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1

Epicondylitis: lateral.  

PubMed

Lateral epicondylitis is the most common cause of lateral elbow pain in adults. Although it is typically a self-limiting process, there are many nonsurgical and surgical treatment options available if lateral epicondylitis becomes chronic and continues to cause pain. Its common name, tennis elbow, is somewhat of a misnomer because the condition is often work-related and occurs in athletes and nonathletes alike. Acute onset of symptoms occurs more often in young athletes; chronic, recalcitrant symptoms typically occur in older patients. In this review, we describe the pathogenesis and clinical presentation and the nonsurgical and surgical treatment options currently available. PMID:25077751

Brummel, Jared; Baker, Champ L; Hopkins, Rob; Baker, Champ L

2014-09-01

2

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

MedlinePLUS

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or ALS, is a disease of the nerve cells in the brain and spinal ... Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2012:chap 74. Shaw PJ. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other motor neuron diseases. In: ...

3

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Introduction Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, or ALS, is a serious neurological disease that affects the ability to ... com nr180104 Last reviewed: 03/20/2013 1 ALS ALS attacks the neurons that control muscles, the ...

4

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Information Page Clinical Trials Natural History and Biomarkers of C9ORF72 ALS and FTD The ... Trials Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)? Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), sometimes ...

5

Lateral flow strip assay  

DOEpatents

A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

Miles, Robin R. (Danville, CA); Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA); Coleman, Matthew A. (Oakland, CA); Pearson, Francesca S. (Livermore, CA); Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L. (Livermore, CA)

2011-03-08

6

Lateral canthal anatomy: a review.  

PubMed

The anatomy of the lateral canthus is analogous to that of the medial canthus, but with a less defined structure. Although the lateral canthal tendon occupies the major part of the lateral canthal anatomy, the lateral rectus capsulopalpebral fascia and other structures also play a significant role. Appropriate comprehension and consideration of the lateral canthal anatomy enable safe and effective performance in the lateral canthal surgeries. In this review, we present the lateral canthal anatomy along with updated topics. We discuss the lateral canthal tendon, lateral orbital thickening, lateral palpebral raphe, lateral canthal muscle, lateral rectus capsulopalpebral fascia, lateral check ligament, lateral retinaculum, and orbitomalar ligament. PMID:22690873

Kang, Hyera; Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Ichinose, Akihiro; Nakano, Takashi; Asamoto, Ken; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Iwaki, Masayoshi; Kakizaki, Hirohiko

2012-08-01

7

Cuidados paliativos durante el cáncer  

Cancer.gov

Hoja informativa que describe la función de los cuidados paliativos, los cuales son los cuidados que se brindan a pacientes que tienen una enfermedad grave o potencialmente letal, como el cáncer, desde el momento del diagnóstico y durante todo el curso de la enfermedad.

8

Cerebral Lateralization and Aggression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A resurgence of interest in the relationship between cerebral lateralization (the functional asymmetry of the cerebral cortex) and aggression has occurred. Most recent studies have found that individuals with abnormal patterns of lateralization are overrepresented among violent individuals. Intervening variables (such as drug and alcohol abuse)…

Hillbrand, Marc; And Others

1994-01-01

9

Laterally bendable belt conveyor  

DOEpatents

An endless, laterally flexible and bendable belt conveyor particularly adapted for coal mining applications in facilitating the transport of the extracted coal up- or downslope and around corners in a continuous manner is disclosed. The conveying means includes a flat rubber belt reinforced along the middle portion thereof along which the major portion of the belt tension is directed so as to cause rotation of the tubular shaped belt when trammed around lateral turns thus preventing excessive belt bulging distortion between adjacent belt supports which would inhibit belt transport. Pretension induced into the fabric reinforced flat rubber belt by conventional belt take-up means supports the load conveyed when the belt conveyor is making lateral turns. The carrying and return portions of the belt are supported and formed into a tubular shape by a plurality of shapers positioned along its length. Each shaper is supported from above by a monorail and includes clusters of idler rollers which support the belt. Additional cluster rollers in each shaper permit the belt supporting roller clusters to rotate in response to the belt's operating tension imposed upon the cluster rollers by induced lateral belt friction forces. The freely rotating roller clusters thus permit the belt to twist on lateral curves without damage to itself while precluding escape of the conveyed material by effectively enclosing it in the tube-shaped, inner belt transport length.

Peterson, William J. (Coraopolis, PA)

1985-01-01

10

Lateral Thinking of Prospective Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Edward de Bono who invented the term "lateral thinking" in 1967 is the pioneer of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is concerned with the generation of new ideas. Liberation from old ideas and the stimulation of new ones are twin aspects of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is a creative skills from which all people can benefit…

Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Xavier, S. Amaladoss

2013-01-01

11

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Association  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), most commonly known as Lou Gehrig's disease, is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that attacks nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord resulting in muscle weakness and atrophy. The ALS Association's national Web site provides comprehensive information on a wide variety of topics pertinent to ALS patients, caregivers, family members, and health care professionals. This well-organized,

Julie M. Smith

2008-01-01

12

ATIVIDADE OBSERVACIONAL MOVIMENTO APARENTE DE UM ASTERIDE  

E-print Network

ATIVIDADE OBSERVACIONAL MOVIMENTO APARENTE DE UM ASTER�IDE INSPECIONANDO IMAGENS ASTRON�MICAS IMPRESSAS Dr. André Milone (INPE/MCT) Objetivos Acessar remotamente um telescópio óptico de pequeno porte, usando uma câmera digital astronômica, a fim de identificar a presença de um asteróide a partir da

13

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

In this case study, we describe the symptoms, neurological examination, and pathology of a woman with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). ALS is a rare disorder leading to degeneration of the voluntary motor system and death in, on average, 3 to 4 years. The loss of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord causes the progressive symptoms of muscular weakness, atrophy, fasciculation (muscle twitching), spasticity, and hyperreflexia. Signs of disease in both upper and lower motor neurons are required for a definitive clinical diagnosis. Pathology shows degeneration of the lateral corticospinal tracts, loss of motor neurons and astrogliosis in the brain and brain stem, and neuronal inclusions. This case was marked by the onset of weakness and muscle atrophy in the hand, which spread to involve contiguous muscle segments. Cognition, the extraocular muscles, and the urinary sphincters were spared. Respiratory muscle weakness was a late manifestation. PMID:12954882

Gordon, Paul H; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Hays, Arthur P

2003-09-01

14

Laterality and Human Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of whether there is a fundamental discontinuity between humans and other primates is discussed in relation to the predominantly human pattern of right-handedness and the left-cerebral representation of language. Both phenomena may go back at least to Homo habilis, 2–3 million years ago. However, a distinctively human mode of cognitive representation may not have emerged until later, beginning

Michael C. Corballis

1989-01-01

15

[Lateral subcutaneous internal sphincterotomy].  

PubMed

An original technique of the lateral subcutaneous internal sphincterotomy was used for the treatment of 134 patients with acute and chronic anal fissures, cryptitis, papillitis, aggravation of chronic recurrent paraproctitis and structures of the anus. Recovery was noted in 79 of 80 patients with anal fissures examined repeatedly. No disorders of the obturative function of the anal constrictor were observed after the operation. PMID:6649317

Ektov, V N; Nalivkin, A I; Vdovin, K P; Khriashkov, A A; Mukhopadova, G V

1983-09-01

16

Lateral patellar retinacular release  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-one lateral knee retinacular releases were per formed in 33 patients over a 27-month period. This group represented 6.9% of patients seen during that time with symptomatic patellalgia. A retrospective analysis was done on 24 patients from that group who returned for follow-up examination 8 to 16 months after surgery. Thirty-three knees in these patients were operated upon by one

Lyle J. Micheli; Carl L. Stanitski

1981-01-01

17

Start School Later  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last month, Pediatrics, the official journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), issued a formal policy statement concerning School Start Times for Adolescents (http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2014/08/19/peds.2014-1697.abstract?sid=3f739b0e-a552-4a4a-bd0a-907809e20255). In essence, the AAP called for schools to start later, citing sleep deprivation among teenagers as âÂÂan important public health issue.â This site from Start School Later, a group advocating for âÂÂhealth, safety and equity in education,â provides good, if somewhat one-sided, information on the topic. If youâÂÂre unfamiliar, start with Research & Info, which provides links to a number of informative sites about adolescent sleep needs and the impact of early school start times. Success Stories takes readers to schools around the country that have experimented with, and benefited from, later start times. If you're inspired, you can also Get Involved. Whatever your position on the issue, this is an informative and interesting site.

18

Lateral cervical meningocele.  

PubMed

Lateral cervical meningocele is an extremely rare developmental anomaly. We could find only one such case protruding from an enlarged C2-3 intervertebral foramen. It may be confused with an extradural cyst or cystic hygroma. Direct needling may introduce infection and thereby pyogenic meningitis and so should be avoided. Similarly, incision and drainage may transform it into cerebrospinal fluid fistula. A computed tomography scan is the most fruitful form of investigation for confirmation and localization of the disease. A lumboperitoneal shunt or water tight closure of the dural sac at the neck is the recommended procedure of choice. PMID:1524732

Sharma, V; Newton, G

1992-06-01

19

Laterally oscillating nitinol engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a laterally oscillating nitinol engine comprising: a first L-shaped drive member journalled for pivoting horizontal oscillation about the juncture of the legs of the L-shaped member, a second drive member journalled for pivoting about a point proximate the outboard end of the shorter leg of the L-shaped member at a distance from the pivot journal of the L-shaped member, a bearing block secured to the end of longer leg of the L-shaped and having a guide hole. The second member extending through the guide hole and arranged to reciprocate therein, a shape memory alloy power element disposed in flexure secured at its ends to the bearing block and to the second member intermediate the sliding connection with the bearing block and the pivotal connection of the second member, means for disposing different temperature baths below the element whereby as the drive members oscillate about their journals the element alternately dips into one bath and then the other, and means for absorbing a portion of the energy developed by the engine and moving the power element from the cold bath to the hot bath.

Banks, R.

1987-09-08

20

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by progressive muscular paralysis reflecting degeneration of motor neurones in the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, brainstem and spinal cord. Incidence (average 1.89 per 100,000/year) and prevalence (average 5.2 per100,000) are relatively uniform in Western countries, although foci of higher frequency occur in the Western Pacific. The mean age of onset for sporadic ALS is about 60 years. Overall, there is a slight male prevalence (M:F ratio~1.5:1). Approximately two thirds of patients with typical ALS have a spinal form of the disease (limb onset) and present with symptoms related to focal muscle weakness and wasting, where the symptoms may start either distally or proximally in the upper and lower limbs. Gradually, spasticity may develop in the weakened atrophic limbs, affecting manual dexterity and gait. Patients with bulbar onset ALS usually present with dysarthria and dysphagia for solid or liquids, and limbs symptoms can develop almost simultaneously with bulbar symptoms, and in the vast majority of cases will occur within 1–2 years. Paralysis is progressive and leads to death due to respiratory failure within 2–3 years for bulbar onset cases and 3–5 years for limb onset ALS cases. Most ALS cases are sporadic but 5–10% of cases are familial, and of these 20% have a mutation of the SOD1 gene and about 2–5% have mutations of the TARDBP (TDP-43) gene. Two percent of apparently sporadic patients have SOD1 mutations, and TARDBP mutations also occur in sporadic cases. The diagnosis is based on clinical history, examination, electromyography, and exclusion of 'ALS-mimics' (e.g. cervical spondylotic myelopathies, multifocal motor neuropathy, Kennedy's disease) by appropriate investigations. The pathological hallmarks comprise loss of motor neurones with intraneuronal ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions in upper motor neurones and TDP-43 immunoreactive inclusions in degenerating lower motor neurones. Signs of upper motor neurone and lower motor neurone damage not explained by any other disease process are suggestive of ALS. The management of ALS is supportive, palliative, and multidisciplinary. Non-invasive ventilation prolongs survival and improves quality of life. Riluzole is the only drug that has been shown to extend survival. PMID:19192301

Wijesekera, Lokesh C; Leigh, P Nigel

2009-01-01

21

Thymectomy through lateralized partial sternotomy  

PubMed Central

A young woman with nonthymomic myasthenia gravis with failure of medical treatment was offered thymectomy through partial sternotomy. Shifting of vertical arm of “L” incision laterally avoids fracture of opposite sternal flange and provides better sternal stability postoperatively. PMID:22022149

Mohite, Prashant N.; Rana, Sandip Singh; Sadasivan, Prasanth; Deshpande, Swapnil

2011-01-01

22

Computer Engineering Curriculum Guidelines Eric Durant (Moderator)  

E-print Network

Computer Engineering Curriculum Guidelines Eric Durant (Moderator) Electrical Engineering.Impagliazzo@Hofstra.edu Susan Conry Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Clarkson University Potsdam, New York, USA about the development of computer engineering curricula reports. They will also learn about the revision

Thornton, Mitchell

23

"Secondary signs of lateralization" in apogeotropic lateral canalolithiasis.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of lateral canalolithiasis is based on the typical finding of the horizontal paroxysmal positional nystagmus induced by the Pagnini-Mc Clure manoeuvre. This technique usually identifies also the affected side, namely, the side where the paroxysmal nystagmus is more intense in geotropic forms and the side where the paroxysmal nystagmus is less intense in apogeotropic forms. However, this method is not always applicable since, especially in apogeotropic forms, the intensity of the nystagmus is not so distinctly different between the two sides. Further useful signs to identify the affected side have been described in the Literature: Pseudo-spontaneous nystagmus in the sitting position; Leaning and Bowing nystagmus; Null-point in the vertical plane; Sitting to supine positioning nystagmus; Null-point in the horizontal plane. They are fully explained at pathophysiological level by the mechanism of canalolithiasis, as they are caused by otoliths moving in the ampullopetal direction in the non-ampullary segment (geotropic canalolithiasis) of the lateral canal or in ampullofugal direction in the ampullary segment (apogeotropic canalolithiasis) of the lateral canal. In other words, the movement of otoliths determines excitatory or inhibitory endolymphatic flow that generates specific nystagmic eye-movements. Authors analyse the characteristics of these signs, that they define as "Secondary signs of lateralization", in 64 cases of apogeotropic lateral canalolithiasis. A decisive contribution of the "Secondary signs of lateralization" to diagnose the pathological side has been verified in 13 out of 64 cases, whereas, in all other cases, Pagnini-Mc Clure diagnostic manoeuvre proved successful in correctly identifying the affected side by itself. Among the "Secondary signs of lateralization", the Pseudo-spontaneous nystagmus in the sitting position and the Sitting to the supine positioning nystagmus were particularly useful, due to both their frequency and their easy detection, as they do not require additional manoeuvres besides those usually performed during health examination of a patient affected by lateral canalolithiasis. In conclusion, the Authors propose a decision-making algorithm to diagnose and treat lateral canalolithiasis based on the attempt to obtain as much information as possible for a correct diagnosis, with the least trouble and inconvenience for patients. PMID:20559477

Califano, L; Melillo, M G; Mazzone, S; Vassallo, A

2010-04-01

24

Borehole optical lateral displacement sensor  

DOEpatents

There is provided by this invention an optical displacement sensor that utilizes a reflective target connected to a surface to be monitored to reflect light from a light source such that the reflected light is received by a photoelectric transducer. The electric signal from the photoelectric transducer is then imputed into electronic circuitry to generate an electronic image of the target. The target`s image is monitored to determine the quantity and direction of any lateral displacement in the target`s image which represents lateral displacement in the surface being monitored. 4 figs.

Lewis, R.E.

1998-10-20

25

Sleep Strategies Later in Life  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

Sleep Strategies Later in Life (4:22) Sleep problems are not inevitable as we age, though individuals need to pay attention to healthy sleep habits. choose settings to watch video: Windows Media Player - high | low QuickTime - high | low

26

Diagnosing and treating lateral epicondylitis.  

PubMed Central

Lateral epicondylitis is often encountered in primary care. Although its diagnosis can be fairly straightforward, its treatment is often difficult. This review examines the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation of tennis elbow. Management options are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8312757

Geoffroy, P.; Yaffe, M. J.; Rohan, I.

1994-01-01

27

Color Realism and Hemispheric Laterality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the interaction between cognitive lateral functions and pictorial recognition memory for pictures presented in three different color modes. The stimulus materials used were slides selected from a pool of travel and general geographic scenery slides taken in various parts of North America. One third of the slides were…

Waltz, Esther; Berry, Louis H.

28

Laterality in Visual Speech Perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lateralization of visual speech perception was examined in 3 experiments. Participants were presented with a realistic computer-animated face articulating 1 of 4 consonant–vowel syllables without sound. The face appeared at 1 of 5 locations in the visual field. The participants' task was to identify each test syllable. To prevent eye movement during the presentation of the face, participants had

Paula M. T. Smeele; Dominic W. Massaro; Michael M. Cohen; Anne C. Sittig

1998-01-01

29

Later-Life Family Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the important role that family members often play in the lives of older adults, formal assessment methods tailored to later-life families remain rare. In this article, we first provide a rationale for family assessment at this stage of life. We then describe a range of issues for researchers and clinicians to consider when assessing older families. Finally, we briefly

Elizabeth A. Mulligan; Brian D. Carpenter

2010-01-01

30

Observation of lateral vehicle dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

By observation of lateral vehicle dynamics the detection of critical driving situations is made possible, as well as the estimation of adhesion characteristics during cornering. This paper presents a comparison of a linear and a nonlinear observer for the vehicle and tyre side-slip angles. The modelling, especially the model reduction and simplification, is shown.

U. Kiencke; A. Daiß

1997-01-01

31

Multiple Resources and Brain Laterality.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two studies were completed to test the multiple resources model of information processing using tachistoscopic lateralized-input techniques. In Exp. 1 37 normal, dextral subjects, 18 men aged 18-21yr. and 19 women 18-21yr. responded manually to a visuo-sp...

E. H. Galluscio

1984-01-01

32

Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth of Semiconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The state of the art and recent developments of lateral overgrowth of compound semiconductors are reviewed. First we focus on the mechanism of epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) from the liquid phase, highlighting the phenomena that are crucial for growing high-quality layers with large aspect ratio. Epitaxy from the liquid phase has been chosen since the equilibrium growth techniques such as liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) are the most suitable for lateral overgrowth. We then present numerous examples for which the defect filtration in the ELO procedure is very efficient and leads to significant progress in the development of high-performance semiconductor devices made of lattice-mismatched structures. Structural perfection of seams that appear when layers grown from neighboring seeds merge is also discussed. Next, we concentrate on strain commonly found in various ELO structures and arising due to the interaction of ELO layers with the mask. Its origin, and possible ways of its control, are presented. Then we show that the thermal strain in lattice-mismatched ELO structures can be relaxed by additional tilting of ELO wings while still preserving their high quality. Finally, recent progresses in the lateral overgrowth of semiconductors, including new mask materials and liquid-phase electroepitaxial growth on substrates coated by electrically conductive masks, are presented. New versions of the ELO technique from solution and from the vapor (growth from ridges and pendeo-epitaxy) are described and compared with standard ELO. A wide range of semiconductors, including III-V compounds grown from solution and vapor-grown GaN, are used to illustrate phenomena discussed. Very often, the similar behavior of various ELO structures reveals that the phenomena presented are not related to a specific group of compounds or their growth techniques, but have a much more general nature.

Zytkiewicz, Zbigniew R.

33

Neuroimaging in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a motor neuron disease characterized by progressive degeneration of upper motor neurons\\u000a (UMN) and lower motor neurons (LMN). While LMN dysfunction can be confirmed by electromyography (EMG) and muscle biopsy, UMN\\u000a involvement is more difficult to detect, particularly in the early phase. Objective and sensitive measures of UMN dysfunction\\u000a are needed for early diagnosis and

Sumei Wang; Elias R. Melhem; Harish Poptani; John H. Woo

2011-01-01

34

Lateral dampers for thrust bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of lateral damping schemes for thrust bearings was examined, ranking their applicability to various engine classes, selecting the best concept for each engine class and performing an in-depth evaluation. Five major engine classes were considered: large transport, military, small general aviation, turboshaft, and non-manrated. Damper concepts developed for evaluation were: curved beam, constrained and unconstrained elastomer, hybrid boost bearing, hydraulic thrust piston, conical squeeze film, and rolling element thrust face.

Hibner, D. H.; Szafir, D. R.

1985-01-01

35

Vision assisted aircraft lateral navigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface operation is currently one of the least technologically equipped phases of aircraft operation. The increased air traffic congestion necessitates more aircraft operations in degraded weather and at night. The traditional surface procedures worked well in most cases as airport surfaces have not been congested and airport layouts were less complex. Despite the best efforts of FAA and other safety agencies, runway incursions continue to occur frequently due to incorrect surface operation. Several studies conducted by FAA suggest that pilot induced error contributes significantly to runway incursions. Further, the report attributes pilot's lack of situational awareness - local (e.g., minimizing lateral deviation), global (e.g., traffic in the vicinity) and route (e.g., distance to next turn) - to the problem. An Enhanced Vision System (EVS) is one concept that is being considered to resolve these issues. These systems use on-board sensors to provide situational awareness under poor visibility conditions. In this paper, we propose the use of an Image processing based system to estimate the aircraft position and orientation relative to taxiway markings to use as lateral guidance aid. We estimate aircraft yaw angle and lateral offset from slope of the taxiway centerline and horizontal position of vanishing line. Unlike automotive applications, several cues such as aircraft maneuvers along assigned route with minimal deviations, clear ground markings, even taxiway surface, limited aircraft speed are available and enable us to implement significant algorithm optimizations. We present experimental results to show high precision navigation accuracy with sensitivity analysis with respect to camera mount, optics, and image processing error.

Mohideen, Mohamed Ibrahim; Ramegowda, Dinesh; Seiler, Peter

2013-05-01

36

Diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

This review of the differential diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis focuses on two themes. The first is practical, how to establish the diagnosis based primarily on clinical findings buttressed by electrodiagnosis. The main considerations are multifocal motor neuropathy and cervical spondylotic myelopathy. The second theme is the relationship of motor neuron disease to other conditions, including benign fasciculation (Denny-Brown, Foley syndrome), paraneoplastic syndromes, lymphoproliferative disease, radiation damage, monomelic amyotrophy (Hirayama syndrome), as well as an association with parkinsonism, dementia and multisystem disorders of the central nervous system. PMID:9851643

Rowland, L P

1998-10-01

37

Lateralization of aggression in fish.  

PubMed

Recent research has suggested that lateralization of aggressive behaviors could follow an homogeneous pattern among all vertebrates. A left eye/right hemisphere dominance in eliciting aggressive responses has been demonstrated for all groups of tetrapods but teleost fish for which data is lacking. Here we studied differential eye use during aggressive interactions in three species of teleosts: Gambusia holbrooki, Xenotoca eiseni and Betta splendens. In the first experiment we checked for lateralization in the use of the eyes while the subject was attacking its own mirror image. In order to confirm the results, other tests were performed on two species and eye preference was scored during attacks or displays directed toward a live rival. All three species showed a marked preference for using the right eye when attacking a mirror image or a live rival. Thus, the direction of asymmetry in fish appears the opposite to that shown by all the other groups of vertebrates. Hypotheses on the origin of the difference are discussed. PMID:12742249

Bisazza, Angelo; de Santi, Andrea

2003-05-15

38

CYSTS OF THE LATERAL MENISCUS  

PubMed Central

Accurate diagnosis and management of knee pain with or without mechanical symptoms challenges the physical therapist's clinical reasoning skills. Meniscal cysts are one relatively rare disorder of the knee that can cause both pain and mechanical symptoms and are frequently associated with a meniscal tear. In patients with suspected meniscal cysts, systematic differential diagnosis and sound clinical reasoning encourages appropriate integration of the clinical examination with diagnostic imaging. These case reports describe two different presentations of lateral parameniscal cysts where integration of the clinical examination with appropriate imaging allowed the physical therapist to provide a timely and appropriate intervention. In both cases, the diagnostic process is described along with the subsequent interventions that lead to positive outcomes. Level of Evidence: 5 (Case Report) PMID:23772349

Westrick, Richard B.; Fogarty, Brian T.

2013-01-01

39

Imaging lesions of the lateral hip.  

PubMed

The lateral aspect of the hip is composed of a complex array of osseous and soft tissue structures. Both common and uncommon clinical entities are encountered in the lateral hip. This article briefly introduces fundamental imaging anatomy and the functional roles of different osseous and soft tissue structures in the lateral aspect of the hip, followed by a discussion of relevant imaging findings of lateral hip pathology. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is frequently encountered in patients with lateral hip pain and encompasses a spectrum of soft tissue abnormalities including trochanteric and subgluteal bursitis, and tendinopathy or tears of the gluteal tendons. In addition, different types of injuries to the gluteal myotendinous unit and injuries to the indirect head of the rectus femoris, proximal iliotibial band, and the lateral joint capsular ligaments can present with lateral hip pain. Some of the less common soft tissue abnormalities of the lateral hip include Morel-Lavallée lesion and meralgia paresthetica. PMID:23787984

Pan, Judong; Bredella, Miriam A

2013-07-01

40

LATERAL LANDFILL GAS MIGRATION: CHARACTERIZATION AND  

E-print Network

LATERAL LANDFILL GAS MIGRATION: CHARACTERIZATION AND PRELIMINARY MODELING RESULTS O.BOUR*, E,UniversitéLaval, Sainte-Foy, Canada SUMMARY: Lateral landfill gas migration occurs in the surroundings of a MSW landfill complementary physical measures were used to build a conceptual model of lateral landfill gas migration

Boyer, Edmond

41

Hemispheric Laterality in Music and Math  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hemispheric laterality may be a useful concept in teaching, learning, training, and in understanding more about human development. To address this issue, a measure of hemispheric laterality was compared to musical and mathematical ability. The Human Information Processing Survey (HIPS) instrument, designed to measure hemispheric laterality, was…

Szirony, Gary Michael; Burgin, John S.; Pearson, L. Carolyn

2008-01-01

42

Kepler: 400 years later Jonas Karlsson  

E-print Network

Kepler: 400 years later #12;Outline Kepler's laws Proof that closed orbits are ellipses The hydrogen atom Geodesic ow and the Kepler manifold Jonas Karlsson Kepler: 400 years later #12;Kepler's laws Johannes): the orbits of planets are ellipses with the sun at one of the foci. Jonas Karlsson Kepler: 400 years later

Weinberger, Hans

43

Exercise and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disease in which much burden is geared towards end-of-life care. Particularly in the earlier stages of ALS, many people have found both physiological and psychological boosts from various types of physical exercise for disused muscles. Proper exercise is important for preventing atrophy of muscles from disuse-a key for remaining mobile for as long as possible-and as long as it is possible to exercise comfortably and safely, for preserving cardiovascular fitness. However, the typical neuromuscular patient features a great physical inactivity and disuse weakness, and for that reason many controversial authors have contested exercise in these patients during years, especially in ALS which is rapidly progressive. There is an urgent need for dissecting in detail the real risks or benefits of exercise in controlled clinical trials to demystify this ancient paradigm. Yet, recent research studies document significant benefits in terms of survival and quality of life in ALS, poor cooperation, small sample size, uncontrolled and short-duration trials, remain the main handicaps. Sedentary barriers such as early fatigue and inherent muscle misuse should be overcome, for instance with body-weight supporting systems or non-invasive ventilation, and exercise should be faced as a potential non-monotonous way for contributing to better health-related quality of life. PMID:22228269

de Almeida, J P Lopes; Silvestre, R; Pinto, A C; de Carvalho, M

2012-02-01

44

Excitotoxicity and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Since its description by Charcot more than 130 years ago, the pathogenesis of selective motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) remains unsolved. Over the years, many pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed. Amongst others these include: oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, aggregate formation, inflammation, growth factor deficiency and neurofilament disorganization. This multitude of contributing factors indicates that ALS is a complex disease and also suggests that ALS is a multifactorial disorder. Excitotoxicity is not the newest and most spectacular hypothesis in the ALS field, but it is undoubtedly one of the most robust pathogenic mechanisms supported by an impressive amount of evidence. Moreover, the therapeutic efficacy of riluzole, the only drug proven to slow disease progression in ALS, is most likely related to its anti-excitotoxic properties. In this review, we will give an overview of the arguments in favor of the involvement of excitotoxicity in ALS and of the possible mechanisms leading to motor neuron death. We will also summarize the intrinsic properties of motor neurons that render these cells particularly vulnerable to excitotoxicity and could explain the selective vulnerability of motor neurons in ALS. All this information could help to develop new and better therapeutic strategies that could protect motor neurons from excitotoxicity. PMID:16909020

Van Damme, P; Dewil, M; Robberecht, W; Van Den Bosch, L

2005-01-01

45

Improving the lateral resolution in confocal fluorescence microscopy using laterally interfering excitation beams  

E-print Network

illumination [3] and STED microscopy [4] has permitted to further improve the resolution. Structured1 Improving the lateral resolution in confocal fluorescence microscopy using laterally interfering the illumination, combined with a laterally offset detection. A 90 nm lateral resolution is obtained for properly

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

46

Inner Core 50 Years Later  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1952, Francis Birch predicted that the inner core should be solid with shear velocity of 3.4 km/s and the Poisson ratio of 0.45. Almost 20 years later, observations of normal modes with sensitivity to inner-core properties confirmed the solidity of the inner core (Dziewo?ski and Gilbert, 1971). Although Birch's prediction was based upon an incorrect assumption that the bulk modulus and the density do not change between the outer and inner core, the best estimates of the shear velocity (3.53 km/s) and Poisson ratio (0.44) are extremely close to Birch's values. Inner-core anisotropy in the form of transverse isotropy introduced a new level of complexity; it is required to explain both travel-time (Morelli et al., 1986) and normal-mode (Woodhouse et al., 1986) data. Such complexity imposes heavier demand on the spatial distribution of raypaths, and these are difficult to meet because of the non-uniform distribution of sources and receivers. The additional assumptions, to make up for the missing data, have led to highly divergent estimates of the strength and radial dependence of anisotropy. We now believe that most of the travel-time and normal-mode observations can be explained by a relatively simple model of anisotropy (Ishii et al., 2002a), a model that does not vary with radius and is characterized by 2 ? term (where ? is the angle between the raypath and the axis of symmetry of transverse isotropy) with the slow direction in the equatorial plane. Inferences of complexities such as an isotropic layer near the inner-outer core boundary (Song and Helmberger, 1998) or a longitudinal variations at hemispheric scales (Tanaka and Hamaguchi, 1997) are either not necessary or not robust (Ishii et al., 2002b). However, travel-time data from nearly antipodal distances (173o--180o) indicate that the anisotropy changes substantially at about 300 km radius: it is dominated by the 4 ? term with the slowest direction ~ 45o from the equatorial plane (Ishii and Dziewo?ski, 2002; also this meeting). We call this distinct new region of the Earth the ``inner-most inner core''.

Dziewo?ski, A. M.; Ishii, M.

2002-12-01

47

CT recognition of lateral lumbar disk herniation  

SciTech Connect

Although computed tomography (CT) has been shown to be useful in diagnosing posterolateral and central lumbar disk herniations, its effectiveness in demonstrating lateral herniated disks has not been emphasized. The myelographic recognition of those herniations may be difficult because root sheaths or dural sacs may not be deformed. A total of 274 CT scans interpreted as showing lumbar disk herniation was reviewed. Fourteen (5%) showed a lateral disk herniation. The CT features of a lateral herniated disk included: (1) focal protrusion of the disk margin within or lateral to the intervertebral foramen: (2) displacement of epidural fat within the intervertebral foramen; (3) absence of dural sac deformity; and (4) soft-tissue mass within or lateral to the intervertebral foramen. Because it can image the disk margin and free disk fragments irrespective of dural sac or root sheath deformity, CT may be more effective than myelography for demonstrating the presence and extent of lateral disk herniation.

Williams, A.L.; Haughton, V.M.; Daniels, D.L.; Thornton, R.S.

1982-08-01

48

Lateral unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateral unicondylar knee arthroplasty (UKA) has been utilized as a treatment for isolated lateral tibiofemoral osteoarthritis\\u000a (OA) since the first description of UKA in the 1970s. To date, there remains some controversy on UKA procedures. As indications\\u000a for lateral UKA are usually rare, surgeon experience seems to be the key factor for a successful intervention. Better understanding\\u000a of biomechanics of

Thomas J. HeyseCarsten; Carsten O. Tibesku

2010-01-01

49

Non-traumatic lateral abdominal wall hernia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rare lateral abdominal wall hernia is described in an adult patient. This was diagnosed in a patient with a prominent right\\u000a lateral abdominal wall deformity. The patient had been experiencing pain that increased progressively in severity over time.\\u000a A computerized tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen revealed the location of the lateral abdominal wall defect. The hernia\\u000a defect was

M. Castillo-Sang; B. Gociman; B. Almaroof; J. Fath; F. Cason

2009-01-01

50

Artificial lateral line canal for hydrodynamic detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fish use their lateral line system to detect minute water motions. The lateral line consists of superficial neuromasts and canal neuromasts. The response properties of canal neuromasts differ from those of superficial ones. Here, we report the design, fabrication, and characterization of an artificial lateral line canal system. The characterization was done under various fluid conditions, including dipolar excitation and turbulent flow. The experimental results with dipole excitation match well with a mathematical model. Canal sensors also demonstrate significantly better noise immunity compared with superficial ones. Canal-type artificial lateral lines may become important for underwater flow sensing.

Yang, Yingchen; Klein, Adrian; Bleckmann, Horst; Liu, Chang

2011-07-01

51

Human olfactory lateralization requires trigeminal activation.  

PubMed

Rats are able to lateralize odors. This ability involves specialized neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex which are able to process the left, right and bilateral presentation of stimuli. However, it is not clear whether this function is preserved in humans. Humans are in general not able to differentiate whether a selective olfactory stimulant has been applied to the left or right nostril; however exceptions have been reported. Following a screening of 152 individuals with an olfactory lateralization test, we identified 19 who could lateralize odors above chance level. 15 of these "lateralizers" underwent olfactory fMRI scanning in a block design and were compared to 15 controls matched for age and sex distribution. As a result, both groups showed comparable activation of olfactory eloquent brain areas. However, subjects with lateralization ability had a significantly enhanced activation of cerebral trigeminal processing areas (somatosensory cortex, intraparietal sulcus). In contrast to controls, lateralizers furthermore exhibited no suppression in the area of the trigeminal principal sensory nucleus. An exploratory study with an olfactory change detection paradigm furthermore showed that lateralizers oriented faster towards changes in the olfactory environment. Taken together, our study suggests that the trigeminal system is activated to a higher degree by the odorous stimuli in the group of "lateralizers". We conclude that humans are not able to lateralize odors based on the olfactory input alone, but vary in the degree to which the trigeminal system is recruited. PMID:24825502

Croy, Ilona; Schulz, Max; Blumrich, Anna; Hummel, Cornelia; Gerber, Johannes; Hummel, Thomas

2014-09-01

52

Lateral patellar retinaculum reconstruction for medial patellar instability following lateral retinacular release: a case report.  

PubMed

Lateral retinacular release is still being performed in patients with recurrent patellar dislocation as an additional procedure with distal realignment or medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction. However, consensus remains lacking regarding suitable indications for lateral retinacular release. A 20-year-old woman presented with patellar instability in both medial and lateral directions after undergoing lateral retinacular release with MPFL reconstruction. She displayed inherent systemic joint laxity meeting all seven Carter-Wilkinson criteria. Simultaneous MPFL revision and lateral retinaculum reconstruction successfully improved patellar instability in both directions. This case provides an example of iatrogenic medial patellar instability after failed lateral retinacular release. PMID:23688523

Udagawa, Kazuhiko; Niki, Yasuo; Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Hideo; Enomoto, Hiroyuki; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Suda, Yasunori

2014-01-01

53

Vehicle Lateral Control for Highway Automation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of lateral control for highway automation are to let vehicles track the center of a lane with small error and to maintain good ride quality under different vehicle speeds, loads, wind gust disturbances, and road conditions. In this paper, the lateral feedback and feedforward controllers are designed to satisfy these objectives by utilizing the frequency-shaped linear quadratic (FSLQ)

Huei Peng; Masayoshi Tomizuka

1990-01-01

54

Laparoscopic versus open left lateral segmentectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic liver surgery is becoming increasingly common. This cohort study was designed to directly compare perioperative outcomes of the left lateral segmentectomy via laparoscopic and open approach. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2006 43 left lateral segmentectomies were performed at King's College Hospital. Those excluded from analysis included previous liver resections, polycystic liver disease, liver cirrhosis and synchronous operations. Of

Kirstin A Carswell; Filippos G Sagias; Beth Murgatroyd; Mohamed Rela; Nigel Heaton; Ameet G Patel

2009-01-01

55

Lateral Interception II: Predicting Hand Movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

D. M. Jacobs and C. F. Michaels (2006) concluded that aspects of hand movements in lateral catching were predicted by the ratio of lateral optical velocity to expansion velocity. Their conclusions were based partly on a modified version of the required velocity model of catching (C. E. Peper, R. J. Bootsma, D. R. Mestre, & F. C. Bakker, 1994). The

Claire F. Michaels; David M. Jacobs; Raoul M. Bongers

2006-01-01

56

Lateral Asymmetries in Infant Melody Perception.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments investigated lateral asymmetries in eight-month-olds' perception of contour-altered and contour-preserved melody changes. Found that infants who heard a contour-altered change showed a left-ear advantage, whereas infants who heard a contour-preserved change showed a right-ear advantage. The pattern of lateralization for melody…

Balaban, Marie T.; Anderson, Linda M.; Wisniewski, Amy B.

1998-01-01

57

Gender and Marital Happiness in Later Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors examine the effect of gender ideology on marital happiness in later life. Studies of marital satisfaction in later life have tended to neglect such attitudes, although they have received increasing attention in the literature on younger marriages. The authors use data from married individuals who range in age from 51 to…

Kaufman, Gayle; Taniguchi, Hiromi

2006-01-01

58

Robust lateral control of highway vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle lateral dynamics are affected by vehicle mass, longitudinal velocity, vehicle inertia, and the cornering stiffness of the tires. All of these parameters are subject to variation, even over the course of a single trip. Therefore, a practical lateral control system must guarantee stability, and hopefully ride comfort, over a wide range of parameter changes. This paper describes a robust

Raymond H. Byrne; Chaouki Abdallah

1994-01-01

59

PROCEEDINGS Open Access Lateral gene transfer, rearrangement,  

E-print Network

, and lateral transfer. DeCoLT optimizes in polynomial time on the number of rearrangements, computedPROCEEDINGS Open Access Lateral gene transfer, rearrangement, reconciliation Murray Patterson1 Molecular Biology (RECOMB) Satellite Workshop on Comparative Genomics Lyon, France. 17-19 October 2013

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

60

Dynamic extensor brace for lateral epicondylitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) is a common, often disabling ailment. Based on the failure of current therapies, a new dynamic extensor brace has been developed. In this study, the effects of application of this brace for 3 months on the most important and disabling symptoms of patients with lateral epicondylitis were assessed. After prestratification for the duration of complaints (ie,

Miriam Faes; Bertinel van den Akker; Jan A. de Lint; Jan G. M. Kooloos; Maria T. E. Hopman

2006-01-01

61

Autosomal dominant transmission of familial laterality defects.  

PubMed

Heterotaxy results from failure to establish normal left-right asymmetry during embryonic development. Most familial cases are thought to be autosomal recessive. We have identified a family in which 4 individuals from 3 generations manifest laterality defects. Twenty-five family members have been examined. Two have complete reversal of normal laterality (situs inversus) while 2 others have asplenia, midline liver, and complex cardiac malformations (situs ambiguus). Two additional obligate gene carriers are anatomically normal (situs solitus). Male-to-male transmission confirms autosomal inheritance. Identification of this family establishes an autosomal dominant form of laterality defect, suggesting that a portion of sporadic cases may be new-mutation dominant or unrecognized familial cases. The finding of all forms of laterality (solitus, ambiguus, and inversus) among obligate disease gene carriers within a single family may be relevant to genetic evaluation and counseling in apparently isolated patients with laterality disturbance. PMID:8834043

Casey, B; Cuneo, B F; Vitali, C; van Hecke, H; Barrish, J; Hicks, J; Ballabio, A; Hoo, J J

1996-02-01

62

Successful implementation of policies addressing lateral violence.  

PubMed

Lateral violence is a problem in nursing despite policies addressing the issue, which suggests that implementation of these policies may be ineffective. We used an evidence-based approach to locate and appraise evidence about effectively implementing lateral violence policies. Our search strategy emphasized preappraised evidence, and we found 12 sources that met our inclusion criteria. Most evidence was from low-level sources, which is not surprising due to the subjective and sensitive nature of this topic. The evidence did not indicate that there is consistent, effective implementation of lateral violence policies. The appraised evidence suggests the importance of collaboratively prepared implementation strategies. Administrator involvement and relationships with staff members and the presence of a commitment to positive behavior change before lateral violence incidents occur are factors that can lead to successful implementation of lateral violence policies. PMID:23265652

Coursey, Joy H; Rodriguez, Ricardo E; Dieckmann, Loraine S; Austin, Paul N

2013-01-01

63

SEXO DURANTE EL EMBARAZO viernes, 25 de enero de 2008  

E-print Network

SEXO DURANTE EL EMBARAZO Sexología viernes, 25 de enero de 2008 P: Primero que nada, muchas gracias, incluidos los médicos, me dicen que tener sexo en esta etapa es bueno, que es saludable, pero ¡wow!, no sé, su médico le puede aconsejar que limite o evite el sexo durante el embarazo si tiene: · antecedentes

Quirk, Gregory J.

64

Lateralized suckling in domestic horses (Equus caballus).  

PubMed

Brain lateralization enables preferential processing of certain stimuli and more effective utilization of these stimuli in either the left or the right cerebral hemisphere. Horses show both motor and sensory lateralization patterns. Our aim was to determine whether a lateralized response could be detected in foals during the naturally side-biased behaviour, suckling. The foals' preferred suckling side could be the effect of either visual or motor lateralization. In the case of a visual lateralized response, foals are expected to suck more often from the mother's right side, so potential danger can be detected by the better adapted right hemisphere (i.e. left eye). Motor lateralization can be identified when a foal will suck predominantly from one side, either left or right. We found no population trend in the preferred suckling side, but we detected significant differences amongst individual foals. One-third (35.4 %) of 79 foals showed a strong, either right or left side preference which increased with age. The mothers did not influence the foals' suckling side preferences either by side-biased rejection or termination of suckling. According to our findings, a general pattern of sucking with the left eye open for better danger detection and recognition is unlikely in foals up to 7 months old. Foals of this age are probably young or fully focused on suckling and rely on their mothers' vigilance. Individual side preferences amongst foals are suggested to be based on motor lateralization. PMID:23117229

Komárková, Martina; Bartošová, Jitka

2013-05-01

65

Current clinical trials in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is caused by selective degeneration of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. There are still no other effective therapies 10 years after the approval of riluzole for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, but advances in drug development and screening are substantially increasing the number of potential therapeutic agents. This review provides an overview of clinical trial methodology in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis followed by a systematic evaluation of drugs that are presently in Phase I, II and III clinical trials. There is an emphasis on the scientific evidence supporting the selection of each drug being tested, as well as on trial design. PMID:17685869

Bhatt, Jaydeep M; Gordon, Paul H

2007-08-01

66

[Slowly progressive dysarthria in primary lateral sclerosis].  

PubMed

Slowly progressive dysarthria over many years may be the only sign of primary lateral sclerosis (PLS). Clinically it presents as pseudobulbar palsy which can be differentiated from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by the longer disease duration (> or =4 years), central pathological magnetic-evoked potentials to the tongue and lack of denervation in EMG. In contrast, hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is characterized by a primary spasticity of the lower limbs, mostly later onset, the fact that other family members are affected and in isolated cases by positive genetic testing for mutations. PMID:20532474

Urban, P P; Wellach, I; Pohlmann, C

2010-08-01

67

Individualized optimal surgical extent of the lateral neck in papillary thyroid cancer with lateral cervical metastasis.  

PubMed

Despite an excellent prognosis, cervical lymph node (LN) metastases are common in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). The presence of metastasis is associated with an increased risk of locoregional recurrence, which significantly impairs quality of life and may decrease survival. Therefore, it has been an important determinant of the extent of lateral LN dissection in the initial treatment of PTC patients with lateral cervical metastasis. However, the optimal extent of therapeutic lateral neck dissection (ND) remains controversial. Optimizing the surgical extent of LN dissection is fundamental for balancing the surgical morbidity and oncological benefits of ND in PTC patients with lateral neck metastasis. We reviewed the currently available literature regarding the optimal extent of lateral LN dissection in PTC patients with lateral neck metastasis. Even in cases with suspicion of metastatic LN at the single lateral level or isolated metastatic lateral LN, the application of ND including all sublevels from IIa and IIb to Va and Vb may be overtreatment, due to the surgical morbidity. When there is no suspicion of LN metastasis at levels II and V, or when multilevel aggressive neck metastasis is not found, sublevel IIb and Va dissection may not be necessary in PTC patients with lateral neck metastasis. Thus consideration of the individualized optimal surgical extent of lateral ND is important when treating PTC patients with lateral cervical metastasis. PMID:23857026

Park, Jae-Yong; Koo, Bon Seok

2014-06-01

68

Towards reproducible, scalable lateral molecular electronic devices  

E-print Network

An approach to reproducibly fabricate molecular electronic devices is presented. Lateral nanometer-scale gaps with high yield are formed in Au/Pd nanowires by a combination of electromigration and Joule-heating-induced thermomechanical stress...

Durkan, Colm; Zhang, Qian

2014-08-26

69

Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life  

MedlinePLUS

... previous page Related Topics Diabetes Related Documents PDF Living with Diabetes Download PDF Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources Managing Complications ...

70

Genetics Home Reference: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

MedlinePLUS

... affected individuals to interact with others in a socially appropriate manner. People with FTD increasingly require help ... Where can I find information about diagnosis or management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis? These resources address the ...

71

Alcohol Problems in lAter life  

E-print Network

Alcohol Problems in lAter life A Pacific Northwest Extension Publication Oregon State University When alcohol use becomes a problem ................. 4 How an alcohol problem develops ....................... 6 Recognizing an alcohol problem .......................... 8 Guidelines for family and friends

Tullos, Desiree

72

Metrics for cortical map organization and lateralization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral lateralization refers to the poorly understood fact that some functions are better controlled by one side of the\\u000a brain than the other (e.g. handedness, language). Of particular concern here are the asymmetries apparent in cortical topographic\\u000a maps that can be demonstrated electrophysiologically in mirror-image locations of the cerebral cortex. In spite of great interest\\u000a in issues surrounding cerebral lateralization,

Sergio A. Alvarez; Svetlana Levitan; James A. Reggia

1998-01-01

73

Numerical Simulations of Lateral Stress Profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of numerical simulations have been conducted to provide insight into the observed lateral stress profiles in shocked silicon carbide reported in [1]. Utilizing a coupled eulerian-lagrangian simulation approach, the thin epoxy layer has been included in the model. When utilizing the Johnson-Holmquist ceramic model with the constants published in [2], the two-step structure of the lateral stress measurement

Bryan Cheeseman; Dattatraya Dandekar

2009-01-01

74

Brain and behavioral lateralization in invertebrates  

PubMed Central

Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioral asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left–right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which has asymmetric odor sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behavior with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with a specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test the evolutionary hypothesis. PMID:24376433

Frasnelli, Elisa

2013-01-01

75

Asymmetrical lateral ventricular enlargement in Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Background A recent case report suggested the presence of asymmetrical lateral ventricular enlargement associated with motor asymmetry in Parkinson’s disease (PD). The current study explored these associations further. Methods Magnetic resonance imaging (3T) scans were obtained on 17 PD and 15 healthy Control subjects at baseline and 12–30 months later. Baseline and longitudinal lateral ventricular volumetric changes were compared between contralateral and ipsilateral ventricles in PD subjects relative to symptom onset side and in Controls relative to their dominant hand. Correlations between changes in ventricular volume and United Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale motor scores (UPDRS-III) while on medication were determined. Results The lateral ventricle contralateral to symptom onset side displayed a faster rate of enlargement compared to the ipsilateral (p=0.004) in PD subjects, with no such asymmetry detected (p=0.312) in Controls. There was a positive correlation between ventricular enlargement and worsening motor function assessed by UPDRS-III scores (r=0.96, p<0.001). Discussion There is asymmetrical lateral ventricular enlargement that is associated with PD motor asymmetry and progression. Further studies are warranted to investigate the underlying mechanism(s), as well as the potential of using volumetric measurements as a marker for PD progression. PMID:19187264

Lewis, Mechelle M.; Smith, Andrew B.; Styner, Martin; Gu, Hongbin; Poole, Roxanne; Zhu, Hongtu.; Li, Yimei; Barbero, Xavier; Gouttard, Sylvain; McKeown, Martin J.; Mailman, Richard B.; Huang, Xuemei

2010-01-01

76

Lateral restraint assembly for reactor core  

DOEpatents

A restraint assembly for use in restraining lateral movement of a reactor core relative to a reactor vessel wherein a plurality of restraint assemblies are interposed between the reactor core and the reactor vessel in circumferentially spaced relation about the core. Each lateral restraint assembly includes a face plate urged against the outer periphery of the core by a plurality of compression springs which enable radial preloading of outer reflector blocks about the core and resist low-level lateral motion of the core. A fixed radial key member cooperates with each face plate in a manner enabling vertical movement of the face plate relative to the key member but restraining movement of the face plate transverse to the key member in a plane transverse to the center axis of the core. In this manner, the key members which have their axes transverse to or subtending acute angles with the direction of a high energy force tending to move the core laterally relative to the reactor vessel restrain such lateral movement.

Gorholt, Wilhelm (San Diego, CA); Luci, Raymond K. (Del Mar, CA)

1986-01-01

77

Lateral unicompartmental replacement: a road less traveled.  

PubMed

Lateral unicompartmental replacement is performed less frequently than medial replacement and is technically more difficult. The ratio of medial to lateral arthroplasties is approximately 10:1. Differences in technique include the following: The patella is more vulnerable to impingement on the leading edge of the femoral component and must be carefully recessed. Because the wear pattern in lateral disease is more posterior than in medial disease, there often is residual cartilage on the distal femoral condyle. This is also the case when UKA is performed for the sequella of a lateral plateau fracture. To avoid this impingement, residual cartilage should probably be removed from the distal condyle before its resection and the femoral component should be undersized anteriorly. Initial tibial resection should be very conservative to avoid the need for very thick tibial components to restore alignment and stability. Err toward shifting the femoral component laterally and the tibial component medially to maximize mediolateral congruency. Consider a medial parapatellar approach (avoiding the anterior horn of the medial meniscus) to facilitate visibility and component alignment. Avoid excessive posterior tibial slope. PMID:16190078

Scott, Richard D

2005-09-01

78

Lateral flow immunoassay using magnetoresistive sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic particles have been adapted for use as labels in biochemical lateral flow strip tests. Standard gold particle lateral flow assays are generally qualitative; however, with magnetic particles, quantitative results can be obtained by using electronic detection systems with giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors. As described here, these small integrated sensor chips can detect the presence of magnetic labels in capture spots whose volume is approximately 150 ?m×150 ?m×150 ?m. The range of linear detection is better than two orders of magnitude; the total range is up to four orders of magnitude. The system was demonstrated with both indirect and sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for protein detection of rabbit IgG and interferon-?, respectively, achieving detection of 12 pg/ml protein. Ultimately, the goal is for the detector to be fully integrated into the lateral flow strip backing to form a single consumable item that is interrogated by a handheld electronic reader.

Taton, Kristin; Johnson, Diane; Guire, Patrick; Lange, Erik; Tondra, Mark

2009-05-01

79

Numerical Simulations of Lateral Stress Profiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of numerical simulations have been conducted to provide insight into the observed lateral stress profiles in shocked silicon carbide reported in [1]. Utilizing a coupled eulerian-lagrangian simulation approach, the thin epoxy layer has been included in the model. When utilizing the Johnson-Holmquist ceramic model with the constants published in [2], the two-step structure of the lateral stress measurement has been successfully reproduced. The influence of the epoxy layer on the development of the stress profile will be discussed. Additional simulations of specimens having buffer plates will be performed to simulate the lateral stress profile. [4pt] [1] Millett, J.C.F., Bourne, N.K. and Dandekar, D.P. 2005. ``Delayed failure in shock-loaded silicon carbide,'' J. Appl. Phys. 97, 113513. [0pt] [2] Holmquist, T.J. and Johnson, G.R., 2002. ``Response of silicon carbide to high velocity impact,'' J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5858-5866..

Cheeseman, Bryan; Dandekar, Dattatraya

2009-06-01

80

Lateral mobility of polyelectrolyte chains in multilayers.  

PubMed

In this work, the lateral mobility of polyelectrolyte multilayers was investigated by means of the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) technique, with special attention to the effect of relevant parameters during and after preparation. Different polyelectrolytes with respect to charge density, stiffness, and hydrophilicity were compared. From the experimental results emerged that the density of charged sites along the polymer is the most important parameter controlling the formation of polymer complexes. At higher charge density, more complexes are formed, and the diffusion coefficient decreases. It was observed that the intrinsic backbone stiffness reduces the interpenetration of polyelectrolyte layers and the formation of complexes promoting the lateral mobility. In addition, the lateral mobility increases with increasing ionic strength and with decreasing hydration shell of the added anion in the polyelectrolyte solution. The effect of heating or annealing in electrolyte solution after preparation was also investigated along with the embedding of the probing layer at controlled distances to the multilayer surface. PMID:17461569

Nazaran, P; Bosio, V; Jaeger, W; Anghel, D F; Klitzing, R V

2007-07-26

81

CONSERVE SU SALUD DURANTE UN DESASTRE Alimentos y agua  

E-print Network

CONSERVE SU SALUD DURANTE UN DESASTRE Alimentos y agua Las situaciones de emergencia pueden afectar para tres días de 1 galon de agua por persona y por día para beber, higiene y cocinar. Mantengase hidratado bebiendo ocho vasos de 8 onzas de agua por día. #12;Los programas educativos de Texas A&M Agri

82

Psychotherapists and the clergy: Fifty years later  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jung's two powerful articles on psychotherapy and the clergy, written in 1928 and 1932. are looked at from the vantage point of fifty years later and the author's experience in conducting analysis with many people from both vocations. He notes that relatively few people achieve the kind of integration of the ego that Jung writes about-an essentially religious experience-wherein the

J. Marvin Spiegelman

1984-01-01

83

Risk factors for suicide in later life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suicide rates are higher in later life than in any other age group. The design of effective suicide prevention strategies hinges on the identification of specific, quantifiable risk factors. Methodological challenges include the lack of systematically applied terminology in suicide and risk factor research, the low base rate of suicide, and its complex, multidetermined nature.Although variables in mental, physical, and

Yeates Conwell; Paul R. Duberstein; Eric D. Caine

2002-01-01

84

Active Children: Healthy Now And Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current research is revealing that physical activity can protect against a range of lifestyle diseases and illnesses. Consequently, early childhood practitioners and parents need to adopt guidelines and practices which encourage children of all ages to be physically active. In "Active children: Healthy Now and Later," authors Linley Campbell and…

Campbell, Linley; Musumeci, Josephine

2005-01-01

85

Costa Rica's Chain of laterally collapsed volcanoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the NW extreme to the SW end of Costa Rica's volcanic backbone, a number of laterally collapsed volcanoes can be observed. Due to several factors, attention has been given to active volcanoes disregarding the importance of collapsed features in terms of assessing volcanic hazards for future generations around inhabited volcanoes. In several cases the typical horseshoe shape amphitheater-like depression

E. Duarte; E. Fernandez

2007-01-01

86

Lateralization of Norepinephrine in Human Thalamus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Norepinephrine has a strongly lateralized distribution in the human thalamus. In the pulvinar region the left hemisphere is rich in norepinephrine, whereas in the somatosensory input area the right hemisphere has a higher concentration of this catecholamine. Such naturally occurring left-right differences in concentration of a neurotransmitter represent a new aspect of hemispheric specialization.

Arvin Oke; Richard Keller; Ivan Mefford; Ralph N. Adams

1978-01-01

87

Preparing Future Faculty: Ten Years Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When Sean Murphy designed the Graduate Student Internship Program at the College of Lake County (CLC), his 2001 TETYC article about the then two-year-old program detailed his programmatic response to the job market. Ten years later, the CLC-DePaul University partnership remains the strongest of the original dozen cross-sector relationships CLC…

Murphy, Sean P.; Aiossa, Elizabeth; Winter, Mary Mugica

2010-01-01

88

Profiling 1366 Technologies: One Year Later  

SciTech Connect

Last January, we took a look at how ARPA-E performer, 1366 Technologies is working to dramatically reduce the cost of solar energy. A year later, we revisited their headquarters in Lexington, MA to see the progress they've made.

Van Mierlo, Frank; Sachs, Ely

2011-01-01

89

POLICE OFFICER ENTRY LEVEL & LATERAL Position Information  

E-print Network

POLICE OFFICER ­ ENTRY LEVEL & LATERAL Position Information Multiple full-time permanent Officer Cadet) $4,135 - $5,699 mo. (Police Officer) Responsibilities POLICE OFFICER CADET: Attend police academy upon graduation, become Police Officer with responsibilities listed below. POLICE OFFICER

Ponce, V. Miguel

90

Biphasic cell responses on laterally mobile films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The engineering of polymer surfaces or matrices that are capable of controlling cell adhesion has been widely explored. In nearly all of these works, the polymer chains (and ligands) are chemically attached to the underlying substrate, and therefore these systems are inherently static. By contrast, cellular environments such as the extracellular matrix (ECM) are dynamic and remodeled by biochemical reactions and biophysical forces. Borrowing this concept from Nature, we created polymer films by an interfacial self-assembly process, whereby individual chains can exhibit lateral mobility (in-plane diffusive motion). NIH 3T3 fibroblasts seeded on such RGD-presenting polymer films show biphasic responses in spreading and adhesion strength to lateral mobility, with a minimal response for intermediate mobility values. Futhermore, preliminary immuno-staining experiments reveal that the total area of focal adhesions demonstrates a similar biphasic trend to the cellular-scale behaviors. In contrast, actin filaments or stress fibers appear to be unaffected by the substrate lateral mobility. These results show that lateral mobility is an important, although not fully explored aspect of mechano-sensing by cells, and can potentially give new perspectives on cell-ECM interactions.

Kourouklis, Andreas; Lerum, Ronald; Bermudez, Harry

2013-03-01

91

Lateral epicondylalgia: a musculoskeletal physiotherapy perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tennis elbow or lateral epicondylalgia (LE) is a challenging musculoskeletal condition to treat. This is largely due to the lack of research-based evidence of the clinical efficacy of the myriad of treatment approaches espoused in the literature. In view of this, successful rehabilitation of LE is based on choosing treatments that address the physical impairments found during clinical examination. The

B. Vicenzino

2003-01-01

92

Lateral junction dynamics lead the way out.  

PubMed

Epithelial cell layers need to be tightly regulated to maintain their integrity and correct function. Cell integration into epithelial sheets is now shown to depend on the N-WASP-regulated stabilization of cortical F-actin, which generates distinct patterns of apical-lateral contractility at E-cadherin-based cell-cell junctions. PMID:24481041

Behrndt, Martin; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp

2014-02-01

93

Laparoscopic versus open left lateral segmentectomy  

PubMed Central

Background Laparoscopic liver surgery is becoming increasingly common. This cohort study was designed to directly compare perioperative outcomes of the left lateral segmentectomy via laparoscopic and open approach. Methods Between 2002 and 2006 43 left lateral segmentectomies were performed at King's College Hospital. Those excluded from analysis included previous liver resections, polycystic liver disease, liver cirrhosis and synchronous operations. Of 20 patients analysed, laparoscopic (n = 10) were compared with open left lateral segmentectomy (n = 10). Both groups had similar patient characteristics. Results Morbidity rates were similar with no wound or chest infection in either group. The conversion rate was 10% (1/10). There was no difference in operating time between the groups (median time 220 minutes versus 179 minutes, p = 0.315). Surgical margins for all lesions were clear. Less postoperative opiate analgesics were required in the laparoscopic group (median 2 days versus 5 days, p = 0.005). The median postoperative in-hospital stay was less in the laparoscopic group (6 days vs 9 days, p = 0.005). There was no mortality. Conclusion Laparoscopic left lateral segmentectomy is safe and feasible. Laparoscopic patients may benefit from requiring less postoperative opiate analgesia and a shorter post-operative in-hospital stay. PMID:19735573

Carswell, Kirstin A; Sagias, Filippos G; Murgatroyd, Beth; Rela, Mohamed; Heaton, Nigel; Patel, Ameet G

2009-01-01

94

Idiosyncratic motor laterality in the horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idiosyncratic motor behaviour was investigated during four experimental procedures in 40 horses (males=20, females=20) to establish if horses revealed evidence of significant right or left laterality. The experimental procedures included (1) detection of the preferred foreleg to initiate movement (walk or trot), (2) obstacle avoidance within a passageway (right or left), (3) obstacle avoidance when ridden and (4) idiosyncratic motor

J. Murphy; A. Sutherland; S. Arkins

2005-01-01

95

Brain Lateralization Research: Educational and Psychometric Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this report is to distill curricular and testing implications of brain research. The report will focus on three topics. One topic is the possibility that brain lateralization--that is, the degree to which the two brain hemispheres specialize in different types of information processing--is an individual differences variable that…

Bejar, Isaac I.

96

Non-traumatic lateral abdominal wall hernia.  

PubMed

A rare lateral abdominal wall hernia is described in an adult patient. This was diagnosed in a patient with a prominent right lateral abdominal wall deformity. The patient had been experiencing pain that increased progressively in severity over time. A computerized tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen revealed the location of the lateral abdominal wall defect. The hernia defect was through the transversus abdominis and the internal oblique, with the inferior aspect of the 11th rib forming part of the superior border of the defect. A 4-cm bony spur from the inferior aspect of the rib formed part of the lateral margin of the defect. The hernia sac was contained within a space underneath the external oblique muscle. The association of the hernia defect with a bony spur was highly suggestive of a congenital etiology. The hernia was successfully repaired laparoscopically with Parietex mesh (Sofradim, Lyons, France), and the patient had resolution of the symptoms on discharge and follow-up visits. PMID:18949442

Castillo-Sang, M; Gociman, B; Almaroof, B; Fath, J; Cason, F

2009-06-01

97

Religious Attendance and Loneliness in Later Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose of the Study: Studies show that loneliness is a major risk factor for health issues in later life. Although research suggests that religious involvement can protect against loneliness, explanations for this general pattern are underdeveloped and undertested. In this paper, we propose and test a theoretical model, which suggests that social…

Rote, Sunshine; Hill, Terrence D.; Ellison, Christopher G.

2013-01-01

98

Pain sensitivity, cerebral laterality, and negative affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The right hemisphere is assumed to play a unique role for pain sensitivity and negative affect. Pressure pain thresholds were assessed daily in eight right-handed participants over a 6-week period in order to obtain reliable measures of pain sensitivity unaffected by situational influences. In an additional session, cerebral laterality was assessed with behavioral and an EEG measures. Psychometric measures were

Paul Pauli; Georg Wiedemann; Matthias Nickola

1999-01-01

99

Lateralized temporal order judgement in dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporal and spatial attentional deficits in dyslexia were investigated using a lateralized visual temporal order judgment (TOJ) paradigm that allowed both sensitivity to temporal order and spatial attentional bias to be measured. Findings indicate that adult participants with a positive screen for dyslexia were significantly less sensitive to the temporal order of the stimuli than control participants, but did not

Elizabeth B. Liddle; Georgina M. Jackson; Chris Rorden; Stephen R. Jackson

2009-01-01

100

Convergent models of handedness and brain lateralization  

PubMed Central

The pervasive nature of handedness across human history and cultures is a salient consequence of brain lateralization. This paper presents evidence that provides a structure for understanding the motor control processes that give rise to handedness. According to the Dynamic Dominance Model, the left hemisphere (in right handers) is proficient for processes that predict the effects of body and environmental dynamics, while the right hemisphere is proficient at impedance control processes that can minimize potential errors when faced with unexpected mechanical conditions, and can achieve accurate steady-state positions. This model can be viewed as a motor component for the paradigm of brain lateralization that has been proposed by Rogers et al. (MacNeilage et al., 2009) that is based upon evidence from a wide range of behaviors across many vertebrate species. Rogers proposed a left-hemisphere specialization for well-established patterns of behavior performed in familiar environmental conditions, and a right hemisphere specialization for responding to unforeseen environmental events. The dynamic dominance hypothesis provides a framework for understanding the biology of motor lateralization that is consistent with Roger's paradigm of brain lateralization. PMID:25339923

Sainburg, Robert L.

2014-01-01

101

Salvage Surgery for Lateral Tennis Elbow  

Microsoft Academic Search

We undertook a retrospective analysis of 34 patients (35 elbows) who had prior failed surgical intervention for lateral tennis elbow. Revision surgeries were per formed between 1979 and 1994. Each patient's non operative and operative history was recorded before our salvage revision surgery. At revision surgery, find ings included residual tendinosis of the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon in 34

Scott W. Organ; Robert P. Nirschl; Barry S. Kraushaar; Eric J. Guidi

1997-01-01

102

Establishment of polarity in angiosperm lateral organs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In seed plants, lateral organs such as leaves and floral organs are formed from the flanks of apical meristems. Therefore, they have an inherent positional relationship: organ primordia have an adaxial side next to the meristem, and an abaxial one away from the meristem. Surgical and genetic studies suggest that a morphogenetic gradient, which originates in the meristem, converts the

John L. Bowman; Yuval Eshed; Stuart F. Baum

2002-01-01

103

Combined Lateral Vertical RESURF (CLAVER) LDMOS structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a unique Combined Lateral Vertical RESURF (CLAVER) LDMOS structure is proposed for breakthrough performance. The structure uses a secondary RESURF design to terminate in the vertical direction to yield a much improved performance trade-off. The proposed device uses standard process steps available in integrated technology platforms to give a breakdown as high as 150 V with ground-breaking

T. Khan; V. Khemka; Ronghua Zhu; Weixiao Huang; Xu Cheng; P. Hui; Muh-ling Ger; B. Grote; P. Rodriquez

2009-01-01

104

Control augmentation for lateral control wheel steering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight control system design for lateral control wheel steering is discussed. Two alternate designs are presented. The first design is a roll-rate command, bank-angle hold system with a wings-level track-hold submode. The second is a curved-track-hold system. Design details and real-time flight simulator results are included.

Foulkes, R. H., Jr.

1981-01-01

105

Lateral organic photodetectors for imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic semiconductor detectors have always been in active research interest of researchers due to its low fabrication cost. Vertical organic detectors have been studied in the past but not much of the works have been done on lateral organic detectors. The lateral design has an advantage over the vertical design that it is easy to fabricate and can be easily integrated with the backplane TFT imager circuit. Integrating an organic photodetectors with TFT imager can improve the over all sensitivity of the imager. However the lateral design limits the fill-factor. Here in our work we propose a new bilayered lateral organic photodetectors with Copper-Phthalocyanine (CUPC) as top and Perylene- Tetracarboxylic Bis- Benzimidazole (PTCBI) as the bottom layer organic material. The bottom organic semiconductor layer work as both, charge transport layer and photon absorption layer. The top and bottom layer provides and heterojunction a potential gradient enough to separate the photo generated excitons in to electrons and holes. The incident photons are absorbed in the two layers active layers giving an exciton. These excitons see a potential barrier at the CUPC-PTCBI heterojunction and separated into holes and electrons. The separated electrons are directed by the external applied electric field and thus give a increase in photocurrent. Lateral organic photodetectors are simple to design and have low dark current. The photo-response of these photo detectors is observed approximately three orders higher in magnitude compare able to its dark response. The dual layer has an advantage of tuning the devices for different absorption wavelengths and were observed more stable comparable to vertical devices.

Shafique, Umar; Karim, Karim S.

2011-03-01

106

Genetics of ALS: Identification of Genes With Roles in Familial and Sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) With Frontotemporal Dementia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis With Frontotemporal Dementia; Lou Gehrig's Disease; Motor Neuron Disease; Primary Lateral Sclerosis

2014-04-01

107

Lateral root development in the maize (Zea mays) lateral rootless1 mutant  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The maize lrt1 (lateral rootless1) mutant is impaired in its development of lateral roots during early post-embryonic development. The aim of this study was to characterize, in detail, the influences that the mutation exerts on lateral root initiation and the subsequent developments, as well as to describe the behaviour of the entire plant under variable environmental conditions. Methods Mutant lrt1 plants were cultivated under different conditions of hydroponics, and in between sheets of moist paper. Cleared whole mounts and anatomical sections were used in combination with both selected staining procedures and histochemical tests to follow root development. Root surface permeability tests and the biochemical quantification of lignin were performed to complement the structural data. Key Results The data presented suggest a redefinition of lrt1 function in lateral roots as a promoter of later development; however, neither the complete absence of lateral roots nor the frequency of their initiation is linked to lrt1 function. The developmental effects of lrt1 are under strong environmental influences. Mutant primordia are affected in structure, growth and emergence; and the majority of primordia terminate their growth during this last step, or shortly thereafter. The lateral roots are impaired in the maintenance of the root apical meristem. The primary root shows disturbances in the organization of both epidermal and subepidermal layers. The lrt1-related cell-wall modifications include: lignification in peripheral layers, the deposition of polyphenolic substances and a higher activity of peroxidase. Conclusions The present study provides novel insights into the function of the lrt1 gene in root system development. The lrt1 gene participates in the spatial distribution of initiation, but not in its frequency. Later, the development of lateral roots is strongly affected. The effect of the lrt1 mutation is not as obvious in the primary root, with no influences observed on the root apical meristem structure and maintenance; however, development of the epidermis and cortex are impaired. PMID:23456690

Husakova, Eva; Hochholdinger, Frank; Soukup, Ales

2013-01-01

108

Política educativa i escola rural durant el franquisme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquest article presenta una panoràmica general del que va ser la política educativa sobre l'escola rural durant l'època franquista (1936\\/1939-1975). S'incideix de manera especial en aquells aspectes i models organitzatius (com per exemple les escoles graduades, les escoles comarcals i molt especialment les escoles llar) que frenaren i obstaculitzaren el correcte desenvolupament d'un prototipus d'escola que amb el pas del

Jordi Feu i Gelis

2006-01-01

109

White matter alterations differ in primary lateral sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Primary lateral sclerosis is a sporadic disorder characterized by slowly progressive corticospinal dysfunction. Primary lateral sclerosis differs from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis by its lack of lower motor neuron signs and long survival. Few pathological studies have been carried out on patients with primary lateral sclerosis, and the relationship between primary lateral sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis remains uncertain. To detect in vivo structural differences between the two disorders, diffusion tensor imaging of white matter tracts was carried out in 19 patients with primary lateral sclerosis, 18 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 19 age-matched controls. Fibre tracking was used to reconstruct the intracranial portion of the corticospinal tract and three regions of the corpus callosum: the genu, splenium and callosal fibres connecting the motor cortices. Both patient groups had reduced fractional anisotropy, a measure associated with axonal organization, and increased mean diffusivity of the reconstructed corticospinal and callosal motor fibres compared with controls, without changes in the genu or splenium. Voxelwise comparison of the whole brain white matter using tract-based spatial statistics confirmed the differences between patients and controls in the diffusion properties of the corticospinal tracts and motor fibres of the callosum. This analysis further revealed differences in the regional distribution of white matter alterations between the patient groups. In patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the greatest reduction in fractional anisotropy occurred in the distal portions of the intracranial corticospinal tract, consistent with a distal axonal degeneration. In patients with primary lateral sclerosis, the greatest loss of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity occurred in the subcortical white matter underlying the motor cortex, with reduced volume, suggesting tissue loss. Clinical measures of upper motor neuron dysfunction correlated with reductions in fractional anisotropy in the corticospinal tract in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and increased mean diffusivity and volume loss of the corticospinal tract in patients with primary lateral sclerosis. Changes in the diffusion properties of the motor fibres of the corpus callosum were strongly correlated with changes in corticospinal fibres in patients, but not in controls. These findings indicate that degeneration is not selective for corticospinal neurons, but affects callosal neurons within the motor cortex in motor neuron disorders. PMID:21798965

Iwata, Nobue K.; Kwan, Justin Y.; Danielian, Laura E.; Butman, John A.; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Bayat, Elham

2011-01-01

110

Electroclinical characteristics of posterior lateral temporal epilepsy.  

PubMed

The current study aimed to investigate the electroclinical differences between mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and posterior lateral temporal lobe epilepsy (PLTLE). All patients had Engel class I outcomes after surgery for at least one year. In MTLE patients, the epileptogenic zone was inside the boundary of a standard temporal lobectomy, whereas in PLTLE, the epileptogenic zone was behind the boundary of a standard temporal lobectomy. Febrile convulsion, history of psychic aura, oroalimentary automatism, and diffuse interictal epileptiform discharges were more frequent in MTLE. Theta wave and increasing heart rate were more evident at the seizure onset in MTLE, whereas an ictal onset fast rhythm was more evident in PLTLE. Tonic head turning was more frequent in PLTLE. Distinguishing between MTLE and PLTLE was easier than distinguishing MTLE from lateral TLE (LTLE), which may be helpful in planning epilepsy surgery. Combinations of these manifestations and signs can provide vital clues to distinguish between MTLE and PLTLE. PMID:23200534

Wang, Fang; Liu, Xingzhou; Pan, Sipei; Wang, Mengyang; Chen, Shuhua

2013-01-01

111

Thrust vectoring for lateral-directional stability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advantages and disadvantages of using thrust vectoring for lateral-directional control and the effects of reducing the tail size of a single-engine aircraft were investigated. The aerodynamic characteristics of the F-16 aircraft were generated by using the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System II panel code. The resulting lateral-directional linear perturbation analysis of a modified F-16 aircraft with various tail sizes and yaw vectoring was performed at several speeds and altitudes to determine the stability and control trends for the aircraft compared to these trends for a baseline aircraft. A study of the paddle-type turning vane thrust vectoring control system as used on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle is also presented.

Peron, Lee R.; Carpenter, Thomas

1992-01-01

112

Lateral prefrontal cortex contributes to maladaptive decisions  

PubMed Central

Humans consistently make suboptimal decisions involving random events, yet the underlying neural mechanisms remain elusive. Using functional MRI and a matching pennies game that captured subjects’ increasing tendency to predict the break of a streak as it continued [i.e., the “gambler's fallacy” (GF)], we found that a strong blood oxygen level-dependent response in the left lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) to the current outcome preceded the use of the GF strategy 10 s later. Furthermore, anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the left LPFC, which enhances neuronal firing rates and cerebral excitability, increased the use of the GF strategy, and made the decisions more “sticky.” These results reveal a causal role of the LPFC in implementing suboptimal decision strategy guided by false world models, especially when such strategy requires great resources for cognitive control. PMID:22393013

Xue, Gui; Juan, Chi-Hung; Chang, Chi-Fu; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Dong, Qi

2012-01-01

113

Robust lateral control of highway vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Vehicle lateral dynamics are affected by vehicle mass, longitudinal velocity, vehicle inertia, and the cornering stiffness of the tires. All of these parameters are subject to variation, even over the course of a single trip. Therefore, a practical lateral control system must guarantee stability, and hopefully ride comfort, over a wide range of parameter changes. This paper describes a robust controller which theoretically guarantees stability over a wide range of parameter changes. The robust controller is designed using a frequency domain transfer function approach. An uncertainty band in the frequency domain is determined using simulations over the range of expected parameter variations. Based on this bound, a robust controller is designed by solving the Nevanlinna-Pick interpolation problem. The performance of the robust controller is then evaluated over the range of parameter variations through simulations.

Byrne, R.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abdallah, C. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). EECE Dept.

1994-08-01

114

High performance silicon lateral PIN photodiode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Start Photodetectors with high responsivity in Si-related processes are required for high speed optoelectronic applications such as fiber optic data communication systems. In this paper, the performance of a virtual lateral PIN photodiode with intensity response in the 200-1000 nm wavelength range was demonstrated. The results obtained for responsivity, total quantum efficiency and frequency response were 0.62 A/W and 13.1 GHz respectively for design parameters of intrinsic region length of 6 ?m, photoabsorption layer thickness of 50 ?m, incident optical power of 1 mW/cm2 and bias voltage of 3 V. As a conclusion, the decrease in device size enabled the realization of a high performance lateral p-i-n photodiode.

Kalthom Tasirin, S.; Susthitha Menon, P.; Ahmad, Ibrahim; Fazlili Abdullah, S.

2013-06-01

115

Glutamate, excitotoxicity and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “glutamate hypothesis” is one of three major pathophysiological mechanisms of motor neurone injury towards which current\\u000a research effort into amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is directed. There is great structural and functional diversity in\\u000a the glutamate receptor family which results from combinations of 14 known gene products and their splice variants, with or\\u000a without additional RNA editing. It is possible

P. J. Shaw; P. G. Ince

1997-01-01

116

Palliative care in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The poor prognosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) makes palliative care a challenge for the neurologist. Most disabilities\\u000a associated with progressive disease can be ameliorated by symptomatic treatment. Prognosis and treatment options should be\\u000a openly discussed with the patient and his\\/her relatives. Nutritional deficiency due to pronounced dysphagia can be efficiently\\u000a relieved by a percutaneous enterogastrostomy. Respiratory insufficiency can be

Gian Domenico Borasio; Raymond Voltz

1997-01-01

117

Lateral Interactions in Monolayer Thick Mercury Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of lateral adatom-adatom interactions is often an important part of understanding electronic structure and adsorption energetics in monolayer thick films. In this dissertation I use angle-resolved photoemission and thermal desorption spectroscopies to explore the relationship between the adatom-adatom interaction and other characteristics of the adlayer, such as electronic structure, defects, or coexistent structural phases in the adlayer. Since

Yolanda Jan Kime

1991-01-01

118

Laterality effects with visual perception of  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the paradigm denoting a contralateral relationship between visual field and brain hemisphere, laterality effects with\\u000a music notation and dots were investigated. Two groups of readers of advanced piano music were selected, one good, one poor.\\u000a Each group participated in two visual half-field experiments, one using random dot patterns and the other using musical chords.\\u000a Significant opposite field effects were

Doris L. Salis

1980-01-01

119

Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay Test Strips  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As easy to read as a home pregnancy test, three Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay (QLFA) strips used to test water for E. coli show different results. The brightly glowing control line on the far right of each strip indicates that all three tests ran successfully. But the glowing test line on the middle left and bottom strips reveal their samples were contaminated with E. coli bacteria at two different concentrations. The color intensity correlates with concentration of contamination.

2003-01-01

120

Lateral jet injection into typical combustor flowfields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experimental problem of lateral jet injection into typical flow fields in the absence of combustion was studied. All flow fields being investigated have no expansion of the crossflow (the test section to swirler diameter ratio D/d = 1), after its passage through an optional swirler (with swirl vane angle phi = 0 (swirler removed), 45, and 70 degree). The lateral jet(s) is(are) located one test-section diameter downstream of the test-section inlet (x/D = 1). The lateral jets have round-sectioned nozzles, each of which has an area of 1/100th of the cross sectional area of the crossflow (A sub j/A sub c = 1/100). Jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios of R = v sub j/u sub o = 2, 4, and 6 were investigated. Helium-bubble low visualization, five-hole pitot probe time-mean velocity measurements, and single-wire time-mean velocity and normal and shear stress turbulence data were obtained in the research program.

Lilley, D. G.

1986-01-01

121

Intramedullary screw fixation of lateral malleolus fractures.  

PubMed

A biomechanical evaluation of intramedullary versus buttress plate and lag screw fixation of lateral malleolus fractures is combined with a clinical evaluation of 44 patients with lateral malleolus fractures who underwent intramedullary screw fixation. The biomechanical study was performed in experimentally produced, Weber B, supination-eversion ankle fractures. The fractures were fixed with one of the two above fixation methods and then placed under a torsional load to failure. Sixteen cadaver ankles were tested as compared with native bone. The intramedullary screw provided 66.5% the resistance of torsion, and the buttress plate and lag screw provided 61.5% the resistance to torsion. There was no statistical difference between these two groups. The 44 fractures treated with an intramedullary screw were reviewed retrospectively. There was one failure of fixation, and one prominent hardware problem. Time to full weightbearing averaged 7.2 weeks. These results suggest that intramedullary screw fixation of noncomminuted lateral malleolus fractures provides stable fixation with good clinical results. This technique has the advantages of providing dynamic intramedullary fixation with limited surgical dissection and no subcutaneous hardware. PMID:7849975

Bankston, A B; Anderson, L D; Nimityongskul, P

1994-11-01

122

Genetic factors and breast cancer laterality  

PubMed Central

Background Women are more likely to develop cancer in the left breast than the right. Such laterality may influence subsequent management, especially in elderly patients with heart disease who may require radiation therapy. The purpose of this study was to explore possible factors for such cancer laterality. Methods In this work, clinical data for consecutive patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer were reviewed, with emphasis on clinical presentation and family history. Results Between 2005 and 2012, 687 patients with breast cancer were seen. Two women with incomplete data and eleven men were excluded. In total, 343 (50.9%) patients presented with left breast cancer, 311 (46.1%) with right breast cancer, and 20 (3.0%) with simultaneous bilateral malignancy. There were no significant differences between the three groups, especially in regards to clinical presentation and tumor characteristics. A total of 622 (92.3%) patients had unilateral primary, 20 (3.0%) had simultaneous bilateral, and 32 (4.7%) had metachronous primary breast cancer with subsequent contralateral breast cancer after 7.5–236 months. The worst 10-year survival was for bilateral simultaneous (18%) compared with unilateral (28%) and metachronous primaries (90%). There were no differences in survival in relation to breast cancer laterality, handedness, and presence or absence of a family history of cancer. There were significant similarities between patients and first-degree relatives in regards to breast cancer laterality, namely same breast (30/66, 45.5%), opposite breast (9/66, 13.6%), and bilateral cancer (27/66, 40.9, P=0.01163). This was more evident among patients and their sisters (17/32, 53.1%) or mothers (11/27, 40.7%, P=0.0689). There were also close similarities in relation to age at initial diagnosis of cancer for patients and their first-degree relatives for age differences of ?5 years (48/166, 28.9%), 6–10 years (34/166, 20.5%), and >11 years (84/166, 50.6%, P=0.12065). Conclusion High similarities between patients and their first-degree relatives in regards to cancer laterality and possibly age at initial diagnosis of cancer may suggest an underlying inherited genetic predisposition. PMID:24790468

Amer, Magid H

2014-01-01

123

Efferent pathways of the mouse lateral habenula.  

PubMed

The lateral habenula (LHb) is part of the habenula complex of the dorsal thalamus. Recent studies of the LHb have focused on its projections to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), which contain ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons that mediate reward prediction error via inhibition of dopaminergic activity. However, older studies in the rat have also identified LHb outputs to the lateral and posterior hypothalamus, median raphe, dorsal raphe, and dorsal tegmentum. Although these studies have shown that the medial and lateral divisions of the LHb have somewhat distinct projections, the topographic specificity of LHb efferents is not completely understood, and the relative extent of these projections to brainstem targets is unknown. Here we have used anterograde tracing with adeno-associated virus-mediated expression of green fluorescent protein, combined with serial two-photon tomography, to map the efferents of the LHb on a standard coordinate system for the entire mouse brain, and reconstruct the efferent pathways of the LHb in three dimensions. Using automated quantitation of fiber density, we show that in addition to the RMTg, the median raphe, caudal dorsal raphe, and pontine central gray are major recipients of LHb efferents. By using retrograde tract tracing with cholera toxin subunit B, we show that LHb neurons projecting to the hypothalamus, VTA, median raphe, caudal dorsal raphe, and pontine central gray reside in characteristic, but sometimes overlapping regions of the LHb. Together these results provide the anatomical basis for systematic studies of LHb function in neural circuits and behavior in mice. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:32-60, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25099741

Quina, Lely A; Tempest, Lynne; Ng, Lydia; Harris, Julie A; Ferguson, Susan; Jhou, Thomas C; Turner, Eric E

2015-01-01

124

Psychotherapists and the clergy: Fifty years later.  

PubMed

Jung's two powerful articles on psychotherapy and the clergy, written in 1928 and 1932. are looked at from the vantage point of fifty years later and the author's experience in conducting analysis with many people from both vocations. He notes that relatively few people achieve the kind of integration of the ego that Jung writes about-an essentially religious experience-wherein the center of their existence now gravitates about the Self. Yet Jung's work and views have had a profound effect on spiritually inclined people of all ages. The predictions of Jung's articles, regarding therapy, the dissemination of pyschology to the masses, and other issues are examined. PMID:24306937

Spiegelman, J M

1984-03-01

125

Quantifying disease progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) exhibits characteristic variability of onset and rate of disease progression, with inherent clinical heterogeneity making disease quantitation difficult. Recent advances in understanding pathogenic mechanisms linked to the development of ALS impose an increasing need to develop strategies to predict and more objectively measure disease progression. This review explores phenotypic and genetic determinants of disease progression in ALS, and examines established and evolving biomarkers that may contribute to robust measurement in longitudinal clinical studies. With targeted neuroprotective strategies on the horizon, developing efficiencies in clinical trial design may facilitate timely entry of novel treatments into the clinic. Ann Neurol 2014;76:643-657. PMID:25223628

Simon, Neil G; Turner, Martin R; Vucic, Steve; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Shefner, Jeremy; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine; Kiernan, Matthew C

2014-11-01

126

Lateral stress evolution in Chromium Sulfide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the shock response of CrS, a cermet of potential interest as a matrix material for ballistic applications, has been investigated. Compacts with a Chromium: Sulfur ratio of 1.15:1 were investigated via the plate-impact technique. These experiments allowed the material to be loaded under a one-dimensional state of strain. Embedded manganin stress gauges were employed to monitor the temporal evolution of longitudinal and lateral components of stress. Comparison of these two components has allowed assessment of the variation of material shear strength both with impact pressure/strain-rate and time.

Petel, O. E.; Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Hameed, A.; Capozzi, A.; Goroshin, S.; Frost, D. L.; Hazell, P. J.

2014-05-01

127

Towards reproducible, scalable lateral molecular electronic devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An approach to reproducibly fabricate molecular electronic devices is presented. Lateral nanometer-scale gaps with high yield are formed in Au/Pd nanowires by a combination of electromigration and Joule-heating-induced thermomechanical stress. The resulting nanogap devices are used to measure the electrical properties of small numbers of two different molecular species with different end-groups, namely 1,4-butane dithiol and 1,5-diamino-2-methylpentane. Fluctuations in the current reveal that in the case of the dithiol molecule devices, individual molecules conduct intermittently, with the fluctuations becoming more pronounced at larger biases.

Durkan, Colm; Zhang, Qian

2014-08-01

128

AXR1 Acts after Lateral Bud Formation to Inhibit Lateral Bud Growth in Arabidopsis1  

PubMed Central

The AXR1 gene of Arabidopsis is required for many auxin responses. The highly branched shoot phenotype of mature axr1 mutant plants has been taken as genetic evidence for a role of auxin in the control of shoot branching. We compared the development of lateral shoots in wild-type Columbia and axr1-12 plants. In the wild type, the pattern of lateral shoot development depends on the developmental stage of the plant. During prolonged vegetative growth, axillary shoots arise and develop in a basal-apical sequence. After floral transition, axillary shoots arise rapidly along the primary shoot axis and grow out to form lateral inflorescences in an apical-basal sequence. For both patterns, the axr1 mutation does not affect the timing of axillary meristem formation; however, subsequent lateral shoot development proceeds more rapidly in axr1 plants. The outgrowth of lateral inflorescences from excised cauline nodes of wild-type plants is inhibited by apical auxin. axr1-12 nodes are resistant to this inhibition. These results provide evidence for common control of axillary growth in both patterns, and suggest a role for auxin during the late stages of axillary shoot development following the formation of the axillary bud and several axillary leaf primordia. PMID:10557232

Stirnberg, Petra; Chatfield, Steven P.; Leyser, H.M. Ottoline

1999-01-01

129

Haemodynamic effects of the lateral decubitus position and the kidney rest lateral decubitus position during anaesthesia.  

PubMed

We measured the haemodynamic effects of changing from the supine position to the lateral decubitus (lateral) position, and then to the kidney rest lateral decubitus (kidney) position in 12 patients undergoing nephrectomy under isoflurane anaesthesia. Eight control patients undergoing pulmonary surgery remained in the lateral position. The lateral position produced no significant changes. In the kidney position, however, significant reductions occurred in the mean arterial (P < 0.01), right atrial (P < 0.05) and pulmonary artery wedge pressures (P < 0.01). There were also significant reductions in cardiac index (from 3.04 (SD 0.21) to 2.44 (0.26) litre min-1 m-2, P < 0.01) and stroke volume index (from 40 (5) to 31 (5) ml beat-1 m-2, P < 0.01). The systemic vascular resistance index increased significantly (P < 0.05). Cardiac output was probably reduced by a decrease in venous return and an increase in systemic vascular resistance. PMID:10895751

Yokoyama, M; Ueda, W; Hirakawa, M

2000-06-01

130

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: one or multiple causes?  

PubMed Central

The Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common form of motor neuron disease in the adulthood, and it is characterized by rapid and progressive compromise of the upper and lower motor neurons. The majority of the cases of ALS are classified as sporadic and, until now, a specific cause for these cases still is unknown. To present the different hypotheses on the etiology of ALS. It was carried out a search in the databases: Bireme, Scielo and Pubmed, in the period of 1987 to 2011, using the following keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, motor neuron disease, etiology, causes and epidemiology and its similar in Portuguese and Spanish. It did not have consensus as regards the etiology of ALS. Researches demonstrates evidences as regards intoxication by heavy metals, environmental and occupational causes, genetic mutations (superoxide dismutase 1), certain viral infections and the accomplishment of vigorous physical activity for the development of the disease. There is still no consensus regarding the involved factors in the etiology of ALS. In this way, new research about these etiologies are necessary, for a better approach of the patients, promoting preventive programs for the disease and improving the quality of life of the patients. PMID:21785676

Bastos, Aline Furtado; Orsini, Marco; Machado, Dionis; Mello, Mariana Pimentel; Nader, Sergio; Silva, Julio Guilherme; da Silva Catharino, Antonio M.; de Freitas, Marcos R.G.; Pereira, Alessandra; Pessoa, Luciane Lacerda; Sztajnbok, Flavio R.; Leite, Marco Araujo; Nascimento, Osvaldo J.M.; Bastos, Victor Hugo

2011-01-01

131

Lateral vision in horses: a behavioral investigation.  

PubMed

This study investigated lateral vision in horses (Equus caballus) for the first time from a behavioral point of view. Three horses were tested using a novel experimental design to determine the range of their lateral and caudolateral vision with respect to stimulus detection and discrimination. Real-life stimuli were presented along a curvilinear wall in one of four different positions (A, B, C, D) and one of two height locations (Top, Bottom) on both sides of the horse. To test for stimulus detection, the correct stimulus was paired against a control; for stimulus discrimination, the correct stimulus was paired against another object. To indicate that the correct stimulus was detected or discriminated, the horses pushed one of two paddles. All horses scored significantly above chance on stimulus detection trials regardless of stimulus position or location. They also accurately discriminated between stimuli when objects appeared in positions A, B, and C for the top or bottom locations; however, they failed to discriminate these stimuli at position D. This study supports physiological descriptions of the equine eye and provides new behavioral data showing that horses can detect the appearance of objects within an almost fully encompassing circle and are able to identify objects within most but not all of their panoramic field of view. PMID:22698758

Hanggi, Evelyn B; Ingersoll, Jerry F

2012-09-01

132

Religious Attendance and Loneliness in Later Life  

PubMed Central

Purpose of the Study: ?Studies show that loneliness is a major risk factor for health issues in later life. Although research suggests that religious involvement can protect against loneliness, explanations for this general pattern are underdeveloped and undertested. In this paper, we propose and test a theoretical model, which suggests that social integration and social support are key mechanisms that link religious attendance and loneliness. Design and Methods: ?To formally test our theoretical model, we use data from the National Social Life Health and Aging Project (2005/2006), a large national probability sample of older adults aged 57–85 years. Results: ?We find that religious attendance is associated with higher levels of social integration and social support and that social integration and social support are associated with lower levels of loneliness. A series of mediation tests confirm our theoretical model. Implications: ?Taken together, our results suggest that involvement in religious institutions may protect against loneliness in later life by integrating older adults into larger and more supportive social networks. Future research should test whether these processes are valid across theoretically relevant subgroups. PMID:22555887

Rote, Sunshine; Hill, Terrence D.; Ellison, Christopher G.

2013-01-01

133

Lateral Distribution Functions of Extensive Air Showers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy is among the characteristics of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (E>5 x 1019 eV) which could be estimated experimentally. The following paper attempts to estimate the energy of an UHECR proton by applying a Monte Carlo simulation code. A number of extensive air showers, vertical and inclined, is simulated to derive the Lateral Distribution Functions of the shower muons. The scenario of simulations is adopted to the Cerenkov surface detector of the P. AUGER Observatory. Due to the fact that the Lateral Distribution Functions show minimal fluctuations of the muon density at a distance larger than 800 m from the core of the showers, and due to the fact that at a distance of 900 m the distribution functions for inclined showers coincide (which means that it does not change with the zenith angle of the showers), we select the muon density at 900 m to derive the energy of the primary protons. (The project is co-funded by the European Social Fund and National Resources (EPEAEK II) PYTHAGORAS II.)

Geranios, A.; Fokitis, E.; Maltezos, S.; et al.

134

Confronting the Material Convoy in Later Life  

PubMed Central

We adapt a metaphor from life course studies to designate the whole of one’s possessions, across time, as a convoy of material support. This dynamic collection of things supports daily life and the self, but it can also present difficulty in later life. To alleviate the purported burdens of the material convoy, a discourse has arisen that urges elders and their family members to reduce the volume of possessions. An analysis of 11 such possession management texts shows authors addressing two distinct audiences about elders’ need to downsize: family members and elders themselves. Authors who speak to family members do so with an urgent, unsentimental tone that echoes mainstream clutter-control advice about disorderly, overfull households. In texts for elders, the standard critique about consumption and unruly lives is gentler, more sensitive to the meaning of things, and underplays the emotions of divestment. There is stress on the responsibility to spare the next generation and control one’s legacy. These latter texts seem to respect that downsizing in later life symbolizes a narrowing of the life world. PMID:21822336

Smith, Gabriella V.; Ekerdt, David J.

2011-01-01

135

Dendroarchitecture and lateral inhibition in thalamic barreloids.  

PubMed

Thalamic cells that relay vibrissa information to barrel cortex are clustered within whisker-related modules termed barreloids. Each barreloid receives input from one principal whisker and inhibitory inputs from reticular thalamic neurons with receptive fields that correspond to that same whisker. Although the proximal dendrites of relay cells are confined to their home barreloid, distal dendrites often extend into surrounding barreloids representing adjacent whiskers on the mystacial pad. It was proposed that this arrangement provides a substrate for a mechanism of lateral inhibition that operates remotely on extrabarreloid dendrites. In the present study, we identified adjacent whiskers that suppressed activity below background levels in barreloid cells, and we used a double-labeling protocol to relate the efficacy of inhibition to the dendroarchitecture of the cells. Significant suppression of background discharges was produced by 92% of adjacent whiskers within rows, by 48% of adjacent whiskers within arcs, but was never observed after deflection of nonadjacent whiskers. The magnitude of lateral inhibition increases linearly as the cumulated length of dendrites increases in the barreloid representing an adjacent whisker (R2 = 0.86; p < 0.0001). As distance between cell bodies and the border of an adjacent barreloid increases, dendritic length in that adjacent barreloid diminishes and so does inhibition. Considering time differences between the arrival of principal and adjacent whisker inputs in barreloids, our data suggest that inhibition operating distally on dendrites acts as a spatial filter that primarily suppresses adjacent whisker inputs and so contributes to enhance edge detection. PMID:15240801

Lavallée, Philippe; Deschênes, Martin

2004-07-01

136

RECOMENDAÇÕES PARA AVIFAUNA EM ATIVIDADES DE MINIMIZAR IMPACTOS À TURISMO DE OBSERVAÇÃO DE AVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recommendations to minimize impacts on avi- lômbia, entre outros, através do turismo de observação de aves, bir- fauna by birdwatching activities. The quick growth of birdwat- ding ou birdwatching, como é mais conhecido (Figueiredo 2003). ching tourism, a segment of ecotourism, needs to be analyzed on Entretanto, esta atividade pode também trazer alterações ambien- its benefits and resulting problems. Negative

Maria Antonietta Castro Pivatto; José Sabino; Estados Unidos da América

137

Inertia and scaling in deterministic lateral displacement  

E-print Network

The ability to separate and analyze chemical species with high resolution, sensitivity, and throughput is central to the development of microfluidics systems. Deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) is a continuous separation method based on the transport of species through an array of obstacles. In the case of force-driven DLD (f-DLD), size-based separation can be modelled effectively using a simple particle-obstacle collision model. We use a macroscopic model to study f-DLD and demonstrate, via a simple scaling, that the method is indeed predominantly a size-based phenomenon at low Reynolds numbers. More importantly, we demonstrate that inertia effects provide the additional capability to separate same size particles but of different densities and could enhance separation at high throughput conditions. We also show that a direct conversion of macroscopic results to microfluidic settings is possible with a simple scaling based on the size of the obstacles that results in a universal curve.

Drazer, Timothy J Bowman German

2014-01-01

138

Motoneuron firing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is an inexorably progressive neurodegenerative disorder involving the classical motor system and the frontal effector brain, causing muscular weakness and atrophy, with variable upper motor neuron signs and often an associated fronto-temporal dementia. The physiological disturbance consequent on the motor system degeneration is beginning to be well understood. In this review we describe aspects of the motor cortical, neuronal, and lower motor neuron dysfunction. We show how studies of the changes in the pattern of motor unit firing help delineate the underlying pathophysiological disturbance as the disease progresses. Such studies are beginning to illuminate the underlying disordered pathophysiological processes in the disease, and are important in designing new approaches to therapy and especially for clinical trials. PMID:25294995

de Carvalho, Mamede; Eisen, Andrew; Krieger, Charles; Swash, Michael

2014-01-01

139

Therapeutic neuroprotective agents for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal chronic neurodegenerative disease whose hallmark is proteinaceous, ubiquitinated, cytoplasmic inclusions in motor neurons and surrounding cells. Multiple mechanisms proposed as responsible for ALS pathogenesis include dysfunction of protein degradation, glutamate excitotoxicity, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. It is therefore essential to gain a better understanding of the underlying disease etiology and search for neuroprotective agents that might delay disease onset, slow progression, prolong survival, and ultimately reduce the burden of disease. Because riluzole, the only Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatment, prolongs the ALS patient’s life by only 3 months, new therapeutic agents are urgently needed. In this review, we focus on studies of various small pharmacological compounds targeting the proposed pathogenic mechanisms of ALS and discuss their impact on disease progression. PMID:23864030

Pandya, Rachna S.; Zhu, Haining; Li, Wei; Bowser, Robert; Friedlander, Robert M.

2014-01-01

140

[Lateral clavicular fractures in children and adolescents].  

PubMed

From 1996 to 1999, 572 fractures of the clavicle were treated in our department, 26 of which were located at the lateral end of the clavicle. Two children were operated: in one a closed reduction of the fracture under general anesthesia was performed, and in the other the fracture required open reduction with internal fixation. All other fractures were treated conservatively with a figure-of-eight clavicle strap for 3 weeks. A follow-up study was performed in autumn 2000. Sixteen patients came to our outpatient department for clinical and radiological control, and three patients informed us by phone. All patients including the two treated under general anesthesia were fully recovered and had no problems doing their job and engaging in different sports. The radiological controls showed a good ossification without visible deformity of the clavicle. PMID:12219645

Wilfinger, C; Höllwarth, M

2002-07-01

141

Analysis of flexible structures under lateral impact  

SciTech Connect

Three methods for analysis of flexible structures under lateral impact are presented. The first proposed method (Method A) consists of: (1) modifying an available deceleration on a rigid target with conservation principles to account for structural flexibility; and (2) transient nonlinear analysis of the structure with the corrected forcing function. The second proposed method (Method B) is similar to Method A in obtaining the forcing function but it solves the equations of motion of an idealized two-degree-of-freedom system instead of directly using conservation principles. The last method simply provides the maximum force in the structure using the conservation of energy and linear momentum. A coupled simulation is also performed in LS-DYNA and compared against the proposed methods. A case study is presented to illustrate the applicability of all three methods and the LS-DYNA simulation. (authors)

Ramirez, D. F. [Paul C. Kizzo and Associates Inc., Seismic Structural Group, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States); Razavi, H. [AREVA Inc., Civil Seismic Group, San Jose, CA 95119 (United States)

2012-07-01

142

[Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis--diagnosis and treatment].  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) represents the most common motoneuron disorder in adulthood. It is characterized by selective degeneration of the motoneurons. About 10% of patients have a genetically determined ALS. Clinically, ALS is characterized by coexistence of signs of the first motoneuron, such as spasticity and hyperreflexia, as well as the second motoneuron, such as muscular atrophy and fasciculations. If such signs are present in at least three regions and if other possible causes have been excluded, a definite diagnosis of ALS can be made based on the revised El-Escorial criteria. Initial manifestations are often focalized and generalization develops during the course. The glutamate antagonist riluzole is worldwide the only approved ALS treatment. However, symptomatic treatments to ameliorate spasticity, drooling, speech and swallowing problems, and assisted ventilation to treat respiratory failure are essential. PMID:22763933

Jung, H H; Neumann, M; Bloch, K E

2012-07-01

143

Costa Rica's Chain of laterally collapsed volcanoes.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the NW extreme to the SW end of Costa Rica's volcanic backbone, a number of laterally collapsed volcanoes can be observed. Due to several factors, attention has been given to active volcanoes disregarding the importance of collapsed features in terms of assessing volcanic hazards for future generations around inhabited volcanoes. In several cases the typical horseshoe shape amphitheater-like depression can be easily observed. In other cases due to erosion, vegetation, topography, seismic activity or drastic weather such characteristics are not easily recognized. In the order mentioned above appear: Orosi-Cacao, Miravalles, Platanar, Congo, Von Frantzius, Cacho Negro and Turrialba volcanoes. Due to limited studies on these structures it is unknown if sector collapse occurred in one or several phases. Furthermore, in the few studied cases no evidence has been found to relate collapses to actual eruptive episodes. Detailed studies on the deposits and materials composing dome-like shapes will shed light on unsolved questions about petrological and chemical composition. Volume, form and distance traveled by deposits are part of the questions surrounding most of these collapsed volcanoes. Although most of these mentioned structures are extinct, at least Irazú volcano (active volcano) has faced partial lateral collapses recently. It did presented strombolian activity in the early 60s. Collapse scars show on the NW flank show important mass removal in historic and prehistoric times. Moreover, in 1994 a minor hydrothermal explosion provoked the weakening of a deeply altered wall that holds a crater lake (150m diameter, 2.6x106 ). A poster will depict images of the collapsed volcanoes named above with mayor descriptive characteristics. It will also focus on the importance of deeper studies to assess the collapse potential of Irazú volcano with related consequences. Finally, this initiative will invite researchers interested in such topic to join future studies in these Costarrican volcanoes.

Duarte, E.; Fernandez, E.

2007-05-01

144

Lateral interactions in the outer retina  

PubMed Central

Lateral interactions in the outer retina, particularly negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones and direct feed-forward input from horizontal cells to bipolar cells, play a number of important roles in early visual processing, such as generating center-surround receptive fields that enhance spatial discrimination. These circuits may also contribute to post-receptoral light adaptation and the generation of color opponency. In this review, we examine the contributions of horizontal cell feedback and feed-forward pathways to early visual processing. We begin by reviewing the properties of bipolar cell receptive fields, especially with respect to modulation of the bipolar receptive field surround by the ambient light level and to the contribution of horizontal cells to the surround. We then review evidence for and against three proposed mechanisms for negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones: 1) GABA release by horizontal cells, 2) ephaptic modulation of the cone pedicle membrane potential generated by currents flowing through hemigap junctions in horizontal cell dendrites, and 3) modulation of cone calcium currents (ICa) by changes in synaptic cleft proton levels. We also consider evidence for the presence of direct horizontal cell feed-forward input to bipolar cells and discuss a possible role for GABA at this synapse. We summarize proposed functions of horizontal cell feedback and feed-forward pathways. Finally, we examine the mechanisms and functions of two other forms of lateral interaction in the outer retina: negative feedback from horizontal cells to rods and positive feedback from horizontal cells to cones. PMID:22580106

Thoreson, Wallace B.; Mangel, Stuart C.

2012-01-01

145

Laterality and emotions: Visual laterality in the domestic horse ( Equus caballus) differs with objects' emotional value  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateralization of emotions has received great attention in the last decades, both in humans and animals, but little interest has been given to side bias in perceptual processing. Here, we investigated the influence of the emotional valence of stimuli on visual and olfactory explorations by horses, a large mammalian species with two large monocular visual fields and almost complete decussation

Alice De Boyer Des Roches; Marie-Annick Richard-Yris; Séverine Henry; Mohammed Ezzaouïa; Martine Hausberger

2008-01-01

146

Side of limb-onset predicts laterality of gray matter loss in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Conflicting findings have been reported regarding the lateralized brain abnormality in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this study, we aimed to investigate the probable lateralization of gray matter (GM) atrophy in ALS patients. We focused on the relationship between the asymmetry in decreased GM volume and the side of disease onset in patients with limb-onset. Structural imaging evaluation of normalized atrophy (SIENAX) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) were used to assess differences in global and local brain regions in patients with heterogeneous body onset and subgroups with different side of limb-onset. We found global brain atrophy and GM losses in the frontal and parietal areas in each patient group as well as left predominant GM losses in the total cohort. The intriguing findings in subgroup analyses demonstrated that the motor cortex in the contralateral hemisphere of the initially involved limb was most affected. We also found that regional brain atrophy was related to disease progression rate. Our observations suggested that side of limb-onset can predict laterality of GM loss in ALS patients and disease progression correlates with the extent of cortical abnormality. PMID:25093168

Zhang, Qiuli; Mao, Cuiping; Jin, Jiaoting; Niu, Chen; Bai, Lijun; Dang, Jingxia; Zhang, Ming

2014-01-01

147

Side of Limb-Onset Predicts Laterality of Gray Matter Loss in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Conflicting findings have been reported regarding the lateralized brain abnormality in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this study, we aimed to investigate the probable lateralization of gray matter (GM) atrophy in ALS patients. We focused on the relationship between the asymmetry in decreased GM volume and the side of disease onset in patients with limb-onset. Structural imaging evaluation of normalized atrophy (SIENAX) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) were used to assess differences in global and local brain regions in patients with heterogeneous body onset and subgroups with different side of limb-onset. We found global brain atrophy and GM losses in the frontal and parietal areas in each patient group as well as left predominant GM losses in the total cohort. The intriguing findings in subgroup analyses demonstrated that the motor cortex in the contralateral hemisphere of the initially involved limb was most affected. We also found that regional brain atrophy was related to disease progression rate. Our observations suggested that side of limb-onset can predict laterality of GM loss in ALS patients and disease progression correlates with the extent of cortical abnormality. PMID:25093168

Mao, Cuiping; Jin, Jiaoting; Niu, Chen; Dang, Jingxia

2014-01-01

148

Study Builds Case for Later High School Starting Time  

MedlinePLUS

... Study Builds Case for Later High School Starting Time Researchers followed kids, teens as they grew up ... a study that lends support to later start times in high schools. Researchers followed 94 children and ...

149

14 CFR 25.177 - Static lateral-directional stability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Static lateral-directional stability. 25.177 Section 25...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 25.177 Static lateral-directional stability. (a)-(b)...

2011-01-01

150

Motor Unit Firing Characteristics in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

E-print Network

Motor Unit Firing Characteristics in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patrick K. Kasi" 2 neuron dominant forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). EMG recordings were gathered during ALS patients with LMN- and UMN-dominant forms of ALS. Keywords- Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; motor

Clancy, Ted

151

Dynamic markers of altered gait rhythm in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

E-print Network

Dynamic markers of altered gait rhythm in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis JEFFREY M. HAUSDORFF,1 of altered gait rhythm in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Appl Physiol 88: 2045­ 2053, 2000.--Amyotrophic dynamics AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS (ALS) is a disorder primarily affecting the motoneurons

152

Platelet Serotonin Level Predicts Survival in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

E-print Network

Platelet Serotonin Level Predicts Survival in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Luc Dupuis1,2 *, Odile Abstract Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a life-threatening neurodegenerative disease) Platelet Serotonin Level Predicts Survival in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. PLoS ONE 5(10): e13346. doi:10

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

153

Lateralized eye use in Octopus vulgaris shows antisymmetrical distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioural lateralization has been demonstrated in many species of vertebrates, but there has been scarce evidence for it in invertebrates. We have previously documented lateral asymmetry of eye use in individual octopuses. In the present study we investigated lateralization at the population level. Octopus eyes are on the sides of the head, and these animals prefer monocular to binocular vision.

Ruth A. Byrne; Michael J. Kuba; Daniela V. Meisel

2004-01-01

154

Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

155

Spatially distributed lateral nitrate transport at the catchment scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

In river catchments, nitrogen transformation and storage processes during lateral transport are important in controlling nitrogen loads of surface waters. There is a lack of approaches which capture lateral flows and associated nitrogen transformation in a spatially distributed way. The aim of this paper is to develop a new conceptual nitrogen transport and transformation model which simulates the lateral nitrate

M. Rode; Uwe Franko; F. Hesser

2010-01-01

156

Differential bilingual laterality: mythical monster found in Wales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paradis (1992) likens studies of bilingual laterality to reported sightings of the Loch Ness Monster, in that although some studies claim differential laterality much conflicting research evidence does not—and like the mythical Scottish monster, what reason have we to suspect that any such phenomenon might exist? This study reexamines differential bilingual laterality using four groups of English–Welsh bilinguals which differ

Judith Evans; Lance Workman; Peter Mayer; Kevin Crowley

2002-01-01

157

Lateral Crack in Abrasive Wear of Brittle Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical model for lateral cracks occurring in abrasive wear of brittle materials was developed. The stress field around the lateral crack and the stress intensity factor at the crack tip were analytically modeled. The abrasive wear by abrasive particles was experimentally studied by sliding indentation. In soda-lime glass, it was observed that chipping by the lateral crack occurred and

Yoomin Ahn; Nahm-Gyoo Cho; Seoung-Hwan Lee; Dohyung Lee

2003-01-01

158

IQ, fetal testosterone and individual variability in children's functional lateralization.  

PubMed

Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies have revealed that faces and words show a robust difference in the lateralization of their N170. The present study investigated the development of this differential lateralization in school-age boys. We assessed the potential role of fetal testosterone (FT) level as a factor biasing the prenatal development of lateralization, and the role of reading skill and Verbal IQ as factors predicting left lateralization for words in childhood. The adult pattern of differential N170 lateralization for faces and words was not present in a group of 26 school-age boys. This suggests that N170 lateralization only appears with years of experience with these stimulus categories or with late childhood maturation. FT level measured by amniocentesis did not account for a significant part of the individual variability in lateralization. Verbal IQ correlated with the degree of left lateralization of the N170 to words, but this effect was not specific to language abilities and language lateralization. A strong correlation was observed between the degree of left lateralization for words and the degree of left lateralization for faces, and both lateralization scores correlated with Verbal and Performance IQ. Possible explanations for these results are discussed along with ERP correlates of words and faces in school-age boys. PMID:19422841

Mercure, Evelyne; Ashwin, Emma; Dick, Frederic; Halit, Hanife; Auyeung, Bonnie; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Johnson, Mark H

2009-10-01

159

Norepinephrine: Reversal of Anorexia in Rats with Lateral Hypothalamic Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injection of norepinephrine in the lateral ventricles of rats recovering from lateral hypothalamic anorexia caused immediate feeding and, frequently, overeating. Intraventricular administration of the alpha -noradrenergic blocker, phentolamine, suppressed feeding in both normal rats and rats that had recovered from lateral hypothalamic lesions. Feeding is reinforced by ascending medial forebrain bundle fibers that form alpha -noradrenergic synapses in the hypothalamus

Barry D. Berger; C. David Wise; Larry Stein

1971-01-01

160

Sex Differences in Cerebral Laterality of Language and Visuospatial Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sex differences on language and visuospatial tasks are of great interest, with differences in hemispheric laterality hypothesized to exist between males and females. Some functional imaging studies examining sex differences have shown that males are more left lateralized on language tasks and females are more right lateralized on visuospatial…

Clements, A. M.; Rimrodt, S. L.; Abel, J. R.; Blankner, J. G.; Mostofsky, S. H.; Pekar, J. J.; Denckla, M. B.; Cutting, L. E.

2006-01-01

161

Epidemiologic correlates of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

SciTech Connect

The authors evaluated 74 selected patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and 201 matched controls for risk factors for ALS by a case-control design and a sequential questionnaire/interview technique to quantitate biographic data. They analyzed occupational and recreational data only for 47 male patients and 47 corresponding patient controls; data for women were insufficient. They used nonparametric analyses to evaluate five primary comparisons of ALS patients with controls: (1) more hard physical labor, p not significant (NS); (2) greater frequency of neurodegenerative disease in family members, p NS; (3) greater exposure to lead, p less than 0.05; (4) more years lived in a rural community, p NS; and (5) more trauma or major surgery, p NS. Men with ALS had worked more frequently at blue-collar jobs (although not a statistically significant difference, p = 0.10) and at welding or soldering (p less than 0.01). These results suggest that there may be an association between ALS in men and exposure to lead vapor. The limited nature of the association favors a multifactorial etiologic mechanism of ALS.

Armon, C.; Kurland, L.T.; Daube, J.R.; O'Brien, P.C. (Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (USA))

1991-07-01

162

Early word recognition and later language skills.  

PubMed

Recent behavioral and electrophysiological evidence has highlighted the long-term importance for language skills of an early ability to recognize words in continuous speech. We here present further tests of this long-term link in the form of follow-up studies conducted with two (separate) groups of infants who had earlier participated in speech segmentation tasks. Each study extends prior follow-up tests: Study 1 by using a novel follow-up measure that taps into online processing, Study 2 by assessing language performance relationships over a longer time span than previously tested. Results of Study 1 show that brain correlates of speech segmentation ability at 10 months are positively related to 16-month-olds' target fixations in a looking-while-listening task. Results of Study 2 show that infant speech segmentation ability no longer directly predicts language profiles at the age of five. However, a meta-analysis across our results and those of similar studies (Study 3) reveals that age at follow-up does not moderate effect size. Together, the results suggest that infants' ability to recognize words in speech certainly benefits early vocabulary development; further observed relationships of later language skills to early word recognition may be consequent upon this vocabulary size effect. PMID:25347057

Junge, Caroline; Cutler, Anne

2014-01-01

163

"Neighborhoods and Disability in Later Life"  

PubMed Central

This paper uses the US Health and Retirement Study to explore linkages between neighborhood conditions and stages of the disablement process among adults ages 55 and older in the United States. We consider multiple dimensions of the neighborhood including the built environment as well as social and economic conditions. In doing so, we use factor analysis to reduce indicators into eight neighborhood scales, which we incorporate into two-level logistic regression models along with controls for individual-level factors. We find evidence that economic conditions and the built environment, but not social conditions, matter. Neighborhood economic advantage is associated with a reduced risk of lower body limitations for both men and women. We also find for men that neighborhood economic disadvantage is linked to increased chances of reporting personal care limitations, particularly for those ages 55–64, and that high connectivity of the built environment is associated with reduced risk of limitations in instrumental activities. Our findings highlight the distinctive benefits of neighborhood economic advantage early in the disablement process. In addition, findings underscore the need for attention in the design and evaluation of disability-prevention efforts to the benefits that accrue from more physically connected communities and to the potential harm that may arise in later life from living in economically disadvantaged areas. PMID:18329148

Freedman, Vicki A.; Grafova, Irina B; Schoeni, Robert F; Rogowski, Jeannette

2008-01-01

164

Aeroservoelastic tailoring for lateral control enhancement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for effective aileron power for aircraft lateral control and turning maneuvers dates back to the Wright Brothers and their wing warping concept for active stabilization of their aircraft. Early researchers in Great Britain, Japan, Germany and the United States explored ways to increase the effectiveness of control aileron to generate a roll moment. The basic problem of aileron effectiveness and the interrelationship between structural distortion and the loads applied by the control surface is illustrated. A rigid wing/aileron surface will develop the capability to generate increased roll rates as airspeed increases. A flexible surface will become less effective as airspeed increases because of the twisting distortion created by the aft-mounted control surface. This tendency is further worsened by bending distortion of an aft swept wing. This study focuses its attention on the ability of a combined effort between structural redesign of a wing and sizing and placement of a control surface to create specified roll performance with a minimum hinge moment. This design optimization problem indicates the advantages of simultaneous consideration of structural design and control design.

Weisshaar, Terrence A.; Changho, Nam

1989-01-01

165

Lateral occipitotemporal cortex and action representation.  

PubMed

Representation of body and body movements is essential for identifying others intentions or actions or for learning from them. Over the last 10 years, a large collection of research has demonstrated that body representations are distributed across a widely distributed brain network. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we focus on lateral occipitotemporal cortex (LOTC), a recently identified brain region that could represent the body in a multisensory and dynamic manner. We addressed the question of LOTC involvement in visual processing of others? actions through a factorial analysis that manipulated the meaning of an observed action, completed by a psychophysiological interaction analysis. The results show that only left LOTC was significantly activated in relation to others? actions meaning. In addition, only left LOTC was activated during both action observation and action production but it was more dorsal than the activation related to the meaning of observed actions. Furthermore, the psychophysiological interaction analysis showed that when watching meaningless actions, the more dorsal part of the LOTC (the area active during both action production and action observation) had higher functional connectivity with primary visual areas while the more ventral part (that responded to action meaning) had higher correlation with anterior cingulate and medioprefrontal cortices. Taken together these results plead in favour of a strong implication of left LOTC in action observation and understanding, with a possible functional specialisation between the more ventral and the more dorsal parts of LOTC. PMID:24467888

Romaiguère, Patricia; Nazarian, Bruno; Roth, Muriel; Anton, Jean-Luc; Felician, Olivier

2014-04-01

166

CSF markers in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, 'Lou Gehrig disease') is the most common, progressive, neurodegenerative, motor neuron disease, causing damage to upper and lower motor neurons, leading to paralysis and death within 3-5 years. Majority of ALS cases are sporadic ALS (SALS) and only 5-10 % of cases are familial ALS (FALS). Pathogenesis of ALS is complicated and still unclear, including genetic, glutamate excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, neurofilament accumulation, impaired trophic support, altered glial function, viral infection, immune imbalance and impairment of the blood-brain, blood-spinal cord and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers (BBB/BSCB/BCSFB). The CSF analysis is still one of the basic laboratory tools and might reflect pathophysiological alterations in the course of the disease and could provide an insight into disease pathomechanisms. The most important aim of its analysis is evaluation of blood-CSF barrier, which is altered in 46 % of ALS patients. The CSF biomarkers may give insight into ALS pathophysiology and may be useful for early, presymptomatic diagnosis, therapeutic monitoring and the development of new therapeutic strategies. This review summarizes the general concepts of biomarkers in CSF of ALS patients and their potential usefulness in further research. PMID:22555610

Tarasiuk, Joanna; Ku?akowska, Alina; Drozdowski, Wies?aw; Kornhuber, Johannes; Lewczuk, Piotr

2012-07-01

167

Nutrition management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurological disease with high risk of malnutrition. Symptoms of dysphagia, depression, cognitive impairment, difficulty with self-feeding and meal preparation, hypermetabolism, anxiety, respiratory insufficiency, and fatigue with meals increase the risk of malnutrition. Malnutrition negatively affects prognosis and quality of life, making early and frequent nutrition assessment and intervention essential. Implementation of an adequate calorie diet, dietary texture modification, use of adaptive eating utensils, and placement of a feeding tube aid in preventing malnutrition. When nutrition status is compromised by dysphagia and weight loss (5%-10% of usual body weight) or body mass index <20 kg/m(2) without weight loss and when forced vital capacity is >50%, a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy placement is indicated. When forced vital capacity is <50%, a radiologically inserted gastrostomy is the preferred means of enteral placement due to lessened aspiration and respiratory risk. Parenteral nutrition (PN) is indicated only when enteral nutrition (EN) is contraindicated or impossible. This article reviews the background of ALS, nutrition implications and risk of malnutrition, treatment strategies to prevent malnutrition, the role of EN and PN, and feeding tube placement methods according to disease stage. PMID:23466470

Greenwood, Daniel I

2013-06-01

168

Post-transplant adjustment - The later years.  

PubMed

As survival rates for pediatric solid organ transplantation have continued to improve, researchers and healthcare providers have increasingly focused on understanding and enhancing the HRQOL and psychosocial functioning of their patients. This manuscript reviews the psychosocial functioning of pediatric transplant recipients during the "later years," defined as more than three yr post-transplant, and focuses on the day-to-day impact of living with a transplant after the immediate period of adjustment and early years after surgery. Key topics reviewed include HRQOL, cognitive functioning, impact on the family, regimen adherence, and transition of responsibility for self-management tasks. Overall, pediatric transplant recipients evidence impairment in HRQOL, neuropsychological outcomes, and family functioning as compared to non-transplant recipients. However, the degree of impairment is influenced by a variety of factors including, disease severity, age, solid organ type, and study methodologies. Studies are limited by small samples, cross-sectional design, and the lack of universal assessment battery to allow for comparisons across solid organ populations. Areas for future research are discussed. PMID:25220845

Fredericks, Emily M; Zelikovsky, Nataliya; Aujoulat, Isabelle; Hames, Anna; Wray, Jo

2014-11-01

169

Bioenergetic markers in skin fibroblasts of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and progressive lateral sclerosis patients.  

PubMed

Energy metabolism could influence amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and progressive lateral sclerosis (PLS) pathogenesis and the response to therapy. We developed a novel assay to simultaneously assess mitochondrial content and membrane potential in patients' skin fibroblasts. In ALS and PLS fibroblasts, membrane potential was increased and mitochondrial content decreased, relative to healthy controls. In ALS higher mitochondrial membrane potential correlated with age at diagnosis, and in PLS it correlated with disease severity. These unprecedented findings in ALS and PLS fibroblasts could shed new light onto disease pathogenesis and help in developing biomarkers to predict disease evolution and the individual response to therapy in motor neuron diseases. Ann Neurol 2014;76:620-624. PMID:25090982

Kirk, Kathryne; Gennings, Chris; Hupf, Jonathan C; Tadesse, Saba; D'Aurelio, Marilena; Kawamata, Hibiki; Valsecchi, Federica; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Manfredi, Giovanni

2014-10-01

170

Laterality influences cognitive performance in rainbowfish Melanotaenia duboulayi.  

PubMed

Cerebral lateralization has been suggested to convey a selective advantage to individuals by enhancing their cognitive abilities. Few, however, have explicitly compared the cognitive ability of animals with strongly contrasting laterality. Here, we examined the influence of laterality on learning performance in the crimson spotted rainbowfish, Melanotaenia duboulayi, using a classical conditioning paradigm. We also compared the learning ability of wild caught and captive-reared fish to examine the influence of rearing environment on cognitive performance. Laterality was established by observing which eye fish preferred to use while viewing their mirror image. Subjects were then conditioned to associate the appearance of a red light with a food reward over 7 days. Our results revealed that left-lateralized fish learned the conditioning task faster than right-lateralized. These results provide further evidence that cerebral lateralization can play important roles in cognitive function which likely have diverse fitness consequences for animals in their natural environments. PMID:24531906

Bibost, Anne-Laurence; Brown, Culum

2014-09-01

171

Differential lateralization for words and faces: category or psychophysics?  

PubMed

This set of three experiments assessed the influence of different psychophysical factors on the lateralization of the N170 event-related potential (ERP) component to words and faces. In all experiments, words elicited a left-lateralized N170, whereas faces elicited a right-lateralized or nonlateralized N170 depending on presentation conditions. Experiment 1 showed that lateralization for words (but not for faces) was influenced by spatial frequency. Experiment 2 showed that stimulus presentation time influenced N170 lateralization independently of spatial frequency composition. Finally, Experiment 3 showed that stimulus size and resolution did not influence N170 lateralization, but did influence N170 amplitude, albeit differentially for words and faces. These findings suggest that differential lateralization for words and faces, at least as measured by the N170, is influenced by spatial frequency (words), stimulus presentation time, and category. PMID:18416685

Mercure, Evelyne; Dick, Frederic; Halit, Hanife; Kaufman, Jordy; Johnson, Mark H

2008-11-01

172

Measurement repeatability of late lateral energy level and lateral energy fraction.  

PubMed

Late lateral energy level (GLL) and lateral energy fraction (LF) are two room acoustics measures that have been shown to correlate with certain aspects of spatial impression in concert halls. The purpose of this study was to investigate the repeatability of GLL and LF measurements. A custom microphone stand was built that can be adjusted in each spatial dimension separately to allow for accurate and precise microphone placement. Room impulse responses (IRs) were measured at six receiver locations in a 2500-seat auditorium using two different methods to obtain the lateral energy IR: the beamformed dipole response from a spherical microphone array, and a studio-grade figure-of-eight microphone. Three sets of IR measurements were taken at each receiver location. In between sets, the microphone stand was removed and the various adjustment points were randomly repositioned. The stand was then replaced in the same position to re-measure the IRs. The variability between the measurements at each receiver location was found to be relatively low for GLL (the standard deviation ranged between 0.22 and 0.73 JNDs for the 125-1000 Hz sum), and higher for LF (the standard deviation ranged between 0.49 and 2.80 JNDs for the average over the 125-1000 Hz octave bands). [Work supported by NSF Grant 1302741.]. PMID:25235370

Dick, David A; Vigeant, Michelle C

2014-04-01

173

Functional heterogeneity of macaque lateral intraparietal neurons.  

PubMed

The macaque lateral intraparietal area (LIP) has been implicated in many cognitive processes, ranging from saccade planning and spatial attention to timing and categorization. Importantly, different research groups have used different criteria for including LIP neurons in their studies. While some research groups have selected LIP neurons based on the presence of memory-delay activity, other research groups have used other criteria such as visual, presaccadic, and/or memory activity. We recorded from LIP neurons that were selected based on spatially selective saccadic activity but regardless of memory-delay activity in macaque monkeys. To test anticipatory climbing activity, we used a delayed visually guided saccade task with a unimodal schedule of go-times, for which the conditional probability that the go-signal will occur rises monotonically as a function of time. A subpopulation of LIP neurons showed anticipatory activity that mimicked the subjective hazard rate of the go-signal when the animal was planning a saccade toward the receptive field. A large subgroup of LIP neurons, however, did not modulate their firing rates according to the subjective hazard function. These non-anticipatory neurons were strongly influenced by salient visual stimuli appearing in their receptive field, but less so by the direction of the impending saccade. Thus, LIP contains a heterogeneous population of neurons related to saccade planning or visual salience, and these neurons are spatially intermixed. Our results suggest that between-study differences in neuronal selection may have contributed significantly to the findings of different research groups with respect to the functional role of area LIP. PMID:21865473

Premereur, Elsie; Vanduffel, Wim; Janssen, Peter

2011-08-24

174

Lateral Shock of the R Aquarii Jet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The R Aqr jet was observed with the VLA B-configuration at two epochs separated by approximately 13.2 yr. Comparison of the resulting 6 cm continuum images show that the radio jet has undergone a lateral counterclockwise rotation of approximately 6 deg-12 deg on the plane of the sky. The model of jet parcels on independent trajectories is difficult to reconcile with these observations and leads us to consider a path-oriented jet (i.e., younger parcels follow the same path as older parcels). Comparison of the most recent radio image with a nearly contemporaneous HST/FOC ultraviolet image at approximately 2330 Angstroms suggests that the ultraviolet emission lies along the leading side of the rotating radio jet. In conjunction with a proper motion analysis of the jet material that yields empirical space-velocity and resulting acceleration-magnitude relationships as a function of distance from the central source, we evaluate the observational results in terms of a schematic model in which the jet emission consists of plane-parallel isothermal shocks along the leading edge of rotation. In such a radiating shock, the ultraviolet-emitting region is consistent with the adiabatic region in the form of a high-temperature, low-density sheath that surrounds the cooled postshock radio-emitting region. Within the context of the schematic model, we obtain the temperatures, densities, and pressures within the preshock, adiabatic, and postshock regions as a function of distance from the central source; the physical parameters so derived compare favorably to previously published estimates. We obtain a total jet mass of 3.1 x 10(exp -5) solar mass and an age of approximately 115 yr. We evaluate the model in the context of its density-boundary condition, its applicability to an episodic or quasi-continuous jet, and angular momentum considerations.

Hollis, J. M.; Pedelty, J. A.; Kafatos, M.

1997-01-01

175

Observatrios Virtuais -Atividade: Crateras Lunares Medindo as Dimenses de Crateras Lunares  

E-print Network

Observatórios Virtuais - Atividade: Crateras Lunares 1 Medindo as Dimensões de Crateras Lunares, direcionada ao ensino fundamental, vamos aprender um pouco a respeito da superfície lunar. Vamos aprender robótico do projeto Observatórios Virtuais. Superfície Lunar (imagem feita do espaço) Introdução: A Lua

176

Captura de satélites durante a formação de Júpiter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O planeta Jupiter apresenta um grande número de satélites irregulares. As características das órbitas destes objetos indicam que os mesmos não teriam se formado ao redor do planeta que se encontram. As teorias existentes são de que estes objetos teriam se formado em uma região distante do planeta e sua evolução dinâmica os teria levado a uma captura gravitacional pelo planeta. Tendo em vista que o processo de captura gravitacional sem efeitos dissipativos não produz uma captura permanente, estudamos o processo de captura durante o estágio de formação do planeta. Realizamos simulações numéricas para os casos de satélites prógrados e retrógrados que inicialmente se encontram ao redor de Jupiter com sua massa atual e então, evoluimos a integração voltando no tempo de modo que o planeta sofra uma redução em sua massa (de 100% para 10% de sua massa atual) e verificamos o instante em que o satélites escapa do planeta (quando sua energia do problema de dois corpos se torna positiva). Assim, analisando o problema inverso no tempo, obtivemos em qual estágio de formação de Jupiter aquele hipotético satélite teria sido capturado. Os resultados mostram que os satélites retrógrados são capturados assim que entram na região delimitada pela esfera de Hill do planeta, enquanto que os satélites prógrados só são capturados quando entram numa região bem mais próxima ao planeta, uma fração da esfera de Hill.

Winter, O. C.; Vieira Neto, E.; Yokoyama, T.

2003-08-01

177

Landing adaptations following isolated lateral meniscectomy in athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Objective functional outcomes following isolated radial lateral meniscus tears in the athlete between the ages of 14–25 are\\u000a not clearly defined. The objective of this study was to determine whether patients following lateral meniscectomy demonstrate\\u000a lower extremity asymmetries relative to control athletes 3 months after surgery. We hypothesized that following lateral meniscectomy,\\u000a athletes aged 14–25 years old would demonstrate altered landing biomechanics

Kevin R. FordStephen; Stephen J. Minning; Gregory D. Myer; Robert E. Mangine; Angelo J. Colosimo; Timothy E. Hewett

178

Modified obtuse-angled lateral exposure of the calcaneum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this study is to compare the incidence of post-operative skin healing problems between the classic extensile lateral calcaneal approach and a modified obtuse-angle lateral exposure during the period 1994–2003.Methods: The classic extensile lateral calcaneal approach as described in the literature was (used in 55 cases of calcaneal fractures), while the obtuse-angled approach (used in other 39

Tarek Hussain; Husain Al-Mutairi; Sabrine Al-Zamel; Waleed Al-Tunaib

2004-01-01

179

2. COURSE OF THE LATERAL THROUGH DEL NORTHWEST MAR PARK. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. COURSE OF THE LATERAL THROUGH DEL NORTHWEST MAR PARK. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

180

Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Former Addison County Railroad (later, Rutland Railroad, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Former Addison County Railroad (later, Rutland Railroad, Addison Branch), spanning Lemon Fair River above Richville Pond, west of East Shoreham Road, Shoreham, Addison County, VT

181

Neuromuscular Ultrasound for the Evaluation of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.  

E-print Network

??Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that causes progressive loss of motor neurons, which results in weakness, respiratory compromise, and typically death within… (more)

Cartwright, Michael Stephen

2012-01-01

182

Lateral Crack in Abrasive Wear of Brittle Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytical model for lateral cracks occurring in abrasive wear of brittle materials was developed. The stress field around the lateral crack and the stress intensity factor at the crack tip were analytically modeled. The abrasive wear by abrasive particles was experimentally studied by sliding indentation. In soda-lime glass, it was observed that chipping by the lateral crack occurred and produced the greatest material removal when the normal load applied by the sliding indenter was about 1.5-2.0N. Prediction of length of the lateral crack from the model was compared with the experimentally measured length in the soda-lime glass.

Ahn, Yoomin; Cho, Nahm-Gyoo; Lee, Seoung-Hwan; Lee, Dohyung

183

Anterior lateral meniscofemoral ligament with congenital absence of the ACL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To describe agenesis of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) with an anterior lateral meniscofemoral ligament.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and results  Case report of a 13-year-old girl with an absent ACL and with an anterior lateral meniscofemoral ligament instead, as well\\u000a as absence of the anterior insertion of the lateral meniscus in the tibia and a discoid ring-like lateral meniscus, with hypoplasia\\u000a of the

Alcindo SilvaRicardo Sampaio; Ricardo Sampaio

2011-01-01

184

Gene for a protein capable of enhancing lateral root formation.  

PubMed

Analysis of genes preferentially expressed in hairy roots caused by infection with Agrobacterium rhizogenes has provided insights into the regulation of lateral root formation. A hairy root preferential cDNA, HR7, has been cloned from hairy roots of Hyoscyamus niger. HR7 encodes a novel protein partially homologous to a metallocarboxypeptidase inhibitor and is expressed exclusively in the primordium and base of lateral roots in hairy roots. Overexpression of HR7 in transgenic roots of H. niger dramatically enhances the frequency of lateral root formation. The results of this study indicate that expression of HR7 plays a critical role in initiating lateral root formation. PMID:10356981

Mikami, Y; Horiike, G; Kuroyanagi, M; Noguchi, H; Shimizu, M; Niwa, Y; Kobayashi, H

1999-05-14

185

FILM OPTION CURRICULUM (FOR STUDENTS ENTERING FALL, 2011 OR LATER)  

E-print Network

FILM OPTION CURRICULUM (FOR STUDENTS ENTERING FALL, 2011 OR LATER) NOTE ON REVERSE. GATE REQUIREMENTS FOR FILM OPTION: FILM 100IH ­ Introduction to Film & Photography ...................................................................... 3

Lawrence, Rick L.

186

Lateral Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction Using a Quadriceps Tendon Graft  

PubMed Central

Medial patellar subluxation (MPS) is normally described after a lateral retinacular release. However, isolated MPS in the absence of a previous lateral release does occur. This type of patellar instability is often overlooked, and a high index of suspicion is needed for appropriate diagnosis and treatment. This report describes a technique developed in response to episodes of isolated MPS. The technique uses a partial-thickness graft from the quadriceps tendon to reconstruct the lateral patellofemoral ligament and provide stability to the lateral side of the patella.

Saper, Michael G.; Shneider, David A.

2014-01-01

187

Lateral pedicle control during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: Refined technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo report a technique of lateral pedicle control during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy that completely eliminates any form of electrocautery, ultrasonic thermal energy, clips, or bioadhesives.

Inderbir S. Gill; Osamu Ukimura; Mauricio Rubinstein; Antonio Finelli; Alireza Moinzadeh; Dinesh Singh; Jihad Kaouk; Tsuneharu Miki; Mihir Desai

2005-01-01

188

Laterality of a second player position affects lateral deviation of basketball shooting.  

PubMed

Asymmetrically placed visual distractors are known to cause a lateral bias in the execution of a movement directed toward a target. The aim of the present experiment was to verify if the trajectory of the ball and the trajectory of the jump for a basket-shot can be affected by the sole position of a second player, who stays in front of the shooting player in one of three possible positions (centre, left or right) but too far to physically interfere with the shot. Young basketball players were asked to perform 60 shots at 6.25 m from a regular basket, with or without a second player staying in front of them in, alternately, a centre, left or right position. A computerised system measured the angular deviation of the jump direction from the vertical direction and the lateral deviation of the ball trajectory from the midline. The results showed that both the jump direction and the entry position of the ball deviated toward the opposite side from the second player's side; however, these effects were too small to significantly affect the mean goal percentage. This result confirms that some placements of the players can have an effect as visual distractors. Further studies are necessary to find what game conditions can make such distractors harmful for the athletic performance. PMID:23876006

Viggiano, Andrea; Chieffi, Sergio; Tafuri, Domenico; Messina, Giovanni; Monda, Marcellino; De Luca, Bruno

2014-01-01

189

El anteproyecto de flota de 1938 y la no beligerancia española durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial  

Microsoft Academic Search

El debate sobre la política exterior española durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial continúa abierto, siendo aún discutidas las intenciones reales del gobierno español durante dicho conflicto. Una de las cuestiones menos estudiadas, aunque no por ello menos importante, ha sido la de la planificación militar española con respecto a los beligerantes. En este artículo se analiza el anteproyecto naval redactado

Juan José Díaz Benítez

2003-01-01

190

Structural imaging differences and longitudinal changes in primary lateral sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance imaging measures have been proposed as objective markers to study upper motor neuron loss in motor neuron disorders. Cross-sectional studies have identified imaging differences between groups of healthy controls and patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) that correlate with disease severity, but it is not known whether imaging measures change as disease progresses. Additionally, whether imaging measures change in a similar fashion with disease progression in PLS and ALS is unclear. To address these questions, clinical and imaging evaluations were first carried out in a prospective cross-sectional study of 23 ALS and 22 PLS patients with similar motor impairment and 19 age-matched healthy controls. Clinical evaluations consisted of a neurological examination, the ALS Functional rating scale-revised, and measures of finger tapping, gait, and timed speech. Age and ALSFRS score were not different, but PLS patients had longer duration of symptoms. Imaging measures examined were cortical thickness, regional brain volumes, and diffusion tensor imaging of the corticospinal tract and callosum. Imaging measures that differed from controls in a cross-sectional vertex-wise analysis were used as regions of interest for longitudinal analysis, which was carried out in 9 of the ALS patients (interval 1.26 ± 0.72 years) and 12 PLS patients (interval 2.08 ± 0.93 years). In the cross-sectional study both groups had areas of cortical thinning, which was more extensive in motor regions in PLS patients. At follow-up, clinical measures declined more in ALS than PLS patients. Cortical thinning and grey matter volume loss of the precentral gyri progressed over the follow-up interval. Fractional anisotropy of the corticospinal tracts remained stable, but the cross-sectional area declined in ALS patients. Changes in clinical measures correlated with changes in precentral cortical thickness and grey matter volume. The rate of cortical thinning was greater in ALS patients with shorter disease durations, suggesting that thickness decreases in a non-linear fashion. Thus, cortical thickness changes are a potential imaging marker for disease progression in individual patients, but the magnitude of change likely depends on disease duration and progression rate. Differences between PLS and ALS patients in the magnitude of thinning in cross-sectional studies are likely to reflect longer disease duration. We conclude that there is an evolution of structural imaging changes with disease progression in motor neuron disorders. Some changes, such as diffusion properties of the corticospinal tract, occur early while cortical thinning and volume loss occur later. PMID:24179768

Kwan, Justin Y.; Meoded, Avner; Danielian, Laura E.; Wu, Tianxia; Floeter, Mary Kay

2012-01-01

191

Lateralization of magnetic compass orientation in a migratory bird  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateralization of brain functions, once believed to be a human characteristic, has now been found to be widespread among vertebrates. In birds, asymmetries of visual functions are well studied, with each hemisphere being specialized for different tasks. Here we report lateralized functions of the birds' visual system associated with magnetoperception, resulting in an extreme asymmetry of sensing the direction of

Wolfgang Wiltschko; Joachim Traudt; Onur Güntürkün; Helmut Prior; Roswitha Wiltschko

2002-01-01

192

High Performance Lateral Schottky Collector Bipolar Transistors on SOI  

E-print Network

High Performance Lateral Schottky Collector Bipolar Transistors on SOI for VLSI Applications that the thesis entitled "High Performance Lateral Schottky Collector Bipolar Transistors on SOI for VLSI bipolar transistors play a vital role in RF/Microwave applications. But they need to satisfy stringent

Kumar, M. Jagadesh

193

Semiconductor Lateral Surface Superlattice Devices Fabricated by Electron Beam Lithography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of nanofabrication technology has led to the fabrication of ultra-small semiconductor devices and structures with lateral dimensions down to tens of nanometers. In this dissertation research, experimental studies on a more complicated nanostructure, the semiconductor lateral surface superlattice (LSSL), in which novel quantum interference effects are observable due to the small feature sizes of the device, have been

Jun Ma

1990-01-01

194

GaAs MESFET with lateral non-uniform doping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical model of the GaAs MESFET with arbitrary non-uniform doping is presented. Numerical results for linear lateral doping profile are given as a special case. Theoretical considerations predict that better device linearity and improved F(T) can be obtained by using linear lateral doping when doping density increases from source to drain.

Wang, Y. C.; Bahrami, M.

1983-01-01

195

Non-spatially lateralized mechanisms in hemispatial neglect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemispatial neglect is a common, disabling disorder that results from brain damage, most frequently stroke. Research on patients with neglect has provided important insights into normal brain mechanisms involved in directing attention, representing space and controlling movement. Although much work has focused on the lateralized components of neglect, recent investigations have also revealed deficits that are not spatially lateralized, consistent

Masud Husain; Chris Rorden

2003-01-01

196

CEE 812 Structural Engineering Seminar Series Approximate Lateral Analysis  

E-print Network

of analysis and design of steel moment frame structures under lateral load and defining a quick analysisCEE 812 ­ Structural Engineering Seminar Series Approximate Lateral Analysis of Steel Moment analysis also will be compared with results from a RISA model of a moment frame system. BIO: John Mc

Kamat, Vineet R.

197

Lateral asymmetry of eye use in Octopus vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lateralization of sensory and motor functions has been recently demonstrated in various groups of vertebrates. We examined lateral asymmetry of eye use in Octopus vulgaris by behavioural methods. Octopus vulgaris uses monocular vision almost exclusively and can move its eyes independently. The amount of binocular vision is small because the eyes are on the sides of the head. We

Ruth A. Byrne; Michael Kuba; Ulrike Griebel

2002-01-01

198

Sensory systems in sawfishes. 2. The lateral line.  

PubMed

The lateral line system allows elasmobranchs to detect hydrodynamic movements in their close surroundings. We examined the distribution of pit organs and lateral line canals in 4 species of sawfish (Anoxypristis cuspidata, Pristis microdon, P. clavata and P. zijsron). Pit organs could only be located in A. cuspidata, which possesses elongated pits that are lined by dermal denticles. In all 4 pristid species, the lateral line canals are well developed and were separated into regions of pored and non-pored canals. In all species the tubules that extend from pored canals form extensive networks. In A. cuspidata, P. microdon and P. clavata, the lateral line canals on both the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the rostrum possess extensively branched and pored tubules. Based on this morphological observation, we hypothesized that these 3 species do not use their rostrum to search in the substrate for prey as previously assumed. Other batoids that possess lateral line canals adapted to perceive stimuli produced by infaunal prey possess non-pored lateral line canals, which also prevent the intrusion of substrate particles. However, this hypothesis remains to be tested behaviourally in pristids. Lateral line canals located between the mouth and the nostrils are non-pored in all 4 species of sawfish. Thus this region is hypothesized to perceive stimuli caused by direct contact with prey before ingestion. Lateral line canals that contain neuromasts are longest in P. microdon, but canals containing neuromasts along the rostrum are longest in A. cuspidata. PMID:21829005

Wueringer, B E; Peverell, S C; Seymour, J; Squire, L; Collin, S P

2011-01-01

199

1 INTRODUCTION Lateral spreading of sloping liquefiable deposits has  

E-print Network

to settlement, e.g. deformation of dams or embankments. - Damage due to lateral movement of soil past foundations or pipelines. In this paper, the second mechanism of damage will be discussed with specific reference to lateral spreading past pile foundations. To illustrate the damage that may be caused to pile

Haigh, Stuart

200

Geschwind's Theory of Cerebral Lateralization: Developing a Formal, Causal Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geschwind and Galaburda (1987) have proposed a complex and influential model of cerebral lateralization that is based on the argument that increased fetal testosterone levels modify neural development, immune development, and neural crest development. The theory can explain many aspects of cerebral lateralization and its relation to learning disorders, giftedness, and immune deficits. This article clarifies the structure of the

I. C. McManus; M. P. Bryden

1991-01-01

201

Modelling vertical and lateral seed bank movements during mouldboard ploughing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vertical distribution of weed seeds in the soil is of fundamental importance because seedling emergence depends on seed depth. The lateral displacement of the earth during mouldboard ploughing contributes to the dispersal of the weeds inside the tilled field. In order to model vertical and lateral seed displacements during ploughing, an existing model describing soil particle movements for different

Nathalie Colbach; Jean Roger-Estrade; Bruno Chauvel; Jacques Caneill

2000-01-01

202

Development of lateral flow membranes for immunoassay separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lateral flow nitrocellulose membrane is one of the commonly used separation media for bacteria detection in drinking water treatment facilities. In order to enhance its performance, control of the membrane surface and cross-section morphology is primarily important. The challenge of this study is to combine various formulations and casting variables to obtain lateral flow nitrocellulose membranes with the desired

A. L. Ahmad; S. C. Low; S. R. Abd Shukor; A. Ismail; A. R. Sunarti

2009-01-01

203

Race and Gender Differences in Cognitive Laterality: Implications for Leadership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Replicating research completed in 1986, a study determined the relationship among cognitive laterality, gender, and reading comprehension for African-American students, as well as gender differences in cognitive laterality and in reading comprehension. Subjects, 40 African-American males, 41 African-American females, 12 White males, and 17 White…

Wesson, Linda Hampton; Holman, David

204

Lateral crystallization of silicon films using Joule heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report lateral crystalline grain growth of silicon thin films by a combination of the crystallization by the electrical current induced Joule heating method with rapid substrate heating. A Cr strip was heated by electrical current induced joule heating. Due to heat diffusion from the Cr heater, a temperature gradient was formed in the lateral direction of the silicon films.

Nobuyuki Andoh; Toshiyuki Sameshima

2003-01-01

205

SHORT COMMUNICATION Adaptive eukaryote-to-eukaryote lateral gene transfer  

E-print Network

: endosymbiotic gene transfer (EGT) and lateral or horizontal gene transfer (LGT or HGT). The transfer of genesSHORT COMMUNICATION Adaptive eukaryote-to-eukaryote lateral gene transfer: stress-related genes, gene duplication and recombination, the transfer of genetic material between unrelated species is now

Nedelcu, Aurora M.

206

The Criminal Histories and Later Offending of Child Pornography Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The likelihood that child pornography offenders will later commit a contact sexual offense is unknown. In the present study, we identified a sample of 201 adult male child pornography offenders using police databases and examined their charges or convictions after the index child pornography offense(s). We also examined their criminal records to identify potential predictors of later offenses: 56% of

Michael C. Seto; Angela W. Eke

2005-01-01

207

ARTIFICIAL LATERAL LINE SYSTEMS FOR FEEDBACK CONTROL OF UNDERWATER ROBOTS  

E-print Network

and vehicles by exploiting the inherent sensing capability of ionic polymermetal composites (IPMCs). Analogous to its biological counterpart, the IPMC-based lateral line processes #12;the sensor signals through algorithms with an artificial lateral line prototype made of millimeter-scale IPMC sensors, with sensor

Tan, Xiaobo

208

Orienting asymmetries and lateralized processing of sounds in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Lateralized processing of speech is a well studied phenomenon in humans. Both anatomical and neurophysiological studies support the view that nonhuman primates and other animal species also reveal hemispheric differences in areas involved in sound processing. In recent years, an increasing number of studies on a range of taxa have employed an orienting paradigm to investigate lateralized acoustic processing.

Julia Fischer; Christoph Teufel; Matthis Drolet; Annika Patzelt; Rudolf Rübsamen; D Yves von Cramon; Ricarda I Schubotz

2009-01-01

209

Otitis Media in Early Childhood and Later Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between early otitis media with effusion (OME) and later language development was examined in a prospective cohort of 30 children from middle class families and 33 children from low income families. Findings suggested no reliable relationship between early OME experience and later language development. (Author/DB)

Roberts, Joanne E.; And Others

1991-01-01

210

IQ, Fetal Testosterone and Individual Variability in Children's Functional Lateralization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies have revealed that faces and words show a robust difference in the lateralization of their N170. The present study investigated the development of this differential lateralization in school-age boys. We assessed the potential role of fetal testosterone (FT) level as a factor biasing the prenatal…

Mercure, Evelyne; Ashwin, Emma; Dick, Frederic; Halit, Hanife; Auyeung, Bonnie; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Johnson, Mark H.

2009-01-01

211

The development of lateral line placodes: taking a broader view.  

PubMed

The lateral line system of anamniote vertebrates enables the detection of local water movement and weak bioelectric fields. Ancestrally, it comprises neuromasts - small sense organs containing mechanosensory hair cells - distributed in characteristic lines over the head and trunk, flanked on the head by fields of electroreceptive ampullary organs, innervated by afferent neurons projecting respectively to the medial and dorsal octavolateral nuclei in the hindbrain. Given the independent loss of the electrosensory system in multiple lineages, the development and evolution of the mechanosensory and electrosensory components of the lateral line must be dissociable. Nevertheless, the entire system arises from a series of cranial lateral line placodes, which exhibit two modes of sensory organ formation: elongation to form sensory ridges that fragment (with neuromasts differentiating in the center of the ridge, and ampullary organs on the flanks), or migration as collectives of cells, depositing sense organs in their wake. Intensive study of the migrating posterior lateral line placode in zebrafish has yielded a wealth of information concerning the molecular control of migration and neuromast formation in this migrating placode, in this cypriniform teleost species. However, our mechanistic understanding of neuromast and ampullary organ formation by elongating lateral line placodes, and even of other zebrafish lateral line placodes, is sparse or non-existent. Here, we attempt to highlight the diversity of lateral line development and the limits of the current research focus on the zebrafish posterior lateral line placode. We hope this will stimulate a broader approach to this fascinating sensory system. PMID:24582732

Piotrowski, Tatjana; Baker, Clare V H

2014-05-01

212

Early teaching of Chinese literacy skills and later literacy outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study followed 88 children in Beijing and Hong Kong for three years to investigate the relationships between the early teaching of literacy skills and later literacy outcomes. The children were administered the Preschool and Primary Chinese Literacy Scale at the age of five years, and three years later. Their parents and teachers reported on their involvement in literacy teaching,

Hui Li; Loraine F. Corrie; Betty Kit Mei Wong

2008-01-01

213

Left-Handedness and Language Lateralization in Children  

PubMed Central

This fMRI study investigated the development of language lateralization in left- and right-handed children between 5 and 18 years of age. Twenty-seven left-handed children (17 boys, 10 girls) and 54 age- and gender-matched right-handed children were included. We used functional MRI at 3T and a verb generation task to measure hemispheric language dominance based on either frontal or temporo-parietal regions of interest (ROIs) defined for the entire group and applied on an individual basis. Based on the frontal ROI, in the left-handed group, 23 participants (85%) demonstrated left-hemispheric language lateralization, 3 (11%) demonstrated symmetric activation, and 1 (4%) demonstrated right-hemispheric lateralization. In contrast, 50 (93%) of the right-handed children showed left-hemisphere lateralization and 3 (6%) demonstrated a symmetric activation pattern, while one (2%) demonstrated a right- hemisphere lateralization. The corresponding values for the temporo-parietal ROI for the left-handed children were 18 (67%) left-dominant, 6 (22%) symmetric, 3 (11%) right-dominant and for the right-handed children 49 (91%), 4 (7%), 1 (2%). Left-hemispheric language lateralization increased with age in both groups but somewhat different lateralization trajectories were observed in girls when compared to boys. The incidence of atypical language lateralization in left-handed children in this study was similar to that reported in adults. We also found similar rates of increase in left-hemispheric language lateralization with age between groups (i.e., independent of handedness) indicating the presence of similar mechanisms for language lateralization in left- and right-handed children. PMID:22177775

Szaflarski, Jerzy P.; Rajagopal, Akila; Altaye, Mekibib; Byars, Anna W.; Jacola, Lisa; Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Schapiro, Mark B.; Plante, Elena; Holland, Scott K.

2011-01-01

214

Lateralized agonistic responses and hindlimb use in toads.  

PubMed

The recent discovery of forepaw preferences (handedness) in toad species has provided some insight into the evolution of brain lateralization. We tested the prediction that, as in higher vertebrates, visual lateralization and other motor preferences (footedness) also exists in toad species. During feeding periods, South American cane toads, Bufo marinus, showed a population bias to strike with the tongue at other toads occupying their left visual field. This is the first demonstration of lateralized visual behaviour in an amphibian species. Tongue striking at an individual's eyes or head may sometimes delay its approach to prey already seen by the attacker, or may dislodge prey from its mouth. In addition, we report hindlimb preferences (footedness) for contact righting in three species of toad (B. marinus, the European green toad, B. viridis, and the European common toad, B. bufo). After being fully overturned on to their back on a horizontal surface, toads initiated and completed righting using the hindlimbs and with only perfunctory use of the forepaws. Together, the findings of visual lateralization and footedness demonstrate that in toads, as in higher vertebrates, behavioural lateralization is not restricted to handedness. The hypothesis that lateralized brain functions in birds and mammals might have arisen from a common lateralized ancestor is therefore supported. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9790698

Robins; Lippolis; Bisazza; Vallortigara; Rogers

1998-10-01

215

Lateral confinement in quantum nanostructures: Self-consistent screening potentials  

SciTech Connect

Self-consistent lateral confining potentials and carrier density functions are computed for quantum nanostructures utilizing a finite-temperature Thomas--Fermi approximation for the conduction electrons and the assumption of a uniform background of donor charges. The formation of the confining potential is the result of a nonlinear, electrostatic screening process which is determined by the Fermi level pinning properties of the lateral surfaces, the doping level, and the lateral dimensions. We find that the ability to populate nanostructures with carriers depends sensitively upon the details of the system.

Luscombe, J.H. (Central Research Laboratories, Texas Instruments, Inc., Dallas, Texas 75265 (USA)); Luban, M. (Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA (USA) Department of Physics, Iowa State University, Ames, IA (USA))

1990-07-02

216

Lateral confinement in quantum nanostructures: Self-consistent screening potentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-consistent lateral confining potentials and carrier density functions are computed for quantum nanostructures utilizing a finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi approximation for the conduction electrons and the assumption of a uniform background of donor charges. The formation of the confining potential is the result of a nonlinear, electrostatic screening process which is determined by the Fermi level pinning properties of the lateral surfaces, the doping level, and the lateral dimensions. We find that the ability to populate nanostructures with carriers depends sensitively upon the details of the system.

Luscombe, James H.; Luban, Marshall

1990-07-01

217

Building the posterior lateral line system in zebrafish  

PubMed Central

The posterior lateral line in zebrafish has emerged as an excellent system to study how a sensory organ system develops. Here we review recent studies that illustrate how interactions between multiple signaling pathways coordinate cell fate, morphogenesis and collective migration of cells in the posterior lateral line primordium. These studies also illustrate how the posterior lateral line system is contributing much more broadly to our understanding of mechanisms operating during the growth, regeneration and self-organization of other organ systems during development and disease. PMID:21818862

Chitnis, Ajay B; Nogare, Damian Dalle; Matsuda, Miho

2012-01-01

218

Lateral thinkers are not so laterally minded: hemispheric asymmetry, interaction, and creativity.  

PubMed

The biological basis of creativity remains a topic of contention. A long-held view suggests that whereas the left hemisphere is intelligent and analytic, the right hemisphere is the source of all creativity. Consequently, activating the right hemisphere should enhance creative thinking, prompting a plethora of popular books hawking a right hemisphere solution to topics ranging from drawing, to money management, to sex. More recently, an alternate proposal has suggested that creativity is not a lateralised function; instead, creativity is argued to stem from the interaction and integration of information across both the left and right hemispheres. According to this view, individuals with greater interhemispheric communication and/or less-lateralised brains will evidence enhanced creative ability. This paper reviews the neural basis of creativity to determine whether creativity stems from activation of the right hemisphere, or from the interaction of both hemispheres. The relationship between creativity and psychopathology is also examined, evaluating the evidence for a causal link between disorders such as schizophrenia, hemispheric activation, and enhanced creativity. Although the research reviewed indicates greater right hemisphere activity during creative tasks, the interaction between many varied, often distant, cortical regions across both the left and right hemispheres is also a crucial component of creativity. This interaction facilitates the integration of a variety of separate cognitive abilities, fostering creative thinking. As such, creativity is better conceptualised as a distributed, rather than a purely lateralised, function; more lateral thinkers have less lateralised brains. PMID:21140315

Lindell, Annukka K

2011-07-01

219

45 CFR 602.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS After-the-Grant Requirements § 602.51 Later...

2011-10-01

220

45 CFR 602.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS After-the-Grant Requirements § 602.51 Later...

2010-10-01

221

45 CFR 602.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS After-the-Grant Requirements § 602.51 Later...

2013-10-01

222

45 CFR 602.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS After-the-Grant Requirements § 602.51 Later...

2012-10-01

223

11. VIEW OF SOUTH BRIDGE PIER, BOTTOM LATERAL BRACING, LOWER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. VIEW OF SOUTH BRIDGE PIER, BOTTOM LATERAL BRACING, LOWER CHORD, STRINGERS, END POST AND BEARING SEAT; FACING SOUTHEAST. - Walker Bridge, Spanning Klamath River and connecting Highway 96 and Walker Road, Klamath River, Siskiyou County, CA

224

Decades Later, Chernobyl Accident Yields Clues to Leukemia Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... Report Decades Later, Chernobyl Accident Yields Clues to Leukemia Risk Studies of cleanup workers from the Chernobyl ... a link between ionizing radiation and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (Photo courtesy of Dr. Victor Kryuchkov, Burnazyan Federal ...

225

Performance analysis for lateral-line-inspired sensor arrays  

E-print Network

The lateral line is a critical component of the fish sensory system, found to affect numerous aspects of behavior including maneuvering in complex fluid environments, schooling, prey tracking, and environment mapping. This ...

Fernandez, Vicente I

2011-01-01

226

Being surveyed can change later behavior and related parameter estimates  

E-print Network

Does completing a household survey change the later behavior of those surveyed? In three field studies of health and two of microlending, we randomly assigned subjects to be surveyed about health and/or household finances ...

Zwane, Alix Peterson

227

Itch Is Required for Lateral Line Development in Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

The zebrafish posterior lateral line is formed during early development by the deposition of neuromasts from a migrating primordium. The molecular mechanisms regulating the regional organization and migration of the primordium involve interactions between Fgf and Wnt/-catenin signaling and the establishment of specific cxcr4b and cxcr7b cytokine receptor expression domains. Itch has been identified as a regulator in several different signaling pathways, including Wnt and Cxcr4 signaling. We identified two homologous itch genes in zebrafish, itcha and itchb, with generalized expression patterns. By reducing itchb expression in particular upon morpholino knockdown, we demonstrated the importance of Itch in regulating lateral line development by perturbing the patterns of cxcr4b and cxcr7b expression. Itch knockdown results in a failure to down-regulate Wnt signaling and overexpression of cxcr4b in the primordium, slowing migration of the posterior lateral line primordium and resulting in abnormal development of the lateral line. PMID:25369329

Angers, Annie; Drapeau, Pierre

2014-01-01

228

6. VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING TOP LATERAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING TOP LATERAL BRACING, MAIN TIE AND COUNTERS, SWAY STRUTS AND BRACING, AND INTERMEDIATE POSTS - Hart County Bridge, State Route 181, spanning Savannah River, Hartwell, Hart County, GA

229

Lateral-Pressure Profiles in Cholesterol-DPPC Bilayers  

E-print Network

By means of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, we study cholesterol-DPPC (dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine) bilayers of different composition, from pure DPPC bilayers to a 1:1 mixture of DPPC and cholesterol. The lateral-pressure profiles through the bilayers are computed and separated into contributions from the different components. We find that the pressure inside the bilayer changes qualitatively for cholesterol concentrations of about 20% or higher. The pressure profile then turns from a rather flat shape into an alternating sequence of regions with large positive and negative lateral pressure. The changes in the lateral-pressure profile are so characteristic that specific interaction between cholesterol and molecules such as membrane proteins mediated solely via the lateral-pressure profile might become possible.

Michael Patra

2005-04-05

230

Brain Function Lateralization and Language Acquisition: the Evidence from Japanese.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents evidence of differences in brain function lateralization between Japanese-speakers and speakers of Indo-European languages, and suggests that current conceptualizations of brain function specialization are not adequate. (AM)

Sanches, Mary

1979-01-01

231

Behavioural laterality as a factor in emotional regulation.  

PubMed

Individuals who perform a variety of tasks using one side of their bodies (i.e., high-dominance people) are thought to differ from individuals who perform a variety of tasks with both sides of their body (i.e., low-dominance people) in several neurological and cognitive characteristics. We examined whether behavioural laterality predicted the efficacy of different emotional regulation strategies. Specifically, we thought that behavioural laterality would influence verbal strategies (associated with left hemisphere activation) when regulating anxiety (associated with right hemisphere activation). In three studies participants presented in front of small audiences. Behavioural laterality (as measured by a modified handedness inventory) positively correlated with presentation anxiety, such that "low-dominance" participants reported less anxiety than "high-dominance" participants, but only when using cognitive reappraisal (a verbal strategy), not attention deployment or response modulation (behavioural strategies). These results provide preliminary evidence that individual differences in behavioural laterality mediate the efficacy of certain emotional regulation strategies. PMID:23678889

Rempala, Daniel M

2014-01-01

232

18. LOWER LATERAL SUPPORT DETAIL, HAND RAIL DETAILS, CAST STEEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. LOWER LATERAL SUPPORT DETAIL, HAND RAIL DETAILS, CAST STEEL SHOE CONNECTIONS, AND HALF SECTIONS OF CONCRETE APPROACH SPANS - Jensen Bridge, Spanning Green River at Town of Jensen, Jensen, Uintah County, UT

233

Electron tunneling and spin relaxation in a lateral quantum dot  

E-print Network

We report measurements that use real-time charge sensing to probe a single-electron lateral quantum dot. The charge sensor is a quantum point contact (QPC) adjacent to the dot and the sensitivity is comparable to other ...

Amasha, Sami

2008-01-01

234

Development of novel diagnostics and therapeutics for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

E-print Network

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease with diagnostics and treatments that are ineffective at stopping the progression. This thesis examines new ways of both diagnosing and treating ALS, including ...

Townsend, Seth A. (Seth Alan)

2008-01-01

235

Distant touch hydrodynamic imaging with an artificial lateral line  

PubMed Central

Nearly all underwater vehicles and surface ships today use sonar and vision for imaging and navigation. However, sonar and vision systems face various limitations, e.g., sonar blind zones, dark or murky environments, etc. Evolved over millions of years, fish use the lateral line, a distributed linear array of flow sensing organs, for underwater hydrodynamic imaging and information extraction. We demonstrate here a proof-of-concept artificial lateral line system. It enables a distant touch hydrodynamic imaging capability to critically augment sonar and vision systems. We show that the artificial lateral line can successfully perform dipole source localization and hydrodynamic wake detection. The development of the artificial lateral line is aimed at fundamentally enhancing human ability to detect, navigate, and survive in the underwater environment. PMID:17132735

Yang, Yingchen; Chen, Jack; Engel, Jonathan; Pandya, Saunvit; Chen, Nannan; Tucker, Craig; Coombs, Sheryl; Jones, Douglas L.; Liu, Chang

2006-01-01

236

Lateral incorporation of vacancies in Czochralski silicon crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon crystals grown by the Czochralski process typically contain many structural imperfections termed microdefects. The formation of microdefects requires an abundance of one of the intrinsic point defect species of silicon, vacancies or self-interstitials. The distribution of microdefects in a growing Czochralski crystal is influenced by its temperature field and the boundary conditions defined by its surfaces. This paper addresses the effects of the lateral surface on the defect dynamics in a growing crystal in which both the intrinsic point defect species are in comparable and low concentrations, away from the lateral surface, at higher temperatures near the melt/crystal interface. Under such conditions, a moderate vacancy supersaturation develops in the vicinity of the lateral surface leading to the formation of oxygen clusters and small voids, at lower temperatures. The vacancy incorporation near the lateral surface is driven by an interplay among the Frenkel reaction, the diffusion of the intrinsic point defects, and their convection.

Kulkarni, Milind S.

2008-06-01

237

9. VIEW OF LATERAL GATE ON CANAL NEAR DAM, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF LATERAL GATE ON CANAL NEAR DAM, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Twin Pots Dam, Ashley National Forest, 10.1 miles North of Mountain Home, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

238

Astronomy & Astrophysics manuscript no. (will be inserted by hand later)  

E-print Network

Astronomy & Astrophysics manuscript no. (will be inserted by hand later) The chemistry of multiply abundances of gas-phase NH 3 , CH 3 OH, H 2 CO and H 2 S (among others) are observed in warmer regions around

Millar, Tom

239

Directional sensitivity of velocity sense in lateral trunk flexion  

E-print Network

motion were examined during paraspinal muscle vibration. Seventeen healthy subjects performed lateral trunk flexion movements while lying prone with pelvis fixed. A 44.5 Hz vibratory stimulus was applied to the paraspinal muscles at the L3 level...

Soltys, Joseph S.; Wilson, Sara E.

2008-01-04

240

Lateral Casimir force between deeply corrugated dielectric and metallic plates  

E-print Network

We study the lateral Casimir force between corrugated dielectric plates. We use the dielectric contrast perturbation theory [R. Golestanian, {\\it Phys. Rev. Lett.} {\\bf 95}, 230601, (2005)], which allows us to consider arbitrary deformations with large amplitudes. We consider sinusoidal, rectangular, and sawtooth corrugations, for samples made of silicon and gold. We use the plasma and Drude-Lorentz models for the permittivity of gold and silicon, respectively. For these geometries and materials, the lateral Casimir force is {\\it not} a sinusoidal function of the relative lateral displacement of plates when the gap between the plates in comparable with the depth of the corrugations. Our results facilitate the design of miniaturized devices based on lateral Casimir forces.

Arash Azari; MirFaez Miri

2014-09-16

241

13. DETAIL, LATERAL BRACING FOR INTERIOR OVERHEAD CRANE Delaware, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. DETAIL, LATERAL BRACING FOR INTERIOR OVERHEAD CRANE - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

242

Lateral confinement in quantum nanostructures: Self-consistent screening potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-consistent lateral confining potentials and carrier density functions are computed for quantum nanostructures utilizing a finite-temperature Thomas–Fermi approximation for the conduction electrons and the assumption of a uniform background of donor charges. The formation of the confining potential is the result of a nonlinear, electrostatic screening process which is determined by the Fermi level pinning properties of the lateral surfaces,

James H. Luscombe; Marshall Luban

1990-01-01

243

Lateral approach to laparoscopic repair of left diaphragmatic ruptures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video-assisted repairs of traumatic diaphragmatic ruptures have been described where thoracoscopy or laparoscopy in the supine\\u000a position were used. This study aims to validate a new lateral laparoscopic approach for left diaphragmatic repairs. Six consecutive\\u000a patients were operated on for left diaphragmatic rupture using a lateral approach (Gagner’s position). A series of 362 consecutive\\u000a patients presenting with abdominal or thoracic

Pierre Goudet; Nicolas Cheynel; Loïc Ferrand; Frédérique Peschaud; Jean-Philippe Steinmetz; Bernard Letourneau; Jean-Paul Isnardon; Marie-Thérèse Noirot; Laurencia Poli; Marc Freysz; Patrick Cougard

2001-01-01

244

Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children: Five Years Later  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children (SET-C) is a comprehensive behavioral treatment combining social skills training, peer generalization experiences, and individualized in vivo exposure for the treatment of social phobia in youth. SET-C results in positive treatment outcome and its effects are maintained at least 3 years later. In this investigation, maintenance of treatment gains 3, 4, and 5 years later was examined

Deborah C. Beidel; Samuel M. Turner; Brennan J. Young

2006-01-01

245

Socially dependent auditory laterality in domestic horses ( Equus caballus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laterality is now known to be an ubiquitous phenomenon among the vertebrates. Particularly, laterality of auditory processing\\u000a has been demonstrated in a variety of species, especially songbirds and primates. Such a hemispheric specialization has been\\u000a shown to depend on factors such as sound structure, species specificity and types of stimuli. Much less is known on the possible\\u000a influence of social

Muriel Basile; Sarah Boivin; Anaïs Boutin; Catherine Blois-Heulin; Martine Hausberger; Alban Lemasson

2009-01-01

246

Electron Transport Through Laterally Coupled Double Quantum Dots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study electron transport through laterally coupled double quantum dots. We introduce the coupling parameter ?, which characterizes the strength of the coupling via the reservoirs between quantum dots. We find that the visibility decreases as |?| increases. We also examine the pseudo-spin Kondo effect in the laterally coupled double quantum dots. The differential conductance shows the additional structure in the spilt peak by the inter-dot tunnel coupling due to the asymmetry of the spectral density of states.

Kubo, T.; Tokura, Y.; Hatano, T.; Tarucha, S.

2008-10-01

247

Released micromachined beams utilizing laterally uniform porosity porous silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suspended micromachined porous silicon beams with laterally uniform porosity are reported, which have been fabricated using standard photolithography processes designed for compatibility with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) processes. Anodization, annealing, reactive ion etching, repeated photolithography, lift off and electropolishing processes were used to release patterned porous silicon microbeams on a Si substrate. This is the first time that micromachined, suspended PS microbeams have been demonstrated with laterally uniform porosity, well-defined anchors and flat surfaces.

Sun, Xiao; Keating, Adrian; Parish, Giacinta

2014-08-01

248

Endoscopic Repair of Lateral Sphenoid Recess Cerebrospinal Fluid Leaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endoscopic repair of anterior cranial base has been widely reported. However there is still no uniformity in the technique\\u000a of endoscopic repair of lateral sphenoid cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks. To highlight the management of CSF leak or encephalocele\\u000a in the lateral sphenoid recess and relate our experiences. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all our patients\\u000a who underwent an

Milind V. Kirtane; Abhineet Lall; Kashmira Chavan; Dhruv Satwalekar

249

Optical modeling of laterally-corrugated ridge-waveguide gratings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents some model improvements for the optical simulation of laterally-corrugated ridge-waveguide distributed\\u000a feedback lasers. Simulation results are discussed and design principles for achieving single-longitudinal-mode operation are\\u000a outlined. The effects of the laterally-corrugated ridge geometry both on the coupling coefficient and on the Bragg wavelength\\u000a of different transverse modes are presented. The improved modeling has been used to design

Antti Laakso; Mihail Dumitrescu; Jukka Viheriälä; Jukka Karinen; Mikko Suominen; Markus Pessa

2008-01-01

250

Numerical analysis of pile lateral behavior of pile supported embankment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A finite difference numerical method was adopted to evaluate the pile lateral behavior of pile supported embankment. A published\\u000a case history was used to verify the proposed methodology. By simulating the case history, the determination of parameters\\u000a needed were verified. Then three embankments constructed on different ground conditions with different soil-pile relative\\u000a stiffnesses were analyzed to study pile lateral behaviors

Zhi-dong Jing; Li Liu; Gang Zheng; Yan Jiang

2008-01-01

251

Functional Anatomy, Pathomechanics, and Pathophysiology of Lateral Ankle Instability  

PubMed Central

Objective: To describe the functional anatomy of the ankle complex as it relates to lateral ankle instability and to describe the pathomechanics and pathophysiology of acute lateral ankle sprains and chronic ankle instability. Data Sources: I searched MEDLINE (1985–2001) and CINAHL (1982–2001) using the key words ankle sprain and ankle instability. Data Synthesis: Lateral ankle sprains are among the most common injuries incurred during sports participation. The ankle functions as a complex with contributions from the talocrural, subtalar, and inferior tibiofibular joints. Each of these joints must be considered in the pathomechanics and pathophysiology of lateral ankle sprains and chronic ankle instability. Lateral ankle sprains typically occur when the rearfoot undergoes excessive supination on an externally rotated lower leg. Recurrent ankle sprain is extremely common; in fact, the most common predisposition to suffering a sprain is the history of having suffered a previous ankle sprain. Chronic ankle instability may be due to mechanical instability, functional instability, or most likely, a combination of these 2 phenomena. Mechanical instability may be due to specific insufficiencies such as pathologic laxity, arthrokinematic changes, synovial irritation, or degenerative changes. Functional instability is caused by insufficiencies in proprioception and neuromuscular control. Conclusions/Recommendations: Lateral ankle sprains are often inadequately treated, resulting in frequent recurrence of ankle sprains. Appreciation of the complex anatomy and mechanics of the ankle joint and the pathomechanics and pathophysiology related to acute and chronic ankle instability is integral to the process of effectively evaluating and treating ankle injuries. PMID:12937557

Hertel, Jay

2002-01-01

252

Extra-articular Mimickers of Lateral Meniscal Tears  

PubMed Central

Context: Lateral meniscus tears are a common entity seen in sports medicine. Although lateral-side knee pain is often the result of a meniscus injury, several extra-articular pathologies share signs and symptoms with a meniscus tear. It is critical for the clinician to be able to identify and understand extra-articular pathologies that can present similar to a lateral meniscus tear. Evidence Acquisition: Data were collected through a thorough review of the literature conducted through a MEDLINE search for all relevant articles between 1980 and February 2010. Study Type: Clinical review. Results: Common extra-articular pathologies that can mimic lateral meniscal tears include iliotibial band syndrome, proximal tibiofibular joint instability, snapping biceps femoris or popliteus tendons, and peroneal nerve compression syndrome or neuritis. The patient history, physical examination features, and radiographic findings can be used to separate these entities from the more common intra-articular knee pathologies. Conclusions: In treating patients who present with lateral-sided knee pain, clinicians should be able to recognize and treat extra-articular pathologies that can present in a similar fashion as lateral meniscus tears. PMID:23015995

Barker, Joseph U.; Strauss, Eric J.; Lodha, Sameer; Bach, Bernard R.

2011-01-01

253

Lateral line diversity among ecologically divergent threespine stickleback populations  

PubMed Central

The lateral line is a mechanoreceptive sensory system that allows fish to sense objects and motion in their local environment. Variation in lateral line morphology may allow fish in different habitats to differentially sense and respond to salient cues. Threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) occupy a diverse range of aquatic habitats; we therefore hypothesized that populations within the G. aculeatus species complex might show variation in the morphology of the lateral line sensory system. We sampled 16 threespine stickleback populations from marine, stream and lake (including benthic and limnetic) habitats and examined the distribution, type and number of neuromasts on different regions of the body. We found that the threespine stickleback has a reduced lateral line canal system, completely lacking canal neuromasts. Although the arrangement of lines of superficial neuromasts on the body was largely the same in all populations, the number of neuromasts within these lines varied across individuals, populations and habitats. In pairwise comparisons between threespine sticklebacks adapted to divergent habitats, we found significant differences in neuromast number. Stream residents had more neuromasts than marine sticklebacks living downstream in the same watershed. In two independent lakes, benthic sticklebacks had more trunk neuromasts than sympatric limnetic sticklebacks, providing evidence for parallel evolution of the lateral line system. Our data provide the first demonstration that the lateral line sensory system can vary significantly between individuals and among populations within a single species, and suggest that this sensory system may experience different selection regimes in alternative habitats. PMID:20008367

Wark, A. R.; Peichel, C. L.

2010-01-01

254

Computer Engineering Review Task Force Report John Impagliazzo (Moderator) Susan Conry Eric Durant  

E-print Network

Computer Engineering Review Task Force Report John Impagliazzo (Moderator) Susan Conry Eric Durant "Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate Degree Programs in Computer Engineering," produced 2004 December 12 topics that appeared to be waning from the curricular mainstream of computer engineering. Additionally

Thornton, Mitchell

255

Licensing stop place before laterals : a study of acoustic cues relevant to the perception of stop-lateral sequences  

E-print Network

In phonological analyses of both adult and child language, a *dl constraint has frequently been used as a shorthand to indicate that coronal stops are dispreferred before laterals (Dinnsen et al. 2001). This dispreference ...

Michaels, Jennifer M. (Jennifer Marie)

2011-01-01

256

Hemispheric lateralization of verbal and spatial working memory during adolescence  

PubMed Central

Adult functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature suggests that a left-right hemispheric dissociation may exist between verbal and spatial working memory (WM), respectively. However, investigation of this type has been obscured by incomparable verbal and spatial WM tasks and/or visual inspection at arbitrary thresholds as means to assess lateralization. Furthermore, it is unclear whether this hemispheric lateralization is present during adolescence, a time in which WM skills are improving, and whether there is a developmental association with laterality of brain functioning. This study used comparable verbal and spatial WM n-back tasks during fMRI and a bootstrap analysis approach to calculate lateralization indices (LI) across several thresholds to examine the potential of a left-right WM hemispheric dissociation in healthy adolescents. We found significant left hemispheric lateralization for verbal WM, most notably in the frontal and parietal lobes, as well as right hemisphere lateralization for spatial WM, seen in frontal and temporal cortices. Although no significant relationships were observed between LI and age or LI and performance, significant age-related patterns of brain activity were demonstrated during both verbal and spatial WM. Specifically, increased adolescent age was associated with less activity in the default mode brain network during verbal WM. In contrast, increased adolescent age was associated with greater activity in task-positive posterior parietal cortex during spatial working memory. Our findings highlight the importance of utilizing non-biased statistical methods and comparable tasks for determining patterns of functional lateralization. Our findings also suggest that, while a left-right hemispheric dissociation of verbal and spatial WM is apparent by early adolescence, age-related changes in functional activation during WM are also present. PMID:23511846

Nagel, Bonnie J.; Herting, Megan M.; Maxwell, Emily C.; Bruno, Richard; Fair, Damien

2013-01-01

257

Lateral Periodontal Cyst: a Case Report and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background The lateral periodontal cyst is considered a developmental odontogenic cyst with unusual occurrence. In most cases it is preliminary diagnosed as a radiographic finding, presenting as well circumscribed or as a round or teardrop-shaped radiolucent area. Due to its location it can easily be misdiagnosed as a lesion of endodontic origin. Final diagnosis should be based on histopatological examination. The purpose of this paper is to report a classic case of lateral periodontal cyst located in the anterior region of mandible and to review the relevant literature which describes the clinical, radiological and histopathological features of lateral periodontal cysts. Methods A 50 years female patient complained of an asymptomatic gingival swelling in the region between the left mandibular lateral incisor and canine. Radiographic examination revealed a well circumscribed radiolucency with approximately 0.5 cm diameter with a radiopaque margin between the roots of the left mandibular lateral incisor and canine. The adjacent teeth had vital pulp. Results A total enucleation of the lesion was performed, and intraoperative examination showed a single lesion with no communication between the cyst's cavity and the oral environment. Histological examination revealed that the lesion was "lateral periodontal cyst of developmental origin". There was no recurrence or complications for 24 months follow-up. Conclusions The lateral periodontal cyst can be considered in the differential diagnosis when a radioloucent lesion appears adjacent to the roots of vital teeth. The treatment of choice is surgical removal and subsequent histological evaluation to confirm the diagnosis. Relapses are infrequent. PMID:24421982

de Carvalho, Luis Felipe das Chagas e Silva; Lima, Celina Faig; Cabral, Luiz Antonio Guimaraes; Brandao, Adriana Aigotti Haberbeck

2010-01-01

258

Dogs show left facial lateralization upon reunion with their owners.  

PubMed

Domestic dogs demonstrate behavioral laterality in response to emotional stimuli; those responses include tail wagging and head turning. The dog is the species with the closest relationship to humans; dogs can express strong social emotions (e.g., attachment and separation anxiety) to specific persons, such as their owners. In this study, we examined whether dogs demonstrate more facial laterality when reunited with their owners than when they encounter an unfamiliar person in an unfamiliar situation. We also examined whether the observed laterality was specific to positive social stimuli (i.e., the owner) or a general response to nonsocial positive stimuli (i.e., toys). The dogs' facial expressions were recorded by a high-speed video camera during the presentation of emotional stimuli and the acceleration rates of parts of their faces were analyzed. The results showed that the left eyebrow moved more when the owner was present than at baseline. No bias in terms of eyebrow movement was observed when the dogs saw attractive toys. These results suggest that dogs show facial laterality in response to emotional stimuli. This laterality was specific to social stimuli, probably reflecting the dog's attachment to the owner. PMID:23727034

Nagasawa, Miho; Kawai, Emi; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

2013-09-01

259

The lateral line receptor array of cyprinids from different habitats.  

PubMed

The lateral line system of teleost fishes consists of an array of superficial and canal neuromasts (CN). Number and distribution of neuromasts and the morphology of the lateral line canals vary across species. We investigated the morphology of the lateral line system in four diurnal European cyprinids, the limnophilic bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus), the indifferent gudgeon (Gobio gobio), and ide (Leuciscus idus), and the rheophilic minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus). All fish had lateral line canals on head and trunk. The total number of both, CN and superficial neuromasts (SN), was comparable in minnow and ide but was greater than in gudgeon and bitterling. The ratio of SNs to CNs for the head was comparable in minnow and bitterling but was greater in gudgeon and ide. The SN-to-CN ratio for the trunk was greatest in bitterling. Polarization of hair cells in CNs was in the direction of the canal. Polarization of hair cells in SNs depended on body area. In cephalic SNs, hair cell polarization was dorso-ventral or rostro-caudal. In trunk SNs, it was rostro-caudal on lateral line scales and dorso-ventral on other trunk scales. On the caudal fin, hair cell polarization was rostro-caudal. The data show that, in the four species studied here, number, distribution, and orientation of CNs and SNs cannot be unequivocally related to habitat. PMID:24142903

Schmitz, Anke; Bleckmann, Horst; Mogdans, Joachim

2014-04-01

260

Stabilization control of a hovering model insect: lateral motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our previous study shows that the lateral disturbance motion of a model drone fly does not have inherent stability (passive stability), because of the existence of an unstable divergence mode. But drone flies are observed to fly stably. Constantly active control must be applied to stabilize the flight. In this study, we investigate the lateral stabilization control of the model drone fly. The method of computational fluid dynamics is used to compute the lateral control derivatives and the techniques of eigenvalue and eigenvector analysis and modal decomposition are used for solving the equations of motion. Controllability analysis shows that although inherently unstable, the lateral disturbance motion is controllable. By feeding back the state variables (i.e. lateral translation velocity, yaw rate, roll rate and roll angle, which can be measured by the sensory system of the insect) to produce anti-symmetrical changes in stroke amplitude and/or in angle of attack between the left and right wings, the motion can be stabilized, explaining why the drone flies can fly stably even if the flight is passively unstable.

Zhang, Yan-Lai; Sun, Mao

2011-10-01

261

Analysis of quantitative trait loci for behavioral laterality in mice.  

PubMed Central

Laterality is believed to have genetic components, as has been deduced from family studies in humans and responses to artificial selection in mice, but these genetic components are unknown and the underlying physiological mechanisms are still a subject of dispute. We measured direction of laterality (preferential use of left or right paws) and degree of laterality (absolute difference between the use of left and right paws) in C57BL/6ByJ (B) and NZB/BlNJ (N) mice and in their F(1) and F(2) intercrosses. Measurements were taken of both forepaws and hind paws. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) did not emerge for direction but did for degree of laterality. One QTL for forepaw (LOD score = 5.6) and the second QTL for hind paw (LOD score = 7.2) were both located on chromosome 4 and their peaks were within the same confidence interval. A QTL for plasma luteinizing hormone concentration was also found in the confidence interval of these two QTL. These results suggest that the physiological mechanisms underlying degree of laterality react to gonadal steroids. PMID:12663540

Roubertoux, Pierre L; Le Roy, Isabelle; Tordjman, Sylvie; Cherfou, Ameziane; Migliore-Samour, Daniele

2003-01-01

262

Comparison of manual, digital and lateral CBCT cephalometric analyses  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the reliability of three different methods of cephalometric analysis. Material and Methods: Conventional pretreatment lateral cephalograms and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans from 50 subjects from a radiological clinic were selected in order to test the three methods: manual tracings (MT), digitized lateral cephalograms (DLC), and lateral cephalograms from CBCT (LC-CBCT). The lateral cephalograms were manually analyzed through the Dolphin Imaging 11.0(tm) software. Twenty measurements were performed under the same conditions, and retraced after a 30-day period. Paired t tests and the Dahlberg formula were used to evaluate the intra-examiner errors. The Pearson's correlation coefficient and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were used to compare the differences between the methods. Results: Intra-examiner reliability occurred for all methods for most of the measurements. Only six measurements were different between the methods and an agreement was observed in the analyses among the 3 methods. Conclusions: The results demonstrated that all evaluated methodologies are reliable and valid for scientific research, however, the method used in the lateral cephalograms from the CBCT proved the most reliable. PMID:23739848

NAVARRO, Ricardo de Lima; OLTRAMARI-NAVARRO, Paula Vanessa Pedron; FERNANDES, Thais Maria Freire; de OLIVEIRA, Giovani Fidelis; CONTI, Ana Claudia de Castro Ferreira; de ALMEIDA, Marcio Rodrigues; de ALMEIDA, Renato Rodrigues

2013-01-01

263

Development of automobile tyre lateral runout measurement sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automobile tyre lateral runout is one of the important indexes to measure the quality of the tyre, it will affect the safety of the automobile in moving. This paper introduces a sensor for automobile tyre lateral runout measurement. The variation of the automobile tyre lateral runout causes the change of guide rod probe displacement and deforms of the cantilever beam which connects with the guide bar. The deformation of the cantilever beam leads to the change of the resistance value of strain gauge which is pasted on the cantilever beam. Through measuring circuit, the resistance value of the strain gauge is converted into output voltage that has a certain relationship with automobile tyre lateral runout. Then, the voltage signal is transformed by A/D convertor and send to SCM to process and display the value of runout. Meanwhile, SCM output control signal to control the actuator and adjust the equipment running status in real time so as to ensure the tyre lateral runout is within the allowed range.

Ma, Xie; Ye, Lingjian; Yao, Guanghui; Wang, Di; Zhi, Xiongfei

2013-10-01

264

Pericycle Cell Proliferation and Lateral Root Initiation in Arabidopsis1  

PubMed Central

In contrast with other cells generated by the root apical meristem in Arabidopsis, pericycle cells adjacent to the protoxylem poles of the vascular cylinder continue to cycle without interruption during passage through the elongation and differentiation zones. However, only some of the dividing pericycle cells are committed to the asymmetric, formative divisions that give rise to lateral root primordia (LRPs). This was demonstrated by direct observation and mapping of mitotic figures, cell-length measurements, and the histochemical analysis of a cyclin-GUS fusion protein in pericycle cells. The estimated duration of a pericycle cell cycle in the root apical meristem was similar to the interval between cell displacement from the meristem and the initiation of LRP formation. Developmentally controlled LRP initiation occurs early, 3 to 8 mm from the root tip. Thus the first growth control point in lateral root formation is defined by the initiation of primordia in stochastic patterns by cells passing through the elongation and young differentiation zones, up to where lateral roots begin to emerge from the primary root. Therefore, the first growth control point is not restricted to a narrow developmental window. We propose that late LRP initiation is developmentally unrelated to the root apical meristem and is operated by a second growth control point that can be activated by environmental cues. The observation that pericycle cells divide and lateral root primordia form without intervening mitotic quiescence suggests that lateral organ formation in roots and shoots might not be as fundamentally different as previously thought. PMID:11115882

Dubrovsky, Joseph G.; Doerner, Peter W.; Colon-Carmona, Adan; Rost, Thomas L.

2000-01-01

265

Pericycle cell proliferation and lateral root initiation in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

In contrast with other cells generated by the root apical meristem in Arabidopsis, pericycle cells adjacent to the protoxylem poles of the vascular cylinder continue to cycle without interruption during passage through the elongation and differentiation zones. However, only some of the dividing pericycle cells are committed to the asymmetric, formative divisions that give rise to lateral root primordia (LRPs). This was demonstrated by direct observation and mapping of mitotic figures, cell-length measurements, and the histochemical analysis of a cyclin-GUS fusion protein in pericycle cells. The estimated duration of a pericycle cell cycle in the root apical meristem was similar to the interval between cell displacement from the meristem and the initiation of LRP formation. Developmentally controlled LRP initiation occurs early, 3 to 8 mm from the root tip. Thus the first growth control point in lateral root formation is defined by the initiation of primordia in stochastic patterns by cells passing through the elongation and young differentiation zones, up to where lateral roots begin to emerge from the primary root. Therefore, the first growth control point is not restricted to a narrow developmental window. We propose that late LRP initiation is developmentally unrelated to the root apical meristem and is operated by a second growth control point that can be activated by environmental cues. The observation that pericycle cells divide and lateral root primordia form without intervening mitotic quiescence suggests that lateral organ formation in roots and shoots might not be as fundamentally different as previously thought. PMID:11115882

Dubrovsky, J G; Doerner, P W; Colón-Carmona, A; Rost, T L

2000-12-01

266

Embryonic exposure to predator odour modulates visual lateralization in cuttlefish.  

PubMed

Predation pressure acts on the behaviour and morphology of prey species. In fish, the degree of lateralization varies between high- and low-predation populations. While lateralization appears to be widespread in invertebrates, we do not know whether heredity and early experience interact during development as in vertebrates. Here we show, for the first time, that an exposure to predator odour prior to hatching modulates visual lateralization in newly hatched cuttlefish. Only cuttlefish that have been exposed to predator odour display a left-turning bias when tested with blank seawater in a T-shaped apparatus. Exposure to predator odour all the incubation long could appear as an acute predictor of a high-predation surrounding environment. In addition, cuttlefish of all groups display a left-turning preference when tested with predator odour in the apparatus. This suggests the ability of cuttlefish to innately recognize predator odour. To our knowledge, this is the first clear demonstration that lateralization is vulnerable to ecological challenges encountered during embryonic life, and that environmental stimulation of the embryo through the olfactory system could influence the development of subsequent visual lateralization. PMID:23235708

Jozet-Alves, Christelle; Hébert, Marie

2013-02-01

267

Lateralized Difference in Tympanic Membrane Temperature: Emotion and Hemispheric Activity  

PubMed Central

We review literature examining relationships between tympanic membrane temperature (TMT), affective/motivational orientation, and hemispheric activity. Lateralized differences in TMT might enable real-time monitoring of hemispheric activity in real-world conditions, and could serve as a corroborating marker of mental illnesses associated with specific affective dysregulation. We support the proposal that TMT holds potential for broadly indexing lateralized brain physiology during tasks demanding the processing and representation of emotional and/or motivational states, and for predicting trait-related affective/motivational orientations. The precise nature of the relationship between TMT and brain physiology, however, remains elusive. Indeed the limited extant research has sampled different participant populations and employed largely different procedures and measures, making for seemingly discrepant findings and implications. We propose, however, that many of these discrepancies can be resolved by considering how emotional states map onto motivational systems, and further examining how validated methods for inducing lateralized brain activity might affect TMT. PMID:23459831

Propper, Ruth E.; Brunye, Tad T.

2013-01-01

268

Experimental and computational investigation of lateral gauge response in polycarbonate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shock behaviour of polycarbonate is of interest due to its extensive use in defence applications. Interestingly, embedded lateral manganin stress gauges in polycarbonate have shown gradients behind incident shocks, suggestive of increasing shear strength. However, such gauges are commonly embedded in a central epoxy interlayer. This is an inherently invasive approach. Recently, research has suggested that in such systems interlayer/target impedance may contribute to observed gradients in lateral stress. Here, experimental T-gauge (Vishay Micro-Measurements® type J2M-SS-580SF-025) traces from polycarbonate targets are compared to computational simulations. The effects of gauge environment are investigated by looking at the response of lateral gauges with both standard "glued-joint" and a "dry joint" encapsulation, where no encapsulating medium is employed.

Eliot, Jim; Harris, Ernest Joseph; Hazell, Paul; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth James; Winter, Ron; Wood, David Christopher

2012-03-01

269

Top lateral refraction and reflection of polarized light in lenses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When linearly polarized light impinging on a lens, it will reflect and refract along the lines curves resulting from the interception of a plane (plane of polarization) with a sphere (lens surface) maintaining the orientation of refraction and reflection within the plane of polarization. This effect is significant only looking at the lens laterally. Therefore, a lens acts as a lateral analyzer when the polarization plane of polarized light incident on the lens is rotated. Following this principle that in the spherical surface of a lens fit n circles of radius r, where n is inversely proportional to r, and each circle is a lens itself. Then if a beam of light is shined in one of these areas, the phenomenon is expressed lateral side and diametrically opposite to where the incident linearly polarized light, the lens acting as a waveguide for the light beam polarized.

Miranda Díaz, Lázaro J.

2014-08-01

270

LATER models of neural decision behavior in choice tasks.  

PubMed

REACTION TIME HAS BEEN INCREASINGLY USED OVER THE LAST FEW DECADES TO PROVIDE INFORMATION ON NEURAL DECISION PROCESSES: it is a direct reflection of decision time. Saccades provide an excellent paradigm for this because many of them can be made in a very short time and the underlying neural pathways are relatively well-known. LATER (linear approach to threshold with ergodic rate) is a model originally devised to explain reaction time distributions in simple decision tasks. Recently, however it is being extended to increasingly more advanced tasks, including those with decision errors and those requiring voluntary control such as the antisaccade task and those where sequential decisions are required. The strength of this modeling approach lies in its detailed, quantitative predictions of behavior, yet LATER models still retain their conceptual simplicity that made LATER initially successful in explaining reaction times in simple decision tasks. PMID:25202242

Noorani, Imran

2014-01-01

271

A Rare Association of Compound Odontome with Missing Lateral Incisor  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Odontomas are a common type of odontogenic tumor, usually asymptomatic and mostly detected on routine radiographic examination. An 11-years-old male child with the chief complaint of mobility of deciduous dentition in the upper front region was diagnosed with an odontome with an impacted central incisor, missing lateral incisor and retained deciduous incisors following radiographic analysis. Histopathology revealed a compound odontoma following a conservative enucleation. Odontomas associated with primary dentition, impacted teeth and erupting into oral cavity have been described, but the association with a missing lateral incisor makes this an interesting case report. How to cite this article: Nammalwar RB, Moses J. A Rare Association of Compound Odontome with Missing Lateral Incisor. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(1):50-53.

Moses, Joyson

2014-01-01

272

A theory for lateral wing-tip blowing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of lateral blowing consists in utilizing thin jets of air, which are ejected in the spanwise direction from slots at the tips of straight and swept wings, or along the leading edges of delta wings, to generate aerodynamic forces without the assistance of deflecting solid surfaces. For weak intensities of blowing the so-generated forces could be used for roll and lateral control of aircraft. In this work a theory for this concept as applied to straight wings is presented, revealing the analytical relationship between blowing and aerodynamic forces. The approach is based on perturbing the span of an elliptically loaded wing. Scaling laws involving blowing intensity, aspect ratio, and angle of attack are derived and compared with experiments. It is concluded that this concept has potential as a novel roll and lateral control device.

Tavella, D.; Roberts, L.

1985-01-01

273

Validation of a grading system for lateral nasal wall insufficiency.  

PubMed

This study was designed to validate a grading scheme for lateral nasal wall insufficiency with interrater and intrarater reliability measures. Representative endoscopic videos depicting varied degrees of lateral nasal wall insufficiency were collated into a 30-clip video (15 clips in duplicate). This was rated by five reviewers for a total of 150 observations. Interrater and intrarater reliability were determined using Fleiss kappa and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) statistics, respectively. Good agreement was established between reviewers (interrater reliability), with a Fleiss kappa of 0.7733 (p < 0.01). Analysis of intrarater variability with the ICC revealed a very strong agreement (ICC = 0.88; p < 0.01). The proposed grading system is shown to have good interrater and intrarater reliability. It provides a reliable instrument for assessing lateral wall insufficiency. PMID:24124639

Tsao, Gabriel J; Fijalkowski, Natalia; Most, Sam P

2013-01-01

274

A biologically inspired spiking neural network for sound source lateralization.  

PubMed

In this paper, a binaural sound source lateralization spiking neural network (NN) will be presented which is inspired by most recent neurophysiological studies on the role of certain nuclei in the superior olivary complex (SOC) and the inferior colliculus (IC). The binaural sound source lateralization neural network (BiSoLaNN) is a spiking NN based on neural mechanisms, utilizing complex neural models, and attempting to simulate certain parts of nuclei of the auditory system in detail. The BiSoLaNN utilizes both excitatory and inhibitory ipsilateral and contralateral influences arrayed in only one delay line originating in the contralateral side to achieve a sharp azimuthal localization. It will be shown that the proposed model can be used both for purposes of understanding the mechanisms of an NN of the auditory system and for sound source lateralization tasks in technical applications, e.g., its use with the Darmstadt robotic head (DRH). PMID:18051193

Voutsas, Kyriakos; Adamy, Jürgen

2007-11-01

275

Extradural Dermoid Cyst Located in the Lateral Sphenoid Ridge  

PubMed Central

Dermoid cysts are rare congenital tumors that occur primarily at the midline at a characteristic intradural location. However, dermoid cysts located at extradural and lateral regions have been rarely reported until now. In the present study, the authors demonstrate the unusual instance of an intracranial extradural dermoid cyst at the lateral sphenoid ridge. A 53-year-old woman admitted because of progressive headache and dizziness. The patient had no neurologic deficits, and magnetic resonance imaging with no contrast enhancement revealed a mass at the right sphenoid ridge. The mass was accompanied with sphenoid bone erosion visible on computed tomography. The patient underwent right pterional craniotomy, and the tumor including the capsule was totally resected. Presence of a dermoid cyst was confirmed with histopathological examination. The patient had no complications during the postoperative period. This study suggests that dermoid cyst should be considered for differential diagnosis of extradural and lateral intracranial masses. PMID:24926471

Ko, Seok-Jin; Park, Kyung-Jae; Park, Dong-Hyuk

2014-01-01

276

[Chemical constituents of lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx].  

PubMed

In order to find the cardiotonic constituents of lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx., the investigation was carried out. Silica gel column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20, medium-pressure MCI and reverse phase ODS column chromatography were used to separate the 90% EtOH extract of the lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx. The structures of the isolated compounds have been identified by chemical properties and spectroscopic analyses. Ten compounds were isolated and their structures were elucidated as benzoic acid-5-hydroxy-2-benzoyl-amino methyl ester (1), honokiol (2), pinoresinol (3), salicylic acid (4), p-hydroxy-cinnamic acid (5), songorine (6), karakoline (7), mesaconitine (8), hypaconitine (9) and 14-benzoylhypaconitine (10), separetely. Compound 1 is a new compound and its structure has been established by NMR, HR-ESI-MS, UV, IR and X-Ray. Compound 2-5 are isolated from the lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx. for the first time. PMID:25322557

Zhang, Jing; Sun, Gui-Bo; Lei, Qi-Fang; Li, Guang-Zhi; Wang, Jun-Chi; Si, Jian-Yong

2014-08-01

277

Strategies of Healthy Adults Walking on a Laterally Oscillating Treadmill  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We mounted a treadmill on top of a six degree-of-freedom motion base platform to investigate locomotor responses produced by healthy adults introduced to a dynamic walking surface. The experiment examined self-selected strategies employed by participants when exposed to continuous, sinusoidal lateral motion of the support surface while walking. Torso translation and step width were used to classify responses used to stabilize gait in a novel, dynamic environment. Two response categories emerged. Participants tended to either fix themselves in space (FIS), allowing the treadbelt to move laterally beneath them, or they fixed themselves to the base (FTB), moving laterally as the motion base oscillated. The degree of fixation in both extremes varied across participants. This finding suggests that normal adults have innate and varied preferences for reacquiring gait stability, some depending more heavily on vision (FIS group) and others on proprioception (FTB group). Keywords: Human locomotion, Unstable surface, Treadmill, Adaptation, Stability

Brady, Rachel A.; Peters, Brian T.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

2008-01-01

278

Lateral vibration effects in atomic-scale friction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of lateral vibrations on the stick-slip motion of a nanotip elastically pulled on a flat crystal surface is studied by atomic force microscopy measurements on a NaCl(001) surface in ultra-high vacuum. The slippage of the nanotip across the crystal lattice is anticipated at increasing driving amplitude, similarly to what is observed in presence of normal vibrations. This lowers the average friction force, as explained by the Prandtl-Tomlinson model with lateral vibrations superimposed at finite temperature. Nevertheless, the peak values of the lateral force, and the total energy losses, are expected to increase with the excitation amplitude, which may limit the practical relevance of this effect.

Roth, R.; Fajardo, O. Y.; Mazo, J. J.; Meyer, E.; Gnecco, E.

2014-02-01

279

Lateral ventricle morphology analysis via mean latitude axis.  

PubMed

Statistical shape analysis has emerged as an insightful method for evaluating brain structures in neuroimaging studies, however most shape frameworks are surface based and thus directly depend on the quality of surface alignment. In contrast, medial descriptions employ thickness information as alignment-independent shape metric. We propose a joint framework that computes local medial thickness information via a mean latitude axis from the well-known spherical harmonic (SPHARM-PDM) shape framework. In this work, we applied SPHARM derived medial representations to the morphological analysis of lateral ventricles in neonates. Mild ventriculomegaly (MVM) subjects are compared to healthy controls to highlight the potential of the methodology. Lateral ventricles were obtained from MRI scans of neonates (9-144 days of age) from 30 MVM subjects as well as age- and sex-matched normal controls (60 total). SPHARM-PDM shape analysis was extended to compute a mean latitude axis directly from the spherical parameterization. Local thickness and area was straightforwardly determined. MVM and healthy controls were compared using local MANOVA and compared with the traditional SPHARM-PDM analysis. Both surface and mean latitude axis findings differentiate successfully MVM and healthy lateral ventricle morphology. Lateral ventricles in MVM neonates show enlarged shapes in tail and head. Mean latitude axis is able to find significant differences all along the lateral ventricle shape, demonstrating that local thickness analysis provides significant insight over traditional SPHARM-PDM. This study is the first to precisely quantify 3D lateral ventricle morphology in MVM neonates using shape analysis. PMID:23606800

Paniagua, Beatriz; Lyall, Amanda; Berger, Jean-Baptiste; Vachet, Clement; Hamer, Robert M; Woolson, Sandra; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John; Styner, Martin

2013-03-29

280

Patterns of prokaryotic lateral gene transfers affecting parasitic microbial eukaryotes  

PubMed Central

Background The influence of lateral gene transfer on gene origins and biology in eukaryotes is poorly understood compared with those of prokaryotes. A number of independent investigations focusing on specific genes, individual genomes, or specific functional categories from various eukaryotes have indicated that lateral gene transfer does indeed affect eukaryotic genomes. However, the lack of common methodology and criteria in these studies makes it difficult to assess the general importance and influence of lateral gene transfer on eukaryotic genome evolution. Results We used a phylogenomic approach to systematically investigate lateral gene transfer affecting the proteomes of thirteen, mainly parasitic, microbial eukaryotes, representing four of the six eukaryotic super-groups. All of the genomes investigated have been significantly affected by prokaryote-to-eukaryote lateral gene transfers, dramatically affecting the enzymes of core pathways, particularly amino acid and sugar metabolism, but also providing new genes of potential adaptive significance in the life of parasites. A broad range of prokaryotic donors is involved in such transfers, but there is clear and significant enrichment for bacterial groups that share the same habitats, including the human microbiota, as the parasites investigated. Conclusions Our data show that ecology and lifestyle strongly influence gene origins and opportunities for gene transfer and reveal that, although the outlines of the core eukaryotic metabolism are conserved among lineages, the genes making up those pathways can have very different origins in different eukaryotes. Thus, from the perspective of the effects of lateral gene transfer on individual gene ancestries in different lineages, eukaryotic metabolism appears to be chimeric. PMID:23442822

2013-01-01

281

The lateralizing and localizing value of adversion in epileptic seizures.  

PubMed

We studied 24 patients who had adversion as the first clinical manifestation of seizures. Seizures were recorded with depth electrodes as part of the evaluation for possible surgery for epilepsy. Head rotation did not help to lateralize the epileptic focus clinically, because deviations occurred ipsilaterally to the EEG focus in some patients, and because some patients had head rotation in either direction despite a unifocal epileptogenic abnormality. Furthermore, no cortical localization was consistently linked to either direction or degree of adversion. Adversion has no consistent lateralizing or localizing value. PMID:6684265

Robillard, A; Saint-Hilaire, J M; Mercier, M; Bouvier, G

1983-09-01

282

Lateral flow biosensors for the detection of nucleic acid.  

PubMed

The detection of nucleic acid is of central importance for the diagnosis of genetic diseases, infectious agents, and biowarfare agents. Traditional strategies and technologies for nucleic acid detection are time-consuming and labor-intensive. Recently, isothermal strand-displacement reaction-based lateral flow biosensors have attracted a great deal of research interest because they are sensitive, simple, fast, and easy to use. Here, we describe a lateral flow biosensor based on isothermal strand-displacement polymerase reaction and gold nanoparticles for the visual detection of nucleic acid. PMID:24026695

Zeng, Lingwen; Lie, Puchang; Fang, Zhiyuan; Xiao, Zhuo

2013-01-01

283

Minimally invasive lateral approach to the thoracolumbar junction for corpectomy.  

PubMed

Diseases that affect the thoracolumbar junction present a unique challenge to the spine surgeon. Various techniques have been described to treat this clinical entity from the anterior, lateral, or posterior direction. These can be associated with significant morbidity due to extensive tissue dissection, blood loss, and postoperative pain leading to a lengthy recovery. The use of a tubular retractor allows the surgeon to minimize tissue dissection and potentially reduce approach-related morbidity while obviating the need for an approach surgeon for exposure. The surgical technique of a minimally invasive lateral approach to the thoracolumbar junction for corpectomy is described in detail and two illustrative patients are presented. PMID:23830585

Adkins, Dana E; Sandhu, Faheem A; Voyadzis, Jean-Marc

2013-09-01

284

Acute lateral ankle ligament injuries: a literature review.  

PubMed

The average general orthopaedic surgeon examines and treats a considerable number of acute lateral ankle ligament sprains in a busy office practice. A cursory review of recent articles published on this subject will present a confusing picture regarding diagnosis and treatment of Grade III injuries. An air of controversy surrounds the interpretation of diagnostic x-rays, and the management of these common ankle problems. This review article is presented to summarize current thoughts on the anatomy, biomechanics, diagnosis, and treatment of acute lateral ankle ligament sprains. PMID:2125020

Boruta, P M; Bishop, J O; Braly, W G; Tullos, H S

1990-10-01

285

EEG preprocessing for synchronization estimation and epilepsy lateralization.  

PubMed

The global framework of this paper is the synchronization analysis in EEG recordings. Two main objectives are pursued: the evaluation of the synchronization estimation for lateralization purposes in epileptic EEGs and the evaluation of the effect of the preprocessing (artifact and noise cancelling by blind source separation, wavelet denoising and classification) on the synchronization analysis. We propose a new global synchronization index, based on the classical cross power spectrum, estimated for each cerebral hemisphere. After preprocessing, the proposed index is able to correctly lateralize the epileptic zone in over 90% of the cases. PMID:22255468

Vélez-Pérez, H; Romo-Vázquez, R; Ranta, R; Louis-Dorr, V; Maillard, L

2011-01-01

286

Shoulder arthroscopy positioning: lateral decubitus versus beach chair.  

PubMed

Since the introduction of the beach chair position for shoulder arthroscopy, orthopaedic surgeons have debated whether the beach chair or lateral decubitus is superior. Most surgeons use the same patient position to perform all of their arthroscopic shoulder procedures, regardless of the pathology. Each position has its advantages and disadvantages. The evidence regarding the efficiency, efficacy, and risks of the lateral decubitus and the beach chair positions for shoulder arthroscopy does not show one position to be superior. This review presents a comparison of these positions with regard to setup, surgical visualization, access, and patient risk. PMID:19664509

Peruto, Christina M; Ciccotti, Michael G; Cohen, Steven B

2009-08-01

287

Reconstruction of the corneal topography from lateral-shearing interferograms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents an approach for measurements of the corneal topography by use of lateral-shearing interferometry. In shearing interferometry the wavefront reflected from the object is split in two wavefronts. The introduction of lateral shift and superposition of the wavefronts produces interference pattern. We used phase shifting algorithm to obtain the phase differences of the wavefront reflected from the cornea. The measurements of the phase differences are carried out in two orthogonal directions. The phase of the wavefront is reconstructed by use of algorithm for the large grid based on the discrete integration. The computer-generated interferograms are used to test the procedure and to estimate its accuracy.

Licznerski, Tomasz J.; Kasprzak, Henryk T.

1999-07-01

288

An Improved Method of Manufacturing Corrugated Boxes: Lateral Corrugator  

SciTech Connect

Paper physicists have known that a corrugated box constructed from outer liner sheets having a predominant fiber orientation aligned with the corrugating flute direction would have higher stiffness and crush resistance (per unit of fiber weight) than the conventional box construction. Such increased performance per unit of fiber weight could result in fiber reduction and energy savings for boxes having equivalent performance specifications. The goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a commercially viable lateral corrugating process. This included designing and building a pilot lateral corrugator, testing and evaluating pilot machine made boxes, and developing a strategy for commercialization.

Frank C. Murray Ph.D.; , Roman Popil Ph.D.; Michael Shaepe (formerly with IPST, now at Cargill. Inc)

2008-12-18

289

Coherency of Spin Precession in Metallic Lateral Spin Valves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusive pure spin currents in lateral spin valves lose phase coherency in precession while undergoing scattering events, leading to a broad distribution of the dwell time in a transport channel from the injector to the detector. Here we demonstrate the lateral spin-valves with dual injectors enable us to detect a genuine precession signal from the Hanle effect, demonstrating that the phase coherency in precession is improved with an increase of the channel length. The coherency in the spin precession shows a universal behavior as a function of the normalized separation between the injector and the detector in material-independent fashion for metals and semiconductors including graphene.

Otani, Yoshichika; Idzuchi, Hiroshi; Fukuma, Yasuhiro

2014-01-01

290

Non-uniform lateral current distribution in quantum cascade lasers.  

PubMed

Non-uniform lateral current distribution in quantum cascade (QC) lasers is investigated, as a result of stimulated-optical-emission-assisted electron transport, the rate of which depends on the local photon density and is comparable to the longitudinal optical (LO) phonon scattering rate. A microscopic model based on rate equations is built to study the self-consistent process of interaction between local electrons and photons in QC lasers. The non-uniform distribution of lateral current and the corresponding spatial hole burning are simulated from this model. Moreover, multi-transverse-mode operation in QC lasers is also investigated. PMID:24663949

Huang, Xue; Dikmelik, Yamac; Gmachl, Claire

2014-03-10

291

Released micromachined beams utilizing laterally uniform porosity porous silicon  

PubMed Central

Suspended micromachined porous silicon beams with laterally uniform porosity are reported, which have been fabricated using standard photolithography processes designed for compatibility with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) processes. Anodization, annealing, reactive ion etching, repeated photolithography, lift off and electropolishing processes were used to release patterned porous silicon microbeams on a Si substrate. This is the first time that micromachined, suspended PS microbeams have been demonstrated with laterally uniform porosity, well-defined anchors and flat surfaces. PACS 81.16.-c; 81.16.Nd; 81.16.Rf

2014-01-01

292

Intubating laryngeal mask airway as an independent ventilatory and intubation device. A comparison between supine, right lateral and left lateral  

PubMed Central

Background Sudden loss of airway in patients in the lateral position has always been proven to be difficult to manage with conventional laryngoscopy. We performed a randomized controlled trial to prove the success rate of ventilation and intubation in the lateral position via intubating laryngeal mask airway (ILMA). Methods Ninety patients were divided into three groups of 30 patients each, positioned supine, right lateral, and left lateral randomly. Each group comprised of both sexes of American Society of Anesthesiologists grade I and II, aged between 18-55 years with normal airway posted for surgery under general anesthesia. Patients were pre-medicated with fentanyl followed by induction with propofol and neuromuscular blockade with rocuronium. ILMA was inserted and blind tracheal intubation via ILMA was done. The success rate, time taken and the number of adjusting maneuvers used for both procedures were recorded. The data was tabulated and analyzed using ANOVA (analysis of variance), multiple 't' test and chi square. Results The success rate of intubation (96%) and time taken in insertion and intubation was found to be quite similar in all the three groups. Conclusions We conclude that the ILMA has an important role to play in the emergency management of airways in patients in the lateral position in terms of ease, success rate and time taken. PMID:24228142

Bharadwaj, Avnish; Chauhan, Gaurav; Kalita, Drubajyoti

2013-01-01

293

Safety and the anatomy of the retroperitoneal lateral corridor with respect to the minimally invasive lateral lumbar intervertebral fusion approach.  

PubMed

Safe and reproducible outcomes of the lateral lumbar intervertebral fusion (LLIF) procedure rely on meticulous care and understanding of the anatomy of the lateral corridor. This review aims to describe the different important anatomic considerations when performing LLIF and offer technical notes that may help increase the safety of this procedure. The LLIF procedure is divided into 5 stages: patient positioning, abdominal wall dissection, retroperitoneal space dissection, deployment of the surgical retractors, and diskectomy. Each stage is preformed in a distinct anatomic compartment that may cause different typical complications. PMID:24703441

Regev, Gilad J; Kim, Choll W

2014-04-01

294

Scientific Support for Early Prevention of Delinquency and Later Offending  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing body of high-quality scientific evidence on the effectiveness of early intervention programs designed to tackle the most important early risk factors for crime. At the individual level, preschool intellectual enrichment and child skills training are effective in preventing delinquency and later offending. At the family level, parent education (in the context of home visiting and parent

Brandon C. Welsh; David P. Farrington

2007-01-01

295

Effect of a Stress Management Class: One Year Later.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Graduate and undergraduate students showed a reduction in anxiety during a 16-week course designed to include information on the causes and effects of stress as well as practical techniques for stress management. A follow-up study showed that the students were still successfully using the stress management techniques a year later. (RM)

Somerville, Addison W.; And Others

1984-01-01

296

Preview Control for Vehicle Lateral Guidance in Highway Automation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous deterministic preview control is applied to the vehicle lateral contol problem. It is shown that the preview control consists of a feedback term and two feedforward terms. If the preview control algorithm is applied on the FSLQ augmented system, the feedback term will be exactly the same as the FSLQ feedback control law. Therefore, the advantages of the FSLQ

Huei Peng; Masayoshi Tomizuka

1991-01-01

297

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: An Introduction to Psychosocial and Behavioral Adaptations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) as motor-neuron disease that is terminal. Discusses symptoms associated with ALS and identifies treatment options. Reviews psychological and behavioral adaptations in regard to ALS clients, their families, and professionals who work with them. Discusses support groups as method of reducing stress for ALS…

Hoffman, R. Leigh; Decker, Thomas W.

1993-01-01

298

Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and enteral nutrition in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bulbar involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is often related to a worse prognosis on account of the higher risk of pulmonary aspiration and undernutrition due to dysphagia. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of enteral feeding by percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in a long-term follow-up of ALS patients. We report the results of PEG in

L. Mazzini; T. Corrà; M. Zaccala; G. Mora; M. Piano; M. Galante

1995-01-01

299

Molecular biology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: insights from genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a paralytic disorder caused by motor neuron degeneration. Mutations in more than 50 human genes cause diverse types of motor neuron pathology. Moreover, defects in five Mendelian genes lead to motor neuron disease, with two mutations reproducing the ALS phenotype. Analyses of these genetic effects have generated new insights into the diverse molecular pathways involved

Piera Pasinelli; Robert H. Brown

2006-01-01

300

Spatiotemporal Coupling of the Tongue in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The primary aim of the investigation was to identify deficits in spatiotemporal coupling between tongue regions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The relations between disease-related changes in tongue movement patterns and speech intelligibility were also determined. Methods: The authors recorded word productions from 11…

Kuruvilla, Mili S.; Green, Jordan R.; Yunusova, Yana; Hanford, Kathy

2012-01-01

301

TDP43 mutations in familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal motor neuron disorder characterized pathologically by ubiquitinated TAR DNA binding protein (TDP-43) inclusions. The function of TDP-43 in the nervous system is uncertain, and a mechanistic role in neurodegeneration remains speculative. We identified neighboring mutations in a highly conserved region of TARDBP in sporadic and familial ALS cases. TARDBPM337V segregated with disease within

Jemeen Sreedharan; Ian P. Blair; Vineeta B. Tripathi; Xun Hu; Caroline Vance; Boris Rogelj; Steven Ackerley; Jennifer C. Durnall; Kelly L. Williams; Emanuele Buratti; Francisco Baralle; Jacqueline de Belleroche; J. Douglas Mitchell; P. Nigel Leigh; Ammar Al-Chalabi; Christopher C. Miller; Garth Nicholson; Christopher E. Shaw

2008-01-01

302

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients' Perspectives on Use of Mechanical Ventilation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviewed 13 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. All believed that they alone should make decision regarding use of mechanical ventilation. Factors they considered important were quality of life, severity of disability, availability of ventilation by means of nasal mask, possible admission to long-term care facility, ability to discontinue…

Young, Jenny M.; And Others

1994-01-01

303

A Tutorial on Particle Filtering and Smoothing: Fifteen years later  

E-print Network

A Tutorial on Particle Filtering and Smoothing: Fifteen years later Arnaud Doucet The Institute vision, econometrics, robotics and navigation. The objective of this tutorial is to provide a complete described by this tutorial are a broad and popular class of Monte Carlo algorithms which have been developed

Johansen, Adam

304

A Tutorial on Particle Filtering and Smoothing: Fifteen years later  

E-print Network

A Tutorial on Particle Filtering and Smoothing: Fifteen years later Arnaud Doucet The Institute. The objective of this tutorial is to provide a complete, up-to-date survey of this field as of 2008. Basic of particularly simple cases. The "particle" methods described by this tutorial are a broad and popular class

Del Moral , Pierre

305

MMPI characteristics of college freshman males who later became alcoholics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared the MMPI scores of 32 college freshman males later hospitalized as alcoholics with scores of 148 control male classmates for clinical, content scale, and item differences. The prealcoholics were significantly higher on the Psychopathic Deviate, Hypomania and F scales. It is concluded that the college prealcoholic is more likely to be impulsive, nonconforming, and gregarious but is otherwise not

Rodney G. Loper; Mary L. Kammeier; Helmut Hoffmann

1973-01-01

306

Using Monomolecular Films to Characterize Lipid Lateral Interactions  

PubMed Central

Summary Membrane lipids are structurally diverse in ways that far exceed the role envisioned by Singer and Nicholson of simply providing a fluid bilayer matrix in which proteins reside. Current models of lipid organization in membranes postulate that lipid structural diversity enables nonrandom lipid mixing in each leaflet of the bilayer, resulting in regions with special physical and functional properties, i.e., microdomains. Central to understanding the tendencies of membrane lipids to mix nonrandomly in biomembranes is the identification and evaluation of structural features that control membrane lipid lateral mixing interactions in simple model membranes. The surface balance provides a means to evaluate the lateral interactions among different lipids at a most fundamental level—mixed in binary/ternary combinations that self-assemble at the air–water interface as monomolecular films, i.e., monolayers. Analysis of surface pressure and interfacial potential as a function of average cross-sectional molecular area provide insights into hydrocarbon chain ordering, lateral compressibility/elasticity, and dipole effects under various conditions including those that approximate one leaflet of a bilayer. Although elegantly simple in principle, effective use of the surface balance requires proper attention to various experimental parameters, which are described herein. Adequate attention to these experimental parameters ensures that meaningful insights are obtained into the lipid lateral interactions and enables lipid monolayers to serve as a basic platform for use with other investigative approaches. PMID:18214373

Brown, Rhoderick E.; Brockman, Howard L.

2008-01-01

307

Regulation of affect by the lateral septum: implications for neuropsychiatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantial evidence indicates that the lateral septum (LS) plays a critical role in regulating processes related to mood and motivation. This review presents findings from the basic neuroscience literature and from some clinically oriented research, drawing from behavioral, neuroanatomical, electrophysiological, and molecular studies in support of such a role, and articulates models and hypotheses intended to advance our understanding of

Teige P Sheehan; R. Andrew Chambers; David S Russell

2004-01-01

308

Planning in Middle Childhood: Early Predictors and Later Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from 1,364 children and families who participated in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were analyzed to track the early correlates and later academic outcomes of planning during middle childhood. Maternal education, through its effect on parenting quality when…

Friedman, Sarah L.; Scholnick, Ellin K.; Bender, Randall H.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Spieker, Susan; Pasek, Kathy Hirsh; Keating, Daniel P.; Park, Yoonjung

2014-01-01

309

Phytoplankton assemblages in lateral lagoons of a large tropical reservoir.  

PubMed

This study aimed to analyse the composition and ecological attributes of the phytoplankton assemblages in four lateral lagoons and in the main channel of Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, SE Brazil). Fieldwork was carried out in September and November/2004 and January, March, May and August/2005. A total of 283 taxa was identified. Zygnemaphyta was the most specious group, followed by Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta. Higher richness, abundance and biomass were observed in the lagoons when compared with the river-reservoir sampling point, especially during the rainy period. Cryptophyceae and Bacillariophyceae dominated numerically. Cryptomonas brasiliensis Castro, Bicudo and Bicudo was the main species of the phytoplankton in terms of abundance and frequency of occurrence. The dynamics of the most important taxa are discussed and the results showed that the phytoplankton assemblages are mainly influenced by meteorological factors and nutrient availability (the main driving forces). Correlation analyses indicated that the assemblage abundance was limited by nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus). The phytoplankton abundance influenced positively the zooplankton abundance, what indicates the prevalence of bottom-up control routes in the lateral lagoons system. The results validate the hypotheses that lateral lagoons have a prominent ecological role on the phytoplankton diversity, as already previously demonstrated for fish and zooplankton. Therefore, the incorporation of the lateral lagoons in environmental programmes should be a target strategy for the conservation of the regional aquatic biota, minimising the negative impact of the dam. PMID:23644798

Ferrareze, M; Nogueira, M G

2013-02-01

310

Whose children gain from starting school later? – evidence from Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

We look at the effect of school starting age on standardized test scores using data covering all Grade 4 and Grade 8 students in Hungary. Instrumental variables estimates of the local average treatment effect suggest that children generally gain from starting school 1 year later, and the effects are much stronger in the case of students coming from low-educated families.

Szilvia Altwicker-Hámori; János Köll?

2012-01-01

311

Motion Characterizations of Lateral Micromachined Sensor Based on Stroboscopic Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we illustrate the capabilities of the Planar Motion Analyzer (PMA) with a study of the dynamic behavior of a micromachined structure. Dynamic characterizations and measurement settings are also demonstrated. The optical measurement system uses the light-emitting diode (LED) based vibration measurement technique for imaging, and then measuring the lateral resonant frequency and sensor displacements, as well. The

Andojo Ongkodjojo Ong; Francis Eng Hock Tay

2007-01-01

312

Astronomy & Astrophysics manuscript no. (will be inserted by hand later)  

E-print Network

of the are area. The existence of a #12;tting model demonstrates that nano are heating of the corona is a viable for heating the solar corona (e.g. reviews in Ulmschneider, Rosner, & Priest, 1991). Most popular at presentAstronomy & Astrophysics manuscript no. (will be inserted by hand later) A nano are heating model

313

Evidence for Developmental Programming of Cerebral Laterality in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adverse fetal environments are associated with depression, reduced cognitive ability and increased stress responsiveness in later life, but underlying mechanisms are unknown. Environmental pressures on the fetus, resulting from variations in placental function and maternal nutrition, health and stress might alter neurodevelopment, promoting the development of some brain regions over others. As asymmetry of cerebral activity, with greater right hemisphere

Alexander Jones; Clive Osmond; Keith M. Godfrey; David I. W. Phillips; Andrew Whitehouse

2011-01-01

314

Impaired Structural Motor Connectome in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe neurodegenerative disease selectively affecting upper and lower motor neurons. Patients with ALS suffer from progressive paralysis and eventually die on average after three years. The underlying neurobiology of upper motor neuron degeneration and its effects on the complex network of the brain are, however, largely unknown. Here, we examined the effects of ALS

Esther Verstraete; Jan H. Veldink; Rene C. W. Mandl; Leonard H. van den Berg; Martijn P. van den Heuvel

2011-01-01

315

Cushioning and lateral stability functions of cloth sport shoes.  

PubMed

In this study, we evaluated the protective functions of cloth sport shoes, including cushioning and lateral stability. Twelve male students participated in the study (mean +/- s: age 12.7 +/- 0.4 years, mass 40.7 +/- 5.9kg, height 1.50 +/- 0.04m). Cloth sport shoes, running shoes, basketball shoes, crosstraining shoes, and barefoot conditions were investigated in random sequence. Human pendulum and cutting movement tests were used to assess cushioning performance and lateral stability, respectively. For cushioning, the running shoes (2.06 body weight, BW) performed the best, while the cross-training shoes (2.30 BW) and the basketball shoes (2.37 BW) both performed better than the cloth sport shoes (2.55 BW) and going barefoot (2.63 BW). For the lateral stability test, range of inversion--eversion was found to be from 3.6 to 4.9 degrees, which was far less than that for adult participants (> 20 degrees). No significant differences were found between conditions. All conditions showed prolonged durations from foot-strike to maximum inversion (66-95 ms), which was less vigorous than that for adult participants (< 40 ms) and was unlikely to evoke intrinsic stability failure. In conclusion, the cloth sport shoe showed inferior cushioning capability but the same lateral stability as the other sports shoes for children. PMID:17933201

Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui; Hong, Youlian; Li, Jing Xian

2007-09-01

316

Sputnik 50 years later: New evidence on its origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite many revelations on the origins of Sputnik in the 1990s, there still remained some important unanswered questions. For example, we know that chief designer Sergey Korolev first wrote to the Soviet government in May 1954 asking for approval to develop a satellite. Yet, Soviet leaders responded with a decree nearly 2 years later in January 1956. What happened during

Asif Siddiqi

2008-01-01

317

Styling in a Language Learned Later in Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyses the styles of English produced by an adult migrant who started to speak the language later in life, and it approaches them from the perspective of quantitative style-shifting and discursive stylization. After defining style and the procedures needed to justify the term "L2," the study describes the focal…

Rampton, Ben

2013-01-01

318

Trauma in Early Infancy and Later Personality Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The psychodynamic patterns of personality of children born with congenital ob- structions in the alimentary tract were compared with those of normal children in later childhood. The congenital anomalies had required surgery within the first 4 months of life. The psychodynamic patterns were elicited by 4 projective tech- niques. Information regarding the mothers' emotional stability and attitudes was gathered by

RALPH M. GIBSON

319

Relation between Laterality and Immune Response after Acute Cerebral Ischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: During the last 2 decades, right\\/left hemisphere dominance was supposed to affect the immune system differently. Experimental and clinical observations indicate that the left hemisphere plays a crucial role in the development of the immune system. The true relationship between immune response and acute ischemic stroke laterality remains to be elucidated. Methods: We studied acute right-handed stroke patients admitted

H. J. Koch; G. Uyanik; U. Bogdahn; G. W. Ickenstein

2006-01-01

320

New investigation of short wings with lateral jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lift of short wings by means of lateral fluid jets fired in the plane of the wing in the direction of the span is described. After some theoretical considerations, the experimental results obtained in a wind tunnel on a series of wings of various lengths are presented.

Carafoli, E.; Camarasescu, N.

1983-01-01

321

Astronomy & Astrophysics manuscript no. (will be inserted by hand later)  

E-print Network

Astronomy & Astrophysics manuscript no. (will be inserted by hand later) Catalogue of cataclysmic on this catalogue: 1. The online and current edition of A Catalog and Atlas of Cataclysmic Variables by Downes et al and Atlas of Galactic Novae by Duerbeck (1987), and is supplemented by or­ bital period information

Kolb, Ulrich

322

Lateral and Anterior Thalamic Lesions Impair Independent Memory Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Damage to the medial region of the thalamus, both in clinical cases (e.g., patients with infarcts or the Korsakoff's syndrome) and animal lesion models, is associated with variable amnesic deficits. Some studies suggest that many of these memory deficits rely on the presence of lateral thalamic lesions (LT) that include the intralaminar nuclei,…

Mitchell, Anna S.; Dalrymple-Alford, John C.

2006-01-01

323

9. VIEW SHOWING CHILDREN SWIMMING IN A LATERAL OF THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW SHOWING CHILDREN SWIMMING IN A LATERAL OF THE GRAND CANAL LOCATION UNKNOWN. THE HUGE COTTONWOOD TREES THAT ONCE-LINED MOST CANALS AND DITCHES WERE CUT DOWN WHEN IT WAS DISCOVERED THAT THEY CONSUMED HUNDREDS OF GALLONS OF WATER EACH DAY. Photographer unknown, no date - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

324

Vehicle Crash Severity Assessment in Lateral Pole Impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys some current technologies in reconstructing lateral narrow object impacts. This is accomplished through a multi-step process. First, staged crash test data is reviewed and presented in order to understand the observable vehicle structural deformation trends. A commonly used crush energy reconstruction algorithm (CRASH') is then applied to the test data and an analysis is made of the

Michael S. Varat; Stein E. Husher

1999-01-01

325

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in an Italian professional soccer player  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rare devastating neurodegenerative disease of unknown etiology. Two recent epidemiological studies showed a high risk for ALS among Italian male soccer players. We present the clinical and occupational history of an Italian professional soccer player affected by sporadic ALS. The early onset of ALS (45 years), the bulbar form, the playing position (midfielder) and

Nicola Vanacore; Alessandra Binazzi; Marco Bottazzi; Stefano Belli

2006-01-01

326

Network Type and Mortality Risk in Later Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of baseline network type and 7-year mortality risk in later life. Design and Methods: We executed secondary analysis of all-cause mortality in Israel using data from a 1997 national survey of adults aged 60 and older (N = 5,055) that was linked to records from the National Death…

Litwin, Howard; Shiovitz-Ezra, Sharon

2006-01-01

327

Block copolymer thin films with long-range lateral order  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated thin block copolymer films on silicon wafers as well as faceted surfaces of sapphire. Thin films were prepared by spin-coating block copolymer solutions on the corresponding substrates. Subsequent annealing in organic solvent vapors served as a means to induce lateral long-range order in the thin films. The resulting block copolymer structures were analyzed by AFM and GISAXS.

Gunkel, Ilja; Xu, Ting; Hexemer, Alexander; Russell, Thomas

2012-02-01

328

Rasch Measurement in the Assessment of Amytrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the sensitivity to change over time of the Amytrophic Lateral Sclerosis Assessment Questionnaire (ALSAQ-40; C. Jenkinson and others, 1999). Findings for 764 individuals show that the ALSAQ-40 is a valid and responsive disease-specific health-related quality of life instrument for studies of patients with motor neuron diseases. (SLD)

Norquist, Josephine M.; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Jenkinson, Crispin

2003-01-01

329

Controller design for improving lateral vehicle dynamic stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vehicle dynamics control system has been developed in this study for improving vehicle dynamic stability under critical lateral motions. The system consists of a feedforward controller, a state feedback controller, and an estimator for the body sideslip angle. The linear quadratic regulator theory has been exploited for the state feedback gain, and for estimation of the body sideslip angle,

Seung-Jin Heo; Inho Baek

2001-01-01

330

DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY 2006/07 AND LATER CATALOGS  

E-print Network

DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY 2006/07 AND LATER CATALOGS GRADUATION WORKSHEET FOR MAJORS AND MINORS: I. Prerequisites: Preparation for the Major: Anthropology 101 and 102; and either Economics 201________ year ___ year ______ __ __________ __ III . Upper Division Courses in Anthropology to be selected from

Ponce, V. Miguel

331

Department of Anthropology 2010/11 and later Catalogs  

E-print Network

Department of Anthropology 2010/11 and later Catalogs Graduation Worksheet for Majors and Minors: I. Prerequisites: Preparation for the Major: Anthropology 101 and 102; and either Economics 201 Courses (12 units): (One core course may be substituted with another upper division anthropology course

Ponce, V. Miguel

332

Transitions into and out of Cohabitation in Later Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cohabitation among adults over age 50 is rising rapidly, more than doubling from 1.2 million in 2000 to 2.75 million in 2010. A small literature provides a descriptive portrait of older cohabitors, but no study has investigated transitions into and out of cohabitation during later life. Drawing on demographic and life course perspectives, the…

Brown, Susan L.; Bulanda, Jennifer Roebuck; Lee, Gary R.

2012-01-01

333

Lateral Knee Braces in Football: Do They Prevent Injury?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of three recently presented clinical studies and a biomechanical study of the use of lateral knee braces to prevent knee injuries are reviewed. The results raise serious doubts about the efficacy of the preventive knee braces which are currently available. (Author/MT)

Paulos, Lonnie E.; And Others

1986-01-01

334

Radical Creativity in Later Life. Occasional Papers Series: No. 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The lives and work of many distinguished artists support the claim that, far from being a period of decline, later life can be the high point of creativity. Evidence from both the visual and written arts would appear to challenge the research of Harvey Lehman, whose 1953 study "Age and Achievement" claimed that artists produce their best paintings…

Macdonald, Murdo

335

30 years later--landscape ecology: directions and approaches  

E-print Network

in the 1940s into ecosystem anal- yses in the later 1960s. Watershed studies, such as timber harvesting 2013 / Published online: 21 February 2013 Ã? Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht (outside the USA established, with the human dimension firmly entrenched in a science that was largely descriptive, endowed

Fried, Jeremy S.

336

Acoustic Investigations into the Later Acquisition of Syllabic "-es" Plurals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Children acquire /-ez/ syllabic plurals (e.g., buses) later than /-s, -z/ segmental plurals (e.g., cats,dogs). In this study, the authors explored whether increased syllable number or segmental factors best explains poorer performance with syllabic plurals. Method: An elicited imitation experiment was conducted with 14 two-year-olds…

Mealings, Kiri T.; Cox. Felicity; Demuth, Katherine

2013-01-01

337

LATERALIZATION OF KIN RECOGNITION SIGNALS IN THE HUMAN FACE  

E-print Network

Italy Short title: Lateralization of kin recognition signals Keywords: kin recognition, face perception, their judgments of identity, gender, emotion, age and attractiveness depend more on one side of the face than and twenty four observers judged whether or not pairs of children were biological siblings by looking

Maloney, Laurence T.

338

Left lateralizing transcranial direct current stimulation improves reading efficiency  

PubMed Central

Background Poor reading efficiency is the most persistent problem for adults with developmental dyslexia. Previous research has demonstrated a relationship between left posterior temporal cortex (pTC) function and reading ability, regardless of dyslexia status. Objective/Hypothesis In this study, we tested whether enhancing left lateralization of pTC using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) improves reading efficiency in adults without dyslexia. Method Twenty-five right-handed adults with no history of learning disorder participated. Real and sham “Left lateralizing” tDCS were applied to the pTC in separate sessions. Standardized word and nonword reading tests were given immediately after stimulation. Results Modeling of the induced electrical field confirmed that tDCS was likely to increase left pTC excitability and reduce right pTC excitability as intended. Relative to sham, real tDCS induced improvements in word reading efficiency in below average readers. Conclusions Enhancing left lateralization of the pTC using tDCS improves word reading efficiency in below-average readers. This demonstrates that left lateralization of the pTC plays a role in reading ability, and provides stimulation parameters that could be used for a trial of tDCS in adults with developmental dyslexia. Such short-term gains could amplify the effect of appropriate reading interventions when performed in conjunction with them. PMID:22305346

Turkeltaub, Peter E.; Benson, Jennifer; Hamilton, Roy H.; Datta, Abhishek; Bikson, Marom; Coslett, H. Branch

2011-01-01

339

Pericycle Cell Proliferation and Lateral Root Initiation in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast with other cells generated by the root apical meristem in Arabidopsis, pericycle cells adjacent to the protoxylem poles of the vascular cylinder continue to cycle without interruption during passage through the elongation and differen- tiation zones. However, only some of the dividing pericycle cells are committed to the asymmetric, formative divisions that give rise to lateral root primordia

Joseph G. Dubrovsky; Peter W. Doerner; Adan Colon-Carmona; Thomas L. Rost

2000-01-01

340

Lateral pallidotomy exacerbates akinesia in the Parkinsonian patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the recent resurgence of interest in the use of pallidotomy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, there remains considerable debate about the optimal lesion site. Although the current understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying Parkinsonism would suggest that the medial pallidum is the logical site for alleviation of symptoms, some surgeons still advocate lesions in the lateral pallidum. We

Lisa E Munro-Davies; Ralph Gregory; Waney Squires; Mateus Radatz; Peter Silburn; Richard Scott; Tipu Aziz; John F Stein

1999-01-01

341

Morphological Sex Differences and Laterality in the Prepubertal Medial  

E-print Network

with volumetric sex differences elsewhere in the brain, however, we found no sex difference in the number of left hemisphere the pattern of sex differences was different: Males have more MeApd neurons than females, whereasMorphological Sex Differences and Laterality in the Prepubertal Medial Amygdala BRADLEY M. COOKE

Woolley, Catherine

342

Augmented Reality for Later Playback of Videos Project Proposal  

E-print Network

1 Augmented Reality for Later Playback of Videos Project Proposal Jordan Stratton Abstract: Augmented reality's popularity has recently exploded since mobile phones have had the capability a method of allowing the user to take a video and choose whether or not to have augmented reality on while

Miles, Will

343

An Occipital Encephalocystocele Involving Both Sides of the Lateral Ventricles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reported a rare case of an occipital encephalocystocele linked by bilateral posterior horns of the lateral ventricles. The subject was a newborn girl with a large occipital cephalocele (6 × 9 cm in diameter) covered with alopetic skin. Cerebrospinal fluid leakage was not observed. The fontanel was soft, but a characteristic flat forehead was noted. Neither neurological deficits nor

Kazumichi Yamada; Masaki Miura; Jun Matsumoto; Takako Uchino; Yuichi Kondo; Yukitaka Ushio

2000-01-01

344

Language Lateralization in Children Using Functional Transcranial Doppler Sonography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: Language lateralization with functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) and lexical word generation has been shown to have high concordance with the Wada test and functional magnetic resonance imaging in adults. We evaluated a nonlexical paradigm to determine language dominance in children. Method: In 23 right-handed children (12…

Haag, Anja; Moeller, Nicola; Knake, Susanne; Hermsen, Anke; Oertel, Wolfgang H.; Rosenow, Felix; Hamer, Hajo M.

2010-01-01

345

Perceived Strategies and Activities for Successful Later Aging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated perceived strategies and activities for successful later aging. Participants were 242 members of the Terman Study of the Gifted who responded to an open-ended question concerning how they make the most of their aging years. Data were collected in 1996 and 1999, when the participants were average ages of 84 and 86.…

Holahan, Carole K.; Velasquez, Katherine S.

2011-01-01

346

Beyond Subjection: Notes on the Later Foucault and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues against the doxa that Foucault's analysis of education inevitably undermines self-originating ethical intention on the part of teachers or students. By attending to Foucault's lesser known, later work--in particular, the notion of "biopower" and the deepened level of materiality it entails--the article shows how the earlier…

Leask, Ian

2012-01-01

347

Brief Communications Novelty Enhancements in Memory Are Dependent on Lateral  

E-print Network

Brief Communications Novelty Enhancements in Memory Are Dependent on Lateral Prefrontal Cortex Mark-based recognition, and they did not exhibit a normal memory advantage for novel compared with non-novel items stimulus novelty advantages in memory. Introduction The ability to detect novelty is an essential feature

Knight, Robert T.

348

Differential dye coupling reveals lateral giant escape circuit in crayfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lateral giant (LG) escape circuit of crayfish mediates a coordinated escape triggered by strong attack to the abdomen. The LG circuit is one of the best understood of small systems, but models of the circuit have mostly been limited to simple ball-and-stick repre- sentations, which ignore anatomical details of contacts between circuit elements. Many of the these contacts are

Brian L. Antonsen; Donald H. Edwards

2003-01-01

349

BIOCHEMISTRY (for students entering Biology in Fall 2010 or later)  

E-print Network

BIOCHEMISTRY (for students entering Biology in Fall 2010 or later) Graduation Requirements, Intro. To Evolution & Ecology (2 cr.; fall) 9. One of these four options: (Biochemistry majors must & Measurement in Physical Biochemistry (3 cr.; fall) 13. Two of these courses: A. BIOL 41600 Viruses and Viral

Jiang, Wen

350

BIOCHEMISTRY (for students entering Biology in Fall 2011 or later)  

E-print Network

1 BIOCHEMISTRY (for students entering Biology in Fall 2011 or later) Graduation Requirements Requirement: Choose one of these four options: (Biochemistry majors must choose BIOL 39500, Macromolecules) A Biochemistry (3 cr.; fall) 13. Biology Electives: Two of these courses: A. BIOL 41600 Viruses and Viral

Jiang, Wen

351

Lateral RF image synthesis using a synthetic aperture imaging technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oscillating profile naturally present in ultrasound images has been shown to be extremely valuable in different applications, particularly in motion estimation. Recent studies have shown that it is possible to produce images with transverse oscillations (TOs) based on a specific type of beamforming. However, there is still a great difference between the nature of the lateral oscillations produced with

Hervé Liebgott; Adrian Basarab; Pierre Gueth; Christian Cachard; Philippe Delachartre

2008-01-01

352

Whose Children Gain from Starting School Later? Evidence from Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

We look at the effect of school starting age on standardized test scores using data covering all grade four and grade eight students in Hungary. Instrumental variables estimates of the local average treatment effect suggest that children generally gain from starting school one year later and the effects are much stronger in the case of students coming from low-educated families.

Szilvia Hámori; Janos Kollo

2011-01-01

353

PERSPECTIVES: MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Lateral Deformations in Extreme Matter  

E-print Network

to be impossible (3). Since then, foams with n as small as -0.8 have been produced by changing the shape of the cells (4). These foams expand #12;laterally when stretched. Isotropic negative Poisson's ratio materials or an unfolding mode of deformation (6, 7). Milton has presented hierarchical laminates (8) that approach

Lakes, Roderic

354

Calcium-dependent protein folding in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by a progressive loss of motor neurons. Although the etiology remains unclear, disturbances in Ca2+ homoeostasis and protein folding are essential features of neurodegeneration. The correct folding of proteins is managed by folding proteins, which are regulated by Ca2+ levels. Therefore, Ca(2+)-sensitive folding proteins represent an important link between disturbed Ca2+ handling and protein misfolding in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In the first part of this review, we focus on Ca2+ handling in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria in terms of their roles in protein misfolding. In the second part, we draw attention to the main Ca(2+)-sensitive folding proteins that play a role in motor neuron degeneration such as calreticulin and calnexin, which are involved in the folding of glycosylated proteins. In addition, calmodulin and the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase are discussed as one correlation to oxidative stress. The heat shock protein endoplasmin is associated with the anti-apoptotic insulin-like growth factor pathway that is altered in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Grp78, which influences Ca2+ homeostasis in the intraluminal endoplasmic reticulum is upregulated in mice models and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and constitutes a core component of the unfolded protein response. Lastly, the protein disulfide isomerase family is responsible for mediating oxidative protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:23764168

Prell, Tino; Lautenschläger, Janin; Grosskreutz, Julian

2013-08-01

355

Global Warming 20 Years Later: Tipping Points Near  

E-print Network

Global Warming 20 Years Later: Tipping Points Near Jim Hansen 23 June 2008 National Press Club, and House Select Committee on Energy Independence & Global Warming Washington, DC #12;1988 Testimony Has Big Effects Did Not Emphasize That Global Warming Enhances Both Extremes of Water Cycle - More

Hansen, James E.

356

Current hypotheses for the underlying biology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms involved in selective motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis remain unknown more than 135 years after the disease was first described. Although most cases have no known cause, mutations in the gene encoding Cu\\/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) have been implicated in a fraction of familial cases of the disease. Transgenic mouse models with mutations in the SOD1

Jeffrey D. Rothstein

2009-01-01

357

Lactate dyscrasia: a novel explanation for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; Lou Gehrig's disease) is a progressive debilitating neurodegenerative disease with no cure. We propose a novel molecular model for the pathogenesis of ALS that involves an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent muscle neuronal lactate shuttle (MNLS) at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) to regulate the flow of lactate from muscle to neurons and vice versa. Failure of the MNLS

Sivan Vadakkadath Meethala; Craig S. Atwood

2010-01-01

358

Early Math Matters: Kindergarten Number Competence and Later Mathematics Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's number competencies over 6 time points, from the beginning of kindergarten to the middle of 1st grade, were examined in relation to their mathematics achievement over 5 later time points, from the end of 1st grade to the end of 3rd grade. The relation between early number competence and mathematics achievement was strong and significant…

Jordan, Nancy C.; Kaplan, David; Ramineni, Chaitanya; Locuniak, Maria N.

2009-01-01

359

The Joint Development of Hemispheric Lateralization for Words and Faces  

PubMed Central

Consistent with longstanding findings from behavioral studies, neuroimaging investigations have identified a region of the inferior temporal cortex that, in adults, shows greater face-selectivity in the right than left hemisphere and, conversely, a region that shows greater word-selectivity in the left than right hemisphere. What has not been determined is how this pattern of mature hemispheric specialization emerges over the course of development. The current study examines the hemispheric superiority for faces and words in children, young adolescents and adults in a discrimination task in which stimuli are presented briefly in either hemifield. Whereas adults showed the expected left and right visual field superiority for face and word discrimination, respectively, the young adolescents demonstrated only the right field superiority for words and no field superiority for faces. Although the children's overall accuracy was lower than that of the older groups, like the young adolescents, they exhibited a right visual field superiority for words but no field superiority for faces. Interestingly, the emergence of face lateralization was correlated with reading competence, measured on an independent standardized test, after regressing out age, quantitative reasoning scores, and face discrimination accuracy. Taken together, these findings suggest that the hemispheric organization of face and word recognition do not develop independently, and that word lateralization, which emerges earlier, may drive later face lateralization. A theoretical account in which competition for visual representations unfolds over the course of development is proposed to account for the findings. PMID:22866684

Dundas, Eva M.; Plaut, David C.; Behrmann, Marlene

2014-01-01

360

Activity Inhibition: A Predictor of Lateralized Brain Function During Stress?  

E-print Network

or written language correspond to the inhibition of emotional impulses and behavior in real life (see Mc behavior. Keywords: activity inhibition, laterality, stress, content analysis, self-regulation Since its or written language, has been an enigmatic linguistic marker of emotional and motivational differences

Schultheiss, Oliver C.

361

THE ROLE OF FOSTER CARE PLACEMENT IN LATER PROBLEM BEHAVIOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foster care placement is an important child welfare service to protect children from further maltreatment. However, high problem behavior rates among foster youth have been a great concern. Significant limitations in the current knowledge examining the role of foster care placement in later problem behavior exist. This study seeks to increase knowledge about the potential role of foster care placement

Sangmoo Lee

2009-01-01

362

38 CFR 3.318 - Presumptive service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Presumptive service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. 3.318 Section... Presumptive service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (a) Except...of this section, the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis manifested at...

2010-07-01

363

38 CFR 3.318 - Presumptive service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Presumptive service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. 3.318 Section... Presumptive service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (a) Except...of this section, the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis manifested at...

2012-07-01

364

38 CFR 3.318 - Presumptive service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Presumptive service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. 3.318 Section... Presumptive service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (a) Except...of this section, the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis manifested at...

2013-07-01

365

38 CFR 3.318 - Presumptive service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Presumptive service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. 3.318 Section... Presumptive service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (a) Except...of this section, the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis manifested at...

2011-07-01

366

Small-molecule-mediated stabilization of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked superoxide  

E-print Network

Small-molecule-mediated stabilization of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked superoxide, and approved January 18, 2005 (received for review November 5, 2004) Familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis screening docking thermopeutics thermodynamics Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or Lou Gehrig's disease

Walz, Thomas

367

Characterization of Motor Unit Behavior in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

E-print Network

Characterization of Motor Unit Behavior in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Abstract neuron dominant forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). EMG recordings were gathered during recorded from control subjects as often observed in motor neuron diseases. Keywords: Amyotrophic lateral

Clancy, Ted

368

76 FR 78823 - Schedule for Rating Disabilities; Evaluation of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rating Disabilities; Evaluation of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis AGENCY: Department...disability evaluation criterion provided for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to provide...revise the evaluation criterion for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in the...

2011-12-20

369

40 CFR 86.410-90 - Emission standards for 1990 and later model year motorcycles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Emission standards for 1990 and later model year motorcycles. 86...86.410-90 Emission standards for 1990 and later model year motorcycles. (a)(1) Exhaust emissions from 1990 and later model year...

2010-07-01

370

Mini-Open Approach for Direct Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion  

PubMed Central

Study Design Retrospective analysis. Purposes To introduce the mini-open lateral approach for the anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), and to investigate the advantages, technical pitfalls and complications by providing basic knowledge on extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) or direct lumbar interbody fusion (DLIF). Overview of Literature Recently, minimally invasive lateral approach for the lumbar spine is revived and receiving popularity under the name of XLIF or DLIF by modification of mini-open method when using the sequential tubular dilator and special expandable retractor system. Methods Seventy-four patients who underwent surgery by the mini-open lateral approach from September 2000 to April 2008 with various disease entities were included. Blood losses, operation times, incision sizes, postoperative time to mobilization, length of hospital stays, technical problems and complications were all analyzed. Results The blood losses and operation times of patients who underwent simple ALIF were 61.2 mL and 86 minutes for one level, 107 mL and 106 minutes for two levels, 250 mL and 142.8 minutes for three levels, and 400 mL and 190 minutes for four levels of fusion. The incision sizes were on average 4.5 cm for one level, 6.3 cm for two levels, 8.5 cm for three levels and 10.0 cm for four levels of fusion. The complications were retroperitoneal hematoma (2 cases), pneumonia (1 case) and transient lumbosacral plexus palsy (3 cases). Conclusions Trials of mini-open lateral approach would be helpful before the trial of XLIF or DLIF. However, special attention is required for complications such as transient lumbosacral plexus palsy. PMID:25187867

Chung, Sung-Soo; Pae, Young-Ryeol; Park, Se-Jun

2014-01-01

371

Tongue and Lateral Upper Airway Movement with Mandibular Advancement  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To characterize tongue and lateral upper airway movement and to image tongue deformation during mandibular advancement. Design: Dynamic imaging study of a wide range of apnea hypopnea index (AHI), body mass index (BMI) subjects. Setting: Not-for-profit research institute. Participants: 30 subjects (aged 31-69 y, AHI 0-75 events/h, BMI 17-39 kg/m2). Interventions: Subjects were imaged using dynamic tagged magnetic resonance imaging during mandibular advancement. Tissue displacements were quantified with the harmonic phase technique. Measurements and Results: Mean mandibular advancement was 5.6 ± 1.8 mm (mean ± standard deviation). This produced movement through a connection from the ramus of the mandible to the pharyngeal lateral walls in all subjects. In the sagittal plane, 3 patterns of posterior tongue deformation were seen with mandibular advancement—(A) en bloc anterior movement, (B) anterior movement of the oropharyngeal region, and (C) minimal anterior movement. Subjects with lower AHI were more likely to have en bloc movement (P = 0.04) than minimal movement. Antero-posterior elongation of the tongue increased with AHI (R = 0.461, P = 0.01). Mean anterior displacements of the posterior nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal regions of the tongue were 20% ± 13% and 31% ± 17% of mandibular advancement. The posterior tongue compressed 1.1 ± 2.2 mm supero-inferiorly. Conclusions: Mandibular advancement has two mechanisms of action which increase airway size. In subjects with low AHI, the entire tongue moves forward. Mandibular advancement also produces lateral airway expansion via a direct connection between the lateral walls and the ramus of the mandible. Citation: Brown EC; Cheng S; McKenzie DK; Butler JE; Gandevia SC; Bilston LE. Tongue and lateral upper airway movement with mandibular advancement. SLEEP 2013;36(3):397-404. PMID:23450677

Brown, Elizabeth C.; Cheng, Shaokoon; McKenzie, David K.; Butler, Jane E.; Gandevia, Simon C.; Bilston, Lynne E.

2013-01-01

372

The Effect of Lateral Epicondylosis on Upper Limb Mechanical Parameters  

PubMed Central

Background Lateral epicondylosis is a prevalent and costly musculoskeletal disorder characterized by degeneration of the common extensor tendon origin at the lateral epicondyle. Grip strength is commonly affected due to lateral epicondylosis. However, less is known about the effect of lateral epicondylosis on other functional parameters such as ability to react to rapid loading. Methods Twenty-nine lateral epicondylosis participants and ten controls participated in a case-control study comparing mechanical parameters (mass, stiffness and damping), magnetic resonance imaging signal intensity and grip strength of injured and uninjured limbs. A mixed effects model was used to assess the effect of dominance and injury on mechanical parameters and grip strength. Findings Significant effect of injury and dominance was observed on stiffness, damping and grip strength. An injured upper limb had, on average, 18% less stiffness (p<0.01, 95% CI [9.8%, 26%]), 21% less damping (p<0.01, 95% CI [11%, 31%]) and 50% less grip strength (p<0.01, 95% CI [37%, 61%]) than an uninjured upper limb. The dominant limb had on average 15% more stiffness (p<0.01, 95% CI [8.0%, 23%], 33% more damping (p<0.01, 95% CI [22%, 45%]), and 24% more grip strength (p<0.01, 95% CI [6.6%, 44%]) than the non-dominant limb. Interpretation Lower mechanical parameters are indicative of a lower capacity to oppose rapidly rising forces and quantify an important aspect of upper limb function. For individuals engaged in manual or repetitive activities involving the upper limb, a reduction in ability to oppose these forces may result in increased risk for injury or recurrence. PMID:21937156

Chourasia, Amrish O.; Buhr, Kevin A.; Rabago, David P.; Kijowski, Richard

2011-01-01

373

Pathological TDP43 distinguishes sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis withSOD1 mutations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a common, fatal motor neuron disorder with no effective treatment. Approx- imately 10% of cases are familial ALS (FALS), and the most common genetic abnormality is superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) mutations. Most ALS research in the past decade has focused on the neurotoxicity of mutant SOD1, and this knowledge has directed therapeutic strategies. We recently

Ian R. A. Mackenzie; Eileen H. Bigio; Paul G. Ince; Felix Geser; Manuela Neumann; Nigel J. Cairns; Linda K. Kwong; Mark S. Forman; John Ravits; Heather Stewart; Andrew Eisen; Leo McClusky; Hans A. Kretzschmar; Camelia M. Monoranu; J. Robin Highley; Janine Kirby; Teepu Siddique; Pamela J. Shaw; Virginia M. Y. Lee; John Q. Trojanowski

2007-01-01

374

Lateral diffusion of membrane-spanning and glycosylphosphatidylinositol- linked proteins: toward establishing rules governing the lateral mobility of membrane proteins  

PubMed Central

In the plasma membrane of animal cells, many membrane-spanning proteins exhibit lower lateral mobilities than glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked proteins. To determine if the GPI linkage was a major determinant of the high lateral mobility of these proteins, we measured the lateral diffusion of chimeric membrane proteins composed of normally transmembrane proteins that were converted to GPI-linked proteins, or GPI-linked proteins that were converted to membrane- spanning proteins. These studies indicate that GPI linkage contributes only marginally (approximately twofold) to the higher mobility of several GPI-linked proteins. The major determinant of the high mobility of these proteins resides instead in the extracellular domain. We propose that lack of interaction of the extracellular domain of this protein class with other cell surface components allows diffusion that is constrained only by the diffusion of the membrane anchor. In contrast, cell surface interactions of the ectodomain of membrane- spanning proteins exemplified by the vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein reduces their lateral diffusion coefficients by nearly 10- fold with respect to many GPI-linked proteins. PMID:1680869

1991-01-01

375

Phosphate starvation of maize inhibits lateral root formation and alters gene expression in the lateral root primordium zone  

PubMed Central

Background Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient for all living organisms. Maize (Zea mays) is an important human food, animal feed and energy crop throughout the world, and enormous quantities of phosphate fertilizer are required for maize cultivation. Thus, it is important to improve the efficiency of the use of phosphate fertilizer for maize. Results In this study, we analyzed the maize root response to phosphate starvation and performed a transcriptomic analysis of the 1.0-1.5?cm lateral root primordium zone. In the growth of plants, the root-to-shoot ratio (R/L) was reduced in both low-phosphate (LP) and sufficient-phosphate (SP) solutions, but the ratio (R/L) exhibited by the plants in the LP solution was higher than that of the SP plants. The growth of primary roots was slightly promoted after 6?days of phosphate starvation, whereas the numbers of lateral roots and lateral root primordia were significantly reduced, and these differences were increased when associated with the stress caused by phosphate starvation. Among the results of a transcriptomic analysis of the maize lateral root primordium zone, there were two highlights: 1) auxin signaling participated in the response and the modification of root morphology under low-phosphate conditions, which may occur via local concentration changes due to the biosynthesis and transport of auxin, and LOB domain proteins may be an intermediary between auxin signaling and root morphology; and 2) the observed retardation of lateral root development was the result of co-regulation of DNA replication, transcription, protein synthesis and degradation and cell growth. Conclusions These results indicated that maize roots show a different growth pattern than Arabidopsis under low-phosphate conditions, as the latter species has been observed to halt primary root growth when the root tip comes into contact with low-phosphate media. Moreover, our findings enrich our understanding of plant responses to phosphate deficits and of root morphogenesis in maize. PMID:22704465

2012-01-01

376

Direction-fixed paroxysmal nystagmus lateral canal benign paroxysmal positioning vertigo (BPPV): another form of lateral canalolithiasis.  

PubMed

Benign paroxysmal positioning vertigo (BPPV) is the most frequent vertiginous syndrome. It is caused either by free-floating otoliths in the semicircular canals (canalolithiasis) or by otoconial debris adhering to a canal cupula (cupulolithiasis). The posterior canal is the most frequently involved (80%), while the lateral canal is involved less frequently (15%), and the rarest conditions are anterior canalolithiasis and apogeotropic posterior canalolithiasis (5%). The main diagnostic sign of lateral canal BPPV is paroxysmal horizontal bidirectional positioning nystagmus evoked through Pagnini-McClure's test (head roll in the yaw plane in supine position). In the geotropic variant, which is more frequent, the fast phase of the nystagmus is directed towards the lowermost ear, when the patient lies on the affected side or on the healthy side; in the apogeotropic variant, which is less frequent, the fast phase is directed always toward the uppermost ear, regardless of which side the patient lies on. Paroxysmal nystagmus is more intense on the affected side in the geotropic form, and more intense on the healthy side in the apogeotropic form. The authors describe five cases of another primitive and rare form of lateral BPPV, defined as "direction-fixed paroxysmal nystagmus lateral canal BPPV", which has previously been described by other authors as a transitory step observed during the transformation from an apogeotropic into a geotropic form. It is characterized by typical BPPV symptoms and diagnosed by the presence of a paroxysmal horizontal unidirectional positioning nystagmus, evoked through Pagnini-McClure's test, which is apogeotropic on the affected side and geotropic on the healthy side. In the reported cases, direction-fixed horizontal paroxysmal nystagmus was always transformed into a typical geotropic form. The clinical features and pathophysiology of direction-fixed nystagmus lateral canal BPPV are discussed. PMID:24043913

Califano, L; Vassallo, A; Melillo, M G; Mazzone, S; Salafia, F

2013-08-01

377

Few-electron lateral resonant tunneling semiconductor devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effort here included design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization of lateral resonant tunneling and quantum point contact structures. Also included was a theoretical investigation of open quantum systems driven far from equilibrium, with emphasis on appropriate boundary conditions for solution of such systems. Accomplishments under this contract include the publication in Reviews of Modern Physics of the results of this foundational study, as well as the development of a graphics-oriented program for the computation and display of two-dimensional self-consistent energy band diagrams. The first lateral resonant tunneling transistors to exhibit both negative differential conductance and negative transconductance were demonstrated. The eigenstates of finite superlattices driven below the Stark localization threshold were also observed.

Bate, R. T.; Luscombe, J.; Frensley, W. R.; Randall, J. N.; Reed, M. A.

1991-04-01

378

Experimental and computational investigation of lateral gauge response in polycarbonate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycarbonate's use in personal armour systems means its high strain-rate response has been extensively studied. Interestingly, embedded lateral manganin stress gauges in polycarbonate have shown gradients behind incident shocks, suggestive of increasing shear strength. However, such gauges need to be embedded in a central (typically) epoxy interlayer -- an inherently invasive approach. Recently, research has suggested that in such metal systems interlayer/target impedance may contribute to observed gradients in lateral stress. Here, experimental T-gauge (Vishay Micro-Measurements type J2M-SS-580SF-025) traces from polycarbonate targets are compared to computational simulations. This work extends previous efforts such that similar impedance exists between the interlayer and matrix (target) interface. Further, experiments and simulations are presented investigating the effects of a ``dry joint'' in polycarbonate, in which no encapsulating medium is employed.

Eliot, Jim; Harris, Ernst; Hazell, Paul; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth; Winter, Ronald; Wood, David; Owen, Gareth

2011-06-01

379

Trace element evidence for a laterally inhomogeneous moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of trace element interrelationships support the concept of a laterally inhomogeneous moon based originally on Clr/P2O5 ratios. The correspondence between Clr/P2O3 and Rb/Sr ratios in basalts are of special interest since the isotropic evolution of the latter pair of elements relates to the earliest history of the moon. This implies the times when the Clr/P2O5 relationships were established. The early magma ocean is conjectured to have been made up of non-intermixing seas resulting either from large convection cells or large body accretion. These mutually exclusive regions could be lunar geological provinces. It is proposed that the diversity of basalts from the Apollo 17 site is related to the lateral inhomogeneity of the moon. Ca/Na ratios in basalts show a trend which parallels that of Ru/Os and in a corresponding fashion may serve as a depth indicator.

Jovanovic, S.; Reed, G. W., Jr.

1978-01-01

380

Endoscopic-Assisted Total Thyroidectomy via Lateral Keloid Scar Incision  

PubMed Central

Thyroidectomy is traditionally performed by the transcervical approach. To avoid or reduce visible scarring, diverse innovative surgical trials have been reported. Here we report a patient who underwent endoscopic thyroidectomy via a lateral keloid scar due to a previous traffic accident. A 30-year-old woman presented with a papillary thyroid carcinoma. Total thyroidectomy was performed via a keloid scar incision. The keloid scar was then revised. The total thyroidectomy was successful, resulting in no acute complications, such as neural injury, hematoma, or seroma formation. The keloid scar healed with excellent cosmetic results and the patient remains free of disease 12 months after excision. Endoscopic total thyroidectomy via a lateral keloid scar incision healed not only the physical disease but also the mental disease.

2014-01-01

381

Efficient multiframe super-resolution for imagery with lateral shifts.  

PubMed

Trade studies used to design optical imaging systems frequently result in systems being undersampled. The resolution of such systems is limited by the finite size of the detector pixels rather than the cutoff spatial frequency of the optical system. Multiframe super-resolution techniques can be used to combine a number of spatially displaced images from such systems into a single, high-resolution image. Nonlinear optimization techniques have frequently been used to solve this problem. Such techniques define an objective function and use numerical optimization methods to obtain a solution. These numerical methods are often more efficient when derivatives of the objective function with respect to the variables can be calculated analytically rather than numerically. We demonstrate for the simple motion model of pure lateral translation that the derivatives of the objective function with respect to the image lateral shifts can be calculated analytically to speed optimization calculations. PMID:25321136

Kouri, Drew P; Shields, Eric A

2014-08-20

382

Lateral inhibition pyramidal neural network for image classification.  

PubMed

The human visual system is one of the most fascinating and complex mechanisms of the central nervous system that enables our capacity to see. It is through the visual system that we are able to accomplish from the most simple task such as object recognition to the most complex visual interpretation, understanding and perception. Inspired by this sophisticated system, two models based on the properties of the human visual system are proposed. These models are designed based on the concepts of receptive and inhibitory fields. The first model is a pyramidal neural network with lateral inhibition, called lateral inhibition pyramidal neural network. The second proposed model is a supervised image segmentation system, called segmentation and classification based on receptive fields. This work shows that the combination of these two models is beneficial, and the results obtained are better than that of other state-of-the-art methods. PMID:23757517

Fernandes, Bruno José Torres; Cavalcanti, George D C; Ren, Tsang Ing

2013-12-01

383

Photoluminescence structure, and composition of laterally anodized porous Si  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have studied the photoluminescence (PL), structure, and composition of laterally anodized porous Si. Broad PL peaks were observed centered between about 620-720 nm with strong intensities measured from 500 to 860 nm. Macroscopic variations in PL intensities and peak positions are explained in terms of the structure and anodization process. Structural studies suggest that the PL appears to originate from a multilayered porous Si structure in which the top two layers are amorphous. X-ray diffraction spectra also suggest the presence of a significant amorphous phase. In addition to high concentrations of B and N, we have measured extremely high concentrations much greater than 10 exp 20 cu cm of H, C, O, and F. Our results indicate that laterally anodized porous Si does not fit the crystalline Si quantum wire model prevalent in the literature suggesting that some other structure is responsible for the observed luminescence.

Jung, K. H.; Shih, S.; Kwong, D. L.; George, T.; Lin, T. L.; Liu, H. Y.; Zavada, J.

1992-01-01

384

The evolution and development of vertebrate lateral line electroreceptors.  

PubMed

Electroreception is an ancient vertebrate sense with a fascinating evolutionary history involving multiple losses as well as independent evolution at least twice within teleosts. We review the phylogenetic distribution of electroreception and the morphology and innervation of electroreceptors in different vertebrate groups. We summarise recent work from our laboratory that has confirmed the homology of ampullary electroreceptors in non-teleost jawed vertebrates by showing, in conjunction with previously published work, that these are derived embryonically from lateral line placodes. Finally, we review hypotheses to explain the distribution of electroreception within teleosts, including the hypothesis that teleost ampullary and tuberous electroreceptors evolved via the modification of mechanosensory hair cells in lateral line neuromasts. We conclude that further experimental work on teleost electroreceptor development is needed to test such hypotheses. PMID:23761476

Baker, Clare V H; Modrell, Melinda S; Gillis, J Andrew

2013-07-01

385

Lateral optical force on chiral particles near a surface.  

PubMed

Light can exert radiation pressure on any object it encounters and that resulting optical force can be used to manipulate particles. It is commonly assumed that light should move a particle forward and indeed an incident plane wave with a photon momentum ?k can only push any particle, independent of its properties, in the direction of k. Here we demonstrate, using full-wave simulations, that an anomalous lateral force can be induced in a direction perpendicular to that of the incident photon momentum if a chiral particle is placed above a substrate that does not break any left-right symmetry. Analytical theory shows that the lateral force emerges from the coupling between structural chirality (the handedness of the chiral particle) and the light reflected from the substrate surface. Such coupling induces a sideway force that pushes chiral particles with opposite handedness in opposite directions. PMID:24598792

Wang, S B; Chan, C T

2014-01-01

386

Lateral optical force on chiral particles near a surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light can exert radiation pressure on any object it encounters and that resulting optical force can be used to manipulate particles. It is commonly assumed that light should move a particle forward and indeed an incident plane wave with a photon momentum ?k can only push any particle, independent of its properties, in the direction of k. Here we demonstrate, using full-wave simulations, that an anomalous lateral force can be induced in a direction perpendicular to that of the incident photon momentum if a chiral particle is placed above a substrate that does not break any left-right symmetry. Analytical theory shows that the lateral force emerges from the coupling between structural chirality (the handedness of the chiral particle) and the light reflected from the substrate surface. Such coupling induces a sideway force that pushes chiral particles with opposite handedness in opposite directions.

Wang, S. B.; Chan, C. T.

2014-03-01

387

Altered Reactivity of Superoxide Dismutase in Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A subset of individuals with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) possesses dominantly inherited mutations in the gene that encodes copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD). A4V and G93A, two of the mutant enzymes associated with FALS, were shown to catalyze the oxidation of a model substrate (spin trap 5,5'-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide) by hydrogen peroxide at a higher rate than that seen with the

Martina Wiedau-Pazos; Joy J. Goto; Shahrooz Rabizadeh; Edith B. Gralla; James A. Roe; Michael K. Lee; Joan S. Valentine; Dale E. Bredesen

1996-01-01

388

SOD1 and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Mutations and Oligomerization  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are about 100 single point mutations of copper, zinc superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) which are reported (http:\\/\\/alsod.iop.kcl.ac.uk\\/Als\\/index.aspx) to be related to the familial form (fALS) of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). These mutations are spread all over the protein. It is well documented that fALS produces protein aggregates in the motor neurons of fALS patients, which have been found to

Lucia Banci; Ivano Bertini; Mirela Boca; Stefania Girotto; Manuele Martinelli; Joan Selverstone Valentine; Miguela Vieru; Sotirios Koutsopoulos

2008-01-01

389

Using Lateral Coupled Snakes for Modeling the Contours of Worms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model called lateral coupled snakes is proposed to describe the contours of moving C. elegans worms on 2D images with high accuracy. The model comprises two curves with point correspondence between them. The line linking a corresponding pair is approximately perpendicular to the curves at the two points, which is ensured by shear restoring forces. Experimental proofs reveal that the model is a promising tool for locating and segmenting worms or objects with similar shapes.

Wang, Qing; Ronneberger, Olaf; Schulze, Ekkehard; Baumeister, Ralf; Burkhardt, Hans

390

Waveguided spoof surface plasmons with deep-subwavelength lateral confinement.  

PubMed

We present a new type of waveguide scheme for terahertz circuitry based on the concept of spoof surface plasmons. This structure is composed of a one-dimensional array of L-shaped metallic elements horizontally attached to a metal surface. The dispersion relation of the surface electromagnetic modes supported by this system presents a very weak dependence with the lateral dimension and the modes are very deep-subwavelength confined with a long-enough propagation length. PMID:22139267

Martin-Cano, Diego; Quevedo-Teruel, O; Moreno, Esteban; Martin-Moreno, L; Garcia-Vidal, F J

2011-12-01

391

Detection of lateral composition modulation by magnetoexciton spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

An experimental signature for detecting spontaneous lateral composition modulation in a (InAs){sub n}/(GaAs){sub m} short period superlattice on an InP substrate based on magnetoexciton spectroscopy described. The authors find by aligning the magnetic field in three crystallographic directions, one parallel to and the other two perpendicular to the composition modulation direction, that the magnetoexciton shifts are anisotropic and are a good indicator for the presence of composition modulation.

Jones, E.D.; Millunchick, J.M.; Follstaedt, D.; Lee, S.; Reno, J.; Twesten, R.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zhang, Y.; Mascerenhas, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1997-07-10

392

Lateral internal sphincterotomy in the treatment of hemorrhoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a microtip pressure transducer, anorectal manometry was performed in 119 patients with symptomatic hemorrhoids. In 96\\u000a patients (80.7 percent), a high anal pressure (>125 cm\\/H2O) was found. These patients were treated by lateral internal sphincterotomy, carried out under local anesthesia. In 23 patients\\u000a 919.3 percent), a normal or low anal pressure (2O) was found. These patients were treated by

W. Rudolf Schouten; Theo J. Van Vroonhoven

1986-01-01

393

Carbon nanotube labeled immunosensor for lateral flow diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development and demonstration of a new immunosensor utilizing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) labeled antibodies on lateral flow system. The developed immunosensor utilizes the unique properties of carbon nanotubes coupled with highly specific biorecognition capabilities of antibodies for sensitive, low-concentration, and rapid detection mechanism. Carbon nano-tubes are excellent electrical conductors, and have chemical stability, color generation, and

Adeyabeba Abera; Jin-Woo Choi

2009-01-01

394

Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Asymmetric development of plant lateral organs initiates by partitioning of organ primordia into distinct domains along their adaxial\\/abaxial axis. A recent model proposes that a meristem-born signal, acting in a concentration-dependent manner, differentially activates PHABULOSA-like genes, which in turn suppress abaxial-promoting factors. As yet, no abaxial factors have been identified that when compromised give rise to adaxialized organs.Results: Single

Yuval Eshed; Stuart F. Baum; John V. Perea; John L. Bowman

2001-01-01

395

Resolution of lateral acoustic space assessed by electroencephalography and psychoacoustics  

PubMed Central

The encoding of auditory spatial acuity (measured as the precision to distinguish between two spatially distinct stimuli) by neural circuits in both auditory cortices is a matter of ongoing research. Here, the event-related potential (ERP) mismatch negativity (MMN), a sensitive indicator of preattentive auditory change detection, was used to tap into the underlying mechanism of cortical representation of auditory spatial information. We characterized the MMN response affected by the degree of spatial deviance in lateral acoustic space using a passive oddball paradigm. Two stimulation conditions (SCs)—specifically focusing on the investigation of the mid- and far-lateral acoustic space—were considered: (1) 65° left standard position with deviant positions at 70, 75, and 80°; and (2) 95° left standard position with deviant positions at 90, 85, and 80°. Additionally, behavioral data on the minimum audible angle (MAA) were acquired for the respective standard positions (65, 95° left) to quantify spatial discrimination in separating distinct sound sources. The two measurements disclosed the linkage between the (preattentive) MMN response and the (attentive) behavioral threshold. At 65° spatial deviations as small as 5° reliably elicited MMNs. Thereby, the MMN amplitudes monotonously increased as a function of spatial deviation. At 95°, spatial deviations of 15° were necessary to elicit a valid MMN. The behavioral data, however, yielded no difference in mean MAA thresholds for position 65 and 95°. The different effects of laterality on MMN responses and MAA thresholds suggest a role of spatial selective attention mechanisms particularly relevant in active discrimination of neighboring sound sources, especially in the lateral acoustic space. PMID:23781211

Bennemann, Jan; Freigang, Claudia; Schroger, Erich; Rubsamen, Rudolf; Richter, Nicole

2013-01-01

396

Cornering stiffness estimation based on vehicle lateral dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the cornering stiffness estimation problem based on the vehicle bicycle (one-track) model is studied. Both time-domain and frequency-domain-based methods are analyzed, aiming to estimate the effective cornering stiffness, defined as the ratio between the lateral force and the slip angle at the two axles. Several methods based on the bicycle model were developed, each having specific pros\\/cons

C. Sierra; E. Tseng; A. Jain; H. Peng

2006-01-01

397

Hydrostatic strain enhancement in laterally confined SiGe nanostripes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strain engineering in SiGe nanostructures is fundamental for the design of optoelectronic devices at the nanoscale. Here we explore a new strategy, where SiGe structures are laterally confined by the Si substrate, to obtain high tensile strain yet avoid the use of external stressors, thus improving the scalability. Spectromicroscopy techniques, finite element method simulations, and ab initio calculations are used to investigate the strain state of laterally confined Ge-rich SiGe nanostripes. Strain information is obtained by tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with an unprecedented lateral resolution of ˜30 nm. The nanostripes exhibit a large tensile hydrostatic strain component, which is maximal at the center of the top free surface and becomes very small at the edges. The maximum lattice deformation is larger than the typical values of thermally relaxed Ge/Si(001) layers. This strain enhancement originates from a frustrated relaxation in the out-of-plane direction, resulting from the combination of the lateral confinement induced by the substrate side walls and the plastic relaxation of the misfit strain in the (001) plane at the SiGe/Si interface. The effect of this tensile lattice deformation at the stripe surface is probed by work function mapping, which is performed with a spatial resolution better than 100 nm using x-ray photoelectron emission microscopy. The nanostripes exhibit a positive work function shift with respect to a bulk SiGe alloy, quantitatively confirmed by electronic structure calculations of tensile-strained configurations. The present results have a potential impact on the design of optoelectronic devices at a nanometer-length scale.

Vanacore, G. M.; Chaigneau, M.; Barrett, N.; Bollani, M.; Boioli, F.; Salvalaglio, M.; Montalenti, F.; Manini, N.; Caramella, L.; Biagioni, P.; Chrastina, D.; Isella, G.; Renault, O.; Zani, M.; Sordan, R.; Onida, G.; Ossikovski, R.; Drouhin, H.-J.; Tagliaferri, A.

2013-09-01

398

Lateral piezoelectric response across ferroelectric domain walls in thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

In purely c-axis oriented PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 ferroelectric thin films, a lateral piezoresponse force microscopy signal is observed at the position of 180° domain walls, where the out-of-plane oriented polarization is reversed. Using electric force microscopy measurements we exclude electrostatic effects as the origin of this signal. Moreover, our mechanical simulations of the tip\\/cantilever system show that the small tilt of the

J. Guyonnet; H. Béa; P. Paruch

2010-01-01

399

[Dento-alveolar cleft and the lateral incisor].  

PubMed

In the period of 1980 to 1990, 55 cleft, lip and palate patients, ranging in age from nine to twelve years, were treated. With 52% of them the lateral incisor on the cleft side was agenetic, in 24% normally developed and in 24% malformed. The malformed and the fissural teeth were removed during bone grafting of the dento-alveolar cleft. In almost all cases a well-formed tooth arch could be obtained by orthodontic treatment. PMID:11917879

van der Wal, K G

1993-10-01

400

Lateral migration of linear dunes in the Strzelecki Desert, Australia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Preferential accumulation of sand on east-facing flanks indicates that the dunes migrated eastward several metres during the Holocene. Moreover, the west-facing flanks of some dunes have experienced a minimum of tens of metres of erosion. This asymmetric erosion and deposition were caused by dune obliquity and lateral migration that may have begun as early as the Pleistocene. Dunes in the Strzelecki Desert and in the adjacent Simpson Desert display a variety of grossly different internal structures. -from Author

Rubin, D.M.

1990-01-01

401

Minimally invasive lateral lumbar interbody fusion with direct psoas visualization  

PubMed Central

Background Minimally invasive lateral approaches to the lumbar spine have been adopted to allow access to the intervertebral disc space while avoiding the complications associated with anterior or posterior approaches. This report describes a minimally invasive technique for lateral lumbar interbody fusion LLIF that allows direct intraoperative visualization of the psoas and surrounding neurovasculature (DV-LIF). Methods The technique utilizes a radiolucent tubular retractor and a secondary psoas retractor that allows a muscle-sparing approach while offering excellent visualization of the operative site. The unique advantage of this procedure is that the psoas muscle and surrounding nerves can be directly visualized intraoperatively to supplement neuromonitoring. We retrospectively reviewed complication rates in 34 patients treated with DV-LLIF (n?=?19) or standard lateral lumbar interbody fusion (S-LLIF, n?=?15). Results There were 29 complications (median: 1 per patient) with DV-LLIF and 20 (median: 1 per patient) complications with S-LLIF. Postoperative sensory deficits were reported in eight (42%) and seven (47%) patients, respectively. Thigh pain or numbness was reported in eight (42%) and five (33%) patients, respectively. The percentage of the overall complications directly attributable to the procedure was 69% with DV-LLIF and 83% with S-LLIF. One severe complication (back pain) was reported in one DV-LLIF patient and four severe complications (severe bleeding, respiratory failure, deep venous thrombosis and gastrointestinal prophylaxis, and nicked renal vein and aborted procedure) were reported in two S-LLIF patients. Conclusions Preliminary evidence suggests that minimally invasive lateral interbody fusion with direct psoas visualization may reduce the risk for severe procedural complications. PMID:24666669

2014-01-01

402

LiTaO3 lateral field resonators  

Microsoft Academic Search

High overtone lateral field resonators, fabricated on -16.5° rotated Y-cut LiTaO3 plates, were examined for high- Q operation in the frequency range between 300 MHz and 1000 MHz. QF products of up to 5×1013 for unmounted plates and for hard-mounted plates have been measured. The QF product is higher than can be achieved with quartz, and the self-noise levels of

R. W. Weinert; B. R. McAvoy; M. M. Driscoll; R. A. Moore; H. F. Tiersten

1989-01-01

403

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Multiprotein Biomarkers in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal progressive motor neuron disease, for which there are still no diagnostic\\/prognostic test and therapy. Specific molecular biomarkers are urgently needed to facilitate clinical studies and speed up the development of effective treatments.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe used a two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis approach to identify in easily accessible clinical samples, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC),

Giovanni Nardo; Silvia Pozzi; Mauro Pignataro; Eliana Lauranzano; Giorgia Spano; Silvia Garbelli; Stefania Mantovani; Kalliopi Marinou; Laura Papetti; Marta Monteforte; Valter Torri; Luca Paris; Gianfranco Bazzoni; Christian Lunetta; Massimo Corbo; Gabriele Mora; Caterina Bendotti; Valentina Bonetto; Harish Pant

2011-01-01

404

Early Math Matters: Kindergarten Number Competence and Later Mathematics Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children’s number competencies over 6 time points, from the beginning of kindergarten to the middle of 1st grade, were examined in relation to their mathematics achievement over 5 later time points, from the end of 1st grade to the end of 3rd grade. The relation between early number competence and mathematics achievement was strong and significant throughout the study period.

Nancy C. Jordan; David Kaplan; Chaitanya Ramineni; Maria N. Locuniak

2009-01-01

405

Lagged cells in alert monkey lateral geniculate nucleus.  

PubMed

Five lagged cells were recognized by extracellular recording in the lateral geniculate nucleus of an awake, behaving macaque monkey. Previous reports of lagged cells were all in the anesthetized cat. Both parvocellular and magnocellular lagged cells were observed. Response timing was distributed continuously across the population, and both sustained and transient responses were seen in the magnocellular subpopulation. Cortex thus receives signals with a wide range of timing, which can mediate direction selectivity across multiple dimensions. PMID:19000330

Saul, Alan B

2008-01-01

406

Cushioning and lateral stability functions of cloth sport shoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we evaluated the protective functions of cloth sport shoes, including cushioning and lateral stability. Twelve male students participated in the study (mean ± s: age 12.7 ± 0.4 years, mass 40.7 ± 5.9 kg, height 1.50 ± 0.04 m). Cloth sport shoes, running shoes, basketball shoes, cross-training shoes, and barefoot conditions were investigated in random sequence. Human pendulum and cutting movement tests were used to assess

Daniel Tik-Pui Fong; Youlian Hong; Jing Xian Li

2007-01-01

407

Lateral line, otic and epibranchial placodes: developmental and evolutionary links?  

PubMed Central

Two embryonic cell populations, the neural crest and cranial ectodermal placodes, between them give rise to many of the unique characters of vertebrates. Neurogenic placode derivatives are vital for sensing both external and internal stimuli. In this speculative review, we discuss potential developmental and evolutionary relationships between two placode series that are usually considered to be entirely independent: lateral line placodes, which form the mechanosensory and electroreceptive hair cells of the anamniote lateral line system as well as their afferent neurons, and epibranchial placodes (geniculate, petrosal and nodose), which form Phox2b+ visceral sensory neurons with input from both the external and internal environment. We illustrate their development using molecular data we recently obtained in shark embryos, and we describe their derivatives, including the possible geniculate placode origin of a mechanosensory sense organ associated with the first pharyngeal pouch/cleft (the anamniote spiracular organ/amniote paratympanic organ). We discuss how both lateral line and epibranchial placodes can be related in different ways to the otic placode (which forms the inner ear and its afferent neurons), and how both are important for protective somatic reflexes. Finally, we put forward a highly speculative proposal about the original function of the cells whose evolutionary descendants today include the derivatives of the lateral line, otic and epibranchial placodes, namely that they produced sensory receptors and neurons for Phox2b-dependent protective reflex circuits. We hope this review will stimulate both debate and a fresh look at possible developmental and evolutionary relationships between these seemingly disparate and independent placodes. PMID:17638322

Baker, Clare V. H.; O’Neill, Paul; McCole, Ruth B.

2014-01-01

408

LATERAL GENE TRANSFER AND THE ORIGINS OF PROKARYOTIC GROUPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Lateral gene transfer (LGT) is now,known,to be a major force in the evolution of prokaryotic genomes. To date, most analyses have focused on either (a) verifying phylogenies of individual genes thought to have been transferred, or (b) estimating the fraction of individual genomes,likely to have been introduced by transfer. Neither approach,does justice to the ability of LGT to

Yan Boucher; Christophe J. Douady; R. Thane Papke; David A. Walsh; Mary Ellen R. Boudreau; Camilla L. Nesbo; Rebecca J. Case; W. Ford Doolittle

2003-01-01

409

ER Stress and Unfolded Protein Response in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several theories on the pathomechanism of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have been proposed: misfolded protein aggregates,\\u000a mitochondrial dysfunction, increased glutamate toxicity, increased oxidative stress, disturbance of intracellular trafficking,\\u000a and so on. In parallel, a number of drugs that have been developed to alleviate the putative key pathomechanism of ALS have\\u000a been under clinical trials. Unfortunately, however, almost all studies have

Kohsuke Kanekura; Hiroaki Suzuki; Sadakazu Aiso; Masaaki Matsuoka

2009-01-01

410

Structural transitions in laterally compressed two-dimensional Coulomb clusters  

SciTech Connect

We model structural transitions of small-size Wigner crystals in laterally compressed two-dimensional traps. Ground and metastable configurations are calculated and their transformations are linked to conspicuous changes in the heat capacity of the system. We show that various types of structural transitions are reflected by characteristic features in the behavior of the heat capacity. For deeper understanding, results produced by the Monte Carlo numerical calculations are compared to predictions of simple one-dimensional models.

Rancova, O.; Anisimovas, E.; Varanavicius, T. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Vilnius University, Sauletekio 9, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania)

2011-03-15

411

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and neurosarcoidosis: a case report.  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) remains a clinical diagnosis without definable biomarkers. The pathomechanism of motor neuron degeneration in ALS has yet to be elucidated. Here we present a case of limb-onset ALS, with autopsy findings of Bunina bodies and skein-like inclusions, as well as sarcoid granulomas predominating among motor neurons. The targeting of the motor neurons by the sarcoid inflammation raises questions regarding the role of cellular immunity in the pathomechanisms for ALS. PMID:19127576

Chen, I-Hweii Amy; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Vonsattel, Jean P; Hays, Arthur P

2009-02-01

412

Growth of girls who later develop coronary heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the path of growth of girls who later develop coronary heart disease.Design: Follow up study of girls whose body size at birth, during infancy, and childhood up to age 12 years was recorded.Setting: Helsinki, Finland.Participants: 4130 girls who were born between 1934 and 1944, attended child welfare clinics in Helsinki, and were still resident in Finland in

T Forse?n; C Osmond; J G Eriksson; D J P Barker

2004-01-01

413

Lateral Root Initiation or the Birth of a New Meristem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root branching happens through the formation of new meristems out of a limited number of pericycle cells inside the parent\\u000a root. As opposed to shoot branching, the study of lateral root formation has been complicated due to its internal nature,\\u000a and a lot of questions remain unanswered. However, due to the availability of new molecular tools and more complete genomic

Ive De Smet; Steffen Vanneste; Dirk Inzé; Tom Beeckman

2006-01-01

414

Lumbar extension in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: effect on lateral curvature.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that a lumbar pad producing extension of the lumbar spine is of value in posture support seats for children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Our method was to establish whether or not an increase in lumbar lordosis produced any increase in resistance to static lateral curvature of the supine lumbar spine. Nine boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy were studied at an age when they were about to go into a wheelchair or had recently become wheelchair mobile. In each case the child lay supine on low-friction material on an x-ray table while the spine was flexed first to the right and then to the left, with and without a lumbar pad, by a predetermined force. The degree of lateral curvature was measured from anteroposterior radiographs. While lateral forces were applied when the boys were supine rather than seated, the results failed to show a difference in curvature with or without the lumbar pad. PMID:3985776

Seeger, B R; Sutherland, A D

1985-04-01

415

Wavefield features of teleseismic receiver function in laterally inhomogeneous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we systematically investigate the effects of laterally inhomogeneous crustal structure with planar dipping interfaces on the teleseismic receiver function. For this purpose the synthetic receiver functions in the 3-D laterally inhomogeneous media are computed using the Maslov asymptotic ray method (CHEN, LIU, 1999). Our results demonstrate that the symmetric and asymmetric variations above the sources azimuths appear on the radial and transverse components of the receiver function, respectively. The dipping direction and dipping angle of the interface beneath the station can be estimated from these features. But, when several different dipping interfaces exist within the crust, only an apparent dipping direction can be inferred from the waveform variations of the receiver function over different azimuths at a single station. By analyzing our observational data is shown that the planar dipping interface is a well first-order approximation for investigating the crustal lateral inhomogeneity, when only data recorded at a single station are used. And our results given in this study are consistent with those given by seismic array study.

Chen, Jiu-Hui; Liu, Qi-Yuan

2000-11-01

416

Visual perspective taking and laterality decisions: Problems and possible solutions.  

PubMed

Perspective taking plays an important role in different areas of psychological and neuroscientific research. Visual perspective taking is an especially prominent approach generally using one of two experimental tasks: in the own-body-transformation task observers are asked to judge the laterality of a salient feature of a human figure (e.g., is the glove on the left or right hand?) from the figure's perspective. In the avatar-in-scene task they decide about the laterality of objects in a scene (e.g., is the flower on the left or right?) from the avatar's point of view. Increases in latencies and/or errors are interpreted as originating from additional cognitive processes predominately described as observer-based perspective transformations. A closer look reveals that such an account is disputable on grounds related to the use of laterality judgments. Other transformation accounts, i.e., object or array transformations, as well as non-transformational accounts, i.e., extra processing due to spatial conflicts, have not been adequately considered, tested, or ruled out by existing research. Our review examines visual perspective tasks in detail, identifies problems and makes recommendations for future research. PMID:24046744

May, Mark; Wendt, Mike

2013-01-01

417

Transitions Into and Out of Cohabitation in Later Life  

PubMed Central

Cohabitation among adults over age 50 is rising rapidly, more than doubling from 1.2 million in 2000 to 2.75 million in 2010. A small literature provides a descriptive portrait of older cohabitors, but no study has investigated transitions into and out of cohabitation during later life. Drawing on demographic and life course perspectives, the authors developed a framework for conceptualizing later life union behaviors. Using data from the 1998 – 2006 Health and Retirement Study, they estimated discrete -time event-history models predicting union formation (i.e., cohabitation or marriage) among older unmarried individuals (N = 3,736) as well as transitions to either marriage or separation among older cohabitors (N = 377). Those who formed a union were as likely to be in a cohabiting relationship as a marriage. Older adult cohabiting unions were quite stable and unlikely to culminate in either marriage or separation. During later life, cohabitation appears to operate as a long-term alternative to marriage. PMID:23226875

Brown, Susan L.; Bulanda, Jennifer Roebuck; Lee, Gary R.

2012-01-01

418

Word frequency and the lateralization of lexical processes.  

PubMed

Despite the extensive clinical and neuropsychological evidence for major differences in language function between the left and right hemispheres, it has proven difficult to demonstrate reliable differences in lexical processing. It is particularly surprising that frequency has been found to have no differential effects upon word recognition in the hemispheres, in view of the evidence that this variable has significant effects upon lexical processing. It is possible, however, that any interaction between word frequency and hemispheric processes is too subtle or too complex to be revealed by the simple dichotomous studies previously attempted. This study manipulated word frequency across seven levels in an effort to provide a fine-grained insight into the relationship between word frequency and lexical processing in the hemispheres. The results revealed a clear additivity between visual field and word frequency across all levels of frequency, for both RT and errors. Such findings create difficulties for the interpretation of studies of lateralized lexical access in general, and are particularly hard to reconcile with lateral asymmetries revealed in other aspects of lexical processing. It is proposed that a resolution of this problem may depend upon the development of theories that emphasise the notion of laterally distributed word representations, rather than discrete lexical structures on each side of the brain. PMID:15488913

Coney, Jeffrey

2005-01-01

419

Putative lateral inhibition in sensory processing for directional turns  

PubMed Central

Computing targeted responses is a general problem in goal-directed behaviors. We sought the sensory template for directional turning in the predatory sea slug Pleurobranchaea californica, which calculates precise turn angles by averaging multiple stimulus sites on its chemotactile oral veil (Yafremava LS, Anthony CW, Lane L, Campbell JK, Gillette R. J Exp Biol 210: 561–569, 2007). Spiking responses to appetitive chemotactile stimulation were recorded in the two bilateral pairs of oral veil nerves, the large oral veil nerve (LOVN) and the tentacle nerve (TN). The integrative abilities of the peripheral nervous system were significant. Nerve spiking responses to punctate, one-site stimulation of the oral veil followed sigmoid relations as stimuli moved between lateral tentacle and the midline. Receptive fields of LOVN and TN were unilateral, overlapping, and oppositely weighted for responsiveness across the length of oral veil. Simultaneous two-site stimulation caused responses of amplitudes markedly smaller than the sum of corresponding one-site responses. Plots of two-site nerve responses against the summed approximate distances from midline of each site were markedly linear. Thus the sensory paths in the peripheral nervous system show reciprocal occlusion similar to lateral inhibition. This outcome suggests a novel neural function for lateral inhibitory mechanisms, distinct from simple contrast enhancement, in computation of both sensory maps and targeted motor actions. PMID:21490281

Yafremava, Liudmila S.

2011-01-01

420

An auxin transport mechanism restricts positive orthogravitropism in lateral roots.  

PubMed

As soon as a seed germinates, plant growth relates to gravity to ensure that the root penetrates the soil and the shoot expands aerially. Whereas mechanisms of positive and negative orthogravitropism of primary roots and shoots are relatively well understood, lateral organs often show more complex growth behavior. Lateral roots (LRs) seemingly suppress positive gravitropic growth and show a defined gravitropic set-point angle (GSA) that allows radial expansion of the root system (plagiotropism). Despite its eminent importance for root architecture, it so far remains completely unknown how lateral organs partially suppress positive orthogravitropism. Here we show that the phytohormone auxin steers GSA formation and limits positive orthogravitropism in LR. Low and high auxin levels/signaling lead to radial or axial root systems, respectively. At a cellular level, it is the auxin transport-dependent regulation of asymmetric growth in the elongation zone that determines GSA. Our data suggest that strong repression of PIN4/PIN7 and transient PIN3 expression limit auxin redistribution in young LR columella cells. We conclude that PIN activity, by temporally limiting the asymmetric auxin fluxes in the tip of LRs, induces transient, differential growth responses in the elongation zone and, consequently, controls root architecture. PMID:23583551

Rosquete, Michel Ruiz; von Wangenheim, Daniel; Marhavý, Peter; Barbez, Elke; Stelzer, Ernst H K; Benková, Eva; Maizel, Alexis; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen

2013-05-01

421

Hand preference for precision grasping predicts language lateralization.  

PubMed

We investigated whether or not there is a relationship between hand preference for grasping and hemispheric dominance for language--and how each of these is related to other traditional measures of handedness. To do this we asked right- and left-handed participants to put together two different sets of 3D puzzles made out of big or very small LEGO pieces. Participants were also given two self-reported handedness questionnaires, as well as tests of grip force and finger tapping speed. A language lateralization (dichotic listening) test was also administered. We found a positive correlation between hand use for precision grasping and language lateralization (i.e. the more participants used their right hand for grasping the small LEGO pieces, the more language was lateralized to the left hemisphere). In addition, we identified two populations of left-handers according to their grasping performance: 'left-right-handers', who behaved exactly like right-handers; and 'left-left-handers' whose performance was the mirror image of that of right-handers. Finally, we found an increase in right-hand use when right-handers and 'left-right-handers' had to pick up the small LEGO pieces. We discuss our results in relation to recent notions of left-hemisphere specialization for visually guided actions and its relationship with the evolution of language. PMID:19654015

Gonzalez, Claudia L R; Goodale, Melvyn A

2009-12-01

422

Separation of deformable particles in deterministic lateral displacement devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using numerical simulations, we study the separation of deformable bodies, such as capsules, vesicles, and cells, in deterministic lateral displacement devices, also known as bump arrays. These arrays comprise regular rows of obstacles such as micropillars whose arrangements are shifted between adjacent rows by a fixed amount. We show that, in addition to the zigzag and laterally displaced trajectories that have been observed experimentally, there exists a third type of trajectory which we call dispersive, characterized by seemingly random bumpings off the micropillars. These dispersive trajectories are observed only for large and rigid particles whose diameters are approximately more than half the gap size between micropillars and whose stiffness exceeds approximately 500 MPa. We then map out the regions in phase space, spanned by the row shift, row separation, particle diameter, and particle deformability, in which the different types of trajectories are expected. We also show that, in this phase space, it is possible to transition from zigzag to dispersive trajectories, bypassing lateral displacement. Experimentally, this is undesirable because it limits the ability of the device to sort particles according to size. Finally, we discuss how our numerical simulations may be of use in device prototyping and optimization.

Quek, Raymond; Le, Duc Vinh; Chiam, K.-H.

2011-05-01

423

Lateralization of social cognition in the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus)  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we report on the ongoing work in our laboratories on the effect of lateralization produced by light exposure in the egg on social cognition in the domestic chick (Gallus gallus). The domestic chick possesses a lateralized visual system. This has effects on the chick's perception towards and interaction with its environment. This includes its ability to live successfully within a social group. We show that there is a tendency for right brain hemisphere dominance when performing social cognitive actions. As such, chicks show a left hemispatial bias for approaching a signalled target object, tend to perceive gaze and faces of human-like masks more effectively when using their left eye, are able to inhibit a pecking response more effectively when viewing a neighbour tasting a bitter substance with their left eye, and are better able to perform a transitive inference task when exposed to light in the egg and when forced to use their left eye only compared to dark-hatched or right eye chicks. Some of these effects were sex specific, with male chicks tending to show an increased effect of lateralization on their behaviours. These data are discussed in terms of overall social cognition in group living. PMID:19064355

Daisley, Jonathan Niall; Mascalzoni, Elena; Rosa-Salva, Orsola; Rugani, Rosa; Regolin, Lucia

2008-01-01

424

Transitions Into and Out of Cohabitation in Later Life.  

PubMed

Cohabitation among adults over age 50 is rising rapidly, more than doubling from 1.2 million in 2000 to 2.75 million in 2010. A small literature provides a descriptive portrait of older cohabitors, but no study has investigated transitions into and out of cohabitation during later life. Drawing on demographic and life course perspectives, the authors developed a framework for conceptualizing later life union behaviors. Using data from the 1998 - 2006 Health and Retirement Study, they estimated discrete -time event-history models predicting union formation (i.e., cohabitation or marriage) among older unmarried individuals (N = 3,736) as well as transitions to either marriage or separation among older cohabitors (N = 377). Those who formed a union were as likely to be in a cohabiting relationship as a marriage. Older adult cohabiting unions were quite stable and unlikely to culminate in either marriage or separation. During later life, cohabitation appears to operate as a long-term alternative to marriage. PMID:23226875

Brown, Susan L; Bulanda, Jennifer Roebuck; Lee, Gary R

2012-08-01

425

Functional MRI of Language Lateralization During Development in Children  

PubMed Central

Changes in the distribution of language function in the brain have been documented from infancy through adulthood. Even macroscopic measures of language lateralization reflect a dynamic process of language development. In this review, we summarize a series of functional MRI studies of language skills in children ages of 5 to 18 years, both typically-developing children and children with brain injuries or neurological disorders that occur at different developmental stages, with different degrees of severity. These studies used a battery of fMRI-compatible language tasks designed to tap sentential and lexical language skills that develop early and later in childhood. In typically-developing children, lateralization changes with age are associated with language skills that have a protracted period of development, reflecting the developmental process of skill acquisition rather than general maturation of the brain. Normative data, across the developmental period, acts as a reference for disentangling developmental patterns in brain activation from changes due to developmental or acquired abnormalities. This review emphasizes the importance of considering age and child development in neuroimaging studies of language. PMID:17828669

Holland, Scott K.; Vannest, Jennifer; Mecoli, Marc; Jacola, Lisa M.; Tillema, Jan-Mendelt; Karunanayaka, Prasanna R.; Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Yuan, Weihong; Plante, Elena; Byars, Anna W.

2009-01-01

426

Isolation and characterization of a short lateral root mutant in rice ( Oryza sativa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proper initiation and elongation of lateral roots are the important factors that determine the architecture of plant roots. However, little is known about the mechanisms controlling lateral root elongation. In an effort to understand the mechanisms of lateral root elongation in rice, a monogenic recessive mutant, alf1 (altered lateral root formation) has been isolated from tissue culture-derived R1 lines. The

Bakul Rani Debi; Junko Mushika; Shin Taketa; Akio Miyao; Hirohiko Hirochika; Masahiko Ichii

2003-01-01

427

Soft Tissue Restraints to Lateral Patellar Translation in the Human Knee  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to identify and quantify the soft tissue restraints, both medially and laterally, to lateral patellar translation. These restraints to lateral patellar translation at 20° of knee flexion were tested biomechanically on a universal testing instrument in nine fresh-frozen cadaveric knees. After preconditioning the tissues, the patella of each intact knee was translated laterally to

Stephen M. Desio; Robert T. Burks; Kent N. Bachus

1998-01-01

428

Deformation Above an Extensional Lateral Ramp, Crater Flat, Nevada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tectonic models of Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada, site of the USA's proposed high-level nuclear waste repository, are based on understanding the nature of deformation affecting the site. Using mapped fault dips (50° in the north to 70° in the south) from the Bare Mountain fault (BMF, 15 to 25 km [9.3 to 15.5 mi] west of YM) and the surface geology of Crater Flat (CF, immediately west of YM) and YM itself, we constructed cross-sections across northern and southern CF. The sections indicate that the BMF has a listric shape detaching at a depth of about 6 km (3.7 mi) under northern CF and 12 km (7.5 mi) under southern CF. We present the results of physical analog modeling that tests the hypothesis that the BMF has a lateral ramp linking a shallow detachment under northern CF with a deeper detachment under southern CF. We constructed a footwall with two contrasting profiles based on cross sections generated using a constant thickness algorithm. The northern profile had a horizontal detachment at half the depth of the southern profile and the two fault surfaces were linked by a steep, S-dipping lateral ramp. The hanging wall of the model consisted of a plastic sheet conforming to the footwall shape, overlain by dry sand. To prevent frictional edge effects, the sand pack was large and laterally unconstrained. Undyed and acrylic-dyed sand simulated mechanically passive layering. Dry sand was chosen because of its ability to represent the brittle crust, and the ease with which it can be sectioned. The entire hanging wall moved in concert, constant velocity displacement was driven by a stepper motor attached via a rigid, strike-parallel assembly to the plastic sheet. After 2.8 cm (1.1 in) of horizontal displacement, synkinematic growth layers of sand were added to the model. After 5 cm (2 in) of horizontal displacement the model was stopped and sand added to stabilize the model prior to saturation and sectioning. Hanging wall deformation in the model was dominated by the formation of a half-graben, accomplished by development of normal faults and a crestal collapse graben within the hanging wall. Variation in extension across the lateral ramp was accommodated by en echelon, left-stepping antithetic faults, and by obliquely oriented small-displacement faults. We interpret development of normal faults within the hanging wall to be the response to outer arc extension imposed by bending of the hanging wall as it was displaced over the listric master fault. Fault-accommodated deformation in our model strongly resembles the character of CF and YM: (i) southward widening and deepening of CF basin; and (ii) extension transferred laterally by a left-stepping system of NS trending, antithetic normal faults (Windy Wash, Fatigue Wash, Solitario Canyon faults), and by NW-SE trending faults (Sever Wash, Pagany Wash, Drill Hole Wash faults). The BMF can be successfully modeled as two detachment depths linked by a lateral ramp. This abstract was prepared to document work performed by the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) and its contractors for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) under Contract No. NRC-02-02-012. The activities reported here were performed on behalf of the NRC Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, Division of High-Level Waste Repository Safety. This abstract is an independent product of the CNWRA and does not necessarily reflect the views or regulatory position of the NRC.

Morris, A. P.; Ferrill, D. A.; Sims, D. W.; Stamatakos, J. A.

2005-12-01

429

Lateral Diffusion of Nutrients by Mammalian Herbivores in Terrestrial Ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Animals translocate nutrients by consuming nutrients at one point and excreting them or dying at another location. Such lateral fluxes may be an important mechanism of nutrient supply in many ecosystems, but lack quantification and a systematic theoretical framework for their evaluation. This paper presents a mathematical framework for quantifying such fluxes in the context of mammalian herbivores. We develop an expression for lateral diffusion of a nutrient, where the diffusivity is a biologically determined parameter depending on the characteristics of mammals occupying the domain, including size-dependent phenomena such as day range, metabolic demand, food passage time, and population size. Three findings stand out: (a) Scaling law-derived estimates of diffusion parameters are comparable to estimates calculated from estimates of each coefficient gathered from primary literature. (b) The diffusion term due to transport of nutrients in dung is orders of magnitude large than the coefficient representing nutrients in bodymass. (c) The scaling coefficients show that large herbivores make a disproportionate contribution to lateral nutrient transfer. We apply the diffusion equation to a case study of Kruger National Park to estimate the conditions under which mammal-driven nutrient transport is comparable in magnitude to other (abiotic) nutrient fluxes (inputs and losses). Finally, a global analysis of mammalian herbivore transport is presented, using a comprehensive database of contemporary animal distributions. We show that continents vary greatly in terms of the importance of animal-driven nutrient fluxes, and also that perturbations to nutrient cycles are potentially quite large if threatened large herbivores are driven to extinction. PMID:23951141

Wolf, Adam; Doughty, Christopher E.; Malhi, Yadvinder

2013-01-01

430

Spatially distributed lateral nitrate transport at the catchment scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In river catchments, nitrogen transformation and storage processes during lateral transport are important in controlling nitrogen loads of surface waters. There is a lack of approaches which capture lateral flows and associated nitrogen transformation in a spatially distributed way. The aim of this paper is to develop a new conceptual nitrogen transport and transformation model which simulates the lateral nitrate transport in subsurface flow from the source area to the receiving water body. The developed tool is based on the Object Modelling System (OMS) framework and consists of the analytical spatially distributed hydrological model J2000, the nitrate recharge model Meta Candy and a new groundwater nitrogen routing component. The nitrogen subsurface transport component uses a variable number of sub storage layers for each hydrological response unit. Nitrate degradation in groundwater is calculated stoichiometrically according to a predefined amount on oxidizable substrate (pyrite and sedimentary organic matter) depending on the rock type. The decrease of subsurface nitrate reduction capacity can be simulated both spatially and over time. The new modelling approach was tested in a small agricultural lower mountain range catchment of Thuringia, Germany. The calibration of the nitrogen model using a four year period showed reasonable results for nitrate load calculations with a Nash and Sutcliff coefficient of 0.78. The three year validation period produced NS values of 0.75. There was a clear relationship of the goodness-of-fit between the hydrological simulations and the nitrate concentration calculations. Due to short residence times of the interflow nitrate degradation was restricted to slow base flow components. The new approach can be used to target nitrogen source areas within a catchment and assess the impact of these source areas on the nitrogen load of surface waters in a spatially distributed manner.

Rode, M.; Franko, U.; Hesser, F.

2010-12-01

431

PEUCE, S.N. VIII, 2010, p. 9 -26 LE PROJET DELTA DU DANUBE: SOCIT ET ENVIRONNEMENT DURANT LE  

E-print Network

PEUCE, S.N. VIII, 2010, p. 9 - 26 LE PROJET DELTA DU DANUBE: SOCI�T� ET ENVIRONNEMENT DURANT LE N�OLITHIQUE ET LES �GES DES M�TAUX DANS LE DELTA DU DANUBE Laurent Carozza, Cristian Micu, Albane Burens environnement durant le Néolithique dans le Delta du Danube (Delta du Danube) [Society and environment

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

432

Lateral heterogeneity of plant thylakoid protein complexes: early reminiscences.  

PubMed

The concept that the two photosystems of photosynthesis cooperate in series, immortalized in Hill and Bendall's Z scheme, was still a black box that defined neither the structural nor the molecular organization of the thylakoid membrane network into grana and stroma thylakoids. The differentiation of the continuous thylakoid membrane into stacked grana thylakoids interconnected by single stroma thylakoids is a morphological reflection of the non-random distribution of photosystem II/light-harvesting complex of photosystem II, photosystem I and ATP synthase, which became known as lateral heterogeneity. PMID:23148264

Anderson, Jan M

2012-12-19

433

On the measurement of lateral velocity derivatives in turbulent flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct numerical simulation data for the lateral velocity derivative delta(u)/delta(y) at the centerline of a fully developed turbulent channel flow provide reasonable support for Wyngaard's analysis of the error involved in measuring this quantity using parallel hot wires. Numerical data in the wall region of the channel flow also provide a useful indication of how to select the separation between the wires. Justification for this choice is obtained by comparing several measured statistics of delta(u)/delta(y) with the corresponding numerical data.

Antonia, R. A.; Zhu, Y.; Kim, J.

1993-01-01

434

Observation and implications of magnetic domains in lateral spin valves  

SciTech Connect

Co/Cu/Co lateral spin valves (LSV), with Co being the topmost layer, are in situ prepared and measured under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. The clean process yields a non-local spin signal of 0.9 m{Omega}. Scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis (SEMPA) reveals domain structures in both magnetic electrodes that depend on the LSV dimensions. The spin signal correlates to SEMPA images as well as the anisotropic magnetoresistance of both Co magnets, revealing a strong impact of multi-domain states on the spin signal.

Mennig, J.; Matthes, F.; Buergler, D. E.; Schneider, C. M. [Peter Gruenberg Institute, Electronic Properties (PGI-6) and Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance, Fundamentals of Future Information Technology (JARA-FIT), Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Juelich D-52425 (Germany)

2012-04-01

435

Ruptured femoral pseudoaneurysm presenting as a lateral abdominal wall hematoma.  

PubMed

Lateral abdominal wall hematomas are rare. We describe a patient with a delayed rupture of a femoral artery pseudoaneurysm, who presented with such a hematoma. In contrast to other types of abdominal wall hematomas, which are often managed conservatively, a ruptured femoral artery pseudoaneurysm frequently requires emergent surgical intervention. Rupture of a pseudoaneurysm can be catastrophic. Due to the rising incidence of femoral artery pseudoaneurysms and shorter hospital stays, it is useful for the emergency physician to be familiar with the diagnosis and management of femoral artery pseudoaneurysms and their potentially life-threatening complications. PMID:16029823

Ma, Marek; Snook, Curtis P

2005-08-01

436

Lateral organization of cholesterol molecules in lipid-cholesterol assemblies.  

SciTech Connect

We present results of an off-lattice simulation of a two-component planar system, as a model for lateral organization of cholesterol molecules in lipid-cholesterol assemblies. We explore the existence of 'superlattice' structures even in fluid systems, in the absence of an underlying translational long-range order, and study their coupling to hexatic or bond-orientational order. We discuss our results in context of geometric superlattice theories and 'condensation complexes' in understanding a variety of experiments in artificial lipid-cholesterol assemblies.

Singh, Rajiv R. P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Slepoy, Alexander; Sengupta, Pinaki (University of California, Davis, CA); Cox, Daniel L. (University of California, Davis, CA)

2005-05-01

437

Ipsilateral sensorimotor deficits in lateral medullary infarction: a case report.  

PubMed

The patient, a 32-year-old man, presented with sudden onset of occipital headache, vertigo, dysarthria, gait ataxia, right Horner syndrome, numbness of the right hand, and mild right hemiparesis. On magnetic resonance imaging, an acute small infarction was located on the right side of the caudal medulla extending dorsomedially. Magnetic resonance angiography showed severe right vertebral artery stenosis. Lateral medullary infarction associated with ipsilateral sensorimotor deficits in the limb is very rare, and the lesion probably involved the ipsilateral dorsal column or decussating lemniscal fibers and corticospinal fibers caudal to the pyramidal decussation or compression of the decussation. PMID:23219198

Sameshima, Tetsuro; Morita, Akio; Yamaoka, Yumiko; Ichikawa, Yasumitsu

2014-01-01

438

Infant recall memory and communication predicts later cognitive development  

PubMed Central

This longitudinal study investigates the relation between recall memory and communication in infancy and later cognitive development. Twenty-six typically developing Swedish children were tested during infancy for deferred imitation (memory), joint attention (JA), and requesting (nonverbal communication); they also were tested during childhood for language and cognitive competence. Results showed that infants with low performance on both deferred imitation at 9 months and joint attention at 14 months obtained a significantly lower score on a test of cognitive abilities at 4 years of age. This long-term prediction from preverbal infancy to childhood cognition is of interest both to developmental theory and to practice. PMID:17138307

Strid, Karin; Tjus, Tomas; Smith, Lars; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Heimann, Mikael

2013-01-01

439

Multimode laser emission from laterally confined organic microcavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Room-temperature multimode laser emission is observed in a microcavity consisting of dielectric mirrors and small-molecular-weight organic photonic dots as a cavity layer. The structure shows simultaneous lasing of a wide variety of transverse modes. A comparison of the laser operating characteristics with those of unpatterned structures shows an enhancement in the spontaneous emission coupling factor by more than two orders of magnitude due to the lateral confinement. The spectral features are in quantitative agreement with calculations of quantized photonic states in three-dimensional optical cavities.

Sudzius, M.; Langner, M.; Hintschich, S. I.; Lyssenko, V. G.; Fröb, H.; Leo, K.

2009-02-01

440

Friction of ice measured using lateral force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The friction of nanometer thin ice films grown on mica substrates is investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Friction was found to be of similar magnitude as the static friction of ice reported in macroscopic experiments. The possible existence of a lubricating film of water due to pressure melting, frictional heating, and surface premelting is discussed based on the experimental results using noncontact, contact, and lateral force microscopy. We conclude that AFM measures the dry friction of ice due to the low scan speed and the squeezing out of the water layer between the sharp AFM tip and the ice surface.

Bluhm, Hendrik; Inoue, Takahito; Salmeron, Miquel

2000-03-01

441

Lateral n-p junction for acoustoelectric nanocircuits  

SciTech Connect

We report the experimental realization of a device comprising a lateral n-p junction grown by focused-ion molecular-beam epitaxy and a transducer to generate a surface acoustic wave. Acoustic charge transport across the junction and the accompanying photon emission are demonstrated. This type of light-emitting diode is suitable for integration into acoustoelectric nanocircuits in which quasione-dimensional semiconductor channels serve as 'wires' through which packets of charge are transported by surface acoustic waves. The diode provides a means by which to extend the functionality of acoustoelectric nanocircuits into the optical domain.

Hosey, T.; Talyanskii, V.; Vijendran, S.; Jones, G.A.C.; Ward, M.B.; Unitt, D.C.; Norman, C.E.; Shields, A.J. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 OHE (United Kingdom); Toshiba Research Europe Limited, Cambridge Research Laboratory, 260 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 OWE (United Kingdom)

2004-07-19

442

Giant choroid plexus papilloma of the lateral ventricle in fetus  

PubMed Central

Choroid plexus papillomas (CPPs) are rare tumors having bimodal distribution. Pediatric CPPs are commonly present in supratentorial compartment and most commonly located in lateral ventricle and usually present at 16-18 months. Authors could find only one case report of fetal choroid plexus papilloma in the literature. In the present case, authors illustrate an unusual presentation of CPP with raised intracranial pressure (ICP) since birth, the need for proper preoperative planning, meticulous surgical technique, and intensive intra operative monitoring for normothermia, fluid-electrolyte balance, and blood replacement for achieving excellent results. PMID:25250084

Verma, Satish Kumar; Satyarthee, Guru Dutta; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar

2014-01-01

443

Season of Birth and Later Outcomes: Old Questions, New Answers  

PubMed Central

Season of birth is associated with later outcomes; what drives this association remains unclear. We consider a new explanation: variation in maternal characteristics. We document large changes in maternal characteristics for births throughout the year; winter births are disproportionally realized by teenagers and the unmarried. Family background controls explain nearly half of season-of-birth’s relation to adult outcomes. Seasonality in maternal characteristics is driven by women trying to conceive; we find no seasonality among unwanted births. Prior seasonality-in-fertility research focuses on conditions at conception; here expected conditions at birth drive variation in maternal characteristics while conditions at conception are unimportant. PMID:24058211

Buckles, Kasey S.; Hungerman, Daniel M.

2012-01-01

444

Drug therapy for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Where are we now?  

PubMed

In the 60 years since Lou Gehrig died from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) there have been numerous advances in our understanding of this disease. However, scant progress has been made regarding disease-altering treatments. Today most physicians still recommend vitamin E, which is the treatment Gehrig himself received. In this paper we will review what is currently known about the pathophysiology of ALS as well as the history of clinical trials in ALS. We indicate current and future directions in research and clinical trials, and also argue that a logical next step for clinical trials in ALS should be combination drug treatment. PMID:12789618

Carter, Gregory T; Krivickas, Lisa S; Weydt, Patrick; Weiss, Michael D; Miller, Robert G

2003-02-01

445

The amyotrophic lateral sclerosis center: a model of multidisciplinary management.  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating, progressive motor neuron disorder that poses a myriad of clinical problems. Patients who have ALS are best cared for in a multidisciplinary fashion, with involvement of clinicians from various specialties, including neurology, physical medicine and rehabilitation, pulmonary medicine, clinical nurse specialists or nurse practitioners, physical and occupational therapists, speech language pathologists, dietitians, psychologists, social workers, and case managers. This article provides a summary of the current research into the rehabilitation of ALS, including the role of exercise, spasticity management, mood disorders, pain, and palliative care. PMID:18625420

Mayadev, Angeli S; Weiss, Michael D; Distad, B Jane; Krivickas, Lisa S; Carter, Gregory T

2008-08-01

446

The inhibitory circuit architecture of the lateral hypothalamus orchestrates feeding.  

PubMed

The growing prevalence of overeating disorders is a key contributor to the worldwide obesity epidemic. Dysfunction of particular neural circuits may trigger deviations from adaptive feeding behaviors. The lateral hypothalamus (LH) is a crucial neural substrate for motivated behavior, including feeding, but the precise functional neurocircuitry that controls LH neuronal activity to engage feeding has not been defined. We observed that inhibitory synaptic inputs from the extended amygdala preferentially innervate and suppress the activity of LH glutamatergic neurons to control food intake. These findings help explain how dysregulated activity at a number of unique nodes can result in a cascading failure within a defined brain network to produce maladaptive feeding. PMID:24072922

Jennings, Joshua H; Rizzi, Giorgio; Stamatakis, Alice M; Ung, Randall L; Stuber, Garret D

2013-09-27

447

Biopsychosocial Characteristics of Children Who Later Murder: A Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

The authors document the childhood neuropsychiatric and family characteristics of nine male subjects who were clinically evaluated as adolescents and were later arrested for murder. Those subjects are compared with 24 incarcerated delinquents who did not go on to commit violent offenses. The future murderers displayed a constellation of biopsychosocial characteristics that included psychotic symptoms, major neurological impairment, a psychotic first-degree relative, violent acts during childhood, and severe physical abuse. The authors relate this combination of factors to prediction of violence and discuss ethical issues that are involved in intervention to prevent violence. PMID:4037127

Lewis, Dorothy Otnow; Moy, Ernest; Jackson, Lori D.; Aaronson, Robert; Restifo, Nicholas; Serra, Susan; Simos, Alexander

2007-01-01

448

Lateralized resting-state functional connectivity in the task-positive and task-negative networks.  

PubMed

Abstract Studies on functional brain lateralization using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have generally focused on lateralization of local brain regions. To explore the lateralization on the whole-brain level, lateralization of functional connectivity using resting-state fMRI (N=87, right handed) was analyzed and left- and right-lateralized networks were mapped. Four hundred two equally spaced regions of interest (ROI) covering the entire gray matter were divided into 358 task-positive and 44 task-negative ROIs. Lateralization of functional connectivity was analyzed separately for the task-positive and task-negative regions to prevent spuriously high lateralization indices caused by negative correlations between task-positive and task-negative regions. Lateralized functional connections were obtained using k-means clustering analysis. Within the task-positive network, the right-lateralized functional connections were between the occipital and inferior/middle frontal regions among other connections, whereas the left-lateralized functional connections were among fusiform gyrus and inferior frontal and inferior/superior parietal regions. Within the task-negative network, the left-lateralized connections were mainly between the precuneus and medial prefrontal regions. Specific brain regions exhibited different left- or right-lateralized connections with other regions, which suggest the importance of reporting lateralized connections over lateralized seed regions. The mean lateralization indices of the left- and right-lateralized connections were correlated, suggesting that the lateralization of connectivity may result from complementary processes between the lateralized networks. The potential functions of the lateralized networks were discussed. PMID:25327308

Di, Xin; Kim, Eun H; Chen, Peii; Biswal, Bharat B

2014-11-01

449

Can lesions to the motor cortex induce amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?  

PubMed

A recent staging effort for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has demonstrated that the TDP-43 neuropathology may initiate focally in the motor cortex in the majority of patients. We searched our data bank for patients with lesions of the motor cortex which preceded disease onset. We performed a search of our patient- and MRI-data bank and screened 1,835 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis for frontal lobe/motor cortex lesions. We found 18 patients with definite ALS who had documented and defined lesions of the motor cortex, which preceded the initial ALS symptoms by 8-42 years. In the vast majority (15/18) of the patients, the onset of ALS was closely related to the focal lesion since it started in a body region reflecting the damaged cortical area. The findings suggest that initial lesions to the motor cortex may be a contributing initiating factor in some patients with ALS or determine the site of onset in individuals pre-disposed to ALS. PMID:24253481

Rosenbohm, Angela; Kassubek, Jan; Weydt, Patrick; Marroquin, Nicolai; Volk, Alexander E; Kubisch, Christian; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen; Weber, Markus; Andersen, Peter M; Weishaupt, Jochen H; Ludolph, Albert C

2014-02-01

450

Case-control study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

SciTech Connect

The authors conducted a study of 518 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients identified between 1977 and 1979 and 518 controls to investigate putative risk factors for this disease. Occupations at risk of electrical exposure were reported more often by patients (odds ratio (OR) = 3.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-13.0) as were electrical shocks producing unconsciousness (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.0-9.9). Although an overall excess of physical trauma associated with unconsciousness was observed in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.0-2.4), the effect was inversely associated with duration of the unconscious episodes, suggesting an effect of recall bias. Only slight differences were found for surgical traumata to the nervous system. Parkinsonism was reported more often among first degree relatives of cases (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.1-7.6). The frequencies of prior poliomyelitis or other central nervous system diseases were similar for patients and controls. Occupational exposure to selected toxic substances was similar for patients and controls except for the manufacture of plastics (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.0-20.5), although few details of these exposures were provided. No differences in occupations with exposure to animal skins or hides were observed.

Deapen, D.M.; Henderson, B.E.

1986-05-01

451

Intrinsic particle-induced lateral transport in microchannels  

PubMed Central

In microfluidic systems at low Reynolds number, the flow field around a particle is assumed to maintain fore-aft symmetry, with fluid diverted by the presence of a particle, returning to its original streamline downstream. This current model considers particles as passive components of the system. However, we demonstrate that at finite Reynolds number, when inertia is taken into consideration, particles are not passive elements in the flow but significantly disturb and modify it. In response to the flow field, particles translate downstream while rotating. The combined effect of the flow of fluid around particles, particle rotation, channel confinement (i.e., particle dimensions approaching those of the channel), and finite fluid inertia creates a net recirculating flow perpendicular to the primary flow direction within straight channels that resembles the well-known Dean flow in curved channels. Significantly, the particle generating this flow remains laterally fixed as it translates downstream and only the fluid is laterally transferred. Therefore, as the particles remain inertially focused, operations can be performed around the particles in a way that is compatible with downstream assays such as flow cytometry. We apply this particle-induced transfer to perform fluid switching and mixing around rigid microparticles as well as deformable cells. This transport phenomenon, requiring only a simple channel geometry with no external forces to operate, offers a practical approach for fluid transfer at high flow rates with a wide range of applications, including sample preparation, flow reaction, and heat transfer. PMID:22761309

Amini, Hamed; Sollier, Elodie; Weaver, Westbrook M.; Di Carlo, Dino

2012-01-01

452

Spatial localization and auditory lateralization: binaural cues and their absence.  

PubMed

In 1990 Cheatham suggested there might be a right-ear advantage for the perception of speech and music for right-handed individuals, which confirms Kinsbourne's observation of a general right-ear advantage. These findings, however, contrast with Segalowitz and Plantery's work that supports attentional bias in lateralized processing of these stimuli. The attentional bias model has also been criticized by Bryden on the basis of its circularity. At present there has not been sufficient evidence to settle this debate empirically. The author suggests that the controversy may best be resolved by disentangling the folklore surrounding spatial localization and auditory lateralization to reexamine this field in light of recent empirical findings by Bryden and by Porac, Coren, and Duncan, who inferred an inherent rightward bias to many kinds of stimulation, including auditory, in right-handed individuals. The present focus is that Cheatham's 1990 data lend themselves more readily to the rightward bias that occurs in right-handed subjects and not to previous structural or attentional models. PMID:1454496

Cheatham, B H; Herbig, R

1992-12-01

453

Photonic confinement in laterally structured metal-organic microcavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the formation of optical modes in organic microcavities with an incorporated perforated silver layer. The metal leads to a formation of Tamm-plasmon-polaritons and thus separates the sample into metal-free or metal-containing areas, supporting different resonances. This mode splitting is exploited to confine photons in elliptic holes and triangular cuts, forming distinctive standing wave patterns showing the strong lateral confinement. A comparison with a Maxwell-Bloch based rate equation model clearly shows the nonlinear transition into the lasing regime. The concentration of the electric field density and inhibition of lateral loss channels in turn decreases the lasing threshold by up to one order of magnitude, to 0.1 nJ. By spectroscopic investigation of such a triangular wedge, we observe the transition from the unperturbed cavity state to a strongly confined complex transversal mode. Such a structured silver layer can be utilized in future for charge carrier injection in an electrically driven organic solid state laser.

Mischok, Andreas; Brückner, Robert; Sudzius, Markas; Reinhardt, Christoph; Lyssenko, Vadim G.; Fröb, Hartmut; Leo, Karl

2014-08-01

454

Hyperacute motion detection by the lateral eyes of jumping spiders.  

PubMed

Jumping spiders (Salticidae) are renowned for their high performing visual system. In addition to their prominent forward-facing telescope-like principal eyes, salticids possess two or three pairs of secondary eyes used for wide-angle motion detection. Salticids orient towards relevant sources of motion detected by the secondary eyes, enabling them to inspect the stimulus with their spatially acute principal eyes. The anteriormost pair of secondary eyes, the anterior lateral (AL) eyes, also faces forward and has higher spatial acuity than the other, laterally-facing, secondary eyes. We used small computer-generated targets to elicit orienting saccades from tethered jumping spiders in order to examine the perceptual limits of the AL eyes. We describe the contrast thresholds of male and female spiders, investigate the reaction time between stimulus appearance and initiation of orientation, as well as the minimum distance a stimulus must travel before eliciting a saccade. Our results show that female spiders react to lower contrast stimuli than males and demonstrate that the secondary eyes can detect stimulus displacements considerably smaller than the inter-receptor angle. PMID:22750020

Zurek, Daniel B; Nelson, Ximena J

2012-08-01

455

The far-lateral approach for foramen magnum meningiomas.  

PubMed

Foramen magnum meningiomas (FMMs) are slow growing, most often intradural and extramedullary tumors that pose significant challenges to the skull base neurosurgeon. The indolent clinical course of FMMs and their insidious onset of symptoms are important factors that contribute to delayed diagnosis and relative large size at the time of presentation. Symptoms are often produced by compression of surrounding structures (such as the medulla oblongata, upper cervical spinal cord, lower cranial nerves, and vertebral artery) within a critically confined space. Since the initial pathological description of a FMM in 1872, various surgical approaches have been described with the aim of achieving radical tumor resection. The surgical treatment of FMMs has evolved considerably over the last 4 decades due to the progress in microsurgical techniques and development of a multitude of skull base approaches. Posterior and posterolateral FMMs can be safely resected via a standard midline suboccipital approach. However, controversy still exits regarding the optimal management of anterior or anterolateral lesions. Independently of technical variations and the degree of bone removal, all modern surgical approaches to the lower clivus and anterior foramen magnum derive from the posterolateral (or far-lateral) craniotomy originally described by Roberto Heros and Bernard George. This paper is a review of the surgical management of FMMs, with emphasis on the far-lateral approach and its variations. Clinical presentation, imaging findings, important neuroanatomical correlations, recurrence rates, and outcomes are discussed. PMID:24289120

Flores, Bruno C; Boudreaux, Benjamin P; Klinger, Daniel R; Mickey, Bruce E; Barnett, Samuel L

2013-12-01

456

Study of the etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Although various hypotheses have been put out as to the etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, they do not seem to date to have been substantiated by experimental evidence. As the incidental outcome of studies on possible carcinogenic processes, the authors of this paper have obtained experimental data indicating the possibility of reproducing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in monkeys by administering extracts from the spinal cord of persons who have died of the disease. The illness in monkeys is marked by a long incubation period, which may be of five years or more, and it is very similar to the disease in man in its clinical and pathological picture. The experimental evidence strongly suggests that this disease is of virus origin. The virus-like agent discovered has been passaged twice in monkeys without consequent attenuation; it is not pathogenic for mice and other laboratory animals. The authors point out that, before final conclusions can be drawn, serological and immunological confirmation is required. Research is now proceeding to that end. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10 PMID:14099672

Zil'ber, L. A.; Bajdakova, Z. L.; Gardas'jan, A. N.; Konovalov, N. V.; Bunina, T. L.; Barabadze, E. M.

1963-01-01

457

Quality measures for the care of patients with lateral epicondylalgia  

PubMed Central

Background Lateral epicondylalgia (LE) defines a condition of varying degrees of pain near the lateral epicondyle. Studies on the management of LE indicated unexplained variations in the use of pharmacologic, non-pharmacological and surgical treatments. The main aim of this paper was to develop and evaluate clinical quality measures (QMs) or quality indicators, which may be used to assess the quality of the processes of examination, education and treatment of patients with LE. Methods Different QMs were developed by a multidisciplinary group of experts in Quality Management of Health Services during a period of one year. The process was based following a 3-step model: i) review and proportion of existing evidence-based recommendations; ii) review and development of quality measures; iii) pilot testing of feasibility and reliability of the indicators leading to a final consensus by the whole panel. Results Overall, a set of 12 potential indicators related to medical and physical therapy assessment and treatment were developed to measure the performance of LE care. Different systematic reviews and randomized control trials supported each of the indicators judged to be valid during the expert panel process. Application of the new indicator set was found to be feasible; only the measurement of two quality measures had light barriers. Reliability was mostly excellent (Kappa?>?0.8). Conclusions A set of good practice indicators has been built and pilot tested as feasible and reliable. The chosen 3-step standardized evidence-based process ensures maximum clarity, acceptance and sustainability of the developed indicators. PMID:24172311

2013-01-01

458

Lateral stirring of large-scale tracer fields by altimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean surface fronts and filaments have a strong impact on the global ocean circulation and biogeochemistry. Surface Lagrangian advection with time-evolving altimetric geostrophic velocities can be used to simulate the submesoscale front and filament structures in large-scale tracer fields. We study this technique in the Southern Ocean region south of Tasmania, a domain marked by strong meso- to submesoscale features such as the fronts of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). Starting with large-scale surface tracer fields that we stir with altimetric velocities, we determine `advected' fields which compare well with high-resolution in situ or satellite tracer data. We find that fine scales are best represented in a statistical sense after an optimal advection time of ˜2 weeks, with enhanced signatures of the ACC fronts and better spectral energy. The technique works best in moderate to high EKE regions where lateral advection dominates. This technique may be used to infer the distribution of unresolved small scales in any physical or biogeochemical surface tracer that is dominated by lateral advection. Submesoscale dynamics also impact the subsurface of the ocean, and the Lagrangian advection at depth shows promising results. Finally, we show that climatological tracer fields computed from the advected large-scale fields display improved fine-scale mean features, such as the ACC fronts, which can be useful in the context of ocean modelling.

Dencausse, Guillaume; Morrow, Rosemary; Rogé, Marine; Fleury, Sara

2014-01-01

459

Two opposed lateral jets injected into swirling crossflow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments have been conducted to obtain the time-mean and turbulent quantities of opposed lateral jets in a low speed, nonreacting flowfield. A jet-to-crossflow velocity ratio of R = 4 was used throughout the experiments, with swirl vane angles of 0 (swirler removed), 45 and 70 degrees used with the crossflow. Flow visualization techniques used were neutrally-buoyant helium-filled soap bubbles and multispark photography in order to obtain the gross flowfield characteristics. Measurements of time-mean and turbulent quantities were obtained utilizing a six-orientation single hot-wire technique. For the nonswirling case, the jets were found not to penetrate past the test-section centerline, in contrast to the single lateral jet with the same jet-to-crossflow velocity ratio. In the swirling cases, the crossflow remains in a narrow region near the wall of the test section. The opposed jets are swept from their vertical courses into spiral trajectories close to the confining walls. Extensive results are presented in r-x plane plots.

Lilley, D. G.; Mcmurry, C. B.; Ong, L. H.

1987-01-01

460

Lateralized processing of novel metaphors: disentangling figurativeness and novelty.  

PubMed

One of the intriguing and sometimes controversial findings in figurative language research is a right-hemisphere processing advantage for novel metaphors. The current divided visual field study introduced novel literal expressions as a control condition to assess processing novelty independent of figurativeness. Participants evaluated word pairs belonging to one of the five categories: (1) conventional metaphorical, (2) conventional literal, (3) novel metaphorical, (4) novel literal, and (5) unrelated expressions in a semantic decision task. We presented expressions without sentence context and controlled for additional factors including emotional valence, arousal, and imageability that could potentially influence hemispheric processing. We also utilized an eye-tracker to ensure lateralized presentation. We did not find the previously reported right-hemispherical processing advantage for novel metaphors. Processing was faster in the left hemisphere for all types of word pairs, and accuracy was also higher in the right visual field - left hemisphere. Novel metaphors were processed just as fast as novel literal expressions, suggesting that the primary challenge during the comprehension of novel expressions is not a serial processing of salience, but perhaps a more left hemisphere weighted semantic integration. Our results cast doubt on the right-hemisphere theory of metaphors, and raise the possibility that other uncontrolled variables were responsible for previous results. The lateralization of processing of two word expressions seems to be more contingent on the specific task at hand than their figurativeness or saliency. PMID:24418155

Forgács, Bálint; Lukács, Agnes; Pléh, Csaba

2014-04-01

461

Social representations of memory and gender in later medieval England.  

PubMed

Social representations in later medieval culture have attracted little attention amongst psychologists, pre-dating the development of the so-called 'public sphere' in the eighteenth century. In addition, the association of pre-modern societies with 'traditional' modes of communication in social psychology places implicit limits on areas that may be studied through the lens of social representation theory. This article analyses the way in which knowledge circulated in late medieval society, noting initially the plural nature of representations of events and marginal groups, and the myriad channels through which beliefs were consolidated. In later medieval England perceptions of the past depended on collective and group memory, with customary rights and local histories forged through 'common knowledge', hearsay and the opinions of 'trustworthy men' of the village. The final section of this commentary provides an analysis of testimony from the late medieval church courts, in which witnesses articulated gender ideologies that reflected perceptions drawn from everyday life. Social representations of women were thus deployed in ecclesiastical suits, on the one hand supporting evidence of female witnesses and on the other justifying misogynistic stereotypes of women's behaviour. PMID:23135801

Kane, Bronach

2012-12-01

462

Porous silicon Bragg reflectors with sub-micrometer lateral dimensions.  

PubMed

Bragg reflectors with widths down to 300 nm have been fabricated in porous silicon. This was achieved by irradiation of highly-doped p-type silicon with a focused beam of high-energy ions in a channeled alignment, in which the beam is aligned with a major crystallographic direction. The reflected colour is controllably tuned across the visible spectrum by varying the ion irradiated dose. The depth distribution of ion induced defects differs in channeled alignment compared to random beam alignment, resulting in the hole current during subsequent anodisation being more confined to narrower lateral regions, enabling different reflective wavelengths to be patterned on a sub-micron lateral scale. This work provides a means of producing high-density arrays of micron-size reflective colour pixels for uses in high-definition displays, and selectively tuning the wavelengths of porous silicon Fabry-Perot microcavities across the visible and infra-red ranges for optical communications and computing applications. PMID:19532810

Breese, Mark B H; Mangaiyarkarasi, Dharmalingam

2007-04-30

463

Hemispheric lateralization of topological organization in structural brain networks.  

PubMed

The study on structural brain asymmetries in healthy individuals plays an important role in our understanding of the factors that modulate cognitive specialization in the brain. Here, we used fiber tractography to reconstruct the left and right hemispheric networks of a large cohort of 346 healthy participants (20-86 years) and performed a graph theoretical analysis to investigate this brain laterality from a network perspective. Findings revealed that the left hemisphere is significantly more "efficient" than the right hemisphere, whereas the right hemisphere showed higher values of "betweenness centrality" and "small-worldness." In particular, left-hemispheric networks displayed increased nodal efficiency in brain regions related to language and motor actions, whereas the right hemisphere showed an increase in nodal efficiency in brain regions involved in memory and visuospatial attention. In addition, we found that hemispheric networks decrease in efficiency with age. Finally, we observed significant gender differences in measures of global connectivity. By analyzing the structural hemispheric brain networks, we have provided new insights into understanding the neuroanatomical basis of lateralized brain functions. PMID:24706582

Caeyenberghs, Karen; Leemans, Alexander

2014-09-01

464

Myelin imaging in amyotrophic and primary lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) has been regarded as a rare, extreme form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Like ALS, it is a clinical diagnosis without established biomarkers. We sought to explore loss of cerebral myelin in relation to clinical features, including cognitive impairment, in cases of both ALS and PLS. A novel MRI sequence (mcDESPOT) sensitive to water pools within myelin and intra- and extra-cellular spaces was applied to 23 ALS patients, seven PLS patients and 12 healthy controls, with interval follow-up in 15 ALS and four PLS patients. Results demonstrated that PLS patients were distinguished by widespread cerebral myelin water fraction reductions, independent of disease duration and clinical upper motor neuron burden. ALS patients showed a significant increase in intra- and extra-cellular water, indirectly linked to neuroinflammatory activity. Limited measures of cognitive impairment in the ALS group were associated with myelin changes within the anterior corpus callosum and frontal lobe projections. Longitudinal changes were only significant in the PLS group. In conclusion, in this exploratory study, myelin imaging has potential to distinguish PLS from ALS, and may have value as a marker of extramotor involvement. PLS may be a more active cerebral pathological process than its rate of clinical deterioration suggests. PMID:23678852

2013-01-01

465

Behavioral Lateralization and Optimal Route Choice in Flying Budgerigars  

PubMed Central

Birds flying through a cluttered environment require the ability to choose routes that will take them through the environment safely and quickly. We have investigated some of the strategies by which they achieve this. We trained budgerigars to fly through a tunnel in which they encountered a barrier that offered two passages, positioned side by side, at the halfway point. When one of the passages was substantially wider than the other, the birds tended to fly through the wider passage to continue their transit to the end of the tunnel, regardless of whether this passage was on the right or the left. Evidently, the birds were selecting the safest and quickest route. However, when the two passages were of equal or nearly equal width, some individuals consistently preferred the left-hand passage, while others consistently preferred the passage on the right. Thus, the birds displayed idiosyncratic biases when choosing between alternative routes. Surprisingly - and unlike most of the instances in which behavioral lateralization has previously been discovered - the bias was found to vary from individual to individual, in its direction as well as its magnitude. This is very different from handedness in humans, where the majority of humans are right-handed, giving rise to a so-called ‘population’ bias. Our experimental results and mathematical model of this behavior suggest that individually varying lateralization, working in concert with a tendency to choose the wider aperture, can expedite the passage of a flock of birds through a cluttered environment. PMID:24603285

Bhagavatula, Partha S.; Claudianos, Charles; Ibbotson, Michael R.; Srinivasan, Mandyam V.

2014-01-01

466

Lateral membrane diffusion modulated by a minimal actin cortex.  

PubMed

Diffusion of lipids and proteins within the cell membrane is essential for numerous membrane-dependent processes including signaling and molecular interactions. It is assumed that the membrane-associated cytoskeleton modulates lateral diffusion. Here, we use a minimal actin cortex to directly study proposed effects of an actin meshwork on the diffusion in a well-defined system. The lateral diffusion of a lipid and a protein probe at varying densities of membrane-bound actin was characterized by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). A clear correlation of actin density and reduction in mobility was observed for both the lipid and the protein probe. At high actin densities, the effect on the protein probe was ?3.5-fold stronger compared to the lipid. Moreover, addition of myosin filaments, which contract the actin mesh, allowed switching between fast and slow diffusion in the minimal system. Spot variation FCS was in accordance with a model of fast microscopic diffusion and slower macroscopic diffusion. Complementing Monte Carlo simulations support the analysis of the experimental FCS data. Our results suggest a stronger interaction of the actin mesh with the larger protein probe compared to the lipid. This might point toward a mechanism where cortical actin controls membrane diffusion in a strong size-dependent manner. PMID:23561523

Heinemann, Fabian; Vogel, Sven K; Schwille, Petra

2013-04-01

467

Chitotriosidase - a putative biomarker for sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background Potential biomarkers to aid diagnosis and therapy need to be identified for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, a progressive motor neuronal degenerative disorder. The present study was designed to identify the factor(s) which are differentially expressed in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS; ALS-CSF), and could be associated with the pathogenesis of this disease. Results Quantitative mass spectrometry of ALS-CSF and control-CSF (from orthopaedic surgical patients undergoing spinal anaesthesia) samples showed upregulation of 31 proteins in the ALS-CSF, amongst which a ten-fold increase in the levels of chitotriosidase-1 (CHIT-1) was seen compared to the controls. A seventeen-fold increase in the CHIT-1 levels was detected by ELISA, while a ten-fold elevated enzyme activity was also observed. Both these results confirmed the finding of LC-MS/MS. CHIT-1 was found to be expressed by the Iba-1 immunopositive microglia. Conclusion Elevated CHIT-1 levels in the ALS-CSF suggest a definitive role for the enzyme in the disease pathogenesis. Its synthesis and release from microglia into the CSF may be an aligned event of neurodegeneration. Thus, high levels of CHIT-1 signify enhanced microglial activity which may exacerbate the process of neurodegeneration. In view of the multifold increase observed in ALS-CSF, it can serve as a potential CSF biomarker for the diagnosis of SALS. PMID:24295388

2013-01-01

468

Lymphoma, motor neuron diseases, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

We studied 9 patients with motor neuron disease and lymphoma. The following several observations have not been recognized in the past: (1) Motor neuron syndromes are associated with either Hodgkin's disease or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (2) The syndromes are not restricted to lower motor neuron disorders; 8 of 9 patients had definite or probable upper motor neuron signs as well, qualifying for the diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Corticospinal tracts were affected in both postmortem examinations. (3) The combination of motor neuron disease and lymphoma is often accompanied by paraproteinemia (3 of 7 patients studied), increased cerebrospinal fluid protein content (6 of 9 patients), and cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal bands (3 of 9 patients). (4) In 2 patients, asymptomatic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was found only because the discovery of paraproteinemia gave impetus to examine the bone marrow. (5) Patients with both upper and lower motor neuron signs (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) may show physiological evidence of conduction block in peripheral nerves or autopsy abnormalities in peripheral nerves. The cause of this syndrome is not known. Both lymphoma and motor neuron disease could have a common cause, possibly a retroviral infection. The frequency of paraproteinemia suggests that an immunological disorder may play a role in the pathogenesis of the neurological disorder. PMID:1996882

Younger, D S; Rowland, L P; Latov, N; Hays, A P; Lange, D J; Sherman, W; Inghirami, G; Pesce, M A; Knowles, D M; Powers, J

1991-01-01

469

Phenotypic plasticity early in life constrains developmental responses later.  

PubMed

Plastic stem-elongation responses to the ratio of red:far-red (R:FR) wavelengths enable plants to match their phenotype to local competitive conditions. However, elongation responses early in the life history may occur at the cost of reduced plasticity later in the life history, because elongation influences both allocation patterns and structural integrity. A common-garden experiment was performed to test whether seedling responses to R:FR affect biomass allocation. biomass accumulation, and subsequent plasticity to the cue. Seedlings of Abutilon theophrasti were stimulated to elongate by low R:FR treatments, and subsequent growth and plasticity was compared with nonelongated individuals. Elongated seedlings were less responsive than nonelongated ones to a second bout of low R:FR. Thus, seedling plasticity to R:FR reduces subsequent responsiveness to this cue. This negative association across life-history stages suggests an important constraint on the evolution of plastic stem responses, because selection in A. theophrasti has previously been shown to favor increases in early elongation in combination with increased later elongation. The reduced responsiveness of elongated seedlings to R:FR appeared to result from a structural feedback mechanism, indicating that the opportunity cost of early responses may be lower in environments providing structural support. PMID:11430653

Weinig, C; Delph, L F

2001-05-01

470

Conjecture on the lateral growth of type I collagen fibrils  

E-print Network

Type I collagen fibrils have circular cross sections with radii mostly distributed in between 50 and 100 nm and are characterized by an axial banding pattern with a period of 67 nm. The constituent long molecules of those fibrils, the so-called triple helices, are densely packed but their nature is such that their assembly must conciliate two conflicting requirements : a double-twist around the axis of the fibril induced by their chirality and a periodic layered organization, corresponding to the axial banding, built by specific lateral interactions. We examine here how such a conflict could contribute to the control of the radius of a fibril. We develop our analysis with the help of two geometrical archetypes : the Hopf fibration and the algorithm of phyllotaxis. The first one provides an ideal template for a twisted bundle of fibres and the second ensures the best homogeneity and local isotropy possible for a twisted dense packing with circular symmetry. This approach shows that, as the radius of a fibril with constant double-twist increases, the periodic layered organization can not be preserved without moving from planar to helicoidal configurations. Such changes of configurations are indeed made possible by the edge dislocations naturally present in the phyllotactic pattern where their distribution is such that the lateral growth of a fibril should stay limited in the observed range. Because of our limited knowledge about the elastic constants involved, this purely geometrical development stays at a quite conjectural level.

Jean Charvolin; Jean-François Sadoc

2013-10-25

471

Manatee vibrissae: evidence for a "lateral line" function.  

PubMed

Aquatic mammals use vibrissae to detect hydrodynamic stimuli over a range from 5 to 150 Hz, similar to the range detected by lateral line systems in fishes and amphibians. Manatees possess ?5,300 vibrissae distributed over the body, innervated by ?209,000 axons. This extensive innervation devoted to vibrissae follicles is reflected in enlarged, elaborate somatosensory regions of the gracile, cuneate, and Bischoff's brain-stem nuclei, ventrobasal thalamus, and presumptive somatosensory cortex. Our preliminary psychophysical testing indicates that in Florida and Antillean manatees the Weber fraction for detection thresholds for grating textures ranges from 0.025 to 0.14. At the lower end of this range, sensitivity is comparable to human index finger thresholds. For hydrodynamic stimuli of 5-150 Hz, detection threshold levels for manatees using facial or postfacial vibrissae were substantially lower than those reported for harbor seals and similar to reports of sensitivity for the lateral line systems of some fish. Our findings suggest that the facial and postfacial vibrissae are used to detect hydrodynamic stimuli, whereas only the facial vibrissae are used for direct contact investigation. PMID:21534997

Reep, Roger L; Gaspard, Joseph C; Sarko, Diana; Rice, Frank L; Mann, David A; Bauer, Gordon B

2011-04-01

472

Lateral migration of particles in the Newtonian fluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studying of lateral migration of particles has a long history in fluid mechanics. In the Stokes approximation, noncharged rigid spherical particle in dilute solution does not migrate to a direction perpendicular to external field. For example, the spherical particle is placed in the vicinity of the wall. The particle doesn't move when a flow field, which is parallel to the wall, is applied. However, the lateral migrations are observed in dispersions of non-spherical and deformable particles. Blood is a multi-phase dispersion and is composed of red blood cells, leukocytes, platelets and so on dispersed in plasma. The leukocytes and the platelets move to the vicinity of the wall when the blood flows in tube. It is called `margination'. In this study, the migrations of binary droplet dispersion with different radii and surface tension coefficient are examined by computer simulations. The interaction among droplets causes a segregation of some kind of particles. The binary droplets dispersion system under Couette flow is simulated and the mean positions of the droplets are evaluated. The margination of small droplets is observed when the surface tension coefficient of the large droplets is small. On the other hand, the margination of large droplets is not observed when the large droplet is stiff.

Makino, M.

2014-04-01

473

Lateral variations of coda wave attenuation in the Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore lateral variations of coda wave attenuation in the French Alps and surrounding regions. The area of investigation extends from the Rhine Graben in the north, to the northern Apennine Range in the south, and includes the Eastern and Western Alps. Following the classical work of Aki and Chouet (1975), coda wave attenuation has been characterized by measuring the coda quality factor of short-period S waves (Qc). We have selected about 2000 weak to moderate earthquakes, with magnitudes ranging from 3 to 5. Waveform data recorded by permanent seismic networks have been collected at the ORFEUS data center through the ArcLink protocol. Qc has been measured in five frequency bands [1-2], [2-4], [4-8], [8-16], [16-32] Hz, by applying a simple linear regression to the smooth energy envelopes of seismograms in the time domain. Various choices of coda window length (Lw), and coda onset time (tw, as measured from the origin time) have been tested to ensure that our measurements are free from any systematic effects of lapse-time dependence in the range of epicentral distance considered. The optimal choice, which simultaneously maximizes the geographical coverage and minimizes the measurement biases, is obtained for Lw=50s and tw=70s, for epicentral distances smaller than 180 km. The map of Qc is obtained by discretizing the Alpine region into pixels of dimension (20km x 20km). For each source/receiver pair, the estimated value of Qc is distributed along the direct ray path. An average over all paths that cross an individual pixel is performed to obtain the local value of Qc. A spatial smoothing over an area covering a square of 9 pixels is subsequently applied. The maps of Qc display strong lateral variations of attenuation in the Alpine area. At all frequencies, the ratio between the lowest and largest value of Qc is typically larger than 2. The attenuation pattern is complex but relatively independent of frequency. A notable exception is a low attenuation region located between Torino and Geneva, which is clearly visible in the 1-2 Hz frequency band and disappears at higher frequencies. Some geological formations such as the Upper Rhine Graben and the eastern Alps show up clearly on the maps and systematically exhibit lower attenuation than the Po Valley and the Apennines. The French Alps are characterized by an attenuation gradient increasing from the north-west to the south-east. The typical scale of the spatial variations of the coda quality factor is of the order of 100km, which suggests rapid lateral variation of attenuation properties in the crust.

Mayor, Jessie; Calvet, Marie; Margerin, Ludovic; Traversa, Paola

2014-05-01

474

Electronic consequences of lateral composition modulation in semiconductor alloys  

SciTech Connect

Lateral composition modulation (CM) is a periodic, position-dependent variation in alloy composition occurring in the substrate plane, perpendicular to the growth direction. It can be induced by growing size-mismatched short-period AC/BC superlattices (SL). Here we study the electronic structure induced by such lateral composition modulation in GaAs/InAs, GaP/InP, and AlP/GaP, in search of optical properties relative to the corresponding random alloys. We investigate in detail the properties of (a) pure CM without any SL, (b) pure SL without any CM, and (c) the combined CM+SL system. The systems are modeled by constructing a large supercell where the cation sublattice sites are randomly occupied in the lateral (vertical) direction according to the composition variation induced by CM (SL). The atomic structure and strain induced by CM and SL are explicitly taken into account using an {ital atomistic} force field. This approach is found to be crucial for an accurate description of the microscopic strain in CM+SL systems. The electronic structure is solved using specially constructed empirical pseudopotentials and plane-wave expansion of the wave functions. We find that (i) CM in GaAs/InAs and GaP/InP systems induces type-I band alignment (electrons and holes localized in the same spatial region), while CM in AlP/GaP is shown as an example exhibiting type-II band alignment. (ii) CM and SL both induce significant contributions (which add up nearly linearly) to band-gap redshift with respect to random alloy. CM in GaP/InP is found to induce larger band-gap redshifts than in GaAs/InAs due to larger band offsets in the former system. (iii) The symmetry of electronic states at the valence band maximum is sensitively affected by CM: the lowest energy optical transitions exhibit strong polarization where transitions polarized perpendicular to the CM are favored, while transitions polarized parallel to the CM are surpressed by being shifted to higher energy. These observations, as well as the magnitude of the predicted band-gap redshift, agree with available experimental data, and suggest that control of composition modulation during growth might be used to tailor band gaps, carrier localization, and transition polarizations relative to random alloys. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

Mattila, T.; Wang, L.; Zunger, A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)] [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

1999-06-01

475

The precedence effect: fusion and lateralization measures for headphone stimuli lateralized by interaural time and level differences.  

PubMed

The present investigation assessed fusion and localization dominance aspects of the precedence effect under headphones across a variety of stimulus conditions in 10 normal-hearing listeners. Listeners were presented with "lead-lag" pairs of brief (123??s) impulses or trains of such pairs lateralized by interaural time or level differences (ITD or ILD). Listeners used a touch-sensitive display to indicate for the final lead-lag pair presented on each trial (1) whether one or two locations were perceived and (2) the location perceived. In the event two locations were perceived, subjects were further instructed to indicate the left-most location perceived. Results demonstrated that lead-lag fusion was more robust for stimuli lateralized by ITD than ILD, particularly when cues of the test stimulus differed from cues of the preceding "buildup" stimulus, consistent with Krumbholz and Nobbe [(2002). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 654-663]. Unexpectedly, results also demonstrated reduced localization dominance with increasing lead-lag delay, suggesting that the fusion aspect of the precedence effect may be dissociated from the localization dominance aspect under buildup. It is thus argued that buildup of fusion might be understood more generally as an example of auditory object formation rather than a special facility for enhanced sound localization. PMID:23654394

Brown, Andrew D; Stecker, G Christopher

2013-05-01

476

The Immediate Effect of Lateral Wedge Insoles, With and Without a Subtalar Strap, on the Lateral Trunk Lean Motion in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Background: Orthotic interventions for knee osteoarthritis (OA) aim to reduce mechanical loading on the medial compartment of the knee and may lessen the lateral trunk lean as the most important compensatory gait strategy. The lateral wedge insole is a known orthotic intervention for knee OA. However, the questio