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1

Will Durant Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While Will Durant is most well-known for his massive 11 volume Story of Civilization, the Will Durant Foundation Web site tells visitors about some of his other projects and life achievements, along with those of his wife, Ariel Durant. The site begins with a short essay offering a brief synopsis of Durant's life, including his relationship with his wife and the publishing icons Dick Simon and Max Schuster. The site contains articles written by Will Durant on a variety of subjects ranging from ancient Greece to the nature of civilization. For those interested in asking questions about Durant and his work, there is also an open and moderated discussion forum, along with a place for interested visitors to purchase any number of volumes authored by Mr. Durant and his wife.

2001-01-01

2

Later Childbearing  

MedlinePLUS

... is there a concern about having a child later in life? Becoming pregnant after age 35 years ... well. What specific health concerns are there for later childbearing? Older women are more likely to have ...

3

Lateral Thinking about Lateral Inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT has recently been asserted1 that the well known apparent expansion of acute angles is due not to the lateral inhibition proposed by Blakemore et al.2, but to an adaptation effect similar to the Gibson tilt after-effect3,4. The arguments by which Coltheart arrives at this conclusion, however, seem to us to be based on a complete misreading, and hence misrepresentation,

Colin Blakemore; R. H. S. Carpenter; M. A. GEORGESON

1971-01-01

4

Cuidados paliativos durante el cáncer  

Cancer.gov

Hoja informativa que describe la función de los cuidados paliativos, los cuales son los cuidados que se brindan a pacientes que tienen una enfermedad grave o potencialmente letal, como el cáncer, desde el momento del diagnóstico y durante todo el curso de la enfermedad.

5

OS EFEITOS DA APRENDIZAGEM PSICOMOTORA NO CONTROLE DAS ATIVIDADES DE LOCOMOÇÃO SOBRE OBSTÁCULOS EM CRIANÇAS COM DEFICIÊNCIA DA VISÃO THE EFFECTS OF PSYCHOMOTOR LEARNING ON THE CONTROL OF LOCOMOTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: considerando que a visão é um dos sistemas sensoriais mais importantes na locomoção pois fornece informação tanto do ambiente quanto da postura e dos movimentos corporais, este estudo analisou os efeitos de um programa de treinamento perceptivo-motor no controle das atividades de locomoção em seis crianças com deficiências da visão. Para tanto, realizou-se a avaliação da locomoção durante a

Luiz Cezar; Janine Eliza de Oliveira; Silva PASSOS; Luiz Gonçalves

6

Lateral flow strip assay  

DOEpatents

A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

Miles, Robin R. (Danville, CA); Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA); Coleman, Matthew A. (Oakland, CA); Pearson, Francesca S. (Livermore, CA); Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L. (Livermore, CA)

2011-03-08

7

Lateral subtalar dislocation.  

PubMed

Subtalar dislocations are rare in routine orthopedic practice. While many of these dislocations are a result of high-energy injuries such as fall from a height or traffic accidents, it is not uncommon for patients to present after slipping down a few stairs. Two types of dislocation have been described, medial and lateral. The type of dislocation is described according to the position of the foot. In lateral subtalar dislocation the head of talus is found medially and the calcaneus is dislocated laterally. The navicular may lie dorsolateral to the talus. The reverse is true of lateral dislocation. Medial dislocation has been referred to as "basketball foot" due to its preponderance in basketball players.4 The deciding factor is the inverted or everted position of the foot when the force is dissipated through the weak talonavicular and talocalcaneal ligaments. This article presents a case of an adult with lateral subtalar dislocation following a fall. PMID:19292363

Sharda, Praveen; DuFosse, Julian

2008-07-01

8

Lateral superlattice solar cells  

SciTech Connect

A novel structure which comprises of a lateral superlattice as the active layer of a solar cell is proposed. If the alternating regions A and B of a lateral superlattice ABABAB... are chosen to have a Type-II band offset, it is shown that the performance of the active absorbing region of the solar cell is optimized. In essence, the Type-II lateral superlattice region can satisfy the material requirements for an ideal solar cells active absorbing region, i.e. simultaneously having a very high transition probability for photogeneration and a very long minority carrier recombination lifetime.

Mascarenhas, A.; Zhang, Y. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Millunchick, J.M.; Twesten, R.D.; Jones, E.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-10-01

9

Laterally bendable belt conveyor  

DOEpatents

An endless, laterally flexible and bendable belt conveyor particularly adapted for coal mining applications in facilitating the transport of the extracted coal up- or downslope and around corners in a continuous manner is disclosed. The conveying means includes a flat rubber belt reinforced along the middle portion thereof along which the major portion of the belt tension is directed so as to cause rotation of the tubular shaped belt when trammed around lateral turns thus preventing excessive belt bulging distortion between adjacent belt supports which would inhibit belt transport. Pretension induced into the fabric reinforced flat rubber belt by conventional belt take-up means supports the load conveyed when the belt conveyor is making lateral turns. The carrying and return portions of the belt are supported and formed into a tubular shape by a plurality of shapers positioned along its length. Each shaper is supported from above by a monorail and includes clusters of idler rollers which support the belt. Additional cluster rollers in each shaper permit the belt supporting roller clusters to rotate in response to the belt's operating tension imposed upon the cluster rollers by induced lateral belt friction forces. The freely rotating roller clusters thus permit the belt to twist on lateral curves without damage to itself while precluding escape of the conveyed material by effectively enclosing it in the tube-shaped, inner belt transport length.

Peterson, William J. (Coraopolis, PA)

1985-01-01

10

Lateral tibial plateau fracture.  

PubMed

The patient was a 30-year-old man who was initially seen by a physical therapist for a chief complaint of left knee pain. Due to concern for a fracture, the physical therapist ordered radiographs of the left knee, which revealed a fracture of the left lateral tibial plateau. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2012;42(9):819. doi:10.2519/jospt.2012.0416. PMID:22951597

Flautt, Warren; Miller, Joseph; Ratcliff, Jennifer Robyn

2012-09-01

11

Les succédanés du sucre durant la grossesse  

PubMed Central

Résumé Question J’ai une patiente enceinte qui consomme souvent des succédanés du sucre et elle m’a demandé si cette pratique continue pouvait nuire à sa grossesse ou à son enfant. Que devrais-je lui répondre et existe-t-il d’autres meilleurs choix durant la grossesse? Réponse Il faudrait faire plus de recherche pour déterminer plus exactement les effets de l’exposition aux succédanés du sucre in utero, mais les données disponibles ne laissent pas présager d’effets indésirables durant la grossesse. Toutefois, il est recommandé de consommer des substituts du sucre en quantités modérées et de se conformer aux doses journalières admissibles établies par les organismes de règlementation.

Pope, Eliza; Koren, Gideon; Bozzo, Pina

2014-01-01

12

Creativity in later life.  

PubMed

The ageing population presents significant challenges for the provision of social and health services. Strategies are needed to enable older people to cope within a society ill prepared for the impacts of these demographic changes. The ability to be creative may be one such strategy. This review outlines the relevant literature and examines current public health policy related to creativity in old age with the aim of highlighting some important issues. As well as looking at the benefits and negative aspects of creative activity in later life they are considered in the context of the theory of "successful ageing". Creative activity plays an important role in the lives of older people promoting social interaction, providing cognitive stimulation and giving a sense of self-worth. Furthermore, it is shown to be useful as a tool in the multi-disciplinary treatment of health problems common in later life such as depression and dementia. There are a number of initiatives to encourage older people to participate in creative activities such as arts-based projects which may range from visual arts to dance to music to intergenerational initiatives. However, participation shows geographical variation and often the responsibility of provision falls to voluntary organisations. Overall, the literature presented suggests that creative activity could be a useful tool for individuals and society. However, further research is needed to establish the key factors which contribute to patterns of improved health and well-being, as well as to explore ways to improve access to services. PMID:24974278

Price, K A; Tinker, A M

2014-08-01

13

Lateral conduction infrared photodetector  

DOEpatents

A photodetector for detecting infrared light in a wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m is disclosed. The photodetector has a mesa structure formed from semiconductor layers which include a type-II superlattice formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. Impurity doped regions are formed on sidewalls of the mesa structure to provide for a lateral conduction of photo-generated carriers which can provide an increased carrier mobility and a reduced surface recombination. An optional bias electrode can be used in the photodetector to control and vary a cut-off wavelength or a depletion width therein. The photodetector can be formed as a single-color or multi-color device, and can also be used to form a focal plane array which is compatible with conventional read-out integrated circuits.

Kim, Jin K. (Albuquerque, NM); Carroll, Malcolm S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2011-09-20

14

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by progressive muscular paralysis reflecting degeneration of motor neurones in the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, brainstem and spinal cord. Incidence (average 1.89 per 100,000/year) and prevalence (average 5.2 per 100,000) are relatively uniform in Western countries, although foci of higher frequency occur in the Western Pacific. The mean age of onset for sporadic ALS is about 60 years. Overall, there is a slight male prevalence (M:F ratio approximately 1.5:1). Approximately two thirds of patients with typical ALS have a spinal form of the disease (limb onset) and present with symptoms related to focal muscle weakness and wasting, where the symptoms may start either distally or proximally in the upper and lower limbs. Gradually, spasticity may develop in the weakened atrophic limbs, affecting manual dexterity and gait. Patients with bulbar onset ALS usually present with dysarthria and dysphagia for solid or liquids, and limbs symptoms can develop almost simultaneously with bulbar symptoms, and in the vast majority of cases will occur within 1-2 years. Paralysis is progressive and leads to death due to respiratory failure within 2-3 years for bulbar onset cases and 3-5 years for limb onset ALS cases. Most ALS cases are sporadic but 5-10% of cases are familial, and of these 20% have a mutation of the SOD1 gene and about 2-5% have mutations of the TARDBP (TDP-43) gene. Two percent of apparently sporadic patients have SOD1 mutations, and TARDBP mutations also occur in sporadic cases. The diagnosis is based on clinical history, examination, electromyography, and exclusion of 'ALS-mimics' (e.g. cervical spondylotic myelopathies, multifocal motor neuropathy, Kennedy's disease) by appropriate investigations. The pathological hallmarks comprise loss of motor neurones with intraneuronal ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions in upper motor neurones and TDP-43 immunoreactive inclusions in degenerating lower motor neurones. Signs of upper motor neurone and lower motor neurone damage not explained by any other disease process are suggestive of ALS. The management of ALS is supportive, palliative, and multidisciplinary. Non-invasive ventilation prolongs survival and improves quality of life. Riluzole is the only drug that has been shown to extend survival. PMID:19192301

Wijesekera, Lokesh C; Leigh, P Nigel

2009-01-01

15

4, 317348, 2007 Lateral carbon  

E-print Network

BGD 4, 317­348, 2007 Lateral carbon exchange in a tidal mangrove creek S. Bouillon et al. Title mangrove creek (Ras Dege, Tanzania) S. Bouillon 1,2 , J. J. Middelburg 2 , F. Dehairs 1 , A. V. Borges 3, France 317 #12;BGD 4, 317­348, 2007 Lateral carbon exchange in a tidal mangrove creek S. Bouillon et al

Boyer, Edmond

16

VOLCANO INSTABILITY AND LATERAL COLLAPSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active volcanoes are dynamically evolving structures, the life-cycles of which are punctuated by episodes of flank instability and lateral failure. Such behaviour is now recognised as ubiquitous and lateral collapses are estimated to have occurred at least four times a century over the past 500 years. In the Andes, three quarters of the large volcanic edifices have experienced collapse, while

W. J. McGuire

2003-01-01

17

Lotus corniculatus L. cv. São Gabriel: análise fitoquímica e atividade biológica.  

E-print Network

??Um estudo fitoquímico de L. corniculatus foi realizado e biomonitorado através de bioensaios de atividade antioxidante, antibacteriana e anti-inflamatória. O estudo fitoquimico foi efetivado através… (more)

Juliana Bastos Dalmarco

2009-01-01

18

Lateral Transorbital Neuroendoscopic Approach to the Lateral Cavernous Sinus  

PubMed Central

Objective?To design and assess the quality of a novel lateral retrocanthal endoscopic approach to the lateral cavernous sinus. Design?Computer modeling software was used to optimize the geometry of the surgical pathway, which was confirmed on cadaver specimens. We calculated trajectories and surgically accessible areas to the middle fossa while applying a constraint on the amount of soft tissue retraction. Setting?Virtual computer model to simulate the surgical approach and cadaver laboratory. Participants?The authors. Main Outcome Measures?Adequate surgical access to the lateral cavernous sinus and adjacent regions as determined by operations on the cadaver specimens. Additionally, geometric limitations were imposed as determined by the model so that retraction on soft tissue structures was maintained at a clinically safe distance. Results?Our calculations revealed adequate access to the lateral cavernous sinus, Meckel cave, orbital apex, and middle fossa floor. Cadaveric testing revealed sufficient access to these areas using <10?mm of orbital retraction. Conclusions?Our study validates not only the use of computer simulation to plan operative approaches but the feasibility of the lateral retrocanthal approach to the lateral cavernous sinus. PMID:24498584

Bly, Randall A.; Ramakrishna, Rohan; Ferreira, Manuel; Moe, Kris S.

2013-01-01

19

Correlação entre atividade antioxidante e compostos bioativos de polpas comerciais de açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart)  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO. Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar polpas comerciais de açaí, além de correlacionar a contribuição da vitamina C, carotenóides totais e compostos fenólicos com a atividade antioxidante desses produtos, verificando ainda os parâmetros referentes à qualidade dos produtos obtidos. Foram realizadas análises de pH, acidez total titulável, sólidos solúveis totais, açúcares, cor, atividade de água, vitamina C, antocianinas totais e carotenóides

Gerusa Matias dos Santos; Geraldo Arraes Mai; Paulo Henrique; Machado de Sous

20

Lateral Diffusion in an Archipelago  

PubMed Central

Lateral diffusion of molecules in lipid bilayer membranes can be hindered by the presence of impermeable domains of gel-phase lipid or of proteins. Effective-medium theory and percolation theory are used to evaluate the effective lateral diffusion constant as a function of the area fraction of fluid-phase lipid and the permeability of the obstructions to the diffusing species. Applications include the estimation of the minimum fraction of fluid lipid needed for bacterial growth, and the enhancement of diffusion-controlled reactions by the channeling effect of solid patches of lipid. PMID:7052153

Saxton, Michael J.

1982-01-01

21

Breve panorama del teatro en Ecuador durante los años 80  

E-print Network

forma regular su actividad durante los años setenta, algunos como el Teatro Ensayo, en Quito, han desaparecido. Otros han sido creados y luchan por establecerse y por sostener una acción continua. Durante los ochenta se continuó la labor de amplia.... . 1960-1987: Una actividad de lenta consolidación. . Modos de producción, infraestructura y política teatral. Dramaturgia y puesta en escena en el teatro latinoamericano y caribeño contemporáneo. París: UNESCO/PNUD, 1988. Escenarios de dos mundos. Vol...

Almeida Naveda, Eduardo

1992-04-01

22

Lateral gas diffusion inside leaves.  

PubMed

Diffusion of CO2 inside leaves is generally regarded to be from the substomatal cavities to the assimilating tissues, i.e. in the vertical direction of the leaf blades. However, lateral gas diffusion within intercellular air spaces may be much more effective than hitherto considered. In a previous work it was demonstrated that, when 'clamp-on' leaf chambers are used, leaf internal 'CO2 leakage' beyond the leaf chamber gaskets may seriously affect gas exchange measurement. This effect has been used in the present paper to quantify gas conductance (g(leaf,l), mmol m(-2) s(-1)) in the lateral directions within leaves and significant differences between homo- and heterobaric leaves were observed. For the homobaric leaves, lateral gas conductance measured over a distance of 6 or 8 mm (the widths of the chamber gaskets) was 2-20% of vertical conductance taken from published data measured over much smaller distances of 108-280 microm (the thickness of the leaves). The specific internal gas diffusion properties of the leaves have been characterized by gas conductivities (g*(leaf), micromol m(-1) s(-1)). Gas conductivities in the lateral directions of heterobaric leaves were found to be small but not zero. In homobaric leaves, they were between 67 and 209 micromol m(-1) s(-1) and thus even larger than those in the vertical direction of the leaf blades (between 15 and 78 micromol m(-1) s(-1)). The potential implications for experimentalists performing gas exchange measurements are discussed. PMID:15668225

Pieruschka, Roland; Schurr, Ulrich; Jahnke, Siegfried

2005-03-01

23

Sexual desire in later life  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been relatively little research on sexuality in later life, particularly among persons over 60 years of age. The existing literature consists of studies of small samples, much of it from a biomedical perspective. This literature suggests that age, hormone levels, specific illnesses, and various medications negatively affect sexual functioning in older persons. This study reports results from a

John D. DeLamater; Morgan Sill

2005-01-01

24

Excitotoxicity and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its description by Charcot more than 130 years ago, the pathogenesis of selective motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) remains unsolved. Over the years, many pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed. Amongst others these include: oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, aggregate formation, inflammation, growth factor deficiency and neurofilament disorganization. This multitude of contributing factors indicates that ALS is a complex

P. Van Damme; M. Dewil; W. Robberecht; L. Van Den Bosch

2005-01-01

25

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Severity Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) severity scale has been developed to provide an ordinal staging system and a means of rapid functional assessment for patients with ALS. The scale allows an examiner to evaluate the symptoms of ALS numerically in four categories that describe speech, swallowing, lower extremity, and upper extremity abilities. These scores, combined with a vital capacity measured

Allen D. Hillel; Robert M. Miller; Kathryn Yorkston; Evelyn McDonald; Forbes H. Norris; Nancy Konikow

1989-01-01

26

Diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review of the differential diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis focuses on two themes. The first is practical, how to establish the diagnosis based primarily on clinical findings buttressed by electrodiagnosis. The main considerations are multifocal motor neuropathy and cervical spondylotic myelopathy. The second theme is the relationship of motor neuron disease to other conditions, including benign fasciculation (Denny–Brown, Foley

Lewis P Rowland

1998-01-01

27

Laterally extended naphthalene tetracarboxylic bisimides.  

PubMed

The colorless naphthalene tetracarboxylic bisimides were laterally extended with imidazole rings to give colored and highly fluorescent materials. Donor-substituted phenyl groups at the imidazole rings cause further bathochromic shifts in fluorescence where the strong solvent influence in the spectra is typical for a TICT process. Applications are discussed. PMID:20964395

Langhals, Heinz; Kinzel, Simon

2010-11-19

28

Lateral dampers for thrust bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of lateral damping schemes for thrust bearings was examined, ranking their applicability to various engine classes, selecting the best concept for each engine class and performing an in-depth evaluation. Five major engine classes were considered: large transport, military, small general aviation, turboshaft, and non-manrated. Damper concepts developed for evaluation were: curved beam, constrained and unconstrained elastomer, hybrid boost bearing, hydraulic thrust piston, conical squeeze film, and rolling element thrust face.

Hibner, D. H.; Szafir, D. R.

1985-01-01

29

School Readiness and Later Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using 6 longitudinal data sets, the authors estimate links between three key elements of school readiness—school-entry academic, attention, and socioemotional skills—and later school reading and math achievement. In an effort to isolate the effects of these school-entry skills, the authors ensured that most of their regression models control for cognitive, attention, and socioemotional skills measured prior to school entry, as

Greg J. Duncan; Chantelle J. Dowsett; Amy Claessens; Katherine Magnuson; Aletha C. Huston; Pamela Klebanov; Linda S. Pagani; Leon Feinstein; Mimi Engel; Jeanne Brooks-Gunn; Holly Sexton; Kathryn Duckworth; Crista Japel

2007-01-01

30

Lateralization of interictal EEG findings.  

PubMed

Several reports indicate that interictal epileptiform discharges (IED) may be more likely to occur over the left cerebral hemisphere than over the right. The objective of our study was to determine the frequency and type of IED on routine and multihour EEGs in a tertiary epilepsy center to estimate the frequency of left-sided versus right-sided IED and to determine interictal spike distribution pattern differences between adult and pediatric epilepsy patients. The current study retrospectively reviewed 31,207 EEGs (25,793 routine EEGs and 5414 multihour EEGs) recorded on 24,003 patients during the period from 1993 to 2003. All EEGs were read according to a systematic EEG classification system. Every patient was considered only once by including the first abnormal EEG. Regional unilateral or bilateral IEDs were recorded in 1707 patients (7%). Regional unilateral or bilateral slow was recorded in 2297 patients (9.6%). Left-sided regional IED were seen in 828 patients and accounted for 58% of all unilateral IED. Left-sided slow was seen in 1389 patients and accounted for 65% of all unilateral slow. Lateralization of slow was due to intermittent slow, whereas continuous slow involved both hemispheres equally. There was no lateralization difference in benign focal epileptiform discharges of childhood. Lateralization shows a tendency toward greater left-sided lateralization of interictal findings with aging. Benign focal epileptiform discharges were only seen under the age of 20 years old. Regional IEDs were seen in approximately 7% of patients and slowing occurs in 10% of patients. Both abnormalities were seen more frequently in the left hemisphere. Age adjusted analysis of the data revealed that this left-sided predominance was mildly increased in adults as compared with pediatric patients. PMID:17912060

Loddenkemper, Tobias; Burgess, Richard C; Syed, Tanvir; Pestana, Elia M

2007-10-01

31

Torsional Micromirrors with Lateral Actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the first implementation of laterally actuated high aspect ratio torsionally suspended micromirrors. In-plane actuation is transformed into out-of- plane motion and rotation, enabling monolithic integration of a wide variety of SOI-MEMS sensors, actuators and micromirrors. The new actuation methodology features highly controllable and agile micromirror devices for optical communications. Two types of device structures integrated with comb-drive actuators

Veljko Milanovic; Matthew Last; Kristofer S. J. Pister

2001-01-01

32

Relações quantitativas entre a estrutura química e a atividade antimicrobiana de análogos à nifuroxazida.  

E-print Network

??Com o objetivo de estudar as relações quantitativas entre a estrutura química e a atividade antimicrobiana de análogos à nifuroxazida (5-nitro2-furfurilideno 4-hidroxi benzidrazida), prepararam-se quatorze… (more)

Leoberto Costa Tavares

1993-01-01

33

Clinical Neurogenetics: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, about which our understanding is expanding rapidly as its genetic causes are uncovered. The pace of new gene discovery over the last 5 years has accelerated, providing new insights into the pathogenesis of disease and highlighting biological pathways for target for therapeutic development. This article reviews our current understanding of the heritability of ALS, provides an overview of each of the major ALS genes, highlighting their phenotypic characteristics and frequencies as a guide for clinicians evaluating patients with ALS. PMID:24176417

Harms, Matthew B.; Baloh, Robert H.

2013-01-01

34

S. COLLIN, B. NORBERG, G. EVRARD AND F. DURANT 577 COLLIN, S. DURANT,F. & EVRARD,G. (1986). Acta Cryst. C42,  

E-print Network

S. COLLIN, B. NORBERG, G. EVRARD AND F. DURANT 577 COLLIN, S. DURANT,F. & EVRARD,G. (1986). Acta Cryst. C42, 199-201. COLLIN, S., EVARD,G. & DURANT,F. (1986).J. Cryst. Spectrosc. Res. 16, 255-269. DURANT,F., DE BEYS,V., COLLIN,S. · EVRARD,G. (1986). Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. No. 4, pp. 497-503. JALFRE

35

CONSERVE SU SALUD DURANTE UN DESASTRE Alimentos y agua  

E-print Network

CONSERVE SU SALUD DURANTE UN DESASTRE Alimentos y agua Las situaciones de emergencia pueden afectar para tres días de 1 galon de agua por persona y por día para beber, higiene y cocinar. Mantengase hidratado bebiendo ocho vasos de 8 onzas de agua por día. #12;Los programas educativos de Texas A&M Agri

36

Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life  

MedlinePLUS

... Download PDF Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life Tools and Tips Printer-friendly PDF Click here ...

37

Gestational Diabetes May Influence Daughter's Weight Later  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Gestational Diabetes May Influence Daughter's Weight Later Girls' risk of being overweight may be more ... may be at increased risk for being obese later in childhood, a new study suggests. The research ...

38

Hemispheric Laterality in Music and Math  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hemispheric laterality may be a useful concept in teaching, learning, training, and in understanding more about human development. To address this issue, a measure of hemispheric laterality was compared to musical and mathematical ability. The Human Information Processing Survey (HIPS) instrument, designed to measure hemispheric laterality, was…

Szirony, Gary Michael; Burgin, John S.; Pearson, L. Carolyn

2008-01-01

39

Kepler: 400 years later Jonas Karlsson  

E-print Network

Kepler: 400 years later #12;Outline Kepler's laws Proof that closed orbits are ellipses The hydrogen atom Geodesic ow and the Kepler manifold Jonas Karlsson Kepler: 400 years later #12;Kepler's laws Johannes Kepler (1571 - 1630) Jonas Karlsson Kepler: 400 years later #12;Kepler's laws First law (1609

Weinberger, Hans

40

ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Linkage of Familial Amyotrophic Lateral  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Linkage of Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis With Frontotemporal of combined disorders, such as amyo- trophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with frontotemporal dementia (FTD-Vance, PhD H. Robert Horvitz, PhD Robert H. Brown, Jr, DPhil, MD A MYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLE- rosis (ALS

Horvitz, H. Robert

41

LATERAL DISTRIBUTION OF COSMIC RAY MUONS UNDERGROUND  

E-print Network

LATERAL DISTRIBUTION OF COSMIC RAY MUONS UNDERGROUND: Results from the CosmoALEPH ExperimentË?at Siegen Siegen 2006 #12; LATERAL DISTRIBUTION OF COSMIC RAY MUONS UNDERGROUND: Results from the Cosmo; ABSTRACT LATERAL DISTRIBUTION OF COSMIC RAY MUONS UNDERGROUND: Results from the CosmoALEPH Experiment

Siegen, Universität

42

Lateral adaptive control for vehicle lane keeping  

Microsoft Academic Search

We deal with the vehicle lateral control problem. More precisely, we solve this problem by properly applying the self-tuning regulator proposed in [Marino, R and Tomei, P (1995)] to the concerned vehicle lateral model. The interest of this solution is that only the lateral displacement at a look-ahead distance is used as the measure for the controller. From a practical

Manana S. Netto; Salim Chaib; S. Mammar

2004-01-01

43

[Genetics of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].  

PubMed

Although the pathophysiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis remains currently unknown, involvement of genetic factors is worldwide accepted as a key clue in the motor neuron death. Since 1993 and the discovery of mutation in the SOD1 gene, number of genes linked to or promoting ALS had always growing. Among them, only four (SOD1, TARDBP, FUS and C9ORF72 genes) are unanimously recognized as convincing causative genetic factors for more than 60% of familial and probably 10% of sporadic ALS cases. Geographic origin of the studied populations tends to become one of the major items in the gene-ALS relationship: this was extremely stressed for C9ORF72. Concerning susceptibility genes factors, an increase of the risk of ALS is clearly shown for SMN1 and ATXN2 genes and accepted for some VEGF haplotypes. Finally, some modulating effects might also exist as underline for the relationships between ApoE and ALS that differ between European and North American studies. In inherited ALS, The European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) edited rules that gave a legal frame to situations for which research of mutations were justified. Progress in the field of genetic raises major questions concerning the relevance of genetic studies from asymptomatic relatives. This first implies that the mutation identified in the proband case is perfectly characterized as a pathogenic mutation. PMID:24703222

Corcia, Philippe; Blasco, Hélène; Camu, William

2014-05-01

44

Gunshot residue, ten years later.  

PubMed

Gunshot residues may be central to a competent reconstruction of a shooting incident. When a young boy was shot in the neck by a playmate using a .22-caliber single-action revolver, permanent paralysis from mid-thorax downward ensued. Ten years later the victim sued the importer, the vendor, the German manufacturer, and the shooter's family. Investigative reports indicated "horseplay" and questionable emergency medical team care. Depositions were contradictory. The entry wound, removed at surgery, was fixed and processed for slides. The histopathologist referred to "black pigment granules" in the wound track. The 10-year-old slides and block were retrieved. The coverslip was removed from a representative slide that was examined under the scanning, x-ray dispersive microscope. The black granules contained amounts of lead, barium, and antimony far beyond any normal range. The firing range had to have been no greater than 6-12 in (15.24-30.48 cm). The case was promptly settled out of court. PMID:1750390

Wilber, C G; Lantz, R K; Sulik, P L

1991-09-01

45

Summary of lateral-control research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary has been made of the available information on lateral control. A discussion is given of the criterions used in lateral-control specifications, of the factors involved in obtaining satisfactory lateral control, and of the methods employed in making lateral-control investigations in flight and in wind tunnels. The available data on conventional flap-type ailerons having various types of aerodynamic balance are presented in a form convenient for use in design. The characteristics of spoiler devices and booster mechanisms are discussed. The effects of Mach number, boundary layer, and distortion of the wing or of the lateral-control system are considered insofar as the available information permits. An example is included to illustrate the use of the design data. The limitations of the available information and some of the lateral-control problems that remain to be solved are indicated.

Toll, Thomas A

1947-01-01

46

Lateral Nanomechanics of Cartilage Aggrecan Macromolecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the role of the brush-like proteoglycan, aggrecan, in the shear behavior of cartilage tissue, we measured the lateral resistance to deformation of a monolayer of chemically end-attached cartilage aggrecan on a microcontact printed surface in aqueous NaCl solutions via lateral force microscopy. The effects of bath ionic strength (IS, 0.001–1.0M) and lateral displacement rate (?1–100?m\\/s) were studied using

Lin Han; Delphine Dean; Christine Ortiz; Alan J. Grodzinsky

2007-01-01

47

Lateral unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateral unicondylar knee arthroplasty (UKA) has been utilized as a treatment for isolated lateral tibiofemoral osteoarthritis\\u000a (OA) since the first description of UKA in the 1970s. To date, there remains some controversy on UKA procedures. As indications\\u000a for lateral UKA are usually rare, surgeon experience seems to be the key factor for a successful intervention. Better understanding\\u000a of biomechanics of

Thomas J. HeyseCarsten; Carsten O. Tibesku

2010-01-01

48

Human olfactory lateralization requires trigeminal activation.  

PubMed

Rats are able to lateralize odors. This ability involves specialized neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex which are able to process the left, right and bilateral presentation of stimuli. However, it is not clear whether this function is preserved in humans. Humans are in general not able to differentiate whether a selective olfactory stimulant has been applied to the left or right nostril; however exceptions have been reported. Following a screening of 152 individuals with an olfactory lateralization test, we identified 19 who could lateralize odors above chance level. 15 of these "lateralizers" underwent olfactory fMRI scanning in a block design and were compared to 15 controls matched for age and sex distribution. As a result, both groups showed comparable activation of olfactory eloquent brain areas. However, subjects with lateralization ability had a significantly enhanced activation of cerebral trigeminal processing areas (somatosensory cortex, intraparietal sulcus). In contrast to controls, lateralizers furthermore exhibited no suppression in the area of the trigeminal principal sensory nucleus. An exploratory study with an olfactory change detection paradigm furthermore showed that lateralizers oriented faster towards changes in the olfactory environment. Taken together, our study suggests that the trigeminal system is activated to a higher degree by the odorous stimuli in the group of "lateralizers". We conclude that humans are not able to lateralize odors based on the olfactory input alone, but vary in the degree to which the trigeminal system is recruited. PMID:24825502

Croy, Ilona; Schulz, Max; Blumrich, Anna; Hummel, Cornelia; Gerber, Johannes; Hummel, Thomas

2014-09-01

49

Does lateral gas diffusion in leaves matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosynthesis depends on the diffusion of gaseous CO2 inside the leaf spaces from the stomatal entry point to the mesophyll cell walls. Although most research considers only the vertical diffusion from stomata on upper and\\/or leaf lower surfaces, some of the gas will diffuse in the lateral (paradermal) direction. The importance of lateral CO2 dif- fusion is reviewed, and the

JAMES I. L. MORISON; TRACY LAWSON

2007-01-01

50

Loss and Grief in Later Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to help readers understand loss and grief, and to sensitively respond to the grief of others. Although emphasis is on losses experienced in later life, most information is equally applicable to grief throughout adulthood. A section on understanding loss in later life lists a number of losses that are associated with aging.…

Washington State Univ., Pullman. Cooperative Extension Service.

51

Lateralized behavior in northern fur seals  

Microsoft Academic Search

171 Studies on behavioral asymmetries or lateralized behavior in various animal species are important for understanding the functional asymmetry of the brain. Preferential use of the right or left limbs (or hand, in humans) for manipulating with objects and circular movements of animals in cages and enclosures are the best known examples of motor asymmetry. Numerous data on lateralized behavior

Yu. P. Pryaslova; O. I. Lyamin; L. M. Mukhametov

2009-01-01

52

Aeromonas hydrophila Lateral Flagellar Gene Transcriptional Hierarchy  

PubMed Central

Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3 lateral flagella are not assembled when bacteria grow in liquid media; however, lateral flagellar genes are transcribed. Our results indicate that A. hydrophila lateral flagellar genes are transcribed at three levels (class I to III genes) and share some similarities with, but have many important differences from, genes of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A. hydrophila lateral flagellum class I gene transcription is ?70 dependent, which is consistent with the fact that lateral flagellum is constitutively transcribed, in contrast to the characteristics of V. parahaemolyticus. The fact that multiple genes are included in class I highlights that lateral flagellar genes are less hierarchically transcribed than polar flagellum genes. The A. hydrophila lafK-fliEJL gene cluster (where the subscript L distinguishes genes for lateral flagella from those for polar flagella) is exclusively from class I and is in V. parahaemolyticus class I and II. Furthermore, the A. hydrophila flgAMNL cluster is not transcribed from the ?54/LafK-dependent promoter and does not contain class II genes. Here, we propose a gene transcriptional hierarchy for the A. hydrophila lateral flagella. PMID:23335410

Wilhelms, Markus; Gonzalez, Victor; Merino, Susana

2013-01-01

53

Lateral displacement and rotational displacement sensor  

DOEpatents

A position measuring sensor formed from opposing sets of capacitor plates measures both rotational displacement and lateral displacement from the changes in capacitances as overlapping areas of capacitors change. Capacitances are measured by a measuring circuit. The measured capacitances are provided to a calculating circuit that performs calculations to obtain angular and lateral displacement from the capacitances measured by the measuring circuit.

Duden, Thomas

2014-04-22

54

Vehicle Lateral Control for Highway Automation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of lateral control for highway automation are to let vehicles track the center of a lane with small error and to maintain good ride quality under different vehicle speeds, loads, wind gust disturbances, and road conditions. In this paper, the lateral feedback and feedforward controllers are designed to satisfy these objectives by utilizing the frequency-shaped linear quadratic (FSLQ)

Huei Peng; Masayoshi Tomizuka

1990-01-01

55

Model to Design Drip Hose Lateral Line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction The design criterion for non-pressure compensating drip hose is normally to have 10% of flow variation (?q) in the lateral line, corresponding to 20% of head pressure variation (?H). Longer lateral lines in drip irrigation systems using conventional drippers provide cost reduction, but it is necessary to obtain to the uniformity of irrigation [1]. The use of ?q higher levels can provide longer lateral lines. [4] proposes the use of a 30% ?q and he found that this value resulted in distribution uniformity over 80%. [1] considered it is possible to extend the lateral line length using two emitters spacing in different section. He assumed that the spacing changing point would be at 40% of the total length, because this is approximately the location of the average flow according with [2]. [3] found that, for practical purposes, the average pressure is located at 40% of the length of the lateral line and that until this point it has already consumed 75% of total pressure head loss (hf ). In this case, the challenge for designers is getting longer lateral lines with high values of uniformity. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a model to design longer lateral lines using non-pressure compensating drip hose. Using the developed model, the hypotheses to be evaluated were: a) the use of two different spacing between emitters in the same lateral line allows longer length; b) it is possible to get longer lateral lines using high values of pressure variation in the lateral lines since the distribution uniformity stays below allowable limits. Methodology A computer program was developed in Delphi® based on the model developed and it is able to design lateral lines in level using non-pressure compensating drip hose. The input data are: desired distribution uniformity (DU); initial and final pressure in the lateral line; coefficients of relationship between emitter discharge and pressure head; hose internal diameter; pipe cross-sectional area with the dripper; and roughness coefficient for the Hazen-Williams equation. The program allows calculate the lateral line length with three possibilities: selecting two spacing between emitters and defining the exchange point; using two pre-established spacing between emitters and calculating the length of each section with different spacing; using one emitter spacing. Results Results showed that the use of two sections with different spacing between drippers in the lateral line didn't allow longer length but got better uniformity when compared with lateral line with one spacing between emitters. The adoption of two spacing increased the flow rate per meter in the final section which represented approximately 80% of the lateral line total length and this justifies their use. The software allowed DU above 90% with pressure head variation of 40% and the use of two spacing between emitters. Conclusions The developed model/software showed to be accurate, easy to handle and useful for lateral line design using non-pressure compensating drip hose. References [1] ANDRADE, L. A. D. Estudo de uniformidade de emissão de água utilizando diferentes espaçamentos entre gotejadores na linha lateral. 2009. 87 f. Tese (Doutorado em Agronomia/Irigação e Drenagem) - Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas, Universidade Estadual Paulista 'Julio de Mesquita Filho', Botucatu, (2009). [2] KELLER, J.; BLIESNER, R. D. Sprinkle and trickle irrigation. Caldwell: Blackburn Press, (1990). 652 p. [3] TALENS, J. A. M. Riego localizado y fertirrigacion. Madrid: Mundi-Prensa, (2002). 533 p. [4] WU, I. P. An assessment of hydraulic design of micro-irrigation systems. Agricultural Water Management, Amsterdan, v. 32, n. 3

Ludwig, Rafael; Cury Saad, João Carlos

2014-05-01

56

Lateralized suckling in domestic horses (Equus caballus).  

PubMed

Brain lateralization enables preferential processing of certain stimuli and more effective utilization of these stimuli in either the left or the right cerebral hemisphere. Horses show both motor and sensory lateralization patterns. Our aim was to determine whether a lateralized response could be detected in foals during the naturally side-biased behaviour, suckling. The foals' preferred suckling side could be the effect of either visual or motor lateralization. In the case of a visual lateralized response, foals are expected to suck more often from the mother's right side, so potential danger can be detected by the better adapted right hemisphere (i.e. left eye). Motor lateralization can be identified when a foal will suck predominantly from one side, either left or right. We found no population trend in the preferred suckling side, but we detected significant differences amongst individual foals. One-third (35.4 %) of 79 foals showed a strong, either right or left side preference which increased with age. The mothers did not influence the foals' suckling side preferences either by side-biased rejection or termination of suckling. According to our findings, a general pattern of sucking with the left eye open for better danger detection and recognition is unlikely in foals up to 7 months old. Foals of this age are probably young or fully focused on suckling and rely on their mothers' vigilance. Individual side preferences amongst foals are suggested to be based on motor lateralization. PMID:23117229

Komárková, Martina; Bartošová, Jitka

2013-05-01

57

Lateral Deflections Of Ball Bearings Reveal Wear  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wear in ball bearings supporting shaft in housing quantified via measurement of lateral deflection of shaft with respect to housing as function of lateral force applied between shaft and housing. Method devised to estimate wear in bearings of high-pressure-liquid-oxygen turbopump of main engine of Space Shuttle, without having to disassemble pump or dismount it from engine. Applicable to other rotating machinery. Helps inspectors determine quickly, noninvasively, and in field whether bearings should be replaced. Force necessary to produce given lateral deflection measured over range large enough to characterize radial clearances and stiffness.

Gurada, Gaston A.; Wineland, David L.

1992-01-01

58

Rapid prototyping of lateral flow assays.  

PubMed

Principles and characteristics of lateral flow strip assays are reviewed. Recent technology developments permit the use of inexpensive electronic readers for interrogating lateral flow strip test results, thus avoiding the inevitable variation and subjectivity of visual inspection to assess the capture of reporter-labeled analyte on test lines of the strip. Protocols for developing lateral flow assays are described, including two specific case studies for assaying cotinine (a small-molecule metabolite of nicotine) in a competitive format, and assaying HIV antibodies in a sandwich-type assay format. PMID:19159100

Volkov, Alexander; Mauk, Michael; Corstjens, Paul; Niedbala, R Sam

2009-01-01

59

Lateral-deflection-controlled friction force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lateral-deflection-controlled dual-axis friction force microscopy (FFM) is presented. In this method, an electrostatic force generated with a probe-incorporated micro-actuator compensates for friction force in real time during probe scanning using feedback control. This equivalently large rigidity can eliminate apparent boundary width and lateral snap-in, which are caused by lateral probe deflection. The method can evolve FFM as a method for quantifying local frictional properties on the micro/nanometer-scale by overcoming essential problems to dual-axis FFM.

Fukuzawa, Kenji; Hamaoka, Satoshi; Shikida, Mitsuhiro; Itoh, Shintaro; Zhang, Hedong

2014-08-01

60

Experiments and analysis of lateral piezoresistance gauges  

SciTech Connect

The response of lateral piezoresistance gauges to shock wave uniaxial strain loading has been examined in a combined experimental and calculational effort. Plate impact experiments provided lateral gauge data which were analyzed using quasi-static and dynamic inclusion analyses. Experimental data showed that the response of the lateral gauge output depended upon the matrix material and gauge emplacement method. The calculations indicated that these differences were due to complex gauge-matrix interactions. These interactions were influenced by the stress and strain distributions in and around the gauge, plasticity effects, properties of the gauge and matrix materials, and emplacement conditions.

Wong, M.K.W.

1993-07-01

61

Genetics Home Reference: Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis  

MedlinePLUS

... and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding juvenile primary lateral sclerosis? autosomal ; autosomal recessive ; cell ; difficulty swallowing ; gene ; inherited ; juvenile ; motor ; protein ; recessive ; sclerosis ; spasticity You may find definitions for ...

62

Transplant Problems That May Show Up Later  

MedlinePLUS

... soon after transplant Next Topic Other transplant issues Transplant problems that may show up later The type ... called Second Cancers Caused by Cancer Treatment . Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder Post-transplant lymphoproliferative ( lim -fo-pruh- ...

63

Cooling Therapy Helps Newborns Years Later  

MedlinePLUS

... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Cooling Therapy Helps Newborns Years Later A cooling treatment for infants ... that a cooling therapy called hypothermia treatment could help these babies. The treatment involves placing newborns on ...

64

Early Orthodontics May Mean Less Treatment Later  

MedlinePLUS

Early Orthodontics May Mean Less Treatment Later Making Braces Hip Still Take Getting Used To Beyond Braces Look at ... earlier age. Some patients with special problems begin orthodontic treatment at age 7 or younger. "The American ...

65

Alcohol Problems in lAter life  

E-print Network

Alcohol Problems in lAter life A Pacific Northwest Extension Publication Oregon State University When alcohol use becomes a problem ................. 4 How an alcohol problem develops ....................... 6 Recognizing an alcohol problem .......................... 8 Guidelines for family and friends

Tullos, Desiree

66

49 CFR 229.63 - Lateral motion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.63 Lateral...the hubs of the wheels and boxes, between boxes and pedestals or both...1 inch on non-powered axles and friction bearing powered axles, or 3/4 inch on...

2011-10-01

67

49 CFR 229.63 - Lateral motion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.63 Lateral...the hubs of the wheels and boxes, between boxes and pedestals or both...1 inch on non-powered axles and friction bearing powered axles, or 3/4 inch on...

2012-10-01

68

49 CFR 229.63 - Lateral motion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.63 Lateral...the hubs of the wheels and boxes, between boxes and pedestals or both...1 inch on non-powered axles and friction bearing powered axles, or 3/4 inch on...

2010-10-01

69

49 CFR 229.63 - Lateral motion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.63 Lateral...the hubs of the wheels and boxes, between boxes and pedestals or both...1 inch on non-powered axles and friction bearing powered axles, or 3/4 inch on...

2013-10-01

70

Lateral releases of the subscapularis tendon  

PubMed Central

The technique of arthroscopic subscapularis repair continues to evolve. A three-sided subscapularis release (e.g. anterior, posterior, superior) is commonly advocated for improving tendon excursion to bone. However, a lateral release is commonly required as well, particularly for full thickness, upper subscapularis tears and full thickness, complete subscapularis tears. We describe the techniques to identify and release the lateral subscapularis border, which aids in the completion of other releases. PMID:24403761

Lo, Ian K.Y.; Nelson, Atiba A.; Burkhart, Stephen S

2013-01-01

71

Brain and behavioral lateralization in invertebrates  

PubMed Central

Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioral asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left–right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which has asymmetric odor sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behavior with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with a specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test the evolutionary hypothesis. PMID:24376433

Frasnelli, Elisa

2013-01-01

72

Laterality enhances cognition in Australian parrots.  

PubMed

Cerebral lateralization refers to the division of information processing in either hemisphere of the brain and is a ubiquitous trait among vertebrates and invertebrates. Given its widespread occurrence, it is likely that cerebral lateralization confers a fitness advantage. It has been hypothesized that this advantage takes the form of enhanced cognitive function, potentially via a dual processing mechanism whereby each hemisphere can be used to process specific types of information without contralateral interference. Here, we examined the influence of lateralization on problem solving by Australian parrots. The first task, a pebble-seed discrimination test, was designed for small parrot species that feed predominately on small seeds, which do not require any significant manipulation with the foot prior to ingestion. The second task, a string-pull problem, was designed for larger bodied species that regularly use their feet to manipulate food objects. In both cases, strongly lateralized individuals (those showing significant foot and eye biases) outperformed less strongly lateralized individuals, and this relationship was substantially stronger in the more demanding task. These results suggest that cerebral lateralization is a ubiquitous trait among Australian parrots and conveys a significant foraging advantage. Our results provide strong support for the enhanced cognitive function hypothesis. PMID:19726480

Magat, Maria; Brown, Culum

2009-12-01

73

Language lateralization shifts with learning by adults.  

PubMed

For the majority of the population, language is a left-hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting that this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to an unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left-lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short term within a learning context, independent of maturation. PMID:25285756

Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K; Vance, Christopher J; Asbjørnsen, Arve E

2015-05-01

74

Lateral restraint assembly for reactor core  

DOEpatents

A restraint assembly for use in restraining lateral movement of a reactor core relative to a reactor vessel wherein a plurality of restraint assemblies are interposed between the reactor core and the reactor vessel in circumferentially spaced relation about the core. Each lateral restraint assembly includes a face plate urged against the outer periphery of the core by a plurality of compression springs which enable radial preloading of outer reflector blocks about the core and resist low-level lateral motion of the core. A fixed radial key member cooperates with each face plate in a manner enabling vertical movement of the face plate relative to the key member but restraining movement of the face plate transverse to the key member in a plane transverse to the center axis of the core. In this manner, the key members which have their axes transverse to or subtending acute angles with the direction of a high energy force tending to move the core laterally relative to the reactor vessel restrain such lateral movement.

Gorholt, Wilhelm (San Diego, CA); Luci, Raymond K. (Del Mar, CA)

1986-01-01

75

Lateral flow immunoassay using magnetoresistive sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic particles have been adapted for use as labels in biochemical lateral flow strip tests. Standard gold particle lateral flow assays are generally qualitative; however, with magnetic particles, quantitative results can be obtained by using electronic detection systems with giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors. As described here, these small integrated sensor chips can detect the presence of magnetic labels in capture spots whose volume is approximately 150 ?m×150 ?m×150 ?m. The range of linear detection is better than two orders of magnitude; the total range is up to four orders of magnitude. The system was demonstrated with both indirect and sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for protein detection of rabbit IgG and interferon-?, respectively, achieving detection of 12 pg/ml protein. Ultimately, the goal is for the detector to be fully integrated into the lateral flow strip backing to form a single consumable item that is interrogated by a handheld electronic reader.

Taton, Kristin; Johnson, Diane; Guire, Patrick; Lange, Erik; Tondra, Mark

2009-05-01

76

Recovery of Dysphagia in Lateral Medullary Stroke  

PubMed Central

Lateral medullary stroke is typically associated with increased likelihood of occurrence of dysphagia and exhibits the most severe and persistent form. Worldwide little research exists on dysphagia in brainstem stroke. An estimated 15% of all patients admitted to stroke rehabilitation units experience a brainstem stroke out of which about 47% suffer from dysphagia. In India, a study showed that 22.3% of posterior circulation stroke patients develop dysphagia. Dearth of literature on dysphagia and its outcome in brainstem stroke particularly lateral medullary stroke motivated the author to present an actual case study of a patient who had dysphagia following a lateral medullary infarct. This paper documents the severity and management approach of dysphagia in brainstem stroke, with traditional dysphagia therapy and VitalStim therapy. Despite being diagnosed with a severe form of dysphagia followed by late treatment intervention, the patient had complete recovery of the swallowing function. PMID:25045555

Gupta, Hitesh; Banerjee, Alakananda

2014-01-01

77

Talbot interferometer for radial and lateral derivatives.  

PubMed

The theory and experimental evidence of a shearing interferometer based on the Talbot effect are presented. Multiple-shearing interferences are obtained that can be reduced to triple-shearing or doubleshearing interferences by the addition of simple spatial filtering. When the shear is less than the width of the details in the object, these interferences become either the second or first derivative of the object under test, respectively. Either lateral or constant radial shear can be introduced by choosing Ronchi rulings or circular gratings. Thus both lateral and radial derivatives are easily obtained. If white light is used as a source, color fringes of high contrast are observed. PMID:20119380

Silva, D E

1972-11-01

78

Lateral chest X-rays. Radiographic anatomy.  

PubMed

Lateral chest views constitute an essential part of chest X-ray examinations, so it is fundamental to know the anatomy on these images and to be able to detect the variations manifested on these images in different diseases. The aim of this article is to review the normal anatomy and main normal variants seen on lateral chest views. For teaching purposes, we divide the thorax into different spaces and analyze each in an orderly way, especially emphasizing the anatomic details that are most helpful for locating lesions that have already been detected in the posteroanterior view or for detecting lesions that can be missed in the posteroanterior view. PMID:24815721

García Villafañe, C; Pedrosa, C S

79

Artificial lateral line design for robotic fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fishes can avoid colliding with obstacles and track baits depending on the lateral distributed sense nodes which can sense the pressure variances of the surrounding flow field. Moreover, the interacted acoustic pressure field between the tail and the wall can provide useful information of the fish location by extracting the physical meaning of the sense node's measurement. Therefore, this study

Tsung-Ying Hsieh; Sheng-Wei Huang; Ling-Ji Mu; Edward Chen; Jenhwa Guo

2011-01-01

80

CORTICAL CELL DEATH DURING LATERAL ROOT FORMATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root segments of Convolvulus arvensis, the field bindweed, were examined with the electron microscope to make possible a description of the fine structural correlates of lateral root protrusion through cortical parenchyma. Particular attention was directed to the outermost primordium cells, derived by meristematic activity from the endodermis, and to the con- tiguous cortical parenchyma cells. By following the fate of

HOWARD T. BONNETT

1969-01-01

81

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: the role of exercise.  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting both the upper and lower motor neurons. Given the deterioration of skeletal muscle function, historically there has been concern regarding exercise and its affect on ALS. This article reviews and explains current research, helping patients, caregivers, and providers be equipped better to make decisions regarding the treatment of ALS with exercise. PMID:25574882

Lisle, Stuart; Tennison, Matthew

2015-01-01

82

Strain measurement in lateral ankle ligaments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured strain in the lateral ligaments of 10 human cadaver ankles while moving the ankle joint and apply ing stress in a variety of ways. We studied the anterior talofibular, calcaneofibular, posterior talofibular, ante rior tibiofibular, and posterior tibiofibular ligaments. Strain measurements in the ligaments were recorded continuously while the ankle was moved from dorsiflex ion into plantar flexion.

Mark R. Colville; Richard A. Marder; John J. Boyle; Bertram Zarins

1990-01-01

83

The lateral cerebellum and visuomotor control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lateral cerebellum receives an abundance of visual input providing the link between visual and motor control centers. In this review we discuss experiments designed to increase our understanding of how visual inputs to the cerebellum are arranged in relation to the zonal organization of the cerebellar cortex, and how visual inputs are utilized to assist in the regulation of

N. L. Cerminara; A. L. Edge; D. E. Marple-Horvat; R. Apps

2005-01-01

84

Depression in Later Life: Recognition and Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to help readers understand depression and factors related to its onset in later life; recognize signs of depression and potential suicide; and know actions they can take if they suspect an older family member or friend may be depressed or contemplating suicide. Following a brief introduction, a chapter on depression…

Schmall, Vicki L.; And Others

85

Non-traumatic lateral abdominal wall hernia.  

PubMed

A rare lateral abdominal wall hernia is described in an adult patient. This was diagnosed in a patient with a prominent right lateral abdominal wall deformity. The patient had been experiencing pain that increased progressively in severity over time. A computerized tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen revealed the location of the lateral abdominal wall defect. The hernia defect was through the transversus abdominis and the internal oblique, with the inferior aspect of the 11th rib forming part of the superior border of the defect. A 4-cm bony spur from the inferior aspect of the rib formed part of the lateral margin of the defect. The hernia sac was contained within a space underneath the external oblique muscle. The association of the hernia defect with a bony spur was highly suggestive of a congenital etiology. The hernia was successfully repaired laparoscopically with Parietex mesh (Sofradim, Lyons, France), and the patient had resolution of the symptoms on discharge and follow-up visits. PMID:18949442

Castillo-Sang, M; Gociman, B; Almaroof, B; Fath, J; Cason, F

2009-06-01

86

SUBSURFACE LATERAL TRANSPORT IN GLACIAL TILL SOILS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An understanding of water and solute flow patterns in a landscape is necessary to define water and nutrient use by crops, as well as nutrient contamination of groundwater, tile water, and streams. Subsurface water and solute movement in a landscape can occur laterally as well as vertically, especial...

87

Biphasic cell responses on laterally mobile films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The engineering of polymer surfaces or matrices that are capable of controlling cell adhesion has been widely explored. In nearly all of these works, the polymer chains (and ligands) are chemically attached to the underlying substrate, and therefore these systems are inherently static. By contrast, cellular environments such as the extracellular matrix (ECM) are dynamic and remodeled by biochemical reactions and biophysical forces. Borrowing this concept from Nature, we created polymer films by an interfacial self-assembly process, whereby individual chains can exhibit lateral mobility (in-plane diffusive motion). NIH 3T3 fibroblasts seeded on such RGD-presenting polymer films show biphasic responses in spreading and adhesion strength to lateral mobility, with a minimal response for intermediate mobility values. Futhermore, preliminary immuno-staining experiments reveal that the total area of focal adhesions demonstrates a similar biphasic trend to the cellular-scale behaviors. In contrast, actin filaments or stress fibers appear to be unaffected by the substrate lateral mobility. These results show that lateral mobility is an important, although not fully explored aspect of mechano-sensing by cells, and can potentially give new perspectives on cell-ECM interactions.

Kourouklis, Andreas; Lerum, Ronald; Bermudez, Harry

2013-03-01

88

Autosomal dominant juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a form of chronic motor neuron disease characterized by combined upper and lower motor neuron symptoms and signs with onset prior to age 25 years. We report the clinical and electrodiagnostic findings in 49 affected family members and neuropathological findings from two autopsies of a Maryland kindred with autosomal dominant juvenile ALS linked

Bruce A. Rabin; John W. Griffin; Barbara J. Crain; Mena Scavina; Philip F. Chance; David R. Cornblath

1999-01-01

89

Early Reactions to Cannabis Predict Later Dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context:Whilethereisagrowingliteratureonthelink- ages between early subjective responses to nicotine and alcohol and later risks of nicotine or alcohol depen- dence, to date there has been no study of this issue in relation to cannabis. Objective: To examine the extent to which subjective responses to early (prior to the age of 16 years) canna- bis use were associated with subsequent cannabis de-

David M. Fergusson; L. John Horwood; Michael T. Lynskey; Pamela A. F. Madden

2003-01-01

90

Hip arthroscopy by the lateral approach.  

PubMed

Performing hip arthroscopy with the patient in the lateral decubitus position is advantageous in aiding in visualization of the hip joint, in maneuvering instruments in obese patients, and in facilitating entry to the hip joint in patients with spurs on the anterolateral aspect of the acetabulum. The patient is placed in the lateral decubitus position with the hip on which the surgery is being performed on the top. The leg is placed in traction and a well-padded perineal post is applied for countertraction. An image intensifier is placed around the hip to help direct the instruments into the hip joint. Traction is necessary to reach the depths of the hip joint. After traction is applied, two portals are made over the greater trochanter and one directly anterior to the greater trochanter. A capsulotomy is performed at each portal site to maintain the portals and to aid in maneuvering the arthroscope and instruments. Traction is released and the hip is flexed to allow visualization of the intracapsular area around the femoral neck. An additional, ancillary portal (made anterior and distal to the first direct anterior portal) may be required to reach the intracapsular portion around the femoral neck. A regular traction table requires adjustments of the perineal and traction posts to apply traction to the leg of a patient in the lateral decubitus position. Special traction devices make setup easier. The lateral approach to hip arthroscopy provides a safe and consistent method of entering, visualizing, and performing surgical procedures on the hip. PMID:16958467

Glick, James M

2006-01-01

91

Profiling 1366 Technologies: One Year Later  

SciTech Connect

Last January, we took a look at how ARPA-E performer, 1366 Technologies is working to dramatically reduce the cost of solar energy. A year later, we revisited their headquarters in Lexington, MA to see the progress they've made.

Van Mierlo, Frank; Sachs, Ely

2011-01-01

92

Lateralization of Speech and Auditory Temporal Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the role of temporal processing in language lateralization, we monitored asymmetry of cerebral activation in human volunteers using positron emission tomography (PET). Subjects were scanned during passive auditory stimulation with nonverbal sounds containing rapid (40 msec) or extended (200 msec) frequency transitions. Bilateral symmetric activation was observed in the auditory cortex for slow frequency transitions. In contrast, left-biased

Pascal Belin; Monica Zilbovicius; Sophie Crozier; Lionel Thivard; Anne Fontaine; Marie-Cécile Masure; Yves Samson

1998-01-01

93

Do humpback whales exhibit lateralized behaviour?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateralized behaviour has been documented in non-human species, although many observers believe that it occurs at the individual rather than the population level. Its occurrence in humpback whales,Megaptera novaeangliae, in Massachusetts Bay was investigated by examining active behaviour types in which preference could be given to one direction or side. These included head breaching (direction of spin), flippering (right or

PHILLIP J. CLAPHAM; ELIZABETH LEIMKUHLER; BELINDA K. GRAY; DAVID K. MATTILA

1995-01-01

94

Lateral DMOS design for ESD robustness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design of efficient ESD protection in lateral DMOS (LDMOS) power transistor. Using characterization of the LDMOS transistor under ESD conditions with various gate and drain clamps, the design for minimum power dissipation is established. The results show that for ESD regime of pulses the channel heating effects are minimum and that optimum ESD level can be

Charvaka Duvvury; Fred Carvajal; Clif Jones; David Briggs

1997-01-01

95

Vehicle lateral control system using laser radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces our recent research on vehicle lateral control, a component of an automated highway system (AHS). We have developed a laser radar based automatic steering control system to study the performance and feasibility of such a system in an actual highway environment. Our approach does not require significant infrastructure investment because it is based on the retroreflective road

Masahiko Nakamura; Alan Arai; Mark P. Bendett; Mitsutaka Nakamura; Roy W. Goudy; Yoshinobu Suzuki; Hideki Kusunoki

1995-01-01

96

The Columbine Tragedy Ten Years Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some tragedies are so emblazoned in people's minds that years later they can recall where they were when they first heard the news. The assassinations of John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr., the Challenger explosion, and the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks are among these events. So also is the Columbine High School tragedy of April 20, 1999.…

Hammond, Jane

2009-01-01

97

Cervical stability with lateral mass plating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of study: The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a significant difference in stability between cervical spines instrumented with lateral mass plates affixed with unicortical versus bicortical Magerl screws.Methods used: Eleven human, cadaveric, cervical spines were harvested and radiographed, and all soft tissues except for supporting ligamentous structures were removed. Segments C3 through C5 were

Anthony Muffoletto; Walt Simmons; Jinping Yang; Kim Garges; Mukta Vadhva; Alexander Hadjipavlou

2002-01-01

98

Control augmentation for lateral control wheel steering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight control system design for lateral control wheel steering is discussed. Two alternate designs are presented. The first design is a roll-rate command, bank-angle hold system with a wings-level track-hold submode. The second is a curved-track-hold system. Design details and real-time flight simulator results are included.

Foulkes, R. H., Jr.

1981-01-01

99

Expiratory Muscle Function in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few data exist concerning expiratory muscle function in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We stud- ied 26 patients with ALS (16 with respiratory symptoms and 10 without) and measured the maximal static expiratory mouth pressure (MEP), the gastric pressure during a maximal cough (Cough Pga), and the gastric pressure after magnetic stimulation of the lower thoracic nerve roots (Tw Pga). These

MICHAEL I. POLKEY; REBECCA A. LYALL; MALCOLM GREEN; P. NIGEL LEIGH; JOHN MOXHAM

1998-01-01

100

Therapeutic advances in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and rapidly fatal neurodegenerative disease in which both upper and lower motoneurones are involved. The recent discovery of mutations affecting the superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene has given impetus to research on the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of familial ALS, while further evidence for a role of excitotoxicity in the disease

Adam Doble; J HUGON

1997-01-01

101

Early Classroom Behavior and Later Misconduct.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Longitudinally examines the relationship between teacher-rated behaviors in kindergarten through grade three with police contact as a measure of delinquency and school misconduct throughout adolescence. Urban minority ("high risk") males and females participated. Consistent relationships between early classroom behavior and later misconduct…

Spivack, George; And Others

1986-01-01

102

Lateral Hip Pain in an Athletic Population  

PubMed Central

Context: Historically, the term greater trochanteric pain syndrome has been used to describe a spectrum of conditions that cause lateral-sided hip pain, including greater trochanteric bursitis, snapping iliotibial band, and/or strains or tendinopathy of the abductor mechanism. Diagnosis of these conditions may be difficult because clinical presentations are variable and sometimes inconclusive. Especially difficult is differentiating intrinsic pain from pain referred to the greater trochanteric region. The purposes of this article are to review the relevant anatomy and pathophysiology of the lateral hip. Evidence Acquisition: Data were collected through a thorough review of the literature conducted through a MEDLINE search of all relevant papers between 1980 and January 2010. Results: Recent advances in imaging and an improved understanding of pathomechanics have helped to guide the evaluation, diagnosis, and appropriate treatment for patients presenting with lateral hip pain. Conclusion: Various diagnostic tools and treatment modalities can be used to effectively manage the athletic patient presenting with lateral hip pain. PMID:23015937

Grumet, Robert C.; Frank, Rachel M.; Slabaugh, Mark A.; Virkus, Walter W.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Nho, Shane J.

2010-01-01

103

Extraosseous Ewing's tumor of lateral abdominal wall  

PubMed Central

Extraosseous Ewings tumor (EES) is a rare entity. Few cases have been reported in literature. There are no specific guidelines for management of this disease. We are reporting a case of EES arising from left lateral abdominal wall. We did wide excision of tumor followed by chemoradiation. Patient is asymptomatic after 8 months of follow up. PMID:24765376

Gupta, Nikhil; Chand, Tirlok; Yadav, Nidhi; Kumar, Rajeev; Chauhan, Devender S.; Chaudhary, Poras; Arora, Mohinder P.

2011-01-01

104

Convergent models of handedness and brain lateralization  

PubMed Central

The pervasive nature of handedness across human history and cultures is a salient consequence of brain lateralization. This paper presents evidence that provides a structure for understanding the motor control processes that give rise to handedness. According to the Dynamic Dominance Model, the left hemisphere (in right handers) is proficient for processes that predict the effects of body and environmental dynamics, while the right hemisphere is proficient at impedance control processes that can minimize potential errors when faced with unexpected mechanical conditions, and can achieve accurate steady-state positions. This model can be viewed as a motor component for the paradigm of brain lateralization that has been proposed by Rogers et al. (MacNeilage et al., 2009) that is based upon evidence from a wide range of behaviors across many vertebrate species. Rogers proposed a left-hemisphere specialization for well-established patterns of behavior performed in familiar environmental conditions, and a right hemisphere specialization for responding to unforeseen environmental events. The dynamic dominance hypothesis provides a framework for understanding the biology of motor lateralization that is consistent with Roger's paradigm of brain lateralization. PMID:25339923

Sainburg, Robert L.

2014-01-01

105

Lateral cephalometric radiograph versus lateral nasopharyngeal radiograph for quantitative evaluation of nasopharyngeal airway space  

PubMed Central

Objective This study compared lateral radiographs of the nasopharynx (LN) and lateral cephalometric radiographs (LC) used to assess nasopharyngeal airway space in children. Material and Methods One examiner measured the nasopharyngeal space of 15 oral breathing patients aged between 5 and 11 years old by using LN and LC. Both assessments were made twice with a 15-day interval in between. Intergroup comparison was performed with t-tests (P < 0.05). Results Comparison between LN and LC measurements showed no significant differences. Conclusion Lateral cephalometric radiograph is an acceptable method used to assess nasopharyngeal airway space. PMID:25279526

Pereira, Suelen Cristina da Costa; Beltrão, Rejane Targino Soares; Janson, Guilherme; Garib, Daniela Gamba

2014-01-01

106

A rare nonincisional lateral abdominal wall hernia  

PubMed Central

A 68-year-old woman presented a rare lateral abdominal wall hernia. Three month before admission to Chungbuk National University Hospital, she found a large protruding mass measuring 8 cm in diameter in the midaxillary line just below the costal margin upon heavy coughing. She had no history of abdominal trauma, infection, or operation previously. The mass was easily reduced manually or by position change to left lateral decubitus. CT scan showed a defect of the right transversus abdominis muscle and internal oblique muscle at the right flank with omental herniation. Its location is different from that of spigelian hernia or lumbar hernia. The peritoneal lining of the hernia sac was smooth and there was no evidence of inflammation or adhesion. The hernia was successfully repaired laparoscopically using Parietex composite mesh with an intraperitoneal onlay mesh technique. The patient was discharged uneventfully and did not show any evidence of recurrence at follow-up visits.

Kim, Dong-Ju

2015-01-01

107

Thrust vectoring for lateral-directional stability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advantages and disadvantages of using thrust vectoring for lateral-directional control and the effects of reducing the tail size of a single-engine aircraft were investigated. The aerodynamic characteristics of the F-16 aircraft were generated by using the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System II panel code. The resulting lateral-directional linear perturbation analysis of a modified F-16 aircraft with various tail sizes and yaw vectoring was performed at several speeds and altitudes to determine the stability and control trends for the aircraft compared to these trends for a baseline aircraft. A study of the paddle-type turning vane thrust vectoring control system as used on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle is also presented.

Peron, Lee R.; Carpenter, Thomas

1992-01-01

108

Kainji resettlement housing: 40 years later  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nigeria's Kainji Dam, completed in 1968, displaced 44,000 people from 239 settlements. Three housing forms were designed to provide for urban, semi?urban, and rural settings, respectively. Forty years later, the urban and semi?urban forms are integrated into the community while the rural form, modeled after a grain storage structure (rumbu) has been less successful. Five lessons are derived from this

Ruth Shinenge Gyuse; Timothy Terver Gyuse

2008-01-01

109

Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay Test Strips  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As easy to read as a home pregnancy test, three Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay (QLFA) strips used to test water for E. coli show different results. The brightly glowing control line on the far right of each strip indicates that all three tests ran successfully. But the glowing test line on the middle left and bottom strips reveal their samples were contaminated with E. coli bacteria at two different concentrations. The color intensity correlates with concentration of contamination.

2003-01-01

110

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A proposed mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Missense mutations in Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) account for 20% of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) through some, as yet undefined, toxic gain of function that leads to gradual death of motor neurons. Mitochondrial swelling and vacuolization are early signs of incipient motor neuron death in FALS. We previously reported that SOD1 exists in the intermembrane space of mitochondria. Herein, we

Ayako Okado-Matsumoto; Irwin Fridovich

2002-01-01

111

Palliative care in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The poor prognosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) makes palliative care a challenge for the neurologist. Most disabilities\\u000a associated with progressive disease can be ameliorated by symptomatic treatment. Prognosis and treatment options should be\\u000a openly discussed with the patient and his\\/her relatives. Nutritional deficiency due to pronounced dysphagia can be efficiently\\u000a relieved by a percutaneous enterogastrostomy. Respiratory insufficiency can be

Gian Domenico Borasio; Raymond Voltz

1997-01-01

112

Glutamate, excitotoxicity and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “glutamate hypothesis” is one of three major pathophysiological mechanisms of motor neurone injury towards which current\\u000a research effort into amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is directed. There is great structural and functional diversity in\\u000a the glutamate receptor family which results from combinations of 14 known gene products and their splice variants, with or\\u000a without additional RNA editing. It is possible

P. J. Shaw; P. G. Ince

1997-01-01

113

Micromachining technology for lateral field emission devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate a range of novel applications of micromachining and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) for achieving efficient and tunable field emission devices (FEDs). Arrays of lateral field emission tips are fabricated with submicron spacing utilizing deep reactive ion etch (DRIE). Current densities above 150 A\\/cm2 are achieved with over 150·106 tips\\/cm2. With sacrificial sidewall spacing, electrodes can be placed at arbitrarily

Veljko Milanovic ´; Lance Doherty; Dana A. Teasdale; Siavash Parsa; Kristofer S. J. Pister

2001-01-01

114

Lateral jet injection into typical combustor flowfields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experimental problem of lateral jet injection into typical flow fields in the absence of combustion was studied. All flow fields being investigated have no expansion of the crossflow (the test section to swirler diameter ratio D/d = 1), after its passage through an optional swirler (with swirl vane angle phi = 0 (swirler removed), 45, and 70 degree). The lateral jet(s) is(are) located one test-section diameter downstream of the test-section inlet (x/D = 1). The lateral jets have round-sectioned nozzles, each of which has an area of 1/100th of the cross sectional area of the crossflow (A sub j/A sub c = 1/100). Jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios of R = v sub j/u sub o = 2, 4, and 6 were investigated. Helium-bubble low visualization, five-hole pitot probe time-mean velocity measurements, and single-wire time-mean velocity and normal and shear stress turbulence data were obtained in the research program.

Lilley, D. G.

1986-01-01

115

High performance amorphous selenium lateral photodetector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lateral amorphous selenium (a-Se) detectors based on the metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) device structure have been studied for indirect detector medical imaging applications. These detectors have raised interest due to their simple structure, ease of fabrication, high-speed, low dark current, low capacitance per unit area and better light utilization. The lateral device structure has a benefit that the electrode spacing may be easily controlled to reduce the required bias for a given desired electric field. In indirect conversion x-ray imaging, the scintillator is coupled to the top of the a-Se MSM photodetector, which itself is integrated on top of the thin-film-transistor (TFT) array. The carriers generated at the top surface of the a-Se layer experience a field that is parallel to the surface, and does not initially sweep them away from the surface. Therefore these carriers may recombine or get trapped in surface states and change the field at the surface, which may degrade the performance of the photodetector. In addition, due to the finite width of the electrodes, the fill factor of the device is less than unity. In this study we examine the effect of lateral drift of carriers and the fill factor on the photodetector performance. The impact of field magnitude on the performance is also investigated.

Abbaszadeh, Shiva; Allec, Nicholas; Karim, Karim S.

2012-03-01

116

Lateral balance control for robotic gait training.  

PubMed

For the rehabilitation of neurological patients robot-aided gait training is increasingly being used. Lack of balance training in these robotic gait trainers might contribute to the fact that they do not live up to the expectations. Therefore, in this study we developed and evaluated an algorithm to support lateral balance during walking, through controlling pelvis motions. This algorithm assists the pelvis, according to a natural pelvic sway pattern, rather than attracting it to the middle of the treadmill. The support algorithm was tested on six healthy young subjects who walked on a treadmill, while different support gains were introduced. Using a higher support gain resulted in a closer approximation of the pelvic sway towards the reference pattern. Step width and step width variability reduced when the external stabilization was provided, and the stability margin increased. This indicates that artificial stabilization reduces the need for active lateral balance control. The presented algorithm to support lateral balance provides a way to assist balance in a more physiological way, compared to attracting the subject to the centre of the treadmill. Here the user is attracted/assisted towards a more natural weight shift pattern. This also facilitates a more natural input of the load receptors, which are largely involved in the regulation of muscle activation patterns and the transitions between the different gait phases. PMID:24187182

Koopman, B; Meuleman, J H; van Asseldonk, E H F; van der Kooij, H

2013-06-01

117

Subcortical structures in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the involvement of deep gray matter, hippocampal subfields, and ventricular changes in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A total of 112 ALS patients and 60 healthy subjects participated. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired using a 3T MRI scanner. Thirty-nine patients underwent a follow-up scan. Volumetric and shape analyses of subcortical structures were performed, measures were correlated with clinical parameters, and longitudinal changes were assessed. At baseline, reduced hippocampal volumes (left: p = 0.007; right: p = 0.011) and larger inferior lateral ventricles (left: p = 0.013; right: p = 0.041) were found in patients compared to healthy controls. Longitudinal analyses demonstrated a significant decrease in volume of the right cornu ammonis 2/3 and 4/dentate gyrus and left presubiculum (p = 0.002, p = 0.045, p < 0.001), and a significant increase in the ventricular volume in the lateral (left: p < 0.001; right: p < 0.001), 3rd (p < 0.001) and 4th (p = 0.001) ventricles. Larger ventricles were associated with a lower ALSFRS-R score (p = 0.021). In conclusion, ALS patients show signs of neurodegeneration of subcortical structures and ventricular enlargement. Subcortical involvement is progressive and correlates with clinical parameters, highlighting its role in the neurodegenerative process in ALS. PMID:25281019

Westeneng, Henk-Jan; Verstraete, Esther; Walhout, Renée; Schmidt, Ruben; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Veldink, Jan H; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; van den Berg, Leonard H

2015-02-01

118

Pranayama increases grip strength without lateralized effects.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to determine whether breathing through a particular nostril has a lateralized effect on hand grip strength. 130 right hand dominant, school children between 11 and 18 yrs of age were randomly assigned to 5 groups. Each group had a specific yoga practice in addition to the regular program for a 10 day yoga camp. The practices were: (1) right-, (2) left-, (3) alternate- nostril breathing (4), breath awareness and (5) practice of mudras. Hand grip strength of both hands was assessed initially and at the end of 10 days for all 5 groups. The right-, left- and alternate-nostril breathing groups had a significant increase in grip strength of both hands, ranging from 4.1% to 6.5%, at the end of the camp though without any lateralization effect. The breath awareness and mudra groups showed no change. Hence the present results suggest that yoga breathing through a particular nostril, or through alternate nostrils increases hand grip strength of both hands without lateralization. PMID:9142556

Raghuraj, P; Nagarathna, R; Nagendra, H R; Telles, S

1997-04-01

119

Genetic factors and breast cancer laterality  

PubMed Central

Background Women are more likely to develop cancer in the left breast than the right. Such laterality may influence subsequent management, especially in elderly patients with heart disease who may require radiation therapy. The purpose of this study was to explore possible factors for such cancer laterality. Methods In this work, clinical data for consecutive patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer were reviewed, with emphasis on clinical presentation and family history. Results Between 2005 and 2012, 687 patients with breast cancer were seen. Two women with incomplete data and eleven men were excluded. In total, 343 (50.9%) patients presented with left breast cancer, 311 (46.1%) with right breast cancer, and 20 (3.0%) with simultaneous bilateral malignancy. There were no significant differences between the three groups, especially in regards to clinical presentation and tumor characteristics. A total of 622 (92.3%) patients had unilateral primary, 20 (3.0%) had simultaneous bilateral, and 32 (4.7%) had metachronous primary breast cancer with subsequent contralateral breast cancer after 7.5–236 months. The worst 10-year survival was for bilateral simultaneous (18%) compared with unilateral (28%) and metachronous primaries (90%). There were no differences in survival in relation to breast cancer laterality, handedness, and presence or absence of a family history of cancer. There were significant similarities between patients and first-degree relatives in regards to breast cancer laterality, namely same breast (30/66, 45.5%), opposite breast (9/66, 13.6%), and bilateral cancer (27/66, 40.9, P=0.01163). This was more evident among patients and their sisters (17/32, 53.1%) or mothers (11/27, 40.7%, P=0.0689). There were also close similarities in relation to age at initial diagnosis of cancer for patients and their first-degree relatives for age differences of ?5 years (48/166, 28.9%), 6–10 years (34/166, 20.5%), and >11 years (84/166, 50.6%, P=0.12065). Conclusion High similarities between patients and their first-degree relatives in regards to cancer laterality and possibly age at initial diagnosis of cancer may suggest an underlying inherited genetic predisposition. PMID:24790468

Amer, Magid H

2014-01-01

120

Involvements of the lateral hypothalamic area in gastric motility and its regulation by the lateral septum.  

PubMed

Ghrelin is an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) pre-dominantly produced in the stomach. Recent studies have shown that it may promote food intake and gastric motility. We aim to explore effects of ghrelin on the gastric distension (GD) sensitive neurons and gastric motility in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), and the possible regulation by the lateral septum. Extracellular single unit discharges were recorded and the gastric motility was monitored by administration of ghrelin into LHA and electrical stimulation of lateral septum. Expression of GHS-R was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), western blot and immunohistochemistry staining. Projection of nerve fiber and expression of ghrelin were observed by retrograde tracer and fluo-immunohistochemistry staining. Results revealed that there were GD neurons in the LHA, and administration of ghrelin could excite both GD-excitatory (GD-E) and GD-inhibited (GD-I) neurons in the LHA. The gastric motility was significantly promoted by administration of ghrelin into LHA with a dose dependent manner, which could be completely abolished by treatment with ghrelin receptor antagonist [D-Lys-3]-GHRP-6 or BIM-28163. c-Fos expression was significantly increased after ghrelin administration to the LHA. Electrical stimulation of the lateral septum could significantly excite GD neurons responsive to ghrelin in the LHA as well as promote gastric motility. However, those effects could be absorbed by pre-treatment of [D-Lys-3]-GHRP-6. GHSR-1a expression in the LHA had no change after ghrelin administration to the LHA or electrical stimulating lateral septum. Electrical lesion of the LHA resulted in the decrease of gastric motility. GHS-R and Ghrelin/FG-double labeled neurons were observed in the LHA and lateral septum, respectively. It is suggested that the LHA may involve in promoting gastric motility via ghrelin. The Lateral septum projects to the LHA and exerts some regulating function on the LHA. PMID:24100167

Gong, Yanling; Xu, Luo; Wang, Hongbo; Guo, Feifei; Sun, Xiangrong; Gao, Shengli

2013-12-01

121

Efferent pathways of the mouse lateral habenula.  

PubMed

The lateral habenula (LHb) is part of the habenula complex of the dorsal thalamus. Recent studies of the LHb have focused on its projections to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), which contain ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons that mediate reward prediction error via inhibition of dopaminergic activity. However, older studies in the rat have also identified LHb outputs to the lateral and posterior hypothalamus, median raphe, dorsal raphe, and dorsal tegmentum. Although these studies have shown that the medial and lateral divisions of the LHb have somewhat distinct projections, the topographic specificity of LHb efferents is not completely understood, and the relative extent of these projections to brainstem targets is unknown. Here we have used anterograde tracing with adeno-associated virus-mediated expression of green fluorescent protein, combined with serial two-photon tomography, to map the efferents of the LHb on a standard coordinate system for the entire mouse brain, and reconstruct the efferent pathways of the LHb in three dimensions. Using automated quantitation of fiber density, we show that in addition to the RMTg, the median raphe, caudal dorsal raphe, and pontine central gray are major recipients of LHb efferents. By using retrograde tract tracing with cholera toxin subunit B, we show that LHb neurons projecting to the hypothalamus, VTA, median raphe, caudal dorsal raphe, and pontine central gray reside in characteristic, but sometimes overlapping regions of the LHb. Together these results provide the anatomical basis for systematic studies of LHb function in neural circuits and behavior in mice. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:32-60, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25099741

Quina, Lely A; Tempest, Lynne; Ng, Lydia; Harris, Julie A; Ferguson, Susan; Jhou, Thomas C; Turner, Eric E

2015-01-01

122

Lateral stress evolution in Chromium Sulfide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the shock response of CrS, a cermet of potential interest as a matrix material for ballistic applications, has been investigated. Compacts with a Chromium: Sulfur ratio of 1.15:1 were investigated via the plate-impact technique. These experiments allowed the material to be loaded under a one-dimensional state of strain. Embedded manganin stress gauges were employed to monitor the temporal evolution of longitudinal and lateral components of stress. Comparison of these two components has allowed assessment of the variation of material shear strength both with impact pressure/strain-rate and time.

Petel, O. E.; Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Hameed, A.; Capozzi, A.; Goroshin, S.; Frost, D. L.; Hazell, P. J.

2014-05-01

123

Responsiveness-to-Intervention: A Decade Later  

PubMed Central

In this introduction to this special issue, “A Decade Later,” we provide an overview of the accomplishments as well as the persistent questions surrounding RTI. We organize this discussion within 3 categories: assessment, instruction, and policy. Within each of these sections, we also highlight how the articles in the present special issue expand upon the key issues. Developed initially for the early grades (kindergarten through third grade) and primarily in the area of reading, many-although not all-of these issues speak to the expansion of RTI to address a broader set of academic content areas and the full range of grade levels. PMID:22539056

Fuchs, Lynn S.; Vaughn, Sharon

2012-01-01

124

Quantifying Disease Progression in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) exhibits characteristic variability of onset and rate of disease progression, with inherent clinical heterogeneity making disease quantitation difficult. Recent advances in understanding pathogenic mechanisms linked to the development of ALS impose an increasing need to develop strategies to predict and more objectively measure disease progression. This review explores phenotypic and genetic determinants of disease progression in ALS, and examines established and evolving biomarkers that may contribute to robust measurement in longitudinal clinical studies. With targeted neuroprotective strategies on the horizon, developing efficiencies in clinical trial design may facilitate timely entry of novel treatments into the clinic. PMID:25223628

Simon, Neil G; Turner, Martin R; Vucic, Steve; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Shefner, Jeremy; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine; Kiernan, Matthew C

2014-01-01

125

Post-ictal, lateralized hyperkinetic motor behavior???  

PubMed Central

Introduction Recognition of a transient, focal neurologic dysfunction after a seizure is important when evaluating patients with idiopathic epilepsy. Todd's palsy, a transient focal weakness after a seizure, is a highly accurate clinical sign indicative of a contralateral, cerebral epileptic focus. In contrast, a transient, lateralized hyperkinetic motor behavior from a contralateral, hemispheric ictal focus has not been emphasized as a localizing clinical sign. The following case demonstrates that transient hyperkinetic behavior occurs as a post-ictal phenomenon and may have a localizing value, as in Todd's palsy.

Beck, Brian; Chang, Gregory Youngnam

2012-01-01

126

Subtle retinal pathology in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by neuro-ophthalmological abnormalities beyond disturbed oculomotor control such as decreased visual acuity and disturbed visual evoked potentials. Here we report retinal alterations in a cohort of 24 patients with clinically definite (n = 20) or probable (n = 4) ALS as compared to matched controls. High-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography with retinal segmentation revealed a subtle reduction in the macular thickness and the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) as well as a marked thinning of the inner nuclear layer (INL). Our data indicate an unprecedented retinal damage pattern and suggest neurodegeneration beyond the motor system in this disease.

Ringelstein, Marius; Albrecht, Philipp; Südmeyer, Martin; Harmel, Jens; Müller, Ann-Kristin; Keser, Nazmiye; Finis, David; Ferrea, Stefano; Guthoff, Rainer; Schnitzler, Alfons; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Methner, Axel; Aktas, Orhan

2014-01-01

127

Cerebral lateralization of frontal lobe language processes and lateralization of the posterior visual word processing system.  

PubMed

The brain areas involved in visual word processing rapidly become lateralized to the left cerebral hemisphere. It is often assumed this is because, in the vast majority of people, cortical structures underlying language production are lateralized to the left hemisphere. An alternative hypothesis, however, might be that the early stages of visual word processing are lateralized to the left hemisphere because of intrinsic hemispheric differences in processing low-level visual information as required for distinguishing fine-grained visual forms such as letters. If the alternative hypothesis was correct, we would expect posterior occipito-temporal processing stages still to be lateralized to the left hemisphere for participants with right hemisphere dominance for the frontal lobe processes involved in language production. By analyzing event-related potentials of native readers of French with either left hemisphere or right hemisphere dominance for language production (determined using a verb generation task), we were able to show that the posterior occipito-temporal areas involved in visual word processing are lateralized to the same hemisphere as language production. This finding could suggest top-down influences in the development of posterior visual word processing areas. PMID:18052778

Cai, Qing; Lavidor, Michal; Brysbaert, Marc; Paulignan, Yves; Nazir, Tatjana A

2008-04-01

128

Compartmentalized Innervation of Primate Lateral Rectus Muscle  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Skeletal and craniofacial muscles are frequently composed of multiple neuromuscular compartments that serve different physiological functions. Evidence of possible regional selectivity in LR intramuscular innervation was sought in a study of the anatomic potential of lateral rectus (LR) muscle compartmentalization. Methods. Whole orbits of two humans and five macaque monkeys were serially sectioned at 10-?m thickness and stained with Masson trichrome. The abducens nerve (CN6) was traced anteriorly from the deep orbit as it branched to enter the LR and arborized among extraocular muscle (EOM) fibers. Three-dimensional reconstruction was performed in human and monkey orbits. Results. Findings were in concordance in the monkey and human orbits. External to the LR global surface, CN6 bifurcated into approximately equal-sized trunks before entering the global layer. Subsequent arborization showed a systematic topography, entering a well-defined inferior zone 0.4 to 2.5 mm more posteriorly than branches entering the largely nonoverlapping superior zone. Zonal innervation remained segregated anteriorly and laterally within the LR. Conclusions. Consistent segregation of intramuscular CN6 arborization in humans and monkeys suggests functionally distinct superior and inferior zones for the LR. Since the LR is shaped as a broad vertical strap, segregated control of the two zones could activate them separately, potentially mediating previously unappreciated but substantial torsional and vertical oculorotary LR actions. PMID:20435590

Peng, Michelle; Poukens, Vadims; da Silva Costa, Roberta Martins; Yoo, Lawrence; Tychsen, Lawrence

2010-01-01

129

Cortical cell death during lateral root formation.  

PubMed

Root segments of Convolvulus arvensis, the field bindweed, were examined with the electron microscope to make possible a description of the fine structural correlates of lateral root protrusion through cortical parenchyma. Particular attention was directed to the outermost primordium cells, derived by meristematic activity from the endodermis, and to the contiguous cortical parenchyma cells. By following the fate of the Casparian strip through numerous divisions of the endodermal cell, information has been obtained relating to the minimum contribution of the endodermis to the root primordium structure. Cortical parenchyma cells during lateral root growth are specifically degraded so that only the cell wall remains. A layer of cell wall material, representing numerous cortical parenchyma cells, accrues at the tip of the advancing root primordium. It is suggested that the intensive coated-vesicle activity along the plasmalemma of the outermost primordium cell and the appearance of the vesicle contents in the outer wall of this cell are indicative of the secretion of hydrolases which move through the wall and attack the adjacent cortical parenchyma cells. PMID:5782442

Bonnett, H T

1969-01-01

130

Dynamics of desorption with lateral diffusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of desorption from a submonolayer of adsorbed atoms or ions are significantly influenced by the absence or presence of lateral diffusion of the adsorbed particles. When diffusion is present, the adsorbate configuration is simultaneously changed by two distinct processes, proceeding in parallel: adsorption/desorption, which changes the total adsorbate coverage, and lateral diffusion, which is coverage conserving. Inspired by experimental results, we here study the effects of these competing processes by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of a simple lattice-gas model. In order to untangle the various effects, we perform large-scale simulations, in which we monitor coverage, correlation length, and cluster-size distributions, as well as the behavior of representative individual clusters, during desorption. For each initial adsorbate configuration, we perform multiple, independent simulations, without and with diffusion, respectively. We find that, compared to desorption without diffusion, the coverage-conserving diffusion process produces two competing effects: a retardation of the desorption rate, which is associated with a coarsening of the adsorbate configuration, and an acceleration due to desorption of monomers "evaporated" from the cluster perimeters. The balance between these two effects is governed by the structure of the adsorbate layer at the beginning of the desorption process. Deceleration and coarsening are predominant for configurations dominated by monomers and small clusters, while acceleration is predominant for configurations dominated by large clusters.

Juwono, Tjipto; Rikvold, Per Arne

2013-09-01

131

Dendroarchitecture and lateral inhibition in thalamic barreloids.  

PubMed

Thalamic cells that relay vibrissa information to barrel cortex are clustered within whisker-related modules termed barreloids. Each barreloid receives input from one principal whisker and inhibitory inputs from reticular thalamic neurons with receptive fields that correspond to that same whisker. Although the proximal dendrites of relay cells are confined to their home barreloid, distal dendrites often extend into surrounding barreloids representing adjacent whiskers on the mystacial pad. It was proposed that this arrangement provides a substrate for a mechanism of lateral inhibition that operates remotely on extrabarreloid dendrites. In the present study, we identified adjacent whiskers that suppressed activity below background levels in barreloid cells, and we used a double-labeling protocol to relate the efficacy of inhibition to the dendroarchitecture of the cells. Significant suppression of background discharges was produced by 92% of adjacent whiskers within rows, by 48% of adjacent whiskers within arcs, but was never observed after deflection of nonadjacent whiskers. The magnitude of lateral inhibition increases linearly as the cumulated length of dendrites increases in the barreloid representing an adjacent whisker (R2 = 0.86; p < 0.0001). As distance between cell bodies and the border of an adjacent barreloid increases, dendritic length in that adjacent barreloid diminishes and so does inhibition. Considering time differences between the arrival of principal and adjacent whisker inputs in barreloids, our data suggest that inhibition operating distally on dendrites acts as a spatial filter that primarily suppresses adjacent whisker inputs and so contributes to enhance edge detection. PMID:15240801

Lavallée, Philippe; Deschênes, Martin

2004-07-01

132

Load transfer approach for laterally loaded piles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-parameter model has been proposed previously for predicting the response of laterally loaded single piles in homogenous soil. A disadvantage of the model is that at high Poisson's ratio, unreliable results may be obtained. In this paper, a new load transfer approach is developed to simulate the response of laterally loaded single piles embedded in a homogeneous medium, by introducing a rational stress field. The approach can overcome the inherent disadvantage of the two-parameter model, although developed in a similar way. Generalized solutions for a single pile and the surrounding soil under various pile-head and base conditions were established and presented in compact forms. With the solutions, a load transfer factor, correlating the displacements of the pile and the soil, was estimated and expressed as a simple equation. Expressions were developed for the modulus of subgrade reaction for a Winkler model as a unique function of the load transfer factor. Simple expressions were developed for estimating critical pile length, maximum bending moment, and the depth at which the maximum moment occurs. All the newly established solutions and/or expressions, using the load transfer factor, offer satisfactory predictions in comparison with the available, more rigorous numerical approaches. The current solutions are applicable to various boundary conditions, and any pile-soil relative stiffness.

Guo, Wei Dong; Lee, F. H.

2001-09-01

133

Lateral Distribution Functions of Extensive Air Showers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy is among the characteristics of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (E>5 x 1019 eV) which could be estimated experimentally. The following paper attempts to estimate the energy of an UHECR proton by applying a Monte Carlo simulation code. A number of extensive air showers, vertical and inclined, is simulated to derive the Lateral Distribution Functions of the shower muons. The scenario of simulations is adopted to the Cerenkov surface detector of the P. AUGER Observatory. Due to the fact that the Lateral Distribution Functions show minimal fluctuations of the muon density at a distance larger than 800 m from the core of the showers, and due to the fact that at a distance of 900 m the distribution functions for inclined showers coincide (which means that it does not change with the zenith angle of the showers), we select the muon density at 900 m to derive the energy of the primary protons. (The project is co-funded by the European Social Fund and National Resources (EPEAEK II) PYTHAGORAS II.)

Geranios, A.; Fokitis, E.; Maltezos, S.; et al.

134

Dynamics of desorption with lateral diffusion.  

PubMed

The dynamics of desorption from a submonolayer of adsorbed atoms or ions are significantly influenced by the absence or presence of lateral diffusion of the adsorbed particles. When diffusion is present, the adsorbate configuration is simultaneously changed by two distinct processes, proceeding in parallel: adsorption/desorption, which changes the total adsorbate coverage, and lateral diffusion, which is coverage conserving. Inspired by experimental results, we here study the effects of these competing processes by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of a simple lattice-gas model. In order to untangle the various effects, we perform large-scale simulations, in which we monitor coverage, correlation length, and cluster-size distributions, as well as the behavior of representative individual clusters, during desorption. For each initial adsorbate configuration, we perform multiple, independent simulations, without and with diffusion, respectively. We find that, compared to desorption without diffusion, the coverage-conserving diffusion process produces two competing effects: a retardation of the desorption rate, which is associated with a coarsening of the adsorbate configuration, and an acceleration due to desorption of monomers "evaporated" from the cluster perimeters. The balance between these two effects is governed by the structure of the adsorbate layer at the beginning of the desorption process. Deceleration and coarsening are predominant for configurations dominated by monomers and small clusters, while acceleration is predominant for configurations dominated by large clusters. PMID:24089794

Juwono, Tjipto; Rikvold, Per Arne

2013-09-28

135

Lateral vision in horses: a behavioral investigation.  

PubMed

This study investigated lateral vision in horses (Equus caballus) for the first time from a behavioral point of view. Three horses were tested using a novel experimental design to determine the range of their lateral and caudolateral vision with respect to stimulus detection and discrimination. Real-life stimuli were presented along a curvilinear wall in one of four different positions (A, B, C, D) and one of two height locations (Top, Bottom) on both sides of the horse. To test for stimulus detection, the correct stimulus was paired against a control; for stimulus discrimination, the correct stimulus was paired against another object. To indicate that the correct stimulus was detected or discriminated, the horses pushed one of two paddles. All horses scored significantly above chance on stimulus detection trials regardless of stimulus position or location. They also accurately discriminated between stimuli when objects appeared in positions A, B, and C for the top or bottom locations; however, they failed to discriminate these stimuli at position D. This study supports physiological descriptions of the equine eye and provides new behavioral data showing that horses can detect the appearance of objects within an almost fully encompassing circle and are able to identify objects within most but not all of their panoramic field of view. PMID:22698758

Hanggi, Evelyn B; Ingersoll, Jerry F

2012-09-01

136

Partial Lateral Patellar Facetectomy as an Alternative to Lateral Release in Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA).  

PubMed

This study presents the selective use of partial patellar lateral facetectomy for maltracking during primary TKA, as an alternative to lateral release. Twenty three partial facetectomies were performed out of 191 TKAs (12%). Balanced tracking was achieved in 22 knees. At follow-up 2 patients had persistent anterior knee pain. Mean Knee Society score (KSS) was 94 and mean functional KSS was 86. Mean patellar score was 28. Patellar tilt angles were within 2 degrees in all but one knee. Patellar translation was within 2 mm in all cases. No complications were recorded. A control group of 46 matched patients had similar functional and radiographic results. If tracking is not satisfactory at the conclusion of TKA, our method of choice would be partial lateral facetectomy. PMID:25064018

Lakstein, Dror; Naser, Muhammad; Adar, Eliyahu; Atoun, Ehud; Edelman, Alexander; Hendel, David

2014-11-01

137

Summary of Methods for Calculating Dynamic Lateral Stability and Response and for Estimating Lateral Stability Derivatives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of methods for making dynamic lateral stability and response calculations and for estimating the aerodynamic stability derivatives required for use in these calculations is presented. The processes of performing calculations of the time histories of lateral motions, of the period and damping of these motions, and of the lateral stability boundaries are presented as a series of simple straightforward steps. Existing methods for estimating the stability derivatives are summarized and, in some cases, simple new empirical formulas are presented. Reference is also made to reports presenting experimental data that should be useful in making estimates of the derivatives. Detailed estimating methods are presented for low-subsonic-speed conditions but only a brief discussion and a list of references are given for transonic- and supersonic-speed conditions.

Campbell, John P; Mckinney, Marion O

1951-01-01

138

Lateralized differences in olfactory bulb volume relate to lateralized differences in olfactory function.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to investigate whether side differences in olfactory bulb (OB) volume correlate to respective differences in olfactory function. In a total of 164 healthy volunteers volumetric measures of the OBs were performed plus lateralized measurements of odor thresholds and odor discrimination. Side differences were defined as 10% difference between the left and right OB. In 39 cases volumes on the right side were larger than on the left side, whereas in 29 cases it was the other way around. Subjects with larger right-sided OB volumes were found to be more sensitive to odorous stimulation of the right as compared to the left nostril in terms of odor thresholds and odor detection; higher sensitivity of the left nostrils (decreased odor threshold) was observed in individuals with larger OB volumes on the left side. These data appear to suggest that OB volume may be partly dependent on lateralized influences on the olfactory system, reflecting its lateralized organization. PMID:23376116

Hummel, T; Haehner, A; Hummel, C; Croy, I; Iannilli, E

2013-05-01

139

5. DETAIL OF TOP CHORD CONNECTION SHOWING LATERAL BRACING, MAIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. DETAIL OF TOP CHORD CONNECTION SHOWING LATERAL BRACING, MAIN TIES, TOP LATERAL STRUT, AND INTERMEDIATE POST - Smith Bridge, Spanning Nottely River on Dooley Road (County Road 83), Blairsville, Union County, GA

140

14 CFR 25.177 - Static lateral-directional stability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Static lateral-directional stability. 25.177 Section 25.177 Aeronautics...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 25.177 Static lateral-directional stability. (a) The static directional...

2014-01-01

141

14 CFR 23.177 - Static directional and lateral stability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Static directional and lateral stability. 23.177 Section 23.177 Aeronautics...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 23.177 Static directional and lateral stability. (a)(1) The static...

2014-01-01

142

14 CFR 23.177 - Static directional and lateral stability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Static directional and lateral stability. 23.177 Section 23.177 Aeronautics...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 23.177 Static directional and lateral stability. Link to an amendment published...

2012-01-01

143

14 CFR 25.177 - Static lateral-directional stability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Static lateral-directional stability. 25.177 Section 25.177 Aeronautics...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 25.177 Static lateral-directional stability. (a) The static directional...

2013-01-01

144

14 CFR 25.177 - Static lateral-directional stability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Static lateral-directional stability. 25.177 Section 25.177 Aeronautics...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 25.177 Static lateral-directional stability. Link to an amendment published...

2012-01-01

145

14 CFR 23.177 - Static directional and lateral stability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Static directional and lateral stability. 23.177 Section 23.177 Aeronautics...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 23.177 Static directional and lateral stability. (a)(1) The static...

2013-01-01

146

14 CFR 23.177 - Static directional and lateral stability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Static directional and lateral stability. 23.177 Section 23.177 Aeronautics...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 23.177 Static directional and lateral stability. (a) The static...

2011-01-01

147

14 CFR 25.177 - Static lateral-directional stability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Static lateral-directional stability. 25.177 Section 25...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 25.177 Static lateral-directional stability. (a)-(b)...

2010-01-01

148

Diagnosis and treatment of lateral patellar compression syndrome.  

PubMed

Chronic anterior knee pain with a stable patella is often associated with overload and increased pressure on the lateral facet due to pathologic lateral soft-tissue restraints. "Lateral pressure in flexion" is a term describing the pathologic process of increasing contact pressure over the lateral patellar facet as knee flexion progresses. This report describes a surgical technique developed in response to lateral pressure in flexion and the shortcomings of traditional arthroscopic lateral release procedures. The technique is performed open with the knee in flexion, and the lateral release is repaired with a rotation flap of iliotibial band to close the defect and prevent patellar subluxation. The technique effectively decreases lateral patellar pressure and centers the patella correctly in the trochlear groove with minimal risk of iatrogenic patellar instability. PMID:25473620

Saper, Michael G; Shneider, David A

2014-10-01

149

Study Builds Case for Later High School Starting Time  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Study Builds Case for Later High School Starting Time Researchers followed kids, teens as they ... that lends support to later start times in high schools. Researchers followed 94 children and teens for two ...

150

Differential bilingual laterality: mythical monster found in Wales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paradis (1992) likens studies of bilingual laterality to reported sightings of the Loch Ness Monster, in that although some studies claim differential laterality much conflicting research evidence does not—and like the mythical Scottish monster, what reason have we to suspect that any such phenomenon might exist? This study reexamines differential bilingual laterality using four groups of English–Welsh bilinguals which differ

Judith Evans; Lance Workman; Peter Mayer; Kevin Crowley

2002-01-01

151

Lateral jets improve PDC bit performance in the North Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateral nozzles built into specially manufactured polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits improve hydraulics at the bit face, thereby increasing penetration rates. The new bit manufacturing process, investment casting, uses a unique body material for PDC drill bits, allowing design freedom for a lateral-jet-hydraulics concept. Lateral jets set into the blades of the bit improve the cutter cleaning efficiency. In addition

J. Lewis; A. Dacre

1994-01-01

152

Rare but threatening complication of otitis media: Lateral sinus thrombosis.  

PubMed

Although appropriate use of antibiotics has decreased mortality, lateral sinus thrombosis is a rare, important intracranial complication of acute otitis media. Herein is described the case of a 5-year-old patient with lateral sinus thrombosis after acute otitis media. We emphasize the need to be alert for lateral sinus thrombosis when treating acute otitis media. PMID:25521978

Kafadar, ?hsan; Sözen, Mukaddes Esra; Büyükta? Aytaç, Didem; Yalç?n, Koray

2014-12-01

153

Superficial lateral line sense organs of the mudminnow ( Umbra limi )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Umbra limi has an elaborate developement of superficial neuromasts on the head and body. The individual lateral line organs of the head form rows. Intermittant clusters of organs occur on the body. The “lateral line“ consists of free standing organs, which are oriented alternating horizontally and vertically. A lateral line canal is wanting.

Erich Schwartz; Arthur D. Hasler

1966-01-01

154

Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

155

Motor Unit Firing Characteristics in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

E-print Network

Motor Unit Firing Characteristics in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patrick K. Kasi" 2 neuron dominant forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). EMG recordings were gathered during ALS patients with LMN- and UMN-dominant forms of ALS. Keywords- Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; motor

Clancy, Ted

156

Dynamic markers of altered gait rhythm in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

E-print Network

Dynamic markers of altered gait rhythm in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis JEFFREY M. HAUSDORFF,1 of altered gait rhythm in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Appl Physiol 88: 2045­ 2053, 2000.--Amyotrophic dynamics AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS (ALS) is a disorder primarily affecting the motoneurons

157

The phenotypic variability of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Classic textbook neurology teaches that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative disease that selectively affects upper and lower motor neurons and is fatal 3-5 years after onset--a description which suggests that the clinical presentation of ALS is very homogenous. However, clinical and postmortem observations, as well as genetic studies, demonstrate that there is considerable variability in the phenotypic expression of ALS. Here, we review the phenotypic variability of ALS and how it is reflected in familial and sporadic ALS, in the degree of upper and lower motor neuron involvement, in motor and extramotor involvement, and in the spectrum of ALS and frontotemporal dementia. Furthermore, we discuss some unusual clinical characteristics regarding presentation, age at onset and disease progression. Finally, we address the importance of this variability for understanding the pathogenesis of ALS and for the development of therapeutic strategies. PMID:25311585

Swinnen, Bart; Robberecht, Wim

2014-11-01

158

A rare cause of lateral facial swelling  

PubMed Central

A case of chronic, recurrent and asymptomatic facial swelling in a young male is presented. Swelling extended from lower midface to upper lateral neck and right commissure to anterior massetric border. History, clinical signs and symptoms and examination pointed towards the benign nature of the swelling. Fine-needle aspiration cytology tapered the diagnostic possibilities to a salivary cyst or pseudocyst. Ultrasonography identified the lesion to contain echogenic fluid with irregular borders. “Tail sign” was absent on contrast magnetic resonance imaging, excluding the involvement of the sublingual gland. Surgical excision of the lesion was done along with submandibular gland as both were in continuity via a bottle-neck tract. Final histopathological diagnosis was that of the submandibular gland extravasation phenomenon. As per the best of our knowledge, it is the first case report of a submandibular gland extravasation causing swelling in a retrograde direction onto the face. PMID:25593883

Mohanty, Sujata; Gulati, Ujjwal; Vandana; Singh, Sapna

2014-01-01

159

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a hormonal condition?  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most frequent motor neuron disorder in adults. This fatal condition, due to degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons in spinal and bulbar myotomes, leads to death from respiratory failure after median disease duration of 36 months. ALS is sporadic in more than 90% of cases and familial in the remaining cases. Most studies show male predominance with a gender ratio of 3:2, but gender differences are age related. The phenotype of ALS is also different in males and females with a predominance of limb onset in males and bulbar onset in females. While age and site of onset impact survival rate, and are both related to gender, gender by itself has not clearly been shown to have an effect on survival. Given this complex relationship between gender and ALS, we developed a hypothesis about hormone involvement in ALS aetiology by suggesting protective effect of oestrogens and adverse effect of androgens. PMID:22873563

Blasco, Helene; Guennoc, Anne-Marie; Veyrat-Durebex, Charlotte; Gordon, Paul H; Andres, Christian R; Camu, William; Corcia, Philippe

2012-10-01

160

Autoimmune disease preceding amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objective: To study whether the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is increased in people with prior autoimmune disease. Methods: An all-England hospital record-linkage dataset spanning 1999–2011 was used. Cohorts were constructed of people with each of a range of autoimmune diseases; the incidence of ALS in each disease cohort was compared with the incidence of ALS in a cohort of individuals without prior admission for the autoimmune disease. Results: There were significantly more cases than expected of ALS associated with a prior diagnosis of asthma, celiac disease, younger-onset diabetes (younger than 30 years), multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, myxedema, polymyositis, Sjögren syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, and ulcerative colitis. Conclusions: Autoimmune disease associations with ALS raise the possibility of shared genetic or environmental risk factors. PMID:23946298

Goldacre, Raph; Ramagopalan, Sreeram; Talbot, Kevin; Goldacre, Michael J.

2013-01-01

161

Inertia and scaling in deterministic lateral displacement  

PubMed Central

The ability to separate and analyze chemical species with high resolution, sensitivity, and throughput is central to the development of microfluidics systems. Deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) is a continuous separation method based on the transport of species through an array of obstacles. In the case of force-driven DLD (f-DLD), size-based separation can be modelled effectively using a simple particle-obstacle collision model. We use a macroscopic model to study f-DLD and demonstrate, via a simple scaling, that the method is indeed predominantly a size-based phenomenon at low Reynolds numbers. More importantly, we demonstrate that inertia effects provide the additional capability to separate same size particles but of different densities and could enhance separation at high throughput conditions. We also show that a direct conversion of macroscopic results to microfluidic settings is possible with a simple scaling based on the size of the obstacles that results in a universal curve. PMID:24396545

Bowman, Timothy J.; Drazer, German; Frechette, Joelle

2013-01-01

162

Therapeutic neuroprotective agents for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal chronic neurodegenerative disease whose hallmark is proteinaceous, ubiquitinated, cytoplasmic inclusions in motor neurons and surrounding cells. Multiple mechanisms proposed as responsible for ALS pathogenesis include dysfunction of protein degradation, glutamate excitotoxicity, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. It is therefore essential to gain a better understanding of the underlying disease etiology and search for neuroprotective agents that might delay disease onset, slow progression, prolong survival, and ultimately reduce the burden of disease. Because riluzole, the only Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatment, prolongs the ALS patient’s life by only 3 months, new therapeutic agents are urgently needed. In this review, we focus on studies of various small pharmacological compounds targeting the proposed pathogenic mechanisms of ALS and discuss their impact on disease progression. PMID:23864030

Pandya, Rachna S.; Zhu, Haining; Li, Wei; Bowser, Robert; Friedlander, Robert M.

2014-01-01

163

Large-scale lateral nanowire arrays nanogenerators  

DOEpatents

In a method of making a generating device, a plurality of spaced apart elongated seen members are deposited onto a surface of a flexible non-conductive substrate. An elongated conductive layer is applied to a top surface and a first side of each seed member, thereby leaving an exposed second side opposite the first side. A plurality of elongated piezoelectric nanostructures is grown laterally from the second side of each seed layer. A second conductive material is deposited onto the substrate adjacent each elongated first conductive layer so as to be soupled the distal end of each of the plurality of elongated piezoelectric nanostructures. The second conductive material is selected so as to form a Schottky barrier between the second conductive material and the distal end of each of the plurality of elongated piezoelectric nanostructures and so as to form an electrical contact with the first conductive layer.

Wang, Zhong L; Xu, Chen; Qin, Yong; Zhu, Guang; Yang, Rusen; Hu, Youfan; Zhang, Yan

2014-01-07

164

Hemisphere lateralization of inductive and deductive processes.  

PubMed

Experiments were performed on 453 Wistar rats. Motion-food and electrodefensive behavioral techniques were applied. The following models were used: a conditioned reflex formation, generalization and specialization of a conditioned reflex, the dynamic stereotype, visual image synthesizing, a conditioned reflex to a stimulus complex. Primary and secondary analysis and synthesis of stimuli were discriminated. Induction and deduction were considered as a certain sequence of analysis and synthesis in time. Primary analysis and secondary synthesis were shown to be mainly lateralized in the left hemisphere and primary synthesis and secondary analysis in the right one. The conclusion was drawn that, in animals, the left hemisphere processes information mainly according to the principle of induction (from the particular to the general) and the right one does so according to the principle of deduction (from the general to the particular). PMID:6686837

Bianki, V L

1983-07-01

165

Optical fiber head for providing lateral viewing  

DOEpatents

The head of an optical fiber comprising the sensing probe of an optical heterodyne sensing device includes a planar surface that intersects the perpendicular to axial centerline of the fiber at a polishing angle .theta.. The planar surface is coated with a reflective material so that light traveling axially through the fiber is reflected transverse to the fiber's axial centerline, and is emitted laterally through the side of the fiber. Alternatively, the planar surface can be left uncoated. The polishing angle .theta. must be no greater than 39.degree. or must be at least 51.degree.. The emitted light is reflected from adjacent biological tissue, collected by the head, and then processed to provide real-time images of the tissue. The method for forming the planar surface includes shearing the end of the optical fiber and applying the reflective material before removing the buffer that circumscribes the cladding and the core.

Everett, Matthew J. (Livermore, CA); Colston, Billy W. (Livermore, CA); James, Dale L. (Tracy, CA); Brown, Steve (Livermore, CA); Da Silva, Luiz (Danville, CA)

2002-01-01

166

Pregnancy Complications and Later Development of Hypertension.  

PubMed

Pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia and diabetes affect approximately 5 to 10 % of all pregnancies and compromise maternal and fetal health during gestation. Complications during pregnancy may also contribute to the development of hypertension and future cardiovascular risk in the mother. Moreover, fetal exposure to hypertension and diabetes during pregnancy can program hypertension and cardiovascular disease in the offspring. Transgenerational transmission of programmed cardiovascular risk highlights the importance of understanding the mechanisms that link complications during pregnancy with later hypertension in her offspring and subsequent generations. However, experimental studies are needed to investigate the cause and effect of increased blood pressure in the mother following a complicated pregnancy and provide insight into the development of preventative measures that may improve the long-term cardiovascular health of women and their offspring. PMID:23914279

Intapad, Suttira; Alexander, Barbara T

2013-06-01

167

Towards superlattices: Lateral bipolar multibarriers in graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on transport properties of monolayer graphene with a laterally modulated potential profile, employing striped top gate electrodes with spacings of 100 to 200 nm. Tuning of top and back gate voltages gives rise to local charge carrier density disparities, enabling the investigation of transport properties either in the unipolar (nn') or the bipolar (np ') regime. In the latter, pronounced single- and multibarrier Fabry-Pérot (FP) resonances occur. We present measurements of different devices with different numbers of top gate stripes and spacings. The data are highly consistent with a phase coherent ballistic tight-binding calculation and quantum capacitance model, whereas a superlattice effect and modification of band structure can be excluded.

Drienovsky, Martin; Schrettenbrunner, Franz-Xaver; Sandner, Andreas; Weiss, Dieter; Eroms, Jonathan; Liu, Ming-Hao; Tkatschenko, Fedor; Richter, Klaus

2014-03-01

168

Genetics of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: an update  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder involving both upper motor neurons (UMN) and lower motor neurons (LMN). Enormous research has been done in the past few decades in unveiling the genetics of ALS, successfully identifying at least fifteen candidate genes associated with familial and sporadic ALS. Numerous studies attempting to define the pathogenesis of ALS have identified several plausible determinants and molecular pathways leading to motor neuron degeneration, which include oxidative stress, glutamate excitotoxicity, apoptosis, abnormal neurofilament function, protein misfolding and subsequent aggregation, impairment of RNA processing, defects in axonal transport, changes in endosomal trafficking, increased inflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. This review is to update the recent discoveries in genetics of ALS, which may provide insight information to help us better understanding of the disease neuropathogenesis. PMID:23941283

2013-01-01

169

Side of Limb-Onset Predicts Laterality of Gray Matter Loss in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Conflicting findings have been reported regarding the lateralized brain abnormality in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this study, we aimed to investigate the probable lateralization of gray matter (GM) atrophy in ALS patients. We focused on the relationship between the asymmetry in decreased GM volume and the side of disease onset in patients with limb-onset. Structural imaging evaluation of normalized atrophy (SIENAX) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) were used to assess differences in global and local brain regions in patients with heterogeneous body onset and subgroups with different side of limb-onset. We found global brain atrophy and GM losses in the frontal and parietal areas in each patient group as well as left predominant GM losses in the total cohort. The intriguing findings in subgroup analyses demonstrated that the motor cortex in the contralateral hemisphere of the initially involved limb was most affected. We also found that regional brain atrophy was related to disease progression rate. Our observations suggested that side of limb-onset can predict laterality of GM loss in ALS patients and disease progression correlates with the extent of cortical abnormality. PMID:25093168

Mao, Cuiping; Jin, Jiaoting; Niu, Chen; Dang, Jingxia

2014-01-01

170

Footballer's Lateral Meniscus: Anterior Horn Tears of the Lateral Meniscus with a Stable Knee  

PubMed Central

This paper aimed to identify the characteristics of isolated anterior horn tear of the lateral meniscus in footballers who underwent arthroscopic surgery. We identified 8 patients with stable knee and no ligament injury, who had only isolated anterior horn tear of the lateral meniscus between 2007 and 2009. All 8 patients were footballers, comprising 7 men and 1 woman with mean age of 18.6 years. Arthroscopy revealed multiple longitudinal tears in 2 patients, longitudinal tear in 2 patients, degenerative tear in 3 patients, and flap tear in 1 patient. Two patients were treated by repair, five by partial excision, and one by rasping only. The mean Lysholm score was 65 before surgery and recovered to 89 at the last followup, on average 12 months after surgery. Anterior horn tear of the lateral meniscus in footballers with a stable knee is characterized by pain at the anterolateral aspect of the knee during knee extension, especially when kicking a ball, and pain during weight-bearing knee extension, together with MRI finding of hyperintense signal in the anterior horn of the lateral meniscus. Preoperative diagnosis may be possible based on these findings in footballers. PMID:22084745

Hagino, Tetsuo; Ochiai, Satoshi; Sato, Eiichi; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Senga, Shinya

2011-01-01

171

Laterality and emotions: Visual laterality in the domestic horse ( Equus caballus) differs with objects' emotional value  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateralization of emotions has received great attention in the last decades, both in humans and animals, but little interest has been given to side bias in perceptual processing. Here, we investigated the influence of the emotional valence of stimuli on visual and olfactory explorations by horses, a large mammalian species with two large monocular visual fields and almost complete decussation

Alice De Boyer Des Roches; Marie-Annick Richard-Yris; Séverine Henry; Mohammed Ezzaouïa; Martine Hausberger

2008-01-01

172

Lateral interactions in the outer retina  

PubMed Central

Lateral interactions in the outer retina, particularly negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones and direct feed-forward input from horizontal cells to bipolar cells, play a number of important roles in early visual processing, such as generating center-surround receptive fields that enhance spatial discrimination. These circuits may also contribute to post-receptoral light adaptation and the generation of color opponency. In this review, we examine the contributions of horizontal cell feedback and feed-forward pathways to early visual processing. We begin by reviewing the properties of bipolar cell receptive fields, especially with respect to modulation of the bipolar receptive field surround by the ambient light level and to the contribution of horizontal cells to the surround. We then review evidence for and against three proposed mechanisms for negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones: 1) GABA release by horizontal cells, 2) ephaptic modulation of the cone pedicle membrane potential generated by currents flowing through hemigap junctions in horizontal cell dendrites, and 3) modulation of cone calcium currents (ICa) by changes in synaptic cleft proton levels. We also consider evidence for the presence of direct horizontal cell feed-forward input to bipolar cells and discuss a possible role for GABA at this synapse. We summarize proposed functions of horizontal cell feedback and feed-forward pathways. Finally, we examine the mechanisms and functions of two other forms of lateral interaction in the outer retina: negative feedback from horizontal cells to rods and positive feedback from horizontal cells to cones. PMID:22580106

Thoreson, Wallace B.; Mangel, Stuart C.

2012-01-01

173

Lateralized temporal order judgement in dyslexia.  

PubMed

Temporal and spatial attentional deficits in dyslexia were investigated using a lateralized visual temporal order judgment (TOJ) paradigm that allowed both sensitivity to temporal order and spatial attentional bias to be measured. Findings indicate that adult participants with a positive screen for dyslexia were significantly less sensitive to the temporal order of the stimuli than control participants, but did not show a significantly different lateral bias. However, the data indicated that performance on the TOJ task dissociated into at least three factors. One loaded on trials with long Stimulus Onset Asynchronies (SOA) and was strongly correlated with full-scale IQ (FSIQ), and, while also correlated with both poor reading and with symptoms of attentional deficit disorder, was not specific to these. The second factor loaded on trials with short SOAs in which the left stimulus was presented first. Low scores on this factor were associated with poor non-word reading accuracy, and factor scores accounted for variance in non-word reading accuracy that was not accounted for by either FSIQ or the presence of a phonological deficit. This suggests that a "left mini-neglect" syndrome, also reported in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, may directly contribute to poor non-word reading. However, attentional deficit symptoms loaded not only on this factor, but also on a third factor, representing on trials at short SOAs in which the first stimulus was presented in left hemifield. This suggests that attentional deficit symptoms impaired temporal processing at short SOAs, regardless of the hemifield in with the stimuli were presented. We conclude that people with attentional deficits find a visual TOJ task difficult when the stimuli are presented rapidly, regardless of FSIQ, and that where a rightward attentional bias is present, non-word reading accuracy may be directly impaired, even in the absence of a phonological deficit. PMID:19682473

Liddle, Elizabeth B; Jackson, Georgina M; Rorden, Chris; Jackson, Stephen R

2009-12-01

174

Breast feeding and later psychosocial adjustment.  

PubMed

The relationship between the duration of breast feeding and psychosocial outcomes measured between the ages of 15 and 18 years was examined in a birth cohort of 999 New Zealand children. During the period from birth to 1 year, information was collected on maternal breast-feeding practices. Between the ages of 15 and 18 years, sample members were assessed using a range of psychosocial measures, including measures of the quality of parent-child relationships, juvenile delinquency, substance abuse and mental health. Children who were breast fed for a longer duration were more likely to report higher levels of parental attachment and tended to perceive their mothers as being more caring and less overprotective towards them compared with bottle-fed children. No association was found between the extent of breast feeding and subsequent rates of juvenile offending, substance use and mental health in later life. Mothers who elected to breast feed were also more likely to be older, better educated, living with a partner, less likely to smoke during pregnancy, and to come from advantaged socio-economic backgrounds characterised by better living standards and a higher family income. Rates of breast feeding were also greater among mothers who gave birth to a first-born child of higher birthweight. After adjustment for these maternal and perinatal factors, the duration of breast feeding remained significantly associated with adolescent perceptions of maternal care, with increasing duration of breast feeding being associated with higher levels of perceived maternal care during childhood. It is concluded that: (a) it is unlikely that breast feeding is associated with reduced risks of psychiatric disorder in later life; (b) breast feeding may lead to closer parent-child relationships; and (c) it is unlikely that the association between breast feeding and cognitive development is mediated by intervening processes relating to improved psychosocial adjustment in breast-fed children. PMID:10214606

Fergusson, D M; Woodward, L J

1999-04-01

175

Lateral shift in one-dimensional quasiperiodic chiral photonic crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the lateral shift of a one-dimensional quasiperiodic photonic crystal consisting of chiral and conventional dielectric materials. The effect of structural irregularity on lateral shift is evaluated by stationary-phase approach. Our results show that the lateral shift can be modulated by varying the structural irregularity in quasiperiodic structure. Besides, the position of peak in lateral shift spectrum stays sensitive to the chiral factor of chiral materials. In comparison with that of periodic structure, quasiperiodic structure provides an extra degree of freedom to manipulate the lateral shift.

Da, Jian; Mo, Qi; Cheng, Yaokun; Liu, Taixiang

2015-02-01

176

Management of chronic lateral instability due to lateral collateral ligament deficiency after total knee arthroplasty: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Lateral instability following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a rare condition with limited report of treatment options. The objective of this case presentation is to demonstrate the outcomes of different surgical procedures performed in a single patient with lateral collateral ligament (LCL) deficiency. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of chronic lateral instability due to LCL deficiency after primary

Aasis Unnanuntana; James E Murphy; William J Petersilge

2010-01-01

177

Surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canals of maxillary incisors  

PubMed Central

This case report presents surgical endodontic management outcomes of maxillary incisors that were infected via the lateral canals. Two cases are presented in which endodontically-treated maxillary central incisors had sustained lateral canal infections. A surgical endodontic treatment was performed on both teeth. Flap elevation revealed vertical bone destruction along the root surface and infected lateral canals, and microscopy revealed that the lateral canals were the origin of the lesions. After the infected lateral canals were surgically managed, both teeth were asymptomatic and labial fistulas were resolved. There were no clinical or radiographic signs of surgical endodontic management failure at follow-up visits. This case report highlights the clinical significance and surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canal of maxillary incisor. It is important to be aware of root canal anatomy variability in maxillary incisors. Maxillary central incisors infected via the lateral canal can be successfully managed by surgical endodontic treatment.

2015-01-01

178

Altered Cortical Communication in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disorder associated primarily with the degeneration of the motor system. More recently, functional connectivity studies have demonstrated potentially adaptive changes in ALS brain organization, but disease-related changes in cortical communication remain unknown. We recruited individuals with ALS and age-matched controls to operate a brain-computer interface while electroencephalography was recorded over three sessions. Using normalized symbolic transfer entropy, we measured directed functional connectivity from frontal to parietal (feedback connectivity) and parietal to frontal (feedforward connectivity) regions. Feedback connectivity was not significantly different between groups, but feedforward connectivity was significantly higher in individuals with ALS. This result was consistent across a broad electroencephalographic spectrum (4 – 35 Hz), and in theta, alpha and beta frequency bands. Feedback connectivity has been associated with conscious state and was found to be independent of ALS symptom severity in this study, which may have significant implications for the detection of consciousness in individuals with advanced ALS. We suggest that increases in feedforward connectivity represent a compensatory response to the ALS-related loss of input such that sensory stimuli have sufficient strength to cross the threshold necessary for conscious processing in the global neuronal workspace. PMID:23567743

Blain-Moraes, Stefanie; Mashour, George A.; Lee, Heonsoo; Huggins, Jane E.; Lee, UnCheol

2013-01-01

179

Retinoid signaling alterations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neuromuscular disease for which effective therapeutic interventions and an understanding of underlying disease mechanism are lacking. A variety of biochemical pathways are believed to contribute to the pathophysiology of ALS that are common to both sporadic and familial forms of the disease. Evidence from both human and animal studies indicates that expression of retinoid signaling genes is altered in ALS and may contribute to motor neuron loss. Our goals were to examine the expression and distribution of proteins of the retinoid signaling pathway in spinal cord samples from patients with sporadic and familial ALS and to evaluate the role of these proteins in motor neuron cell survival. In sporadic ALS, the cytoplasmic binding protein that facilitates nuclear translocation of retinoic acid, cellular retinoic acid binding protein-II (CRABP-II), was localized to the nucleus and retinoic acid receptor ? (RAR?) was significantly increased in motor neuron nuclei when compared to either familial ALS patients or non-neurologic disease controls. Motor neurons with increased nuclear RAR? were negative for markers of apoptosis. Pre-treatment of primary motor neuron-enriched cultures with a pan-RAR or RAR?-specific agonist decreased motor neuron cell death associated with oxidative injury/stress while a RAR?-specific antagonist enhanced cell death. Our data suggest retinoid signaling is altered in ALS and increased nuclear RAR? occurs in motor neurons of sporadic ALS patients. Activation of RAR? protects motor neurons from oxidative-induced cell death. PMID:23383387

Kolarcik, Christi L; Bowser, Robert

2012-01-01

180

Lateral gene transfer in the subsurface  

SciTech Connect

Lateral gene transfer (LGT) is an important adaptive mechanism among prokaryotic organisms. This mechanism is particularly important for the response of microorganisms to changing environmental conditions because it facilitates the transfer of a large number of genes and their rapid expression. Together the transferred genes promote rapid genetic and metabolic changes that may enhance survival to newly established and sometimes hostile environmental conditions. The goal of our project was to examine if and how LGT enhances microbial adaptation to toxic heavy metals in subsurface environments that had been contaminated by mixed wastes due to activities associated with the production of nuclear energy and weapons. This task has been accomplished by dividing the project to several sub-tasks. Thus, we: (1) Determined the level of resistance of subsurface bacterial isolates to several toxic metals, all identified as pollutants of concern in subsurface environments; (2) Designed, tested, and applied, a molecular approach that determined whether metal resistance genes had evolved by LGT among subsurface bacteria; and (3) Developed a DNA hybridization array for the identification of broad host range plasmids and of metal resistance plasmids. The results are briefly summarized below with references to published papers and manuscripts in preparation where details about our research can be found. Additional information may be found in copies of our published manuscripts and conference proceedings, and our yearly reports that were submitted through the RIMS system.

Barkay, Tamar; Sobecky, Patricia

2007-08-27

181

[Gene mutations in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive muscle weakness that reflects degeneration of motor neurons in the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, brainstem, and spinal cord. Most ALS cases are sporadic, but about 5%-10% are familial. The majority of familial ALS (FALS) cases follow an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, and include the following mutations: ALS1, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1); ALS3; ALS4, senataxin; ALS6, fused in sarcoma (FUS); ALS7; ALS8, vesicle-associated membrane protein; ALS9, angiogenin; ALS10, TAR DNA-binding protein (TARDBP); and ALS11/FIG4. Some of these gene mutations are rarely seen in sporadic ALS cases. ALS2/alsin and ALS5 show an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern. Recently, mutations in the gene encoding optineurin, earlier reported to be a causative gene for primary open-angle glaucoma, have also been found in patients with ALS. It has also been demonstrated that a mutation in the D-amino acid oxidase gene is associated with classic adult-onset FALS. However, these genetic defects occur in only about 20%-30% FLAS cases, while most genes causing FALS remain unknown. PMID:21301041

Oda, Masaya; Izumi, Yuishin; Kaji, Ryuji

2011-02-01

182

Misregulated RNA processing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) research is undergoing an era of unprecedented discoveries with the identification of new genes as major genetic causes of this disease. These discoveries reinforce the genetic, clinical and pathological overlap between ALS and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Common causes of these diseases include mutations in the RNA/DNA-binding proteins, TDP-43 and FUS/TLS and most recently, hexanucleotide expansions in the C9orf72 gene, discoveries that highlight the overlapping pathogenic mechanisms that trigger ALS and FTLD. TDP-43 and FUS/TLS, both of which participate in several steps of RNA processing, are abnormally aggregated and mislocalized in ALS and FTLD, while the expansion in the C9orf72 pre-mRNA strongly suggests sequestration of one or more RNA binding proteins in pathologic RNA foci. Hence, ALS and FTLD converge in pathogenic pathways disrupting the regulation of RNA processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled RNA-Binding Proteins. PMID:22444279

Polymenidou, Magdalini; Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde; Hutt, Kasey R.; Bennett, C. Frank; Cleveland, Don W.; Yeo, Gene W.

2013-01-01

183

Genetic epidemiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a late onset, rapidly progressive and ultimately fatal neurological disorder, caused by the loss of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Familial aggregation of ALS, with an age-dependent but high penetrance, is a major risk factor for ALS. Familial ALS (FALS) is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. Three genes and linkage to four additional gene loci have been identified so far and may either predominantly lead to ALS (ALSI-ALS6) or cause multisystem neurodegeneration with ALS as an occasional symptom (tauopathies, ALS-dementia complex). This review presents a tentative classification of the "major" ALS genes and ALS "susceptibility" genes, that may act as susceptibility factors for neurodegeneration in interaction with other genetic or environmental risk factors. Considering that mutations in ALS genes explain approximately 10% of familial as well as sporadic ALS, and most remaining cases of the discase are thought to result form the interaction of several genes and environmental factors, ALS is a paradigm for multifactorial discases. PMID:12630951

Majoor-Krakauer, D; Willems, P J; Hofman, A

2003-02-01

184

Extracting Laterally Varying Attenuation from Microseisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noise cross-correlation (NCC) has been successfully used in constructing empirical Green's functions (EGFs) for seismic velocity tomography. However, extracting reliable EGF amplitudes for attenuation estimation remains a challenge despite the fact that there are studies that derive spatially averaged attenuation from noise. In this work we use microseisms recorded by the USArray stations to explore the techniques that may accomplish the task to accurately measure EGF amplitudes and thus provide reliable input to the tomographic mapping of the laterally varying attenuation. Traditional NCC processing often trades amplitude information for phases with a better signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). An equally efficient method, temporal flattening, which removes the dominance of high-level noise in particular time intervals, and yet keeps the relative amplitudes among stations, is to normalize the narrow-band signals at each station by an average of the noise energy level at all stations. In addition to the effect of traditional NCC processing, EGF amplitude can also be biased by the uneven distribution of noise-field intensity in space, time and direction. To mitigate the effect of anisotropic noise field, we calculate EGFs using beam cross-correlation (BCC). Namely we construct beams according to the strike of a station pair and the surface-wave velocity, so that the beam signal contains mainly the energy flux along the strike. We validate our methods by comparing the surface-wave amplitudes from an earthquake with relative EGF amplitudes from a "source" station near the earthquake.

Zhang, J.; Yang, X.; Weaver, R. L.

2011-12-01

185

Implicit Recognition Based on Lateralized Perceptual Fluency  

PubMed Central

In some circumstances, accurate recognition of repeated images in an explicit memory test is driven by implicit memory. We propose that this “implicit recognition” results from perceptual fluency that influences responding without awareness of memory retrieval. Here we examined whether recognition would vary if images appeared in the same or different visual hemifield during learning and testing. Kaleidoscope images were briefly presented left or right of fixation during divided-attention encoding. Presentation in the same visual hemifield at test produced higher recognition accuracy than presentation in the opposite visual hemifield, but only for guess responses. These correct guesses likely reflect a contribution from implicit recognition, given that when the stimulated visual hemifield was the same at study and test, recognition accuracy was higher for guess responses than for responses with any level of confidence. The dramatic difference in guessing accuracy as a function of lateralized perceptual overlap between study and test suggests that implicit recognition arises from memory storage in visual cortical networks that mediate repetition-induced fluency increments. PMID:24962684

Vargas, Iliana M.; Voss, Joel L.; Paller, Ken A.

2012-01-01

186

Implicit recognition based on lateralized perceptual fluency.  

PubMed

In some circumstances, accurate recognition of repeated images in an explicit memory test is driven by implicit memory. We propose that this "implicit recognition" results from perceptual fluency that influences responding without awareness of memory retrieval. Here we examined whether recognition would vary if images appeared in the same or different visual hemifield during learning and testing. Kaleidoscope images were briefly presented left or right of fixation during divided-attention encoding. Presentation in the same visual hemifield at test produced higher recognition accuracy than presentation in the opposite visual hemifield, but only for guess responses. These correct guesses likely reflect a contribution from implicit recognition, given that when the stimulated visual hemifield was the same at study and test, recognition accuracy was higher for guess responses than for responses with any level of confidence. The dramatic difference in guessing accuracy as a function of lateralized perceptual overlap between study and test suggests that implicit recognition arises from memory storage in visual cortical networks that mediate repetition-induced fluency increments. PMID:24962684

Vargas, Iliana M; Voss, Joel L; Paller, Ken A

2012-01-01

187

Epidemiologic correlates of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

SciTech Connect

The authors evaluated 74 selected patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and 201 matched controls for risk factors for ALS by a case-control design and a sequential questionnaire/interview technique to quantitate biographic data. They analyzed occupational and recreational data only for 47 male patients and 47 corresponding patient controls; data for women were insufficient. They used nonparametric analyses to evaluate five primary comparisons of ALS patients with controls: (1) more hard physical labor, p not significant (NS); (2) greater frequency of neurodegenerative disease in family members, p NS; (3) greater exposure to lead, p less than 0.05; (4) more years lived in a rural community, p NS; and (5) more trauma or major surgery, p NS. Men with ALS had worked more frequently at blue-collar jobs (although not a statistically significant difference, p = 0.10) and at welding or soldering (p less than 0.01). These results suggest that there may be an association between ALS in men and exposure to lead vapor. The limited nature of the association favors a multifactorial etiologic mechanism of ALS.

Armon, C.; Kurland, L.T.; Daube, J.R.; O'Brien, P.C. (Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (USA))

1991-07-01

188

Multiplex lateral flow immunoassay for mycotoxin determination.  

PubMed

A new lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) is proposed for qualitative and/or semiquantitative determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), and their analogues (AFs, ZEAs, DONs) in cereal samples. Each of the mycotoxin specific antibody was class specific and there was no cross reactivity to other groups of compounds. The visual limits of detection (vLOD) of the strip were 0.03, 1.6, and 10 ?g/kg for AFB1, ZEA and DON, respectively. The calculated limits of detection (cLOD) were 0.05, 1, and 3 ?g/kg, respectively. Meanwhile the cutoff values were achieved at 1, 50, and 60 ?g/kg for AFB1, ZEA and DON, respectively. Recoveries ranged from 80% to 122% and RSD from 5% to 20%. Both the vLOD and cLOD for the three mycotoxins were lower than the EU maximum levels. Analysis of naturally contaminated maize samples resulted in a good agreement between the multiplex LFA and LC-MS/MS (100% for DONs and AFs, and 81% for ZEAs). Careful analysis of the results further explained the general overestimation of LFA compared to chromatographic methods for quantification of mycotoxins. PMID:24745689

Song, Suquan; Liu, Na; Zhao, Zhiyong; Njumbe Ediage, Emmanuel; Wu, Songling; Sun, Changpo; De Saeger, Sarah; Wu, Aibo

2014-05-20

189

Redox Regulation in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that results from the death of upper and lower motor neurons. Due to a lack of effective treatment, it is imperative to understand the underlying mechanisms and processes involved in disease progression. Regulations in cellular reduction/oxidation (redox) processes are being increasingly implicated in disease. Here we discuss the possible involvement of redox dysregulation in the pathophysiology of ALS, either as a cause of cellular abnormalities or a consequence. We focus on its possible role in oxidative stress, protein misfolding, glutamate excitotoxicity, lipid peroxidation and cholesterol esterification, mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired axonal transport and neurofilament aggregation, autophagic stress, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We also speculate that an ER chaperone protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) could play a key role in this dysregulation. PDI is essential for normal protein folding by oxidation and reduction of disulphide bonds, and hence any disruption to this process may have consequences for motor neurons. Addressing the mechanism underlying redox regulation and dysregulation may therefore help to unravel the molecular mechanism involved in ALS. PMID:23533690

Parakh, Sonam; Spencer, Damian M.; Halloran, Mark A.; Soo, Kai Y.; Atkin, Julie D.

2013-01-01

190

Early Word Recognition and Later Language Skills  

PubMed Central

Recent behavioral and electrophysiological evidence has highlighted the long-term importance for language skills of an early ability to recognize words in continuous speech. We here present further tests of this long-term link in the form of follow-up studies conducted with two (separate) groups of infants who had earlier participated in speech segmentation tasks. Each study extends prior follow-up tests: Study 1 by using a novel follow-up measure that taps into online processing, Study 2 by assessing language performance relationships over a longer time span than previously tested. Results of Study 1 show that brain correlates of speech segmentation ability at 10 months are positively related to 16-month-olds’ target fixations in a looking-while-listening task. Results of Study 2 show that infant speech segmentation ability no longer directly predicts language profiles at the age of five. However, a meta-analysis across our results and those of similar studies (Study 3) reveals that age at follow-up does not moderate effect size. Together, the results suggest that infants’ ability to recognize words in speech certainly benefits early vocabulary development; further observed relationships of later language skills to early word recognition may be consequent upon this vocabulary size effect. PMID:25347057

Junge, Caroline; Cutler, Anne

2014-01-01

191

Impaired Sacculocollic Reflex in Lateral Medullary Infarction  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine saccular dysfunction by measuring cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP) and to correlate abnormality of cVEMP with results of other vestibular function tests in lateral medullary infarction (LMI). Methods: We recorded cVEMP in 21 patients with LMI documented on MRI. cVEMP was induced by a short tone burst and was recorded in contracting sternocleidomastoid muscle while patients turned their heads forcefully to the contralateral side against resistance. Patients also underwent video-oculographic recording of spontaneous, gaze-evoked and head shaking nystagmus (HSN), evaluation of ocular tilt reaction (OTR), measurement of the subjective visual vertical (SVV) tilt, bithermal caloric tests, and audiometry. Results: Nine patients (43%) showed abnormal cVEMP, unilateral in seven and bilateral in two. The cVEMP abnormalities included decreased p13–n23 amplitude in four, delayed p13/n23 responses in five, and both decreased and delayed responses in two. The abnormal cVEMP was ipsilesional in five, contralesional in two, and bilateral in two. The prevalence of OTR/SVV tilt, spontaneous nystagmus, and HSN did not differ between the patients with normal and abnormal cVEMP. Conclusion: cVEMP was abnormal in approximately half of the patients with LMI. The abnormal cVEMP indicates damage to the descending sacculocollic reflex pathway or disruption of commissural modulation between the vestibular nuclei. PMID:21415908

Kim, Seonhye; Kim, Hyo-Jung; Kim, Ji Soo

2011-01-01

192

Cardiovascular autonomic function in lateral medullary infarction.  

PubMed

Even though the medulla contains the baroreceptor regulatory centers, few studies have focused on the autonomic dysfunction of lateral medullary infarction (LMI). Therefore, cardiac parasympathetic and sympathetic functions were compared in LMI patients and age-matched controls. We prospectively recruited 25 LMI patients who had ipsilateral Horner's sign and cardiac autonomic function testing without a history of diabetes, cardiac disease, or previous stroke. Parasympathetic function tests included beat-to-beat heart rate variation during deep breathing, 30:15 heart rate ratio testing while standing, and the valsalva ratio. Sympathetic function tests included blood pressure during active standing and sustained handgrip. The composite autonomic score (CAS) was measured as a total of 10 points; parasympathetic dysfunction was designated as ?3 points in the parasympathetic subscores and sympathetic dysfunction as ?2 points in the sympathetic subscores. Multiple regression analysis was performed to predict parasympathetic or sympathetic dysfunction. The mean age and stroke risk factors of the study population were not significantly different between the LMI group (n = 25) and control group (n = 29). However, cardiac autonomic functions were significantly different in the groups: parasympathetic dysfunction (14 vs. 4 patients, p = 0.011) and sympathetic dysfunction (3 vs. 13 patients, p = 0.008). In univariate analysis, male-gender (p = 0.011), right-side involvement (p = 0.035) and ventral involvement (p = 0.007) were significantly associated with parasympathetic dysfunction (CAS subscore ?3). In multivariable analysis, the ventral involvement remained to be the independent predictor for parasympathetic dysfunction (OR 16.0; 95% CI 2.2-118.3, p = 0.007). This study suggests that LMI patients are susceptible to cardiac parasympathetic dysfunction, especially in the ventral medulla. PMID:23543393

Hong, Ji Man; Kim, Tae Jin; Shin, Dong Hoon; Lee, Jin Soo; Joo, In Soo

2013-11-01

193

Autosomal dominant juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a form of chronic motor neuron disease characterized by combined upper and lower motor neuron symptoms and signs with onset prior to age 25 years. We report the clinical and electrodiagnostic findings in 49 affected family members and neuropathological findings from two autopsies of a Maryland kindred with autosomal dominant juvenile ALS linked to the chromosome 9q34 region (ALS4). Patients ranged in age from 12 to 85 years (mean 45 years) and the mean age of onset was 17 years. Distal weakness and atrophy was associated with pyramidal signs (43/49) and normal sensation (44/49). Motor conduction studies (n = 8) showed reduced evoked amplitudes and normal conduction parameters. Sensory conduction studies (n = 8), quantitative sensory testing (n = 4) and intracutaneous sensory fibres in skin biopsies (n = 6) were normal in all patients tested. Electromyography showed distal more than proximal chronic partial denervation and reinnervation (n = 8). Post-mortem spinal cord tissue demonstrated atrophic spinal cords with marked loss of anterior horn cells and degeneration of corticospinal tracts, as well as loss of neurons in the dorsal root ganglia and degeneration of the posterior columns. Axonal spheroids were present in the grey matter of the spinal cord, the dorsal root entry zones and the peripheral nerves. Motor and sensory roots, as well as peripheral nerves, showed significant axonal loss. Swellings were prominent around motor neurons, probably representing changes in presynaptic terminals. These studies define autosomal dominant juvenile ALS linked to the chromosome 9q34 region (ALS4) and extend the clinical, pathological and genetic heterogeneity of familial ALS and juvenile ALS. PMID:10430837

Rabin, B A; Griffin, J W; Crain, B J; Scavina, M; Chance, P F; Cornblath, D R

1999-08-01

194

Tracing the Geomorphic Signature of Lateral Faulting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active strike-slip faults are among the most dangerous geologic features on Earth. Unfortunately, it is challenging to estimate their slip rates, seismic hazard, and evolution over a range of timescales. An under-exploited tool in strike-slip fault characterization is quantitative analysis of the geomorphic response to lateral fault motion to extract tectonic information directly from the landscape. Past geomorphic work of this kind has focused almost exclusively on vertical motion, despite the ubiquity of horizontal motion in crustal deformation and mountain building. We seek to address this problem by investigating the landscape response to strike-slip faulting in two ways: 1) examining the geomorphology of the Marlborough Fault System (MFS), a suite of parallel strike-slip faults within the actively deforming South Island of New Zealand, and 2) conducting controlled experiments in strike-slip landscape evolution using the CHILD landscape evolution model. The MFS offers an excellent natural experiment site because fault initiation ages and cumulative displacements decrease from north to south, whereas slip rates increase over four fold across a region underlain by a single bedrock unit (Torlesse Greywacke). Comparison of planform and longitudinal profiles of rivers draining the MFS reveals strong disequilibrium within tributaries that drain to active fault strands, and suggests that river capture related to fault activity may be a regular process in strike-slip fault zones. Simple model experiments support this view. Model calculations that include horizontal motion as well as vertical uplift demonstrate river lengthening and shortening due to stream capture in response to shutter ridges sliding in front of stream outlets. These results suggest that systematic variability in fluvial knickpoint location, drainage area, and incision rates along different faults or fault segments may be expected in catchments upstream of strike-slip faults and could act as useful indicators of fault activity.

Duvall, A. R.; Tucker, G. E.

2012-12-01

195

PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS  

PubMed Central

Our objectives were to summarize literature on the association of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with pesticides as a group and to evaluate associations of ALS with specific pesticides. We conducted a meta-analysis of published studies of ALS and pesticides as a group and investigated the association of ALS with specific pesticides, using data from the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a cohort including 84,739 private pesticide applicators and spouses. AHS participants provided information on pesticide use at enrollment in 1993-1997. In mortality data collected through February, 2010, ALS was recorded on death certificates of 41 individuals whom we compared to the remaining cohort (controls), using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age and gender to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals. In the meta-analysis, ALS was associated with use of pesticides as a group (1.9, 1.1-3.1). In the AHS, ALS was not associated with pesticides as a group, but was associated with use of organochlorine insecticides (OCs) (1.6, 0.8-3.5), pyrethroids (1.4, 0.6-3.4), herbicides (1.6, 0.7-3.7), and fumigants (1.8, 0.8-3.9). ORs were elevated for ever use of the specific OCs aldrin (2.1, 0.8-5.1), dieldrin (2.6, 0.9-7.3), DDT (2.1, 0.9-5.0), and toxaphene (2.0, 0.8-4.9). None of these associations was statistically significant. Similar results were observed in an analysis restricted to men. In conclusion, the meta-analysis suggests that ALS risk is associated with use of pesticides as a group, and our analysis of AHS data points to OC use in particular. The latter results are novel but based on a small number of cases and require replication in other populations. PMID:22521219

Kamel, Freya; Umbach, David M; Bedlack, Richard S; Richards, Marie; Watson, Mary; Alavanja, Michael CR; Blair, Aaron; Hoppin, Jane A; Schmidt, Silke; Sandler, Dale P

2012-01-01

196

Canibalismo em fêmeas de camundongo swiss expostas à irradiação ionizante durante a prenhez: alterações morfoló gicas associadas.  

E-print Network

??Fêmeas de camundongos Swiss irradiadas apresentaram comportamento canibalístico inesperado durante um experimento para avaliação de teste de memória operacional e de referência, não mencionado em… (more)

Lúcia de Araújo Piúma

2007-01-01

197

Differential bilingual laterality: mythical monster found in Wales.  

PubMed

Paradis (1992) likens studies of bilingual laterality to reported sightings of the Loch Ness Monster, in that although some studies claim differential laterality much conflicting research evidence does not-and like the mythical Scottish monster, what reason have we to suspect that any such phenomenon might exist? This study reexamines differential bilingual laterality using four groups of English-Welsh bilinguals which differ in their age of acquisition and in their environment of acquisition. Using a split visual field paradigm we present evidence which, supports the notion of greater right hemisphere processing in a later learned language. Our findings also suggest the pattern of lateralization in bilinguals is strongly affected by the specific language environment during development such that the shift toward greater right hemisphere involvement for the later learned language will be more pronounced in individuals which are brought up in areas where that language is not regularly heard. PMID:12387799

Evans, Judith; Workman, Lance; Mayer, Peter; Crowley, Kevin

2002-11-01

198

23. VIEW SHOWING SALT RIVER PROJECT CREWS SLIPFORMING LATERAL DURING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. VIEW SHOWING SALT RIVER PROJECT CREWS SLIPFORMING LATERAL DURING REHABILITATION AND BETTERMENT PROGRAM Photographer: unknown. April 1968 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

199

Lateral Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction Using a Quadriceps Tendon Graft  

PubMed Central

Medial patellar subluxation (MPS) is normally described after a lateral retinacular release. However, isolated MPS in the absence of a previous lateral release does occur. This type of patellar instability is often overlooked, and a high index of suspicion is needed for appropriate diagnosis and treatment. This report describes a technique developed in response to episodes of isolated MPS. The technique uses a partial-thickness graft from the quadriceps tendon to reconstruct the lateral patellofemoral ligament and provide stability to the lateral side of the patella. PMID:25264506

Saper, Michael G.; Shneider, David A.

2014-01-01

200

Neuromuscular Ultrasound for the Evaluation of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.  

E-print Network

??Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that causes progressive loss of motor neurons, which results in weakness, respiratory compromise, and typically death within… (more)

Cartwright, Michael Stephen

2012-01-01

201

Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Former Addison County Railroad (later, Rutland Railroad, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Former Addison County Railroad (later, Rutland Railroad, Addison Branch), spanning Lemon Fair River above Richville Pond, west of East Shoreham Road, Shoreham, Addison County, VT

202

The lateral plate mesoderm: a novel source of skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

It has been established in the last century that the skeletal muscle cells of vertebrates originate from the paraxial mesoderm. However, recently the lateral plate mesoderm has been identified as a novel source of the skeletal muscle. The branchiomeric muscles, such as masticatory and facial muscles, receive muscle progenitor cells from both the cranial paraxial mesoderm and lateral plate mesoderm. At the occipital level, the lateral plate mesoderm is the sole source of the muscle progenitors of the dorsolateral neck muscle, such as trapezius and sternocleidomastoideus in mammals and cucullaris in birds. The lateral plate mesoderm requires a longer time for generating skeletal muscle cells than the somites. The myogenesis of the lateral plate is determined early, but not cell autonomously and requires local signals. Lateral plate myogenesis is regulated by mechanisms controlling the cranial myogenesis. The connective tissue of the lateral plate-derived muscle is formed by the cranial neural crest. Although the cranial neural crest cells do not control the early myogenesis, they regulate the patterning of the branchiomeric muscles and the cucullaris muscle. Although satellite cells derived from the cranial lateral plate show distinct properties from those of the trunk, they can respond to local signals and generate myofibers for injured muscles in the limbs. In this review, we key feature in detail the muscle forming properties of the lateral plate mesoderm and propose models of how the myogenic fate may have arisen. PMID:25344670

Pu, Qin; Patel, Ketan; Huang, Ruijin

2015-01-01

203

FILM OPTION CURRICULUM (FOR STUDENTS ENTERING FALL, 2011 OR LATER)  

E-print Network

FILM OPTION CURRICULUM (FOR STUDENTS ENTERING FALL, 2011 OR LATER) NOTE ON REVERSE. GATE REQUIREMENTS FOR FILM OPTION: FILM 100IH ­ Introduction to Film & Photography ...................................................................... 3

Lawrence, Rick L.

204

Phylogenetic identification of lateral genetic transfer events  

PubMed Central

Background Lateral genetic transfer can lead to disagreements among phylogenetic trees comprising sequences from the same set of taxa. Where topological discordance is thought to have arisen through genetic transfer events, tree comparisons can be used to identify the lineages that may have shared genetic information. An 'edit path' of one or more transfer events can be represented with a series of subtree prune and regraft (SPR) operations, but finding the optimal such set of operations is NP-hard for comparisons between rooted trees, and may be so for unrooted trees as well. Results Efficient Evaluation of Edit Paths (EEEP) is a new tree comparison algorithm that uses evolutionarily reasonable constraints to identify and eliminate many unproductive search avenues, reducing the time required to solve many edit path problems. The performance of EEEP compares favourably to that of other algorithms when applied to strictly bifurcating trees with specified numbers of SPR operations. We also used EEEP to recover edit paths from over 19 000 unrooted, incompletely resolved protein trees containing up to 144 taxa as part of a large phylogenomic study. While inferred protein trees were far more similar to a reference supertree than random trees were to each other, the phylogenetic distance spanned by random versus inferred transfer events was similar, suggesting that real transfer events occur most frequently between closely related organisms, but can span large phylogenetic distances as well. While most of the protein trees examined here were very similar to the reference supertree, requiring zero or one edit operations for reconciliation, some trees implied up to 40 transfer events within a single orthologous set of proteins. Conclusion Since sequence trees typically have no implied root and may contain unresolved or multifurcating nodes, the strategy implemented in EEEP is the most appropriate for phylogenomic analyses. The high degree of consistency among inferred protein trees shows that vertical inheritance is the dominant pattern of evolution, at least for the set of organisms considered here. However, the edit paths inferred using EEEP suggest an important role for genetic transfer in the evolution of microbial genomes as well. PMID:16472400

Beiko, Robert G; Hamilton, Nicholas

2006-01-01

205

Chapter 15 Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Several forms of genetically defined juvenile amy-otrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have now been charac-terized and discussion of these conditions will form the basis for this chapter. ALS2 is an autosomal recessive form of ALS with a juvenile onset and very slow progression that mapped to chromosome 2q33. Nine different mutations have been identified in the ALS2 gene that result in premature stop codons, suggesting a loss of function in the gene product, alsin. The alsin protein is thought to function as a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for GTPases and may play a role in vesicle transport or membrane trafficking processes. ALS4 is an autosomal dominant form of juvenile onset ALS associated with slow progression, severe muscle weakness and pyramidal signs, in the absence of bulbar and sensory abnormalities. Mutations in the SETX gene cause ALS4, and the SETX gene product senataxin may have DNA and RNA helicase activity and play a role in the regulation of RNA and/or DNA in the cell. A third form of juvenile-onset ALS (ALS5) is associated with slowly progressing lower motor neuron signs (weak-ness and atrophy) initially of the hands and feet, with eventual bulbar involvement. Progressive upper motor neuron disease becomes more obvious with time. ALS5 has been linked to a 6 cM region of chromosome 15q15.1-q21.1, but the causative gene mutation for ALS5 has yet to be identified. The high degree of clin-ical and genetic heterogeneity in the various forms of juvenile ALS can make differential diagnosis difficult, other genetic disorders that must be considered include: spinal muscular atrophy, hereditary spastic paraplegia, SBMA, GM2 gangliosidosis and the hereditary motor neuronopathies/motor forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Acquired disorders that must also be consid-ered include heavy metal intoxications (especially lead), multifocal motor neuropathy, paraneoplastic syndromes, vitamin deficiencies (B12) and infections (HTLV-II, HIV and poliomyelitis). PMID:18808900

Orban, Paul; Devon, Rebecca S; Hayden, Michael R; Leavitt, Blair R

2007-01-01

206

Clinicopathological Characteristics of Laterally Spreading Colorectal Tumor  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Laterally spreading tumor (LST) is a colorectal pre-cancerous lesion. Previous studies have demonstrated distinct LST clinicopathological characteristics in different populations. This study evaluated clinicopathological characteristics of LST in a Chinese population. Methods A total of 259 Chinese LST patients with 289 lesions were recruited for endoscopic and clinicopathological analyses. Results Among these 289 lesions, 185 were granular type (LST-G), whereas 104 were non-granular type (LST-NG). LST-G lesions were further classified into homogeneous G-type and nodular mixed G-type, while LST-NG lesions were further classified into flat elevated NG-type and pseudo-depressed NG-type. Clinically, these four LST subtypes showed distinct clinicopathological characteristics, e.g., lesion size, location, or histopathological features (high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and submucosal carcinoma). The nodular mixed G-type showed larger tumor size and higher incidence of high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia compared to the other three subtypes, while pseudo-depressed NG-type lesions showed the highest incidence of submucosal carcinoma. Noticeably, no diffidence was detected between the lesions of homogeneous G-type and flat elevated NG-type with regard to the histopathological features. Histology of the malignancy potential was associated with nodular mixed G-type [OR?=?2.41, 95% CI (1.09–5.29); P?=?0.029], flat elevated NG-type [OR?=?3.49, 95% CI (1.41–8.22); P?=?0.007], Diameter ?30 mm [OR?=?2.56, 95% CI (1.20–5.20); P?=?0.009], Villous adenoma [OR?=?2.76, 95% CI (1.01–7.58); P?=?0.048] and serrated adenoma [OR?=?6.99, 95% CI (1.81–26.98); P?=?0.005]. Conclusion Chinese LSTs can be divided into four different subtypes, which show distinct clinicopathological characteristics. Morphology, size and pathological characteristics are all independent predictors of advanced histology. PMID:24751926

Xiang, Li; Wang, Yadong; Wang, Xianfei; Li, Aimin; Liu, Side

2014-01-01

207

Lateral variations in the taupo ignimbrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The young non-welded Taupo ignimbrite shows remarkable lateral variations which are documented by granulometric and component analyses, and studies of maximum clast size and density. The grain size spans practically the entire known ignimbrite field, the coarser proximal ignimbrite having a median diameter 100 times greater than the finest distal ignimbrite. The content and maximum size of lithic fragments decrease also by a factor of 100 between proximal and distal parts. The content of free crystals first rises to reach a peak, but thereafter decreases to attain a very low value in far-distal exposures. The pumice maximum size decreases by a factor of about 10, and the most conspicuously coarse pumice rocks occur in a girdle nearly halfway out from vent to distal limit. The pumice in each grain size class decreases in density to half of its near-source value in distal ignimbrite. The overall outward trend is towards an ignimbrite which consists wholly of fine vitric ash; some distal exposures closely approach this condition. These variations are accounted for by a combination of processes operating in the moving ash flow. One is a continuous fragmentation of pumice leading to a rounding of the clasts, a progressive decrease in maximum size, the generation of much vitric dust, and the liberation of crystals. Another is a continuous sedimentation of heavy constituents (lithics and crystals), and an antipathetic rise of lighter coarse pumice towards the top of the flow. These processes operated in a moving flow whose upper layers travelled progressively farther from source; it is the topmost layers, strongly depleted in heavy constituents and enriched in light pumice, which have travelled the farthest and constitute the far-distal parts of the ignimbrite. A number of ignimbrite facies are characterized: the ignimbrite proper, with its proximal, distal, and pumice concentration zone facies; the deposits which form in the head and are then over-ridden by the body of the flow, including the fines-depleted ignimbrite variant and the heavies-enriched ground layer; and the ignimbrite veneer deposits which are left behind by the flow, which differ little from the ignimbrite except in their landscape-mantling form and the occurrence in them of lee-side coarse pumice lenses.

Walker, G. P. L.; Wilson, C. J. N.

1983-10-01

208

Enhanced performance of methamphetamine lateral flow cassettes using an electronic lateral flow reader.  

PubMed

Surface contamination from methamphetamine in meth labs continues to be a problem. We had previously developed a lateral flow assay cassette for field detection of methamphetamine contamination that is commercially available and has been used by a number of groups to assess contamination. This cassette uses the complete disappearance of the test line as an end point for detection of 50 ng/100 cm2 of methamphetamine contamination for surface sampling with cotton swabs. In the present study, we further evaluate the response of the cassettes using an electronic lateral flow reader to measure the intensities of the test and control lines. The cassettes were capable of detecting 0.25 ng/ml for calibration solutions. For 100 cm2 ceramic tiles that were spiked with methamphetamine and wiped with cotton-tipped wooden swabs wetted in assay/sampling buffer, 1 ng/tile was detected using the reader. Semi-quantitative results can be produced over the range 0-10 ng/ml for calibration solutions and 0-25 ng/tile for spiked tiles using either a 4-parameter logistic fit of test line intensity versus concentration or spiked mass or the ratio of the control line to the test line intensity fit to concentration or spiked mass. Recovery from the tiles was determined to be about 30% using the fitted curves. Comparison of the control line to the test line was also examined as a possible visual detection end point and it was found that the control line became more intense than the test line at 0.5 to 1 ng/ml for calibration solutions or 1 to 2 ng/tile for spiked tiles. Thus the lateral flow cassettes for methamphetamine have the potential to produce more sensitive semi-quantitative results if an electronic lateral flow reader is used and can be more sensitive for detection if the comparison of the control line to the test line is used as the visual end point. PMID:25379615

Smith, Jerome P; Sammons, Deborah L; Robertson, Shirley A; Snawder, John E

2015-01-01

209

Functional cerebral lateralization and dual-task efficiency-testing the function of human brain lateralization using fTCD.  

PubMed

It has been hypothesized that functional cerebral lateralization enhances cognitive performance. Evidence was found in birds and fish. Our study aimed to test this hypothesis by analyzing the relationship between cerebral lateralization and both single-task performance and dual-task efficiency in humans. We combined a dynamic Landmark task which is assumed to be primarily processed in the right hemisphere and a frequently used word generation task which is assumed to be primarily processed in the left hemisphere. For each task individual strength and direction of hemispheric lateralization was assessed using functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD). For each subject (15 women, 11 men), performance was measured in the two single-tasks and in the dual-task condition. Performance was not related to strength or direction of lateralization in single-tasks. With regard to dual-task efficiency, we found the expected advantage of having a typical lateralization pattern. Moreover, the results showed a slight negative, rather than a positive, relationship between strength of lateralization and dual-task efficiency. Further analysis showed that this negative relationship may only be present in subjects showing non-significant lateralization for one or both tasks. Therefore, the hypothesis that cerebral lateralization enhances human cognitive performance is too general: having two functions significantly lateralized to different hemispheres enhances dual-task efficiency, in this group strength of lateralized does not matter. However, if one or both functions are not significantly lateralized overall performance is worse and in this group, performance is negatively related to increased strength of lateralization. PMID:21056593

Lust, J M; Geuze, R H; Groothuis, A G G; Bouma, A

2011-03-01

210

Race and Gender Differences in Cognitive Laterality: Implications for Leadership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Replicating research completed in 1986, a study determined the relationship among cognitive laterality, gender, and reading comprehension for African-American students, as well as gender differences in cognitive laterality and in reading comprehension. Subjects, 40 African-American males, 41 African-American females, 12 White males, and 17 White…

Wesson, Linda Hampton; Holman, David

211

High-Risk Infants: Auditory Processing Deficits in Later Childhood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine whether deficits warranting intervention are present in the later functioning of high-risk infants, 22 premature infants who experienced asphyxia or chronic lung disease (CLD) but who had no gross developmental abnormalities were evaluated. Assessments of auditory perception and receptive language ability were made during later

Gilbride, Kathleen E.; And Others

212

Phosphorus lateral movement through subsoil to subsurface tile drains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vertical subsurface P transport to tile drains is well documented, however little research has focused on lateral P transport. A replicated field study investigated the lateral movement of P through 3.0 m of typical Iowa subsoil (sandy loam texture, pH 7.7, 2 mg kg-1 Olsen P) between a 1.2-m deep tr...

213

Integration of emotion and cognition in the lateral prefrontal cortex  

E-print Network

Integration of emotion and cognition in the lateral prefrontal cortex Jeremy R. Gray*, Todd S influence cognition-related neural activity in lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), as evidence for an integration of emotion and cognition. Participants (n 14) watched short videos intended to induce emotional

214

LATERAL TURBULENCE INTENSITY AND PLUME MEANDERING DURING STABLE CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

There is much evidence in the literature for the presence of mesoscale lateral meanders in the stable nighttime boundary layer. These meanders result in relatively high lateral turbulence intensities and diffusion rates when averaged over an hour. Anemometer data from 17 overnigh...

215

The lateral line of the butterfish, Pholis gunnellus L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lateral line of Pholis gunnellus (the butterfish) has been investigated with the scanning electron microscope. The lateral line is divided into two systems, superficial and canal based. The neuromasts of the former are composed of a central mass of tissue which carries the macula with sensory cells arranged centrally in a strip. Fusiform neuromasts have the long axis perpendicular

M. S. Laverack; M. D. Bevan

1991-01-01

216

Lateral Confinement Needed to Suppress Softening of Concrete in Compression  

E-print Network

failure laterally Bazant and Xiang 1997; Bazant and Planas 1998 . Since the compressive stress is reducedLateral Confinement Needed to Suppress Softening of Concrete in Compression Ferhun C. Caner1 are surprisingly high. If they are not used in design, one needs to pay attention to the localization of softening

217

Prevalence and correlates of neuropsychological deficits in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and correlates of neuropsychological impairment in a large cohort (n = 146) of patients with typical, sporadic (non-familial) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. METHODS: A battery of neuropsychological tests was administered to patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis who were attending a monthly outpatient clinic or who were in hospital undergoing diagnostic tests. RESULTS: Comparing individual patient's scores

P J Massman; J Sims; N Cooke; L J Haverkamp; V Appel; S H Appel

1996-01-01

218

An Immersive Media Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

E-print Network

1 An Immersive Media Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Federico Visi, Duncan Williams, Eduardo.williams, eduardo.miranda}@plymouth.ac.uk giovanni.dothel@gmail.com 1. INTRODUCTION Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and sclerosis hardens the affected nerves of the spinal cord. The spatialization in the 3D speaker array

Miranda, Eduardo Reck

219

ARTIFICIAL LATERAL LINE SYSTEMS FOR FEEDBACK CONTROL OF UNDERWATER ROBOTS  

E-print Network

and vehicles by exploiting the inherent sensing capability of ionic polymermetal composites (IPMCs). Analogous to its biological counterpart, the IPMC-based lateral line processes #12;the sensor signals through algorithms with an artificial lateral line prototype made of millimeter-scale IPMC sensors, with sensor

Tan, Xiaobo

220

Sensory systems in sawfishes. 2. The lateral line.  

PubMed

The lateral line system allows elasmobranchs to detect hydrodynamic movements in their close surroundings. We examined the distribution of pit organs and lateral line canals in 4 species of sawfish (Anoxypristis cuspidata, Pristis microdon, P. clavata and P. zijsron). Pit organs could only be located in A. cuspidata, which possesses elongated pits that are lined by dermal denticles. In all 4 pristid species, the lateral line canals are well developed and were separated into regions of pored and non-pored canals. In all species the tubules that extend from pored canals form extensive networks. In A. cuspidata, P. microdon and P. clavata, the lateral line canals on both the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the rostrum possess extensively branched and pored tubules. Based on this morphological observation, we hypothesized that these 3 species do not use their rostrum to search in the substrate for prey as previously assumed. Other batoids that possess lateral line canals adapted to perceive stimuli produced by infaunal prey possess non-pored lateral line canals, which also prevent the intrusion of substrate particles. However, this hypothesis remains to be tested behaviourally in pristids. Lateral line canals located between the mouth and the nostrils are non-pored in all 4 species of sawfish. Thus this region is hypothesized to perceive stimuli caused by direct contact with prey before ingestion. Lateral line canals that contain neuromasts are longest in P. microdon, but canals containing neuromasts along the rostrum are longest in A. cuspidata. PMID:21829005

Wueringer, B E; Peverell, S C; Seymour, J; Squire, L; Collin, S P

2011-01-01

221

The Chinese Calendar of The Later Han Period  

E-print Network

The Chinese Calendar of The Later Han Period Undergraduate Research Opportunities Programme would like to learn some basic knowledge in the Chinese calendar, which is an important part explanations to the Chinese calendar of the Later Han period, Shi Fen Li, and introduce some useful

Aslaksen, Helmer

222

Lateral Deflections of Webs in Air-Flotation Ovens  

E-print Network

­ lateral tilt angle of air-bar, in radians ­ spring constant of air cushion supporting web over bar ­ webLateral Deflections of Webs in Air-Flotation Ovens Peter M. Moretti March 2, 2001 Abstract A long web span supported by many, regularly spaced, alternating air- bars is studied. The focus

223

El turismo político durante la Guerra Civil: viajeros británicos y técnicas de hospitalidad en la España republicana, 1936-1939  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo estudia uno de los principales medios de propaganda que empleó la República española para conquistar a la opinión internacional durante la Guerra Civil: los viajes organizados de personalidades extranjeras. El turismo político, a veces considerado como una peculiaridad de los regímenes socialistas, fue empleado por los dos bandos durante el conflicto, pero los republicanos lo practicaron con más

Hugo García

2006-01-01

224

Phototropism and gravitropism in lateral roots of Arabidopsis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gravitropism and, to a lesser extent, phototropism have been characterized in primary roots, but little is known about structural/functional aspects of these tropisms in lateral roots. Therefore, in this study, we report on tropistic responses in lateral roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Lateral roots initially are plagiogravitropic, but when they reach a length of approximately 10 mm, these roots grow downward and exhibit positive orthogravitropism. Light and electron microscopic studies demonstrate a correlation between positive gravitropism and development of columella cells with large, sedimented amyloplasts in wild-type plants. Lateral roots display negative phototropism in response to white and blue light and positive phototropism in response to red light. As is the case with primary roots, the photoresponse is weak relative to the graviresponse, but phototropism is readily apparent in starchless mutant plants, which are impaired in gravitropism. To our knowledge, this is the first report of phototropism of lateral roots in any plant species.

Kiss, John Z.; Miller, Kelley M.; Ogden, Lisa A.; Roth, Kelly K.

2002-01-01

225

Centrifuge Modeling of Piles Subjected to Lateral Loads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many applications where piles are employed to absorb and deflect lateral impact loads. Structural elements of this type are used to protect infrastructure and are commonly found at marine sites. A series of model tests have been conducted using Columbia University's centrifuge facility to better understand the performance of piles subjected to these loading conditions. A device was designed to install and laterally load single model piles during centrifuge flight. This device uniquely contains two lateral loading systems, one which allows static testing and another appropriate for dynamic tests. This research examines the behavior of tubular steel piles embedded within dry or saturated soil and subjected to varied rates of lateral loading. This investigation provides insight on the contribution of lateral loading rates to the behavior of piles.

Brant, Logan; Ling, Hoe I.

226

Effect of midbrain raphe and lateral mesencephalic stimulation on spontaneous and evoked activity in the lateral geniculate of the cat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Single shock stimulation of the midbrain raphe and lateral reticular formation altered the spontaneous and evoked activity of single cells in the dorsal lateral geniculate of the cat. The effect of stimulation was to produce a facilitation of 64 units with a latency of 15 msec or greater and an inhibition of 30 units with a latency of 7 to

Warren E. Foote; Raymond J. Maciewicz; John P. Mordes

1974-01-01

227

Deep transverse friction massage for treating lateral elbow or lateral knee tendinitis.  

PubMed

Background Deep transverse friction massage, one of several physical therapy interventions suggested for the management of tendinitis pain, was first demonstrated in the 1930s by Dr James Cyriax, a renowned orthopedic surgeon in England. Its goal is to prevent abnormal fibrous adhesions and abnormal scarring. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2001.Objectives To assess the benefits and harms of deep transverse friction massage for treating lateral elbow or lateral knee tendinitis.Search methods We searched the following electronic databases: the specialized central registry of the Cochrane Field of Physical and Related Therapies,the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL),MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Clinicaltrials.gov, and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), up until July 2014. The reference lists of these trials were consulted for additional studies.Selection criteria All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing deep transverse friction massage with control or other active interventions for study participants with two eligible types of tendinitis (ie, extensor carpi radialis tendinitis (lateral elbow tendinitis, tennis elbow or lateral epicondylitis or lateralis epicondylitis humeri) and iliotibial band friction syndrome (lateral knee tendinitis)) were selected. Only studies published in English and French languages were included.Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed the studies on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results of individual trials were extracted from the included study using extraction forms prepared by two independent review authors before the review was begun.Data were cross-checked by a third review author. Risk of bias of the included studies was assessed using the "Risk of bias"tool of The Cochrane Collaboration. A pooled analysis was performed using mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes and risk ratio (RR)for dichotomous outcomes with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).Main results Two RCTs (no new additional studies in this update) with 57 participants met the inclusion criteria. These studies demonstrated high risk of performance and detection bias, and the risk of selection, attrition, and reporting bias was unclear.The first study included 40 participants with lateral elbow tendinitis and compared (1) deep transverse friction massage combined with therapeutic ultrasound and placebo ointment (n = 11) versus therapeutic ultrasound and placebo ointment only (n = 9) and (2)deep transverse friction massage combined with phonophoresis (n = 10) versus phonophoresis only (n = 10). No statistically significant differences were reported within five weeks for mean change in pain on a 0 to 100 visual analog scale (VAS) (MD -6.60, 95%CI -28.60 to 15.40; 7% absolute improvement), grip strength measured in kilograms of force (MD 0.10, 95% CI -0.16 to 0.36) and function ona 0 to 100 VAS (MD -1.80, 95% CI -0.18.64 to 15.04; 2% improvement), pain-free function index measured as the number of painfree items (MD 1.10, 95% CI -1.00 to 3.20) and functional status (RR 3.3, 95% CI 0.4 to 24.3) for deep transverse friction massage,and therapeutic ultrasound and placebo ointment compared with therapeutic ultrasound and placebo ointment only. Likewise for deep transverse friction massage and phonophoresis compared with phonophoresis alone, no statistically significant differences were found for pain (MD -1.2, 95% CI -20.24 to 17.84; 1% improvement), grip strength (MD -0.20, 95% CI -0.46 to 0.06) and function (MD3.70, 95% CI -14.13 to 21.53; 4% improvement). In addition, the GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach was used to evaluate the quality of evidence for the pain outcome, which received a score of "very low".Pain relief of 30% or greater, quality of life, patient global assessment, adverse events, and withdrawals due to adverse events were not assessed or rep

Loew, Laurianne M; Brosseau, Lucie; Tugwell, Peter; Wells, George A; Welch, Vivian; Shea, Beverley; Poitras, Stephane; De Angelis, Gino; Rahman, Prinon

2014-01-01

228

Lateral lymph node dissection for lower rectal cancer.  

PubMed

The mainstay of surgical therapy for rectal cancer is colectomy (including lesions) with lymph node dissection. The lymphatic spread of rectal cancer can proceed in two directions: medially toward the origin of the inferior mesenteric artery or laterally toward the pelvis aslong the internal iliac artery. To prevent postoperative recurrence, lymph nodes situated along these two axes should be adequately dissected, leaving no residual cancer cells. In Japan, the standard procedure for advanced lower rectal cancer is mesorectal excision and lateral lymph node dissection with autonomic nerve preservation. In Europe and North America, lateral lymph node dissection used to be performed, but it led to increased blood loss, complications, and dysfunction, with no improvement in survival. Lateral lymph node dissection is thus no longer performed. Instead, multidisciplinary therapy combining mesorectal excision with preoperative chemoradiotherapy is now the standard treatment for advanced rectal cancer. Although lateral lymph node dissection decreases the rate of local recurrence similar to preoperative chemoradiotherapy, whether it contributes to improved survival remains unclear. In addition, it is unlikely that prophylactic lateral lymph node dissection is required in all patients with rectal cancer. Definition of the indications for lateral lymph node dissection is thus an important concern. PMID:23703637

Nakamura, T; Watanabe, M

2013-08-01

229

Resume and analysis of NACA lateral control research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of the principal results of recent lateral control research is made. Two things are considered of primary importance in judging the effectiveness of different control devices: The (calculated) banking and yawing motion of a typical small airplane caused by a deflection of the control, and the stick force required to produce this deflection. The report includes a table in which a number of different lateral control devices are compared on these bases. Test flights demonstrated that satisfactory lateral control at high angles of attack depends as much on the retention of stability as on aileron effectiveness.

Weick, F. E.; Jones, R. T.

1976-01-01

230

Thermodynamic and kinetic control of the lateral Si wire growth  

SciTech Connect

Reproducible lateral Si wire growth has been realized on the Si (100) surface. In this paper, we present experimental evidence showing the unique role that carbon plays in initiating lateral growth of Si wires on a Si (100) substrate. Once initiated in the presence of ?5 ML of C, lateral growth can be achieved in the range of temperatures, T?=?450–650?°C, and further controlled by the interplay of the flux of incoming Si atoms with the size and areal density of Au droplets. Critical thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the growth are discussed in detail.

Dedyulin, Sergey N., E-mail: sdedyuli@uwo.ca; Goncharova, Lyudmila V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond St., London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada)

2014-03-24

231

Arthroscopic Lateral Epicondylitis Release Using the “Bayonet” Technique  

PubMed Central

Most patients diagnosed with lateral epicondylitis respond well to conservative management. For patients who do not respond to nonoperative modalities, surgical treatment represents a viable option for long-term symptomatic relief. The arthroscopic surgical technique described in this article has been consistently used by the senior author for the treatment of recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis for more than 5 years (198 patients) without the occurrence of any major complications and appears to be a safe, reliable, and efficacious surgical intervention for the management of lateral epicondylitis. PMID:24749034

Stiefel, Eric C.; Field, Larry D.

2014-01-01

232

Arthroscopic lateral epicondylitis release using the "bayonet" technique.  

PubMed

Most patients diagnosed with lateral epicondylitis respond well to conservative management. For patients who do not respond to nonoperative modalities, surgical treatment represents a viable option for long-term symptomatic relief. The arthroscopic surgical technique described in this article has been consistently used by the senior author for the treatment of recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis for more than 5 years (198 patients) without the occurrence of any major complications and appears to be a safe, reliable, and efficacious surgical intervention for the management of lateral epicondylitis. PMID:24749034

Stiefel, Eric C; Field, Larry D

2014-02-01

233

Detail, external parabolic antenna (later addition). Note how waveguide was ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail, external parabolic antenna (later addition). Note how waveguide was cut to remove active portion of antenna. - Western Union Telegraph Company, Jennerstown Relay, Laurel Summit Road off U.S. 30, Laughlintown, Westmoreland County, PA

234

Antenna cab interior showing waveguide from external parabolic antenna (later ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Antenna cab interior showing waveguide from external parabolic antenna (later addition), looking north. - Western Union Telegraph Company, Jennerstown Relay, Laurel Summit Road off U.S. 30, Laughlintown, Westmoreland County, PA

235

Economic viability of multiple-lateral horizontal wells  

E-print Network

. It will focus on the application of multiple-lateral horizontal wells to reduce the risks of economic uncertainty associated with poor reservoir characterization in areally anisotropic reservoirs. Using a state-of-the-art productivity index model, the study...

Smith, Christopher Jason

2012-06-07

236

14. VIEW OF BOTTOM LATERAL BRACING WITH STRINGERS AND FLOOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. VIEW OF BOTTOM LATERAL BRACING WITH STRINGERS AND FLOOR BEAMS, NORTHWEST SPAN, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Linden Avenue Bridge, Spanning Purgatoire River on Linden Avenue, Trinidad, Las Animas County, CO

237

Quantifying molecular stiffness and interaction with lateral force microscopy.  

PubMed

The spatial resolution of atomic force microscopy (AFM) can be drastically increased by terminating the tip with a single carbon monoxide (CO) molecule. However, the CO molecule is not stiff, and lateral forces, such as those around the sides of molecules, distort images. This issue begs a larger question of how AFM can probe structures that are laterally weak. Lateral force microscopy (LFM) can probe lateral stiffnesses that are not accessible to normal-force AFM, resulting in higher spatial resolution. With LFM, we determined the torsional spring constant of a CO-terminated tip molecule to be 0.24 newtons per meter. This value is less than that of a surface molecule and an example of a system whose stiffness is a product not only of bonding partners but also local environment. PMID:24505131

Weymouth, Alfred John; Hofmann, Thomas; Giessibl, Franz J

2014-03-01

238

Commanding lateral acceleration: a natural paradigm for automobile steering  

E-print Network

This thesis describes a joystick automobile steering phics. controller which allows the driver to command the lateral acceleration of the vehicle directly, as opposed to controlling the front tire angle. The purpose of the controller is to improve...

Kenny, Andrew

1998-01-01

239

38. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, LATERAL ELEVATION OF CARETAKER'S COTTAGE FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, LATERAL ELEVATION OF CARETAKER'S COTTAGE FROM ENTRANCE HOUSE TERRACE (4' x 5' negative) - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

240

11. Detail of sway braces, struts and top lateral braces' ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Detail of sway braces, struts and top lateral braces' view to north-northwest - Milk River Bridge, Spanning Milk River approximately one mile north of Tampico on Tampico North Road, Tampico, Valley County, MT

241

PHOTO OPTION CURRICULUM (FOR STUDENTS ENTERING FALL, 2011 OR LATER)  

E-print Network

PHOTO OPTION CURRICULUM (FOR STUDENTS ENTERING FALL, 2011 OR LATER) NOTE ON REVERSE. GATE REQUIREMENTS FOR PHOTO OPTION: FILM 100IH ­ Introduction to Film)..................................................................3 PHOTO OPTION REQUIREMENTS (GATE REQUIRED FOR MOST COURSES): PHOT 255

Dyer, Bill

242

6. VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING TOP LATERAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING TOP LATERAL BRACING, MAIN TIE AND COUNTERS, SWAY STRUTS AND BRACING, AND INTERMEDIATE POSTS - Hart County Bridge, State Route 181, spanning Savannah River, Hartwell, Hart County, GA

243

Mother's Depression Tied to Later Delinquency in Kids  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mother's Depression Tied to Later Delinquency in Kids Treating parent's ... 2015) Monday, December 22, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Depression Parenting Teen Mental Health MONDAY, Dec. 22, 2014 ( ...

244

14. VIEW OF LOG BRIDGE (LATER SUPERSEDED BY THE WIREROPE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. VIEW OF LOG BRIDGE (LATER SUPERSEDED BY THE WIRE-ROPE SUSPENSION BRIDGE), SHOWING OVERHANG WHERE ROCK WAS BLASTED OUT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Goat Trail Mining Road, Highway 20, 1.5 miles North of Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

245

13. VIEW OF LOG BRIDGE (LATER SUPERSEDED BY THE WIREROPE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. VIEW OF LOG BRIDGE (LATER SUPERSEDED BY THE WIRE-ROPE SUSPENSION BRIDGE), SHOWING OVERHANG WHERE ROCK WAS BLASTED OUT, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Goat Trail Mining Road, Highway 20, 1.5 miles North of Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

246

10. EYEBAR PIN CONNECTION JOINING VERTICAL SUSPENSION STRINGER WITH LATERAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. EYEBAR PIN CONNECTION JOINING VERTICAL SUSPENSION STRINGER WITH LATERAL BRACING MEMBERS - Spruce Street Bridge, East Spruce Street, 500 Block, spanning Power Canal, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

247

Prolonged High Cholesterol in Middle Age Raises Heart Risk Later  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Prolonged High Cholesterol in Middle Age Raises Heart Risk Later: Study ... 2015) Monday, January 26, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Cholesterol Heart Diseases MONDAY, Jan. 26, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- ...

248

Being surveyed can change later behavior and related parameter estimates  

E-print Network

Does completing a household survey change the later behavior of those surveyed? In three field studies of health and two of microlending, we randomly assigned subjects to be surveyed about health and/or household finances ...

Zwane, Alix Peterson

249

Electron tunneling and spin relaxation in a lateral quantum dot  

E-print Network

We report measurements that use real-time charge sensing to probe a single-electron lateral quantum dot. The charge sensor is a quantum point contact (QPC) adjacent to the dot and the sensitivity is comparable to other ...

Amasha, Sami

2008-01-01

250

13. DETAIL, LATERAL BRACING FOR INTERIOR OVERHEAD CRANE Delaware, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. DETAIL, LATERAL BRACING FOR INTERIOR OVERHEAD CRANE - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

251

Heterogeneity of cognitive impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis   

E-print Network

This PhD thesis examines the relationship between Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Frontotemporal dementia (FTD). ALS is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by muscle weakness, ...

Van Der Hulst, Egberdina Jozefa

2012-06-27

252

8. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING OUTRIGGERS FOR LATERAL BRACING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING OUTRIGGERS FOR LATERAL BRACING FOR TRUSSES AND BOTTOM CHORD CONNECTIONS. - White Bowstring Arch Truss Bridge, Spanning Yellow Creek at Cemetery Drive (Riverside Drive), Poland, Mahoning County, OH

253

6. Tempe Crosscut Canal, looking west from Division Gates. Lateral ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Tempe Crosscut Canal, looking west from Division Gates. Lateral at left is for local delivery of irrigation water. Photographer: Mark Durben, February 1989. Source: SRPA - Tempe Canal, South Side Salt River in Tempe, Mesa & Phoenix, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

254

Lateral-Pressure Profiles in Cholesterol-DPPC Bilayers  

E-print Network

By means of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, we study cholesterol-DPPC (dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine) bilayers of different composition, from pure DPPC bilayers to a 1:1 mixture of DPPC and cholesterol. The lateral-pressure profiles through the bilayers are computed and separated into contributions from the different components. We find that the pressure inside the bilayer changes qualitatively for cholesterol concentrations of about 20% or higher. The pressure profile then turns from a rather flat shape into an alternating sequence of regions with large positive and negative lateral pressure. The changes in the lateral-pressure profile are so characteristic that specific interaction between cholesterol and molecules such as membrane proteins mediated solely via the lateral-pressure profile might become possible.

Michael Patra

2005-04-05

255

Archives, Records, and Information Management Specialization Fall 2013 and Later  

E-print Network

Archives, Records, and Information Management Specialization ­ Fall 2013 and Later Core Courses 680 Principles of Records and Information Management _____ LBSC 682 Management of Electronic Records, Records, and Information Management _____ LBSC 789 Special Topics in Contemporary Archives Three Electives

Golbeck, Jennifer

256

Lateral crural tensioning for refinement of the wide and underprojected nasal tip: rethinking the lateral crural steal.  

PubMed

Refinement of the wide, ptotic, under protected tip is one of the most difficult challenges in cosmetic nasal surgery yet also among the most common. Although excisional techniques can produce reductions in lobular width, long-term contour alterations are unpredictable and subject to stigmatic tip deformity. Preservation of natural tip support is a fundamental requirement of a successful rhinoplasty. The traditional lateral crural steal is a useful technique for tip refinement, but, when combined with a sturdy septal extension graft, the modified lateral crural steal (lateral crural tensioning) becomes a more potent and versatile rhinoplasty technique that can improve tip contour without jeopardizing function or structural stability. PMID:25430927

Davis, Richard E

2015-02-01

257

Testing of lateral water flow in a moisture barrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have performed large-scale lateral-flow tests in a fine-textured material overlying a coarser medium. The goal was to investigate the effectiveness of a moisture barrier where the finer material has the texture of a silty sand. When we tested for induced lateral flow, a geotextile inhibited penetration of two overlying materials of different particle sizes. Our wick system provided data

W. V. Abeele; G. L. DePoorter

1984-01-01

258

Lateral prefrontal cortex and self-control in intertemporal choice.  

PubMed

Disruption of function of left, but not right, lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) with low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) increased choices of immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards. rTMS did not change choices involving only delayed rewards or valuation judgments of immediate and delayed rewards, providing causal evidence for a neural lateral-prefrontal cortex-based self-control mechanism in intertemporal choice. PMID:20348919

Figner, Bernd; Knoch, Daria; Johnson, Eric J; Krosch, Amy R; Lisanby, Sarah H; Fehr, Ernst; Weber, Elke U

2010-05-01

259

Released micromachined beams utilizing laterally uniform porosity porous silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suspended micromachined porous silicon beams with laterally uniform porosity are reported, which have been fabricated using standard photolithography processes designed for compatibility with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) processes. Anodization, annealing, reactive ion etching, repeated photolithography, lift off and electropolishing processes were used to release patterned porous silicon microbeams on a Si substrate. This is the first time that micromachined, suspended PS microbeams have been demonstrated with laterally uniform porosity, well-defined anchors and flat surfaces.

Sun, Xiao; Keating, Adrian; Parish, Giacinta

2014-08-01

260

Lateral interband tunneling transistor in silicon-on-insulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a lateral interband tunneling transistor, where the source and drain form a heavily doped lateral pn junction in a thin Si film on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate. The transistor action results from the control of the reverse-bias tunneling breakdown under drain bias VD by a gate voltage VG. We observe gate control over tunneling drain current ID

C. Aydin; A. Zaslavsky; S. Luryi; S. Cristoloveanu; D. Mariolle; D. Fraboulet; S. Deleonibus

2004-01-01

261

Large Lateral Photovoltaic Effect in Metal-(Oxide-) Semiconductor Structures  

PubMed Central

The lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) can be used in position-sensitive detectors to detect very small displacements due to its output of lateral photovoltage changing linearly with light spot position. In this review, we will summarize some of our recent works regarding LPE in metal-semiconductor and metal-oxide-semiconductor structures, and give a theoretical model of LPE in these two structures. PMID:22163463

Yu, Chongqi; Wang, Hui

2010-01-01

262

Microdomain Ordering in Laterally Confined Block Copolymer Thin Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the effects of small-scale, hexagonal, lateral confinement on microdomain ordering in AB diblock copolymer thin films using self-consistent field theory simulations. Specifically, we examine a hexagonal confinement well with side length L approximately equal to five cylindrical microdomain lattice spacings. The commensurability constraints of the small-scale, lateral confinement, coupled with surface- induced effects allow the confining well to

August W. Bosse; Carlos J. Garc ´ õa-Cervera; Glenn H. Fredrickson

2007-01-01

263

Endodontic treatment of maxillary lateral incisors with anatomical variations  

PubMed Central

Maxillary lateral incisors usually exhibit a single root with a single canal. However, maxillary lateral incisor teeth with unusual morphology of root canal system are frequently reported. These cases of variable root canal anatomy can be treated well by nonsurgical endodontic methods. A detailed description of root canal morphology is fundamental for successful endodontic treatment. Treatment using an operating microscope, radiographs from different angles, and cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) can produce more predictable endodontic outcomes. PMID:24303362

Lee, Moon-Hwan; Ha, Jung-Hong; Jin, Myoung-Uk; Kim, Young-Kyung

2013-01-01

264

Socially dependent auditory laterality in domestic horses ( Equus caballus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laterality is now known to be an ubiquitous phenomenon among the vertebrates. Particularly, laterality of auditory processing\\u000a has been demonstrated in a variety of species, especially songbirds and primates. Such a hemispheric specialization has been\\u000a shown to depend on factors such as sound structure, species specificity and types of stimuli. Much less is known on the possible\\u000a influence of social

Muriel Basile; Sarah Boivin; Anaïs Boutin; Catherine Blois-Heulin; Martine Hausberger; Alban Lemasson

2009-01-01

265

Field measurement of lateral earth pressures on retaining walls  

E-print Network

FIELD MEASUREMENT OF LATERAL EARTH PRESSURES ON RETAINING WALLS A Thesis by Michael Riggins Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1974... Major Subject: Civil Engineering FIELD MEASUREMENT OF LATERAL EARTH PRESSURES ON RETAINING WALLS A Thesis by Michael Riggins Approved as to style and content by: Cha rman of Committee Memb r Head of Departm t P Etc Member August 1974 ABSTRACT...

Riggins, Michael

2012-06-07

266

Lateral epicondylitis in tennis: update on aetiology, biomechanics and treatment.  

PubMed

Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) is the most frequent type of myotendinosis and can be responsible for substantial pain and loss of function of the affected limb. Tennis biomechanics, player characteristics and equipment are important in preventing the condition. This article presents an overview of the current knowledge on lateral epicondylitis, and focuses on treatment strategies. Conservative and surgical treatment options are discussed, and recent techniques are outlined. PMID:17616547

De Smedt, Thomas; de Jong, Andy; Van Leemput, Wim; Lieven, Dossche; Van Glabbeek, Francis

2007-11-01

267

Lateral thinkers are not so laterally minded: hemispheric asymmetry, interaction, and creativity.  

PubMed

The biological basis of creativity remains a topic of contention. A long-held view suggests that whereas the left hemisphere is intelligent and analytic, the right hemisphere is the source of all creativity. Consequently, activating the right hemisphere should enhance creative thinking, prompting a plethora of popular books hawking a right hemisphere solution to topics ranging from drawing, to money management, to sex. More recently, an alternate proposal has suggested that creativity is not a lateralised function; instead, creativity is argued to stem from the interaction and integration of information across both the left and right hemispheres. According to this view, individuals with greater interhemispheric communication and/or less-lateralised brains will evidence enhanced creative ability. This paper reviews the neural basis of creativity to determine whether creativity stems from activation of the right hemisphere, or from the interaction of both hemispheres. The relationship between creativity and psychopathology is also examined, evaluating the evidence for a causal link between disorders such as schizophrenia, hemispheric activation, and enhanced creativity. Although the research reviewed indicates greater right hemisphere activity during creative tasks, the interaction between many varied, often distant, cortical regions across both the left and right hemispheres is also a crucial component of creativity. This interaction facilitates the integration of a variety of separate cognitive abilities, fostering creative thinking. As such, creativity is better conceptualised as a distributed, rather than a purely lateralised, function; more lateral thinkers have less lateralised brains. PMID:21140315

Lindell, Annukka K

2011-07-01

268

Lateral line canal morphology and signal to noise ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lateral line system of fish is important for many behaviors, including spatial orientation, prey detection, shoaling, intra specific communication and entraining. The smallest sensory unit of the lateral line is the neuromast that occurs free standing on the skin and in fluid filled canals. With aid of the lateral line fish perceive minute water motions. In their natural habitat fish are not only faced with biotic water motion but also with the abiotic fluctuations caused by various inanimate sources. The detection of meaningful signals is crucial for survival, and therefore animals should be able to separate meaningful signals from noise. Fishes live in various habitats (e.g. in still water or in running water). Therefore it is not surprising that the number and distribution of neuromasts as well as canal dimension, canal shape and canal branching patterns differ among fish species. We studied how lateral line canal parameters influence the filter properties of lateral line canals. To do so we exposed artificial lateral line canals, equipped with artificial neuromasts (sensors), to the vortex street shed by a submerged cylinder and to air bubble noise. We found that certain canal parameters significantly can enhance the signal to noise ratio.

Klein, Adrian; Herzog, Hendrik; Bleckmann, Horst

2011-04-01

269

Lateral bending of the lumbar spine during quadrupedalism in strepsirhines.  

PubMed

Much research has been devoted to spinal kinematics of nonmammalian vertebrates, while comparatively little is known about the locomotor role of spinal movements in mammals, especially primates. This study, conducted at the Duke University Primate Center, examines the function of lateral spinal bending during quadrupedal walking among a diverse sample of strepsirhines. The taxa studied include Loris tardigradus (1), Nycticebus coucang (1), N. pygmaeus (1), Cheirogaleus medius (2), Varecia variegata (2), Eulemur fulvus (2), and a total sample size of 261 strides. Lateral bending varies among the taxa with respect to both magnitude and effects of velocity, and does not appear to be correlated with body size. In addition, the timing of lateral bending during a stride appears to differ from that reported for other (nonmammalian) tetrapods. On average, maximum lateral flexion occurs just after ipsilateral foot touchdown, which may be functionally associated with touchdown of the contralateral forelimb during diagonal sequence gait. For some of the taxa, lateral flexion coincides more closely with foot touchdown as velocity increases, suggesting a functional role in increasing hindlimb stride length. Both of these timing patterns contrast with those reported for lizards. Finally, although lorids as a group have been described as having a "sinuous" gait, this study shows more pronounced lateral flexion in Nycticebus than in Loris. PMID:11180987

Shapiro, L J; Demes, B; Cooper, J

2001-03-01

270

Effects of cyclic lateral loads on piles in sand  

SciTech Connect

The effect of repetitive lateral loads on deflections of two drilled piers in Tampa Bay were significantly greater than predicted by a p-y procedure commonly used in practice. Reasons for the discrepancy between predicted and measured deflections are discussed. Two methods for predicting the effect of repetitive lateral loads are developed using results of 34 cyclic lateral load tests to quantify model parameters important to the behavior of piles subjected to repetitive lateral loading. The two methods model cyclic lateral load behavior of a pile by degrading soil resistance as a function of number of cycles of load, method of pile installation, soil density, and character of cyclic load. The two methods differ in the computational effort required to make the prediction. The first method is most suitable for hand calculation and rule-of-thumb estimation and is based upon a beam-on-an-elastic foundation model with a soil reaction modulus, K{sub h}, increasing proportionally with depth. The second method modifies nonlinear static p-y curves to derive a cyclic p-y curve. The two methods provides a simple means for estimating effects of cyclic lateral load.

Long, J.H. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Vanneste, G.

1994-01-01

271

Initiation and elongation of lateral roots in Lactuca sativa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lactuca sativa cv. Baijianye seedlings do not normally produce lateral roots, but removal of the root tip or application of auxin, especially indole-butyric acid, triggered the formation of lateral roots. Primordia initiated within 9 h and were fully developed after 24 h by activating the pericycle cells opposite the xylem pole. The pericycle cells divided asymmetrically into short and long cells. The short cells divided further to form primordia. The effect of root tip removal and auxin application was reversed by 6-benzylaminopurine at concentrations >10(-8) M. The cytokinin oxidase inhibitor N1-(2chloro4pyridyl)-N2-phenylurea also suppressed auxin-induced lateral rooting. The elongation of primary roots was promoted by L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl) glycine and silver ions, but only the latter enhanced elongation of lateral roots. The data indicate that the induction of lateral roots is controlled by basipetally moving cytokinin and acropetally moving auxin. Lateral roots appear to not produce ethylene.

Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.

1999-01-01

272

Lockhart Clarke's contribution to the description of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

The definition of the clinicopathological entity of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis evolved over half a century. Although the definitive term amyotrophic lateral sclerosis that acknowledged both upper and lower motor neuron involvement was attributed to Jean-Martin Charcot in 1874, his initial case was published nearly a decade earlier; and it is accepted that, from at least the 1830s, several others (including Charles Bell, François-Amilcar Aran and Jean Cruveilhier) had already recognized a progressive lower motor neuron-only syndrome within a broader, clinically-defined group of disorders, termed progressive muscular atrophy. Although William Gowers first grouped the three phenotypes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, progressive muscular atrophy and progressive bulbar palsy together as part of the same syndrome, the term motor neuron disease, as an over-arching label, was not suggested until nearly a century later by W. Russell Brain. Augustus Jacob Lockhart Clarke (1817-80) is best known for his descriptions of spinal cord anatomy. However, in two detailed case reports from the 1860s, he carried out rigorous post-mortem neuropathological studies of what appear to be classical cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Furthermore, he recognized the additional involvement of the corticospinal tracts that distinguished this from progressive muscular atrophy. Several aspects of the exquisite clinical histories documented as part of both studies, one by Charles Bland Radcliffe, resonate with contemporary debates concerning the evolution of disease in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These 'past masters' still have much to teach us. PMID:20576696

Turner, Martin R; Swash, Michael; Ebers, George C

2010-11-01

273

Lateral line diversity among ecologically divergent threespine stickleback populations  

PubMed Central

The lateral line is a mechanoreceptive sensory system that allows fish to sense objects and motion in their local environment. Variation in lateral line morphology may allow fish in different habitats to differentially sense and respond to salient cues. Threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) occupy a diverse range of aquatic habitats; we therefore hypothesized that populations within the G. aculeatus species complex might show variation in the morphology of the lateral line sensory system. We sampled 16 threespine stickleback populations from marine, stream and lake (including benthic and limnetic) habitats and examined the distribution, type and number of neuromasts on different regions of the body. We found that the threespine stickleback has a reduced lateral line canal system, completely lacking canal neuromasts. Although the arrangement of lines of superficial neuromasts on the body was largely the same in all populations, the number of neuromasts within these lines varied across individuals, populations and habitats. In pairwise comparisons between threespine sticklebacks adapted to divergent habitats, we found significant differences in neuromast number. Stream residents had more neuromasts than marine sticklebacks living downstream in the same watershed. In two independent lakes, benthic sticklebacks had more trunk neuromasts than sympatric limnetic sticklebacks, providing evidence for parallel evolution of the lateral line system. Our data provide the first demonstration that the lateral line sensory system can vary significantly between individuals and among populations within a single species, and suggest that this sensory system may experience different selection regimes in alternative habitats. PMID:20008367

Wark, A. R.; Peichel, C. L.

2010-01-01

274

Lateralization for dynamic facial expressions in human superior temporal sulcus.  

PubMed

Most face processing studies in humans show stronger activation in the right compared to the left hemisphere. Evidence is largely based on studies with static stimuli focusing on the fusiform face area (FFA). Hence, the pattern of lateralization for dynamic faces is less clear. Furthermore, it is unclear whether this property is common to human and non-human primates due to predisposing processing strategies in the right hemisphere or that alternatively left sided specialization for language in humans could be the driving force behind this phenomenon. We aimed to address both issues by studying lateralization for dynamic facial expressions in monkeys and humans. Therefore, we conducted an event-related fMRI experiment in three macaques and twenty right handed humans. We presented human and monkey dynamic facial expressions (chewing and fear) as well as scrambled versions to both species. We studied lateralization in independently defined face-responsive and face-selective regions by calculating a weighted lateralization index (LIwm) using a bootstrapping method. In order to examine if lateralization in humans is related to language, we performed a separate fMRI experiment in ten human volunteers including a 'speech' expression (one syllable non-word) and its scrambled version. Both within face-responsive and selective regions, we found consistent lateralization for dynamic faces (chewing and fear) versus scrambled versions in the right human posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), but not in FFA nor in ventral temporal cortex. Conversely, in monkeys no consistent pattern of lateralization for dynamic facial expressions was observed. Finally, LIwms based on the contrast between different types of dynamic facial expressions (relative to scrambled versions) revealed left-sided lateralization in human pSTS for speech-related expressions compared to chewing and emotional expressions. To conclude, we found consistent laterality effects in human posterior STS but not in visual cortex of monkeys. Based on our results, it is tempting to speculate that lateralization for dynamic face processing in humans may be driven by left-hemispheric language specialization which may not have been present yet in the common ancestor of human and macaque monkeys. PMID:25463458

De Winter, François-Laurent; Zhu, Qi; Van den Stock, Jan; Nelissen, Koen; Peeters, Ronald; de Gelder, Beatrice; Vanduffel, Wim; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu

2015-02-01

275

Linking lateral interactions in flicker perception to lateral geniculate nucleus cell responses  

PubMed Central

The perception of flicker strength in a circular stimulus can be changed by altering the relative temporal phase of a simultaneously flickering surrounding annulus: perceived flicker is weak when the two stimuli are modulated in-phase and strong when the two are modulated in counter-phase. Previously, we found that responses of single neurons in the monkey lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) to such stimuli resemble the psychophysical data. On the basis of the resemblance in data, it was proposed that the physiological basis for the flicker perception may be present as proximal as the LGN. To strengthen this hypothesis, we simulated the response of an array of LGN neurons, the receptive fields (RFs) of which are covered by the stimulus. The simulations were based upon single-cell recordings in the LGN of anaesthetized marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) using the same stimuli as previously. The measurements were repeated for different spatial displacement between the stimulus and the RF. The responses depended upon the spatial displacement and the relative phase between centre and surround stimuli. The neuronal responses can be adequately described by a difference-of-Gaussians (DOG) model with a time delay in the RF surround. The model responses at different displacements can be considered to be identical to the output of an array of ideal and identical LGN cells with different RF locations. To be able to describe physiological and psychophysical data, obtained at different stimulus contrasts, it was necessary to consider previously described non-linear interactions between the RF centres and surrounds. We applied a spatial peak-to-trough detector with a subsequent saturation and threshold to simulate a simple cortical decision mechanism. The output of this peak-to-trough detector could adequately describe the psychophysical data. PMID:17412770

Kozyrev, Vladislav; Silveira, Luiz Carlos L; Kremers, Jan

2007-01-01

276

Lateral position detection and control for friction stir systems  

SciTech Connect

A friction stir system for processing at least a first workpiece includes a spindle actuator coupled to a rotary tool comprising a rotating member for contacting and processing the first workpiece. A detection system is provided for obtaining information related to a lateral alignment of the rotating member. The detection system comprises at least one sensor for measuring a force experienced by the rotary tool or a parameter related to the force experienced by the rotary tool during processing, wherein the sensor provides sensor signals. A signal processing system is coupled to receive and analyze the sensor signals and determine a lateral alignment of the rotating member relative to a selected lateral position, a selected path, or a direction to decrease a lateral distance relative to the selected lateral position or selected path. In one embodiment, the friction stir system can be embodied as a closed loop tracking system, such as a robot-based tracked friction stir welding (FSW) or friction stir processing (FSP) system.

Fleming, Paul (Boulder, CO); Lammlein, David (Houston, TX); Cook, George E. (Brentwood, TN); Wilkes, Don Mitchell (Nashville, TN); Strauss, Alvin M. (Nashville, TN); Delapp, David (Ashland City, TN); Hartman, Daniel A. (Santa Fe, NM)

2010-12-14

277

Bilateral electrodermal activity: reliability, laterality and individual differences.  

PubMed

A first aim of the present study was to estimate the short- and long-term stability of individual response patterns in bilateral electrodermal activity (EDA). A second aim was to examine the relationship of individual brain laterality to both peak amplitude and peak time based electrodermal asymmetry. Additionally, subjects were presented with verbal and spatial tasks to estimate the balance of left/right asymmetry in cerebral activation at time of testing. Finally, the influence of smoking, coffee consumption and subjective circadian phase (morningness/eveningness, subjects' rise time) on bilateral asymmetry and EDA lability was examined. Results indicated moderate to high short-term reliabilities of EDA laterality coefficients, but insufficient long-term stability. Handedness and conjugate lateral eye movements (CLEMs) were not related to asymmetry of EDA, but a significant interaction between CLEM tendency and smoking/nonsmoking on laterality of both EDA parameters was observed. Amount of coffee consumption was also significantly related to electrodermal asymmetry. Analysis of performance data demonstrated that intraindividual shifts of EDA laterality from one recording session to a following one were associated with corresponding shifts in accuracy of verbal/spatial performance. Degree of subjects' electrodermal lability differentiated significantly between speed and accuracy of performance in both verbal and spatial tasks, and was substantially related to subjects' rise time. PMID:1459877

Schulter, G; Papousek, I

1992-12-01

278

Prevalence and correlates of neuropsychological deficits in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and correlates of neuropsychological impairment in a large cohort (n = 146) of patients with typical, sporadic (non-familial) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. METHODS: A battery of neuropsychological tests was administered to patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis who were attending a monthly outpatient clinic or who were in hospital undergoing diagnostic tests. RESULTS: Comparing individual patient's scores with relevant normative data, 35.6% of the patients displayed evidence of clinically significant impairment, performing at or below the 5th percentile on at least two of the eight neuropsychological measures. Deficits were most common in the areas of problem solving, attention/mental control, continuous visual recognition memory, word generation, and verbal free recall. Impairment was most prevalent in patients with dysarthria (48.5%), but 27.4% of non-dysarthric patients were also impaired. Impaired patients had more severe or widespread symptoms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis than non-impaired patients, and had fewer years of education. CONCLUSION: Neither the conventional wisdom that cognition is intact in nearly all patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, nor more recent suggestions that cognition is often at least mildly impaired seems to be correct. A minority of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis displayed evidence of significant impairment. Dysarthria, low education, and greater severity of motor symptoms were risk factors for impairment. PMID:8937336

Massman, P J; Sims, J; Cooke, N; Haverkamp, L J; Appel, V; Appel, S H

1996-01-01

279

Lateral hyporheic exchange throughout the Mississippi River network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River water circulates vertically through the river bed and laterally through bank sediments. This hyporheic exchange brings river water into contact with microbes in the adjacent sediments, otherwise known as the hyporheic exchange zone. As such, hyporheic zones act as hotspots for the biogeochemical cycling of carbon, metals and nutrients in rivers, and can, for example, influence the export of nitrogen to downstream ecosystems. Here, we calculate the extent and duration of lateral hyporheic exchange throughout the Mississippi River network, using a physics-based numerical model that takes into account the distribution of groundwater baseflow, river discharge, alluvium permeability and river morphology. We find that in our simulations, lateral exchange occurs throughout the network: practically all of the river water that reaches the mouth of the Mississippi River network has circulated through the lateral hyporheic zone. River water residence time in the hyporheic zone ranges from less than an hour in headwaters to over a month in larger channels. Comparison of the residence times that we derive to a previously reported residence time threshold for denitrification suggests that around one quarter of the lateral hyporheic zones in the Mississippi River network favour denitrification, and thus nitrogen loss. Given that river water can circulate many times through the river bank before reaching the river mouth, and can undergo vertical exchange with the river bed, we suggest that our estimates serve as a lower limit for potential nitrogen loss.

Kiel, Brian A.; Bayani Cardenas, M.

2014-06-01

280

Asymmetrical lateral ventricular enlargement in Parkinson’s disease  

PubMed Central

Background A recent case report suggested the presence of asymmetrical lateral ventricular enlargement associated with motor asymmetry in Parkinson’s disease (PD). The current study explored these associations further. Methods Magnetic resonance imaging (3T) scans were obtained on 17 PD and 15 healthy Control subjects at baseline and 12–30 months later. Baseline and longitudinal lateral ventricular volumetric changes were compared between contralateral and ipsilateral ventricles in PD subjects relative to symptom onset side and in Controls relative to their dominant hand. Correlations between changes in ventricular volume and United Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale motor scores (UPDRS-III) while on medication were determined. Results The lateral ventricle contralateral to symptom onset side displayed a faster rate of enlargement compared to the ipsilateral (p=0.004) in PD subjects, with no such asymmetry detected (p=0.312) in Controls. There was a positive correlation between ventricular enlargement and worsening motor function assessed by UPDRS-III scores (r=0.96, p<0.001). Discussion There is asymmetrical lateral ventricular enlargement that is associated with PD motor asymmetry and progression. Further studies are warranted to investigate the underlying mechanism(s), as well as the potential of using volumetric measurements as a marker for PD progression. PMID:19187264

Lewis, Mechelle M.; Smith, Andrew B.; Styner, Martin; Gu, Hongbin; Poole, Roxanne; Zhu, Hongtu.; Li, Yimei; Barbero, Xavier; Gouttard, Sylvain; McKeown, Martin J.; Mailman, Richard B.; Huang, Xuemei

2010-01-01

281

Sécurité de la plus récente classe d’antagonistes des opioïdes durant la grossesse  

PubMed Central

Résumé Question J’ai une patiente dont 6 semaines de grossesse viennent d’être confirmées. Depuis 6 mois, elle suit une thérapie pour une dépendance aux opioïdes à l’aide d’une combinaison de buprénorphine et de naloxone. Devrais-je m’inquiéter qu’elle ait été exposée à cette combinaison de médicaments jusqu’à ce stade de sa grossesse? Faudrait-il que je change sa médication pour de la méthadone maintenant qu’elle est enceinte? Réponse Les données limitées sur l’exposition à la buprénorphine durant la grossesse ne révèlent pas d’augmentation du risque de résultats indésirables chez le nouveau-né. Il y a peu de données sur la naloxone durant la grossesse; par ailleurs, on ne s’attendrait pas à ce que l’administration par voie orale soit associée avec un risque accru de résultats de grossesse défavorables. On conseille aux médecins qui traitent des femmes enceintes ou qui deviennent enceintes et dont l’état est stable en prenant une thérapie à la buprénorphine et naloxone de continuer ce traitement mais d’envisager une transition à une monothérapie à la buprénorphine.

Poon, Shirley; Pupco, Anna; Koren, Gideon; Bozzo, Pina

2014-01-01

282

L’inhalation de corticostéroïdes est-elle sécuritaire durant la grossesse?  

PubMed Central

Résumé Question Une femme atteinte d’asthme léger à modéré, autrement en santé, s’est présentée à ma clinique aujourd’hui après avoir appris qu’elle était enceinte. Elle m’a demandé si elle devait continuer à prendre ses corticostéroïdes en inhalation (CSI) et, dans l’affirmative, s’il pourrait y avoir des risques pour son enfant à naître. Quels seraient vos conseils à ce propos? Réponse Compte tenu des données probantes publiées, les CSI devraient être continués durant toute la grossesse à des doses allant de faibles à modérées et suffisantes pour contrôler les symptômes de l’asthme et prévenir les exacerbations. Il faut toutefois être prudent quand il s’agit de doses de plus de 1 000 µg/j (d’équivalent de béclométasone avec chlorofluorocarbures), quoiqu’il soit actuellement questionnable si de telles doses causeraient des effets indésirables. Il faut renseigner de manière continue les patientes sur l’administration appropriée des CSI et l’observance du traitement, y compris durant le premier trimestre. Un bon contrôle de l’asthme réduira la nécessité de doses plus fortes de CSI et de l’exposition possible à des corticostéroïdes systémiques et diminuera ainsi le risque de résultats périnatals ou de grossesse indésirables.

Smy, Laura; Chan, Alvin C.H.; Bozzo, Pina; Koren, Gideon

2014-01-01

283

Lateral vibration effects in atomic-scale friction  

SciTech Connect

The influence of lateral vibrations on the stick-slip motion of a nanotip elastically pulled on a flat crystal surface is studied by atomic force microscopy measurements on a NaCl(001) surface in ultra-high vacuum. The slippage of the nanotip across the crystal lattice is anticipated at increasing driving amplitude, similarly to what is observed in presence of normal vibrations. This lowers the average friction force, as explained by the Prandtl-Tomlinson model with lateral vibrations superimposed at finite temperature. Nevertheless, the peak values of the lateral force, and the total energy losses, are expected to increase with the excitation amplitude, which may limit the practical relevance of this effect.

Roth, R. [Climate and Environment Physics, Physics Institute, University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Fajardo, O. Y.; Mazo, J. J. [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Meyer, E. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Gnecco, E. [Instituto Madrileño de Estudios Avanzados en Nanociencia, IMDEA Nanociencia, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

2014-02-24

284

Fusion following lateral mass reconstruction in the cervical spine.  

PubMed

OBJECT Recently, aggressive surgical techniques and a push toward en bloc resections of certain tumors have resulted in a need for creative spinal column reconstruction. Iatrogenic instability following these resections requires a thoughtful approach to adequately transfer load-bearing forces from the skull and upper cervical spine to the subaxial spine. METHODS The authors present a series of 7 cases in which lateral mass reconstruction with a cage or fibular strut graft was used to provide load-bearing support, including 1 case of bilateral cage placement. RESULTS The authors discuss the surgical nuances of en bloc resection of high cervical tumors and explain their technique for lateral mass cage placement. Additionally, they provide their rationale for the use of these constructs throughout the craniocervical junction and subaxial spine. CONCLUSIONS Lateral mass reconstruction provides a potential alternative or adjuvant method of restoring the load-bearing capabilities of the cervical spine. PMID:25431961

Clarke, Michelle J; Zadnik, Patricia L; Groves, Mari L; Sciubba, Daniel M; Witham, Timothy F; Bydon, Ali; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul

2015-02-01

285

Measurement of the lateral compressibility of several phospholipid bilayers.  

PubMed Central

Lateral compressibilities of bilayers in multilayer lattices are given for 10 phospholipid preparation:dilauryl-, dimyristoyl-, dipalmitoyl-, distearoyl-, and dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (PC); egg phosphatidylethanolamine (PE); as well as cholesterol-containing bilayers of dipalmitoyl PC or of egg PC. Bilayer deformability is highly nonlinear and does not permit description in terms of a simple modulus. The presence of cholesterol or C=C bonds (dioleoyl PC) increases deformability, but freezing of acyl chains does not cause dramatic stiffening of the bilayer. Lateral compression of dilauryl PC an dimyristoyl PC causes a transition from "melted" to "frozen" acyl chains above the normal transition temperatures. Our measurements do not correspond in any obvious way to lateral compressibilities in monolayers at the air-water interface. PMID:7074192

Lis, L J; McAlister, M; Fuller, N; Rand, R P; Parsegian, V A

1982-01-01

286

Mandibular lateral incisor-canine transposition associated with dental anomalies.  

PubMed

Tooth transposition is a rare positional anomaly that may create many orthodontic problems. Its etiology is an enigma. The occurrence of mandibular canine/lateral incisor transposition is a relatively rare anomaly. Two rooted canine/rotated incisor transposition has not been reported previously in the clinical dental literature. We describe a case with transposition of a mandibular two rooted canine and a lateral incisor with 180 degrees rotation. Possible causes such as trauma and tooth agenesis were absent in this case. Due to the root anomaly, we consider that our case may have a genetic etiology. Although the mandibular lateral incisor and canine were not in their normal anatomic positions, there were no functional or esthetic problems. PMID:16015651

Kansu, Ozden; Avcu, Nihal

2005-09-01

287

Nucleation-mediated lateral growth on foreign substrate  

SciTech Connect

A model is developed to deal with lateral growth of a crystalline layer on a foreign substrate, which is mediated by successive nucleation at the concave corner defined by the meeting of a crystal facet and the substrate. It is demonstrated that due to an imbalance of surface/interface tensions at the concave corner, once the embryo of a nucleus is formed, the crystallographic orientation of the nucleus is spontaneously twisted. By successive nucleation at the concave corner, the crystalline layer develops laterally on the substrate, with its crystallographic orientation continuously rotated. In this way, a regular spatial pattern with well-defined long-range order is eventually achieved. Our model provides a criterion to predict when such an effect becomes observable in the nucleation-mediated lateral growth. The theoretical expectations are consistent with the experimental observations.

Shu, Da-Jun [unknown; Wang, Mu [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Liu, Feng [ORNL; Zhang, Zhenyu [ORNL; Peng, Ru-Wen [unknown; Zhang, Rong [unknown; Ming, Nai-Ben [unknown

2007-01-01

288

Numerical study on lateral movements of cellular flames  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lateral movements of cellular premixed flames for the Lewis number unity or smaller are studied by means of numerical simulation. The numerical model includes compressibility, viscosity, heat conduction, molecular diffusion, body force, chemical reaction, and convection. We superimpose the disturbances with peculiar wavelengths on the plane flames and calculate the evolution of disturbed flames. When the hydrodynamic and body-force instabilities are dominant (the Lewis number is unity), stationary cellular flames are formed. When the diffusive-thermal instability has a great influence (the Lewis number is smaller than unity), laterally moving cellular flames are obtained. The numerical simulation shows that the Lewis number effect and the nonlinear effect of the flame front are the essential factors in the lateral movements of cellular flames.

Kadowaki, Satoshi

1997-09-01

289

[Chemical constituents of lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx].  

PubMed

In order to find the cardiotonic constituents of lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx., the investigation was carried out. Silica gel column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20, medium-pressure MCI and reverse phase ODS column chromatography were used to separate the 90% EtOH extract of the lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx. The structures of the isolated compounds have been identified by chemical properties and spectroscopic analyses. Ten compounds were isolated and their structures were elucidated as benzoic acid-5-hydroxy-2-benzoyl-amino methyl ester (1), honokiol (2), pinoresinol (3), salicylic acid (4), p-hydroxy-cinnamic acid (5), songorine (6), karakoline (7), mesaconitine (8), hypaconitine (9) and 14-benzoylhypaconitine (10), separetely. Compound 1 is a new compound and its structure has been established by NMR, HR-ESI-MS, UV, IR and X-Ray. Compound 2-5 are isolated from the lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx. for the first time. PMID:25322557

Zhang, Jing; Sun, Gui-Bo; Lei, Qi-Fang; Li, Guang-Zhi; Wang, Jun-Chi; Si, Jian-Yong

2014-08-01

290

Alcohols Reduce Lateral Membrane Pressures: Predictions from Molecular Theory  

PubMed Central

We explore the effects of alcohols on fluid lipid bilayers using a molecular theory with a coarse-grained model. We show that the trends predicted from the theory in the changes in area per lipid, alcohol concentration in the bilayer, and area compressibility modulus, as a function of alcohol chain length and of the alcohol concentration in the solvent far from the bilayer, follow those found experimentally. We then use the theory to study the effect of added alcohol on the lateral pressure profile across the membrane, and find that added alcohol reduces the surface tensions at both the headgroup/solvent and headgroup/tailgroup interfaces, as well as the lateral pressures in the headgroup and tailgroup regions. These changes in lateral pressures could affect the conformations of membrane proteins, providing a nonspecific mechanism for the biological effects of alcohols on cells. PMID:16980354

Frischknecht, Amalie L.; Frink, Laura J. Douglas

2006-01-01

291

Vehicle Lateral State Estimation Based on Measured Tyre Forces  

PubMed Central

Future active safety systems need more accurate information about the state of vehicles. This article proposes a method to evaluate the lateral state of a vehicle based on measured tyre forces. The tyre forces of two tyres are estimated from optically measured tyre carcass deflections and transmitted wirelessly to the vehicle body. The two remaining tyres are so-called virtual tyre sensors, the forces of which are calculated from the real tyre sensor estimates. The Kalman filter estimator for lateral vehicle state based on measured tyre forces is presented, together with a simple method to define adaptive measurement error covariance depending on the driving condition of the vehicle. The estimated yaw rate and lateral velocity are compared with the validation sensor measurements. PMID:22291535

Tuononen, Ari J.

2009-01-01

292

Lateral meningocele with asymmetric canal stenosis: A case study  

PubMed Central

Lateral meningocele is a very rare disorder of unknown aetiology typified by the presence of protrusions of the arachnoid and the dura matter extending laterally through inter- or intra-vertebral foramina. We report here the case of a 52-year old male with abnormality of spine when presented with low back pain. The patient did not appear to have any neurological disorder. A computerized tomography (CT) scan was acquired from T12 to mid sacrum with multiplanar reformations. The results showed the presence of a left sided paraspinal cystic lesion projecting from the left neural foramen and extending into the left psoas muscle suggesting a lateral meningocele. In addition, a broad based central and left paracentral disc protrusion was also observed resulting in asymmetric canal stenosis. The patient is on regular follow-up while undergoing palliative treatment.

Mushtaq, Gohar; Hussain, Iqbal; Khan, Jalaluddin A.; Kamal, Mohammad A.

2014-01-01

293

Lateral meningocele with asymmetric canal stenosis: A case study.  

PubMed

Lateral meningocele is a very rare disorder of unknown aetiology typified by the presence of protrusions of the arachnoid and the dura matter extending laterally through inter- or intra-vertebral foramina. We report here the case of a 52-year old male with abnormality of spine when presented with low back pain. The patient did not appear to have any neurological disorder. A computerized tomography (CT) scan was acquired from T12 to mid sacrum with multiplanar reformations. The results showed the presence of a left sided paraspinal cystic lesion projecting from the left neural foramen and extending into the left psoas muscle suggesting a lateral meningocele. In addition, a broad based central and left paracentral disc protrusion was also observed resulting in asymmetric canal stenosis. The patient is on regular follow-up while undergoing palliative treatment. PMID:25561891

Mushtaq, Gohar; Hussain, Iqbal; Khan, Jalaluddin A; Kamal, Mohammad A

2015-01-01

294

DSMC numerical simulation of lateral jet interaction with rarefied atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hybrid Cartesian grids and surface unstructured triangular cells are used in the DSMC method to simulate lateral jet interaction flow with rarefied atmosphere in transitional regime. The self-adaption of uniform Cartesian grid is conducted according to the local density gradient. The parallel DSMC code is used to compute the lateral jet interaction of a three-dimensional flat plate model on low density wind tunnel test conditions. The results of complex flow field structures, surface flow characteristics and separation lengths agree well with experimental data. The supersonic and hypersonic lateral jet interactions with hypersonic rarefied incoming flow on a slender blunt double-cone are investigated. The effects of flight altitudes, free stream velocities and angles of attack on plume-atmosphere interaction flow fields are numerically analyzed. The influences of parameter distributions with uniform /non-uniform nozzle exit on the separation distance and vortex structure near the jet are simulated in detail.

Liang, Jie; Li, Zhihui; Li, Xuguo; Fang, Ming

2014-12-01

295

Nanoparticle embedded enzymes for improved lateral flow sensors.  

PubMed

In this study, combining the nanoparticle embedded sensors with lateral flow assays, a novel strategy for ensuring the quality of signalling in lateral flow assays (LFAs) was developed. A LFA for reactive oxygen species (ROS) is reported that is based on horse radish peroxidase (HRP) which is co-entrapped with Texas Red dextran inside porous polyacrylamide nanoparticles. In this system, enzymes are protected in the porous matrix of polyacrylamide which freely allows the diffusion of the analyte. The sensor is rapid and sensitive for quantification of hydrogen peroxide concentrations. A test solution of hydrogen peroxides was quantified with this novel LFA-ROS sensor to obtain a linear range between 1 and 25 ?M. Nanoparticle embedding of enzymes is proposed here as a general strategy for developing enzyme-based lateral flow assays, eliminating adverse effects associated with biological samples. PMID:23730687

Özalp, Veli C; Zeydanl?, U?ur S; Lunding, Anita; Kavruk, Murat; Öz, M Tufan; Eyido?an, Füsun; Olsen, Lars F; Öktem, Hüseyin A

2013-08-01

296

Laparoscopic repair of recurrent lateral enterocele and rectocele.  

PubMed

It is difficult to determine what types of procedures should be attempted in patients who have recurrent prolapse. We present a case of recurrent lateral enterocele and rectocele after the patient had undergone multiple surgeries for pelvic organ prolapse (POP), including a vaginal hysterectomy, bladder-neck suspension, anterior colporrhaphy, site-specific rectocele repair, apical mesh implant, iliococcygeus vault suspension, and transobturator suburethral sling procedure. With recurrence, the patient underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic sacral colpopexy, tension-free vaginal tape transobturator sling insertion, rectocele repair, and perineorrhaphy with cystoscopy. She then presented with defecatory outlet obstruction and constipation and subsequently was treated with a stapled transanal rectal resection. The patient returned with continued defecatory dysfunction and a recurrent lateral enterocele and rectocele. The recurrence was treated laparoscopically using a lightweight polypropylene mesh. The postoperative period was uneventful. Two years later, the patient reported decreased defecatory symptoms and no further symptomatic prolapse. PMID:25224146

Solomon, Ellen R; Muffly, Tyler M; Hull, Tracy; Paraiso, Marie Fidela R

2015-01-01

297

LATER models of neural decision behavior in choice tasks  

PubMed Central

Reaction time has been increasingly used over the last few decades to provide information on neural decision processes: it is a direct reflection of decision time. Saccades provide an excellent paradigm for this because many of them can be made in a very short time and the underlying neural pathways are relatively well-known. LATER (linear approach to threshold with ergodic rate) is a model originally devised to explain reaction time distributions in simple decision tasks. Recently, however it is being extended to increasingly more advanced tasks, including those with decision errors and those requiring voluntary control such as the antisaccade task and those where sequential decisions are required. The strength of this modeling approach lies in its detailed, quantitative predictions of behavior, yet LATER models still retain their conceptual simplicity that made LATER initially successful in explaining reaction times in simple decision tasks. PMID:25202242

Noorani, Imran

2014-01-01

298

A Rare Association of Compound Odontome with Missing Lateral Incisor  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Odontomas are a common type of odontogenic tumor, usually asymptomatic and mostly detected on routine radiographic examination. An 11-years-old male child with the chief complaint of mobility of deciduous dentition in the upper front region was diagnosed with an odontome with an impacted central incisor, missing lateral incisor and retained deciduous incisors following radiographic analysis. Histopathology revealed a compound odontoma following a conservative enucleation. Odontomas associated with primary dentition, impacted teeth and erupting into oral cavity have been described, but the association with a missing lateral incisor makes this an interesting case report. How to cite this article: Nammalwar RB, Moses J. A Rare Association of Compound Odontome with Missing Lateral Incisor. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(1):50-53. PMID:25206239

Moses, Joyson

2014-01-01

299

On the Decrease in Lateral Mobility of Phospholipids by Sugars  

PubMed Central

Upon cold and drought stress, sucrose and trehalose protect membrane structures from fusion and leakage. Similarly, these sugars protect membrane proteins from inactivation during dehydration. We studied the interactions between sugars and phospholipid membranes in giant unilamellar vesicles with the fluorescent lipid analog 3,3?-dioctadecyloxacarbocyanine perchlorate incorporated. Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, it was found that sucrose decreased the lateral mobility of phospholipids in the fully rehydrated, liquid crystalline membrane more than other sugars did, including trehalose. To describe the nature of the difference in the interaction of phospholipids with sucrose and trehalose, atomistic molecular dynamics studies were performed. Simulations up to 100 ns showed that sucrose interacted with more phospholipid headgroups simultaneously than trehalose, resulting in a larger decrease of the lateral mobility. Using coarse-grained molecular dynamics, we show that this increase in interactions can lead to a relatively large decrease in lateral phospholipid mobility. PMID:17142271

van den Bogaart, Geert; Hermans, Nicolaas; Krasnikov, Victor; de Vries, Alex H.; Poolman, Bert

2007-01-01

300

The role of lateral pharyngoplasty in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown that lateral pharyngoplasty is an effective procedure to correct obstructive sleep apnea. The objective of the paper was to evaluate factors contributing to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and identify the different severity categories of obstructive sleep apnea that could benefit from lateral pharyngoplasty. We included 60 patients undergoing uvulopalatopharyngoplasty with or without lateral pharyngoplasty from December 1, 2008 to May 31, 2012. Six who did not complete the post-operative survey were excluded. 54 participants were assigned alternatively to either uvulopalatopharyngoplasty alone (control group, n = 29) or to uvulopalatopharyngoplasty with lateral pharyngoplasty (intervention group, n = 25). The reduction of apnea-hypoxia index in the intervention group (49.3 %) was higher than it was in the control group (30.4 %), but the average value was not statistically significant (p = 0.088). Only patients with moderate obstructive sleep apnea in the intervention group achieved a significant reduction of apnea-hypoxia index (30.7 vs. 10.8 %; p = 0.020). Factors such as body mass index, nadir/mean SpO2, snoring index, Epworth sleepiness scale and periodic limb movement index did not change significantly following lateral pharyngoplasty. To evaluate patients' upper airway anatomy, we employed cephalometry, and found that the retroglossal space played a critical role in severe obstructive sleep apnea. Our study showed that only patients in the moderate category can be benefited from adding lateral pharyngoplasty to uvulopalatopharyngoplasty; however, patients in the mild or severe category did not benefit from adding this procedure. This information is vital when considering surgery for patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Level of evidence Prospective cohort study, Level II. PMID:25214171

Chi, Jessie Chao-Yun; Chiang, Rayleigh Ping-Ying; Chou, Tse-Yu; Shu, Chih-Hung; Shiao, An-Suey; Lin, Chia-Mo

2015-02-01

301

Clinical characteristics of adolescents later hospitalized for schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Intellectual and behavioral abnormalities, non-psychotic psychiatric disorders, and drug abuse are sometimes present in adolescents who later develop schizophrenia. We followed a population-based cohort of adolescents with baseline assessments of intellectual and behavioral functioning, non-psychotic psychiatric disorders and drug abuse, and ascertained future hospitalization for schizophrenia. Results of the medical and mental health assessments on 16- to 17-year-old male adolescents screened by the Israeli Draft Board, were cross-linked with the National Psychiatric Hospitalization Case Registry, which contains data on all psychiatric hospitalizations in the country. Male adolescents who were later hospitalized for schizophrenia had significantly poorer test scores on all measures in comparison with adolescents not reported to the Psychiatric Registry, the magnitude of the differences was 0.3-0.5 standard deviation (SD). Adolescents (1.03%) of assigned a non-psychotic psychiatric diagnosis, compared to of the adolescents without any psychiatric diagnosis (0.23%), were later hospitalized for schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia (26.8%), compared to only 7.4% in the general population of adolescents, had been assigned a non-psychotic psychiatric diagnosis in adolescence (overall OR = 4.5, 95% CI = 3.6-5.6), ranging from OR = 21.5, (<2 >95% CI = 12.6-36.6) for schizophrenia-spectrum personality disorders to OR = 3.6 (<2 >95% CI = 2.1-6.2) for neurosis. The prevalence of self-reported drug abuse was higher in adolescents later hospitalized for schizophrenia (12.4%), compared to the prevalence of drug abuse in adolescents not later hospitalized (5.9%); adjusted RR = 2.033, 95% CI = 1.322-3.126. These results reflect the relatively common finding of impaired intellectual and behavioral functioning, the presence of non-psychotic psychiatric disorders, and drug abuse, in adolescents later hospitalized for schizophrenia, together with the relatively low power of these disorders in predicting schizophrenia. PMID:12457392

Weiser, Mark; Knobler, Haim Y; Noy, Shlomo; Kaplan, Zeev

2002-12-01

302

Controlled lateral manipulation of molecules on insulating films by STM.  

PubMed

On metallic and semiconductor surfaces functional nanostructures can be built with atomic scale precision using the tip of an atomic force microscope/scanning tunneling microscope. In contrast, controlled lateral manipulation on insulators has not been reported. The traditional pushing and pulling based manipulation methods cannot be used for molecules adsorbed on insulating films because of the unfavorable ratio between diffusion barrier and desorption energy. Here, we demonstrate that molecules adsorbed on insulating films can be laterally manipulated in a controlled way by injecting inelastically tunneling electrons at well-defined positions in a molecule. The technique was successfully applied to several different molecules. PMID:22250949

Swart, Ingmar; Sonnleitner, Tobias; Niedenführ, Judith; Repp, Jascha

2012-02-01

303

Resume and analysis of NACA lateral control research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of the principal results of recent NACA lateral control research is made by utilizing the experience and progress gained during the course of the investigation. Two things are considered of primary importance in judging the effectiveness of different control devices: the (calculated) banking and yawing motion of a typical small airplane caused by a deflection of the control, and the stick force required to produce this deflection. The report includes a table in which a number of different lateral control devices are compared on these bases.

Weick, Fred E; Jones, Robert T

1937-01-01

304

Lateral epitaxial overgrowth of silicon over recessed oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technique, lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO), which has applications in VSLI and which provides material for 3-D circuits is described. It is shown that LEO of silicon in a recessed oxide structure results in a lateral to vertical growth ratio greater than five. The technique is particularly applicable if the application of SOI is for dielectric isolation and radiation hardness. Initial experiments with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry show that LEO-SOI films obtained by this technique have very good crystallinity.

Jayadev, T. S.; Okazaki, E.; Petersen, H.; Millman, M.

1985-04-01

305

Pathogenic Lrrk2 substitutions and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Pathogenic Lrrk2 Y1699C substitution observed in a large German-Canadian kindred presents a neurodegenerative disorder that is reminiscent of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinsonism-Dementia Complex. We screened 54 patients with ALS for seven known Lrrk2 pathogenic substitutions in the Roc, COR and kinase domains. No mutations were observed suggesting that this locus does not have a major influence on the ALS phenotype. However we can not rule out other genetic variation at the LRRK2 locus may play a role in parkinsonian disorders with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and may be considered candidates for genetic screening. PMID:16865326

Whittle, A J; Ross, O A; Naini, A; Gordon, P; Mistumoto, H; Dächsel, J C; Stone, J T; Wszolek, Z K; Farrer, M J; Przedborski, S

2007-03-01

306

Non-uniform lateral current distribution in quantum cascade lasers.  

PubMed

Non-uniform lateral current distribution in quantum cascade (QC) lasers is investigated, as a result of stimulated-optical-emission-assisted electron transport, the rate of which depends on the local photon density and is comparable to the longitudinal optical (LO) phonon scattering rate. A microscopic model based on rate equations is built to study the self-consistent process of interaction between local electrons and photons in QC lasers. The non-uniform distribution of lateral current and the corresponding spatial hole burning are simulated from this model. Moreover, multi-transverse-mode operation in QC lasers is also investigated. PMID:24663949

Huang, Xue; Dikmelik, Yamac; Gmachl, Claire

2014-03-10

307

Negative quantum capacitance in graphene nanoribbons with lateral gates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present numerical simulations of the capacitive coupling between graphene nanoribbons of various widths and gate electrodes in different configurations. We compare the influence of lateral metallic or graphene side gate structures on the overall back gate capacitive coupling. Most interestingly, we find a complex interplay between quantum capacitance effects in the graphene nanoribbon and the lateral graphene side gates, giving rise to an unconventional negative quantum capacitance. The emerging nonlinear capacitive couplings are investigated in detail. The experimentally relevant relative lever arm, the ratio between the coupling of the different gate structures, is discussed.

Reiter, R.; Derra, U.; Birner, S.; Terrés, B.; Libisch, F.; Burgdörfer, J.; Stampfer, C.

2014-03-01

308

An Improved Method of Manufacturing Corrugated Boxes: Lateral Corrugator  

SciTech Connect

Paper physicists have known that a corrugated box constructed from outer liner sheets having a predominant fiber orientation aligned with the corrugating flute direction would have higher stiffness and crush resistance (per unit of fiber weight) than the conventional box construction. Such increased performance per unit of fiber weight could result in fiber reduction and energy savings for boxes having equivalent performance specifications. The goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a commercially viable lateral corrugating process. This included designing and building a pilot lateral corrugator, testing and evaluating pilot machine made boxes, and developing a strategy for commercialization.

Frank C. Murray Ph.D.; , Roman Popil Ph.D.; Michael Shaepe (formerly with IPST, now at Cargill. Inc)

2008-12-18

309

Minimally invasive lateral approach to the thoracolumbar junction for corpectomy.  

PubMed

Diseases that affect the thoracolumbar junction present a unique challenge to the spine surgeon. Various techniques have been described to treat this clinical entity from the anterior, lateral, or posterior direction. These can be associated with significant morbidity due to extensive tissue dissection, blood loss, and postoperative pain leading to a lengthy recovery. The use of a tubular retractor allows the surgeon to minimize tissue dissection and potentially reduce approach-related morbidity while obviating the need for an approach surgeon for exposure. The surgical technique of a minimally invasive lateral approach to the thoracolumbar junction for corpectomy is described in detail and two illustrative patients are presented. PMID:23830585

Adkins, Dana E; Sandhu, Faheem A; Voyadzis, Jean-Marc

2013-09-01

310

Small-molecule-mediated stabilization of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked superoxide  

E-print Network

Small-molecule-mediated stabilization of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked superoxide, and approved January 18, 2005 (received for review November 5, 2004) Familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis screening docking thermopeutics thermodynamics Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or Lou Gehrig's disease

Walz, Thomas

311

38 CFR 3.318 - Presumptive service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. 3.318 Section...service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (a) Except as provided...section, the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis manifested at any...

2012-07-01

312

38 CFR 3.318 - Presumptive service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. 3.318 Section...service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (a) Except as provided...section, the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis manifested at any...

2010-07-01

313

38 CFR 3.318 - Presumptive service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. 3.318 Section...service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (a) Except as provided...section, the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis manifested at any...

2013-07-01

314

38 CFR 3.318 - Presumptive service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. 3.318 Section...service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (a) Except as provided...section, the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis manifested at any...

2014-07-01

315

Proteasome Activation is a Mechanism for Pyrazolone Small Molecules Displaying Therapeutic Potential in Amyotrophic Lateral  

E-print Network

Potential in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Paul C. Trippier,, Kevin Tianmeng Zhao, Susan G. Fox, Isaac T. KEYWORDS: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Target identification, Pyrazolone, Proteasome activator, Neurodegeneration; Drug Discovery Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig's disease

Morimoto, Richard

316

Characterization of Motor Unit Behavior in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

E-print Network

Characterization of Motor Unit Behavior in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Abstract neuron dominant forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). EMG recordings were gathered during sclerosis; motor units; motor unit firing rate; motor unit decomposition I. INTRODUCTION Amyotrophic lateral

Clancy, Ted

317

38 CFR 3.318 - Presumptive service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. 3.318 Section...service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (a) Except as provided...section, the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis manifested at any...

2011-07-01

318

Analytical model for silicon-on-insulator lateral high-voltage devices using variation of lateral thickness technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the variation of lateral thickness (VLT) technique has been proposed as an effective lateral voltage-sustaining technology. However, no analytical model has been reported for exploring the physical mechanism quantitatively. By solving the two-dimensional (2D) Poisson equation, an analytical model for a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) device with a VLT structure is proposed in this paper to optimize the surface potential and electric field distribution of the VLT SOI device. The lateral and vertical breakdown voltages are formulized to quantify the breakdown characteristic. The drift doping concentration range is derived to maximize the breakdown voltage. This model is used to investigate the electric field distribution and breakdown voltage of the VLT SOI device with various parameters. The validity of the proposed model is verified by the fair agreement between the analytical and numerical results.

Yao, Jiafei; Guo, Yufeng; Li, Man; Huang, Xiaofeng; Lin, Hong; Ji, Xincun; Xu, Yue

2015-02-01

319

Ligand-dependent Notch signaling strength orchestrates lateral induction and lateral inhibition in the developing inner ear.  

PubMed

During inner ear development, Notch exhibits two modes of operation: lateral induction, which is associated with prosensory specification, and lateral inhibition, which is involved in hair cell determination. These mechanisms depend respectively on two different ligands, jagged 1 (Jag1) and delta 1 (Dl1), that rely on a common signaling cascade initiated after Notch activation. In the chicken otocyst, expression of Jag1 and the Notch target Hey1 correlates well with lateral induction, whereas both Jag1 and Dl1 are expressed during lateral inhibition, as are Notch targets Hey1 and Hes5. Here, we show that Jag1 drives lower levels of Notch activity than Dl1, which results in the differential expression of Hey1 and Hes5. In addition, Jag1 interferes with the ability of Dl1 to elicit high levels of Notch activity. Modeling the sensory epithelium when the two ligands are expressed together shows that ligand regulation, differential signaling strength and ligand competition are crucial to allow the two modes of operation and for establishing the alternate pattern of hair cells and supporting cells. Jag1, while driving lateral induction on its own, facilitates patterning by lateral inhibition in the presence of Dl1. This novel behavior emerges from Jag1 acting as a competitive inhibitor of Dl1 for Notch signaling. Both modeling and experiments show that hair cell patterning is very robust. The model suggests that autoactivation of proneural factor Atoh1, upstream of Dl1, is a fundamental component for robustness. The results stress the importance of the levels of Notch signaling and ligand competition for Notch function. PMID:24821984

Petrovic, Jelena; Formosa-Jordan, Pau; Luna-Escalante, Juan C; Abelló, Gina; Ibañes, Marta; Neves, Joana; Giraldez, Fernando

2014-06-01

320

Lateral sphenoid sinus recess cerebrospinal fluid leak: a case series.  

PubMed

The lateral recess of the sphenoid sinus is one of the most common sites of meningocele and spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak. Despite the availability of several techniques for closure of skull base defects occurring in this location, recurrence still poses a major challenge. This report reviews the experience of surgical repair of lateral sphenoid sinus recess CSF leak at a tertiary referral center and provides a brief discussion of this rare lesion. Nine surgeries were performed for six cases of spontaneous lateral sphenoid sinus recess CSF leak (two revisions and one repair of a new defect). Two patients presented with intracranial hypertension (ICH) and four with meningocele or meningoencephalocele. The transpterygoid approach was used in two procedures. A multilayer graft was used in seven cases and a nasoseptal flap in two. Three patients received lumbar or ventricular shunts, and one received acetazolamide for ICH management. Two minor complications were recorded, and the overall surgical success rate was 78 %. We conclude that nasoseptal flaps are a valid option for repair of recurrent CSF leaks, particularly in the lateral sphenoid sinus recess. Furthermore, identification and correction of ICH plays an essential role in the success of treatment in this patient population. PMID:24748381

Melo, Nelson Almeida d'Ávila; Borges, Bruno Barros Pinto; Magliarelli Filho, Pedro Augusto; Godoy, Maria Dantas Costa Lima; Pereira, Larissa Vilela; Pinna, Fabio de Rezende; Voegels, Richard Louis

2014-09-01

321

Restricted Lateral Diffusion of Luteinizing Hormone Receptors in Membrane Microdomains*  

PubMed Central

Single particle tracking was used to evaluate lateral motions of individual FLAG-tagged human luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors expressed on CHO cells and native LH receptors on both KGN human granulosa-derived tumor cells and M17 human neuroblastoma cells before and after exposure to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Compared with LH receptors on untreated cells, LH receptors on cells treated with 100 nm hCG exhibit restricted lateral diffusion and are confined in small, nanometer-scale, membrane compartments. Similar to LH receptors labeled with Au-hCG, LH receptors labeled with gold-deglycosylated hCG, an hCG antagonist, also exhibit restricted lateral diffusion and are confined in nanoscale membrane compartments on KGN cells treated with 100 nm hCG. LH receptor point mutants lacking potential palmitoylation sites remain in large compartments despite treatment with 100 nm hCG as do LH receptors on cells treated with cytochalasin D. Finally, both polarization homotransfer fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging and photon counting histogram analysis indicate that treatment with hCG induces aggregation of YFP-coupled LH receptors stably expressed on CHO cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate that binding of hCG induces aggregation of LH receptors within nanoscale, cell surface membrane compartments, that hCG binding also affects the lateral motions of antagonist binding LH receptors, and that receptor surface densities must be considered in evaluating the extent of hormone-dependent receptor aggregation. PMID:21690095

Wolf-Ringwall, Amber L.; Winter, Peter W.; Liu, Jingjing; Van Orden, Alan K.; Roess, Deborah A.; Barisas, B. George

2011-01-01

322

Some Recent Controversies in the Study of Later Greek Rhetoric  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE GREEKS OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE produced no equal to Cicero or Quintilian: among their extensive writings there is no profound philosophical examination of political rhetoric and no comprehensive account of rhetorical education based on a lifetime of teaching. But the numerous later Greek rhetorical treatises, dry reading as they may seem, sometimes even poorly written, have considerable significance for

George Alexander Kennedy

2003-01-01

323

Considering build-later for major transit investments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a theoretical model of benefit–cost analysis to consider the timing of major transit investments. The model takes into account the net benefits of a project, the variation of net benefits with project age and investment timing, capital cost and its growth, and the discount rate. Three questions are examined: (1) when might build-later be evaluated? (2) how

Xuehao Chu; Steven E. Polzin

1998-01-01

324

Molecular biology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: insights from genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a paralytic disorder caused by motor neuron degeneration. Mutations in more than 50 human genes cause diverse types of motor neuron pathology. Moreover, defects in five Mendelian genes lead to motor neuron disease, with two mutations reproducing the ALS phenotype. Analyses of these genetic effects have generated new insights into the diverse molecular pathways involved

Piera Pasinelli; Robert H. Brown

2006-01-01

325

Lateral approach to the hook of hamate for its fracture.  

PubMed

We have recently experienced one case of the fracture of the hook of the hamate that was diagnosed only by the CT scan. As a surgical approach, lateral approach to the hook of the hamate for its fracture was utilized. We found that this approach was safe, easy and quick. PMID:3958528

Mizuseki, T; Ikuta, Y; Murakami, T; Watari, S

1986-02-01

326

Lateral Approach to the Hook of Hamate for its Fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently experienced one case of the fracture of the hook of the hamate that was diagnosed only by the CT scan. As a surgical approach, lateral approach to the hook of the hamate for its fracture was utilized. We found that this approach was safe, easy and quick.

TAKAYA MIZUSEKI; YOSHIKAZU IKUTA; TSUNEJI MURAKAMI; SADAO WATARI

1986-01-01

327

Young-onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: historical and other observations.  

PubMed

There is a wide range of age at initial symptom onset in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis despite a mean age of 65 years in population-based studies. 'Young-onset' amyotrophic lateral sclerosis typically refers to patients younger than ?45 years and accounts for about 10% of cases in contemporary series. A review of published cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis from 1850 to 1950 revealed a far higher proportion of cases with young onset (>50%), with a steady decline to the contemporary figure. It is possible that this is not solely explained by increases in life expectancy. While there is still a rich variation in phenotypes among cases of young-onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, bulbar onset was found to be significantly under-represented in analysis of a large patient database, with implications for age-related vulnerabilities pertaining to focality of symptom onset. The timing of initiating pathological processes in relation to the emergence of symptoms is discussed, including the potential role of very early development and the interaction of epigenetic and environmental factors. PMID:22661746

Turner, Martin R; Barnwell, Jessica; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Eisen, Andrew

2012-09-01

328

Compartmentalization of single muscle units in cat lateral gastrocnemius  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of muscle fibers in single muscle units in cat lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscle was analyzed using the method of glycogen depletion. Single, type FF motor units in LG were identified by stimulation of dissected ventral rootlets and then activated to produce depletion of glycogen in their innervated muscle fibers. Serial histological sections were made of the entire triceps

A. W. English

1984-01-01

329

Incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.  

PubMed

There is a lack of prospective and population based epidemiological data on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Germany to date. The ALS registry Rhineland-Palatinate was established to investigate the incidence, course and phenotypic variety of ALS in this south-west German state of about 4 million inhabitants. During the period 2010-2011, consecutive incident patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis according to the revised El Escorial criteria were included and followed up using multiple overlapping sources of case ascertainment. One hundred and forty-six patients were enrolled. The annual crude incidence for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Rhineland-Palatinate was 1.8/100,000 person-years (95% CI 1.6-2.2). Male to female ratio was 1.1:1. Incidence increased with age reaching a peak in the 70-74 years age group and declined thereafter. Late-onset ALS (? 75 years) was found in 14.4% of patients. About 32% of patients presented with bulbar onset. In conclusion, incidence rate of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Rhineland-Palatinate is within the range of other prospective population based registers in Europe and North America. Gender ratio is nearly balanced. PMID:24571628

Wolf, Joachim; Wöhrle, Johannes C; Palm, Frederick; Nix, Wilfred A; Maschke, Matthias; Safer, Anton; Becher, Heiko; Grau, Armin J

2014-06-01

330

Global Warming 20 Years Later: Tipping Points Near  

E-print Network

Global Warming 20 Years Later: Tipping Points Near Jim Hansen 23 June 2008 National Press Club, and House Select Committee on Energy Independence & Global Warming Washington, DC #12;1988 Testimony Has Big Effects Did Not Emphasize That Global Warming Enhances Both Extremes of Water Cycle - More

Hansen, James E.

331

Transitions into and out of Cohabitation in Later Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cohabitation among adults over age 50 is rising rapidly, more than doubling from 1.2 million in 2000 to 2.75 million in 2010. A small literature provides a descriptive portrait of older cohabitors, but no study has investigated transitions into and out of cohabitation during later life. Drawing on demographic and life course perspectives, the…

Brown, Susan L.; Bulanda, Jennifer Roebuck; Lee, Gary R.

2012-01-01

332

Styling in a Language Learned Later in Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyses the styles of English produced by an adult migrant who started to speak the language later in life, and it approaches them from the perspective of quantitative style-shifting and discursive stylization. After defining style and the procedures needed to justify the term "L2," the study describes the focal…

Rampton, Ben

2013-01-01

333

The joint development of hemispheric lateralization for words and faces.  

PubMed

Consistent with long-standing findings from behavioral studies, neuroimaging investigations have identified a region of the inferior temporal cortex that, in adults, shows greater face selectivity in the right than left hemisphere and, conversely, a region that shows greater word selectivity in the left than right hemisphere. What has not been determined is how this pattern of mature hemispheric specialization emerges over the course of development. The present study examines the hemispheric superiority for faces and words in children, young adolescents and adults in a discrimination task in which stimuli are presented briefly in either hemifield. Whereas adults showed the expected left and right visual field superiority for face and word discrimination, respectively, the young adolescents demonstrated only the right-field superiority for words and no field superiority for faces. Although the children's overall accuracy was lower than that of the older groups, like the young adolescents, they exhibited a right visual field superiority for words but no field superiority for faces. Interestingly, the emergence of face lateralization was correlated with reading competence, measured on an independent standardized test, after regressing out age, quantitative reasoning scores, and face discrimination accuracy. Taken together, these findings suggest that the hemispheric organization of face and word recognition do not develop independently and that word lateralization, which emerges earlier, may drive later face lateralization. A theoretical account in which competition for visual representations unfolds over the course of development is proposed to account for the findings. PMID:22866684

Dundas, Eva M; Plaut, David C; Behrmann, Marlene

2013-05-01

334

Modeling, Simulation, and Parameter Estimation of Lateral Spacecraft Fuel Slosh  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Predicting the effect of fuel slosh on a spacecraft and/or launch vehicle attitude control system is a very important and a challenging task. Whether the spacecraft is under spinning or lateral moving conditions, the dynamic effect of the fuel slosh will help determine whether the spacecraft will remain on its chosen trajectory. There are three categories of slosh that can be caused by launch vehicle and/or spacecraft maneuvers when the fuel is in the presence of an acceleration field. These include bulk fluid motion, subsurface wave motion, and free surface slosh. Each of these slosh types have a periodic component that is defined by either a spinning or lateral motion. For spinning spacecraft, all three types of slosh can play a major role in determining stability. Bulk fluid motion and free surface slosh can affect the lateral slosh characteristics. For either condition, the possibility for an unpredicted coupled resonance between the spacecraft and its on board fuel can have mission threatening affects. This on-going research effort aims at improving the accuracy and efficiency of modeling techniques used to predict these types of lateral fluid motions. In particular, efforts will focus on analyzing the effects of viscoelastic diaphragms on slosh dynamics.

Chatman, Yadira; Gangadharan, Sathya; Marsell, Brandon; Schlee, Keith; Sudermann, James; Walker, Charles; Ristow, James

2008-01-01

335

Using Monomolecular Films to Characterize Lipid Lateral Interactions  

PubMed Central

Summary Membrane lipids are structurally diverse in ways that far exceed the role envisioned by Singer and Nicholson of simply providing a fluid bilayer matrix in which proteins reside. Current models of lipid organization in membranes postulate that lipid structural diversity enables nonrandom lipid mixing in each leaflet of the bilayer, resulting in regions with special physical and functional properties, i.e., microdomains. Central to understanding the tendencies of membrane lipids to mix nonrandomly in biomembranes is the identification and evaluation of structural features that control membrane lipid lateral mixing interactions in simple model membranes. The surface balance provides a means to evaluate the lateral interactions among different lipids at a most fundamental level—mixed in binary/ternary combinations that self-assemble at the air–water interface as monomolecular films, i.e., monolayers. Analysis of surface pressure and interfacial potential as a function of average cross-sectional molecular area provide insights into hydrocarbon chain ordering, lateral compressibility/elasticity, and dipole effects under various conditions including those that approximate one leaflet of a bilayer. Although elegantly simple in principle, effective use of the surface balance requires proper attention to various experimental parameters, which are described herein. Adequate attention to these experimental parameters ensures that meaningful insights are obtained into the lipid lateral interactions and enables lipid monolayers to serve as a basic platform for use with other investigative approaches. PMID:18214373

Brown, Rhoderick E.; Brockman, Howard L.

2008-01-01

336

National Motives Predict Psychogenic Death Rates 25 Years Later  

Microsoft Academic Search

Achievement motivation scores derived from analyses of content of children's stories from 16 countries predicted death rates due to ulcers and hypertension, and power motivation scores predicted death rates due to murder, suicide, and cirrhosis of the liver 25 years later.

S. A. Rudin

1968-01-01

337

5. Photocopy of site plan drawing, with later amendments dhowing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Photocopy of site plan drawing, with later amendments dhowing original USFS building shceduled for removal, Annex moved to present location, and addition to Warehouse (from the U.S. Forest Service, Wenatchee National Forest) Date Unkown - U.S. Forest Service Chelan Ranger Station, 428 West Woodin Avenue, Chelan, Chelan County, WA

338

Numerical modelling of brick masonry panels subject to lateral loadings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A homogenization technique has been introduced to investigate the elastic-brittle behaviour of masonry panels subject to incremental lateral loading. For modelling the elastic behaviour of masonry, two successive steps of homogenization are used to obtain equivalent elastic properties. In the first step, brick units are homogenized with perpend joints to give equivalent elastic properties of a stacked system. This stacked

J. S. Lee; G. N. Pande; J. Middleton; B. Kralj

1996-01-01

339

Original Research Dynamics of Lateral Ventricle and Cerebrospinal  

E-print Network

, in turn, can be used to predict intracranial pressure (ICP) dynamics in normal and hydrocephalic brainsOriginal Research Dynamics of Lateral Ventricle and Cerebrospinal Fluid in Normal and Hydrocephalic (CSF) hydro- dynamics in normal subjects and hydrocephalic patients. Materials and Methods: Velocity

Linninger, Andreas A.

340

Severe hypoxia impairs lateralization in a marine teleost fish.  

PubMed

In intertidal environments, the recurring hypoxic condition at low tide is one of the main factors affecting fish behaviour, causing broad effects on ecological interactions. We assessed the effects of hypoxia on lateralization (e.g. the tendency to turn left or right), a behaviour related to brain functional asymmetry, which is thought to play a key role in several life history aspects of fish. Using staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus), a benthic fish that typically inhabits the intertidal zone, we found that hypoxia affects behavioural lateralization at the population level. On average, staghorn sculpins showed a distinct preference for right turns under normoxic conditions (>90% oxygen saturation), but an equal probability of turning right or left after exposure to hypoxia for 2 h (20% oxygen saturation). The specific turning preference observed in the staghorn sculpin control population is likely to have an adaptive value, for example in predator-prey interactions by enhancing attack success or survival from predatory attacks. Therefore the alteration of lateralization expressed by staghorn sculpins under hypoxic conditions may have far-reaching implications for species ecology and trophic interactions. Moreover, our work raises the need to study this effect in other species, in which a hypoxia-driven disruption of lateralization could affect a wider range of behaviours, such as social interactions and schooling. PMID:25359933

Lucon-Xiccato, Tyrone; Nati, Julie J H; Blasco, Felipe Rocco; Johansen, Jacob L; Steffensen, John F; Domenici, Paolo

2014-12-01

341

Body tides of a convecting, laterally heterogeneous, and aspherical Earth  

E-print Network

Body tides of a convecting, laterally heterogeneous, and aspherical Earth Laurent Me´tivier1 November 2008. [1] Precise knowledge of Earth's body tides is crucial for correcting geodetic positioning, body tides are generally computed assuming a radially (or elliptically) stratified Earth. However

Conrad, Clint

342

Beyond Subjection: Notes on the Later Foucault and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues against the doxa that Foucault's analysis of education inevitably undermines self-originating ethical intention on the part of teachers or students. By attending to Foucault's lesser known, later work--in particular, the notion of "biopower" and the deepened level of materiality it entails--the article shows how the earlier…

Leask, Ian

2012-01-01

343

Augmented Reality for Later Playback of Videos Project Proposal  

E-print Network

Abstract: Augmented reality's popularity has recently exploded since mobile phones have had the capability 1 Augmented Reality for Later Playback of Videos Project Proposal Jordan Stratton a method of allowing the user to take a video and choose whether or not to have augmented reality on while

Miles, Will

344

Paper No. : 0317 LATERAL SPREADING DURING CENTRIFUGE MODEL  

E-print Network

Paper No. : 0317 LATERAL SPREADING DURING CENTRIFUGE MODEL EARTHQUAKES Stuart K. Haigh1 , S sand marker lines within centrifuge models. A series of dynamic centrifuge model tests have been these free boundaries from previous earthquakes. Dynamic centrifuge modelling was carried out using sloping

Haigh, Stuart

345

17. Photocopy of drawing, Erection Plan of Top Lateral Bracing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. Photocopy of drawing, Erection Plan of Top Lateral Bracing of Bridge at South Norwalk for the N.Y., N.H. and H.R.R., dated June 12, 1895. Original on file with Metro North Commuter Railroad. - South Norwalk Railroad Bridge, South Main & Washington Streets, Norwalk, Fairfield County, CT

346

Tuning the lateral mobility of thin block copolymer films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer mobility in confined environments is of both theoretical and practical interest. The controlled formation and characterization of systems where such effects can be studied remain active areas of investigation. In this work, we created ultrathin (< 50 nm) supported films of amphiphilic polybutylene-poly(ethylene) oxide diblock copolymers, through Langmuir-Blodgett and Langmuir-Schaefer techniques. To adjust the lateral mobility of these ultrathin films, short polyisobutylene homopolymer was introduced during the film assembly process. Preliminary fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) results show that the lateral mobility of the block copolymers is proportional to the logarithm of homopolymer concentration. The mobility can be varied by up to a factor of 8 with as little as 1 mol% of homopolymer. The role of the added homopolymer on the block copolymer lateral mobility is likely to be related with several features such as chain entanglements, interfacial constraints, and interlayer friction. By varying the concentration and the molecular weight of the homopolymer introduced into the films, we attempt to explain the underlying physical mechanisms that are responsible for changes in lateral mobility.

Bermudez, Harry; Kourouklis, Andreas

2013-03-01

347

A laterality effect in isometric and isotonic labial tracking.  

PubMed

Hemispheric dominance for sensorimotor control of lip activity was investigated by use of a pursuit auditory tracking task. This task involves continuous frequency matching of a computer-generated target tone and a subject-controlled cursor tone. Thirty right-handed subjects were tested under isometric lip and hand control, and 20 right-handed subjects under isotonic lip control. Subjects tracked 10 1-min trials under each laterality condition--cursor/right ear, target/left ear, and vice versa. In both experiments tracking performance was better when the lip-controlled cursor tone was presented to the right ear (hence direct contralateral route to left hemisphere). A significant (p less than 0.05) cursor/right-ear advantage was found under isometric hand-tracking. Analysis routines examined relative laterality advantages across several time intervals within each 1-min trial. Consistent lateralization scores in favor of cursor/right-ear presentations (REAs) were independent of the time interval measured. For isometric tracking, 58% of subjects having laterality advantages (p less than 0.10) revealed REAs. For isotonic tracking, 71% of subjects revealed REAs. Implications of the latter finding are discussed relative to a left hemisphere mechanism specialized to integrate movement-generated auditory feedback with dynamic kinesthetic information from the articulators. PMID:713523

Sussman, H M; Westbury, J R

1978-09-01

348

Lateral-field-excited thin-film Lamb wave resonator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic principles and technology for the development of lateral-field-excited Lamb acoustic wave resonators on sputter-deposited c-oriented thin aluminum nitride films are presented. The experimental results demonstrate that Lamb waves can be successfully used as an alternative to high-velocity surface acoustic waves.

Bjurström, Johan; Katardjiev, Ilia; Yantchev, Ventsislav

2005-04-01

349

Acoustic Investigations into the Later Acquisition of Syllabic "-es" Plurals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Children acquire /-ez/ syllabic plurals (e.g., buses) later than /-s, -z/ segmental plurals (e.g., cats,dogs). In this study, the authors explored whether increased syllable number or segmental factors best explains poorer performance with syllabic plurals. Method: An elicited imitation experiment was conducted with 14 two-year-olds…

Mealings, Kiri T.; Cox. Felicity; Demuth, Katherine

2013-01-01

350

Physics Today Bohr's molecular model, a century later  

E-print Network

Physics Today Bohr's molecular model, a century later Anatoly Svidzinsky, Marlan Scully, and Dudley Herschbach Citation: Physics Today 67(1), 33 (2014); doi: 10.1063/PT.3.2243 View online: http://dx.doi.org/10. Even so, today the Bohr model has valid roles in describ- ing highly excited Rydberg atoms,5 cavity

Allen, Jont

351

BIOCHEMISTRY (for students entering Biology in Fall 2010 or later)  

E-print Network

BIOCHEMISTRY (for students entering Biology in Fall 2010 or later) Graduation Requirements, Intro. To Evolution & Ecology (2 cr.; fall) 9. One of these four options: (Biochemistry majors must & Measurement in Physical Biochemistry (3 cr.; fall) 13. Two of these courses: A. BIOL 41600 Viruses and Viral

Jiang, Wen

352

BIOCHEMISTRY (for students entering Biology in Fall 2011 or later)  

E-print Network

1 BIOCHEMISTRY (for students entering Biology in Fall 2011 or later) Graduation Requirements Requirement: Choose one of these four options: (Biochemistry majors must choose BIOL 39500, Macromolecules) A Biochemistry (3 cr.; fall) 13. Biology Electives: Two of these courses: A. BIOL 41600 Viruses and Viral

Jiang, Wen

353

14 CFR 29.485 - Lateral drift landing conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... § 29.485 Lateral drift landing conditions. (a) The rotorcraft...is assumed to be in the level landing attitude, with— (1...reactions obtained in the level landing conditions of § 29.479...ii) For full-swiveling gear, at the center of the...

2010-01-01

354

14 CFR 27.485 - Lateral drift landing conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... § 27.485 Lateral drift landing conditions. (a) The rotorcraft...is assumed to be in the level landing attitude, with— (1...reactions obtained in the level landing conditions of § 27.479...ii) For full-swiveling gear, at the center of the...

2010-01-01

355

14 CFR 29.485 - Lateral drift landing conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... § 29.485 Lateral drift landing conditions. (a) The rotorcraft...is assumed to be in the level landing attitude, with— (1...reactions obtained in the level landing conditions of § 29.479...ii) For full-swiveling gear, at the center of the...

2011-01-01

356

14 CFR 27.485 - Lateral drift landing conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... § 27.485 Lateral drift landing conditions. (a) The rotorcraft...is assumed to be in the level landing attitude, with— (1...reactions obtained in the level landing conditions of § 27.479...ii) For full-swiveling gear, at the center of the...

2011-01-01

357

Ratchet effects in graphene and quantum wells with lateral superlattice  

SciTech Connect

Theoretical and experimental studies on the ratchet effects in graphene and in quantum wells with a lateral superlattice excited by alternating electric fields of terahertz frequency range are presented. We discuss the Seebeck ratchet effect and helicity driven photocurrents and show that the photocurrent generation is based on the combined action of a spatially periodic in-plane potential and a spatially modulated light.

Golub, L. E.; Nalitov, A. V.; Ivchenko, E. L. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Olbrich, P.; Kamann, J.; Eroms, J.; Weiss, D.; Ganichev, S. D. [Terahertz Center, University of Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany)

2013-12-04

358

Mitochondria in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Trigger and a Target  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strong evidence shows that mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but despite the fact that mitochondria play a central role in excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and apoptosis, the intimate underlying mechanism linking mitochondrial defects to motor neuron degeneration in ALS still remains elusive. Morphological and functional abnormalities occur in mitochondria in ALS patients and related animal models, although

Luc Dupuis; Jose-Luis Gonzalez de Aguilar; Hugues Oudart; Marc de Tapia; Luis Barbeito; Jean-Philippe Loeffler

2004-01-01

359

Whose children gain from starting school later? – evidence from Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

We look at the effect of school starting age on standardized test scores using data covering all Grade 4 and Grade 8 students in Hungary. Instrumental variables estimates of the local average treatment effect suggest that children generally gain from starting school 1 year later, and the effects are much stronger in the case of students coming from low-educated families.

Szilvia Altwicker-Hámori; János Köll?

2012-01-01

360

Spatiotemporal Coupling of the Tongue in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The primary aim of the investigation was to identify deficits in spatiotemporal coupling between tongue regions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The relations between disease-related changes in tongue movement patterns and speech intelligibility were also determined. Methods: The authors recorded word productions from 11…

Kuruvilla, Mili S.; Green, Jordan R.; Yunusova, Yana; Hanford, Kathy

2012-01-01

361

Atmospheric propagation at larger lateral distances from the flight track  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sonic booms received on the ground tend to be restricted to a region of finite lateral extent below the flight track. This occurs because of refraction and because the effective speed of sound, even with winds taken into account, decreases with altitude in the lower atmosphere. Not all rays proceeding initially downwards from the flight track within an allowable range

Allan D. Pierce

1994-01-01

362

Lateral Knee Braces in Football: Do They Prevent Injury?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of three recently presented clinical studies and a biomechanical study of the use of lateral knee braces to prevent knee injuries are reviewed. The results raise serious doubts about the efficacy of the preventive knee braces which are currently available. (Author/MT)

Paulos, Lonnie E.; And Others

1986-01-01

363

Lateral Symbiont Acquisition in a Maternally Transmitted Chemosynthetic Clam Endosymbiosis  

E-print Network

Lateral Symbiont Acquisition in a Maternally Transmitted Chemosynthetic Clam Endosymbiosis Frank J, Harvard University Deep-sea clams of the family Vesicomyidae live in symbiosis with intracellular-II clams from hydrothermal vents on the Juan de Fuca Ridge (northeastern Pacific) revealed a symbiont

Stewart, Frank

364

Brainstem lesions and click lateralization in patients with multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to lateralize dichotic clicks with either interaural time delays (ITD) or interaural level differences (ILD) was tested in seven multiple sclerosis (MS) subjects who had normal audiograms. Along with the psychoacoustical tests, magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the subjects' brainstem were obtained. After matching each MRI section with the corresponding section of a computerized atlas of the brainstem,

Miriam Furst; Robert A. Levine; Amos D. Korczyn; Barbara C. Fullerton; Rina Tadmor; Daniel Algom

1995-01-01

365

Lateral Subcutaneous Internal Sphincterotomy in Treatment of Anal Fissure  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and three patients with anal fissures have been treated by lateral internal sphincterotomy performed by a subcutaneous myotomy technique, and 99 have been successfully followed up for from 3 to 24 months (mean 11 months). The operation was free from significant complications, apart from slight reactionary bleeding in one case and a perianal abscess in another. The fissure

D. C. Hoffmann; J. C. Goligher

1970-01-01

366

The Chinese Calendar of The Later Han Period  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of our project is to explain the Chinese calendar of the Later Han period, Si Fen Li ( ? ), and reformulate the formulas of the calendar to forms that are suitable for computer implementation. The Hou Han Shu ( ? ) does not give explanations for the formulas of the calendar. In our report, we discuss and

Helmer Aslaksen

367

MICROBIOLOGY (for students entering Biology in Fall 2011 or later)  

E-print Network

MICROBIOLOGY (for students entering Biology in Fall 2011 or later) Graduation Requirements Requirement: Choose one of these four options: (Microbiology majors must choose BIOL 43800 and 43900, General Microbiology and Microbiology lab) A. BIOL 39500 Macromolecules (3 cr.; fall) B. BIOL 36600 Principles

Jiang, Wen

368

MICROBIOLOGY (for students entering Biology in Fall 2010 or later)  

E-print Network

MICROBIOLOGY (for students entering Biology in Fall 2010 or later) Graduation Requirements, Intro. To Evolution & Ecology (2 cr.; fall) 9. One of these four options: (Microbiology majors must choose BIOL 43800 and 43900, General Microbiology and Microbiology lab) A. BIOL 39500 Macromolecules (3

Jiang, Wen

369

49 CFR 18.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

49 ? Transportation ? 1 ? 2010-10-01 ? 2010-10-01 ? false ? Later disallowances and adjustments. ? 18.51 ? Section 18.51 ? Transportation ? Office of the Secretary of Transportation ? UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS...

2010-10-01

370

21 CFR 1403.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

21 ? Food and Drugs ? 9 ? 2010-04-01 ? 2010-04-01 ? false ? Later disallowances and adjustments. ? 1403.51 ? Section 1403.51 ? Food and Drugs ? OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY ? UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS...

2010-04-01

371

10 CFR 600.251 - Later disallowances and adjustments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

10 ? Energy ? 4 ? 2010-01-01 ? 2010-01-01 ? false ? Later disallowances and adjustments. ? 600.251 ? Section 600.251 ? Energy ? DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ? ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ? FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES ? Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements to...

2010-01-01

372

45 CFR 1174.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

45 ? Public Welfare ? 3 ? 2010-10-01 ? 2010-10-01 ? false ? Later disallowances and adjustments. ? 1174.51 ? Section 1174.51 ? Public Welfare ? Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) ? NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES ? NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES ?...

2010-10-01

373

24 CFR 85.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

24 ? Housing and Urban Development ? 1 ? 2010-04-01 ? 2010-04-01 ? false ? Later disallowances and adjustments. ? 85.51 ? Section 85.51 ? Housing and Urban Development ? Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ? ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND...

2010-04-01

374

38 CFR 43.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

38 ? Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief ? 2 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? Later disallowances and adjustments. ? 43.51 ? Section 43.51 ? Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief ? DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) ? UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND...

2010-07-01

375

20 CFR 437.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

20 ? Employees' Benefits ? 2 ? 2010-04-01 ? 2010-04-01 ? false ? Later disallowances and adjustments. ? 437.51 ? Section 437.51 ? Employees' Benefits ? SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ? UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS...

2010-04-01

376

28 CFR 66.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

28 ? Judicial Administration ? 2 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? Later disallowances and adjustments. ? 66.51 ? Section 66.51 ? Judicial Administration ? DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) ? UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL...

2010-07-01

377

14 CFR 1273.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

14 ? Aeronautics and Space ? 5 ? 2010-01-01 ? 2010-01-01 ? false ? Later disallowances and adjustments. ? 1273.51 ? Section 1273.51 ? Aeronautics and Space ? NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ? UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND...

2010-01-01

378

29 CFR 97.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

29 ? Labor ? 1 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? true ? Later disallowances and adjustments. ? 97.51 ? Section 97.51 ? Labor ? Office of the Secretary of Labor ? UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS ? After-The-Grant Requirements ?...

2010-07-01

379

7 CFR 3016.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

7 ? Agriculture ? 15 ? 2010-01-01 ? 2010-01-01 ? false ? Later disallowances and adjustments. ? 3016.51 ? Section 3016.51 ? Agriculture ? Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ? OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ? UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE...

2010-01-01

380

29 CFR 1470.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

29 ? Labor ? 4 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? Later disallowances and adjustments. ? 1470.51 ? Section 1470.51 ? Labor ? Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) ? FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE ? UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO...

2010-07-01

381

45 CFR 92.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

45 ? Public Welfare ? 1 ? 2010-10-01 ? 2010-10-01 ? false ? Later disallowances and adjustments. ? 92.51 ? Section 92.51 ? Public Welfare ? DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ? GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ? UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE,...

2010-10-01

382

44 CFR 13.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

44 ? Emergency Management and Assistance ? 1 ? 2010-10-01 ? 2010-10-01 ? false ? Later disallowances and adjustments. ? 13.51 ? Section 13.51 ? Emergency Management and Assistance ? FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ? GENERAL ? UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE...

2010-10-01

383

13 CFR 143.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

13 ? Business Credit and Assistance ? 1 ? 2010-01-01 ? 2010-01-01 ? false ? Later disallowances and adjustments. ? 143.51 ? Section 143.51 ? Business Credit and Assistance ? SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ? UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND...

2010-01-01

384

45 CFR 2541.510 - Later disallowances and adjustments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

45 ? Public Welfare ? 4 ? 2010-10-01 ? 2010-10-01 ? false ? Later disallowances and adjustments. ? 2541.510 ? Section 2541.510 ? Public Welfare ? Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) ? CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE ? UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS...

2010-10-01

385

45 CFR 1157.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

45 ? Public Welfare ? 3 ? 2010-10-01 ? 2010-10-01 ? false ? Later disallowances and adjustments. ? 1157.51 ? Section 1157.51 ? Public Welfare ? Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) ? NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES ? NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS ?...

2010-10-01

386

22 CFR 135.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

22 ? Foreign Relations ? 1 ? 2010-04-01 ? 2010-04-01 ? false ? Later disallowances and adjustments. ? 135.51 ? Section 135.51 ? Foreign Relations ? DEPARTMENT OF STATE ? MISCELLANEOUS ? UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS...

2010-04-01

387

41 CFR 105-71.151 - Later disallowances and adjustments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

41 ? Public Contracts and Property Management ? 3 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? Later disallowances and adjustments. ? 105-71.151 ? Section 105-71.151 ? Public Contracts and Property Management ? Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) ? GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION...

2010-07-01

388

36 CFR 1207.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

36 ? Parks, Forests, and Public Property ? 3 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? Later disallowances and adjustments. ? 1207.51 ? Section 1207.51 ? Parks, Forests, and Public Property ? NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION ? GENERAL RULES ? UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS...

2010-07-01

389

34 CFR 80.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

34 ? Education ? 1 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? Later disallowances and adjustments. ? 80.51 ? Section 80.51 ? Education ? Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ? UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS...

2010-07-01

390

40 CFR 31.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

40 ? Protection of Environment ? 1 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? Later disallowances and adjustments. ? 31.51 ? Section 31.51 ? Protection of Environment ? ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY ? GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE ? UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND...

2010-07-01

391

15 CFR 24.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

15 ? Commerce and Foreign Trade ? 1 ? 2010-01-01 ? 2010-01-01 ? false ? Later disallowances and adjustments. ? 24.51 ? Section 24.51 ? Commerce and Foreign Trade ? Office of the Secretary of Commerce ? UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND...

2010-01-01

392

45 CFR 602.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

45 ? Public Welfare ? 3 ? 2010-10-01 ? 2010-10-01 ? false ? Later disallowances and adjustments. ? 602.51 ? Section 602.51 ? Public Welfare ? Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) ? NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ? UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE...

2010-10-01

393

32 CFR 33.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

32 ? National Defense ? 1 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? Later disallowances and adjustments. ? 33.51 ? Section 33.51 ? National Defense ? Department of Defense ? OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE ? DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS ? UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS...

2010-07-01

394

Headers will be added later Deriving groundwater estimates in Australia  

E-print Network

and Climate Experiment space gravity mission detects changes in mass by sensing perturbations of the EarthHeaders will be added later 1 Deriving groundwater estimates in Australia from GRACE observations P. Tregoning 1 and S.C. McClusky 1 1 Research School of Earth Sciences, The Australian National University

Tregoning, Paul

395

Maxillary lateral incisor implants: Planning with the aid of orthodontics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implants are commonly used to replace congenitally missing lateral incisors in adolescent orthodontic patients. However, these restorations are often challenging for the orthodontist, surgeon, and restorative dentist. In some patients the space across the alveolar crest is too narrow to permit the surgeon to place the implant. Occasionally the root apices of the adjacent central incisor and canine are in

Vincent G. Kokich

2004-01-01

396

The Joint Development of Hemispheric Lateralization for Words and Faces  

PubMed Central

Consistent with longstanding findings from behavioral studies, neuroimaging investigations have identified a region of the inferior temporal cortex that, in adults, shows greater face-selectivity in the right than left hemisphere and, conversely, a region that shows greater word-selectivity in the left than right hemisphere. What has not been determined is how this pattern of mature hemispheric specialization emerges over the course of development. The current study examines the hemispheric superiority for faces and words in children, young adolescents and adults in a discrimination task in which stimuli are presented briefly in either hemifield. Whereas adults showed the expected left and right visual field superiority for face and word discrimination, respectively, the young adolescents demonstrated only the right field superiority for words and no field superiority for faces. Although the children's overall accuracy was lower than that of the older groups, like the young adolescents, they exhibited a right visual field superiority for words but no field superiority for faces. Interestingly, the emergence of face lateralization was correlated with reading competence, measured on an independent standardized test, after regressing out age, quantitative reasoning scores, and face discrimination accuracy. Taken together, these findings suggest that the hemispheric organization of face and word recognition do not develop independently, and that word lateralization, which emerges earlier, may drive later face lateralization. A theoretical account in which competition for visual representations unfolds over the course of development is proposed to account for the findings. PMID:22866684

Dundas, Eva M.; Plaut, David C.; Behrmann, Marlene

2014-01-01

397

Yates and Contingency Tables: 75 Years Later David B. Hitchcock  

E-print Network

Yates and Contingency Tables: 75 Years Later David B. Hitchcock University of South Carolina March continuity correction to the 2 test for independence in contingency tables. The paper also was one and methods (as well as some perpetually controversial ones) to contingency table analysis. The purpose

Hitchcock, David B.

398

A Lateral Transzygomatic-Transtemporal Approach to the Infratemporal Fossa  

PubMed Central

This report describes an alternative approach to the infratemporal fossa lesions through a lateral zygomato-temporal craniotemy, which modifies the extradural temporopolar technique for cavernous sinus surgery. First, an L-shaped osteotomy of the zygoma from the frontozygomatic suture attaching the zygomatre arch and low positioned temporal cramotomy are made. Through this zygomato-temporal craniotomy and orbitotemporal drilling, leaving the lateral orbital rim and orbital roof intact, skeletonization of the foramens rotundum and ovale are carried out. The key element of this infratemporal exposure is the dissection and mobilization of the trigeminal nerve, trigeminal second branch rostrally, and the third branch caudally, which facilitates a wide exposure of the infratemporal fossa with preserving trigeminal function. The corridor between the mobilized trigeminal branches provides direct access to the lateral and medial pterygoid plate, internal maxillary artery, sphenoid and maxillary sinuses, maxilla and, finally, the parapharyngeal area. Our experiences have demonstrated that this lateral transzygomatic-transtemporal exposure is satisfactory for use with infratemporal fossa tumors. This approach has an advantage for cranial-base exposure with decreased risks of cosmetic deformity and of trigeminal nerve dysfunction. ImagesFigure 2p279-bFigure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9p285-bFigure 10 PMID:17171117

Terasaka, Shunsuke; Sawamura, Yutaka; Goto, Shin; Fukushima, Takanori

1999-01-01

399

Current hypotheses for the underlying biology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms involved in selective motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis remain unknown more than 135 years after the disease was first described. Although most cases have no known cause, mutations in the gene encoding Cu\\/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) have been implicated in a fraction of familial cases of the disease. Transgenic mouse models with mutations in the SOD1

Jeffrey D. Rothstein

2009-01-01

400

Lateral inhibition and neurogenesis: novel aspects in motion.  

PubMed

Neuronal production in metazoans is tightly controlled by Delta/Notch-dependent signals regulating lateral inhibition. It is currently thought that lateral inhibition takes place in clusters of precursors with equal capacity to trigger and receive Notch-dependent inhibitory signals. However, this view neglects crucial dynamical aspects of the process. In this review, we discuss two of these dynamic factors, whose alterations yield dysfunctions in neurogenesis. First, precursors show variable neurogenic capacity as they go through the cell cycle. Second, differentiating precursors are in direct contact with non-neurogenic cells at the wavefront of expanding neurogenic domains. We discuss the mechanisms adopted by Metazoa to prevent these dysfunctions in the lateral inhibitory process, which include cell cycle synchronization occurring in the invertebrate neural epithelium and during primary neurogenesis in anamniotes, interkinetic nuclear movement in the vertebrate neuroepithelium and generalized Delta expression ahead of the neurogenic wavefront. The emerging concept is that lateral inhibition during neurogenesis occurs in dynamic clusters of precursors and requires specific mechanisms to avoid distortions resulting from the interaction between neurogenic and non-neurogenic precursors. The advance in visualizing Notch dynamics with real-time imaging at cellular and subcellular levels will notably contribute to our understanding of these novel "aspects of motion" in neurogenesis. PMID:23873365

Formosa-Jordan, Pau; Ibañes, Marta; Ares, Saúl; Frade, José-María

2013-01-01

401

Toward fMRI Group Identification Based on Brain Lateralization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research presents a novel application of Lateralization Index (LI) in support of a decision making process for the classification of subjects based on their brain activation patterns using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) datasets. The decision process considers the subject grouping based on additional spatial information provided by the LI behavior for each individual when calculated for specific Broca's

Magno R. Guillen; Malek Adjouadi; Xiaozhen You; Armando Barreto; Naphtali Rishe; William Gaillard

2009-01-01

402

Respiratory muscle strength and ventilatory failure in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Although ventilatory failure is the most common cause of death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and measurement of respiratory muscle strength (RMS) has been shown to have prognostic value, no single test of strength can predict the presence of hypercapnia reliably. RMS was measured in 81 ALS patients to evaluate the relationship between tests of RMS and the presence

R. A. Lyall; N. Donaldson; M. I. Polkey; P. N. Leigh; J. Moxham

2001-01-01

403

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: An Introduction to Psychosocial and Behavioral Adaptations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) as motor-neuron disease that is terminal. Discusses symptoms associated with ALS and identifies treatment options. Reviews psychological and behavioral adaptations in regard to ALS clients, their families, and professionals who work with them. Discusses support groups as method of reducing stress for ALS…

Hoffman, R. Leigh; Decker, Thomas W.

1993-01-01

404

Verbal fluency and executive dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuropsychological investigations of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients have revealed variable results on specific tests, despite a similar overall cognitive profile of predominantly executive dysfunction with some evidence of memory impairment. The most striking and consistent deficit is found using tests of verbal fluency. The current investigation explored why verbal fluency is particularly sensitive to the impairment in ALS, by

S Abrahams; P. N Leigh; A Harvey; G. N Vythelingum; D Grisé; L. H Goldstein

2000-01-01

405

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A study of its presentation and prognosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

All identified Israeli patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with onset of the disease from 1959 through 1975 (n=318) were evaluated clinically. Most of our patients (63%) presented with weakness; only 10% presented with atrophy and 3% with fasciculations. In 31% of the cases, the onset of the disease was focal and 22% of the patients presented with bulbar signs,

Sasson S. Gubbay; Esther Kahana; Nelly Zilber; Gerald Cooper; Shy Pintov; Yaffa Leibowitz

1985-01-01

406

TDP43 mutations in familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal motor neuron disorder characterized pathologically by ubiquitinated TAR DNA binding protein (TDP-43) inclusions. The function of TDP-43 in the nervous system is uncertain, and a mechanistic role in neurodegeneration remains speculative. We identified neighboring mutations in a highly conserved region of TARDBP in sporadic and familial ALS cases. TARDBPM337V segregated with disease within

Jemeen Sreedharan; Ian P. Blair; Vineeta B. Tripathi; Xun Hu; Caroline Vance; Boris Rogelj; Steven Ackerley; Jennifer C. Durnall; Kelly L. Williams; Emanuele Buratti; Francisco Baralle; Jacqueline de Belleroche; J. Douglas Mitchell; P. Nigel Leigh; Ammar Al-Chalabi; Christopher C. Miller; Garth Nicholson; Christopher E. Shaw

2008-01-01

407

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients' Perspectives on Use of Mechanical Ventilation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviewed 13 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. All believed that they alone should make decision regarding use of mechanical ventilation. Factors they considered important were quality of life, severity of disability, availability of ventilation by means of nasal mask, possible admission to long-term care facility, ability to discontinue…

Young, Jenny M.; And Others

1994-01-01

408

Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and enteral nutrition in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bulbar involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is often related to a worse prognosis on account of the higher risk of pulmonary aspiration and undernutrition due to dysphagia. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of enteral feeding by percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in a long-term follow-up of ALS patients. We report the results of PEG in

L. Mazzini; T. Corrà; M. Zaccala; G. Mora; M. Piano; M. Galante

1995-01-01

409

Unsatisfactory answers: Dialogism in George Eliot's later novels  

Microsoft Academic Search

George Eliot's later novels are discussed with reference to Mikhail Bakhtin's concept of dialogism. Although Bakhtin traces dialogism from comedy and carnival, Eliot's dialogism is rooted in tragedy. Romola is set during Florentine carnival and Savonarola's sacred parody of carnival. While Eliot and Bakhtin, following Goethe, both use carnival as an image of ambivalence, in contrast to Bakhtin, Eliot recognizes

Hilda Margaret Hollis

1998-01-01

410

Unsatisfactory Answers: Dialogism in George Eliot's Later Novels  

Microsoft Academic Search

George Eliot's later novels are discussed with reference to Mikhail Bakhtin's concept of dialogism. Although Bakhtin traces dialogism from comedy and carnival, Eliot's dialogism is rooted in tragedy. Romola is set during Florentine carnival and Savonarola's sacred parody of carnival. While Eliot and Bakhtin, following Goethe, both use carnival as an image of ambivalence, in contrast to Bakhtin, Eliot recognizes

Hilda Hollis

1998-01-01

411

Early Childbearing and Later Economic Well-Being.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early childbearing is shown to have an effect on the education of the mother, the size of her ultimate family, and her labor force participation. Early first birth was found to be less detrimental to the later economic well being of Black women than of White women. (RLV)

Hofferth, Sandra L.; Moore, Kristin A.

1979-01-01

412

Lateral erosion by abrasion in an experimental bedrock channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant efforts have been made to understand bedrock incision by fluvial systems due to the importance of this process in landscape evolution. However, most of the effort has been focused on vertical incision on the bed of a channel and little attention has been given to lateral erosion acting on the banks. The presence of strath terraces in nature suggests

T. K. Fuller; L. A. Perg; L. Sklar; N. Finnegan

2006-01-01

413

Rotational synkineses of occiput and atlas on lateral inclination  

Microsoft Academic Search

An X-ray analysis was performed with regard to the question of synkinetic rotational movements of occiput and atlas on lateral inclination of the head and neck. It was found that the frequent synkinetic rotation of the head from the side of inclination can be taken for a stereotype that is ten times more frequent than the rotation towards the side

J. Jirout

1981-01-01

414

Manifest Needs of Freshmen Who Later Use Psychological Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study seeks to identify in advance the personality traits of freshmen who will later seek counseling because of psychological discomfort. When clients were compared with nonclients (415 males, 257 females), psychiatric clients (10 males, 16 females) were higher in impulsivity, and lower in order and cognitive structure; and personal…

Sage, Ellis H.

415

Preview Control for Vehicle Lateral Guidance in Highway Automation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous deterministic preview control is applied to the vehicle lateral contol problem. It is shown that the preview control consists of a feedback term and two feedforward terms. If the preview control algorithm is applied on the FSLQ augmented system, the feedback term will be exactly the same as the FSLQ feedback control law. Therefore, the advantages of the FSLQ

Huei Peng; Masayoshi Tomizuka

1991-01-01

416

Language Lateralization in Children Using Functional Transcranial Doppler Sonography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: Language lateralization with functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) and lexical word generation has been shown to have high concordance with the Wada test and functional magnetic resonance imaging in adults. We evaluated a nonlexical paradigm to determine language dominance in children. Method: In 23 right-handed children (12…

Haag, Anja; Moeller, Nicola; Knake, Susanne; Hermsen, Anke; Oertel, Wolfgang H.; Rosenow, Felix; Hamer, Hajo M.

2010-01-01

417

Normal aging selectively diminishes alpha lateralization in visual spatial attention.  

PubMed

EEG studies of cue-induced visual alpha power (8-13Hz) lateralization have been conducted on young adults without examining differences that may develop as a consequence of normal aging. Here, we examined age-related differences in spatial attention by comparing healthy older and younger adults. Our key finding is that cue-induced alpha power lateralization was observed in younger, but not older adults, even though both groups exhibited classic event-related potential signatures of spatial orienting. Specifically, both younger and older adults showed significant early directing-attention negativity (EDAN), anterior directing-attention negativity (ADAN), late directing-attention positivity (LDAP) and contingent negative variation (CNV). Furthermore, target-evoked sensory components were enhanced for attended relative to unattended targets in both younger and older groups. This pattern of results suggests that although older adults can successfully allocate spatial attention, they do so without the lateralization of alpha power that is commonly observed in younger adults. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that younger and older adults might engage different neural mechanisms for attentional orienting, and that alpha power lateralization during visual spatial attention is a phenomenon that diminishes during normal aging. PMID:25463457

Hong, Xiangfei; Sun, Junfeng; Bengson, Jesse J; Mangun, George R; Tong, Shanbao

2015-02-01

418

Metrics and Clinical Relevance of Percutaneous Penetration and Lateral Spreading.  

PubMed

Background: Percutaneous penetration of urea in vivo in man has been documented. If urea can penetrate the skin, it may also move laterally. Lateral spreading of topical substances leads to unpredictable penetration dynamics and increased skin surface area exposure. Methods: The ability of urea, a low molecular-weight hydrophilic model, to penetrate the stratum corneum (SC) and spread outside the application site was investigated in vitro using tape stripping with spectroscopy. The parameters investigated were the following: time between urea application and tape stripping, formulations containing urea and use of a petrolatum-covered ring barrier around the marked application area. Results: The percentage of urea was determined in and around the application site. The spreading of topically applied urea to neighboring areas occurred and was time but not formulation dependent. A significant difference between protocols with and without the petrolatum ring was observed. Conclusion: These results suggest the clinical importance of lateral spreading, occurring predominately on the skin surface. SC thickness varies between anatomical sites, predisposing areas such as the face and scalp margins to increased percutaneous penetration of topical products. The use of a protective petrolatum ring can inhibit lateral spreading of hair dye in individuals allergic to hair dye, limit systemic absorption and increase accuracy when assessing penetration dynamics. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25227720

Vieille-Petit, Aline; Blickenstaff, Nicholas; Coman, Garrett; Maibach, Howard

2014-09-16

419

On tidal gravity, heat flow and lateral heterogeneities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correlations between residuals of tidal gravity and terrestrial heat flow have been used recently as evidence that the tidal gravity response of the Earth can be measurably perturbed by lateral heterogeneities in the upper crust. The gravity residuals in these correlations are from the data bank of the International Center of Earth Tides (ICET). We believe that these correlations are

P. A. Rydelek; W. Zürn; J. Hinderer

1991-01-01

420

Visual laterality in dolphins: importance of the familiarity of stimuli  

PubMed Central

Background Many studies of cerebral asymmetries in different species lead, on the one hand, to a better understanding of the functions of each cerebral hemisphere and, on the other hand, to develop an evolutionary history of hemispheric laterality. Our animal model is particularly interesting because of its original evolutionary path, i.e. return to aquatic life after a terrestrial phase. The rare reports concerning visual laterality of marine mammals investigated mainly discrimination processes. As dolphins are migrant species they are confronted to a changing environment. Being able to categorize new versus familiar objects would allow dolphins a rapid adaptation to novel environments. Visual laterality could be a prerequisite to this adaptability. To date, no study, to our knowledge, has analyzed the environmental factors that could influence their visual laterality. Results We investigated visual laterality expressed spontaneously at the water surface by a group of five common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in response to various stimuli. The stimuli presented ranged from very familiar objects (known and manipulated previously) to familiar objects (known but never manipulated) to unfamiliar objects (unknown, never seen previously). At the group level, dolphins used their left eye to observe very familiar objects and their right eye to observe unfamiliar objects. However, eyes are used indifferently to observe familiar objects with intermediate valence. Conclusion Our results suggest different visual cerebral processes based either on the global shape of well-known objects or on local details of unknown objects. Moreover, the manipulation of an object appears necessary for these dolphins to construct a global representation of an object enabling its immediate categorization for subsequent use. Our experimental results pointed out some cognitive capacities of dolphins which might be crucial for their wild life given their fission-fusion social system and migratory behaviour. PMID:22239860

2012-01-01

421

Start Later, Sleep Later: School Start Times and Adolescent Sleep in Homeschool Versus Public/Private School Students.  

PubMed

Homeschooled students provide a naturalistic comparison group for later/flexible school start times. This study compared sleep patterns and sleep hygiene for homeschooled students and public/private school students (grades 6-12). Public/private school students (n = 245) and homeschooled students (n = 162) completed a survey about sleep patterns and sleep hygiene. Significant school group differences were found for weekday bedtime, wake time, and total sleep time, with homeschooled students waking later and obtaining more sleep. Homeschooled students had later school start times, waking at the same time that public/private school students were starting school. Public/private school students had poorer sleep hygiene practices, reporting more homework and use of technology in the hour before bed. Regardless of school type, technology in the bedroom was associated with shorter sleep duration. Later school start times may be a potential countermeasure for insufficient sleep in adolescents. Future studies should further examine the relationship between school start times and daytime outcomes, including academic performance, mood, and health. PMID:25315902

Meltzer, Lisa J; Shaheed, Keisha; Ambler, Devon

2014-10-14

422

Pathological TDP43 distinguishes sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis withSOD1 mutations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a common, fatal motor neuron disorder with no effective treatment. Approx- imately 10% of cases are familial ALS (FALS), and the most common genetic abnormality is superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) mutations. Most ALS research in the past decade has focused on the neurotoxicity of mutant SOD1, and this knowledge has directed therapeutic strategies. We recently

Ian R. A. Mackenzie; Eileen H. Bigio; Paul G. Ince; Felix Geser; Manuela Neumann; Nigel J. Cairns; Linda K. Kwong; Mark S. Forman; John Ravits; Heather Stewart; Andrew Eisen; Leo McClusky; Hans A. Kretzschmar; Camelia M. Monoranu; J. Robin Highley; Janine Kirby; Teepu Siddique; Pamela J. Shaw; Virginia M. Y. Lee; John Q. Trojanowski

2007-01-01

423

Plasma vortices and lateral forcing of the Venus upper atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A statistical analysis of the ion flow near Venus reveals a significant curvature of the flow over the North Pole region. The curved flow of solar wind (H+) and ionospheric (O+) ions, results from a combination of an antisunward and lateral solar wind flow, the lateral flow component directed opposite to the Venus orbital motion [1]. The combined antisunward and lateral H+ and O+ flow wraps over the planetary atmosphere, from the terminator into the nightside. The lateral flow dominates close to the planet on the nightside. We note that the net lateral flow in the flank/nightside of Venus is in the direction of the Venus atmospheric superrotation. Further down in the Venus plasma tail, the flow inside the induced magnetosphere boundary (IMB) forms a vortex curving tailward. On the other hand, the flow outside IMB in the dense magnetosheath plasma (H+) is essentially tailward, indicating that the plasma vortex inside IMB comprise planetary ions, their curved motion set up by dayside lateral solar wind forcing of ionospheric ions. A test of the energy and momentum balance between solar wind H+ and ionospheric O+ in the altitude interval 1200 - 600 km, demonstrates a close connection between the energy and momentum gain by O+ and the energy and momentum delivered by solar wind H+. The general agreement in direction between the nightside ion flow over the Northern hemisphere, and the retrograde motion of the Venus atmosphere, suggests a connection between the ionospheric O+ flow and the atmospheric neutral flow. That connection is further strengthened by the fact the O+ flow velocity in the 200-300 km altitude range aligns with the power law curve describing the atmospheric zonal wind velocity profile versus altitude. The joint ion/neutral wind power-law profile therefore suggests momentum coupling between the ionospheric and atmospheric flow velocity. The fact that the O+ flow is driven by solar wind forcing leaves us with the question: Is the characteristic zonal wind profile of the Venus atmospheric superrotation a consequence of solar wind forcing? Is the measured ionospheric O+ mass flow capable of accelerating, and maintaining, a superrotating upper atmosphere at Venus?

Lundin, R.; Barabash, S.; Futaana, S.; Holmstrom, M.; Perez-de-Tejada, H.; Sauvaud, J.-A.

2012-09-01

424

Piezoelectric actuator based on stiffness control and stroke amplification for large lateral actuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a piezoelectric actuator using stiffness control and stroke amplification mechanism in order to make large lateral displacement. In this work, we suggest stiffness control approach that generates lateral displacement by increasing the vertical stiffness and reducing the lateral stiffness using additional structure. In addition, an additional structure of a serpentine spring amplifies the lateral displacement like leverage structure.

Young Ho Seo; Doo-Sun Choi; Joon-Hyung Lee; Taik-Min Lee; Tae-Jin Je; Kyung-Hyun Whang

2005-01-01

425

Loss of Ectodermal Competence for Lateral Line Placode Formation in the Direct Developing Frog Eleutherodactylus coqui  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the direct-developing frog Eleutherodactylus coqui neuromasts and ganglia of the lateral line system never develop. We show here that this absence of the lateral line system, which is evolutionarily derived in anurans, is due to very early changes in development. Ectodermal thickenings, which are typical of lateral line placodes, and from which neuromasts and ganglion cells of the lateral

Gerhard Schlosser; Chris Kintner; R. Glenn Northcutt

1999-01-01

426

Delivering the Lateral Inhibition Punchline: It's All About the Timing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Experimental and theoretical biologists have long been fascinated with the emergence of self-organizing patterns in developing organisms, and much attention has focused on Notch-mediated lateral inhibition. Within sheets of cells that may adopt either of two possible cell fates, lateral inhibition establishes patterns through the activity of a negative intercellular feedback loop involving the receptor, Notch, and its ligands Delta or Serrate. Despite a long history of intensive study in Drosophila, where the mechanism was first described, as well as in other organisms, new work continues to yield important insights. Mathematical modeling, combined with biological analyses, has now shed light on two features of the process: how antagonistic and activating ligand-receptor interactions work together to accelerate inhibition and ensure fidelity, and how filopodial dynamics contribute to the observed pattern refinement and spacing.

Jeffrey D. Axelrod (Stanford University School of Medicine;Department of Pathology REV)

2010-10-26

427

A New Biomechanically-Based Criterion for Lateral Skull Fracture  

PubMed Central

This work develops a skull fracture criterion for lateral impact-induced head injury using postmortem human subject tests, anatomical test device measurements, statistical analyses, and finite element modeling. It is shown that skull fracture correlates with the tensile strain in the compact tables of the cranial bone as calculated by the finite element model and that the Skull Fracture Correlate (SFC), the average acceleration over the HIC time interval, is the best predictor of skull fracture. For 15% or less probability of skull fracture the lateral skull fracture criterion is SFC < 120 g, which is the same as the frontal criterion derived earlier. The biomechanical basis of SFC is established by its correlation with strain. PMID:15319125

Vorst, Michael Vander; Chan, Philemon; Zhang, Jiangyue; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank

2004-01-01

428

Lateral-driven continuous magnetophoretic separation of blood cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method for the lateral-driven continuous magnetophoretic separation of red and white blood cells from peripheral whole blood, based on their native magnetic properties. The separation is achieved using a high-gradient magnetic field, caused by a ferromagnetic wire array inlaid on glass substrate. The wire array creates an even lateral magnetophoretic force on the whole area of the microchannel, improving the separation efficiency and throughput. When the flow rate and external magnetic flux were 20 ?l/h and 0.3 T, respectively, the microseparator continuously separated out 93.9% of red blood cells and 89.2% of white blood cells from the whole blood.

Jung, Jinhee; Han, Ki-Ho

2008-12-01

429

Depolarization affects the lateral microdomain structure of yeast plasma membrane.  

PubMed

We report the transmembrane voltage-induced lateral reorganization of highly-ordered lipid microdomains in the plasma membrane of living Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using trans-parinaric acid (all-trans-9,11,13,15-octadecatetraenoic acid) as a probe of lipid order and different methods of membrane depolarization, we found that depolarization always invokes a significant reduction in the amount of gel-like microdomains in the membrane. Different depolarization mechanisms, including the application of ionophores, cell depolarization by an external electric field, depolarization by proton/hexose co-transport facilitated by HUP1 protein and a reduction of membrane potential caused by compromised respiration efficiency, yielded the same results independently of the yeast strain used. The data suggest that the voltage-induced reorganization of lateral membrane structure could play significant role in fast cellular response to acute stress conditions, as well as in other membrane microdomain-related regulatory mechanisms. PMID:25410771

Herman, Petr; Vecer, Jaroslav; Opekarova, Miroslava; Vesela, Petra; Jancikova, Iva; Zahumensky, Jakub; Malinsky, Jan

2015-02-01

430

Lateral Diffusion of Phospholipids in a Vesicle Membrane  

PubMed Central

Nuclear-resonance spectra of phosphatidylcholine (PC) vesicles are broadened by spin-labeled PC. The broadening of the N-methyl proton line is proportional to spin-labeled PC concentration; the broadening by 1 molecule in 100 of spin-labeled PC is 9.7 Hz at 35°C; the broadening is not due to collisions between vesicles, exchange of spin label between vesicles, or fusion of vesicles. These findings are proof of rapid diffusion in the plane of the PC bilayer (lateral diffusion). A further study of the broadening reveals the molecular frequency of the translation step for lateral diffusion to be much greater than 3 × 103 sec-1 at 0°C. PMID:4332815

Kornberg, Roger D.; McConnell, Harden M.

1971-01-01

431

Lateralization as a symmetry breaking process in birdsong  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The singing by songbirds is a most convincing example in the animal kingdom of functional lateralization of the brain, a feature usually associated with human language. Lateralization is expressed as one or both of the bird’s sound sources being active during the vocalization. Normal songs require high coordination between the vocal organ and respiratory activity, which is bilaterally symmetric. Moreover, the physical and neural substrate used to produce the song lack obvious asymmetries. In this work we show that complex spatiotemporal patterns of motor activity controlling airflow through the sound sources can be explained in terms of spontaneous symmetry breaking bifurcations. This analysis also provides a framework from which to study the effects of imperfections in the system’ s symmetries. A physical model of the avian vocal organ is used to generate synthetic sounds, which allows us to predict acoustical signatures of the song and compare the predictions of the model with experimental data.

Trevisan, M. A.; Cooper, B.; Goller, F.; Mindlin, G. B.

2007-03-01

432

Laterally resolved measurements of polycrystalline cesium iodide surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to establish the correlation between the local chemical composition and morphology of polycrystalline cesium iodide (CsI) and its local quantum efficiency. We used a laterally resolved Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA-300) apparatus and a Scanning Auger Microprobe (SAM) to investigate the lateral inhomogeneity of the CsI surface stoichiometry. The local quantum efficiency (QE) was determined by measuring the secondary electron emission in Photoemission Electron Microscopy both with a non-monochromatized deuterium lamp and with tunable X-ray synchrotron radiation as the excitation source. CsI films on different substrates were studied. We found that the local QE depends strongly on the morphology, on the local stoichiometry and on carbon contamination. The results allow for an optimisation of the quantum efficiency of large area photocathodes.

Rudolf, Petra; Marchal, F.; Sporken, R.; Caudano, R.; dell'Orto, Tiziana; Almeida, J.; Braem, A.; Piuz, F.; Sgobba, S.; Paic, G.; Nappi, E.; Valentini, A.; Sartori, P.; Coluzza, C.

1997-02-01

433

Lateral sample motion in the plate-rod impact experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Velocity of the lateral motion of cylindrical, 9 mm diameter 20 mm length, samples impacted by WHA impactors of 5-mm thickness was monitored by VISAR at the different points of the sample surface at distance of 1 to 4 mm from the sample impacted edge. The impactors were accelerated in the 25-mm pneumatic gun up to velocities of about 300 m/sec. Integrating the VISAR data recorded at the different surface points after the impact with the same velocity allows to obtain the changes of the sample shape during the initial period of the sample deformation. It was found that the character of the lateral motion is different for samples made of WHA and commercial Titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. 2-D numerical simulation of the impact allows to conclude that the work hardening of the alloys is responsible for this difference.

Zaretsky, Eugene; Levi-Hevroni, David; Ofer, Dror; Shvarts, Dov

2000-04-01

434

Endoscopic-Assisted Total Thyroidectomy via Lateral Keloid Scar Incision  

PubMed Central

Thyroidectomy is traditionally performed by the transcervical approach. To avoid or reduce visible scarring, diverse innovative surgical trials have been reported. Here we report a patient who underwent endoscopic thyroidectomy via a lateral keloid scar due to a previous traffic accident. A 30-year-old woman presented with a papillary thyroid carcinoma. Total thyroidectomy was performed via a keloid scar incision. The keloid scar was then revised. The total thyroidectomy was successful, resulting in no acute complications, such as neural injury, hematoma, or seroma formation. The keloid scar healed with excellent cosmetic results and the patient remains free of disease 12 months after excision. Endoscopic total thyroidectomy via a lateral keloid scar incision healed not only the physical disease but also the mental disease. PMID:25436057

2014-01-01

435

FMRI Shows Atypical Language Lateralization in Pediatric Epilepsy Patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study contrasts language lateralization between pediatric epilepsy patients and healthy children. Methods Eighteen epilepsy patients (8–18 years of age) completed an fMRI study with a silent verb generation task. The imaging data was compared to 18 age-gender-handedness matched healthy children and also to a group of 336 healthy children age 5–18 years. Results A significant difference in hemispheric lateralization index was found (t=6.278, p<0.0001) between children with epilepsy (mean LI =?0.017) and the age-gender-handedness matched healthy control subjects (mean LI = 0.267). A dramatic difference was also observed in the percentage of children with epilepsy (67.7%) that had atypical lateralization index (right-hemispheric or bilateral, LI<0.1) when compared with the age-gender-handedness matched group (0%, ?2=22.9, p<0.001) or to the entire group of healthy children (18.5%, ?2=35.7, p<0.001). A linear regression analysis showed that the hemispheric lateralization of language function increased with age (R2=0.09, p<0.0001) in the entire healthy control group, while this correlation with age was not significant in pediatric epilepsy subjects (R2=0.005, p>0.7). The residual analysis for the linear regression showed a greater variability for LI in epilepsy patients (residual SD =0.15) than that observed in healthy cohorts (0.11 and 0.13 for the age-gender-handedness matched and the entire healthy children group, respectively). Conclusions This study shows that epilepsy during childhood is associated with neuroplasticity and reorganization of language function. PMID:16529628

Yuan, Weihong; Szaflarski, Jerzy P.; Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Schapiro, Mark; Byars, Anna W.; Strawsburg, Richard H.; Holland, Scott K.

2005-01-01

436

The mapping of visual space by dragonfly lateral ocelli  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the extent to which the lateral ocelli of dragonflies are able to resolve and map spatial information, following\\u000a the recent finding that the median ocellus is adapted for spatial resolution around the horizon. Physiological optics are\\u000a investigated by the hanging-drop technique and related to morphology as determined by sectioning and three-dimensional reconstruction.\\u000a L-neuron morphology and physiology are investigated

Richard Berry; Joshua van Kleef; Gert Stange

2007-01-01

437

Screening of VCP mutations in Chinese amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.  

PubMed

Mutations in valosin-containing protein (VCP) gene have been recently found in familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To define the frequency of VCP mutations in ALS patients in Chinese population, we sequenced all 17 exons of the VCP gene in a cohort of both familial and sporadic ALS patients of Chinese origin. No nonsynonymous coding variants were identified. This indicates that VCP mutations are not a common cause of familial or sporadic ALS in Chinese population. PMID:23102936

Zou, Zhang-Yu; Liu, Ming-Sheng; Li, Xiao-Guang; Cui, Li-Ying

2013-05-01

438

Calcific chronic lateral epicondylitis: a histological and ultrastructural study.  

PubMed

Fragments of insertion tissue from right arm common extensor muscle have been collected from a 25-year patient with chronic lateral epicondylitis. Specimens, processed for light (LM) and electron (EM) microscopy, evidentiated a variety of degenerative alterations, such as focal hyalinosis, lipoidosis, collagen fiber redistribution, calcifications and vascular changes. Evidence of collagen normal function maintenance and turnover have been also observed in tenocytes. PMID:9397583

Galliani, I; Columbaro, M; Ferri, S; Valmori, A; Cassiani, G; Maltarello, M C; Falcieri, E

1997-10-01

439

Wheel Rail Lateral Impact and Derailment Safety Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known to all that derailment is the vital problem in railway transportation. As the increase of vehicle speed, the possibility of derailment due to the lateral impact between the wheel flange and the rail increases. An impact model for the impact between the wheel and rail together with an accurate kinematic analysis is presented in order to shed some light on the wheel lift derailment of high-speed vehicles.

Guan, Qinghua; Zeng, Jing

440

Vehicle lateral stability management using gain-scheduled robust control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the design of a yaw rate controller based on gain-scheduled H? optimal control, which is intended to maintain the lateral stability of a vehicle. Uncertain factors such as vehicle mass\\u000a and cornering stiffness in the vehicle yaw rate dynamics naturally call for the robustness of the feedback controller and\\u000a thus H?, optimization technique is applied to

Seung-Han You; Joon-Sang Jo; Seungjin Yoo; Jin-Oh Hahn; Kyo Il Lee

2006-01-01

441

Lateral self-diffusion and electromigration in cobalt thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

A neutron activation-tracer scanning method is employed to study lateral self-diffusion and electromigration shift in cobalt thin films in the temperature range 573-873K. The diffusion data could be fitted to the equation D=0.48*10-8 exp(-0.14 eV\\/kT) cm2 s-1. The electromigration shift is found to be towards the anode in the entire temperature range studied. The average value of the electromigration effective

J. J. B. Prasad; K. V. Reddy

1984-01-01

442

[Agenesis of the upper lateral incisor: orthodontic therapy and replacement].  

PubMed

In this paper the Authors outline an uneven prevalence of superior lateral incisors agenesis. The treatment of this situation can be accomplished by various methods. It is possible to obtain the complete closure of dental spaces or maintain the physiological space. The Authors present four cases of young patients in which they decided to maintain orthodontically the space and to put them adhesive bridges. PMID:2700494

Gatti, C; Garattini, G; Pignanelli, M

1989-01-01

443

13. CENTER CROSS GIRDERS, B. TO B. ANGELES, AND LATERAL. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. CENTER CROSS GIRDERS, B. TO B. ANGELES, AND LATERAL. (Also includes a schedule of parts.) American Bridge Company, Ambridge Plant No. 5, sheet no. 3, dated April 5, 1928, order no. F5073. For U.S. Steel Products Company, Pacific Coast Depot, order no. SF578. For Southern Pacific Company, order no. 8873-P28746. Various scales. - Napa River Railroad Bridge, Spanning Napa River, east of Soscol Avenue, Napa, Napa County, CA

444

Recent advances in the genetics of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder with a low survival rate beyond 5 years from\\u000a symptom onset. Although the genes that cause most cases of ALS are still unknown, several important genetic discoveries have\\u000a been made recently that will bring substantial insight into some of the mechanisms involved in ALS. Mutations in two genes\\u000a with related functions

Paul N. Valdmanis; Hussein Daoud; Patrick A. Dion; Guy A. Rouleau

2009-01-01

445

ER Stress and Unfolded Protein Response in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several theories on the pathomechanism of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have been proposed: misfolded protein aggregates,\\u000a mitochondrial dysfunction, increased glutamate toxicity, increased oxidative stress, disturbance of intracellular trafficking,\\u000a and so on. In parallel, a number of drugs that have been developed to alleviate the putative key pathomechanism of ALS have\\u000a been under clinical trials. Unfortunately, however, almost all studies have

Kohsuke Kanekura; Hiroaki Suzuki; Sadakazu Aiso; Masaaki Matsuoka

2009-01-01

446

Chaotic transport and fractal spectra in lateral superlattices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that chaos and nonlinear resonances are clearly reflected in the magnetotransport of lateral surface superlattices and thereby explain a series of magnetoresistance peaks observed in antidot arrays on semiconductor heterojunctions. For small magnetic fields we find the counterintuitive result that electrons move in the opposite direction to the free-electron E*B drift when subject to a two-dimensional periodic potential.

R. Fleischmann; T. Gelsel; R. Ketzmerick; G. Petschel

1994-01-01

447

Cushioning and lateral stability functions of cloth sport shoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we evaluated the protective functions of cloth sport shoes, including cushioning and lateral stability. Twelve male students participated in the study (mean ± s: age 12.7 ± 0.4 years, mass 40.7 ± 5.9 kg, height 1.50 ± 0.04 m). Cloth sport shoes, running shoes, basketball shoes, cross-training shoes, and barefoot conditions were investigated in random sequence. Human pendulum and cutting movement tests were used to assess

Daniel Tik-Pui Fong; Youlian Hong; Jing Xian Li

2007-01-01

448

Time to Adjust: Team-Based Learning 2 Years Later.  

PubMed

Following the transition from traditional lecture to team-based learning in a community health nursing course, several changes were implemented over a 2-year period in an effort to improve the student and faculty experience. This article describes the changes that occurred and reports data collected from the first cohort of students following initial implementation and from a second cohort of students 2 years later. PMID:25402710

Mennenga, Heidi A

2014-11-14

449

[Dento-alveolar cleft and the lateral incisor].  

PubMed

In the period of 1980 to 1990, 55 cleft, lip and palate patients, ranging in age from nine to twelve years, were treated. With 52% of them the lateral incisor on the cleft side was agenetic, in 24% normally developed and in 24% malformed. The malformed and the fissural teeth were removed during bone grafting of the dento-alveolar cleft. In almost all cases a well-formed tooth arch could be obtained by orthodontic treatment. PMID:11917879

van der Wal, K G

1993-10-01

450

Examination of the Lateral Attenuation of Aircraft Noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of the lateral attenuation of noise from aircraft operations at Denver International Airport were made at distances up to 2000 feet and elevation angles up to 27 degrees. Attenuation Calculated from modem ground impedance theory agrees well with average measured attenuation. The large variability between measured and predicted levels observed at small elevation angles is demonstrated to be due to refraction by wind and temperature gradients.

Plotkin, Kenneth J.; Hobbs, Christopher M.; Bradley, Kevin A.; Shepherd, Kevin P. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

451

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: new genes, new models, and new mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Research aimed at understanding amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has seen exceptional growth in the past few years. New genes, new models, and new mechanisms have not only improved our understanding, but also contributed to the increasing complexity of ALS pathogenesis. The focus of this piece is to highlight some of the more notable developments in the field and to encourage a re-appreciation for the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mouse models. PMID:21941597

Dion, Patrick A.; Rouleau, Guy A.

2011-01-01

452

Resolution of lateral acoustic space assessed by electroencephalography and psychoacoustics  

PubMed Central

The encoding of auditory spatial acuity (measured as the precision to distinguish between two spatially distinct stimuli) by neural circuits in both auditory cortices is a matter of ongoing research. Here, the event-related potential (ERP) mismatch negativity (MMN), a sensitive indicator of preattentive auditory change detection, was used to tap into the underlying mechanism of cortical representation of auditory spatial information. We characterized the MMN response affected by the degree of spatial deviance in lateral acoustic space using a passive oddball paradigm. Two stimulation conditions (SCs)—specifically focusing on the investigation of the mid- and far-lateral acoustic space—were considered: (1) 65° left standard position with deviant positions at 70, 75, and 80°; and (2) 95° left standard position with deviant positions at 90, 85, and 80°. Additionally, behavioral data on the minimum audible angle (MAA) were acquired for the respective standard positions (65, 95° left) to quantify spatial discrimination in separating distinct sound sources. The two measurements disclosed the linkage between the (preattentive) MMN response and the (attentive) behavioral threshold. At 65° spatial deviations as small as 5° reliably elicited MMNs. Thereby, the MMN amplitudes monotonously increased as a function of spatial deviation. At 95°, spatial deviations of 15° were necessary to elicit a valid MMN. The behavioral data, however, yielded no difference in mean MAA thresholds for position 65 and 95°. The different effects of laterality on MMN responses and MAA thresholds suggest a role of spatial selective attention mechanisms particularly relevant in active discrimination of neighboring sound sources, especially in the lateral acoustic space. PMID:23781211

Bennemann, Jan; Freigang, Claudia; Schröger, Erich; Rübsamen, Rudolf; Richter, Nicole

2013-01-01

453

Laterally grown ZnO nanowire ethanol gas sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the growth of ZnO nanowires on ZnO:Ga\\/glass templates and the fabrication of laterally grown ZnO nanowire ethanol sensors. It was found that growth direction of the nanowires depends strongly on growth parameters. It was also found that resistivity of the fabricated sensor decreased upon ethanol gas injection. By introducing 1500ppm ethanol gas, it was found that the device

Ting-Jen Hsueh; Cheng-Liang Hsu; Shoou-Jinn Chang; I-Cherng Chen

2007-01-01

454

LATERAL ABDOMINAL MUSCLE SYMMETRY IN COLLEGIATE SINGLE-SIDED ROWERS  

PubMed Central

Purpose/Background: Although side to side symmetry of lateral abdominal muscle thickness has been established in healthy individuals, it is unknown whether abdominal muscle symmetry exists in athletes with asymmetrical physiological demands, such as those of single-sided rowers. The purpose of this study was to examine the oarside versus the non-oarside lateral abdominal musculature thickness in collegiate single-sided rowers, as measured by ultrasound imaging (USI). Methods: The study was a prospective, cross-sectional, observational design. Thirty collegiate crew team members (17 males, 13 females, age 19.8±1.2 years) characterized as single-sided rowers participated. Resting muscle thickness measurements of the transversus abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO), and external oblique (EO) muscles were obtained via USI. Comparisons of absolute and relative muscle thickness between oarside and non-oarside were performed using paired t-tests. Potential differences based on gender, rowing experience, and history of low back pain were investigated using mixed model analysis of variance. Results: There were no clinically significant differences in absolute or relative thickness of the TrA, IO or EO on the oarside versus the non-oarside. There were no significant side to side differences in the relative muscle thickness of the TrA, IO or EO based on gender, rowing experience, or history of low back pain. Conclusions: In this sample of single-sided rowing athletes, no clinically significant side to side differences in lateral abdominal muscle thickness were observed. Despite the asymmetrical functional demands of single-sided rowers in this study, thickness of the lateral abdominal muscles was symmetric. Level of Evidence: 4 PMID:22319677

Gill, Norman W.; Mason, Beth E.; Gerber, J. Parry

2012-01-01

455

The lateral facies of ignimbrites at Laacher See volcano  

Microsoft Academic Search

Valley-fill ignimbrites of the Middle Laacher See Tephra (MLST) in the proximal depositional fan south of Laacher See volcano are laterally continuous with fine-grained overbank-facies deposits, 0.5–1.5 m thick, covering higher elevations and interfluves between the paleovalleys. The overbank deposits consist of up to 12 ash layers, each 4–10 cm thick, which show internal structures typical of ash-flow transport, such

Rolf Schumacher; Hans-Ulrich Schmincke

1990-01-01

456

Altered Reactivity of Superoxide Dismutase in Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A subset of individuals with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) possesses dominantly inherited mutations in the gene that encodes copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD). A4V and G93A, two of the mutant enzymes associated with FALS, were shown to catalyze the oxidation of a model substrate (spin trap 5,5'-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide) by hydrogen peroxide at a higher rate than that seen with the

Martina Wiedau-Pazos; Joy J. Goto; Shahrooz Rabizadeh; Edith B. Gralla; James A. Roe; Michael K. Lee; Joan S. Valentine; Dale E. Bredesen

1996-01-01

457

Laterally actuated torsional micromirrors for large static deflection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the implementation of laterally electrostatically actuated, torsionally suspended silicon-on-insulator (SOI) micromirrors with a static optical deflection angle of over 40° peak-to-peak. Decoupling the actuator and mirror design allows for large actuator arrays, allowing large dc deflection angle and high resonant frequency to coexist in the same device. The micromirror structures are fully monolithic, micromachined from the front

Veljko Milanovic; M. Last; K. S. J. Pister

2003-01-01

458

Modulation of membrane protein lateral mobility by polyphosphates and polyamines  

PubMed Central

The lateral mobility of fluorescein-labeled membrane glycoproteins was measured in whole unlysed erythrocytes and erythrocyte ghosts by the technique of “fluorescence redistribution after fusion.” Measurements were made on polyethylene glycol-fused cell pairs in which only one member of the couplet was initially fluorescently labeled. Diffusion coefficients were estimated from the rate of fluorescence redistribution determined from successive scans with a focused laser beam across individual fused pairs. This technique allows for the analysis of diffusion within cell membranes without the possible damaging photochemical events caused by photobleaching. It was found that lateral mobility of erythrocyte proteins can be increased by the addition of polyphosphates (i.e., ATP and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate) and decreased by the addition of organic polyamines (i.e., neomycin and spermine). This control is exerted by these molecules only when they contact the cytoplasmic side of the membrane and is not dependent upon high-energy phosphates. Microviscosity experiments employing diphenylhexatriene demonstrated no changes in membrane lipid state as a function of these reagents. Our results, in conjunction with data on the physical interactions of cytoskeletal proteins, suggest that the diffusion effector molecules alter the lateral mobility of erythrocyte membrane proteins through modifications of interactions in the shell, which is composed of spectrin, actin, and component 4.1. PMID:6929496

Schindler, Melvin; Koppel, Dennis E.; Sheetz, Michael P.

1980-01-01

459

Lateral downflows in sunspot penumbral filaments and their temporal evolution  

E-print Network

We study the temporal evolution of downflows observed at the lateral edges of penumbral filaments in a sunspot located very close to the disk center. Our analysis is based on a sequence of nearly diffraction-limited spectropolarimetric scans of the Fe I 6173 A line taken with the CRISP instrument at the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope. We compute Dopplergrams from the observed intensity profiles using line bisectors and filter the resulting velocity maps for subsonic oscillations. Lateral downflows appear everywhere in the center-side penumbra as small, weak patches of redshifts next to or along the edges of blueshifted flow channels. These patches have an intermittent life and undergo mergings and fragmentations quite frequently. The lateral downflows move together with the hosting filaments and react to their shape variations, very much resembling the evolution of granular convection in the quiet Sun. There is a good relation between brightness and velocity of the flow structures in the center-side penumbra, wi...

Pozuelo, S Esteban; Rodriguez, J de la Cruz

2015-01-01

460

Medio-Lateral Postural Instability in Subjects with Tinnitus  

PubMed Central

Background: Many patients show modulation of tinnitus by gaze, jaw or neck movements, reflecting abnormal sensorimotor integration, and interaction between various inputs. Postural control is based on multi-sensory integration (visual, vestibular, somatosensory, and oculomotor) and indeed there is now evidence that posture can also be influenced by sound. Perhaps tinnitus influences posture similarly to external sound. This study examines the quality of postural performance in quiet stance in patients with modulated tinnitus. Methods: Twenty-three patients with highly modulated tinnitus were selected in the ENT service. Twelve reported exclusively or predominately left tinnitus, eight right, and three bilateral. Eighteen control subjects were also tested. Subjects were asked to fixate a target at 40?cm for 51?s; posturography was performed with the platform (Technoconcept, 40 Hz) for both the eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Results: For both conditions, tinnitus subjects showed abnormally high lateral body sway (SDx). This was corroborated by fast Fourrier Transformation (FFTx) and wavelet analysis. For patients with left tinnitus only, medio-lateral sway increased significantly when looking away from the center. Conclusion: Similarly to external sound stimulation, tinnitus could influence lateral sway by activating attention shift, and perhaps vestibular responses. Poor integration of sensorimotor signals is another possibility. Such abnormalities would be accentuated in left tinnitus because of the importance of the right cerebral cortex in processing both auditory–tinnitus eye position and attention. PMID:21647364

Kapoula, Zoi; Yang, Qing; Lê, Thanh-Thuan; Vernet, Marine; Berbey, Nolwenn; Orssaud, Christophe; Londero, Alain; Bonfils, Pierre

2011-01-01

461

Transitions Into and Out of Cohabitation in Later Life  

PubMed Central

Cohabitation among adults over age 50 is rising rapidly, more than doubling from 1.2 million in 2000 to 2.75 million in 2010. A small literature provides a descriptive portrait of older cohabitors, but no study has investigated transitions into and out of cohabitation during later life. Drawing on demographic and life course perspectives, the authors developed a framework for conceptualizing later life union behaviors. Using data from the 1998 – 2006 Health and Retirement Study, they estimated discrete -time event-history models predicting union formation (i.e., cohabitation or marriage) among older unmarried individuals (N = 3,736) as well as transitions to either marriage or separation among older cohabitors (N = 377). Those who formed a union were as likely to be in a cohabiting relationship as a marriage. Older adult cohabiting unions were quite stable and unlikely to culminate in either marriage or separation. During later life, cohabitation appears to operate as a long-term alternative to marriage. PMID:23226875

Brown, Susan L.; Bulanda, Jennifer Roebuck; Lee, Gary R.

2012-01-01

462

Experimental identification of pedestrian-induced lateral forces on footbridges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a comprehensive experimental analysis of lateral forces generated by single pedestrians during continuous walking on a treadmill. Two different conditions are investigated; initially the treadmill is fixed and then it is laterally driven in a sinusoidal motion at varying combinations of frequencies (0.33-1.07 Hz) and amplitudes (4.5-48 mm). The experimental campaign involved 71 male and female human adults and covered approximately 55 km of walking distributed between 4954 individual tests. When walking on a laterally moving surface, motion-induced forces develop at the frequency of the movement and are herewith quantified through equivalent velocity and acceleration proportional coefficients. Their dependency on the vibration frequency and amplitude is presented, both in terms of mean values and probabilistically to illustrate the randomness associated with intra- and inter-subject variability. It is shown that the motion-induced portion of the pedestrian load (on average) inputs energy into the structure in the frequency range (normalised by the mean walking frequency) between approximately 0.6 and 1.2. Furthermore, it is shown that the load component in phase with the acceleration of the treadmill depends on the frequency of the movement, such that pedestrians (on average) subtract from the overall modal mass for low frequency motion and add to the overall modal mass at higher frequencies.

Ingólfsson, E. T.; Georgakis, C. T.; Ricciardelli, F.; Jönsson, J.

2011-03-01

463

Synthesis of lateral heterostructures of semiconducting atomic layers.  

PubMed

Atomically thin heterostructures of transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) with various geometrical and energy band alignments are the key materials for next generation flexible nanoelectronics. The individual TMD monolayers can be adjoined laterally to construct in-plane heterostructures, which are difficult to reach with the laborious pick-up-and-transfer method of the exfoliated flakes. The ability to produce copious amounts of high quality layered heterostructures on diverse surfaces is highly desirable but it has remained a challenging issue. Here, we have achieved a direct synthesis of lateral heterostructures of monolayer TMDs: MoS2-WS2 and MoSe2-WSe2. The synthesis was performed using ambient-pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with aromatic molecules as seeding promoters. We discuss possible growth behaviors, and we examine the symmetry and the interface of these heterostructures using second-harmonic generation and atomic-resolution scanning TEM. We found that the one-dimensinal (1D) interface of the lateral heterostructures picks the zigzag direction of the lattice instead of the armchair direction. Our method offers a controllable synthesis to obtain high-quality in-plane heterostructures of TMD atomic layers with 1D interface geometry. PMID:25494614

Zhang, Xin-Quan; Lin, Chin-Hao; Tseng, Yu-Wen; Huang, Kuan-Hua; Lee, Yi-Hsien

2015-01-14

464

Lateralized discrimination of emotional scenes in peripheral vision.  

PubMed

This study investigates whether there is lateralized processing of emotional scenes in the visual periphery, in the absence of eye fixations; and whether this varies with emotional valence (pleasant vs. unpleasant), specific emotional scene content (babies, erotica, human attack, mutilation, etc.), and sex of the viewer. Pairs of emotional (positive or negative) and neutral photographs were presented for 150 ms peripherally (?6.5° away from fixation). Observers judged on which side the emotional picture was located. Low-level image properties, scene visual saliency, and eye movements were controlled. Results showed that (a) correct identification of the emotional scene exceeded the chance level; (b) performance was more accurate and faster when the emotional scene appeared in the left than in the right visual field; (c) lateralization was equivalent for females and males for pleasant scenes, but was greater for females and unpleasant scenes; and (d) lateralization occurred similarly for different emotional scene categories. These findings reveal discrimination between emotional and neutral scenes, and right brain hemisphere dominance for emotional processing, which is modulated by sex of the viewer and scene valence, and suggest that coarse affective significance can be extracted in peripheral vision. PMID:25511169

Calvo, Manuel G; Rodríguez-Chinea, Sandra; Fernández-Martín, Andrés

2015-03-01

465

Thoracoscopic and laparoscopic radical esophagectomy with lateral-prone position  

PubMed Central

With 20 years of development, minimally-invasive treatment for esophageal cancer has been widely spread. However, surgeons have not reached consensus about the optimal minimally-invasive operation method, or whether the effect of radical lymph nodes dissection is comparable to the traditional open procedure. Thoracoscopic esophagectomy with lateral-prone position combines the advantages of both lateral position (allowing quick conversion to open procedure) and prone position (good visual area and complete lymphadenectomy). Together with laparoscopic abdominal lymphadenectomy, gastric tube formation and jejunostomy, this approach provides an easier way for minimally-invasive radical esophagectomy. In this article, approaches for thoracoscopic esophagectomy with lateral-prone position and total mediastinal lymphadenectomy, combined with totally laparoscopic gastric mobilization, abdominal lymphadenectomy, gastric tube formation and jejunostomy, will be presented by video instructions. All the procedures were under the rule of radical lymphadenectomy. Cervical lymph nodes dissection and esophago-gastrostomy were the same as those in open procedure, which will not be discussed here. PMID:24605231

Ma, Zheng; Niu, Huijun

2014-01-01

466

Sound Lateralization Test Distinguishes Unimpaired MS Patients from Healthy Controls.  

PubMed

There is an urgent need to develop a practical and reliable clinical measure of disease progression in early and mild MS. We hypothesized that a test of sound lateralization, which is exquisitely sensitive to transmission delays in auditory brainstem, could be more useful for detecting processing speed deficits in mildly impaired MS subjects than standard cognitive tasks. Objective. To develop a practical test of sound lateralization for the clinic and to compare performance of MS subjects with variable disability and healthy subjects on Sound Lateralization Test (SLT) and two speed-of-processing tasks. Design. 42 healthy controls and 90 subjects with clinically definite MS, divided into no, mild, and moderate disability strata, were administered the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), and 3-second Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT). Results. All of the tests showed an overall difference in performance between controls and the three MS groups, but only the SLT measured a significant difference between controls and the no disability group. Conclusion. SLT is rapidly applied, technically simple, and superior to standard processing speed tests for discriminating between healthy controls and nondisabled MS subjects. SLT should be investigated as an outcome measure in early-phase trials and for monitoring early disease progression in the clinic. PMID:25132994

Bacon, Joshua H; Kister, Ilya; Bacon, Tamar E; Pasternak, Eliana; Strauchler, Yael; Herbert, Joseph

2014-01-01

467

Rotational synkineses of occiput and atlas on lateral inclination.  

PubMed

An X-ray analysis was performed with regard to the question of synkinetic rotational movements of occiput and atlas on lateral inclination of the head and neck. It was found that the frequent synkinetic rotation of the head from the side of inclination can be taken for a stereotype that is ten times more frequent than the rotation towards the side of inclination. However, it does not represent an essential or indispensable feature of the synkinetic reaction. The associated rotation of the atlas from the side of inclination cannot be looked upon as a normal and constant element of the synkinetic response on lateral inclination, as it does not occur in nearly one-half of cases. Moreover, these studies have shown that the rotational movement between occiput and atlas is possible not only in the final stage of maximum forced rotation of the head, but that it belongs to normal dynamic features of the synkinetic response on lateral inclination of the head and neck. PMID:7219698

Jirout, J

1981-02-01

468

Sound Lateralization Test Distinguishes Unimpaired MS Patients from Healthy Controls  

PubMed Central

There is an urgent need to develop a practical and reliable clinical measure of disease progression in early and mild MS. We hypothesized that a test of sound lateralization, which is exquisitely sensitive to transmission delays in auditory brainstem, could be more useful for detecting processing speed deficits in mildly impaired MS subjects than standard cognitive tasks. Objective. To develop a practical test of sound lateralization for the clinic and to compare performance of MS subjects with variable disability and healthy subjects on Sound Lateralization Test (SLT) and two speed-of-processing tasks. Design. 42 healthy controls and 90 subjects with clinically definite MS, divided into no, mild, and moderate disability strata, were administered the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), and 3-second Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT). Results. All of the tests showed an overall difference in performance between controls and the three MS groups, but only the SLT measured a significant difference between controls and the no disability group. Conclusion. SLT is rapidly applied, technically simple, and superior to standard processing speed tests for discriminating between healthy controls and nondisabled MS subjects. SLT should be investigated as an outcome measure in early-phase trials and for monitoring early disease progression in the clinic. PMID:25132994

Bacon, Joshua H.; Bacon, Tamar E.

2014-01-01

469

Breast reconstruction using the lateral femoral circumflex artery perforator flap.  

PubMed

The development of microsurgical breast reconstruction has resulted in not only the lower abdomen as a source of donor site tissue but also interest in alternative donor sites. These have included perforator-based flaps at the sites of previously described myocutaneous flaps (e.g., superior or inferior gluteal arteries) and the use of myocutaneous flaps not previously used for breast reconstruction (e.g., gracilis or transverse upper gracilis). We present our experience with a unique form of the tensor fascia lata flap and describe the first reported use of the lateral femoral circumflex artery (LFCA) perforator flap for breast reconstruction. A patient with minimal abdominal fat but lipodystrophy of the upper lateral thighs presented for breast reconstruction. Perforator flaps based on the lateral femoral circumflex vessels were designed. The LFCA perforator flap from one side was successfully used for breast reconstruction. The flap on the contralateral side did not have a suitable perforator. The LFCA perforator flap offers another option for women seeking autogenous breast reconstruction. Advances in preoperative imaging will likely make this a more reliable option. PMID:21766271

Kind, Gabriel M; Foster, Robert D

2011-09-01

470

Detour behaviour, imprinting and visual lateralization in the domestic chick.  

PubMed

Detour behaviour was studied in chicks faced with a vertical-bar barrier behind where an imprinting object (a red ball) was located. Right-eyed chicks took less time to detour the barrier than left-eyed chicks, and binocular chicks showed a bias to detour the barrier on the left side, thus maintaining visual contact with the imprinting object using the lateral field of the right eye, while circling around the barrier. In males, the asymmetries were consistent all along the first two weeks of life, whereas in females they disappeared on days 8 and 11. When tested with a slightly novel version of the original imprinting object (i.e., a ball of a different color), binocular chicks showed a bias to detour the barrier on the right side, thus showing preferential use of the left eye. The same bias occurred when unfamiliar conspecifics were used as goal-objects. Results suggest that cerebral lateralization in birds can directly affect visually-guided motor responses through selective use of the lateral field of vision of the eye contralateral to the hemisphere which has to be put in charge of control of overt behaviour. PMID:9838175

Vallortigara, G; Regolin, L; Pagni, P

1999-01-01

471

Glacial isostatic adjustment of laterally homogeneous vs. heterogeneous earth models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects on postglacial rebound due to lateral variations in lithospheric thickness, asthenospheric viscosity and thickness, density, and lower mantle viscosity have been evaluated for Maxwell viscoelastic flat-earth models using the finite element method. Vertical displacement relative to the present sea level, which is comparable to relative sea level data (RSL) for the last 8 thousand years, is computed for both axisymmetric and three dimensional non-axisymmetric earth models with disk loads. This is then extended to a realistic three dimensional earth model with a realistic deglaciation history for North America. Vertical velocity, gravity, horizontal displacement and velocity are also computed for some of the axisymmetric models. The results show that lateral heterogeneities introduce additional spatial variations to postglacial uplift of a laterally homogeneous reference earth model. The variations can be detected by comparing RSL with predictions of a suite of reference models at sites across a large area, excluding the inner peripheral area of former glacier margin because vertical motion in the area is least sensitive to the earth properties whereas horizontal motion is relatively more sensitive there. The effects of lateral variations in the asthenosphere are more detectable than those in the lithosphere. The effects of the lower mantle heterogeneities are significant for large ice loads with size comparable to the Laurentide Ice Sheet, but negligible for small ice loads with size comparable to or smaller than the Fennoscandia Ice Sheet. The effects of a low density continental root on RSL and horizontal motions are small, but detectable with gravity. The lateral heterogeneities under a formerly glaciated area affect the postglacial rebound more than those outside the area. In addition, a 3D spherical finite element model has been constructed and calibrated using the spherical spectral method. Analytical solutions of some simple layered spherical earth models, derived for the calibration also, demonstrate that (1) a density contrast between two solid layers introduces a buoyancy mode and a contrast in the ratio of viscosity/(shear modulus) introduces two insignificant transitional modes, (2) neglecting self-gravitation results in a little faster relaxation at small n harmonics, (3) the singularities in the numerical search for the relaxation modes can be avoided easily.

Ni, Zhihong

472

Cellular profile of the dorsal raphe lateral wing sub-region: relationship to the lateral dorsal tegmental nucleus.  

PubMed

As one of the main serotonergic (5HT) projections to the forebrain, the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) has been implicated in disorders of anxiety and depression. Although the nucleus contains the densest population of 5HT neurons in the brain, at least 50% of cells within this structure are non-serotonergic, including a large population of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) containing neurons. The DRN has a unique topographical efferent organization and can also be divided into sub-regions based on rostro-caudal and medio-lateral dimensions. NOS is co-localized with 5HT in the midline DRN but NOS-positive cells in the lateral wing (LW) of the nucleus do not express 5HT. Interestingly, the NOS LW neuronal population is immediately rostral to and in line with the cholinergic lateral dorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT). We used immunohistochemical methods to investigate the potential serotonergic regulation of NOS LW neurons and also the association of this cell grouping to the LDT. Our results indicate that >75% of NOS LW neurons express the inhibitory 5HT1A receptor and are cholinergic (>90%). The findings suggest this assembly of cells is a rostral extension of the LDT, one that it is subject to regulation by 5HT release. As such the present study suggests a link between 5HT signaling, activation of cholinergic/NOS neurons, and the stress response including the pathophysiology underlying anxiety and depression. PMID:24704911

Vasudeva, Rani K; Waterhouse, Barry D

2014-05-01

473

Lateral diffusion of nutrients by mammalian herbivores in terrestrial ecosystems.  

PubMed

Animals translocate nutrients by consuming nutrients at one point and excreting them or dying at another location. Such lateral fluxes may be an important mechanism of nutrient supply in many ecosystems, but lack quantification and a systematic theoretical framework for their evaluation. This paper presents a mathematical framework for quantifying such fluxes in the context of mammalian herbivores. We develop an expression for lateral diffusion of a nutrient, where the diffusivity is a biologically determined parameter depending on the characteristics of mammals occupying the domain, including size-dependent phenomena such as day range, metabolic demand, food passage time, and population size. Three findings stand out: (a) Scaling law-derived estimates of diffusion parameters are comparable to estimates calculated from estimates of each coefficient gathered from primary literature. (b) The diffusion term due to transport of nutrients in dung is orders of magnitude large than the coefficient representing nutrients in bodymass. (c) The scaling coefficients show that large herbivores make a disproportionate contribution to lateral nutrient transfer. We apply the diffusion equation to a case study of Kruger National Park to estimate the conditions under which mammal-driven nutrient transport is comparable in magnitude to other (abiotic) nutrient fluxes (inputs and losses). Finally, a global analysis of mammalian herbivore transport is presented, using a comprehensive database of contemporary animal distributions. We show that continents vary greatly in terms of the importance of animal-driven nutrient fluxes, and also that perturbations to nutrient cycles are potentially quite large if threatened large herbivores are driven to extinction. PMID:23951141

Wolf, Adam; Doughty, Christopher E; Malhi, Yadvinder

2013-01-01

474

Novel mutation in VCP gene causes atypical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objective: To identify the genetic variant that causes autosomal dominantly inherited motor neuron disease in a 4-generation Israeli-Arab family using genetic linkage and whole exome sequencing. Methods: Genetic linkage analysis was performed in this family using Illumina single nucleotide polymorphism chips. Whole exome sequencing was then undertaken on DNA samples from 2 affected family members using an Illumina 2000 HiSeq platform in pursuit of potentially pathogenic genetic variants that comigrate with the disease in this pedigree. Variants meeting these criteria were then screened in all affected individuals. Results: A novel mutation (p.R191G) in the valosin-containing protein (VCP) gene was identified in the index family. Direct sequencing of the VCP gene in a panel of DNA from 274 unrelated individuals with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) revealed 5 additional mutations. Among them, 2 were previously identified in pedigrees with a constellation of inclusion body myopathy with Paget disease of the bone and frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD) and in FALS, and 2 other mutations (p.R159C and p.R155C) in IBMPFD alone. We did not detect VCP gene mutations in DNA from 178 cases of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Conclusions: We report a novel VCP mutation identified in an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis family (p.R191G) with atypical clinical features. In our experience, VCP mutations arise in approximately 1.5% of FALS cases. Our study supports the view that motor neuron disease is part of the clinical spectrum of VCP-associated disease. PMID:23152587

González-Pérez, Paloma; Cirulli, Elizabeth T.; Drory, Vivian E.; Dabby, Ron; Nisipeanu, Puiu; Carasso, Ralph L.; Sadeh, Menachem; Fox, Andrew; Festoff, Barry W.; Sapp, Peter C.; McKenna-Yasek, Diane; Goldstein, David B.

2012-01-01

475

Effects of Lateral Loads on a Single Pile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design of piles under lateral loads requires estimation of ultimate load carrying capacity of the pile and also, the pile deflections need to be evaluated to determine the allowable loads. For estimating the pile response, structural engineers invariably utilize the simplified method prescribed in the Indian code IS 2911-2002 (Indian Standard Code of Practice for Design of Pile Foundations, 2002). The method is based on replacing the pile soil system by an equivalent cantilever, the length of which is a function of subgrade reaction of the surrounding soil and the pile geometry. However, the method described is applicable only for flexible piles, where the maximum depth coefficient L/ T is equal to or exceeds 4.0. To estimate the pile response for rigid piles, simplified procedures are not suggested and hence in the present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the pile response under lateral loads using detailed soil-pile analysis. Parametric studies are carried out for various pile lengths and various soil stiffness. The pile responses thus obtained are compared with the method given in IS 2911-2002. It was observed that the pile response based on IS 2911-2002 compared reasonably well with the detailed soil-pile model even for L/ T ? 2.5. However IS 2911-2002 underestimates the pile head deflections for L/ T < 2.5 for both free headed and fixed head piles and hence detailed soil-pile analysis is essential for such situations. The variation of pile response with soil stiffness is also evaluated using these methods and the results are presented. The soil-pile analysis is carried out using subgrade modulus approach. The soil stiffness is assumed to vary linearly along the pile depth and hence the study is applicable for cohesionless soils which can be used for practical design of single pile subjected to lateral loads.

Phanikanth, V. S.; Choudhury, D.

2012-09-01

476

Continued ultraviolet studies of some Be stars of later type  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Anomalous ionization (C IV and Si IV) is seen in IUE spectra of Be stars as late as B8, and occurs also in standard stars of similar spectral type. Asymmetrical lines suggesting mass loss are present in all the Be stars and several of the standard stars as well, with no obvious correlation with v sin i. Emission shoulders are present in the Mg II lines of two B5e stars but not in Be stars of later type. Again there is no correlation with v sin i. The A-F shell stars show rich Fe II absorption spectra in the ultraviolet, in one case with velocity structure.

Slettebak, A.

1985-01-01

477

Tracking integration in concentrating photovoltaics using laterally moving optics.  

PubMed

In this work the concept of tracking-integrated concentrating photovoltaics is studied and its capabilities are quantitatively analyzed. The design strategy desists from ideal concentration performance to reduce the external mechanical solar tracking effort in favor of a compact installation, possibly resulting in lower overall cost. The proposed optical design is based on an extended Simultaneous Multiple Surface (SMS) algorithm and uses two laterally moving plano-convex lenses to achieve high concentration over a wide angular range of ±24°. It achieves 500× concentration, outperforming its conventional concentrating photovoltaic counterparts on a polar aligned single axis tracker. PMID:21643362

Duerr, Fabian; Meuret, Youri; Thienpont, Hugo

2011-05-01

478

Two-axis solar tracking accomplished through small lateral translations.  

PubMed

High-concentration solar-power optics require precise two-axis tracking. The planar micro-optic solar concentrator uses a lenslet array over a planar waveguide with small reflective facets at the focal point of each lenslet to couple incident light into the waveguide. The concentrator can use conventional tracking, tilting the entire assembly, but the system geometry also allows tracking by small lateral translation of the lenslet relative to the waveguide. Here, we experimentally demonstrate such microtracking with the existing concentrator optics and present optimized optical designs for systems with higher efficiency and angle range. PMID:22945159

Hallas, Justin M; Baker, Katherine A; Karp, Jason H; Tremblay, Eric J; Ford, Joseph E

2012-09-01

479

Meningiomas of the lateral ventricles of the brain.  

PubMed

Meningiomas of the lateral ventricles of the brain are rare tumours with an approximate incidence of 0.5-4.5% among all intracranial meningiomas. Four cases of intraventricular meningioma arising from the trigone are presented. In 1-st case the calcified mass was visible on straight radiographs. In 2-nd and 3-rd cases CT and angiography was performed. In 4-th case MRI and MRA proved to be very useful. The tumours were removed by transcortical approach in the posterior parietal area. The available literature on intraventricular meningiomas has been discussed. PMID:9487654

Imieli?ski, B L; Kloc, W

1997-01-01

480

Ensuring continued progress in biomarkers for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Multiple candidate biomarkers for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have emerged across a range of platforms. Replication of results, however, has been absent in all but a few cases, and the range of control samples has been limited. If progress toward clinical translation is to continue, the specific biomarker needs of ALS, which differ from those of other neurodegenerative disorders, as well as the challenges inherent to longitudinal ALS biomarker cohorts, must be understood. Appropriate application of multimodal approaches, international collaboration, presymptomatic studies, and biomarker integration into future therapeutic trials are among the essential priorities going forward. PMID:25288265

Turner, Martin R; Benatar, Michael

2015-01-01

481

Lateral photoconductivity in structures with Ge/Si quantum dots  

SciTech Connect

The spectra of lateral photoconductivity and optical absorption caused by the intraband optical transitions of holes in Ge/Si quantum dots are studied at different lattice temperatures. Polarization-dependent spectral features related to the transitions of holes from the quantum dot (QD) ground state are revealed in the optical spectra. Temperature photoconductivity quenching caused by the reverse trapping of nonequilibrium free holes by the QD bound state is observed. The obtained experimental data make it possible to determine the height of the surface band bending at the QD heterointerface.

Panevin, V. Yu., E-mail: pvyu@rphf.spbstu.ru; Sofronov, A. N.; Vorobjev, L. E.; Firsov, D. A.; Shalygin, V. A.; Vinnichenko, M. Ya.; Balagula, R. M. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University (Russian Federation); Tonkikh, A. A.; Werner, P. [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics (Germany); Fuhrman, B. [Interdisziplinäres Zentrum für Materialwissenschaften (IZM), Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg (Germany); Schmidt, G. [Institut für Physik, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg (Germany)

2013-12-15

482

Lateral migration of Cascadia Channel in response to accretionary tectonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to the progradation of the Washington continental slope and uplift of sediment at the eastern edge of Cascadia Basin, Cascadia Channel has altered its course by migrating seaward where the channel leaves the base of the slope and passes through the swale between Nitinat and Astoria submarine fans. Long-range side-scan sonar and acousticreflection data reveal a series of descending terraces, averaging 3 km in width and 10 m in height, between the base of the slope and Cascadia Channel that evince the lateral migration of the channel. Cascadia Channel, in this specific case, has responded as a terrestrial fluvial system does to tectonic tilt.

Karl, H. A.; Hampton, M. A.; Kenyon, N. H.

1989-02-01

483

Lateral epitaxial growth of germanium on silicon oxide  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a method using local oxidation on silicon to create nanoscale silicon seeds for the lateral epitaxial overgrowth of germanium on silicon oxide. The germanium growth starts selectively from silicon seed lines, proceeds by wetting the SiO{sub 2} layer and coalesces without formation of grain boundary. Analysis by high resolution transmission electron microscopy have shown that Ge layers grown above silicon oxide are perfectly monocrystalline and are free of defect. The only detected defects are situated at the Ge/Si interface. Geometrical phase analyses of the microscopy images have shown that the Ge layer is fully relaxed and homogeneous.

Cammilleri, V. D.; Yam, V.; Fossard, F.; Renard, C.; Bouchier, D. [Institut d'Electronique Fondamentale, CNRS UMR 8622, Universite Paris-Sud, Bat 220, 91405 Orsay (France); Fazzini, P. F.; Houdellier, F.; Hyetch, M. [CEMES-CNRS, University of Toulouse, 29, Rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055, Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Ortolani, L. [CEMES-CNRS, University of Toulouse, 29, Rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055, Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); University of Bologna, Department of Physics, v.le B. Pichat, 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy) and CNR-IMM Bologna, v. Gobetti, 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy)

2008-07-28

484

Plasma vortices, lateral forcing, and the superrotating Venus atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New observations from Venus Express (VEX) show the existence of a large-scale vortex-like ion flow pattern in the Venus plasma tail. The flow pattern is characterized by besides a dominating antisunward flow, also a lateral flow component of solar wind (H+) and ionospheric (O+) ions. The lateral flow component is directed opposite to the Venus orbital motion. A test of the energy and momentum balance between solar wind H+ and ionospheric O+ indicates that the energy and momentum delivered to O+ is proportional to the loss of energy and momentum by solar wind H+. The combined antisunward and lateral H+ and O+ flow wraps over the planetary atmosphere, from the terminator into the nightside. The net lateral flow near Venus is in the direction of the Venus atmospheric superrotation. Further down in the Venus plasma tail the flow display a circular motion around the central tail axis. The general agreement in direction between the nightside ion flow over the Northern hemisphere, and the retrograde motion of the Venus atmosphere, implies a cause-effect relation between the ionospheric O+ flow and the atmospheric neutral flow. This underlying connection is further strengthened by the fact the the O+ flow velocity in the 200-300 km altitude range follows the same power law curve as that fitted to the atmospheric zonal wind velocity profile [1]. The combined ion + neutral wind profile therefore implies momentum balance between the ionospheric and atmospheric retrograde flow. The fact that the O+ flow is driven by solar wind forcing leaves us with the question: Is the superrotating upper atmosphere at Venus a consequence of solar wind forcing? Is the ion flow capable of accelerating, and maintaining, a superrotating upper atmosphere at Venus? Combining ion data [2] with a fluid dynamic model of the energy and momentum transfer of ions to neutrals we find that this is certainly possible. The ionospheric O+ energy and momentum observed is sufficient to accelerate, and maintain superrotating velocites, after a few million years - minute compared to evolutionary time scales of a planet. [1] Schubert G., C. Covey, A. Del Genio, L.S. Elson et al., J. Geophys. Res., 85, 8007-8025, 1980 [2] Lundin, R.; Barabash, S.; Futaana, Y.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Fedorov, A.; Perez-de-Tejada, H., Ion flow and momentum transfer in the Venus plasma environment, Icarus, 215, 751-758, 2011

Lundin, R.; Barabash, S.; Futaana, S.; Holmstrom, M.; Perez-de-Tejada, H.; Sauvaud, J.-A.

2012-04-01

485

Laterally confined THz sources and graphene based THz optics  

E-print Network

Laterally confined THz Sources and Graphene based THz Optics Shruti Badhwar St John’s College Department of Physics, University of Cambridge A thesis submitted for the degree of Doctorate in Philosophy 31st May 2014 2 To the hands who nourished... . Without the generous support of graphene samples from Piran Kidambi and Dr. Stephan Hofmann, much of this work would not have been possible. I would iii also like to thank Reuben Puddy whose experience with graphene helped some of the ideas to kick...

Badhwar, Shruti

2014-10-07

486

Lateralizing Sensorimotor Deficits in a Case of Pseudopheochromocytoma  

PubMed Central

Pseudopheochromocytoma is a poorly understood, rare cause of severe paroxysmal hypertension that mimics the symptomatology of pheochromocytoma in the absence of biochemical evidence of this tumor. Symptoms such as headache, nausea, sweating, and palpitations during hypertensive episodes have been described. In this paper, we describe previously unreported findings of lateralizing sensorimotor deficits in a patient with pseudopheochromocytoma. These changes presented during a hypertensive episode and were concerning for stroke but were not accompanied by acute radiologic abnormalities. The deficits improved over 1.5 weeks as blood pressure stabilized with beta-blockade. We also review relevant literature on the clinical features, pathophysiology, and management of pseudopheochromocytoma. PMID:25506289

Suh, Joome; Quinn, Courtney; Rehwinkel, Alia

2014-01-01

487

Robust detection of peak signals for lateral flow immunoassays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Template matching method is presented to identify the peaks from the scanned signals of lateral flow immunoassay strips. The template is composed of two pulses separated by the distance of the control and the target ligand line in the assay, and is convolved with the scanned signal to deliver the maximum at the center of the two peaks. The peak regions were identified with the predefined distances from the center. Glycosylated haemoglobin immunoassay strips and fluorescent strip readers from Boditechmed Inc. were tested to estimate the lot and reader variations of the concentration measurands. The results showed the robustness of the propose method.

Kim, Jongwon; Kim, Jong Dae; Nahm, Kie Bong; Choi, Eui Yul; Lee, Geumyoung

2011-02-01

488

On the measurement of lateral velocity derivatives in turbulent flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct numerical simulation data for the lateral velocity derivative delta(u)/delta(y) at the centerline of a fully developed turbulent channel flow provide reasonable support for Wyngaard's analysis of the error involved in measuring this quantity using parallel hot wires. Numerical data in the wall region of the channel flow also provide a useful indication of how to select the separation between the wires. Justification for this choice is obtained by comparing several measured statistics of delta(u)/delta(y) with the corresponding numerical data.

Antonia, R. A.; Zhu, Y.; Kim, J.

1993-01-01

489

Lateral Spread of Tungsten Ions Implanted in Silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon wafers were irradiated at tilted geometry to measure the lateral spread of tungsten ions in silicon for implantation energies between 40 and 360 keV. The depth profiles of implanted tungsten ions were measured by means of secondary ion mass spectrometry. The measured transverse range stragglings were obtained by using Furukawa and Matsumura's formula. An analysis of the measured transverse range stragglings as compared to the values calculated from the Biersack theory and SRIM reveals that the calculated transverse range stragglings from the Biersack theory correlated closer to the measured ones.

Liang, Jenq-Horng

1998-03-01

490

Infant recall memory and communication predicts later cognitive development  

PubMed Central

This longitudinal study investigates the relation between recall memory and communication in infancy and later cognitive development. Twenty-six typically developing Swedish children were tested during infancy for deferred imitation (memory), joint attention (JA), and requesting (nonverbal communication); they also were tested during childhood for language and cognitive competence. Results showed that infants with low performance on both deferred imitation at 9 months and joint attention at 14 months obtained a significantly lower score on a test of cognitive abilities at 4 years of age. This long-term prediction from preverbal infancy to childhood cognition is of interest both to developmental theory and to practice. PMID:17138307

Strid, Karin; Tjus, Tomas; Smith, Lars; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Heimann, Mikael

2013-01-01

491

Alkaloids isolated from the lateral root of Aconitum carmichaelii.  

PubMed

Two new alkaloids, aconicarmine (1) and aconicaramide (5), were isolated from the EtOH extract of the lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaelii, together with five known compounds: fuziline (2), neoline (3), N-ethylhokbusine B (4), 5-hydroxymethylpyrrole-2-carbaldehyde (6), and oleracein E (7). Their structures were elucidated by physical and NMR analysis. Pyrrole alkaloids were isolated from A. carmichaelii for the first time. In the in vitro assays, compounds 2 and 3 showed activity against pentobarbital sodiuminduced cardiomyocytes damage by obviously recovering beating rhythm and increasing the cell viability, while compounds 5 and 7 showed moderate antibacterial activity. PMID:22907155

Xiong, Liang; Peng, Cheng; Xie, Xiao-Fang; Guo, Li; He, Cheng-Jun; Geng, Zhao; Wan, Feng; Dai, Ou; Zhou, Qin-Mei

2012-01-01

492

Pincer Nail Deformity in a Patient with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Although several manifestations of skin involvement in cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have been reported, the pincer nail deformity has not been previously reported in a patient with ALS. The pincer nail deformity is characterized by distortion of the shape of the nail with transverse over curvature and may be associated with systemic diseases and certain medications. We herein describe the case of a patient presenting with a pincer nail deformity associated with rapidly advancing ALS. This case suggests a potential link between quickly advancing disease and the pincer nail deformity. PMID:25568742

Fujita, Youshi; Fujita, Takehisa

2014-01-01

493

Dysphagia caused by a lateral medullary infarction syndrome (Wallenberg's syndrome)  

PubMed Central

A 68-year-old man was referred to our hospital for a dysphagia evolving for 10 days. Clinical examination had found neurological signs as contralateral Horner's syndrome, ipsilateral palatal paresis, gait ataxia and hoarseness. Video-fluoroscopy showed a lack of passage of contrast medium to the distal esophagus. Esogastroduodenoscopy was normal. The cranial MRI had shown an acute ischemic stroke in the left lateral medullar region and the diagnosis of Wallenberg syndrome (WS) was established. WS remains an unknown cause of dysphagia in the clinical practice of the gastroenterologist. PMID:23077713

El Mekkaoui, Amine; Irhoudane, Hanane; Ibrahimi, Adil; El Yousfi, Mounia

2012-01-01

494

Ensuring continued progress in biomarkers for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Multiple candidate biomarkers for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have emerged across a range of platforms. Replication of results, however, has been absent in all but a few cases, and the range of control samples has been limited. If progress toward clinical translation is to continue, the specific biomarker needs of ALS, which differ from those of other neurodegenerative disorders, as well as the challenges inherent to longitudinal ALS biomarker cohorts, must be understood. Appropriate application of multimodal approaches, international collaboration, presymptomatic studies, and biomarker integration into future therapeutic trials are among the essential priorities going forward. Muscle Nerve 51: 14-18, 2015. PMID:25288265

Turner, Martin R; Benatar, Michael

2015-01-01

495

Lateral organization of cholesterol molecules in lipid-cholesterol assemblies.  

SciTech Connect

We present results of an off-lattice simulation of a two-component planar system, as a model for lateral organization of cholesterol molecules in lipid-cholesterol assemblies. We explore the existence of 'superlattice' structures even in fluid systems, in the absence of an underlying translational long-range order, and study their coupling to hexatic or bond-orientational order. We discuss our results in context of geometric superlattice theories and 'condensation complexes' in understanding a variety of experiments in artificial lipid-cholesterol assemblies.

Singh, Rajiv R. P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Slepoy, Alexander; Sengupta, Pinaki (University of California, Davis, CA); Cox, Daniel L. (University of California, Davis, CA)

2005-05-01

496

Vesalius four centuries later. Medicine in the eighteenth century.  

E-print Network

CENTURIES LATER Cusliing he also shared an abiding interest in Andreas Vesalius. In his Source Boo\\ of Medical History there is a long section which he had had translated from his copy of the first edition of the Fabrica. He regretted that neither... long, unquestioned period of rest." Andreas Vesalius is one of the most colorful figures in all medical history—not only was he a man much talked of in his own time, but through the centuries he has been the subject of many studies which have...

Fulton, John F.

1950-01-01

497

CrAg Lateral Flow Assay for Cryptococcosis  

PubMed Central

Importance of field Cryptococcal meningitis is a leading cause of death globally among people with AIDS. In sub-Saharan Africa, cryptococcosis is estimated to kill more people than tuberculosis. Cryptococcosis is also an important infectious disease among immunosuppressed patients in countries with advanced medical care. Early diagnosis is the key to effective treatment, particularly in patients in resource-limited settings. A new lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) for cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) allows for rapid and inexpensive diagnosis of cryptococcosis at or near the point of patient contact. Areas covered This article reviews the need for improved diagnostics for cryptococcal meningitis and describes the features of an ideal diagnostic. The design of a new lateral flow immunoassay for CrAg is described as well as the results of initial clinical evaluation of the CrAg LFA. Expert opinion The CrAg LFA is recommended for use with serum, plasma or CSF for diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis or non-meningeal cryptococcal disease in symptomatic patients. There is a need for further evaluation of LFA for screening of asymptomatic patients. However, the LFA is emerging as a valuable tool for screening of serum or plasma in ART-naïve adults with CD4 counts less than 100 cells/mm3 in geographic regions with a high prevalence of cryptococcal antigenemia. CrAg screening has the potential to identify patients with asymptomatic cryptococcal infection who should receive pre-emptive anti-fungal therapy. PMID:23480688

Kozel, Thomas R.; Bauman, Sean K.

2013-01-01

498

Intrinsic particle-induced lateral transport in microchannels  

PubMed Central

In microfluidic systems at low Reynolds number, the flow field around a particle is assumed to maintain fore-aft symmetry, with fluid diverted by the presence of a particle, returning to its original streamline downstream. This current model considers particles as passive components of the system. However, we demonstrate that at finite Reynolds number, when inertia is taken into consideration, particles are not passive elements in the flow but significantly disturb and modify it. In response to the flow field, particles translate downstream while rotating. The combined effect of the flow of fluid around particles, particle rotation, channel confinement (i.e., particle dimensions approaching those of the channel), and finite fluid inertia creates a net recirculating flow perpendicular to the primary flow direction within straight channels that resembles the well-known Dean flow in curved channels. Significantly, the particle generating this flow remains laterally fixed as it translates downstream and only the fluid is laterally transferred. Therefore, as the particles remain inertially focused, operations can be performed around the particles in a way that is compatible with downstream assays such as flow cytometry. We apply this particle-induced transfer to perform fluid switching and mixing around rigid microparticles as well as deformable cells. This transport phenomenon, requiring only a simple channel geometry with no external forces to operate, offers a practical approach for fluid transfer at high flow rates with a wide range of applications, including sample preparation, flow reaction, and heat transfer. PMID:22761309

Amini, Hamed; Sollier, Elodie; Weaver, Westbrook M.; Di Carlo, Dino

2012-01-01

499

Intrinsic particle-induced lateral transport in microchannels.  

PubMed

In microfluidic systems at low Reynolds number, the flow field around a particle is assumed to maintain fore-aft symmetry, with fluid diverted by the presence of a particle, returning to its original streamline downstream. This current model considers particles as passive components of the system. However, we demonstrate that at finite Reynolds number, when inertia is taken into consideration, particles are not passive elements in the flow but significantly disturb and modify it. In response to the flow field, particles translate downstream while rotating. The combined effect of the flow of fluid around particles, particle rotation, channel confinement (i.e., particle dimensions approaching those of the channel), and finite fluid inertia creates a net recirculating flow perpendicular to the primary flow direction within straight channels that resembles the well-known Dean flow in curved channels. Significantly, the particle generating this flow remains laterally fixed as it translates downstream and only the fluid is laterally transferred. Therefore, as the particles remain inertially focused, operations can be performed around the particles in a way that is compatible with downstream assays such as flow cytometry. We apply this particle-induced transfer to perform fluid switching and mixing around rigid microparticles as well as deformable cells. This transport phenomenon, requiring only a simple channel geometry with no external forces to operate, offers a practical approach for fluid transfer at high flow rates with a wide range of applications, including sample preparation, flow reaction, and heat transfer. PMID:22761309

Amini, Hamed; Sollier, Elodie; Weaver, Westbrook M; Di Carlo, Dino

2012-07-17

500

Treatment of lateral epicondylitis of the elbow with shock waves.  

PubMed

In a prospective clinical study, the effectiveness of shock wave treatment for lateral epicondylitis in 56 elbows in 53 patients (27 men and 26 women) with an average age of 46 years was investigated. Three patients received treatment for both elbows. Each elbow was treated with 1,000 impulses of shock waves at 14 kV. A 100-point scoring system was used for evaluation including 40 points for pain, 30 points for function, 20 points for strength, and 10 points for elbow motion. The intensity of pain was measured using a visual analogue scale from 0 to 10. The overall results were 13.2% excellent, 44.7% good, 36.8% acceptable, and 5.3 unchanged in 35 patients with 12 weeks followup; 30.8% excellent, 42.3% good, and 26.9% acceptable in 25 patients with 24 weeks followup. Considerable improvement was observed from 6 weeks to 6 months after the treatment. None of the patients' symptoms became worse. The results of nine patients who also received a second treatment were good in three patients, acceptable in five patients, and unchanged in one patient. There was no device-related problems, systemic, or local complications. Shock wave therapy may offer a new and safer nonoperative treatment for patients with lateral epidoncylitis of the elbow. PMID:11400895

Ko, J Y; Chen, H S; Chen, L M

2001-06-01