat deposits (in central EEP), or on stratigraphy of paleosoils found in the bottom of paleoforms (in southern EEP). Both markers point at Eemian (MIS 5e) age of their stabilization and therefore pre-Eemian (late MIS 6?) age of incision. However first attempt of OSL dating gave the contradictory result of filling of a 6-m deep balka by slopewash sediments during 80-70 ka BP. Questionable is the >30-ka delay between the soil formation in the balka bottom and start of its filling. It may mean either post-Eemian age of the soil, which would be unfortunate for the regional soil stratigraphy, or insufficient sensitivity of local quartz at ages close to Eemian. The conclusion is that geomorphic evidences make unique palaeohydrological archives that document changes not recorded in other types of palaeoenvironmental data, but they suffer from uncertainties and low resolution of dating. This presentation contributes to RFBR Projects 14-05-00119 and 14-05-00146.

Panin, Andrei; Belyaev, Yury; Eremenko, Ekaterina; Sidorchuk, Alexei

2014-05-01

203

Adolescent Motherhood and Postpartum Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescent mothers undergo unique personal and social challenges that may contribute to postpartum functioning. In this exploratory investigation completed within a risk and resilience framework, 149 adolescent mothers, ages 15 to 19, who participated in school-based teen parents' programs, completed measures of parental stress (social isolation…

Birkeland, Robyn; Thompson, J. Kevin; Phares, Vicky

2005-01-01

204

Postpartum Adjustment in Primiparous Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the framework of the social stress and behavioral theories of depression, this study investigated the hypothesis that postpartum depression is a function of disruption of parents' prepartum functioning by the subsequent demands of infant caretaking. Seventy-eight primiparous married couples (N=156, 78 men and 78 women) volunteered to…

Atkinson, A. Kathleen; Rickel, Annette U.

205

MANAGEMENT OF POSTPARTUM HAEMORRHAGE AIM  

E-print Network

The consideration of early interventional radiology in the management of postpartum haemorrhage. BACKGROUND 1 Postpartum haemorrhage remains a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Confidential enquiries and near miss reports indicate that large numbers of women suffer severe morbidity requiring blood transfusions, hysterectomy and intensive care facilities because of excessive blood loss. This may be predictable where there is known placenta accreta or placenta praevia. However, the majority of postpartum haemorrhage is unpredictable. TECHNIQUE The procedure is performed by an interventional radiologist in an angiography suite. The common femoral artery is punctured and a guide wire is advanced, followed by a catheter into the distal aorta. Pelvic angiograms and selective bilateral internal iliac angiograms identify the internal iliac of interest. Catheterisation of the internal iliac with digital “road mapping ” to subselect the bleeding vessel is performed and this vessel is then occluded by gelfoam pledgets, coils or rings. The contralateral internal iliac is then catheterised. Vascular occlusion is confirmed by repeat angiography. Initial catheterisation of the anterior branch of the internal iliacs can be done with occluding balloon catheters prior to planned surgery and eventual embolotherapy in order to reduce blood loss and control postpartum haemorrhage.

Postpartum Haemorrhage; King Edward; Memorial Hospital

2006-01-01

206

Postpartum uterine infection in cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postpartum uterine infections results from uterine contamination with bacteria during parturition. The prevalence of uterine infections varies considerably among studies. Uterine infection implies adherence of pathogenic organisms to the mucosa, colonization or penetration of the epithelium, and\\/or release of bacterial toxins that lead to establishment of uterine disease. The development of uterine disease depends on the immune response of the

O. I. Azawi

2008-01-01

207

Longitudinal Change in Sleep and Daytime Sleepiness in Postpartum Women  

PubMed Central

Sleep disruption strongly influences daytime functioning; resultant sleepiness is recognised as a contributing risk-factor for individuals performing critical and dangerous tasks. While the relationship between sleep and sleepiness has been heavily investigated in the vulnerable sub-populations of shift workers and patients with sleep disorders, postpartum women have been comparatively overlooked. Thirty-three healthy, postpartum women recorded every episode of sleep and wake each day during postpartum weeks 6, 12 and 18. Although repeated measures analysis revealed there was no significant difference in the amount of nocturnal sleep and frequency of night-time wakings, there was a significant reduction in sleep disruption, due to fewer minutes of wake after sleep onset. Subjective sleepiness was measured each day using the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale; at the two earlier time points this was significantly correlated with sleep quality but not to sleep quantity. Epworth Sleepiness Scores significantly reduced over time; however, during week 18 over 50% of participants were still experiencing excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Score ?12). Results have implications for health care providers and policy makers. Health care providers designing interventions to address sleepiness in new mothers should take into account the dynamic changes to sleep and sleepiness during this initial postpartum period. Policy makers developing regulations for parental leave entitlements should take into consideration the high prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness experienced by new mothers, ensuring enough opportunity for daytime sleepiness to diminish to a manageable level prior to reengagement in the workforce. PMID:25078950

Filtness, Ashleigh J.; MacKenzie, Janelle; Armstrong, Kerry

2014-01-01

208

Risk factors associated with postpartum depression in the Saudi population  

PubMed Central

Introduction Postpartum depression (PPD) is one of the major psychological disorders worldwide that affects both mother and child. The aim of this study was to correlate the risk of PPD with obstetric and demographic variables in Saudi females. Materials and methods Data were collected by interviewing females 8–12 weeks postpartum. PPD symptoms were defined as present when subjects had an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of 10 or higher. Variables included in this study were age, education, occupation, parity, baby’s sex, pregnancy period, delivery type, hemoglobin level, anemia, and iron pills taken during pregnancy. Results Of the 352 postpartum females, the prevalence of PPD symptom risk was 117 (33.2%). Among the PPD symptomatic females, 66 (39.8%) had low hemoglobin levels, and 45 (40.5%) females were anemic during pregnancy (P?0.05). These results suggest that early postpartum anemia, indicated by low hemoglobin level, is a significant risk factor for PPD (adjusted odds ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval 1.05–2.74; P=0.03). Other variables, including age, parity, education, occupation, and delivery type, were not significantly correlated (P=0.15–0.95), but marginally indicative of the risk of depressive symptoms. Conclusion Low hemoglobin level and anemia during pregnancy were risk factors for PPD in Saudi females. Many other factors may be considered risk factors, such as age, occupation, and parity. Anemic women need more attention and to be checked regarding their PPD, and treated if necessary. PMID:24570584

Alharbi, Abeer A; Abdulghani, Hamza Mohammad

2014-01-01

209

Immigrant Women's Perspective on Prenatal and Postpartum Care: Systematic Review.  

PubMed

Female migration represents a major public health challenge faced today because its heterogeneity and gender issues placing immigrant women among the most vulnerable and at-risk group. To identify and analyze studies dealing with immigrant women's perspectives with prenatal and postpartum health care. A systematic literature review was conducted to assess studies published between 2000 and 2010 using Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, EMBASE, PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. The studies explored the relation between socio-demographic characteristics of immigrant women participants and its impact on the main factors identified as influencing prenatal and postpartum care, characterizing the manifested knowledge and behaviors expressed and describing the women's experience with health care services and the incidence of postpartum depression symptoms. The less favorable socio-economic status of migrant women participants seems to have been influential in the quality of health service in prenatal and postpartum periods. The language barrier was the main negative factor interfering with communication between women and health professionals, followed by health care professionals' lack of cultural sensitivity, leading to women's reluctance in using health services. PMID:24052479

da Conceição F Santiago, Maria; Figueiredo, Maria Henriqueta

2015-02-01

210

The palaeoclimatic significance of Eurasian Giant Salamanders (Cryptobranchidae: Zaissanurus, Andrias) - indications for elevated humidity in Central Asia during global warm periods (Eocene, late Oligocene warming, Miocene Climate Optimum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryptobranchids represent a group of large sized (up to 1.8 m) tailed amphibians known since the Middle Jurassic (Gao & Shubin 2003). Two species are living today in eastern Eurasia: Andrias davidianus (China) and A. japonicus (Japan). Cenozoic Eurasian fossil giant salamanders are known with two genera and two or three species from over 30 localities, ranging from the Late Eocene to the Early Pliocene (Böhme & Ilg 2003). The Late Eocene species Zaissanurus beliajevae is restricted to the Central Asian Zaissan Basin (SE-Kazakhstan, 50°N, 85°E), whereas the Late Oligocene to Early Pliocene species Andrias scheuchzeri is distributed from Central Europe to the Zaissan Basin. In the latter basin the species occur during two periods; the latest Oligocene and the late Early to early Middle Miocene (Chkhikvadse 1982). Andrias scheuchzeri is osteological indistinguishable from both recent species, indicating a similar ecology (Westfahl 1958). To investigate the palaeoclimatic significance of giant salamanders we analyzed the climate within the present-day distribution area and at selected fossil localities with independent palaeoclimate record. Our results indicate that fossil and recent Andrias species occur in humid areas where the mean annual precipitation reach over 900 mm (900 - 1.300 mm). As a working hypothesis (assuming a similar ecology of Andrias and Zaissanurus) we interpret occurrences of both fossil Eurasian giant salamanders as indicative for humid palaeoclimatic conditions. Based on this assumption the Late Eocene, the latest Oligocene (late Oligocene warming) and the late Early to early Middle Miocene (Miocene Climatic Optimum) of Central Asia (Zaissan Basin) are periods of elevated humidity, suggesting a direct (positive) relationship between global climate and Central Asian humidity evolution. Böhme M., Ilg A. 2003: fosFARbase, www.wahre-staerke.com/ Chkhikvadze V.M. 1982. On the finding of fossil Cryptobranchidae in the USSR and Mongolia. Vertebrata Hungarica, 21: 63-67. Gao K.-Q., Shubin N.H. 2003. Earliest known crown-group Salamanders. Nature, 422: 424-428. Westphal F. 1958. Die Tertiären und rezenten Eurasiatischen Riesensalamander. Palaeontolographica Abt. A, 110: 20-92.

Vasilyan, Davit; Böhme, Madelaine; Winklhofer, Michael

2010-05-01

211

The Effect of Mode of Delivery on Postpartum Sexual Functioning in Primiparous Women  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the effect of mode of delivery on postpartum sexual functioning in primiparous women. Methods In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 150 primiparous women in postpartum period, who attended the family planning or vaccination clinics, were enrolled for the study. Eighty-one had vaginal delivery with episiotomy and 69 had experienced cesarean section. Sexual function was evaluated by the Female Sexual Function Index within 3 and 6 months postpartum. Results About 29% in vaginal delivery group and 37% in cesarean delivery group had resumed their sexual intercourses four weeks after delivery (p=0.280).There were no significant differences between mode of delivery and sexual functioning, including desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain. Conclusion The present study showed that postpartum sexual functioning was not associated with the type of delivery. PMID:25170409

Dabiri, Fatemeh; Yabandeh, Asieh Pormehr; Shahi, Arefeh; Kamjoo, Azita; Teshnizi, Saeed Hosseini

2014-01-01

212

Psychosocial correlates of prepartum and postpartum depressed mood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of the present study was to delineate the influence of maternal stress, social support and coping styles on depressed mood during pregnancy and the early postpartum period. Methods: Beginning in the third month of pregnancy, data on numerous variables including daily stress (Hassles), state-anxiety (STAI-state), pregnancy-specific stress (PEQ) and depressed mood (DACL) were collected monthly. In each

Deborah Da Costa; Julie Larouche; Maria Dritsa; William Brender

2000-01-01

213

Hormonal effects on women's facial masculinity preferences: The influence of pregnancy, post-partum, and hormonal contraceptive use.  

PubMed

Here, we investigate changes in women's facial masculinity preferences across pregnancy and the post-partum period. The majority of previous research demonstrating changes in women's masculinity preferences has examined the impact of hormonal variation across the female menstrual cycle. Hormonal changes experienced during pregnancy and the post-partum period, critical periods in women's reproductive life histories, are considerably more extreme than the variation that occurs across the menstrual cycle, suggesting that differences in preferences may also be displayed during these times. We find that women's preference for masculinity in men's faces, but not women's faces, decreases in the post-partum period relative to pregnancy. Furthermore, when compared to a sample of nulliparous control participants, post-partum participants showed different masculinity preferences compared with women who were using hormonal contraception, with the direction of this difference dependent upon the sex of the face assessed. PMID:25460829

Cobey, Kelly D; Little, Anthony C; Roberts, S Craig

2015-01-01

214

Sociodemographic, perinatal, behavioral, and psychosocial predictors of weight retention at 3 and 12 months postpartum.  

PubMed

Postpartum weight retention plays an important role in the pathway leading to obesity among women of childbearing age. The objective of this study was to examine predictors of moderate (1-10 pounds) and high (>10 pounds) postpartum weight retention using data from a prospective pregnancy cohort that followed women into the postpartum period; n = 688 and 550 women at 3 and 12 months, respectively. Analysis included descriptive statistics and predictive modeling using log-binomial techniques. The average weight retained at 3 and 12 months postpartum in this population was 9.4 lb (s.d. = 11.4) and 5.7 lb (s.d. = 13.2), respectively. At 3 months postpartum, prepregnancy weight, gestational weight gain, and hours slept during the night were associated with moderate or high weight retention, whereas having an infant hospitalized after going home and scoring in the upper 75th percentile of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) were associated only with high weight retention. At 12 months postpartum, prepregnancy weight, gestational weight gain, and maternal education were associated with moderate weight retention; and gestational weight gain, maternal age, race, employment status, and having an infant hospitalized at birth were associated with high weight retention. The results of this study illustrate the importance of prepregnancy weight and gestational weight gain in predicting postpartum weight retention. Furthermore, given the lack of successful intervention studies that exist to date to help women lose weight in the postpartum period, the results of this study may help to inform future interventions that focus on such aspects as hours of sleep, dealing with stress associated with a hospitalized infant, and nonclinical eating disorder symptomatology. PMID:20035283

Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Herring, Amy H; Carrier, Kathryn; Evenson, Kelly R; Dole, Nancy; Deierlein, Andrea

2010-10-01

215

Sociodemographic, Perinatal, Behavioral, and Psychosocial Predictors of Weight Retention at 3 and 12 months Postpartum  

PubMed Central

Postpartum weight retention plays an important role in the pathway leading to obesity among women of childbearing age. The objective of this study was to examine predictors of moderate (1–10 pounds) and high (>10 pounds) postpartum weight retention using data from a prospective pregnancy cohort that followed women into the postpartum period; n=688 and 550 women at 3 and 12 months, respectively. Analysis included descriptive statistics and predictive modeling using log-binomial techniques. The average weight retained at 3 and 12 months postpartum in this population was 9.4 lbs (SD=11.4) and 5.7 lbs (SD=13.2) respectively. At 3- months postpartum, prepregnancy weight, gestational weight gain, and hours slept during the night were associated with moderate or high weight retention while having an infant hospitalized after going home and scoring in the upper 75th percentile of the eating attitudes test were associated only with high weight retention. At 12- months postpartum, prepregnancy weight, gestational weight gain and maternal education were associated with moderate weight retention and gestational weight gain, maternal age, race, employment status, and having an infant hospitalized at birth were associated with high weight retention. The results of this study illustrate the importance of prepregnancy weight and gestational weight gain in predicting postpartum weight retention. Furthermore, given the lack of successful intervention studies that exist to date to help women lose weight in the postpartum period, the results of this study may help to inform future interventions that focus on such aspects as hours of sleep, dealing with stress associated with a hospitalized infant, and non-clinical eating disorder symptomatology. PMID:20035283

Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Herring, Amy H.; Carrier, Kathryn; Evenson, Kelly R.; Dole, Nancy; Deierlein, Andrea

2010-01-01

216

Increasing the incentive salience of cocaine challenges preference for pup- over cocaine-associated stimuli during early postpartum: place preference and locomotor analyses in the lactating female rat  

PubMed Central

Rationale/Objectives Prior studies using a dual-choice conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure revealed that postpartum female rats (dams) strongly prefer chambers associated with pups over those associated with subcutaneously administered cocaine almost exclusively during early but not late postpartum (Mattson et al. 2001). The present study examines whether early postpartum dams retain strong pup-associated chamber preference when contrasted with a cocaine stimulus of greater incentive salience (intraperitoneal [IP] injections with brief conditioning sessions). Locomotor rate was measured during conditioning (stimuli-present) and test (stimulus-absent) sessions. Materials and methods A three-chambered CPP apparatus was used to compare preferences for chambers associated with IP cocaine vs age-matched pups. Unconditioned stimuli were systematically assigned to the least-preferred chamber of separate groups of dams before conditioning. Control dams verified that unconditioned stimuli were necessary for CPP and stimulus-associated locomotion. Results Compared with most late postpartum dams (60%), only 31% of early postpartum dams preferred the cocaine-associated chamber (P<0.05). Substantially more dams preferred the pup-associated chamber during early postpartum (27%) than late postpartum (5%; P<0.05). Locomotor sensitization emerged across cocaine-conditioning sessions in cocaine-preferring but not pup-preferring dams (P<0.05). Locomotor rates were consistently lower in preferred vs nonpreferred chambers during test. Conclusions After increasing cocaine's incentive salience, more early postpartum dams prefer the cocaine-associated chamber than previously reported (Mattson et al. 2001). However, pup-associated chamber preference was still higher in early vs late postpartum. Pup- and cocaine-preferring dams expressed differences in the induction phase of locomotor sensitization across cocaine conditioning but expressed similar motoric patterns in their preferred chambers at test. PMID:17589831

Seip, Katharine M.; Morrell, Joan I.

2008-01-01

217

[Management of major postpartum hemorrhage].  

PubMed

Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is defined by loss of greater than 500 mL of blood following vaginal delivery or 1,000 mL of blood following cesarean section, in the first 24 hours postpartum. Its incidence is up to 5% and the severe forms represent 1% of births. PPH is the first cause of obstetrical maternal mortality in France and 90% of these deaths are considered as preventable. Its management is multidisciplinary (obstetricians, anesthetists, midwives, biologists and interventional radiologists), based on treatment protocols where time is a major prognosis factor. In case of failure of the initial measures (oxytocin, manual placenta removal, uterus and birth canal examination), the management of severe forms includes active resuscitation (intravenous fluids, blood transfusion, vasoactive drugs), haemostatic interventions (sulprostone, tamponnade and haemostatic suture, surgical procedures and arterial embolization) and the correction of any potential coagulopathy (administration of blood products and haemostatic agents). PMID:24373716

Nebout, Sophie; Merbai, Nadia; Faitot, Valentina; Keita, Hawa

2014-02-01

218

A Review of Postpartum Psychosis  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective is to provide an overview of the clinical features, prognosis, differential diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of postpartum psychosis. Methods The authors searched Medline (1966–2005), PsycInfo (1974–2005), Toxnet, and PubMed databases using the key words postpartum psychosis, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, organic psychosis, pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, and electroconvulsive therapy. A clinical case is used to facilitate the discussion. Results The onset of puerperal psychosis occurs in the first 1–4 weeks after childbirth. The data suggest that postpartum psychosis is an overt presentation of bipolar disorder that is timed to coincide with tremendous hormonal shifts after delivery. The patient develops frank psychosis, cognitive impairment, and grossly disorganized behavior that represent a complete change from previous functioning. These perturbations, in combination with lapsed insight into her illness and symptoms, can lead to devastating consequences in which the safety and well-being of the affected mother and her offspring are jeopardized. Therefore, careful and repeated assessment of the mothers’ symptoms, safety, and functional capacity is imperative. Treatment is dictated by the underlying diagnosis, bipolar disorder, and guided by the symptom acuity, patient’s response to past treatments, drug tolerability, and breastfeeding preference. The somatic therapies include antimanic agents, atypical antipsychotic medications, and ECT. Estrogen prophylaxis remains purely investigational. Conclusions The rapid and accurate diagnosis of postpartum psychosis is essential to expedite appropriate treatment and to allow for quick, full recovery, prevention of future episodes, and reduction of risk to the mother and her children and family. PMID:16724884

SIT, DOROTHY; ROTHSCHILD, ANTHONY J.; WISNER, KATHERINE L.

2011-01-01

219

Postpartum home visits: infant outcomes.  

PubMed

Early postpartum discharge of mothers and infants has increased as health care providers and payers attempt to control health care cost. Questions regarding patient safety have been raised. Literature supports the safety of early discharge when providers adhere to strict discharge guidelines and when clients comply with home follow-up. Previous studies calculated hospital readmission rates, but few examined other outcomes or characteristics. The purposes of this descriptive study were to examine outcome data for infant participants in a postpartum home visit program and to explore factors that may influence hospital readmissions for infants. Using an audit tool with established reliability and validity, a convenience sample of 199 infant medical records was reviewed for demographic information, characteristics, and outcomes. The hospital readmission rate for all infants within 3 weeks of discharge was comparable to other studies; however, the rate for only early discharge infants was higher than the rate reported in other studies. The study of postdelivery outcomes for infants provides additional insight into the issue of early discharge and may reflect the significance of postpartum follow-up care and education. PMID:10091473

Frank-Hanssen, M A; Hanson, K S; Anderson, M A

1999-01-01

220

Haootia quadriformis n. gen., n. sp., interpreted as a muscular cnidarian impression from the Late Ediacaran period (approx. 560 Ma)  

PubMed Central

Muscle tissue is a fundamentally eumetazoan attribute. The oldest evidence for fossilized muscular tissue before the Early Cambrian has hitherto remained moot, being reliant upon indirect evidence in the form of Late Ediacaran ichnofossils. We here report a candidate muscle-bearing organism, Haootia quadriformis n. gen., n. sp., from approximately 560 Ma strata in Newfoundland, Canada. This taxon exhibits sediment moulds of twisted, superimposed fibrous bundles arranged quadrilaterally, extending into four prominent bifurcating corner branches. Haootia is distinct from all previously published contemporaneous Ediacaran macrofossils in its symmetrically fibrous, rather than frondose, architecture. Its bundled fibres, morphology, and taphonomy compare well with the muscle fibres of fossil and extant Cnidaria, particularly the benthic Staurozoa. Haootia quadriformis thus potentially provides the earliest body fossil evidence for both metazoan musculature, and for Eumetazoa, in the geological record. PMID:25165764

Liu, Alexander G.; Matthews, Jack J.; Menon, Latha R.; McIlroy, Duncan; Brasier, Martin D.

2014-01-01

221

Postpartum Spontaneous Subcapsular Hepatic Hematoma Related to Preeclampsia  

PubMed Central

Subcapsular hematoma of the liver represents an unusual clinical phenomenon in the pregnancy and postpartum period with serious complications in terms of fetal and maternal mortality. Here we report a case of a 32-year-old primiparous female at 36 weeks of gestation, admitted to a maternity ward of a private clinic for preeclampsia. The woman underwent an emergency caesarean section with the extraction of an alive foetus. A few hours after delivery, she was transferred to the emergency department of our institution complaining of severe epigastric pain. Diagnostic work-up was suggestive of a subcapsular right lob hepatic hematoma which was successfully managed conservatively. Timely diagnosis is necessary for the prevention of life-threatening events in mother and fetus. For this reason acute care physicians have to be vigilant of the condition and consider this in the differential diagnosis of epigastric pain during pregnancy and postpartum. PMID:25202460

Anyfantakis, Dimitrios; Kastanakis, Miltiades; Fragiadakis, Georgios; Karona, Paraskevi; Katsougris, Nikolaos; Bobolakis, Emmanouil

2014-01-01

222

Postpartum spontaneous subcapsular hepatic hematoma related to preeclampsia.  

PubMed

Subcapsular hematoma of the liver represents an unusual clinical phenomenon in the pregnancy and postpartum period with serious complications in terms of fetal and maternal mortality. Here we report a case of a 32-year-old primiparous female at 36 weeks of gestation, admitted to a maternity ward of a private clinic for preeclampsia. The woman underwent an emergency caesarean section with the extraction of an alive foetus. A few hours after delivery, she was transferred to the emergency department of our institution complaining of severe epigastric pain. Diagnostic work-up was suggestive of a subcapsular right lob hepatic hematoma which was successfully managed conservatively. Timely diagnosis is necessary for the prevention of life-threatening events in mother and fetus. For this reason acute care physicians have to be vigilant of the condition and consider this in the differential diagnosis of epigastric pain during pregnancy and postpartum. PMID:25202460

Anyfantakis, Dimitrios; Kastanakis, Miltiades; Fragiadakis, Georgios; Karona, Paraskevi; Katsougris, Nikolaos; Bobolakis, Emmanouil

2014-01-01

223

Early Postpartum Pharmacokinetics of Lopinavir Initiated Intrapartum in Thai Women ? †  

PubMed Central

Lopinavir (LPV) exposure is reduced during the third trimester of pregnancy. We report the pharmacokinetics of standard LPV-ritonavir dosing (400/100 mg twice daily) in the immediate and early postpartum period when initiated during labor. In 16 human immunodeficiency virus-infected Thai women, the median (range) LPV area under the concentration-time curve and maximum and minimum concentrations in plasma were 99.7 (66.1 to 180.5) ?g·h/ml, 11.2 (8.0 to 17.5) ?g/ml, and 4.6 (1.7 to 12.5) ?g/ml, respectively, at 41 (12 to 74) h after delivery. All of the women attained adequate LPV levels through 30 days postpartum. No serious adverse events were reported. PMID:19237646

Cressey, Tim R.; Van Dyke, Russell; Jourdain, Gonzague; Puthanakit, Thanyawee; Roongpisuthipong, Anuvat; Achalapong, Jullapong; Yuthavisuthi, Prapap; Prommas, Sinart; Chotivanich, Nantasak; Maupin, Robert; Smith, Elizabeth; Shapiro, David E.; Mirochnick, Mark

2009-01-01

224

Intimate partner abuse before and during pregnancy as risk factors for postpartum mental health problems  

PubMed Central

Background Although research has established the profound effects that intimate partner abuse can have on postpartum mental health, little is known regarding how this association may change as a function of the timing and type of abuse. This study examined associations of psychological, physical and sexual abuse experienced as adults before and during pregnancy with symptoms of postpartum mental health problems in a non-clinical sample of women. Methods English-speaking mothers aged 18 years and older in the metropolitan area of a large, Western Canadian city were recruited to participate in a study of women’s health after pregnancy. The study was advertised in hospitals, local newspapers, community venues, and relevant websites. One-hundred women completed standardized, self-report questionnaires during semi-structured interviews conducted by female research assistants at approximately 2 months postpartum. In addition to questions about their general health and well-being, participants answered questions about their experiences of intimate partner abuse and about their mental health during the postpartum period. Results Almost two-thirds (61.0%) of women reported postpartum mental health symptoms above normal levels, with 47.0% reporting symptoms at moderate or higher levels. The majority reported some form of intimate partner abuse before pregnancy (84.0%) and more than two-thirds (70.0%), during pregnancy; however, the abuse was typically minor in nature. Multivariate models revealed that women who experienced intimate partner abuse—whether before or during pregnancy—reported higher levels of postpartum mental health problems; however, associations differed as a function of the timing and type of abuse, as well as specific mental health symptoms. Multivariate models also showed that as the number of types of intimate partner abuse experienced increased, so did the negative effects on postpartum mental health. Conclusions Results of this study provide further evidence that intimate partner abuse is a risk factor for postpartum mental health problems. They also underscore the complex risks and needs associated with intimate partner abuse among postpartum women and support the use of integrated approaches to treating postpartum mental health problems. Future efforts should focus on the extent to which strategies designed to reduce intimate partner abuse also improve postpartum mental health and vice versus. PMID:24708777

2014-01-01

225

Postpartum MR diagnosis of retained placenta accreta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retained placenta accreta can cause catastrophic postpartum hemorrhage. This study aims to determine whether MR imaging can differentiate retained placenta accreta from postpartum hemorrhage caused by other conditions. Fourteen cases suspicious for retained placenta were examined with MR imaging. Signal intensity, the enhancing pattern of uterine contents, and flow voids within the myometrium were retrospectively studied. As hysterectomy was performed

YumikoOishi Tanaka; Sadahiko Shigemitsu; Yoshihito Ichikawa; Satoshi Sohda; Hiroyuki Yoshikawa; Yuji Itai

2004-01-01

226

Comparison of shortened and conventional dry period management strategies.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare 2 dry-cow management strategies and evaluate the effect of shortened dry period strategy on feed intake, metabolism, and postpartum performance of dairy cows in early lactation. Twenty-nine high-yielding dairy cows were divided into 2 groups. The control (CON) group (n=14) was assigned to a traditional dry period of approximately 60 d (57±5.9 d) and was fed a far-off dry cow ration from dry-off to -21 d relative to expected parturition. From d -21 relative to expected parturition, the cows were switched to a precalving ration containing an additional 3kg of concentrates. The cows of the experimental group (n=15) were assigned to a shortened dry period (SDP; 35±6.3 d) and were continuously fed a late-lactation diet from d -60 d relative to expected parturition until calving. After calving, both groups were fed the same lactation diet corresponding to their lactation requirements and cows were followed for 100 d of lactation. Prepartum dry matter intake of the cows assigned to an SDP and fed a late-lactation diet was approximately 4.11kg/cow per day greater compared with the CON group during the 60 d. However, no effect of dry period strategy on postpartum dry matter intake was detected. The cows with an SDP produced approximately 2.78kg/d (6.9%) less milk in the first 100 d of lactation than CON cows; the difference was not statistically significant. No differences were observed in live body weight, body condition score, or back-fat thickness between the treatments. Similarly, no differences existed in concentrations of plasma metabolites. The cows of the SDP group showed lower pH and increased concentrations of lactic acid and volatile fatty acids prepartum than the CON cows. Postpartum concentrations of lactic acid, volatile fatty acids, and NH3 and pH in rumen fluid did not differ between the treatments. Shortening of the dry period did not affect the colostrum quality or birth weights of the calves. Based on the results of this study, a traditional dry period management strategy appeared to be more favorable, considering the dry matter intake and milk production, compared with an SDP and feeding a late-lactation diet throughout the dry period. PMID:24997667

Cermakova, J; Kudrna, V; Simeckova, M; Vyborna, A; Dolezal, P; Illek, J

2014-09-01

227

A natural model of behavioral depression in postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).  

PubMed

Postpartum depression (PPD) is a modified form of major depressive disorders (MDD) that can exert profound negative effects on both mothers and infants than MDD. Within the postpartum period, both mothers and infants are susceptible; but because PPD typically occurs for short durations and has moderate symptoms, there exists challenges in exploring and addressing the underlying cause of the depression. This fact highlights the need for relevant animal models. In the present study, postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) living in breeding groups were observed for typical depressive behavior. The huddle posture behavior was utilized as an indicator of behavioral depression postpartum (BDP) as it has been established as the core depressive-like behavior in primates. Monkeys were divided into two groups: A BDP group (n=6), which were found to spend more time huddling over the first two weeks postpartum than other individuals that formed a non-depression control group (n=4). The two groups were then further analyzed for locomotive activity, stressful events, hair cortisol levels and for maternal interactive behaviors. No differences were found between the BDP and control groups in locomotive activity, in the frequencies of stressful events experienced and in hair cortisol levels. These findings suggested that the postpartum depression witnessed in the monkeys was not related to external factors other than puerperium period. Interestingly, the BDP monkeys displayed an abnormal maternal relationship consisting of increased infant grooming. Taken together, these findings suggest that the adult female cynomolgus monkeys provide a natural model of behavioral postpartum depression that holds a number of advantages over commonly used rodent systems in PPD modeling. The cynomolgus monkeys have a highly-organized social hierarchy and reproductive characteristics without seasonal restriction-similar to humans-as well as much greater homology to humans than rodents. As such, this model may provide a greater translational efficiency and research platform for systematically investigating the etiology, treatment, prevention of PPD. PMID:24866487

Chu, Xun-Xun; Dominic Rizak, Joshua; Yang, Shang-Chuan; Wang, Jian-Hong; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Hu, Xin-Tian

2014-05-01

228

Active Mothers Postpartum A Randomized Controlled Weight-Loss Intervention Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Pregnancy may contribute to overweight and obesity. Purpose The primary objective of Active Mothers Postpartum was to promote a reduction in BMI through 24-months postpartum via sustainable lifestyle changes. Design Behavioral intervention RCT to enhance postpartum weight loss. Setting/participants A total of 450 overweight or obese women, enrolled 6-weeks postpartum, were recruited through obstetrics clinics and community posters in the Durham NC area. Intervention Intervention participants were offered eight healthy-eating classes, ten physical-activity classes, and six telephone-counseling sessions over 9 months. Main outcome measures Changes from baseline (6-weeks postpartum) to 1-month post-intervention (12-months postpartum) in: (1) diet (caloric intake, calories from fat, intake of certain foods); (2) physical activity (self-reported physical activity, television time); and (3) weight (collected 2004–2007, analyzed 2007–2008). Results Mean weight loss was 0.90 kg (±5.1 kg) in the intervention group and 0.36 kg (±4.9 kg) in the control group; this difference was not significant. There were also no significant group differences in improvement of diet or increased physical activity. In secondary analyses, there was a positive bivariate relationship between classes attended and weight loss (p=0.01). Conclusions There were no significant differences among the arms in diet, physical activity, or weight change. Home-based interventions via mail, telephone, or Internet/e-mail may be more feasible and successful in this population. The postpartum period is an important phase in women’s lives with regard to weight retention, but engaging them during this busy period remains a challenge. PMID:19595557

Østbye, Truls; Krause, Katrina M.; Lovelady, Cheryl A.; Morey, Miriam C.; Bastian, Lori A.; Peterson, Bercedis L.; Swamy, Geeta K.; Brouwer, Rebecca J.N.; McBride, Colleen M.

2009-01-01

229

Postpartum acute renal failure: a multicenter study of risk factors in patients admitted to ICU  

PubMed Central

Background Even in developed countries, severe specific pregnancy complications may occur in the immediate postpartum period and require admission to the ICU. The characteristics and risk factors of acute renal failure (ARF) induced by these complications and their treatments are not well known. Methods We performed a retrospective multicenter study in three intensive care departments linked to level III maternity wards in the north of France. All patients admitted to ICU for postpartum complications over a 5-year period (2008 to 2012) were included. Clinical and biological data, delivery characteristics, type of complications, and treatments were compared by univariate and multivariate analyses according to the occurrence and severity of ARF. Results One hundred eighty-two patients admitted to ICU for postpartum complications were included in the study. Sixty-eight patients (37%) developed an ARF: 49 with a low or medium severity and 19 with a severe ARF requiring renal replacement therapy. Hemolysis, elevated liver enzyme, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome on its own (p = 0.047) or combined with postpartum haemorrhage (p = 0.003), previous treatment by hyperoncotic albumin infusion (p = 0.001) and blockade of fibrinolysis by tranexamic acid (p = 0.03), was associated with secondary ARF. By multivariate analysis, the only independent factors were the association of HELLP syndrome with postpartum haemorrhage and the use of hyperoncotic albumin infusion. Conclusions HELLP syndrome associated with postpartum haemorrhage induces a high risk of ARF in the complicated postpartum setting. A particular attention should be given to treatments that could worsen the kidney function in that situation. PMID:25593752

2014-01-01

230

The views of mothers and GPs about postpartum care in Australian general practice  

PubMed Central

Background The postpartum period is a time of increased morbidity for mothers and infants under 12 months, yet is an under-researched area of primary care. Despite a relatively clear framework for involving general practitioners (GPs) in antenatal care, the structure of maternity service provision in some Australian jurisdictions has resulted in highly variable roles of general practice in routine postpartum care. This study aimed to investigate the views and experiences of mothers and GPs about postpartum care in general practice. Methods This was a qualitative study of mothers and GPs in rural, regional and metropolitan areas of Queensland, Australia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 88 mothers and six general practitioners between September 2010 and February 2012. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed thematically and compared across groups. Results Three main themes emerged: The relationship between the mother and GP; practice management; and GP visits. This paper focuses on the theme GP visits and its subthemes: recommendations for GP visits; scope of practice; and content of a routine visit. Recommendations about GP visits given to mothers varied by birthing sector, obstetric provider and model of maternity care resulting in confusion amongst mothers about the timing and role of GPs in routine postpartum care. Similarly, GPs voiced concerns about a lack of consistent guidelines for their involvement in routine postpartum care. Although ideally placed to provide primary care to mothers and their infants in the postpartum period, the lack of consistent guidelines for the role of GPs is of concern to both the GPs and early parenting women. Conclusion General practice is an important source of postpartum care for mothers and provides a basis for ongoing support for the family. More consistent guidelines and better coordination with other care providers would benefit both mothers and GPs. PMID:24066802

2013-01-01

231

Probable hepatic capillariosis and hydatidosis in an adolescent from the late Roman period buried in Amiens (France)  

PubMed Central

Two calcified objects recovered from a 3rd to 4th-century grave of an adolescent in Amiens (Northern France) were identified as probable hydatid cysts. By using thin-section petrographic techniques, probable Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) eggs were identified in the wall of the cysts. Human hepatic capillariosis has not been reported from archaeological material so far, but could be expected given the poor level of environmental hygiene prevalent in this period. Identification of tissue-dwelling parasites such as C. hepaticum in archaeological remains is particularly dependent on preservation conditions and taphonomic changes and should be interpreted with caution due to morphological similarities with Trichuris sp. eggs. PMID:24572211

Mowlavi, Gholamreza; Kacki, Sacha; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Mobedi, Iraj; Makki, Mahsasadat; Harandi, Majid Fasihi; Naddaf, Saied Reza

2014-01-01

232

Probable hepatic capillariosis and hydatidosis in an adolescent from the late Roman period buried in Amiens (France).  

PubMed

Two calcified objects recovered from a 3rd to 4th-century grave of an adolescent in Amiens (Northern France) were identified as probable hydatid cysts. By using thin-section petrographic techniques, probable Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) eggs were identified in the wall of the cysts. Human hepatic capillariosis has not been reported from archaeological material so far, but could be expected given the poor level of environmental hygiene prevalent in this period. Identification of tissue-dwelling parasites such as C. hepaticum in archaeological remains is particularly dependent on preservation conditions and taphonomic changes and should be interpreted with caution due to morphological similarities with Trichuris sp. eggs. PMID:24572211

Mowlavi, Gholamreza; Kacki, Sacha; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Mobedi, Iraj; Makki, Mahsasadat; Harandi, Majid Fasihi; Naddaf, Saied Reza

2014-01-01

233

Simulating the Antarctic ice sheet in the Late-Pliocene warm period: PLISMIP-ANT, an ice-sheet model intercomparison project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of future climate change, understanding the nature and behaviour of ice sheets during warm intervals in Earth history is of fundamental importance. The Late-Pliocene Warm Period (also known as the PRISM interval: 3.29 to 2.97 million years before present) can serve as a potential analogue for projected future climates, with a global annual mean surface-air temperature warming of 1.76 °C. Although Pliocene ice locations and surface extents are still poorly constrained, a significant contribution to sea-level rise should be expected from Greenland and West and, possibly, East Antarctica based on palaeo sea-level reconstructions. Here, we present results from simulations of the Antarctic ice sheet by means of an international Pliocene Ice Sheet Modeling Intercomparison Project (PLISMIP-ANT). We include an overview of the different ice-sheet models used and how specific model configurations influence the resulting Pliocene Antarctic ice sheet. For the experiments, ice-sheet models including the shallow ice and shelf approximations have been used to simulate the complete Antarctic domain (including grounded and floating ice). We compare the performance of the ice-sheet models in simulating modern control and Pliocene ice sheets by a suite of sensitivity experiments. Ice-sheet model forcing fields are taken from the PlioMIP results incorporating multiple coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (GCM). We show that ice-sheet models simulate a present-day ice sheet which is comparable to the observations, and find no systematic biases introduced when using different GCM forcing relative to observational climate forcing. This project includes multiple ice-sheet models forced with multiple climate model output, from which a comprehensive assessment can be made as to the uncertainties of ice-sheet extent on Antarctica. These results may eventually serve as a new constraint on the extent of the Antarctic ice sheet during the Late-Pliocene Warm Period for use in climate modelling experiments.

de Boer, Bas; Dolan, Aisling M.; Hill, Daniel J.; van de Wal, Roderik S. W.

2014-05-01

234

Oxytocin in Pregnancy and the Postpartum: Relations to Labor and Its Management  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine variations in endogenous oxytocin levels in pregnancy and postpartum state. We also explored the associations between delivery variables and oxytocin levels. A final sample of 272 mothers in their first trimester of pregnancy was included for the study. Blood samples were drawn during the first trimester and third trimester of pregnancy and at 8?weeks postpartum. Socio-demographic data were collected at each time point and medical files were consulted for delivery details. In most women, levels of circulating oxytocin increased from the first to third trimester of pregnancy followed by a decrease in the postpartum period. Oxytocin levels varied considerably between individuals, ranging from 50?pg/mL to over 2000?pg/mL. Parity was the main predictor of oxytocin levels in the third trimester of pregnancy and of oxytocin level changes from the first to the third trimester of pregnancy. Oxytocin levels in the third trimester of pregnancy predicted a self-reported negative labor experience and increased the chances of having an epidural. Intrapartum exogenous oxytocin was positively associated with levels of oxytocin during the postpartum period. Our exploratory results suggest that circulating oxytocin levels during the third trimester of pregnancy may predict the type of labor a woman will experience. More importantly, the quantity of intrapartum exogenous oxytocin administered during labor predicted plasma oxytocin levels 2?months postpartum, suggesting a possible long-term effect of this routine intervention, the consequences of which are largely unknown. PMID:24479112

Prevost, Marie; Zelkowitz, Phyllis; Tulandi, Togas; Hayton, Barbara; Feeley, Nancy; Carter, C. Sue; Joseph, Lawrence; Pournajafi-Nazarloo, Hossein; Yong Ping, Erin; Abenhaim, Haim; Gold, Ian

2014-01-01

235

Glacial cycle and precessional period of clay mineral assemblage during late Quaternary in the Western Equatorial Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clay mineralogy, coupled with oxygen isotope records and elemental XRF scanning data, have been conducted on Core KX21-2 recovered from the Ontong Java Plateau, Western Equatorial Pacific. The clay mineral assemblage over the last 370 kyr displays strong glacial-interglacial cyclicity, with higher contents of smectite (average 76%), lower contents of chlorite (10%), illite (8%) and kaolinite (6%) during glacials, and vice versa. Fe mainly originates from smectite, and has therefore been used to represent it. In addition to glacial cycle (100 ka), spectral analysis reveals that Fe contents also display precessional period (26.8 ka and 14.4 ka). The question is, why and how the features of high-latitude and tropical-process could be exhibited in concert? The clay mineral assemblage dominating by smectite is detrital, and derived from river sediment of New Guinea, though possibly minor Asian dust. Fluctuation of sea-level combined with contrasting styles of Source-to-Sink in New Guinea cause the glacial-interglacial cycles of clay mineral assemblage. Regardless of sea-level, river sediments can travel across the narrow shelves off the northern New Guinea and then inject directly into New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent, which finally contribute Equatorial Undercurrent. In contrast, when the sea-level were high, only few sediment could be transported from southern New Guinea to the Western Equatorial Pacific, possibly by surface current. Considering the positive correlation between contents of smectite and feldspar/quartz ratios, we conclude that, because of the limitation of weathering time, the contents of smectite essentially indicate the intensity of mechanical erosion, responding to the river runoff and precipitation. Furthermore, due to the regional precipitation pattern is under control of ITCZ, these variations of smectite reflect the meridional migration of ITCZ, indirectly.

Wu, J.; Liu, Z.; Zhou, C.

2011-12-01

236

Antenatal psychosocial risk factors associated with adverse postpartum family outcomes.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine the strength of the association between antenatal psychosocial risk factors and adverse postpartum outcomes in the family, such as assault of women by their partner, child abuse, postpartum depression, marital dysfunction and physical illness. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Cinahl, Famli, Psych Abstracts and the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials were searched from relevant articles published from Jan. 1, 1980, to Dec. 31, 1993, with the use of MeSH terms "depression, involutional," "child abuse," "child neglect," "domestic violence," "family," "marital adjustment," "family health," "newborn health," "child health," "physical illness," "social support," "psychosocial risk," "prediction," "risk factors," "obstetrics" and "prenatal care." Further articles were identified from bibliographies. STUDY SELECTION: Of the 370 articles identified through the search, 118 were included for review. Studies were included if they examined the association between psychosocial risk factors and the outcomes of interest. Articles were excluded if they were reviews of poor quality or they had one or more of the following features: insufficient description of the sample, a high attrition rate, a lack of standardized outcome measures, outcomes other than the ones of interest or results that had already been reported in a previous study. DATA EXTRACTION: The strength of evidence of each study was evaluated. On the basis of the evidence, each risk factor was assigned a rating of the strength of its association with each of the postpartum outcomes. The ratings were class A (good evidence of association), class B (fair evidence) and class C (no clear evidence). Of the 129 antenatal psychosocial risk factors studied, 15 were found to have a class A association with at least one of the postpartum outcomes. DATA SYNTHESIS: Child abuse and abuse of the mother by her partner were most strongly correlated (class A evidence) with a history of lack of social support, recent life stressors, psychiatric disturbance in the mother and an unwanted pregnancy. Child abuse was also strongly associated with a history of childhood violence in the mother or her partner, previous child abuse by the mother's partner, a poor relationship between the mother and her parents, low self-esteem in the mother and lack of attendance at prenatal classes. Postpartum abuse of the mother was also associated with a history of abuse of the mother, prenatal care not started until the third trimester and alcohol or drug abuse by the mother or her partner (class A evidence). Child abuse had a fair (class B) association with poor marital adjustment or satisfaction, current or past abuse of the mother and alcohol or drug abuse by the mother or her partner. There was class B evidence supporting an association between abuse of the mother and poor marital adjustment, traditional sex-role expectations, a history of childhood violence in the mother or her partner and low self-esteem in the mother. Postpartum depression was most strongly associated with poor marital adjustment, recent life stressors, antepartum depression (class A evidence), but was also associated with lack of social support, abuse of the mother and a history of psychiatric disorder in the mother (class B evidence). Marital dysfunction was associated with poor marital adjustment before the birth and traditional sex-role expectations (class A evidence), and physical illness was correlated with recent life stressors (class B evidence). CONCLUSIONS: Psychosocial risk factors during the antenatal period may herald postpartum morbidity. Research is required to determine whether detection of these risk factors may lead to interventions that improve postpartum family outcomes. PMID:8634957

Wilson, L M; Reid, A J; Midmer, D K; Biringer, A; Carroll, J C; Stewart, D E

1996-01-01

237

The Effects of Rhodobacter capsulatus KCTC-2583 on Cholesterol Metabolism, Egg Production and Quality Parameters during the Late Laying Periods in Hens  

PubMed Central

An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of Rhodobacter capsulatus KCTC-2583 on egg-yolk and serum cholesterol, egg production and quality parameters during the late laying periods in hens. A total of 160 Hy-Line Brown layers (54 wk-old) were randomly allotted to 4 treatment groups on the basis of laying performance. Each treatment had 4 replicates with 10 birds each (40 birds per treatment). Two hens were confined individually with cage size 35×35×40 cm and each 10 birds (5 cages) shared a common feed trough between them forming one experimental unit. Dietary treatments were; basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15% R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Experimental diets were fed in meal form for 56 d. Dietary supplementation of increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 reduced (linear, p<0.05) egg-yolk cholesterol and triglycerides (d 28, 42 and 56) concentrations. Also, serum cholesterol and triglycerides (d 21, 42 and 56) concentrations were linearly reduced (p<0.05) with increasing dietary R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Laying hens fed a diet supplemented with increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 had increased (linear; p<0.05) overall egg production, egg weight, egg mass and feed efficiency. However, dietary treatments had no effect (linear or quadratic; p>0.05) on feed intake of laying hens. At d 28 and 56, breaking strength and yolk colour of eggs were linearly improved (p<0.05) in laying hens fed dietary increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Dietary treatment had no effects (linear or quadratic; p>0.05) on albumin height, shell thickness and shell weight at any period of experiment. These results indicate that dietary supplementation of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 has the potential to improve the laying hen performance and lead to the development of low cholesterol eggs during late laying period in Hy-Line Brown hens. PMID:25049857

Lokhande, Anushka; Ingale, S. L.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, J. S.; Lohakare, J. D.; Chae, B. J.; Kwon, I. K.

2013-01-01

238

An examination of prenatal and postpartum depressive symptoms among women served by urban community health centers.  

PubMed

We characterized depressive symptoms in the prenatal and/or postpartum periods and examined associated risk factors among 594 women who received care at community health care centers. Women were screened with comprehensive risk assessments, which included the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 depression screen, during pregnancy and at least 4 weeks after delivery. Fifteen percent had depressive symptoms in the prenatal period only; 6 % in the postpartum period only, and 8 % had depressive symptoms in both periods. Risk markers varied for women who reported depressive symptoms at one period only compared with those who reported persistent depressive symptoms. Age (25 years versus younger), having experienced abuse, not living with the infant's father, and cigarette smoking were associated with depressive symptoms at both periods; being US-born, lacking social support, and experiencing food insecurity were associated with reporting symptoms only in the prenatal period, and lack of phone access was associated with risk only in the postpartum period. Our findings confirm the importance of repeated screenings for depressive symptoms during the perinatal period. The variability in risk markers associated with periods of reported depressive symptoms may reflect their varying associations with persistence, new onset, or recovery from depressive symptoms. PMID:24037098

Sidebottom, Abbey C; Hellerstedt, Wendy L; Harrison, Patricia A; Hennrikus, Deborah

2014-02-01

239

Postpartum depression: psychoneuroimmunological underpinnings and treatment  

PubMed Central

Postpartum depression (PPD) is common, occurring in 10%–15% of women. Due to concerns about teratogenicity of medications in the suckling infant, the treatment of PPD has often been restricted to psychotherapy. We review here the biological underpinnings to PPD, suggesting a powerful role for the tryptophan catabolites, indoleamine 2,3-dixoygenase, serotonin, and autoimmunity in mediating the consequences of immuno-inflammation and oxidative and nitrosative stress. It is suggested that the increased inflammatory potential, the decreases in endogenous anti-inflammatory compounds together with decreased omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids, in the postnatal period cause an inflammatory environment. The latter may result in the utilization of peripheral inflammatory products, especially kynurenine, in driving the central processes producing postnatal depression. The pharmacological treatment of PPD is placed in this context, and recommendations for more refined and safer treatments are made, including the better utilization of the antidepressant, and the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of melatonin. PMID:23459664

Anderson, George; Maes, Michael

2013-01-01

240

Population-based screening for postpartum depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To estimate the community prevalence in Olmsted County, Minnesota of elevated scores on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, a self-report screening tool for postpartum depression.Methods: At the 6-week postpartum visit, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was administered to women who gave birth in Olmsted County between July 28, 1997 and March 28, 1998. Study sites included all ambulatory clinics

Anna M Georgiopoulos; Tonya L Bryan; Barbara P Yawn; Margaret S Houston; Teresa A Rummans; Terry M Therneau

1999-01-01

241

Evidence of proviral clearance following postpartum transmission of an ovine lentivirus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lentiviral transmission by transfer of infected colostrum and/or milk is considered to be highly efficient. In this study, postpartum transmission of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) from 10 naturally infected ewes to their 23 lambs was followed from the perinatal period throughout a four y...

242

Impact of Psychological Disorders on Postpartum Mothers and Child: Current Issue in Remediation in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is a multicultural, multiethnic, pluralistic society with enormous socioeconomic disparities, and it is a formidable task to provide affordable and effective mental health care, especially to the remote rural corners of the country. The unfortunate aspect of the Indian mental health scenario is that there exists very poor awareness of the maternal health risks of the postpartum period. It

Elizabeth Daniel

2008-01-01

243

Adherence to antiretroviral treatment among pregnant and postpartum HIV-infected women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among women with HIV infection, pregnancy is a time when maintenance of maternal health and reduction of vertical HIV transmission are primary concerns. Few studies have examined adherence to Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) during pregnancy and in the postpartum period when the demands of childcare may significantly interfere with women's self-care behaviors. This study examined ART use and adherence in HIV-infected

C. A. Mellins; C. Chu; K. Malee; S. Allison; R. Smith; L. Harris; A. Higgins; C. Zorrilla; S. Landesman; L. Serchuck; P. Larussa

2008-01-01

244

Endocrine regulation of postpartum ovarian activity in cattle : a review (1)  

E-print Network

period is longer in suckled cows (30 to 110 days) than in milked cattle (20 to 70 days). The physiology on their synthesis. Suckling or the presence of a calf can exercise its action via oestrogens. Suckling inhibits and glucocorticoids hormones are much less understood. 1. Clinical aspects of postpartum anoestrus. Clinically

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

245

Impact of antenatal depression on perinatal outcomes and postpartum depression in Korean women  

PubMed Central

Background: Maternal prenatal mental health has been shown to be associated with adverse consequences for the mother and the child. However, studies considering the effect of prenatal depressive symptoms are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of antenatal depressive symptoms on obstetric outcomes and to determine associations between antenatal and postpartum depressions. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cohort study. The Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS) questionnaire was completed by pregnant women receiving obstetrical care at Seoul St. Mary's hospital in the third trimester of gestation. The electronic medical records were reviewed after delivery and perinatal outcomes were evaluated. The association between antenatal and postpartum depression was analyzed using the EPDS questionnaire, which was completed by the same women within 2 months of delivery. Results: Of the 467 participants, 26.34% (n = 123) had antenatal depressive symptoms, with EPDS scores of ?10. There were no significant perinatal outcomes associated with antenatal depressive symptoms. During the postpartum period, 192 of the women in the initial study cohort were given the EPDS again as a follow-up. Of the 192 participants, 56 (29.17%) scored >10. Spearman correlation coefficient between the antenatal and postpartum EPDS scores was 0.604, which was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Antenatal depression does not lead to unfavorable perinatal outcomes. However, screening for antenatal depression may be helpful to identify women at risk of postpartum depression.

Choi, Sae Kyung; Park, Yong Gyu; Park, In Yang; Ko, Hyun Sun; Shin, Jong Chul

2014-01-01

246

Effects of prenatal care on maternal postpartum behaviors  

PubMed Central

Most research on the effectiveness of prenatal care has focused on birth outcomes and has found small or no effects. It is possible, however, that prenatal care is “too little too late” to improve pregnancy outcomes in the aggregate, but that it increases the use of pediatric health care or improves maternal health-related parenting practices and, ultimately, child health. We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing birth cohort study that have been augmented with hospital medical record data to estimate effects of prenatal care timing on pediatric health care utilization and health-related parenting behaviors during the first year of the child’s life. We focus on maternal postpartum smoking, preventive health care visits for the child, and breastfeeding. We use a multi-pronged approach to address the potential endogeneity of the timing of prenatal care. We find that first trimester prenatal care appears to decrease maternal postpartum smoking by about 5 percentage points and increase the likelihood of 4 or more well-baby visits by about 1 percentage point, and that it may also have a positive effect on breastfeeding. These findings suggest that there are benefits to standard prenatal care that are generally not considered in evaluations of prenatal care programs and interventions. PMID:20582158

Reichman, Nancy E.; Corman, Hope; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira

2010-01-01

247

Postpartum hemorrhage--update on problems of definitions and diagnosis.  

PubMed

Maternal mortality due to postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) continues to be one of the most important causes of maternal death worldwide. PPH is a significantly underestimated obstetric problem, primarily because a lack of definition and diagnosis. The 'traditional' definition of primary PPH based on quantification of blood loss has several limitations. Notoriously, blood loss is not measured or is significantly underestimated by visual estimation and there are no generally accepted cut-offs limits for estimated blood loss. A definition based on hematocrit change is not clinically useful in an emergency such as PPH, as a fall in hematocrit postpartum shows poor correlation with acute blood loss. The need for erythrocyte transfusion alone to define PPH is also of limited value, as the practice of blood transfusion varies widely. Definitions based on symptoms of hemodynamic instability are problematic, as they are late signs of depleted blood volume and commencing failure of compensatory mechanisms threatening the mother's life. There is thus currently no single, satisfactory definition of primary PPH. Proper and timely diagnosis of PPH should above all include accurate estimation of blood loss before vital signs change. Estimation of blood loss by calibrated bags has been shown to be significantly more accurate than visual estimation at vaginal delivery. Careful monitoring of the mother's vital signs, laboratory tests, in particular coagulation testing, and immediate diagnosis of the cause of PPH are important key factors to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:21332452

Rath, Werner H

2011-05-01

248

[Health education in pregnancy and postpartum: meanings attributed by puerperal women].  

PubMed

Descriptive study, qualitative, that aimed to capture the content of social representations of puerperal women on health education in pregnancy and postpartum in primary health care. Users were 31 Family Health Centers in Fortaleza, Ceará, over 18 years in the postpartum period, with at least six visits to prenatal and one postpartum consultation. It was held a lexical analysis of data from semi-structured interviews with the software ALCESTE. The representations of puerperal women on health education are linked to institutional educational practices, with emphasis on lectures, family and school education, and community education. It predominate the traditional pedagogy, with the transmission of information, punctual and widespread. It is necessary to change the pedagogical logic, expanding educational groups with knowledge sharing. PMID:24676063

Guerreiro, Eryjosy Marculino; Rodrigues, Dafne Paiva; Queiroz, Ana Beatriz Azevedo; Ferreira, Márcia de Assunção

2014-01-01

249

Effects of Space Flight on Ovarian-Hypophyseal Function in Postpartum Rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of space flight in a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) shuttle was studied in pregnant rats. Rats were launched on day 9 of gestation and recovered on day 20 of gestation. On day 20 of gestation, rats were unilaterally hysterectomized and subsequently allowed to go to term and deliver vaginally. There was no effect of space flight on pituitary and ovary mass postpartum. In addition, space flight did not alter healthy and atretic ovarian antral follicle populations, fetal wastage in utero, plasma concentrations of progesterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) or pituitary content of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). Space flight significantly increased plasma concentrations of FSH and decreased pituitary content of LH at the postpartum sampling time. Collectively, these data show that space flight, initiated during the postimplantation period of pregnancy, and concluded before parturition, is compatible with maintenance of pregnancy and has minimal effects on postpartum hypophyseal parameters; however, none of the ovarian parameters examined was altered by space flight.

Burden, H. W.; Zary, J.; Lawrence, I. E.; Jonnalagadda, P.; Davis, M.; Hodson, C. A.

1997-01-01

250

Incident HIV during Pregnancy and Postpartum and Risk of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Women may have persistent risk of HIV acquisition during pregnancy and postpartum. Estimating risk of HIV during these periods is important to inform optimal prevention approaches. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate maternal HIV incidence during pregnancy/postpartum and to compare mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) risk among women with incident versus chronic infection. Methods and Findings We searched PubMed, Embase, and AIDS-related conference abstracts between January 1, 1980, and October 31, 2013, for articles and abstracts describing HIV acquisition during pregnancy/postpartum. The inclusion criterion was studies with data on recent HIV during pregnancy/postpartum. Random effects models were constructed to pool HIV incidence rates, cumulative HIV incidence, hazard ratios (HRs), or odds ratios (ORs) summarizing the association between pregnancy/postpartum status and HIV incidence, and MTCT risk and rates. Overall, 1,176 studies met the search criteria, of which 78 met the inclusion criterion, and 47 contributed data. Using data from 19 cohorts representing 22,803 total person-years, the pooled HIV incidence rate during pregnancy/postpartum was 3.8/100 person-years (95% CI 3.0–4.6): 4.7/100 person-years during pregnancy and 2.9/100 person-years postpartum (p?=?0.18). Pooled cumulative HIV incidence was significantly higher in African than non-African countries (3.6% versus 0.3%, respectively; p<0.001). Risk of HIV was not significantly higher among pregnant (HR 1.3, 95% CI 0.5–2.1) or postpartum women (HR 1.1, 95% CI 0.6–1.6) than among non-pregnant/non-postpartum women in five studies with available data. In African cohorts, MTCT risk was significantly higher among women with incident versus chronic HIV infection in the postpartum period (OR 2.9, 95% CI 2.2–3.9) or in pregnancy/postpartum periods combined (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2–4.4). However, the small number of studies limited power to detect associations and sources of heterogeneity. Conclusions Pregnancy and the postpartum period are times of persistent HIV risk, at rates similar to “high risk” cohorts. MTCT risk was elevated among women with incident infections. Detection and prevention of incident HIV in pregnancy/postpartum should be prioritized, and is critical to decrease MTCT. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24586123

Drake, Alison L.; Wagner, Anjuli; Richardson, Barbra; John-Stewart, Grace

2014-01-01

251

Plants used during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum healthcare in Lao PDR: A comparative study of the Brou, Saek and Kry ethnic groups  

PubMed Central

Background In many Southeast Asian cultures the activities and diet during the postpartum period are culturally dictated and a period of confinement is observed. Plants play an important role in recovery during the postpartum period in diet, traditional medicine, steam bath and mother roasting (where mother and child placed on a bed above a brazier with charcoal embers on which aromatic plants are laid). This research focuses on the use of plants during pregnancy, parturition, postpartum recovery and infant healthcare among three ethnic groups, the Brou, Saek and Kry. It aims to identify culturally important traditions that may facilitate implementation of culturally appropriate healthcare. Methods Data were collected in 10 different villages in Khammouane province, Lao PDR, through group and individual interviews with women by female interviewers. Results A total of 55 different plant species are used in women's healthcare, of which over 90% are used in postpartum recovery. Consensus Analysis rejects the hypothesis that the three ethnic groups belong to a single culture for postpartum plant use, and multidimensional scaling reveals non-overlapping clusters per ethnic group. Conclusion Medicinal plant use is common among the Brou, Saek and Kry to facilitate childbirth, alleviate menstruation problems, assist recovery after miscarriage, mitigate postpartum haemorrhage, aid postpartum recovery, and for use in infant care. The wealth of novel insights into plant use and preparation will help to understand culturally important practices such as confinement, dietary restrictions, mother roasting and herbal steam baths and their incorporation into modern healthcare. PMID:19737413

de Boer, Hugo; Lamxay, Vichith

2009-01-01

252

Early postpartum maternal morbidity among rural women of Rajasthan, India: a community-based study.  

PubMed

The first postpartum week is a high-risk period for mothers and newborns. Very few community-based studies have been conducted on patterns of maternal morbidity in resource-poor countries in that first week. An intervention on postpartum care for women within the first week after delivery was initiated in a rural area of Rajasthan, India. The intervention included a rigorous system of receiving reports of all deliveries in a defined population and providing home-level postpartum care to all women, irrespective of the place of delivery. Trained nurse-midwives used a structured checklist for detecting and managing maternal and neonatal conditions during postpartum-care visits. A total of 4,975 women, representing 87.1% of all expected deliveries in a population of 58,000, were examined in their first postpartum week during January 2007-December 2010. Haemoglobin was tested for 77.1% of women (n=3,836) who had a postnatal visit. The most common morbidity was postpartum anaemia--7.4% of women suffered from severe anaemia and 46% from moderate anaemia. Other common morbidities were fever (4%), breast conditions (4.9%), and perineal conditions (4.5%). Life-threatening postpartum morbidities were detected in 7.6% of women--9.7% among those who had deliveries at home and 6.6% among those who had institutional deliveries. None had a fistula. Severe anaemia had a strong correlation with perinatal death [p<0.000, adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-2.99], delivery at home [p<0.000, AOR=1.64 (95% CI 1.27-2.15)], socioeconomically-underprivileged scheduled caste or tribe [p<0.000, AOR=2.47 (95% CI 1.83-3.33)], and parity of three or more [p<0.000, AOR=1.52 (95% CI 1.18-1.97)]. The correlation with antenatal care was not significant. Perineal conditions were more frequent among women who had institutional deliveries while breast conditions were more common among those who had a perinatal death. This study adds valuable knowledge on postpartum morbidity affecting women in the first few days after delivery in a low-resource setting. Health programmes should invest to ensure that all women receive early postpartum visits after delivery at home and after discharge from institution to detect and manage maternal morbidity. Further, health programmes should also ensure that women are properly screened for complications before their discharge from hospitals after delivery. PMID:22838163

Iyengar, Kirti

2012-06-01

253

Isotopic evidence for divergent diets and mobility patterns in the Atacama Desert, northern Chile, during the Late Intermediate Period (AD 900-1450).  

PubMed

The decline of the Tiwanaku state saw the emergence of two new cultures-Pica-Tarapacá and Atacama-during the Late Intermediate Period in northern Chile. Archeological evidence suggests that both groups practised maize agriculture and pastoralism, but that their interaction zones differed significantly. Marine resources are common at Pica-Tarapacá sites, even those far from coast, while Atacama sites in the desert oases and precordilleran area seem to have directed their networks towards the highlands. Here we apply stable carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotope analysis on human bone and enamel to test dietary patterns and residential mobility at two sites, Pica 8 and Quitor 6, representing the Pica-Tarapacá and Atacama cultures, respectively. Our results show that diet at the two sites indeed differed: significant but variable consumption of marine resources and maize is indicated at Pica 8, despite being an inland site, while diet at Quitor 6 was based mainly on terrestrial resources. The use of seabird guano and llama dung as fertilizers and extreme aridity may have contributed to the high nitrogen isotope values observed in Pica 8 humans. The ?(18) O values in Pica 8 individuals are generally lower than for Quitor in spite of its greater distance from the Andes. All three isotopes suggest the presence of at least five nonlocals in the 30 measured at Pica 8. This evidence for human mobility is consistent with the high levels of trade and interaction observed in the archeological record, and begins to quantify the degree of movement of specific individuals. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25385676

Santana-Sagredo, Francisca; Lee-Thorp, Julia A; Schulting, Rick; Uribe, Mauricio

2014-11-11

254

Physical activity patterns during pregnancy through postpartum  

PubMed Central

Background Realizing the importance of regular physical activity, particularly in the prevention of chronic diseases and unhealthy weight gain, it is important to study how physical activity changes during and after pregnancy using prospective study designs. The aim of this study was to describe the mode, duration, intensity, and changes in physical activity during pregnancy through one year postpartum among a cohort of women. Methods This study was part of the third Pregnancy, Infection and Nutrition Postpartum Study at the University of North Carolina Hospitals. A cohort of 471 women was followed at 17-22 and 27-30 weeks' gestation and at 3 and 12 months postpartum. The participants reported the mode, frequency, duration, and intensity of all physical activities that increased their breathing and heart rate in the past week. Results Overall physical activity for the cohort decreased from 17-22 weeks to 27-30 weeks of gestation, but rebounded up at 3 months postpartum and remained stable at 12 months postpartum. The mean MET h/wk values for each time point were 24.7 (standard deviation, SD 26.8), 19.1 (SD 18.9), 25.7 (SD 29.3), and 26.7 (SD 31.5). In postpartum, women reported more care-giving and recreational activity and less indoor household activity, as compared to their activity level during pregnancy. Conclusion For health benefits and weight management, health care professionals are encouraged to provide pregnant and postpartum women with information on recommendations of physical activity, particularly regarding the minimum duration and intensity level. PMID:19925650

2009-01-01

255

Advance distribution of misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) at home births in two districts of Liberia  

PubMed Central

Background A postpartum hemorrhage prevention program to increase uterotonic coverage for home and facility births was introduced in two districts of Liberia. Advance distribution of misoprostol was offered during antenatal care (ANC) and home visits. Feasibility, acceptability, effectiveness of distribution mechanisms and uterotonic coverage were evaluated. Methods Eight facilities were strengthened to provide PPH prevention with oxytocin, PPH management and advance distribution of misoprostol during ANC. Trained traditional midwives (TTMs) as volunteer community health workers (CHWs) provided education to pregnant women, and district reproductive health supervisors (DRHSs) distributed misoprostol during home visits. Data were collected through facility and DRHS registers. Postpartum interviews were conducted with a sample of 550 women who received advance distribution of misoprostol on place of delivery, knowledge, misoprostol use, and satisfaction. Results There were 1826 estimated deliveries during the seven-month implementation period. A total of 980 women (53.7%) were enrolled and provided misoprostol, primarily through ANC (78.2%). Uterotonic coverage rate of all deliveries was 53.5%, based on 97.7% oxytocin use at recorded facility vaginal births and 24.9% misoprostol use at home births. Among 550 women interviewed postpartum, 87.7% of those who received misoprostol and had a home birth took the drug. Sixty-three percent (63.0%) took it at the correct time, and 54.0% experienced at least one minor side effect. No serious adverse events reported among enrolled women. Facility-based deliveries appeared to increase during the program. Conclusions The program was moderately effective at achieving high uterotonic coverage of all births. Coverage of home births was low despite the use of two channels of advance distribution of misoprostol. Although ANC reached a greater proportion of women in late pregnancy than home visits, 46.3% of expected deliveries did not receive education or advance distribution of misoprostol. A revised community-based strategy is needed to increase advance distribution rates and misoprostol coverage rates for home births. Misoprostol for PPH prevention appears acceptable to women in Liberia. Correct timing of misoprostol self-administration needs improved emphasis during counseling and education. PMID:24894566

2014-01-01

256

Depressive symptomatology in pregnant and postpartum women. An exploratory study of the role of maternal antenatal orientations.  

PubMed

Little is known about how an expecting woman's view of pregnancy, the child, and motherhood relates to antenatal and postpartum depressive symptomatology. In this study, we investigated the influence of the maternal orientations, as described by Raphael-Leff (Psychological processes of childbearing. The Anna Freud Centre, London, 2005), on the prevalence of depressive symptoms in pregnant and postpartum women. Four hundred three pregnant women participated in a longitudinal study and completed the EPDS and the HADS-D in each pregnancy trimester and between 8 to 12 and 20 to 25 weeks postpartum. In addition, measures of maternal orientation (PPQ), personality (NEO-FFI), coping styles (UCL), adult attachment (RQ), and parental bonding (PBI) were completed antenatally. Bivariate and multivariate analyses revealed that Neuroticism and the Regulator orientation are positively associated with the EPDS and HADS-D in both pregnant and postpartum women. These associations decreased in strength but remained significant after controlling for previous responses on the EPDS and HADS-D. Small negative associations were found between the Facilitator orientation and the HADS-D scores during pregnancy and the early postpartum period. However, this association did not hold its statistical significance within the hierarchical multiple regression models. The maternal orientations have a small but significant and independent contribution in the variance of depressive symptomatology in pregnant and postpartum women. PMID:19266251

van Bussel, Johan C H; Spitz, Bernard; Demyttenaere, Koen

2009-06-01

257

Prevalence of serious psychological distress and mental health treatment in a national sample of pregnant and postpartum women.  

PubMed

This study examines the prevalence and correlates of past month serious psychological distress (SPD) and past year mental health treatment (MHT) across pregnancy and the postpartum. Data are from the 2008 to 2012 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Prevalence estimates of SPD as well as MHT among women with SPD were generated for each trimester and across the postpartum period. Correlates of SPD and MHT were examined among pregnant and postpartum women. The prevalence of past month SPD was 6.4 % in first trimester women and 3.9 % in third trimester women. In postpartum women, SPD prevalence ranged from 4.6 % (0-2 months) to 6.9 % (3-5 months). Correlates of SPD among pregnant and postpartum women included being younger; non-Hispanic black; unmarried; making under $20,000 annually; having past month cigarette use; or having a past year alcohol or illicit drug use disorder. Only 38.5 % of pregnant and 49.5 % of postpartum women with past month SPD reported past year MHT. Those who received MHT were more likely to be white; widowed, divorced, or separated; have insurance; and have a history of depression or anxiety than their counterparts with no MHT. Pregnant women with SPD were less likely to report past year MHT than postpartum women, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Over half of pregnant and postpartum women with past month SPD are not receiving MHT. Increased contact with health care professionals during this time may be an opportunity for screening, identification, and referral to MHT. PMID:24802262

Glasheen, Cristie; Colpe, Lisa; Hoffman, Valerie; Warren, Lauren Klein

2015-01-01

258

Low Rates of Postpartum Glucose Screening Among Indigenous and non-Indigenous Women in Australia with Gestational Diabetes.  

PubMed

Women with gestational diabetes have a high risk of type 2 diabetes postpartum, with Indigenous women particularly affected. This study reports postpartum diabetes screening rates among Indigenous and non-Indigenous women with gestational diabetes, in Far North Queensland, Australia. Retrospective study including 1,012 women with gestational diabetes giving birth at a regional hospital from 1/1/2004 to 31/12/2010. Data were linked between hospital records, midwives perinatal data, and laboratory results, then analysed using survival analysis and logistic regression. Indigenous women had significantly longer times to first oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) [hazards ratio (HR) 0.62, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.48-0.79, p < 0.0001) and 'any' postpartum glucose test (HR 0.81, 95 % CI 0.67-0.98, p = 0.03], compared to non-Indigenous women. Postpartum screening rates among all women were low. However, early OGTT screening rates (<6 months) were significantly lower among Indigenous women (13.6 vs. 28.3 %, p < 0.0001), leading to a persistent gap in cumulative postpartum screening rates. By 3 years postpartum, cumulative rates of receiving an OGTT, were 24.6 % (95 % CI 19.9-30.2 %) and 34.1 % (95 % CI 30.6-38.0 %) among Indigenous and non-Indigenous women, respectively. Excluding OGTTs in previous periods, few women received OGTTs at 6-24 months (7.8 vs. 6.7 %) or 2-4 years (5.2 vs. 6.5 %), among Indigenous and non-Indigenous women, respectively. Low rates of postpartum diabetes screening demonstrate that essential 'ongoing management' and 'equity' criteria for population-based screening for gestational diabetes are not being met; particularly among Indigenous women, for whom recent guideline changes have specific implications. Strategies to improve postpartum screening after gestational diabetes are urgently needed. PMID:24981736

Chamberlain, Catherine; McLean, Anna; Oats, Jeremy; Oldenburg, Brian; Eades, Sandra; Sinha, Ashim; Wolfe, Rory

2014-07-01

259

Transcultural analysis of postpartum depression.  

PubMed

Postpartum depression (PPD) strikes about 1 in 10 Western women. Studies of Western women have demonstrated that this emotional experience can occur during pregnancy and/or after delivery, and even in women who adopt an infant. Is PPD a universal experience or a morbid condition that is culture specific to Western/industrialized countries? The purpose of this literature review was to examine other cultures to ascertain whether PPD is a universal experience. The literature describes women throughout the world experiencing degrees of sadness postnatally, which persist up to 1 year. The risk factors for PPD also share similar themes cross-culturally, with one notable exception--the impact that the sex of the infant had on PPD, for a higher value for male children over female offspring was reported in literature from China, Turkey, and India. This literature review demonstrated that, although PPD is an experience that women in all cultures experience, the underlying cause for this malady in non-Western cultures is not attributed to biologic causes, and treatment is not generally based on a Western medical model. PMID:16523038

Goldbort, Joanne

2006-01-01

260

The role of reproductive hormones in postpartum depression.  

PubMed

Despite decades of research aimed at identifying the causes of postpartum depression (PPD), PPD remains common, and the causes are poorly understood. Many have attributed the onset of PPD to the rapid perinatal change in reproductive hormones. Although a number of human and nonhuman animal studies support the role of reproductive hormones in PPD, several studies have failed to detect an association between hormone concentrations and PPD. The purpose of this review is to examine the hypothesis that fluctuations in reproductive hormone levels during pregnancy and the postpartum period trigger PPD in susceptible women. We discuss and integrate the literature on animal models of PPD and human studies of reproductive hormones and PPD. We also discuss alternative biological models of PPD to demonstrate the potential for multiple PPD phenotypes and to describe the complex interplay of changing reproductive hormones and alterations in thyroid function, immune function, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, lactogenic hormones, and genetic expression that may contribute to affective dysfunction. There are 3 primary lines of inquiry that have addressed the role of reproductive hormones in PPD: nonhuman animal studies, correlational studies of postpartum hormone levels and mood symptoms, and hormone manipulation studies. Reproductive hormones influence virtually every biological system implicated in PPD, and a subgroup of women seem to be particularly sensitive to the effects of perinatal changes in hormone levels. We propose that these women constitute a "hormone-sensitive" PPD phenotype, which should be studied independent of other PPD phenotypes to identify underlying pathophysiology and develop novel treatment targets. PMID:25263255

Schiller, Crystal Edler; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Rubinow, David R

2014-09-29

261

Functional three-dimensional sonographic study of the postpartum uterus.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: To demonstrate sequential changes of the postpartum uterus using two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) ultrasounds and Doppler studies. Methods: Eighty-one women who delivered a singleton at term were recruited for this prospective longitudinal study. Manual and ultrasound examinations of the uterus were performed for seven consecutive weeks. Sequential changes in size of the uterus, endometrial thickness and appearances and Doppler indices of the uterine and arcuate arteries were analyzed. Results: Complete follow ups were achieved in 71 women who had an uncomplicated postpartum course. 2D and 3D ultrasound estimations of uterine volume are highly correlated with each other (r?>?0.7), but not manual estimations (r??0.7). RI of the arcuate artery was not significantly changed during the study period (r?postpartum uterine complications. PMID:25363015

Wataganara, Tuangsit; Phithakwatchara, Nisarat; Komoltri, Chulaluk; Tantisirin, Pornpen; Pooliam, Julaporn; Titapant, Vitaya

2014-11-27

262

Unmet Need for Family Planning in Nepal during the First Two Years Postpartum  

PubMed Central

Contraceptive use during the postpartum period is critical for maternal and child health. However, little is known about the use of family planning and the determinants in Nepal during this period. This study explored pregnancy spacing, unmet need, family planning use, and fertility behaviour among postpartum women in Nepal using child level data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys 2011. More than one-quarter of women who gave birth in the last five years became pregnant within 24 months of giving birth and 52% had an unmet need for family planning within 24 months postpartum. Significantly higher rates of unmet need were found among rural and hill residents, the poorest quintile, and Muslims. Despite wanting to space or limit pregnancies, nonuse of modern family planning methods by women and returned fertility increased the risk of unintended pregnancy. High unmet need for family planning in Nepal, especially in high risk groups, indicates the need for more equitable and higher quality postpartum family planning services, including availability of range of methods and counselling which will help to further reduce maternal, perinatal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality in Nepal. PMID:25003125

Dariang, Maureen

2014-01-01

263

Recurrent Silent Thyroiditis as a Sequela of Postpartum Thyroiditis  

PubMed Central

Thyroiditis encompasses a group of disorders characterized by thyroid inflammation. Though clinically indistinguishable from silent thyroiditis, postpartum thyroiditis occurs in women within 12 months after delivery. Recurrent postpartum thyroiditis in subsequent pregnancies is common, but recurrent silent thyroiditis is rare. We reported a case of patient with recurrent episodes of thyroiditis, unrelated to pregnancy, after an episode of postpartum thyroiditis. It is of interest that postpartum thyroiditis and silent thyroiditis could occur closely to each other; however, the link between these disorders is not well established. This report is to remind physicians of the possibility of recurrent silent thyroiditis in women with a history of postpartum thyroiditis. PMID:24987536

Kim, Paul

2014-01-01

264

Postpartum cryptococcal pulmonary lesion incidentally discovered during a pulmonary-embolism evaluation of a 28-year-old caucasian woman.  

PubMed

We report a case of localized pulmonary cryptococcal infection in a 28-year-old Caucasian woman who was 1 month postpartum at the time of her arrival at the hospital. The patient reported right-side chest pain; on further work up, she was found to have an incidental pulmonary lesion of the left lower lung lobe. Surgical pathology examination and microbiology studies revealed localized cryptococcal infection. Cases of cryptococcal pneumonia in pregnant women and in the postpartum period have been described in the literature. However, cryptococcal infections are usually associated with various immunocompromised states, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Because pregnancy is associated with physiological immunosuppression, cryptococcal pneumonia should be considered in pregnant women, or women in the postpartum period, who have respiratory symptoms. PMID:25617397

Kaplan, Alesia; Berntson, Daniel G; Ferrieri, Patricia

2015-01-01

265

Postpartum Depression in Women with the FMR1 Premutation  

PubMed Central

Background Psychiatric disorders in women with the FMR1 premutation are common and include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, depression, and eating disorders. This pilot study explored the risk factors for postpartum depression (PPD) in women with the premutation. Methods We conducted a chart review of 50 women premutation carriers with major depressive disorder who had children. Of these, 7 women had a history of major depressive episodes in the postpartum period. The PPD and non-PPD groups were characterized descriptively based on women’s age at the time of the psychiatric evaluation, race, ethnicity, education level, IQ, CGG repeat size, comorbid psychiatric conditions, parity, and number of children with fragile X syndrome (FXS). Exact logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between the number of children with FXS and the risk of PPD. Results The PPD and non-PPD groups were similar on all variables examined, with the exception of the number of affected children. Each of the 7 women with PPD had at least one child with FXS, whereas a third of the women without PPD had no affected children. For each additional affected child, the risk of PPD increased by 158% (exact odds ratio 2.58, 95% CI 0.99–7.59). Further studies are needed to replicate these findings and to better characterize PPD in female premutation carriers.

Obadia, Roberta W.; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Seritan, Andreea L.

2015-01-01

266

Lifetime hormonal factors may predict late-life depression in women Ryan Joanne *  

E-print Network

in the development of depression ( ). In the case of both premenstrual syndrome and postpartum depression, it hasLifetime hormonal factors may predict late-life depression in women Ryan Joanne * , Carri reè lifetime' hormonal markers are associated with late-life depression symptoms among elderly community

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

267

Oestrogen-dependent suppression of pulsatile luteinising hormone secretion and kiss1 mRNA expression in the arcuate nucleus during late lactation in rats.  

PubMed

Follicular development and ovulation are strongly suppressed during lactation in mammals via a profound suppression of gonadotrophin secretion. The present study aimed to examine the role of oestrogen feedback action in suppressing luteinising hormone (LH) secretion and hypothalamic kisspeptin expression during the latter half of lactation. Plasma LH concentrations kept at low levels throughout the lactating period in intact and oestrogen-replaced ovariectomised (OVX) lactating rats, whereas plasma LH concentrations gradually elevated from day 10 postpartum in lactating OVX rats. OVX lactating rats showed frequent LH pulses at late lactation, although the LH pulses were significantly inhibited by an oestrogen replacement, which is much less effective on LH release in nonlactating rats. Oestrogen replacement in lactating OVX rats significantly reduced the number of Kiss1 mRNA-expressing cells in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) at late lactation, although the same oestrogen treatment did not affect the number of Kiss1-expressing cells in nonlactating controls. Exogenous kisspeptin challenge (0.2 nmol) into the third cerebroventricle significantly increased LH secretion in lactating OVX, lactating OVX + subcutaneous 17?-oestradiol and intact lactating rats at day 16 postpartum. These results suggest that LH pulse suppression during late lactation could be a result of the enhanced oestrogen-dependent suppression of ARC kisspeptin expression. PMID:22536815

Yamada, S; Uenoyama, Y; Deura, C; Minabe, S; Naniwa, Y; Iwata, K; Kawata, M; Maeda, K-I; Tsukamura, H

2012-09-01

268

Simulating the Antarctic ice sheet in the Late-Pliocene warm period: PLISMIP-ANT, an ice-sheet model intercomparison project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of future climate change, understanding the nature and behaviour of ice sheets during warm intervals in Earth history is of fundamental importance. The Late-Pliocene warm period (also known as the PRISM interval: 3.264 to 3.025 million years before present) can serve as a potential analogue for projected future climates. Although Pliocene ice locations and extents are still poorly constrained, a significant contribution to sea-level rise should be expected from both the Greenland ice sheet and the West and East Antarctic ice sheets based on palaeo sea-level reconstructions. Here, we present results from simulations of the Antarctic ice sheet by means of an international Pliocene Ice Sheet Modeling Intercomparison Project (PLISMIP-ANT). For the experiments, ice-sheet models including the shallow ice and shelf approximations have been used to simulate the complete Antarctic domain (including grounded and floating ice). We compare the performance of six existing numerical ice-sheet models in simulating modern control and Pliocene ice sheets by a suite of four sensitivity experiments. Ice-sheet model forcing fields are taken from the HadCM3 atmosphere-ocean climate model runs for the pre-industrial and the Pliocene. We include an overview of the different ice-sheet models used and how specific model configurations influence the resulting Pliocene Antarctic ice sheet. The six ice-sheet models simulate a comparable present-day ice sheet, although the models are setup with their own parameter settings. For the Pliocene simulations using the Bedmap1 bedrock topography, some models show a small retreat of the East Antarctic ice sheet, which is thought to have happened during the Pliocene for the Wilkes and Aurora basins. This can be ascribed to either the surface mass balance, as the HadCM3 Pliocene climate shows a significant increase over the Wilkes and Aurora basin, or the initial bedrock topography. For the latter, our simulations with the recently published Bedmap2 bedrock topography indicate a significantly larger contribution to Pliocene sea-level rise from the East Antarctic ice sheet for all six models relative to the simulations with Bedmap1.

de Boer, B.; Dolan, A. M.; Bernales, J.; Gasson, E.; Goelzer, H.; Golledge, N. R.; Sutter, J.; Huybrechts, P.; Lohmann, G.; Rogozhina, I.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Saito, F.; van de Wal, R. S. W.

2014-11-01

269

Research Report Callosal oligodendrocyte number in postpartum  

E-print Network

pituitary hormone with neurogenic properties associated with pregnancy, has been implicated the effects observed are mediated by members of the PRL-family, experience, and/or other gestational/ PP callosum Pregnancy Postpartum Lactation Prolactin 1. Introduction In rats, the subventricular zone (SVZ

Sokolowski, Marla

270

Measurement of illumination exposure in postpartum women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Low levels of light exposure at critical times are thought to cause seasonal affective disorder. Investigators, in studies demonstrating the usefulness of bright light therapy, also have implicated light's role in non-seasonal depression. The precise cause of postpartum depression has not been delineated, but it seemed possible that new mothers would spend reduced time in daylight. The goal of

Emily J Wang; Daniel F Kripke; Martin T Stein; Barbara L Parry

2003-01-01

271

Symptoms and Signs Associated with Postpartum Thyroiditis  

PubMed Central

Background. Postpartum thyroiditis (PPT) is a common triphasic autoimmune disease in women with thyroid peroxidase (TPO) autoantibodies. This study evaluated women's thyroid disease symptoms, physical findings, stress levels, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels across six postpartum months in three groups, TPO negative, TPO positive, and PPT positive women. Methods. Women were recruited in midpregnancy (n = 631) and TPO status was determined which then was used to form the three postpartum groups. The three groups were compared on TSH levels, thyroid symptoms, weight, blood pressure, heart rate, a thyroid exam, and stress scores. Results. Fifty-six percent of the TPO positive women developed PPT. Hypothyroid group (F (2, 742) = 5.8, P = .003) and hyperthyroid group (F (2, 747) = 6.6, P = .001) subscale scores differed by group. Several symptoms and stress scores were highest in the PPT group. Conclusions. The normal postpartum is associated with many symptoms that mimic thyroid disease symptoms, but severity is greater in women with either TPO or PPT positivity. While the most severe symptoms were generally seen in PPT positive women, even TPO positive women seem to have higher risk for these signs and symptoms. PMID:25405057

2014-01-01

272

Meta-analysis of the role of delivery mode in postpartum depression (Iran 1997-2011)  

PubMed Central

Background: Postpartum period is the riskiest time for mood disorders and psychosis. Postpartum depression is the most important mood disorder after delivery, which can be accompanied by mother-child and family relationship disorders. Meta-analysis with the integration of research results demonstrates to investigate the association between the mode of delivery and postpartum depression. Materials and Methods: This meta-analysis uses the Rosenthal and Robin approach. For this purpose, 18 studies which were acceptable in terms of methodology were selected and meta-analysis was conducted on them. Research instrument was a checklist of meta-analysis. After summarizing the results of the studies, effect sizes were calculated manually and combined based on meta-analysis method. Results: The findings showed that the amount of effect size (in term of Cohen d) of delivery mode on postpartum depression was 0/30 (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Delivery mode on maternal mental health is assessed medium. Meta analysis also indicates moderator variables role, and researcher must focus in these variables.

Bahadoran, Parvin; Oreizi, Hamid Reza; Safari, Saeideh

2014-01-01

273

COMMON PROBLEMS OF BREASTFEEDING IN THE POSTPARTUM PERIOD  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Breastfeeding a healthy infant is often accompanied by challenges. Some may be predictable, while others are unexpected. These problems may accompany the normal anxiety of first-time parents, who rarely appreciate the intensity of care infants require. Reassurance and guidance often will enable moth...

274

Screening for bipolar disorder during pregnancy and the postpartum period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bipolar disorder is a significant mental health problem among perinatal women; however, little attention has been devoted\\u000a to methods of screening for bipolar disorder during this phase of women’s life cycle. There is a need for reliable and valid\\u000a screening instruments for perinatal women. This paper presents a review of 11 self-report measures used to screen bipolar\\u000a disorder in the

Cheryl Ann Chessick; Sona Dimidjian

2010-01-01

275

The relationship between ovarian steroids and uterine estrogen receptors during late pregnancy  

SciTech Connect

Although a direct interdependence exists between the ovarian steroids, estrogen and progesterone, the exact role of these two hormones during pregnancy, especially late pregnancy, is not completely understood. Investigations have been conducted to determine whether the circulating levels of progesterone and estrogen or changes in the ratio of progesterone/estrogen in relation to the concentration of uterine estrogen receptors are associated with triggering parturition. Ninety-day old female rats were sacrificed at gestation days 14, 16, 18, 20 and two days post-partum. The plasma levels of estradiol and progesterone were measured by solid-phase radioimmunoassay. Uterine cytosol was subjected to a charcoal binding assay to determine the concentration of estrogen receptors. Our findings demonstrate that there is a significant drop in both plasma progesterone and estradiol during late pregnancy. Also indicated is a significant increase in uterine estrogen receptors throughout late pregnancy. Finally, during this period there is a direct correlation between the shift in the progesterone/estrogen ratio and the increase in the concentration of uterine estrogen receptors in late pregnancy.

Cathey, T.M.; Chung, Kyung W. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City (USA))

1991-01-01

276

Visual Acuity Changes during Pregnancy and Postpartum: A Cross-Sectional Study in Iran  

PubMed Central

In this research, we represent the changes in visual acuity during pregnancy and after delivery. Changes as myopic shift start during second trimester and will be stopped after delivery; however it is obtained that women will have the same refractive error as what they had in the first trimester, after postpartum. So, any change in their spectacle prescription during this period is forbidden. As a result, not only changing in hormones can cause myopic shift in vision, but also overweight has its retributive role. What we are trying to do is to notify gynecologists and optometrists to be aware of these changes, so as to leave spectacle prescription writing to the session after postpartum period. PMID:25328705

Chaichian, Shahla; Mehdizadehkashi, Abolfazl; Jafarzadepour, Ebrahim; Tamannaie, Zeinab; Moazzami, Bahram; Pishgahroudsari, Mohaddeseh

2014-01-01

277

Effects of rumen-protected methionine on plasma amino acid concentrations during a period of weight loss for late gestating beef heifers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study determined changes in plasma amino acid concentration in late-gestating (beginning 58 ± 1.02 d prior to calving), primiparous, winter-grazing range heifers receiving wheat middling based supplement without (CON) or with rumen-protected methionine (MET) to provide 15 g DL- MET each day. Pl...

278

What patterns of postpartum psychological distress are associated with maternal concerns about their children's emotional and behavioural problems at the age of three years?  

PubMed Central

Mothers experiencing psychological distress in the postpartum period may have difficulties parenting their children. Inconsistent and unresponsive parenting may increase the risk of later emotional and behavioural problems in children. The purpose of this study was to identify how maternal psychological characteristics cluster at eight weeks postpartum, and whether these clusters were associated with maternal-reported child emotional and behavioural problems at the age of three years, as measured by the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) questionnaire. In a longitudinal pregnancy cohort (N?=?647), three clusters of postpartum psychological characteristics were identified. Contrary to expectations, mothers with the greatest psychological distress did not report concerns about their child's emotional and behavioural problems; rather, they reported concerns about global developmental delay. These findings suggest that infants of mothers experiencing postpartum psychological distress should receive additional follow-up to reduce the risk for global developmental delay.

Benzies, Karen; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Tough, Suzanne

2015-01-01

279

Recurrent Postpartum Eosinophilic Pneumonia Presenting as Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic pneumonia (EP) is a rare disease of the lung. We aimed to present atypical course of two EP cases. They were admitted to our hospital because of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in postpartum period. Eosinophilia was detected in bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage and laboratory examination. In these cases, no spesific cause for eosinophilic pneumonia was determined and steroid treatment was started. After the treatment, the patients were in full recovery which were confirmed by clinical and radiological investigations, readmitted to our clinic with relapses of ARDS. The patients have received regular treatment for 1 year. Our cases were neither fitting the classic definitions of acute eosinophilic pneumonia nor chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. Therefore, we wanted to contribute additional data in the literature by sharing these interesting cases.

Ucar, Elif Yilmazel; Araz, Omer; Yilmaz, Nafiye; Akgun, Metin

2011-01-01

280

Clinical guidelines for postpartum women and infants in primary care–a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background While many women and infants have an uneventful course during the postpartum period, others experience significant morbidity. Effective postpartum care in the community can prevent short, medium and long-term consequences of unrecognised and poorly managed problems. The use of rigorously developed, evidence-based guidelines has the potential to improve patient care, impact on policy and ensure consistency of care across health sectors. This study aims to compare the scope and content, and assess the quality of clinical guidelines about routine postpartum care in primary care. Methods PubMed, the National Guideline Clearing House, Google, Google Scholar and relevant college websites were searched for relevant guidelines. All guidelines regarding routine postpartum care published in English between 2002 and 2012 were considered and screened using explicit selection criteria. The scope and recommendations contained in the guidelines were compared and the quality of the guidelines was independently assessed by two authors using the AGREE II instrument. Results Six guidelines from Australia (2), the United Kingdom (UK) (3) and the United States of America (USA) (1), were included. The scope of the guidelines varied greatly. However, guideline recommendations were generally consistent except for the use of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale for mood disorder screening and the suggested time of routine visits. Some recommendations lacked evidence to support them, and levels or grades of evidence varied between guidelines. The quality of most guidelines was adequate. Of the six AGREE II domains, applicability and editorial independence scored the lowest, and scope, purpose and clarity of presentation scored the highest. Conclusions Only one guideline provided comprehensive recommendations for the care of postpartum women and their infants. As well as considering the need for region specific guidelines, further research is needed to strengthen the evidence supporting recommendations made within guidelines. Further improvement in the editorial independence and applicability domains of the AGREE ll criteria would strengthen the quality of the guidelines. PMID:24475888

2014-01-01

281

A Case Series of Women With Postpartum-Onset Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background: There is emerging evidence that postpartum women are at risk for the development or worsening of obsessive-compulsive disorder. The purpose of this study was to provide data regarding the demographics, phenomenology, associated psychiatric comorbidity, family history, and response to open treatment with fluvoxamine in subjects with postpartum-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder. Method: Seven consecutive subjects were recruited from an outpatient obstetrical practice and by advertisement. Subjects completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, and a semistructured interview for family history, demographic data, and clinical features. Three of the 7 subjects participated in a 12-week, open-label trial of fluvoxamine treatment of postpartum-onset DSM-IV obsessive-compulsive disorder. Results: The women described a mean age at onset of 28 years, and 4 subjects had a chronic course. Six subjects reported onset after the birth of their first child, and the mean time to onset was 3.7 weeks postpartum. All subjects experienced both obsessions and compulsions and reported aggressive obsessions that involved their children. None of the subjects acted on their obsessions to harm the children, but 5 reported dysfunctional mother-child behavior. All 7 subjects met criteria for at least 1 comorbid psychiatric disorder, with a mood disorder the most common. Family histories were notable for high rates of mood disorders and psychoactive substance use disorders in first-degree relatives. Two of the 3 subjects who entered the open-label trial of fluvoxamine experienced a positive response, defined as a 30% or greater decrease in the total score of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. Conclusion: Obsessive-compulsive disorder may present in the postpartum period and become chronic. Symptoms of the disorder may adversely affect the mother-child relationship, and it is important to assess for obsessions and compulsions in postpartum women who present with anxiety and/or depression. Fluvoxamine may be effective in reducing the symptoms of postpartum-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder. Controlled studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:15014682

Arnold, Lesley M.

1999-01-01

282

Modifiable factors associated with changes in postpartum depressive symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Up to 50% of mothers report postpartum depressive symptoms yet providers do a poor job predicting and preventing their occurrence.\\u000a Our goal was to identify modifiable factors (situational triggers and buffers) associated with postpartum depressive symptoms.\\u000a Observational prospective cohort telephone study of 563 mothers interviewed at 2 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Mothers reported\\u000a on demographic factors, physical and emotional symptoms, daily

Elizabeth A. Howell; Pablo A. Mora; Marco D. DiBonaventura; Howard Leventhal

2009-01-01

283

Prolonged maternal postpartum fever and neonatal herpes infection.  

PubMed

Maternal postpartum fever that is suggestive of endometritis often triggers evaluation of the mother and newborn infant for bacterial infection. Two neonates whose mothers had persistent postpartum fever despite broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy developed disseminated herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. Obstetric and pediatric healthcare providers should be mindful of possible HSV infection if there is postpartum fever unresponsive to antibiotics, and both mother and neonate should be evaluated appropriately and treated promptly. PMID:25179382

Anyebuno, M; Lopez-Medina, E; Sánchez, P J

2014-09-01

284

Four wells exposed — Waterlogged and charred plant remains and preliminary environmental data on the Middle\\/Late Bronze Age and Roman period in the Laßnitztal (western Styria, Austria)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant macroremains from two middle to late Bronze Age and two Roman wells add up to the current state of research on vegetation and settlement history in western Styria (Austria), close to today’s municipalities of Wettmannstät-ten\\/Wohlsdorf and Hengsberg\\/Schönberg: the four objects, acting as sediment traps during the last phases of their use and after their abandonment, preserved a large number

Andreas G. Heiss; Ruth Drescher-Schneider; Ilona Szunyogh; Walter R. Bielowski; Gerald Fuchs

2013-01-01

285

Is postpartum depression a homogenous disorder: time of onset, severity, symptoms and hopelessness in relation to the course of depression.  

PubMed

BackgroundPostpartum depression (PPD) is a common illness, but due to the underlying processes and the diversity of symptoms, some variability is exhibited. The risk of postpartum depression is great if the mother has previously suffered from depression, but there is some evidence that a certain subgroup of women only experience depression during the postpartum period.MethodsThe study group consisted of 104 mothers with postpartum major depression and a control group of 104 postpartum mothers without depression. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) was used for data collection. The severity of depression and other mental symptoms were assessed using several validated rating scales.ResultsA history of past depression (82%), including depression during pregnancy (42%) and during the postpartum period (53%), was very common in those with current PPD. Eighteen per cent of mothers with current PPD had previously not had any depressive episodes and four per cent had experienced depression only during the postpartum period. Therefore, pure PPD was rare. The onset of PPD was usually (84%) within six weeks of childbirth. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, depressed mood, diminished pleasure/interest, decreased energy, and psychomotor agitation/retardation were common with all kinds of depression histories. Pure PPD was the most similar to the first depressive episode. Nevertheless, the severity of depression, the level of hopelessness, somatisation, interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety, hostility, psychoticism, sleep disturbance, and suicidal ideation were lower, appetite changed less, and concentration was better than in other recurrent depressions.ConclusionsAccording to this study, PPD is not a homogenous disorder. The time of onset, severity, symptoms, level of hopelessness, and the course of depression vary. Recurrent depression is common. All mothers must be screened during the sixth week postpartum at the latest. Screening alone is not effective; it is also important to give mothers information about PPD and to discuss the symptoms with them in order for them to recognise this disorder and possible new episodes in the future. PMID:25491477

Kettunen, Pirjo; Koistinen, Eeva; Hintikka, Jukka

2014-12-10

286

Diagnosing postpartum depression: Can we do better?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale versus routine clinical evaluation to detect postpartum depression among a low-income inner-city population and to evaluate risk factors associated with a positive score on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Study Design: On the basis of the day of the month, all English-speaking patients

Sarah Smallwood Fergerson; Denise J. Jamieson; Michael Lindsay

2002-01-01

287

Fordyce happiness program and postpartum depression  

PubMed Central

Background: Postpartum depression is endangering the health of mothers and has negative impacts on the evolution of social communication and newborns evolution. This study was conducted to determine the effects of Fordyce Happiness program on the postpartum depression. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental intervention carried out on postpartum mothers that referred to 4 health centers in Isfahan. A total of 133 mothers were selected by convenient sampling and then randomly allocated in two groups (63 and 70 mothers for intervention and control respectively). Maternal depression 3 times before, immediate and 1 months after intervention in both groups was evaluated with Beck Depression Inventory-II-Persian standardized questionnaires. Educational sessions based on the Fordyce happiness program were conducted for intervention group. Data was analyzed in SPSS17 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Illinois) descriptive and analytic statistical tests at significance level of 0.05. Results: No significant differences in demographic variables between the two groups (P ? 0.05). No significant differences in depression scores in the two groups before training. However after 2 months a significant difference in depression score was observed between two groups (control group: 19.38 ± 3.94; intervention group: 16.24 ± 4.8; P < 0.001). Furthermore in intervention group showed significant differences in depression scores before and after intervention (19.15 ± 3.41 and 16.24 ± 4.83; P < 0.001). However in the control group had not any significant change. Conclusion: Fordyce happiness program was effective in reducing postpartum depression in our study. With attention to the effectiveness and low cost of this program, it is recommended that this program might be considered for all mothers after childbirth in health centers or other community-based settings. PMID:24949034

Rabiei, Leili; Mazaheri, Maryam Amidi; Masoudi, Reza; Hasheminia, Sayed Ali Mohammad

2014-01-01

288

Plasticity and constraint in response to early-life stressors among late/final Jomon period foragers from Japan: evidence for life history trade-offs from incremental microstructures of enamel.  

PubMed

This study evaluates two hypotheses that address how Late/Final Jomon period people responded to early-life stress using linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) and incremental microstructures of enamel. The first hypothesis predicts that Jomon people who experienced early-life stressors had greater physiological competence in responding to future stress events (predictive adaptive response). The second hypothesis predicts that Jomon people traded-off in future growth and maintenance when early investment in growth and survival was required (plasticity/constraint). High resolution tooth impressions were collected from intact, anterior teeth and studied under an engineer's measuring microscope. LEH were identified based on accentuated perikymata and depressions in the enamel surface profile. Age of formation for each LEH was estimated by summing counts of perikymata and constants associated with crown initiation and cuspal enamel formation times. The relationship between age-at-first-defect formation, number of LEH, periodicity between LEH, and mortality was evaluated using multiple regression and hazards analysis. A significant, positive relationship was found between age-at-death relative to age-at-first-defect formation and a significant, negative relationship was found between number of LEH relative to age-at-first-defect formation. Individuals with earlier forming defects were at a significantly greater risk of forming defects at later stages of development and dying at younger ages. These results suggest that Late/Final Jomon period foragers responded to early-life stressors in a manner consistent with the plasticity/constraint hypothesis of human life history. Late/Final Jomon period individuals were able to survive early-life stressors, but this investment weakened responses to future stress events and exacerbated mortality schedules. PMID:25156299

Temple, Daniel H

2014-12-01

289

Prepartum and postpartum nutritional management to optimize fertility in high-yielding dairy cows in confined TMR systems.  

PubMed

The 6 to 8-week period centered on parturition, known as the transition or periparturient period, is critical to welfare and profitability of individual cows. Fertility of high-producing cows is compromised by difficult transitions. Deficiencies in either nutritional or non-nutritional management increase risk for periparturient metabolic disorders and infectious diseases, which decrease subsequent fertility. A primary factor impeding fertility is the extent of negative energy balance (NEB) early postpartum, which may inhibit timing of first ovulation, return to cyclicity, and oocyte quality. In particular, pronounced NEB during the first 10 days to 2 weeks (the time of greatest occurrence of health problems) is critical for later reproductive efficiency. Avoiding over-conditioning and preventing cows from over-consuming energy relative to their requirements in late gestation result in higher dry matter intake (DMI) and less NEB after calving. A pooled statistical analysis of previous studies in our group showed that days to pregnancy are decreased (by 10 days) by controlling energy intake to near requirements of cows before calving compared with allowing cows to over-consume energy. To control energy intake, total mixed rations (TMR) must be well balanced for metabolizable protein, minerals and vitamins yet limit total DM consumed, and cows must uniformly consume the TMR without sorting. Dietary management to maintain blood calcium and rumen health around and after calving also are important. Opportunities may exist to further improve energy status in fresh cows. Recent research to manipulate the glucogenic to lipogenic balance and the essential fatty acid content of tissues are intriguing. High-producing cows that adapt successfully to lactation can have high reproductive efficiency, and nutritional management of the transition period both pre- and post-calving must facilitate that adaptation. PMID:24844126

Drackley, J K; Cardoso, F C

2014-05-01

290

[The first labor analgesia with drug was already performed in late Meiji-Period (1868-1912): trace of opioid-scopolamine which was used in Akiko Yosano, back to its origins].  

PubMed

There have been some records of labor analgesia with intravenous or rectal anesthetics in early Showa-period (1926-1989). However, the author found that labor analgesia had been already attempted for some women in late Meiji-period (1868-1912). One of agents used was pantopon, a water-soluble opioid without serious respiratory depression as morphine. The drug was developed and produced in Germany. Some doctors applied this agent with scopolamine to labor analgesia in Europe. They also reported that this combination also conferred excellent analgesic effects without any serious complications in the mother and fetus. This combination was originally used for general surgery with inhaled anesthesia at that period. It remains uncertain how Japanese doctors got pantopon scopolamine from Germany. PMID:23479935

Okutomi, Toshiyuki

2013-02-01

291

Associations Between Physical Activity and Postpartum Depressive Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Postpartum women are at increased risk for developing depression, which can contribute to the ill health of the mother and her family. Previous research indicates that mothers who are physically active during leisure experience lower levels of postpartum depressive symptoms than do inactive mothers. The objective of this investigation was to examine the associations between total and domain-specific moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and depressive symptoms postpartum. Methods Data were obtained from 550 women who participated in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition (PIN) Postpartum Study, a prospective cohort of mothers who delivered liveborn infants from October 2002 to December 2005 in North Carolina. Three-month postpartum MVPA was investigated as a predictor of 12-month postpartum depressive symptoms. Results Those who participated in MVPA had two times the odds of developing elevated depressive symptoms at 12 months postpartum than those with no MVPA (odds ratio [OR] 2.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71-6.75). Different associations were suggested when examining domain-specific MVPA. Those participating in adult and child care and indoor household MVPA at 3 months postpartum had more than double the odds of developing elevated depressive symptoms at 12 months postpartum (OR 2.66, 95% CI 1.03, 8.11 and OR 2.72, 95% CI 0.96-10.18, respectively). Work MVPA conferred a doubling of the odds (OR 1.95, 95% CI 0.46-7.13), but recreational and outdoor household MVPA showed no associations with depressive symptoms. Conclusions Associations between MVPA and depressive symptoms differed by domain among postpartum women. Future studies of postpartum depressive symptoms should explore reasons for differences in physical activity by domain. PMID:21668353

Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Evenson, Kelly R.; Herring, Amy H.; Dole, Nancy; Gaynes, Bradley N.

2011-01-01

292

Changes in PTSD symptomatology and mental health during pregnancy and postpartum.  

PubMed

Changes in mental health symptoms throughout pregnancy and postpartum may impact a woman's experience and adjustment during an important time. However, few studies have investigated these changes throughout the perinatal period, particularly changes in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinal changes in PTSD, depression, and anxiety symptomatology during pregnancy and postpartum. Pregnant women of ethnically diverse backgrounds receiving services for prenatal care at an outpatient obstetric-gynecology clinic or private physicians' office were assessed by interview on symptoms of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and general stress up to four times, including their first, second, and third trimester, and postpartum visits. Overall, during pregnancy there was a declining trend of PTSD symptoms. For anxiety, there was no overall significant change over time; however, anxiety symptoms were individually variable in the rate of change. For both depression and general stress symptoms, there was a declining trend, which was also variable in the individual rate of change among women during their pregnancy. Visual and post hoc analyses also suggest a possible peak in PTSD symptoms in the weeks prior to delivery. While most mental health symptoms may generally decrease during pregnancy, given the individual variability among women in the rate of change in symptoms, screening and monitoring of symptom fluctuations throughout the course of pregnancy may be needed. Further studies are needed to examine potential spiking of symptoms in the perinatal period. PMID:23797809

Onoye, Jane M; Shafer, Leigh Anne; Goebert, Deborah A; Morland, Leslie A; Matsu, Courtenay R; Hamagami, Fumiaki

2013-12-01

293

Antenatal prediction of postpartum depression with blood DNA methylation biomarkers.  

PubMed

Postpartum depression (PPD) affects ?10-18% of women in the general population and results in serious consequences to both the mother and offspring. We hypothesized that predisposition to PPD risk is due to an altered sensitivity to estrogen-mediated epigenetic changes that act in a cell autonomous manner detectable in the blood. We investigated estrogen-mediated epigenetic reprogramming events in the hippocampus and risk to PPD using a cross-species translational design. DNA methylation profiles were generated using methylation microarrays in a prospective sample of the blood from the antenatal period of pregnant mood disorder patients who would and would not develop depression postpartum. These profiles were cross-referenced with syntenic locations exhibiting hippocampal DNA methylation changes in the mouse responsive to long-term treatment with 17?-estradiol (E2). DNA methylation associated with PPD risk correlated significantly with E2-induced DNA methylation change, suggesting an enhanced sensitivity to estrogen-based DNA methylation reprogramming exists in those at risk for PPD. Using the combined mouse and human data, we identified two biomarker loci at the HP1BP3 and TTC9B genes that predicted PPD with an area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve (area under the curve (AUC)) of 0.87 in antenatally euthymic women and 0.12 in a replication sample of antenatally depressed women. Incorporation of blood count data into the model accounted for the discrepancy and produced an AUC of 0.96 across both prepartum depressed and euthymic women. Pathway analyses demonstrated that DNA methylation patterns related to hippocampal synaptic plasticity may be of etiological importance to PPD. PMID:23689534

Guintivano, J; Arad, M; Gould, T D; Payne, J L; Kaminsky, Z A

2014-05-01

294

Embolization for post-partum rupture of ovarian artery aneurysm: Case report and review.  

PubMed

Spontaneous rupture of an ovarian artery aneurysm most commonly presents with abdominal pain in a multiparous woman in the early post-partum period. Aneurysms of the ovarian artery have been reported in the published work very infrequently. In our case, a 31-year-old multiparous woman experienced sudden left lower quadrant abdominal pain on the second post-partum day. Angiography showed rupture of a left ovarian artery aneurysm, which was successfully embolized using gelatin sponge particles. The patient resumed menstruation 3 months after the embolization and concurrently conceived, ultimately giving birth at term without complications. Interventional radiology appears to be a highly safe and effective technique for diagnosis and management of a ruptured ovarian artery aneurysm with minimal risk of impairing subsequent fertility. PMID:25370370

Sakaguchi, Isao; Ohba, Takashi; Ikeda, Osamu; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Katabuchi, Hidetaka

2014-11-01

295

A Rare Cause of Postpartum Low Back Pain: Pregnancy- and Lactation-Associated Osteoporosis  

PubMed Central

Pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis (PLO) is a rare form of osteoporosis. It results in severe low back pain in the last trimester of pregnancy and in the postpartum period, decreases in height, and fragility fractures, particularly in the vertebra. The current case report presents a 32-year-old patient who presented with back and low back pain that began in the last trimester of the pregnancy and worsened at two months postpartum and who was diagnosed with pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis after exclusion of other causes; the findings are discussed in view of the current literature. PLO is a rare clinical condition causing significant disability. PLO must be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with low back pain during or after pregnancy. The patients must be evaluated for the risk factors of PLO, and an appropriate therapy must be initiated.

Terzi, Rabia; Terzi, Hasan; Özer, Tülay; Kale, Ahmet

2014-01-01

296

Longitudinal Comparison of Chemokines in Breastmilk Early Postpartum Among HIV-1-Infected and Uninfected Kenyan Women  

PubMed Central

Breastmilk chemokines have been associated with increased HIV-1 RNA levels in breastmilk and altered risk of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. To characterize CC and CXC chemokines in breastmilk postpartum, we collected breastmilk specimens at regular intervals for 6 months after delivery from women with and without HIV-1 infection and used commercial ELISA kits to measure breastmilk concentrations of MIP-1?, MIP-1?, RANTES, and SDF-1?. Among 54 HIV-1-infected and 26 uninfected women, mean chemokine levels were compared cross-sectionally and longitudinally at days 5 and 10, and months 1 and 3 postpartum. For both HIV-1-infected and uninfected women, breastmilk chemokine levels were highest at day 5 for MIP-1?, MIP-1?, and SDF-1?, and subsequently decreased. RANTES levels remained constant over the follow-up period among HIV-1-uninfected women, and increased moderately among HIV-1-infected women. For MIP-1? and RANTES, breastmilk levels were significantly higher among HIV-1-infected women compared to uninfected women early postpartum. In addition, HIV-1-infected women transmitting HIV-1 to their infant had consistently higher breastmilk RANTES levels than those who did not transmit, with the greatest difference observed at 1 month (2.68 vs. 2.21 log10 pg/mL, respectively; p = 0.007). In summary, all four chemokines were most elevated within the first month postpartum, a period of high transmission risk via breastmilk. MIP-1? and RANTES levels in breastmilk were higher among HIV-1-infected women than among uninfected women, and breastmilk RANTES was positively associated with vertical transmission in this study, consistent with results from our earlier cohort. PMID:17903098

Bosire, Rose; Guthrie, Brandon L.; Lohman-Payne, Barbara; Mabuka, Jennifer; Majiwa, Maxwell; Wariua, Grace; Mbori-Ngacha, Dorothy; Richardson, Barbra; John-Stewart, Grace; Farquhar, Carey

2012-01-01

297

Consequences of Maternal Complications in Women's Lives in the First Postpartum Year: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Maternal complications are common during and following childbirth. However, little information is available on the psychological, social and economic consequences of maternal complications on women's lives, especially in a rural setting. A prospective cohort study was conducted in southern Rajasthan, India, among rural women who had a severe or less-severe, or no complication at the time of delivery or in the immediate postpartum period. In total, 1,542 women, representing 93% of all women who delivered in the field area over a 15-month period and were examined in the first week postpartum by nurse-midwives, were followed up to 12 months to record maternal and child survival. Of them, a subset of 430 women was followed up at 6-8 weeks and 12 months to capture data on the physical, psychological, social, or economic consequences. Women with severe maternal complications around the time of delivery and in the immediate postpartum period experienced an increased risk of mortality and morbidity in the first postpartum year: 2.8% of the women with severe complications died within one year compared to none with uncomplicated delivery. Women with severe complications also had higher rates of perinatal mortality [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=3.98, confidence interval (CI) 1.96-8.1, p=0.000] and mortality of babies aged eight days to 12 months (AOR=3.14, CI 1.4-7.06, p=0.004). Compared to women in the uncomplicated group, women with severe complications were at a higher risk of depression at eight weeks and 12 months with perceived physical symptoms, had a greater difficulty in completing daily household work, and had important financial repercussions. The results suggest that women with severe complications at the time of delivery need to be provided regular follow-up services for their physical and psychological problems till about 12 months after childbirth. They also might benefit from financial support during several months in the postpartum period to prevent severe economic consequences. Further research is needed to identify an effective package of services for women in the first year after delivery. PMID:22838164

Yadav, Ranjana; Sen, Swapnaleen

2012-01-01

298

The role of obstetric factors in postpartum depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large sample of primiparous women was screened for postpartum depression and for depression occurring before childbirth. Obstetric risk data, rated on the Peripartum Events Scale (O'Hara etal., 1986, 1991), were analysed for women identified as having suffered from depression, and for a control group. Obstetric risk was unrelated to the occurrence of postpartum depression in the population as a

Lynne Murray; Wendy Cartwright

1993-01-01

299

Long-Term Efficacy of Postpartum Intravenous Iron Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background. The potential benefits of administering a dose of intravenous iron in patients with moderate postpartum anaemia rather than oral iron alone remains unproven. Aims. To determine whether a single injection of intravenous iron followed by a 6-week course of oral iron is as effective over 6 months in restoring normal haemoglobin levels and replenishing iron stores in women with moderate postpartum anaemia as a course of oral iron alone in women with mild postpartum anaemia. Materials and Methods. Retrospective two-arm cohort study in women with mild postpartum anaemia (haemoglobin 9.6–10.5?g/dL) prescribed iron daily for 6 weeks (N = 150) and women with moderate postpartum anaemia (haemoglobin 8.5–9.5?g/dL), given a single 500?mg injection of intravenous iron followed by iron daily for 6 weeks (N = 75). Haemoglobin and ferritin were measured 6 months postpartum. Results. Haemoglobin returned to similar mean levels in both groups. Ferritin levels were statistically significantly higher in the intravenous + oral group (57.7 ± 49.3??g/L versus 32.9 ± 20.1??g/L). Conclusions. Despite lower baseline haemoglobin, intravenous iron carboxymaltose was superior to oral iron alone in replenishing iron stores in moderate postpartum anaemia and may prove similarly beneficial in mild postpartum anaemia. PMID:25431768

Zimmermann, Roland

2014-01-01

300

Challenges in Diagnosing and Treating Postpartum Blues, Depression and Psychosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With recent media attention and a growing awareness in popular culture, the appropriate treatment for postpartum depression has taken center stage as a prevalent women's health issue. There is little agreement on the definition, existence and treatment of postpartum depression. Contributing to this factor is the lack of research that exists to…

Lewis, Carol A.; Byers, Alison Daly; Malard, Sarah Deann; Dawson, Gregory A.

2010-01-01

301

Incidence of Postpartum Infection after Vaginal Delivery in Viet Nam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the incidence of postpartum infection which is rarely clinically evaluated and is probably underestimated in developing countries. This prospective study identified infection after vaginal delivery by clinical and laboratory examinations prior to discharge from hospital and again at six weeks postpartum in Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam. Textbook definitions, physicians' diagnoses, symptomatic and verbal autopsy definitions

Nguyen T. N. Ngoc; Nancy L. Sloan; Tran S. Thach; K. B. Liem; Beverly Winikoff

2005-01-01

302

Women's Experiences with Postpartum Anxiety: Expectations, Relationships, and Sociocultural Influences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence about anxiety in the postpartum is sparse and contradictory. Our research expands this knowledge by using a qualitative methodology, the Feminist Biographical Method, to explore first time mothers' experiences of postpartum anxiety. Data collection included 1.5 to 2.0 hour interviews with six women about their experiences of anxiety in…

Wardrop, Andrea A.; Popadiuk, Natalee E.

2013-01-01

303

Expanding the Postpartum Depression Construct Using a Social Work Paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes and evaluates current definitions and models of postpartum depression. Research on prevalence, risk and resiliency factors is reviewed. A more comprehensive approach to postpartum mood disorders is proposed. The “Model Assessing Maternal Adjustment” (MAMA) is based on the biopsychosocial approach of social work and can be utilized for both client self-assessment and clinical assessments by professionals across

Kim W. Boland-Prom; Nancy MacMullen

2012-01-01

304

Extended negative dietary cation-anion difference feeding does not negatively affect postpartum performance of multiparous dairy cows.  

PubMed

Low postpartum blood calcium remains one of the largest constraints to postpartum feed intake, milk yield, and energy balance in transitioning dairy cows. Supplemental dietary anions decrease the dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) and reduce the risk for postpartum hypocalcemia. Prepartum management strategies aiming to minimize social stress and diet changes have resulted in a need to explore the effects of extended exposure to a negative DCAD (>21 d) diet. Holstein and Holstein-cross dairy cows (n=60) were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments 42 d before expected calving to evaluate effects of supplying anions for 21 or 42 d during the dry period on energy status, postpartum production, and Ca homeostasis. Treatments included (1) a control diet (CON; DCAD=12 mEq/100 g of DM), (2) a 21-d negative DCAD diet (21-ND; DCAD=12 and -16 mEq/100 g of DM), and (3) a 42-d negative DCAD diet (42-ND; DCAD=-16 mEq/100 g of DM). Cows fed CON were fed positive DCAD prepartum for 42 d. Cows fed 21-ND received the positive DCAD (12 mEq/100 g of DM) diet for the first 21 d of the dry period and the anionic diet (-16 mEq/100 g of DM) from d 22 until calving. Cows fed 42-ND received the anionic diet for the entire dry period. Control and anionic diets were formulated by using 2 isonitrogenous protein mixes: (1) 97.5% soybean meal and (2) 52.8% BioChlor (Church & Dwight Co. Inc.), 45.8% soybean meal. Supplementing anions induced a mild metabolic acidosis, reducing urine pH for 21-ND and 42-ND compared with CON. Prepartum DMI was not different among treatments. Postpartum DMI was higher for 21-ND compared with CON (20.8 vs. 18.1±1.1 kg/d), and 42-ND had similar DMI compared with 21-ND. During the first 56 d of lactation 21-ND had greater average milk production compared with CON (44.8 vs. 39.2±2.1 kg/d). Average milk production by 42-ND was similar to 21-ND. Postpartum total blood Ca concentration was greater for 42-ND. Cows fed anionic diets prepartum tended to have lower lipid accumulation in the liver after calving compared with CON. These data suggest low-DCAD diets fed for 21 or 42 d during the dry period can have positive effects on postpartum DMI, Ca homeostasis, and milk production. PMID:23831094

Weich, W; Block, E; Litherland, N B

2013-09-01

305

Pathways Linking Socioeconomic Status and Postpartum Smoking Relapse  

PubMed Central

Background Low socioeconomic status (SES) exacerbates the high rate of smoking relapse in women following childbirth. Purpose This study examined multiple models of potential mechanisms linking SES and postpartum smoking relapse among women who quit smoking due to pregnancy. Methods Participants were 251 women enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of a new postpartum smoking relapse prevention intervention. Four models of the prepartum mechanisms linking SES and postpartum smoking relapse were evaluated using a latent variable modeling approach. Results Each of the hypothesized models were a good fit for the data. As hypothesized, SES indirectly influenced postpartum smoking relapse through increased prepartum negative affect/stress, reduced sense of agency, and increased craving for cigarettes. However, the model that included craving as the sole final pathway between SES and relapse demonstrated superior fit when compared with all other models. Conclusions Findings have implications for future interventions that aim to reduce postpartum relapse. PMID:23086590

Businelle, Michael S.; Kendzor, Darla E.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Castro, Yessenia; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Velasquez, Mary M.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Greisinger, Anthony J.; Wetter, David W.

2012-01-01

306

Effects of hypergravity on ovarian-hypophyseal function in antepartum and postpartum rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: Rats exposed to microgravity during the post-implantation phase of pregnancy had minimal alterations in ovarian and hypophyseal parameters during the antepartum and postpartum periods. In the current study, a similar parallel experimental design was employed to ascertain the effects of hypergravity on ovarian and hypophyseal function. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that hypergravity exposure during the post-implantation stage of pregnancy would not alter antepartum and postpartum ovarian and hypophyseal function. METHODS: Pregnant rats were assigned to hypergravity (1.5 G, 1.75 G, or 2.0 G), rotational control, or stationary control groups (n = 10 each group) beginning on gestation day 11 and ending on day 20. Hypophyseal and ovarian analyses were conducted on 5 of the animals from each group at day 20. The remaining animals in each group were allowed to go to term and the same analyses were conducted 3 h postpartum. RESULTS: Hypergravity at all levels decreased the percent body mass gain from gestation day 11 to 20 (p < 0.05); however, the wet weight of the pituitaries and ovaries was not changed. There was no effect of hypergravity on the number of healthy or atretic antral follicles of any size at gestation day 20 or postpartum. The number of corpora lutea of pregnancy was decreased in all hypergravity groups, but the number of live fetuses at gestation day 20 or pups at term was not altered. Plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin, and progesterone were not changed at gestation day 20 or postpartum. Pituitary content of LH, FSH, and prolactin was not altered by hypergravity at gestation day 20, but LH content was significantly increased (p < 0.05) at 1.5 and 1.75 G postpartum. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that hypergravity, up to and including 2.0 G, is compatible with maintenance of pregnancy and has minimal effects on hypophyseal parameters. Ovarian follicles are not altered by hypergravity, but corpora lutea may regress at a more rapid rate.

Burden, Hubert W.; Zary, Joan T.; Hodson, Charles A.; Gregory, Heather L.; Baer, Lisa A.; Ronca, April E.

2003-01-01

307

Relation between place of residence and postpartum depression  

PubMed Central

Background: The relation between place of residence and risk of postpartum depression is uncertain. We evaluated the relation between place of residence and risk of postpartum depression in a population-based sample of Canadian women. Methods: Female postpartum respondents to the 2006 Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey (n = 6126) were classified as living in rural (< 1000 inhabitants or population density < 400/km2), semirural (nonrural but < 30 000 inhabitants), semiurban (30 000–499 999 inhabitants) or urban (? 500 000 inhabitants) areas. We further subdivided women living in rural areas based on the social and occupational connectivity of their community to larger urban centres. We compared the prevalence of postpartum depression (score of ? 13 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) across these groups and adjusted for the effect of known risk factors for postpartum depression. Results: The prevalence of postpartum depression was higher among women living in urban areas than among those living in rural, semirural or semiurban areas. The difference between semiurban and urban areas could not be fully explained by other measured risk factors for postpartum depression (adjusted odds ratio 0.60, 95% confidence interval 0.42–0.84). In rural areas, there was a nonsignificant gradient of risk: women with less connection to larger urban centres were at greater risk of postpartum depression than women in areas with greater connection. Interpretation: There are systematic differences in the distribution of risk factors for postpartum depression across geographic areas, resulting in an increased risk of depression among women living in large urban areas. Prevention programs directed at modifiable risk factors (e.g., social support) could specifically target women living in these areas to reduce the rates of postpartum depression. PMID:23922346

Vigod, Simone N.; Tarasoff, Lesley A.; Bryja, Barbara; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Yudin, Mark H.; Ross, Lori E.

2013-01-01

308

Csarienne et troubles gnito-sexuels du post-partum Cesarean and postpartum genito-sexual disorders  

E-print Network

Titre Césarienne et troubles génito-sexuels du post-partum Cesarean and postpartum genito-sexual;Abstract Subject: We had little information about prevalence and prevention of genito-sexual disorders resulting from childbirth. Cesarean delivery that avoids perineal trauma should less disturb sexual function

Boyer, Edmond

309

Periodic isolation of the southern coastal plain of South Africa and the evolution of modern humans over late Quaternary glacial to interglacial cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humans evolved in Africa, but where in Africa and by what mechanisms remain unclear. The evolution of modern humans over the last million years is associated with the onset of major global climate fluctuations, glacial to interglacial cycles, related to the build up and melting of large ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere. During interglacial periods, such as today, warm and wet climates favored human expansion but during cold and dry glacial periods conditions were harsh and habitats fragmented. These large climate fluctuations periodically expanded and contracted African ecosystems and led to human migrations to more hospitable glacial refugia. Periodic isolation of relatively small numbers of humans may have allowed for their rapid evolutionary divergence from the rest of Africa. During climate transitions these divergent groups may have then dispersed and interbred with other groups (hybridization). Two areas at the opposite ends of Africa stand out as regions that were periodically isolated from the rest of Africa: North Africa (the Maghreb) and the southern coastal plain (SCP) of South Africa. The Maghreb is isolated by the Sahara Desert which periodically greens and is reconnected to the rest of Africa during the transition from glacial to interglacial periods. The SCP of South Africa is isolated from the rest of Africa by the rugged mountains of the Cape Fold Belt associated with inedible vegetation and dry climates to the north. The SCP is periodically opened when sea level falls by up to 130 m during glacial maxima to expose the present day submerged inner continental shelf. A five-fold expansion of the SCP receiving more rainfall in glacial periods may have served as a refuge to humans and large migratory herds. The expansive glacial SCP habitat abruptly contracts, by as much as one-third in 300 yr, during the rapid rise in sea level associated with glacial terminations. Rapid flooding may have increased population density and competition on the SCP to select for humans who expanded their diet to include marine resources or hunted large animals. Modest expansion of the coastal plain off Morocco and more extensive expansion off Tunisia would have similarly provided potential refugia for human groups during glacial periods. Other refugia in the African interior included the Ethiopian Highlands and the East African lakes; however, most of these regions probably had more diffuse barriers connected by river valley corridors. The earliest yet reported occurrence of symbolic artifacts from both North Africa and the SCP coastal caves of South Africa suggest that human populations in these areas were under shared selection pressures to adapt to increasing population densities associated with the transition from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6 to 5, 135 to 130 thousand years ago. The hypothesis that periodic expansion and contraction of the coastal plains of South Africa and North Africa contributed to the stepwise origin of our species over the last 800 thousand years is evaluated by comparing the archeological, DNA and sea-level records.

Compton, J. S.

2012-04-01

310

Periodical use of the Balve Cave (NW Germany) as a Late Pleistocene Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss 1823) den: Hyena occupations and bone accumulations vs. human Middle Palaeolithic activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relatively high amount of hyena Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss, 1823) remains at the Palaeolithic archaeological cave site Balve Cave (Sauerland Karst, NW Germany) and many chewed prey bones indicate periodic repeated use by hyenas. They reared their cubs and imported many prey remains. Most probably, Ice Age spotted hyenas occupied the Balve Cave for only a few years but

Cajus Godehard Diedrich

2011-01-01

311

Thrombophlébite cérébrale inhabituelle du post-partum  

PubMed Central

La thrombophlébite cérébrale du post-partum immédiat constitue un événement rare et gravissime pouvant mettre en jeu le pronostic vital à court terme. Celle-ci doit être systématiquement évoquée devant la persistance d'une fièvre dans les suites de couches. La prise en charge associera le plus souvent, des antibiotiques à large spectre et des anticoagulants. Le suivi évolutif est indispensable, afin d'apprécier l'efficacité thérapeutique. A travers une observation singulière et à présentation inhabituelle, nous insistons sur le grand intérêt des moyens d'imagerie dont nous disposons afin de porter le diagnostic et de choisir le traitement le mieux adapté. PMID:25478039

El Hassani, Moulay Elmehdi; Habib, Abdellah Baba; Kouach, Jaouad; Sekkach, Youssef; Bakkali, Hicham; Jira, Mohamed; Elqatni, Mohamed; Abouzahir, Ali; Ghafir, Dris; Moussaoui, Dris; Dehayni, Mohamed

2014-01-01

312

Infant formula samples: perinatal sources and breast-feeding outcomes at 1 month postpartum.  

PubMed

The purpose was to describe sources of infant formula samples during the perinatal period and assess their associations with breast-feeding outcomes at 1 month postpartum. Subjects included expectant mothers who anticipated breast-feeding at least 1 month. Infant feeding history and sources of formula samples were obtained at 1 month postpartum. Associations between sources and breast-feeding outcomes were assessed using partial correlation. Of the 61 subjects who initiated breast-feeding, most were white (87%), married (75%), college-educated (75%), and planned exclusive breast-feeding (82%). Forty-two subjects (69%) continued breast-feeding at 1 month postpartum. Subjects received formula samples from the hospital (n = 40; 66%), physician's office (n = 10; 16%), and mail (n = 41; 67%). There were no significant correlations between formula samples from the hospital, physician's office, and/or mail and any or exclusive breast-feeding at 1 month (P > .05). In addition to the hospital, a long-standing source of formula samples, mail was also frequently reported as a route for distribution. The lack of statistically significant associations between formula samples and any or exclusive breast-feeding at 1 month may be related to small sample size and unique characteristics of the group studied. PMID:24164818

Thurston, Amanda; Bolin, Jocelyn H; Chezem, Jo Carol

2013-01-01

313

Baseline results from Hawaii's N? Mikimiki Project: a physical activity intervention tailored to multiethnic postpartum women.  

PubMed

During the postpartum period, ethnic minority women have higher rates of inactivity/under-activity than white women. The N? Mikimiki ("the active ones") Project is designed to increase moderate-to-vigorous physical activity over 18 months among multiethnic women with infants 2-12 months old. The study was designed to test, via a randomized controlled trial, the effectiveness of a tailored telephone counseling of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity intervention compared to a print/website materials-only condition. Healthy, underactive women (mean age = 32 ± 5.6 years) with a baby (mean age = 5.7 ± 2.8 months) were enrolled from 2008-2009 (N = 278). Of the total sample, 84% were ethnic minority women, predominantly Asian-American and Native Hawaiian. Mean self-reported baseline level of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was 40 minutes/week with no significant differences by study condition, ethnicity, infant's age, maternal body mass index, or maternal employment. Women had high scores on perceived benefits, self-efficacy, and environmental support for exercise but low scores on social support for exercise. This multiethnic sample's demographic and psychosocial characteristics and their perceived barriers to exercise were comparable to previous physical activity studies conducted largely with white postpartum women. The N? Mikimiki Project's innovative tailored technology-based intervention and unique population are significant contributions to the literature on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in postpartum women. PMID:22533900

Albright, Cheryl L; Steffen, Alana D; Novotny, Rachel; Nigg, Claudio R; Wilkens, Lynne R; Saiki, Kara; Yamada, Paulette; Hedemark, Brooke; Maddock, Jason E; Dunn, Andrea L; Brown, Wendy J

2012-01-01

314

Negative energy balance affects imprint stability in oocytes recovered from postpartum dairy cows.  

PubMed

Ovarian follicle development in post-partum, high-producing dairy cows, occurs in a compromised endogenous metabolic environment (referred to as negative energy balance, NEB). Key events that occur during oocyte/follicle growth, such as the vital process of genomic imprinting, may be detrimentally affected by this altered ovarian environment. Imprinting is crucial for placental function and regulation of fetal growth, therefore failure to establish and maintain imprints during oocyte growth may contribute to early embryonic loss. Using ovum pick-up (OPU), oocytes and follicular fluid samples were recovered from cows between days 20 and 115 post-calving, encompassing the NEB period. In a complimentary study, cumulus oocyte complexes were in vitro matured under high non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations and in the presence of the methyl-donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Pyrosequencing revealed the loss of methylation at several imprinted loci in the OPU derived oocytes. The loss of DNA methylation was observed at the PLAGL1 locus in oocytes, following in vitro maturation (IVM) in the presence of elevated NEFAs and SAM. Finally, metabolomic analysis of postpartum follicular fluid samples revealed significant differences in several branched chain amino acids, with fatty acid profiles bearing similarities to those characteristic of lactating dairy cows. These results provide the first evidence that (1) the postpartum ovarian environment may affect maternal imprint acquisition and (2) elevated NEFAs during IVM can lead to the loss of imprinted gene methylation in bovine oocytes. PMID:25084396

O'Doherty, Alan M; O'Gorman, Aoife; al Naib, Abdullah; Brennan, Lorraine; Daly, Edward; Duffy, Pat; Fair, Trudee

2014-09-01

315

Baseline Results from Hawaii's N? Mikiniiki Project: A Physical Activity Intervention Tailored to Multiethnic Postpartum Women  

PubMed Central

During the postpartum period, ethnic minority women have higher rates of inactivity/under-activity than white women. The N? Mikimiki (“the active ones”) Project is designed to increase moderate-to-vigorous physical activity over 18 months among multiethnic women with infants 2–12 months old. The study was designed to test, via a randomized controlled trial, the effectiveness of a tailored telephone counseling of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity intervention compared to a print/website materials-only condition. Healthy, underactive women (mean age = 32 ± 5.6 years) with a baby (mean age = 5.7 ± 2.8 months) were enrolled from 2008–2009 (N = 278). Of the total sample, 84% were ethnic minority women, predominantly Asian–American and Native Hawaiian. Mean self-reported baseline level of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was 40 minutes/week with no significant differences by study condition, ethnicity, infant's age, maternal body mass index, or maternal employment. Women had high scores on perceived benefits, self-efficacy, and environmental support for exercise but low scores on social support for exercise. This multiethnic sample's demographic and psychosocial characteristics and their perceived barriers to exercise were comparable to previous physical activity studies conducted largely with white postpartum women. The N? Mikimiki Project's innovative tailored technology-based intervention and unique population are significant contributions to the literature on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in postpartum women. PMID:22533900

Albright, Cheryl L.; Steffen, Alana D.; Novotny, Rachel; Nigg, Claudio R.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Saiki, Kara; Yamada, Paulette; Hedemark, Brooke; Maddock, Jason E.; Dunn, Andrea L.; Brown, Wendy J.

2012-01-01

316

Postpartum vaginal cystic lesions: everyday practice or a differential diagnosis challenge?  

PubMed Central

Postpartum vaginal cystic lesions constitute a common situation that is caused either by inflammation or by accumulation of lymph. We report a case of a 33-year-old woman who had bilateral duplication of the pelvicalyceal system and ureter, and after the labor of her second child, she had one ureter prolapse into the vagina after initially appearing as a cystic lesion. Ureteral duplication is the most common renal abnormality, occurring in approximately 1% of the population and in 10% of children who are diagnosed with urinary tract infections. In our case we consider possible that this clinical situation was a result of a combination of postpartum pelvic floor trauma and prolapse of the ureter. There are only several of these cases in the literature where ureter prolapse is associated and complicated by pelvic floor trauma caused during or after labor. The clinical approach of the cystic lesions located in the vagina during the postpartum period should include a meticulous examination of the urinary system before any other medical practice. PMID:23803247

2013-01-01

317

Temporal relationship between intimate partner violence and postpartum depression in a sample of low income women.  

PubMed

To estimate whether there is a temporal association between Postpartum Depression (PPD) and intimate partner violence (IPV), and to assess the potential role of social support on this relationship. A cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2006 and March 2007 with 701 low income women who received prenatal and postpartum care in primary health care units of the public sector in São Paulo, Brazil. The Self-Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20) was used to assess the presence of PPD. Structured standardized questionnaires were used to assess IPV and social support. The prevalence of PPD was estimated with a 95 % confidence interval. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios were calculated using Poisson regression to examine the association between PPD and exposure variables. Values of p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The prevalence of PPD was 27.9 % (95 %CI 24.6:31.2). The prevalence of psychological IPV was 38.6 %, physical IPV 23.4 %, and sexual IPV 7.1 %. The multivariate analysis showed that PPD was strongly associated with current psychological and physical/sexual violence, after controlling for confounding factors, and less so with past (prenatal or lifetime) IPV. Presence of social support was an independent protective factor for PPD. Identifying and addressing intimate partner violence, including psychological violence, in the postpartum period should be considered as part of a comprehensive approach to caring for new mothers. PMID:22935913

Faisal-Cury, Alexandre; Menezes, Paulo Rossi; d'Oliveira, Ana Flávia Pires Lucas; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Lopes, Claudia S

2013-09-01

318

Increased Glutamate Levels in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex in Patients with Postpartum Depression  

PubMed Central

The medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) is a key brain area in depressive symptomatology; specifically, glutamate (Glu) has been reported to play a significant role in major depression (MD) in this area. MPFC Glu levels are sensitive to ovarian hormone fluctuations and pregnancy and the postpartum period are associated with the most substantial physiological alterations of female hormones. It is therefore logical to measure MPFC Glu levels in women with postpartum depression (PPD). Using in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at a field strength of 3?T, we acquired single-voxel spectra from the MPFC of 12 women with PPD and 12 healthy controls (HCs) matched for postpartum scan timing. Water-referenced MPFC Glu levels were measured using a MRS technique that allowed us to be specific for Glu with very little glutamine contamination. The concentrations of other water-quantified brain metabolites such as glycerophosphorylcholine plus phosphorylcholine, N-acetylaspartate (NAA), and creatine plus phosphocreatine were measured in the same MR spectra. MPFC Glu levels were higher in women with PPD (7.21±1.20) compared to matched HCs (6.04±1.21). There were no differences between groups for other brain metabolites measured. These findings suggest an association between Glu dysregulation in the MPFC and PPD. Whether the pathophysiology of PPD differs from the pathophysiology of MD remains to be determined. Further investigations are needed to determine the chronological associations between the occurrence of symptoms of PPD and the onset of changes in MPFC Glu levels. PMID:22805604

McEwen, Alyssa M; Burgess, Denee T A; Hanstock, Christopher C; Seres, Peter; Khalili, Panteha; Newman, Stephen C; Baker, Glen B; Mitchell, Nicholas D; Khudabux-Der, Janisse; Allen, Peter S; LeMelledo, Jean-Michel

2012-01-01

319

Volume replacement following severe postpartum hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Severe postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) can be defined as a blood loss of more than 1500 mL to 2500 mL. While rare, severe PPH is a significant contributor to maternal mortality and morbidity in the United States and throughout the world. Due to the maternal hematologic adaptation to pregnancy, the hypovolemia resulting from hemorrhage can be asymptomatic until a large amount of blood is lost. Rapid replacement of lost fluids can mitigate effects of severe hemorrhage. Current evidence on postpartum volume replacement suggests that crystalloid fluids should be used only until the amount of blood loss becomes severe. Once a woman displays signs of hypovolemia, blood products including packed red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, platelets, and recombinant factor VIIa should be used for volume replacement. Overuse of crystalloid fluids increases the risk for acute coagulopathy and third spacing of fluids. A massive transfusion protocol is one mechanism to provide a rapid, consistent, and evidence-based team response to this life-threatening condition. PMID:24751109

Schorn, Mavis N; Phillippi, Julia C

2014-01-01

320

Postpartum depression among Israeli Bedouin women.  

PubMed

Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common complication of childbirth with prevalence estimated at 10-20% reported in many countries, including Israel. However, no data has been reported for Israeli Bedouin women, whose lifestyle is significantly different from that of the general population. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of PPD among Bedouin women in the southern Negev. The study included 104 women attending public health clinics for pregnancy and postpartum care. PPD symptoms were assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). The rate of PPD symptoms was 43% at the EPDS cut-off score of 10, and 26% at the more stringent cut-off score of 13. This rate is considerably higher than reported rates among Israeli Jewish women. No significant difference was found between a score of ?10 and maternal age, number of children, or level of education; however, at the EPDS score of ?13, there was an inverse relationship between educational level and PPD symptoms. Lower rates were found among women whose pregnancies were planned and those who worked out of the home. The high rate of PPD among these Israeli Bedouin women challenges health authorities to find ways minimize the negative consequences for themselves, their children, and families. PMID:21479760

Glasser, Saralee; Stoski, Ela; Kneler, Victoria; Magnezi, Racheli

2011-06-01

321

Factors affecting spontaneous reduction of corpora lutea and twin embryos during the late embryonic/early fetal period in multiple-ovulating dairy cows.  

PubMed

Spontaneous reduction of advanced twin embryos has been described in high-producing, Holstein-Fresian (Bos taurus) dairy herds. The first objective of the current study was to determine whether management and cow factors could have an effect on such a reduction in twin pregnancies during the early fetal period. Because loss of a corpus luteum was noted in cows suffering twin reduction, we expanded our study to include multiple-ovulating cows carrying singletons. Pregnancy was diagnosed and confirmed from Days 28 to 34 and 56 to 62 postinsemination. Sixty-nine (23.5%) of 293 pregnant cows with two corpora lutea carrying singletons and 132 (28.4%) of 464 twin pregnancies recorded on first pregnancy diagnosis subsequently lost one of the corpora lutea or one of the embryos, respectively. Thirty-four (25.8%) of the 132 twin pregnancies suffering embryo reduction lost one corpus luteum along with the embryo. Corpus luteum reduction always occurred in the ovary ipsilateral to the gravid horn suffering embryo reduction. Binary logistic regressions were performed considering corpus luteum and embryo reduction as dependent variables in single and twin pregnancies, respectively, and several management- and cow-related factors as independent variables. In cows carrying singletons, the risk of corpus luteum reduction was 14.3 (1/0.07) times lower for a given herd, whereas the interaction season by laterality significantly affected corpus luteum reduction such that in cows with two corpora lutea ipsilateral to the horn of pregnancy, the risk of reduction decreased during the winter period. In cows carrying twins, ipsilateral twin pregnancies were 3.45 (1/0.29) times more likely to undergo the loss of one embryo than bilateral twin pregnancies. As an overall conclusion, both corpora lutea and embryos were vulnerable to the effects of stress factors during the early fetal period in cows maintaining their pregnancies. A strong unilateral relationship between the corpus luteum and the conceptus was also observed. PMID:19853900

López-Gatius, F; García-Ispierto, I; Hunter, R H F

2010-02-01

322

Perspective on physiological/endocrine and nutritional factors influencing fertility in post-partum dairy cows.  

PubMed

Increasing reproductive performance of post-partum lactating dairy cows is a multi-factorial challenge involving disciplines of production medicine, nutrition, physiology and herd management. Systems of programmed timed insemination have been fine-tuned to achieve pregnancy per artificial inseminations (AI) approximating 45%. Systems have optimized follicle development, integrated follicle development with timing of induced corpus luteum regression and fine-tuned sequential timing of induced ovulation and AI. Use of programmes for insemination have identified occurrence of anovulatory ovarian status, body condition, uterine health and seasonal summer stress as factors contributing to reduced herd fertility. Furthermore, programmes of timed insemination provide a platform to evaluate efficacy of nutritional and herd health systems targeted to the transition and post-partum periods. The homeorhetic periparturient period, as cows deal with decreases in dry matter intake, results in a negative energy balance and is associated with a period of immunosuppression. Cows that transition well will cycle earlier and have a greater risk of becoming pregnant earlier post-partum. The innate arms of the immune system (acute and adaptive) are suppressed during the periparturient period. Cows experiencing the sequential complex of disorders such as dystocia, puerperal metritis, metritis, endometritis and subclinical endometritis are subsequently less fertile. Targeted strategies of providing specific nutraceuticals that provide pro- and anti-inflammatory effects, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (e.g., linoleic, eicosapentaenoic/docosahexaenoic, conjugated linoleic acid), sequential glycogenic and lipogenic enrichment of diets, and organic selenium appear to differentially regulate and improve the immune and reproductive systems to benefit an earlier restoration of ovarian activity and increased fertility. PMID:24417194

Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P; Silvestre, F T; Kim, I H; Staples, C R

2010-09-01

323

Dream-associated Behaviors Affecting Pregnant and Postpartum Women  

PubMed Central

Study objectives: Evaluate the prevalence and phenomenology of dream-associated behaviors affecting pregnant and postpartum mothers. Episodes consist of anxious dreams and nightmares about the new infant that are accompanied by complex behaviors (motor activity, speaking, expressing emotion). Design: Three-group design (postpartum, pregnant, null gravida), self-report, and repeated measures. Setting: Pregnancy and postpartum groups: completion of questionnaires in hospital room within 48 hours of giving birth and home telephone interviews; null gravida group: completion of questionnaires and interview in person or by telephone. Participants: Two hundred seventy-three women in 3 groups: postpartum: n = 202 (mean age = 29.7 ± 4.94 years; 95 primiparas, 107 multiparas); pregnant: n = 50 (mean age = 31.1 ± 5.44 years); null gravida: n = 21 (mean age = 28.5 ± 6.34 years). Interventions: Subjects completed questionnaires about pregnancy and birth factors, personality, and sleep and participated in interviews concerning the prevalence of recent infant dreams and nightmares, associated behaviors, anxiety, depression, and other psychopathologic factors. Measurements and Results: Most women in all groups recalled dreams (88%-91%). Postpartum and pregnant women recalled infant dreams and nightmares with equal prevalence, but more postpartum women reported they contained anxiety (75%) and the infant in peril (73%) than did pregnant women (59%, P < 0.05 and 42%, P < 0.0001). More postpartum (63%) than pregnant (40%) women reported dream-associated behaviors (P < 0.01), but neither group differed from null gravida women (56%). This was due to different distributions over groups of the behavior subtypes. Motor activity was present in twice as many postpartum (57%) as pregnant (24%) or null gravida (25%) women (all P < 0.0001). Expressing emotion was more prevalent among null gravida (56%) than postpartum women (27%) (P < 0.05) but was not different from pregnant women (37%). Speaking was equally prevalent among the 3 groups (12%-19%). Behaviors were associated with nightmares, dream anxiety and, among postpartum women, post-awakening anxiety (41%), confusion (51%), and a need to check on the infant (60%). Primiparas and multiparas differed in dream and nightmare recall but not in prevalence of dream-associated behaviors. Conclusion: The prevalent occurrence of pregnancy and postpartum infant dreams and associated behaviors may reflect the pervasive emotional influence of maternal concerns or changes instigated by severe sleep disruption, rapid eye movement sleep deprivation, and altered hormone levels. Citation: Nielsen T; Paquette T. Dream-associated behaviors affecting pregnant and postpartum women. SLEEP 2007;30(9):1162-1169. PMID:17910388

Nielsen, Tore; Paquette, Tyna

2007-01-01

324

Prenatal and postpartum care of women with substance use disorders.  

PubMed

The incidence of substance abuse in pregnancy is substantial and affects pregnancy health and outcomes. Multiple challenges exist in the identification of women with substance abuse disorders in pregnancy and the provision of care. A multidisciplinary approach has been shown to be most successful in providing comprehensive and effective care. This article outlines key aspects of prenatal and postpartum care, with a brief overview provided of intrapartum care. Issues covered include screening, opioid replacement therapy, comorbid medical and psychiatric conditions, environmental stressors, parenting preparation, pain management in labor and postpartum, breastfeeding guidance, prevention of relapse, and assistance with postpartum transition to primary care. PMID:24845486

Gopman, Sarah

2014-06-01

325

Mania and depression in the perinatal period among women with a history of major depressive disorders.  

PubMed

Women with a history of major depressive disorder (MDD) have increased risks for postpartum depression, but less is known about postpartum mania in this population. The objectives of this study were to prospectively determine the frequency with which mania occurs in the postpartum among women who have a history of MDD and to explore temporal relationships between onset of mania/hypomania and depression. We administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV disorders (SCID) to pregnant women with a self-reported history of MDD to confirm diagnosis and exclude women with any history of mania/hypomania. Participants completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Altman Self-Rating Mania Scale (ASRM) once during the pregnancy (?26 weeks) and 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postpartum. Among women (n?=?107) with a SCID-confirmed diagnosis of MDD, 34.6 % (n?=?37) experienced mania/hypomania (defined by an ASRM score of ?6) at ?1 time point during the postpartum, and for just over half (20/37, 54 %), onset was during the postpartum. The highest frequency of mania/hypomania (26.4 %, n?=?26) was at 1 week postpartum. Women who experienced mania/hypomania at 1 week postpartum had significantly more symptoms of mania/hypomania later in the postpartum. A substantive proportion of women with a history of MDD may experience first onset of mania/hypomania symptoms in the early postpartum, others may experience first onset during pregnancy. Taken with other recent data, these findings suggest a possible rationale for screening women with a history of MDD for mania/hypomania during the early postpartum period, but issues with screening instruments are discussed. PMID:24402681

Inglis, Angela J; Hippman, Catriona L; Carrion, Prescilla B; Honer, William G; Austin, Jehannine C

2014-04-01

326

Aortic Dissection and Postpartum Cardiomyopathy in a Postpartum Young Woman: A Case Report Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Aortic dissection is a rare condition in young women and usually related with congenital anomalies of aorta and connective tissue disorders. We reported a 34-year-old postpartum woman with aortic dissection. Case Presentation: The patient complained of respiratory distress and weakness with no abdominal pain or chest pain 20 days after delivery and had no history of hypertension during pregnancy and perinatal or prior heart disease. Postpartum cardiomyopathy and left ventricular dysfunction were diagnosed by imaging study and cardiac enzyme level. Finally, CT-scan was performed and showed aortic dissection. The patient underwent surgery and after surgery, she was alive without any problem. Conclusions: Patients with peripartum cardiomyopathy and aortic dissection could be cured with good medical care. PMID:24910806

Jalalian, Rozita; Saravi, Mehrdad; Banasaz, Bahar

2014-01-01

327

Relationship of monoamine oxidase-a distribution volume to postpartum depression and postpartum crying.  

PubMed

Postpartum depression (PPD) has a prevalence rate of 13% and a similarly high proportion of women report a subclinical state of one or more major depressive episode symptoms. The aim was to investigate whether monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) VT, an index of MAO-A density, is increased in the prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex (PFC and ACC), during PPD or when a PPD spectrum symptom, greater predisposition to crying, is present. MAO-A is an enzyme that increases in density after estrogen decline, and has several functions including creating oxidative stress, influencing apoptosis and monoamine metabolism. Fifty-seven women were recruited including 15 first-onset, antidepressant naive, PPD subjects, 12 postpartum healthy who cry due to sad mood, 15 asymptomatic postpartum healthy women, and 15 healthy women not recently pregnant. Each underwent [(11)C]-harmine positron emission tomography scanning to measure MAO-A VT. Both PPD and greater predisposition to crying were associated with greater MAO-A VT in the PFC and ACC (multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), group effect, F21,135=1.856; p=0.019; mean combined region elevation 21% and 14% in PPD and crying groups, respectively, relative to postpartum asymptomatic). Greater MAO-A VT in the PFC and ACC represents a new biomarker in PPD, and the PPD symptom of predisposition to crying. Novel strategies for preventing PPD (and some PPD symptoms) may be possible by avoiding environmental conditions that elevate MAO-A level and enhancing conditions that normalize MAO-A level. These findings also argue for clinical trials in PPD with the newer, well-tolerated MAO-A inhibitor antidepressants. PMID:25074638

Sacher, Julia; Rekkas, P Vivien; Wilson, Alan A; Houle, Sylvain; Romano, Leslie; Hamidi, Jinous; Rusjan, Pablo; Fan, Ian; Stewart, Donna E; Meyer, Jeffrey H

2015-01-01

328

Effects on the rate of increase in fetal girth of refeeding ewes after short periods of severe undernutrition during late pregnancy.  

PubMed

A technique is described by which daily changes in the thoracic circumference (girth) of individual fetal sheep were observed during the last 60 to 70 days of pregnancy. The girth technique and a previously published method for measuring daily changes in the curved crown-rump length were both used to examine fetal growth responses when ewes were refed at 116 days of gestation after short periods of severe underfeeding. Refeeding ewes after nine or 16 days of severe underfeeding was associated in most cases with an immediate increase in fetal growth rate, whereas refeeding after 21 days had no effect on the rate in any fetus. Possible mechanisms underlying these effects are discussed. Using girth as an index the growth rates of individual lambs were measured before and after birth. There was a 3.3 fold increase in growth rate immediately after birth. PMID:7100656

Mellor, D J; Murray, L

1982-05-01

329

Relationships between thyroid hormones and serum energy metabolites with different patterns of postpartum luteal activity in high-producing dairy cows.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relationships of thyroid hormones, serum energy metabolites, reproductive parameters, milk yield and body condition score with the different patterns of postpartum luteal activity in the postpartum period. A total of 75 multiparous healthy (free of detectable reproductive disorders) Holstein dairy cows (mean peak milk yield = 56.5 ± 7.0 kg/day) were used in this study. Transrectal ultrasound scanning and blood sample collection were performed twice weekly. Serum concentrations of progesterone (P4) were measured twice weekly and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), non-esterified fatty acids, thyroxine (T4), 3,30,5-tri-iodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (fT4) and free 3,30,5-tri-iodothyronine (fT3) were measured every 2 weeks from the 1st to the 8th week postpartum. On the basis of the serum P4 profile of the cows, 25 (33.4%) had normal luteal activity (NLA), whereas 30 (40%), 10 (13.3%), 6 (8%) and 4 (5.3%) had prolonged luteal phase (PLP), delayed first ovulation (DOV), anovulation (AOV) and short luteal phase, respectively. Serum T4 concentrations in PLP cows were higher than that in NLA cows at the 3rd week postpartum and did not change during the period of study, whereas in the NLA cows the concentrations increased (P < 0.05). Further, the least square (LS) mean of serum fT4 concentrations in the DOV and AOV cows were significantly lower than in the NLA cows during the study period (P < 0.05). In addition, the AOV cows had higher LS mean serum BHBA and T4 concentrations than the NLA cows in early weeks postpartum (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the serum thyroid hormones' profile differs in high-producing dairy cows showing PLP, AOV and DOV in comparison with the postpartum NLA cows. PMID:23217229

Kafi, M; Tamadon, A; Saeb, M; Mirzaei, A; Ansari-Lari, M

2012-08-01

330

Interactions between metabolic and reproductive functions in the resumption of postpartum fecundity  

PubMed Central

Lactation has long been recognized as a major determinant of interbirth intervals. The temporal pattern of nursing has been proposed as the mechanism behind lactational amenorrhea. We present a new model of the dynamic regulation of lactational amenorrhea that identifies maternal energy availability as the main determinant of ovarian resumption. Variation in the intensity of lactation remains a component of the model as a determinant of the absolute energetic cost of milk production. But maternal energy supply determines net energy availability; a larger energy supply leaves a greater net energy surplus than a smaller energy supply (lactation costs being equal). We characterize the hormonal postpartum profile of 70 lactating Toba women of Argentina. We use C-peptide, which reflects maternal insulin production, as a measure of energy availability. Initially low, insulin production rises as the postpartum period progresses, reflecting the declining metabolic load of lactation. A short period of supernormal insulin production precedes menstrual resumption. The high levels of insulin may play a role in stimulating the resumption of ovarian activity, which in turn may help to resolve the transient period of insulin resistance. The dynamics of insulin sensitivity during lactation would aid in synchronizing the resumption of ovarian function with a reduction in the energy demands of milk production. This hypothesis is supported by the sustained weight gain experienced by lactating women during the months preceding the first postpartum menses. The link between fecundity and energy balance could serve as a mechanism for adjusting the duration of lactational amenorrhea to the relative metabolic load of lactation. PMID:19298003

Valeggia, Claudia; Ellison, Peter T.

2012-01-01

331

Spatial variability of the species composition, abundance, and productivity of the phytoplankton in the white sea in the late summer period  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The species composition, cell concentration ( N), and biomass ( B) of the phytoplankton, as well as the chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration, primary production ( PP), and the concentrations of the dissolved inorganic micronutrients (phosphorus, silica, nitrogen as nitrite), were estimated for Kandalaksha Bay (KB), Dvina Bay (DB), and the basin (Bas) of the White Sea in August of 2004. The micronutrient concentrations were lower compared to the average long-term values for the summer period. The Chl a concentration varies from 0.9 to 2.0 mg/m3 for most of the studied areas, reaching up to 7.5 mg/m3 in the Northern Dvina River estuary. The surface water layer of the DB was the most productive area, where the PP reached up to 270-375 mg C/(m3 day). The phytoplankton biomass varied from 11 to 205 mg C/m3 with the highest values observed in the Bas and DB. Three groups of stations were defined during the analysis of the phytoplankton's species composition similarity. The dinoflagellates Dinophysis norvegica and Ceratium fusus were particular to the phytoplankton assemblages in the KB; the diatom Ditylum brightwellii was particular to the upper and central parts of the DB. These three phytoplankton species were less abundant in the Bas.

Ilyash, L. V.; Radchenko, I. G.; Kuznetsov, L. L.; Lisitzyn, A. P.; Martynova, D. M.; Novigatskiy, A. N.; Chul'Tsova, A. L.

2011-02-01

332

Mortality by education level at late-adult ages in Turin: a survival analysis using frailty models with period and cohort approaches  

PubMed Central

Objectives Neglecting the presence of unobserved heterogeneity in survival analysis models has been showed to potentially lead to underestimating the effect of the covariates included in the analysis. This study aimed to investigate the role of unobserved heterogeneity of frailty on the estimation of mortality differentials from age 50 on by education level. Design Longitudinal mortality follow-up of the census-based Turin population linked with the city registry office. Setting Italian North-Western city of Turin, observation window 1971–2007. Population 391?170 men and 456?216 women followed from age 50. Primary outcome measures Mortality rate ratios obtained from survival analysis regression. Models were estimated with and without the component of unobserved heterogeneity of frailty and controlling for mortality improvement over time from both cohort and period perspectives. Results In the majority of cases, the models without frailty estimated a smaller educational gradient than the models with frailty. Conclusions The results draw the attention of the potential underestimation of the mortality inequalities by socioeconomic levels in survival analysis models when not controlling for unobserved heterogeneity of frailty. PMID:23824314

Zarulli, Virginia; Marinacci, Chiara; Costa, Giuseppe; Caselli, Graziella

2013-01-01

333

Postpartum Transitions in Adolescent Mothers' Romantic and Maternal Relationships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviewed adolescent mothers at prepartum or early postpartum and 1 year later regarding maternal and romantic relationships, depression, and negative life events. Responses indicated that over time male partner support became more important than maternal support. (LBT)

Gee, Christina B.; Rhodes, Jean E.

1999-01-01

334

Postpartum depression among African-American women.  

PubMed

The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the nature of postpartum depression (PPD) among African-American women. Twelve women, who had experienced PPD within the last three years, were interviewed for approximately one hour at two intervals. Nudist-4 software and the constant comparative method were used to analyze the data. Five themes "Stressing Out," "Feeling Down," "Losing It," "Seeking Help," and "Feeling Better" represented aspects of PPD as experienced by the participants. The last theme, "Dealing with It," represented the cultural ways in which African-American mothers managed their depression. These included Keeping the Faith, Trying to Be a Strong Black Woman, Living with Myths, and Keeping Secrets. Suggestions for future directions in nursing research are included. PMID:12623687

Amankwaa, Linda Clark

2003-01-01

335

Preventing postpartum depression: review and recommendations.  

PubMed

Nearly 20 % of mothers will experience an episode of major or minor depression within the first 3 months postpartum, making it the most common complication of childbearing. Postpartum depression (PPD) is significantly undertreated, and because prospective mothers are especially motivated for self-care, a focus on the prevention of PPD holds promise of clinical efficacy. This study is a qualitative review of existing approaches to prevent PPD. A PubMed search identified studies of methods of PPD prevention. The search was limited to peer-reviewed, published, English-language, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of biological, psychological, and psychosocial interventions. Eighty articles were initially identified, and 45 were found to meet inclusion criteria. Eight RCTs of biological interventions were identified and 37 RCTs of psychological or psychosocial interventions. Results were mixed, with 20 studies showing clear positive effects of an intervention and 25 showing no effect. Studies differed widely in screening, population, measurement, and intervention. Among biological studies, anti-depressants and nutrients provided the most evidence of successful intervention. Among psychological and psychosocial studies, 13/17 successful trials targeted an at-risk population, and 4/7 trials using interpersonal therapy demonstrated success of the intervention versus control, with a further two small studies showing trends toward statistical significance. Existing approaches to the prevention of PPD vary widely, and given the current literature, it is not possible to identify one approach that is superior to others. Interpersonal therapy trials and trials that targeted an at-risk population appear to hold the most promise for further study. PMID:25422150

Werner, Elizabeth; Miller, Maia; Osborne, Lauren M; Kuzava, Sierra; Monk, Catherine

2015-02-01

336

Inability to predict postpartum hemorrhage: insights from Egyptian intervention data  

PubMed Central

Background Knowledge on how well we can predict primary postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) can help policy makers and health providers design current delivery protocols and PPH case management. The purpose of this paper is to identify risk factors and determine predictive probabilities of those risk factors for primary PPH among women expecting singleton vaginal deliveries in Egypt. Methods From a prospective cohort study, 2510 pregnant women were recruited over a six-month period in Egypt in 2004. PPH was defined as blood loss ? 500 ml. Measures of blood loss were made every 20 minutes for the first 4 hours after delivery using a calibrated under the buttocks drape. Using all variables available in the patients' charts, we divided them in ante-partum and intra-partum factors. We employed logistic regression to analyze socio-demographic, medical and past obstetric history, and labor and delivery outcomes as potential PPH risk factors. Post-model predicted probabilities were estimated using the identified risk factors. Results We found a total of 93 cases of primary PPH. In multivariate models, ante-partum hemoglobin, history of previous PPH, labor augmentation and prolonged labor were significantly associated with PPH. Post model probability estimates showed that even among women with three or more risk factors, PPH could only be predicted in 10% of the cases. Conclusions The predictive probability of ante-partum and intra-partum risk factors for PPH is very low. Prevention of PPH to all women is highly recommended. PMID:22123123

2011-01-01

337

Screening for postpartum depression in an inner-city population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of positive screens for postpartum depression by using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in an inner-city population. Study Design: At their postpartum visits, women who were seen in two inner-city practices between February 20 and April 30, 2002, self-administered the EPDS. A threshold of 10 or more points was selected

Jeanine K. Morris-Rush; Margaret Comerford Freda; Peter S. Bernstein

2003-01-01

338

Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome in a Postpartum Preeclamptic Woman without Seizure.  

PubMed

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a cliniconeuroradiological entity presenting with headache, confusion, visual disturbances or blindness, and seizures. Parieto-occipital white matter changes due to vasogenic oedema can be observed on imaging modalities. It rarely occurs without seizures and after delivery. We report a 33-year-old multigravida with a history of preeclampsia in term pregnancy complicated by PRES without seizures at the postpartum period. Clinical improvement with complete resolution without any complications was observed on the 6th day after delivery. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is reversible when early diagnosis is established and appropriate treatment is started without delay. PMID:24592342

Ural, Ulkü Mete; Balik, Gülsah; Sentürk, Senol; Ustüner, I??k; Cobano?lu, U?ur; Sahin, Figen K?r

2014-01-01

339

What Patterns of Postpartum Psychological Distress Are Associated with Maternal Concerns about Their Children's Emotional and Behavioural Problems at the Age of Three Years?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mothers experiencing psychological distress in the postpartum period may have difficulties parenting their children. Inconsistent and unresponsive parenting may increase the risk of later emotional and behavioural problems in children. The purpose of this study was to identify how maternal psychological characteristics cluster at eight weeks…

Benzies, Karen; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Tough, Suzanne

2015-01-01

340

The miRNAome of the postpartum dairy cow liver in negative energy balance  

PubMed Central

Background Negative energy balance (NEB) is an altered metabolic state in high yielding cows that occurs during the first few weeks postpartum when energy demands for lactation and maintenance exceed the energy supply from dietary intake. NEB can, in turn, lead to metabolic disorders and to reduced fertility. Alterations in the expression of more than 700 hepatic genes have previously been reported in a study of NEB in postpartum dairy cows. miRNAs (microRNA) are known to mediate many alterations in gene expression post transcriptionally. To study the hepatic miRNA content of postpartum dairy cows, including their overall abundance and differential expression, in mild NEB (MNEB) and severe NEB (SNEB), short read RNA sequencing was carried out. To identify putative targets of differentially expressed miRNAs among differentially expressed hepatic genes reported previously in dairy cows in SNEB computational target identification was employed. Results Our results indicate that the dairy cow liver expresses 53 miRNAs at a lower threshold of 10 reads per million. Of these, 10 miRNAs accounted for greater than 95% of the miRNAome (miRNA content). Of the highly expressed miRNAs, miR-122 constitutes 75% followed by miR-192 and miR-3596. Five out of thirteen let-7 miRNA family members are also among the highly expressed miRNAs. miR-143, down-regulated in SNEB, was found to have 4 putative up-regulated gene targets associated with SNEB including LRP2 (low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 2), involved in lipid metabolism and up-regulated in SNEB. Conclusions This is the first liver miRNA-seq profiling study of moderate yielding dairy cows in the early postpartum period. Tissue specific miR-122 and liver enriched miR-192 are two of the most abundant miRNAs in the postpartum dairy cow liver. miR-143 is significantly down-regulated in SNEB and putative targets of miRNA-143 which are up-regulated in SNEB, include a gene involved in lipid metabolism. PMID:24725334

2014-01-01

341

Comparing the Postpartum Quality of Life Between Six to Eight Weeks and Twelve to Fourteen Weeks After Delivery in Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Women during the postpartum period experience many physiological, psychological, and social changes. Quality of life (QOL) is a sense of well-being and arises from satisfaction or dissatisfaction with various aspects of life including health, employment, socioeconomic state, psychological-emotional state, and family. Moreover, QOL is an important criteria for assessing healthcare system. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the postpartum QOL between six to eight and 12 to 14 weeks after delivery in women referred to public health centers in Dezful City, Iran, in 2011. Materials and Methods: This study was a longitudinal study. The study participants were 150 postpartum women referred to public health centers. Quota method was used for sampling. Data collection tools in this study were demographic questionnaire, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), short form health survey questionnaire (SF-36), and Specific Quality of Life after Delivery Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Results: The results showed that the mean scores of various dimensions of the SF-36 were significantly higher at 12 to 14 weeks than at six to eight weeks (P < 0.001). The postpartum mean depression score was significantly higher at six to eight weeks than at 12 to 14 weeks (P < 0.001). The mean score of QOL questionnaires at 12 to 14 weeks were increased in all dimensions in comparison with six to eight weeks; however, this increase was significant only in dimension of the mother's feelings toward herself, her husband, and others (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Because enormous changes develop in postpartum women, we suggest supportive measures for mother by her mother-in-law, family, and caregivers to improve the QOL and health status of the mother and her child. PMID:25237575

Bahrami, Nosrat; Karimian, Zahra; Bahrami, Somayeh; Bolbolhaghighi, Nahid

2014-01-01

342

A content analysis of self-reported barriers and facilitators to preventing postpartum smoking relapse among a sample of current and former smokers in an underserved population.  

PubMed

To characterize the barriers and facilitators thatprevent postpartum relapse and maintain smoking abstinence among a socioeconomically underserved population, recruited through Philadelphia-area women, infants, and children clinics, in-person interviews were conducted with 30 women who had quit smoking for one or more pregnancies in the past 3 years to retrospectively describe their attempts to remain abstinent during the postpartum period. Responses were analysed using the constructs from the Cognitive-Social Health Information Processing model, which identifies the cognitive, affective and behavioral factors involved in goal-oriented self-regulatory actions, in the context of a vulnerable population of women. Motherhood demands were a significant source of relapse stress. Stresses associated with partner and family relationships also contributed to relapse. The presence of other smokers in the environment was mentioned by many women in our sample as affecting their ability to remain smoke-free postpartum. Participants reported four main strategies that helped them to successfully cope with postpartum cravings and relapses, including being informed of smoking risks, maintaining goal-oriented thoughts, focusing on their concerns about the baby's health and receiving positive social support from families and friends. Results provide guidance for the design of smoking relapse interventions that may address the unique stressors reported by underserved postpartum women. PMID:25099776

Wen, Kuang-Yi; Miller, Suzanne M; Roussi, Pagona; Belton, Tanisha D; Baman, Jayson; Kilby, Linda; Hernandez, Enrique

2015-02-01

343

Predictive factors for loss to postpartum follow-up among low income HIV-infected women in Texas.  

PubMed

Guidelines for HIV primary care include visits every 3 months (up to 6 months in those with stable HIV). During pregnancy, women with HIV commonly attend once weekly to once monthly visits; however, after delivery, many are lost to follow-up. Our goal was to assess the frequency of loss to primary care follow-up postpartum and to identify predictors of loss to care. A retrospective chart review of HIV-infected women in a Houston prenatal program was done. Optimal care was defined as one visit to HIV primary care providers (PCPs) every 6 months within the first year after delivery, and loss to follow-up as no visits within the first postpartum year. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with loss to follow-up. Charts (n=213) were analyzed for follow-up with PCPs. The loss to follow-up rate was 39% in the first postpartum year. Associated factors were younger age, black race, late entry to prenatal care, and no plans for contraception. Predictors of loss to primary care after pregnancy can be used to identify specific subpopulations of pregnant women at highest risk for falling out of care. PMID:24720630

Siddiqui, Robaab; Bell, Tanvir; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Minard, Charles; Levison, Judy

2014-05-01

344

Successful catheter directed thrombolysis in postpartum deep venous thrombosis complicated by nicoumalone-induced skin necrosis and failure in retrieval of inferior vena caval filter.  

PubMed

Venous thromboembolism is an important cause for maternal morbidity and mortality in postpartum period. Though catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) is now considered as a safe and effective therapy for the management of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) but still it is not indicated in postpartum DVT. We are presenting a case of 22-year-old female patient who presented with post-partum lower limb DVT and managed successfully with CDT by using injection streptokinase and temporary inferior vena caval filter was inserted as prophylactic for pulmonary embolism as she had extensive DVT extending into inferior vena cava (IVC). During follow-up, she developed large skin necrosis in left lower limb which was managed by adding injection low-molecular-weight heparin. IVC filter also could not be retrieved even after trying all manoeuvres during follow-up after 2 weeks. PMID:23887994

Srinivas, B C; Patra, Soumya; Agrawal, Navin; Manjunath, C N

2013-01-01

345

Adherence of pregnant women to Nordic dietary guidelines in relation to postpartum weight retention: results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Pregnancy is a major life event for women and often connected with changes in diet and lifestyle and natural gestational weight gain. However, excessive weight gain during pregnancy may lead to postpartum weight retention and add to the burden of increasing obesity prevalence. Therefore, it is of interest to examine whether adherence to nutrient recommendations or food-based guidelines is associated with postpartum weight retention 6 months after birth. Methods This analysis is based on data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Diet during the first 4-5 months of pregnancy was assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire and maternal weight before pregnancy as well as in the postpartum period was assessed by questionnaires. Two Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores were applied to measure compliance with either the official Norwegian food-based guidelines (HEI-NFG) or the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (HEI-NNR) during pregnancy. The considered outcome, i.e. weight retention 6 months after birth, was modelled in two ways: continuously (in kg) and categorically (risk of substantial postpartum weight retention, i.e. ??5% gain to pre-pregnancy weight). Associations between the HEI-NFG and HEI-NNR score with postpartum weight retention on the continuous scale were estimated by linear regression models. Relationships of both HEI scores with the categorical outcome variable were evaluated using logistic regression. Results In the continuous model without adjustment for gestational weight gain (GWG), the HEI-NFG score but not the HEI-NNR score was inversely related to postpartum weight retention. However, after additional adjustment for GWG as potential intermediate the HEI-NFG score was marginally inversely and the HEI-NNR score was inversely associated with postpartum weight retention. In the categorical model, both HEI scores were inversely related with risk of substantial postpartum weight retention, independent of adjustment for GWG. Conclusions Higher adherence to either the official Norwegian food guidelines or possibly also to Nordic Nutrition Recommendations during pregnancy appears to be associated with lower postpartum weight retention. PMID:24456804

2014-01-01

346

Body temperature in early postpartum dairy cows.  

PubMed

A strategy widely adopted in the modern dairy industry is the introduction of postpartum health monitoring programs by trained farm personnel. Within these fresh cow protocols, various parameters (e.g., rectal temperature, attitude, milk production, uterine discharge, ketones) are evaluated during the first 5 to 14 days in milk (DIMs) to diagnose relevant diseases. It is well documented that 14% to 66% of healthy cows exhibit at least one temperature of 39.5 °C or greater within the first 10 DIM. Although widely adopted, data on diagnostic performance of body temperature (BT) measurement to diagnose infectious diseases (e.g., metritis, mastitis) are lacking. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify possible factors associated with BT in postpartum dairy cows. A study was conducted on a commercial dairy farm including 251 cows. In a total of 217 cows, a vaginal temperature logger was inserted from DIM 2 to 10, whereas 34 cows did not receive a temperature logger as control. Temperature loggers measured vaginal temperature every 10 minutes. Rectal temperature was measured twice daily in all cows. On DIM 2, 5, and 10, cows underwent a clinical examination. Body temperature was influenced by various parameters. Primiparous cows had 0.2 °C higher BT than multiparous cows. Multiparous cows that calved during June and July had higher BT than those that calved in May. In primiparous cows, this effect was only evident from DIM 7 to 10. Furthermore, abnormal calving conditions (i.e., assisted calving, dead calf, retained placenta, twins) affected BT in cows. This effect was more pronounced in multiparous cows. Abnormal vaginal discharge did increase BT in primiparous and multiparous cows. Primiparous cows suffering from hyperketonemia (beta-hydroxybutyrat ? 1.4 mmol/L) had higher BT than those not affected. In multiparous cows, there was no association between hyperketonemia and BT. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that BT is influenced by various parameters in dairy cows. Therefore, these parameters have to be considered when interpreting measurements of BT in dairy cows. This information helps to explain the high incidence of type I and II errors when measuring BT and clearly illustrates that measures of BT should not be used as a single criterion to decide whether or not to provide antibiotic treatment to dairy cows. However, research-based test characteristics of other parameters (e.g., vaginal discharge) alone or in combination with BT are still lacking. PMID:24742963

Burfeind, O; Suthar, V S; Voigtsberger, R; Bonk, S; Heuwieser, W

2014-07-01

347

Factors associated with early cyclicity in postpartum dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate factors associated with resumption of ovarian cyclicity within 21 days in milk (DIM) in dairy cows. Cows (n=768) from 2 herds in north Florida had their ovaries scanned at 17±3, 21±3, and 24±3 DIM. Cows that had a corpus luteum ?20mm at 17±3 or at 21±3 DIM or that had a corpus luteum <20mm in 2 consecutive examinations were determined to be cyclic by 21±3 DIM. The following information was collected for up to 14 DIM: calving season, parity, calving problems, metabolic problems, metritis, mastitis, digestive problems, lameness, body weight loss, dry period length, and average daily milk yield. Body condition was scored at 17±3 DIM. Multivariable mixed logistic regression analysis was performed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Variables with P?0.2 were considered in each model. Herd was included as a random variable. Three models were constructed: model 1 included all cows, model 2 included only cows from dairy 1 that had daily body weights available, and model 3 included only multiparous cows with a previous dry period length recorded. In model 1, variables associated with greater cyclicity by 21±3 DIM were calving in the summer and fall rather than in the winter or spring, being multiparous rather than primiparous, and not having metabolic or digestive problems. In model 2, variables associated with greater cyclicity by 21±3 DIM were calving in the summer and fall, not having metritis or digestive problems and not losing >28 kg of BW within 14 DIM. In model 3, variables associated with greater cyclicity by 21±3 DIM were absence of metabolic problems and dry period ?76 d. In summary, cyclicity by 21±3 DIM was negatively associated with calving in winter or spring, primiparity, metritis, metabolic or digestive problems, loss of >28 kg of body weight, and a dry period >76d. Strategies preventing extended dry period length and loss of BW, together with reductions in the incidence of metritis as well as metabolic and digestive problems should improve early cyclicity postpartum. PMID:25465552

Vercouteren, M M A A; Bittar, J H J; Pinedo, P J; Risco, C A; Santos, J E P; Vieira-Neto, A; Galvão, K N

2015-01-01

348

Pilot Study of an Individualised Early Postpartum Intervention to Increase Physical Activity in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Optimal strategies to prevent progression towards overt diabetes in women with recent gestational diabetes remain ill defined. We report a pilot study of a convenient, home based exercise program with telephone support, suited to the early post-partum period. Twenty eight women with recent gestational diabetes were enrolled at six weeks post-partum into a 12 week randomised controlled trial of Usual Care (n = 13) versus Supported Care (individualised exercise program with regular telephone support; n = 15). Baseline characteristics (Mean ± SD) were: Age??33 ± 4??years; Weight 80 ± 20?kg and Body Mass Index (BMI) 30.0 ± 9.7?kg/m2. The primary outcome, planned physical activity {Median (Range)}, increased by 60 (0–540) mins/week in the SC group versus 0 (0–580) mins/week in the UC group (P = 0.234). Walking was the predominant physical activity. Body weight, BMI, waist circumference, % body fat, fasting glucose and insulin did not change significantly over time in either group. This intervention designed to increase physical activity in post-partum women with previous gestational diabetes proved feasible. However, no measurable improvement in metabolic or biometric parameters was observed over a three month period. PMID:22548057

McIntyre, Harold David; Peacock, Ann; Miller, Yvette D.; Koh, Denise; Marshall, Alison L.

2012-01-01

349

A universal index of uterine discharge symptoms from calving to 6 weeks postpartum.  

PubMed

In this paper, a new uterine discharge index (D-index) was created and tested. It was based on a principal component analysis (PCA) of clinical findings of classical uterine discharge symptoms and rectal temperature during the postpartum period of dairy cattle. The PCA analysis revealed how uterine discharge features relate to each other and how they cluster together possibly representing different degrees of uterine inflammation. The D-index was the result of the multivariate PCA-analysis, and the D-index gives a continuous value between 0 and 10. It was demonstrated that the same scale, i.e. the D-index, can be used without any adjustment from 1 to 6 weeks post-calving. It is valid for any type of uterine discharge without defining the type of infection or differentiating between infection and contamination. The D-index was tested using the uterine involution data. Uterine involution was significantly delayed in the high-D-index group of cows. Similarly, in the test with all cows, involution was progressively delayed and the rate of involution of the pregnant horn was slowed down with the increase of the D-index values. It is concluded that the D-index can be a new practical, universal, tool for improved management of dairy cows in the postpartum period under commercial conditions. PMID:20345584

Gorzecka, J; Friggens, N C; Ridder, C; Callesen, H

2011-02-01

350

Incorporating recognition and management of perinatal and postpartum depression into pediatric practice.  

PubMed

Every year, more than 400,000 infants are born to mothers who are depressed, which makes perinatal depression the most underdiagnosed obstetric complication in America. Postpartum depression leads to increased costs of medical care, inappropriate medical care, child abuse and neglect, discontinuation of breastfeeding, and family dysfunction and adversely affects early brain development. Pediatric practices, as medical homes, can establish a system to implement postpartum depression screening and to identify and use community resources for the treatment and referral of the depressed mother and support for the mother-child (dyad) relationship. This system would have a positive effect on the health and well-being of the infant and family. State chapters of the American Academy of Pediatrics, working with state Early Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) and maternal and child health programs, can increase awareness of the need for perinatal depression screening in the obstetric and pediatric periodicity of care schedules and ensure payment. Pediatricians must advocate for workforce development for professionals who care for very young children and for promotion of evidence-based interventions focused on healthy attachment and parent-child relationships. PMID:20974776

Earls, Marian F

2010-11-01

351

[Management of post-partum infections].  

PubMed

Post-partum endometritis are frequent and account for the fifth cause of maternal death. This disease is preventable and effective treatments are available. Streptococcus agalactiae is the primary pathogen implicated. The clinical diagnosis is usually easy and involves pelvic pain, fever and abnormal lochia. Whenever antibiotic treatment provides no clinical improvement, or in case of doubt on the vacuity of the uterus, an ultrasound exam must be performed. Likewise, a CT scan or a MRI will be performed in case of persistent fever in search of a pelvic abscess requiring a drainage, or of a pelvic thrombophlebitis. Thromboplebitis requires heparin for the duration of antibiotic therapy, or oral anticoagulants for at least 3 months in case of pulmonary embolism or extension to the vena cava. The recommended antibiotic regimen combines clindamycin with gentamicin (once daily) intravenously. In case of contraindication or breastfeeding, other regimens may be prescribed. Adequate duration of treatment has not been evaluated and a switch to oral antibiotics after clinical improvement brings no benefit. Antibioprophylaxy (mostly cephalosporins) is recommended in cases of cesarean section (at skin incision), while it is debated in case of assisted delivery or of 3rd and 4th degree perineal tears. PMID:23141132

Lamy, C; Zuily, S; Perdriolle, E; Gauchotte, E; Villeroy-de-Galhau, S; Delaporte, M-O; Wahl, D; Morel, O; Judlin, P

2012-12-01

352

A case of taeniasis diagnosed postpartum.  

PubMed

A case of postpartum taeniasis will be discussed along with the pathophysiology, proper treatment, potential risks, and prevention of taeniasis infections to the pregnant mother, her infant, and her family members. Taenia spp. infections are relatively rare in developed societies. Increasing immigration to developed countries and an expanding role of medical aid in developing countries will lead to an increase in the number of taeniasis cases seen by medical providers. Taenia solium and T. saginata are the most common species and can be differentiated by proglottids (a segment of a tapeworm containing both male and female reproductive organs) or scolex (the head of a tapeworm which attaches to the intestine of the definitive host). Both carry different risks when considering autoinfection and transmission. Cystercercosis caused by T. solium is a risk for neonates and is cause for immediate treatment of the mother. A 23-year-old new mother, originally from Ethiopia, passed T. strobili shortly after giving birth. Her pregnancy was complicated by limited prenatal care. She did not experience any symptoms related to tapeworm infection. The patient received treatment with praziquantel. With a possible future increase in the number of cases seen by health care providers, understanding the risks of Taenia sp. infection is important as proper treatment and education are needed to halt the life cycle of the tapeworm before more serious infection ensues. PMID:23707843

Noss, Matthew R; Gilmore, Katherine; Wittich, Arthur C

2013-04-01

353

Nutrition and the psychoneuroimmunology of postpartum depression  

PubMed Central

Postpartum depression (PPD) is a relatively common and often severe mood disorder that develops in women after childbirth. The aetiology of PPD is unclear, although there is emerging evidence to suggest a psychoneuroimmune connection. Additionally, deficiencies in n-3 PUFA, B vitamins, vitamin D and trace minerals have been implicated. This paper reviews evidence for a link between micronutrient status and PPD, analysing the potential contribution of each micronutrient to psychoneuroimmunological mechanisms of PPD. Articles related to PPD and women’s levels of n-3 PUFA, B vitamins, vitamin D and the trace minerals Zn and Se were reviewed. Findings suggest that while n-3 PUFA levels have been shown to vary inversely with PPD and link with psychoneuroimmunology, there is mixed evidence regarding the ability of n-3 PUFA to prevent or treat PPD. B vitamin status is not clearly linked to PPD, even though it seems to vary inversely with depression in non-perinatal populations and may have an impact on immunity. Vitamin D and the trace minerals Zn and Se are linked to PPD and psychoneuroimmunology by intriguing, but small, studies. Overall, evidence suggests that certain micronutrient deficiencies contribute to the development of PPD, possibly through psychoneuroimmunological mechanisms. Developing a better understanding of these mechanisms is important for guiding future research, clinical practice and health education regarding PPD. PMID:22853878

Ellsworth-Bowers, E. R.; Corwin, E. J.

2013-01-01

354

Maintained pregnancy levels of oestrogen afford complete protection from post-partum exacerbation of collagen-induced arthritis.  

PubMed Central

Pregnancy is known to influence the course of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in women, as well as type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA/1 mice. A characteristic feature is the remission during gestation and the exacerbation of the diseases during the post-partum period. In the case of CIA in DBA 1 mice, two hormonal changes have been assumed to be critical for the induction of the post-partum flare: (i) the fall in steroid hormone levels from those present during pregnancy; and (ii) surges of prolactin (PRL) release at and after delivery. Our results show that treatment with oestradiol during a short period immediately after parturition protects the mouse from a post-partum flare of the disease, and that treatment with bromocriptine, a drug known to inhibit the endogenous PRL release, has a significant though less marked effect. Studies of lactating (i.e. animals with physiological stimulation of endogenous PRL release) and non-lactating arthritic mice revealed no clear-cut differences, indicating that PRL is of minor importance for the induction of the post-partum flare. Some steroids other than oestradiol, which may be implicated in the exacerbation of arthritis, namely progesterone and hydrocortisone, had no clinical effect. Analyses of agalactosyl IgG levels in mice with CIA, and anti-collagen II antibodies in sera collected at the end of the experiments revealed no significant differences between the oestradiol and the control groups. The successful oestradiol treatment of the mice indicates that the drop in endogenous oestradiol levels prior to delivery ends the oestrogen-mediated protection against arthritis during pregnancy. PMID:2070561

Mattsson, R; Mattsson, A; Holmdahl, R; Whyte, A; Rook, G A

1991-01-01

355

Addition of Sodium Bicarbonate to Rations of Pre and Postpartum Dairy Cows1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium bicarbonate was added to complete mixed rations to evaluate the effect of buffer addition on adaptation to high-energy rations by dairy cows in early lactation. Forty-five Holstein cows were assigned to one of three treatment groups: control pre- and postpartum; control prepartum, buffer postpartum; and buffer pre- and postpartum. Rations consisted of 85% chopped grass hay: 15% concentrate prepartum

L. H. Kilmer; L. D. Muller; P. J. Wangsness

1980-01-01

356

The role of oxytocin in mothers' theory of mind and interactive behavior during the perinatal period.  

PubMed

The present longitudinal study examined the relations between plasma oxytocin, theory of mind, and maternal interactive behavior during the perinatal period. A community sample of women was assessed at 12-14 weeks gestation, 32-34 weeks gestation, and 7-9 weeks postpartum. Oxytocin during late pregnancy was significantly positively correlated with a measure of theory of mind, and predicted theory of mind ability after controlling for parity, maternal education, prenatal psychosocial risk, and general anxiety, measured during the first trimester. Theory of mind was associated with less remote and less depressive maternal interactive behavior. Oxytocin, across all time points, was not directly related to maternal interactive behavior. However, there was a significant indirect effect of oxytocin during late pregnancy on depressive maternal behavior via theory of mind ability. These preliminary findings suggest that changes in the oxytocinergic system during the perinatal period may contribute to the awareness of social cues, which in turn plays a role in maternal interactive behavior. PMID:24995584

MacKinnon, Anna L; Gold, Ian; Feeley, Nancy; Hayton, Barbara; Carter, C Sue; Zelkowitz, Phyllis

2014-10-01

357

Postpartum osteoporosis and vertebral fractures in two patients treated with enoxaparin during pregnancy.  

PubMed

Postpartum osteoporosis (PPO) is a rare disease associated with pregnancy and lactation period. Here, we report severe PPO and multiple vertebral compression fractures in two patients treated with enoxaparin-low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH)-throughout their pregnancy. A 34-year-old woman who has delivered her second baby 3 months ago presented with severe low-back pain. She was treated with enoxaparin 40 mg/day for 8 months during her pregnancy. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) showed low T- and Z-scores in lumbar (L) vertebras. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), severe height losses in thoracic (T) 12, L1, and L2 vertebras were detected. She was diagnosed to have severe PPO and multiple vertebral compression fractures and was prescribed risedronate 35 mg/week, calcium, and vitamin D. The other patient was a 36-year-old woman diagnosed with PPO and vertebral fractures at the third week postpartum. She was also treated with enoxaparin 60 mg/day during her pregnancy. Severe osteoporosis in L vertebras and height losses indicative for compression fractures in T5-8, T11-12, and L2-5 vertebras were detected by DEXA and MRI, respectively. She was treated with calcitonin 200 U/day, calcium, and vitamin D. These findings suggest that vertebral compression fractures and PPO may be one of the causes of severe back pain in postpartum patients. Treatment with LMWH during pregnancy might be considered as a new risk factor for this rare condition. PMID:25138263

Ozdemir, D; Tam, A A; Dirikoc, A; Ersoy, R; Cakir, B

2015-01-01

358

Comparison of Dietary Intake of Overweight Postpartum Mothers Practicing Breastfeeding or Formula Feeding  

PubMed Central

Background Weight gain in the postpartum period is a risk factor for long-term obesity. Investigations of dietary intake among lactating and non-lactating, overweight women may identify nutritional concerns specific to this population. Objective To compare nutrient, meal and snack intakes, food group servings and prevalence of dieting among fully breastfeeding (BF) mixed breast and formula feeding (MF), and formula feeding (FF), overweight and obese women. The second aim was to compare nutrient intakes and food group servings to the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) and MyPyramid recommendations, respectively. Design Data were collected from September 2004 through April 2006 in Durham, NC. Infant feeding practices and dietary information were collected on 450 women between six and nine weeks postpartum. Two 24-hour dietary recalls were completed by phone, using Nutrition Data Systems for Research. Analysis of covariance was used to compare infant feeding groups in dietary quality (nutrient intake per 1000 kcal) and food group servings, controlling for pre-pregnancy body mass index, race, age, education, income, and marital status. Chi-squared (X 2) analysis was performed to determine differences in meal and snack intake and dieting among infant feeding groups. Results BF women consumed more energy (2107 ± 50 kcal) than MF (1866 ± 56 kcal) or FF (1657 ± 50 kcal), p<0.001. Adjusted nutrient intake did not differ between groups. All groups were at risk for inadequate intakes of vitamins A, E, C, and folate and did not meet recommended servings of all food groups. BF women consumed lunch and snacks more frequently, were less likely to diet and reported higher intakes of grains and desserts than MF and FF women. Conclusions To help increase intakes of nutrients lacking in the diet and prevent postpartum weight gain, overweight women should be encouraged to increase fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy, whole grains, legumes, and healthy types of fat, while decreasing refined grains, regular soda, sweetened beverages, and desserts. PMID:21185967

Durham, Holiday A.; Brouwer, Rebecca J. N.; Krause, Katrina M.; Østbye, Truls

2010-01-01

359

Clark T. Sawin historical vignette: what do criminology, harry houdini, and king george v have in common with postpartum thyroid dysfunction?  

PubMed

The history of postpartum thyroid dysfunction (PPTD) dates back almost two millennia, when Soranus of Ephesus, who practiced obstetrics and neonatology, observed swelling in the necks (presumably goiters) of women after pregnancy. The next reference to PPTD appeared in artwork more than 1000 years later, with many portraits illustrating women with goiter while holding infants. In the early to mid-19th century, Caleb Hillier Parry and Armand Trousseau described postpartum hyperthyroidism, while in the late 1800s, Sir Horatio Bryan Donkin reported the first patient with postpartum hypothyroidism. The modern era of PPTD began with the description in the late 1940s by H.E.W. Roberton of women after delivery reporting hypothyroid symptoms and responding to thyroid extract. The immunologic influence on PPTD was recognized initially by Parker and Beierwaltes in the early 1960s, and the clinical variability and natural history were carefully documented by numerous investigators in the 1970s-1980s. The past two decades have seen further refinements in understanding the prevalence, etiology, and treatment of PPTD. Yet to be determined is the role of screening as a cost-effective measure. PMID:25180618

Smallridge, Robert C

2014-12-01

360

Effects of suckling frequency and breed on productive performance, follicular dynamics and postpartum interval in beef cows.  

PubMed

One experiment was conducted to determine the influence of suckling frequency (restricted suckling (RS) versus ad libitum suckling (AS)) and breed (Brown Swiss versus Pirenaica) on productive performance, follicular dynamics and postpartum cyclicity resumption in beef cows. Twenty-four spring-calving cows (12 Brown Swiss and 12 Pirenaica) were used. After calving cows were assigned, within breed, to the two suckling frequencies (RS versus AS). During the postpartum period, cows were fed 100% of the daily energy estimated requirements. The study was conducted from calving to either day 90 postpartum or to detection of the second ovulation whenever it came later. The pattern of follicular development was monitored daily by transrectal ultrasonography, and blood samples were collected three times a week to analyse progesterone concentrations by RIA. Body condition score at calving was 2.5 (from 1 to 5). Productive parameters were not significantly affected by suckling frequency. Pirenaica cows gained more weight (P<0.001), while Brown Swiss cows had higher milk yield (P<0.001) and thus their calves grew faster (P<0.05). In the present moderate conditions of nutrition, either suckling frequency or breed did not affect follicular dynamics (on average there were 6.5 follicles in emergence, growth rate of dominant follicle (DF) was 1.3mm per day and maximum diameter of dominant follicle was 13.9mm). There were gradual increases in maximum diameter and growth rate of dominant follicle related to the proximity of the ovulatory waves, and they were defined by third order polynomial equations. Postpartum anoestrous interval (PPI) was markedly affected by the interaction between suckling frequency and breed (P<0.001): ad libitum suckling prolonged significantly the interval from calving to first ovulation in Brown Swiss cows (31.8 day versus 82.7 day, in RS and AS groups, respectively, P<0.05), but not in Pirenaica cows (43.5 day versus 32.6 day, in RS and AS groups, respectively, not statistically significant). It is concluded that in moderate pre- and postpartum nutritional conditions Brown Swiss cows were more susceptible to the suppressor effect of ad libitum suckling on postpartum anoestrous interval than Pirenaica cows, although this breed difference did not seem to be mediated by differences in energy balance or in ovarian follicular dynamics. PMID:12853179

Sanz, A; Casasús, I; Villalba, D; Revilla, R

2003-11-20

361

Optimistic outlook regarding maternity protects against depressive symptoms postpartum.  

PubMed

The transition to motherhood is a time of elevated risk for clinical depression. Dispositional optimism may be protective against depressive symptoms; however, the arrival of a newborn presents numerous challenges that may be at odds with initially positive expectations, and which may contribute to depressed mood. We have explored the relative contributions of antenatal and postnatal optimism regarding maternity to depressive symptoms in the postnatal period. Ninety-eight pregnant women underwent clinician interview in the third trimester to record psychiatric history, antenatal depressive symptoms, and administer a novel measure of optimism towards maternity. Measures of depressive symptoms, attitudes to maternity, and mother-to-infant bonding were obtained from 97 study completers at monthly intervals through 3 months postpartum. We found a positive effect of antenatal optimism, and a negative effect of postnatal disconfirmation of expectations, on depressive mood postnatally. Postnatal disconfirmation, but not antenatal optimism, was associated with more negative attitudes toward maternity postnatally. Antenatal optimism, but not postnatal disconfirmation, was associated with reduced scores on a mother-to-infant bonding measure. The relationships between antenatal optimism, postnatal disconfirmation of expectations, and postnatal depression held true among primigravidas and multigravidas, as well as among women with prior histories of mood disorders, although antenatal optimism tended to be lower among women with mental health histories. We conclude that cautious antenatal optimism, rather than immoderate optimism or frank pessimism, is the approach that is most protective against postnatal depressive symptoms, and that this is true irrespective of either mood disorder history or parity. Factors predisposing to negative cognitive assessments and impaired mother-to-infant bonding may be substantially different than those associated with depressive symptoms, a finding that merits further study. PMID:25088532

Robakis, Thalia K; Williams, Katherine E; Crowe, Susan; Kenna, Heather; Gannon, Jamie; Rasgon, Natalie L

2014-08-01

362

Reproductive tract defense and disease in postpartum dairy cows.  

PubMed

This paper briefly reviews recent data and concepts on the development and mitigation of infection and inflammation in the reproductive tract of dairy cows during the first 2 mo after calving. The incidence of metritis is typically between 10 and 20%, of clinical endometritis or purulent vaginal discharge (PVD) approximately 15%, and of subclinical or cytological endometritis a further 15%. Worse postpartum negative energy balance is associated with more severe or prolonged uterine inflammation. Changes in feed intake, expression of genes for pro-inflammatory cytokines, notably interleukin (IL) 1, IL6 and IL8, circulating concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) or nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and innate immune function precede both metritis and endometritis by several weeks. Infections with Escherichia coli and Arcanobacterium pyogenes are associated with both metritis and PVD. There are new data to suggest that specific virulence factors in E. coli associated with adherence may be important in metritis and PVD. Cytological endometritis and PVD are overlapping but largely distinct conditions, and there are emerging data that cervicitis exists both concurrent with and separate from endometritis. Much remains to be learned about what initiates and sustains harmful inflammation of the reproductive tract. Such information is necessary to develop effective treatments for the various forms of disease and, more importantly, to develop means to prevent endometritis and cervicitis. In particular, vaccination against specific uterine pathogens and interventions to modulate innate immune response appear to be important avenues for investigation. Presently, commonly recommended best management practices for cows in the transition period are likely to be helpful to mitigate the risk of reproductive disease. PMID:21890187

LeBlanc, Stephen J; Osawa, Takeshi; Dubuc, Jocelyn

2011-12-01

363

Family history, not lack of medication use, is associated with the development of postpartum depression in a high-risk sample.  

PubMed

We sought to determine clinical predictors of postpartum depression (PPD), including the role of medication, in a sample of women followed prospectively during and after pregnancy. Women with a history of mood disorder were recruited and evaluated during each trimester and 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postpartum. DSM-IV criteria for a major depressive episode were assessed by a psychiatric interview at each time point. Sixty-three women with major depression and 30 women with bipolar disorder entered the study and 75.4 % met DSM-IV criteria for a MDE during pregnancy, postpartum, or both. We modeled depression in a given time period (second trimester, third trimester, or 1 month postpartum) as a function of medication use during the preceding period (first, second, or third trimester). The odds of being depressed for those who did not use medication in the previous period was approximately 2.8 times that of those who used medication (OR 2.79, 95 % CI 1.38-5.66, p?=?0.0048). Of 38 subjects who were psychiatrically well during the third trimester, 39.5 % (N?=?15) met the criteria for a MDE by 4 weeks postpartum. In women who developed PPD, there was a high rate of a family history of PPD (53.3 %) compared to women who did not develop PPD (11.8 %, p?=?0.02). While the use of psychiatric medications during pregnancy reduced the odds of being depressed overall, the use of psychiatric medications during pregnancy may not protect against PPD in women at high risk, particularly those with a family history of PPD. PMID:24980575

Kimmel, Mary; Hess, Edward; Roy, Patricia S; Palmer, Jennifer Teitelbaum; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Meuchel, Jennifer M; Bost-Baxter, Emily; Payne, Jennifer L

2015-02-01

364

Efficacy of Rectal Misoprostol for Prevention of Postpartum Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Postpartum hemorrhage is an important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality after delivery. Active management of postpartum hemorrhage by an uterotonic drug decreases the rate of postpartum hemorrhage. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of rectal misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage. This double blind randomized clinical trial was performed on full term pregnant women candidate for vaginal delivery, referred to Zahedan Imam Ali Hospital during 2008-2009. They were randomly divided into two groups of rectal misoprostol and oxytocin. The women in misoprostol group received 400 ?g rectal misoprostol after delivery and the women in oxytocin group received 3 IU oxytocin in 1 L ringer serum, intravenously. Rate of bleeding, need to any surgery interventions, rate of transfusion and changes in hemoglobin and hematocrite were compared between two groups. A total of 400 patients (200 cases in misoprostol group and 200 in oxytocin group) entered to the study. Rate of bleeding > 500 cc was significantly higher in oxytocin group than misoprostol group (33% vs. 19%) (p = 0.005). Also, need to excessive oxytocin for management of postpartum hemorrhage was significantly lower in misoprostol group than oxytocin group (18% vs. 30%) (p = 0.003). Decrease in hematocrite was significantly more observed in oxytocin group than misoprostol group (mean decrease of hematocrite was 1.3 ± 1.6 in misoprostol group and 1.6 ± 2.2 in oxytocin group). Two groups were similar in terms of side-effects. Rectal misoprostol as an uterotonic drug can decrease postpartum hemorrhage and also can prevent from decrease of hemoglobin as compared to oxytocin. PMID:24250623

Mirteimouri, Masoumeh; Tara, Fatemeh; Teimouri, Batool; Sakhavar, Nahid; Vaezi, Afsaneh

2013-01-01

365

Postpartum ovarian vein thrombosis after cesarean delivery: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Postpartum ovarian vein thrombosis is an uncommon complication; incidence varies between 0.002% and 0.05%. It most often occurs during the 2–15 days following delivery. Case presentation A 22-year-old pregnant woman at term presented to hospital with uterine contractions, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. After delivery an ovarian vein thrombosis was diagnosed. Conclusion Low-molecular weight heparin with broad-spectrum antibiotics are the accepted therapy in non-complicated cases of postpartum ovarian vein thrombosis. PMID:18400095

Royo, Pedro; Alonso-Burgos, Alberto; García-Manero, Manuel; Lecumberri, Ramón; Alcázar, Juan Luis

2008-01-01

366

Applying polygenic risk scores to postpartum depression.  

PubMed

The etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) is likely to be heterogeneous, but postpartum depression (PPD) is hypothesized to represent a more homogenous subset of MDD. We use genome-wide SNP data to explore this hypothesis. We assembled a total cohort of 1,420 self-report cases of PPD and 9,473 controls with genome-wide genotypes from Australia, The Netherlands, Sweden and the UK. We estimated the total variance attributable to genotyped variants. We used association results from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortia (PGC) of bipolar disorder (BPD) and MDD to create polygenic scores in PPD and related MDD data sets to estimate the genetic overlap between the disorders. We estimated that the percentage of variance on the liability scale explained by common genetic variants to be 0.22 with a standard error of 0.12, p?=?0.02. The proportion of variance (R (2)) from a logistic regression of PPD case/control status in all four cohorts on a SNP profile score weighted by PGC-BPD association results was small (0.1 %) but significant (p?=?0.004) indicating a genetic overlap between BPD and PPD. The results were highly significant in the Australian and Dutch cohorts (R (2)?>?1.1 %, p?

Byrne, Enda M; Carrillo-Roa, Tania; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Sallis, Hannah M; Viktorin, Alexander; Chapman, Brett; Henders, Anjali K; Pergadia, Michele L; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela A F; Sullivan, Patrick F; Boschloo, Lynn; van Grootheest, Gerard; McMahon, George; Lawlor, Debbie A; Landén, Mikael; Lichtenstein, Paul; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Evans, David M; Montgomery, Grant W; Boomsma, Dorret I; Martin, Nicholas G; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Wray, Naomi R

2014-12-01

367

Cocaine-induced postpartum coronary artery dissection: a case report and 80-year review of literature.  

PubMed

The incidence of cocaine-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in pregnancy is unknown. During the peripartum period, cocaine-abusing women are highly susceptible to MI caused by the effect of cocaine on a heart that is already stressed by hemodynamic changes of pregnancy. MI is an infrequent event during pregnancy and the peripartum period, with an estimated rate of 1 in 16,000 patients. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) can account for up to 27% of pregnancy-related MIs. We describe a case of MI diagnosed by increased troponin I levels in a postpartum patient with recent crack cocaine use in the setting of SCAD that required percutaneous coronary intervention of the left anterior descending and diagonal arteries. We also provide a comprehensive review of published literature related to this clinical entity. PMID:23913612

Katikaneni, Pavan K; Akkus, Nuri I; Tandon, Neeraj; Modi, Kalgi

2013-08-01

368

Influence of cardiac rehabilitation in Primigravida with spontaneous coronary artery dissection during postpartum  

PubMed Central

Background The physical exercise consists of trainable physical abilities such as strength and endurance. It can be inferred that the individual cardiac patient is dependent on it as an associated therapy to the drug treatment for a rapid and lasting improvement of their overall clinical status Case presentation The patient – with Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection Postpartum period – was subjected to 21 sessions of cardiac rehabilitation. A physical evaluation was performed, before and after the treatment period, for data collection: anthropometric values, flexibility, aerobic capacity and strength of grip. Conclusion The patient had a positive response in aerobic capacity, flexibility and grip strength and the anthropometric values were kept in short term rehabilitation. PMID:24829614

2014-01-01

369

Development of a multiplex PCR for the identification of major pathogenic bacteria of post-partum endometritis in dairy cows.  

PubMed

Post-partum period has an important role in cows' breeding due to its effects on reproductive efficiency and subsequent pregnancy. Escherichia coli, Trueperella pyogenes (Arcanobacterium pyogenes), Fusobacterium necrophorum and Prevotella melaninogenicus are recognized as major pathogens associated with uterine endometrial lesions. The objective of this study was to identify these pathogens using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a culture-independent sensitive method. A total of 172 cows were examined 25-35 days post-partum, and 128 cows were examined at 2 weeks later (39-49 days post-partum). Uterine discharges were collected by covered plastic infusion pipettes. The prevalence of endometritis was greater in the first examination than the second (35.5% vs. 16%). E. coli was detected in eight of the samples, T. pyogenes was detected in 13 of the samples and F. necrophorum was detected in 11 of the samples. There was no positive sample of P. melaninogenicus. Uterine contamination by T. pyogenes and F. necrophorum in the first examination was higher than the second examination. T. pyogenes affected as a tendency the prevalence of clinical endometritis in first examination. Primiparous cows showed 4.02 times higher odds of clinical endometritis compared with second-parity cows in first examination. A multiplex PCR protocol as a simple, less expensive, fast assay was introduced to identify E. coli, T. pyogenes and F. necrophorum. PMID:24325777

Aghamiri, S M; Haghkhah, M; Ahmadi, M R; Gheisari, H R

2014-04-01

370

Contraceptive efficacy and clinical performance of Nestorone implants in postpartum women.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the contraceptive efficacy and clinical performance of a Nestorone subdermal implant (NES) in the postpartum period. NES (n = 100) and Copper T intrauterine device (T-Cu; n = 100) acceptors initiated contraception at 8 weeks postpartum and were followed at monthly intervals during the first year and at 3-month intervals thereafter. Pregnancy rates, breastfeeding performance, infant growth, bleeding pattern, and side effects were assessed. Blood and milk NES concentration were measured. No pregnancy occurred in 2195 and 2145 woman-months of NES implant and T-Cu use, respectively. No effect of NES on lactation and infant growth and no serious adverse events were observed. Lactational amenorrhea was significantly longer in NES users (353 +/- 20 days) than in T-Cu users (201 +/- 11 days). More NES users (55.8%) experienced prolonged bleedings than did T-Cu users (36.2%). Concentrations of NES in breast milk ranged between 54-135 pmol/liter. The Nestorone implant is a highly effective contraceptive, safe for breastfed infants because the steroid is inactive by the oral route. PMID:11834236

Massai, M R; Díaz, S; Quinteros, E; Reyes, M V; Herreros, C; Zepeda, A; Croxatto, H B; Moo-Young, A J

2001-12-01

371

The postpartum endometrial inflammatory response: a normal physiological event with potential implications for bovine fertility.  

PubMed

After calving, the bovine endometrium undergoes marked morphological and functional changes that are necessary for subsequent re-breeding. Regulation and integration of these key events are largely uncharacterised. Here, endometrial swabs and biopsies were taken at 15, 30 and 60 days postpartum (DPP) from 13 healthy primiparous cows, 10 of which subsequently conceived, with a view to characterising innate and inflammatory gene expression profiles. Endometrial biopsies exhibited severe inflammation (>75 leukocytes per high-power field) at 15 DPP, which had begun to resolve by 30 DPP and had completely resolved by 60 DPP. The severe inflammation at 15 DPP coincided with uterine infection in all cows and a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the expression of all of 16 genes investigated, including CD45, IL8, IL6, IL1, TNF, TAP, SAA3 and HP at 15 DPP, relative to 60 DPP. All of these parameters had begun to return to normal physiological levels at 30 DPP. Systemically, serum protein concentrations of IL-8 were elevated at 15 DPP compared with 60 DPP (78 pgmL(-1)vs 48 pgmL(-1); P = 0.02). These results indicate that endometrial inflammation, leukocyte infiltration and increased expression of pro-inflammatory, antimicrobial and acute-phase protein genes are expected features of the postpartum period, critical to bacterial clearance and uterine involution. PMID:22948010

Chapwanya, Aspinas; Meade, Kieran G; Foley, Cathriona; Narciandi, Fernando; Evans, Alexander C O; Doherty, Michael L; Callanan, John J; O'Farrelly, Cliona

2012-01-01

372

Content Analysis of Motivational Counseling Calls Targeting Obesity-Related Behaviors Among Postpartum Women  

PubMed Central

Our objective was to examine mothers’ perspectives of obesity-related health behavior recommendations for themselves and their 0–6 month old infants. A health educator conducted 4 motivational counseling calls with 60 mothers of infants during the first 6 months postpartum. Calls addressed 5 behaviors for infants (breastfeeding, introduction of solid foods, sleep, TV, hunger cues), and 4 for mothers (eating, physical activity, sleep, TV). We recorded detailed notes from each call, capturing responsiveness to recommendations and barriers to change. Two independent coders analyzed the notes to identify themes. Mothers in our study were more interested in focusing on their infants’ health behaviors than on their own. While most were receptive to eliminating their infants’ TV exposure, they resisted limiting TV for themselves. There was some resistance to following infant feeding guidelines, and contrary to advice to avoid nursing or rocking babies to sleep, mothers commonly relied on these techniques. Return to work emerged as a barrier to breastfeeding, yet facilitated healthier eating, increased activity, and reduced TV time for mothers. The early postpartum period is a challenging time for mothers to focus on their own health behaviors, but returning to work appears to offer an opportunity for positive changes in this regard. To improve weight-related infant behaviors, interventions should consider mothers’ perceptions of nutrition and physical activity recommendations and barriers to adherence. PMID:21258960

McDonald, Julia; Oken, Emily; Haines, Jess; Gillman, Matthew W.; Taveras, Elsie M.

2011-01-01

373

Weighing worth against uncertain work: the interplay of exhaustion, ambiguity, hope and disappointment in mothers breastfeeding late preterm infants.  

PubMed

Poor breastfeeding outcomes among late preterm infants (LPIs) have been attributed to inadequate breast milk transfer stemming from physiological immaturities. However, breastfeeding is more than a biological phenomenon, and it is unclear how mothers of LPIs manage other factors that may also impact the breastfeeding course. Using grounded theory methods and incorporating serial post-partum interviews with several novel data collection techniques, we examined breastfeeding establishment over a 6-8-week-period among 10 late preterm mother-infant dyads recruited from a maternity hospital in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. We found that breastfeeding in the LPI population was a fluctuating, cascade-like progression of trial and error, influenced by a host of contextual factors and events and culminating with breastfeeding continuation (with or without future caveats for duration or exclusivity of breastfeeding) or cessation. The trajectory was explained by the basic psychosocial process Weighing Worth against Uncertain Work, which encompassed the tension among breastfeeding motivation, the intensity of breastfeeding work and the ambiguity surrounding infant behaviour and feeding cues. Several sub-processes were also identified: Playing the Game, Letting Him be the Judge vs. Accommodating Both of Us and Questioning Worth vs. Holding out Hope. If valid, our theoretical model indicates a need for earlier, more extensive and more qualified breastfeeding support for mothers of LPIs that emphasizes the connection between prematurity and observed feeding behaviours. PMID:23020593

Demirci, Jill Radtke; Happ, Mary Beth; Bogen, Debra L; Albrecht, Susan A; Cohen, Susan M

2015-01-01

374

First steps of vulagarization of science in the late ninetheen century: The Yearbook of the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional de Chapultepec, Mexico during the period of Mr. Angel Anguiano (1878-1889)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the founding of the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional de Chapultepec in 1878 during the presidential term of General Porfirio Diaz, begins the publication of the Yearbook of the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional de Chapultepec (from now on OAN) in a period when the positivist paradigm based on will boost science as a means of national progress. Here we describe the actions taken by the observatory's director and editor of the publication, the engineer Angel Anguiano, to initiate and successfully carry out the exchange of scientific publications and / or dissemination through the exchange of the Yearbook of the OAN, both nationally and internationally. The importance of conferences to which he attended started the sharing printed information relating to subjects such as astronomy, meteorology, cartography and geography. The Yearbook was intended to publish two or three months before the beginning of each year and according to the editor would serve to popularize science, making its contents available to anyone with basic knowledge of geometry or for amateur astronomers. I find that the yearbook was the publication that was released to the observatory in the country and abroad, but was sent to distant places where no one speaks or reads Spanish. I think that the content of articles published in, did not respond and objective and informative to the public as mentioned by, because at the late 1800s, 90% of the inhabitants of the Mexican Republic were illiterate and lived in rural areas. The access to the Bulletin was the Mexican intellectual elite grouped into societies, astronomical or meteorological observatories and another wealthy person individually. The same happened abroad. The collection of data from reports to the Secretaria de Fomento, that was the government agency that funds money destined to different scientific institutions founded during this period were published in the Yearbook, the oficios that sent the OAN over a hundred sites in the world responding to the exchange of scientific publications of the mentioned areas through the Library. These documents are available on the Fund of National Astronomical Observatory Historical Archive of the UNAM. The importance of this publication is reflected in the fact that it has continued publishing without interruption since 1881 and gave rise to the Bulletin of the OAN which later became the Boletin del Observatorio Astronomico Nacional de Tacubaya in and finally to the Boletin del Observatorio Astronomico Nacional de Tonantzintla y Tacubaya.

Zueck, S. L.

2011-12-01

375

Relaxation Training and Expectation in the Treatment of Postpartum Distress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the effectiveness of relaxation training in reducing postpartum distress for 48 first-time mothers-to-be via a treatment-component strategy. Compared with nonrelaxation conditions, relaxation treatments reduced reported postpartal distress. Expectations about treatment effectiveness were not significant factors in treatment outcome.…

Halonen, Jane S.; Passman, Richard H.

1985-01-01

376

An international study exploring levels of postpartum depressive symptomatology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Differences in postpartum depressive symptomatology (PPDS) among an international sample of 892 women from nine countries representing five continents were explored.Method: Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used to assess PPDS among a convenience sample that completed the two questionnaires twice, yielding a total of four sets of scores per subject. Women sampled were

Dyanne D. Affonso; Anindya K. De; June Andrews Horowitz; Linda J. Mayberry

2000-01-01

377

Endocrine factors in the etiology of postpartum depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the literature regarding endocrine factors postulated or presumed to be relevant in postpartum depression (PPD), a condition affecting at least 10% of childbearing women. The phenomenology and epidemiology of PPD are also described. Data suggest that parturition-related endocrine changes are causally implicated in PPD in a vulnerable subgroup of women. More specifically, studies by our group and

Miki Bloch; Robert C Daly; David R Rubinow

2003-01-01

378

Risk factors and predictive signs of postpartum depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Depressed new mothers usually do not seek and therefore do not receive any psychiatric help. Methods: In order to assess predictive signs of postpartum depression (PPD), an unselected sample of 570 women were seen by midwives during their pregnancy, using a questionnaire elaborated by ourselves and Derogatis' Hopkins Symptom Checklist. Three months after delivery each new mother was examined

Marion Righetti-Veltema; Elisabeth Conne-Perréard; Arnaud Bousquet; Juan Manzano

1998-01-01

379

Trajectories of Postpartum Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Children's Social Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The vast majority of new mothers experience at least some depressive symptoms. Postpartum maternal depressive symptoms can greatly influence children's outcomes (e.g., emotional, cognitive, language, and social development). However, there have been relatively few longitudinal studies of how maternal depressive symptoms may influence children's…

Wu, Yelena P.; Selig, James P.; Roberts, Michael C.; Steele, Ric G.

2011-01-01

380

Pregnancy Problems, Postpartum Depression, and Early Mother-Infant Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A subsample of 24 women who had received ultrasound examinations and psychological interviews during the third trimester of pregnancy was subsequently divided into one group who had reported pregnancy problems (marital difficulties and ambivalence about the child) and one group who had not. The mothers were then observed at 3 to 5 months postpartum in interactions with their infants and

Tiffany Field; David Sandberg; Robert Garcia; Nitza Vega-Lahr; Sheri Goldstein; Lisa Guy

1985-01-01

381

A Family Approach to Treatment of Postpartum Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Postpartum depression (PPD) has an impact on the entire family. The authors describe a model of intervention that emphasizes the family system and includes mothers, fathers, and children in the treatment of PPD. The intervention is provided by a multidisciplinary team consisting of a psychiatrist, social worker, child psychologist, and therapists.…

McKay, Judith; Shaver-Hast, Laura; Sharnoff, Wendy; Warren, Mary Ellen; Wright, Harry

2009-01-01

382

Women at risk for postpartum-onset major depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable evidence that the childbearing years represent a time when women are highly vulnerable to developing mood disorders. Prospective, cross-sectional, and retrospective studies have demonstrated that more than 10% of new adult mothers will experience a major depressive episode during the first postpartum year. Changes in the health care delivery system will result in increased pressure on the

Zachary N. Stowe; Charles B. Nemeroff

1995-01-01

383

Predicting Change in Postpartum Depression: An Individual Growth Curve Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, methodologists interested in examining problems associated with measuring change have suggested that developmental researchers should focus upon assessing change at both intra-individual and inter-individual levels. This study used an application of individual growth curve analysis to the problem of maternal postpartum depression.…

Buchanan, Trey

384

Prospective study of postpartum depression: Prevalence, course, and predictive factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

99 women (mean age 26.5 yrs) were followed from the 2nd trimester of pregnancy until about 6 mo postpartum. Depression diagnostic and severity assessments were conducted during pregnancy and after delivery. Instruments included the Beck Depression Inventory and an interview adapted from the Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Depression severity decreased steadily from the 2nd trimester until 9 wks

Michael W. OHara; Danny J. Neunaber; Ellen M. Zekoski

1984-01-01

385

Pregnancy Problems, Postpartum Depression, and Early Mother-Infant Interactions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mothers observed at 3 to 5 months postpartum interacting with their infants were given attitude questionnaires. Mothers who had reported preganancy problems were more depressed and anxious and expressed more punitive childrearing attitudes than mothers not reporting pregnancy problems. (Author/NH)

Field, Tiffany; And Others

1985-01-01

386

Return of postpartum menstruation and fertility in laboratory Macaca fascicularis  

E-print Network

Return of postpartum menstruation and fertility in laboratory Macaca fascicularis D. C. DANG la Reproduction, Université Paris VI, 78350 Jouy-en-Josas, France. Summary. Return of menstruation- truation reappeared, became normal after two cycles. 2) Nursing females which menstruated during lactation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

387

Physiological mechanisms controlling anestrus and infertility in postpartum beef cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Postpartum infertility is caused by four factors: general infertility, lack of uterine involution, short estrous cycles and anestrus. The general infertility component is common to any estrous cycle and reduces potential fertility by 20 to 30%. Incomplete uterine involution prevents fertilization during the first 20 d after calving but is not related to anestrus. Short estrous cycles prevent fertility

R. E. Short; R. A. Bellows; R. B. Staigmiller; J. G. Berardinelli; E. E. Custer; E. E. Custep

388

Contraceptive use by obese women one year postpartum  

PubMed Central

Background Obese women have higher rates of pregnancy complications, making the prevention of unintended pregnancies in this group of particular importance. Study Design We performed a secondary analysis of data from Active Mothers Postpartum (AMP), a randomized controlled trial aimed at postpartum weight reduction. We assessed contraceptive use among 361 overweight/obese women 12 months postpartum. Logistic regression was used to model the effect of BMI categories on effective contraceptive use (intrauterine, hormonal, or sterilization methods) while adjusting for potential confounders including age, race, parity, breastfeeding, education, and chronic illness. Results Effective contraceptive use was reported by 45% of women. In the multivariable model, women with a BMI ? 35 kg/m2 were less likely to use effective contraception than women with a BMI <30 kg/m2 (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3–0.8). There was a trend towards less use of effective contraception among women with a BMI 30–34.9 kg/m2 as compared to women with a BMI <30 kg/m2. Conclusion At 12 months postpartum, obese women were less likely to use effective contraceptive methods than overweight women. Although certain contraceptive methods may be preferred over others in this population, providers should reinforce the importance of effective contraception to avoid unintended pregnancies in obese women. PMID:19835721

Chin, Jeanette R.; Swamy, Geeta K.; Østbye, Truls; Bastian, Lori A.

2009-01-01

389

Postpartum hemorrhage today: ICM\\/FIGO initiative 2004–2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the main cause of maternal mortality. Yet, even though solutions have been identified, governments and donor countries have been slow to implement programs to contain the problem. While poverty and low educational level remain the underlying cause of PPH, the current literature suggests that active management of the third stage of labor can prevent it. The

A. Lalonde; B. A. Daviss; A. Acosta; K. Herschderfer

2006-01-01

390

Postpartum Pneumomediastinum and Subcutaneous Emphysema: Two Case Reports  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous pneumomediastinum associated with subcutaneous emphysema is a rare condition also known as Hamman's syndrome. It can also be seen postpartum. We present two cases of subcutaneous emphysema associated with childbirth in nulliparous women, both of which resolved spontaneously. PMID:23533868

Iswariah, Harish; Elgey, Stephen

2013-01-01

391

Endovascular Therapies for Primary Postpartum Hemorrhage: Techniques and Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Interventional radiologists are often consulted for acute management of hemorrhagic complications in obstetric and gynecologic patients. The aim of this article is to review the common indications for vascular embolization in obstetric and gynecologic emergencies, specifically in the setting of primary postpartum hemorrhage, and to discuss the technique and outcomes of endovascular treatment. PMID:24436559

Gipson, Matthew G.; Smith, Mitchell T.

2013-01-01

392

The Structure of Women's Mood in the Early Postpartum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "postpartum blues" is a mild, predictable mood disturbance occurring within the first several days following childbirth. Previous analyses of the "blues" symptom structure yielded inconclusive findings, making reliable assessment a significant methodological limitation. The current study aimed to explicate the symptom structure of women's mood…

Buttner, Melissa M.; O'Hara, Michael W.; Watson, David

2012-01-01

393

The First Case of Postpartum Acquired Hemophilia A in Korea  

PubMed Central

Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is a rare coagulopathy caused by autoantibodies to coagulation factor VIII (FVIII). Most patients with AHA have been previously healthy; however, a variety of morbidities have been associated with the condition including pregnancy. A 40-yr-old woman visited our institution with extensive hematoma on the right hip area. Her medical history revealed no personal or familial history of bleeding diathesis. Her coagulation tests showed markedly prolonged aPTT (117 sec), markedly decreased level of FVIII activity (0.4%) and high-titer FVIII inhibitor (77 BU). Collectively, she was diagnosed as having postpartum AHA and was treated with bypassing agents and corticosteroids. Her aPTT was normalized on the 174th postpartum day and FVIII inhibitor showed negative conversion on the 224th postpartum day. This is the first case of postpartum AHA with high-titer FVIII inhibitor in Korea. Timely diagnosis and management can reduce morbidity and mortality of this potentially life-threatening condition. PMID:21935285

Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Yoo, Kiyoung; Choi, Yongmook; Kim, Sun-Hee

2011-01-01

394

Online screening and referral for postpartum depression: an exploratory study.  

PubMed

The fear and stigma associated with postpartum depression (PPD) is a major challenge in the treatment of this disease. Our goal is to develop innovative methods of screening women for the symptoms of PPD to facilitate referral and treatment. This study explores the efficacy of the Internet in reaching out to postpartum women in the convenience and privacy of their own homes, particularly those in rural and underserved areas. An exploratory study design was used to explore the feasibility and acceptability of online screening for PPD with postpartum women in the first 2-3 months after delivery (N = 18). In the first phase, a focus group was conducted with a small group of postpartum women; the second phase consisted of individual interviews of postpartum women in their homes; and in phase three, 10 women participated in the on-line screening intervention. PPD was measured using an online version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) a well-established instrument with reported alpha reliabilities (0.81-0.88) across studies and concurrent validity demonstrated using the gold standard, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for depression interview. Qualitative data collected from all the participants were also analyzed. The sample included women age 18-29; 70 % White/Caucasian, 50 % low income, and the majority living in rural areas. The EPDS scores ranged from 0 to 13 (mean 8.0; SD 4.76). Participants described the online PPD screening process as easy, straightforward and personalized and provided additional suggestions for improvement. PMID:23283485

Drake, Emily; Howard, Erica; Kinsey, Emily

2014-04-01

395

Late Cretaceous  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides a list of links to paleogeographic reconstructions for several time slices within the Cretaceous Period. These include 100 million, 90 million, 80 million and 70 million years ago. Paleogeographic maps are arranged by age and emphasize tectonics, depositional systems and paleogeography. Short discussions of paleogeography, tectonic evolution and historical geology accompany some of the maps.

Blakey, Ron; University, Northern A.

396

Postpartum change in common mental disorders among rural Vietnamese women: incidence, recovery and risk and protective factors.  

PubMed

Background In low- and middle-income countries little is known about changes in women's mental health status from the perinatal period to 15 months postpartum or the factors associated with different trajectories. Aims To determine the incidence and rates of recovery from common mental disorders (CMD) among rural Vietnamese women and the risk and protective factors associated with these outcomes from the perinatal period to 15 months after giving birth. Method In a population-based prospective study, a systematically recruited cohort of women completed baseline assessments in either the last trimester of pregnancy or 4-6 weeks after giving birth and were followed up 15 months later. The common mental disorders of major depression, generalised anxiety and panic disorder were assessed by psychiatrist-administered Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders at both baseline and follow-up. Results A total of 211 women provided complete data in this study. The incidence rate of CMD in the first postpartum year was 13% (95% CI 8-19), and 70% (95% CI 59-80) of women who had perinatal CMD recovered within the first postpartum year. Incidence was associated with having experienced childhood maltreatment, experiencing the intimate partner as providing little care, sensitivity, kindness or affection, and the chronic stress of household poverty. Recovery was associated with higher quality of a woman's relationships with her intimate partner and her own mother, longer period of mandated rest following birth, and sharing of domestic tasks and infant care. Conclusions Modifiable social factors, in particular the quality of a woman's closest relationships with her partner and her own mother, and participation by family members in domestic work and infant care, are closely related to women's mental health in the first year after giving birth in resource-constrained settings. PMID:25395687

Nguyen, Trang Thu; Tran, Thach Duc; Tran, Tuan; La, Buoi; Nguyen, Hau; Fisher, Jane

2015-02-01

397