Science.gov

Sample records for lateral durante atividades

  1. Prevendo a atividade solar através de redes neurais nebulosas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, V. A. F.; Poppe, P. C. R.

    2003-08-01

    Atualmente, a integração de redes neurais com técnicas da Matemática Nebulosa (Fuzzy Sets), tem sido usada robustamente para fazer previsões em vários sistemas físicos. Este trabalho representa uma continuidade da contribuição apresentada anteriormente durante a XXVIIa Reunião Anual da SAB, onde exploramos a aplicação de redes neurais para previsões futuras de séries temporais. Para este, enfatizamos o uso da técnica ANFIS (Adaptative Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System), que consiste em uma rede do tipo back-propagation, onde os dados são processados em uma camada intermediária, tendo numa camada de saída, os dados numéricos. Para que a previsão seja feita com sucesso utilizando-se técnicas matemáticas adequadas, é fundamental a existência de uma série razoavelmente longa de modo que a dinâmica contida nesta possa ser melhor extraída pela rede neural. Nesse sentido, foram utilizados novamente os dados históricos das manchas do Sol (1818-2002) afim de verificar o comportamento futuro da atividade solar (Ciclos de Schawbe) a partir da técnica descrita acima. Previsões realizadas para o ciclo anterior (n.22, máximo de 158,5 em julho de 1989), bem como para o atual (n.23, máximo de 153 em setembro de 2000), apontam valores bastante coerentes com os publicados na literatura, levando em consideração, respectivamente, as barras de erros associadas: 166+/-18 e 160+/-14. Para o próximo ciclo de Schawbe (2006-2017), nossa previsão aponta o valor de 172+/-23 como máximo para o primeiro semestre de 2011 (Abril +/- 3 meses). A ANFIS acompanha de maneira satisfatória o movimento das séries estudadas durante o treinamento e durante a verificação (menor dispersão das funções de pertinência), com erro absoluto inferior a 20 por cento.

  2. Lateral orientation (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A lateral orientation is a position away from the midline of the body. For instance, the arms are lateral to the ... ears are lateral to the head. A medial orientation is a position toward the midline of the ...

  3. Accessory lateral discoid meniscus.

    PubMed

    Saygi, Baransel; Yildirim, Yakup; Senturk, Salih; Sezgin Ramadan, Saime; Gundes, Hakan

    2006-12-01

    The lateral meniscus tends to have more developmental variation than the medial counterpart. This is a report of an accessory discoid layer of lateral meniscus. All arthroscopic, magnetic resonance imaging and histopathological views are presented. PMID:16710729

  4. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000688.htm Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or ALS, is a disease of the nerve ...

  5. Lateral flow strip assay

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, Robin R.; Benett, William J.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Pearson, Francesca S.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  6. Lateral canthal surgery.

    PubMed

    Chong, Kelvin Kam-Lung; Goldberg, Robert A

    2010-08-01

    The lateral canthus is a delicate and complicated three-dimensional structure with function relevant to the health of the ocular surface. Dysfunction of the lateral canthus, due to aging changes or iatrogenic trauma, results in ocular morbidity ranging from chronic irritation to tearing to recalcitrant keratopathy. From an aesthetic standpoint, symmetric, normally positioned lateral canthi are cornerstones of youthful periorbital appearance, disruption of which leads to cosmetically significant deformity or asymmetry. Reconstruction of the lateral canthus is important in the rehabilitation of the aging eyelid and an unfortunate necessity after failed lateral canthal surgery. The common methods for improving or maintaining position, tone, and shape of the lower eyelid and lateral canthus use tightening or shortening the lower eyelid horizontally, keeping the canthal angle in an appropriate vertical level, and hugging the ocular surface. Many techniques have been described for the reconstruction of the lateral canthus in functional conditions or for aesthetic purposes. These methods have met with varying success. In this article, we begin with a discussion of the anatomy and physiology of the lateral canthus, followed by clinical examples of lateral canthal abnormalities and underlying pathophysiologies. A review of surgical options for the lateral canthus is presented with concluding remarks on postoperative complications. PMID:20524167

  7. Discoid lateral meniscus.

    PubMed

    Fritschy, D; Gonseth, D

    1991-01-01

    Discoid meniscus is uncommon and usually affects the lateral meniscus. We present 16 patients (8 male and 6 female) with tears of a discoid lateral meniscus occurring in 1800 arthroscopies. We carried out an arthroscopic partial meniscectomy leaving an intact peripheral rim. This is biomechanically satisfactory and the early results are encouraging. PMID:1917190

  8. [Semidiscoid lateral meniscus].

    PubMed

    Araki, Y; Ishida, T; Ootani, M; Yamamoto, H; Yamamoto, T; Nakamura, H; Tsukaguchi, I

    1992-12-25

    We propose a new entity known as "semidiscoid lateral meniscus" of the knee. The diagnostic criteria for semidiscoid lateral meniscus is the appearance on a thin-sliced axial 3-D image of a crescent-shaped meniscus whose transverse width is within 11.6 mm to 14.3 mm on the coronal image. These numerical values were calculated by discriminant analysis. A retrospective review of MR examinations of the knees revealed 15 patients (15 knees) with this entity. These patients were our subjects. Of these 15 patients, complicated lateral meniscal tears were seen in only three cases. Nine knees were free from complications, and five were asymptomatic. Six patients were examined with MR on the contralateral side, and discoid lateral menisci were revealed in all cases. Thus semidiscoid lateral meniscus shows a cross-relationship with discoid menisci. PMID:1488290

  9. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a nervous system disease that attacks nerve cells called neurons in your ... people with ALS die from respiratory failure. The disease usually strikes between age 40 and 60. More ...

  10. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a nervous system disease that attacks nerve cells called neurons in your brain and spinal cord. These neurons ... breathing machine can help, but most people with ALS die from respiratory failure. The disease usually strikes ...

  11. Primary Lateral Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... synthesizers, and wheelchairs ma help some people retain independence.. Speech therapy may be useful for those with ... prevent, and ultimately cure these devastating diseases. NIH Patient Recruitment for Primary Lateral Sclerosis Clinical Trials At ...

  12. Pathways of lateral spreading.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, U; Schanzer, S; Weigmann, H-J; Patzelt, A; Vergou, T; Sterry, W; Lademann, J

    2011-01-01

    In the case of topically applied substances, usually both lateral spreading and competitive penetration into the skin occur in parallel. In the present study, the pathways of lateral spreading were studied quantitatively and visually. The local distribution and lateral spreading of the UV filter substance butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane applied in an o/w emulsion was studied on the forearm and the back. The tape stripping procedure was used to determine the recovery rates inside and outside the area of application. The skin characteristics of transepidermal water loss, pH value, hydration of the stratum corneum and sebum rate were determined at both anatomic sites. Photography and laser scanning microscopy were used to visually investigate the lateral spreading of topically applied dyes. On the back, a preferred direction of lateral spreading parallel to the body axis was observed. This result was caused by differences in the network of furrows. The furrows functioned as a pathway for lateral spreading, whereas the follicles formed a reservoir for the topically applied substance. PMID:21455016

  13. Laterally closed lattice homomorphisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toumi, Mohamed Ali; Toumi, Nedra

    2006-12-01

    Let A and B be two Archimedean vector lattices and let be a lattice homomorphism. We call that T is laterally closed if T(D) is a maximal orthogonal system in the band generated by T(A) in B, for each maximal orthogonal system D of A. In this paper we prove that any laterally closed lattice homomorphism T of an Archimedean vector lattice A with universal completion Au into a universally complete vector lattice B can be extended to a lattice homomorphism of Au into B, which is an improvement of a result of M. Duhoux and M. Meyer [M. Duhoux and M. Meyer, Extended orthomorphisms and lateral completion of Archimedean Riesz spaces, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles 98 (1984) 3-18], who established it for the order continuous lattice homomorphism case. Moreover, if in addition Au and B are with point separating order duals (Au)' and B' respectively, then the laterally closedness property becomes a necessary and sufficient condition for any lattice homomorphism to have a similar extension to the whole Au. As an application, we give a new representation theorem for laterally closed d-algebras from which we infer the existence of d-algebra multiplications on the universal completions of d-algebras.

  14. Laterally bendable belt conveyor

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, William J.

    1985-01-01

    An endless, laterally flexible and bendable belt conveyor particularly adapted for coal mining applications in facilitating the transport of the extracted coal up- or downslope and around corners in a continuous manner is disclosed. The conveying means includes a flat rubber belt reinforced along the middle portion thereof along which the major portion of the belt tension is directed so as to cause rotation of the tubular shaped belt when trammed around lateral turns thus preventing excessive belt bulging distortion between adjacent belt supports which would inhibit belt transport. Pretension induced into the fabric reinforced flat rubber belt by conventional belt take-up means supports the load conveyed when the belt conveyor is making lateral turns. The carrying and return portions of the belt are supported and formed into a tubular shape by a plurality of shapers positioned along its length. Each shaper is supported from above by a monorail and includes clusters of idler rollers which support the belt. Additional cluster rollers in each shaper permit the belt supporting roller clusters to rotate in response to the belt's operating tension imposed upon the cluster rollers by induced lateral belt friction forces. The freely rotating roller clusters thus permit the belt to twist on lateral curves without damage to itself while precluding escape of the conveyed material by effectively enclosing it in the tube-shaped, inner belt transport length.

  15. Infrared lateral shearing interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, O.

    1980-04-01

    Recently IR interferometry has received much attention for its special capabilities of testing IR materials, diamond-turned metal mirrors, deep aspherics, unpolished rough surface optics, and other unconventional optics. A CW CO2 laser is used as a coherent light source at 10.6 microns, and germanium and zinc selenide optics are used for lenses and beam splitters. A pyroelectric vidicon (PEV) detects the modulated interference pattern through a TV monitor and video recorder-player. This paper presents three methods of IR lateral shear interferometry using (1) a germanium plane-parallel plate, (2) a Ronchi ruling, and (3) a double-grating lateral shear interferometer.

  16. Lateral Thinking of Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Xavier, S. Amaladoss

    2013-01-01

    Edward de Bono who invented the term "lateral thinking" in 1967 is the pioneer of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is concerned with the generation of new ideas. Liberation from old ideas and the stimulation of new ones are twin aspects of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is a creative skills from which all people can benefit…

  17. [Adult lateral meniscus].

    PubMed

    Beaufils, P; Hardy, P; Chambat, P; Clavert, P; Djian, P; Frank, A; Hulet, C; Potel, J-F; Verdonk, R

    2006-09-01

    Meniscal lesion does not mean meniscectomy and this is particularly true for the lateral meniscus. The reputation of mildness of the meniscectomy is usurped. The rate of joint space narrowing after lateral meniscectomy is of 40% at a follow-up of 13 years compared to 28% for the medial meniscus (symposium SFA 1996). Several arguments explain those results: biomechanical: the lateral meniscus contributes to the congruence; particularly the lateral meniscus is the zone where antero-posterior translational during knee flexion is 12 mm. The pejorative effects of lateral meniscectomy have conducted, more though to the medial meniscus, to the concept of meniscal economy. Lateral meniscectomy must be as partial as possible. Particularly, a discoid meniscus presenting a complete tear should be treated by a meniscoplasty in order to shape the meniscus in a more anatomic form than a total meniscectomy. Lateral meniscectomy is indicated in complex or horizontal cleavage, symptomatic, on stable knees. A particular case is the cyst of the lateral meniscus. It is a cystic subcutaneous formation, usual consequence of a horizontal cleaved meniscus of which the particularity is that it opens besides the articulation. The strategy must not consist in the isolated treatment of the cyst. This pathology should be addressed by an arthroscopic meniscectomy reaching the meniscosynovial junction at the level of the cyst. Meniscal repair must be proposed every time if possible. Criteria of reparability are better studied on MRI. Preoperatively MRI is the first choice radiological exam. Two essential indications can be held back: the vertical peripheral longitudinal lesion is on the non-vascularized area, and the horizontal cleaving of the junior athlete (if the cleaving remains purely intra meniscal). Meniscal repair is highly performed when the meniscal tear is associated to a rupture of the ACL (simultaneous reconstruction of the LCA). Postoperative outcome is different of that of a

  18. Lateral flow assays

    PubMed Central

    Koczula, Katarzyna M.

    2016-01-01

    Lateral flow assays (LFAs) are the technology behind low-cost, simple, rapid and portable detection devices popular in biomedicine, agriculture, food and environmental sciences. This review presents an overview of the principle of the method and the critical components of the assay, focusing on lateral flow immunoassays. This type of assay has recently attracted considerable interest because of its potential to provide instantaneous diagnosis directly to patients. The range and interpretation of results and parameters used for evaluation of the assay will also be discussed. The main advantages and disadvantages of LFAs will be summarized and relevant future improvements to testing devices and strategies will be proposed. Finally, the major recent advances and future diagnostic applications in the LFA field will be explored. PMID:27365041

  19. Conjugal amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Dewitt, John D.; Kwon, Julia; Burton, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disease characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the motor cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord. The incidence of sporadic ALS is 1.5 to 2.7 in 100,000, and the prevalence is 5.2 to 6.0 in 100,000. Conjugal ALS is even rarer than sporadic ALS. We report a case of conjugal ALS encountered in our outpatient neurology clinic. PMID:22275781

  20. Hemispheric lateralization in reasoning.

    PubMed

    Turner, Benjamin O; Marinsek, Nicole; Ryhal, Emily; Miller, Michael B

    2015-11-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that reasoning in humans relies on a number of related processes whose neural loci are largely lateralized to one hemisphere or the other. A recent review of this evidence concluded that the patterns of lateralization observed are organized according to two complementary tendencies. The left hemisphere attempts to reduce uncertainty by drawing inferences or creating explanations, even at the cost of ignoring conflicting evidence or generating implausible explanations. Conversely, the right hemisphere aims to reduce conflict by rejecting or refining explanations that are no longer tenable in the face of new evidence. In healthy adults, the hemispheres work together to achieve a balance between certainty and consistency, and a wealth of neuropsychological research supports the notion that upsetting this balance results in various failures in reasoning, including delusions. However, support for this model from the neuroimaging literature is mixed. Here, we examine the evidence for this framework from multiple research domains, including an activation likelihood estimation analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of reasoning. Our results suggest a need to either revise this model as it applies to healthy adults or to develop better tools for assessing lateralization in these individuals. PMID:26426534

  1. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Alexander; Girardi, Federico; Sama, Andrew; Lebl, Darren; Cammisa, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a relatively new technique that allows the surgeon to access the intervertebral space from a direct lateral approach either anterior to or through the psoas muscle. This approach provides an alternative to anterior lumbar interbody fusion with instrumentation, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for anterior column support. LLIF is minimally invasive, safe, better structural support from the apophyseal ring, potential for coronal plane deformity correction, and indirect decompression, which have has made this technique popular. LLIF is currently being utilized for a variety of pathologies including but not limited to adult de novo lumbar scoliosis, central and foraminal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and adjacent segment degeneration. Although early clinical outcomes have been good, the potential for significant neurological and vascular vertebral endplate complications exists. Nevertheless, LLIF is a promising technique with the potential to more effectively treat complex adult de novo scoliosis and achieve predictable fusion while avoiding the complications of traditional anterior surgery and posterior interbody techniques. PMID:26713134

  2. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Abhijit; Hughes, Alexander; Girardi, Federico; Sama, Andrew; Lebl, Darren; Cammisa, Frank

    2015-12-01

    The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a relatively new technique that allows the surgeon to access the intervertebral space from a direct lateral approach either anterior to or through the psoas muscle. This approach provides an alternative to anterior lumbar interbody fusion with instrumentation, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for anterior column support. LLIF is minimally invasive, safe, better structural support from the apophyseal ring, potential for coronal plane deformity correction, and indirect decompression, which have has made this technique popular. LLIF is currently being utilized for a variety of pathologies including but not limited to adult de novo lumbar scoliosis, central and foraminal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and adjacent segment degeneration. Although early clinical outcomes have been good, the potential for significant neurological and vascular vertebral endplate complications exists. Nevertheless, LLIF is a promising technique with the potential to more effectively treat complex adult de novo scoliosis and achieve predictable fusion while avoiding the complications of traditional anterior surgery and posterior interbody techniques. PMID:26713134

  3. Creativity in later life.

    PubMed

    Price, K A; Tinker, A M

    2014-08-01

    The ageing population presents significant challenges for the provision of social and health services. Strategies are needed to enable older people to cope within a society ill prepared for the impacts of these demographic changes. The ability to be creative may be one such strategy. This review outlines the relevant literature and examines current public health policy related to creativity in old age with the aim of highlighting some important issues. As well as looking at the benefits and negative aspects of creative activity in later life they are considered in the context of the theory of "successful ageing". Creative activity plays an important role in the lives of older people promoting social interaction, providing cognitive stimulation and giving a sense of self-worth. Furthermore, it is shown to be useful as a tool in the multi-disciplinary treatment of health problems common in later life such as depression and dementia. There are a number of initiatives to encourage older people to participate in creative activities such as arts-based projects which may range from visual arts to dance to music to intergenerational initiatives. However, participation shows geographical variation and often the responsibility of provision falls to voluntary organisations. Overall, the literature presented suggests that creative activity could be a useful tool for individuals and society. However, further research is needed to establish the key factors which contribute to patterns of improved health and well-being, as well as to explore ways to improve access to services. PMID:24974278

  4. 8. UPPER INSIDE CHORD, VERTICAL, LATERAL STRUT, UPPER LATERAL & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. UPPER INSIDE CHORD, VERTICAL, LATERAL STRUT, UPPER LATERAL & GUSSET PLATE, ONE DIAGONAL BRACE - Enterprise Parker Truss Bridge, Spanning Smoky Hill River on K-43 Highway, Enterprise, Dickinson County, KS

  5. 7. UPPER INSIDE CHORD, VERTICAL, LATERAL STRUT, UPPER LATERAL & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. UPPER INSIDE CHORD, VERTICAL, LATERAL STRUT, UPPER LATERAL & GUSSET PLATE, TWO DIAGONAL BRACES - Enterprise Parker Truss Bridge, Spanning Smoky Hill River on K-43 Highway, Enterprise, Dickinson County, KS

  6. VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE AT INTERSECTION OF DURANT STREET. SEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE AT INTERSECTION OF DURANT STREET. SEEN FROM NW CORNER LOOKING SE. Photograph by Brian Grogan, July 8, 2007 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  7. VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE AT INTERSECTION OF DURANT AVENUE WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE AT INTERSECTION OF DURANT AVENUE WITH DOME OF THE INTERNATIONAL HOUSE AT 2299 PIEDMONT AVENUE. BY GEORGE W. KELHAM, 1929, SEEN FROM SW CORNER LOOKING NORTH. Photograph by Fredrica Drotos and Michael Kelly, July 9, 2006 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  8. VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE BETWEEN CHANNING WAY AND DURANT AVENUE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE BETWEEN CHANNING WAY AND DURANT AVENUE. 2325 PIEDMONT (MRS. F.W. FISH HOUSE DESIGNED BY CHARLES S. KAISER, 1910. SEEN FROM WEST SIDE OF PIEDMONT LOOKING NORTH. Photograph by Fredrica Drotos and Michael Kelly, July 9, 2006 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  9. VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE AT INTERSECTION OF DURANT AVENUE. SEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE AT INTERSECTION OF DURANT AVENUE. SEEN FROM NW CORNER LOOKING SE. Photograph by Brian Grogan, July 8, 2007 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  10. VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE BETWEEN CHANNING WAY AND DURANT AVENUE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE BETWEEN CHANNING WAY AND DURANT AVENUE. SEEN FROM WEST SIDE OF PIEDMONT LOOKING NORTH. Photograph by Brian Grogan, July 2007 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  11. Cuidados paliativos durante el cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Describe la función de los cuidados paliativos, los cuales son los cuidados que se brindan a pacientes que tienen una enfermedad grave o potencialmente letal, como el cáncer, desde el momento del diagnóstico y durante todo el curso de la enfermedad.

  12. Lateral conduction infrared photodetector

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jin K.; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2011-09-20

    A photodetector for detecting infrared light in a wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m is disclosed. The photodetector has a mesa structure formed from semiconductor layers which include a type-II superlattice formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. Impurity doped regions are formed on sidewalls of the mesa structure to provide for a lateral conduction of photo-generated carriers which can provide an increased carrier mobility and a reduced surface recombination. An optional bias electrode can be used in the photodetector to control and vary a cut-off wavelength or a depletion width therein. The photodetector can be formed as a single-color or multi-color device, and can also be used to form a focal plane array which is compatible with conventional read-out integrated circuits.

  13. Laterality and language experience.

    PubMed

    Hull, Rachel; Vaid, Jyotsna

    2006-09-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted on studies that examined hemispheric functional asymmetry for language in brain-intact monolingual and bilingual adults. Data from 23 laterality studies that directly compared bilingual and monolingual speakers on the same language were analysed (n = 1234). Variables examined were language experience (monolingual, bilingual), experimental paradigm (dichotic listening, visual hemifield presentation, and dual task) and, among bilinguals, the influence of second language proficiency (proficient vs nonproficient) and onset of bilingualism (early, or before age 6; and late, or after age 6). Overall, monolinguals and late bilinguals showed reliable left hemisphere dominance, while early bilinguals showed reliable bilateral hemispheric involvement. Within bilinguals, there was no reliable effect of language proficiency when age of L2 acquisition was controlled. The findings indicate that early learning of one vs. two languages predicts divergent patterns of cerebral language lateralisation in adulthood. PMID:16882556

  14. Lateral Flow Immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Ching, Kathryn H

    2015-01-01

    Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) are a staple in the field of rapid diagnostics. These small handheld devices require no specialized training or equipment to operate, and generate a result within minutes of sample application. They are an ideal format for many types of home test kits, for emergency responders and for food manufacturers and producers looking for a quick evaluation of a given sample. LFIAs rely on high quality monoclonal antibodies that recognize the analyte of interest. As monoclonal antibody technology becomes more accessible to smaller laboratories, there has been increased interest in developing LFIA prototypes for potential commercial manufacture. In this chapter, the basics of designing and building an LFIA prototype are described. PMID:26160571

  15. Laterally oscillating nitinol engine

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, R.

    1987-09-08

    This patent describes a laterally oscillating nitinol engine comprising: a first L-shaped drive member journalled for pivoting horizontal oscillation about the juncture of the legs of the L-shaped member, a second drive member journalled for pivoting about a point proximate the outboard end of the shorter leg of the L-shaped member at a distance from the pivot journal of the L-shaped member, a bearing block secured to the end of longer leg of the L-shaped and having a guide hole. The second member extending through the guide hole and arranged to reciprocate therein, a shape memory alloy power element disposed in flexure secured at its ends to the bearing block and to the second member intermediate the sliding connection with the bearing block and the pivotal connection of the second member, means for disposing different temperature baths below the element whereby as the drive members oscillate about their journals the element alternately dips into one bath and then the other, and means for absorbing a portion of the energy developed by the engine and moving the power element from the cold bath to the hot bath.

  16. Diamond heteroepitaxial lateral overgrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yung-Hsiu

    This dissertation describes improvements in the growth of single crystal diamond by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Heteroepitaxial (001) diamond was grown on 1 cm. 2 a-plane sapphiresubstrates using an epitaxial (001) Ir thin-film as a buffer layer. Low-energy ion bombardment of the Ir layer, a process known as bias-enhanced nucleation, is a key step in achieving a high density of diamond nuclei. Bias conditions were optimized to form uniformly-high nucleation densities across the substrates, which led to well-coalesced diamond thin films after short growth times. Epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) was used as a means of decreasing diamond internal stress by impeding the propagation of threading dislocations into the growing material. Its use in diamond growth requires adaptation to the aggressive chemical and thermal environment of the hydrogen plasma in a CVD reactor. Three ELO variants were developed. The most successful utilized a gold (Au) mask prepared by vacuum evaporation onto the surface of a thin heteroepitaxial diamond layer. The Au mask pattern, a series of parallel stripes on the micrometer scale, was produced by standard lift-off photolithography. When diamond overgrows the mask, dislocations are largely confined to the substrate. Differing degrees of confinement were studied by varying the stripe geometry and orientation. Significant improvement in diamond quality was found in the overgrown regions, as evidenced by reduction of the Raman scattering linewidth. The Au layer was found to remain intact during diamond overgrowth and did not chemically bond with the diamond surface. Besides impeding the propagation of threading dislocations, it was discovered that the thermally-induced stress in the CVD diamond was significantly reduced as a result of the ductile Au layer. Cracking and delamination of the diamond from the substrate was mostly eliminated. When diamond was grown to thicknesses above 0.1 mm it was found that

  17. Thinking laterally about genomes.

    PubMed

    Ragan, Mark A

    2009-10-01

    Perhaps the most-surprising discovery of the genome era has been the extent to which prokaryotic and many eukaryotic genomes incorporate genetic material from sources other than their parent(s). Lateral genetic transfer (LGT) among bacteria was first observed about 100 years ago, and is now accepted to underlie important phenomena including the spread of antibiotic resistance and ability to degrade xenobiotics. LGT is invoked, perhaps too readily, to explain a breadth of awkward data including compositional heterogeneity of genomes, disagreement among gene-sequence trees, and mismatch between physiology and systematics. At the same time many details of LGT remain unknown or controversial, and some key questions have scarcely been asked. Here I critically review what we think we know about the existence, extent, mechanism and impact of LGT; identify important open questions; and point to research directions that hold particular promise for elucidating the role of LGT in genome evolution. Evidence for LGT in nature is not only inferential but also direct, and potential vectors are ubiquitous. Genetic material can pass between diverse habitats and be significantly altered during residency in viruses, complicating the inference of donors, In prokaryotes about twice as many genes are interrupted by LGT as are transferred intact, and about 5Short protein domains can be privileged units of transfer. Unresolved phylogenetic issues include the correct null hypothesis, and genes as units of analysis. Themes are beginning to emerge regarding the effect of LGT on cellular networks, but I show why generalization is premature. LGT can associate with radical changes in physiology and ecological niche. Better quantitative models of genome evolution are needed, and theoretical frameworks remain to be developed for some observations including chromosome assembly by LGT. PMID:20180279

  18. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Preserving the Lateral Canthal Angle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Jun; Lee, Kyu Ho; Choi, Hong Lim; Jeong, Eui Cheol

    2016-07-01

    Cosmetic lateral canthoplasty, in which the size of the eye is increased by extending the palpebral fissure and decreasing the degree of the eye slant, has become a prevalent procedure for East Asians. However, it is not uncommon for there to be complications or unfavorable results after the surgery. With this in mind, the authors have designed a surgical method to reduce complications in cosmetic lateral canthoplasty by preserving the lateral canthal angle. We discuss here the anatomy required for surgery, the surgical methods, and methods for reducing complications during cosmetic lateral canthoplasty. PMID:27462563

  19. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Preserving the Lateral Canthal Angle

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu Ho; Choi, Hong Lim; Jeong, Eui Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetic lateral canthoplasty, in which the size of the eye is increased by extending the palpebral fissure and decreasing the degree of the eye slant, has become a prevalent procedure for East Asians. However, it is not uncommon for there to be complications or unfavorable results after the surgery. With this in mind, the authors have designed a surgical method to reduce complications in cosmetic lateral canthoplasty by preserving the lateral canthal angle. We discuss here the anatomy required for surgery, the surgical methods, and methods for reducing complications during cosmetic lateral canthoplasty. PMID:27462563

  20. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Wijesekera, Lokesh C; Leigh, P Nigel

    2009-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by progressive muscular paralysis reflecting degeneration of motor neurones in the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, brainstem and spinal cord. Incidence (average 1.89 per 100,000/year) and prevalence (average 5.2 per100,000) are relatively uniform in Western countries, although foci of higher frequency occur in the Western Pacific. The mean age of onset for sporadic ALS is about 60 years. Overall, there is a slight male prevalence (M:F ratio~1.5:1). Approximately two thirds of patients with typical ALS have a spinal form of the disease (limb onset) and present with symptoms related to focal muscle weakness and wasting, where the symptoms may start either distally or proximally in the upper and lower limbs. Gradually, spasticity may develop in the weakened atrophic limbs, affecting manual dexterity and gait. Patients with bulbar onset ALS usually present with dysarthria and dysphagia for solid or liquids, and limbs symptoms can develop almost simultaneously with bulbar symptoms, and in the vast majority of cases will occur within 1–2 years. Paralysis is progressive and leads to death due to respiratory failure within 2–3 years for bulbar onset cases and 3–5 years for limb onset ALS cases. Most ALS cases are sporadic but 5–10% of cases are familial, and of these 20% have a mutation of the SOD1 gene and about 2–5% have mutations of the TARDBP (TDP-43) gene. Two percent of apparently sporadic patients have SOD1 mutations, and TARDBP mutations also occur in sporadic cases. The diagnosis is based on clinical history, examination, electromyography, and exclusion of 'ALS-mimics' (e.g. cervical spondylotic myelopathies, multifocal motor neuropathy, Kennedy's disease) by appropriate investigations. The pathological hallmarks comprise loss of motor neurones with intraneuronal ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions in upper motor neurones and TDP-43 immunoreactive inclusions in

  1. Strictly homogeneous laterally complete modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilin, V. I.; Karimov, J. A.

    2016-03-01

    Let A be a laterally complete commutative regular algebra and X be a laterally complete A-module. In this paper we introduce a notion of homogeneous and strictly homogeneous A-modules. It is proved that any homogeneous A-module is strictly homogeneous A-module, if the Boolean algebra of all idempotents in A is multi-σ-finite.

  2. Cerebral Laterality and Verbal Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Jay L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Research suggests that we process information by way of two distinct and functionally separate coding systems. Their location, somewhat dependent on cerebral laterality, varies in right- and left-handed persons. Tests this dual coding model. (Editor/RK)

  3. Lateral Dominance and Reading Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Albert J.

    1979-01-01

    Theory and research on the relation of lateral dominance to the causation of reading disability are reviewed. Both direct and indirect measures of cerebral hemisphere functioning are considered. (SBH)

  4. Borehole optical lateral displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, R.E.

    1998-10-20

    There is provided by this invention an optical displacement sensor that utilizes a reflective target connected to a surface to be monitored to reflect light from a light source such that the reflected light is received by a photoelectric transducer. The electric signal from the photoelectric transducer is then imputed into electronic circuitry to generate an electronic image of the target. The target`s image is monitored to determine the quantity and direction of any lateral displacement in the target`s image which represents lateral displacement in the surface being monitored. 4 figs.

  5. Ring-shaped lateral meniscus.

    PubMed

    Monllau, J C; León, A; Cugat, R; Ballester, J

    1998-01-01

    The existence of abnormal-shaped menisci has been long recognized. The presence of discoid menisci in the human knee is considered to be a congenital malformation with a very low rate of incidence except in Asian populations. Since the publication of Watanabe's Atlas, three types of lateral meniscal abnormalities are generally accepted: the complete and incomplete discoid, as well as the Wrisberg-ligament type meniscus. The present case is the second description of a ring-shaped meniscus on the lateral side of the knee and we propose that this variant be included as a fourth variant in a future classification. PMID:9681543

  6. Lateral Diffusion in an Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Saxton, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    Lateral diffusion of molecules in lipid bilayer membranes can be hindered by the presence of impermeable domains of gel-phase lipid or of proteins. Effective-medium theory and percolation theory are used to evaluate the effective lateral diffusion constant as a function of the area fraction of fluid-phase lipid and the permeability of the obstructions to the diffusing species. Applications include the estimation of the minimum fraction of fluid lipid needed for bacterial growth, and the enhancement of diffusion-controlled reactions by the channeling effect of solid patches of lipid. PMID:7052153

  7. Diagnosing and treating lateral epicondylitis.

    PubMed Central

    Geoffroy, P.; Yaffe, M. J.; Rohan, I.

    1994-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is often encountered in primary care. Although its diagnosis can be fairly straightforward, its treatment is often difficult. This review examines the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation of tennis elbow. Management options are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8312757

  8. Symptoms of discoid lateral menisci

    PubMed Central

    Mutlu, Serhat; Mutlu, Harun; Mutlu, Burcu; Guler, Olcay; Duymus, Tahir Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to determine the symptoms of the patients with discoid lateral meniscus. Methods We prospectively collected cases of the knees with discoid lateral meniscus. Twenty patients (7 female, 13 male) admitted between January 2012 and February 2014 were enrolled in this study. The mean age of the patients was 34 years (range 28–40). Results The identified symptoms of a discoid lateral meniscus were “pain, stiffness, popping of the knee, feeling that the knee is “giving way”, inability to fully extend (straighten) the knee”. Thirteen patients (65%) had pain, 11 (55%) had popping of the knee, 4 (20%) had stiffness, 2 (10%) had “giving way” feeling, and 1 (5%) had inability to fully extend the knee. These symptoms did not prevent any patient's daily activities. No patients required surgical treatment. Conclusions Pain and popping of the knee were the most common symptoms in patients with a discoid lateral meniscus. The other symptoms were stiffness, feeling that the knee is “giving way”, and inability to fully extend the knee, respectively. No symptoms had been required surgical treatment. PMID:25561753

  9. School Readiness and Later Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Dowsett, Chantelle J.; Claessens, Amy; Magnuson, Katherine; Huston, Aletha C.; Klebanov, Pamela; Pagani, Linda S.; Feinstein, Leon; Engel, Mimi; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Sexton, Holly; Duckworth, Kathryn; Japel, Crista

    2007-01-01

    Using 6 longitudinal data sets, the authors estimate links between three key elements of school readiness--school-entry academic, attention, and socioemotional skills--and later school reading and math achievement. In an effort to isolate the effects of these school-entry skills, the authors ensured that most of their regression models control for…

  10. Functional Lateralization of the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Raymond S.

    1984-01-01

    Research concerning lateralization of human brain functions is examined in light of the recent publication of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. Following a review of research methodologies and functions ascribed to the hemispheres of the brain, differences are portrayed as complementary and coexisting modes of cognitive processing.…

  11. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mimic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) misdiagnosis has many broad implications for the patient and the neurologist. Potentially curative treatments exist for certain ALS mimic syndromes, but delay in starting these therapies may have an unfavorable effect on outcome. Hence, it is important to exclude similar conditions. In this review, we discuss some of the important mimics of ALS. PMID:27326363

  12. A partially duplicated discoid lateral meniscus.

    PubMed

    Kim, S J; Lee, Y T; Choi, C H; Kim, D W

    1998-01-01

    Partially duplicated discoid lateral meniscus has not been previously reported. We present a case of a partially duplicated discoid lateral meniscus with a peripheral tear of the meniscus and a concomitant cartilage lesion of the lateral femoral condyle. PMID:9681547

  13. Preserving Dignity in Later Life.

    PubMed

    São José, José Manuel

    2016-09-01

    This article examines how elders who receive social care in the community experience loss of dignity and how they preserve their dignity. Qualitative research revealed that loss of dignity is a major concern for these elders and that they preserve their dignity differently, ranging from actively engaging with life to detaching themselves from life. We conclude that, in later life, preserving dignity while receiving social care differs from preserving dignity in the context of health care, especially health care provided in institutional settings. Furthermore, preserving dignity in later life, while receiving social care, is a complex process, depending not only on performing activities and individual action and responsibility, but also on other actions, some of them involving a certain inactivity/passivity, and interactions with others, especially caregivers. This article offers some insights to developing better policies and care practices for promoting dignity in the context of community-based social care. PMID:27456751

  14. Lateral gene transfer in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Andersson, J O

    2005-06-01

    Lateral gene transfer -- the transfer of genetic material between species -- has been acknowledged as a major mechanism in prokaryotic genome evolution for some time. Recently accumulating data indicate that the process also occurs in the evolution of eukaryotic genomes. However, there are large rate variations between groups of eukaryotes; animals and fungi seem to be largely unaffected, with a few exceptions, while lateral gene transfer frequently occurs in protists with phagotrophic lifestyles, possibly with rates comparable to prokaryotic organisms. Gene transfers often facilitate the acquisition of functions encoded in prokaryotic genomes by eukaryotic organisms, which may enable them to colonize new environments. Transfers between eukaryotes also occur, mainly into larger phagotrophic eukaryotes that ingest eukaryotic cells, but also between plant lineages. These findings have implications for eukaryotic genomic research in general, and studies of the origin and phylogeny of eukaryotes in particular. PMID:15761667

  15. Lateral dampers for thrust bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibner, D. H.; Szafir, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of lateral damping schemes for thrust bearings was examined, ranking their applicability to various engine classes, selecting the best concept for each engine class and performing an in-depth evaluation. Five major engine classes were considered: large transport, military, small general aviation, turboshaft, and non-manrated. Damper concepts developed for evaluation were: curved beam, constrained and unconstrained elastomer, hybrid boost bearing, hydraulic thrust piston, conical squeeze film, and rolling element thrust face.

  16. Cerebral lateralization in simultaneous interpretation.

    PubMed

    Fabbro, F; Gran, L; Basso, G; Bava, A

    1990-07-01

    Cerebral asymmetries for L1 (Italian), L2 (English), and L3 (French, German, Spanish, or Russian) were studied, by using a verbal-manual interference paradigm, in a group of Italian right-handed polyglot female students at the Scuola Superiore di Lingue Moderne per Interpreti e Traduttori (SSLM-School for Interpreters and Translators) of the University of Trieste and in a control group of right-handed monolingual female students at the Medical School of the University of Trieste. In an automatic speech production task no significant cerebral lateralization was found for the mother tongue (L1) either in the interpreting students or in the control group; the interpreting students were not significantly lateralized for the third language (L3), while weak left hemispheric lateralization was shown for L2. A significantly higher degree of verbal-manual interference was found for L1 than for L2 and L3. A significantly higher disruption rate occurred in the meaning-based mode of simultaneous interpretation (from L2 into L1 and vice versa) than in the word-for-word mode (from L2 into L1 and vice versa). No significant overall or hemispheric differences were found during simultaneous interpretation from L1 into L2 or from L2 into L1. PMID:2207622

  17. Practical Astronomical Activities during Daytime. (Spanish Title: Actividades Astronómicas Prácticas Diurnas.) Atividades Astronômicas Práticas Diurnas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Eric

    2009-12-01

    relacionadas al mal tiempo. El problema de no tener suficientes actividades prácticas, la sensación de poseer conocimientos inadecuados, la necesidad de disponer de equipamiento astronómico y experiencia suelen ser demasiado intimidantes para que los profesores introduzcan la materia en sus clases. Si la Astronomía iba a ser introducida, entonces era preciso encontrar una forma de resolver estas dificultades. Nuestro grupo, trabajando con maestros y alumnos dentro de un marco constructivista, encontró que los principios de la Astronomía pueden ser descubiertos durante el día, en cuanto los alumnos están en la escuela. Trabajando de forma cooperativa los alumnos midieron y registraron observaciones de sus propias sombras causadas por los movimientos de la estrella más próxima, el Sol, y nuestro planeta Tierra. Debido a que los alumnos se involucraran tan personalmente en las actividades, estuvieron mucho más interesados en los resultados del estudio. La Astronomía pasó a ser un desafío para el maestro y sus alumnos cuando aplicaron sus experiencias diurnas a la observación nocturna desde sus casas, reportada después en clase. Estas atividades astronômicas diurnas surgiram de uma investigação feita na Nova Zelândia por um grupo de professores e astrônomos a respeito dos problemas do ensino da Astronomia. Este trabalho mostrou que a Astronomia é geralmente considerada uma disciplina difícil de ensinar, tradicionalmente baseada em livros, filmes e modelos. Os mais afortunados podem ter feito alguma visita a um observatório ou planetário, e os mais avançados podem talvez ter tentado uma sessão de observação noturna, as quais sofrem às vezes de dificuldades relacionadas ao tempo. O problema de não dispor de suficientes atividades práticas, a sensação de possuir conhecimentos inadequados, a necessidade de dispor de equipamento astronômico e experiência tem sido, em geral, demasiado intimidante para que os professores introduzam a matéria nas suas

  18. 49 CFR 229.63 - Lateral motion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lateral motion. 229.63 Section 229.63....63 Lateral motion. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b), the total uncontrolled lateral motion... powered axles. (b) The total uncontrolled lateral motion may not exceed 11/4 inches on the center axle...

  19. Manual lateralization in macaques: handedness, target laterality and task complexity.

    PubMed

    Regaiolli, Barbara; Spiezio, Caterina; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates represent models to understand the evolution of handedness in humans. Despite several researches have been investigating non-human primates handedness, few studies examined the relationship between target position, hand preference and task complexity. This study aimed at investigating macaque handedness in relation to target laterality and tastiness, as well as task complexity. Seven pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) were involved in three different "two alternative choice" tests: one low-level task and two high-level tasks (HLTs). During the first and the third tests macaques could select a preferred food and a non-preferred food, whereas by modifying the design of the second test, macaques were presented with no-difference alternative per trial. Furthermore, a simple-reaching test was administered to assess hand preference in a social context. Macaques showed hand preference at individual level both in simple and complex tasks, but not in the simple-reaching test. Moreover, target position seemed to affect hand preference in retrieving an object in the low-level task, but not in the HLT. Additionally, individual hand preference seemed to be affected from the tastiness of the item to be retrieved. The results suggest that both target laterality and individual motivation might influence hand preference of macaques, especially in simple tasks. PMID:26292019

  20. Direct lateral maneuvers in hawkmoths.

    PubMed

    Greeter, Jeremy S M; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2016-01-01

    We used videography to investigate direct lateral maneuvers, i.e. 'sideslips', of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. M. sexta sideslip by rolling their entire body and wings to reorient their net force vector. During sideslip they increase net aerodynamic force by flapping with greater amplitude, (in both wing elevation and sweep), allowing them to continue to support body weight while rolled. To execute the roll maneuver we observed in sideslips, they use an asymmetric wing stroke; increasing the pitch of the roll-contralateral wing pair, while decreasing that of the roll-ipsilateral pair. They also increase the wing sweep amplitude of, and decrease the elevation amplitude of, the contralateral wing pair relative to the ipsilateral pair. The roll maneuver unfolds in a stairstep manner, with orientation changing more during downstroke than upstroke. This is due to smaller upstroke wing pitch angle asymmetries as well as increased upstroke flapping counter-torque from left-right differences in global reference frame wing velocity about the moth's roll axis. Rolls are also opposed by stabilizing aerodynamic moments from lateral motion, such that rightward roll velocity will be opposed by rightward motion. Computational modeling using blade-element approaches confirm the plausibility of a causal linkage between the previously mentioned wing kinematics and roll/sideslip. Model results also predict high degrees of axial and lateral damping. On the time scale of whole and half wing strokes, left-right wing pair asymmetries directly relate to the first, but not second, derivative of roll. Collectively, these results strongly support a roll-based sideslip with a high degree of roll damping in M. sexta. PMID:26740573

  1. Vision assisted aircraft lateral navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohideen, Mohamed Ibrahim; Ramegowda, Dinesh; Seiler, Peter

    2013-05-01

    Surface operation is currently one of the least technologically equipped phases of aircraft operation. The increased air traffic congestion necessitates more aircraft operations in degraded weather and at night. The traditional surface procedures worked well in most cases as airport surfaces have not been congested and airport layouts were less complex. Despite the best efforts of FAA and other safety agencies, runway incursions continue to occur frequently due to incorrect surface operation. Several studies conducted by FAA suggest that pilot induced error contributes significantly to runway incursions. Further, the report attributes pilot's lack of situational awareness - local (e.g., minimizing lateral deviation), global (e.g., traffic in the vicinity) and route (e.g., distance to next turn) - to the problem. An Enhanced Vision System (EVS) is one concept that is being considered to resolve these issues. These systems use on-board sensors to provide situational awareness under poor visibility conditions. In this paper, we propose the use of an Image processing based system to estimate the aircraft position and orientation relative to taxiway markings to use as lateral guidance aid. We estimate aircraft yaw angle and lateral offset from slope of the taxiway centerline and horizontal position of vanishing line. Unlike automotive applications, several cues such as aircraft maneuvers along assigned route with minimal deviations, clear ground markings, even taxiway surface, limited aircraft speed are available and enable us to implement significant algorithm optimizations. We present experimental results to show high precision navigation accuracy with sensitivity analysis with respect to camera mount, optics, and image processing error.

  2. Direct lateral maneuvers in hawkmoths

    PubMed Central

    Greeter, Jeremy S. M.; Hedrick, Tyson L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We used videography to investigate direct lateral maneuvers, i.e. ‘sideslips’, of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. M. sexta sideslip by rolling their entire body and wings to reorient their net force vector. During sideslip they increase net aerodynamic force by flapping with greater amplitude, (in both wing elevation and sweep), allowing them to continue to support body weight while rolled. To execute the roll maneuver we observed in sideslips, they use an asymmetric wing stroke; increasing the pitch of the roll-contralateral wing pair, while decreasing that of the roll-ipsilateral pair. They also increase the wing sweep amplitude of, and decrease the elevation amplitude of, the contralateral wing pair relative to the ipsilateral pair. The roll maneuver unfolds in a stairstep manner, with orientation changing more during downstroke than upstroke. This is due to smaller upstroke wing pitch angle asymmetries as well as increased upstroke flapping counter-torque from left-right differences in global reference frame wing velocity about the moth's roll axis. Rolls are also opposed by stabilizing aerodynamic moments from lateral motion, such that rightward roll velocity will be opposed by rightward motion. Computational modeling using blade-element approaches confirm the plausibility of a causal linkage between the previously mentioned wing kinematics and roll/sideslip. Model results also predict high degrees of axial and lateral damping. On the time scale of whole and half wing strokes, left-right wing pair asymmetries directly relate to the first, but not second, derivative of roll. Collectively, these results strongly support a roll-based sideslip with a high degree of roll damping in M. sexta. PMID:26740573

  3. Lateralization of aggression in fish.

    PubMed

    Bisazza, Angelo; de Santi, Andrea

    2003-05-15

    Recent research has suggested that lateralization of aggressive behaviors could follow an homogeneous pattern among all vertebrates. A left eye/right hemisphere dominance in eliciting aggressive responses has been demonstrated for all groups of tetrapods but teleost fish for which data is lacking. Here we studied differential eye use during aggressive interactions in three species of teleosts: Gambusia holbrooki, Xenotoca eiseni and Betta splendens. In the first experiment we checked for lateralization in the use of the eyes while the subject was attacking its own mirror image. In order to confirm the results, other tests were performed on two species and eye preference was scored during attacks or displays directed toward a live rival. All three species showed a marked preference for using the right eye when attacking a mirror image or a live rival. Thus, the direction of asymmetry in fish appears the opposite to that shown by all the other groups of vertebrates. Hypotheses on the origin of the difference are discussed. PMID:12742249

  4. CYSTS OF THE LATERAL MENISCUS

    PubMed Central

    Westrick, Richard B.; Fogarty, Brian T.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis and management of knee pain with or without mechanical symptoms challenges the physical therapist's clinical reasoning skills. Meniscal cysts are one relatively rare disorder of the knee that can cause both pain and mechanical symptoms and are frequently associated with a meniscal tear. In patients with suspected meniscal cysts, systematic differential diagnosis and sound clinical reasoning encourages appropriate integration of the clinical examination with diagnostic imaging. These case reports describe two different presentations of lateral parameniscal cysts where integration of the clinical examination with appropriate imaging allowed the physical therapist to provide a timely and appropriate intervention. In both cases, the diagnostic process is described along with the subsequent interventions that lead to positive outcomes. Level of Evidence: 5 (Case Report) PMID:23772349

  5. Relativism in Feyerabend's later writings.

    PubMed

    Kusch, Martin

    2016-06-01

    This paper reconstructs, and distinguishes between, Feyerabend's different forms of relativism in his later writings. Science in a Free Society remains close to familiar forms of relativism, while, at the same time, developing an original but under-argued form of political relativism, and rejecting "conversion" models of cultural exchange. Farewell to Reason moves away from common renderings of relativism, and develops a range of different new forms. Central here are links between relativism, skepticism and infallibilism. In the last six years of his life, Feyerabend often criticizes a peculiar radical form of relativism that arguably no-one has ever proposed or defended. In the same context, Feyerabend sketches an "ontological" form of relativism. It combines "Kantian humility", metaphysical pluralism and constructivism. PMID:27269269

  6. LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS OF THE ELBOW

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Marcio; da Rocha Motta Filho, Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is a common condition that is estimated to affect 1% to 3% of the population. The word epicondylitis suggests inflammation, although histological analysis on the tissue fails to show any inflammatory process. The structure most commonly affected is the origin of the tendon of the extensor carpi radialis brevis and the mechanism of injury is associated with overloading. Nonsurgical treatment is the preferred method, and this includes rest, physiotherapy, cortisone infiltration, platelet-rich plasma injections and use of specific immobilization. Surgical treatment is recommended when functional disability and pain persist. Both the open and the arthroscopic surgical technique with resection of the degenerated tendon tissue present good results in the literature. PMID:27047843

  7. Teen Obesity May Mean Liver Disease Later

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159416.html Teen Obesity May Mean Liver Disease Later Study found risk increased as weight went ... obese could be at increased risk for severe liver disease later in life, a new study suggests. The ...

  8. Hemispheric Laterality in Music and Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szirony, Gary Michael; Burgin, John S.; Pearson, L. Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Hemispheric laterality may be a useful concept in teaching, learning, training, and in understanding more about human development. To address this issue, a measure of hemispheric laterality was compared to musical and mathematical ability. The Human Information Processing Survey (HIPS) instrument, designed to measure hemispheric laterality, was…

  9. Gunshot residue, ten years later.

    PubMed

    Wilber, C G; Lantz, R K; Sulik, P L

    1991-09-01

    Gunshot residues may be central to a competent reconstruction of a shooting incident. When a young boy was shot in the neck by a playmate using a .22-caliber single-action revolver, permanent paralysis from mid-thorax downward ensued. Ten years later the victim sued the importer, the vendor, the German manufacturer, and the shooter's family. Investigative reports indicated "horseplay" and questionable emergency medical team care. Depositions were contradictory. The entry wound, removed at surgery, was fixed and processed for slides. The histopathologist referred to "black pigment granules" in the wound track. The 10-year-old slides and block were retrieved. The coverslip was removed from a representative slide that was examined under the scanning, x-ray dispersive microscope. The black granules contained amounts of lead, barium, and antimony far beyond any normal range. The firing range had to have been no greater than 6-12 in (15.24-30.48 cm). The case was promptly settled out of court. PMID:1750390

  10. The multifunctional lateral geniculate nucleus.

    PubMed

    Weyand, Theodore G

    2016-02-01

    Providing the critical link between the retina and visual cortex, the well-studied lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) has stood out as a structure in search of a function exceeding the mundane 'relay'. For many mammals, it is structurally impressive: Exquisite lamination, sophisticated microcircuits, and blending of multiple inputs suggest some fundamental transform. This impression is bolstered by the fact that numerically, the retina accounts for a small fraction of its input. Despite such promise, the extent to which an LGN neuron separates itself from its retinal brethren has proven difficult to appreciate. Here, I argue that whereas retinogeniculate coupling is strong, what occurs in the LGN is judicious pruning of a retinal drive by nonretinal inputs. These nonretinal inputs reshape a receptive field that under the right conditions departs significantly from its retinal drive, even if transiently. I first review design features of the LGN and follow with evidence for 10 putative functions. Only two of these tend to surface in textbooks: parsing retinal axons by eye and functional group and gating by state. Among the remaining putative functions, implementation of the principle of graceful degradation and temporal decorrelation are at least as interesting but much less promoted. The retina solves formidable problems imposed by physics to yield multiple efficient and sensitive representations of the world. The LGN applies context, increasing content, and gates several of these representations. Even if the basic concentric receptive field remains, information transmitted for each LGN spike relative to each retinal spike is measurably increased. PMID:26479339

  11. A Proposed Activity for a Meaningful Learning about the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Uma Proposta de Atividade Para a Aprendizagem Significativa sobre as Fases da Lua.) Una Actividad Propuesta Para EL Aprendizaje Significativo Acerca de Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Bruno Andrade; Langhi, Rodolfo

    2012-12-01

    ínua avaliação durante o processo, culmina com a elaboração de uma história em quadrinhos envolvendo as fases da Lua. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar uma proposta de atividade didática diferenciada sustentada pelos princípios teóricos da aprendizagem significativa aplicada ao ensino das fases da Lua durante as aulas de Física no ensino médio. En este trabajo se presenta uno de los contenidos de la Astronomía y el evidente fracaso en la enseñanza del tema en la escuela secundaria, a pesar del hecho que los documentos oficiales apuntan para la necesidad de trabajar contenidos de Astronomía en este nivel. Entre los conceptos alternativos en Astronomía que los alumnos secundarios llevan consigo, aún después de terminados los estudios, destacamos aquí el fenómeno de las fases de la Luna. El desarrollo de diferentes estrategias en relación con los métodos tradicionales, dirigidas al proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje en este tema fue considerado en este trabajo como uno de los resultados obtenidos a la luz de los referenciales del aprendizaje significativo, tal como fueron fundamentados por Ausubel. Según la propuesta que aquí se presenta, la participación activa de los estudiantes en la ejecución de una actividad experimental y otras actividades educativas destinadas a la evaluación continua durante el proceso culminó en la elaboración de una historieta respecto de las fases de la Luna. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una propuesta de actividad de enseñanza diferenciada con el apoyo de los principios teóricos del aprendizaje significativo aplicado a la enseñanza de las fases de la luna durante las clases de física del ciclo secundario.

  12. Retroviruses and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Alfahad, Tariq; Nath, Avindra

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, invariably fatal neurologic disorder resulting from upper and lower motor neuron degeneration, which typically develops during the sixth or seventh decade of life, and is diagnosed based on standard clinical criteria. Its underlying cause remains undetermined. The disease may occur with increased frequency within certain families, often in association with specific genomic mutations, while some sporadic cases have been linked to environmental toxins or trauma. Another possibility, first proposed in the 1970s, is that retroviruses play a role in pathogenesis. In this paper, we review the published literature for evidence that ALS is associated either with infection by an exogenous retrovirus or with the expression of human endogenous retroviral (HERV) sequences in cells of the central nervous system. A small percentage of persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) or human T cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) develop ALS-like syndromes. While HTLV-1 associated ALS-like syndrome has several features that may distinguish it from classical ALS, HIV-infected patients may develop neurological manifestations that resemble classical ALS although it occurs at a younger age and they may show a dramatic improvement following the initiation of antiretroviral therapy. However, most patients with probable or definite ALS show no evidence of HIV-1 or HTLV-1 infection. In contrast, recent reports have shown a stronger association with HERV, as analysis of serum samples, and postmortem brain tissue from a number of patients with a classical ALS has revealed significantly increased expression of HERV-K, compared to controls. These findings suggest that endogenous retroviral elements are involved in the pathophysiology of ALS, but there is no evidence that they are the primary cause of the syndrome. PMID:23707220

  13. Incomplete discoid lateral meniscus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Murlimanju, B V; Nair, N; Ganesan, S; Krishnamurthy, A

    2013-01-01

    The variations of lateral meniscus include pathologic entities which vary in size, shape and attachment. In this manuscript, we report a case of discoid lateral meniscus which was observed in an embalmed fetal cadaver. It was an incomplete variety of the discoid meniscus and observed on the right side knee. The clinical implication of this discoid meniscus has been emphasized along with the review of literature. The morphological and embryologic details of the discoid lateral menisci are discussed. PMID:24045517

  14. Human olfactory lateralization requires trigeminal activation.

    PubMed

    Croy, Ilona; Schulz, Max; Blumrich, Anna; Hummel, Cornelia; Gerber, Johannes; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Rats are able to lateralize odors. This ability involves specialized neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex which are able to process the left, right and bilateral presentation of stimuli. However, it is not clear whether this function is preserved in humans. Humans are in general not able to differentiate whether a selective olfactory stimulant has been applied to the left or right nostril; however exceptions have been reported. Following a screening of 152 individuals with an olfactory lateralization test, we identified 19 who could lateralize odors above chance level. 15 of these "lateralizers" underwent olfactory fMRI scanning in a block design and were compared to 15 controls matched for age and sex distribution. As a result, both groups showed comparable activation of olfactory eloquent brain areas. However, subjects with lateralization ability had a significantly enhanced activation of cerebral trigeminal processing areas (somatosensory cortex, intraparietal sulcus). In contrast to controls, lateralizers furthermore exhibited no suppression in the area of the trigeminal principal sensory nucleus. An exploratory study with an olfactory change detection paradigm furthermore showed that lateralizers oriented faster towards changes in the olfactory environment. Taken together, our study suggests that the trigeminal system is activated to a higher degree by the odorous stimuli in the group of "lateralizers". We conclude that humans are not able to lateralize odors based on the olfactory input alone, but vary in the degree to which the trigeminal system is recruited. PMID:24825502

  15. Vannevar Bush: Fifty Years Later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    It is ironic that the 50th anniversary year of Vannevar Bush's Report to President Truman entitled "Science the Endless Frontier", which put into motion the eminently successful current system of education of scientists in this country occurs at a time when serious questions are being asked about the usefulness of that very system. Bush viewed his proposal to establish a national research foundation (later to be called the National Science Foundation) as a "social compact." Judgment of scientific merit would be delegated to expert peers in return for scientific progress, which would ultimately benefit the nation in terms of scientific needs--military security, economic productivity, and enhanced quality of life. Bush wanted the funding of basic research intertwined with training, and preferred to use universities for this purpose rather than industrial or national labs. Bush viewed college and university scientists as teachers and investigators. He believed university-based research would uniquely encourage and engage the next generation of scientists as no other institutional arrangement could. Bush did not trust industry's commitment to basic research, an instinct that proved prophetic. The academic reserve of scientists (PhD's in training and postdoctoral students) that existed before World War II, and upon which the United States could draw for its needs, which were primarily associated with defense efforts, was probably one of the defining factors in Bush's suggested strategy. Currently, that reserve of talent has gotten so large that it is the obvious throttle in the pipeline slowing the continued development of the university research enterprise. Since 1977, the rate at which we have trained new scientists exceeds an average of 4% annually. Since 1987, the "science work force"--PhD's--has grown at three times the rate of the general labor supply. Temporary positions for postdoctoral scientists have grown even faster (over 5% per year since 1989). To compound

  16. Vannevar Bush: Fifty Years Later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    It is ironic that the 50th anniversary year of Vannevar Bush's Report to President Truman entitled "Science the Endless Frontier", which put into motion the eminently successful current system of education of scientists in this country occurs at a time when serious questions are being asked about the usefulness of that very system. Bush viewed his proposal to establish a national research foundation (later to be called the National Science Foundation) as a "social compact." Judgment of scientific merit would be delegated to expert peers in return for scientific progress, which would ultimately benefit the nation in terms of scientific needs--military security, economic productivity, and enhanced quality of life. Bush wanted the funding of basic research intertwined with training, and preferred to use universities for this purpose rather than industrial or national labs. Bush viewed college and university scientists as teachers and investigators. He believed university-based research would uniquely encourage and engage the next generation of scientists as no other institutional arrangement could. Bush did not trust industry's commitment to basic research, an instinct that proved prophetic. The academic reserve of scientists (PhD's in training and postdoctoral students) that existed before World War II, and upon which the United States could draw for its needs, which were primarily associated with defense efforts, was probably one of the defining factors in Bush's suggested strategy. Currently, that reserve of talent has gotten so large that it is the obvious throttle in the pipeline slowing the continued development of the university research enterprise. Since 1977, the rate at which we have trained new scientists exceeds an average of 4% annually. Since 1987, the "science work force"--PhD's--has grown at three times the rate of the general labor supply. Temporary positions for postdoctoral scientists have grown even faster (over 5% per year since 1989). To compound

  17. Laterality and Reading Proficiency in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Che Kan

    1980-01-01

    Discusses some current concepts of the laterality/reading relationship. An overview of Samuel T. Orton's hypotheses of cerebral dominance and "strephosymbolia" is provided, and both visual half-field and dichotic listening studies as direct, empirical tests of laterality are discussed. (MKM)

  18. Laterality and Dyslexia: A Critical View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiscock, Merrill; Kinsbourne, Marcel

    1982-01-01

    Research is reviewed concerning the current state of knowledge about normal hemispheric specialization; distinctions among such terms as dominance, laterality, and lateralization; and models of abnormal cerebral organization in dyslexic children. The question of dyslexic subtypes is undertaken along such dimensions as handedness, eyedness, and…

  19. Arthroscopic Centralization of an Extruded Lateral Meniscus

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Hideyuki; Muneta, Takeshi; Yagishita, Kazuyoshi; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Mochizuki, Tomoyuki; Horie, Masafumi; Nakamura, Tomomasa; Okawa, Atsushi; Sekiya, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Extrusion of the lateral meniscus has been reported after posterior root tear or radial tear, partial meniscectomy, and meniscoplasty of discoid meniscus. It has also been shown to be associated with the development of osteoarthritis. This technical note describes a new arthroscopic technique to centralize and stabilize the mid body of the lateral meniscus to restore and maintain the lateral meniscus function by repairing/preventing extrusion of the meniscus. A JuggerKnot Soft Anchor (Biomet, Warsaw, IN), loaded with a MaxBraid suture (Biomet), was placed on the lateral edge of the lateral tibial plateau, just anterior to the popliteal hiatus, through a midlateral portal. A Micro Suture Lasso Small Curve with Nitinol Wire Loop (Arthrex, Naples, FL) was used to pass 2 limbs of the MaxBraid suture through the meniscus at the margin between the meniscus and the capsule. Another anchor was inserted on the lateral edge of the lateral tibial plateau, 1 cm anterior to the first anchor, and the same procedure was repeated. The sutures were then tied by use of a self-locking sliding knot, achieving centralization and secure stabilization of the lateral meniscus. PMID:23766997

  20. Arthroscopic centralization of an extruded lateral meniscus.

    PubMed

    Koga, Hideyuki; Muneta, Takeshi; Yagishita, Kazuyoshi; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Mochizuki, Tomoyuki; Horie, Masafumi; Nakamura, Tomomasa; Okawa, Atsushi; Sekiya, Ichiro

    2012-12-01

    Extrusion of the lateral meniscus has been reported after posterior root tear or radial tear, partial meniscectomy, and meniscoplasty of discoid meniscus. It has also been shown to be associated with the development of osteoarthritis. This technical note describes a new arthroscopic technique to centralize and stabilize the mid body of the lateral meniscus to restore and maintain the lateral meniscus function by repairing/preventing extrusion of the meniscus. A JuggerKnot Soft Anchor (Biomet, Warsaw, IN), loaded with a MaxBraid suture (Biomet), was placed on the lateral edge of the lateral tibial plateau, just anterior to the popliteal hiatus, through a midlateral portal. A Micro Suture Lasso Small Curve with Nitinol Wire Loop (Arthrex, Naples, FL) was used to pass 2 limbs of the MaxBraid suture through the meniscus at the margin between the meniscus and the capsule. Another anchor was inserted on the lateral edge of the lateral tibial plateau, 1 cm anterior to the first anchor, and the same procedure was repeated. The sutures were then tied by use of a self-locking sliding knot, achieving centralization and secure stabilization of the lateral meniscus. PMID:23766997

  1. Toward Optimizing Cognitive Competence In Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labouvie-Vief, Gisela

    1976-01-01

    Reviews evidence showing the view of pervasive decrement in later life is being challenged. Evidence is accumulated that the intellectual performance of the older adult responds favorably to a variety of ecological, training, and motivational conditions, and that intellectual development in later life is characterized by plasticity not universal…

  2. Lateral displacement and rotational displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Duden, Thomas

    2014-04-22

    A position measuring sensor formed from opposing sets of capacitor plates measures both rotational displacement and lateral displacement from the changes in capacitances as overlapping areas of capacitors change. Capacitances are measured by a measuring circuit. The measured capacitances are provided to a calculating circuit that performs calculations to obtain angular and lateral displacement from the capacitances measured by the measuring circuit.

  3. Unusual external resorption of a maxillary lateral.

    PubMed

    Giunta, J L; Kaplan, M A

    1994-01-01

    This article defines an unusual previously unreported entity afflicting a maxillary lateral incisor. Labial idiopathic external root resorption just apical to the cemento-enamel presented as a gingival (periodontal) problem and was misinterpreted as cervical dental caries. This report defines a new possibility for a radicular defect in a maxillary lateral incisor that may cause periodontal problems. PMID:8054293

  4. Aeromonas hydrophila Lateral Flagellar Gene Transcriptional Hierarchy

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelms, Markus; Gonzalez, Victor; Merino, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3 lateral flagella are not assembled when bacteria grow in liquid media; however, lateral flagellar genes are transcribed. Our results indicate that A. hydrophila lateral flagellar genes are transcribed at three levels (class I to III genes) and share some similarities with, but have many important differences from, genes of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A. hydrophila lateral flagellum class I gene transcription is σ70 dependent, which is consistent with the fact that lateral flagellum is constitutively transcribed, in contrast to the characteristics of V. parahaemolyticus. The fact that multiple genes are included in class I highlights that lateral flagellar genes are less hierarchically transcribed than polar flagellum genes. The A. hydrophila lafK-fliEJL gene cluster (where the subscript L distinguishes genes for lateral flagella from those for polar flagella) is exclusively from class I and is in V. parahaemolyticus class I and II. Furthermore, the A. hydrophila flgAMNL cluster is not transcribed from the σ54/LafK-dependent promoter and does not contain class II genes. Here, we propose a gene transcriptional hierarchy for the A. hydrophila lateral flagella. PMID:23335410

  5. Orbital Fracture: Significance of lateral wall

    PubMed Central

    Alsuhaibani, Adel H.

    2010-01-01

    The lateral orbital wall is the strongest among other orbital walls. However, it is commonly fractured in the setting of severe facial trauma. The fracture usually occurs at the sphenozygomatic suture line. In general, patients with lateral wall fractures are commonly young male who may present with mid facial swelling and some degree of deformity. In some cases, lateral orbital wall fracture may be associated with visual loss or change in mental status due to associated intracranial injury. Imaging studies with computed tomography is important in the proper diagnosis and planning of the surgical intervention. Management of intracranial or eye injuries should be undertaken on emergent basis. Thereafter, significantly displaced lateral wall fractures need to be repaired on timely basis. Proper realignment of the plane of the lateral orbital wall at the sphenozygomatic suture along with the other complex articulations of the zygomatic bone is necessary for proper functional and aesthetic outcome. PMID:23960875

  6. Model to Design Drip Hose Lateral Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Rafael; Cury Saad, João Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Introduction The design criterion for non-pressure compensating drip hose is normally to have 10% of flow variation (Δq) in the lateral line, corresponding to 20% of head pressure variation (ΔH). Longer lateral lines in drip irrigation systems using conventional drippers provide cost reduction, but it is necessary to obtain to the uniformity of irrigation [1]. The use of Δq higher levels can provide longer lateral lines. [4] proposes the use of a 30% Δq and he found that this value resulted in distribution uniformity over 80%. [1] considered it is possible to extend the lateral line length using two emitters spacing in different section. He assumed that the spacing changing point would be at 40% of the total length, because this is approximately the location of the average flow according with [2]. [3] found that, for practical purposes, the average pressure is located at 40% of the length of the lateral line and that until this point it has already consumed 75% of total pressure head loss (hf ). In this case, the challenge for designers is getting longer lateral lines with high values of uniformity. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a model to design longer lateral lines using non-pressure compensating drip hose. Using the developed model, the hypotheses to be evaluated were: a) the use of two different spacing between emitters in the same lateral line allows longer length; b) it is possible to get longer lateral lines using high values of pressure variation in the lateral lines since the distribution uniformity stays below allowable limits. Methodology A computer program was developed in Delphi® based on the model developed and it is able to design lateral lines in level using non-pressure compensating drip hose. The input data are: desired distribution uniformity (DU); initial and final pressure in the lateral line; coefficients of relationship between emitter discharge and pressure head; hose internal diameter; pipe cross-sectional area

  7. Lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia: an anatomical insight.

    PubMed

    Dias Filho, L C; Valença, M M; Guimarães Filho, F A V; Medeiros, R C; Silva, R A M; Morais, M G V; Valente, F P; França, S M L

    2003-07-01

    A detailed anatomic study was carried out on the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve to better understand the etiology and treatment of lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia. As it passed from the pelvis into the thigh, the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve ran through an "aponeuroticofascial tunnel," beginning at the iliopubic tract and ending at the inguinal ligament; as it passed through the tunnel, an enlargement in its side-to-side diameter was observed, suggesting that the fascial structures proximal to the inguinal ligament may be implicated in the genesis of lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia. The finding of pseudoneuromas at this location, distant from the inguinal ligament, supports this hypothesis. The anterior superior iliac spine is located approximately 0.7 cm from the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve and serves as the bony landmark for nerve localization. Within the first 3 cm of leaving the pelvis, the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve was observed deep to the fascia lata; therefore, surgical dissection within the subcutaneous fascia may be conducted with relative impunity near the anterior superior iliac spine just inferior to the inguinal ligament. In 36% of cases there was no posterior branch of the nerve, which is correlated to lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia symptoms often being limited to the anterior branch region. An accessory nerve was found in 30% of cases. PMID:12794914

  8. A lateral electrophoretic flow diagnostic assay

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Robert; Skandarajah, Arunan; Gerver, Rachel E.; Neira, Hector D.; Fletcher, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Immunochromatographic assays are a cornerstone tool in disease screening. To complement existing lateral flow assays (based on wicking flow) we introduce a lateral flow format that employs directed electrophoretic transport. The format is termed a “lateral e-flow assay” and is designed to support multiplexed detection using immobilized reaction volumes of capture antigen. To fabricate the lateral e-flow device, we employ mask-based UV photopatterning to selectively immobilize unmodified capture antigen along the microchannel in a barcode-like pattern. The channel-filling polyacrylamide hydrogel incorporates a photoactive moiety (benzophenone) to immobilize capture antigen to the hydrogel without a priori antigen modification. We report a heterogeneous sandwich assay using low-power electrophoresis to drive biospecimen through the capture antigen barcode. Fluorescence barcode readout is collected via a low-resource appropriate imaging system (CellScope). We characterize lateral e-flow assay performance and demonstrate a serum assay for antibodies to the hepatitis C virus (HCV). In a pilot study, the lateral e-flow assay positively identifies HCV+ human sera in 60 min. The lateral e-flow assay provides a flexible format for conducting multiplexed immunoassays relevant to confirmatory diagnosis in near-patient settings. PMID:25608872

  9. Lateral-deflection-controlled friction force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuzawa, Kenji; Hamaoka, Satoshi; Shikida, Mitsuhiro; Itoh, Shintaro; Zhang, Hedong

    2014-08-01

    Lateral-deflection-controlled dual-axis friction force microscopy (FFM) is presented. In this method, an electrostatic force generated with a probe-incorporated micro-actuator compensates for friction force in real time during probe scanning using feedback control. This equivalently large rigidity can eliminate apparent boundary width and lateral snap-in, which are caused by lateral probe deflection. The method can evolve FFM as a method for quantifying local frictional properties on the micro/nanometer-scale by overcoming essential problems to dual-axis FFM.

  10. The lateral canthus in cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Michael L; Hornblass, Albert

    2002-02-01

    Normally contoured eyelid fissures will enhance the appearance of patients who undergo cosmetic eyelid surgery. The shape and integrity of the lateral canthal structures frequently affect the configuration of the eyelid fissure. Undetected canthal abnormalities may lead to untoward postoperative functional and cosmetic results. An understanding of the etiology and detection of lateral canthal pathology and the treatment of the lateral can thus as a functional unit in cosmetic surgery will enable the plastic surgeon to avoid these complications and enhance surgical results. PMID:15062327

  11. Experiments and analysis of lateral piezoresistance gauges

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, M.K.W. )

    1994-07-10

    The response of lateral piezoresistance gauges to shock wave uniaxial strain loading has been examined in a combined experimental and calculational effort. Plate impact experiments provided lateral gauge data which were analyzed using quasi-static and dynamic inclusion analyses. Experimental data showed that the response of the lateral gauge output depended upon the matrix material and gauge emplacement method. The calculations indicated that these differences were due to complex gauge-matrix interactions. These were influenced by the stress and strain distributions in and around the gauge, plasticity effects, material properties, and emplacement conditions. [copyright]American Institute of Physics

  12. Experiments and analysis of lateral piezoresistance gauges

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, M.K.W.

    1993-07-01

    The response of lateral piezoresistance gauges to shock wave uniaxial strain loading has been examined in a combined experimental and calculational effort. Plate impact experiments provided lateral gauge data which were analyzed using quasi-static and dynamic inclusion analyses. Experimental data showed that the response of the lateral gauge output depended upon the matrix material and gauge emplacement method. The calculations indicated that these differences were due to complex gauge-matrix interactions. These interactions were influenced by the stress and strain distributions in and around the gauge, plasticity effects, properties of the gauge and matrix materials, and emplacement conditions.

  13. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Lateral Canthoplasty to Lengthen the Lateral Canthal Angle and Correct the Outer Tail of the Eye

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Byung Min

    2016-01-01

    There are many women who want larger and brighter eyes that will give a favorable impression. Surgical methods that make the eye larger and brighter include double eyelidplasty, epicanthoplasty, as well as lateral canthoplasty. Double eyelidplasty produces changes in the vertical dimension of the eyes, whereas epicanthoplasty and lateral canthoplasty create changes in the horizontal dimension of the eyes. Epicanthoplasty, a surgical procedure which enlarges the eye horizontally, is performed at the inner corner of the eye, whereas lateral canthoplasty enlarges the outer edge of the eye. In particular, if the slant of the palpebral fissure is raised and the horizontal dimension of the palpebral fissure is short, adjusting the slant of the palpebral fissure through lateral canthoplasty can achieve an enlargement of eye width and smoother features. Depending on the patient's condition, even better results can be achieved if this procedure is performed in conjunction with other procedures, such as double eyelidplasty, epicanthoplasty, eye roll formation surgery, fat graft, and facial bone contouring surgery. In this paper, the authors will introduce in detail their surgical method for a cosmetic lateral canthoplasty that lengthens the lateral canthal angle and corrects the outer tail of the eyes, in order to ease the unfavorable impression. PMID:27462564

  14. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Lateral Canthoplasty to Lengthen the Lateral Canthal Angle and Correct the Outer Tail of the Eye.

    PubMed

    Chae, Soo Wook; Yun, Byung Min

    2016-07-01

    There are many women who want larger and brighter eyes that will give a favorable impression. Surgical methods that make the eye larger and brighter include double eyelidplasty, epicanthoplasty, as well as lateral canthoplasty. Double eyelidplasty produces changes in the vertical dimension of the eyes, whereas epicanthoplasty and lateral canthoplasty create changes in the horizontal dimension of the eyes. Epicanthoplasty, a surgical procedure which enlarges the eye horizontally, is performed at the inner corner of the eye, whereas lateral canthoplasty enlarges the outer edge of the eye. In particular, if the slant of the palpebral fissure is raised and the horizontal dimension of the palpebral fissure is short, adjusting the slant of the palpebral fissure through lateral canthoplasty can achieve an enlargement of eye width and smoother features. Depending on the patient's condition, even better results can be achieved if this procedure is performed in conjunction with other procedures, such as double eyelidplasty, epicanthoplasty, eye roll formation surgery, fat graft, and facial bone contouring surgery. In this paper, the authors will introduce in detail their surgical method for a cosmetic lateral canthoplasty that lengthens the lateral canthal angle and corrects the outer tail of the eyes, in order to ease the unfavorable impression. PMID:27462564

  15. Cooling Therapy Helps Newborns Years Later

    MedlinePlus

    ... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Cooling Therapy Helps Newborns Years Later A cooling treatment for infants who lack oxygen at birth brings benefits that last for years, a new study shows. Blood loss and other ...

  16. Order Lunch Early, Lose Weight Later?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160190.html Order Lunch Early, Lose Weight Later? Study found those ... a new study suggests. Researchers examined the lunch orders of 690 employees using a corporate cafeteria and ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... amytrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia, regulates endosomal trafficking. Hum Mol Genet. 2014 Jul 1;23(13): ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of ...

  18. Lateralized courtship in a parasitic wasp.

    PubMed

    Romano, Donato; Donati, Elisa; Canale, Angelo; Messing, Russell H; Benelli, Giovanni; Stefanini, Cesare

    2016-05-01

    Lateralization (i.e. left-right asymmetries in the brain and behaviour) of courtship displays has been examined in a growing number vertebrate species, while evidence for invertebrates is limited. In this study, we investigated lateralization of courtship and mating displays in the parasitic wasp Leptomastidea abnormis. Results showed a population-level lateralization of male courtship displays. Male antennal tapping on the female's head was right-biased. However, right-biased male courtship acts were not characterized by higher male antennal tapping frequencies, nor success in mating although antennal tapping frequency was higher in males with mating success with respect to unsuccessful males. Overall, our results add basic knowledge to the behavioural ecology of insect parasitoids. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of behavioural lateralization in parasitic Hymenoptera. PMID:26932864

  19. Teen Obesity May Mean Liver Disease Later

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159416.html Teen Obesity May Mean Liver Disease Later Study found risk ... Overweight is defined as a BMI above 25. Obesity is defined as a BMI above 30, according ...

  20. Brain and behavioral lateralization in invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Frasnelli, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioral asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left–right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which has asymmetric odor sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behavior with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with a specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test the

  1. Brain and behavioral lateralization in invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Frasnelli, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioral asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which has asymmetric odor sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behavior with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with a specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test the evolutionary

  2. Lateral sacral imaging in the morbidly obese.

    PubMed

    Miller, Anna N; Krieg, James C; Chip Routt, Milton L

    2013-05-01

    Obesity can complicate surgical procedures by both adding to difficulty intraoperatively and increasing postoperative complications. Intraoperative imaging can be difficult on morbidly obese patients. We have noted specifically that in morbidly obese patients where the lateral sacrum cannot be visualized on the pre-operative scout computed tomography image, the lateral sacrum will not be able to be seen on intraoperative fluoroscopy. This is an important component of preoperative planning in morbidly obese patients with pelvic ring injuries. PMID:22648043

  3. Lateral dynamics of C4 missile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, F. H.

    1981-05-01

    A planar model of the C4 missile involving nonlinear force deflection characteristics for the seals and pads was developed. Rigid body equations of motion based on small angle motion were solved to calculate the lateral motion of the missile during launch. After metching the calculated results to a PS-80 test record, variations in seal characteristics, pad characteristics, missile travel time, and initial conditions were studied to determine the sensitivity of the lateral dynamic calculations.

  4. Practical Astronomical Activities during Daytime. (Spanish Title: Actividades Astronómicas Prácticas Diurnas.) Atividades Astronômicas Práticas Diurnas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Eric

    2009-12-01

    relacionadas al mal tiempo. El problema de no tener suficientes actividades prácticas, la sensación de poseer conocimientos inadecuados, la necesidad de disponer de equipamiento astronómico y experiencia suelen ser demasiado intimidantes para que los profesores introduzcan la materia en sus clases. Si la Astronomía iba a ser introducida, entonces era preciso encontrar una forma de resolver estas dificultades. Nuestro grupo, trabajando con maestros y alumnos dentro de un marco constructivista, encontró que los principios de la Astronomía pueden ser descubiertos durante el día, en cuanto los alumnos están en la escuela. Trabajando de forma cooperativa los alumnos midieron y registraron observaciones de sus propias sombras causadas por los movimientos de la estrella más próxima, el Sol, y nuestro planeta Tierra. Debido a que los alumnos se involucraran tan personalmente en las actividades, estuvieron mucho más interesados en los resultados del estudio. La Astronomía pasó a ser un desafío para el maestro y sus alumnos cuando aplicaron sus experiencias diurnas a la observación nocturna desde sus casas, reportada después en clase. Estas atividades astronômicas diurnas surgiram de uma investigação feita na Nova Zelândia por um grupo de professores e astrônomos a respeito dos problemas do ensino da Astronomia. Este trabalho mostrou que a Astronomia é geralmente considerada uma disciplina difícil de ensinar, tradicionalmente baseada em livros, filmes e modelos. Os mais afortunados podem ter feito alguma visita a um observatório ou planetário, e os mais avançados podem talvez ter tentado uma sessão de observação noturna, as quais sofrem às vezes de dificuldades relacionadas ao tempo. O problema de não dispor de suficientes atividades práticas, a sensação de possuir conhecimentos inadequados, a necessidade de dispor de equipamento astronômico e experiência tem sido, em geral, demasiado intimidante para que os professores introduzam a matéria nas suas

  5. Laterally displaced pipelines: Finite element analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Altaee, A.; Boivin, R.

    1995-12-31

    The rate effect of lateral soil movement against buried pipes in clay soils is investigated in finite element analyzes using two different computer programs, AGAC and CRISP. Rapid and slow ground movements are considered in ideal undrained and ideal drained analysis, respectively, which represent the two extreme boundaries with respect to rate of loading (rate of ground movement). The analyses address a typical full-scale buried pipe as described by Rizkalla et al. (1992). The pipe considered for the analysis has a diameter of 0.914 m and is placed in a backfilled 2.0 m wide and 1.8 m deep excavation. Results from both AGAC and CRISP analyzes are similar in terms of total lateral force versus lateral pipe movement. For example, both programs indicate the same clear difference in the resulting pipe movement for cases of rapid and slow ground movement, especially at large movement. When the ground movement is rapid, the pipe moves both laterally and upward. One the other hand, when the ground movement is slow, the pipe experiences only lateral movement and no noticeable vertical movement. The total force acting on the pipe (and stresses and strains within the pipe) is larger for the slow rate of loading. The results of analyzes presented herein agree with results of tests on a 5.5 m beam centrifuge performed by the Center for Cold Oceans Resources Engineering.

  6. Lateralization of cognitive processes in the brain.

    PubMed

    Hugdahl, K

    2000-12-01

    The lateralization of cognitive processes in the brain is discussed. The traditional view of a language-visuo/spatial dichotomy of function between the hemispheres has been replaced by more subtle distinctions. The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study brain morphology has resulted in a renewed focus on the relationship between structural and functional asymmetry. Focus has been on the role played by the planum temporale area in the posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus for language asymmetry, and the possible significance of the larger left planum. The dichotic listening technique is used to illustrate the difference between bottom-up, or stimulus-driven laterality versus top-down, or instruction-driven laterality. It is suggested that the hemispheric dominance observed at any time is the sum result of the dynamic interaction between bottom-up and top-down processing tendencies. Stimulus-driven laterality dominance is always monitored and modulated through top-down cognitive processes, like shifting of attention and changes in arousal. A model of top-down modulation of bottom-up laterality is presented with special reference to the understanding of psychiatric disorders. PMID:11194413

  7. Lateral restraint assembly for reactor core

    DOEpatents

    Gorholt, Wilhelm; Luci, Raymond K.

    1986-01-01

    A restraint assembly for use in restraining lateral movement of a reactor core relative to a reactor vessel wherein a plurality of restraint assemblies are interposed between the reactor core and the reactor vessel in circumferentially spaced relation about the core. Each lateral restraint assembly includes a face plate urged against the outer periphery of the core by a plurality of compression springs which enable radial preloading of outer reflector blocks about the core and resist low-level lateral motion of the core. A fixed radial key member cooperates with each face plate in a manner enabling vertical movement of the face plate relative to the key member but restraining movement of the face plate transverse to the key member in a plane transverse to the center axis of the core. In this manner, the key members which have their axes transverse to or subtending acute angles with the direction of a high energy force tending to move the core laterally relative to the reactor vessel restrain such lateral movement.

  8. Language Lateralization Shifts with Learning by Adults

    PubMed Central

    Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K.; Vance, Christopher J.; Asbjørnsen, Arve E.

    2014-01-01

    For the majority of the population, language is a left hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short-term within a learning context, independent of maturation. PMID:25285756

  9. Recovery of Dysphagia in Lateral Medullary Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Hitesh; Banerjee, Alakananda

    2014-01-01

    Lateral medullary stroke is typically associated with increased likelihood of occurrence of dysphagia and exhibits the most severe and persistent form. Worldwide little research exists on dysphagia in brainstem stroke. An estimated 15% of all patients admitted to stroke rehabilitation units experience a brainstem stroke out of which about 47% suffer from dysphagia. In India, a study showed that 22.3% of posterior circulation stroke patients develop dysphagia. Dearth of literature on dysphagia and its outcome in brainstem stroke particularly lateral medullary stroke motivated the author to present an actual case study of a patient who had dysphagia following a lateral medullary infarct. This paper documents the severity and management approach of dysphagia in brainstem stroke, with traditional dysphagia therapy and VitalStim therapy. Despite being diagnosed with a severe form of dysphagia followed by late treatment intervention, the patient had complete recovery of the swallowing function. PMID:25045555

  10. Lateral pharyngeal fat pad pressure during breathing.

    PubMed

    Winter, W C; Gampper, T; Gay, S B; Suratt, P M

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether pressure in tissue lateral to the upper airway, the lateral pharyngeal fat pad, differs from atmospheric and pharyngeal pressure and whether it changes with breathing. We studied five male pigs by inserting a transducer-tipped catheter into their fat pad space using computed tomography (CT) scan guidance. We measured airflow with a pneumotachograph attached to a face mask and pharyngeal pressure with a balloon catheter. Fat pad pressure correlated positively with airflow and with pharyngeal pressure, decreasing during inspiration and increasing during expiration. Pressure in the fat pad differed from atmospheric pressure, generally exceeding it, and from pharyngeal pressure. We conclude that lateral pharyngeal fat pad pressure differs from atmospheric and pharyngeal pressure and that it changes with breathing. PMID:9085504

  11. Stress and laterality - The comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Korte, S Mechiel; Peterburs, Jutta; Wolf, Oliver T; Güntürkün, Onur

    2016-10-01

    Functional hemispheric asymmetries can vary over time and steroid hormones have been shown to be one of the factors that can modulate them. Research into this matter has mainly focused on sex steroid hormones (androgens, estrogens and progestogens), although there is increasing evidence that glucocorticoids which are related to the body's response to stress (e.g. cortisol or corticosterone) might also modulate functional hemispheric asymmetries. Here, we review studies in humans and non-human model species investigating the relation of stress and laterality. Results indicate a dual relationship of the two parameters. Both acute and chronic stress can affect different forms of lateralization in the human brain, often (but not always) resulting in greater involvement of the right hemisphere. Moreover, lateralization as a form of functional brain architecture can also represent a protective factor against adverse effects of stress. PMID:27321757

  12. The Lateral Instability of Deep Rectangular Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumont, C; Hill, H N

    1937-01-01

    Experimental and analytical studies were made of solid and hollow deep rectangular beams to study their lateral instability under various conditions of loading and restraint. The tests were made on bars and tubes of 17ST aluminum alloy. Failure by lateral buckling occurred only in tests on the solid beams. It was found that, within the elastic range, the test results were in agreement with the classical theory for the lateral buckling of deep beams as given by Prandtl, Mitchell, and Timoshenko. The tests were extended to the inelastic range, where it was found that the substitution for Young's modulus of an average modulus of elasticity derived from the stress-strain curve made it possible to predict instability at high stresses.

  13. Demonstration of the lateral casimir force.

    PubMed

    Chen, F; Mohideen, U; Klimchitskaya, G L; Mostepanenko, V M

    2002-03-11

    The lateral Casimir force between a sinusoidally corrugated gold coated plate and large sphere was measured for surface separations between 0.2 to 0.3 microm using an atomic force microscope. The measured force shows the required periodicity corresponding to the corrugations. It also exhibits the necessary inverse fourth power distance dependence. The obtained results are shown to be in good agreement with a complete theory taking into account the imperfectness of the boundary metal. This demonstration opens new opportunities for the use of the Casimir effect for lateral translation in microelectromechanical systems. PMID:11909341

  14. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Historical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Katz, Jonathan S; Dimachkie, Mazen M; Barohn, Richard J

    2015-11-01

    This article looks back in time to see where the foundational basis for the understanding of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis originated. This foundation was created primarily in France by Jean-Martin Charcot and his fellow countrymen and disciples, along with key contributions from early clinicians in England and Germany. The early work on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis provides a useful foundation for today's clinicians with respect to tying together genetic and biologic aspects of the disorder that have been discovered over the past few decades. PMID:26515617

  15. Lateral jet injection into swirling combustor flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilley, David G.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental program has been conducted to ascertain the effects of the number of lateral jets, the jet velocity ratio, and the crossflow swirl strength, on the isothermal flowfield patterns in jets injected normally to a round-section crossflow. Attention has been given to the trajectory, penetration, and mixing efficiency of the lateral injection, using flow visualization, pitot-probe and hot-wire methods. In addition, such predictive techniques as a simple, explicit, fully three-dimensional turbulent computer code have been employed.

  16. Laterality and Directional Preferences in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Lesley E.

    1982-01-01

    Directional preference for horizontal hand movements was investigated in 49 right- and 49 left-handed four-year-olds using three drawing tests. Directionality for more complex perceptual-motor tasks has a different basis than directionality for simple tasks; such directionality is established at a later age but only for the right hand. (Author/CM)

  17. One hand clapping: lateralization of motor control

    PubMed Central

    Welniarz, Quentin; Dusart, Isabelle; Gallea, Cécile; Roze, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Lateralization of motor control refers to the ability to produce pure unilateral or asymmetric movements. It is required for a variety of coordinated activities, including skilled bimanual tasks and locomotion. Here we discuss the neuroanatomical substrates and pathophysiological underpinnings of lateralized motor outputs. Significant breakthroughs have been made in the past few years by studying the two known conditions characterized by the inability to properly produce unilateral or asymmetric movements, namely human patients with congenital “mirror movements” and model rodents with a “hopping gait”. Whereas mirror movements are associated with altered interhemispheric connectivity and abnormal corticospinal projections, abnormal spinal cord interneurons trajectory is responsible for the “hopping gait”. Proper commissural axon guidance is a critical requirement for these mechanisms. Interestingly, the analysis of these two conditions reveals that the production of asymmetric movements involves similar anatomical and functional requirements but in two different structures: (i) lateralized activation of the brain or spinal cord through contralateral silencing by cross-midline inhibition; and (ii) unilateral transmission of this activation, resulting in lateralized motor output. PMID:26082690

  18. Double cortical stimulation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, T; Yoshino, A; Inaba, A; Saito, Y

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Transcranial double magnetic stimulation on the motor cortex was used to investigate central motor tract function in 16 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, five with spinal muscular atrophy, and 16 age matched normal controls. METHODS: Surface EMG responses were recorded from the relaxed abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscle. RESULTS: Responses to test stimuli were markedly attenuated by a subthreshold conditioning stimulus given at a condition-test (C-T) interval of 1-4 ms in normal controls and patients with spinal muscular atrophy, but attenuation was mild in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In the normal controls this suppression was caused by activation of the intracortical inhibitory mechanism because responses to electrical test stimuli and the H wave were not suppressed by the same magnetic subthreshold conditioning stimulus. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis the effect of the conditioning cortical stimulus on the H wave was also in the normal range. CONCLUSION: The intracortical inhibitory mechanism may be impaired in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:8971106

  19. Active Children: Healthy Now And Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Linley; Musumeci, Josephine

    2005-01-01

    Current research is revealing that physical activity can protect against a range of lifestyle diseases and illnesses. Consequently, early childhood practitioners and parents need to adopt guidelines and practices which encourage children of all ages to be physically active. In "Active children: Healthy Now and Later," authors Linley Campbell and…

  20. Lateral drug diffusion in human nails.

    PubMed

    Palliyil, Biji B; Li, Cong; Owaisat, Suzan; Lebo, David B

    2014-12-01

    The main objective of the current work is to demonstrate the process of passive lateral diffusion in the human nail plate and its effect on the passive transungual permeation of antifungal drug ciclopirox olamine (CPO). A water soluble dye, methyl red sodium salt (MR) was used to visualize the process of lateral diffusion using a novel suspended nail experiment. The decline in concentration of CPO correlates with that of concentration of MR from the proximal to the distal end of the nail in suspended nail study. Three toenails each were trimmed to 5 mm × 5 mm (25 mm(2)), 7 mm × 7 mm (49 mm(2)), and 9 mm × 9 mm (81 mm(2)) to study the extent and effect of lateral diffusion of the CPO on its in vitro transungual permeation. The permeation flux of CPO decreased as the surface area of the toenail increased. There was a positive correlation between the concentrations of CPO and MR in the area of application and in the peripheral area of the toenails of the three surface areas, confirming the findings in the suspended nail experiment. Profound lateral diffusion of CPO was demonstrated and shown to reduce the in vitro passive transungual drug permeation and prolong the lag-time in human toenails. The study data implies that during passive in vitro transungual permeation experiments, the peripheral nail around the area of drug application has to be kept to a minimum, in order to get reliable data which mimics the in vivo situation. PMID:24970585

  1. The Columbine Tragedy Ten Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Some tragedies are so emblazoned in people's minds that years later they can recall where they were when they first heard the news. The assassinations of John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr., the Challenger explosion, and the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks are among these events. So also is the Columbine High School tragedy of April 20, 1999.…

  2. Control augmentation for lateral control wheel steering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foulkes, R. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Flight control system design for lateral control wheel steering is discussed. Two alternate designs are presented. The first design is a roll-rate command, bank-angle hold system with a wings-level track-hold submode. The second is a curved-track-hold system. Design details and real-time flight simulator results are included.

  3. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    PubMed

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum. PMID:1659854

  4. Preparing Future Faculty: Ten Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Sean P.; Aiossa, Elizabeth; Winter, Mary Mugica

    2010-01-01

    When Sean Murphy designed the Graduate Student Internship Program at the College of Lake County (CLC), his 2001 TETYC article about the then two-year-old program detailed his programmatic response to the job market. Ten years later, the CLC-DePaul University partnership remains the strongest of the original dozen cross-sector relationships CLC…

  5. Anterolateral Meniscofemoral Ligament of the Lateral Meniscus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Mo; Yeon, Kyu-Woong; Lee, Ki-Young

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical variations of the meniscus are a common anomaly that knee surgeons frequently encounter. However, anomalies of the anterior horn of the lateral meniscus (AHLM) are extremely rare. In this report, we present a newly discovered anomaly of the AHML: an anterolateral meniscofemoral ligament is described with clinical features and radiographic and arthroscopic findings. PMID:27595080

  6. Religious Attendance and Loneliness in Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rote, Sunshine; Hill, Terrence D.; Ellison, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Studies show that loneliness is a major risk factor for health issues in later life. Although research suggests that religious involvement can protect against loneliness, explanations for this general pattern are underdeveloped and undertested. In this paper, we propose and test a theoretical model, which suggests that social…

  7. Profiling 1366 Technologies: One Year Later

    ScienceCinema

    Van Mierlo, Frank; Sachs, Ely;

    2013-05-29

    Last January, we took a look at how ARPA-E performer, 1366 Technologies is working to dramatically reduce the cost of solar energy. A year later, we revisited their headquarters in Lexington, MA to see the progress they've made.

  8. [Sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Diagnostic criteria].

    PubMed

    Godoy, J M; de Oliveira, M A; de Moraes Neto, J B; Balassiano, S L; Montagna, N; Pinto, J R; Skacel, M

    1993-06-01

    The authors report two cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) misdiagnosis (a craniocervical junction disorder, and a cervical spinal cord ependymoma). They review some causes of ALS-like syndrome and propose a protocol to be adopted for the study of all patients who present clinical abnormalities suggesting ALS. PMID:8274087

  9. Lateral canthal repositioning in syndromic, antimongoloid slant

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: To report a single center's experience in correcting antimongoloid slant in Asian eyes using a minimally invasive approach. Methods: Retrospective analysis of patients undergoing correction for antimongoloid slant at author's center, from 2007 to 2013 formed the study group. Concomitant surgical procedures were recorded. Pre- and post-operative photographs at the longest follow-up visit were analyzed and graded for functional and cosmetic outcomes. Results: A total of 38 patients (76 eyelids) underwent successful correction to correct eyelid malposition. All patients’ eyelids underwent exclusive lateral canthoplasty through a small incision in the upper eyelid crease and re-suspension technique, and 6 of them underwent bilateral slant correction simultaneously with additional cosmetic or corrective surgeries including hemifacial microsomia and Crouzon's syndrome. Of the 38 patients, 25 were females and 13 were males. The age of the population ranged from 7 to 48 years with a mean age of 27 years. Few instances of transient postoperative chemosis lasting up to 2 weeks and minor infections were reported. All cases showed improvement in eyelid position (as assessed clinically and on photographs), 2 pediatric cases required reoperation in the following 2 years for the recurrent lower eyelid malposition and/or lateral canthal deformity owing to deviated basal bone growth. Discussion: Lateral canthoplasty with resuspension technique can effectively address antimongoloid slant for an esthetically desirable lateral canthus.

  10. Parameter Estimation of Lateral Spacecraft Fuel Slosh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sudermann, James E.; Schlee, Keith L.

    2008-01-01

    Predicting the effect of fuel slosh on the attitude control system of a spacecraft or launch vehicle is a very important and challenging task. Whether the spacecraft is spinning or moving laterally, the dynamic effect of the fuel slosh helps determine whether the spacecraft will remain on its intended trajectory. Three categories of slosh can be caused by launch vehicle or spacecraft maneuvers when the fuel is in the presence of an acceleration field. These are bulk-fluid motion, subsurface wave motion (currents), and free-surface slosh. Each of these slosh types has a periodic component defined by either a spinning or a lateral motion. For spinning spacecraft, all three types of slosh can greatly affect stability. Bulk-fluid motion and free-surface slosh can affect the lateral-slosh characteristics. For either condition, an unpredicted coupled resonance between the spacecraft and its onboard fuel could threaten a mission. This ongoing research effort seeks to improve the accuracy and efficiency of modeling techniques used to predict these types of fluid motions for lateral motion. Particular efforts focus on analyzing the effects of viscoelastic diaphragms on slosh dynamics.

  11. Depression in Later Life: Recognition and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmall, Vicki L.; And Others

    This guide is designed to help readers understand depression and factors related to its onset in later life; recognize signs of depression and potential suicide; and know actions they can take if they suspect an older family member or friend may be depressed or contemplating suicide. Following a brief introduction, a chapter on depression…

  12. Lateralized Temporal Order Judgement in Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Jackson, Georgina M.; Rorden, Chris; Jackson, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    Temporal and spatial attentional deficits in dyslexia were investigated using a lateralized visual temporal order judgment (TOJ) paradigm that allowed both sensitivity to temporal order and spatial attentional bias to be measured. Findings indicate that adult participants with a positive screen for dyslexia were significantly less sensitive to the…

  13. Lateral ankle sprains and instability problems.

    PubMed

    Liu, S H; Jason, W J

    1994-10-01

    The lateral ankle complex is the most frequently injured single structure in athletes, consisting of 38% to 45% of all injuries. One-sixth of all sports injury loss time is from ankle sprains. In North America, ankle inversion sprains are considered "de rigeur" for basketball participation. PMID:7805107

  14. Profiling 1366 Technologies: One Year Later

    SciTech Connect

    Van Mierlo, Frank; Sachs, Ely

    2011-01-01

    Last January, we took a look at how ARPA-E performer, 1366 Technologies is working to dramatically reduce the cost of solar energy. A year later, we revisited their headquarters in Lexington, MA to see the progress they've made.

  15. Cerebral Lateralization and Its Effect on Drawing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Yvonne A.; Thomas, Stephen B.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the importance of both sides of the brain for the development of drawing skills but notes that the left brain can inhibit the action of the right brain. Provides a discussion of cerebral lateralization and child development. Suggests five drawing exercises to help develop hemispheric cooperation. (SB)

  16. New lateral stabilizing device for airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantin, Louis

    1923-01-01

    The proposed device tends to render the lateral stabilization of airplanes easier and more efficacious. The proposed solution is to mount the ailerons independently, in such a manner that they can turn freely, under the action of the relative wind, about an axis located in front of the extreme position of the center of the lift.

  17. Lateral Hip Pain in an Athletic Population

    PubMed Central

    Grumet, Robert C.; Frank, Rachel M.; Slabaugh, Mark A.; Virkus, Walter W.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Nho, Shane J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Historically, the term greater trochanteric pain syndrome has been used to describe a spectrum of conditions that cause lateral-sided hip pain, including greater trochanteric bursitis, snapping iliotibial band, and/or strains or tendinopathy of the abductor mechanism. Diagnosis of these conditions may be difficult because clinical presentations are variable and sometimes inconclusive. Especially difficult is differentiating intrinsic pain from pain referred to the greater trochanteric region. The purposes of this article are to review the relevant anatomy and pathophysiology of the lateral hip. Evidence Acquisition: Data were collected through a thorough review of the literature conducted through a MEDLINE search of all relevant papers between 1980 and January 2010. Results: Recent advances in imaging and an improved understanding of pathomechanics have helped to guide the evaluation, diagnosis, and appropriate treatment for patients presenting with lateral hip pain. Conclusion: Various diagnostic tools and treatment modalities can be used to effectively manage the athletic patient presenting with lateral hip pain. PMID:23015937

  18. The Never-Married in Later Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Russell A.

    1979-01-01

    Consequences of singlehood are analyzed for never-married persons. Highly-educated older women are most likely to remain single. Family background is not a predictor. Although the never-married find life more exciting than other marital statuses among younger respondents, this reverses in later life. Never-marrieds are also less happy than the…

  19. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Lateral marks define the port and starboard sides of a route to be followed. They may be either beacons or.... Beacons have green square daymarks, while buoys are green can or pillar buoys. (2) Starboard hand marks indicate the right side of channels when proceeding in the Conventional Direction of Buoyage. Beacons...

  20. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Lateral marks define the port and starboard sides of a route to be followed. They may be either beacons or.... Beacons have green square daymarks, while buoys are green can or pillar buoys. (2) Starboard hand marks indicate the right side of channels when proceeding in the Conventional Direction of Buoyage. Beacons...

  1. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Lateral marks define the port and starboard sides of a route to be followed. They may be either beacons or.... Beacons have green square daymarks, while buoys are green can or pillar buoys. (2) Starboard hand marks indicate the right side of channels when proceeding in the Conventional Direction of Buoyage. Beacons...

  2. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Lateral marks define the port and starboard sides of a route to be followed. They may be either beacons or.... Beacons have green square daymarks, while buoys are green can or pillar buoys. (2) Starboard hand marks indicate the right side of channels when proceeding in the Conventional Direction of Buoyage. Beacons...

  3. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Lateral marks define the port and starboard sides of a route to be followed. They may be either beacons or.... Beacons have green square daymarks, while buoys are green can or pillar buoys. (2) Starboard hand marks indicate the right side of channels when proceeding in the Conventional Direction of Buoyage. Beacons...

  4. Simulation of lateral flow with SWAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calibration of the SWAT model for the Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed (GCEW) showed that percolation through the restrictive claypan layer, lateral flow above that layer, and redistribution of excess moisture up to the ground surface were not correctly simulated. In addition, surface runoff a...

  5. Vertical Tears of the Lateral Meniscus

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Kanu S.; Pan, Tiffany J.; Tran, Diane; Dumpe, Samuel C.; Zhang, Xudong; Harner, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lateral meniscal tears are often seen with acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and may be left in situ, repaired, or treated with meniscectomy. Clinical studies have shown good outcomes with vertical tears left in situ and poor outcomes following meniscectomy. However, clinically relevant studies are needed to establish a biomechanical foundation for treatment of these tears, particularly regarding the effects of meniscectomy. Purpose: To compare tibiofemoral joint mechanics following vertical lateral meniscal tears and meniscectomies. We hypothesized that a peripheral vertical tear of the lateral meniscus would alter joint mechanics, increasing contact pressure and area, and that more drastic effects would be seen following meniscectomy, at higher knee flexion angles, and with increased loads. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Ten fresh-frozen cadaveric knees (average age, 55 ± 12 years) were tested with 5 lateral meniscus states: intact, short vertical tear, extended vertical tear, posterior horn partial meniscectomy (rim intact), and posterior horn subtotal meniscectomy (rim excised). The specimens were loaded axially at knee flexion angles of 0°, 30°, and 60°, and musculotendinous forces were applied, simulating a 2-legged squat. Intra-articular contact pressures were measured using pressure-sensitive Fuji film. Kinematic data were acquired through digitization of fiducial markers. Results: Vertical tears did not cause a significant change in contact pressure or area. Partial meniscectomy increased maximum contact pressures in the lateral compartment at 30° and 60° from 5.3 MPa to 7.2 MPa and 7.6 MPa, respectively (P = .02, P = .007). Subtotal meniscectomy (8.4 MPa) significantly increased contact pressure compared with partial meniscectomy (7.6 MPa) at 60° (P = .04). Both meniscectomy states significantly increased contact pressures with increasing flexion from 0° to 60° (P < .001, P < .001). Conclusion

  6. Genetic Steps to Organ Laterality in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jau-Nian; van Bebber, Frauke; Goldstein, Allan M.; Serluca, Fabrizio C.; Jackson, Donald; Childs, Sarah; Serbedzija, George; Warren, Kerri S.; Mably, John D.; Lindahl, Per; Mayer, Alan; Haffter, Pascal

    2001-01-01

    All internal organs are asymmetric along the left–right axis. Here we report a genetic screen to discover mutations which perturb organ laterality. Our particular focus is upon whether, and how, organs are linked to each other as they achieve their laterally asymmetric positions. We generated mutations by ENU mutagenesis and examined F3 progeny using a cocktail of probes that reveal early primordia of heart, gut, liver and pancreas. From the 750 genomes examined, we isolated seven recessive mutations which affect the earliest left–right positioning of one or all of the organs. None of these mutations caused discernable defects elsewhere in the embryo at the stages examined. This is in contrast to those mutations we reported previously (Chen et al., 1997) which, along with left–right abnormalities, cause marked perturbation in gastrulation, body form or midline structures. We find that the mutations can be classified on the basis of whether they perturb relationships among organ laterality. In Class 1 mutations, none of the organs manifest any left–right asymmetry. The heart does not jog to the left and normally leftpredominant BMP4 in the early heart tube remains symmetric. The gut tends to remain midline. There frequently is a remarkable bilateral duplication of liver and pancreas. Embryos with Class 2 mutations have organotypic asymmetry but, in any given embryo, organ positions can be normal, reversed or randomized. Class 3 reveals a hitherto unsuspected gene that selectively affects laterality of heart. We find that visceral organ positions are predicted by the direction of the preceding cardiac jog. We interpret this as suggesting that normally there is linkage between cardiac and visceral organ laterality. Class 1 mutations, we suggest, effectively remove the global laterality signals, with the consequence that organ positions are effectively symmetrical. Embryos with Class 2 mutations do manifest linkage among organs, but it may be reversed

  7. Infection par le virus de l’hépatite E durant la grossesse

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Shahnaz A.; Verma, Natasha; Koren, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Question Plusieurs de mes patientes sont originaires de l’Asie du Sud-Est où le virus de l’hépatite E est assez commun. Quelles précautions puis-je leur suggérer de prendre avant de voyager dans cette région et quels sont les risques d’une infection par le VHE durant la grossesse? Réponse L’hépatite E est un pathogène présent dans l’eau qui se transmet par voie oro-fécale. Afin de réduire le risque de contracter le VHE lors de voyages dans des régions endémiques, il est important de maintenir des pratiques d’hygiène telles que se laver les mains avec de l’eau potable, particulièrement avant de manipuler de la nourriture, éviter de boire de l’eau ou d’utiliser des glaçons de pureté inconnue et ne pas manger de fruits ou de légumes non pelés. Actuellement, il n’existe aucun vaccin disponible au Canada pour le VHE. Une infection à l’hépatite E durant la grossesse, surtout durant le troisième trimestre, se caractérise par une infection plus sévère qui se transforme parfois en hépatite fulminante, augmentant ainsi les risques de mortalité et de morbidité maternelles et fœtales.

  8. Lateral root development in the maize (Zea mays) lateral rootless1 mutant

    PubMed Central

    Husakova, Eva; Hochholdinger, Frank; Soukup, Ales

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The maize lrt1 (lateral rootless1) mutant is impaired in its development of lateral roots during early post-embryonic development. The aim of this study was to characterize, in detail, the influences that the mutation exerts on lateral root initiation and the subsequent developments, as well as to describe the behaviour of the entire plant under variable environmental conditions. Methods Mutant lrt1 plants were cultivated under different conditions of hydroponics, and in between sheets of moist paper. Cleared whole mounts and anatomical sections were used in combination with both selected staining procedures and histochemical tests to follow root development. Root surface permeability tests and the biochemical quantification of lignin were performed to complement the structural data. Key Results The data presented suggest a redefinition of lrt1 function in lateral roots as a promoter of later development; however, neither the complete absence of lateral roots nor the frequency of their initiation is linked to lrt1 function. The developmental effects of lrt1 are under strong environmental influences. Mutant primordia are affected in structure, growth and emergence; and the majority of primordia terminate their growth during this last step, or shortly thereafter. The lateral roots are impaired in the maintenance of the root apical meristem. The primary root shows disturbances in the organization of both epidermal and subepidermal layers. The lrt1-related cell-wall modifications include: lignification in peripheral layers, the deposition of polyphenolic substances and a higher activity of peroxidase. Conclusions The present study provides novel insights into the function of the lrt1 gene in root system development. The lrt1 gene participates in the spatial distribution of initiation, but not in its frequency. Later, the development of lateral roots is strongly affected. The effect of the lrt1 mutation is not as obvious in the primary root, with no

  9. Lateral cephalometric radiograph versus lateral nasopharyngeal radiograph for quantitative evaluation of nasopharyngeal airway space

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Suelen Cristina da Costa; Beltrão, Rejane Targino Soares; Janson, Guilherme; Garib, Daniela Gamba

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study compared lateral radiographs of the nasopharynx (LN) and lateral cephalometric radiographs (LC) used to assess nasopharyngeal airway space in children. Material and Methods One examiner measured the nasopharyngeal space of 15 oral breathing patients aged between 5 and 11 years old by using LN and LC. Both assessments were made twice with a 15-day interval in between. Intergroup comparison was performed with t-tests (P < 0.05). Results Comparison between LN and LC measurements showed no significant differences. Conclusion Lateral cephalometric radiograph is an acceptable method used to assess nasopharyngeal airway space. PMID:25279526

  10. Thrust vectoring for lateral-directional stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peron, Lee R.; Carpenter, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of using thrust vectoring for lateral-directional control and the effects of reducing the tail size of a single-engine aircraft were investigated. The aerodynamic characteristics of the F-16 aircraft were generated by using the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System II panel code. The resulting lateral-directional linear perturbation analysis of a modified F-16 aircraft with various tail sizes and yaw vectoring was performed at several speeds and altitudes to determine the stability and control trends for the aircraft compared to these trends for a baseline aircraft. A study of the paddle-type turning vane thrust vectoring control system as used on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle is also presented.

  11. Lateralization Technique and Inferior Alveolar Nerve Transposition

    PubMed Central

    Sanches, Marco Antonio; Ramalho, Gabriel Cardoso; Manzi, Marcello Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Bone resorption of the posterior mandible can result in diminished bone edge and, therefore, the installation of implants in these regions becomes a challenge, especially in the presence of the mandibular canal and its contents, the inferior alveolar nerve. Several treatment alternatives are suggested: the use of short implants, guided bone regeneration, appositional bone grafting, distraction osteogenesis, inclined implants tangential to the mandibular canal, and the lateralization of the inferior alveolar nerve. The aim was to elucidate the success rate of implants in the lateralization technique and in inferior alveolar nerve transposition and to determine the most effective sensory test. We conclude that the success rate is linked to the possibility of installing implants with long bicortical anchor which favors primary stability and biomechanics. PMID:27433360

  12. Motorcycle state estimation for lateral dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teerhuis, A. P.; Jansen, S. T. H.

    2012-08-01

    The motorcycle lean (or roll) angle development is one of the main characteristics of motorcycle lateral dynamics. Control of motorcycle motions requires an accurate assessment of this quantity and for safety applications also the risk of sliding needs to be considered. Direct measurement of the roll angle and tyre slip is not available; therefore, a method of model-based estimation is developed to estimate the state of a motorcycle. This paper investigates the feasibility of such a motorcycle state estimator (MCSE). A simplified analytic model of a motorcycle is developed by comparison to an extended multi-body model of the motorcycle, designed in Matlab/SimMechanics. The analytic model is used inside an extended Kalman filter. Experimental results of an instrumented Yamaha FJR1300 motorcycle show that the MCSE is a feasible concept for obtaining signals related to the lateral dynamics of the motorcycle.

  13. Customized MFM probes with high lateral resolution

    PubMed Central

    Jaafar, Miriam; Berganza, Eider; Asenjo, Agustina

    2016-01-01

    Summary Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) is a widely used technique for magnetic imaging. Besides its advantages such as the high spatial resolution and the easy use in the characterization of relevant applied materials, the main handicaps of the technique are the lack of control over the tip stray field and poor lateral resolution when working under standard conditions. In this work, we present a convenient route to prepare high-performance MFM probes with sub-10 nm (sub-25 nm) topographic (magnetic) lateral resolution by following an easy and quick low-cost approach. This allows one to not only customize the tip stray field, avoiding tip-induced changes in the sample magnetization, but also to optimize MFM imaging in vacuum (or liquid media) by choosing tips mounted on hard (or soft) cantilevers, a technology that is currently not available on the market. PMID:27547625

  14. Epidural Abscess Masquerading as Lateral Sinus Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Brodner, David C.; Cutler, Jeff; Gianoli, Gerard J.; Amedee, Ronald G.

    2000-01-01

    Controversy regarding the use of anticoagulants, the evacuation of the sinus, or the use of medical treatment alone surrounds the treatment of lateral sinus thrombosis. Treatment of an epidural abscess associated with coalescent mastoiditis is much less controversial-drainage is usually recommended. The differing treatments of these complications mandate accurate diagnosis. The advent of more sophisticated radiological studies has facilitated diagnosis of these complications; however, tests are not infallible. We present three cases in which preoperative imaging demonstrates an epidural abscess mimicking lateral sinus thrombosis by compression of the vessel. A false-positive computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study may lead to the wrong diagnosis and, consequently, improper treatment. In light of this possibility, we recommend surgical exploration in all such cases. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:17171148

  15. Customized MFM probes with high lateral resolution.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Freire, Óscar; Jaafar, Miriam; Berganza, Eider; Asenjo, Agustina

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) is a widely used technique for magnetic imaging. Besides its advantages such as the high spatial resolution and the easy use in the characterization of relevant applied materials, the main handicaps of the technique are the lack of control over the tip stray field and poor lateral resolution when working under standard conditions. In this work, we present a convenient route to prepare high-performance MFM probes with sub-10 nm (sub-25 nm) topographic (magnetic) lateral resolution by following an easy and quick low-cost approach. This allows one to not only customize the tip stray field, avoiding tip-induced changes in the sample magnetization, but also to optimize MFM imaging in vacuum (or liquid media) by choosing tips mounted on hard (or soft) cantilevers, a technology that is currently not available on the market. PMID:27547625

  16. Nanoparticle-based lateral flow biosensors.

    PubMed

    Quesada-González, Daniel; Merkoçi, Arben

    2015-11-15

    Lateral flow biosensors (LFBs) are paper-based devices which permit the performance of low-cost and fast diagnostics with good robustness, specificity, sensitivity and low limits of detection. The use of nanoparticles (NPs) as labels play an important role in the design and fabrication of a lateral flow strip (LFS). The choice of NPs and the corresponding detection method directly affect the performance of these devices. This review discusses aspects related to the application of different nanomaterials (e.g. gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, quantum dots, up-converting phosphor technologies, and latex beads, between others) in LFBs. Moreover, different detection methods (colorimetric, fluorescent, electrochemical, magnetic, etc.) and signal enhancement strategies (affording secondary reactions or modifying the architecture of the LFS) as well as the use of devices such as smartphones to mediate the response of LFSs will be analyzed. PMID:26043315

  17. Lateralization of visual hemifield attention across development.

    PubMed

    Nieves, N; Linz, T D; Hynd, G W; Connor, R T; Shapiro, M S

    1987-01-01

    Heilman and Valenstein (Clinical Neuropsychology, 1979, Oxford University Press, New York) have hypothesized a right hemispheric mechanism which mediates attention bilaterally. Shapiro and Hynd ("The development of functional lateralization in visual hemifield attention." Developmental Neuropsychology, Vol. 1, pp 67-80, 1985) examined the developmental validity of this model and their findings did not provide evidence for a lateralized mechanism for visual hemifield attention in 9, 13, and 18 year olds. However, length of foreperiod and gender effects were noted. This study attempted to compare these groups with a group of normal adults (ages 25-35) using the same reaction time paradigm. The study demonstrated support for the length of foreperiod effect found by Shapiro and Hynd. Hand effects were also found. However, these results do not lend support to either the model proposed by Heilman and Valenstein (1979) or Shapiro and Hynd's (1985) notion of developmental differences across age groups with respect to right hemisphere dominance for mediating attention. PMID:14591140

  18. Lateral distribution on charged particles in EAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dedenko, L. G.; Sulakov, V. F.; Kulikov, G. V.; Solovjeva, V. I.

    1985-01-01

    Lateral distribution of charged particles which allow for the finiteness of energy gamma-quanta, the inhomogeneity of the atmosphere and the experimental selection of EAS are needed to interpret experimental data. The effects of finiteness of energy of gamma-quanta which produce the partial electron-photon cascades were considered by substituting K R sub m instead of R sub m in NKG approximation where K was found to be 0.56 from comparison with the experimental data. New results on the lateral distribution of electrons in the partial cascades from gamma-quanta were obtained. It is shown that the coefficient K can be regarded as a constant. The last approximation of K was found to be most adequate when compared with the experimental data. The inhomogeneity of the atmosphere, muons and experimental selection are considered. The calculation of Ne are extended from 100,000 to 10 million for sea level and for Akeno level.

  19. Lateral view of facial fractures: new observations

    SciTech Connect

    Daffner, R.H.; Apple, J.S.; Gehweiler, J.A.

    1983-09-01

    Traditional plain film evaluation of facial fractures includes a lateral view of the face. This projection is often not exploited to its full potential because the many overlapping shadows are perceived to detract from its usefulness. To assess the value of this view, the authors reviewed the lateral facial films of 50 patients with a variety of fractures including 25 orbital blow-out fractures, 27 zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures, and 17 maxillary (including Le Fort) fractures. Three observations were encountered: orbital floor displacement in 60% of orbital fractures; malar strut displacement in 41% of zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures; and maxillary wall displacement in 76% of maxillary fractures. The presence of any of these structural displacements, either alone or in combination, provides further direct evidence of skeletal disruption and should serve to augment the findings observed on frontal views.

  20. The Blue Marble 43 Years Later

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-18

    article title:  The Blue Marble 43 Years Later View larger image Here ... points over more than four decades apart. The iconic "Blue Marble" view on the left was taken 43 years ago on December 7, 1972 from Apollo ... points over more than four decades apart. The iconic "Blue Marble" view on the left was taken 43 years ago on December 7, 1972 from Apollo ...

  1. Michigan operator salvages well using lateral drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Mall, T.; Fincher, R.

    1986-06-09

    Michigan independents Trendwell Oil Corp., Miller Bros., and PetroStar Energy recently used Eastman Whipstock's lateral completion technique to turn a well destined for abandonment into a commercial success. The 1-2 Comeau HD-1, in western Michigan's Muskegon County, flowed 629 bo/d on a 13/64-in. choke, reaching the limits of the on-site computerized test equipment before being pinched back to a 12/64-in. choke for a sustained 10-day test.

  2. Lateral distribution of electrons of air showers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asakimori, K.; Maeda, T.; Kameda, T.; Mizushima, K.; Misaki, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The lateral distribution of electrons (LDE) of the air showers of size 10 to the 5th power to 10 to the 6th power was studied within one MU. It was found that the LDE of the air showers observed is well represented by NKG function except for vicinity of the core. It was also found that LDE measured by thin scintillators does not differ from that measured by thick ones of 50mm thickness.

  3. Endoscopic Ankle Lateral Ligament Graft Anatomic Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Michels, Frederick; Cordier, Guillaume; Guillo, Stéphane; Stockmans, Filip

    2016-09-01

    Chronic instability is a common complication of lateral ankle sprains. If nonoperative treatment fails, a surgical repair or reconstruction may be indicated. Today, endoscopic techniques to treat ankle instability are becoming more popular. This article describes an endoscopic technique, using a step-by-step approach, to reconstruct the ATFL and CFL with a gracilis graft. The endoscopic technique is reproducible and safe with regard to the surrounding anatomic structures. Short and midterm results confirm the benefits of this technique. PMID:27524711

  4. Pressure behavior of laterally composite reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchuk, F.J.; Habashy, T.

    1997-03-01

    This paper presents a new general method for solving the pressure diffusion equation in laterally composite reservoirs, where rock and fluid properties may change laterally as a function of y in the x-y plane. Composite systems can be encountered as a result of many different types of depositional and tectonic processes. For example, meandering point bar reservoirs or reservoirs with edgewater encroachment are examples of such systems. The new solution method presented is based on the reflection-transmission concept of electromagnetics to solve fluid-flow problems in 3D nonhomogeneous reservoirs, where heterogeneity is in only one (y) direction. A general Green`s function for a point source in 3D laterally composite systems is developed by using the reflection-transmission method. The solutions in the Laplace transform domain are then developed from the Green`s function for the pressure behavior of specific composite reservoirs. The solution method can also be applied to many different types of wells, such as vertical, fractured, and horizontal in composite reservoirs. The pressure behavior of a few well-known laterally composite systems are investigated. It is shown that a network of partially communicating faults and fractures in porous medium can be modeled as composite systems. It is also shown that the existing solutions for a partially communicating fault are not valid when the fault permeability is substantially larger than the formation permeability. The derivative plots are presented for selected faulted, fractured, channel, and composite reservoirs as diagnostic tools for well-test interpretation. It is also shown that if the composite system`s permeability varies moderately in the x or y direction, it exhibits a homogeneous system behavior. However, it does not yield the system`s average permeability. Furthermore, the composite systems with distributed low-permeability zones behave as if the system has many two no-flow boundaries.

  5. iPS Cells 10 Years Later.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    In 2006, Takahashi and Yamanaka reported the breakthrough discovery of induction of pluripotent stem cells from fibroblasts by a combination of defined factors. Ten years later, Cell editor João Monteiro brings together Shinya Yamanaka and Hans Schöler, one the original reviewers of the landmark study, to revisit the history behind the paper and its long-lasting legacy. PMID:27610558

  6. Dilational lateral stress in drying latex films.

    PubMed

    König, Alexander M; Bourgeat-Lami, Elodie; Mellon, Véronique; von der Ehe, Kerstin; Routh, Alexander F; Johannsmann, Diethelm

    2010-03-16

    Drying latex films usually experience tensile stress due to the reduction in volume. While an unconstrained film would shrink affinely in all three dimensions, a coating can only shrink along the vertical and therefore exerts tensile stress onto the substrate. Using an instrument capable of producing maps of the stress distribution, we found that dilational stress sometimes develops as well. The in-plane stress was monitored by spreading the latex dispersion on a flexible membrane. Usually, the membrane bends upward under the tensile stress exerted by the film, but it may also bend downward. Dilational stress was only found with samples showing a strong coffee stain effect, that is, samples in which there is a significant lateral flow from the center to the edge while the film dries. During drying, particles consolidate first at the edge because of the lower height in this region. Continued evaporation from the consolidated region results in a water flow toward the edge, exerting a force onto the latex particles. At the time, when the network is formed, any single sphere must be in a force-balance condition: the network must exert an elastic force onto the sphere which just compensates the viscous drag. Pictorially speaking, a spring (an elastic network) is created while an external force acts onto it. Once the flow stops, the drag force vanishes and the internal stress, which previously compensated the drag, expands the film laterally. This phenomenon can lead to buckling. Given that lateral flow of liquid while films dry is a rather common occurrence, this mode of structure formation should be widespread. It requires lateral flow in conjunction with elastic recovery of the particle network. PMID:20146486

  7. Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay Test Strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    As easy to read as a home pregnancy test, three Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay (QLFA) strips used to test water for E. coli show different results. The brightly glowing control line on the far right of each strip indicates that all three tests ran successfully. But the glowing test line on the middle left and bottom strips reveal their samples were contaminated with E. coli bacteria at two different concentrations. The color intensity correlates with concentration of contamination.

  8. Lateral jet injection into typical combustor flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilley, D. G.

    1986-01-01

    The experimental problem of lateral jet injection into typical flow fields in the absence of combustion was studied. All flow fields being investigated have no expansion of the crossflow (the test section to swirler diameter ratio D/d = 1), after its passage through an optional swirler (with swirl vane angle phi = 0 (swirler removed), 45, and 70 degree). The lateral jet(s) is(are) located one test-section diameter downstream of the test-section inlet (x/D = 1). The lateral jets have round-sectioned nozzles, each of which has an area of 1/100th of the cross sectional area of the crossflow (A sub j/A sub c = 1/100). Jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios of R = v sub j/u sub o = 2, 4, and 6 were investigated. Helium-bubble low visualization, five-hole pitot probe time-mean velocity measurements, and single-wire time-mean velocity and normal and shear stress turbulence data were obtained in the research program.

  9. High performance amorphous selenium lateral photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbaszadeh, Shiva; Allec, Nicholas; Karim, Karim S.

    2012-03-01

    Lateral amorphous selenium (a-Se) detectors based on the metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) device structure have been studied for indirect detector medical imaging applications. These detectors have raised interest due to their simple structure, ease of fabrication, high-speed, low dark current, low capacitance per unit area and better light utilization. The lateral device structure has a benefit that the electrode spacing may be easily controlled to reduce the required bias for a given desired electric field. In indirect conversion x-ray imaging, the scintillator is coupled to the top of the a-Se MSM photodetector, which itself is integrated on top of the thin-film-transistor (TFT) array. The carriers generated at the top surface of the a-Se layer experience a field that is parallel to the surface, and does not initially sweep them away from the surface. Therefore these carriers may recombine or get trapped in surface states and change the field at the surface, which may degrade the performance of the photodetector. In addition, due to the finite width of the electrodes, the fill factor of the device is less than unity. In this study we examine the effect of lateral drift of carriers and the fill factor on the photodetector performance. The impact of field magnitude on the performance is also investigated.

  10. Lateral flow immunoassay using magnetoresistive sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taton, Kristin; Johnson, Diane; Guire, Patrick; Lange, Erik; Tondra, Mark

    2009-05-01

    Magnetic particles have been adapted for use as labels in biochemical lateral flow strip tests. Standard gold particle lateral flow assays are generally qualitative; however, with magnetic particles, quantitative results can be obtained by using electronic detection systems with giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors. As described here, these small integrated sensor chips can detect the presence of magnetic labels in capture spots whose volume is approximately 150 μm×150 μm×150 μm. The range of linear detection is better than two orders of magnitude; the total range is up to four orders of magnitude. The system was demonstrated with both indirect and sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for protein detection of rabbit IgG and interferon-γ, respectively, achieving detection of 12 pg/ml protein. Ultimately, the goal is for the detector to be fully integrated into the lateral flow strip backing to form a single consumable item that is interrogated by a handheld electronic reader.

  11. Transnational connections of later-life migrants.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Sari Johanna; Lumme-Sandt, Kirsi

    2013-04-01

    In this paper a transnational perspective is used to explain whether and how older migrants construct and sustain their social networks. The paper uses a transnational viewpoint on older migrants' lives by analysing their engagement with their former homeland, and the intensity and habitualness of those engagements in old age. The aim of this article is to study the transnational connections of later-life migrants'. Attention is especially paid to the features of old age while maintaining these connections. These considerations are based on analyses of transnational networks in the everyday lives of later-life migrants from the former Soviet Union residing in Finland. The data were collected from 11 later-life migrants. It is found that transnational relationships are a vital part of the everyday lives of older migrants, and that they are sustained in varied ways. These connections mean a concrete source of help, family affiliations, the sharing of emotions, and a larger social network. Economic limitations affect the frequency and type of communication, and various physical limitations may also cause inability to maintain contacts across borders. In these circumstances, family members or other close relatives or friends are needed to deliver messages on the older person's behalf. Old age and immigration status affect the amount and direction of communication across borders, thereby shaping these networks. PMID:23561285

  12. Perturbations Caused by Lateral Stress Gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, R. E.; Harris, E. J.

    2007-12-01

    In principle, stress gauges mounted to measure lateral stresses in a shocked matrix allow the shear strength of the material to be determined. Interpreting the records from lateral stress gauges is hindered by the fact that the stress field in the insulating layer in which the gauges are mounted can differ signifcantly from the stress field that would be generated in the sample if no gauge were present. A series of high resolution Eulerian code calculations have been run which suggest that the stresses in the insulating layer vary with distance and time in a way that depends on the thickness of the layer, the shock strength, and the elastic and plastic properties of both the layer and the matrix. In particular, if the shock velocity in the matrix material is high the stress at a typical gauge position initially rises to a sharp peak then falls with time, but when the shock velocity in the matrix is low the stress rises relatively gradually throughout the time of interest. The shapes of the stress-time profiles predicted by the hydrocode compare well with the results of lateral gauge experiments on several different materials.

  13. Perturbations Caused by Lateral Stress Gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Ron; Harris, Ernie

    2007-06-01

    In principle, stress gauges mounted to measure lateral stresses in a shocked matrix allow the shear strength of the material to be determined. Interpreting the records from lateral stress gauges is hindered by the fact that the stress field in the insulating layer in which the gauges are mounted can differ significantly from the stress field that would be generated in the sample if no gauge were present. A series of high resolution Eulerian code calculations have been run which suggest that the stresses in the insulating layer vary with distance and time in a way that depends on the thickness of the layer, the shock strength, and the elastic and plastic properties of both the layer and the matrix. In particular, if the shock velocity in the matrix material is high the stress at a typical gauge position initially rises to a sharp peak then falls with time, but when the shock velocity in the matrix is low the stress rises relatively gradually throughout the time of interest. The shapes of the stress-time profiles predicted by the hydrocode compare well with the results of lateral gauge experiments on several different materials.

  14. Efferent pathways of the mouse lateral habenula

    PubMed Central

    Quina, Lely A.; Tempest, Lynne; Ng, Lydia; Harris, Julie; Ferguson, Susan; Jhou, Thomas; Turner, Eric E.

    2014-01-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) is part of the habenula complex of the dorsal thalamus. Recent studies of the LHb have focused on its projections to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), which contain GABAergic neurons that mediate reward prediction error via inhibition of dopaminergic activity. However, older studies in the rat have also identified LHb outputs to the lateral and posterior hypothalamus, median raphe, dorsal raphe, and dorsal tegmentum. Although these studies have shown that the medial and lateral divisions of the LHb have somewhat distinct projections, the topographic specificity of LHb efferents is not completely understood, and the relative extent of these projections to brainstem targets is unknown. Here we have used anterograde tracing with adeno-associated virus mediated expression of green fluorescent protein, combined with serial two-photon tomography, to map the efferents of the LHb on a standard coordinate system for the entire mouse brain, and reconstruct the efferent pathways of the LHb in three dimensions. Using automated quantitation of fiber density, we show that in addition to the RMTg, the median raphe, caudal dorsal raphe, and pontine central gray are major recipients of LHb efferents. Using retrograde tract tracing with cholera toxin subunit B, we show that LHb neurons projecting to the hypothalamus, VTA, median raphe, and caudal dorsal raphe, and pontine central gray reside in characteristic, but sometimes overlapping regions of the LHb. Together these results provide the anatomical basis for systematic studies of LHb function in neural circuits and behavior in mice. PMID:25099741

  15. Lateral Programmable Metallization Cell Devices And Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Minghan

    2011-12-01

    Programmable Metallization Cell (PMC) is a technology platform which utilizes mass transport in solid or liquid electrolyte coupled with electrochemical (redox) reactions to form or remove nanoscale metallic electrodeposits on or in the electrolyte. The ability to redistribute metal mass and form metallic nanostructure in or on a structure in situ, via the application of a bias on laterally placed electrodes, creates a large number of promising applications. A novel PMC-based lateral microwave switch was fabricated and characterized for use in microwave systems. It has demonstrated low insertion loss, high isolation, low voltage operation, low power and low energy consumption, and excellent linearity. Due to its non-volatile nature the switch operates with fewer biases and its simple planar geometry makes possible innovative device structures which can be potentially integrated into microwave power distribution circuits. PMC technology is also used to develop lateral dendritic metal electrodes. A lateral metallic dendritic network can be grown in a solid electrolyte (GeSe) or electrodeposited on SiO2 or Si using a water-mediated method. These dendritic electrodes grown in a solid electrolyte (GeSe) can be used to lower resistances for applications like self-healing interconnects despite its relatively low light transparency; while the dendritic electrodes grown using water-mediated method can be potentially integrated into solar cell applications, like replacing conventional Ag screen-printed top electrodes as they not only reduce resistances but also are highly transparent. This research effort also laid a solid foundation for developing dendritic plasmonic structures. A PMC-based lateral dendritic plasmonic structure is a device that has metallic dendritic networks grown electrochemically on SiO2 with a thin layer of surface metal nanoparticles in liquid electrolyte. These structures increase the distribution of particle sizes by connecting pre-deposited Ag

  16. Les succédanés du sucre durant la grossesse

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Eliza; Koren, Gideon; Bozzo, Pina

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Question J’ai une patiente enceinte qui consomme souvent des succédanés du sucre et elle m’a demandé si cette pratique continue pouvait nuire à sa grossesse ou à son enfant. Que devrais-je lui répondre et existe-t-il d’autres meilleurs choix durant la grossesse? Réponse Il faudrait faire plus de recherche pour déterminer plus exactement les effets de l’exposition aux succédanés du sucre in utero, mais les données disponibles ne laissent pas présager d’effets indésirables durant la grossesse. Toutefois, il est recommandé de consommer des substituts du sucre en quantités modérées et de se conformer aux doses journalières admissibles établies par les organismes de règlementation.

  17. Upper Blepharoplasty and Lateral Wound Dehiscence

    PubMed Central

    Kashkouli, Mohsen Bahmani; Jamshidian-Tehrani, Mansooreh; Sharzad, Sahab; Sanjari, Mostafa Soltan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To report the frequency of lateral wound dehiscence (LWD) after upper blepharoplasty (UB), a technique and its outcome to prevent LWD. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was performed for cases of LWD after UB presenting between 2003 and 2009, and then a prospective comparative study was performed between February 2009 and March 2013. For the comparison, subjects were divided into two groups based on intraoperative assessment of lateral wound tension (same technique and surgeon). Group 1 received 1-3 orbicularis/subcutaneous buried sutures (6-0 polyglactin) before interrupted 6-0 nylon skin closure. Group 2 underwent skin closure only. Subjects, who had re-operation, skin healing disorders, and incomplete follow-up (<6 months), were excluded. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: There were 14 (14/678, 2%) cases with LWD with a mean age of 36.2 years in the audit (2003–2009). The prospective study included 68 subjects (68/293, 23.2%) in Group 1 and 225 in Group 2. Gender and simultaneous forehead and eyebrow procedures were similar between groups (P = 0.3 and P = 0.4 respectively). Group 1 was statistically significantly younger at mean age of 41.4 years, compared to Group 2 at 56.1 years (P = 0.000). The frequency of LWD significantly (P = 0.04) decreased to 0.3% (1/293). Conclusion: In the presence of wound tension on skin closure (intraoperative assessment), tension relieving buried orbicularis/subcutaneous 6-0 polyglactin suturing of the lateral UB incision could prevent LWD. PMID:26692716

  18. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P.; Diener, Ed

    2016-01-01

    Background Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. Methods To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as a predictor of relationship, adjustment, self worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilized multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Results Early adolescent positive affect predicted less relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers), healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. Conclusions The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. PMID:27075545

  19. Efferent pathways of the mouse lateral habenula.

    PubMed

    Quina, Lely A; Tempest, Lynne; Ng, Lydia; Harris, Julie A; Ferguson, Susan; Jhou, Thomas C; Turner, Eric E

    2015-01-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) is part of the habenula complex of the dorsal thalamus. Recent studies of the LHb have focused on its projections to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), which contain γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons that mediate reward prediction error via inhibition of dopaminergic activity. However, older studies in the rat have also identified LHb outputs to the lateral and posterior hypothalamus, median raphe, dorsal raphe, and dorsal tegmentum. Although these studies have shown that the medial and lateral divisions of the LHb have somewhat distinct projections, the topographic specificity of LHb efferents is not completely understood, and the relative extent of these projections to brainstem targets is unknown. Here we have used anterograde tracing with adeno-associated virus-mediated expression of green fluorescent protein, combined with serial two-photon tomography, to map the efferents of the LHb on a standard coordinate system for the entire mouse brain, and reconstruct the efferent pathways of the LHb in three dimensions. Using automated quantitation of fiber density, we show that in addition to the RMTg, the median raphe, caudal dorsal raphe, and pontine central gray are major recipients of LHb efferents. By using retrograde tract tracing with cholera toxin subunit B, we show that LHb neurons projecting to the hypothalamus, VTA, median raphe, caudal dorsal raphe, and pontine central gray reside in characteristic, but sometimes overlapping regions of the LHb. Together these results provide the anatomical basis for systematic studies of LHb function in neural circuits and behavior in mice. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:32-60, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25099741

  20. Quantifying Disease Progression in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Neil G; Turner, Martin R; Vucic, Steve; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Shefner, Jeremy; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) exhibits characteristic variability of onset and rate of disease progression, with inherent clinical heterogeneity making disease quantitation difficult. Recent advances in understanding pathogenic mechanisms linked to the development of ALS impose an increasing need to develop strategies to predict and more objectively measure disease progression. This review explores phenotypic and genetic determinants of disease progression in ALS, and examines established and evolving biomarkers that may contribute to robust measurement in longitudinal clinical studies. With targeted neuroprotective strategies on the horizon, developing efficiencies in clinical trial design may facilitate timely entry of novel treatments into the clinic. PMID:25223628

  1. Lateral elbow tendinopathy: Evidence of physiotherapy management

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrios, Stasinopoulos

    2016-01-01

    Lateral elbow tendinopathy (LET) is a common musculoskeletal/sports injury. A plethora of physiotherapy techniques has been proposed in the management of LET. The exercise programme is the most common treatment in the management of LET. The optimal protocol of exercise programme is still unknown. The effectiveness of the exercise programme is low when it is applied as monotherapy. Therefore, exercise programme is combined with other physiotherapy modalities such as soft tissue techniques, external support, acupuncture, manual therapy and electrotherapy, in the treatment of LET. Future research is needed to determine which treatment strategy combined with exercise programme will provide the best results in LET rehabilitation. PMID:27622145

  2. Lateral spin transport through bulk silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Appelbaum, Ian

    2012-04-01

    Using ballistic hot electron techniques, we demonstrate lateral spin transport through a bulk Si wafer. Despite a wide spin transport time distribution caused by transport path variation in the 400 μm-thick Si channel, the absence of a buried interface in close proximity increases the observed spin lifetime to approximately 100 ns at 61 K. The relative insensitivity of this lifetime to temperature variation (and its absolute magnitude) indicates a contribution from an extrinsic depolarization mechanism such as disorder and defects at the exposed air/Si interface in the transport region between injector and detector.

  3. Towards reproducible, scalable lateral molecular electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durkan, Colm; Zhang, Qian

    2014-08-01

    An approach to reproducibly fabricate molecular electronic devices is presented. Lateral nanometer-scale gaps with high yield are formed in Au/Pd nanowires by a combination of electromigration and Joule-heating-induced thermomechanical stress. The resulting nanogap devices are used to measure the electrical properties of small numbers of two different molecular species with different end-groups, namely 1,4-butane dithiol and 1,5-diamino-2-methylpentane. Fluctuations in the current reveal that in the case of the dithiol molecule devices, individual molecules conduct intermittently, with the fluctuations becoming more pronounced at larger biases.

  4. Lateral chirality-sorting optical forces

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Amaury; Mueller, J. P. Balthasar; Capasso, Federico

    2015-01-01

    The transverse component of the spin angular momentum of evanescent waves gives rise to lateral optical forces on chiral particles, which have the unusual property of acting in a direction in which there is neither a field gradient nor wave propagation. Because their direction and strength depends on the chiral polarizability of the particle, they act as chirality-sorting and may offer a mechanism for passive chirality spectroscopy. The absolute strength of the forces also substantially exceeds that of other recently predicted sideways optical forces. PMID:26453555

  5. Individual differences in infancy and later IQ.

    PubMed

    Slater, A

    1995-01-01

    In recent years it has been demonstrated that cognitive development from infancy to later childhood displays some degree of (correlational) continuity. Studies that have demonstrated this continuity are reviewed, focusing on measures of visual information processing, means-ends problem-solving and other cognitive indices of infant performance. Models of continuity are described and evaluated, and the relevance of the findings and models to the Nature-Nurture issue are considered, with particular attention to the related issues of the role of experience in early life, and the extent to which infant development is canalized. Theoretical and practical applications of the research are discussed. PMID:7714030

  6. Lateral stress evolution in Chromium Sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petel, O. E.; Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Hameed, A.; Capozzi, A.; Goroshin, S.; Frost, D. L.; Hazell, P. J.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper the shock response of CrS, a cermet of potential interest as a matrix material for ballistic applications, has been investigated. Compacts with a Chromium: Sulfur ratio of 1.15:1 were investigated via the plate-impact technique. These experiments allowed the material to be loaded under a one-dimensional state of strain. Embedded manganin stress gauges were employed to monitor the temporal evolution of longitudinal and lateral components of stress. Comparison of these two components has allowed assessment of the variation of material shear strength both with impact pressure/strain-rate and time.

  7. Uniform lateral load capacity of infilled frames

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.D.; Bennett, R.M.

    1993-11-11

    Three tests were conducted on 2.4 meter by 2.4 meter steel frames infilled with structural clay tile to determine the behavior and capacity when subjected to uniform lateral loads. An air bag was used to apply the out-of-plane loads. The walls were subjected to increasing load-unload cycles until virtual destruction of the infill. Cracking in the mortar joints occurred early in the tests, and then the primary load resisting mechanism was arching of the infilled panel. Typically, vertical arching occurred until failure of the top and bottom course tiles. Following failure of these courses, horizontal arching developed enabling the walls to maintain stability.

  8. Towards reproducible, scalable lateral molecular electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Durkan, Colm Zhang, Qian

    2014-08-25

    An approach to reproducibly fabricate molecular electronic devices is presented. Lateral nanometer-scale gaps with high yield are formed in Au/Pd nanowires by a combination of electromigration and Joule-heating-induced thermomechanical stress. The resulting nanogap devices are used to measure the electrical properties of small numbers of two different molecular species with different end-groups, namely 1,4-butane dithiol and 1,5-diamino-2-methylpentane. Fluctuations in the current reveal that in the case of the dithiol molecule devices, individual molecules conduct intermittently, with the fluctuations becoming more pronounced at larger biases.

  9. Lateral elbow tendinopathy: Evidence of physiotherapy management.

    PubMed

    Dimitrios, Stasinopoulos

    2016-08-18

    Lateral elbow tendinopathy (LET) is a common musculoskeletal/sports injury. A plethora of physiotherapy techniques has been proposed in the management of LET. The exercise programme is the most common treatment in the management of LET. The optimal protocol of exercise programme is still unknown. The effectiveness of the exercise programme is low when it is applied as monotherapy. Therefore, exercise programme is combined with other physiotherapy modalities such as soft tissue techniques, external support, acupuncture, manual therapy and electrotherapy, in the treatment of LET. Future research is needed to determine which treatment strategy combined with exercise programme will provide the best results in LET rehabilitation. PMID:27622145

  10. UPRC completes first quad-lateral well

    SciTech Connect

    Califf, B. ); Kerr, D. )

    1993-09-01

    This paper describes the Union Pacific Resources Company's first large diameter quad-lateral well in the Austin Chalk of Texas. The Austin Chalk has at least two producing zones which are separated by either a shale zone or a volcanic ash zone. The UPRC well was designed to penetrate two horizontal drainage wells into each of these zones. This paper reviews the design, cost, and success of this project and the applicability of the technology to other horizontal drilling projects worldwide. The main thrust of the article was that multiple horizontal wells drilled from the same drill site reduces the cost for all wells to a level making horizontal drilling more attractive.

  11. AXR1 Acts after Lateral Bud Formation to Inhibit Lateral Bud Growth in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Stirnberg, Petra; Chatfield, Steven P.; Leyser, H.M. Ottoline

    1999-01-01

    The AXR1 gene of Arabidopsis is required for many auxin responses. The highly branched shoot phenotype of mature axr1 mutant plants has been taken as genetic evidence for a role of auxin in the control of shoot branching. We compared the development of lateral shoots in wild-type Columbia and axr1-12 plants. In the wild type, the pattern of lateral shoot development depends on the developmental stage of the plant. During prolonged vegetative growth, axillary shoots arise and develop in a basal-apical sequence. After floral transition, axillary shoots arise rapidly along the primary shoot axis and grow out to form lateral inflorescences in an apical-basal sequence. For both patterns, the axr1 mutation does not affect the timing of axillary meristem formation; however, subsequent lateral shoot development proceeds more rapidly in axr1 plants. The outgrowth of lateral inflorescences from excised cauline nodes of wild-type plants is inhibited by apical auxin. axr1-12 nodes are resistant to this inhibition. These results provide evidence for common control of axillary growth in both patterns, and suggest a role for auxin during the late stages of axillary shoot development following the formation of the axillary bud and several axillary leaf primordia. PMID:10557232

  12. Lateral root initiation in Marsilea quadrifolia. I. Origin and histogensis of lateral roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, B. L.; Raghavan, V.

    1991-01-01

    In Marsilea quadrifolia, lateral roots arise from modified single cells of the endodermis located opposite the protoxylem poles within the meristematic region of the parent root. The initial cell divides in four specific planes to establish a five-celled lateral root primordium, with a tetrahedral apical cell in the centre and the oldest merophytes and the root cap along the sides. The cells of the merophyte divide in a precise pattern to give rise to the cells of the cortex, endodermis, pericycle, and vascular tissues of the emerging lateral root. Although the construction of the parent root is more complicated than that of lateral roots, patterns of cell division and tissue formation are similar in both types of roots, with the various tissues being arranged in similar positions in relation to the central axis. Vascular connection between the lateral root primordium and the parent root is derived from the pericycle cells lying between the former and the protoxylem members of the latter. It is proposed that the central axis of the root is not only a geometric centre, but also a physiological centre which determines the fate of the different cell types.

  13. Lateral regulation of synaptic transmission by astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Covelo, A; Araque, A

    2016-05-26

    Fifteen years ago the concept of the "tripartite synapse" was proposed to conceptualize the functional view that astrocytes are integral elements of synapses. The signaling exchange between astrocytes and neurons within the tripartite synapse results in the synaptic regulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity through an autocrine form of communication. However, recent evidence indicates that the astrocyte synaptic regulation is not restricted to the active tripartite synapse but can be manifested through astrocyte signaling at synapses relatively distant from active synapses, a process termed lateral astrocyte synaptic regulation. This phenomenon resembles the classical heterosynaptic modulation but is mechanistically different because it involves astrocytes and its properties critically depend on the morphological and functional features of astrocytes. Therefore, the functional concept of the tripartite synapse as a fundamental unit must be expanded to include the interaction between tripartite synapses. Through lateral synaptic regulation, astrocytes serve as an active processing bridge for synaptic interaction and crosstalk between synapses with no direct neuronal connectivity, supporting the idea that neural network function results from the coordinated activity of astrocytes and neurons. PMID:25732135

  14. The lateral impaction of the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Scarlat, M M; Cuny, C; Goldberg, B A; Harryman, D T; Matsen, F A

    1999-01-01

    17 patients had radiographic demonstration of injury to the clavicle, scapula and ribs from an impact delivered to the lateral shoulder. The study included 13 males and 4 females whose ages ranged from 18 to 83 years (average 45 years). Most injuries were sustained in falls or motor vehicle accidents. Analysis of these cases suggests a biomechanical hypothesis concerning the transmission of the impact forces within the shoulder girdle. According to this hypothesis, the impaction force applied to the lateral shoulder is transmitted from outside inward following two paths. The anterior and superior path passes through the acromio-clavicular joint, the clavicle, the costo-clavicular joint and the sterno-clavicular joint. The posterior and inferior path is transmitted within the gleno-humeral joint, the scapula and the scapulo-thoracic joint. Major impacting force is required to disrupt the anterior and posterior arches of the shoulder girdle. When both of these supporting structures are damaged, the patient is at risk for more serious injuries, including disruption of the thorax, shoulder joint, brachial plexus and neck. PMID:10653299

  15. Dual-domain lateral shearing interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Naulleau, Patrick P.; Goldberg, Kenneth Alan

    2004-03-16

    The phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI) was developed to address the problem of at-wavelength metrology of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical systems. Although extremely accurate, the fact that the PS/PDI is limited to use with coherent EUV sources, such as undulator radiation, is a drawback for its widespread use. An alternative to the PS/PDI, with relaxed coherence requirements, is lateral shearing interferometry (LSI). The use of a cross-grating, carrier-frequency configuration to characterize a large-field 4.times.-reduction EUV lithography optic is demonstrated. The results obtained are directly compared with PS/PDI measurements. A defocused implementation of the lateral shearing interferometer in which an image-plane filter allows both phase-shifting and Fourier wavefront recovery. The two wavefront recovery methods can be combined in a dual-domain technique providing suppression of noise added by self-interference of high-frequency components in the test-optic wavefront.

  16. Prototype cantilevers for quantitative lateral force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Reitsma, Mark G.; Gates, Richard S.; Friedman, Lawrence H.; Cook, Robert F.

    2011-09-15

    Prototype cantilevers are presented that enable quantitative surface force measurements using contact-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). The ''hammerhead'' cantilevers facilitate precise optical lever system calibrations for cantilever flexure and torsion, enabling quantifiable adhesion measurements and friction measurements by lateral force microscopy (LFM). Critically, a single hammerhead cantilever of known flexural stiffness and probe length dimension can be used to perform both a system calibration as well as surface force measurements in situ, which greatly increases force measurement precision and accuracy. During LFM calibration mode, a hammerhead cantilever allows an optical lever ''torque sensitivity'' to be generated for the quantification of LFM friction forces. Precise calibrations were performed on two different AFM instruments, in which torque sensitivity values were specified with sub-percent relative uncertainty. To examine the potential for accurate lateral force measurements using the prototype cantilevers, finite element analysis predicted measurement errors of a few percent or less, which could be reduced via refinement of calibration methodology or cantilever design. The cantilevers are compatible with commercial AFM instrumentation and can be used for other AFM techniques such as contact imaging and dynamic mode measurements.

  17. Lateralization of auditory-cortex functions.

    PubMed

    Tervaniemi, Mari; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2003-12-01

    In the present review, we summarize the most recent findings and current views about the structural and functional basis of human brain lateralization in the auditory modality. Main emphasis is given to hemodynamic and electromagnetic data of healthy adult participants with regard to music- vs. speech-sound encoding. Moreover, a selective set of behavioral dichotic-listening (DL) results and clinical findings (e.g., schizophrenia, dyslexia) are included. It is shown that human brain has a strong predisposition to process speech sounds in the left and music sounds in the right auditory cortex in the temporal lobe. Up to great extent, an auditory area located at the posterior end of the temporal lobe (called planum temporale [PT]) underlies this functional asymmetry. However, the predisposition is not bound to informational sound content but to rapid temporal information more common in speech than in music sounds. Finally, we obtain evidence for the vulnerability of the functional specialization of sound processing. These altered forms of lateralization may be caused by top-down and bottom-up effects inter- and intraindividually In other words, relatively small changes in acoustic sound features or in their familiarity may modify the degree in which the left vs. right auditory areas contribute to sound encoding. PMID:14629926

  18. Lateral Pectoral Nerve Injury Mimicking Cervical Radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Ilknur; Palamar, Deniz; Akgun, Kenan

    2015-07-01

    The lateral pectoral nerve (LPN) is commonly injured along with the brachial plexus, but its isolated lesions are rare. Here, we present a case of an isolated LPN lesion confused with cervical radiculopathy. A 41-year-old man was admitted to our clinic because of weakness in his right arm. Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination revealed right posterolateral protrusion at the C6-7 level. At the initial assessment, atrophy of the right pectoralis major muscle was evident, and mild weakness of the right shoulder adductor, internal rotator, and flexor muscles was observed. Therefore, electrodiagnostic evaluation was performed, and a diagnosis of isolated LPN injury was made. Nerve injury was thought to have been caused by weightlifting exercises and traction injury. Lateral pectoral nerve injury can mimic cervical radiculopathy, and MRI examination alone may lead to misdiagnosis. Repeated physical examinations during the evaluation and treatment phase will identify the muscle atrophy that occurs 1 or more months after the injury. PMID:25290103

  19. Compartmentalized Innervation of Primate Lateral Rectus Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Michelle; Poukens, Vadims; da Silva Costa, Roberta Martins; Yoo, Lawrence; Tychsen, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Skeletal and craniofacial muscles are frequently composed of multiple neuromuscular compartments that serve different physiological functions. Evidence of possible regional selectivity in LR intramuscular innervation was sought in a study of the anatomic potential of lateral rectus (LR) muscle compartmentalization. Methods. Whole orbits of two humans and five macaque monkeys were serially sectioned at 10-μm thickness and stained with Masson trichrome. The abducens nerve (CN6) was traced anteriorly from the deep orbit as it branched to enter the LR and arborized among extraocular muscle (EOM) fibers. Three-dimensional reconstruction was performed in human and monkey orbits. Results. Findings were in concordance in the monkey and human orbits. External to the LR global surface, CN6 bifurcated into approximately equal-sized trunks before entering the global layer. Subsequent arborization showed a systematic topography, entering a well-defined inferior zone 0.4 to 2.5 mm more posteriorly than branches entering the largely nonoverlapping superior zone. Zonal innervation remained segregated anteriorly and laterally within the LR. Conclusions. Consistent segregation of intramuscular CN6 arborization in humans and monkeys suggests functionally distinct superior and inferior zones for the LR. Since the LR is shaped as a broad vertical strap, segregated control of the two zones could activate them separately, potentially mediating previously unappreciated but substantial torsional and vertical oculorotary LR actions. PMID:20435590

  20. Attractive membrane domains control lateral diffusion.

    PubMed

    Forstner, Martin B; Martin, Douglas S; Rückerl, Florian; Käs, Josef A; Selle, Carsten

    2008-05-01

    Lipid membranes play a fundamental role in vital cellular functions such as signal transduction. Many of these processes rely on lateral diffusion within the membrane, generally a complex fluid containing ordered microdomains. However, little attention has been paid to the alterations in transport dynamics of a diffusing species caused by long-range interactions with membrane domains. In this paper, we address the effect of such interactions on diffusive transport by studying lateral diffusion in a phase-separated Langmuir phospholipid monolayer via single-particle tracking. We find that attractive dipole-dipole interactions between condensed phase domains and diffusing probe beads lead to transient confinement at the phase boundaries, causing a transition from two- to one-dimensional diffusion. Using Brownian dynamics simulations, the long-term diffusion constant for such a system is found to have a sensitive, Boltzmann-like, dependence on the interaction strength. In addition, this interaction strength is shown to be a strong function of the ratio of domain to particle size. As similar interactions are expected in biological membranes, the modulation of diffusive transport dynamics by varying interaction strength and/or domain size may offer cells selective spatial and temporal control over signaling processes. PMID:18643101

  1. Transmembrane voltage: Potential to induce lateral microdomains.

    PubMed

    Malinsky, Jan; Tanner, Widmar; Opekarova, Miroslava

    2016-08-01

    Lateral segregation of plasma membrane lipids is a generally accepted phenomenon. Lateral lipid microdomains of specific composition, structure and biological functions are established as a result of simultaneous action of several competing mechanisms which contribute to membrane organization. Various lines of evidence support the conclusion that among those mechanisms, the membrane potential plays significant and to some extent unique role. Above all, clear differences in the microdomain structure as revealed by fluorescence microscopy could be recognized between polarized and depolarized membranes. In addition, recent fluorescence spectroscopy experiments reported depolarization-induced changes in a membrane lipid order. In the context of earlier findings showing that plasma membranes of depolarized cells are less susceptible to detergents and the cells less sensitive to antibiotics or antimycotics treatment we discuss a model, in which membrane potential-driven re-organization of the microdomain structure contributes to maintaining membrane integrity during response to stress, pathogen attack and other challenges involving partial depolarization of the plasma membrane. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The cellular lipid landscape edited by Tim P. Levine and Anant K. Menon. PMID:26902513

  2. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: one or multiple causes?

    PubMed Central

    Bastos, Aline Furtado; Orsini, Marco; Machado, Dionis; Mello, Mariana Pimentel; Nader, Sergio; Silva, Júlio Guilherme; da Silva Catharino, Antonio M.; de Freitas, Marcos R.G.; Pereira, Alessandra; Pessoa, Luciane Lacerda; Sztajnbok, Flavio R.; Leite, Marco Araújo; Nascimento, Osvaldo J.M.; Bastos, Victor Hugo

    2011-01-01

    The Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common form of motor neuron disease in the adulthood, and it is characterized by rapid and progressive compromise of the upper and lower motor neurons. The majority of the cases of ALS are classified as sporadic and, until now, a specific cause for these cases still is unknown. To present the different hypotheses on the etiology of ALS. It was carried out a search in the databases: Bireme, Scielo and Pubmed, in the period of 1987 to 2011, using the following keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, motor neuron disease, etiology, causes and epidemiology and its similar in Portuguese and Spanish. It did not have consensus as regards the etiology of ALS. Researches demonstrates evidences as regards intoxication by heavy metals, environmental and occupational causes, genetic mutations (superoxide dismutase 1), certain viral infections and the accomplishment of vigorous physical activity for the development of the disease. There is still no consensus regarding the involved factors in the etiology of ALS. In this way, new research about these etiologies are necessary, for a better approach of the patients, promoting preventive programs for the disease and improving the quality of life of the patients. PMID:21785676

  3. Lateral vision in horses: a behavioral investigation.

    PubMed

    Hanggi, Evelyn B; Ingersoll, Jerry F

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated lateral vision in horses (Equus caballus) for the first time from a behavioral point of view. Three horses were tested using a novel experimental design to determine the range of their lateral and caudolateral vision with respect to stimulus detection and discrimination. Real-life stimuli were presented along a curvilinear wall in one of four different positions (A, B, C, D) and one of two height locations (Top, Bottom) on both sides of the horse. To test for stimulus detection, the correct stimulus was paired against a control; for stimulus discrimination, the correct stimulus was paired against another object. To indicate that the correct stimulus was detected or discriminated, the horses pushed one of two paddles. All horses scored significantly above chance on stimulus detection trials regardless of stimulus position or location. They also accurately discriminated between stimuli when objects appeared in positions A, B, and C for the top or bottom locations; however, they failed to discriminate these stimuli at position D. This study supports physiological descriptions of the equine eye and provides new behavioral data showing that horses can detect the appearance of objects within an almost fully encompassing circle and are able to identify objects within most but not all of their panoramic field of view. PMID:22698758

  4. Lateral Gene Transfer from the Dead

    PubMed Central

    Szöllősi, Gergely J.; Tannier, Eric; Lartillot, Nicolas; Daubin, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    In phylogenetic studies, the evolution of molecular sequences is assumed to have taken place along the phylogeny traced by the ancestors of extant species. In the presence of lateral gene transfer, however, this may not be the case, because the species lineage from which a gene was transferred may have gone extinct or not have been sampled. Because it is not feasible to specify or reconstruct the complete phylogeny of all species, we must describe the evolution of genes outside the represented phylogeny by modeling the speciation dynamics that gave rise to the complete phylogeny. We demonstrate that if the number of sampled species is small compared with the total number of existing species, the overwhelming majority of gene transfers involve speciation to and evolution along extinct or unsampled lineages. We show that the evolution of genes along extinct or unsampled lineages can to good approximation be treated as those of independently evolving lineages described by a few global parameters. Using this result, we derive an algorithm to calculate the probability of a gene tree and recover the maximum-likelihood reconciliation given the phylogeny of the sampled species. Examining 473 near-universal gene families from 36 cyanobacteria, we find that nearly a third of transfer events (28%) appear to have topological signatures of evolution along extinct species, but only approximately 6% of transfers trace their ancestry to before the common ancestor of the sampled cyanobacteria. [Gene tree reconciliation; lateral gene transfer; macroevolution; phylogeny.] PMID:23355531

  5. Summary of Methods for Calculating Dynamic Lateral Stability and Response and for Estimating Lateral Stability Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, John P; Mckinney, Marion O

    1951-01-01

    A summary of methods for making dynamic lateral stability and response calculations and for estimating the aerodynamic stability derivatives required for use in these calculations is presented. The processes of performing calculations of the time histories of lateral motions, of the period and damping of these motions, and of the lateral stability boundaries are presented as a series of simple straightforward steps. Existing methods for estimating the stability derivatives are summarized and, in some cases, simple new empirical formulas are presented. Reference is also made to reports presenting experimental data that should be useful in making estimates of the derivatives. Detailed estimating methods are presented for low-subsonic-speed conditions but only a brief discussion and a list of references are given for transonic- and supersonic-speed conditions.

  6. Revisiting cognitive rehearsal as an intervention against incivility and lateral violence in nursing: 10 years later.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Martha; Clark, Cynthia M

    2014-12-01

    Ten years ago, Griffin wrote an article on the use of cognitive rehearsal as a shield for lateral violence. Since then, cognitive rehearsal has been used successfully in several studies as an evidence-based strategy to address uncivil and bullying behaviors in nursing. In the original study, 26 newly licensed nurses learned about lateral violence and used cognitive rehearsal techniques as an intervention for nurse-to-nurse incivility. The newly licensed nurses described using the rehearsed strategies as difficult, yet successful in reducing or eliminating incivility and lateral violence. This article updates the literature on cognitive rehearsal and reviews the use of cognitive rehearsal as an evidence-based strategy to address incivility and bullvina behaviors in nursing. PMID:25406637

  7. Macroscopic lateral heterogeneity observed in a laterally mobile immiscible mixed polyelectrolyte-neutral polymer brush.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hoyoung; Tsouris, Vasilios; Lim, Yunho; Mustafa, Rafid; Choi, Je; Choi, Yun Hwa; Park, Hae-Woong; Meron, Mati; Lin, Binhua; Won, You-Yeon

    2014-06-01

    We studied mixed poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) brushes. The question we attempted to answer was: when the chain grafting points are laterally mobile, how will this lateral mobility influence the structure and phase behavior of the mixed brush? Three different model mixed PEO/PDMAEMA brush systems were prepared: (1) a laterally mobile mixed brush by spreading onto the air-water interface a mixture of poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PEO-PnBA) and poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)-poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PDMAEMA-PnBA) diblock copolymers (the specific diblock copolymers used will be denoted as PEO113-PnBA100 and PDMAEMA118-PnBA100, where the subscripts refer to the number-average degrees of polymerization of the individual blocks), (2) a mobility-restricted (inseparable) version of the above mixed brush prepared using a PEO-PnBA-PDMAEMA triblock copolymer (denoted as PEO113-PnBA89-PDMAEMA120) having respective brush molecular weights matched with those of the diblock copolymers, and (3) a different laterally mobile mixed PEO and PDMAEMA brush prepared from a PEO113-PnBA100 and PDMAEMA200-PnBA103 diblock copolymer combination, which represents a further more height-mismatched mixed brush situation than described in (1). These three mixed brush systems were investigated by surface pressure-area isotherm and X-ray (XR) reflectivity measurements. These experimental data were analyzed within the theoretical framework of a continuum self-consistent field (SCF) polymer brush model. The combined experimental and theoretical results suggest that the mobile mixed brush derived using the PEO113-PnBA100 and PDMAEMA118-PnBA100 combination (i.e., mixed brush System #1) undergoes a lateral macroscopic phase separation at high chain grafting densities, whereas the more height-mismatched system (System #3) is only microscopically phase separated under comparable brush density conditions even though the lateral

  8. Macroscopic lateral heterogeneity observed in a laterally mobile immiscible mixed polyelectrolyte-neutral polymer brush

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hoyoung; Tsouris, Vasilios; Lim, Yunho; Mustafa, Rafid; Choi, Je; Choi, Yun Hwa; Park, Hae-Woong; Meron, Mati; Lin, Binhua; Won, You-Yeon

    2014-07-11

    We studied mixed poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) brushes. The question we attempted to answer was: when the chain grafting points are laterally mobile, how will this lateral mobility influence the structure and phase behavior of the mixed brush? Three different model mixed PEO/PDMAEMA brush systems were prepared: (1) a laterally mobile mixed brush by spreading onto the air–water interface a mixture of poly(ethylene oxide)–poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PEO–PnBA) and poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)–poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PDMAEMA–PnBA) diblock copolymers (the specific diblock copolymers used will be denoted as PEO113–PnBA100 and PDMAEMA118–PnBA100, where the subscripts refer to the number-average degrees of polymerization of the individual blocks), (2) a mobility-restricted (inseparable) version of the above mixed brush prepared using a PEO–PnBA–PDMAEMA triblock copolymer (denoted as PEO113–PnBA89–PDMAEMA120) having respective brush molecular weights matched with those of the diblock copolymers, and (3) a different laterally mobile mixed PEO and PDMAEMA brush prepared from a PEO113–PnBA100 and PDMAEMA200–PnBA103 diblock copolymer combination, which represents a further more height-mismatched mixed brush situation than described in (1). These three mixed brush systems were investigated by surface pressure–area isotherm and X-ray (XR) reflectivity measurements. These experimental data were analyzed within the theoretical framework of a continuum self-consistent field (SCF) polymer brush model. The combined experimental and theoretical results suggest that the mobile mixed brush derived using the PEO113–PnBA100 and PDMAEMA118–PnBA100 combination (i.e., mixed brush System #1) undergoes a lateral macroscopic phase separation

  9. Lateral Quantum Dots for Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    House, Matthew Gregory

    The possibility of building a computer that takes advantage of the most subtle nature of quantum physics has been driving a lot of research in atomic and solid state physics for some time. It is still not clear what physical system or systems can be used for this purpose. One possibility that has been attracting significant attention from researchers is to use the spin state of an electron confined in a semiconductor quantum dot. The electron spin is magnetic in nature, so it naturally is well isolated from electrical fluctuations that can a loss of quantum coherence. It can also be manipulated electrically, by taking advantage of the exchange interaction. In this work we describe several experiments we have done to study the electron spin properties of lateral quantum dots. We have developed lateral quantum dot devices based on the silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor, and studied the physics of electrons confined in these quantum dots. We measured the electron spin excited state lifetime, which was found to be as long as 30 ms at the lowest magnetic fields that we could measure. We fabricated and characterized a silicon double quantum dot. Using this double quantum dot design, we fabricated devices which combined a silicon double quantum dot with a superconducting microwave resonator. The microwave resonator was found to be sensitive to two-dimensional electrons in the transistor channel, which we measured and characterized. We developed a new method for extracting information from random telegraph signals, which are produced when we observe thermal fluctuations of electrons in quantum dots. The new statistical method, based on the hidden Markov model, allows us to detect spin-dependent effects in such fluctuations even though we are not able to directly observe the electron spin. We use this analysis technique on data from two experiments involving gallium arsenide quantum dots and use it to measure spin-dependent tunneling rates. Our results advance the

  10. Meniscoplasty for stable osteochondritis dissecans of the lateral femoral condyle combined with a discoid lateral meniscus: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Osteochondritis dissecans of the lateral femoral condyle is relatively rare, and it is reported to often be combined with a discoid lateral meniscus. Given the potential for healing, conservative management is indicated for stable osteochondritis dissecans in patients who are skeletally immature. However, patients with osteochondritis dissecans of the lateral femoral condyle combined with a discoid lateral meniscus often have persistent symptoms despite conservative management. Case presentation We present the case of a seven-year-old Korean girl who had osteochondritis dissecans of the lateral femoral condyle combined with a discoid lateral meniscus, which healed after meniscoplasty for the symptomatic lateral discoid meniscus without surgical intervention for the osteochondritis dissecans. In addition, healing of the osteochondritis dissecans lesion was confirmed by an MRI scan five months after the operation. Conclusions Meniscoplasty can be recommended for symptomatic stable juvenile osteochondritis dissecans of the lateral femoral condyle combined with a discoid lateral meniscus when conservative treatment fails. PMID:21896174

  11. Analysis of flexible structures under lateral impact

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, D. F.; Razavi, H.

    2012-07-01

    Three methods for analysis of flexible structures under lateral impact are presented. The first proposed method (Method A) consists of: (1) modifying an available deceleration on a rigid target with conservation principles to account for structural flexibility; and (2) transient nonlinear analysis of the structure with the corrected forcing function. The second proposed method (Method B) is similar to Method A in obtaining the forcing function but it solves the equations of motion of an idealized two-degree-of-freedom system instead of directly using conservation principles. The last method simply provides the maximum force in the structure using the conservation of energy and linear momentum. A coupled simulation is also performed in LS-DYNA and compared against the proposed methods. A case study is presented to illustrate the applicability of all three methods and the LS-DYNA simulation. (authors)

  12. Arthrography of the discoid lateral meniscus.

    PubMed

    Hall, F M

    1977-06-01

    Twenty-seven cases of discoid lateral meniscus (DLM) were diagnosed during the course of 985 knee arthrograms; 19 had the classic discoid shape while eight were less large and believed to represent a forme fruste. Based on anatomic and arthrographic appearances, DLM was classified into six types. Criteria for the arthrographic diagnosis of intact and torn DLM are discussed. The wide variety of size and shape is believed to result from a combination of congenital and environmental factors. It is speculated that some may arise entirely secondary to trauma without congenital predisposition. Many undoubtedly remain asymptomatic: more than one-third of cases in this series were diagnosed incidentally during evaluation for symptoms and signs referrable to a torn medial meniscus. PMID:414568

  13. Symptomatic torn discoid lateral meniscus in adults.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jin Hwan; Choi, Sang-Hee; Lee, Yong Seuk; Yoo, Jae Chul; Chang, Moon Jong; Bae, Sooho; Bae, Young Ryeol

    2011-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to report degenerative changes that coexist with a symptomatic torn discoid lateral meniscus in adults and to analyze the factors associated with the accompanied degenerative changes. From 1997 to 2008, 329 knees in the 305 patients were included. Associations between the status of the meniscus and the coexisting degenerative changes on the images and the arthroscopic findings were statistically analyzed. Marginal osteophyte was seen on conventional radiography in 118 patients (36%). Ninety patients (27%) had arthroscopically confirmed chondral lesion. Age, duration of symptoms, the type of meniscus, the type of tear and the magnetic resonance image classification were associated with the formation of the marginal osteophyte and chondral lesion on univariate analysis (P < 0.05). After conducting multivariate analysis, the type of tear and magnetic resonance image classification had a statistically significant association with the severity of marginal osteophyte and chondral lesion (P < 0.05). PMID:20143046

  14. Lateral discoid meniscus: treatment and results.

    PubMed

    Pellacci, F; Montanari, G; Prosperi, P; Galli, G; Celli, V

    1992-01-01

    Forty-six patients (47 knees) who had symptomatic discoid lateral menisci were operated on between August 1981 and May 1989. The patients were categorized according to Watanabe's classifications: complete (80.8%), incomplete (10.6%), and Wrisberg type (8.5%). The treatment of the discoid meniscus is based on total or partial meniscectomy, achieved by the percutaneous or arthrometric technique. Of the 47 knees, 30 underwent a follow-up evaluation. Using Ikeuchi's knee scale, 27 cases (90%) had either excellent or good ratings, and 3 (10%) received fair ratings. There were no poor outcomes. The results in the knees treated by partial meniscectomy were better than those in the knees treated with total meniscectomy. PMID:1466716

  15. Large-scale lateral nanowire arrays nanogenerators

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhong L; Xu, Chen; Qin, Yong; Zhu, Guang; Yang, Rusen; Hu, Youfan; Zhang, Yan

    2014-01-07

    In a method of making a generating device, a plurality of spaced apart elongated seen members are deposited onto a surface of a flexible non-conductive substrate. An elongated conductive layer is applied to a top surface and a first side of each seed member, thereby leaving an exposed second side opposite the first side. A plurality of elongated piezoelectric nanostructures is grown laterally from the second side of each seed layer. A second conductive material is deposited onto the substrate adjacent each elongated first conductive layer so as to be soupled the distal end of each of the plurality of elongated piezoelectric nanostructures. The second conductive material is selected so as to form a Schottky barrier between the second conductive material and the distal end of each of the plurality of elongated piezoelectric nanostructures and so as to form an electrical contact with the first conductive layer.

  16. Lateral hypothalamic circuits for feeding and reward.

    PubMed

    Stuber, Garret D; Wise, Roy A

    2016-02-01

    In experiments conducted over 60 years ago, the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) was identified as a critical neuroanatomical substrate for motivated behavior. Electrical stimulation of the LHA induces voracious feeding even in well-fed animals. In the absence of food, animals will work tirelessly, often lever-pressing thousands of times per hour, for electrical stimulation at the same site that provokes feeding, drinking and other species-typical motivated behaviors. Here we review the classic findings from electrical stimulation studies and integrate them with more recent work that has used contemporary circuit-based approaches to study the LHA. We identify specific anatomically and molecularly defined LHA elements that integrate diverse information arising from cortical, extended amygdala and basal forebrain networks to ultimately generate a highly specified and invigorated behavioral state conveyed via LHA projections to downstream reward and feeding-specific circuits. PMID:26814589

  17. Exchange coupling between laterally adjacent nanomagnets.

    PubMed

    Dey, H; Csaba, G; Bernstein, G H; Porod, W

    2016-09-30

    We experimentally demonstrate exchange-coupling between laterally adjacent nanomagnets. Our results show that two neighboring nanomagnets that are each antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled to a common ferromagnetic bottom layer can be brought into strong ferromagnetic interaction. Simulations show that interlayer exchange coupling effectively promotes ferromagnetic alignment between the two nanomagnets, as opposed to antiferromagnetic alignment due to dipole-coupling. In order to experimentally demonstrate the proposed scheme, we fabricated arrays of pairs of elongated, single-domain nanomagnets. Magnetic force microscopy measurements show that most of the pairs are ferromagnetically ordered. The results are in agreement with micromagnetic simulations. The presented scheme can achieve coupling strengths that are significantly stronger than dipole coupling, potentially enabling far-reaching applications in Nanomagnet Logic, spin-wave devices and three-dimensional storage and computing. PMID:27535227

  18. Midline lateralization thyroplasty for adductor spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Isshiki, N; Tsuji, D H; Yamamoto, Y; Iizuka, Y

    2000-02-01

    Midline lateralization thyroplasty was successfully performed on a patient with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. The thyroid cartilage was incised at the midline, and a 3 x 2-mm perforation was made at the anterior commissure to widen it. The perforation was closed with a free composite graft taken from the upper edge of the thyroid ala, and the incised thyroid cartilage edges were kept separated 4 mm apart with silicone wedges. A part of the sternohyoid muscle was rotated to seal any leak from the perforation. The postoperative course was uneventful. The voice has been restored to normal, and there is no sign of recurrence of the symptom so far, as of 1 year 5 months postoperative. Although a longer follow-up is needed, this case indicates that midline type II thyroplasty could be a useful treatment for adductor spasmodic dysphonia. PMID:10685572

  19. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Bozzoni, V; Pansarasa, Orietta; Diamanti, L; Nosari, G; Cereda, C; Ceroni, M

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that affects central and peripheral motor neuron cells. Its etiology is unknown, although a relationship between genetic background and environmental factors may play a major role in triggering the neurodegeneration. In this review, we analyze the role of environmental factors in ALS: heavy metals, electromagnetic fields and electric shocks, pesticides, β-N-methylamino-L-alanine, physical activity and the controversial role of sports. The literature on the single issues is analyzed in an attempt to clarify, as clearly as possible, whether each risk factor significantly contributes to the disease pathogenesis. After summarizing conflicting observations and data, the authors provide a final synthetic statement. PMID:27027889

  20. Lateral Hypothalamic Circuits for Feeding and Reward

    PubMed Central

    Stuber, Garret D.; Wise, Roy A.

    2016-01-01

    In experiments conducted over 60 years ago, the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) was identified as a critical neuroanatomical substrate for motivated behavior. Electrical stimulation of the LHA induces voracious feeding even in non-restricted animals. In the absence of food, animals will work tirelessly, often lever-pressing 1000’s of times per hour, for electrical stimulation at the same site that provokes feeding, drinking, and other species-typical motivated behaviors. Here we review the classic findings from electrical stimulation studies and integrate them with more recent work that has utilized contemporary circuit-based approaches to study the LHA. We identify specific anatomically and molecularly defined LHA elements that integrate diverse information arising from cortical, extended amygdala, and basal forebrain networks to ultimately generate a highly specified and invigorated behavioral state conveyed via LHA projections to downstream reward and feeding specific circuits. PMID:26814589

  1. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis associated with pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, A; Sweeney, B J; Connolly, S

    2001-12-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common, progressive motor neurone disease but is rare in the obstetric population. Only 4 cases have been described in the English literature since 1975. We describe a 29 year old woman who presented with ataxia, lower limb weakness and dysarthria 4 weeks after the birth of her first child. The symptoms had onset during the pregnancy but had not been considered remarkable. There were clinical features of upper and lower motor neurone involvement without any sensory loss. MRI of brain and spine was normal. CSF analysis was negative. EMG studies confirmed the presence of widespread anterior horn cell dysfunction compatible with ALS. The patient was commenced on Riluzole and has progressed clinically, at 12 months post diagnosis. PMID:11799421

  2. Optical fiber head for providing lateral viewing

    DOEpatents

    Everett, Matthew J.; Colston, Billy W.; James, Dale L.; Brown, Steve; Da Silva, Luiz

    2002-01-01

    The head of an optical fiber comprising the sensing probe of an optical heterodyne sensing device includes a planar surface that intersects the perpendicular to axial centerline of the fiber at a polishing angle .theta.. The planar surface is coated with a reflective material so that light traveling axially through the fiber is reflected transverse to the fiber's axial centerline, and is emitted laterally through the side of the fiber. Alternatively, the planar surface can be left uncoated. The polishing angle .theta. must be no greater than 39.degree. or must be at least 51.degree.. The emitted light is reflected from adjacent biological tissue, collected by the head, and then processed to provide real-time images of the tissue. The method for forming the planar surface includes shearing the end of the optical fiber and applying the reflective material before removing the buffer that circumscribes the cladding and the core.

  3. On lateral competition in dynamic neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Bellyustin, N.S.

    1995-02-01

    Artificial neural networks connected homogeneously, which use retinal image processing methods, are considered. We point out that there are probably two different types of lateral inhibition for each neural element by the neighboring ones-due to the negative connection coefficients between elements and due to the decreasing neuron`s response to a too high input signal. The first case characterized by stable dynamics, which is given by the Lyapunov function, while in the second case, stability is absent and two-dimensional dynamic chaos occurs if the time step in the integration of model equations is large enough. The continuous neural medium approximation is used for analytical estimation in both cases. The result is the partition of the parameter space into domains with qualitatively different dynamic modes. Computer simulations confirm the estimates and show that joining two-dimensional chaos with symmetries provided by the initial and boundary conditions may produce patterns which are genuine pieces of art.

  4. A rare cause of lateral facial swelling.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Sujata; Gulati, Ujjwal; Vandana; Singh, Sapna

    2014-01-01

    A case of chronic, recurrent and asymptomatic facial swelling in a young male is presented. Swelling extended from lower midface to upper lateral neck and right commissure to anterior massetric border. History, clinical signs and symptoms and examination pointed towards the benign nature of the swelling. Fine-needle aspiration cytology tapered the diagnostic possibilities to a salivary cyst or pseudocyst. Ultrasonography identified the lesion to contain echogenic fluid with irregular borders. "Tail sign" was absent on contrast magnetic resonance imaging, excluding the involvement of the sublingual gland. Surgical excision of the lesion was done along with submandibular gland as both were in continuity via a bottle-neck tract. Final histopathological diagnosis was that of the submandibular gland extravasation phenomenon. As per the best of our knowledge, it is the first case report of a submandibular gland extravasation causing swelling in a retrograde direction onto the face. PMID:25593883

  5. Toward precision medicine in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang-Yun; Che, Chun-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine is an innovative approach that uses emerging biomedical technologies to deliver optimally targeted and timed interventions, customized to the molecular drivers of an individual’s disease. This approach is only just beginning to be considered for treating amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The clinical and biological complexities of ALS have hindered development of effective therapeutic strategies. In this review we consider applying the key elements of precision medicine to ALS: phenotypic classification, comprehensive risk assessment, presymptomatic period detection, potential molecular pathways, disease model development, biomarker discovery and molecularly tailored interventions. Together, these would embody a precision medicine approach, which may provide strategies for optimal targeting and timing of efforts to prevent, stop or slow progression of ALS. PMID:26889480

  6. A comprehensive review of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Sara; Carr, Karen; Reiley, Luz; Diaz, Kelvin; Guerra, Orleiquis; Altamirano, Pablo Fernandez; Pagani, Wilfredo; Lodin, Daud; Orozco, Gloria; Chinea, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a late-onset fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons with an incidence of about 1/100,000. Most ALS cases are sporadic, but 5–10% of the cases are familial ALS. Both sporadic and familial ALS (FALS) are associated with degeneration of cortical and spinal motor neurons. The etiology of ALS remains unknown. However, mutations of superoxide dismutase 1 have been known as the most common cause of FALS. In this study, we provide a comprehensive review of ALS. We cover all aspects of the disease including epidemiology, comorbidities, environmental risk factor, molecular mechanism, genetic factors, symptoms, diagnostic, treatment, and even the available supplement and management of ALS. This will provide the reader with an advantage of receiving a broad range of information about the disease. PMID:26629397

  7. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Bozzoni, Virginia; Pansarasa, Orietta; Diamanti, Luca; Nosari, Guido; Cereda, Cristina; Ceroni, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Summary Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that affects central and peripheral motor neuron cells. Its etiology is unknown, although a relationship between genetic background and environmental factors may play a major role in triggering the neurodegeneration. In this review, we analyze the role of environmental factors in ALS: heavy metals, electromagnetic fields and electric shocks, pesticides, β-N-methylamino-L-alanine, physical activity and the controversial role of sports. The literature on the single issues is analyzed in an attempt to clarify, as clearly as possible, whether each risk factor significantly contributes to the disease pathogenesis. After summarizing conflicting observations and data, the authors provide a final synthetic statement. PMID:27027889

  8. Lateral interactions in the outer retina

    PubMed Central

    Thoreson, Wallace B.; Mangel, Stuart C.

    2012-01-01

    Lateral interactions in the outer retina, particularly negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones and direct feed-forward input from horizontal cells to bipolar cells, play a number of important roles in early visual processing, such as generating center-surround receptive fields that enhance spatial discrimination. These circuits may also contribute to post-receptoral light adaptation and the generation of color opponency. In this review, we examine the contributions of horizontal cell feedback and feed-forward pathways to early visual processing. We begin by reviewing the properties of bipolar cell receptive fields, especially with respect to modulation of the bipolar receptive field surround by the ambient light level and to the contribution of horizontal cells to the surround. We then review evidence for and against three proposed mechanisms for negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones: 1) GABA release by horizontal cells, 2) ephaptic modulation of the cone pedicle membrane potential generated by currents flowing through hemigap junctions in horizontal cell dendrites, and 3) modulation of cone calcium currents (ICa) by changes in synaptic cleft proton levels. We also consider evidence for the presence of direct horizontal cell feed-forward input to bipolar cells and discuss a possible role for GABA at this synapse. We summarize proposed functions of horizontal cell feedback and feed-forward pathways. Finally, we examine the mechanisms and functions of two other forms of lateral interaction in the outer retina: negative feedback from horizontal cells to rods and positive feedback from horizontal cells to cones. PMID:22580106

  9. TIBIOTALOCALCANEAL ARTHRODESIS WITH LATERAL COMPRESSION PLATE

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Michael J.; Nery, Caio; Baumfeld, Daniel; Jastifer, James

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the short-term clinical and radiographic results from a TTC fusion procedure using a lateral locking plate specifically designed for this purpose. Methods: All the fourteen patients were evaluated using a variety of methods, including a visual analogue scale (VAS), the AOFAS hindfoot score and a subjective satisfaction scale. The average follow-up was 10 months. Results: The average AOFAS score improved from 41 points preoperatively to 63 points postoperatively. The VAS pain score decreased from 7 to 3 points. Four patients reported excellent results, eight good, one fair and one poor. Conclusion: Our study provides support for using a specially designed plate for TTC fusion in hindfoot salvage surgery. RESUMO Objetivo: O propósito deste estudo é avaliar os resultados clínicos e radiológicos a curto prazo do procedimento de fusão tíbio-talo-calcaneana (TTC) com o uso de uma placa lateral bloqueada específicamente concebida para este fim. Métodos: Todos os 14 pacientes foram avaliados usando uma variedade de métodos, incluindo a escala analógico visual da dor (EAV), escore da AOFAS para o retropé e escala subjetiva de satisfação. O acompanhamento médio foi de 10 meses. Resultados: O escore AOFAS médio melhorou de 41 pontos no período pré-operatório para 63 pontos no período pós-operatório. O escore da dor (EAV) caiu de 7 para 3 pontos. Quatro pacientesforam classificados como excelentes resultados, oito bons, um moderado e um ruim. Conclusão: Nosso estudo dá suporte ao uso da placa especialmente desenhada para a fusão tibio-talo-calcaneana (TTC) nas cirurgias de salvamento do retropé. PMID:27047852

  10. Costa Rica's Chain of laterally collapsed volcanoes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, E.; Fernandez, E.

    2007-05-01

    From the NW extreme to the SW end of Costa Rica's volcanic backbone, a number of laterally collapsed volcanoes can be observed. Due to several factors, attention has been given to active volcanoes disregarding the importance of collapsed features in terms of assessing volcanic hazards for future generations around inhabited volcanoes. In several cases the typical horseshoe shape amphitheater-like depression can be easily observed. In other cases due to erosion, vegetation, topography, seismic activity or drastic weather such characteristics are not easily recognized. In the order mentioned above appear: Orosi-Cacao, Miravalles, Platanar, Congo, Von Frantzius, Cacho Negro and Turrialba volcanoes. Due to limited studies on these structures it is unknown if sector collapse occurred in one or several phases. Furthermore, in the few studied cases no evidence has been found to relate collapses to actual eruptive episodes. Detailed studies on the deposits and materials composing dome-like shapes will shed light on unsolved questions about petrological and chemical composition. Volume, form and distance traveled by deposits are part of the questions surrounding most of these collapsed volcanoes. Although most of these mentioned structures are extinct, at least Irazú volcano (active volcano) has faced partial lateral collapses recently. It did presented strombolian activity in the early 60s. Collapse scars show on the NW flank show important mass removal in historic and prehistoric times. Moreover, in 1994 a minor hydrothermal explosion provoked the weakening of a deeply altered wall that holds a crater lake (150m diameter, 2.6x106 ). A poster will depict images of the collapsed volcanoes named above with mayor descriptive characteristics. It will also focus on the importance of deeper studies to assess the collapse potential of Irazú volcano with related consequences. Finally, this initiative will invite researchers interested in such topic to join future studies in

  11. Suicide among patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Fürst, Carl Johan; Hultman, Christina; Fall, Katja; Sparén, Pär; Ye, Weimin

    2008-10-01

    Studies on the suicide risk among patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in countries without legalized euthanasia or assisted suicide are important additions to data on the wish to die of these patients. We conducted a population-based cohort study in Sweden between 1965 and 2004, which comprised of 6,642 patients with incident ALS identified from the Swedish Inpatient Register. We calculated the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) of suicide among the patients using the suicide rates of the general Swedish population as a reference. In total, 21 patients committed suicide during follow-up, compared to the predicted 3.6 suicides. Thus, we noted an almost 6-fold increased risk for suicide among ALS patients [SMR 5.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.6-8.8]. Patients who committed suicide were, on average, around 7 years younger at the time of their first period of hospitalization than patients who did not commit suicide. The highest relative risk for suicide was observed within the first year after the patient's first period of hospitalization (SMR 11.2, 95% CI 5.8-19.6). After that, the relative risks decreased with time after hospitalization (P-value for trend = 0.006), but remained elevated 3 years later. The relative risks of suicide among ALS patients did not show a clear trend over time in contrast to the decreasing trend of relative risks for suicide among patients with cancer during the same period. Patients with ALS are at excess risk of suicide in Sweden and the relative risk is higher during the earlier stage of the disease. PMID:18669498

  12. Side of Limb-Onset Predicts Laterality of Gray Matter Loss in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Cuiping; Jin, Jiaoting; Niu, Chen; Dang, Jingxia

    2014-01-01

    Conflicting findings have been reported regarding the lateralized brain abnormality in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this study, we aimed to investigate the probable lateralization of gray matter (GM) atrophy in ALS patients. We focused on the relationship between the asymmetry in decreased GM volume and the side of disease onset in patients with limb-onset. Structural imaging evaluation of normalized atrophy (SIENAX) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) were used to assess differences in global and local brain regions in patients with heterogeneous body onset and subgroups with different side of limb-onset. We found global brain atrophy and GM losses in the frontal and parietal areas in each patient group as well as left predominant GM losses in the total cohort. The intriguing findings in subgroup analyses demonstrated that the motor cortex in the contralateral hemisphere of the initially involved limb was most affected. We also found that regional brain atrophy was related to disease progression rate. Our observations suggested that side of limb-onset can predict laterality of GM loss in ALS patients and disease progression correlates with the extent of cortical abnormality. PMID:25093168

  13. Symptomatic ring-shaped lateral meniscus. MRI findings.

    PubMed Central

    Koukoulias, Nikolaos E; Papastergiou, Stergios G

    2011-01-01

    Ring-shaped lateral meniscus is a rare clinical entity that is usually asymptomatic. Moreover, diagnosis is always based on arthroscopic exploration of lateral meniscus. MRI has not been proven useful so far because the inner portion of the ring-shaped lateral meniscus is usually misinterpreted as a bucket-handle tear. The authors report a case of a 16-year-old girl with ring-shaped lateral meniscus in combination with a meniscal cyst. MRI demonstrated a cyst arising from lateral meniscus and meniscal tissue into the inner portion of the lateral compartment mimicking displaced meniscal fragment. Bucket-handle tears have not been reported to cause or accompany meniscal cysts. As a result the diagnosis of a ring-shaped lateral meniscus along with meniscal cyst was assumed based on MRI and confirmed during arthroscopy. The patient was treated with arthroscopic partial lateral meniscectomy and intra-articular cyst debridement. PMID:22669990

  14. Tratamiento ayuda a mujeres jóvenes a preservar fertilidad durante quimioterapia para cáncer de seno

    Cancer.gov

    Las mujeres jóvenes con cáncer de seno (mama) lograron preservar la fertilidad durante los tratamientos del cáncer con un fármaco inyectable bloqueador de hormonas que les provocó menopausia temporal. Los resultados del estudio se anunciaron hoy en el con

  15. Sex Differences in Cerebral Laterality of Language and Visuospatial Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, A. M.; Rimrodt, S. L.; Abel, J. R.; Blankner, J. G.; Mostofsky, S. H.; Pekar, J. J.; Denckla, M. B.; Cutting, L. E.

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences on language and visuospatial tasks are of great interest, with differences in hemispheric laterality hypothesized to exist between males and females. Some functional imaging studies examining sex differences have shown that males are more left lateralized on language tasks and females are more right lateralized on visuospatial…

  16. Orbital Imaging to Identify a "Lost" Lateral Rectus Muscle.

    PubMed

    Waite, Christopher; Dai, Shuan

    2016-01-01

    A 36-year-old man presented with a large-angle esotropia and limited abduction of the right eye. A computed tomography scan of his orbits showed an absent lateral rectus muscle. At the time of surgery, a normal-appearing lateral rectus muscle was found. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging showed a present but atrophic lateral rectus muscle. PMID:27383383

  17. Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

  18. Lateral transport of phosphorus along forested hillslopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrt, Jakob; Weiler, Markus; Puhlmann, Heike

    2016-04-01

    Details about the phosphorus (P)-cycle in temperate forests are still incomplete, though there are indications that the organic topsoil acts as an important source and sink for P. It can act as a sink for P in fallen litter and as a source since the decaying biomass replenishes the pool of inorganic, water soluble and thus plant available P. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude of lateral mobilization, transport and retention of total P (persulfate digestion method) in the soil at various depths of a broadleaf forest during heavy rainstorm events. On three locations in Germany, 10 m long and over 3m deep trenches were constructed to collect lateral subsurface flow from three discrete depth-layers between the soil surface and a depth of three meters. Sampling is handled through an automated system which collects flow-proportional samples in high temporal resolution. Sampling took place from March to November 2015 including more than 20 rainfall runoff events. Simultaneously to the sampling, flow rate, conductivity and temperature of the interflow was measured as well as soil moisture, rainfall and discharge in the nearest downslope spring. The results show consistently that P-concentrations in interflow samples are highest at the beginning of a rainfall-interflow-event, both for wet and dry initial conditions, and drop considerably over the course of the event until they stabilize. Secondly, P-concentration of interflow samples is by far highest in the organic topsoil, being up to one magnitude higher that in the mineral soil directly below and decreasing further with depth. This pattern applies despite the fact that there is very little temporal delay between the activation of interflow in the topsoil and deeper layers which indicates that at least some of the interflow in the topsoil ends up as interflow in deeper layers within a short time span. These results indicate that the organic topsoil contains a pool of P that is easily mobilized and

  19. Age at first childbirth and later poverty.

    PubMed

    Moore, K A; Myers, D E; Morrison, D R; Nord, C W; Brown, B; Edmonston, B

    1993-01-01

    A linear structural equation model is used in this research study in order to estimate the simultaneous effects of age at first birth on a woman's subsequent socioeconomic conditions and related outcomes after the age of 27 years. Estimation was accomplished with a variant of Amemiya's principle and a feasible generalized least squares estimator. Analysis involved examination of the bivariate relationship between age at first birth and poverty at age 27 years for Blacks, Hispanics, and Whites, followed by structural equation models for each racial group and then analysis of the total and indirect effects of age at first birth on poverty. Poverty is measured as the ratio of family income to the poverty threshold. Findings indicate that the association between early childbearing and poverty at the age of 27 years is very strong. Young women with educated parents and women with reading materials in their home before the age of 14 years achieved more schooling. When these effects were controlled, being raised by both parents and having more siblings were only associated with more schooling among Whites. Rural Blacks and Whites completed more schooling than rural Hispanics. Blacks in poor states had lower educational attainment. Age at first birth was only significant among Hispanics. First birth was delayed by 1.26 years among Blacks, 0.88 years among Whites, and 0.98 years among Hispanics for having an additional year of schooling. Delaying marriage had the strongest effect among Whites. Delayed childbearing among Blacks was predicted by having fewer siblings, being raised by both parents, and later menstruation. Earlier White childbearing was associated with women from larger families and women with larger ideal family sizes. Hispanic women raised by both parents was associated with delayed childbearing. Findings confirm that age at first birth was associated for all racial groups with poverty. Age at first birth affected educational attainment of Hispanics and age

  20. Bilateral osteochondritis dissecans of the lateral femoral condyle following bilateral total removal of lateral discoid meniscus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yusuke; Yoshida, Gen; Tomihara, Tomohiro; Matsuura, Takeshi; Satake, Shinji; Kaneda, Kunikazu; Shimada, Nagakazu

    2008-11-01

    Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the lateral femoral condyle sometimes occurs with a discoid lateral meniscus. Recently, it was reported that OCD of the lateral femoral condyle occurred after total removal of the lateral meniscus. We report the case of a 12-year-old boy with bilateral OCD of the lateral femoral condyle following bilateral total removal for discoid lateral meniscus. Valgus deviation of the knee after total removal and increased sporting activity might have concentrated excessive stress on the lateral condyles in the standing position. As a result, bilateral OCD might have occurred. Drilling of the areas of OCD on the bilateral lateral femoral condyles was done and the patient wore inner wedge arch supports postoperatively. After 2 years, neither knee pain nor arthrosis has occurred so far, but long-term follow-up of this patient is considered to be necessary. PMID:17985146

  1. Possession Divestment by Sales in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Ekerdt, David J.; Addington, Aislinn

    2015-01-01

    Residential relocation in later life is almost always a downsizing, with many possessions to be divested in a short period of time. This article examines older movers’ capacities for selling things, and ways that selling attenuates people's ties to those things, thus accomplishing the human dis-possession of the material convoy. In qualitative interviews in 79 households in the Midwestern United States, older adults reported their experience with possession sales associated with residential relocation. Among this group, three-quarters of the households downsized by selling some belongings. Informal sales seemed the least fraught of all strategies, estate sales had mixed reviews, and garage sales were recalled as laborious. Sellers’ efforts were eased by social relations and social networks as helpers and buyers came forward. As selling proceeded, sentiment about possessions waned as their materiality and economic value came to the fore, easing their detachment from the household. Possession selling is challenging because older adults are limited in the knowledge, skills, and efforts that they can apply to the recommodification of their belongings. Selling can nonetheless be encouraged as a divestment strategy as long as the frustrations and drawbacks are transparent, and the goal of ridding is kept in view. PMID:26162722

  2. Selective attention impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Volpato, Chiara; Prats Sedano, Maria Angeles; Silvoni, Stefano; Segato, Nicoletta; Cavinato, Marianna; Merico, Antonio; Piccione, Francesco; Palmieri, Arianna; Birbaumer, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Objective of this study was to evaluate attentional control mechanisms in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using an auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) paradigm. Fifteen mild to moderate ALS patients and 15 healthy controls were administered a brief neuropsychological test battery and an ERPs paradigm assessing selective attention. Four types of auditory stimuli were presented in random order: short standard (200 Hz, 200 ms), long standard (200 Hz, 500 ms), short deviant (1000 Hz, 200 ms) and long deviant (1000 Hz, 500 ms). Participants had to respond to the long deviant stimuli only. During the task the electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. The N200, P300 and re-orienting negativity (RON) ERP components were analysed. Compared to controls ALS patients showed reduced amplitudes and delayed latencies of N200, P300 and RON. These results could be attributable to both an alteration in change detection resulting in a reduction of the allocation and re-orientation of attentional resources or a general slowing or reduction of neural processing efficiency in the same system. The ERPs results support the hypothesis that ALS involves extramotor cognitive functions including auditory attentional processing at all processing stages, early (200 ms) and late (300-600 ms). These data prove the usefulness and sensitivity of the auditory ERPs in detection of cognitive functions in ALS patients. PMID:26889872

  3. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ping; Gal, Jozsef; Kwinter, David M.; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Haining

    2009-01-01

    The etiology of motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) remains to be better understood. Based on the studies from ALS patients and transgenic animal models, it is believed that ALS is likely to be a multifactorial and multisystem disease. Many mechanisms have been postulated to be involved in the pathology of ALS, such as oxidative stress, glutamate excitotoxicity, mitochondrial damage, defective axonal transport, glia cell pathology and aberrant RNA metabolism. Mitochondria, which play crucial roles in excitotoxicity, apoptosis and cell survival, have shown to be an early target in ALS pathogenesis and contribute to the disease progression. Morphological and functional defects in mitochondria were found in both human patients and ALS mice overexpressing mutant SOD1. Mutant SOD1 was found to be preferentially associated with mitochondria and subsequently impair mitochondrial function. Recent studies suggest that axonal transport of mitochondria along microtubules and mitochondrial dynamics may also be disrupted in ALS. These results also illustrate the critical importance of maintaining proper mitochondrial function in axons and neuromuscular junctions, supporting the emerging “dying-back” axonopathy model of ALS. In this review, we will discuss how mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to the ALS variants of SOD1 and the mechanisms by which mitochondrial damage contributes to the disease etiology. PMID:19715760

  4. Miro1 deficiency in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Wang, Wenzhang; Siedlak, Sandra L.; Liu, Yingchao; Liu, Jun; Jiang, Keji; Perry, George; Zhu, Xiongwei; Wang, Xinglong

    2015-01-01

    Proper transportation of mitochondria to sites with high energy demands is critical for neuronal function and survival. Impaired mitochondrial movement has been repeatedly reported in motor neurons of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and indicated as an important mechanism contributing to motor neuron degeneration in ALS. Miro1, a RhoGTPase also referred to as Rhot1, is a key regulator of mitochondrial movement linking mitochondria and motor proteins. In this study, we investigated whether the expression of Miro1 was altered in ALS patients and ALS animal models. Immunoblot analysis revealed that Miro1 was significantly reduced in the spinal cord tissue of ALS patients. Consistently, the decreased expression of Miro1 was also noted only in the spinal cord, and not in the brain tissue of transgenic mice expressing ALS-associated SOD1 G93A or TDP-43 M337V. Glutamate excitotoxicity is one of the major pathophysiological mechanisms implicated in the pathogenesis of ALS, and we found that excessive glutamate challenge lead to significant reduction of Miro1 expression in spinal cord motor neurons both in vitro and in mice. Taken together, these findings show Miro1 deficiency in ALS patients and ALS animal models and suggest glutamate excitotoxicity as a likely cause of Miro1 deficiency. PMID:26074815

  5. Aeroservoelastic tailoring for lateral control enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, Terrence A.; Changho, Nam

    1989-01-01

    The need for effective aileron power for aircraft lateral control and turning maneuvers dates back to the Wright Brothers and their wing warping concept for active stabilization of their aircraft. Early researchers in Great Britain, Japan, Germany and the United States explored ways to increase the effectiveness of control aileron to generate a roll moment. The basic problem of aileron effectiveness and the interrelationship between structural distortion and the loads applied by the control surface is illustrated. A rigid wing/aileron surface will develop the capability to generate increased roll rates as airspeed increases. A flexible surface will become less effective as airspeed increases because of the twisting distortion created by the aft-mounted control surface. This tendency is further worsened by bending distortion of an aft swept wing. This study focuses its attention on the ability of a combined effort between structural redesign of a wing and sizing and placement of a control surface to create specified roll performance with a minimum hinge moment. This design optimization problem indicates the advantages of simultaneous consideration of structural design and control design.

  6. Acupuncture for Lateral Epicondylitis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hongzhi; Fan, Huaying; Chen, Jiao; Yang, Mingxiao; Yi, Xuebing; Dai, Guogang; Chen, Junrong; Tang, Liugang; Rong, Haibo; Wu, Junhua; Liang, Fanrong

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This systematic review aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for lateral epicondylitis (LE). Methods. Seven databases and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal were searched to identify relevant studies. The data were extracted and assessed by two independent authors, and Review Manager Software (V.5.3) was used for data synthesis with effect estimate presented as standard mean difference (SMD) and mean difference (MD) with a 95% confidence interval. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) was used to assess the level of evidence. Results. Four RCTs with 309 participants were included with poor methodological quality. Participants who received acupuncture and acupuncture plus moxibustion with material insulation were likely to have an improvement in elbow functional status and/or myodynamia. The overall quality rated by GRADE was from very low to low. Two studies reported that the needle pain would be the main reason for the dropout. Conclusion. For the small number of included studies with poor methodological quality, no firm conclusion can be drawn regarding the effect of acupuncture of elbow functional status and myodynamia for LE. This trial is registered with CRD42015016199. PMID:26843886

  7. Possession divestment by sales in later life.

    PubMed

    Ekerdt, David J; Addington, Aislinn

    2015-08-01

    Residential relocation in later life is almost always a downsizing, with many possessions to be divested in a short period of time. This article examines older movers' capacities for selling things, and ways that selling attenuates people's ties to those things, thus accomplishing the human dis-possession of the material convoy. In qualitative interviews in 79 households in the Midwestern United States, older adults reported their experience with possession sales associated with residential relocation. Among this group, three-quarters of the households downsized by selling some belongings. Informal sales seemed the least fraught of all strategies, estate sales had mixed reviews, and garage sales were recalled as laborious. Sellers' efforts were eased by social relations and social networks as helpers and buyers came forward. As selling proceeded, sentiment about possessions waned as their materiality and economic value came to the fore, easing their detachment from the household. Possession selling is challenging because older adults are limited in the knowledge, skills, and efforts that they can apply to the recommodification of their belongings. Selling can nonetheless be encouraged as a divestment strategy as long as the frustrations and drawbacks are transparent, and the goal of ridding is kept in view. PMID:26162722

  8. Field-effect-tuned lateral organic diodes

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Bal Mukund; Kini, Geetha S.; Xia, Guoqiang; Jung, Byung Jun; Markovic, Nina; Katz, Howard E.

    2010-01-01

    The operation of organic diodes in solar cells and light-emitting displays strongly depends on the properties of the interfaces between hole- and electron-carrying organic semiconductors. Such interfaces are difficult to characterize, as they are usually buried under the surface or exist as an irregular “bulk heterojunction.” Using a unique fluorinated barrier layer-based lithographic technique, we fabricated a lateral organic p-n junction, allowing the first observation of the potential at an organic p-n interface simultaneously with the charge transport measurements. We find that the diode characteristics of the device (current output and rectification ratio) are consistent with the changes in the surface potentials near the junction, and the current-voltage curves and junction potentials are strongly and self-consistently modulated by a third, gate electrode. The generality of our technique makes this an attractive method to investigate the physics of organic semiconductor junctions. The lithographic technique is applicable to a wide variety of soft material patterns. The observation of built-in potentials makes an important connection between organic junctions and textbook descriptions of inorganic devices. Finally, these kinds of potentials may prove to be controlling factors in charge separation efficiency in organic photovoltaics. PMID:20160116

  9. Controversies and priorities in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Martin R; Hardiman, Orla; Benatar, Michael; Brooks, Benjamin R; Chio, Adriano; de Carvalho, Mamede; Ince, Paul G; Lin, Cindy; Miller, Robert G; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Nicholson, Garth; Ravits, John; Shaw, Pamela J; Swash, Michael; Talbot, Kevin; Traynor, Bryan J; den Berg, Leonard H Van; Veldink, Jan H; Vucic, Steve; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2015-01-01

    Summary Two decades after the discovery that 20% of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases were linked to mutations in the superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) gene, a substantial proportion of the remainder of cases of familial ALS have now been traced to an expansion of the intronic hexanucleotide repeat sequence in C9orf72. This breakthrough provides an opportunity to re-evaluate longstanding concepts regarding the cause and natural history of ALS, coming soon after the pathological unification of ALS with frontotemporal dementia through a shared pathological signature of cytoplasmic inclusions of the ubiquitinated protein TDP-43. However, with profound clinical, prognostic, neuropathological, and now genetic heterogeneity, the concept of ALS as one disease appears increasingly untenable. This background calls for the development of a more sophisticated taxonomy, and an appreciation of ALS as the breakdown of a wider network rather than a discrete vulnerable population of specialised motor neurons. Identification of C9orf72 repeat expansions in patients without a family history of ALS challenges the traditional division between familial and sporadic disease. By contrast, the 90% of apparently sporadic cases and incomplete penetrance of several genes linked to familial cases suggest that at least some forms of ALS arise from the interplay of multiple genes, poorly understood developmental, environmental, and age-related factors, as well as stochastic events. PMID:23415570

  10. Modelling suicide risk in later life.

    PubMed

    Lo, C F; Kwok, Cordelia M Y

    2006-08-01

    Affective disorder is generally regarded as the prominent risk factor for suicide in the old age population. Despite the large number of empirical studies available in the literature, there is no attempt in modelling the dynamics of an individual's level of suicide risk theoretically yet. In particular, a dynamic model which can simulate the time evolution of an individual's level of risk for suicide and provide quantitative estimates of the probability of suicide risk is still lacking. In the present study we apply the contingent claims analysis of credit risk modelling in the field of quantitative finance to derive a theoretical stochastic model for estimation of the probability of suicide risk in later life in terms of a signalling index of affective disorder. Our model is based upon the hypothesis that the current state of affective disorder of a patient can be represented by a signalling index and exhibits stochastic movement and that a threshold of affective disorder, which signifies the occurrence of suicide, exists. According to the numerical results, the implications of our model are consistent with the clinical findings. Hence, we believe that such a dynamic model will be essential to the design of effective suicide prevention strategies in the target population of older adults, especially in the primary care setting. PMID:16797044

  11. Motoneuron afterhyperpolarisation duration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Piotrkiewicz, Maria; Hausmanowa-Petrusewicz, Irena

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Motor unit (MU) potentials were registered from 20 ALS patients and 13 age-matched control individuals during isometric constant force contractions of brachial biceps (BB). The registered signals were decomposed into single MU potential trains. The estimates of duration of the afterhyperpolarisation (AHP) in MNs, derived from the interspike interval variability, was compared between ALS patients (124 MNs) and control subjects (111 MNs) and no significant differences were encountered. However, the relationship between TI and age for patients appeared to be qualitatively different from that of the control group. The dependence of patients’ AHPs on relative force deficit (RFD), which quantified muscle involvement, was more specific. For RFDs below 30%, the AHP estimate was significantly lower than control values and then increased thereafter with increasing RFDs. Moreover, firing rates of patients with the smallest RFDs were significantly higher while firing rates of patients with the greatest RFDs were significantly lower than control values. The AHP shortening in the early stages of muscle impairment is consistent with the decrease in firing threshold of ‘fast’ MNs found in spinal cord slices from neonatal SOD1 mice. The later elongation of the AHP may be caused by the higher vulnerability of ‘fast’ MNs to degeneration and by the influence of reinnervation. Our results are comparable to what has been observed in acute experiments in animal models, providing a bridge between animal and clinical research that may be relevant for identification of mechanism(s) underlying neurodegeneration in ALS. PMID:21486815

  12. Characteristics of pain in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Hanisch, Frank; Skudlarek, Anika; Berndt, Janine; Kornhuber, Malte E

    2015-01-01

    Background Pain is an often underestimated and neglected symptom in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods In a cross-sectional survey, 46 patients with ALS, 46 age- and gender matched population-based controls, and 23 diseased controls with myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) were screened for occurrence, type, distribution, and treatment of pain and cramps. Data were collected with the use of the short form brief pain inventory (BPI). Results Pain was reported in 78% of ALS patients,79% of DM2 patients, and 54% of controls (P < 0.05). More ALS patients than controls reported moderate to severe pain (42% vs. 20%). Pain in ALS patients interfered significantly more with daily activities than in controls (median pain interference score: 3.0 vs. 1.2, P < 0.05), especially enjoyment of life (5.0 vs. 1.0) and mood (3.0 vs. 1.0). There was no correlation between the duration of the disease and the severity of pain. Movement-induced cramps were reported in 63% of ALS patients, mostly in the distal extremities. There was no difference in the duration of ALS disease between patients reporting cramps and those who did not. Discussion Our study showed that pain was a relatively frequent symptom which had an important impact on the quality of life. Pain that requires treatment can occur at every stage of ALS. PMID:25642388

  13. Lateral gene transfer in the subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Barkay, Tamar; Sobecky, Patricia

    2007-08-27

    Lateral gene transfer (LGT) is an important adaptive mechanism among prokaryotic organisms. This mechanism is particularly important for the response of microorganisms to changing environmental conditions because it facilitates the transfer of a large number of genes and their rapid expression. Together the transferred genes promote rapid genetic and metabolic changes that may enhance survival to newly established and sometimes hostile environmental conditions. The goal of our project was to examine if and how LGT enhances microbial adaptation to toxic heavy metals in subsurface environments that had been contaminated by mixed wastes due to activities associated with the production of nuclear energy and weapons. This task has been accomplished by dividing the project to several sub-tasks. Thus, we: (1) Determined the level of resistance of subsurface bacterial isolates to several toxic metals, all identified as pollutants of concern in subsurface environments; (2) Designed, tested, and applied, a molecular approach that determined whether metal resistance genes had evolved by LGT among subsurface bacteria; and (3) Developed a DNA hybridization array for the identification of broad host range plasmids and of metal resistance plasmids. The results are briefly summarized below with references to published papers and manuscripts in preparation where details about our research can be found. Additional information may be found in copies of our published manuscripts and conference proceedings, and our yearly reports that were submitted through the RIMS system.

  14. Immune system alterations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hovden, H; Frederiksen, J L; Pedersen, S W

    2013-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a disease of which the underlying cause and pathogenesis are unknown. Cumulatative data clearly indicates an active participation by the immune system in the disease. An increasingly recognized theory suggests a non-cell autonomous mechanism, meaning that multiple cells working together are necessary for the pathogenesis of the disease. Observed immune system alterations could indicate an active participation in this mechanism. Damaged motor neurons are able to activate microglia, astrocytes and the complement system, which further can influence each other and contribute to neurodegeneration. Infiltrating peripheral immune cells appears to correlate with disease progression, but their significance and composition is unclear. The deleterious effects of this collaborating system of cells appear to outweigh the protective aspects, and revealing this interplay might give more insight into the disease. Markers from the classical complement pathway are elevated where its initiator C1q appears to derive primarily from motor neurons. Activated microglia and astrocytes are found in close proximity to dying motor neurons. Their activation status and proliferation seemingly increases with disease progression. Infiltrating monocytes, macrophages and T cells are associated with these areas, although with mixed reports regarding T cell composition. This literature review will provide evidence supporting the immune system as an important part of ALS disease mechanism and present a hypothesis to direct the way for further studies. PMID:23550891

  15. Epidemiologic correlates of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Armon, C.; Kurland, L.T.; Daube, J.R.; O'Brien, P.C. )

    1991-07-01

    The authors evaluated 74 selected patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and 201 matched controls for risk factors for ALS by a case-control design and a sequential questionnaire/interview technique to quantitate biographic data. They analyzed occupational and recreational data only for 47 male patients and 47 corresponding patient controls; data for women were insufficient. They used nonparametric analyses to evaluate five primary comparisons of ALS patients with controls: (1) more hard physical labor, p not significant (NS); (2) greater frequency of neurodegenerative disease in family members, p NS; (3) greater exposure to lead, p less than 0.05; (4) more years lived in a rural community, p NS; and (5) more trauma or major surgery, p NS. Men with ALS had worked more frequently at blue-collar jobs (although not a statistically significant difference, p = 0.10) and at welding or soldering (p less than 0.01). These results suggest that there may be an association between ALS in men and exposure to lead vapor. The limited nature of the association favors a multifactorial etiologic mechanism of ALS.

  16. Laterally graded multilayer double-monochromator.

    SciTech Connect

    Als-Nielsen, J.; Erdmann, J.; Gaarde, P.; Krasnicki, S.; Liu, C.; Macrander, A. T.; Maj, J.; Mancini, D.

    1999-09-01

    The authors describe a tunable multilayer monochromator with an adjustable bandpass to be used for reflectivity and grazing incidence diffraction studies on surfaces at energies near 10 keV. Multilayers have a bandpass typically 100 times larger than the Si(111) reflection, and by using multilayers an experimenter can significantly increase data collection rates over those available with a Si monochromator. The transmission through 1 and 2 laterally graded multilayer (LGML) reflections was recorded versus photon energy. The identical LGMLs were comprised of 60 bilayers of W and C on 100 x 25 x 3 mm float glass with a bilayer spacing varying from 35 to 60 {angstrom}. The average gradient was 0.27 {angstrom}/mm along the long dimension. The rms deviation of the data for the bilayer spacing from a linear fit was 0.36 {angstrom}. Data were obtained for a nondispersive ({+-}) double-multilayer arrangement. The relative bandpass width (FWHM) when the two multilayers exposed the same bilayer spacing was measured to be 2.2% with a transmission of 78.7 {+-} 1.6%. This value is consistent with the transmission of 88.9% that they also measured for a single LGML at HASYLAB beamline D4. The bandpass was tunable in the range 1.1% to 2.2%.

  17. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: New Perpectives and Update

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, Marco; Oliveira, Acary Bulle; Nascimento, Osvaldo J.M.; Reis, Carlos Henrique Melo; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; de Souza, Jano Alves; Pupe, Camila; de Souza, Olivia Gameiro; Bastos, Victor Hugo; de Freitas, Marcos R.G.; Teixeira, Silmar; Bruno, Carlos; Davidovich, Eduardo; Smidt, Benny

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Charcot’s disease or Lou Gehrig’s disease, is a term used to cover the spetrum of syndromes caracterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons, a paralytic disorder caused by motor neuron degeneration. Currently, there are approximately 25,000 patients with ALS in the USA, with an average age of onset of 55 years. The incidence and prevalence of ALS are 1-2 and 4-6 per 100,000 each year, respectively, with a lifetime ALS risk of 1/600 to 1/1000. It causes progressive and cumulative physical disabilities, and leads to eventual death due to respiratory muscle failure. ALS is diverse in its presentation, course, and progression. We do not yet fully understand the causes of the disease, nor the mechanisms for its progression; thus, we lack effective means for treating this disease. In this chapter, we will discuss the diagnosis, treatment, and how to cope with impaired function and end of life based on of our experience, guidelines, and clinical trials. Nowadays ALS seems to be a more complex disease than it did two decades – or even one decade – ago, but new insights have been plentiful. Clinical trials should be seen more as experiments on pathogenic mechanisms. A medication or combination of medications that targets more than one pathogenic pathway may slow disease progression in an additive or synergistic fashion. PMID:26487927

  18. Treatment algorithm for chronic lateral ankle instability

    PubMed Central

    Giannini, Sandro; Ruffilli, Alberto; Pagliazzi, Gherardo; Mazzotti, Antonio; Evangelisti, Giulia; Buda, Roberto; Faldini, Cesare

    2014-01-01

    Summary Introduction: ankle sprains are a common sports-related injury. A 20% of acute ankle sprains results in chronic ankle instability, requiring surgery. Aim of this paper is to report the results of a series of 38 patients treated for chronic lateral ankle instability with anatomic reconstruction. Materials and methods: thirty-eight patients were enrolled in the study. Seventeen patients underwent a surgical repair using the Brostrom-modified technique, while the remaining underwent anatomic reconstruction with autologous or allogenic graft. Results: at a mean follow-up of 5 years the AOFAS score improved from 66.1 ± 5.3 to 92.2 ± 5.6. Discussion: the findings of this study confirm that anatomic reconstruction is an effective procedure with satisfactory subjective and objective results which persist at long-term follow-up along with a low complication rate. No differences, in term of clinical and functional outcomes, were observed between the Brostrom-modified repair and the anatomic reconstruction technique. Level of evidence: level IV. PMID:25767783

  19. Early environment influences later performance in fishes.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, B; Jonsson, N

    2014-08-01

    Conditions fish encounter during embryogenesis and early life history can leave lasting effects not only on morphology, but also on growth rate, life-history and behavioural traits. The ecology of offspring can be affected by conditions experienced by their parents and mother in particular. This review summarizes such early impacts and their ecological influences for a variety of teleost species, but with special reference to salmonids. Growth and adult body size, sex ratio, egg size, lifespan and tendency to migrate can all be affected by early influences. Mechanisms behind such phenotypically plastic impacts are not well known, but epigenetic change appears to be one central mechanism. The thermal regime during development and incubation is particularly important, but also early food consumption and intraspecific density can all be responsible for later life-history variation. For behavioural traits, early experiences with effects on brain, sensory development and cognition appear essential. This may also influence boldness and other social behaviours such as mate choice. At the end of the review, several issues and questions for future studies are given. PMID:24961386

  20. Risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ingre, Caroline; Roos, Per M; Piehl, Fredrik; Kamel, Freya; Fang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neuron disease. It is typically fatal within 2–5 years of symptom onset. The incidence of ALS is largely uniform across most parts of the world, but an increasing ALS incidence during the last decades has been suggested. Although recent genetic studies have substantially improved our understanding of the causes of ALS, especially familial ALS, an important role of non-genetic factors in ALS is recognized and needs further study. In this review, we briefly discuss several major genetic contributors to ALS identified to date, followed by a more focused discussion on the most commonly examined non-genetic risk factors for ALS. We first review factors related to lifestyle choices, including smoking, intake of antioxidants, physical fitness, body mass index, and physical exercise, followed by factors related to occupational and environmental exposures, including electromagnetic fields, metals, pesticides, β-methylamino-L-alanine, and viral infection. Potential links between ALS and other medical conditions, including head trauma, metabolic diseases, cancer, and inflammatory diseases, are also discussed. Finally, we outline several future directions aiming to more efficiently examine the role of non-genetic risk factors in ALS. PMID:25709501

  1. Altered Cortical Communication in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Blain-Moraes, Stefanie; Mashour, George A.; Lee, Heonsoo; Huggins, Jane E.; Lee, UnCheol

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disorder associated primarily with the degeneration of the motor system. More recently, functional connectivity studies have demonstrated potentially adaptive changes in ALS brain organization, but disease-related changes in cortical communication remain unknown. We recruited individuals with ALS and age-matched controls to operate a brain-computer interface while electroencephalography was recorded over three sessions. Using normalized symbolic transfer entropy, we measured directed functional connectivity from frontal to parietal (feedback connectivity) and parietal to frontal (feedforward connectivity) regions. Feedback connectivity was not significantly different between groups, but feedforward connectivity was significantly higher in individuals with ALS. This result was consistent across a broad electroencephalographic spectrum (4 – 35 Hz), and in theta, alpha and beta frequency bands. Feedback connectivity has been associated with conscious state and was found to be independent of ALS symptom severity in this study, which may have significant implications for the detection of consciousness in individuals with advanced ALS. We suggest that increases in feedforward connectivity represent a compensatory response to the ALS-related loss of input such that sensory stimuli have sufficient strength to cross the threshold necessary for conscious processing in the global neuronal workspace. PMID:23567743

  2. Early Word Recognition and Later Language Skills

    PubMed Central

    Junge, Caroline; Cutler, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Recent behavioral and electrophysiological evidence has highlighted the long-term importance for language skills of an early ability to recognize words in continuous speech. We here present further tests of this long-term link in the form of follow-up studies conducted with two (separate) groups of infants who had earlier participated in speech segmentation tasks. Each study extends prior follow-up tests: Study 1 by using a novel follow-up measure that taps into online processing, Study 2 by assessing language performance relationships over a longer time span than previously tested. Results of Study 1 show that brain correlates of speech segmentation ability at 10 months are positively related to 16-month-olds’ target fixations in a looking-while-listening task. Results of Study 2 show that infant speech segmentation ability no longer directly predicts language profiles at the age of five. However, a meta-analysis across our results and those of similar studies (Study 3) reveals that age at follow-up does not moderate effect size. Together, the results suggest that infants’ ability to recognize words in speech certainly benefits early vocabulary development; further observed relationships of later language skills to early word recognition may be consequent upon this vocabulary size effect. PMID:25347057

  3. Acupuncture for Lateral Epicondylitis: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hongzhi; Fan, Huaying; Chen, Jiao; Yang, Mingxiao; Yi, Xuebing; Dai, Guogang; Chen, Junrong; Tang, Liugang; Rong, Haibo; Wu, Junhua; Liang, Fanrong

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This systematic review aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for lateral epicondylitis (LE). Methods. Seven databases and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal were searched to identify relevant studies. The data were extracted and assessed by two independent authors, and Review Manager Software (V.5.3) was used for data synthesis with effect estimate presented as standard mean difference (SMD) and mean difference (MD) with a 95% confidence interval. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) was used to assess the level of evidence. Results. Four RCTs with 309 participants were included with poor methodological quality. Participants who received acupuncture and acupuncture plus moxibustion with material insulation were likely to have an improvement in elbow functional status and/or myodynamia. The overall quality rated by GRADE was from very low to low. Two studies reported that the needle pain would be the main reason for the dropout. Conclusion. For the small number of included studies with poor methodological quality, no firm conclusion can be drawn regarding the effect of acupuncture of elbow functional status and myodynamia for LE. This trial is registered with CRD42015016199. PMID:26843886

  4. Multiplex lateral flow immunoassay for mycotoxin determination.

    PubMed

    Song, Suquan; Liu, Na; Zhao, Zhiyong; Njumbe Ediage, Emmanuel; Wu, Songling; Sun, Changpo; De Saeger, Sarah; Wu, Aibo

    2014-05-20

    A new lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) is proposed for qualitative and/or semiquantitative determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), and their analogues (AFs, ZEAs, DONs) in cereal samples. Each of the mycotoxin specific antibody was class specific and there was no cross reactivity to other groups of compounds. The visual limits of detection (vLOD) of the strip were 0.03, 1.6, and 10 μg/kg for AFB1, ZEA and DON, respectively. The calculated limits of detection (cLOD) were 0.05, 1, and 3 μg/kg, respectively. Meanwhile the cutoff values were achieved at 1, 50, and 60 μg/kg for AFB1, ZEA and DON, respectively. Recoveries ranged from 80% to 122% and RSD from 5% to 20%. Both the vLOD and cLOD for the three mycotoxins were lower than the EU maximum levels. Analysis of naturally contaminated maize samples resulted in a good agreement between the multiplex LFA and LC-MS/MS (100% for DONs and AFs, and 81% for ZEAs). Careful analysis of the results further explained the general overestimation of LFA compared to chromatographic methods for quantification of mycotoxins. PMID:24745689

  5. Altered cortical communication in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Blain-Moraes, Stefanie; Mashour, George A; Lee, Heonsoo; Huggins, Jane E; Lee, Uncheol

    2013-05-24

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disorder associated primarily with the degeneration of the motor system. More recently, functional connectivity studies have demonstrated potentially adaptive changes in ALS brain organization, but disease-related changes in cortical communication remain unknown. We recruited individuals with ALS and age-matched controls to operate a brain-computer interface while electroencephalography was recorded over three sessions. Using normalized symbolic transfer entropy, we measured directed functional connectivity from frontal to parietal (feedback connectivity) and parietal to frontal (feedforward connectivity) regions. Feedback connectivity was not significantly different between groups, but feedforward connectivity was significantly higher in individuals with ALS. This result was consistent across a broad electroencephalographic spectrum (4-35 Hz), and in theta, alpha and beta frequency bands. Feedback connectivity has been associated with conscious state and was found to be independent of ALS symptom severity in this study, which may have significant implications for the detection of consciousness in individuals with advanced ALS. We suggest that increases in feedforward connectivity represent a compensatory response to the ALS-related loss of input such that sensory stimuli have sufficient strength to cross the threshold necessary for conscious processing in the global neuronal workspace. PMID:23567743

  6. Laryngomalacia and inspiratory obstruction in later childhood.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, G J; Cooper, D M

    1981-01-01

    Pulmonary function and symptoms were reviewed in 20 children in whom laryngomalacia had been diagnosed by direct laryngoscopy in infancy. Most children developed stridor in the first 2 weeks, but 3 children did not develop it until age 3 months. The mean duration of stridor was 4 years 2 months, with a range of 4 months to 12 years 7 months. Six children had marked posseting as infants. Airway dynamics were assessed by flow volume loops. All except one had normal expiratory flow volume curves. Inspiratory abnormalities were detected in 7 children; 6 were assessed as having variable extrathoracic inspiratory obstructions and 1 had a fixed obstruction consistent with subglottic stenosis. The mean ratios of maximal inspiratory flow at 50% of vital capacity divided by forced vital capacity in the laryngomalacia and control groups differed significantly, as did the mean ratios of maximal expiratory flow to maximal inspiratory flow at 50% of forced vital capacity. Laryngomalacia is not necessarily a benign disorder of limited duration; there may be persisting inspiratory obstruction in later childhood. PMID:7259255

  7. Radial displacement of lateral meniscus after partial meniscectomy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Nam-Hong

    2006-05-01

    Radial displacement or extrusion of the meniscus has been reported as a complication after meniscal transplantation and is sometimes observed in knees with advanced osteoarthritis. In this report, the case of a patient with radial displacement of the lateral meniscus after partial meniscectomy is presented. He had an incomplete discoid lateral meniscus with an anterior horn tear. The inner portion of the lateral meniscus was excised to leave a width of 8 to 10 mm. However, follow-up magnetic resonance imaging showed radial displacement of the mid-body of the lateral meniscus and a compatible finding of chondromalacia of the lateral compartment of the knee. PMID:16651179

  8. Lateral patellofemoral ligament reconstruction to restore functional capacity in patients previously undergoing lateral retinacular release

    PubMed Central

    Beckert, Mitch; Crebs, Dylan; Nieto, Michael; Gao, Yubo; Albright, John

    2016-01-01

    AIM To study patient outcomes after surgical correction for iatrogenic patellar instability. METHODS This retrospective study looked at 17 patients (19 knees) suffering from disabling medial patellar instability following lateral release surgery. All patients underwent lateral patellofemoral ligament (LPFL) reconstruction by a single surgeon. Assessments in all 19 cases included functional outcome scores, range of motion, and assessment for the presence of apprehension sign of the patella to determine if LPFL reconstruction surgery was successful at restoring patellofemoral stability. RESULTS No patients reported any residual postoperative symptoms of patellar instability. Also no patients demonstrated medial patellar apprehension or examiner induced subluxation with the medial instability test described earlier following LPFL reconstruction. Furthermore, all patients recovered normal range of motion compared to the contralateral limb. For patients with pre and postoperative outcome scores, the mean overall knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score increased significantly, from 34.39 preoperatively (range: 7.7-70.12) to 69.54 postoperatively (range: 26.82-91.46) at final follow-up (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION This novel technique for LPFL reconstruction is effective at restoring lateral restraint of the patellofemoral joint and improving joint functionality. PMID:27574606

  9. Laterally constrained inversion for CSAMT data interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruo; Yin, Changchun; Wang, Miaoyue; Di, Qingyun

    2015-10-01

    Laterally constrained inversion (LCI) has been successfully applied to the inversion of dc resistivity, TEM and airborne EM data. However, it hasn't been yet applied to the interpretation of controlled-source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) data. In this paper, we apply the LCI method for CSAMT data inversion by preconditioning the Jacobian matrix. We apply a weighting matrix to Jacobian to balance the sensitivity of model parameters, so that the resolution with respect to different model parameters becomes more uniform. Numerical experiments confirm that this can improve the convergence of the inversion. We first invert a synthetic dataset with and without noise to investigate the effect of LCI applications to CSAMT data, for the noise free data, the results show that the LCI method can recover the true model better compared to the traditional single-station inversion; and for the noisy data, the true model is recovered even with a noise level of 8%, indicating that LCI inversions are to some extent noise insensitive. Then, we re-invert two CSAMT datasets collected respectively in a watershed and a coal mine area in Northern China and compare our results with those from previous inversions. The comparison with the previous inversion in a coal mine shows that LCI method delivers smoother layer interfaces that well correlate to seismic data, while comparison with a global searching algorithm of simulated annealing (SA) in a watershed shows that though both methods deliver very similar good results, however, LCI algorithm presented in this paper runs much faster. The inversion results for the coal mine CSAMT survey show that a conductive water-bearing zone that was not revealed by the previous inversions has been identified by the LCI. This further demonstrates that the method presented in this paper works for CSAMT data inversion.

  10. Tracing the Geomorphic Signature of Lateral Faulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvall, A. R.; Tucker, G. E.

    2012-12-01

    Active strike-slip faults are among the most dangerous geologic features on Earth. Unfortunately, it is challenging to estimate their slip rates, seismic hazard, and evolution over a range of timescales. An under-exploited tool in strike-slip fault characterization is quantitative analysis of the geomorphic response to lateral fault motion to extract tectonic information directly from the landscape. Past geomorphic work of this kind has focused almost exclusively on vertical motion, despite the ubiquity of horizontal motion in crustal deformation and mountain building. We seek to address this problem by investigating the landscape response to strike-slip faulting in two ways: 1) examining the geomorphology of the Marlborough Fault System (MFS), a suite of parallel strike-slip faults within the actively deforming South Island of New Zealand, and 2) conducting controlled experiments in strike-slip landscape evolution using the CHILD landscape evolution model. The MFS offers an excellent natural experiment site because fault initiation ages and cumulative displacements decrease from north to south, whereas slip rates increase over four fold across a region underlain by a single bedrock unit (Torlesse Greywacke). Comparison of planform and longitudinal profiles of rivers draining the MFS reveals strong disequilibrium within tributaries that drain to active fault strands, and suggests that river capture related to fault activity may be a regular process in strike-slip fault zones. Simple model experiments support this view. Model calculations that include horizontal motion as well as vertical uplift demonstrate river lengthening and shortening due to stream capture in response to shutter ridges sliding in front of stream outlets. These results suggest that systematic variability in fluvial knickpoint location, drainage area, and incision rates along different faults or fault segments may be expected in catchments upstream of strike-slip faults and could act as useful

  11. Coping with anxiety in later life.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Leslie D; Waid, Lisa D; Fincke, Candy

    2002-12-01

    The goal of this study was to determine how older adults cope with three forms of anxiety, and potential avenues for applied interventions. Although the findings shed light on some interesting findings with potential psychosocial applications, several limitations need to be noted. First, this study was based on two assumptions. The assumption, based on earlier work (Carver et al., 1989; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984; Zeidner & Saklofske, 1996), that certain coping strategies are more effective than others, and an assumption of the direction of influence in which anxiety is a precursor of coping strategies. Because this was an exploratory study, the research questions did not directly test these assumptions. Second, this study is correlational in nature. Therefore, conclusions cannot be drawn about the causality of these associations. Third, as with any self-report data and self-selected sample, one needs to interpret the findings with caution. Similarly, for the purposes of the study, a non-clinical sample of older adults was examined using three distinct conceptualizations of anxiety. Suggestions for future research include: Replication of this study using a multidimensional measure of anxiety appropriate for clinical samples. A longitudinal replication of this study identifying patterns of coping that facilitate adjustment over time. Finally, a more general purpose of this study was to focus attention on a neglected issue in gerontology--the experience of anxietY in later life (Frazier & Waid, 1999; Gatz, 1995; Rabins, 1992; Shamoian, 1991; Sheikh, 1992; Smyer, 1995; Stanley & Beck, 1998), and, most importantly, the role of gerontological nurses in early assessment and intervention for successful treatment of anxiety in older adults. PMID:12567825

  12. PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS

    PubMed Central

    Kamel, Freya; Umbach, David M; Bedlack, Richard S; Richards, Marie; Watson, Mary; Alavanja, Michael CR; Blair, Aaron; Hoppin, Jane A; Schmidt, Silke; Sandler, Dale P

    2012-01-01

    Our objectives were to summarize literature on the association of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with pesticides as a group and to evaluate associations of ALS with specific pesticides. We conducted a meta-analysis of published studies of ALS and pesticides as a group and investigated the association of ALS with specific pesticides, using data from the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a cohort including 84,739 private pesticide applicators and spouses. AHS participants provided information on pesticide use at enrollment in 1993-1997. In mortality data collected through February, 2010, ALS was recorded on death certificates of 41 individuals whom we compared to the remaining cohort (controls), using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age and gender to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals. In the meta-analysis, ALS was associated with use of pesticides as a group (1.9, 1.1-3.1). In the AHS, ALS was not associated with pesticides as a group, but was associated with use of organochlorine insecticides (OCs) (1.6, 0.8-3.5), pyrethroids (1.4, 0.6-3.4), herbicides (1.6, 0.7-3.7), and fumigants (1.8, 0.8-3.9). ORs were elevated for ever use of the specific OCs aldrin (2.1, 0.8-5.1), dieldrin (2.6, 0.9-7.3), DDT (2.1, 0.9-5.0), and toxaphene (2.0, 0.8-4.9). None of these associations was statistically significant. Similar results were observed in an analysis restricted to men. In conclusion, the meta-analysis suggests that ALS risk is associated with use of pesticides as a group, and our analysis of AHS data points to OC use in particular. The latter results are novel but based on a small number of cases and require replication in other populations. PMID:22521219

  13. Rodent Models of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Philips, Thomas; Rothstein, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a motor neuron disease affecting upper and lower motor neurons in the CNS. Patients with ALS develop extensive muscle wasting and atrophy leading to paralysis and death 3-5 years after disease onset. ALS may be familial (fALS 10%) or sporadic ALS (sALS, 90%). The large majority of fALS) cases are due to genetic mutations in the Superoxide dismutase 1 gene (SOD1, 15% of fALS) and repeat nucleotide expansions in the gene encoding C9ORF72 (around 40-50% of fALS and ~10% of sALS). From a wide range of pathological studies the general conclusion is that ALS disease is mediated through aberrant protein homeostasis (ie ER stress and autophagy) and/or changes in RNA processing (as seen in all non-SOD1-mediated ALS). In all of these cases, animal models suggest that the disease is mediated non-cell-autonomously, i.e. not only motor neurons are involved, but glial cells including microglia, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes and other neuronal subpopulations are also implicated in disease pathogenesis. This overview will give a chronological overview of a wide range of different ALS rodent models generated so far with a thorough description of their intrinsic advantages and disadvantages. We will focus on their respective correlation with disease as seen in humans and their potential for understanding basic disease biology. As RNA processing has more recently come to the foreground of ALS research, we will mainly focus on a thorough description of the most recently generated ALS rodent models. PMID:26344214

  14. Determination of lateral-stability derivatives and transfer-function coefficients from frequency-response data for lateral motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donegan, James J; Robinson, Samuel W , Jr; Gates, Ordway, B , jr

    1955-01-01

    A method is presented for determining the lateral-stability derivatives, transfer-function coefficients, and the modes for lateral motion from frequency-response data for a rigid aircraft. The method is based on the application of the vector technique to the equations of lateral motion, so that the three equations of lateral motion can be separated into six equations. The method of least squares is then applied to the data for each of these equations to yield the coefficients of the equations of lateral motion from which the lateral-stability derivatives and lateral transfer-function coefficients are computed. Two numerical examples are given to demonstrate the use of the method.

  15. Effective Lateral Canthal Lengthening with Triangular Rotation Flap

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In Korea, lateral canthoplasty, along with medial epicanthoplasty, has become popular over the past years to widen the horizontal length of the palpebral fissure. However, the effect of the surgery differs greatly depending on the shape and structure of the eyes. If over-widened, complications such as eversion, scarring, and conjunctival exposure may occur. Thus, the author of this study suggests a more effective and safe method for lateral canthal lengthening that causes minimal complications. A total of 236 patients underwent lateral canthoplasty between July 2007 and December 2015. For each patient, a triangular flap 4–5 mm away from the lateral canthus was elevated and rotated 45 degrees laterally while the continuity of the lower eyelid gray line was maintained. A new lateral canthus was created by fixating the rotation flap to the lateral orbital rim with minimal skin trimming and tension-free sutures, preventing relapse and maintaining a triangular shape. In more than 95% of cases, effective and satisfactory extension was achieved. On average, a 3 mm extension of the lateral canthus was achieved. There were minor complications such as wound dehiscence, webbing, and scarring, which were easily corrected. The author not only extended the lateral canthus 3–4 mm laterally but also maintained the continuity of the gray line on the lower lid as a more natural-looking triangular shape, while minimizing complications such as webbing and conjunctival exposure. PMID:27462562

  16. Chapter 15 Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Orban, Paul; Devon, Rebecca S; Hayden, Michael R; Leavitt, Blair R

    2007-01-01

    Several forms of genetically defined juvenile amy-otrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have now been charac-terized and discussion of these conditions will form the basis for this chapter. ALS2 is an autosomal recessive form of ALS with a juvenile onset and very slow progression that mapped to chromosome 2q33. Nine different mutations have been identified in the ALS2 gene that result in premature stop codons, suggesting a loss of function in the gene product, alsin. The alsin protein is thought to function as a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for GTPases and may play a role in vesicle transport or membrane trafficking processes. ALS4 is an autosomal dominant form of juvenile onset ALS associated with slow progression, severe muscle weakness and pyramidal signs, in the absence of bulbar and sensory abnormalities. Mutations in the SETX gene cause ALS4, and the SETX gene product senataxin may have DNA and RNA helicase activity and play a role in the regulation of RNA and/or DNA in the cell. A third form of juvenile-onset ALS (ALS5) is associated with slowly progressing lower motor neuron signs (weak-ness and atrophy) initially of the hands and feet, with eventual bulbar involvement. Progressive upper motor neuron disease becomes more obvious with time. ALS5 has been linked to a 6 cM region of chromosome 15q15.1-q21.1, but the causative gene mutation for ALS5 has yet to be identified. The high degree of clin-ical and genetic heterogeneity in the various forms of juvenile ALS can make differential diagnosis difficult, other genetic disorders that must be considered include: spinal muscular atrophy, hereditary spastic paraplegia, SBMA, GM2 gangliosidosis and the hereditary motor neuronopathies/motor forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Acquired disorders that must also be consid-ered include heavy metal intoxications (especially lead), multifocal motor neuropathy, paraneoplastic syndromes, vitamin deficiencies (B12) and infections (HTLV-II, HIV and poliomyelitis). PMID

  17. Clinicopathological Characteristics of Laterally Spreading Colorectal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Li; Wang, Yadong; Wang, Xianfei; Li, Aimin; Liu, Side

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Laterally spreading tumor (LST) is a colorectal pre-cancerous lesion. Previous studies have demonstrated distinct LST clinicopathological characteristics in different populations. This study evaluated clinicopathological characteristics of LST in a Chinese population. Methods A total of 259 Chinese LST patients with 289 lesions were recruited for endoscopic and clinicopathological analyses. Results Among these 289 lesions, 185 were granular type (LST-G), whereas 104 were non-granular type (LST-NG). LST-G lesions were further classified into homogeneous G-type and nodular mixed G-type, while LST-NG lesions were further classified into flat elevated NG-type and pseudo-depressed NG-type. Clinically, these four LST subtypes showed distinct clinicopathological characteristics, e.g., lesion size, location, or histopathological features (high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and submucosal carcinoma). The nodular mixed G-type showed larger tumor size and higher incidence of high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia compared to the other three subtypes, while pseudo-depressed NG-type lesions showed the highest incidence of submucosal carcinoma. Noticeably, no diffidence was detected between the lesions of homogeneous G-type and flat elevated NG-type with regard to the histopathological features. Histology of the malignancy potential was associated with nodular mixed G-type [OR = 2.41, 95% CI (1.09–5.29); P = 0.029], flat elevated NG-type [OR = 3.49, 95% CI (1.41–8.22); P = 0.007], Diameter ≥30 mm [OR = 2.56, 95% CI (1.20–5.20); P = 0.009], Villous adenoma [OR = 2.76, 95% CI (1.01–7.58); P = 0.048] and serrated adenoma [OR = 6.99, 95% CI (1.81–26.98); P = 0.005]. Conclusion Chinese LSTs can be divided into four different subtypes, which show distinct clinicopathological characteristics. Morphology, size and pathological characteristics are all independent predictors of advanced histology. PMID:24751926

  18. Phylogenetic identification of lateral genetic transfer events

    PubMed Central

    Beiko, Robert G; Hamilton, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    Background Lateral genetic transfer can lead to disagreements among phylogenetic trees comprising sequences from the same set of taxa. Where topological discordance is thought to have arisen through genetic transfer events, tree comparisons can be used to identify the lineages that may have shared genetic information. An 'edit path' of one or more transfer events can be represented with a series of subtree prune and regraft (SPR) operations, but finding the optimal such set of operations is NP-hard for comparisons between rooted trees, and may be so for unrooted trees as well. Results Efficient Evaluation of Edit Paths (EEEP) is a new tree comparison algorithm that uses evolutionarily reasonable constraints to identify and eliminate many unproductive search avenues, reducing the time required to solve many edit path problems. The performance of EEEP compares favourably to that of other algorithms when applied to strictly bifurcating trees with specified numbers of SPR operations. We also used EEEP to recover edit paths from over 19 000 unrooted, incompletely resolved protein trees containing up to 144 taxa as part of a large phylogenomic study. While inferred protein trees were far more similar to a reference supertree than random trees were to each other, the phylogenetic distance spanned by random versus inferred transfer events was similar, suggesting that real transfer events occur most frequently between closely related organisms, but can span large phylogenetic distances as well. While most of the protein trees examined here were very similar to the reference supertree, requiring zero or one edit operations for reconciliation, some trees implied up to 40 transfer events within a single orthologous set of proteins. Conclusion Since sequence trees typically have no implied root and may contain unresolved or multifurcating nodes, the strategy implemented in EEEP is the most appropriate for phylogenomic analyses. The high degree of consistency among inferred

  19. Lateral Hypothalamic Area Glutamatergic Neurons and Their Projections to the Lateral Habenula Regulate Feeding and Reward

    PubMed Central

    Stamatakis, Alice M.; Van Swieten, Maaike; Basiri, Marcus L.; Blair, Grace A.; Kantak, Pranish

    2016-01-01

    The overconsumption of calorically dense, highly palatable foods is thought to be a major contributor to the worldwide obesity epidemic; however, the precise neural circuits that directly regulate hedonic feeding remain elusive. Here, we show that lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) glutamatergic neurons, and their projections to the lateral habenula (LHb), negatively regulate the consumption of palatable food. Genetic ablation of LHA glutamatergic neurons increased daily caloric intake and produced weight gain in mice that had access to a high-fat diet, while not altering general locomotor activity. Anterior LHA glutamatergic neurons send a functional glutamatergic projection to the LHb, a brain region involved in processing aversive stimuli and negative reward prediction outcomes. Pathway-specific, optogenetic stimulation of glutamatergic LHA-LHb circuit resulted in detectable glutamate-mediated EPSCs as well as GABA-mediated IPSCs, although the net effect of neurotransmitter release was to increase the firing of most LHb neurons. In vivo optogenetic inhibition of LHA-LHb glutamatergic fibers produced a real-time place preference, whereas optogenetic stimulation of LHA-LHb glutamatergic fibers had the opposite effect. Furthermore, optogenetic inhibition of LHA-LHb glutamatergic fibers acutely increased the consumption of a palatable liquid caloric reward. Collectively, these results demonstrate that LHA glutamatergic neurons are well situated to bidirectionally regulate feeding and potentially other behavioral states via their functional circuit connectivity with the LHb and potentially other brain regions. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In this study, we show that the genetic ablation of LHA glutamatergic neurons enhances caloric intake. Some of these LHA glutamatergic neurons project to the lateral habenula, a brain area important for generating behavioral avoidance. Optogenetic stimulation of this circuit has net excitatory effects on postsynaptic LHb neurons. This is the

  20. Development and validation of a lateral MREs isolator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Zhi-Wei; Yu, Miao; Fu, Jie; Zhao, Lu-Jie

    2015-02-01

    A novel lateral vibration isolator utilizing magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) with the field-dependent damping and stiffness was proposed in order to improve the adaptive performance. First, soft silicone rubber MREs with a highly adjustable shear storage modulus was fabricated. Then, the lateral MREs isolator was developed with a unique laminated structure of MRE layers and steel plates, which enables to withstand large vertical loads and adapts to the situation of large lateral displacement. Also, the electromagnetic analysis and design employed electromagnetic finite element method (FEM) to optimize magnetic circuit inside the proposed device. To evaluate the effectiveness of the lateral MREs isolator, a series of experimental tests were carried out under various applied magnetic fields. Experimental results show that the proposed MREs isolator can triumphantly change the lateral stiffness and equivalent damping up to 140% and 125%, respectively. This work demonstrates the performance of the designed lateral MREs isolator and its capacity in vibration mitigation for the complex situation.

  1. Lateral position detection and control for friction stir systems

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, Paul; Lammlein, David H.; Cook, George E.; Wilkes, Don Mitchell; Strauss, Alvin M.; Delapp, David R.; Hartman, Daniel A.

    2011-11-08

    Friction stir methods are disclosed for processing at least one workpiece using a rotary tool with rotating member for contacting and processing the workpiece. The methods include oscillating the rotary tool laterally with respect to a selected propagation path for the rotating member with respect to the workpiece to define an oscillation path for the rotating member. The methods further include obtaining force signals or parameters related to the force experienced by the rotary tool at least while the rotating member is disposed at the extremes of the oscillation. The force signals or parameters associated with the extremes can then be analyzed to determine a lateral position of the selected path with respect to a target path and a lateral offset value can be determined based on the lateral position. The lateral distance between the selected path and the target path can be decreased based on the lateral offset value.

  2. Lateral position detection and control for friction stir systems

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, Paul; Lammlein, David H.; Cook, George E.; Wilkes, Don Mitchell; Strauss, Alvin M.; Delapp, David R.; Hartman, Daniel A.

    2012-06-05

    An apparatus and computer program are disclosed for processing at least one workpiece using a rotary tool with rotating member for contacting and processing the workpiece. The methods include oscillating the rotary tool laterally with respect to a selected propagation path for the rotating member with respect to the workpiece to define an oscillation path for the rotating member. The methods further include obtaining force signals or parameters related to the force experienced by the rotary tool at least while the rotating member is disposed at the extremes of the oscillation. The force signals or parameters associated with the extremes can then be analyzed to determine a lateral position of the selected path with respect to a target path and a lateral offset value can be determined based on the lateral position. The lateral distance between the selected path and the target path can be decreased based on the lateral offset value.

  3. Laterality enhances numerical skills in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata

    PubMed Central

    Dadda, Marco; Agrillo, Christian; Bisazza, Angelo; Brown, Culum

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that cerebral lateralization can significantly enhance cognition and that this was one of the primary selective forces shaping its wide-spread evolution amongst vertebrate taxa. Here, we tested this hypothesis by examining the link between cerebral lateralization and numerical discrimination. Guppies, Poecilia reticulata, were sorted into left, right and non-lateralized groups using a standard mirror test and their numerical discrimination abilities tested in both natural shoal choice and abstract contexts. Our results show that strongly lateralized guppies have enhanced numerical abilities compared to non-lateralized guppies irrespective of context. These data provide further credence to the notion that cerebral lateralization can enhance cognitive efficiency. PMID:26578915

  4. Management of the lateral walls in crooked nose.

    PubMed

    Seyhan, Ahmet

    2012-07-01

    In crooked noses, the lateral walls are different in shape and symmetry. Although the septum is very important to obtain a straight nose, identical and symmetrical lateral walls are needed for a straight looking nasal dorsum. As well as the septum, lateral walls also contribute in nasal skeletal support and stability. Thus, obtaining identical and symmetrical lateral walls is important. In order to obtain symmetrical and stable lateral walls, the requirements are to equalize the height, to set in a symmetric location and finally to stabilize the symmetry. These requirements must be taken into consideration while performing the steps of rhinoplasty, namely, hump resection, osteotomies and stabilization by spreader grafts or flaps. Here, we describe the management of the lateral walls in crooked nose in 7 cases. PMID:25734053

  5. Enhanced performance of methamphetamine lateral flow cassettes using an electronic lateral flow reader

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jerome P.; Sammons, Deborah L.; Robertson, Shirley A.; Snawder, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Surface contamination from methamphetamine in meth labs continues to be a problem. We had previously developed a lateral flow assay cassette for field detection of methamphetamine contamination that is commercially available and has been used by a number of groups to assess contamination. This cassette uses the complete disappearance of the test line as an end point for detection of 50 ng/100 cm2 of methamphetamine contamination for surface sampling with cotton swabs. In the present study, we further evaluate the response of the cassettes using an electronic lateral flow reader to measure the intensities of the test and control lines. The cassettes were capable of detecting 0.25 ng/ml for calibration solutions. For 100 cm2 ceramic tiles that were spiked with methamphetamine and wiped with cotton tipped wooden swabs wetted in assay/sampling buffer, 1 ng/tile was detected using the reader. Semi-quantitative results can be produced over the range 0–10 ng/ml for calibration solutions and 0–25 ng/tile for spiked tiles using either a 4-parameter logistic fit of test line intensity versus concentration or spiked mass or the ratio of the control line to the test line intensity fit to concentration or spiked mass. Recovery from the tiles was determined to be about 30% using the fitted curves. Comparison of the control line to the test line was also examined as a possible visual detection end point and it was found that the control line became more intense than the test line at 0.5 to 1 ng/ml for calibration solutions or 1 to 2 ng/tile for spiked tiles. Thus the lateral flow cassettes for methamphetamine have the potential to produce more sensitive semi-quantitative results if an electronic lateral flow reader is used and can be more sensitive for detection if the comparison of the control line to the test line is used as the visual end point. PMID:25379615

  6. Deep transverse friction massage for treating lateral elbow or lateral knee tendinitis.

    PubMed

    Loew, Laurianne M; Brosseau, Lucie; Tugwell, Peter; Wells, George A; Welch, Vivian; Shea, Beverley; Poitras, Stephane; De Angelis, Gino; Rahman, Prinon

    2014-01-01

    Background Deep transverse friction massage, one of several physical therapy interventions suggested for the management of tendinitis pain, was first demonstrated in the 1930s by Dr James Cyriax, a renowned orthopedic surgeon in England. Its goal is to prevent abnormal fibrous adhesions and abnormal scarring. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2001.Objectives To assess the benefits and harms of deep transverse friction massage for treating lateral elbow or lateral knee tendinitis.Search methods We searched the following electronic databases: the specialized central registry of the Cochrane Field of Physical and Related Therapies,the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL),MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Clinicaltrials.gov, and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), up until July 2014. The reference lists of these trials were consulted for additional studies.Selection criteria All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing deep transverse friction massage with control or other active interventions for study participants with two eligible types of tendinitis (ie, extensor carpi radialis tendinitis (lateral elbow tendinitis, tennis elbow or lateral epicondylitis or lateralis epicondylitis humeri) and iliotibial band friction syndrome (lateral knee tendinitis)) were selected. Only studies published in English and French languages were included.Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed the studies on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results of individual trials were extracted from the included study using extraction forms prepared by two independent review authors before the review was begun.Data were cross-checked by a third review author. Risk of bias of the included studies was assessed using the "Risk of bias"tool of The Cochrane Collaboration. A pooled analysis was performed using

  7. 2. COURSE OF THE LATERAL THROUGH DEL NORTHWEST MAR PARK. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. COURSE OF THE LATERAL THROUGH DEL NORTHWEST MAR PARK. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  8. 4. SEGMENT OF LATERAL WEST OF C STREET (SECTION 10) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SEGMENT OF LATERAL WEST OF C STREET (SECTION 10) ON THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN ARSENAL (RMA). - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  9. 24. CULVERT WITH CONCRETE HEADWALL AND SIDEWALLS CARRYING THE LATERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. CULVERT WITH CONCRETE HEADWALL AND SIDEWALLS CARRYING THE LATERAL UNDER 8TH AVENUE. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  10. 13. TREES ALONG LATERAL SEGMENT AT THE NORTHERN END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. TREES ALONG LATERAL SEGMENT AT THE NORTHERN END OF LAKE LADORA. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  11. 7. SEGMENT OF LATERAL WITH YUCCA ALONG BANKS, SOUTH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. SEGMENT OF LATERAL WITH YUCCA ALONG BANKS, SOUTH OF 6TH AVENUE (SECTION 10). - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. 8. GENERAL VIEW OF LARGE DIVERSION STRUCTURE ON LATERAL WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. GENERAL VIEW OF LARGE DIVERSION STRUCTURE ON LATERAL WEST OF LOWER DERBY LAKE (SECTION 2). - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  13. Lateral Meniscal Allograft Transplantation: The Bone Trough Technique.

    PubMed

    Chahla, Jorge; Olivetto, Javier; Dean, Chase S; Serra Cruz, Raphael; LaPrade, Robert F

    2016-04-01

    The lateral meniscus plays a critical role in the stability and health of the knee. Treating patients who have undergone a total lateral meniscectomy or functional equivalent is challenging, especially young and active patients. Current literature regarding meniscal tears supports that repair should be the first surgical option. Moreover, it is recommended to preserve as much meniscal tissue as possible. In cases in which a total or functional meniscectomy is a pre-existing condition, a lateral meniscal allograft transplantation is a possible option. The purpose of this surgical technique description was to detail the method of lateral meniscal allograft transplantation using a bone trough. PMID:27462536

  14. 3-D Optical Interference Microscopy at the Lateral Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Peter; Niehues, Jan; Tereschenko, Stanislav

    2014-10-01

    For applications in micro- and nanotechnologies the lateral resolution of optical 3-D microscopes becomes an issue of increasing relevance. However, lateral resolution of 3-D microscopes is hard to define in a satisfying way. Therefore, we first study the measurement capabilities of a highly resolving white-light interference (WLI) microscope close to the limit of lateral resolution. Results of measurements and simulations demonstrate that better lateral resolution seems to be achievable based on the envelope evaluation of a WLI signal. Unfortunately, close to the lateral resolution limit errors in the measured amplitude of micro-structures appear. On the other hand, results of interferometric phase evaluation seem to be strongly low-pass filtered in this case. Furthermore, the instrument transfer characteristics and the lateral resolution capabilities of WLI instruments are also affected by polarization. TM polarized light is less sensitive to edge diffraction and thus systematic errors can be avoided. However, apart from ghost steps due to fringe order errors, the results of phase evaluation seem to be closer to the real surface topography if TE polarized light is used. The lateral resolution can be further improved by combining WLI and structured illumination microscopy. Since the measured height of rectangular profiles close to the lateral resolution limit is generally too small compared to the real height, we introduce a method based on phase evaluation which characterizes the heights of barely laterally resolved rectangular gratings correctly.

  15. 19. DETAIL VIEW OF LATERAL BRACING, NORTH ELEVATION, LOOKING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. DETAIL VIEW OF LATERAL BRACING, NORTH ELEVATION, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Mystic River Drawbridge No. 7, Spanning Mystic River at Boston & Maine Railroad Eastern Route, Somerville, Middlesex County, MA

  16. 23. VIEW SHOWING SALT RIVER PROJECT CREWS SLIPFORMING LATERAL DURING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW SHOWING SALT RIVER PROJECT CREWS SLIPFORMING LATERAL DURING REHABILITATION AND BETTERMENT PROGRAM Photographer: unknown. April 1968 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  17. Laterality of a second player position affects lateral deviation of basketball shooting.

    PubMed

    Viggiano, Andrea; Chieffi, Sergio; Tafuri, Domenico; Messina, Giovanni; Monda, Marcellino; De Luca, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetrically placed visual distractors are known to cause a lateral bias in the execution of a movement directed toward a target. The aim of the present experiment was to verify if the trajectory of the ball and the trajectory of the jump for a basket-shot can be affected by the sole position of a second player, who stays in front of the shooting player in one of three possible positions (centre, left or right) but too far to physically interfere with the shot. Young basketball players were asked to perform 60 shots at 6.25 m from a regular basket, with or without a second player staying in front of them in, alternately, a centre, left or right position. A computerised system measured the angular deviation of the jump direction from the vertical direction and the lateral deviation of the ball trajectory from the midline. The results showed that both the jump direction and the entry position of the ball deviated toward the opposite side from the second player's side; however, these effects were too small to significantly affect the mean goal percentage. This result confirms that some placements of the players can have an effect as visual distractors. Further studies are necessary to find what game conditions can make such distractors harmful for the athletic performance. PMID:23876006

  18. 'Lateral elbow tendinopathy' is the most appropriate diagnostic term for the condition commonly referred-to as lateral epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Stasinopoulos, Dimitrios; Johnson, Mark I

    2006-01-01

    A plethora of terms that have been used to describe lateral epicondylitis including tennis elbow (TE), epicondylalgia, tendonitis, tendinosis and tendinopathy. These terms usually have the prefix extensor or lateral elbow. Lateral elbow tendinopathy seems to be the most appropriate term to use in clinical practice because other terms make reference to inappropriate aetiological, anatomical and pathophysiological terms. The correct diagnostic term is important for the right treatment. PMID:16843614

  19. Sobre a atividade pós-periélica do cometa de órbita parabólica Yanaka (1988r)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, A. A.; Sanzovo, G. C.; Boczko, R.

    2003-08-01

    Greenberg, Singh & de Almeida (ApJ, 414: L45-48, 1993) mostraram que a deficiência nas abundâncias observadas de C2 e CN no Cometa Yanaka (1988r) pode ser explicada em termos das propriedades dos seus componentes refratários orgânicos, além do fato que trata-se de um cometa dinamicamente novo, observado através de abertura de fenda pequena projetada muito próximo do núcleo. Neste trabalho, complementamos o estudo sobre a atividade deste cometa de órbita parabólica, através da determinação da lei de potência que exprime sua taxa de produção de H2O (o principal indicador de atividade) na fase pós-periélica, determinamos o raio nuclear efetivo mínimo com sua fração de área ativa e analisamos a emissão de partículas de poeira observadas no contínuo em 625,0 nm.

  20. Confessions of a Schoolman--On Dyslexia and Laterality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Che Kan

    1984-01-01

    The paper relates early work of Samuel Orton on cerebral dominance to current neuropsychological concepts of laterality as reciprocal functions of the two cerebral hemispheres. The genetic-cultural perspectives of laterality and functional asymmetry in relation to learning disorders are discussed. (Author/CL)

  1. Cerebral Laterality and Verbal-Performance Discrepancies in Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Raymond S.

    1979-01-01

    The cerebral laterality of children with various configurations of verbal-performance discrepancies was inferred with an objective measure of lateral preference using Verbal and Performance IQ scores of the WISC-R. Results were interpreted as lending support to the notion of competition antagonism between cortical hemispheres and a possible…

  2. LATERAL TURBULENCE INTENSITY AND PLUME MEANDERING DURING STABLE CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is much evidence in the literature for the presence of mesoscale lateral meanders in the stable nighttime boundary layer. These meanders result in relatively high lateral turbulence intensities and diffusion rates when averaged over an hour. Anemometer data from 17 overnigh...

  3. Microvascular supply of the lateral epicondyle and common extensor origin.

    PubMed

    Bales, Chris P; Placzek, Jeffrey D; Malone, Kevin J; Vaupel, Zachary; Arnoczky, Steven P

    2007-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is a common condition affecting 1% to 3% of the population. Although the exact cause is still unknown, numerous theories have been put forth. One theory suggests a hypovascular zone at the origin of the common extensor mass. This study examines the microvascular supply of the lateral epicondyle and the common extensor mass, with the use of India ink injection and the Spalteholz tissue-clearing technique. Six fresh-frozen cadaveric arms underwent serial sectioning (coronal plane in five and axial plane in one) after vascular injection with India ink. Sections were cleared via a modified Spalteholz technique. Photographs were taken before and after the clearing procedure, and the microvascular pattern of the common extensor mass and lateral epicondyle was described. Two hypovascular zones were identified in the region of the lateral epicondyle. The first was noted at the proximal lateral epicondyle just distal to the supracondylar ridge and the second 2 to 3 cm distal to the lateral epicondyle on the deep surface of the common extensor tendon. Two regions of hypovascularity were noted at the lateral epicondyle and within the common extensor origin. These hypovascular regions may preclude the normal inflammatory cascade and healing response to microtearing in this region. Thus, these zones may play a role in the etiology of lateral epicondylitis. PMID:17254813

  4. The development of lateral line placodes: taking a broader view.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, Tatjana; Baker, Clare V H

    2014-05-01

    The lateral line system of anamniote vertebrates enables the detection of local water movement and weak bioelectric fields. Ancestrally, it comprises neuromasts - small sense organs containing mechanosensory hair cells - distributed in characteristic lines over the head and trunk, flanked on the head by fields of electroreceptive ampullary organs, innervated by afferent neurons projecting respectively to the medial and dorsal octavolateral nuclei in the hindbrain. Given the independent loss of the electrosensory system in multiple lineages, the development and evolution of the mechanosensory and electrosensory components of the lateral line must be dissociable. Nevertheless, the entire system arises from a series of cranial lateral line placodes, which exhibit two modes of sensory organ formation: elongation to form sensory ridges that fragment (with neuromasts differentiating in the center of the ridge, and ampullary organs on the flanks), or migration as collectives of cells, depositing sense organs in their wake. Intensive study of the migrating posterior lateral line placode in zebrafish has yielded a wealth of information concerning the molecular control of migration and neuromast formation in this migrating placode, in this cypriniform teleost species. However, our mechanistic understanding of neuromast and ampullary organ formation by elongating lateral line placodes, and even of other zebrafish lateral line placodes, is sparse or non-existent. Here, we attempt to highlight the diversity of lateral line development and the limits of the current research focus on the zebrafish posterior lateral line placode. We hope this will stimulate a broader approach to this fascinating sensory system. PMID:24582732

  5. Children's Rorschach Scores as Predictors of Later Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuber, Steven B.

    1983-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that Rorschach measures of object relations and thought organization could help predict later adjustment. Former patients (N=70) at a child residential treatment center were followed up as adults. Object relations measures were found to be effective discriminators and predictors of later rehospitalization for boys. (JAC)

  6. Lateral rectus palsy following coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Luke; Jones, Ruth; Hughes, David S

    2014-01-01

    We present a rare case of unilateral lateral rectus palsy following an elective coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention in a 78-year-oldwoman. Ophthalmoplegia following coronary angiography is extremely rare and this is the first case of a unilateral lateral rectus palsy following the procedure. PMID:24536054

  7. 14 CFR 23.147 - Directional and lateral control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Directional and lateral control. 23.147... Controllability and Maneuverability § 23.147 Directional and lateral control. (a) For each multiengine airplane... regain full control of the airplane without exceeding a bank angle of 45 degrees, reaching a...

  8. Intraspecific competition and coordination in the evolution of lateralization

    PubMed Central

    Ghirlanda, Stefano; Frasnelli, Elisa; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed a variety of left–right asymmetries among vertebrates and invertebrates. In many species, left- and right-lateralized individuals coexist, but in unequal numbers (‘population-level’ lateralization). It has been argued that brain lateralization increases individual efficiency (e.g. avoiding unnecessary duplication of neural circuitry and reducing interference between functions), thus counteracting the ecological disadvantages of lateral biases in behaviour (making individual behaviour more predictable to other organisms). However, individual efficiency does not require a definite proportion of left- and right-lateralized individuals. Thus, such arguments do not explain population-level lateralization. We have previously shown that, in the context of prey–predator interactions, population-level lateralization can arise as an evolutionarily stable strategy when individually asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behaviour with that of other asymmetrical organisms. Here, we extend our model showing that populations consisting of left- and right-lateralized individuals in unequal numbers can be evolutionarily stable, based solely on strategic factors arising from the balance between antagonistic (competitive) and synergistic (cooperative) interactions. PMID:19064359

  9. 29 CFR 1470.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 1470.51 Section 1470.51 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE UNIFORM... Requirements § 1470.51 Later disallowances and adjustments. The closeout of a grant does not affect: (a)...

  10. 45 CFR 92.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 92.51 Section 92.51 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM...-the-Grant Requirements § 92.51 Later disallowances and adjustments. The closeout of a grant does...

  11. 40 CFR 31.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 31.51 Section 31.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... GOVERNMENTS After-the-Grant Requirements § 31.51 Later disallowances and adjustments. The closeout of a...

  12. 38 CFR 43.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 43.51 Section 43.51 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... GOVERNMENTS After-The-Grant Requirements § 43.51 Later disallowances and adjustments. The closeout of a...

  13. 36 CFR 1207.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 1207.51 Section 1207.51 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS After-The-Grant Requirements § 1207.51 Later disallowances and adjustments....

  14. 21 CFR 1403.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 1403.51 Section 1403.51 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS... § 1403.51 Later disallowances and adjustments. The closeout of a grant does not affect: (a) The...

  15. 32 CFR 33.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 33.51 Section 33.51 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND... LOCAL GOVERNMENTS After-The-Grant Requirements § 33.51 Later disallowances and adjustments. The...

  16. IQ, Fetal Testosterone and Individual Variability in Children's Functional Lateralization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercure, Evelyne; Ashwin, Emma; Dick, Frederic; Halit, Hanife; Auyeung, Bonnie; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Johnson, Mark H.

    2009-01-01

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies have revealed that faces and words show a robust difference in the lateralization of their N170. The present study investigated the development of this differential lateralization in school-age boys. We assessed the potential role of fetal testosterone (FT) level as a factor biasing the prenatal…

  17. 14 CFR 29.485 - Lateral drift landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lateral drift landing conditions. 29.485 Section 29.485 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 29.485 Lateral drift landing conditions. (a)...

  18. 14 CFR 27.485 - Lateral drift landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lateral drift landing conditions. 27.485 Section 27.485 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 27.485 Lateral drift landing conditions. (a)...

  19. GaAs MESFET with lateral non-uniform doping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Y. C.; Bahrami, M.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical model of the GaAs MESFET with arbitrary non-uniform doping is presented. Numerical results for linear lateral doping profile are given as a special case. Theoretical considerations predict that better device linearity and improved F(T) can be obtained by using linear lateral doping when doping density increases from source to drain.

  20. Tidal variability of lateral advection in a coastal plain estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basdurak, N. B.; Valle-Levinson, A.

    2013-07-01

    Tidal variability of lateral advection of momentum (vuy, where u and v are along-estuary and lateral flows, respectively, and the subindex indicates differentiation with respect to the cross-estuary direction) was investigated in a coastal plain estuary with observations at Hampton Roads, which is the transition between the James River and Chesapeake Bay. Towed current velocity profiles and hydrographic profiles were captured during 9 expeditions in 2004 and 2005, to determine the intratidal and spatial changes in lateral advection of momentum and its contribution to along-channel flow. Curvature effects and lateral density gradients were important in driving lateral circulation and in modifying intratidal lateral advection of momentum. Lateral advection had the same order of magnitude as the baroclinic pressure gradient. Its contribution to the along-channel momentum balance was greatest during or just after peak flood and weakest at the end of ebb. During peak flood and peak ebb, the spatial distribution of vuy was seaward at the southern (left) side near surface and at the northern side (right) near bed (looking up-estuary), and landward in the rest of the channel. During slack periods the vuy structures were mostly landward. Observations were in good agreement with analytical model results during peak ebb and flood, but inconsistent during slack periods. The discrepancies between model results and field measurements can be attributed to bathymetry-density gradient interactions, which enhanced ebb-to-flood asymmetries in the along-channel and lateral flow.

  1. Design and fabrication of artificial lateral line flow sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhifang; Chen, Jack; Zou, Jun; Bullen, David; Liu, Chang; Delcomyn, Fred

    2002-09-01

    Underwater flow sensing is important for many robotics and military applications, including underwater robots and vessels. We report the development of micromachined, distributed flow sensors based on a biological inspiration, the fish lateral line sensors. Design and fabrication processes for realizing individual lateral line sensor nodes are discussed in this paper, along with preliminary characterization results.

  2. What Specific Preschool Math Skills Predict Later Math Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Tutrang; Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie; Wolfe, Christopher B.; Spitler, Mary Elaine

    2015-01-01

    The widespread concern about mathematics achievement has drawn extensive research attention to what skills predict later academic achievement. There is clear and consistent evidence that math achievement at school entry is the strongest predictor of later school success and educational attainment. Early childhood math achievement can thus have…

  3. Infant Child Care Patterns and Later Ratings of Preschool Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Kyung Ja; Honig, Alice Sterling

    This study examined (1) the effects of onset of timing for early nonparental care patterns on later child development, and (2) the effects of length of daily enrollment in care on later cognitive attainment and socioemotional behaviors. Preschool teachers rated 105 middle-class children on the Preschool Behavior Questionnaire (PBQ) and the…

  4. Spontaneous lateral pontine hemorrhage with associated trigeminal nerve root hematoma.

    PubMed

    Veerapen, R

    1989-09-01

    Spontaneous hemorrhage into the lateral part of the pons with sequelae compatible with survival has been documented previously. The author describes an unusual case with spontaneous hemorrhage into the lateral pons, with intraneural extension into the right trigeminal nerve root. Radiological features were of an expanding mass of the cerebellopontine angle. The patient was treated surgically with success. PMID:2771016

  5. Open Right Hemicolectomy:Lateral to Medial or Medial to Lateral Approach?

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qi; Zhong, Yunshi; Tang, Wentao; Feng, Qingyang; Zheng, Peng; Ji, Meiling; Wei, Ye; Xu, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Currently, no published studies have compared the clinical outcomes of the medial-to-lateral approach (MA) and lateral-to-medial approach (LA) for open right hemicolectomy. Thus, the present study aimed to assess whether one of these approaches has any potential benefits over the other. Methods A retrospective study was performed of all patients who underwent open right hemicolectomy with pathologically confirmed disease who met the eligibility criteria between June 2008 and June 2012. The population was divided into an MA group and an LA group by propensity scoring. We compared patient demographic and clinical characteristic variables between the two groups and assessed short-term and long-term outcomes. Results A total of 450 patients (MA, n = 150; LA, n = 300) were evaluated. The operation time (MA,138.4 minutesvs.LA,166.2 minutes; P < .05) and blood loss (MA,52.0mL vs. LA,62.6mL; P < .05)were significantly lower in the MA group. No differences in the number of harvested lymph nodes and oncologic outcomes were observed between the two groups. Further subgroup analysis for stage III colon cancer revealed that the MA group had significantly more retrieved lymph nodes (MA,18.8vs. LA,16.0; P = .028). There were no differences in other variables between the two groups. Conclusions The MA reduced operative time and blood loss compared with the LA. We thus concluded that the MA provided short-term benefits compared with the LA in open right hemicolectomy for right-sided colon cancer. PMID:26720634

  6. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping of the Motor Cortex in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Primary Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Schweitzer, Andrew D.; Liu, Tian; Gupta, Ajay; Zheng, Karen; Seedial, Stephen; Shtilbans, Alexander; Shahbazi, Mona; Lange, Dale; Wang, Yi; Tsiouris, A. John

    2016-01-01

    Objective Diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) is often difficult due to absence of disease biomarkers. Our aim was to investigate quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) of the motor cortex as a potential quantitative biomarker for the diagnosis of ALS and PLS. Materials and Methods Utilizing an institutional review board approved retrospective database, QSM images for 16 patients with upper motor neuron disease (12 with ALS and 4 with PLS; mean age 56.3; 56% male) and 23 control patients (mean age 56.6; 57% male) were reviewed. Two neuroradiologists, blinded to diagnosis, qualitatively assessed QSM, T2, T2*, and T2 FLAIR-weighted images. Relative motor cortex susceptibility (RMCS) was quantitatively calculated by subtracting adjacent white matter/CSF signal intensity from mean motor cortex susceptibility on the axial image most representative of the hand lobule, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed. The Fisher’s exact and Student’s t tests were used to evaluate for statistical differences between the groups. Results Qualitatively, QSM had higher diagnostic accuracy than T2, T2*, or T2 FLAIR for the diagnosis of ALS/PLS. Quantitatively, RMCS was found to be significantly higher in patients with motor neuron disease than in control patients (46.0 and 35.0, respectively; p<0.001). ROC analysis demonstrated an area-under-the-curve of 0.88 (p<0.0001) and an optimal cutoff value of 40.5 ppb for distinguishing between control and ALS/PLS patients (sensitivity, 87.5%; specificity, 87.0%). Conclusions QSM is a sensitive and specific quantitative biomarker of iron deposition in the motor cortex in ALS and PLS. PMID:25905946

  7. Lateralization of tool use in New Caledonian crows (Corvus moneduloides).

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Alex A S; Kenward, Ben; Chappell, Jackie; Kacelnik, Alex

    2004-01-01

    We studied laterality of tool use in 10 captive New Caledonian (NC) crows (Corvus moneduloides). All subjects showed near-exclusive individual laterality, but there was no overall bias in either direction (five were left-lateralized and five were right-lateralized). This is consistent with results in non-human primates, which show strong individual lateralization for tool use (but not for other activities), and also with observations of four wild NC crows by Rutledge & Hunt. Jointly, these results contrast with observations that the crows have a population-level bias for manufacturing tools from the left edges of Pandanus sp. leaves, and suggest that the manufacture and use of tools in this species may have different neural underpinnings. PMID:15504013

  8. Phototropism and gravitropism in lateral roots of Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, John Z.; Miller, Kelley M.; Ogden, Lisa A.; Roth, Kelly K.

    2002-01-01

    Gravitropism and, to a lesser extent, phototropism have been characterized in primary roots, but little is known about structural/functional aspects of these tropisms in lateral roots. Therefore, in this study, we report on tropistic responses in lateral roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Lateral roots initially are plagiogravitropic, but when they reach a length of approximately 10 mm, these roots grow downward and exhibit positive orthogravitropism. Light and electron microscopic studies demonstrate a correlation between positive gravitropism and development of columella cells with large, sedimented amyloplasts in wild-type plants. Lateral roots display negative phototropism in response to white and blue light and positive phototropism in response to red light. As is the case with primary roots, the photoresponse is weak relative to the graviresponse, but phototropism is readily apparent in starchless mutant plants, which are impaired in gravitropism. To our knowledge, this is the first report of phototropism of lateral roots in any plant species.

  9. Two distinct forms of functional lateralization in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Gotts, Stephen J.; Jo, Hang Joon; Wallace, Gregory L.; Saad, Ziad S.; Cox, Robert W.; Martin, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The hemispheric lateralization of certain faculties in the human brain has long been held to be beneficial for functioning. However, quantitative relationships between the degree of lateralization in particular brain regions and the level of functioning have yet to be established. Here we demonstrate that two distinct forms of functional lateralization are present in the left vs. the right cerebral hemisphere, with the left hemisphere showing a preference to interact more exclusively with itself, particularly for cortical regions involved in language and fine motor coordination. In contrast, right-hemisphere cortical regions involved in visuospatial and attentional processing interact in a more integrative fashion with both hemispheres. The degree of lateralization present in these distinct systems selectively predicted behavioral measures of verbal and visuospatial ability, providing direct evidence that lateralization is associated with enhanced cognitive ability. PMID:23959883

  10. Syndesmosis and lateral ankle sprains in the National Football League.

    PubMed

    Osbahr, Daryl C; Drakos, Mark C; O'Loughlin, Padhraig F; Lyman, Stephen; Barnes, Ronnie P; Kennedy, John G; Warren, Russell F

    2013-11-01

    Syndesmosis sprains in the National Football League (NFL) can be a persistent source of disability, especially compared with lateral ankle injuries. This study evaluated syndesmosis and lateral ankle sprains in NFL players to allow for better identification and management of these injuries. Syndesmosis and lateral ankle sprains from a single NFL team database were reviewed over a 15-year period, and 32 NFL team physicians completed a questionnaire detailing their management approach. A comparative analysis was performed analyzing several variables, including diagnosis, treatment methods, and time lost from sports participation. Thirty-six syndesmosis and 53 lateral ankle sprains occurred in the cohort of NFL players. The injury mechanism typically resulted from direct impact in the syndesmosis and torsion in the lateral ankle sprain group (P=.034). All players were managed nonoperatively. The mean time lost from participation was 15.4 days in the syndesmosis and 6.5 days in the lateral ankle sprain groups (P⩽.001). National Football League team physicians varied treatment for syndesmosis sprains depending on the category of diastasis but recommended nonoperative management for lateral ankle sprains. Syndesmosis sprains in the NFL can be a source of significant disability compared with lateral ankle sprains. Successful return to play with nonoperative management is frequently achieved for syndesmosis and lateral ankle sprains depending on injury severity. With modern treatment algorithms for syndesmosis sprains, more aggressive nonoperative treatment is advocated. Although the current study shows that syndesmosis injuries require longer rehabilitation periods when compared with lateral ankle sprains, the time lost from participation may not be as prolonged as previously reported. PMID:24200441

  11. Early visual experience influences behavioral lateralization in the guppy.

    PubMed

    Dadda, Marco; Bisazza, Angelo

    2016-09-01

    Individual differences in lateralization of cognitive functions characterize both humans and non-human species. Genetic factors can account for only a fraction of the variance observed and the source of individual variation in laterality remains in large part elusive. Various environmental factors have been suggested to modulate the development of lateralization, including asymmetrical stimulation of the sensory system during ontogeny. In this study, we raised newborn guppies in an asymmetric environment to test the hypothesis that early left-right asymmetries in visual input may affect the development of cerebral asymmetries. Each fish was raised in an impoverished environment but could voluntarily observe a complex scene in a nearby compartment containing a group of conspecifics. Using asymmetric structures, we allowed some subjects to observe the complex scene with the right eye, others with the left eye, and control fish with both eyes. Among asymmetrically stimulated fish, the mirror test revealed eye dominance congruent with the direction of asymmetric stimulation, while controls showed no left-right laterality bias. Interestingly, asymmetric exposure to social stimuli also affected another aspect of visual lateralization-eye preference for scrutinizing a potential predator-but did not influence a measure of motor asymmetry. As the natural environment of guppies is fundamentally asymmetrical, we suggest that unequal left-right stimulation is a common occurrence in developing guppies and may represent a primary source of individual variation in lateralization as well as an efficient mechanism for producing laterality phenotypes that are adapted to local environmental conditions. PMID:27215573

  12. Discoid lateral meniscus: prevalence of peripheral rim instability.

    PubMed

    Klingele, Kevin E; Kocher, Mininder S; Hresko, M Timothy; Gerbino, Peter; Micheli, Lyle J

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of peripheral rim instability in discoid lateral meniscus. A consecutive series of 112 patients (128 knees) (mean age 10.0 years [range 1 month to 22 years]) who underwent arthroscopic evaluation and treatment of a discoid lateral meniscus between 1993 and 2001 was reviewed. Of those discoid menisci classified intraoperatively (n = 87), 62.1% (n = 54) were complete discoid lateral menisci and 37.9% (n = 33) were incomplete discoid lateral menisci. An associated meniscal tear was present in 69.5% (n = 89) of all knees studied. Overall, 28.1% (n = 36) of discoid lateral menisci had peripheral rim instability: 47.2% (n = 17) were unstable at the anterior-third peripheral attachment, 11.1% (n = 4) at the middle-third peripheral attachment, and 38.9% (n = 14) at the posterior-third peripheral attachment. Thirty-one of the 36 unstable discoid menisci underwent repair of the peripheral meniscal rim attachment. One patient underwent a complete, open meniscectomy. Peripheral rim instability was significantly more common in complete discoid lateral menisci (38.9% vs. 18.2%; P = 0.043) and in younger patients (8.2 vs. 10.7 years; P = 0.002). The frequency of peripheral instability mandates a thorough assessment of meniscal stability at all peripheral attachments during the arthroscopic evaluation and treatment of discoid lateral meniscus, particularly in complete variants and in younger children. PMID:14676539

  13. Real-time Analysis of Lateral Root Organogenesis in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Marhavý, Peter; Benková, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Plants maintain capacity to form new organs such as leaves, flowers, lateral shoots and roots throughout their postembryonic lifetime. Lateral roots (LRs) originate from a few pericycle cells that acquire attributes of founder cells (FCs), undergo series of anticlinal divisions, and give rise to a few short initial cells. After initiation, coordinated cell division and differentiation occur, giving rise to lateral root primordia (LRP). Primordia continue to grow, emerge through the cortex and epidermal layers of the primary root, and finally a new apical meristem is established taking over the responsibility for growth of mature lateral roots [for detailed description of the individual stages of lateral root organogenesis see Malamy and Benfey (1997)]. To examine this highly dynamic developmental process and to investigate a role of various hormonal, genetic and environmental factors in the regulation of lateral root organogenesis, the real time imaging based analyses represent extremely powerful tools (Laskowski et al., 2008; De Smet et al., 2012; Marhavý et al., 2013 and 2014). Herein, we describe a protocol for real time lateral root primordia (LRP) analysis, which enables the monitoring of an onset of the specific gene expression and subcellular protein localization during primordia organogenesis, as well as the evaluation of the impact of genetic and environmental perturbations on LRP organogenesis. PMID:27331080

  14. Mechanical induction of lateral root initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Ditengou, Franck Anicet; Teale, William D.; Kochersperger, Philip; Flittner, Karl Andreas; Kneuper, Irina; van der Graaff, Eric; Nziengui, Hugues; Pinosa, Francesco; Li, Xugang; Nitschke, Roland; Laux, Thomas; Palme, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Lateral roots are initiated postembryonically in response to environmental cues, enabling plants to explore efficiently their underground environment. However, the mechanisms by which the environment determines the position of lateral root formation are unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that in Arabidopsis thaliana lateral root initiation can be induced mechanically by either gravitropic curvature or by the transient bending of a root by hand. The plant hormone auxin accumulates at the site of lateral root induction before a primordium starts to form. Here we describe a subcellular relocalization of PIN1, an auxin transport protein, in a single protoxylem cell in response to gravitropic curvature. This relocalization precedes auxin-dependent gene transcription at the site of a new primordium. Auxin-dependent nuclear signaling is necessary for lateral root formation; arf7/19 double knock-out mutants normally form no lateral roots but do so upon bending when the root tip is removed. Signaling through arf7/19 can therefore be bypassed by root bending. These data support a model in which a root-tip-derived signal acts on downstream signaling molecules that specify lateral root identity. PMID:19033199

  15. Visual Laterality of Calf–Mother Interactions in Wild Whales

    PubMed Central

    Baranov, Vladimir; Osipova, Ludmila; Krasnova, Vera; Malashichev, Yegor

    2010-01-01

    Background Behavioral laterality is known for a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Laterality in social interactions has been described for a wide range of species including humans. Although evidence and theoretical predictions indicate that in social species the degree of population level laterality is greater than in solitary ones, the origin of these unilateral biases is not fully understood. It is especially poorly studied in the wild animals. Little is known about the role, which laterality in social interactions plays in natural populations. A number of brain characteristics make cetaceans most suitable for investigation of lateralization in social contacts. Methodology/Principal Findings Observations were made on wild beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in the greatest breeding aggregation in the White Sea. Here we show that young calves (in 29 individually identified and in over a hundred of individually not recognized mother-calf pairs) swim and rest significantly longer on a mother's right side. Further observations along with the data from other cetaceans indicate that found laterality is a result of the calves' preference to observe their mothers with the left eye, i.e., to analyze the information on a socially significant object in the right brain hemisphere. Conclusions/Significance Data from our and previous work on cetacean laterality suggest that basic brain lateralizations are expressed in the same way in cetaceans and other vertebrates. While the information on social partners and novel objects is analyzed in the right brain hemisphere, the control of feeding behavior is performed by the left brain hemisphere. Continuous unilateral visual contacts of calves to mothers with the left eye may influence social development of the young by activation of the contralateral (right) brain hemisphere, indicating a possible mechanism on how behavioral lateralization may influence species life and welfare. This hypothesis is supported by

  16. Lateral Pressure and VAS Pain Score Analysis for the Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion Procedure

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) procedure is a minimally invasive procedure that has become widely utilized. The LLIF procedure typically involves bending the table to access the disc spaces of interest due to anatomical constraints. It is unknown if this bending process is painful or what pressures are exhibited on the downside part of the body. The goal of the study was to determine whether sex, height, weight, body mass index, bed angle, or positioning relative to the break of the bed affects the downside skin pressures and VAS pain scores in awake volunteers. Methods Fifty-six volunteers were placed in the lateral decubitus position and pressure sensors were placed at the downside part of their anatomy (shoulder, T10 rib , iliac crest, and greater trochanter). The pressures were checked with the iliac crest or greater trochanter at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 degree bed angles. VAS scores were checked when the iliac crest or greater trochanter were at the maximum bed break angles. Results A significant positive association was found between increased bed angle and pressure at all five areas on the downside body locations (p<0.0001). The greatest pressures were located at the iliac crest and greater trochanter when these specific locations were centered over the break of the bed (p<0.0001). When the iliac crest was placed at maximal bed break, each unit increase in BMI increased the VAS pain by 0.13 (p<0.0001)and men had 1.96 (p=0.0009)higher VAS scores then women. When the greater trochanter was placed at the maximal bed break, each unit increase in BMI decreased VAS pain by 0.19 (p<0.0001) and women had 1.55 (p=0.0002)higher VAS pain scores then men. Conclusions In awake volunteers, the pressure at the iliac crest or greater trochanter at the break of the bed increases by increasing the bed angle. Women with a lower BMI had high VAS pain scores when their greater trochanter was at maximal bed break. Men with higher BMI had high VAS pain scores when

  17. 12. CONCRETE LINING ON A CURVING SEGMENT OF THE LATERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. CONCRETE LINING ON A CURVING SEGMENT OF THE LATERAL NEAR THE NORTHEAST END OF LAKE LADORA (SECTION 2). - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  18. 11. CONTINUATION OF LATERAL LEAVING THE DIVERSION STRUCTURE WEST OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. CONTINUATION OF LATERAL LEAVING THE DIVERSION STRUCTURE WEST OF LOWER DERBY LAKE (SECTION 2), SHOWING MEASURING GAUGE. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  19. 30. NORTHERN SEGMENT OF THE LATERAL IN THE NORTHWEST QUARTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. NORTHERN SEGMENT OF THE LATERAL IN THE NORTHWEST QUARTER OF SECTION 25 STRUCTURE PICTURED IN CO-43-A-28. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  20. 1. HEAD GATE OF THE SAND CREEK LATERAL AT THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. HEAD GATE OF THE SAND CREEK LATERAL AT THE HIGH LINE CANAL ON THE SOUTH END OF THE PEORIA STREET BRIDGE. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  1. Lateral Casimir force between self-affine rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajik, Fatemeh; Masoudi, Amir Ali; Khorrami, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    The effect of self-affine roughness on the lateral Casimir force between two plates is studied using a perturbative expansion method. The PWS (pairwise summation) method is applicable only at lateral correlation lengths much larger than the separation between two plates. The effect of the roughness parameters on the lateral Casimir force is investigated, and it is seen that this effect is significant, enabling one to tailor roughness parameters so that to obtain the desirable Casimir force and increase the yield of micro- or nano-electromechanical devices based on the vacuum fluctuations.

  2. Method and apparatus for drilling laterally from a well bore

    SciTech Connect

    Boyadjieff, G.I.; Campbell, A.B.

    1982-12-28

    A hole is drilled laterally from a main well bore by lowering a drilling unit into the bore in a position of extension essentially longitudinally thereof, and then swinging the unit to a position of extension transversely of the well bore to drill the lateral hole. The drilling unit is desirably held by a carrier as the drilling unit and carrier are lowered into the well, and preferably is of a self-propelling character adapted to move entirely out of the carrier and grip the wall of the lateral hole in a manner transmitting the reactive forces of the drilling operation directly to the earth formation.

  3. Lateral intermetatarsal angle: a useful measurement of metatarsus primus elevatus?

    PubMed

    Bryant, A; Mahoney, B; Tinley, P

    2001-05-01

    The lateral intermetatarsal angle, a measurement of the sagittal plane angular divergence between the dorsal cortices of the first and second metatarsals of lateral weightbearing foot radiographs, was compared in 30 normal and 30 hallux limitus feet. The results suggest that the angle may be measured reliably and that although the measured angles are relatively small, a significant difference exists between the normal and hallux limitus subjects studied. Accordingly, the lateral intermetatarsal angle may prove to be a useful radiographic measurement to assist the podiatric physician in the clinical assessment of hallux limitus. PMID:11359890

  4. Lateral Mass Fixation in the Subaxial Cervical Spine.

    PubMed

    Kurd, Mark F; Millhouse, Paul W; Schroeder, Gregory D; Kepler, Christopher K; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2015-08-01

    The use of lateral mass screws and rods in the subaxial spine has become the standard method of fixation for posterior cervical spine fusions. Multiple techniques have been described for the placement of lateral mass screws, including the Magerl, the Anderson, and the An techniques. While these techniques are all slightly different, the overall goal is to obtain solid bony fixation while avoiding the neurovascular structures. The use of lateral mass screws has been shown to be a safe and effective technique for achieving a posterior cervical fusion. PMID:26049972

  5. Dynamics of lateral magnetoelectronic thin-film nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Gerrit

    2006-03-01

    Hybrid nanostructures made from ferromagnetic and normal metals come in two main flavors: perpendicular multilayer nanopillars and lateral thin film devices. Current-induced magnetization dynamics have until now mainly been studied in perpendicular structures. However, lateral devices have several advantages compared to perpendicular ones, such as relative ease to study multi-terminal configurations and to directly observe the magnetic order parameter. In this talk I will discuss the magnetization dynamics of lateral thin-film structures in the framework of magnetoelectronic circuit theory. The research has been done in collaboration with Xuhui Wang, Yaroslav Tserkovnyak, Arne Brataas, Bart van Wees, Axel Hoffmann, and Teruo Ono.

  6. Resume and analysis of NACA lateral control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weick, F. E.; Jones, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of the principal results of recent lateral control research is made. Two things are considered of primary importance in judging the effectiveness of different control devices: The (calculated) banking and yawing motion of a typical small airplane caused by a deflection of the control, and the stick force required to produce this deflection. The report includes a table in which a number of different lateral control devices are compared on these bases. Test flights demonstrated that satisfactory lateral control at high angles of attack depends as much on the retention of stability as on aileron effectiveness.

  7. Guided VLS growth of epitaxial lateral Si nanowires.

    PubMed

    Rathi, Somilkumar J; Smith, David J; Drucker, Jeff

    2013-08-14

    Using the Au-seeded vapor-liquid-solid technique, epitaxial single-crystal Si nanowires (NWs) can be grown laterally along Si(111) substrates that have been miscut toward [112¯]. The ratio of lateral-to-vertical NWs increases as the miscut angle increases and as disilane pressure and substrate temperature decrease. By exploiting these trends, conditions can be identified whereby all of the deposited Au seeds form lateral NWs. Growth is guided along the nanofaceted substrate via a mechanism that involves pinning of the trijunction at the liquid/solid interface of the growing nanowire. PMID:23899006

  8. Lateral Thinking About Leptin: A Review of Leptin Action via the Lateral Hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Leinninger, Gina M.

    2011-01-01

    The lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) was initially described as a “feeding center” but we are now beginning to understand that the LHA contributes to other aspects of physiology as well. Indeed, the best-characterized neuronal populations of the LHA (which contain melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) or the hypocretins/orexins (OX) are not strictly orexigenic, but also have roles in regulation of the autonomic and sympathetic nervous systems as well as in modulating motivated behavior. Leptin is an anorectic hormone that regulates energy homeostasis and the mesolimbic DA system (which transduces the wanting of food, drugs of abuse and sex) in part, via actions at the LHA. At least three populations of LHA neurons are regulated by leptin: those containing MCH, OX or the long form of the leptin receptor, LepRb. The emerging picture of leptin interaction with these LHA populations suggests that the LHA is not merely regulating feeding, but is a crucial integrator of energy balance and motivated behavior. PMID:21550356

  9. Propriedades de estruturas temporais rápidas submilimétricas durante uma grande explosão solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin, J.-P.; Kaufmann, P.; Gimenez de Castro, C. G.; Pacini, A. A.; Makhmutov, V.; Levato, H.; Rovira, M.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos novas propriedades de variações rápidas da emissão submilimétrica durante uma das maiores explosões solares do ciclo solar 23. Os dados analisados neste estudo foram obtidos com o Telescópio Solar Submilimétrico (SST), que observa o Sol em 212 GHz e 405 GHz, e comparados com emissões em Raios-X duros e Raios-gama (fótons de energia > 10 MeV), que foram obtidas pelo experimento GRS do Yohkoh. Aplicamos diferentes metodologias para detectar e caracterizar, ao longo do evento, os pulsos submilimétricos (duração de 50-300 ms) detectados acima de uma componente mais lenta (alguns minutos). Os resultados mostram que durante a fase impulsiva, num instante próximo ao tempo do máximo do evento, houve um aumento da ocorrência de maiores e de mais rápidas estruturas temporais. Também identificamos uma boa correlação com as emissões em raios-X e raios-gama (até a faixa de energia 10-100 MeV), indicando que os pulsos rápidos submilimétricos refletiram injeções primárias de energia durante o evento.O espectro do fluxo desses pulsos é crescente com a freqüência entre 212 and 405 GHz, na maioria dos casos, ao contrário do observado para a componente gradual. As posições calculadas para as estruturas rápidas são discretas, compactas e localizadas em toda a área da região ativa, o que é previsto nos modelos de explosões solares decorrentes de instabilidades múltiplas em diferentes pequenas regiões. Por outro lado, a posição calculada para a componente lenta é estável durante a fase impulsiva. Assim, a comparação entre as características do espectro de fluxo e da localização da emissão, para os pulsos rápidos e para a componente gradual, sugere que as respectivas emissões são de natureza diferente.

  10. 8. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING OUTRIGGERS FOR LATERAL BRACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING OUTRIGGERS FOR LATERAL BRACING FOR TRUSSES AND BOTTOM CHORD CONNECTIONS. - White Bowstring Arch Truss Bridge, Spanning Yellow Creek at Cemetery Drive (Riverside Drive), Poland, Mahoning County, OH

  11. Lateral Magnification-Angular Magnification Relationship for a Simple Magnifier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Michael P.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the lateral magnification-angular magnification relationship in the case of a simple magnifying lens. This discussion intends to show how the relationship can be treated in undergraduate optics courses as well as in many general physics courses. (HM)

  12. DETAIL OF ORIGINAL DOOR (LOUVERS ADDED LATER) ON THE SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF ORIGINAL DOOR (LOUVERS ADDED LATER) ON THE SOUTH SIDE. VIEW FACING NORTH-NORTHWEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Aviation Storehouse, Vincennes Avenue at Simms Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. The Childhood Incidents That Increase Later Suicide Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Incidents That Increase Later Suicide Risk Exposure to domestic violence, abuse cast a long shadow, study finds To ... 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Adults who witnessed parental domestic violence in childhood are at increased risk for suicide ...

  14. Lateral crural repositioning for treatment of cephalic malposition.

    PubMed

    Toriumi, Dean M; Asher, Scott A

    2015-02-01

    After completion of this article, the reader should be able to describe the indications for lateral crural repositioning, understand the key steps to performing the procedure, and be able to manage the complications associated with this treatment strategy. PMID:25430928

  15. 10. EYEBAR PIN CONNECTION JOINING VERTICAL SUSPENSION STRINGER WITH LATERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. EYEBAR PIN CONNECTION JOINING VERTICAL SUSPENSION STRINGER WITH LATERAL BRACING MEMBERS - Spruce Street Bridge, East Spruce Street, 500 Block, spanning Power Canal, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  16. 20. WEB / DECK / LATERAL BRACING DETAIL OF THROUGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. WEB / DECK / LATERAL BRACING DETAIL OF THROUGH TRUSSES. VIEW TO WEST. - Abraham Lincoln Memorial Bridge, Spanning Missouri River on Highway 30 between Nebraska & Iowa, Blair, Washington County, NE

  17. Blood Pressure Problems During Pregnancy, Heart Trouble Later?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159580.html Blood Pressure Problems During Pregnancy, Heart Trouble Later? Spotting risk ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnant women who have blood pressure in the high-normal range may have an ...

  18. LDV measurements in lateral model aneurysms of various sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, T.-M.; Chang, W.-C.; Liao, C.-C.

    Laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) measurements are presented of three-dimensional flow fields in lateral model aneurysms arising from a straight parent vessel at a 90° angle. The flow considered was pulsatile and the aneurysm wall was rigid. The mean, peak, and minimal Reynolds numbers based on the bulk average velocity and diameter of the parent vessel were 550, 790, and 375, respectively. Comparisons among present in vitro studies, previous in vitro studies, computational simulations, and in vivo studies were made. It was found that the inflow angle into the lateral aneurysm, the maximum wall shear stress acting on the distal lip of the lateral aneurysm, and the intra-aneurysmal vortical motion increased with decreasing aneurysm size. This fact together with the impingement bifurcation of the inflow at the aneurysm dome provide possible hemodynamic factors for the rupture of the lateral aneurysm at small critical size.

  19. 11. Detail of sway braces, struts and top lateral braces' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Detail of sway braces, struts and top lateral braces' view to north-northwest - Milk River Bridge, Spanning Milk River approximately one mile north of Tampico on Tampico North Road, Tampico, Valley County, MT

  20. Severe Asthma in Childhood Linked to COPD Risk Later

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158815.html Severe Asthma in Childhood Linked to COPD Risk Later Treatments ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Though many children with persistent asthma get better as they get older, some may ...

  1. 14. VIEW OF BOTTOM LATERAL BRACING WITH STRINGERS AND FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF BOTTOM LATERAL BRACING WITH STRINGERS AND FLOOR BEAMS, NORTHWEST SPAN, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Linden Avenue Bridge, Spanning Purgatoire River on Linden Avenue, Trinidad, Las Animas County, CO

  2. 29. DECK / WEB / LATERAL BRACING DETAIL OF CANTILEVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. DECK / WEB / LATERAL BRACING DETAIL OF CANTILEVER ARM OF THROUGH TRUSS. VIEW TO WEST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  3. 52. photocopy of bronze eagle which later was mounted on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. photocopy of bronze eagle which later was mounted on Tower. Photograph taken at Tacony Iron and Metal Co. works, c. 1892. PCA - The New Public Buildings, Penn Square, Broad & Market Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. 5. EAST (FIREPLACE) WALL INTERIOR SHOWING ORIGINAL FIREPLACE OPENING, LATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EAST (FIREPLACE) WALL INTERIOR SHOWING ORIGINAL FIREPLACE OPENING, LATER CHIMNEY AND SMALL WINDOW TO LEFT OF FIREPLACE (4 x 5 negative) - Thomas Jefferson Walling Log Cabin, Henderson, Rusk County, TX

  5. Detail view, looking west from eastern pier, showing stringers, lateral ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view, looking west from eastern pier, showing stringers, lateral bracing and turnbuckles. - Monongahela Railroad, New Geneva Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River, South of Lock & Dam No. 7, New Geneva, Fayette County, PA

  6. Distant touch hydrodynamic imaging with an artificial lateral line.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yingchen; Chen, Jack; Engel, Jonathan; Pandya, Saunvit; Chen, Nannan; Tucker, Craig; Coombs, Sheryl; Jones, Douglas L; Liu, Chang

    2006-12-12

    Nearly all underwater vehicles and surface ships today use sonar and vision for imaging and navigation. However, sonar and vision systems face various limitations, e.g., sonar blind zones, dark or murky environments, etc. Evolved over millions of years, fish use the lateral line, a distributed linear array of flow sensing organs, for underwater hydrodynamic imaging and information extraction. We demonstrate here a proof-of-concept artificial lateral line system. It enables a distant touch hydrodynamic imaging capability to critically augment sonar and vision systems. We show that the artificial lateral line can successfully perform dipole source localization and hydrodynamic wake detection. The development of the artificial lateral line is aimed at fundamentally enhancing human ability to detect, navigate, and survive in the underwater environment. PMID:17132735

  7. 7. DETAIL OF LATERAL BRACING OF THROUGH TRUSS SPAN (THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL OF LATERAL BRACING OF THROUGH TRUSS SPAN (THIS SPAN IS IMMEDIATELY SOUTH OF THE VERTICAL LIFT SPAN). - Shippingsport Bridge, Spanning Illinois River at State Route 51, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  8. 31. THE BRICK BUILDING IS THE FACTORY BEFORE LATER ADDITIONS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. THE BRICK BUILDING IS THE FACTORY BEFORE LATER ADDITIONS, LOOKING NORTHWEST. TAKEN CIRCA 1886-90, PHOTOGRAPHER UNKNOWN. - Ybor Cigar Factory, 1916 North Fourteenth Street, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  9. 13. DETAIL, LATERAL BRACING FOR INTERIOR OVERHEAD CRANE Delaware, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL, LATERAL BRACING FOR INTERIOR OVERHEAD CRANE - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  10. 51. photocopy of Indian figure which later was mounted on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. photocopy of Indian figure which later was mounted on Tower. Photograph taken at Tacony Iron and Metal Co. works, c. 1892. PCA - The New Public Buildings, Penn Square, Broad & Market Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. Jello Shots While Underage, Bigger Booze Problems Later?

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158578.html Jello Shots While Underage, Bigger Booze Problems Later? Study suggests the alcohol- ... 2016 FRIDAY, April 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Many underage Americans down jello shots, and these young drinkers ...

  12. 7. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, LOWER CHORD, LATERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, LOWER CHORD, LATERAL BRACING AND FLOOR SYSTEM, LOOKING WEST. - Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southern Pacific Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  13. "Cheese" room in halfcellar showing stone trough, later fireplace supports, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "Cheese" room in half-cellar showing stone trough, later fireplace supports, stairs inserted in original relieving arch. - Scheetz Farm, House, 7161 Camp Hill Road, Fort Washington, Montgomery County, PA

  14. Lateral boundary conditions for the Klein-Gordon-Fock equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulenov, Kanat S.; Dauitbek, Dostilek

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we consider an initial-boundary value problem for the Klein-Gordon-Fock equation. We prove the uniqueness of the solution and find lateral boundary conditions for the Klein-Gordon-Fock equation.

  15. Functional calcium imaging in zebrafish lateral-line hair cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q X; He, X J; Wong, H C; Kindt, K S

    2016-01-01

    Sensory hair-cell development, function, and regeneration are fundamental processes that are challenging to study in mammalian systems. Zebrafish are an excellent alternative model to study hair cells because they have an external auxiliary organ called the lateral line. The hair cells of the lateral line are easily accessible, which makes them suitable for live, function-based fluorescence imaging. In this chapter, we describe methods to perform functional calcium imaging in zebrafish lateral-line hair cells. We compare genetically encoded calcium indicators that have been used previously to measure calcium in lateral-line hair cells. We also outline equipment required for calcium imaging and compare different imaging systems. Lastly, we discuss how to set up optimal imaging parameters and how to process and visualize calcium signals. Overall, using these methods, in vivo calcium imaging is a powerful tool to examine sensory hair-cell function in an intact organism. PMID:27263415

  16. 8. BLACK RIVER CANAL LOOKING DOWN CANAL WITH LATERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. BLACK RIVER CANAL - LOOKING DOWN CANAL WITH LATERAL TURNOUT NO. 1 ON THE RIGHT. VIEW TO THE SOUTHEAST - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Black River Canal, 15 miles Southeast of Carlsbad near Malaga, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

  17. VIEW OF HIGHLINE DROP ON THE HIGHLINE LATERAL CANAL DOWNSTREAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF HIGHLINE DROP ON THE HIGHLINE LATERAL CANAL DOWNSTREAM FROM BULLCREEK DAM AND BRIDGE. LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  18. 11. VIEW OF SOUTH BRIDGE PIER, BOTTOM LATERAL BRACING, LOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF SOUTH BRIDGE PIER, BOTTOM LATERAL BRACING, LOWER CHORD, STRINGERS, END POST AND BEARING SEAT; FACING SOUTHEAST. - Walker Bridge, Spanning Klamath River and connecting Highway 96 and Walker Road, Klamath River, Siskiyou County, CA

  19. Two clinical tests for assessing lateral compartment arthritis.

    PubMed

    Shakespeare, David

    2006-08-01

    Two clinical tests, the valgus tap test and the valgus skid test, are described which detect bone contact in the lateral compartment of the knee. They are useful in planning surgical intervention. PMID:16632364

  20. East side detail, showing later wings flanking original entrance on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East side detail, showing later wings flanking original entrance on east side. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Red Cross Building, South Eighth Street Bounded by West McAfee Avenue on South & West Harlow Avenue on North, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  1. Detail, external parabolic antenna (later addition). Note how waveguide was ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, external parabolic antenna (later addition). Note how waveguide was cut to remove active portion of antenna. - Western Union Telegraph Company, Jennerstown Relay, Laurel Summit Road off U.S. 30, Laughlintown, Westmoreland County, PA

  2. Antenna cab interior showing waveguide from external parabolic antenna (later ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Antenna cab interior showing waveguide from external parabolic antenna (later addition), looking north. - Western Union Telegraph Company, Jennerstown Relay, Laurel Summit Road off U.S. 30, Laughlintown, Westmoreland County, PA

  3. 38. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, LATERAL ELEVATION OF CARETAKER'S COTTAGE FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, LATERAL ELEVATION OF CARETAKER'S COTTAGE FROM ENTRANCE HOUSE TERRACE (4' x 5' negative) - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. Treatment of lateral open bite with vertical dentoalveolar distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Aras, Işıl; Olmez, Sultan; Akay, Mehmet Cemal; Oztürk, Veli Ozgen; Aras, Aynur

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the surgical, orthodontic, and periodontal treatment of an adult patient with a lateral open bite, anterior crowding, and gingival recession on the mandibular right lateral incisor. The lateral open bite, which resisted conventional mechanics, was successfully corrected by the combination of dento-osseous osteotomies and vertical alveolar distraction using orthodontic multibracket appliances in conjunction with nickel-titanium archwires and intermaxillary elastics. After the orthodontic treatment, the denuded root surface of the mandibular right lateral incisor was closed using a coronally advanced flap technique with platelet-rich fibrin. The results at the 2-year posttreatment follow-up were satisfactory from both the occlusal and the periodontal standpoints. PMID:26232841

  5. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Indications, Outcomes, and Complications.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Brian; Kim, David Hanwuk

    2016-02-01

    Lateral lumbar interbody fusion is a minimally invasive spinal fusion technique that uses the retroperitoneal approach to the anterior spinal column. Mechanical and technical results of the technique compare favorably with those of anterior lumbar interbody fusion in regard to large graft placement, graft volumes, and early initial stability. Lateral lumbar interbody fusion uses the transpsoas approach and traverses near the lumbar plexus. It is not, however, without its unique complications. Groin pain or numbness is well tolerated and often temporary; however, quadriceps palsy can be long-lasting and debilitating. Rarer but serious complications include vascular and visceral injury. Lateral lumbar interbody fusion has been used successfully to treat common degenerative spinal conditions such as spinal instability, stenosis, scoliosis, and degenerative disk disease. While understanding of the lumbar plexus and the technical challenges of the procedure improves, lateral lumbar interbody fusion will continue to provide safe and successful clinical outcomes with less morbidity than traditional procedures. PMID:26803545

  6. 14. VIEW OF LOG BRIDGE (LATER SUPERSEDED BY THE WIREROPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF LOG BRIDGE (LATER SUPERSEDED BY THE WIRE-ROPE SUSPENSION BRIDGE), SHOWING OVERHANG WHERE ROCK WAS BLASTED OUT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Goat Trail Mining Road, Highway 20, 1.5 miles North of Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  7. 13. VIEW OF LOG BRIDGE (LATER SUPERSEDED BY THE WIREROPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF LOG BRIDGE (LATER SUPERSEDED BY THE WIRE-ROPE SUSPENSION BRIDGE), SHOWING OVERHANG WHERE ROCK WAS BLASTED OUT, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Goat Trail Mining Road, Highway 20, 1.5 miles North of Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  8. 23. TEMPORARY CENTRIFUGAL PUMP. NOTE CHAPMAN HYDRAULICOPERATED VALVE FOR LATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. TEMPORARY CENTRIFUGAL PUMP. NOTE CHAPMAN HYDRAULIC-OPERATED VALVE FOR LATER CONNECTION OF ENGINE PUMP ENG TO DISCHARGE HEADER. - Lakeview Pumping Station, Clarendon & Montrose Avenues, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  9. 22. TEMPORARY CENTRIFIGAL PUMP. NOTE CHAPMAN HYDRAULICOPERATED VALVE FOR LATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. TEMPORARY CENTRIFIGAL PUMP. NOTE CHAPMAN HYDRAULIC-OPERATED VALVE FOR LATER CONNECTION OF ENGINE PUMP END TO DISCHARGE HEADER. - Lakeview Pumping Station, Clarendon & Montrose Avenues, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  10. Overall view with ditch lateral, looking north Thomas Murphy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overall view with ditch lateral, looking north - Thomas Murphy Homestead, North of John Moulton Homestead, approximately 1,000 feet west of Mormon Row Road, and .25 mile north of Antelope Flats Road, Kelly, Teton County, WY

  11. The Effects of Enriched Neonatal Experiences Upon Later Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachs, Theodore D.; Cucinotta, Pattiann

    1971-01-01

    The data reported in this small study confirm previous research indicating that early stimulation, though initially affecting human behavior, has little permanent effect upon later functioning. (Author/WY)

  12. 6. Tempe Crosscut Canal, looking west from Division Gates. Lateral ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Tempe Crosscut Canal, looking west from Division Gates. Lateral at left is for local delivery of irrigation water. Photographer: Mark Durben, February 1989. Source: SRPA - Tempe Canal, South Side Salt River in Tempe, Mesa & Phoenix, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  13. Brain Function Lateralization and Language Acquisition: the Evidence from Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanches, Mary

    1979-01-01

    Presents evidence of differences in brain function lateralization between Japanese-speakers and speakers of Indo-European languages, and suggests that current conceptualizations of brain function specialization are not adequate. (AM)

  14. Lateral PNP bipolar transistor with aiding field diffusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, R. C.; Mc Cann, D. H.

    1969-01-01

    Fabrication technique produces field aided lateral PNP transistors compatible with micropower switching circuits. The sub-collector diffusion is performed with phosphorus as the dopant and the epitaxy is grown using the higher temperature silicon tetrachloride process.

  15. 36 CFR 1207.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS After-The-Grant Requirements § 1207.51 Later disallowances and adjustments. The closeout of a grant does not affect: (a) The Federal agency's right to disallow costs and recover funds...

  16. 36 CFR 1207.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS After-The-Grant Requirements § 1207.51 Later disallowances and adjustments. The closeout of a grant does not affect: (a) The Federal agency's right to disallow costs and recover funds...

  17. 36 CFR 1207.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS After-The-Grant Requirements § 1207.51 Later disallowances and adjustments. The closeout of a grant does not affect: (a) The Federal agency's right to disallow costs and recover funds...

  18. 36 CFR 1207.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS After-The-Grant Requirements § 1207.51 Later disallowances and adjustments. The closeout of a grant does not affect: (a) The Federal agency's right to disallow costs and recover funds...

  19. VIEW OF MORTARED ROCK AND CONCRETE INLET TO COUCH LATERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MORTARED ROCK AND CONCRETE INLET TO COUCH LATERAL CANAL, UPSTREAM OF COLLINS ROAD. LOOKING NORTH/NORTHEAST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  20. Alterations in the hypothalamic melanocortin pathway in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Vercruysse, Pauline; Sinniger, Jérôme; El Oussini, Hajer; Scekic-Zahirovic, Jelena; Dieterlé, Stéphane; Dengler, Reinhard; Meyer, Thomas; Zierz, Stephan; Kassubek, Jan; Fischer, Wilhelm; Dreyhaupt, Jens; Grehl, Torsten; Hermann, Andreas; Grosskreutz, Julian; Witting, Anke; Van Den Bosch, Ludo; Spreux-Varoquaux, Odile; Ludolph, Albert C; Dupuis, Luc

    2016-04-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the most common adult-onset motor neuron disease, leads to death within 3 to 5 years after onset. Beyond progressive motor impairment, patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis suffer from major defects in energy metabolism, such as weight loss, which are well correlated with survival. Indeed, nutritional intervention targeting weight loss might improve survival of patients. However, the neural mechanisms underlying metabolic impairment in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis remain elusive, in particular due to the lack of longitudinal studies. Here we took advantage of samples collected during the clinical trial of pioglitazone (GERP-ALS), and characterized longitudinally energy metabolism of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in response to pioglitazone, a drug with well-characterized metabolic effects. As expected, pioglitazone decreased glycaemia, decreased liver enzymes and increased circulating adiponectin in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, showing its efficacy in the periphery. However, pioglitazone did not increase body weight of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis independently of bulbar involvement. As pioglitazone increases body weight through a direct inhibition of the hypothalamic melanocortin system, we studied hypothalamic neurons producing proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and the endogenous melanocortin inhibitor agouti-related peptide (AGRP), in mice expressing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutant SOD1(G86R). We observed lowerPomcbut higherAgrpmRNA levels in the hypothalamus of presymptomatic SOD1(G86R) mice. Consistently, numbers of POMC-positive neurons were decreased, whereas AGRP fibre density was elevated in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of SOD1(G86R) mice. Consistent with a defect in the hypothalamic melanocortin system, food intake after short term fasting was increased in SOD1(G86R) mice. Importantly, these findings were replicated in two other amyotrophic lateral

  1. Lateral blasts at Mount St. Helens and hazard zonation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crandell, D.R.; Hoblitt, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    Lateral blasts at andesitic and dacitic volcanoes can produce a variety of direct hazards, including ballistic projectiles which can be thrown to distances of at least 10 km and pyroclastic density flows which can travel at high speed to distances of more than 30 km. Indirect effect that may accompany such explosions include wind-borne ash, pyroclastic flows formed by the remobilization of rock debris thrown onto sloping ground, and lahars. Two lateral blasts occurred at a lava dome on the north flank of Mount St. Helens about 1200 years ago; the more energetic of these threw rock debris northeastward across a sector of about 30?? to a distance of at least 10 km. The ballistic debris fell onto an area estimated to be 50 km2, and wind-transported ash and lapilli derived from the lateral-blast cloud fell on an additional lobate area of at least 200 km2. In contrast, the vastly larger lateral blast of May 18, 1980, created a devastating pyroclastic density flow that covered a sector of as much as 180??, reached a maximum distance of 28 km, and within a few minutes directly affected an area of about 550 km2. The May 18 lateral blast resulted from the sudden, landslide-induced depressurization of a dacite cryptodome and the hydrothermal system that surrounded it within the volcano. We propose that lateral-blast hazard assessments for lava domes include an adjoining hazard zone with a radius of at least 10 km. Although a lateral blast can occur on any side of a dome, the sector directly affected by any one blast probably will be less than 180??. Nevertheless, a circular hazard zone centered on the dome is suggested because of the difficulty of predicting the direction of a lateral blast. For the purpose of long-term land-use planning, a hazard assessment for lateral blasts caused by explosions of magma bodies or pressurized hydrothermal systems within a symmetrical volcano could designate a circular potential hazard area with a radius of 35 km centered on the volcano

  2. Lateral crural tensioning for refinement of the wide and underprojected nasal tip: rethinking the lateral crural steal.

    PubMed

    Davis, Richard E

    2015-02-01

    Refinement of the wide, ptotic, under protected tip is one of the most difficult challenges in cosmetic nasal surgery yet also among the most common. Although excisional techniques can produce reductions in lobular width, long-term contour alterations are unpredictable and subject to stigmatic tip deformity. Preservation of natural tip support is a fundamental requirement of a successful rhinoplasty. The traditional lateral crural steal is a useful technique for tip refinement, but, when combined with a sturdy septal extension graft, the modified lateral crural steal (lateral crural tensioning) becomes a more potent and versatile rhinoplasty technique that can improve tip contour without jeopardizing function or structural stability. PMID:25430927

  3. Large Lateral Photovoltaic Effect in Metal-(Oxide-) Semiconductor Structures

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chongqi; Wang, Hui

    2010-01-01

    The lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) can be used in position-sensitive detectors to detect very small displacements due to its output of lateral photovoltage changing linearly with light spot position. In this review, we will summarize some of our recent works regarding LPE in metal-semiconductor and metal-oxide-semiconductor structures, and give a theoretical model of LPE in these two structures. PMID:22163463

  4. Medial and lateral discoid menisci: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Jae; Lubis, Andri Mt

    2010-01-01

    Discoid menisci on both medial and lateral tibial plateau are very rare abnormalities. We report a 44-year-old woman with bilateral medial and lateral discoid menisci. She also had anomalous insertion of discoid medial meniscus to anterior cruciate ligament, and pathologic medial patellar plica on the right knee. Meniscectomies has been performed for her torn discoid menisci with satisfactory result on the latest follow-up. PMID:20731824

  5. Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  6. Medial and lateral discoid menisci: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Discoid menisci on both medial and lateral tibial plateau are very rare abnormalities. We report a 44-year-old woman with bilateral medial and lateral discoid menisci. She also had anomalous insertion of discoid medial meniscus to anterior cruciate ligament, and pathologic medial patellar plica on the right knee. Meniscectomies has been performed for her torn discoid menisci with satisfactory result on the latest follow-up. PMID:20731824

  7. [Nonsurgical retreatment of lateral radiopacity after surgical treatment].

    PubMed

    Arias de Luxan, A

    1990-01-01

    A case report is presented of an upper central incisor with incomplete endodontic procedure evidencing a radiolucent image that was treated by apicoectomy and retroamalgam. A year later the periapical lesion had healed completely but a new lateral radiolucency is observed. A reentry of the canal is performed eliminating the old obturating material, biomechanical preparation and obturation with sealer and thermo gutta-percha. The lesion was cured in nine months. PMID:1964068

  8. The lateral calcaneal flap for sensate heel reconstruction revisited.

    PubMed

    Korentager, R

    1994-06-01

    Defects of the heel can be difficult to treat because they require a thin, sensate, soft-tissue cover. The lateral calcaneal flap can provide this type of reconstruction in selected patients. A 27-year-old man had a painful defect in a grafted heel that prevented him from working. A satisfactory painless heel was provided by resurfacing the area with a lateral calcaneal flap. The donor defect was minimized by interfascicular dissection of the sural nerve. PMID:8199942

  9. Lateral Stress Measurements in Pure Tungsten during Shock Loading

    SciTech Connect

    Millett, J. C. F.; Gray, G. T. III; Bourne, N. K.

    2006-07-28

    Longitudinal and lateral stresses during the shock loading of pure tungsten have been measured using manganin stress gauges. The Hugoniot has been compared to the previous work of others and shown to be in close agreement. Lateral stresses have been shown to increase behind the shock front, implying that the shear strength decreases. Whilst this is similar to results in tantalum, comparison with recovery experiments in the literature suggests that this may be due in part to a brittle failure process.

  10. Laterally injected light-emitting diode and laser diode

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Mary A.; Crawford, Mary H.; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2015-06-16

    A p-type superlattice is used to laterally inject holes into an III-nitride multiple quantum well active layer, enabling efficient light extraction from the active area. Laterally-injected light-emitting diodes and laser diodes can enable brighter, more efficient devices that impact a wide range of wavelengths and applications. For UV wavelengths, applications include fluorescence-based biological sensing, epoxy curing, and water purification. For visible devices, applications include solid state lighting and projection systems.

  11. Delta-Notch Lateral Inhibition within the Organ of Corti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, R.; Abdulla, T.; Luff, R.

    2013-09-01

    Lateral inhibition is described as an emergent property of the Delta-Notch signalling network. Two separate model representations of lateral inhibition are proposed for different purposes. One provides information about bioenergetics while the other has the capability to produce a physical representation. It is proposed that both can be used in further studies of the sensory pathways in the human connectome model of brain function.

  12. Maxillary lateral incisor with two roots: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ravindranath, Mithun; Neelakantan, Prasanna; Subba Rao, C V

    2011-01-01

    Although the dental literature has indicated that 100% of maxillary lateral incisors have a single canal anatomy, it is possible for these teeth to have extra canals. These extra canals must be identified and debrided to prevent endodontic failure. This report presents an uncommon case involving a maxillary lateral incisor with two roots. Even when the frequency of radicular anatomy abnormality is extremely low, dentists must consider the possibility that a tooth has extra root canals or even extra roots. PMID:21613043

  13. Calculation of the lateral-dynamic stability of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raikh, A

    1952-01-01

    Graphs and formulas are given with the aid of which all the aerodynamic coefficients required for computing the lateral dynamic stability can be determined. A number of numerical examples are given for obtaining the stability derivatives and solving the characteristic-stability equation. Approximate formulas are derived with the aid of which rapid preliminary computations may be made and the stability coefficients corrected for certain modifications of the airplane. A derivation of the lateral-dynamic-stability equations is included.

  14. [Failure in anterior rehabilitation of agenesic maxillary lateral incisors].

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Michel; Philippart-Rochaix, Martine; Philip-Alliez, Camille

    2016-03-01

    Agenesis of the maxillary lateral incisors poses particular problems for dentists, orthodontists and patients. Treatment of these ageneses is still highly controversial, both functionally and esthetically. The patient's smile and anterior guidance are affected and must be restored. The diagnosis is easy. Few mistakes are possible. However, managing patients with missing maxillary lateral incisors can be a challenge, commonly involving two possible treatment approaches: space opening to replace the missing lateral incisor with a prosthetic unit (denture, bridge or implant) or orthodontic space closure replacing the missing lateral incisor with the maxillary canine camouflaged to mimic the appearance of a lateral incisor. One of these two options will be adopted using multiple means...liable to trigger a multitude of possible errors. Ultimately, optimal results can only be achieved if there is excellent coordination between different practitioners in various specialties. Each clinician will have a specific role to play. Also, the patient and family are at the heart of the decision-making process, by virtue of their consent (treatment duration, financial resources) and their motivation. This multi-factorial, multi-disciplinary decision process means that treatment of the lateral incisor is an ongoing challenge for the clinician striving for the best possible result. Each case is different. No set rules exist. No single factor can be neglected if we are to avoid "failure". PMID:27083223

  15. Functional analysis on the treatment of torn discoid lateral meniscus.

    PubMed

    Wong, To; Wang, Ching-Jen

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the functional outcome on the treatment of torn discoid lateral meniscus. Thirty-two torn discoid lateral meniscuses in 29 patients were retrospectively reviewed. There were 13 males and 16 females with a mean age of 31.3±17.0. The age distribution were 24% in pediatric age (< 11 years old), 38%in young adult under 25 years and 38% in 25 years and older. Subjective symptoms included pain in 63%, popping and snapping in 56%, locking in 41%, givingway in 17%; and objective signs included decreased knee motion in 16%. Partial lateral menisectomy and saucerization were performed in 18 knees (56%), meniscus repairs were done in eight knee (25% ) and subtotal lateral menisectomy in six knees (19%). At an average follow up of 52.5±25.9 months (24-96 months). The results showed 84% good to excellent, 16% fair, and none poor. No significant difference was noted on the outcomes of different treatment methods. The age of symptom onset and the time of operation correlated with the IKDC and Tenger score. (p<0.001). Our data showed symptomatic torn discoid lateral meniscus may manifest at any age from childhood to adult. The first manifestation of symptom before age 11 year old was observed in only 24%. Therefore, discoid lateral meniscus should not be considered a childhood disease. PMID:20692839

  16. Initiation and elongation of lateral roots in Lactuca sativa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    Lactuca sativa cv. Baijianye seedlings do not normally produce lateral roots, but removal of the root tip or application of auxin, especially indole-butyric acid, triggered the formation of lateral roots. Primordia initiated within 9 h and were fully developed after 24 h by activating the pericycle cells opposite the xylem pole. The pericycle cells divided asymmetrically into short and long cells. The short cells divided further to form primordia. The effect of root tip removal and auxin application was reversed by 6-benzylaminopurine at concentrations >10(-8) M. The cytokinin oxidase inhibitor N1-(2chloro4pyridyl)-N2-phenylurea also suppressed auxin-induced lateral rooting. The elongation of primary roots was promoted by L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl) glycine and silver ions, but only the latter enhanced elongation of lateral roots. The data indicate that the induction of lateral roots is controlled by basipetally moving cytokinin and acropetally moving auxin. Lateral roots appear to not produce ethylene.

  17. Masticatory laterality--evaluation and influence of food texture.

    PubMed

    Mizumori, T; Tsubakimoto, T; Iwasaki, M; Nakamura, T

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study is the objective and quantitative evaluation of masticatory laterality and its daily variability. Various foods with different textures were used to investigate whether food texture influenced masticatory laterality. Ten healthy subjects and seven foods were used. Recordings of chewing movements were repeated three times at intervals of 1 week. Masticatory laterality was assessed with an Asymmetry Index [AI: (number of right side strokes - number of left side strokes)/number of total strokes]. Medians and ranges of the three recordings were calculated. The observed AI ranges in the three trials were limited with the exception of two subjects. Among the other subjects, averages of the absolute values of the medians were from 32.5 to 73.4%. Statistically significant differences between the hardest food and softer foods were observed in absolute value of AI medians. Masticatory laterality could be evaluated by an AI. Eight of 10 subjects showed limited ranges of AI in three recordings. It should be noted that a few people actually chew on either side but might chew on one side only on a particular day. Hard food evoked more masticatory laterality, and seemed more appropriate for laterality examinations. PMID:12974859

  18. Biophysical constraints on lateral inhibition in the olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Alexa B R; Cleland, Thomas A

    2016-06-01

    The mitral cells (MCs) of the mammalian olfactory bulb (OB) constitute one of two populations of principal neurons (along with middle/deep tufted cells) that integrate afferent olfactory information with top-down inputs and intrinsic learning and deliver output to downstream olfactory areas. MC activity is regulated in part by inhibition from granule cells, which form reciprocal synapses with MCs along the extents of their lateral dendrites. However, with MC lateral dendrites reaching over 1.5 mm in length in rats, the roles of distal inhibitory synapses pose a quandary. Here, we systematically vary the properties of a MC model to assess the capacity of inhibitory synaptic inputs on lateral dendrites to influence afferent information flow through MCs. Simulations using passivized models with varying dendritic morphologies and synaptic properties demonstrated that, even with unrealistically favorable parameters, passive propagation fails to convey effective inhibitory signals to the soma from distal sources. Additional simulations using an active model exhibiting action potentials, subthreshold oscillations, and a dendritic morphology closely matched to experimental values further confirmed that distal synaptic inputs along the lateral dendrite could not exert physiologically relevant effects on MC spike timing at the soma. Larger synaptic conductances representative of multiple simultaneous inputs were not sufficient to compensate for the decline in signal with distance. Reciprocal synapses on distal MC lateral dendrites may instead serve to maintain a common fast oscillatory clock across the OB by delaying spike propagation within the lateral dendrites themselves. PMID:27009162

  19. Effects of a continuous lateral turning device on pressure relief.

    PubMed

    Do, Nam Ho; Kim, Deog Young; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Choi, Jong Hyun; Joo, So Young; Kang, Na Kyung; Baek, Yoon Su

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the pressure-relieving effects of a continuous lateral turning device on common pressure ulcer sites. [Subjects] Twenty-four healthy adults participated. [Methods] The design of our continuous lateral turning device was motivated by the need for an adequate pressure-relieving device for immobile and/or elderly people. The procedure of manual repositioning is embodied in our continuous lateral turning device. The interface pressure and time were measured, and comfort grade was evaluated during sessions of continuous lateral turning at 0°, 15°, 30°, and 45°. We quantified the pressure-relieving effect using peak pressure, mean pressure, and pressure time integration. [Results] Participants demonstrated pressure time integration values below the pressure-time threshold at 15°, 30°, and 45° at all the common pressure ulcer sites. Moreover, the most effective angles for pressure relief at the common pressure ulcer sites were 30° at the occiput, 15° at the left scapula, 45° at the right scapula, 45° at the sacrum, 15° at the right heel, and 30° at the left heel. However, angles greater than 30° induced discomfort. [Conclusion] Continuous lateral turning with our specially designed device effectively relieved the pressure of targeted sites. Moreover, the suggested angles of continuous lateral turning can be used to relieve pressure at targeted sites. PMID:27065531

  20. Effects of a continuous lateral turning device on pressure relief

    PubMed Central

    Do, Nam Ho; Kim, Deog Young; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Choi, Jong Hyun; Joo, So Young; Kang, Na Kyung; Baek, Yoon Su

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the pressure-relieving effects of a continuous lateral turning device on common pressure ulcer sites. [Subjects] Twenty-four healthy adults participated. [Methods] The design of our continuous lateral turning device was motivated by the need for an adequate pressure-relieving device for immobile and/or elderly people. The procedure of manual repositioning is embodied in our continuous lateral turning device. The interface pressure and time were measured, and comfort grade was evaluated during sessions of continuous lateral turning at 0°, 15°, 30°, and 45°. We quantified the pressure-relieving effect using peak pressure, mean pressure, and pressure time integration. [Results] Participants demonstrated pressure time integration values below the pressure-time threshold at 15°, 30°, and 45° at all the common pressure ulcer sites. Moreover, the most effective angles for pressure relief at the common pressure ulcer sites were 30° at the occiput, 15° at the left scapula, 45° at the right scapula, 45° at the sacrum, 15° at the right heel, and 30° at the left heel. However, angles greater than 30° induced discomfort. [Conclusion] Continuous lateral turning with our specially designed device effectively relieved the pressure of targeted sites. Moreover, the suggested angles of continuous lateral turning can be used to relieve pressure at targeted sites. PMID:27065531

  1. Initiation and elongation of lateral roots in Lactuca sativa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, N; Hasenstein, K H

    1999-01-01

    Lactuca sativa cv. Baijianye seedlings do not normally produce lateral roots, but removal of the root tip or application of auxin, especially indole-butyric acid, triggered the formation of lateral roots. Primordia initiated within 9 h and were fully developed after 24 h by activating the pericycle cells opposite the xylem pole. The pericycle cells divided asymmetrically into short and long cells. The short cells divided further to form primordia. The effect of root tip removal and auxin application was reversed by 6-benzylaminopurine at concentrations >10(-8) M. The cytokinin oxidase inhibitor N1-(2chloro4pyridyl)-N2-phenylurea also suppressed auxin-induced lateral rooting. The elongation of primary roots was promoted by L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl) glycine and silver ions, but only the latter enhanced elongation of lateral roots. The data indicate that the induction of lateral roots is controlled by basipetally moving cytokinin and acropetally moving auxin. Lateral roots appear to not produce ethylene. PMID:11542270

  2. Lockhart Clarke's contribution to the description of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Turner, Martin R; Swash, Michael; Ebers, George C

    2010-11-01

    The definition of the clinicopathological entity of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis evolved over half a century. Although the definitive term amyotrophic lateral sclerosis that acknowledged both upper and lower motor neuron involvement was attributed to Jean-Martin Charcot in 1874, his initial case was published nearly a decade earlier; and it is accepted that, from at least the 1830s, several others (including Charles Bell, François-Amilcar Aran and Jean Cruveilhier) had already recognized a progressive lower motor neuron-only syndrome within a broader, clinically-defined group of disorders, termed progressive muscular atrophy. Although William Gowers first grouped the three phenotypes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, progressive muscular atrophy and progressive bulbar palsy together as part of the same syndrome, the term motor neuron disease, as an over-arching label, was not suggested until nearly a century later by W. Russell Brain. Augustus Jacob Lockhart Clarke (1817-80) is best known for his descriptions of spinal cord anatomy. However, in two detailed case reports from the 1860s, he carried out rigorous post-mortem neuropathological studies of what appear to be classical cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Furthermore, he recognized the additional involvement of the corticospinal tracts that distinguished this from progressive muscular atrophy. Several aspects of the exquisite clinical histories documented as part of both studies, one by Charles Bland Radcliffe, resonate with contemporary debates concerning the evolution of disease in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These 'past masters' still have much to teach us. PMID:20576696

  3. Lateral bending of the lumbar spine during quadrupedalism in strepsirhines.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, L J; Demes, B; Cooper, J

    2001-03-01

    Much research has been devoted to spinal kinematics of nonmammalian vertebrates, while comparatively little is known about the locomotor role of spinal movements in mammals, especially primates. This study, conducted at the Duke University Primate Center, examines the function of lateral spinal bending during quadrupedal walking among a diverse sample of strepsirhines. The taxa studied include Loris tardigradus (1), Nycticebus coucang (1), N. pygmaeus (1), Cheirogaleus medius (2), Varecia variegata (2), Eulemur fulvus (2), and a total sample size of 261 strides. Lateral bending varies among the taxa with respect to both magnitude and effects of velocity, and does not appear to be correlated with body size. In addition, the timing of lateral bending during a stride appears to differ from that reported for other (nonmammalian) tetrapods. On average, maximum lateral flexion occurs just after ipsilateral foot touchdown, which may be functionally associated with touchdown of the contralateral forelimb during diagonal sequence gait. For some of the taxa, lateral flexion coincides more closely with foot touchdown as velocity increases, suggesting a functional role in increasing hindlimb stride length. Both of these timing patterns contrast with those reported for lizards. Finally, although lorids as a group have been described as having a "sinuous" gait, this study shows more pronounced lateral flexion in Nycticebus than in Loris. PMID:11180987

  4. Exploring human brain lateralization with molecular genetics and genomics.

    PubMed

    Francks, Clyde

    2015-11-01

    Lateralizations of brain structure and motor behavior have been observed in humans as early as the first trimester of gestation, and are likely to arise from asymmetrical genetic-developmental programs, as in other animals. Studies of gene expression levels in postmortem tissue samples, comparing the left and right sides of the human cerebral cortex, have generally not revealed striking transcriptional differences between the hemispheres. This is likely due to lateralization of gene expression being subtle and quantitative. However, a recent re-analysis and meta-analysis of gene expression data from the adult superior temporal and auditory cortex found lateralization of transcription of genes involved in synaptic transmission and neuronal electrophysiology. Meanwhile, human subcortical mid- and hindbrain structures have not been well studied in relation to lateralization of gene activity, despite being potentially important developmental origins of asymmetry. Genetic polymorphisms with small effects on adult brain and behavioral asymmetries are beginning to be identified through studies of large datasets, but the core genetic mechanisms of lateralized human brain development remain unknown. Identifying subtly lateralized genetic networks in the brain will lead to a new understanding of how neuronal circuits on the left and right are differently fine-tuned to preferentially support particular cognitive and behavioral functions. PMID:25950729

  5. Lateral line diversity among ecologically divergent threespine stickleback populations

    PubMed Central

    Wark, A. R.; Peichel, C. L.

    2010-01-01

    The lateral line is a mechanoreceptive sensory system that allows fish to sense objects and motion in their local environment. Variation in lateral line morphology may allow fish in different habitats to differentially sense and respond to salient cues. Threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) occupy a diverse range of aquatic habitats; we therefore hypothesized that populations within the G. aculeatus species complex might show variation in the morphology of the lateral line sensory system. We sampled 16 threespine stickleback populations from marine, stream and lake (including benthic and limnetic) habitats and examined the distribution, type and number of neuromasts on different regions of the body. We found that the threespine stickleback has a reduced lateral line canal system, completely lacking canal neuromasts. Although the arrangement of lines of superficial neuromasts on the body was largely the same in all populations, the number of neuromasts within these lines varied across individuals, populations and habitats. In pairwise comparisons between threespine sticklebacks adapted to divergent habitats, we found significant differences in neuromast number. Stream residents had more neuromasts than marine sticklebacks living downstream in the same watershed. In two independent lakes, benthic sticklebacks had more trunk neuromasts than sympatric limnetic sticklebacks, providing evidence for parallel evolution of the lateral line system. Our data provide the first demonstration that the lateral line sensory system can vary significantly between individuals and among populations within a single species, and suggest that this sensory system may experience different selection regimes in alternative habitats. PMID:20008367

  6. Hydrocode Analysis of Lateral Stress Gauges in Shocked Tantalum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, E. J.; Winter, R. E.

    2007-12-01

    Experiments published by other workers, on the resistance change of manganin stress gauges embedded in a lateral orientation in tantalum targets shocked to a range of stresses, have been analysed using an adaptive mesh refinement hydrocode. It was found that for all of the four experiments the shape of the time profile of the computed lateral stress in the mounting layer closely matched the shape of the experimental lateral stress profiles. However, the calculated lateral stresses at the gauge location in the mounting layer are significantly less than the lateral stresses that would have been produced in the target if no gauge had been present. The perturbation caused by the gauge increased as the strength of the applied shock increased. When the perturbations are taken into account values of flow stress that are significantly smaller than those reported in the original research paper are derived. The work shows that the lateral gauge technique can give valuable information on strength provided high resolution simulation is used to compensate for the perturbations caused by the gauges.

  7. Hydrocode analysis of lateral stress gauges in shocked tantalum

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, E. J.; Winter, R. E.

    2007-12-12

    Experiments published by other workers, on the resistance change of manganin stress gauges embedded in a lateral orientation in tantalum targets shocked to a range of stresses, have been analysed using an adaptive mesh refinement hydrocode. It was found that for all of the four experiments the shape of the time profile of the computed lateral stress in the mounting layer closely matched the shape of the experimental lateral stress profiles. However, the calculated lateral stresses at the gauge location in the mounting layer are significantly less than the lateral stresses that would have been produced in the target if no gauge had been present. The perturbation caused by the gauge increased as the strength of the applied shock increased. When the perturbations are taken into account values of flow stress that are significantly smaller than those reported in the original research paper are derived. The work shows that the lateral gauge technique can give valuable information on strength provided high resolution simulation is used to compensate for the perturbations caused by the gauges.

  8. Lateral patellar facetectomy and medial reefing in patients with lateral facet syndrome after patellar-retaining total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Pagenstert, Geert; Seelhoff, Juliane; Henninger, Heath B; Wirtz, Dieter C; Valderrabano, Victor; Barg, Alexej

    2014-11-01

    We analyzed clinical outcomes of partial lateral patellar facetectomy and medial reefing in patients with lateral patellar facet syndrome with painful patellar-retaining total knee arthroplasty. 34 patients were followed for a mean of 40 months. All 34 patients were matched with those having secondary patellar resurfacing without facetectomy. Both groups experienced significant pain relief and range of motion improvement. The facetectomy group had higher Kujala scores than those in patellar resurfacing group. Patients with facetectomy had significantly less pain postoperatively. There were significant differences in postoperative lateral patellar tilt and congruency angle in both groups. The mid-term results for LPF with medial reefing are promising to resolve pain in patients with lateral patellar facet syndrome in patellar-retaining TKA. Therapeutic level III (retrospective comparative study). PMID:25070901

  9. Lateralization for dynamic facial expressions in human superior temporal sulcus.

    PubMed

    De Winter, François-Laurent; Zhu, Qi; Van den Stock, Jan; Nelissen, Koen; Peeters, Ronald; de Gelder, Beatrice; Vanduffel, Wim; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu

    2015-02-01

    Most face processing studies in humans show stronger activation in the right compared to the left hemisphere. Evidence is largely based on studies with static stimuli focusing on the fusiform face area (FFA). Hence, the pattern of lateralization for dynamic faces is less clear. Furthermore, it is unclear whether this property is common to human and non-human primates due to predisposing processing strategies in the right hemisphere or that alternatively left sided specialization for language in humans could be the driving force behind this phenomenon. We aimed to address both issues by studying lateralization for dynamic facial expressions in monkeys and humans. Therefore, we conducted an event-related fMRI experiment in three macaques and twenty right handed humans. We presented human and monkey dynamic facial expressions (chewing and fear) as well as scrambled versions to both species. We studied lateralization in independently defined face-responsive and face-selective regions by calculating a weighted lateralization index (LIwm) using a bootstrapping method. In order to examine if lateralization in humans is related to language, we performed a separate fMRI experiment in ten human volunteers including a 'speech' expression (one syllable non-word) and its scrambled version. Both within face-responsive and selective regions, we found consistent lateralization for dynamic faces (chewing and fear) versus scrambled versions in the right human posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), but not in FFA nor in ventral temporal cortex. Conversely, in monkeys no consistent pattern of lateralization for dynamic facial expressions was observed. Finally, LIwms based on the contrast between different types of dynamic facial expressions (relative to scrambled versions) revealed left-sided lateralization in human pSTS for speech-related expressions compared to chewing and emotional expressions. To conclude, we found consistent laterality effects in human posterior STS but not

  10. Do Age and Weight Bearing Films Affect Lateral Joint Space and Fibular Height Measurements in Patients with Discoid Lateral Meniscus?

    PubMed Central

    Milewski, Matthew David; Krochak, Ryan; Duarte, Andrew J.; Marchese, Joseph; Pace, James Lee; Broom, Alexander M.; Solomito, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Several radiographic parameters have been associated with discoid lateral meniscus. We sought to determine the effect of age and weight bearing (WB) on radiographic parameters associated with lateral discoid menisci in pediatric patients. Methods: Radiographs of patients with arthroscopically confirmed lateral discoid meniscus were compared to age, side, sex matched individuals with confirmed normal menisci. The radiographs were measured by a pediatric orthopaedic sports medicine attending and two orthopaedic residents for the following parameters: lateral joint space width (LJSW), fibular head height (FHH), width of the distal femur (WDF), tibial spine height (TSH), cupping of the lateral tibial plateau (CLTP), and obliquity of the lateral tibial plateau (OLTP). The results of this review focus on FHH and LJSW only. Results: 68 knees with discoid lateral menisci with a mean age of 11.6 ± 3.3 (15 WB films) were compared to 67 control knees with a mean age of 11.9 ± 3.2 (15 WB films). Results indicated that there were significant differences between the discoid and control groups when comparing LJSW (8.7 ± 2.2 mm discoid compared to 7.6 ± 2.1 mm control p=0.002) and FHH (13.5 ± 4.5 mm discoid compared to 18.6 ± 3.9 mm control p<0.001). Inter-rater reliability was satisfactory for LJSW and FHH (ICC 0.635 and 0.759 respectively). WB films were noted to have better inter-rater reliability compared to NWB films for LJSW (ICC 0.729 vs 0.514 respectively) but reduced inter-rater reliability for FHH (ICC 0.625 vs 0.868 respectively). Subgroup analysis based on age was also done comparing patients under 10 years old, patients between 10-14 years old, and patients over 14 years old. The FHH measurement was significantly decreased (indicative of a high fibular head) in the discoid group in all age groups. However, LJSW was only noted to be significantly different in patients over the age of 14. Conclusion: Increased lateral joint space width and a high

  11. Fold patterns, lateral ramps and seismicity in central Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pohn, H.A.; Coleman, J.L., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The Susquehanna lateral ramp crosses the entire length of Pennsylvania in a NNE direction and extends into southern New York State. Its presence was first suspected because of a dramatic change in fold wavelength across the Susquehanna River, seen on both side-looking airborne radar (SLAR *) data and the geologic map of Pennsylvania. Seismic reflection profiles confirm the presence of a ramp and show the detailed nature of structures associated with it. These structures include antiformal stacks, juxtaposed anticlines and synclines, and folds beheaded by thrust faults. The change in the fold pattern, which led to recognizing the lateral ramp, occurs above a rapid dropoff in depth to the basement suggesting that the ramp and the basement configuration may somehow be related. In plan view, eleven earthquakes are spatially related to the Susquehanna lateral ramp, although they are in the basement rocks rather than in the cover rocks which contain the lateral ramp itself. The earthquakes are, therefore, not likely directly associated with the ramp, though they may be affiliated with strike-slip faulting in the basement which, itself, appears to be partly responsible for the formation of the ramp. The initial age of the faulting along, and in the vicinity of, the Susquehanna lateral ramp is presumably Early to Middle Paleozoic. However, the presence of a surficially-exposed Mesozoic dike along the ramp and modern seismicity suggest that the Susquehanna lateral ramp may be a zone of protracted, and perhaps repeated, tectonism which is currently being reactivated. A preliminary evaluation of the distribution of modern earthquakes in the Valley and Ridge, Blue Ridge and Appalachian Plateau shows that nearly half of the earthquakes are located under lateral ramps. If this observation is true, the presence of ramps may be a useful geological indicator of areas susceptible to seismicity. ?? 1991.

  12. Hemispheric lateralization of verbal and spatial working memory during adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Bonnie J.; Herting, Megan M.; Maxwell, Emily C.; Bruno, Richard; Fair, Damien

    2013-01-01

    Adult functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature suggests that a left-right hemispheric dissociation may exist between verbal and spatial working memory (WM), respectively. However, investigation of this type has been obscured by incomparable verbal and spatial WM tasks and/or visual inspection at arbitrary thresholds as means to assess lateralization. Furthermore, it is unclear whether this hemispheric lateralization is present during adolescence, a time in which WM skills are improving, and whether there is a developmental association with laterality of brain functioning. This study used comparable verbal and spatial WM n-back tasks during fMRI and a bootstrap analysis approach to calculate lateralization indices (LI) across several thresholds to examine the potential of a left-right WM hemispheric dissociation in healthy adolescents. We found significant left hemispheric lateralization for verbal WM, most notably in the frontal and parietal lobes, as well as right hemisphere lateralization for spatial WM, seen in frontal and temporal cortices. Although no significant relationships were observed between LI and age or LI and performance, significant age-related patterns of brain activity were demonstrated during both verbal and spatial WM. Specifically, increased adolescent age was associated with less activity in the default mode brain network during verbal WM. In contrast, increased adolescent age was associated with greater activity in task-positive posterior parietal cortex during spatial working memory. Our findings highlight the importance of utilizing non-biased statistical methods and comparable tasks for determining patterns of functional lateralization. Our findings also suggest that, while a left-right hemispheric dissociation of verbal and spatial WM is apparent by early adolescence, age-related changes in functional activation during WM are also present. PMID:23511846

  13. Form matters: morphological aspects of lateral root development

    PubMed Central

    Szymanowska-Pułka, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Background The crucial role of roots in plant nutrition, and consequently in plant productivity, is a strong motivation to study the growth and functioning of various aspects of the root system. Numerous studies on lateral roots, as a major determinant of the root system architecture, mostly focus on the physiological and molecular bases of developmental processes. Unfortunately, little attention is paid either to the morphological changes accompanying the formation of a lateral root or to morphological defects occurring in lateral root primordia. The latter are observed in some mutants and occasionally in wild-type plants, but may also result from application of external factors. Scope and Conclusions In this review various morphological aspects of lateral branching in roots are analysed. Morphological events occurring during the formation of a typical lateral root are described. This process involves dramatic changes in the geometry of the developing organ that at early stages are associated with oblique cell divisions, leading to breaking of the symmetry of the cell pattern. Several types of defects in the morphology of primordia are indicated and described. Computer simulations show that some of these defects may result from an unstable field of growth rates. Significant changes in both primary and lateral root morphology may also be a consequence of various mutations, some of which are auxin-related. Examples reported in the literature are considered. Finally, lateral root formation is discussed in terms of mechanics. In this approach the primordium is considered as a physical object undergoing deformation and is characterized by specific mechanical properties. PMID:24190952

  14. Improved accuracy in Risser sign grading with lateral spinal radiography.

    PubMed

    Kotwicki, Tomasz

    2008-12-01

    Development of the ossification of the iliac crest is used to assess the remaining spinal growth. The clinical value of the Risser sign has been questioned because of its inaccuracy in grades 3 and 4. Estimation of the Risser sign based on the lateral spinal radiograph has not been reported. The aim of the study was to evaluate the course of ossification of the iliac apophysis along its full extension and to investigate relevance of the lateral spinal radiograph for more accurate Risser sign grading. Cross sectional analysis of spinal frontal and lateral long cassette standing spinal radiographs of 201 girls aged from 10.2 to 20.0 years were done. On the lateral spinal view, the ossification of the posterior part of the iliac apophysis was quantified at four grades: absent (A), partial (B), complete (C) or fused (D). The position of the posterior superior iliac spine was studied on both views as well as in pelvic specimens. The results showed that the posterior one-third portion of the iliac apophysis was sagittally oriented and obscured on the frontal radiograph by the sacroiliac junction. It could be studied on the lateral radiograph and revealed a different grading of the apophysis excursion in 58 of 201 (29%) patients, comparing to the frontal view. Both advanced or delayed ossification was observed and assessed with Lateral Risser Modifiers. Twenty-five percent of the patients at Risser 0 or 1 or 2 demonstrated a simultaneous ossification of the most anterior and the most posterior part of the iliac crest. The Risser grades of capping or fusion could be more precisely diagnosed using lateral radiograph in complement to the frontal one. The conclusions drawn from this study were: (1) Currently used Risser sign grading does not consider the actual excursion of the iliac apophysis, because one-third of the apophysis cannot be observed on the frontal radiograph. (2) Iliac apophysis full excursion or fusion can be more accurately estimated when the lateral spinal

  15. Ring-shaped lateral meniscus with hypoplasic anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Cátia; Castro, Ricardo; Cadilha, Rui; Raposo, Frederico; Melão, Lina

    2015-12-01

    Knee joint lesions can be solitary or occur concomitantly with other lower limb abnormalities. Ring-shaped lateral meniscus (RSM) and hypoplasic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are two rare malformations. The therapeutic management of such abnormalities is not consensual, and highly depends on clinical symptomatology. We report a case of a 25-year-old girl with progressive knee pain whose MRI demonstrated a continuous segment of lateral meniscus situated along the medial aspect of the lateral compartment, continuous with the otherwise normal-appearing lateral meniscus, compatible with an RSM. This anatomic variant can be mistaken by a displaced meniscal fragment, like a bucket-handle tear, a central tear of a discoid meniscus, or incomplete discoid meniscus, as previously reported. Her MRI examination also showed a thinned ACL with anomalous lateral course. This abnormality may be mistaken for an ACL rupture and/or a meniscofemoral ligament with agenesis of ACL. Multiple images in different planes as well as following the course of meniscal and ligaments are critical clues to avoid misdiagnosis. As a result, the diagnosis of an RSM along with hypoplasic ACL with abnormal attachment was assumed based on MRI and confirmed during arthroscopy. The patient was treated conservatively with clinical outcome improvement. PMID:26178136

  16. Lateral Downflows in Sunspot Penumbral Filaments and their Temporal Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban Pozuelo, S.; Bellot Rubio, L. R.; de la Cruz Rodríguez, J.

    2015-04-01

    We study the temporal evolution of downflows observed at the lateral edges of penumbral filaments in a sunspot located very close to the disk center. Our analysis is based on a sequence of nearly diffraction-limited scans of the Fe i 617.3 nm line taken with the CRisp Imaging Spectro-Polarimeter instrument at the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope. We compute Dopplergrams from the observed intensity profiles using line bisectors and filter the resulting velocity maps for subsonic oscillations. Lateral downflows appear everywhere in the center-side penumbra as small, weak patches of redshifts next to or along the edges of blueshifted flow channels. These patches have an intermittent life and undergo mergings and fragmentations quite frequently. The lateral downflows move together with the hosting filaments and react to their shape variations, very much resembling the evolution of granular convection in the quiet Sun. There is a good relation between brightness and velocity in the center-side penumbra, with downflows being darker than upflows on average, which is again reminiscent of quiet Sun convection. These results point to the existence of overturning convection in sunspot penumbrae, with elongated cells forming filaments where the flow is upward but very inclined, and weak lateral downward flows. In general, the circular polarization profiles emerging from the lateral downflows do not show sign reversals, although sometimes we detect three-lobed profiles that are suggestive of opposite magnetic polarities in the pixel.

  17. Effects of lateral osteotomy on surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, T F M; Pereira-Filho, V A; Gabrielli, M A C; Gonçales, E S; Santos-Pinto, A

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the potential effects of two different osteotomy designs of the maxillary lateral wall on dental and skeletal changes after surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME). Thirty adult patients were divided into two groups according to the lateral osteotomy design: group 1 (n=16) underwent lateral osteotomy performed in a horizontal straight fashion, and group 2 (n=14) underwent lateral osteotomy performed in parallel to the occlusal plane with a step at the zygomatic buttress. Cone beam computed tomography scans were obtained preoperatively (T1), immediately after expansion (T2), and 6 months after expansion (T3). Mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for the statistical analysis. The results showed no significant interaction effect between groups and time points. Therefore, maxillary expansion was effective in both groups. Statistically significant increases in all dental and skeletal measurements were observed immediately after expansion (P<0.001). Relapse of the nasal floor width, tipping of the supporting teeth, and an increase in root distance in molars occurred at T3 (P<0.05). In summary, the maxillary lateral osteotomy design did not influence the results of SARME, which occurred mainly through the inclination of maxillary segments. PMID:26688294

  18. Development of automobile tyre lateral runout measurement sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xie; Ye, Lingjian; Yao, Guanghui; Wang, Di; Zhi, Xiongfei

    2013-10-01

    Automobile tyre lateral runout is one of the important indexes to measure the quality of the tyre, it will affect the safety of the automobile in moving. This paper introduces a sensor for automobile tyre lateral runout measurement. The variation of the automobile tyre lateral runout causes the change of guide rod probe displacement and deforms of the cantilever beam which connects with the guide bar. The deformation of the cantilever beam leads to the change of the resistance value of strain gauge which is pasted on the cantilever beam. Through measuring circuit, the resistance value of the strain gauge is converted into output voltage that has a certain relationship with automobile tyre lateral runout. Then, the voltage signal is transformed by A/D convertor and send to SCM to process and display the value of runout. Meanwhile, SCM output control signal to control the actuator and adjust the equipment running status in real time so as to ensure the tyre lateral runout is within the allowed range.

  19. An assay for lateral line regeneration in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Pisano, Gina C; Mason, Samantha M; Dhliwayo, Nyembezi; Intine, Robert V; Sarras, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    Due to the clinical importance of hearing and balance disorders in man, model organisms such as the zebrafish have been used to study lateral line development and regeneration. The zebrafish is particularly attractive for such studies because of its rapid development time and its high regenerative capacity. To date, zebrafish studies of lateral line regeneration have mainly utilized fish of the embryonic and larval stages because of the lower number of neuromasts at these stages. This has made quantitative analysis of lateral line regeneration/and or development easier in the earlier developmental stages. Because many zebrafish models of neurological and non-neurological diseases are studied in the adult fish and not in the embryo/larvae, we focused on developing a quantitative lateral line regenerative assay in adult zebrafish so that an assay was available that could be applied to current adult zebrafish disease models. Building on previous studies by Van Trump et al. that described procedures for ablation of hair cells in adult Mexican blind cave fish and zebrafish (Danio rerio), our assay was designed to allow quantitative comparison between control and experimental groups. This was accomplished by developing a regenerative neuromast standard curve based on the percent of neuromast reappearance over a 24 hr time period following gentamicin-induced necrosis of hair cells in a defined region of the lateral line. The assay was also designed to allow extension of the analysis to the individual hair cell level when a higher level of resolution is required. PMID:24747778

  20. Comparison of manual, digital and lateral CBCT cephalometric analyses

    PubMed Central

    NAVARRO, Ricardo de Lima; OLTRAMARI-NAVARRO, Paula Vanessa Pedron; FERNANDES, Thais Maria Freire; de OLIVEIRA, Giovani Fidelis; CONTI, Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira; de ALMEIDA, Marcio Rodrigues; de ALMEIDA, Renato Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the reliability of three different methods of cephalometric analysis. Material and Methods: Conventional pretreatment lateral cephalograms and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans from 50 subjects from a radiological clinic were selected in order to test the three methods: manual tracings (MT), digitized lateral cephalograms (DLC), and lateral cephalograms from CBCT (LC-CBCT). The lateral cephalograms were manually analyzed through the Dolphin Imaging 11.0(tm) software. Twenty measurements were performed under the same conditions, and retraced after a 30-day period. Paired t tests and the Dahlberg formula were used to evaluate the intra-examiner errors. The Pearson's correlation coefficient and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were used to compare the differences between the methods. Results: Intra-examiner reliability occurred for all methods for most of the measurements. Only six measurements were different between the methods and an agreement was observed in the analyses among the 3 methods. Conclusions: The results demonstrated that all evaluated methodologies are reliable and valid for scientific research, however, the method used in the lateral cephalograms from the CBCT proved the most reliable. PMID:23739848

  1. Lateral-Medial Dissociation in Orbitofrontal Cortex-Hypothalamus Connectivity.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Satoshi; Osada, Takahiro; Ogawa, Akitoshi; Tanaka, Masaki; Wada, Hiroyuki; Yoshizawa, Yasunori; Imai, Yoshio; Machida, Toru; Akahane, Masaaki; Shirouzu, Ichiro; Konishi, Seiki

    2016-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is involved in cognitive functions, and is also closely related to autonomic functions. The OFC is densely connected with the hypothalamus, a heterogeneous structure controlling autonomic functions that can be divided into two major parts: the lateral and the medial. Resting-state functional connectivity has allowed us to parcellate the cerebral cortex into putative functional areas based on the changes in the spatial pattern of connectivity in the cerebral cortex when a seed point is moved from one voxel to another. In the present high spatial-resolution fMRI study, we investigate the connectivity-based organization of the OFC with reference to the hypothalamus. The OFC was parcellated using resting-state functional connectivity in an individual subject approach, and then the functional connectivity was examined between the parcellated areas in the OFC and the lateral/medial hypothalamus. We found a functional double dissociation in the OFC: the lateral OFC (the lateral orbital gyrus) was more likely connected with the lateral hypothalamus, whereas the medial OFC (the medial orbital and rectal gyri) was more likely connected with the medial hypothalamus. These results demonstrate the fundamental heterogeneity of the OFC, and suggest a potential neural basis of the OFC-hypothalamic functional interaction. PMID:27303281

  2. A lateral signalling pathway coordinates shape volatility during cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Luga, Valbona; Armitage, Sarah K.; Musiol, Martin; Won, Amy; Yip, Christopher M.; Plotnikov, Sergey V.; Wrana, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Cell migration is fundamental for both physiological and pathological processes. Migrating cells usually display high dynamics in morphology, which is orchestrated by an integrative array of signalling pathways. Here we identify a novel pathway, we term lateral signalling, comprised of the planar cell polarity (PCP) protein Pk1 and the RhoGAPs, Arhgap21/23. We show that the Pk1–Arhgap21/23 complex inhibits RhoA, is localized on the non-protrusive lateral membrane cortex and its disruption leads to the disorganization of the actomyosin network and altered focal adhesion dynamics. Pk1-mediated lateral signalling confines protrusive activity and is regulated by Smurf2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase in the PCP pathway. Furthermore, we demonstrate that dynamic interplay between lateral and protrusive signalling generates cyclical fluctuations in cell shape that we quantify here as shape volatility, which strongly correlates with migration speed. These studies uncover a previously unrecognized lateral signalling pathway that coordinates shape volatility during productive cell migration. PMID:27226243

  3. Analysis of quantitative trait loci for behavioral laterality in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Roubertoux, Pierre L; Le Roy, Isabelle; Tordjman, Sylvie; Cherfou, Améziane; Migliore-Samour, Danièle

    2003-01-01

    Laterality is believed to have genetic components, as has been deduced from family studies in humans and responses to artificial selection in mice, but these genetic components are unknown and the underlying physiological mechanisms are still a subject of dispute. We measured direction of laterality (preferential use of left or right paws) and degree of laterality (absolute difference between the use of left and right paws) in C57BL/6ByJ (B) and NZB/BlNJ (N) mice and in their F(1) and F(2) intercrosses. Measurements were taken of both forepaws and hind paws. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) did not emerge for direction but did for degree of laterality. One QTL for forepaw (LOD score = 5.6) and the second QTL for hind paw (LOD score = 7.2) were both located on chromosome 4 and their peaks were within the same confidence interval. A QTL for plasma luteinizing hormone concentration was also found in the confidence interval of these two QTL. These results suggest that the physiological mechanisms underlying degree of laterality react to gonadal steroids. PMID:12663540

  4. Lateral root initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana: a force awakens

    PubMed Central

    Geldner, Niko

    2015-01-01

    Osmotically driven turgor pressure of plant cells can be higher than that of a car tire. It puts tremendous forces onto cell walls and drives cell growth and changes in cell shape. This has given rise to unique mechanisms to control organ formation compared to metazoans. The fascinating interplay between forces and local cellular reorganization is still poorly understood. Growth of lateral roots is a prominent example of a developmental process in which mechanical forces between neighboring cells are generated and must be dealt with. Lateral roots initiate from a single cell layer that resides deep within the primary root. On their way out, lateral roots grow through the overlying endodermal, cortical, and epidermal cell layers. It was recently demonstrated that endodermal cells actively accommodate lateral root formation. Interfering genetically with these accommodating responses in the endodermis completely blocks cell proliferation in the pericycle. The lateral root system provides a unique opportunity to elucidate the molecular and cellular mechanisms whereby mechanical forces and intercellular communication regulate spatial accommodation during plant development. PMID:25926983

  5. Lateral Root Inducible System in Arabidopsis and Maize.

    PubMed

    Crombez, Hanne; Roberts, Ianto; Vangheluwe, Nick; Motte, Hans; Jansen, Leentje; Beeckman, Tom; Parizot, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Lateral root development contributes significantly to the root system, and hence is crucial for plant growth. The study of lateral root initiation is however tedious, because it occurs only in a few cells inside the root and in an unpredictable manner. To circumvent this problem, a Lateral Root Inducible System (LRIS) has been developed. By treating seedlings consecutively with an auxin transport inhibitor and a synthetic auxin, highly controlled lateral root initiation occurs synchronously in the primary root, allowing abundant sampling of a desired developmental stage. The LRIS has first been developed for Arabidopsis thaliana, but can be applied to other plants as well. Accordingly, it has been adapted for use in maize (Zea mays). A detailed overview of the different steps of the LRIS in both plants is given. The combination of this system with comparative transcriptomics made it possible to identify functional homologs of Arabidopsis lateral root initiation genes in other species as illustrated here for the CYCLIN B1;1 (CYCB1;1) cell cycle gene in maize. Finally, the principles that need to be taken into account when an LRIS is developed for other plant species are discussed. PMID:26862837

  6. A lateral signalling pathway coordinates shape volatility during cell migration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Luga, Valbona; Armitage, Sarah K; Musiol, Martin; Won, Amy; Yip, Christopher M; Plotnikov, Sergey V; Wrana, Jeffrey L

    2016-01-01

    Cell migration is fundamental for both physiological and pathological processes. Migrating cells usually display high dynamics in morphology, which is orchestrated by an integrative array of signalling pathways. Here we identify a novel pathway, we term lateral signalling, comprised of the planar cell polarity (PCP) protein Pk1 and the RhoGAPs, Arhgap21/23. We show that the Pk1-Arhgap21/23 complex inhibits RhoA, is localized on the non-protrusive lateral membrane cortex and its disruption leads to the disorganization of the actomyosin network and altered focal adhesion dynamics. Pk1-mediated lateral signalling confines protrusive activity and is regulated by Smurf2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase in the PCP pathway. Furthermore, we demonstrate that dynamic interplay between lateral and protrusive signalling generates cyclical fluctuations in cell shape that we quantify here as shape volatility, which strongly correlates with migration speed. These studies uncover a previously unrecognized lateral signalling pathway that coordinates shape volatility during productive cell migration. PMID:27226243

  7. Reduced Lateral Root Branching Density Improves Drought Tolerance in Maize.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ai; Schneider, Hannah; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2015-08-01

    An emerging paradigm is that root traits that reduce the metabolic costs of soil exploration improve the acquisition of limiting soil resources. Here, we test the hypothesis that reduced lateral root branching density will improve drought tolerance in maize (Zea mays) by reducing the metabolic costs of soil exploration, permitting greater axial root elongation, greater rooting depth, and thereby greater water acquisition from drying soil. Maize recombinant inbred lines with contrasting lateral root number and length (few but long [FL] and many but short [MS]) were grown under water stress in greenhouse mesocosms, in field rainout shelters, and in a second field environment with natural drought. Under water stress in mesocosms, lines with the FL phenotype had substantially less lateral root respiration per unit of axial root length, deeper rooting, greater leaf relative water content, greater stomatal conductance, and 50% greater shoot biomass than lines with the MS phenotype. Under water stress in the two field sites, lines with the FL phenotype had deeper rooting, much lighter stem water isotopic signature, signifying deeper water capture, 51% to 67% greater shoot biomass at flowering, and 144% greater yield than lines with the MS phenotype. These results entirely support the hypothesis that reduced lateral root branching density improves drought tolerance. The FL lateral root phenotype merits consideration as a selection target to improve the drought tolerance of maize and possibly other cereal crops. PMID:26077764

  8. Lateral orbitofrontal cortex links social impressions to political choices.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chenjie; Stolle, Dietlind; Gidengil, Elisabeth; Fellows, Lesley K

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies of political behavior suggest that voting decisions can be influenced substantially by "first-impression" social attributions based on physical appearance. Separate lines of research have implicated the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in the judgment of social traits on the one hand and economic decision-making on the other, making this region a plausible candidate for linking social attributions to voting decisions. Here, we asked whether OFC lesions in humans disrupted the ability to judge traits of political candidates or affected how these judgments influenced voting decisions. Seven patients with lateral OFC damage, 18 patients with frontal damage sparing the lateral OFC, and 53 matched healthy participants took part in a simulated election paradigm, in which they voted for real-life (but unknown) candidates based only on photographs of their faces. Consistent with previous work, attributions of "competence" and "attractiveness" based on candidate appearance predicted voting behavior in the healthy control group. Frontal damage did not affect substantially the ability to make competence or attractiveness judgments, but patients with damage to the lateral OFC differed from other groups in how they applied this information when voting. Only attractiveness ratings had any predictive power for voting choices after lateral OFC damage, whereas other frontal patients and healthy controls relied on information about both competence and attractiveness in making their choice. An intact lateral OFC may not be necessary for judgment of social traits based on physical appearance, but it seems to be crucial in applying this information in political decision-making. PMID:26041918

  9. Stabilization control of a hovering model insect: lateral motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-Lai; Sun, Mao

    2011-10-01

    Our previous study shows that the lateral disturbance motion of a model drone fly does not have inherent stability (passive stability), because of the existence of an unstable divergence mode. But drone flies are observed to fly stably. Constantly active control must be applied to stabilize the flight. In this study, we investigate the lateral stabilization control of the model drone fly. The method of computational fluid dynamics is used to compute the lateral control derivatives and the techniques of eigenvalue and eigenvector analysis and modal decomposition are used for solving the equations of motion. Controllability analysis shows that although inherently unstable, the lateral disturbance motion is controllable. By feeding back the state variables (i.e. lateral translation velocity, yaw rate, roll rate and roll angle, which can be measured by the sensory system of the insect) to produce anti-symmetrical changes in stroke amplitude and/or in angle of attack between the left and right wings, the motion can be stabilized, explaining why the drone flies can fly stably even if the flight is passively unstable.

  10. Experiment and Simulation of the Lateral Gauge in Glass Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, P. D.; Grief, A.; Tsembelis, K.; Proud, W. G.; Murray, N. H.

    2004-07-01

    The lateral stress in materials has been measured, under shock wave loading, using manganin gauges mounted normal to the direction of shock propagation. Generally the sample has been sectioned along the direction of impact and adhered again with the gauge in this plane. A series of previous papers have reported a two-step structure in the lateral gauge history, the presence or absence of which indicates the presence of failure fronts in a variety of materials, such as ceramics and glasses. In glasses the evidence also includes velocity interferometry (VISAR) traces and high-speed photography where the failure front is also seen. The gauge configurations have been simulated using the QinetiQ Eulerian hydrocode GRIM3D to identify the effect of local material response on the function of the lateral gauge. These initial results have illustrated that tensile fractures occur along the material at the gauge/sample interface, which propagate behind the main shock front. Another feature is that the flyer plate can jet into the region of the lateral cut and therefore impart a separate shock into this region. Curiously these effects seem to have little impact on the predicted lateral stress history.

  11. Hydrocode Analysis of Lateral Stress Gauges in Shocked Tantalum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Ernest; Winter, Ron

    2007-06-01

    Experiements published by other workers on the resistance change of manganin stress gauges embedded in a lateral orientation in Tantalum targets have been analysed using an Adaptive Mesh Refinement Hydrocode. It was found that for four experiments the shape of the time profile of the computed lateral stress in the mounting layer closely matched the shape of the experimental lateral stress profiles. However, the calculated lateral stresses at the gauge location in the mounting layer are significantly less than the stresses that would have been produced in the target if no gauge had been present. The perturbation caused by the gauge increased as the strength of the applied shock increased. When the perturbations are taken into account values of flow stress that are significantly smaller than those reported in the original research paper are derived. The work demonstrates that the lateral gauge technique can give valuable information on strength provided high resolution simulation is used to compensate for the perturbations caused by the gauges.

  12. Preschoolers' Psychopathology and Temperament Predict Mothers' Later Mood Disorders.

    PubMed

    Allmann, Anna E S; Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; Klein, Daniel N

    2016-04-01

    Considerable research exists documenting the relationship between maternal mood disorders, primarily major depressive disorder (MDD), and a variety of negative child outcomes. By contrast, research exploring the reverse pathway whereby child traits are associated with later maternal mood disorders is much more limited. We examined whether young children's temperament and psychopathology predicted maternal mood disorders approximately 6 years later. Child temperament and symptoms were assessed at age three using semi-structured diagnostic interviews and parent-report inventories. Maternal psychopathology was assessed with semi-structured interviews when children were 3 and 9 years old. Mothers also reported on their marital satisfaction when children were 3 and 6 years old. Child temperamental negative affectivity (NA), depressive symptoms, and externalizing behavior problems significantly predicted maternal mood disorders over and above prior maternal mood, anxiety, and substance disorders. The link between children's early externalizing symptoms and maternal mood disorders 6 years later was mediated by maternal marital satisfaction 3 years after the initial assessment. These findings suggest that early child temperament and psychopathology contribute to risk for later maternal mood disorders both directly and through their impact on the marital system. Research indicates that effective treatment of maternal depression is associated with positive outcomes for children; however, this study suggests that treating early child problems may mitigate the risk of later maternal psychopathology. PMID:26219263

  13. Lateral position detection and control for friction stir systems

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, Paul; Lammlein, David; Cook, George E.; Wilkes, Don Mitchell; Strauss, Alvin M.; Delapp, David; Hartman, Daniel A.

    2010-12-14

    A friction stir system for processing at least a first workpiece includes a spindle actuator coupled to a rotary tool comprising a rotating member for contacting and processing the first workpiece. A detection system is provided for obtaining information related to a lateral alignment of the rotating member. The detection system comprises at least one sensor for measuring a force experienced by the rotary tool or a parameter related to the force experienced by the rotary tool during processing, wherein the sensor provides sensor signals. A signal processing system is coupled to receive and analyze the sensor signals and determine a lateral alignment of the rotating member relative to a selected lateral position, a selected path, or a direction to decrease a lateral distance relative to the selected lateral position or selected path. In one embodiment, the friction stir system can be embodied as a closed loop tracking system, such as a robot-based tracked friction stir welding (FSW) or friction stir processing (FSP) system.

  14. Nanoparticle embedded enzymes for improved lateral flow sensors.

    PubMed

    Özalp, Veli C; Zeydanlı, Uğur S; Lunding, Anita; Kavruk, Murat; Öz, M Tufan; Eyidoğan, Füsun; Olsen, Lars F; Öktem, Hüseyin A

    2013-08-01

    In this study, combining the nanoparticle embedded sensors with lateral flow assays, a novel strategy for ensuring the quality of signalling in lateral flow assays (LFAs) was developed. A LFA for reactive oxygen species (ROS) is reported that is based on horse radish peroxidase (HRP) which is co-entrapped with Texas Red dextran inside porous polyacrylamide nanoparticles. In this system, enzymes are protected in the porous matrix of polyacrylamide which freely allows the diffusion of the analyte. The sensor is rapid and sensitive for quantification of hydrogen peroxide concentrations. A test solution of hydrogen peroxides was quantified with this novel LFA-ROS sensor to obtain a linear range between 1 and 25 μM. Nanoparticle embedding of enzymes is proposed here as a general strategy for developing enzyme-based lateral flow assays, eliminating adverse effects associated with biological samples. PMID:23730687

  15. Strategies of Healthy Adults Walking on a Laterally Oscillating Treadmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Rachel A.; Peters, Brian T.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2008-01-01

    We mounted a treadmill on top of a six degree-of-freedom motion base platform to investigate locomotor responses produced by healthy adults introduced to a dynamic walking surface. The experiment examined self-selected strategies employed by participants when exposed to continuous, sinusoidal lateral motion of the support surface while walking. Torso translation and step width were used to classify responses used to stabilize gait in a novel, dynamic environment. Two response categories emerged. Participants tended to either fix themselves in space (FIS), allowing the treadbelt to move laterally beneath them, or they fixed themselves to the base (FTB), moving laterally as the motion base oscillated. The degree of fixation in both extremes varied across participants. This finding suggests that normal adults have innate and varied preferences for reacquiring gait stability, some depending more heavily on vision (FIS group) and others on proprioception (FTB group). Keywords: Human locomotion, Unstable surface, Treadmill, Adaptation, Stability

  16. Persistent exposure to poverty during childhood limits later leader emergence.

    PubMed

    Barling, Julian; Weatherhead, Julie G

    2016-09-01

    Increasing attention is being paid to the question of why some people emerge as leaders, and we investigated the effects of persistent exposure to poverty during childhood on later leadership role occupancy. We hypothesized that exposure to poverty would limit later leadership role occupancy through the indirect effects of the quality of schooling and personal mastery, and that gender would moderate the effects of exposure to poverty and personal mastery. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Youth provided multiwave and multisource data for a sample of 4,536 (1,533 leaders; 3,003 nonleaders). Both school quality and personal mastery mediated the effects of family poverty status on later leadership role occupancy. Although gender did not moderate the effects of poverty on leadership role occupancy, the indirect effects of early exposure to poverty on leadership role occupancy through personal mastery were moderated by gender. Conceptual and practical implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27599090

  17. Efficacy and Safety of Split Peroneal Tendon Lateral Ankle Stabilization.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Naohiro; Bazán, D Issac; Evans, Andrew M; Agarwal, Monica R; Jupiter, Daniel C

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lateral ankle instability is a common condition. Split peroneal tendon lateral ankle stabilization, a modification of the Chrisman-Snook procedure, is biomechanically stable and often used for severe and/or recurrent chronic lateral ankle instability. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this technique. Specifically, the midterm recurrence of instability and postoperative complications, such as stiffness, neurologic pain, and wound healing complications, were evaluated. We evaluated 30 consecutive procedures with a minimal follow-up period of 1 year. The mean follow-up period was 25 ± 13 (median 19, range 13 to 62) months. Five patients (17%) developed recurrent ankle instability, of whom 4 underwent revision surgery. One superficial infection and two wound disruptions developed. Two patients experienced stiffness and eight (27%) surgically induced neurologic complaints, such as sural neuritis. Finally, 2 patients developed complex regional pain syndrome. PMID:26364699

  18. A theory for lateral wing-tip blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavella, D.; Roberts, L.

    1985-01-01

    The concept of lateral blowing consists in utilizing thin jets of air, which are ejected in the spanwise direction from slots at the tips of straight and swept wings, or along the leading edges of delta wings, to generate aerodynamic forces without the assistance of deflecting solid surfaces. For weak intensities of blowing the so-generated forces could be used for roll and lateral control of aircraft. In this work a theory for this concept as applied to straight wings is presented, revealing the analytical relationship between blowing and aerodynamic forces. The approach is based on perturbing the span of an elliptically loaded wing. Scaling laws involving blowing intensity, aspect ratio, and angle of attack are derived and compared with experiments. It is concluded that this concept has potential as a novel roll and lateral control device.

  19. Signaling Delays Preclude Defects in Lateral Inhibition Patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, David S.; Jin, Xiaofan; Riedel-Kruse, Ingmar H.

    2016-03-01

    Lateral inhibition represents a well-studied example of biology's ability to self-organize multicellular spatial patterns with single-cell precision. Despite established biochemical mechanisms for lateral inhibition (e.g., Delta-Notch), it remains unclear how cell-cell signaling delays inherent to these mechanisms affect patterning outcomes. We investigate a compact model of lateral inhibition highlighting these delays and find, remarkably, that long delays can ensure defect-free patterning. This effect is underscored by an interplay with synchronous oscillations, cis interactions, and signaling strength. Our results suggest that signaling delays, though previously posited as a source of developmental defects, may in fact be a general regulatory knob for tuning developmental robustness.

  20. Discoid lateral menisci: a report of 29 cases.

    PubMed

    Albertsson, M; Gillquist, J

    1988-01-01

    Of 7,056 knee arthroscopies performed during the period September 1979-November 1986, 30 patients had discoid menisci, one medially and 29 laterally. The frequency of discoid lateral menisci appears to be lower in Sweden than in North America, Scotland, and Japan. Our policy, to do a meniscectomy only when the discoid meniscus is thought to play a role in the symptoms, but leave it intact when an incidental finding, seems to give good results. Nine of the 29 patients studied had trauma as an initiating factor, but of those 10 patients whose discoid lateral menisci were thought to cause the symptoms, only one had trauma as an initiating factor. Theories of the cause of discoid menisci are discussed, as well as recommended treatment. PMID:3166662

  1. Image enhancement algorithm based on improved lateral inhibition network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Haijiao; Wu, Zhiyong; Wang, Guanjun; Tong, Gang; Yang, Hua

    2016-05-01

    There is often substantial noise and blurred details in the images captured by cameras. To solve this problem, we propose a novel image enhancement algorithm combined with an improved lateral inhibition network. Firstly, we built a mathematical model of a lateral inhibition network in conjunction with biological visual perception; this model helped to realize enhanced contrast and improved edge definition in images. Secondly, we proposed that the adaptive lateral inhibition coefficient adhere to an exponential distribution thus making the model more flexible and more universal. Finally, we added median filtering and a compensation measure factor to build the framework with high pass filtering functionality thus eliminating image noise and improving edge contrast, addressing problems with blurred image edges. Our experimental results show that our algorithm is able to eliminate noise and the blurring phenomena, and enhance the details of visible and infrared images.

  2. The study of piezoelectric lateral-electric-field-excited resonator.

    PubMed

    Zaitsev, Boris; Kuznetsova, Iren; Shikhabudinov, Alexander; Teplykh, Andrey; Borodina, Irina

    2014-01-01

    The piezoelectric lateral-electric-field-excited resonator based on an X-cut lithium niobate plate has been investigated. Two rectangular electrodes were applied on one side of the plate so that the lateral electric field components were parallel to the crystallographic Y-axis and excited the longitudinal wave in the gap between the electrodes. The region around the electrodes was covered with a special absorbing varnish to suppress the spurious oscillations. The effect of the absorbing coating width on the resonant frequency and Q-factor of the lateral field-excited resonator was studied in detail with the series and parallel resonances for different width of the gap between the electrodes. As a result, we found experimentally the parameter regions of pure resonances and the boundaries of value variation for resonance frequency, Q-factor, and effective electromechanical coupling coefficient. PMID:24402903

  3. Sensitivity of atypical lateral fire spread to wind and slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Colin. C.; Sharples, Jason J.; Evans, Jason P.

    2016-02-01

    This study presents new knowledge of the environmental sensitivity of a dynamic mode of atypical wildland fire spread on steep lee-facing slopes. This is achieved through a series of idealized numerical simulations performed with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and WRF-Fire coupled atmosphere-fire models. The sensitivity of the atypical lateral fire spread across lee slopes is tested for a varying background wind speed, wind direction relative to the terrain aspect, and lee slope steepness. The results indicate that the lateral spread characteristics are highly sensitive to each of these environmental conditions, and there is a broad agreement with the empirical thresholds calculated for lateral spread events observed in the 2003 Canberra bushfires. A theory to explain these environmental thresholds and their apparent interdependency is presented. The results are expected to have important implications for the management of wildland fires in rugged terrain.

  4. Vehicle Lateral State Estimation Based on Measured Tyre Forces

    PubMed Central

    Tuononen, Ari J.

    2009-01-01

    Future active safety systems need more accurate information about the state of vehicles. This article proposes a method to evaluate the lateral state of a vehicle based on measured tyre forces. The tyre forces of two tyres are estimated from optically measured tyre carcass deflections and transmitted wirelessly to the vehicle body. The two remaining tyres are so-called virtual tyre sensors, the forces of which are calculated from the real tyre sensor estimates. The Kalman filter estimator for lateral vehicle state based on measured tyre forces is presented, together with a simple method to define adaptive measurement error covariance depending on the driving condition of the vehicle. The estimated yaw rate and lateral velocity are compared with the validation sensor measurements. PMID:22291535

  5. Lateral vibration effects in atomic-scale friction

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, R.; Fajardo, O. Y.; Mazo, J. J.; Meyer, E.; Gnecco, E.

    2014-02-24

    The influence of lateral vibrations on the stick-slip motion of a nanotip elastically pulled on a flat crystal surface is studied by atomic force microscopy measurements on a NaCl(001) surface in ultra-high vacuum. The slippage of the nanotip across the crystal lattice is anticipated at increasing driving amplitude, similarly to what is observed in presence of normal vibrations. This lowers the average friction force, as explained by the Prandtl-Tomlinson model with lateral vibrations superimposed at finite temperature. Nevertheless, the peak values of the lateral force, and the total energy losses, are expected to increase with the excitation amplitude, which may limit the practical relevance of this effect.

  6. Influence of Coulomb screening on lateral lasing in VECSELs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengao; Malloy, Kevin; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2015-12-14

    Parasitic lateral lasing in certain optically pumped semiconductor disc lasers drains the gain of the vertical mode and thus causes power scaling degradation and premature rollover in surface emitting operation. We have observed this effect in both multiple quantum wells (MQW) (GaInAs/GaAs) and double heterostructures (DHS) (GaInP/GaAs/GaInP) under pulsed excitation even when the gain chip lateral dimensions are much larger than the diameter of the pump laser. Lateral lasing occurs persistently between cleaved facets at a band-tail wavelength much longer than the peak of the gain. We show that the effect of bandgap renormalization due to Coulomb screening explains this phenomena. Exploiting the simple analytical plasma theory of bulk semiconductors (Banyai & Koch, 1986), we can account for such an effect in double heterostructures. PMID:26699044

  7. LATER models of neural decision behavior in choice tasks

    PubMed Central

    Noorani, Imran

    2014-01-01

    Reaction time has been increasingly used over the last few decades to provide information on neural decision processes: it is a direct reflection of decision time. Saccades provide an excellent paradigm for this because many of them can be made in a very short time and the underlying neural pathways are relatively well-known. LATER (linear approach to threshold with ergodic rate) is a model originally devised to explain reaction time distributions in simple decision tasks. Recently, however it is being extended to increasingly more advanced tasks, including those with decision errors and those requiring voluntary control such as the antisaccade task and those where sequential decisions are required. The strength of this modeling approach lies in its detailed, quantitative predictions of behavior, yet LATER models still retain their conceptual simplicity that made LATER initially successful in explaining reaction times in simple decision tasks. PMID:25202242

  8. Pilot opinions of sampling effects in lateral-directional control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, R. F.; Miller, G. E.

    1982-01-01

    Flight experiments with a microprocessor control system were conducted to determine the effects of variations in sampling parameters on several pilots' opinions of lateral-directional flying qualities. Princeton's variable-response research aircraft (VRA), which is equipped with a microprocessor based digital flight control system (Micro-DFCS), was the test vehicle. Two U.S. Navy pilots evaluated the effects of sampling rate, quantization, and pure time delay during tracking, approach, and landing. Aircraft carrier approach tasks were conducted using a Navy approach mirror. Acquisition and tracking of fixed objects on the ground provided additional information related to the Navy misson. The longitudinal controls were implemented with analog electronics, while the lateral-directional pilot inputs (stick and rudder) were fed to the Micro-DFCS, which commanded the ailerons and rudder. The conceptual relationship between the evaluation pilot's lateral-directional inputs, the flight computer, and the aircraft are illustrated.

  9. Comparison of medial versus lateral meniscus allograft transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Guo; Liang, Jie; Ru, Neng; Li, Yu-Peng; Shang, Zheng-Hui; Chen, Jian-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To perform a literature review and meta-analysis evaluating the effectiveness of medial and lateral meniscus allograft transplantation (MAT). Methods: The literature review and meta-analysis were conducted between August and October 2015 in the People’s Hospital of China Three Gorges University, Yi Chang, China. A systematic search was performed in the Medline and EMBASE databases, and the Cochrane Library for relevant literature published through October 2015. The outcomes of the included studies were analyzed in terms of the Lysholm Score, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Score, Knee Injury And Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Tegner Activity Score, MRI results, and failure rates. An adapted version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used for the methodological quality assessment in the meta-analyses. Results: The literature review identified 12 observational studies, including 7 retrospective studies, 4 prospective studies, and the nature of one study was not reported. Significant differences in the outcomes of the lateral MAT group and the medial MAT group were observed in the IKDC scores, KOOS pain values, KOOS activities of daily living (ADL) values, and the absolute and relative extrusions observed on MRI, which suggested that the lateral MAT patients experienced superior clinical benefits compared with the medial MAT patients. However, significant differences between the lateral MAT group and the medial MAT group were not observed with regards to the Lysholm Scores, KOOS symptom values, KOOS sports and recreations values, KOOS quality of life (QOL) values, Tegner Activity Scores, VAS for pain values, and failure rates. Conclusion: The analysis results indicated that lateral MAT provides superior clinical outcomes compared with medial MAT according to the KOOS and IKDC scores. In addition, greater graft extrusion was observed in the medial group on MRI. Although significant differences were not

  10. Landing adaptations following isolated lateral meniscectomy in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Minning, Stephen J.; Myer, Gregory D.; Mangine, Robert E.; Colosimo, Angelo J.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Objective functional outcomes following isolated radial lateral meniscus tears in the athlete between the ages of 14–25 are not clearly defined. The objective of this study was to determine whether patients following lateral meniscectomy demonstrate lower extremity asymmetries relative to control athletes 3 months after surgery. We hypothesized that following lateral meniscectomy, athletes aged 14–25 years old would demonstrate altered landing biomechanics compared to sex, age, height, weight, and sport-matched controls. Methods A total of 18 subjects were included in this study. Nine patients (7 men and 2 women, 20.1 ± 2.8 years) who had undergone first-time isolated radial lateral meniscus tears were tested 3 months following partial lateral meniscectomies and compared to nine sex, age, height, weight, and sport-matched controls (7 men and 2 women, 19.7 ± 3.1 years). A ten-camera motion analysis system and two force platforms were used to collect three trials of bilateral drop landings. A 2X2 ANOVA was used to test the interaction between side (involved vs. uninvolved) and group (patient vs. control). Results The patient group landed with a decreased internal knee extensor moment compared to the uninvolved side and controls (interaction P < 0.05). The involved limb quadriceps isokinetic torque was not decreased compared to the contralateral or control (n.s.). Decreased knee extensor moments were significantly associated with reduced measures of function (IKDC scores: r = 0.69; P < 0.05). Conclusions Athletes who return to sport at approximately 3 months following a partial lateral meniscectomy may employ compensation strategies during landing as evidenced by reduced quadriceps recruitment and functional outcome scores. Clinicians should focus on improving quadriceps function during landing on the involved leg in an attempt to decrease residual limb asymmetries. Level of evidence Case–control study, Level III. PMID:21468616

  11. Isolated Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome of the Lateral Lower Leg

    PubMed Central

    van Zantvoort, Aniek P.M.; de Bruijn, Johan A.; Winkes, Michiel B.; Dielemans, Jeanne P.; van der Cruijsen-Raaijmakers, Marike; Hoogeveen, Adwin R.; Scheltinga, Marc R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exercise-induced lower leg pain may be caused by chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS). The anterior (ant-CECS) or deep posterior compartment (dp-CECS) is usually affected. Knowledge regarding CECS of the lateral compartment (lat-CECS) is limited. Purpose: To describe demographic characteristics and symptoms in a consecutive series of patients with isolated CECS of the lateral compartment of the leg. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Since 2001, patients undergoing dynamic intracompartmental pressure (ICP) measurements for suspected CECS in a single institution were prospectively monitored. Individuals with a history possibly associated with lat-CECS and elevated ICP measurements (Pedowitz criteria) were identified. Exclusion criteria were concomitant ipsilateral ant-CECS/dp-CECS, acute compartment syndrome, recent significant trauma, peroneal nerve entrapment, or vascular claudication. Results: During an 11-year time period, a total of 26 patients with isolated lat-CECS fulfilled study criteria (15 females; median age, 21 years; range, 14-48 years). Frequently identified provocative sports were running (n = 4), walking (n = 4), field hockey (n = 3), soccer (n = 3), and volleyball (n = 2). Exercise-induced lateral lower leg pain (92%) and tightness (42%) were often reported. The syndrome was bilateral in almost two-thirds (62%, n = 16). Delay in diagnosis averaged 24 months (range, 2 months to 10 years). Conclusion: Young patients with exercise-induced pain in the lateral portions of the lower leg may suffer from isolated CECS of the lateral compartment. ICP measurements in the lateral compartment in these patients are recommended. PMID:26740955

  12. Comparative squamation of the lateral line canal pores in sharks.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, R W; Motta, P J; Rohr, J R

    2014-05-01

    The current study collected the first quantitative data on lateral line pore squamation patterns in sharks and assessed whether divergent squamation patterns are similar to experimental models that cause reduction in boundary layer turbulence. In addition, the hypothesis that divergent orientation angles are exclusively found in fast-swimming shark species was tested. The posterior lateral line and supraorbital lateral line pore squamation of the fast-swimming pelagic shortfin mako shark Isurus oxyrinchus and the slow-swimming epi-benthic spiny dogfish shark Squalus acanthias was examined. Pore scale morphology and pore coverage were qualitatively analysed and compared. In addition, pore squamation orientation patterns were quantified for four regions along the posterior lateral line and compared for both species. Isurus oxyrinchus possessed consistent pore scale coverage among sampled regions and had a divergent squamation pattern with multiple scale rows directed dorsally and ventrally away from the anterior margin of the pore with an average divergent angle of 13° for the first row of scales. Squalus acanthias possessed variable amounts of scale coverage among the sampled regions and had a divergent squamation pattern with multiple scale rows directed ventrally away from the anterior margin of the pore with an average angle of 19° for the first row of scales. Overall, the squamation pattern measured in I. oxyrinchus fell within the parameters used in the fluid flow analysis, which suggests that this pattern may reduce boundary layer turbulence and affect lateral line sensitivity. The exclusively ventral oriented scale pattern seen in S. acanthias possessed a high degree of divergence but the pattern did not match that of the fluid flow models. Given current knowledge, it is unclear how this would affect boundary layer flow. By studying the relationship between squamation patterns and the lateral line, new insights are provided into sensory biology that warrant

  13. Dynamic biomechanics of the human head in lateral impacts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiangyue; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    The biomechanical responses of human head (translational head CG accelerations, rotational head accelerations, and HIC) under lateral impact to the parietal-temporal region were investigated in the current study. Free drop tests were conducted at impact velocities ranging from 2.44 to 7.70 m/s with a 40 durometer, a 90 durometer flat padding, and a 90 durometer cylinder. Specimens were isolated from PMHS subjects at the level of occipital condyles, and the intracranial substance was replaced with brain simulant (Sylgard 527). Three tri-axial accelerometers were instrumented at the anterior, posterior, and vertex of the specimen, and a pyramid nine accelerometer package (pNAP) was used at the contra-lateral site. Biomechanical responses were computed by transforming accelerations measured at each location to the head CG. The results indicated significant “hoop effect” from skull deformation. Translational head CG accelerations were accurately measured by transforming the pNAP, the vertex accelerations, or the average of anterior/posterior acceleration to the CG. The material stiffness and structural rigidity of the padding changed the biomechanical responses of the head with stiffer padding resulting in higher head accelerations. At the skull fracture, HIC values were more than 2–3x higher than the frontal skull fracture threshold (HIC=1000), emphasizing the differences between frontal and lateral impact. Rotational head accelerations up to 42.1 krad/s2 were observed before skull fracture, indicating possible severe brain injury without skull fracture in lateral head impact. These data will help to establish injury criteria and threshold in lateral impacts for improved automotive protection and help clinicians understand the biomechanics of lateral head impact from improved diagnosis. PMID:20184848

  14. Lateral Orbital Wall Destruction Due to Pilonidal Sinus.

    PubMed

    Karadağ, Emine Çiğdem; Toy, Hatice; Tosun, Zekeriya

    2016-07-01

    Pilonidal sinus is a chronic inflammatory disease commonly observed in the sacrococcygeal region. The authors report a patient of a pilonidal sinus in a rare location-the lateral orbital region. The authors' patient was misdiagnosed with an epidermal cyst, and the subsequent incomplete excision of the sinus tract led a pilonidal sinus with a high morbidity resulting in the destruction of bone tissue in the lateral orbital wall. It was, therefore, crucial to accurately diagnose and treat before the infection progressed through the bone and caused osteomyelitis. PMID:27391513

  15. Lateral variation of target poisoning during reactive magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Guettler, D.; Groetzschel, R.; Moeller, W.

    2007-06-25

    The reactive gas incorporation into a Ti sputter target has been investigated using laterally resolving ion beam analysis during dc magnetron deposition of TiN in an Ar/N{sub 2} atmosphere. At sufficiently low reactive gas flow, the nitrogen incorporation exhibits a pronounced lateral variation, with a lower areal density in the target racetrack compared to the target center and edge. The findings are reproduced by model calculations. In the racetrack, the balance of reactive gas injection and sputter erosion is shifted toward erosion. The injection of nitrogen is dominated by combined molecular adsorption and recoil implantation versus direct ion implantation.

  16. An Improved Method of Manufacturing Corrugated Boxes: Lateral Corrugator

    SciTech Connect

    Frank C. Murray Ph.D.; , Roman Popil Ph.D.; Michael Shaepe

    2008-12-18

    Paper physicists have known that a corrugated box constructed from outer liner sheets having a predominant fiber orientation aligned with the corrugating flute direction would have higher stiffness and crush resistance (per unit of fiber weight) than the conventional box construction. Such increased performance per unit of fiber weight could result in fiber reduction and energy savings for boxes having equivalent performance specifications. The goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a commercially viable lateral corrugating process. This included designing and building a pilot lateral corrugator, testing and evaluating pilot machine made boxes, and developing a strategy for commercialization.

  17. The anterior approach to the shoulder from the lateral position.

    PubMed

    Steingard, M A

    1996-11-01

    An alternative method of operating on the anterior structures of the shoulder is presented. With the patient in the decubitus lateral position, the joint is readily accessible without cutting the conjoined tendon or performing an osteotomy of the coracoid process. The lateral decubitus positioning of the patient allows the surgeon to reinsert the arthroscope into the shoulder after open surgery to check the repair. This approach eliminates repositioning the patient to the supine position. It can be performed without a surgical assistant if the scrub technician is able to rotate the arm at certain times during the operation. PMID:8959262

  18. Lateral electronic screening in quasi-one-dimensional plasmons.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, T; Tegenkamp, C; Pfnür, H

    2016-09-01

    The properties of one-dimensional (1D) plasmons are rather unexplored. We investigated the plasmonic collective excitations, measured as one-dimensional plasmon dispersions with electron energy loss spectroscopy, highly resolved both in energy and lateral momentum, for both phases of Au induced chains on stepped Si(553) substrates. We observe 1D dispersions that are strongly influenced by the lateral chain width and by the interchain coupling. Indications for the existence of two different plasmons originating from two surface bands of the systems are given for the low coverage phase. PMID:27384978

  19. Two blowing concepts for roll and lateral control of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavella, D. A.; Wood, N. J.; Lee, C. S.; Roberts, L.

    1986-01-01

    Two schemes to modulate aerodynamic forces for roll and lateral control of aircraft have been investigated. The first scheme, called the lateral blowing concept, consists of thin jets of air exiting spanwise, or at small angle with the spanwise direction, from slots at the tips of straight wings. For this scheme, in addition to experimental measurements, a theory was developed showing the analytical relationship between aerodynamic forces and jet and wing parameters. Experimental results confirmed the theoretically derived scaling laws. The second scheme, which was studied experimentally, is called the jet spoiler concept and consists of thin jets exiting normally to the wing surface from slots aligned with the spanwise direction.

  20. Lateral electronic screening in quasi-one-dimensional plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenstein, T.; Tegenkamp, C.; Pfnür, H.

    2016-09-01

    The properties of one-dimensional (1D) plasmons are rather unexplored. We investigated the plasmonic collective excitations, measured as one-dimensional plasmon dispersions with electron energy loss spectroscopy, highly resolved both in energy and lateral momentum, for both phases of Au induced chains on stepped Si(553) substrates. We observe 1D dispersions that are strongly influenced by the lateral chain width and by the interchain coupling. Indications for the existence of two different plasmons originating from two surface bands of the systems are given for the low coverage phase.

  1. Divided maxillary artery in relation to the lateral pterygoid muscle.

    PubMed

    Aland, R Claire; Shaw, Vivien

    2016-03-01

    We describe an anatomical variation of the right maxillary artery. The variation loops deep, giving off a middle meningeal artery with an extremely short extracranial segment, then bifurcates into unequal branches. The smaller branch passes superficial to the lateral pterygoid head and distributes primarily to the masticatory muscles. The larger partially pierces the lateral pterygoid lower head, re-emerges superficially, branches again and passes into the pterygopalatine fossa. The larger lies superficial to the lingual and inferior alveolar nerves and deep to the buccal nerve. An embryonic development origin of the cranial arteries is suggested. PMID:26077959

  2. Lateral groundwater inflows into alluvial aquifers of main alpine valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    In alpine regions the topography is mainly characterised by deep incised valleys, mountain slopes and ridges. Usually the main valleys contain aquifers in alluvial soft rock. Lateral these aquifers are confined by mountainous hard rock slopes covered by heterogeneous sediments with different thickness. The slopes can be incised by lateral valleys. Numerical models for the main alluvial aquifers ask for lateral hydrogeological boundaries. Usually no flow boundaries or Constant head Boundaries are used, even if the lateral inflows to the main aquifers are rarely known. In this example a data set for a detailed investigated and monitored area is studied to give an answer on the location and the quantification of these lateral subsurface inflows. The study area is a typical main alpine valley with a thick alluvial aquifer (appr. 120m thick), lateral confined by granite, covered at the base of the steep slopes by quaternary sediments (Burger at al. 2012). The study consists of several steps 1.) Analytical calculation of the inflows on the base of investigated and monitored 2d profiles along fault zones (Perello et al 2013) which pinch out in the main valley 2.) Analytical models along typical W-dipping slopes with monitored slope springs 3.) Evaluating temperature and electrical conductivity profiles measured in approx. 30 groundwater wells in the alluvial aquifers and along the slopes to locate main lateral subsurface inflows 4.) Output of a regional model used for the hydrogeological back analyses of the excavation of a tunnel (Baietto et al. 2014) 5.) Output of a local numerical model calibrated with a monitoring dataset and results of a pumping test of big scale (450l/s for 10days) Results of these analyses are shown to locate and quantify the lateral groundwater inflows in the main alluvial aquifer. References Baietto A., Burger U., Perello P. (2014): Hydrogeological modelling applications in tunnel excavations: examples from tunnel excavations in granitic rocks

  3. Resume and analysis of NACA lateral control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weick, Fred E; Jones, Robert T

    1937-01-01

    An analysis of the principal results of recent NACA lateral control research is made by utilizing the experience and progress gained during the course of the investigation. Two things are considered of primary importance in judging the effectiveness of different control devices: the (calculated) banking and yawing motion of a typical small airplane caused by a deflection of the control, and the stick force required to produce this deflection. The report includes a table in which a number of different lateral control devices are compared on these bases.

  4. Lateral variation of target poisoning during reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güttler, D.; Grötzschel, R.; Möller, W.

    2007-06-01

    The reactive gas incorporation into a Ti sputter target has been investigated using laterally resolving ion beam analysis during dc magnetron deposition of TiN in an Ar /N2 atmosphere. At sufficiently low reactive gas flow, the nitrogen incorporation exhibits a pronounced lateral variation, with a lower areal density in the target racetrack compared to the target center and edge. The findings are reproduced by model calculations. In the racetrack, the balance of reactive gas injection and sputter erosion is shifted toward erosion. The injection of nitrogen is dominated by combined molecular adsorption and recoil implantation versus direct ion implantation.

  5. LATERAL GENE TRANSFER AND THE HISTORY OF BACTERIAL GENOMES

    SciTech Connect

    Howard Ochman

    2006-02-22

    The aims of this research were to elucidate the role and extent of lateral transfer in the differentiation of bacterial strains and species, and to assess the impact of gene transfer on the evolution of bacterial genomes. The ultimate goal of the project is to examine the dynamics of a core set of protein-coding genes (i.e., those that are distributed universally among Bacteria) by developing conserved primers that would allow their amplification and sequencing in any bacterial taxa. In addition, we adopted a bioinformatic approach to elucidate the extent of lateral gene transfer in sequenced genome.

  6. Band engineering in transition metal dichalcogenides: Stacked versus lateral heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yuzheng; Robertson, John

    2016-06-01

    We calculate a large difference in the band alignments for transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) heterojunctions when arranged in the stacked layer or lateral (in-plane) geometries, using direct supercell calculations. The stacked case follows the unpinned limit of the electron affinity rule, whereas the lateral geometry follows the strongly pinned limit of alignment of charge neutrality levels. TMDs therefore provide one of the few clear tests of band alignment models, whereas three-dimensional semiconductors give less stringent tests because of accidental chemical trends in their properties.

  7. Lateral flow microarrays: a novel platform for rapid nucleic acid detection based on miniaturized lateral flow chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Darren J.; Cary, R. Bruce

    2007-01-01

    Widely used nucleic acid assays are poorly suited for field deployment where access to laboratory instrumentation is limited or unavailable. The need for field deployable nucleic acid detection demands inexpensive, facile systems without sacrificing information capacity or sensitivity. Here we describe a novel microarray platform capable of rapid, sensitive nucleic acid detection without specialized instrumentation. The approach is based on a miniaturized lateral flow device that makes use of hybridization-mediated target capture. The miniaturization of lateral flow nucleic acid detection provides multiple advantages over traditional lateral flow devices. Ten-microliter sample volumes reduce reagent consumption and yield analyte detection times, excluding sample preparation and amplification, of <120 s while providing sub-femtomole sensitivity. Moreover, the use of microarray technology increases the potential information capacity of lateral flow. Coupled with a hybridization-based detection scheme, the lateral flow microarray (LFM) enables sequence-specific detection, opening the door to highly multiplexed implementations for broad-range assays well suited for point-of-care and other field applications. The LFM system is demonstrated using an isothermal amplification strategy for detection of Bacillus anthracis, the etiologic agent of anthrax. RNA from as few as two B. anthracis cells was detected without thermocycling hardware or fluorescence detection systems. PMID:17478499

  8. L’inhalation de corticostéroïdes est-elle sécuritaire durant la grossesse?

    PubMed Central

    Smy, Laura; Chan, Alvin C.H.; Bozzo, Pina; Koren, Gideon

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Question Une femme atteinte d’asthme léger à modéré, autrement en santé, s’est présentée à ma clinique aujourd’hui après avoir appris qu’elle était enceinte. Elle m’a demandé si elle devait continuer à prendre ses corticostéroïdes en inhalation (CSI) et, dans l’affirmative, s’il pourrait y avoir des risques pour son enfant à naître. Quels seraient vos conseils à ce propos? Réponse Compte tenu des données probantes publiées, les CSI devraient être continués durant toute la grossesse à des doses allant de faibles à modérées et suffisantes pour contrôler les symptômes de l’asthme et prévenir les exacerbations. Il faut toutefois être prudent quand il s’agit de doses de plus de 1 000 µg/j (d’équivalent de béclométasone avec chlorofluorocarbures), quoiqu’il soit actuellement questionnable si de telles doses causeraient des effets indésirables. Il faut renseigner de manière continue les patientes sur l’administration appropriée des CSI et l’observance du traitement, y compris durant le premier trimestre. Un bon contrôle de l’asthme réduira la nécessité de doses plus fortes de CSI et de l’exposition possible à des corticostéroïdes systémiques et diminuera ainsi le risque de résultats périnatals ou de grossesse indésirables.

  9. Read Hard, Play Later: Putting Summer Reading into Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wemett, Lisa C.; Bolan, Kimberly

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of "Read on the Wild Side," a summer reading program for young adults established by the Webster (New York) Public Library, and "Read Hard, Play Later," a young adult summer reading program of the Pioneer Library System (New York). Highlights include reading logs, T-shirts, publicity, program evaluation, benefits, summer…

  10. Lateral and Anterior Thalamic Lesions Impair Independent Memory Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Anna S.; Dalrymple-Alford, John C.

    2006-01-01

    Damage to the medial region of the thalamus, both in clinical cases (e.g., patients with infarcts or the Korsakoff's syndrome) and animal lesion models, is associated with variable amnesic deficits. Some studies suggest that many of these memory deficits rely on the presence of lateral thalamic lesions (LT) that include the intralaminar nuclei,…

  11. Laterality and Intellectual Ability: A Just Not Noticeable Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardyck, C.

    1977-01-01

    Research on laterality and intellectual abilities suggests that left-handed persons may be divided into two categories: one not discriminably different from those who are right-handed, and one deficient in intellectual and cognitive abilities. 7688 children were tested on handedness, intellectual performance, and scholastic aptitude in order to…

  12. Cerebral Laterality Effects in the Dual Processing of Prose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Raymond S.

    1984-01-01

    The degree to which concreteness of prose material presented in an auditory fashion would interact with learners' lateral preference under different right hemispheric presentation conditions was investigated with 96 adults. Subjects recalled a greater number of ideas when the passage was concrete. Abstractness interacted with cerebral dominance.…

  13. Language Lateralization in Children Using Functional Transcranial Doppler Sonography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haag, Anja; Moeller, Nicola; Knake, Susanne; Hermsen, Anke; Oertel, Wolfgang H.; Rosenow, Felix; Hamer, Hajo M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Language lateralization with functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) and lexical word generation has been shown to have high concordance with the Wada test and functional magnetic resonance imaging in adults. We evaluated a nonlexical paradigm to determine language dominance in children. Method: In 23 right-handed children (12…

  14. 9. VIEW SHOWING CHILDREN SWIMMING IN A LATERAL OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW SHOWING CHILDREN SWIMMING IN A LATERAL OF THE GRAND CANAL LOCATION UNKNOWN. THE HUGE COTTONWOOD TREES THAT ONCE-LINED MOST CANALS AND DITCHES WERE CUT DOWN WHEN IT WAS DISCOVERED THAT THEY CONSUMED HUNDREDS OF GALLONS OF WATER EACH DAY. Photographer unknown, no date - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. Transitions into and out of Cohabitation in Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Susan L.; Bulanda, Jennifer Roebuck; Lee, Gary R.

    2012-01-01

    Cohabitation among adults over age 50 is rising rapidly, more than doubling from 1.2 million in 2000 to 2.75 million in 2010. A small literature provides a descriptive portrait of older cohabitors, but no study has investigated transitions into and out of cohabitation during later life. Drawing on demographic and life course perspectives, the…

  16. [Extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of lateral abdominal wall (case report)].

    PubMed

    Akfirat, Murat; Kayaoğlu, Hüseyin Ayhan

    2004-12-01

    Mesenchymal chondrosarcomas are very rare in comparison to the conventional types. They can occur from any location containing mesenchymal cells, but most arise in the lower extremities, leptomeninges and in the orbits. Other sites are very uncommon. We present a case of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the lateral abdominal wall, and this is the first report of the tumor localized in this region. PMID:15611919

  17. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, August 1951 LATERAL VIEW, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, August 1951 LATERAL VIEW, EAST FRONT, OLD PHOTOGRAPH c. 1850 Restricted: Permission for use must be obtained in writing from Art Library, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. - Skinner-Trowbridge House, 46 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  18. Ethylene-Induced Lateral Expansion in Etiolated Pea Stems 1

    PubMed Central

    Taiz, Lincoln; Rayle, David L.; Eisinger, William

    1983-01-01

    Ethylene-induced inhibition of elongation and promotion of lateral expansion in the stems of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. var Alaska) seedlings is not associated with any alteration of auxin-stimulated proton extrusion. Indeed, lateral expansion in response to ethylene apparently requires an acidified wall since it is prevented by strong neutral buffers and by the ATPase inhibitor orthovanadate. Ethylene treatment reduces the capacity of live and frozen-thawed sections to extend in the longitudinal direction in response to acid. The effect of ethylene on lateral acid growth capacity is more complicated. Ethylene-treated internodes do not exhibit acid-induced lateral expansion. Ethylene-treated segments which have been frozen-thawed do show an enhanced capacity to extend in the transverse direction at acid pH, but only when the inner tissues have been removed by coring. We conclude that two of the factors which control the directionality of expansion during ethylene treatment are a decrease in the sensitivity of the walls to acid longitudinally and an increase in the sensitivity of the outer cortical parenchyma walls to acid in the transverse direction. PMID:16663230

  19. Lateralized frontal activity for Japanese phonological processing during child development

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Takaaki; Kita, Yosuke; Suzuki, Kota; Koike, Toshihide; Inagaki, Masumi

    2015-01-01

    Phonological awareness is essential for reading, and is common to all language systems, including alphabetic languages and Japanese. This cognitive factor develops during childhood, and is thought to be associated with shifts in brain activity. However, the nature of this neurobiological developmental shift is unclear for speakers of Japanese, which is not an alphabetical language. The present study aimed to reveal a shift in brain functions for processing phonological information in native-born Japanese children. We conducted a phonological awareness task and examined hemodynamic activity in 103 children aged 7–12 years. While younger children made mistakes and needed more time to sort phonological information in reverse order, older children completed the task quickly and accurately. Additionally, younger children exhibited increased activity in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which may be evidence of immature phonological processing skills. Older children exhibited dominant activity in the left compared with the right DLPFC, suggesting that they had already acquired phonological processing skills. We also found significant effects of age and lateralized activity on behavioral performance. During earlier stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a smaller effect on behavioral performance. Conversely, in later stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a stronger influence on behavioral performance. These initial findings regarding a neurobiological developmental shift in Japanese speakers suggest that common brain regions play a critical role in the development of phonological processing skills among different languages systems, such as Japanese and alphabetical languages. PMID:26236223

  20. 17. Photocopy of drawing, Erection Plan of Top Lateral Bracing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of drawing, Erection Plan of Top Lateral Bracing of Bridge at South Norwalk for the N.Y., N.H. and H.R.R., dated June 12, 1895. Original on file with Metro North Commuter Railroad. - South Norwalk Railroad Bridge, South Main & Washington Streets, Norwalk, Fairfield County, CT