Science.gov

Sample records for lateral durante atividades

  1. Lateral flow strip assay

    DOEpatents

    Miles, Robin R.; Benett, William J.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Pearson, Francesca S.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  2. Prevendo a atividade solar através de redes neurais nebulosas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, V. A. F.; Poppe, P. C. R.

    2003-08-01

    Atualmente, a integração de redes neurais com técnicas da Matemática Nebulosa (Fuzzy Sets), tem sido usada robustamente para fazer previsões em vários sistemas físicos. Este trabalho representa uma continuidade da contribuição apresentada anteriormente durante a XXVIIa Reunião Anual da SAB, onde exploramos a aplicação de redes neurais para previsões futuras de séries temporais. Para este, enfatizamos o uso da técnica ANFIS (Adaptative Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System), que consiste em uma rede do tipo back-propagation, onde os dados são processados em uma camada intermediária, tendo numa camada de saída, os dados numéricos. Para que a previsão seja feita com sucesso utilizando-se técnicas matemáticas adequadas, é fundamental a existência de uma série razoavelmente longa de modo que a dinâmica contida nesta possa ser melhor extraída pela rede neural. Nesse sentido, foram utilizados novamente os dados históricos das manchas do Sol (1818-2002) afim de verificar o comportamento futuro da atividade solar (Ciclos de Schawbe) a partir da técnica descrita acima. Previsões realizadas para o ciclo anterior (n.22, máximo de 158,5 em julho de 1989), bem como para o atual (n.23, máximo de 153 em setembro de 2000), apontam valores bastante coerentes com os publicados na literatura, levando em consideração, respectivamente, as barras de erros associadas: 166+/-18 e 160+/-14. Para o próximo ciclo de Schawbe (2006-2017), nossa previsão aponta o valor de 172+/-23 como máximo para o primeiro semestre de 2011 (Abril +/- 3 meses). A ANFIS acompanha de maneira satisfatória o movimento das séries estudadas durante o treinamento e durante a verificação (menor dispersão das funções de pertinência), com erro absoluto inferior a 20 por cento.

  3. Reading Disability and Laterality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparrow, Sara S.

    The purpose of this study was to determine how retarded readers differed from normal readers in the various ways laterality is manifested. An additional purpose was to investigate the development of laterality as seen across several age levels. Subjects were 80 white male 9-, 10-, 11-, and 12-year-olds from regular classrooms in suburban

  4. Primary Lateral Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... When symptoms begin, PLS may be mistaken for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or spastic paraplegia. Most neurologists follow an affected ... www.sp-foundation.org Tel: 877-773-4483 ALS Association 1275 K Street, N.W. Suite 250 ...

  5. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a nervous system disease that attacks nerve cells called neurons in your ... people with ALS die from respiratory failure. The disease usually strikes between age 40 and 60. More ...

  6. Laterally bendable belt conveyor

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, William J.

    1985-01-01

    An endless, laterally flexible and bendable belt conveyor particularly adapted for coal mining applications in facilitating the transport of the extracted coal up- or downslope and around corners in a continuous manner is disclosed. The conveying means includes a flat rubber belt reinforced along the middle portion thereof along which the major portion of the belt tension is directed so as to cause rotation of the tubular shaped belt when trammed around lateral turns thus preventing excessive belt bulging distortion between adjacent belt supports which would inhibit belt transport. Pretension induced into the fabric reinforced flat rubber belt by conventional belt take-up means supports the load conveyed when the belt conveyor is making lateral turns. The carrying and return portions of the belt are supported and formed into a tubular shape by a plurality of shapers positioned along its length. Each shaper is supported from above by a monorail and includes clusters of idler rollers which support the belt. Additional cluster rollers in each shaper permit the belt supporting roller clusters to rotate in response to the belt's operating tension imposed upon the cluster rollers by induced lateral belt friction forces. The freely rotating roller clusters thus permit the belt to twist on lateral curves without damage to itself while precluding escape of the conveyed material by effectively enclosing it in the tube-shaped, inner belt transport length.

  7. Infrared lateral shearing interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, O.

    1980-04-01

    Recently IR interferometry has received much attention for its special capabilities of testing IR materials, diamond-turned metal mirrors, deep aspherics, unpolished rough surface optics, and other unconventional optics. A CW CO2 laser is used as a coherent light source at 10.6 microns, and germanium and zinc selenide optics are used for lenses and beam splitters. A pyroelectric vidicon (PEV) detects the modulated interference pattern through a TV monitor and video recorder-player. This paper presents three methods of IR lateral shear interferometry using (1) a germanium plane-parallel plate, (2) a Ronchi ruling, and (3) a double-grating lateral shear interferometer.

  8. Lateral Thinking of Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Xavier, S. Amaladoss

    2013-01-01

    Edward de Bono who invented the term "lateral thinking" in 1967 is the pioneer of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is concerned with the generation of new ideas. Liberation from old ideas and the stimulation of new ones are twin aspects of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is a creative skills from which all people can benefit…

  9. Conjugal amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Dewitt, John D.; Kwon, Julia; Burton, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disease characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the motor cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord. The incidence of sporadic ALS is 1.5 to 2.7 in 100,000, and the prevalence is 5.2 to 6.0 in 100,000. Conjugal ALS is even rarer than sporadic ALS. We report a case of conjugal ALS encountered in our outpatient neurology clinic. PMID:22275781

  10. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Malik, Rabia; Lui, Andrew; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting 20,000 to 30,000 people in the United States. The mainstay of care of patients affected by this disease is supportive and given the multifaceted nature of their needs is provided most efficiently through multidisciplinary clinics that have shown to prolong survival and improve quality of life. The authors discuss in detail evidence-based management of individuals affected by this condition. PMID:25520025

  11. Hemispheric lateralization in reasoning.

    PubMed

    Turner, Benjamin O; Marinsek, Nicole; Ryhal, Emily; Miller, Michael B

    2015-11-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that reasoning in humans relies on a number of related processes whose neural loci are largely lateralized to one hemisphere or the other. A recent review of this evidence concluded that the patterns of lateralization observed are organized according to two complementary tendencies. The left hemisphere attempts to reduce uncertainty by drawing inferences or creating explanations, even at the cost of ignoring conflicting evidence or generating implausible explanations. Conversely, the right hemisphere aims to reduce conflict by rejecting or refining explanations that are no longer tenable in the face of new evidence. In healthy adults, the hemispheres work together to achieve a balance between certainty and consistency, and a wealth of neuropsychological research supports the notion that upsetting this balance results in various failures in reasoning, including delusions. However, support for this model from the neuroimaging literature is mixed. Here, we examine the evidence for this framework from multiple research domains, including an activation likelihood estimation analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of reasoning. Our results suggest a need to either revise this model as it applies to healthy adults or to develop better tools for assessing lateralization in these individuals. PMID:26426534

  12. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Shoesmith, Christen L.; Strong, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To discuss the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, expected course, prognosis, and treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a degenerative disorder of the nervous system associated with progressive weakness. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched using the MeSH headings “amyotrophic lateral sclerosis,” “therapy,” “epidemiology,” and “etiology.” Articles containing the best available evidence were reviewed. Most provided level II and III evidence. There were some level I drug trials. MAIN MESSAGE Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is associated with progressive dysarthria, dysphagia, and weakness in the extremities. Diagnosis is based on physical examination, electrophysiology, and excluding other confounding conditions. There is no cure for this devastating disorder. Certain treatments, however, can improve survival and quality of life. CONCLUSION Because ALS is a complex disease, care of ALS patients is best provided at multidisciplinary clinics that specialize in managing patients with this disorder. PMID:17279237

  13. Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Boylan, Kevin

    2015-11-01

    Genes linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) susceptibility are being identified at an increasing rate owing to advances in molecular genetic technology. Genetic mechanisms in ALS pathogenesis seem to exert major effects in about 10% of patients, but genetic factors at some level may be important components of disease risk in most patients with ALS. Identification of gene variants associated with ALS has informed concepts of the pathogenesis of ALS, aided the identification of therapeutic targets, facilitated research to develop new ALS biomarkers, and supported the establishment of clinical diagnostic tests for ALS-linked genes. PMID:26515623

  14. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Abhijit; Hughes, Alexander; Girardi, Federico; Sama, Andrew; Lebl, Darren; Cammisa, Frank

    2015-12-01

    The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a relatively new technique that allows the surgeon to access the intervertebral space from a direct lateral approach either anterior to or through the psoas muscle. This approach provides an alternative to anterior lumbar interbody fusion with instrumentation, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for anterior column support. LLIF is minimally invasive, safe, better structural support from the apophyseal ring, potential for coronal plane deformity correction, and indirect decompression, which have has made this technique popular. LLIF is currently being utilized for a variety of pathologies including but not limited to adult de novo lumbar scoliosis, central and foraminal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and adjacent segment degeneration. Although early clinical outcomes have been good, the potential for significant neurological and vascular vertebral endplate complications exists. Nevertheless, LLIF is a promising technique with the potential to more effectively treat complex adult de novo scoliosis and achieve predictable fusion while avoiding the complications of traditional anterior surgery and posterior interbody techniques. PMID:26713134

  15. Creativity in later life.

    PubMed

    Price, K A; Tinker, A M

    2014-08-01

    The ageing population presents significant challenges for the provision of social and health services. Strategies are needed to enable older people to cope within a society ill prepared for the impacts of these demographic changes. The ability to be creative may be one such strategy. This review outlines the relevant literature and examines current public health policy related to creativity in old age with the aim of highlighting some important issues. As well as looking at the benefits and negative aspects of creative activity in later life they are considered in the context of the theory of "successful ageing". Creative activity plays an important role in the lives of older people promoting social interaction, providing cognitive stimulation and giving a sense of self-worth. Furthermore, it is shown to be useful as a tool in the multi-disciplinary treatment of health problems common in later life such as depression and dementia. There are a number of initiatives to encourage older people to participate in creative activities such as arts-based projects which may range from visual arts to dance to music to intergenerational initiatives. However, participation shows geographical variation and often the responsibility of provision falls to voluntary organisations. Overall, the literature presented suggests that creative activity could be a useful tool for individuals and society. However, further research is needed to establish the key factors which contribute to patterns of improved health and well-being, as well as to explore ways to improve access to services. PMID:24974278

  16. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Alexander; Girardi, Federico; Sama, Andrew; Lebl, Darren; Cammisa, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a relatively new technique that allows the surgeon to access the intervertebral space from a direct lateral approach either anterior to or through the psoas muscle. This approach provides an alternative to anterior lumbar interbody fusion with instrumentation, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for anterior column support. LLIF is minimally invasive, safe, better structural support from the apophyseal ring, potential for coronal plane deformity correction, and indirect decompression, which have has made this technique popular. LLIF is currently being utilized for a variety of pathologies including but not limited to adult de novo lumbar scoliosis, central and foraminal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and adjacent segment degeneration. Although early clinical outcomes have been good, the potential for significant neurological and vascular vertebral endplate complications exists. Nevertheless, LLIF is a promising technique with the potential to more effectively treat complex adult de novo scoliosis and achieve predictable fusion while avoiding the complications of traditional anterior surgery and posterior interbody techniques. PMID:26713134

  17. Lateral conduction infrared photodetector

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jin K.; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2011-09-20

    A photodetector for detecting infrared light in a wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m is disclosed. The photodetector has a mesa structure formed from semiconductor layers which include a type-II superlattice formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. Impurity doped regions are formed on sidewalls of the mesa structure to provide for a lateral conduction of photo-generated carriers which can provide an increased carrier mobility and a reduced surface recombination. An optional bias electrode can be used in the photodetector to control and vary a cut-off wavelength or a depletion width therein. The photodetector can be formed as a single-color or multi-color device, and can also be used to form a focal plane array which is compatible with conventional read-out integrated circuits.

  18. Lateral Flow Immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Ching, Kathryn H

    2015-01-01

    Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) are a staple in the field of rapid diagnostics. These small handheld devices require no specialized training or equipment to operate, and generate a result within minutes of sample application. They are an ideal format for many types of home test kits, for emergency responders and for food manufacturers and producers looking for a quick evaluation of a given sample. LFIAs rely on high quality monoclonal antibodies that recognize the analyte of interest. As monoclonal antibody technology becomes more accessible to smaller laboratories, there has been increased interest in developing LFIA prototypes for potential commercial manufacture. In this chapter, the basics of designing and building an LFIA prototype are described. PMID:26160571

  19. Lateral asymmetry of the Hoffmann reflex: relation to cortical laterality.

    PubMed Central

    Goode, D J; Glenn, S; Manning, A A; Middleton, J F

    1980-01-01

    Lateral asymmetry of the Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex) recovery curve was found in seven subjects with no personal or family history of neurological or psychiatric disorder. Differences between recovery curves from the right and left leg were larger than differences in the same leg on two successive test days. In a group of 27 psychiatric inpatients, lateral asymmetry of the later portion of the recovery curve was correlated with cortical laterality, as measured by selective identification of differing verbal stimuli presented simultaneously to both ears (DL) and to total laterality scores, a sum of visual half-field, DL, and motor laterality scores. Asymmetry of the recovery curve is related in part to cortical laterality, possibly through selective activation of cortical motor centres on the preferred side. PMID:7420106

  20. Reflexive Planning for Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Margaret A.; Kemp, Candace L.; French, Susan; Gafni, Amiram; Joshi, Anju; Rosenthal, Carolyn J.; Davies, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    Informed by Giddens' (1991) concept of "reflexive life" planning and the notion of later life as a time of increasing social and financial risk, this research explores the idea of "reflexive planning for later life". We utilize a conceptual model that incorporates three types of planning for later life: public protection, self-insurance, and…

  1. The Lateral Skull Base

    PubMed Central

    Gadre, Arun K.; O'Leary, Michael J.; Zakhary, Rizkalla; Linthicum, Fred H.; House, William F.

    1991-01-01

    The growing number of options in the surgical management of skull base disease has renewed interest in the microvascular anatomy of the lateral temporal region. We studied this anatomy by injecting colored solutions of methyl methacrylate into the major blood vessels of six human cadaver heads or selectively into their major branches. We used several techniques to see the vascular anatomy and to study its relationship to the layers of the scalp. Results revealed that every anatomically named blood vessel was accompanied by a finer, deeper blood vessel supplying the periosteum and outer table of the skull. These vessels arborized into a network of capillaries in the periosteum adherent to the outer bony cortex, from which we saw tiny perforators entering bone. This layered blood supply has direct implications for both ablative and reconstructive surgery for skull base disease. We also saw a previously undescribed arterial plexus accompanying the commonly described venous plexus in the infratemporal fossa. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:17170831

  2. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Review.

    PubMed

    Salameh, Johnny S; Brown, Robert H; Berry, James D

    2015-08-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease primarily affecting the upper and lower motor neurons. The lifetime risk of developing ALS is estimated at 1:350 for men and 1:500 for women, higher for those who have served in the military. The diagnosis remains clinical with electrodiagnostic support. Alternative diagnoses can usually be ruled out by the use of neuroimaging studies and laboratory evaluation. Perhaps because ALS is a diagnosis of exclusion, there is a substantial delay in diagnosis, upward of 12 months after the onset of symptoms, and most patients see three or more providers in the course of the diagnostic process. Once diagnosed, patients are best medically managed in a multidisciplinary care setting, an approach that has been shown to prolong survival and improve quality of life. Riluzole is the only disease-modifying therapy approved by the Food and Drug Administration, but numerous symptomatic therapies exist. In the past 20 years, ALS has become the focus of intense investigation by a worldwide community of basic scientists, and for clinical investigators the disease is an active area of research, with stem cell therapies, gene therapies, and a host of small molecule agents under investigation at various stages of clinical and preclinical development. PMID:26502769

  3. Diamond heteroepitaxial lateral overgrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yung-Hsiu

    This dissertation describes improvements in the growth of single crystal diamond by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Heteroepitaxial (001) diamond was grown on 1 cm. 2 a-plane sapphiresubstrates using an epitaxial (001) Ir thin-film as a buffer layer. Low-energy ion bombardment of the Ir layer, a process known as bias-enhanced nucleation, is a key step in achieving a high density of diamond nuclei. Bias conditions were optimized to form uniformly-high nucleation densities across the substrates, which led to well-coalesced diamond thin films after short growth times. Epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) was used as a means of decreasing diamond internal stress by impeding the propagation of threading dislocations into the growing material. Its use in diamond growth requires adaptation to the aggressive chemical and thermal environment of the hydrogen plasma in a CVD reactor. Three ELO variants were developed. The most successful utilized a gold (Au) mask prepared by vacuum evaporation onto the surface of a thin heteroepitaxial diamond layer. The Au mask pattern, a series of parallel stripes on the micrometer scale, was produced by standard lift-off photolithography. When diamond overgrows the mask, dislocations are largely confined to the substrate. Differing degrees of confinement were studied by varying the stripe geometry and orientation. Significant improvement in diamond quality was found in the overgrown regions, as evidenced by reduction of the Raman scattering linewidth. The Au layer was found to remain intact during diamond overgrowth and did not chemically bond with the diamond surface. Besides impeding the propagation of threading dislocations, it was discovered that the thermally-induced stress in the CVD diamond was significantly reduced as a result of the ductile Au layer. Cracking and delamination of the diamond from the substrate was mostly eliminated. When diamond was grown to thicknesses above 0.1 mm it was found that crystallographic perfection continuously improved, leading to a diamond surface nearly free of stress.

  4. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Wijesekera, Lokesh C; Leigh, P Nigel

    2009-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by progressive muscular paralysis reflecting degeneration of motor neurones in the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, brainstem and spinal cord. Incidence (average 1.89 per 100,000/year) and prevalence (average 5.2 per100,000) are relatively uniform in Western countries, although foci of higher frequency occur in the Western Pacific. The mean age of onset for sporadic ALS is about 60 years. Overall, there is a slight male prevalence (M:F ratio~1.5:1). Approximately two thirds of patients with typical ALS have a spinal form of the disease (limb onset) and present with symptoms related to focal muscle weakness and wasting, where the symptoms may start either distally or proximally in the upper and lower limbs. Gradually, spasticity may develop in the weakened atrophic limbs, affecting manual dexterity and gait. Patients with bulbar onset ALS usually present with dysarthria and dysphagia for solid or liquids, and limbs symptoms can develop almost simultaneously with bulbar symptoms, and in the vast majority of cases will occur within 1–2 years. Paralysis is progressive and leads to death due to respiratory failure within 2–3 years for bulbar onset cases and 3–5 years for limb onset ALS cases. Most ALS cases are sporadic but 5–10% of cases are familial, and of these 20% have a mutation of the SOD1 gene and about 2–5% have mutations of the TARDBP (TDP-43) gene. Two percent of apparently sporadic patients have SOD1 mutations, and TARDBP mutations also occur in sporadic cases. The diagnosis is based on clinical history, examination, electromyography, and exclusion of 'ALS-mimics' (e.g. cervical spondylotic myelopathies, multifocal motor neuropathy, Kennedy's disease) by appropriate investigations. The pathological hallmarks comprise loss of motor neurones with intraneuronal ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions in upper motor neurones and TDP-43 immunoreactive inclusions in degenerating lower motor neurones. Signs of upper motor neurone and lower motor neurone damage not explained by any other disease process are suggestive of ALS. The management of ALS is supportive, palliative, and multidisciplinary. Non-invasive ventilation prolongs survival and improves quality of life. Riluzole is the only drug that has been shown to extend survival. PMID:19192301

  5. The significance of laterality effects.

    PubMed Central

    Warrington, E K; Pratt, R T

    1981-01-01

    Language laterality can be unequivocally ascertained by comparing the effects of unilateral ECT to the right and the left hemisphere. It has been shown in right-handed depressed patients that a unilateral treatment to the left hemisphere resulted in transient dysphasia whereas unilateral ECT to the right hemisphere did not. The language laterality in a small group of left-handed depressed patients has been ascertained. Evidence is presented to show that neither dichotic listening nor hand position for writing provide satisfactory indices of language laterality. The ear advantage was more closely related to strength of sinistrality than to language laterality--that is sidedness appears to overide brainedness. The results favour a spatial attention hypothesis rather than a structural hypothesis as the main determinant of laterality effects. PMID:7229640

  6. VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE BETWEEN CHANNING WAY AND DURANT AVENUE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE BETWEEN CHANNING WAY AND DURANT AVENUE. 2325 PIEDMONT (MRS. F.W. FISH HOUSE DESIGNED BY CHARLES S. KAISER, 1910. SEEN FROM WEST SIDE OF PIEDMONT LOOKING NORTH. Photograph by Fredrica Drotos and Michael Kelly, July 9, 2006 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  7. Cuidados paliativos durante el cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Describe la función de los cuidados paliativos, los cuales son los cuidados que se brindan a pacientes que tienen una enfermedad grave o potencialmente letal, como el cáncer, desde el momento del diagnóstico y durante todo el curso de la enfermedad.

  8. Complications of Lateral Epicondylar Release.

    PubMed

    Pomerantz, Michael Lucius

    2016-04-01

    Reported complication rates are low for lateral epicondylitis management, but the anatomic complexity of the elbow allows for possible catastrophic complication. This review documents complications associated with lateral epicondylar release: 67 studies reporting outcomes of lateral epicondylar release with open, percutaneous, or arthroscopic methods were reviewed and 6 case reports on specific complications associated with the procedure are included. Overall complication rate was 3.3%. For open procedures it was 4.3%, percutaneous procedures 1.9%, and arthroscopic procedures 1.1%. In higher-level studies directly comparing modalities, the complication rates were 1.3%, 0%, and 1.2%, respectively. PMID:26772953

  9. Lateral Dominance and Reading Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Albert J.

    1979-01-01

    Theory and research on the relation of lateral dominance to the causation of reading disability are reviewed. Both direct and indirect measures of cerebral hemisphere functioning are considered. (SBH)

  10. Lateral collateral ligament (LCL) injury

    MedlinePlus

    LCL injury; Knee injury - lateral collateral ligament (LCL) ... ligament helps keep the outer side of the knee joint stable. ... by pressure or an injury that pushes the knee joint from the inside, which results in stress ...

  11. Borehole optical lateral displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, R.E.

    1998-10-20

    There is provided by this invention an optical displacement sensor that utilizes a reflective target connected to a surface to be monitored to reflect light from a light source such that the reflected light is received by a photoelectric transducer. The electric signal from the photoelectric transducer is then imputed into electronic circuitry to generate an electronic image of the target. The target`s image is monitored to determine the quantity and direction of any lateral displacement in the target`s image which represents lateral displacement in the surface being monitored. 4 figs.

  12. Laterality effects for tactile patterns.

    PubMed

    Minami, K; Kay, V; Bryden, M P; Free, T

    1994-01-01

    A series of studies was carried out to investigate laterality effects in the discrimination of tactile patterns presented to the fingertips of right-handed subjects. When both hands were stimulated simultaneously, a small right-hand advantage (RHA) was observed for a sequential task and a small left-hand advantage (LHA) was found for a spatial task, but only in women and only when there was a delay or mask between presentation and response. This may indicate different attentional strategies for men and women, or better shielding against interhemispheric interference in women. When only one hand was stimulated at a time (unimanual tasks), no laterality effects were found with sequential tasks, but a substantial RHA for a spatial task was observed. Because the unimanual spatial task involves more possible alternatives than the unimanual sequential ones, this RHA may be a consequence of increased information load rather than a the spatial/sequential distinction. While laterality effects in tactile laterality studies are relatively inconsistent, there are clear differences between bimanual and unimanual presentation. Effects related to hemispheric specialization are much more evident with bilateral presentation. PMID:7928115

  13. Living Arrangements in Later Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Billie H.

    This document contains a brief bibliography of peer-reviewed literature, with abstracts, on living arrangements in later life. It is one of 12 bibliographies on aging prepared by the National Agricultural Library for its "Pathfinders" series of publications. Topics covered by the other 11 bibliographies include aging parents, adult children,…

  14. [Cochlear implantation by lateral petrosectomy].

    PubMed

    Niemczyk, Kazimierz; Bruzgielewicz, Antoni; Maniecka-Aleksandrowicz, Barbara; Mikołajewska, Lidia; Piotrowski, Juliusz; Mazur, Agata; Stykowska, Małgorzata; Kilijańska, Irena

    2003-01-01

    Cochlear implantation by facial recess is nowadays the approach of choice in normal anatomical conditions in the middle and inner ear. When deafness is coincident with chronic otitis media or partial obliteration of the cochlea, others approaches can be applied. Authors presented lateral petrosectomy as an approach for cochlear implantation in two cases. In both patients all the electrodes were inserted. There were any complications in postoperative period. Lateral petrosectomy is nowadays well codified technique. It is possible to apply this approach for cochlear implantation in cases with chronic otitis media. Good access to the cochlea especially to its basal turn allows for good insertion even in partial obliteration of the scala tympani. PMID:15049189

  15. [Fractures of the lateral clavicle].

    PubMed

    Koppe, D; Reilmann, H

    2010-01-01

    Fractures of the lateral clavicle end account for 12-15 percent of all clavicle fractures. In contrast to the clear treatment of midshaft fractures the therapy of the distal third is still open to controversy. The high non-union rate up to 40 percent that occurs with the lateral end fractures shows the special biomechanical mechanisms. The role of the coracoclavicular ligaments is comparable to the acromioclavicular joint disruption. To make a clear decision about the therapy we need a treatment based classification such as the one by Jäger and Breitner, which distinguishes four different fracture types. The treatment options reach from conservative therapy up to numerous different operative techniques. The aim of this article is to demonstrate a simple and save way for the diagnosis and therapy of that special kind of fracture. PMID:20020094

  16. Lateral dampers for thrust bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibner, D. H.; Szafir, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of lateral damping schemes for thrust bearings was examined, ranking their applicability to various engine classes, selecting the best concept for each engine class and performing an in-depth evaluation. Five major engine classes were considered: large transport, military, small general aviation, turboshaft, and non-manrated. Damper concepts developed for evaluation were: curved beam, constrained and unconstrained elastomer, hybrid boost bearing, hydraulic thrust piston, conical squeeze film, and rolling element thrust face.

  17. Management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bali, Taha; Miller, Timothy M

    2013-01-01

    Motor Neuron Diseases (MNDs) are neurological disorders characterized by the selective and progressive degeneration of motor neurons. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), commonly known as Lou Gehrig's disease, is the most common. ALS causes diffuse muscle weakness and death secondary to respiratory failure. The diagnosis is made clinically, supported by electrodiagnostic testing. Although medications are limited, careful attention to breathing, nutrition, and patient mobility can have a major, positive impact on the course of the disease. PMID:24279194

  18. Subcortical Laterality of Speech Encoding

    PubMed Central

    Hornickel, Jane; Skoe, Erika; Kraus, Nina

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that in the majority of the population language processing is lateralized to the left hemisphere. Evidence suggests that lateralization is also present in the brainstem. In the current study, the syllable /da/ was presented monaurally to the right and left ears and electrophysiological responses from the brainstem were recorded in adults with symmetrical interaural click-evoked responses. Responses to the right-ear presentation occurred earlier than those to left-ear presentation in two peaks of the frequency following response (FFR) and approached significance for the third peak of the FFR and the offset peak. Interestingly, there were no differences in interpeak latencies indicating the response to right-ear presentation simply occurred earlier over this region. Analyses also showed more robust frequency encoding when stimuli were presented to the right ear than the left ear. The effect was found for the harmonics of the fundamental that correspond to the first formant of the stimulus, but was not seen in the fundamental frequency range. The results suggest that left lateralization of processing acoustic elements important for discriminating speech extends to the auditory brainstem and that these effects are speech specific. PMID:19122453

  19. 49 CFR 229.63 - Lateral motion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lateral motion. 229.63 Section 229.63....63 Lateral motion. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b), the total uncontrolled lateral motion... powered axles. (b) The total uncontrolled lateral motion may not exceed 11/4 inches on the center axle...

  20. Manual lateralization in macaques: handedness, target laterality and task complexity.

    PubMed

    Regaiolli, Barbara; Spiezio, Caterina; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates represent models to understand the evolution of handedness in humans. Despite several researches have been investigating non-human primates handedness, few studies examined the relationship between target position, hand preference and task complexity. This study aimed at investigating macaque handedness in relation to target laterality and tastiness, as well as task complexity. Seven pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) were involved in three different "two alternative choice" tests: one low-level task and two high-level tasks (HLTs). During the first and the third tests macaques could select a preferred food and a non-preferred food, whereas by modifying the design of the second test, macaques were presented with no-difference alternative per trial. Furthermore, a simple-reaching test was administered to assess hand preference in a social context. Macaques showed hand preference at individual level both in simple and complex tasks, but not in the simple-reaching test. Moreover, target position seemed to affect hand preference in retrieving an object in the low-level task, but not in the HLT. Additionally, individual hand preference seemed to be affected from the tastiness of the item to be retrieved. The results suggest that both target laterality and individual motivation might influence hand preference of macaques, especially in simple tasks. PMID:26292019

  1. Direct lateral maneuvers in hawkmoths.

    PubMed

    Greeter, Jeremy S M; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2016-01-01

    We used videography to investigate direct lateral maneuvers, i.e. 'sideslips', of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. M. sexta sideslip by rolling their entire body and wings to reorient their net force vector. During sideslip they increase net aerodynamic force by flapping with greater amplitude, (in both wing elevation and sweep), allowing them to continue to support body weight while rolled. To execute the roll maneuver we observed in sideslips, they use an asymmetric wing stroke; increasing the pitch of the roll-contralateral wing pair, while decreasing that of the roll-ipsilateral pair. They also increase the wing sweep amplitude of, and decrease the elevation amplitude of, the contralateral wing pair relative to the ipsilateral pair. The roll maneuver unfolds in a stairstep manner, with orientation changing more during downstroke than upstroke. This is due to smaller upstroke wing pitch angle asymmetries as well as increased upstroke flapping counter-torque from left-right differences in global reference frame wing velocity about the moth's roll axis. Rolls are also opposed by stabilizing aerodynamic moments from lateral motion, such that rightward roll velocity will be opposed by rightward motion. Computational modeling using blade-element approaches confirm the plausibility of a causal linkage between the previously mentioned wing kinematics and roll/sideslip. Model results also predict high degrees of axial and lateral damping. On the time scale of whole and half wing strokes, left-right wing pair asymmetries directly relate to the first, but not second, derivative of roll. Collectively, these results strongly support a roll-based sideslip with a high degree of roll damping in M. sexta. PMID:26740573

  2. Direct lateral maneuvers in hawkmoths

    PubMed Central

    Greeter, Jeremy S. M.; Hedrick, Tyson L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We used videography to investigate direct lateral maneuvers, i.e. ‘sideslips’, of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. M. sexta sideslip by rolling their entire body and wings to reorient their net force vector. During sideslip they increase net aerodynamic force by flapping with greater amplitude, (in both wing elevation and sweep), allowing them to continue to support body weight while rolled. To execute the roll maneuver we observed in sideslips, they use an asymmetric wing stroke; increasing the pitch of the roll-contralateral wing pair, while decreasing that of the roll-ipsilateral pair. They also increase the wing sweep amplitude of, and decrease the elevation amplitude of, the contralateral wing pair relative to the ipsilateral pair. The roll maneuver unfolds in a stairstep manner, with orientation changing more during downstroke than upstroke. This is due to smaller upstroke wing pitch angle asymmetries as well as increased upstroke flapping counter-torque from left-right differences in global reference frame wing velocity about the moth's roll axis. Rolls are also opposed by stabilizing aerodynamic moments from lateral motion, such that rightward roll velocity will be opposed by rightward motion. Computational modeling using blade-element approaches confirm the plausibility of a causal linkage between the previously mentioned wing kinematics and roll/sideslip. Model results also predict high degrees of axial and lateral damping. On the time scale of whole and half wing strokes, left-right wing pair asymmetries directly relate to the first, but not second, derivative of roll. Collectively, these results strongly support a roll-based sideslip with a high degree of roll damping in M. sexta. PMID:26740573

  3. Vision assisted aircraft lateral navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohideen, Mohamed Ibrahim; Ramegowda, Dinesh; Seiler, Peter

    2013-05-01

    Surface operation is currently one of the least technologically equipped phases of aircraft operation. The increased air traffic congestion necessitates more aircraft operations in degraded weather and at night. The traditional surface procedures worked well in most cases as airport surfaces have not been congested and airport layouts were less complex. Despite the best efforts of FAA and other safety agencies, runway incursions continue to occur frequently due to incorrect surface operation. Several studies conducted by FAA suggest that pilot induced error contributes significantly to runway incursions. Further, the report attributes pilot's lack of situational awareness - local (e.g., minimizing lateral deviation), global (e.g., traffic in the vicinity) and route (e.g., distance to next turn) - to the problem. An Enhanced Vision System (EVS) is one concept that is being considered to resolve these issues. These systems use on-board sensors to provide situational awareness under poor visibility conditions. In this paper, we propose the use of an Image processing based system to estimate the aircraft position and orientation relative to taxiway markings to use as lateral guidance aid. We estimate aircraft yaw angle and lateral offset from slope of the taxiway centerline and horizontal position of vanishing line. Unlike automotive applications, several cues such as aircraft maneuvers along assigned route with minimal deviations, clear ground markings, even taxiway surface, limited aircraft speed are available and enable us to implement significant algorithm optimizations. We present experimental results to show high precision navigation accuracy with sensitivity analysis with respect to camera mount, optics, and image processing error.

  4. Clinical Neurogenetics: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Matthew B.; Baloh, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, about which our understanding is expanding rapidly as its genetic causes are uncovered. The pace of new gene discovery over the last 5 years has accelerated, providing new insights into the pathogenesis of disease and highlighting biological pathways for target for therapeutic development. This article reviews our current understanding of the heritability of ALS, provides an overview of each of the major ALS genes, highlighting their phenotypic characteristics and frequencies as a guide for clinicians evaluating patients with ALS. PMID:24176417

  5. Clinical neurogenetics: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Harms, Matthew B; Baloh, Robert H

    2013-11-01

    Our understanding of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease, is expanding rapidly as its genetic causes are uncovered. The pace of new gene discovery over the last 5 years has accelerated, providing new insights into the pathogenesis of disease and highlighting biological pathways as targets for therapeutic development. This article reviews our current understanding of the heritability of ALS and provides an overview of each of the major ALS genes, highlighting their phenotypic characteristics and frequencies as a guide for clinicians evaluating patients with ALS. PMID:24176417

  6. Lateral genetic transfer: open issues

    PubMed Central

    Ragan, Mark A.; Beiko, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    Lateral genetic transfer (LGT) is an important adaptive force in evolution, contributing to metabolic, physiological and ecological innovation in most prokaryotes and some eukaryotes. Genomic sequences and other data have begun to illuminate the processes, mechanisms, quantitative extent and impact of LGT in diverse organisms, populations, taxa and environments; deep questions are being posed, and the provisional answers sometimes challenge existing paradigms. At the same time, there is an enhanced appreciation of the imperfections, biases and blind spots in the data and in analytical approaches. Here we identify and consider significant open questions concerning the role of LGT in genome evolution. PMID:19571244

  7. Lateralization of aggression in fish.

    PubMed

    Bisazza, Angelo; de Santi, Andrea

    2003-05-15

    Recent research has suggested that lateralization of aggressive behaviors could follow an homogeneous pattern among all vertebrates. A left eye/right hemisphere dominance in eliciting aggressive responses has been demonstrated for all groups of tetrapods but teleost fish for which data is lacking. Here we studied differential eye use during aggressive interactions in three species of teleosts: Gambusia holbrooki, Xenotoca eiseni and Betta splendens. In the first experiment we checked for lateralization in the use of the eyes while the subject was attacking its own mirror image. In order to confirm the results, other tests were performed on two species and eye preference was scored during attacks or displays directed toward a live rival. All three species showed a marked preference for using the right eye when attacking a mirror image or a live rival. Thus, the direction of asymmetry in fish appears the opposite to that shown by all the other groups of vertebrates. Hypotheses on the origin of the difference are discussed. PMID:12742249

  8. LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS OF THE ELBOW

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Marcio; da Rocha Motta Filho, Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is a common condition that is estimated to affect 1% to 3% of the population. The word epicondylitis suggests inflammation, although histological analysis on the tissue fails to show any inflammatory process. The structure most commonly affected is the origin of the tendon of the extensor carpi radialis brevis and the mechanism of injury is associated with overloading. Nonsurgical treatment is the preferred method, and this includes rest, physiotherapy, cortisone infiltration, platelet-rich plasma injections and use of specific immobilization. Surgical treatment is recommended when functional disability and pain persist. Both the open and the arthroscopic surgical technique with resection of the degenerated tendon tissue present good results in the literature. PMID:27047843

  9. The developmental origins of laterality: fetal handedness.

    PubMed

    Hepper, Peter G

    2013-09-01

    This paper reviews the evidence for lateralized motor behavior in the fetus around a number of key questions: does the fetus exhibit signs of laterality? when does lateralized motor behavior begin? is the lateralized preference consistently displayed? does prenatal handedness relate to postnatal handedness? and, does prenatal handedness relate to brain functioning? The evidence indicates that the fetus exhibits lateralized behavior from 10 weeks gestation, as soon as it independently moves its arms, and this is the precursor of lateralized motor behavior observed post-natally. Data is presented suggesting that the strength of laterality decreases with advancing gestation and this correlates with more efficient information processing as assessed by habituation. However extreme caution is warranted in attempting to link asymmetric motor behavior and brain function prenatally. The paper concludes that the initial developmental emergence of lateralized behavior is under genetic control and is a fundamental feature of prenatal human development. PMID:23765736

  10. Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... Related Documents PDF Living with Diabetes Download PDF Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life Tools and Tips Printer-friendly ...

  11. Hemispheric Laterality in Music and Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szirony, Gary Michael; Burgin, John S.; Pearson, L. Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Hemispheric laterality may be a useful concept in teaching, learning, training, and in understanding more about human development. To address this issue, a measure of hemispheric laterality was compared to musical and mathematical ability. The Human Information Processing Survey (HIPS) instrument, designed to measure hemispheric laterality, was…

  12. The multifunctional lateral geniculate nucleus.

    PubMed

    Weyand, Theodore G

    2016-02-01

    Providing the critical link between the retina and visual cortex, the well-studied lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) has stood out as a structure in search of a function exceeding the mundane 'relay'. For many mammals, it is structurally impressive: Exquisite lamination, sophisticated microcircuits, and blending of multiple inputs suggest some fundamental transform. This impression is bolstered by the fact that numerically, the retina accounts for a small fraction of its input. Despite such promise, the extent to which an LGN neuron separates itself from its retinal brethren has proven difficult to appreciate. Here, I argue that whereas retinogeniculate coupling is strong, what occurs in the LGN is judicious pruning of a retinal drive by nonretinal inputs. These nonretinal inputs reshape a receptive field that under the right conditions departs significantly from its retinal drive, even if transiently. I first review design features of the LGN and follow with evidence for 10 putative functions. Only two of these tend to surface in textbooks: parsing retinal axons by eye and functional group and gating by state. Among the remaining putative functions, implementation of the principle of graceful degradation and temporal decorrelation are at least as interesting but much less promoted. The retina solves formidable problems imposed by physics to yield multiple efficient and sensitive representations of the world. The LGN applies context, increasing content, and gates several of these representations. Even if the basic concentric receptive field remains, information transmitted for each LGN spike relative to each retinal spike is measurably increased. PMID:26479339

  13. [Biomarkers for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Takahiko

    2012-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a relentlessly progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Modern technology has brought new insights in the underlying pathophysiology of ALS through examination of genomic, proteomic and physiological changes in patients. However, the diagnosis of this disorder is still based on clinical findings, and there is a pronounced delay between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis. Functional rating scales, forced vital capacity, and patient survival have been used as measures of therapeutic response so far. Although effective treatments for ALS are lacking, the discovery of biomarkers for this disease offers clinicians the tools for rapid diagnosis, improved ways to monitor disease progression, and insights into the pathophysiology of sporadic ALS. Potential biomarkers that are useful in the diagnosis of ALS and sensitive to the progression of disease, which might enhance the diagnostic algorithm and provide new drug targets, are now being eagerly investigated through blood and cerebrospinal fluid analyses, as well as physiological and neuroimaging studies. These biomarkers, when used in combination, might be sensitive to early therapeutic effects. Such biomarkers might also resolve complexities of phenotypic heterogeneity in clinical trials. In this review article, I have discussed the development of biochemical, physiological and neuroimaging biomarkers for ALS including our recent results on CSF TDP-43 (TAR DNA-binding protein 43 kDa), and have considered the potential future directions for research. We should ultimately aim to broaden the available therapeutic options for patients with this disease. PMID:22570065

  14. [Epidemiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Soriani, M-H; Desnuelle, C

    2009-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neuron disease. Loss of pyramidal and anterior horn motor neurons leads to progressive limb weakness, disability, dysarthria, dysphagia and respiratory insufficiency with a progressive fatal course. The incidence of ALS ranges between 1.5 to 2.5 for 100,000 per year. Although there are familial cases of ALS, about 90% are sporadic and of unknown etiology. Several exogenous risk factors have been documented. However, no convincing evidence has demonstrated in a reproducible manner an association between an environmental or lifestyle risk factor and ALS. Disease duration varies considerably, ranging from a few months to 10-15 years with a mean survival of about 36 months. Prognostic factors such as age, site of disease onset, nutritional, functional and respiratory status at the diagnosis or delay between beginning of the disease and diagnosis have been reported but they appear to be insufficient to explain prognostic variability. These last 15 years, development of supportive care for ALS patients and management in ALS centers may have contributed to improve survival. Finally, ALS centres, and particularly French ALS centres, have developed databases to improve our knowledge of ALS, phenotypic characterization, more accurate phenotype-genotype correlations and thus contribute to new therapeutics developments. PMID:19524991

  15. [Genetics of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Corcia, Philippe; Blasco, Hélène; Camu, William

    2014-05-01

    Although the pathophysiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis remains currently unknown, involvement of genetic factors is worldwide accepted as a key clue in the motor neuron death. Since 1993 and the discovery of mutation in the SOD1 gene, number of genes linked to or promoting ALS had always growing. Among them, only four (SOD1, TARDBP, FUS and C9ORF72 genes) are unanimously recognized as convincing causative genetic factors for more than 60% of familial and probably 10% of sporadic ALS cases. Geographic origin of the studied populations tends to become one of the major items in the gene-ALS relationship: this was extremely stressed for C9ORF72. Concerning susceptibility genes factors, an increase of the risk of ALS is clearly shown for SMN1 and ATXN2 genes and accepted for some VEGF haplotypes. Finally, some modulating effects might also exist as underline for the relationships between ApoE and ALS that differ between European and North American studies. In inherited ALS, The European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) edited rules that gave a legal frame to situations for which research of mutations were justified. Progress in the field of genetic raises major questions concerning the relevance of genetic studies from asymptomatic relatives. This first implies that the mutation identified in the proband case is perfectly characterized as a pathogenic mutation. PMID:24703222

  16. Lateral violence in the perioperative setting.

    PubMed

    Bigony, Lorraine; Lipke, Tammy G; Lundberg, Ashley; McGraw, Carrie A; Pagac, Gretchen L; Rogers, Anne

    2009-04-01

    Lateral violence is disruptive, bullying, intimidating, or unsettling behavior that occurs between nurses in the workplace. The perioperative setting fosters lateral violence because of the inherent stress of performing surgery; high patient acuity; a shortage of experienced personnel; work demands; and the restriction and isolation of the OR, which allows negative behaviors to be concealed more easily. Lateral violence affects nurses' health and well-being and their ability to care for patients. Interventions to reduce lateral violence include empowerment of staff members and zero tolerance for lateral violence. PMID:19434948

  17. Human olfactory lateralization requires trigeminal activation.

    PubMed

    Croy, Ilona; Schulz, Max; Blumrich, Anna; Hummel, Cornelia; Gerber, Johannes; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Rats are able to lateralize odors. This ability involves specialized neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex which are able to process the left, right and bilateral presentation of stimuli. However, it is not clear whether this function is preserved in humans. Humans are in general not able to differentiate whether a selective olfactory stimulant has been applied to the left or right nostril; however exceptions have been reported. Following a screening of 152 individuals with an olfactory lateralization test, we identified 19 who could lateralize odors above chance level. 15 of these "lateralizers" underwent olfactory fMRI scanning in a block design and were compared to 15 controls matched for age and sex distribution. As a result, both groups showed comparable activation of olfactory eloquent brain areas. However, subjects with lateralization ability had a significantly enhanced activation of cerebral trigeminal processing areas (somatosensory cortex, intraparietal sulcus). In contrast to controls, lateralizers furthermore exhibited no suppression in the area of the trigeminal principal sensory nucleus. An exploratory study with an olfactory change detection paradigm furthermore showed that lateralizers oriented faster towards changes in the olfactory environment. Taken together, our study suggests that the trigeminal system is activated to a higher degree by the odorous stimuli in the group of "lateralizers". We conclude that humans are not able to lateralize odors based on the olfactory input alone, but vary in the degree to which the trigeminal system is recruited. PMID:24825502

  18. Vannevar Bush: Fifty Years Later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    It is ironic that the 50th anniversary year of Vannevar Bush's Report to President Truman entitled "Science the Endless Frontier", which put into motion the eminently successful current system of education of scientists in this country occurs at a time when serious questions are being asked about the usefulness of that very system. Bush viewed his proposal to establish a national research foundation (later to be called the National Science Foundation) as a "social compact." Judgment of scientific merit would be delegated to expert peers in return for scientific progress, which would ultimately benefit the nation in terms of scientific needs--military security, economic productivity, and enhanced quality of life. Bush wanted the funding of basic research intertwined with training, and preferred to use universities for this purpose rather than industrial or national labs. Bush viewed college and university scientists as teachers and investigators. He believed university-based research would uniquely encourage and engage the next generation of scientists as no other institutional arrangement could. Bush did not trust industry's commitment to basic research, an instinct that proved prophetic. The academic reserve of scientists (PhD's in training and postdoctoral students) that existed before World War II, and upon which the United States could draw for its needs, which were primarily associated with defense efforts, was probably one of the defining factors in Bush's suggested strategy. Currently, that reserve of talent has gotten so large that it is the obvious throttle in the pipeline slowing the continued development of the university research enterprise. Since 1977, the rate at which we have trained new scientists exceeds an average of 4% annually. Since 1987, the "science work force"--PhD's--has grown at three times the rate of the general labor supply. Temporary positions for postdoctoral scientists have grown even faster (over 5% per year since 1989). To compound the problem, the 1990 Immigration Reform Act resulted in a tripling of job-based visas, with scientists representing nearly one-third of the total. In 1979, two of every three postdoctoral scientists were U.S.-born; in 1992, the ratio was about one to one. Over that period, the cohort of postdoctoral scientists grew from 18,000 to 33,000. Adding to the coincidence of events that have compounded one another is the admission of 20,000 Chinese scientists in a ten-year period, the sudden and unexpected availability of Russian scientists, the elimination of many industrial laboratories as a result of downsizing, changes in the mandatory retirement age for faculty, and the disappearance of the Cold War, which all but eliminated the need for scientists for national security purposes. Is it any wonder that postdoctoral scientists have been called the migrant workers of today's high-tech society? What once was a reservoir of enthusiastic talent is becoming a dumping ground for credentialed and capable scientists exiled from the main stream of their disciplines. From a broader point of view, the problems facing U.S. science are those of our society: an imposing deficit that is shrinking discretionary funding; the end of the Cold War, which has refocused spending for national security; and a robust science work force that can no longer expand. The business world's response to these societal problems is, basically, downsizing, which often means the elimination of large segments of the work force, usually at the middle-management level. The initial academic response to these same problems is either to insist on more resources being made available, usually through federal agencies, in an attempt to maintain the status quo, or to engage in some form of "academic birth control." The former strategy is unrealistic because it just perpetuates the problem; there will never be enough research professorships in the academic world for every aspiring PhD produced in a discipline. The latter strategy will invariably decrease the flow of truly new knowledge in a discipline, a process that will eventually affect the viability of our technology base. Some argue for a third view, namely, expanding the career options for PhD's by altering the details of the training process. If there was a flaw in the Bush plan, it was to be found in the implicit premise that an ever-growing supply of scientists would stimulate new demand for scientific expertise, not just in government and universities, but in industry and the professional venues. Bush probably never expected that, because of federal funding, university scientists would in 50 years produce not just the national reserve of scientists he sought to develop, but a growing number of young PhD's, many of whom wanted nothing more--and nothing less--than to be university scientists themselves. Bush probably never guessed at the efficiency of the process for the education of scientists he set into motion. The absence of a plan to complement supply with demand is one source of the inherent structural problem in American science today. Young PhD's do not receive a sufficiently versatile training to do anything other than academic scientific research. Science as a way of knowing is clearly a sound foundation for a variety of careers. Numerous opportunities exist that can use the skills of the scientist while rewarding creativity, autonomy, problem-solving, industriousness, and the yearning for knowledge--all the characteristics associated with well-trained scientists. The challenge for academe is to refine or adapt Vannevar Bush's original "social contract" into a new one, more appropriate for the 21st century.

  19. Unusual external resorption of a maxillary lateral.

    PubMed

    Giunta, J L; Kaplan, M A

    1994-01-01

    This article defines an unusual previously unreported entity afflicting a maxillary lateral incisor. Labial idiopathic external root resorption just apical to the cemento-enamel presented as a gingival (periodontal) problem and was misinterpreted as cervical dental caries. This report defines a new possibility for a radicular defect in a maxillary lateral incisor that may cause periodontal problems. PMID:8054293

  20. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lateral marks. 62.25 Section 62.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.25 Lateral marks....

  1. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lateral marks. 62.25 Section 62.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.25 Lateral marks....

  2. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lateral marks. 62.25 Section 62.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.25 Lateral marks....

  3. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lateral marks. 62.25 Section 62.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.25 Lateral marks....

  4. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lateral marks. 62.25 Section 62.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.25 Lateral marks....

  5. Factors Affecting Lateral Stability and Controllability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, John P; Toll, Thomas A

    1948-01-01

    The effects on dynamic lateral stability and controllability of some of the important aerodynamic and mass characteristics are discussed and methods are presented for estimating the various stability parameters to be used in the calculation of the dynamic lateral stability of airplanes with swept and low-aspect-ratio wings.

  6. Laterality and Dyslexia: A Critical View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiscock, Merrill; Kinsbourne, Marcel

    1982-01-01

    Research is reviewed concerning the current state of knowledge about normal hemispheric specialization; distinctions among such terms as dominance, laterality, and lateralization; and models of abnormal cerebral organization in dyslexic children. The question of dyslexic subtypes is undertaken along such dimensions as handedness, eyedness, and…

  7. Aeromonas hydrophila Lateral Flagellar Gene Transcriptional Hierarchy

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelms, Markus; Gonzalez, Victor; Merino, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3 lateral flagella are not assembled when bacteria grow in liquid media; however, lateral flagellar genes are transcribed. Our results indicate that A. hydrophila lateral flagellar genes are transcribed at three levels (class I to III genes) and share some similarities with, but have many important differences from, genes of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A. hydrophila lateral flagellum class I gene transcription is σ70 dependent, which is consistent with the fact that lateral flagellum is constitutively transcribed, in contrast to the characteristics of V. parahaemolyticus. The fact that multiple genes are included in class I highlights that lateral flagellar genes are less hierarchically transcribed than polar flagellum genes. The A. hydrophila lafK-fliEJL gene cluster (where the subscript L distinguishes genes for lateral flagella from those for polar flagella) is exclusively from class I and is in V. parahaemolyticus class I and II. Furthermore, the A. hydrophila flgAMNL cluster is not transcribed from the σ54/LafK-dependent promoter and does not contain class II genes. Here, we propose a gene transcriptional hierarchy for the A. hydrophila lateral flagella. PMID:23335410

  8. Laterality and Reading Proficiency in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Che Kan

    1980-01-01

    Discusses some current concepts of the laterality/reading relationship. An overview of Samuel T. Orton's hypotheses of cerebral dominance and "strephosymbolia" is provided, and both visual half-field and dichotic listening studies as direct, empirical tests of laterality are discussed. (MKM)

  9. 49 CFR 230.105 - Lateral motion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lateral motion. 230.105 Section 230.105 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.105 Lateral motion....

  10. Gender and Marital Happiness in Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Gayle; Taniguchi, Hiromi

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors examine the effect of gender ideology on marital happiness in later life. Studies of marital satisfaction in later life have tended to neglect such attitudes, although they have received increasing attention in the literature on younger marriages. The authors use data from married individuals who range in age from 51 to…

  11. Lateral displacement and rotational displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Duden, Thomas

    2014-04-22

    A position measuring sensor formed from opposing sets of capacitor plates measures both rotational displacement and lateral displacement from the changes in capacitances as overlapping areas of capacitors change. Capacitances are measured by a measuring circuit. The measured capacitances are provided to a calculating circuit that performs calculations to obtain angular and lateral displacement from the capacitances measured by the measuring circuit.

  12. Practical Astronomical Activities during Daytime. (Spanish Title: Actividades Astronómicas Prácticas Diurnas.) Atividades Astronômicas Práticas Diurnas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Eric

    2009-12-01

    These daytime astronomy activities arose from research done in New Zealand by a group of teachers and astronomers into the problems of teaching astronomy. This showed that it was generally regarded as a difficult subject to take, traditionally relying on books, films and models. The fortunate may have had a visit to an observatory or planetarium, the adventurous may have attempted an outdoor evening viewing session, which sometimes had weather-related difficulties. The problem of not having many 'hands-on' activities, the feelings of inadequate knowledge, the felt need for astronomical equipment and expertise become too daunting for many teachers to do the subject justice. If astronomy was to be taught then a way around these difficulties needed to be found. Our group, working with teachers and children using the constructivism teaching approach, found that the principles of astronomy could be discovered during the day when the students are at school. Working co-operatively they measured and recorded observations of their shadows caused by the motions and interactions of the nearest star, the Sun (Sol), and our planet, Earth. Because children were involved so personally they were much more interested in the results of the study. Astronomy became enthralling and challenging for both teacher and class after applying their daytime experiences to night time viewing at home and reporting back to class. Estas actividades astronómicas diurnas surgieron de una investigación hecha en NuevaZelandia por un grupo de maestros y astrónomos sobre los problemas de la enseñanza de la Astronomía. Este trabajo mostró que la Astronomía es generalmente considerada una disciplina difícil de enseñar, y tradicionalmente basada en libros, filmes y modelos. Los más afortunados pueden haber efectuado alguna visita a un observatorio o planetario, y los más aventajados pueden tal vez haber intentado una sesión de observación nocturna, las cuales sufren a veces de dificultades relacionadas al mal tiempo. El problema de no tener suficientes actividades prácticas, la sensación de poseer conocimientos inadecuados, la necesidad de disponer de equipamiento astronómico y experiencia suelen ser demasiado intimidantes para que los profesores introduzcan la materia en sus clases. Si la Astronomía iba a ser introducida, entonces era preciso encontrar una forma de resolver estas dificultades. Nuestro grupo, trabajando con maestros y alumnos dentro de un marco constructivista, encontró que los principios de la Astronomía pueden ser descubiertos durante el día, en cuanto los alumnos están en la escuela. Trabajando de forma cooperativa los alumnos midieron y registraron observaciones de sus propias sombras causadas por los movimientos de la estrella más próxima, el Sol, y nuestro planeta Tierra. Debido a que los alumnos se involucraran tan personalmente en las actividades, estuvieron mucho más interesados en los resultados del estudio. La Astronomía pasó a ser un desafío para el maestro y sus alumnos cuando aplicaron sus experiencias diurnas a la observación nocturna desde sus casas, reportada después en clase. Estas atividades astronômicas diurnas surgiram de uma investigação feita na Nova Zelândia por um grupo de professores e astrônomos a respeito dos problemas do ensino da Astronomia. Este trabalho mostrou que a Astronomia é geralmente considerada uma disciplina difícil de ensinar, tradicionalmente baseada em livros, filmes e modelos. Os mais afortunados podem ter feito alguma visita a um observatório ou planetário, e os mais avançados podem talvez ter tentado uma sessão de observação noturna, as quais sofrem às vezes de dificuldades relacionadas ao tempo. O problema de não dispor de suficientes atividades práticas, a sensação de possuir conhecimentos inadequados, a necessidade de dispor de equipamento astronômico e experiência tem sido, em geral, demasiado intimidante para que os professores introduzam a matéria nas suas aulas. Se a Astronomia ia ser introduzida, então era preciso encontrar uma forma de resolver essas dificuldades. Nosso grupo, trabalhando com professores e alunos numa abordagem construtivista, encontrou que os princípios da Astronomia podem ser descobertos durante o dia, enquanto os alunos estão na escola. Trabalhando de forma cooperativa os alunos mediram e registraram observações de suas próprias sombras causadas pelos movimentos da estrela mais próxima, o Sol, e nosso planeta Terra. Devido ao fato de os alunos se envolverem muito pessoalmente nas atividades, eles ficaram muito mais interessados nos resultados do estudo. A Astronomia passou a ser um desafio para o professor e seus alunos quando aplicaram suas experiências diurnas à observação noturna desde suas casas, relatada depois em sala de aula.

  13. Usefulness of a Lateral Thoracodorsal Flap after Breast Conserving Surgery in Laterally Located Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Dong Wan; Lee, Jeong Woo; Choi, Kang Young; Chung, Ho Yun; Cho, Byung Chae; Park, Ho Yong; Byun, Jin Suk

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast-conserving surgery is widely accepted as an appropriate method in breast cancer, and the lateral thoracodorsal flap provides a simple, reliable technique, especially when a mass is located in the lateral breast. This study describes the usefulness of a lateral thoracodorsal flap after breast conserving surgery in laterally located breast cancer. Methods From September 2008 to February 2013, a lateral thoracodorsal flap was used in 20 patients with laterally located breast cancer treated at our institution. The technique involves a local medially based, wedge shaped, fasciocutaneous transposition flap from the lateral region of the thoracic area. Overall satisfaction and aesthetic satisfaction surveys were conducted with the patients during a 6-month postoperative follow-up period. Aesthetic results in terms of breast shape and symmetry were evaluated by plastic surgeons. Results The average specimen weight was 76.8 g. The locations of the masses were the upper lateral quadrant (n=15), the lower lateral quadrant (n=2), and the central lateral area (n=3). Complications developed in four of the cases, partial flap necrosis in one, wound dehiscence in one, and fat necrosis in two. The majority of the patients were satisfied with their cosmetic outcomes. Conclusions Partial breast reconstruction using a lateral thoracodorsal flap is well matched with breast color and texture, and the surgery is less aggressive than other techniques with few complications. Therefore, the lateral thoracodorsal flap can be a useful, reliable technique in correcting breast deformity after breast conserving surgery, especially in laterally located breast cancer. PMID:23898433

  14. Model to Design Drip Hose Lateral Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Rafael; Cury Saad, João Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Introduction The design criterion for non-pressure compensating drip hose is normally to have 10% of flow variation (Δq) in the lateral line, corresponding to 20% of head pressure variation (ΔH). Longer lateral lines in drip irrigation systems using conventional drippers provide cost reduction, but it is necessary to obtain to the uniformity of irrigation [1]. The use of Δq higher levels can provide longer lateral lines. [4] proposes the use of a 30% Δq and he found that this value resulted in distribution uniformity over 80%. [1] considered it is possible to extend the lateral line length using two emitters spacing in different section. He assumed that the spacing changing point would be at 40% of the total length, because this is approximately the location of the average flow according with [2]. [3] found that, for practical purposes, the average pressure is located at 40% of the length of the lateral line and that until this point it has already consumed 75% of total pressure head loss (hf ). In this case, the challenge for designers is getting longer lateral lines with high values of uniformity. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a model to design longer lateral lines using non-pressure compensating drip hose. Using the developed model, the hypotheses to be evaluated were: a) the use of two different spacing between emitters in the same lateral line allows longer length; b) it is possible to get longer lateral lines using high values of pressure variation in the lateral lines since the distribution uniformity stays below allowable limits. Methodology A computer program was developed in Delphi® based on the model developed and it is able to design lateral lines in level using non-pressure compensating drip hose. The input data are: desired distribution uniformity (DU); initial and final pressure in the lateral line; coefficients of relationship between emitter discharge and pressure head; hose internal diameter; pipe cross-sectional area with the dripper; and roughness coefficient for the Hazen-Williams equation. The program allows calculate the lateral line length with three possibilities: selecting two spacing between emitters and defining the exchange point; using two pre-established spacing between emitters and calculating the length of each section with different spacing; using one emitter spacing. Results Results showed that the use of two sections with different spacing between drippers in the lateral line didn't allow longer length but got better uniformity when compared with lateral line with one spacing between emitters. The adoption of two spacing increased the flow rate per meter in the final section which represented approximately 80% of the lateral line total length and this justifies their use. The software allowed DU above 90% with pressure head variation of 40% and the use of two spacing between emitters. Conclusions The developed model/software showed to be accurate, easy to handle and useful for lateral line design using non-pressure compensating drip hose. References [1] ANDRADE, L. A. D. Estudo de uniformidade de emissão de água utilizando diferentes espaçamentos entre gotejadores na linha lateral. 2009. 87 f. Tese (Doutorado em Agronomia/Irigação e Drenagem) - Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas, Universidade Estadual Paulista 'Julio de Mesquita Filho', Botucatu, (2009). [2] KELLER, J.; BLIESNER, R. D. Sprinkle and trickle irrigation. Caldwell: Blackburn Press, (1990). 652 p. [3] TALENS, J. A. M. Riego localizado y fertirrigacion. Madrid: Mundi-Prensa, (2002). 533 p. [4] WU, I. P. An assessment of hydraulic design of micro-irrigation systems. Agricultural Water Management, Amsterdan, v. 32, n. 3

  15. A lateral electrophoretic flow diagnostic assay

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Robert; Skandarajah, Arunan; Gerver, Rachel E.; Neira, Hector D.; Fletcher, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Immunochromatographic assays are a cornerstone tool in disease screening. To complement existing lateral flow assays (based on wicking flow) we introduce a lateral flow format that employs directed electrophoretic transport. The format is termed a “lateral e-flow assay” and is designed to support multiplexed detection using immobilized reaction volumes of capture antigen. To fabricate the lateral e-flow device, we employ mask-based UV photopatterning to selectively immobilize unmodified capture antigen along the microchannel in a barcode-like pattern. The channel-filling polyacrylamide hydrogel incorporates a photoactive moiety (benzophenone) to immobilize capture antigen to the hydrogel without a priori antigen modification. We report a heterogeneous sandwich assay using low-power electrophoresis to drive biospecimen through the capture antigen barcode. Fluorescence barcode readout is collected via a low-resource appropriate imaging system (CellScope). We characterize lateral e-flow assay performance and demonstrate a serum assay for antibodies to the hepatitis C virus (HCV). In a pilot study, the lateral e-flow assay positively identifies HCV+ human sera in 60 min. The lateral e-flow assay provides a flexible format for conducting multiplexed immunoassays relevant to confirmatory diagnosis in near-patient settings. PMID:25608872

  16. Olfactory coding in the honeybee lateral horn.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Edith; Carcaud, Julie; Combe, Maud; Giurfa, Martin; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2014-03-01

    Olfactory systems dynamically encode odor information in the nervous system. Insects constitute a well-established model for the study of the neural processes underlying olfactory perception. In insects, odors are detected by sensory neurons located in the antennae, whose axons project to a primary processing center, the antennal lobe. There, the olfactory message is reshaped and further conveyed to higher-order centers, the mushroom bodies and the lateral horn. Previous work has intensively analyzed the principles of olfactory processing in the antennal lobe and in the mushroom bodies. However, how the lateral horn participates in olfactory coding remains comparatively more enigmatic. We studied odor representation at the input to the lateral horn of the honeybee, a social insect that relies on both floral odors for foraging and pheromones for social communication. Using in vivo calcium imaging, we show consistent neural activity in the honeybee lateral horn upon stimulation with both floral volatiles and social pheromones. Recordings reveal odor-specific maps in this brain region as stimulations with the same odorant elicit more similar spatial activity patterns than stimulations with different odorants. Odor-similarity relationships are mostly conserved between antennal lobe and lateral horn, so that odor maps recorded in the lateral horn allow predicting bees' behavioral responses to floral odorants. In addition, a clear segregation of odorants based on pheromone type is found in both structures. The lateral horn thus contains an odor-specific map with distinct representations for the different bee pheromones, a prerequisite for eliciting specific behaviors. PMID:24560579

  17. Lateral Meningomyelocele in a Neonate: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, G Raghavendra; Rashmi, TM

    2016-01-01

    Lateral presentation of meningocele and meningomyelocele is extremely rare. Most of the lateral meningocele described are associated with other syndromes. Isolated lateral meningomyelocele cases are rarer still. We herein report a neonate with isolated lateral gluteal meningomyelocele. PMID:26793596

  18. Experiments and analysis of lateral piezoresistance gauges

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, M.K.W.

    1993-07-01

    The response of lateral piezoresistance gauges to shock wave uniaxial strain loading has been examined in a combined experimental and calculational effort. Plate impact experiments provided lateral gauge data which were analyzed using quasi-static and dynamic inclusion analyses. Experimental data showed that the response of the lateral gauge output depended upon the matrix material and gauge emplacement method. The calculations indicated that these differences were due to complex gauge-matrix interactions. These interactions were influenced by the stress and strain distributions in and around the gauge, plasticity effects, properties of the gauge and matrix materials, and emplacement conditions.

  19. Lateral Hindfoot Impingement After Nonunion of Fracture of the Lateral Process of the Talus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping-Hui; Su, Wei-Ren; Jou, I-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Fracture of the lateral process of the talus is a relatively uncommon ankle injury, and the diagnosis is easily delayed. Lateral hindfoot impingement is characteristically related to chronic hindfoot valgus malalignment, with lateral ankle pain localized to the subtalar region. In a review of the published data, lateral hindfoot impingement after nonunion of fracture of the lateral process of the talus was not found. We present the case of a patient with such an injury. The patient was treated operatively and was followed for 18 months. PMID:25998474

  20. Transplant Problems That May Show Up Later

    MedlinePlus

    ... soon after transplant Next Topic Other transplant issues Transplant problems that may show up later The type ... called Second Cancers Caused by Cancer Treatment . Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder Post-transplant lymphoproliferative ( lim -fo-pruh- ...

  1. Lateral Transpsoas Fusion: Indications and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vishal C.; Park, Daniel K.; Herkowitz, Harry N.

    2012-01-01

    Spinal fusion historically has been used extensively, and, recently, the lateral transpsoas approach to the thoracic and lumbar spine has become an increasingly common method to achieve fusion. Recent literature on this approach has elucidated its advantage over more traditional anterior and posterior approaches, which include a smaller tissue dissection, potentially lower blood loss, no need for an access surgeon, and a shorter hospital stay. Indications for the procedure have now expanded to include degenerative disc disease, spinal stenosis, degenerative scoliosis, nonunion, trauma, infection, and low-grade spondylolisthesis. Lateral interbody fusion has a similar if not lower rate of complications compared to traditional anterior and posterior approaches to interbody fusion. However, lateral interbody fusion has unique complications that include transient neurologic symptoms, motor deficits, and neural injuries that range from 1 to 60% in the literature. Additional studies are required to further evaluate and monitor the short- and long-term safety, efficacy, outcomes, and complications of lateral transpsoas procedures. PMID:23213303

  2. Laterally Coupled Distributed-Feedback Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Robert J.; Forouhar, Siamak; Tiberio, Richard C.; Porkolab, George

    1992-01-01

    Distributed-feedback semiconductor lasers of proposed design called "laterally coupled" features Bragg gratings located on top surfaces next to sides of ridge waveguides overlying gain regions of laser resonators.

  3. Lateralized courtship in a parasitic wasp.

    PubMed

    Romano, Donato; Donati, Elisa; Canale, Angelo; Messing, Russell H; Benelli, Giovanni; Stefanini, Cesare

    2016-05-01

    Lateralization (i.e. left-right asymmetries in the brain and behaviour) of courtship displays has been examined in a growing number vertebrate species, while evidence for invertebrates is limited. In this study, we investigated lateralization of courtship and mating displays in the parasitic wasp Leptomastidea abnormis. Results showed a population-level lateralization of male courtship displays. Male antennal tapping on the female's head was right-biased. However, right-biased male courtship acts were not characterized by higher male antennal tapping frequencies, nor success in mating although antennal tapping frequency was higher in males with mating success with respect to unsuccessful males. Overall, our results add basic knowledge to the behavioural ecology of insect parasitoids. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of behavioural lateralization in parasitic Hymenoptera. PMID:26932864

  4. Cooling Therapy Helps Newborns Years Later

    MedlinePlus

    ... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Cooling Therapy Helps Newborns Years Later A cooling treatment for infants ... that a cooling therapy called hypothermia treatment could help these babies. The treatment involves placing newborns on ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... DW. Converging mechanisms in ALS and FTD: disrupted RNA and protein homeostasis. Neuron. 2013 Aug 7;79( ... Miller CC, Shaw CE. Mutations in FUS, an RNA processing protein, cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type ...

  6. Assessment of Phosphorus Retention in Irrigation Laterals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation laterals transport irrigation return flow, including water, sediment, and nutrients, back to surface water bodies. Phosphorus transformations during transport can affect both phosphorus bioavailability and the best management practices selected to minimize phosphorus inputs to waters of ...

  7. Management of horizontally impacted dilacerated lateral incisor

    PubMed Central

    Katta, Anil Kumar; Peddu, Revathi; Vannala, Venkataramana; Dasari, Vaishnavi

    2015-01-01

    Impaction of maxillary lateral incisor with odontome and retained deciduous tooth is not often seen in regular dental practice. Impaction of anterior teeth cause generalized spacing which affects the esthetics of the face. Here we report a case of an 18-year-old patient with horizontally impacted dilacerated lateral incisor, which was bought into occlusion with the help of orthodontic tooth movement within a span of 18 months. PMID:26538954

  8. Discovery from a lateral oblique radiograph.

    PubMed

    Hong, Bosun

    2016-01-01

    In many oral and maxillofacial surgery units and emergency departments, lateral oblique radiographs are not routinely included in radiological investigations for suspected mandibular fractures because orthopanoramic and posteroanterior mandible views usually suffice. This paper reports a case where a lateral oblique radiograph proved to be very useful in managing a fractured atrophic mandible. This case report highlights the importance of considering the use of alternative radiographs for suspected fracture(s) of an atrophic mandible to exclude the unexpected. PMID:26791125

  9. Brain and behavioral lateralization in invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Frasnelli, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioral asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left–right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which has asymmetric odor sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behavior with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with a specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test the evolutionary hypothesis. PMID:24376433

  10. Brain and behavioral lateralization in invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Frasnelli, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioral asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which has asymmetric odor sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behavior with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with a specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test the evolutionary hypothesis. PMID:24376433

  11. Laterality enhances cognition in Australian parrots.

    PubMed

    Magat, Maria; Brown, Culum

    2009-12-01

    Cerebral lateralization refers to the division of information processing in either hemisphere of the brain and is a ubiquitous trait among vertebrates and invertebrates. Given its widespread occurrence, it is likely that cerebral lateralization confers a fitness advantage. It has been hypothesized that this advantage takes the form of enhanced cognitive function, potentially via a dual processing mechanism whereby each hemisphere can be used to process specific types of information without contralateral interference. Here, we examined the influence of lateralization on problem solving by Australian parrots. The first task, a pebble-seed discrimination test, was designed for small parrot species that feed predominately on small seeds, which do not require any significant manipulation with the foot prior to ingestion. The second task, a string-pull problem, was designed for larger bodied species that regularly use their feet to manipulate food objects. In both cases, strongly lateralized individuals (those showing significant foot and eye biases) outperformed less strongly lateralized individuals, and this relationship was substantially stronger in the more demanding task. These results suggest that cerebral lateralization is a ubiquitous trait among Australian parrots and conveys a significant foraging advantage. Our results provide strong support for the enhanced cognitive function hypothesis. PMID:19726480

  12. Laterality enhances cognition in Australian parrots

    PubMed Central

    Magat, Maria; Brown, Culum

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral lateralization refers to the division of information processing in either hemisphere of the brain and is a ubiquitous trait among vertebrates and invertebrates. Given its widespread occurrence, it is likely that cerebral lateralization confers a fitness advantage. It has been hypothesized that this advantage takes the form of enhanced cognitive function, potentially via a dual processing mechanism whereby each hemisphere can be used to process specific types of information without contralateral interference. Here, we examined the influence of lateralization on problem solving by Australian parrots. The first task, a pebble-seed discrimination test, was designed for small parrot species that feed predominately on small seeds, which do not require any significant manipulation with the foot prior to ingestion. The second task, a string-pull problem, was designed for larger bodied species that regularly use their feet to manipulate food objects. In both cases, strongly lateralized individuals (those showing significant foot and eye biases) outperformed less strongly lateralized individuals, and this relationship was substantially stronger in the more demanding task. These results suggest that cerebral lateralization is a ubiquitous trait among Australian parrots and conveys a significant foraging advantage. Our results provide strong support for the enhanced cognitive function hypothesis. PMID:19726480

  13. The lateral suprasylvian corticotectal projection in cats.

    PubMed

    Segal, R L; Beckstead, R M

    1984-05-10

    The projection from the lateral suprasylvian visual areas to the superior colliculus was investigated in cats using both anterograde and retrograde tracing techniques. The retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or wheat germ agglutinin-HRP (WGA-HRP) from their site of deposit in the superior colliculus indicates that all divisions of the lateral suprasylvian visual areas project to both the superficial and deep layers of the superior colliculus. However, following tracer deposits in the superior colliculus that are confined to the layers below the stratum opticum (deep layers), more neurons are labeled along the lateral bank than along the medial bank of the middle suprasylvian sulcus. Conversely, tracer deposits in the superior colliculus dorsal to and including the stratum opticum label more cells in the medial than the lateral bank. These retrograde experiments also confirm that the visual cortex along the lateral gyrus (areas 17 and 18) projects to the superficial, but apparently not to the deep layers. The visual area in the cortex surrounding the caudal two-thirds of the anterior ectosylvian sulcus projects to the deep, but not to the superficial layers. The laminar and areal patterns of anterograde axon labeling in the superior colliculus were examined after single deposits of 3H-amino acids (autoradiography), HRP, or WGA-HRP in the lateral suprasylvian cortical regions, or combined isotope and WGA-HRP deposits. Axon labeling in the superior colliculus is generally densest in the stratum opticum and extends either dorsally into the superficial layers or ventrally into the intermediate gray layer. Specifically, the anterior divisions of the lateral suprasylvian cortex project primarily to the lateral portion of the superior colliculus, with the projection from the medial bank biased toward the superficial layers and axons from the lateral bank aimed mainly at the intermediate gray layer with some axons even reaching the deepest gray layer of the superior colliculus. Both the posteromedial and posterolateral divisions of the lateral suprasylvian cortex project to more extensive portions of the mediolateral and rostrocaudal dimensions of the superior colliculus than the anterior divisions. However, the posterolateral division projects more heavily to the intermediate gray layer than the posteromedial division; from the latter, axons distribute more superficially in the superior colliculus. Finally, the cortex surrounding the posterior suprasylvian sulcus projects primarily to the medial part of the superficial layers of the superior colliculus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6725646

  14. Lateral restraint assembly for reactor core

    DOEpatents

    Gorholt, Wilhelm; Luci, Raymond K.

    1986-01-01

    A restraint assembly for use in restraining lateral movement of a reactor core relative to a reactor vessel wherein a plurality of restraint assemblies are interposed between the reactor core and the reactor vessel in circumferentially spaced relation about the core. Each lateral restraint assembly includes a face plate urged against the outer periphery of the core by a plurality of compression springs which enable radial preloading of outer reflector blocks about the core and resist low-level lateral motion of the core. A fixed radial key member cooperates with each face plate in a manner enabling vertical movement of the face plate relative to the key member but restraining movement of the face plate transverse to the key member in a plane transverse to the center axis of the core. In this manner, the key members which have their axes transverse to or subtending acute angles with the direction of a high energy force tending to move the core laterally relative to the reactor vessel restrain such lateral movement.

  15. LOB Domain Proteins: Beyond Lateral Organ Boundaries.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changzheng; Luo, Feng; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2016-02-01

    LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN (LBD) proteins defined by a conserved LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES (LOB) domain are key regulators of plant organ development. Recent studies have expanded their functional diversity beyond the definition of lateral organ boundaries to pollen development, plant regeneration, photomorphogenesis, pathogen response, and specific developmental functions in non-model plants, such as poplar and legumes. The identification of a range of upstream regulators, protein partners, and downstream targets of LBD family members has unraveled the molecular networks of LBD-dependent processes. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that LBD proteins have essential roles in integrating developmental changes in response to phytohormone signaling or environmental cues. As we discuss here, these novel discoveries of LBD functions and their molecular contexts promote a better understanding of this plant-specific transcription factor family. PMID:26616195

  16. The Lateral Instability of Deep Rectangular Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumont, C; Hill, H N

    1937-01-01

    Experimental and analytical studies were made of solid and hollow deep rectangular beams to study their lateral instability under various conditions of loading and restraint. The tests were made on bars and tubes of 17ST aluminum alloy. Failure by lateral buckling occurred only in tests on the solid beams. It was found that, within the elastic range, the test results were in agreement with the classical theory for the lateral buckling of deep beams as given by Prandtl, Mitchell, and Timoshenko. The tests were extended to the inelastic range, where it was found that the substitution for Young's modulus of an average modulus of elasticity derived from the stress-strain curve made it possible to predict instability at high stresses.

  17. Lateral step initiation behavior in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Sparto, Patrick J; Jennings, J Richard; Furman, Joseph M; Redfern, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Older adults have varied postural responses during induced and voluntary lateral stepping. The purpose of the research was to quantify the occurrence of different stepping strategies during lateral step initiation in older adults and to relate the stepping responses to retrospective history of falls. Seventy community-ambulating older adults (mean age 76 y, range 70–94 y) performed voluntary lateral steps as quickly as possible to the right or left in response to a visual cue, in a blocked design. Vertical ground reaction forces were measured using a forceplate, and the number and latency of postural adjustments were quantified. Subjects were assigned to groups based on their stepping strategy. The frequency of trials with one or two postural adjustments was compared with data from 20 younger adults (mean age 38 y, range 21–58 y). Logistic regression was used to relate presence of a fall in the previous year with the number and latency of postural adjustments. In comparison with younger adults, who almost always demonstrated one postural adjustment when stepping laterally, older adults constituted a continuous distribution in the percentage of step trials made with one postural adjustment (from 0% to 100% of trials). Latencies of the initial postural adjustment and foot liftoff varied depending on the number of postural adjustments made. A history of falls was associated a larger percentage of two postural adjustments, and a longer latency of foot liftoff. In conclusion, the number and latency of postural adjustments made during voluntary lateral stepping provides additional evidence that lateral control of posture may be a critical indicator of aging. PMID:24295896

  18. Lateral force microscopy profiles for amorphous potentials.

    PubMed

    Rivas, A M F; Zamora, R R M; Prioli, R

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the lateral force profiles of the scanning force microscope tip on an amorphous surface were simulated with the use of an independent oscillator model. The correlation between the lateral force profiles and the surface potential were studied as a function of the tip-surface normal force and relative scanning velocity. It is shown that the microscope resolution is governed by the quotient between the average potential interaction energy and the average elastic energy stored before the jumps. We show that there is an optimal velocity with which the scanning tip better senses the surface potential and we present its scaling laws. PMID:12801685

  19. Mitek Suspension of the Lateral Nasal Wall.

    PubMed

    White, James R; Hamilton, Grant S

    2016-02-01

    The nasal valve has long been described as the anatomical boundary most likely to inhibit nasal airflow and lead to subsequent nasal obstruction. Although many procedures can address this area to improve the nasal airway, for over 20 years, suture lateralization of the external nasal valve has been described as a minimally invasive technique that can improve nasal breathing. We report our modification of the standard technique in which we lateralize the placement of the bone-anchored suture and incorporate Gore-Tex within the nasal vestibular incision to prevent tissue migration. PMID:26862966

  20. Plasmonic lateral forces on chiral spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canaguier-Durand, Antoine; Genet, Cyriaque

    2016-01-01

    We show that the optical force exerted on a finite size chiral sphere by a surface plasmon mode has a component along a direction perpendicular to the plasmon linear momentum. We reveal how this chiral lateral force, pointing in opposite directions for opposite enantiomers, stems from an angular-to-linear crossed momentum transfer involving the plasmon transverse spin angular momentum density and mediated by the chirality of the sphere. Our multipolar approach allows us discussing the inclusion of the recoil term in the force on a small sphere taken in the dipolar limit and observing sign inversions of the lateral chiral force when the size of the sphere increases.

  1. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Historical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Katz, Jonathan S; Dimachkie, Mazen M; Barohn, Richard J

    2015-11-01

    This article looks back in time to see where the foundational basis for the understanding of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis originated. This foundation was created primarily in France by Jean-Martin Charcot and his fellow countrymen and disciples, along with key contributions from early clinicians in England and Germany. The early work on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis provides a useful foundation for today's clinicians with respect to tying together genetic and biologic aspects of the disorder that have been discovered over the past few decades. PMID:26515617

  2. Lateral jet injection into swirling combustor flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilley, David G.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental program has been conducted to ascertain the effects of the number of lateral jets, the jet velocity ratio, and the crossflow swirl strength, on the isothermal flowfield patterns in jets injected normally to a round-section crossflow. Attention has been given to the trajectory, penetration, and mixing efficiency of the lateral injection, using flow visualization, pitot-probe and hot-wire methods. In addition, such predictive techniques as a simple, explicit, fully three-dimensional turbulent computer code have been employed.

  3. A Proposed Activity for a Meaningful Learning about the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Uma Proposta de Atividade Para a Aprendizagem Significativa sobre as Fases da Lua.) Una Actividad Propuesta Para EL Aprendizaje Significativo Acerca de Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Bruno Andrade; Langhi, Rodolfo

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents one of the concepts of Astronomy and its consequent failure in teaching this topic in high school, even when the official documents point out the necessity of Astronomy teaching at this school level. Among the spontaneous conceptions in Astronomy that high school students carry with them, even after the end of the school, we emphasized in this research the Moon phases. The development of different strategies in relation to traditional methods, aimed to teaching-learning process on this topic was considered in this study. These strategies were devised based on the reference frame of the Meaningful Learning, as elaborated by Ausubel. The proposals presented here include the active participation of students in experimental activities and other didactic activities, for their continuous evaluation during the process. These activities finished with a Comics elaboration about the Moon phases. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present a proposal for differentiated teaching activity about Moon phases supported by the theoretical principles of Meaningful Learning at Physics classes. Este texto foca um dos conteúdos de Astronomia e a consequente falha no ensino deste tema no ensino médio, apesar de os documentos oficiais apresentarem a necessidade de se trabalhar a Astronomia neste nível de ensino. Dentre as concepções alternativas em Astronomia que os alunos do ensino médio carregam consigo, mesmo após o término dos estudos, destacamos, nesta pesquisa, o fenômeno das fases da Lua. O desenvolvimento de estratégias diferenciadas em relação ao ensino tradicional, visando o processo de ensino-aprendizagem sobre este tema, foi contemplado neste trabalho como um dos resultados obtidos sob a luz dos referenciais da aprendizagem significativa, fundamentados em Ausubel. Segundo a proposta aqui apresentada, a participação ativa dos alunos na execução de uma atividade experimental e outras atividades didáticas, que visam sua contínua avaliação durante o processo, culmina com a elaboração de uma história em quadrinhos envolvendo as fases da Lua. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar uma proposta de atividade didática diferenciada sustentada pelos princípios teóricos da aprendizagem significativa aplicada ao ensino das fases da Lua durante as aulas de Física no ensino médio. En este trabajo se presenta uno de los contenidos de la Astronomía y el evidente fracaso en la enseñanza del tema en la escuela secundaria, a pesar del hecho que los documentos oficiales apuntan para la necesidad de trabajar contenidos de Astronomía en este nivel. Entre los conceptos alternativos en Astronomía que los alumnos secundarios llevan consigo, aún después de terminados los estudios, destacamos aquí el fenómeno de las fases de la Luna. El desarrollo de diferentes estrategias en relación con los métodos tradicionales, dirigidas al proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje en este tema fue considerado en este trabajo como uno de los resultados obtenidos a la luz de los referenciales del aprendizaje significativo, tal como fueron fundamentados por Ausubel. Según la propuesta que aquí se presenta, la participación activa de los estudiantes en la ejecución de una actividad experimental y otras actividades educativas destinadas a la evaluación continua durante el proceso culminó en la elaboración de una historieta respecto de las fases de la Luna. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una propuesta de actividad de enseñanza diferenciada con el apoyo de los principios teóricos del aprendizaje significativo aplicado a la enseñanza de las fases de la luna durante las clases de física del ciclo secundario.

  4. [The lateral abdominal island flap--the lateral intercostal neurovascular island flap].

    PubMed

    Yu, G; Lao, Z; Liu, J

    1996-11-01

    This work studied the lateral abdominal island flap, its clinical value, transposition range and the practicability of a modified operative method. Five lateral abdominal island flaps were used in 5 patients. Four of them were for axillary radiation ulcers after radical mastectomy. One was for a sacral defect after resection of a recurrent fibrosarcoma. All the flaps obtained satisfactory results. Clinical applications revealed that the blood supply of the lateral abdominal skin was mainly from the lateral cutaneous branches of the 9th, 10th and 11th intercostal arteries, among which there were numerous anastomoses. The lateral abdominal island flap can be pedicled with any of these lateral cutaneous branches. The long pedicle of the flap provides a wide range of trnasposition from the axilla to the sacrum. As the pedicle of the flap contains the lateral cutaneous branch of the intercostal nerve, the flap can bring sensation function to the recipient area. The modified operative method of the lateral abdominal island flap is introduced. PMID:9387425

  5. The Assessment of Cerebral Laterality: The Sherman-Kulhavy Laterality Assessment Inventory. Technical Report No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Jay L.; Kulhavy, Raymond W.

    The Sherman-Kulhavy Laterality Assessment Inventory (LAI), an instrument for determining cerebral laterality, was administered to 1,000 undergraduates to determine the ability of the LAI to discriminate between right- and left-dominant groups. Each S was administered the LAI, a 45-item verbal report instrument which assesses both fine and gross…

  6. Cerebral Lateralities and Individualized Instruction. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federico, Pat-Anthony

    To ascertain whether cerebral lateralities can be considered aptitudes or individual difference measures within an aptitude-treatment-interaction (ATI) framework, hemispheric asymmetries and cognitive psychometric tests were administered to 50 right-handed, Caucasian, male Navy recruits. Principal factor analysis with varimax rotation was computed

  7. Profiling 1366 Technologies: One Year Later

    ScienceCinema

    Van Mierlo, Frank; Sachs, Ely;

    2013-05-29

    Last January, we took a look at how ARPA-E performer, 1366 Technologies is working to dramatically reduce the cost of solar energy. A year later, we revisited their headquarters in Lexington, MA to see the progress they've made.

  8. New lateral stabilizing device for airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantin, Louis

    1923-01-01

    The proposed device tends to render the lateral stabilization of airplanes easier and more efficacious. The proposed solution is to mount the ailerons independently, in such a manner that they can turn freely, under the action of the relative wind, about an axis located in front of the extreme position of the center of the lift.

  9. Lateralized Temporal Order Judgement in Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Jackson, Georgina M.; Rorden, Chris; Jackson, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    Temporal and spatial attentional deficits in dyslexia were investigated using a lateralized visual temporal order judgment (TOJ) paradigm that allowed both sensitivity to temporal order and spatial attentional bias to be measured. Findings indicate that adult participants with a positive screen for dyslexia were significantly less sensitive to the…

  10. Active Children: Healthy Now And Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Linley; Musumeci, Josephine

    2005-01-01

    Current research is revealing that physical activity can protect against a range of lifestyle diseases and illnesses. Consequently, early childhood practitioners and parents need to adopt guidelines and practices which encourage children of all ages to be physically active. In "Active children: Healthy Now and Later," authors Linley Campbell and…

  11. Control augmentation for lateral control wheel steering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foulkes, R. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Flight control system design for lateral control wheel steering is discussed. Two alternate designs are presented. The first design is a roll-rate command, bank-angle hold system with a wings-level track-hold submode. The second is a curved-track-hold system. Design details and real-time flight simulator results are included.

  12. Early Classroom Behavior and Later Misconduct.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spivack, George; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Longitudinally examines the relationship between teacher-rated behaviors in kindergarten through grade three with police contact as a measure of delinquency and school misconduct throughout adolescence. Urban minority ("high risk") males and females participated. Consistent relationships between early classroom behavior and later misconduct

  13. Lateral Hip Pain in an Athletic Population

    PubMed Central

    Grumet, Robert C.; Frank, Rachel M.; Slabaugh, Mark A.; Virkus, Walter W.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Nho, Shane J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Historically, the term greater trochanteric pain syndrome has been used to describe a spectrum of conditions that cause lateral-sided hip pain, including greater trochanteric bursitis, snapping iliotibial band, and/or strains or tendinopathy of the abductor mechanism. Diagnosis of these conditions may be difficult because clinical presentations are variable and sometimes inconclusive. Especially difficult is differentiating intrinsic pain from pain referred to the greater trochanteric region. The purposes of this article are to review the relevant anatomy and pathophysiology of the lateral hip. Evidence Acquisition: Data were collected through a thorough review of the literature conducted through a MEDLINE search of all relevant papers between 1980 and January 2010. Results: Recent advances in imaging and an improved understanding of pathomechanics have helped to guide the evaluation, diagnosis, and appropriate treatment for patients presenting with lateral hip pain. Conclusion: Various diagnostic tools and treatment modalities can be used to effectively manage the athletic patient presenting with lateral hip pain. PMID:23015937

  14. The Columbine Tragedy Ten Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Some tragedies are so emblazoned in people's minds that years later they can recall where they were when they first heard the news. The assassinations of John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr., the Challenger explosion, and the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks are among these events. So also is the Columbine High School tragedy of April 20, 1999.…

  15. Religious Attendance and Loneliness in Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rote, Sunshine; Hill, Terrence D.; Ellison, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Studies show that loneliness is a major risk factor for health issues in later life. Although research suggests that religious involvement can protect against loneliness, explanations for this general pattern are underdeveloped and undertested. In this paper, we propose and test a theoretical model, which suggests that social…

  16. Lateral capacity of helical piles in clays

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Y.V.S.N.

    1996-11-01

    Helical piles, also known as screw anchors, consist of one or more helical-shaped circular plates welded to a central steel shaft at a specified spacing. Currently, helical piles are being used as tower foundations on land and in offshore areas to secure moorings, cables, and sea-bed pipelines to the sea bed. In this paper, the behavior of helical piles under lateral loads in clayey soils is examined through an experimental investigation on model piles. Tests were conducted on rigid helical piles with different numbers of plates. Model anchors were made of 13.8 mm diameter mild steel shafts to which mild steel plates of 33 mm diameter were welded. For comparison, a single straight shaft with a diameter of 13.8 mm was also tested. Test results revealed that the lateral capacity of helical piles is greater than that of straight shaft piles. A simple theoretical model is suggested to estimate the lateral capacity of rigid helical piles. The theoretical model suggested incorporates lateral resistance of the soil on the shaft, bearing resistance on the bottom of the helical plate, uplift resistance on the top of the helical plate, and frictional resistance on the surface of the helical plate. The validity of this model is examined.

  17. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: the role of exercise.

    PubMed

    Lisle, Stuart; Tennison, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting both the upper and lower motor neurons. Given the deterioration of skeletal muscle function, historically there has been concern regarding exercise and its affect on ALS. This article reviews and explains current research, helping patients, caregivers, and providers be equipped better to make decisions regarding the treatment of ALS with exercise. PMID:25574882

  18. Lateral prefrontal cortex: architectonic and functional organization

    PubMed Central

    Petrides, Michael

    2005-01-01

    A comparison of the architecture of the human prefrontal cortex with that of the macaque monkey showed a very similar architectonic organization in these two primate species. There is no doubt that the prefrontal cortical areas of the human brain have undergone considerable development, but it is equally clear that the basic architectonic organization is the same in the two species. Thus, a comparative approach to the study of the functional organization of the primate prefrontal cortex is more likely to reveal the essential aspects of the various complex control processes that are the domain of frontal function. The lateral frontal cortex appears to be functionally organized along both a rostral–caudal axis and a dorsal–ventral axis. The most caudal frontal region, the motor region on the precentral gyrus, is involved in fine motor control and direct sensorimotor mappings, whereas the caudal lateral prefrontal region is involved in higher order control processes that regulate the selection among multiple competing responses and stimuli based on conditional operations. Further rostrally, the mid-lateral prefrontal region plays an even more abstract role in cognitive control. The mid-lateral prefrontal region is itself organized along a dorsal–ventral axis of organization, with the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex being involved in the monitoring of information in working memory and the mid-ventrolateral prefrontal region being involved in active judgments on information held in posterior cortical association regions that are necessary for active retrieval and encoding of information. PMID:15937012

  19. Quantifying lateral tissue heterogeneities in hadron therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Pflugfelder, D.; Wilkens, J. J.; Szymanowski, H.; Oelfke, U.

    2007-04-15

    In radiotherapy with scanned particle beams, tissue heterogeneities lateral to the beam direction are problematic in two ways: they pose a challenge to dose calculation algorithms, and they lead to a high sensitivity to setup errors. In order to quantify and avoid these problems, a heterogeneity number H{sub i} as a method to quantify lateral tissue heterogeneities of single beam spot i is introduced. To evaluate this new concept, two kinds of potential errors were investigated for single beam spots: First, the dose calculation error has been obtained by comparing the dose distribution computed by a simple pencil beam algorithm to more accurate Monte Carlo simulations. The resulting error is clearly correlated with H{sub i}. Second, the analysis of the sensitivity to setup errors of single beam spots also showed a dependence on H{sub i}. From this data it is concluded that H{sub i} can be used as a criterion to assess the risks of a compromised delivered dose due to lateral tissue heterogeneities. Furthermore, a method how to incorporate this information into the inverse planning process for intensity modulated proton therapy is presented. By suppressing beam spots with a high value of H{sub i}, the unfavorable impact of lateral tissue heterogeneities can be reduced, leading to treatment plans which are more robust to dose calculation errors of the pencil beam algorithm. Additional possibilities to use the information of H{sub i} are outlined in the discussion.

  20. Quantifying lateral tissue heterogeneities in hadron therapy.

    PubMed

    Pflugfelder, D; Wilkens, J J; Szymanowski, H; Oelfke, U

    2007-04-01

    In radiotherapy with scanned particle beams, tissue heterogeneities lateral to the beam direction are problematic in two ways: they pose a challenge to dose calculation algorithms, and they lead to a high sensitivity to setup errors. In order to quantify and avoid these problems, a heterogeneity number H(i) as a method to quantify lateral tissue heterogeneities of single beam spot i is introduced. To evaluate this new concept, two kinds of potential errors were investigated for single beam spots: First, the dose calculation error has been obtained by comparing the dose distribution computed by a simple pencil beam algorithm to more accurate Monte Carlo simulations. The resulting error is clearly correlated with H(i). Second, the analysis of the sensitivity to setup errors of single beam spots also showed a dependence on H(i). From this data it is concluded that H(i) can be used as a criterion to assess the risks of a compromised delivered dose due to lateral tissue heterogeneities. Furthermore, a method how to incorporate this information into the inverse planning process for intensity modulated proton therapy is presented. By suppressing beam spots with a high value of H(i), the unfavorable impact of lateral tissue heterogeneities can be reduced, leading to treatment plans which are more robust to dose calculation errors of the pencil beam algorithm. Additional possibilities to use the information of H(i) are outlined in the discussion. PMID:17500481

  1. Profiling 1366 Technologies: One Year Later

    SciTech Connect

    Van Mierlo, Frank; Sachs, Ely

    2011-01-01

    Last January, we took a look at how ARPA-E performer, 1366 Technologies is working to dramatically reduce the cost of solar energy. A year later, we revisited their headquarters in Lexington, MA to see the progress they've made.

  2. Lateral drug diffusion in human nails.

    PubMed

    Palliyil, Biji B; Li, Cong; Owaisat, Suzan; Lebo, David B

    2014-12-01

    The main objective of the current work is to demonstrate the process of passive lateral diffusion in the human nail plate and its effect on the passive transungual permeation of antifungal drug ciclopirox olamine (CPO). A water soluble dye, methyl red sodium salt (MR) was used to visualize the process of lateral diffusion using a novel suspended nail experiment. The decline in concentration of CPO correlates with that of concentration of MR from the proximal to the distal end of the nail in suspended nail study. Three toenails each were trimmed to 5 mm × 5 mm (25 mm(2)), 7 mm × 7 mm (49 mm(2)), and 9 mm × 9 mm (81 mm(2)) to study the extent and effect of lateral diffusion of the CPO on its in vitro transungual permeation. The permeation flux of CPO decreased as the surface area of the toenail increased. There was a positive correlation between the concentrations of CPO and MR in the area of application and in the peripheral area of the toenails of the three surface areas, confirming the findings in the suspended nail experiment. Profound lateral diffusion of CPO was demonstrated and shown to reduce the in vitro passive transungual drug permeation and prolong the lag-time in human toenails. The study data implies that during passive in vitro transungual permeation experiments, the peripheral nail around the area of drug application has to be kept to a minimum, in order to get reliable data which mimics the in vivo situation. PMID:24970585

  3. Cerebral Lateralization and Its Effect on Drawing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Yvonne A.; Thomas, Stephen B.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the importance of both sides of the brain for the development of drawing skills but notes that the left brain can inhibit the action of the right brain. Provides a discussion of cerebral lateralization and child development. Suggests five drawing exercises to help develop hemispheric cooperation. (SB)

  4. One hand clapping: lateralization of motor control

    PubMed Central

    Welniarz, Quentin; Dusart, Isabelle; Gallea, Cécile; Roze, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Lateralization of motor control refers to the ability to produce pure unilateral or asymmetric movements. It is required for a variety of coordinated activities, including skilled bimanual tasks and locomotion. Here we discuss the neuroanatomical substrates and pathophysiological underpinnings of lateralized motor outputs. Significant breakthroughs have been made in the past few years by studying the two known conditions characterized by the inability to properly produce unilateral or asymmetric movements, namely human patients with congenital “mirror movements” and model rodents with a “hopping gait”. Whereas mirror movements are associated with altered interhemispheric connectivity and abnormal corticospinal projections, abnormal spinal cord interneurons trajectory is responsible for the “hopping gait”. Proper commissural axon guidance is a critical requirement for these mechanisms. Interestingly, the analysis of these two conditions reveals that the production of asymmetric movements involves similar anatomical and functional requirements but in two different structures: (i) lateralized activation of the brain or spinal cord through contralateral silencing by cross-midline inhibition; and (ii) unilateral transmission of this activation, resulting in lateralized motor output. PMID:26082690

  5. Sequential streaming, binaural cues and lateralization.

    PubMed

    David, Marion; Lavandier, Mathieu; Grimault, Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    Interaural time differences (ITDs) and interaural level differences (ILDs) associated with monaural spectral differences (coloration) enable the localization of sound sources. The influence of these spatial cues as well as their relative importance on obligatory stream segregation were assessed in experiment 1. A temporal discrimination task favored by integration was used to measure obligatory stream segregation for sequences of speech-shaped noises. Binaural and monaural differences associated with different spatial positions increased discrimination thresholds, indicating that spatial cues can induce stream segregation. The results also demonstrated that ITDs and coloration were relatively more important cues compared to ILDs. Experiment 2 questioned whether sound segregation takes place at the level of acoustic cue extraction (ITD per se) or at the level of object formation (perceived azimuth). A difference in ITDs between stimuli was introduced either consistently or inconsistently across frequencies, leading to clearly lateralized sounds or blurred lateralization, respectively. Conditions with ITDs and clearly perceived azimuths induced significantly more segregation than the condition with ITDs but reduced lateralization. The results suggested that segregation was mainly based on a difference in lateralization, although the extraction of ITDs might have also helped segregation up to a ceiling magnitude. PMID:26723307

  6. Biphasic cell responses on laterally mobile films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourouklis, Andreas; Lerum, Ronald; Bermudez, Harry

    2013-03-01

    The engineering of polymer surfaces or matrices that are capable of controlling cell adhesion has been widely explored. In nearly all of these works, the polymer chains (and ligands) are chemically attached to the underlying substrate, and therefore these systems are inherently static. By contrast, cellular environments such as the extracellular matrix (ECM) are dynamic and remodeled by biochemical reactions and biophysical forces. Borrowing this concept from Nature, we created polymer films by an interfacial self-assembly process, whereby individual chains can exhibit lateral mobility (in-plane diffusive motion). NIH 3T3 fibroblasts seeded on such RGD-presenting polymer films show biphasic responses in spreading and adhesion strength to lateral mobility, with a minimal response for intermediate mobility values. Futhermore, preliminary immuno-staining experiments reveal that the total area of focal adhesions demonstrates a similar biphasic trend to the cellular-scale behaviors. In contrast, actin filaments or stress fibers appear to be unaffected by the substrate lateral mobility. These results show that lateral mobility is an important, although not fully explored aspect of mechano-sensing by cells, and can potentially give new perspectives on cell-ECM interactions. National Science Foundation

  7. Depression in Later Life: Recognition and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmall, Vicki L.; And Others

    This guide is designed to help readers understand depression and factors related to its onset in later life; recognize signs of depression and potential suicide; and know actions they can take if they suspect an older family member or friend may be depressed or contemplating suicide. Following a brief introduction, a chapter on depression…

  8. Simulation of lateral flow with SWAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calibration of the SWAT model for the Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed (GCEW) showed that percolation through the restrictive claypan layer, lateral flow above that layer, and redistribution of excess moisture up to the ground surface were not correctly simulated. In addition, surface runoff a...

  9. Preparing Future Faculty: Ten Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Sean P.; Aiossa, Elizabeth; Winter, Mary Mugica

    2010-01-01

    When Sean Murphy designed the Graduate Student Internship Program at the College of Lake County (CLC), his 2001 TETYC article about the then two-year-old program detailed his programmatic response to the job market. Ten years later, the CLC-DePaul University partnership remains the strongest of the original dozen cross-sector relationships CLC…

  10. Lateral root development in the maize (Zea mays) lateral rootless1 mutant

    PubMed Central

    Husakova, Eva; Hochholdinger, Frank; Soukup, Ales

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The maize lrt1 (lateral rootless1) mutant is impaired in its development of lateral roots during early post-embryonic development. The aim of this study was to characterize, in detail, the influences that the mutation exerts on lateral root initiation and the subsequent developments, as well as to describe the behaviour of the entire plant under variable environmental conditions. Methods Mutant lrt1 plants were cultivated under different conditions of hydroponics, and in between sheets of moist paper. Cleared whole mounts and anatomical sections were used in combination with both selected staining procedures and histochemical tests to follow root development. Root surface permeability tests and the biochemical quantification of lignin were performed to complement the structural data. Key Results The data presented suggest a redefinition of lrt1 function in lateral roots as a promoter of later development; however, neither the complete absence of lateral roots nor the frequency of their initiation is linked to lrt1 function. The developmental effects of lrt1 are under strong environmental influences. Mutant primordia are affected in structure, growth and emergence; and the majority of primordia terminate their growth during this last step, or shortly thereafter. The lateral roots are impaired in the maintenance of the root apical meristem. The primary root shows disturbances in the organization of both epidermal and subepidermal layers. The lrt1-related cell-wall modifications include: lignification in peripheral layers, the deposition of polyphenolic substances and a higher activity of peroxidase. Conclusions The present study provides novel insights into the function of the lrt1 gene in root system development. The lrt1 gene participates in the spatial distribution of initiation, but not in its frequency. Later, the development of lateral roots is strongly affected. The effect of the lrt1 mutation is not as obvious in the primary root, with no influences observed on the root apical meristem structure and maintenance; however, development of the epidermis and cortex are impaired. PMID:23456690

  11. White matter alterations differ in primary lateral sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Nobue K.; Kwan, Justin Y.; Danielian, Laura E.; Butman, John A.; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Bayat, Elham

    2011-01-01

    Primary lateral sclerosis is a sporadic disorder characterized by slowly progressive corticospinal dysfunction. Primary lateral sclerosis differs from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis by its lack of lower motor neuron signs and long survival. Few pathological studies have been carried out on patients with primary lateral sclerosis, and the relationship between primary lateral sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis remains uncertain. To detect in vivo structural differences between the two disorders, diffusion tensor imaging of white matter tracts was carried out in 19 patients with primary lateral sclerosis, 18 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 19 age-matched controls. Fibre tracking was used to reconstruct the intracranial portion of the corticospinal tract and three regions of the corpus callosum: the genu, splenium and callosal fibres connecting the motor cortices. Both patient groups had reduced fractional anisotropy, a measure associated with axonal organization, and increased mean diffusivity of the reconstructed corticospinal and callosal motor fibres compared with controls, without changes in the genu or splenium. Voxelwise comparison of the whole brain white matter using tract-based spatial statistics confirmed the differences between patients and controls in the diffusion properties of the corticospinal tracts and motor fibres of the callosum. This analysis further revealed differences in the regional distribution of white matter alterations between the patient groups. In patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the greatest reduction in fractional anisotropy occurred in the distal portions of the intracranial corticospinal tract, consistent with a distal axonal degeneration. In patients with primary lateral sclerosis, the greatest loss of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity occurred in the subcortical white matter underlying the motor cortex, with reduced volume, suggesting tissue loss. Clinical measures of upper motor neuron dysfunction correlated with reductions in fractional anisotropy in the corticospinal tract in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and increased mean diffusivity and volume loss of the corticospinal tract in patients with primary lateral sclerosis. Changes in the diffusion properties of the motor fibres of the corpus callosum were strongly correlated with changes in corticospinal fibres in patients, but not in controls. These findings indicate that degeneration is not selective for corticospinal neurons, but affects callosal neurons within the motor cortex in motor neuron disorders. PMID:21798965

  12. Robust lateral control of highway vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, R.H.; Abdallah, C.

    1994-08-01

    Vehicle lateral dynamics are affected by vehicle mass, longitudinal velocity, vehicle inertia, and the cornering stiffness of the tires. All of these parameters are subject to variation, even over the course of a single trip. Therefore, a practical lateral control system must guarantee stability, and hopefully ride comfort, over a wide range of parameter changes. This paper describes a robust controller which theoretically guarantees stability over a wide range of parameter changes. The robust controller is designed using a frequency domain transfer function approach. An uncertainty band in the frequency domain is determined using simulations over the range of expected parameter variations. Based on this bound, a robust controller is designed by solving the Nevanlinna-Pick interpolation problem. The performance of the robust controller is then evaluated over the range of parameter variations through simulations.

  13. Resonant cavity LEDs by lateral epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauk, Michael G.; Burch, P. A.; Johnson, Scott W.; Shellenbarger, Zane A.; McNeely, James B.; Goodwin, Thomas A.; Feyock, Bryan W.

    1997-04-01

    Optical cavity light-emitting diode structures with 'buried' mirrors, and their fabrication by lateral epitaxy are described. Single-crystal, high-quality epitaxial layers are formed over substrates coated with patterned, reflective masks using liquid-phase or vapor-phase epitaxial lateral overgrowth processes. The reflecting mask acts as a backside mirror and forms an optical cavity leading to enhanced external quantum efficiencies. An AlGaAs optical cavity LED incorporating a refractory metal 'buried' mirror is assessed: a greater than 3-fold increase in output optical power is measured compared to control devices with no buried mirror. Application of the epitaxial overgrowth techniques to LED structures utilizing electron-beam deposited dielectric/semiconductor 'buried' mirrors and to other semiconductor materials, such as InGaAsSb, SiC, and ZnSe is described.

  14. Thrust vectoring for lateral-directional stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peron, Lee R.; Carpenter, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of using thrust vectoring for lateral-directional control and the effects of reducing the tail size of a single-engine aircraft were investigated. The aerodynamic characteristics of the F-16 aircraft were generated by using the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System II panel code. The resulting lateral-directional linear perturbation analysis of a modified F-16 aircraft with various tail sizes and yaw vectoring was performed at several speeds and altitudes to determine the stability and control trends for the aircraft compared to these trends for a baseline aircraft. A study of the paddle-type turning vane thrust vectoring control system as used on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle is also presented.

  15. Lateral view of facial fractures: new observations

    SciTech Connect

    Daffner, R.H.; Apple, J.S.; Gehweiler, J.A.

    1983-09-01

    Traditional plain film evaluation of facial fractures includes a lateral view of the face. This projection is often not exploited to its full potential because the many overlapping shadows are perceived to detract from its usefulness. To assess the value of this view, the authors reviewed the lateral facial films of 50 patients with a variety of fractures including 25 orbital blow-out fractures, 27 zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures, and 17 maxillary (including Le Fort) fractures. Three observations were encountered: orbital floor displacement in 60% of orbital fractures; malar strut displacement in 41% of zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures; and maxillary wall displacement in 76% of maxillary fractures. The presence of any of these structural displacements, either alone or in combination, provides further direct evidence of skeletal disruption and should serve to augment the findings observed on frontal views.

  16. Nanoparticle-based lateral flow biosensors.

    PubMed

    Quesada-González, Daniel; Merkoçi, Arben

    2015-11-15

    Lateral flow biosensors (LFBs) are paper-based devices which permit the performance of low-cost and fast diagnostics with good robustness, specificity, sensitivity and low limits of detection. The use of nanoparticles (NPs) as labels play an important role in the design and fabrication of a lateral flow strip (LFS). The choice of NPs and the corresponding detection method directly affect the performance of these devices. This review discusses aspects related to the application of different nanomaterials (e.g. gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, quantum dots, up-converting phosphor technologies, and latex beads, between others) in LFBs. Moreover, different detection methods (colorimetric, fluorescent, electrochemical, magnetic, etc.) and signal enhancement strategies (affording secondary reactions or modifying the architecture of the LFS) as well as the use of devices such as smartphones to mediate the response of LFSs will be analyzed. PMID:26043315

  17. Tonoplast Aquaporins Facilitate Lateral Root Emergence.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Hagen; Hachez, Charles; Bienert, Manuela Désirée; Beebo, Azeez; Swarup, Kamal; Voß, Ute; Bouhidel, Karim; Frigerio, Lorenzo; Schjoerring, Jan K; Bennett, Malcolm J; Chaumont, Francois

    2016-03-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are water channels allowing fast and passive diffusion of water across cell membranes. It was hypothesized that AQPs contribute to cell elongation processes by allowing water influx across the plasma membrane and the tonoplast to maintain adequate turgor pressure. Here, we report that, in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the highly abundant tonoplast AQP isoforms AtTIP1;1, AtTIP1;2, and AtTIP2;1 facilitate the emergence of new lateral root primordia (LRPs). The number of lateral roots was strongly reduced in the triple tip mutant, whereas the single, double, and triple tip mutants showed no or minor reduction in growth of the main root. This phenotype was due to the retardation of LRP emergence. Live cell imaging revealed that tight spatiotemporal control of TIP abundance in the tonoplast of the different LRP cells is pivotal to mediating this developmental process. While lateral root emergence is correlated to a reduction of AtTIP1;1 and AtTIP1;2 protein levels in LRPs, expression of AtTIP2;1 is specifically needed in a restricted cell population at the base, then later at the flanks, of developing LRPs. Interestingly, the LRP emergence phenotype of the triple tip mutants could be fully rescued by expressing AtTIP2;1 under its native promoter. We conclude that TIP isoforms allow the spatial and temporal fine-tuning of cellular water transport, which is critically required during the highly regulated process of LRP morphogenesis and emergence. PMID:26802038

  18. Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay Test Strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    As easy to read as a home pregnancy test, three Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay (QLFA) strips used to test water for E. coli show different results. The brightly glowing control line on the far right of each strip indicates that all three tests ran successfully. But the glowing test line on the middle left and bottom strips reveal their samples were contaminated with E. coli bacteria at two different concentrations. The color intensity correlates with concentration of contamination.

  19. Lateral distribution of electrons of air showers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asakimori, K.; Maeda, T.; Kameda, T.; Mizushima, K.; Misaki, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The lateral distribution of electrons (LDE) of the air showers of size 10 to the 5th power to 10 to the 6th power was studied within one MU. It was found that the LDE of the air showers observed is well represented by NKG function except for vicinity of the core. It was also found that LDE measured by thin scintillators does not differ from that measured by thick ones of 50mm thickness.

  20. Paraoxonase Gene Mutations in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ticozzi, Nicola; LeClerc, Ashley Lyn; Keagle, Pamela; Glass, Jonathan D.; Wills, Anne-Marie; van Blitterswijk, Marka; Bosco, Daryl A.; Rodriguez-Leyva, Ildefonso; Gellera, Cinzia; Ratti, Antonia; Taroni, Franco; McKenna-Yasek, Diane M.; Sapp, Peter C.; Silani, Vincenzo; Furlong, Clement E.; Brown, Robert H.; Landers, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Three clustered, homologous paraoxonase genes (PON1, PON2 and PON3) have roles in preventing lipid oxidation and detoxifying organophosphates. Recent reports describe a genetic association between the PON genes and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We now report that in genomic DNA from individuals with familial and sporadic ALS we have identified at least seven PON gene mutations that are predicted to alter PON function. PMID:20582942

  1. Efferent pathways of the mouse lateral habenula

    PubMed Central

    Quina, Lely A.; Tempest, Lynne; Ng, Lydia; Harris, Julie; Ferguson, Susan; Jhou, Thomas; Turner, Eric E.

    2014-01-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) is part of the habenula complex of the dorsal thalamus. Recent studies of the LHb have focused on its projections to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), which contain GABAergic neurons that mediate reward prediction error via inhibition of dopaminergic activity. However, older studies in the rat have also identified LHb outputs to the lateral and posterior hypothalamus, median raphe, dorsal raphe, and dorsal tegmentum. Although these studies have shown that the medial and lateral divisions of the LHb have somewhat distinct projections, the topographic specificity of LHb efferents is not completely understood, and the relative extent of these projections to brainstem targets is unknown. Here we have used anterograde tracing with adeno-associated virus mediated expression of green fluorescent protein, combined with serial two-photon tomography, to map the efferents of the LHb on a standard coordinate system for the entire mouse brain, and reconstruct the efferent pathways of the LHb in three dimensions. Using automated quantitation of fiber density, we show that in addition to the RMTg, the median raphe, caudal dorsal raphe, and pontine central gray are major recipients of LHb efferents. Using retrograde tract tracing with cholera toxin subunit B, we show that LHb neurons projecting to the hypothalamus, VTA, median raphe, and caudal dorsal raphe, and pontine central gray reside in characteristic, but sometimes overlapping regions of the LHb. Together these results provide the anatomical basis for systematic studies of LHb function in neural circuits and behavior in mice. PMID:25099741

  2. Lateral flow immunoassay using magnetoresistive sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taton, Kristin; Johnson, Diane; Guire, Patrick; Lange, Erik; Tondra, Mark

    2009-05-01

    Magnetic particles have been adapted for use as labels in biochemical lateral flow strip tests. Standard gold particle lateral flow assays are generally qualitative; however, with magnetic particles, quantitative results can be obtained by using electronic detection systems with giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors. As described here, these small integrated sensor chips can detect the presence of magnetic labels in capture spots whose volume is approximately 150 μm×150 μm×150 μm. The range of linear detection is better than two orders of magnitude; the total range is up to four orders of magnitude. The system was demonstrated with both indirect and sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for protein detection of rabbit IgG and interferon-γ, respectively, achieving detection of 12 pg/ml protein. Ultimately, the goal is for the detector to be fully integrated into the lateral flow strip backing to form a single consumable item that is interrogated by a handheld electronic reader.

  3. High performance amorphous selenium lateral photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbaszadeh, Shiva; Allec, Nicholas; Karim, Karim S.

    2012-03-01

    Lateral amorphous selenium (a-Se) detectors based on the metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) device structure have been studied for indirect detector medical imaging applications. These detectors have raised interest due to their simple structure, ease of fabrication, high-speed, low dark current, low capacitance per unit area and better light utilization. The lateral device structure has a benefit that the electrode spacing may be easily controlled to reduce the required bias for a given desired electric field. In indirect conversion x-ray imaging, the scintillator is coupled to the top of the a-Se MSM photodetector, which itself is integrated on top of the thin-film-transistor (TFT) array. The carriers generated at the top surface of the a-Se layer experience a field that is parallel to the surface, and does not initially sweep them away from the surface. Therefore these carriers may recombine or get trapped in surface states and change the field at the surface, which may degrade the performance of the photodetector. In addition, due to the finite width of the electrodes, the fill factor of the device is less than unity. In this study we examine the effect of lateral drift of carriers and the fill factor on the photodetector performance. The impact of field magnitude on the performance is also investigated.

  4. Lateral jet injection into typical combustor flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilley, D. G.

    1986-01-01

    The experimental problem of lateral jet injection into typical flow fields in the absence of combustion was studied. All flow fields being investigated have no expansion of the crossflow (the test section to swirler diameter ratio D/d = 1), after its passage through an optional swirler (with swirl vane angle phi = 0 (swirler removed), 45, and 70 degree). The lateral jet(s) is(are) located one test-section diameter downstream of the test-section inlet (x/D = 1). The lateral jets have round-sectioned nozzles, each of which has an area of 1/100th of the cross sectional area of the crossflow (A sub j/A sub c = 1/100). Jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios of R = v sub j/u sub o = 2, 4, and 6 were investigated. Helium-bubble low visualization, five-hole pitot probe time-mean velocity measurements, and single-wire time-mean velocity and normal and shear stress turbulence data were obtained in the research program.

  5. Lateral Programmable Metallization Cell Devices And Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Minghan

    2011-12-01

    Programmable Metallization Cell (PMC) is a technology platform which utilizes mass transport in solid or liquid electrolyte coupled with electrochemical (redox) reactions to form or remove nanoscale metallic electrodeposits on or in the electrolyte. The ability to redistribute metal mass and form metallic nanostructure in or on a structure in situ, via the application of a bias on laterally placed electrodes, creates a large number of promising applications. A novel PMC-based lateral microwave switch was fabricated and characterized for use in microwave systems. It has demonstrated low insertion loss, high isolation, low voltage operation, low power and low energy consumption, and excellent linearity. Due to its non-volatile nature the switch operates with fewer biases and its simple planar geometry makes possible innovative device structures which can be potentially integrated into microwave power distribution circuits. PMC technology is also used to develop lateral dendritic metal electrodes. A lateral metallic dendritic network can be grown in a solid electrolyte (GeSe) or electrodeposited on SiO2 or Si using a water-mediated method. These dendritic electrodes grown in a solid electrolyte (GeSe) can be used to lower resistances for applications like self-healing interconnects despite its relatively low light transparency; while the dendritic electrodes grown using water-mediated method can be potentially integrated into solar cell applications, like replacing conventional Ag screen-printed top electrodes as they not only reduce resistances but also are highly transparent. This research effort also laid a solid foundation for developing dendritic plasmonic structures. A PMC-based lateral dendritic plasmonic structure is a device that has metallic dendritic networks grown electrochemically on SiO2 with a thin layer of surface metal nanoparticles in liquid electrolyte. These structures increase the distribution of particle sizes by connecting pre-deposited Ag nanoparticles into fractal structures and result in three significant effects, resonance red-shift, resonance broadening and resonance enhancement, on surface plasmon resonance for light trapping simultaneously, which can potentially enhance thin film solar cells' performance at longer wavelengths.

  6. Efferent pathways of the mouse lateral habenula.

    PubMed

    Quina, Lely A; Tempest, Lynne; Ng, Lydia; Harris, Julie A; Ferguson, Susan; Jhou, Thomas C; Turner, Eric E

    2015-01-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) is part of the habenula complex of the dorsal thalamus. Recent studies of the LHb have focused on its projections to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), which contain γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons that mediate reward prediction error via inhibition of dopaminergic activity. However, older studies in the rat have also identified LHb outputs to the lateral and posterior hypothalamus, median raphe, dorsal raphe, and dorsal tegmentum. Although these studies have shown that the medial and lateral divisions of the LHb have somewhat distinct projections, the topographic specificity of LHb efferents is not completely understood, and the relative extent of these projections to brainstem targets is unknown. Here we have used anterograde tracing with adeno-associated virus-mediated expression of green fluorescent protein, combined with serial two-photon tomography, to map the efferents of the LHb on a standard coordinate system for the entire mouse brain, and reconstruct the efferent pathways of the LHb in three dimensions. Using automated quantitation of fiber density, we show that in addition to the RMTg, the median raphe, caudal dorsal raphe, and pontine central gray are major recipients of LHb efferents. By using retrograde tract tracing with cholera toxin subunit B, we show that LHb neurons projecting to the hypothalamus, VTA, median raphe, caudal dorsal raphe, and pontine central gray reside in characteristic, but sometimes overlapping regions of the LHb. Together these results provide the anatomical basis for systematic studies of LHb function in neural circuits and behavior in mice. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:32-60, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25099741

  7. Involvements of the lateral hypothalamic area in gastric motility and its regulation by the lateral septum.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yanling; Xu, Luo; Wang, Hongbo; Guo, Feifei; Sun, Xiangrong; Gao, Shengli

    2013-12-01

    Ghrelin is an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) pre-dominantly produced in the stomach. Recent studies have shown that it may promote food intake and gastric motility. We aim to explore effects of ghrelin on the gastric distension (GD) sensitive neurons and gastric motility in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), and the possible regulation by the lateral septum. Extracellular single unit discharges were recorded and the gastric motility was monitored by administration of ghrelin into LHA and electrical stimulation of lateral septum. Expression of GHS-R was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), western blot and immunohistochemistry staining. Projection of nerve fiber and expression of ghrelin were observed by retrograde tracer and fluo-immunohistochemistry staining. Results revealed that there were GD neurons in the LHA, and administration of ghrelin could excite both GD-excitatory (GD-E) and GD-inhibited (GD-I) neurons in the LHA. The gastric motility was significantly promoted by administration of ghrelin into LHA with a dose dependent manner, which could be completely abolished by treatment with ghrelin receptor antagonist [D-Lys-3]-GHRP-6 or BIM-28163. c-Fos expression was significantly increased after ghrelin administration to the LHA. Electrical stimulation of the lateral septum could significantly excite GD neurons responsive to ghrelin in the LHA as well as promote gastric motility. However, those effects could be absorbed by pre-treatment of [D-Lys-3]-GHRP-6. GHSR-1a expression in the LHA had no change after ghrelin administration to the LHA or electrical stimulating lateral septum. Electrical lesion of the LHA resulted in the decrease of gastric motility. GHS-R and Ghrelin/FG-double labeled neurons were observed in the LHA and lateral septum, respectively. It is suggested that the LHA may involve in promoting gastric motility via ghrelin. The Lateral septum projects to the LHA and exerts some regulating function on the LHA. PMID:24100167

  8. UPRC completes first quad-lateral well

    SciTech Connect

    Califf, B. ); Kerr, D. )

    1993-09-01

    This paper describes the Union Pacific Resources Company's first large diameter quad-lateral well in the Austin Chalk of Texas. The Austin Chalk has at least two producing zones which are separated by either a shale zone or a volcanic ash zone. The UPRC well was designed to penetrate two horizontal drainage wells into each of these zones. This paper reviews the design, cost, and success of this project and the applicability of the technology to other horizontal drilling projects worldwide. The main thrust of the article was that multiple horizontal wells drilled from the same drill site reduces the cost for all wells to a level making horizontal drilling more attractive.

  9. Lateral chirality-sorting optical forces.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Amaury; Mueller, J P Balthasar; Capasso, Federico

    2015-10-27

    The transverse component of the spin angular momentum of evanescent waves gives rise to lateral optical forces on chiral particles, which have the unusual property of acting in a direction in which there is neither a field gradient nor wave propagation. Because their direction and strength depends on the chiral polarizability of the particle, they act as chirality-sorting and may offer a mechanism for passive chirality spectroscopy. The absolute strength of the forces also substantially exceeds that of other recently predicted sideways optical forces. PMID:26453555

  10. Trigemino-abducens synkinesis after lateral orbitotomy.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Ah; Oh, Sei Yeul

    2013-01-01

    A 30-year-old man underwent lateral orbitotomy with removal of dermoid cyst in the right orbit. One month after operation, the patient started to experience double vision. He had 25 prism diopters of esotropia in primary gaze with marked limitation of abduction in the right eye. Seven months after the operation, he developed synkinetic movement of the eye when clenching his teeth. He could abduct his right eye while gritting his teeth. This is the fourth reported case of trigemino-abducens synkinesis and the first reported case without brain trauma. PMID:23128534

  11. Quantifying Disease Progression in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Neil G; Turner, Martin R; Vucic, Steve; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Shefner, Jeremy; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) exhibits characteristic variability of onset and rate of disease progression, with inherent clinical heterogeneity making disease quantitation difficult. Recent advances in understanding pathogenic mechanisms linked to the development of ALS impose an increasing need to develop strategies to predict and more objectively measure disease progression. This review explores phenotypic and genetic determinants of disease progression in ALS, and examines established and evolving biomarkers that may contribute to robust measurement in longitudinal clinical studies. With targeted neuroprotective strategies on the horizon, developing efficiencies in clinical trial design may facilitate timely entry of novel treatments into the clinic. PMID:25223628

  12. Energy metabolism in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, Luc; Pradat, Pierre-Franois; Ludolph, Albert C; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterised by the progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons. Besides motor neuron degeneration, ALS is associated with several defects in energy metabolism, including weight loss, hypermetabolism, and hyperlipidaemia. Most of these abnormalities correlate with duration of survival, and available clinical evidence supports a negative contribution of defective energy metabolism to the overall pathogenic process. Findings from animal models of ALS support this view and provide insights into the underlying mechanisms. Altogether, these results have clinical consequences for the management of defective energy metabolism in patients with ALS and pave the way for future therapeutic interventions. PMID:21035400

  13. Lateral chirality-sorting optical forces

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Amaury; Mueller, J. P. Balthasar; Capasso, Federico

    2015-01-01

    The transverse component of the spin angular momentum of evanescent waves gives rise to lateral optical forces on chiral particles, which have the unusual property of acting in a direction in which there is neither a field gradient nor wave propagation. Because their direction and strength depends on the chiral polarizability of the particle, they act as chirality-sorting and may offer a mechanism for passive chirality spectroscopy. The absolute strength of the forces also substantially exceeds that of other recently predicted sideways optical forces. PMID:26453555

  14. Potential Environmental Factors in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Oskarsson, Björn; Horton, D Kevin; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    The causes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are largely unknown, and may always be multiple, including environmental factors. Monogenetic determinants of ALS are involved in roughly 20% of all cases (including 10% familial cases). Less well understood multigenetic causes may contribute to another 20% to 80%. Environmental factors likely play a role in the development of ALS in susceptible individuals, but proved causation remains elusive. This article discusses the possible factors of male gender (males are selectively exposed to different influences, or genetically predisposed to be susceptible), smoking, military service, exercise, electrical exposure, heavy metals, agricultural chemicals, and geographic clusters. PMID:26515627

  15. Lateral stress evolution in Chromium Sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petel, O. E.; Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Hameed, A.; Capozzi, A.; Goroshin, S.; Frost, D. L.; Hazell, P. J.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper the shock response of CrS, a cermet of potential interest as a matrix material for ballistic applications, has been investigated. Compacts with a Chromium: Sulfur ratio of 1.15:1 were investigated via the plate-impact technique. These experiments allowed the material to be loaded under a one-dimensional state of strain. Embedded manganin stress gauges were employed to monitor the temporal evolution of longitudinal and lateral components of stress. Comparison of these two components has allowed assessment of the variation of material shear strength both with impact pressure/strain-rate and time.

  16. Towards reproducible, scalable lateral molecular electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Durkan, Colm Zhang, Qian

    2014-08-25

    An approach to reproducibly fabricate molecular electronic devices is presented. Lateral nanometer-scale gaps with high yield are formed in Au/Pd nanowires by a combination of electromigration and Joule-heating-induced thermomechanical stress. The resulting nanogap devices are used to measure the electrical properties of small numbers of two different molecular species with different end-groups, namely 1,4-butane dithiol and 1,5-diamino-2-methylpentane. Fluctuations in the current reveal that in the case of the dithiol molecule devices, individual molecules conduct intermittently, with the fluctuations becoming more pronounced at larger biases.

  17. Uniform lateral load capacity of infilled frames

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.D.; Bennett, R.M.

    1993-11-11

    Three tests were conducted on 2.4 meter by 2.4 meter steel frames infilled with structural clay tile to determine the behavior and capacity when subjected to uniform lateral loads. An air bag was used to apply the out-of-plane loads. The walls were subjected to increasing load-unload cycles until virtual destruction of the infill. Cracking in the mortar joints occurred early in the tests, and then the primary load resisting mechanism was arching of the infilled panel. Typically, vertical arching occurred until failure of the top and bottom course tiles. Following failure of these courses, horizontal arching developed enabling the walls to maintain stability.

  18. Auditory lateralization: an effect of rhythm.

    PubMed

    Buxton, H

    1983-03-01

    Recall of monaurally presented semantically anomalous sentences, which had either neutral or rhythmic timing, was tested at the right ear, at the left ear, and on transfer from one ear to the other. The component words, being computer stored digitized waveforms, had identical acoustic structure in the two conditions. In the rhythmic condition there was not only an overall advantage in the second half of the experiment but also an asymmetric transfer effect such that this advantage did not appear when the left ear was tested after the right. It is proposed that functional lateralization be viewed as an adaptive, dynamic, organizational factor. PMID:6839142

  19. Lateral root initiation in Marsilea quadrifolia. I. Origin and histogensis of lateral roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, B. L.; Raghavan, V.

    1991-01-01

    In Marsilea quadrifolia, lateral roots arise from modified single cells of the endodermis located opposite the protoxylem poles within the meristematic region of the parent root. The initial cell divides in four specific planes to establish a five-celled lateral root primordium, with a tetrahedral apical cell in the centre and the oldest merophytes and the root cap along the sides. The cells of the merophyte divide in a precise pattern to give rise to the cells of the cortex, endodermis, pericycle, and vascular tissues of the emerging lateral root. Although the construction of the parent root is more complicated than that of lateral roots, patterns of cell division and tissue formation are similar in both types of roots, with the various tissues being arranged in similar positions in relation to the central axis. Vascular connection between the lateral root primordium and the parent root is derived from the pericycle cells lying between the former and the protoxylem members of the latter. It is proposed that the central axis of the root is not only a geometric centre, but also a physiological centre which determines the fate of the different cell types.

  20. Balance problems after unilateral lateral ankle sprains.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Mohammad; Karimi, Hossein; Farahini, Hossein; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat

    2006-01-01

    Abstract-Ankle ligament injury is the most common injury in athletic activities. This study examined balance problems in athletes with acute lateral ankle sprains. Thirty male athletes aged 20 to 35 years with right dominant side and traumatic ankle sprain were recruited through simple nonprobability sampling. We measured the sway index and limits of stability with the Biodex Balance System under different conditions. Functional balance was evaluated with two clinical tests: the Functional Reach Test and the Star-Excursion Balance Test. The results showed that balance ability in patients with acute lateral ankle sprain was significantly weaker under closed- versus open-eye conditions. Symmetry of weight-bearing on involved and sound limb in bilateral standing was not significantly different, but weight-bearing on the nondominant limb was significantly higher than on the dominant limb. We can conclude that balance problems occur after acute ankle sprains because of proprioception deficits and that the unconscious (reflexive) aspect of proprioception is more severely affected than the conscious (voluntary) aspect. PMID:17436168

  1. Lateral vision in horses: a behavioral investigation.

    PubMed

    Hanggi, Evelyn B; Ingersoll, Jerry F

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated lateral vision in horses (Equus caballus) for the first time from a behavioral point of view. Three horses were tested using a novel experimental design to determine the range of their lateral and caudolateral vision with respect to stimulus detection and discrimination. Real-life stimuli were presented along a curvilinear wall in one of four different positions (A, B, C, D) and one of two height locations (Top, Bottom) on both sides of the horse. To test for stimulus detection, the correct stimulus was paired against a control; for stimulus discrimination, the correct stimulus was paired against another object. To indicate that the correct stimulus was detected or discriminated, the horses pushed one of two paddles. All horses scored significantly above chance on stimulus detection trials regardless of stimulus position or location. They also accurately discriminated between stimuli when objects appeared in positions A, B, and C for the top or bottom locations; however, they failed to discriminate these stimuli at position D. This study supports physiological descriptions of the equine eye and provides new behavioral data showing that horses can detect the appearance of objects within an almost fully encompassing circle and are able to identify objects within most but not all of their panoramic field of view. PMID:22698758

  2. Lateral regulation of synaptic transmission by astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Covelo, A; Araque, A

    2016-05-26

    Fifteen years ago the concept of the "tripartite synapse" was proposed to conceptualize the functional view that astrocytes are integral elements of synapses. The signaling exchange between astrocytes and neurons within the tripartite synapse results in the synaptic regulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity through an autocrine form of communication. However, recent evidence indicates that the astrocyte synaptic regulation is not restricted to the active tripartite synapse but can be manifested through astrocyte signaling at synapses relatively distant from active synapses, a process termed lateral astrocyte synaptic regulation. This phenomenon resembles the classical heterosynaptic modulation but is mechanistically different because it involves astrocytes and its properties critically depend on the morphological and functional features of astrocytes. Therefore, the functional concept of the tripartite synapse as a fundamental unit must be expanded to include the interaction between tripartite synapses. Through lateral synaptic regulation, astrocytes serve as an active processing bridge for synaptic interaction and crosstalk between synapses with no direct neuronal connectivity, supporting the idea that neural network function results from the coordinated activity of astrocytes and neurons. PMID:25732135

  3. Lateral Gene Transfer from the Dead

    PubMed Central

    Szöllősi, Gergely J.; Tannier, Eric; Lartillot, Nicolas; Daubin, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    In phylogenetic studies, the evolution of molecular sequences is assumed to have taken place along the phylogeny traced by the ancestors of extant species. In the presence of lateral gene transfer, however, this may not be the case, because the species lineage from which a gene was transferred may have gone extinct or not have been sampled. Because it is not feasible to specify or reconstruct the complete phylogeny of all species, we must describe the evolution of genes outside the represented phylogeny by modeling the speciation dynamics that gave rise to the complete phylogeny. We demonstrate that if the number of sampled species is small compared with the total number of existing species, the overwhelming majority of gene transfers involve speciation to and evolution along extinct or unsampled lineages. We show that the evolution of genes along extinct or unsampled lineages can to good approximation be treated as those of independently evolving lineages described by a few global parameters. Using this result, we derive an algorithm to calculate the probability of a gene tree and recover the maximum-likelihood reconciliation given the phylogeny of the sampled species. Examining 473 near-universal gene families from 36 cyanobacteria, we find that nearly a third of transfer events (28%) appear to have topological signatures of evolution along extinct species, but only approximately 6% of transfers trace their ancestry to before the common ancestor of the sampled cyanobacteria. [Gene tree reconciliation; lateral gene transfer; macroevolution; phylogeny.] PMID:23355531

  4. Prototype cantilevers for quantitative lateral force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Reitsma, Mark G.; Gates, Richard S.; Friedman, Lawrence H.; Cook, Robert F.

    2011-09-15

    Prototype cantilevers are presented that enable quantitative surface force measurements using contact-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). The ''hammerhead'' cantilevers facilitate precise optical lever system calibrations for cantilever flexure and torsion, enabling quantifiable adhesion measurements and friction measurements by lateral force microscopy (LFM). Critically, a single hammerhead cantilever of known flexural stiffness and probe length dimension can be used to perform both a system calibration as well as surface force measurements in situ, which greatly increases force measurement precision and accuracy. During LFM calibration mode, a hammerhead cantilever allows an optical lever ''torque sensitivity'' to be generated for the quantification of LFM friction forces. Precise calibrations were performed on two different AFM instruments, in which torque sensitivity values were specified with sub-percent relative uncertainty. To examine the potential for accurate lateral force measurements using the prototype cantilevers, finite element analysis predicted measurement errors of a few percent or less, which could be reduced via refinement of calibration methodology or cantilever design. The cantilevers are compatible with commercial AFM instrumentation and can be used for other AFM techniques such as contact imaging and dynamic mode measurements.

  5. Prototype cantilevers for quantitative lateral force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitsma, Mark G.; Gates, Richard S.; Friedman, Lawrence H.; Cook, Robert F.

    2011-09-01

    Prototype cantilevers are presented that enable quantitative surface force measurements using contact-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). The "hammerhead" cantilevers facilitate precise optical lever system calibrations for cantilever flexure and torsion, enabling quantifiable adhesion measurements and friction measurements by lateral force microscopy (LFM). Critically, a single hammerhead cantilever of known flexural stiffness and probe length dimension can be used to perform both a system calibration as well as surface force measurements in situ, which greatly increases force measurement precision and accuracy. During LFM calibration mode, a hammerhead cantilever allows an optical lever "torque sensitivity" to be generated for the quantification of LFM friction forces. Precise calibrations were performed on two different AFM instruments, in which torque sensitivity values were specified with sub-percent relative uncertainty. To examine the potential for accurate lateral force measurements using the prototype cantilevers, finite element analysis predicted measurement errors of a few percent or less, which could be reduced via refinement of calibration methodology or cantilever design. The cantilevers are compatible with commercial AFM instrumentation and can be used for other AFM techniques such as contact imaging and dynamic mode measurements

  6. Lateral Pectoral Nerve Injury Mimicking Cervical Radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Ilknur; Palamar, Deniz; Akgun, Kenan

    2015-07-01

    The lateral pectoral nerve (LPN) is commonly injured along with the brachial plexus, but its isolated lesions are rare. Here, we present a case of an isolated LPN lesion confused with cervical radiculopathy. A 41-year-old man was admitted to our clinic because of weakness in his right arm. Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination revealed right posterolateral protrusion at the C6-7 level. At the initial assessment, atrophy of the right pectoralis major muscle was evident, and mild weakness of the right shoulder adductor, internal rotator, and flexor muscles was observed. Therefore, electrodiagnostic evaluation was performed, and a diagnosis of isolated LPN injury was made. Nerve injury was thought to have been caused by weightlifting exercises and traction injury. Lateral pectoral nerve injury can mimic cervical radiculopathy, and MRI examination alone may lead to misdiagnosis. Repeated physical examinations during the evaluation and treatment phase will identify the muscle atrophy that occurs 1 or more months after the injury. PMID:25290103

  7. Semantic deficits in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Felicity V C; Hsieh, Sharpley; Caga, Jashelle; Savage, Sharon A; Mioshi, Eneida; Hornberger, Michael; Kiernan, Matthew C; Hodges, John R; Burrell, James R

    2015-03-01

    Our objective was to investigate, and establish neuroanatomical correlates of, semantic deficits in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD), compared to semantic dementia (SD) and controls. Semantic deficits were evaluated using a naming and semantic knowledge composite score, comprising verbal and non-verbal neuropsychological measures of single-word processing (confrontational naming, comprehension, and semantic association) from the Sydney Language Battery (SYDBAT) and Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination - Revised (ACE-R). Voxel based morphometry (VBM) analysis was conducted using the region of interest approach. In total, 84 participants were recruited from a multidisciplinary research clinic in Sydney. Participants included 17 patients with ALS, 19 with ALS-FTD, 22 with SD and 26 age- and education-matched healthy controls. Significant semantic deficits were observed in ALS and ALS-FTD compared to controls. The severity of semantic deficits varied across the clinical phenotypes: ALS patients were less impaired than ALS-FTD patients, who in turn were not as impaired as SD patients. Anterior temporal lobe atrophy significantly correlated with semantic deficits. In conclusion, semantic impairment is a feature of ALS and ALS-FTD, and reflects the severity of temporal lobe pathology. PMID:25544644

  8. Nappe emplacement under lateral pressure gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podladchikov, Yury; Schmalholz, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    New thin viscous approximation is under development specifically targeted to model spontaneous initiation and tens of kilometers horizontal displacement of tectonic nappes. Nappes are few kilometers thing and tens of kilometers long rock units trusted towards foreland often preserving internal lithological consistency and laying at near horizontal position at the end of the emplacement. Significant shear stresses and deviation of principal stresses from vertical is required to explain this very peculiar strain localization style from mechanical point of view. There is also a need for the explanation of their common appearances in most collisional settings. Both pure shear thin sheet and flexural models kinematically eliminate nappes formation. Spreading viscous sheet models, such as used to model glaciers, are also not applicable as the direction of motion is upward, against gravity. The reason for this discrepancy is the hydrostatic pressure approximation of the gravity-driven spreading models. Actually, the thin sheet approximation is not sensitive to the assumptions made on pressure profile. Lateral non-lithostatic pressure gradient-driven viscous sheet model is appropriate for modeling of nappes. In turn, significant non-lithostatic pressure must be supported by flexural rigidity of overlying and underlying units. Lateral gradients of this non-lithostatic pressure are responsible for the significant shear stress and, therefore, deviation of principal stress from vertical.

  9. Dual-domain lateral shearing interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Naulleau, Patrick P.; Goldberg, Kenneth Alan

    2004-03-16

    The phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI) was developed to address the problem of at-wavelength metrology of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical systems. Although extremely accurate, the fact that the PS/PDI is limited to use with coherent EUV sources, such as undulator radiation, is a drawback for its widespread use. An alternative to the PS/PDI, with relaxed coherence requirements, is lateral shearing interferometry (LSI). The use of a cross-grating, carrier-frequency configuration to characterize a large-field 4.times.-reduction EUV lithography optic is demonstrated. The results obtained are directly compared with PS/PDI measurements. A defocused implementation of the lateral shearing interferometer in which an image-plane filter allows both phase-shifting and Fourier wavefront recovery. The two wavefront recovery methods can be combined in a dual-domain technique providing suppression of noise added by self-interference of high-frequency components in the test-optic wavefront.

  10. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: one or multiple causes?

    PubMed Central

    Bastos, Aline Furtado; Orsini, Marco; Machado, Dionis; Mello, Mariana Pimentel; Nader, Sergio; Silva, Júlio Guilherme; da Silva Catharino, Antonio M.; de Freitas, Marcos R.G.; Pereira, Alessandra; Pessoa, Luciane Lacerda; Sztajnbok, Flavio R.; Leite, Marco Araújo; Nascimento, Osvaldo J.M.; Bastos, Victor Hugo

    2011-01-01

    The Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common form of motor neuron disease in the adulthood, and it is characterized by rapid and progressive compromise of the upper and lower motor neurons. The majority of the cases of ALS are classified as sporadic and, until now, a specific cause for these cases still is unknown. To present the different hypotheses on the etiology of ALS. It was carried out a search in the databases: Bireme, Scielo and Pubmed, in the period of 1987 to 2011, using the following keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, motor neuron disease, etiology, causes and epidemiology and its similar in Portuguese and Spanish. It did not have consensus as regards the etiology of ALS. Researches demonstrates evidences as regards intoxication by heavy metals, environmental and occupational causes, genetic mutations (superoxide dismutase 1), certain viral infections and the accomplishment of vigorous physical activity for the development of the disease. There is still no consensus regarding the involved factors in the etiology of ALS. In this way, new research about these etiologies are necessary, for a better approach of the patients, promoting preventive programs for the disease and improving the quality of life of the patients. PMID:21785676

  11. Confronting the Material Convoy in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gabriella V.; Ekerdt, David J.

    2011-01-01

    We adapt a metaphor from life course studies to designate the whole of one’s possessions, across time, as a convoy of material support. This dynamic collection of things supports daily life and the self, but it can also present difficulty in later life. To alleviate the purported burdens of the material convoy, a discourse has arisen that urges elders and their family members to reduce the volume of possessions. An analysis of 11 such possession management texts shows authors addressing two distinct audiences about elders’ need to downsize: family members and elders themselves. Authors who speak to family members do so with an urgent, unsentimental tone that echoes mainstream clutter-control advice about disorderly, overfull households. In texts for elders, the standard critique about consumption and unruly lives is gentler, more sensitive to the meaning of things, and underplays the emotions of divestment. There is stress on the responsibility to spare the next generation and control one’s legacy. These latter texts seem to respect that downsizing in later life symbolizes a narrowing of the life world. PMID:21822336

  12. Restoration deterioration related to later failure.

    PubMed

    Smales, R J; Webster, D A

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the deterioration and the later failure of a very large number of amalgams and anterior resin composites examined over periods of up to 16 years. Assessments were made of the deterioration of various clinical factors or characteristics of the restorative materials that were thought to predict later failures. True failures, which were directly related to the restorative materials, accounted for 7.5% of the amalgam and 30.4% of the composite restorations. For the amalgams, there was a significant association found between the failures and surface tarnishing. Marginal fracture and marginal staining were not associated significantly with any of the three different failure modes. For the composites there were significant associations found between the failures and surface roughness, marginal fracture, and color mismatch. Surface staining and marginal staining were not associated significantly with any of the three different failure modes. Many restorations assessed as being unsatisfactory continued to function for a further 2.5 to 3.5 years on average before being replaced, often for unrelated reasons. There is a need to define unsatisfactory restorations more clearly in terms of actual adverse effects on dental health, rather than merely in terms of restoration deterioration. PMID:8152980

  13. [Outcome of surgically treated lateral clavicle fractures].

    PubMed

    Krüger-Franke, M; Köhne, G; Rosemeyer, B

    2000-07-01

    This retrospective study presents the results of 41 patients with a lateral clavicle fracture eight years after the treatment at the Staatliche Orthopädische Klinik of the LMU München in the time between 31.10.1979 and 31.10.1994. It could be shown that the lateral clavicle fractures, due to their variety, hold a special position among the clavicle fractures and thus need a differentiated therapeutic procedure. Among the operation methods the K-wire stabilisation with cerclage was the most often chosen operation technique i.e. in 24 cases. The K-wire without cerclage was used in two cases. Twelve fractures were treated with AO-plate-osteosynthesis. Three fractures had to be treated by resection, as they produced two pseudarthrosis and one serious AC-arthrosis during the conservative therapy. 92.7% of the subjective results of the 41 checked up patients were good and very good. The clinical follow-up of 36 and the radiological follow-up of 33 patients revealed in 97% a good and very good outcome in the Boenisch-Score. PMID:10969540

  14. Strath Terraces, Lateral Planation, and Sediment Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finnegan, N. J.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2008-12-01

    Abandoned fluvially eroded bedrock surfaces (strath terraces) are used ubiquitously as indicators of past river elevation. However, little is known about how, why and over what time period they form. Consequently, dates of strath surfaces, or overlying gravels, can be difficult to interpret without a more mechanistic understanding of strath genesis. We mapped strath terraces in detail in the field along the South Fork Eel River and its tributaries in the California Coast Ranges to illuminate the process(es) of lateral bedrock planation. We document two straths along the South Fork Eel: a high strath terrace with a bedrock surface at 9-12 m above the modern low water line and a low strath terrace with a bedrock elevation 2-5 m above modern low water line. Straths are capped with up to 6 meters of gravel, and are locally as much as 3 times the width of the modern river channel. The South Fork Eel incises interbedded sandstone and mudstone of the Franciscan Complex. Straths are usually, but not always, formed in the weaker mudstone. This is consistent with observations in the active river channel indicating mudstone is readily planed down to the low water line by weathering processes and abrasion, whereas sandstone forms resistant ribs that locally constrict the flow. Our observations suggest at least two primary mechanisms drive the lateral planation essential to preserving straths. First, many strath terraces along the South Fork Eel are exposed at the toe of inactive debris fans that entered the channel from tributaries and graded to the higher strath elevation. In these settings, the river has almost always cut vertically through the strath between the outside edge of the fan and a bedrock wall. We interpret this as evidence that when the debris fan was active and the river occupied the high strath, the river was pinned by the debris fan against a bedrock valley wall. This, in turn, suggests lateral sediment input from fans may be important in driving lateral motion of the river. Second, where there is no significant lateral sediment input, straths appear to form at channel meanders. Observations in the active channel suggest that mudstone bedrock will erode much more readily than bars or fans, which are both comprised almost entirely of resistant sandstone boulders. We hypothesize that deposition of point bars, island bars, and debris fans therefore provides a mechanism to preferentially armor one bank of an active channel, leading to erosion of the other bank where mudstone is present. Importantly, along the South Fork Eel the majority of straths appear to form unidirectionally, that is via one continuous sweep of the channel across the strath. Recent dating of strath terraces along the South Fork Eel by others (and additional samples awaiting dating) will be used to evaluate this hypothesis. We assess recent proposals that strath terrace formation on the South Fork Eel is associated with a doubling of hillslope erosion by running HEC- RAS on a LiDAR DEM of the South Fork Eel to model bed sediment transport and bed evolution under different sediment supply scenarios. A primary goal is to explore how up to 6 m of aggradation could be associated with strath terrace formation.

  15. Revisiting cognitive rehearsal as an intervention against incivility and lateral violence in nursing: 10 years later.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Martha; Clark, Cynthia M

    2014-12-01

    Ten years ago, Griffin wrote an article on the use of cognitive rehearsal as a shield for lateral violence. Since then, cognitive rehearsal has been used successfully in several studies as an evidence-based strategy to address uncivil and bullying behaviors in nursing. In the original study, 26 newly licensed nurses learned about lateral violence and used cognitive rehearsal techniques as an intervention for nurse-to-nurse incivility. The newly licensed nurses described using the rehearsed strategies as difficult, yet successful in reducing or eliminating incivility and lateral violence. This article updates the literature on cognitive rehearsal and reviews the use of cognitive rehearsal as an evidence-based strategy to address incivility and bullvina behaviors in nursing. PMID:25406637

  16. Lateralized differences in olfactory bulb volume relate to lateralized differences in olfactory function.

    PubMed

    Hummel, T; Haehner, A; Hummel, C; Croy, I; Iannilli, E

    2013-05-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether side differences in olfactory bulb (OB) volume correlate to respective differences in olfactory function. In a total of 164 healthy volunteers volumetric measures of the OBs were performed plus lateralized measurements of odor thresholds and odor discrimination. Side differences were defined as 10% difference between the left and right OB. In 39 cases volumes on the right side were larger than on the left side, whereas in 29 cases it was the other way around. Subjects with larger right-sided OB volumes were found to be more sensitive to odorous stimulation of the right as compared to the left nostril in terms of odor thresholds and odor detection; higher sensitivity of the left nostrils (decreased odor threshold) was observed in individuals with larger OB volumes on the left side. These data appear to suggest that OB volume may be partly dependent on lateralized influences on the olfactory system, reflecting its lateralized organization. PMID:23376116

  17. Summary of Methods for Calculating Dynamic Lateral Stability and Response and for Estimating Lateral Stability Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, John P; Mckinney, Marion O

    1951-01-01

    A summary of methods for making dynamic lateral stability and response calculations and for estimating the aerodynamic stability derivatives required for use in these calculations is presented. The processes of performing calculations of the time histories of lateral motions, of the period and damping of these motions, and of the lateral stability boundaries are presented as a series of simple straightforward steps. Existing methods for estimating the stability derivatives are summarized and, in some cases, simple new empirical formulas are presented. Reference is also made to reports presenting experimental data that should be useful in making estimates of the derivatives. Detailed estimating methods are presented for low-subsonic-speed conditions but only a brief discussion and a list of references are given for transonic- and supersonic-speed conditions.

  18. Radiographic Comparison between Cervical Spine Lateral and Whole-Spine Lateral Standing Radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Park, Moon Soo; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Oh, Jae Keun; Kang, Hwa Jun; Riew, K. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Study Design?Retrospective radiologic study. Objective?The sagittal alignment of the cervical spine can be evaluated using either a lateral cervical radiograph or a whole-spine lateral view on which the cervical spine is included. To our knowledge, however, no report has compared the two. The purpose of this work is to identify the difference in radiographic parameters between the cervical spine lateral view and the whole-spine lateral view. Methods?We retrospectively analyzed 59 adult patients suffering from neck pain with cervical spine lateral radiographs and whole-spine lateral radiographs from November 2007 to December 2011. The radiographs were measured using standard techniques to obtain the following parameters from the two different radiographs: occipitalC2 angle, C2C7 angle, C7sternal angle, sternal slope, T1 slope, C2 central offset distance, the distance between C2 and C7 plumb lines, C4 anteroposterior (AP) diameter, the ratio of C2 central off distance to C4 AP diameter, the ratio of plumb lines' distance to C4 AP diameter. Results?We found that the occipitalC2 angle, sternal slope, and C4 AP diameter were similar, but the C2C7 angle, C7sternal angle, T1 slope, C2 central offset distance, distance between C2 and C7 plumb lines, ratio of C2 central off distance to C4 AP diameter, and ratio of plumb lines' distance to C4 AP diameter were different. However, the error of measurement was greater than the small angular and linear differences between the two views. Conclusions?Most numerical values of the measured radiographic parameters appear to be different between the two views. However, the two views are comparable because the numerical differences were smaller than the errors of measurement.

  19. Bioenergetic markers in skin fibroblasts of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and progressive lateral sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Kathryne; Gennings, Chris; Hupf, Jonathan C; Tadesse, Saba; D'Aurelio, Marilena; Kawamata, Hibiki; Valsecchi, Federica; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Manfredi, Giovanni

    2014-10-01

    Energy metabolism could influence amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and progressive lateral sclerosis (PLS) pathogenesis and the response to therapy. We developed a novel assay to simultaneously assess mitochondrial content and membrane potential in patients' skin fibroblasts. In ALS and PLS fibroblasts, membrane potential was increased and mitochondrial content decreased, relative to healthy controls. In ALS higher mitochondrial membrane potential correlated with age at diagnosis, and in PLS it correlated with disease severity. These unprecedented findings in ALS and PLS fibroblasts could shed new light onto disease pathogenesis and help in developing biomarkers to predict disease evolution and the individual response to therapy in motor neuron diseases. PMID:25090982

  20. Macroscopic lateral heterogeneity observed in a laterally mobile immiscible mixed polyelectrolyte-neutral polymer brush

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hoyoung; Tsouris, Vasilios; Lim, Yunho; Mustafa, Rafid; Choi, Je; Choi, Yun Hwa; Park, Hae-Woong; Meron, Mati; Lin, Binhua; Won, You-Yeon

    2014-07-11

    We studied mixed poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) brushes. The question we attempted to answer was: when the chain grafting points are laterally mobile, how will this lateral mobility influence the structure and phase behavior of the mixed brush? Three different model mixed PEO/PDMAEMA brush systems were prepared: (1) a laterally mobile mixed brush by spreading onto the air–water interface a mixture of poly(ethylene oxide)–poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PEO–PnBA) and poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)–poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PDMAEMA–PnBA) diblock copolymers (the specific diblock copolymers used will be denoted as PEO113–PnBA100 and PDMAEMA118–PnBA100, where the subscripts refer to the number-average degrees of polymerization of the individual blocks), (2) a mobility-restricted (inseparable) version of the above mixed brush prepared using a PEO–PnBA–PDMAEMA triblock copolymer (denoted as PEO113–PnBA89–PDMAEMA120) having respective brush molecular weights matched with those of the diblock copolymers, and (3) a different laterally mobile mixed PEO and PDMAEMA brush prepared from a PEO113–PnBA100 and PDMAEMA200–PnBA103 diblock copolymer combination, which represents a further more height-mismatched mixed brush situation than described in (1). These three mixed brush systems were investigated by surface pressure–area isotherm and X-ray (XR) reflectivity measurements. These experimental data were analyzed within the theoretical framework of a continuum self-consistent field (SCF) polymer brush model. The combined experimental and theoretical results suggest that the mobile mixed brush derived using the PEO113–PnBA100 and PDMAEMA118–PnBA100 combination (i.e., mixed brush System #1) undergoes a lateral macroscopic phase separation at high chain grafting densities, whereas the more height-mismatched system (System #3) is only microscopically phase separated under comparable brush density conditions even though the lateral mobility of the grafted chains is unrestricted. The macroscopic phase separation observed in the laterally mobile mixed brush system is in contrast with the microphase separation behavior commonly observed in two-dimensional laterally mobile charged small molecule mixtures. Further study is needed to determine the detailed morphologies of the macro- and microphase-separated mixed PEO/PDMAEMA brushes.

  1. Electrophysiological correlates of suppressive lateral interactions.

    PubMed

    Ellemberg, Dave; Brault, Olivier; Masson, Myriame

    2015-01-01

    The visibility of image elements can be reduced by other elements in their vicinity. This is usually explained by inhibitory lateral interactions among neurons in the primary visual cortex, although there is little evidence for the involvement of intracortical inhibition. Further, the mechanisms underlying these interactions remain unknown. We investigated the neural bases of suppressive lateral interactions by recording visual evoked potentials together with psychophysical measures for visual targets in the presence of flanking stimuli. High-density EEG's were recorded in eight observers with normal or corrected-to-normal vision in response to a foveally viewed Gabor as a function of the spacing of horizontally adjacent Gabors. Inter-element spacing ranged from 1.5 to 6 cycles from the centre of the target to the centre of either of its adjacent flankers. The central target had the same or a different orientation (0 º, ±15º, ±30º, and ±60º) and spatial frequency as the flankers (0, ±.5, and ±1 octave). Each stimulus configuration was repeated 80 times and stimuli were interleaved. We analyzed the power density and spectral coherence over the time-frequency plane (in the central occipito-parietal region). Power density (p = 0.015) as well as short- (p = 0.005) and long-range (p = 0.005) spectral coherence decreases as inter-element spacing decreased to reach conditions under which the psychophysical test produced the greatest suppression in the apparent contrast of the central Gabor. A similar pattern of results was found when the spatial frequency and orientation of the flankers were systematically varied. These findings support the cortical origin of suppressive lateral interactions through short- and long-range functional connectivity. Further, synaptic inhibition likely causes a breakdown of synchronisation in the network response, consistent with the proposition that a function of surround suppression is to remove the statistical redundancies by increasing the sparseness or selectivity of sensory responses. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26325797

  2. Lateral Quantum Dots for Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    House, Matthew Gregory

    The possibility of building a computer that takes advantage of the most subtle nature of quantum physics has been driving a lot of research in atomic and solid state physics for some time. It is still not clear what physical system or systems can be used for this purpose. One possibility that has been attracting significant attention from researchers is to use the spin state of an electron confined in a semiconductor quantum dot. The electron spin is magnetic in nature, so it naturally is well isolated from electrical fluctuations that can a loss of quantum coherence. It can also be manipulated electrically, by taking advantage of the exchange interaction. In this work we describe several experiments we have done to study the electron spin properties of lateral quantum dots. We have developed lateral quantum dot devices based on the silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor, and studied the physics of electrons confined in these quantum dots. We measured the electron spin excited state lifetime, which was found to be as long as 30 ms at the lowest magnetic fields that we could measure. We fabricated and characterized a silicon double quantum dot. Using this double quantum dot design, we fabricated devices which combined a silicon double quantum dot with a superconducting microwave resonator. The microwave resonator was found to be sensitive to two-dimensional electrons in the transistor channel, which we measured and characterized. We developed a new method for extracting information from random telegraph signals, which are produced when we observe thermal fluctuations of electrons in quantum dots. The new statistical method, based on the hidden Markov model, allows us to detect spin-dependent effects in such fluctuations even though we are not able to directly observe the electron spin. We use this analysis technique on data from two experiments involving gallium arsenide quantum dots and use it to measure spin-dependent tunneling rates. Our results advance the understanding of electron spin physics in lateral quantum dots, in silicon and in gallium arsenide.

  3. Genetics of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: an update

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder involving both upper motor neurons (UMN) and lower motor neurons (LMN). Enormous research has been done in the past few decades in unveiling the genetics of ALS, successfully identifying at least fifteen candidate genes associated with familial and sporadic ALS. Numerous studies attempting to define the pathogenesis of ALS have identified several plausible determinants and molecular pathways leading to motor neuron degeneration, which include oxidative stress, glutamate excitotoxicity, apoptosis, abnormal neurofilament function, protein misfolding and subsequent aggregation, impairment of RNA processing, defects in axonal transport, changes in endosomal trafficking, increased inflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. This review is to update the recent discoveries in genetics of ALS, which may provide insight information to help us better understanding of the disease neuropathogenesis. PMID:23941283

  4. A comprehensive review of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Sara; Carr, Karen; Reiley, Luz; Diaz, Kelvin; Guerra, Orleiquis; Altamirano, Pablo Fernandez; Pagani, Wilfredo; Lodin, Daud; Orozco, Gloria; Chinea, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a late-onset fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons with an incidence of about 1/100,000. Most ALS cases are sporadic, but 5–10% of the cases are familial ALS. Both sporadic and familial ALS (FALS) are associated with degeneration of cortical and spinal motor neurons. The etiology of ALS remains unknown. However, mutations of superoxide dismutase 1 have been known as the most common cause of FALS. In this study, we provide a comprehensive review of ALS. We cover all aspects of the disease including epidemiology, comorbidities, environmental risk factor, molecular mechanism, genetic factors, symptoms, diagnostic, treatment, and even the available supplement and management of ALS. This will provide the reader with an advantage of receiving a broad range of information about the disease. PMID:26629397

  5. Electrodiagnosis in persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Nanette C; Carter, Gregory T

    2013-05-01

    Electrophysiology remains an important tool in the evaluation of patients presenting with signs and symptoms of motor neuron disease. The electrodiagnostic study should include peripheral nerve conduction studies and needle electromyography to both exclude treatable disease and gather evidence regarding a diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The recent changes in the revised El Escorial criteria, recommended by the Awaji-shima consensus group, have increased the diagnostic significance of fasciculation potentials to equal that of fibrillation and positive sharp-wave potentials in the needle electromyography examination of patients suspected of having ALS. In addition, electrophysiologic evidence is now considered equivalent to clinical signs and symptoms in reaching a diagnostic certainty of ALS. These changes, strategies for the design, and implementation of an effective electrodiagnostic evaluation, in addition to electrophysiologic techniques and their relationship to the evaluation of a patient with ALS, are reviewed and discussed. PMID:23523708

  6. On lateral competition in dynamic neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Bellyustin, N.S.

    1995-02-01

    Artificial neural networks connected homogeneously, which use retinal image processing methods, are considered. We point out that there are probably two different types of lateral inhibition for each neural element by the neighboring ones-due to the negative connection coefficients between elements and due to the decreasing neuron`s response to a too high input signal. The first case characterized by stable dynamics, which is given by the Lyapunov function, while in the second case, stability is absent and two-dimensional dynamic chaos occurs if the time step in the integration of model equations is large enough. The continuous neural medium approximation is used for analytical estimation in both cases. The result is the partition of the parameter space into domains with qualitatively different dynamic modes. Computer simulations confirm the estimates and show that joining two-dimensional chaos with symmetries provided by the initial and boundary conditions may produce patterns which are genuine pieces of art.

  7. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis associated with pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, A; Sweeney, B J; Connolly, S

    2001-12-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common, progressive motor neurone disease but is rare in the obstetric population. Only 4 cases have been described in the English literature since 1975. We describe a 29 year old woman who presented with ataxia, lower limb weakness and dysarthria 4 weeks after the birth of her first child. The symptoms had onset during the pregnancy but had not been considered remarkable. There were clinical features of upper and lower motor neurone involvement without any sensory loss. MRI of brain and spine was normal. CSF analysis was negative. EMG studies confirmed the presence of widespread anterior horn cell dysfunction compatible with ALS. The patient was commenced on Riluzole and has progressed clinically, at 12 months post diagnosis. PMID:11799421

  8. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Bozzoni, Virginia; Pansarasa, Orietta; Diamanti, Luca; Nosari, Guido; Cereda, Cristina; Ceroni, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Summary Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that affects central and peripheral motor neuron cells. Its etiology is unknown, although a relationship between genetic background and environmental factors may play a major role in triggering the neurodegeneration. In this review, we analyze the role of environmental factors in ALS: heavy metals, electromagnetic fields and electric shocks, pesticides, β-N-methylamino-L-alanine, physical activity and the controversial role of sports. The literature on the single issues is analyzed in an attempt to clarify, as clearly as possible, whether each risk factor significantly contributes to the disease pathogenesis. After summarizing conflicting observations and data, the authors provide a final synthetic statement. PMID:27027889

  9. Optical fiber head for providing lateral viewing

    DOEpatents

    Everett, Matthew J.; Colston, Billy W.; James, Dale L.; Brown, Steve; Da Silva, Luiz

    2002-01-01

    The head of an optical fiber comprising the sensing probe of an optical heterodyne sensing device includes a planar surface that intersects the perpendicular to axial centerline of the fiber at a polishing angle .theta.. The planar surface is coated with a reflective material so that light traveling axially through the fiber is reflected transverse to the fiber's axial centerline, and is emitted laterally through the side of the fiber. Alternatively, the planar surface can be left uncoated. The polishing angle .theta. must be no greater than 39.degree. or must be at least 51.degree.. The emitted light is reflected from adjacent biological tissue, collected by the head, and then processed to provide real-time images of the tissue. The method for forming the planar surface includes shearing the end of the optical fiber and applying the reflective material before removing the buffer that circumscribes the cladding and the core.

  10. EAS-BUAP: Lateral Distribution and Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, H.; Martinez, O.; Cotzomi, J.; Moreno, E.; Aguilar, S.; Villaseñor, L.

    2003-07-01

    We describe the operation and performance of the first stage of the EAS-UAP extensive air shower array, as a detector of very high energy cosmic rays (Eo > 1014eV) after one year of operation. The array is located at the Campus of Puebla University, 2200 m above sea level. It consists of 10 liquid scintillator detectors, each with an active surface of 1 m2 and a detector spacing of 20 m in a square grid. One Auger Water Cherenkov detector is also included as part of the array. In this report we discuss the stability, the calibration and lateral distribution function reconstruction capabilities of the detector array. We also present the analysis of the shower size spectrum. In addition, the main characteristics of this array allow us to use it as an educational and training facility.

  11. Autophagy dysregulation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng; Zhang, Xiaojie; Song, Lin; Le, Weidong

    2012-01-01

    Autophagy is an intracellular lysosomal degradation process, which plays an important role in cell growth and development, and keeping cellular homeostasis in all eukaryotes. Autophagy has multiple physiological functions, including protein degradation, organelle turnover and response to stress. Emerging evidences support the notion that dysregulation of autophagy might be critical for pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The autophagy dysregulation in motor neurons of ALS may occur in different steps of the autophagic process. Recent studies have shown that two ALS associated proteins, TDP-43 and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), are involved in the abnormal autophagy regulation. Furthermore, it is reported that several genetic mutations in ALS disturb the autophagic process in the motor neurons. This review will provide new evidence of autophagy dysregulation as a critical pathogenic process leading to ALS, and will discuss the prospect of future therapeutic targets using autophagic regulation to treat this disease. PMID:22150926

  12. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis from bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine

    2008-04-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive disease for which there are currently no significant treatments to alter the fatal outcome. The cause of the disease is still elusive, except in familial cases where significant advances have been made in identifying new genetic causes. ALS is a relatively rare disease affecting approximately 1 in 100,000 people equally across geographic and ethnic distributions. It is a difficult disease to diagnose, and there are many mimics of ALS. Overlap with dementia may provide new clues to the etiology and treatment. There have been many advances in symptomatic treatments and improvements in the quality of life for ALS patients due to technological advancements. PMID:18351522

  13. [Lateral clavicular fractures in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Wilfinger, C; Höllwarth, M

    2002-07-01

    From 1996 to 1999, 572 fractures of the clavicle were treated in our department, 26 of which were located at the lateral end of the clavicle. Two children were operated: in one a closed reduction of the fracture under general anesthesia was performed, and in the other the fracture required open reduction with internal fixation. All other fractures were treated conservatively with a figure-of-eight clavicle strap for 3 weeks. A follow-up study was performed in autumn 2000. Sixteen patients came to our outpatient department for clinical and radiological control, and three patients informed us by phone. All patients including the two treated under general anesthesia were fully recovered and had no problems doing their job and engaging in different sports. The radiological controls showed a good ossification without visible deformity of the clavicle. PMID:12219645

  14. Analysis of flexible structures under lateral impact

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, D. F.; Razavi, H.

    2012-07-01

    Three methods for analysis of flexible structures under lateral impact are presented. The first proposed method (Method A) consists of: (1) modifying an available deceleration on a rigid target with conservation principles to account for structural flexibility; and (2) transient nonlinear analysis of the structure with the corrected forcing function. The second proposed method (Method B) is similar to Method A in obtaining the forcing function but it solves the equations of motion of an idealized two-degree-of-freedom system instead of directly using conservation principles. The last method simply provides the maximum force in the structure using the conservation of energy and linear momentum. A coupled simulation is also performed in LS-DYNA and compared against the proposed methods. A case study is presented to illustrate the applicability of all three methods and the LS-DYNA simulation. (authors)

  15. [Symptomatic management in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)].

    PubMed

    Czaplinski, A; Schweikert, K; Strobel, W; Steck, A J; Weber, M

    2006-02-22

    Although disease-specific treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is still unsatisfactory, a number of advances have been made in the symptomatic therapy of ALS patients within the last decade. Current data suggest that active and aggressive multidisciplinary management of ALS patients improve their quality of life and prolong their survival. Patient and caregiver communications and decisions are increasingly recognized to be a relevant part of this management. A wide range of supportive and palliative measures, in particular the widely use of symptomatic drugs for pseudobulbar affect, sialorrhea, and sleep disorders is available to relieve patients symptomatology. In addition, patients quality of life has been profoundly improved by the introduction of enteral nutrition and non-invasive ventilation. PMID:16523990

  16. [Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis--diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Jung, H H; Neumann, M; Bloch, K E

    2012-07-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) represents the most common motoneuron disorder in adulthood. It is characterized by selective degeneration of the motoneurons. About 10% of patients have a genetically determined ALS. Clinically, ALS is characterized by coexistence of signs of the first motoneuron, such as spasticity and hyperreflexia, as well as the second motoneuron, such as muscular atrophy and fasciculations. If such signs are present in at least three regions and if other possible causes have been excluded, a definite diagnosis of ALS can be made based on the revised El-Escorial criteria. Initial manifestations are often focalized and generalization develops during the course. The glutamate antagonist riluzole is worldwide the only approved ALS treatment. However, symptomatic treatments to ameliorate spasticity, drooling, speech and swallowing problems, and assisted ventilation to treat respiratory failure are essential. PMID:22763933

  17. Therapeutic neuroprotective agents for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Rachna S.; Zhu, Haining; Li, Wei; Bowser, Robert; Friedlander, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal chronic neurodegenerative disease whose hallmark is proteinaceous, ubiquitinated, cytoplasmic inclusions in motor neurons and surrounding cells. Multiple mechanisms proposed as responsible for ALS pathogenesis include dysfunction of protein degradation, glutamate excitotoxicity, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. It is therefore essential to gain a better understanding of the underlying disease etiology and search for neuroprotective agents that might delay disease onset, slow progression, prolong survival, and ultimately reduce the burden of disease. Because riluzole, the only Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatment, prolongs the ALS patient’s life by only 3 months, new therapeutic agents are urgently needed. In this review, we focus on studies of various small pharmacological compounds targeting the proposed pathogenic mechanisms of ALS and discuss their impact on disease progression. PMID:23864030

  18. Toward precision medicine in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang-Yun; Che, Chun-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine is an innovative approach that uses emerging biomedical technologies to deliver optimally targeted and timed interventions, customized to the molecular drivers of an individual’s disease. This approach is only just beginning to be considered for treating amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The clinical and biological complexities of ALS have hindered development of effective therapeutic strategies. In this review we consider applying the key elements of precision medicine to ALS: phenotypic classification, comprehensive risk assessment, presymptomatic period detection, potential molecular pathways, disease model development, biomarker discovery and molecularly tailored interventions. Together, these would embody a precision medicine approach, which may provide strategies for optimal targeting and timing of efforts to prevent, stop or slow progression of ALS. PMID:26889480

  19. Lateral hypothalamic circuits for feeding and reward.

    PubMed

    Stuber, Garret D; Wise, Roy A

    2016-01-27

    In experiments conducted over 60 years ago, the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) was identified as a critical neuroanatomical substrate for motivated behavior. Electrical stimulation of the LHA induces voracious feeding even in well-fed animals. In the absence of food, animals will work tirelessly, often lever-pressing thousands of times per hour, for electrical stimulation at the same site that provokes feeding, drinking and other species-typical motivated behaviors. Here we review the classic findings from electrical stimulation studies and integrate them with more recent work that has used contemporary circuit-based approaches to study the LHA. We identify specific anatomically and molecularly defined LHA elements that integrate diverse information arising from cortical, extended amygdala and basal forebrain networks to ultimately generate a highly specified and invigorated behavioral state conveyed via LHA projections to downstream reward and feeding-specific circuits. PMID:26814589

  20. Motoneuron firing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Mamede; Eisen, Andrew; Krieger, Charles; Swash, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is an inexorably progressive neurodegenerative disorder involving the classical motor system and the frontal effector brain, causing muscular weakness and atrophy, with variable upper motor neuron signs and often an associated fronto-temporal dementia. The physiological disturbance consequent on the motor system degeneration is beginning to be well understood. In this review we describe aspects of the motor cortical, neuronal, and lower motor neuron dysfunction. We show how studies of the changes in the pattern of motor unit firing help delineate the underlying pathophysiological disturbance as the disease progresses. Such studies are beginning to illuminate the underlying disordered pathophysiological processes in the disease, and are important in designing new approaches to therapy and especially for clinical trials. PMID:25294995

  1. Large-scale lateral nanowire arrays nanogenerators

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhong L; Xu, Chen; Qin, Yong; Zhu, Guang; Yang, Rusen; Hu, Youfan; Zhang, Yan

    2014-01-07

    In a method of making a generating device, a plurality of spaced apart elongated seen members are deposited onto a surface of a flexible non-conductive substrate. An elongated conductive layer is applied to a top surface and a first side of each seed member, thereby leaving an exposed second side opposite the first side. A plurality of elongated piezoelectric nanostructures is grown laterally from the second side of each seed layer. A second conductive material is deposited onto the substrate adjacent each elongated first conductive layer so as to be soupled the distal end of each of the plurality of elongated piezoelectric nanostructures. The second conductive material is selected so as to form a Schottky barrier between the second conductive material and the distal end of each of the plurality of elongated piezoelectric nanostructures and so as to form an electrical contact with the first conductive layer.

  2. Lateral habenular influence on dorsal raphe neurons.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, G; Montalbano, M E; Sardo, P; La Grutta, V

    1996-01-01

    Previously, we have demonstrated that lateral habenula (LH) modulates the bioelectric activity of the hippocampus through the dorsal raphe nucleus functional involvement. In this study we have, preliminarily, electrophysiologically identified two types of raphe neurons: "slow" (S cells, serotonergic in nature); and "fast" (F cells, presumably GABAergic in nature). Then, we have shown that LH electrical stimulation at lower frequency induced an excitation of S and F neurons. LH stimulation at higher frequency inhibited only S neurons. Furthermore, iontophoretic NMDA excited S and F neurons. The excitatory effects of LH stimulation were antagonized by the iontophoretic 2-APV (NMDA antagonist). Iontophoretic GABA inhibited only S neurons. Iontophoretic bicuculline antagonized the LH-induced inhibition os S neurons. The data suggested a direct (NMDA-mediated) and indirect (through the F GABAergic inhibitory interneuron) influence of the LH on the serotonergic efferent neuron. PMID:8883915

  3. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a hormonal condition?

    PubMed

    Blasco, Helene; Guennoc, Anne-Marie; Veyrat-Durebex, Charlotte; Gordon, Paul H; Andres, Christian R; Camu, William; Corcia, Philippe

    2012-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most frequent motor neuron disorder in adults. This fatal condition, due to degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons in spinal and bulbar myotomes, leads to death from respiratory failure after median disease duration of 36 months. ALS is sporadic in more than 90% of cases and familial in the remaining cases. Most studies show male predominance with a gender ratio of 3:2, but gender differences are age related. The phenotype of ALS is also different in males and females with a predominance of limb onset in males and bulbar onset in females. While age and site of onset impact survival rate, and are both related to gender, gender by itself has not clearly been shown to have an effect on survival. Given this complex relationship between gender and ALS, we developed a hypothesis about hormone involvement in ALS aetiology by suggesting protective effect of oestrogens and adverse effect of androgens. PMID:22873563

  4. TIBIOTALOCALCANEAL ARTHRODESIS WITH LATERAL COMPRESSION PLATE

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Michael J.; Nery, Caio; Baumfeld, Daniel; Jastifer, James

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the short-term clinical and radiographic results from a TTC fusion procedure using a lateral locking plate specifically designed for this purpose. Methods: All the fourteen patients were evaluated using a variety of methods, including a visual analogue scale (VAS), the AOFAS hindfoot score and a subjective satisfaction scale. The average follow-up was 10 months. Results: The average AOFAS score improved from 41 points preoperatively to 63 points postoperatively. The VAS pain score decreased from 7 to 3 points. Four patients reported excellent results, eight good, one fair and one poor. Conclusion: Our study provides support for using a specially designed plate for TTC fusion in hindfoot salvage surgery. RESUMO Objetivo: O propósito deste estudo é avaliar os resultados clínicos e radiológicos a curto prazo do procedimento de fusão tíbio-talo-calcaneana (TTC) com o uso de uma placa lateral bloqueada específicamente concebida para este fim. Métodos: Todos os 14 pacientes foram avaliados usando uma variedade de métodos, incluindo a escala analógico visual da dor (EAV), escore da AOFAS para o retropé e escala subjetiva de satisfação. O acompanhamento médio foi de 10 meses. Resultados: O escore AOFAS médio melhorou de 41 pontos no período pré-operatório para 63 pontos no período pós-operatório. O escore da dor (EAV) caiu de 7 para 3 pontos. Quatro pacientesforam classificados como excelentes resultados, oito bons, um moderado e um ruim. Conclusão: Nosso estudo dá suporte ao uso da placa especialmente desenhada para a fusão tibio-talo-calcaneana (TTC) nas cirurgias de salvamento do retropé. PMID:27047852

  5. Costa Rica's Chain of laterally collapsed volcanoes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, E.; Fernandez, E.

    2007-05-01

    From the NW extreme to the SW end of Costa Rica's volcanic backbone, a number of laterally collapsed volcanoes can be observed. Due to several factors, attention has been given to active volcanoes disregarding the importance of collapsed features in terms of assessing volcanic hazards for future generations around inhabited volcanoes. In several cases the typical horseshoe shape amphitheater-like depression can be easily observed. In other cases due to erosion, vegetation, topography, seismic activity or drastic weather such characteristics are not easily recognized. In the order mentioned above appear: Orosi-Cacao, Miravalles, Platanar, Congo, Von Frantzius, Cacho Negro and Turrialba volcanoes. Due to limited studies on these structures it is unknown if sector collapse occurred in one or several phases. Furthermore, in the few studied cases no evidence has been found to relate collapses to actual eruptive episodes. Detailed studies on the deposits and materials composing dome-like shapes will shed light on unsolved questions about petrological and chemical composition. Volume, form and distance traveled by deposits are part of the questions surrounding most of these collapsed volcanoes. Although most of these mentioned structures are extinct, at least Irazú volcano (active volcano) has faced partial lateral collapses recently. It did presented strombolian activity in the early 60s. Collapse scars show on the NW flank show important mass removal in historic and prehistoric times. Moreover, in 1994 a minor hydrothermal explosion provoked the weakening of a deeply altered wall that holds a crater lake (150m diameter, 2.6x106 ). A poster will depict images of the collapsed volcanoes named above with mayor descriptive characteristics. It will also focus on the importance of deeper studies to assess the collapse potential of Irazú volcano with related consequences. Finally, this initiative will invite researchers interested in such topic to join future studies in these Costarrican volcanoes.

  6. Suicide among patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Fürst, Carl Johan; Hultman, Christina; Fall, Katja; Sparén, Pär; Ye, Weimin

    2008-10-01

    Studies on the suicide risk among patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in countries without legalized euthanasia or assisted suicide are important additions to data on the wish to die of these patients. We conducted a population-based cohort study in Sweden between 1965 and 2004, which comprised of 6,642 patients with incident ALS identified from the Swedish Inpatient Register. We calculated the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) of suicide among the patients using the suicide rates of the general Swedish population as a reference. In total, 21 patients committed suicide during follow-up, compared to the predicted 3.6 suicides. Thus, we noted an almost 6-fold increased risk for suicide among ALS patients [SMR 5.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.6-8.8]. Patients who committed suicide were, on average, around 7 years younger at the time of their first period of hospitalization than patients who did not commit suicide. The highest relative risk for suicide was observed within the first year after the patient's first period of hospitalization (SMR 11.2, 95% CI 5.8-19.6). After that, the relative risks decreased with time after hospitalization (P-value for trend = 0.006), but remained elevated 3 years later. The relative risks of suicide among ALS patients did not show a clear trend over time in contrast to the decreasing trend of relative risks for suicide among patients with cancer during the same period. Patients with ALS are at excess risk of suicide in Sweden and the relative risk is higher during the earlier stage of the disease. PMID:18669498

  7. Lateral interactions in the outer retina

    PubMed Central

    Thoreson, Wallace B.; Mangel, Stuart C.

    2012-01-01

    Lateral interactions in the outer retina, particularly negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones and direct feed-forward input from horizontal cells to bipolar cells, play a number of important roles in early visual processing, such as generating center-surround receptive fields that enhance spatial discrimination. These circuits may also contribute to post-receptoral light adaptation and the generation of color opponency. In this review, we examine the contributions of horizontal cell feedback and feed-forward pathways to early visual processing. We begin by reviewing the properties of bipolar cell receptive fields, especially with respect to modulation of the bipolar receptive field surround by the ambient light level and to the contribution of horizontal cells to the surround. We then review evidence for and against three proposed mechanisms for negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones: 1) GABA release by horizontal cells, 2) ephaptic modulation of the cone pedicle membrane potential generated by currents flowing through hemigap junctions in horizontal cell dendrites, and 3) modulation of cone calcium currents (ICa) by changes in synaptic cleft proton levels. We also consider evidence for the presence of direct horizontal cell feed-forward input to bipolar cells and discuss a possible role for GABA at this synapse. We summarize proposed functions of horizontal cell feedback and feed-forward pathways. Finally, we examine the mechanisms and functions of two other forms of lateral interaction in the outer retina: negative feedback from horizontal cells to rods and positive feedback from horizontal cells to cones. PMID:22580106

  8. Coverage of Exposed Bone of the Lateral Malleolus With a Proximally Based Lateral Malleolar Perforator Flap.

    PubMed

    van der Zee, Caroline W; Moerman, Esther; Haverlag, Robert; Schepers, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of soft tissue defects of the ankle, combined with an implant-related infection, remains a challenge. The present case report illustrates the use of a pedicled perforator flap for soft tissue reconstruction to cover a postoperative defect at the lateral malleolus after an ankle fracture. PMID:25154652

  9. Side of Limb-Onset Predicts Laterality of Gray Matter Loss in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Cuiping; Jin, Jiaoting; Niu, Chen; Dang, Jingxia

    2014-01-01

    Conflicting findings have been reported regarding the lateralized brain abnormality in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this study, we aimed to investigate the probable lateralization of gray matter (GM) atrophy in ALS patients. We focused on the relationship between the asymmetry in decreased GM volume and the side of disease onset in patients with limb-onset. Structural imaging evaluation of normalized atrophy (SIENAX) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) were used to assess differences in global and local brain regions in patients with heterogeneous body onset and subgroups with different side of limb-onset. We found global brain atrophy and GM losses in the frontal and parietal areas in each patient group as well as left predominant GM losses in the total cohort. The intriguing findings in subgroup analyses demonstrated that the motor cortex in the contralateral hemisphere of the initially involved limb was most affected. We also found that regional brain atrophy was related to disease progression rate. Our observations suggested that side of limb-onset can predict laterality of GM loss in ALS patients and disease progression correlates with the extent of cortical abnormality. PMID:25093168

  10. Pay Me Now or Pay Me Later: 10 Years Later and Have We Seen Any Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cone, Stephen L.

    2004-01-01

    It has been nearly a decade since the 1996 Surgeon General?s Report (SGR) on "Physical Activity and Health" (United States Department of Health and Human Services [USDHHS], 1996). It is time that people stop and reflect on this historic report and begin the assessment process--are people paying now or will they continue to pay later? This…

  11. Can Early Menopause Trigger Depression Later in Life?

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_156556.html Can Early Menopause Trigger Depression Later in Life? Research suggests longer estrogen exposure ... menopause may increase a woman's later risk of depression, a new review suggests. If further studies confirm ...

  12. Sex Differences in Cerebral Laterality of Language and Visuospatial Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, A. M.; Rimrodt, S. L.; Abel, J. R.; Blankner, J. G.; Mostofsky, S. H.; Pekar, J. J.; Denckla, M. B.; Cutting, L. E.

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences on language and visuospatial tasks are of great interest, with differences in hemispheric laterality hypothesized to exist between males and females. Some functional imaging studies examining sex differences have shown that males are more left lateralized on language tasks and females are more right lateralized on visuospatial…

  13. Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

  14. Infection par le virus de l’hépatite E durant la grossesse

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Shahnaz A.; Verma, Natasha; Koren, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Question Plusieurs de mes patientes sont originaires de l’Asie du Sud-Est où le virus de l’hépatite E est assez commun. Quelles précautions puis-je leur suggérer de prendre avant de voyager dans cette région et quels sont les risques d’une infection par le VHE durant la grossesse? Réponse L’hépatite E est un pathogène présent dans l’eau qui se transmet par voie oro-fécale. Afin de réduire le risque de contracter le VHE lors de voyages dans des régions endémiques, il est important de maintenir des pratiques d’hygiène telles que se laver les mains avec de l’eau potable, particulièrement avant de manipuler de la nourriture, éviter de boire de l’eau ou d’utiliser des glaçons de pureté inconnue et ne pas manger de fruits ou de légumes non pelés. Actuellement, il n’existe aucun vaccin disponible au Canada pour le VHE. Une infection à l’hépatite E durant la grossesse, surtout durant le troisième trimestre, se caractérise par une infection plus sévère qui se transforme parfois en hépatite fulminante, augmentant ainsi les risques de mortalité et de morbidité maternelles et fœtales.

  15. Dynamic cortical lateralization during olfactory discrimination learning

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Yaniv; Putrino, David; Wilson, Donald A

    2015-01-01

    Key points Odour discrimination and memory involve changes in the primary olfactory (piriform) cortex. The results obtained in the present study suggest that there is an asymmetry in piriform cortical change, with learning-related changes in cortical oscillations emerging with different time courses over the course of multiday training in the left and right piriform cortices in rats. There is an initial decrease in coherence between the left and right piriform cortices during the early stages of the odour discrimination task, which recovers as the animals approach criterion performance. This decreased coherence is expressed when the animals are performing the task relative to when they are in their home cage. The results suggest a transient cortical asymmetry during learning and raise new questions about the functions and mechanisms of cerebral lateralization. Abstract Bilateral cortical circuits are not necessarily symmetrical. Asymmetry, or cerebral lateralization, allows functional specialization of bilateral brain regions and has been described in humans for such diverse functions as perception, memory and emotion. There is also evidence for asymmetry in the human olfactory system, although evidence in non-human animal models is lacking. In the present study, we took advantage of the known changes in olfactory cortical local field potentials that occur over the course of odour discrimination training to test for functional asymmetry in piriform cortical activity during learning. Both right and left piriform cortex local field potential activities were recorded. The results obtained demonstrate a robust interhemispheric asymmetry in anterior piriform cortex activity that emerges during specific stages of odour discrimination learning, with a transient bias toward the left hemisphere. This asymmetry is not apparent during error trials. Furthermore, functional connectivity (coherence) between the bilateral anterior piriform cortices is learning- and context-dependent. Steady-state interhemispheric anterior piriform cortex coherence is reduced during the initial stages of learning and then recovers as animals acquire competent performance. The decrease in coherence is seen relative to bilateral coherence expressed in the home cage, which remains stable across conditioning days. Similarly, transient, trial-related interhemispheric coherence increases with task competence. Taken together, the results demonstrate transient asymmetry in piriform cortical function during odour discrimination learning until mastery, suggesting that each piriform cortex may contribute something unique to odour memory. PMID:25604039

  16. Bilateral osteochondritis dissecans of the lateral femoral condyle following bilateral total removal of lateral discoid meniscus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yusuke; Yoshida, Gen; Tomihara, Tomohiro; Matsuura, Takeshi; Satake, Shinji; Kaneda, Kunikazu; Shimada, Nagakazu

    2008-11-01

    Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the lateral femoral condyle sometimes occurs with a discoid lateral meniscus. Recently, it was reported that OCD of the lateral femoral condyle occurred after total removal of the lateral meniscus. We report the case of a 12-year-old boy with bilateral OCD of the lateral femoral condyle following bilateral total removal for discoid lateral meniscus. Valgus deviation of the knee after total removal and increased sporting activity might have concentrated excessive stress on the lateral condyles in the standing position. As a result, bilateral OCD might have occurred. Drilling of the areas of OCD on the bilateral lateral femoral condyles was done and the patient wore inner wedge arch supports postoperatively. After 2 years, neither knee pain nor arthrosis has occurred so far, but long-term follow-up of this patient is considered to be necessary. PMID:17985146

  17. Genetic Rodent Models of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Van Den Bosch, L.

    2011-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the selective death of motor neurons in the motor cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord. A large number of rodent models are available that show motor neuron death and a progressive motor phenotype that is more or less reminiscent of what occurs in patients. These rodent models contain genes with spontaneous or induced mutations or (over) express different (mutant) genes. Some of these models have been of great value to delineate potential pathogenic mechanisms that cause and/or modulate selective motor neuron degeneration. In addition, these genetic rodent models play a crucial role in testing and selecting potential therapeutics that can be used to treat ALS and/or other motor neuron disorders. In this paper, we give a systematic overview of the most important genetic rodent models that show motor neuron degeneration and/or develop a motor phenotype. In addition, we discuss the value and limitations of the different models and conclude that it remains a challenge to find more and better rodent models based on mutations in new genes causing ALS. PMID:21274268

  18. Molecular Motor Proteins and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Soo, Kai Y; Farg, Manal; Atkin, Julie D.

    2011-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder affecting motor neurons in the brain, brainstem and spinal cord, which is characterized by motor dysfunction, muscle dystrophy and progressive paralysis. Both inherited and sporadic forms of ALS share common pathological features, however, the initial trigger of neurodegeneration remains unknown. Motor neurons are uniquely targeted by ubiquitously expressed proteins in ALS but the reason for this selectively vulnerability is unclear. However motor neurons have unique characteristics such as very long axons, large cell bodies and high energetic metabolism, therefore placing high demands on cellular transport processes. Defects in cellular trafficking are now widely reported in ALS, including dysfunction to the molecular motors dynein and kinesin. Abnormalities to dynein in particular are linked to ALS, and defects in dynein-mediated axonal transport processes have been reported as one of the earliest pathologies in transgenic SOD1 mice. Furthermore, dynein is very highly expressed in neurons and neurons are particularly sensitive to dynein dysfunction. Hence, unravelling cellular transport processes mediated by molecular motor proteins may help shed light on motor neuron loss in ALS. PMID:22272119

  19. Alcoholic Marriage: Later Start, Sooner End

    PubMed Central

    Waldron, Mary; Heath, Andrew C.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although associations between drinking behavior and marital status are well documented, timing of marital transitions as a function of alcohol use or disorder has received limited empirical attention. Methods We examine the relationship between lifetime history of alcohol dependence (AD) and timing and survival of first marriages in a sample of 3575 female and 1845 male adult Australian twins born mostly between 1940 and 1964. Survival analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results Results indicate moderate delays in marriage associated with AD for both women and men. Among ever married respondents, AD was strongly predictive of early separation, with similar effects observed for women and men. Heritable sources of covariation were also documented. For women, genetic influences shared between early-onset AD and marital timing were found. Genetic influences shared between AD and marital survival were observed for women without regard to onset and for men with later-onset AD. Conclusions Results confirm the importance of AD as a predictor of both timing and survival of first marriages, with genetic influences contributing to observed associations. PMID:21244438

  20. Controversies and priorities in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Turner, Martin R; Hardiman, Orla; Benatar, Michael; Brooks, Benjamin R; Chio, Adriano; de Carvalho, Mamede; Ince, Paul G; Lin, Cindy; Miller, Robert G; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Nicholson, Garth; Ravits, John; Shaw, Pamela J; Swash, Michael; Talbot, Kevin; Traynor, Bryan J; Van den Berg, Leonard H; Veldink, Jan H; Vucic, Steve; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2013-03-01

    Two decades after the discovery that 20% of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases were linked to mutations in the superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) gene, a substantial proportion of the remainder of cases of familial ALS have now been traced to an expansion of the intronic hexanucleotide repeat sequence in C9orf72. This breakthrough provides an opportunity to re-evaluate longstanding concepts regarding the cause and natural history of ALS, coming soon after the pathological unification of ALS with frontotemporal dementia through a shared pathological signature of cytoplasmic inclusions of the ubiquitinated protein TDP-43. However, with profound clinical, prognostic, neuropathological, and now genetic heterogeneity, the concept of ALS as one disease appears increasingly untenable. This background calls for the development of a more sophisticated taxonomy, and an appreciation of ALS as the breakdown of a wider network rather than a discrete vulnerable population of specialised motor neurons. Identification of C9orf72 repeat expansions in patients without a family history of ALS challenges the traditional division between familial and sporadic disease. By contrast, the 90% of apparently sporadic cases and incomplete penetrance of several genes linked to familial cases suggest that at least some forms of ALS arise from the interplay of multiple genes, poorly understood developmental, environmental, and age-related factors, as well as stochastic events. PMID:23415570

  1. Characteristics of pain in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Hanisch, Frank; Skudlarek, Anika; Berndt, Janine; Kornhuber, Malte E

    2015-01-01

    Background Pain is an often underestimated and neglected symptom in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods In a cross-sectional survey, 46 patients with ALS, 46 age- and gender matched population-based controls, and 23 diseased controls with myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) were screened for occurrence, type, distribution, and treatment of pain and cramps. Data were collected with the use of the short form brief pain inventory (BPI). Results Pain was reported in 78% of ALS patients,79% of DM2 patients, and 54% of controls (P < 0.05). More ALS patients than controls reported moderate to severe pain (42% vs. 20%). Pain in ALS patients interfered significantly more with daily activities than in controls (median pain interference score: 3.0 vs. 1.2, P < 0.05), especially enjoyment of life (5.0 vs. 1.0) and mood (3.0 vs. 1.0). There was no correlation between the duration of the disease and the severity of pain. Movement-induced cramps were reported in 63% of ALS patients, mostly in the distal extremities. There was no difference in the duration of ALS disease between patients reporting cramps and those who did not. Discussion Our study showed that pain was a relatively frequent symptom which had an important impact on the quality of life. Pain that requires treatment can occur at every stage of ALS. PMID:25642388

  2. Epidemiologic correlates of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Armon, C.; Kurland, L.T.; Daube, J.R.; O'Brien, P.C. )

    1991-07-01

    The authors evaluated 74 selected patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and 201 matched controls for risk factors for ALS by a case-control design and a sequential questionnaire/interview technique to quantitate biographic data. They analyzed occupational and recreational data only for 47 male patients and 47 corresponding patient controls; data for women were insufficient. They used nonparametric analyses to evaluate five primary comparisons of ALS patients with controls: (1) more hard physical labor, p not significant (NS); (2) greater frequency of neurodegenerative disease in family members, p NS; (3) greater exposure to lead, p less than 0.05; (4) more years lived in a rural community, p NS; and (5) more trauma or major surgery, p NS. Men with ALS had worked more frequently at blue-collar jobs (although not a statistically significant difference, p = 0.10) and at welding or soldering (p less than 0.01). These results suggest that there may be an association between ALS in men and exposure to lead vapor. The limited nature of the association favors a multifactorial etiologic mechanism of ALS.

  3. Miro1 deficiency in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Wang, Wenzhang; Siedlak, Sandra L.; Liu, Yingchao; Liu, Jun; Jiang, Keji; Perry, George; Zhu, Xiongwei; Wang, Xinglong

    2015-01-01

    Proper transportation of mitochondria to sites with high energy demands is critical for neuronal function and survival. Impaired mitochondrial movement has been repeatedly reported in motor neurons of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and indicated as an important mechanism contributing to motor neuron degeneration in ALS. Miro1, a RhoGTPase also referred to as Rhot1, is a key regulator of mitochondrial movement linking mitochondria and motor proteins. In this study, we investigated whether the expression of Miro1 was altered in ALS patients and ALS animal models. Immunoblot analysis revealed that Miro1 was significantly reduced in the spinal cord tissue of ALS patients. Consistently, the decreased expression of Miro1 was also noted only in the spinal cord, and not in the brain tissue of transgenic mice expressing ALS-associated SOD1 G93A or TDP-43 M337V. Glutamate excitotoxicity is one of the major pathophysiological mechanisms implicated in the pathogenesis of ALS, and we found that excessive glutamate challenge lead to significant reduction of Miro1 expression in spinal cord motor neurons both in vitro and in mice. Taken together, these findings show Miro1 deficiency in ALS patients and ALS animal models and suggest glutamate excitotoxicity as a likely cause of Miro1 deficiency. PMID:26074815

  4. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ping; Gal, Jozsef; Kwinter, David M.; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Haining

    2009-01-01

    The etiology of motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) remains to be better understood. Based on the studies from ALS patients and transgenic animal models, it is believed that ALS is likely to be a multifactorial and multisystem disease. Many mechanisms have been postulated to be involved in the pathology of ALS, such as oxidative stress, glutamate excitotoxicity, mitochondrial damage, defective axonal transport, glia cell pathology and aberrant RNA metabolism. Mitochondria, which play crucial roles in excitotoxicity, apoptosis and cell survival, have shown to be an early target in ALS pathogenesis and contribute to the disease progression. Morphological and functional defects in mitochondria were found in both human patients and ALS mice overexpressing mutant SOD1. Mutant SOD1 was found to be preferentially associated with mitochondria and subsequently impair mitochondrial function. Recent studies suggest that axonal transport of mitochondria along microtubules and mitochondrial dynamics may also be disrupted in ALS. These results also illustrate the critical importance of maintaining proper mitochondrial function in axons and neuromuscular junctions, supporting the emerging “dying-back” axonopathy model of ALS. In this review, we will discuss how mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to the ALS variants of SOD1 and the mechanisms by which mitochondrial damage contributes to the disease etiology. PMID:19715760

  5. Treatment algorithm for chronic lateral ankle instability

    PubMed Central

    Giannini, Sandro; Ruffilli, Alberto; Pagliazzi, Gherardo; Mazzotti, Antonio; Evangelisti, Giulia; Buda, Roberto; Faldini, Cesare

    2014-01-01

    Summary Introduction: ankle sprains are a common sports-related injury. A 20% of acute ankle sprains results in chronic ankle instability, requiring surgery. Aim of this paper is to report the results of a series of 38 patients treated for chronic lateral ankle instability with anatomic reconstruction. Materials and methods: thirty-eight patients were enrolled in the study. Seventeen patients underwent a surgical repair using the Brostrom-modified technique, while the remaining underwent anatomic reconstruction with autologous or allogenic graft. Results: at a mean follow-up of 5 years the AOFAS score improved from 66.1 ± 5.3 to 92.2 ± 5.6. Discussion: the findings of this study confirm that anatomic reconstruction is an effective procedure with satisfactory subjective and objective results which persist at long-term follow-up along with a low complication rate. No differences, in term of clinical and functional outcomes, were observed between the Brostrom-modified repair and the anatomic reconstruction technique. Level of evidence: level IV. PMID:25767783

  6. Lateral gene transfer in the subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Barkay, Tamar; Sobecky, Patricia

    2007-08-27

    Lateral gene transfer (LGT) is an important adaptive mechanism among prokaryotic organisms. This mechanism is particularly important for the response of microorganisms to changing environmental conditions because it facilitates the transfer of a large number of genes and their rapid expression. Together the transferred genes promote rapid genetic and metabolic changes that may enhance survival to newly established and sometimes hostile environmental conditions. The goal of our project was to examine if and how LGT enhances microbial adaptation to toxic heavy metals in subsurface environments that had been contaminated by mixed wastes due to activities associated with the production of nuclear energy and weapons. This task has been accomplished by dividing the project to several sub-tasks. Thus, we: (1) Determined the level of resistance of subsurface bacterial isolates to several toxic metals, all identified as pollutants of concern in subsurface environments; (2) Designed, tested, and applied, a molecular approach that determined whether metal resistance genes had evolved by LGT among subsurface bacteria; and (3) Developed a DNA hybridization array for the identification of broad host range plasmids and of metal resistance plasmids. The results are briefly summarized below with references to published papers and manuscripts in preparation where details about our research can be found. Additional information may be found in copies of our published manuscripts and conference proceedings, and our yearly reports that were submitted through the RIMS system.

  7. Redox Regulation in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Parakh, Sonam; Spencer, Damian M.; Halloran, Mark A.; Soo, Kai Y.; Atkin, Julie D.

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that results from the death of upper and lower motor neurons. Due to a lack of effective treatment, it is imperative to understand the underlying mechanisms and processes involved in disease progression. Regulations in cellular reduction/oxidation (redox) processes are being increasingly implicated in disease. Here we discuss the possible involvement of redox dysregulation in the pathophysiology of ALS, either as a cause of cellular abnormalities or a consequence. We focus on its possible role in oxidative stress, protein misfolding, glutamate excitotoxicity, lipid peroxidation and cholesterol esterification, mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired axonal transport and neurofilament aggregation, autophagic stress, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We also speculate that an ER chaperone protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) could play a key role in this dysregulation. PDI is essential for normal protein folding by oxidation and reduction of disulphide bonds, and hence any disruption to this process may have consequences for motor neurons. Addressing the mechanism underlying redox regulation and dysregulation may therefore help to unravel the molecular mechanism involved in ALS. PMID:23533690

  8. Possession divestment by sales in later life.

    PubMed

    Ekerdt, David J; Addington, Aislinn

    2015-08-01

    Residential relocation in later life is almost always a downsizing, with many possessions to be divested in a short period of time. This article examines older movers' capacities for selling things, and ways that selling attenuates people's ties to those things, thus accomplishing the human dis-possession of the material convoy. In qualitative interviews in 79 households in the Midwestern United States, older adults reported their experience with possession sales associated with residential relocation. Among this group, three-quarters of the households downsized by selling some belongings. Informal sales seemed the least fraught of all strategies, estate sales had mixed reviews, and garage sales were recalled as laborious. Sellers' efforts were eased by social relations and social networks as helpers and buyers came forward. As selling proceeded, sentiment about possessions waned as their materiality and economic value came to the fore, easing their detachment from the household. Possession selling is challenging because older adults are limited in the knowledge, skills, and efforts that they can apply to the recommodification of their belongings. Selling can nonetheless be encouraged as a divestment strategy as long as the frustrations and drawbacks are transparent, and the goal of ridding is kept in view. PMID:26162722

  9. Selective attention impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Volpato, Chiara; Prats Sedano, Maria Angeles; Silvoni, Stefano; Segato, Nicoletta; Cavinato, Marianna; Merico, Antonio; Piccione, Francesco; Palmieri, Arianna; Birbaumer, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Objective of this study was to evaluate attentional control mechanisms in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using an auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) paradigm. Fifteen mild to moderate ALS patients and 15 healthy controls were administered a brief neuropsychological test battery and an ERPs paradigm assessing selective attention. Four types of auditory stimuli were presented in random order: short standard (200 Hz, 200 ms), long standard (200 Hz, 500 ms), short deviant (1000 Hz, 200 ms) and long deviant (1000 Hz, 500 ms). Participants had to respond to the long deviant stimuli only. During the task the electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. The N200, P300 and re-orienting negativity (RON) ERP components were analysed. Compared to controls ALS patients showed reduced amplitudes and delayed latencies of N200, P300 and RON. These results could be attributable to both an alteration in change detection resulting in a reduction of the allocation and re-orientation of attentional resources or a general slowing or reduction of neural processing efficiency in the same system. The ERPs results support the hypothesis that ALS involves extramotor cognitive functions including auditory attentional processing at all processing stages, early (200 ms) and late (300-600 ms). These data prove the usefulness and sensitivity of the auditory ERPs in detection of cognitive functions in ALS patients. PMID:26889872

  10. Rodent Models of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Philips, Thomas; Rothstein, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a motor neuron disease affecting upper and lower motor neurons in the central nervous system. Patients with ALS develop extensive muscle wasting and atrophy leading to paralysis and death 3 to 5 years after disease onset. The condition may be familial (fALS 10%) or sporadic ALS (sALS, 90%). The large majority of fALS cases are due to genetic mutations in the Superoxide dismutase 1 gene (SOD1, 15% of fALS) and repeat nucleotide expansions in the gene encoding C9ORF72 (∼ 40% to 50% of fALS and ∼ 10% of sALS). Studies suggest that ALS is mediated through aberrant protein homeostasis (i.e., ER stress and autophagy) and/or changes in RNA processing (as in all non-SOD1-mediated ALS). In all of these cases, animal models suggest that the disorder is mediated non-cell autonomously, i.e., not only motor neurons are involved, but glial cells including microglia, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, and other neuronal subpopulations are also implicated in the pathogenesis. Provided in this unit is a review of ALS rodent models, including discussion of their relative advantages and disadvantages. Emphasis is placed on correlating the model phenotype with the human condition and the utility of the model for defining the disease process. Information is also presented on RNA processing studies in ALS research, with particular emphasis on the newest ALS rodent models. PMID:26344214

  11. Nutrition management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Daniel I

    2013-06-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurological disease with high risk of malnutrition. Symptoms of dysphagia, depression, cognitive impairment, difficulty with self-feeding and meal preparation, hypermetabolism, anxiety, respiratory insufficiency, and fatigue with meals increase the risk of malnutrition. Malnutrition negatively affects prognosis and quality of life, making early and frequent nutrition assessment and intervention essential. Implementation of an adequate calorie diet, dietary texture modification, use of adaptive eating utensils, and placement of a feeding tube aid in preventing malnutrition. When nutrition status is compromised by dysphagia and weight loss (5%-10% of usual body weight) or body mass index <20 kg/m(2) without weight loss and when forced vital capacity is >50%, a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy placement is indicated. When forced vital capacity is <50%, a radiologically inserted gastrostomy is the preferred means of enteral placement due to lessened aspiration and respiratory risk. Parenteral nutrition (PN) is indicated only when enteral nutrition (EN) is contraindicated or impossible. This article reviews the background of ALS, nutrition implications and risk of malnutrition, treatment strategies to prevent malnutrition, the role of EN and PN, and feeding tube placement methods according to disease stage. PMID:23466470

  12. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: New Perpectives and Update.

    PubMed

    Orsini, Marco; Oliveira, Acary Bulle; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M; Reis, Carlos Henrique Melo; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; de Souza, Jano Alves; Pupe, Camila; de Souza, Olivia Gameiro; Bastos, Victor Hugo; de Freitas, Marcos R G; Teixeira, Silmar; Bruno, Carlos; Davidovich, Eduardo; Smidt, Benny

    2015-09-24

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Charcot's disease or Lou Gehrig's disease, is a term used to cover the spetrum of syndromes caracterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons, a paralytic disorder caused by motor neuron degeneration. Currently, there are approximately 25,000 patients with ALS in the USA, with an average age of onset of 55 years. The incidence and prevalence of ALS are 1-2 and 4-6 per 100,000 each year, respectively, with a lifetime ALS risk of 1/600 to 1/1000. It causes progressive and cumulative physical disabilities, and leads to eventual death due to respiratory muscle failure. ALS is diverse in its presentation, course, and progression. We do not yet fully understand the causes of the disease, nor the mechanisms for its progression; thus, we lack effective means for treating this disease. In this chapter, we will discuss the diagnosis, treatment, and how to cope with impaired function and end of life based on of our experience, guidelines, and clinical trials. Nowadays ALS seems to be a more complex disease than it did two decades - or even one decade - ago, but new insights have been plentiful. Clinical trials should be seen more as experiments on pathogenic mechanisms. A medication or combination of medications that targets more than one pathogenic pathway may slow disease progression in an additive or synergistic fashion. PMID:26487927

  13. Impaired Sacculocollic Reflex in Lateral Medullary Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seonhye; Kim, Hyo-Jung; Kim, Ji Soo

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine saccular dysfunction by measuring cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP) and to correlate abnormality of cVEMP with results of other vestibular function tests in lateral medullary infarction (LMI). Methods: We recorded cVEMP in 21 patients with LMI documented on MRI. cVEMP was induced by a short tone burst and was recorded in contracting sternocleidomastoid muscle while patients turned their heads forcefully to the contralateral side against resistance. Patients also underwent video-oculographic recording of spontaneous, gaze-evoked and head shaking nystagmus (HSN), evaluation of ocular tilt reaction (OTR), measurement of the subjective visual vertical (SVV) tilt, bithermal caloric tests, and audiometry. Results: Nine patients (43%) showed abnormal cVEMP, unilateral in seven and bilateral in two. The cVEMP abnormalities included decreased p13–n23 amplitude in four, delayed p13/n23 responses in five, and both decreased and delayed responses in two. The abnormal cVEMP was ipsilesional in five, contralesional in two, and bilateral in two. The prevalence of OTR/SVV tilt, spontaneous nystagmus, and HSN did not differ between the patients with normal and abnormal cVEMP. Conclusion: cVEMP was abnormal in approximately half of the patients with LMI. The abnormal cVEMP indicates damage to the descending sacculocollic reflex pathway or disruption of commissural modulation between the vestibular nuclei. PMID:21415908

  14. Aeroservoelastic tailoring for lateral control enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, Terrence A.; Changho, Nam

    1989-01-01

    The need for effective aileron power for aircraft lateral control and turning maneuvers dates back to the Wright Brothers and their wing warping concept for active stabilization of their aircraft. Early researchers in Great Britain, Japan, Germany and the United States explored ways to increase the effectiveness of control aileron to generate a roll moment. The basic problem of aileron effectiveness and the interrelationship between structural distortion and the loads applied by the control surface is illustrated. A rigid wing/aileron surface will develop the capability to generate increased roll rates as airspeed increases. A flexible surface will become less effective as airspeed increases because of the twisting distortion created by the aft-mounted control surface. This tendency is further worsened by bending distortion of an aft swept wing. This study focuses its attention on the ability of a combined effort between structural redesign of a wing and sizing and placement of a control surface to create specified roll performance with a minimum hinge moment. This design optimization problem indicates the advantages of simultaneous consideration of structural design and control design.

  15. [Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: update on etiological treatment].

    PubMed

    Ayach, Lucie; Curti, Christophe; Montana, Marc; Pisano, Pascale; Vanelle, Patrice

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a rare neurodegenerative disease. It is characterized by motoneurons progressive degeneration. Associated with a paralysis of the legs, arms and the respiratory muscles, its evolution is lethal. Riluzole is the only drug available with an marketing authorisation (autorisation de mise sur le marché [AMM]) in this indication. In the beginning stages of the disease it demonstrated a modest efficacy by prolonging survival for a few months. Although the physiopathological mechanisms of this disease have not been totally solved, the progression of knowledge in recent years in this area led to the development of a large number of neuroprotective agents which showed effective results in animal models of ALS and which could be good candidates for the treatment of ALS. Several clinical trials have been conducted about antiglutamatergic, antioxidant, antiapoptotic agents and growing cell factors but they failed to demonstrate efficacy on survival or quality of life. Therefore, clinical trials using innovative therapeutics and stem cells are ongoing and offer more distant hope. PMID:23773350

  16. Immune system alterations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hovden, H; Frederiksen, J L; Pedersen, S W

    2013-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a disease of which the underlying cause and pathogenesis are unknown. Cumulatative data clearly indicates an active participation by the immune system in the disease. An increasingly recognized theory suggests a non-cell autonomous mechanism, meaning that multiple cells working together are necessary for the pathogenesis of the disease. Observed immune system alterations could indicate an active participation in this mechanism. Damaged motor neurons are able to activate microglia, astrocytes and the complement system, which further can influence each other and contribute to neurodegeneration. Infiltrating peripheral immune cells appears to correlate with disease progression, but their significance and composition is unclear. The deleterious effects of this collaborating system of cells appear to outweigh the protective aspects, and revealing this interplay might give more insight into the disease. Markers from the classical complement pathway are elevated where its initiator C1q appears to derive primarily from motor neurons. Activated microglia and astrocytes are found in close proximity to dying motor neurons. Their activation status and proliferation seemingly increases with disease progression. Infiltrating monocytes, macrophages and T cells are associated with these areas, although with mixed reports regarding T cell composition. This literature review will provide evidence supporting the immune system as an important part of ALS disease mechanism and present a hypothesis to direct the way for further studies. PMID:23550891

  17. Altered cortical communication in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Blain-Moraes, Stefanie; Mashour, George A; Lee, Heonsoo; Huggins, Jane E; Lee, Uncheol

    2013-05-24

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disorder associated primarily with the degeneration of the motor system. More recently, functional connectivity studies have demonstrated potentially adaptive changes in ALS brain organization, but disease-related changes in cortical communication remain unknown. We recruited individuals with ALS and age-matched controls to operate a brain-computer interface while electroencephalography was recorded over three sessions. Using normalized symbolic transfer entropy, we measured directed functional connectivity from frontal to parietal (feedback connectivity) and parietal to frontal (feedforward connectivity) regions. Feedback connectivity was not significantly different between groups, but feedforward connectivity was significantly higher in individuals with ALS. This result was consistent across a broad electroencephalographic spectrum (4-35 Hz), and in theta, alpha and beta frequency bands. Feedback connectivity has been associated with conscious state and was found to be independent of ALS symptom severity in this study, which may have significant implications for the detection of consciousness in individuals with advanced ALS. We suggest that increases in feedforward connectivity represent a compensatory response to the ALS-related loss of input such that sensory stimuli have sufficient strength to cross the threshold necessary for conscious processing in the global neuronal workspace. PMID:23567743

  18. Altered Cortical Communication in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Blain-Moraes, Stefanie; Mashour, George A.; Lee, Heonsoo; Huggins, Jane E.; Lee, UnCheol

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disorder associated primarily with the degeneration of the motor system. More recently, functional connectivity studies have demonstrated potentially adaptive changes in ALS brain organization, but disease-related changes in cortical communication remain unknown. We recruited individuals with ALS and age-matched controls to operate a brain-computer interface while electroencephalography was recorded over three sessions. Using normalized symbolic transfer entropy, we measured directed functional connectivity from frontal to parietal (feedback connectivity) and parietal to frontal (feedforward connectivity) regions. Feedback connectivity was not significantly different between groups, but feedforward connectivity was significantly higher in individuals with ALS. This result was consistent across a broad electroencephalographic spectrum (4 – 35 Hz), and in theta, alpha and beta frequency bands. Feedback connectivity has been associated with conscious state and was found to be independent of ALS symptom severity in this study, which may have significant implications for the detection of consciousness in individuals with advanced ALS. We suggest that increases in feedforward connectivity represent a compensatory response to the ALS-related loss of input such that sensory stimuli have sufficient strength to cross the threshold necessary for conscious processing in the global neuronal workspace. PMID:23567743

  19. Acupuncture for Lateral Epicondylitis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hongzhi; Fan, Huaying; Chen, Jiao; Yang, Mingxiao; Yi, Xuebing; Dai, Guogang; Chen, Junrong; Tang, Liugang; Rong, Haibo; Wu, Junhua; Liang, Fanrong

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This systematic review aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for lateral epicondylitis (LE). Methods. Seven databases and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal were searched to identify relevant studies. The data were extracted and assessed by two independent authors, and Review Manager Software (V.5.3) was used for data synthesis with effect estimate presented as standard mean difference (SMD) and mean difference (MD) with a 95% confidence interval. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) was used to assess the level of evidence. Results. Four RCTs with 309 participants were included with poor methodological quality. Participants who received acupuncture and acupuncture plus moxibustion with material insulation were likely to have an improvement in elbow functional status and/or myodynamia. The overall quality rated by GRADE was from very low to low. Two studies reported that the needle pain would be the main reason for the dropout. Conclusion. For the small number of included studies with poor methodological quality, no firm conclusion can be drawn regarding the effect of acupuncture of elbow functional status and myodynamia for LE. This trial is registered with CRD42015016199. PMID:26843886

  20. Neighborhoods and Obesity in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Vicki A.; Kumar, Rizie; Rogowski, Jeannette

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the influence of neighborhood environment on the weight status of adults 55 years and older. Methods. We conducted a 2-level logistic regression analysis of data from the 2002 wave of the Health and Retirement Study. We included 8 neighborhood scales: economic advantage, economic disadvantage, air pollution, crime and segregation, street connectivity, density, immigrant concentration, and residential stability. Results. When we controlled for individual- and family-level confounders, living in a neighborhood with a high level of economic advantage was associated with a lower likelihood of being obese for both men (odds ratio [OR] = 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.80, 0.94) and women (OR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.77, 0.89). Men living in areas with a high concentration of immigrants and women living in areas of high residential stability were more likely to be obese. Women living in areas of high street connectivity were less likely to be overweight or obese. Conclusions. The mechanisms by which neighborhood environment and weight status are linked in later life differ by gender, with economic and social environment aspects being important for men and built environment aspects being salient for women. PMID:18799770

  1. Head injury and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Honglei; Richard, Marie; Sandler, Dale P; Umbach, David M; Kamel, Freya

    2007-10-01

    Recent data showed that soccer players in Italy had an unusually high risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and that repeated head trauma might have contributed to this increase. The authors examined whether head injury was related to ALS risk in a case-control study of 109 New England ALS cases diagnosed in 1993-1996 and 255 matched controls. They also conducted a meta-analysis of the published literature. Overall, ever having experienced a head injury was nonsignificantly associated with a higher ALS risk. When compared with persons without a head injury, a statistically significant ALS risk elevation was found for participants with more than one head injury (odds ratio (OR) = 3.1, 95 percent confidence interval (CI): 1.2, 8.1) and patients who had had a head injury during the past 10 years (OR = 3.2, 95 percent CI: 1.0, 10.2). For participants who had had multiple head injuries with the latest occurring in the past 10 years, risk was elevated more than 11-fold. The meta-analysis also indicated a moderately elevated risk of ALS among persons with previous head injuries (OR = 1.7, 95 percent CI: 1.3, 2.2). In this study population, physical injuries to other body parts, including the trunk, arms, or legs, were not related to ALS risk. These data support the notion that head injury may increase the risk of ALS. PMID:17641152

  2. Early Word Recognition and Later Language Skills

    PubMed Central

    Junge, Caroline; Cutler, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Recent behavioral and electrophysiological evidence has highlighted the long-term importance for language skills of an early ability to recognize words in continuous speech. We here present further tests of this long-term link in the form of follow-up studies conducted with two (separate) groups of infants who had earlier participated in speech segmentation tasks. Each study extends prior follow-up tests: Study 1 by using a novel follow-up measure that taps into online processing, Study 2 by assessing language performance relationships over a longer time span than previously tested. Results of Study 1 show that brain correlates of speech segmentation ability at 10 months are positively related to 16-month-olds’ target fixations in a looking-while-listening task. Results of Study 2 show that infant speech segmentation ability no longer directly predicts language profiles at the age of five. However, a meta-analysis across our results and those of similar studies (Study 3) reveals that age at follow-up does not moderate effect size. Together, the results suggest that infants’ ability to recognize words in speech certainly benefits early vocabulary development; further observed relationships of later language skills to early word recognition may be consequent upon this vocabulary size effect. PMID:25347057

  3. Laterally graded multilayer double-monochromator.

    SciTech Connect

    Als-Nielsen, J.; Erdmann, J.; Gaarde, P.; Krasnicki, S.; Liu, C.; Macrander, A. T.; Maj, J.; Mancini, D.

    1999-09-01

    The authors describe a tunable multilayer monochromator with an adjustable bandpass to be used for reflectivity and grazing incidence diffraction studies on surfaces at energies near 10 keV. Multilayers have a bandpass typically 100 times larger than the Si(111) reflection, and by using multilayers an experimenter can significantly increase data collection rates over those available with a Si monochromator. The transmission through 1 and 2 laterally graded multilayer (LGML) reflections was recorded versus photon energy. The identical LGMLs were comprised of 60 bilayers of W and C on 100 x 25 x 3 mm float glass with a bilayer spacing varying from 35 to 60 {angstrom}. The average gradient was 0.27 {angstrom}/mm along the long dimension. The rms deviation of the data for the bilayer spacing from a linear fit was 0.36 {angstrom}. Data were obtained for a nondispersive ({+-}) double-multilayer arrangement. The relative bandpass width (FWHM) when the two multilayers exposed the same bilayer spacing was measured to be 2.2% with a transmission of 78.7 {+-} 1.6%. This value is consistent with the transmission of 88.9% that they also measured for a single LGML at HASYLAB beamline D4. The bandpass was tunable in the range 1.1% to 2.2%.

  4. Early word recognition and later language skills.

    PubMed

    Junge, Caroline; Cutler, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Recent behavioral and electrophysiological evidence has highlighted the long-term importance for language skills of an early ability to recognize words in continuous speech. We here present further tests of this long-term link in the form of follow-up studies conducted with two (separate) groups of infants who had earlier participated in speech segmentation tasks. Each study extends prior follow-up tests: Study 1 by using a novel follow-up measure that taps into online processing, Study 2 by assessing language performance relationships over a longer time span than previously tested. Results of Study 1 show that brain correlates of speech segmentation ability at 10 months are positively related to 16-month-olds' target fixations in a looking-while-listening task. Results of Study 2 show that infant speech segmentation ability no longer directly predicts language profiles at the age of five. However, a meta-analysis across our results and those of similar studies (Study 3) reveals that age at follow-up does not moderate effect size. Together, the results suggest that infants' ability to recognize words in speech certainly benefits early vocabulary development; further observed relationships of later language skills to early word recognition may be consequent upon this vocabulary size effect. PMID:25347057

  5. Controversies and priorities in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Martin R; Hardiman, Orla; Benatar, Michael; Brooks, Benjamin R; Chio, Adriano; de Carvalho, Mamede; Ince, Paul G; Lin, Cindy; Miller, Robert G; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Nicholson, Garth; Ravits, John; Shaw, Pamela J; Swash, Michael; Talbot, Kevin; Traynor, Bryan J; den Berg, Leonard H Van; Veldink, Jan H; Vucic, Steve; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2015-01-01

    Summary Two decades after the discovery that 20% of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases were linked to mutations in the superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) gene, a substantial proportion of the remainder of cases of familial ALS have now been traced to an expansion of the intronic hexanucleotide repeat sequence in C9orf72. This breakthrough provides an opportunity to re-evaluate longstanding concepts regarding the cause and natural history of ALS, coming soon after the pathological unification of ALS with frontotemporal dementia through a shared pathological signature of cytoplasmic inclusions of the ubiquitinated protein TDP-43. However, with profound clinical, prognostic, neuropathological, and now genetic heterogeneity, the concept of ALS as one disease appears increasingly untenable. This background calls for the development of a more sophisticated taxonomy, and an appreciation of ALS as the breakdown of a wider network rather than a discrete vulnerable population of specialised motor neurons. Identification of C9orf72 repeat expansions in patients without a family history of ALS challenges the traditional division between familial and sporadic disease. By contrast, the 90% of apparently sporadic cases and incomplete penetrance of several genes linked to familial cases suggest that at least some forms of ALS arise from the interplay of multiple genes, poorly understood developmental, environmental, and age-related factors, as well as stochastic events. PMID:23415570

  6. Decoupled echo state networks with lateral inhibition.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yanbo; Yang, Le; Haykin, Simon

    2007-04-01

    Building on some prior work, in this paper we describe a novel structure termed the decoupled echo state network (DESN) involving the use of lateral inhibition. Two low-complexity implementation schemes, namely, the DESN with reservoir prediction (DESN + RP) and DESN with maximum available information (DESN + MaxInfo), are developed: (1) In the multiple superimposed oscillator (MSO) problem, DESN + MaxInfo exhibits three important attributes: lower generalization mean-square error (MSE), better robustness with respect to the random generation of reservoir weight matrix and feedback connections, and robustness to variations in the sparseness of reservoir weight matrix, compared to DESN + RP. (2) For a noiseless nonlinear prediction task, DESN + RP outperforms the DESN + MaxInfo and single reservoir-based ESN approach in terms of lower prediction MSE and better robustness to a change in the number of inputs and sparsity of the reservoir weight matrix. Finally, in a real-life prediction task using noisy sea clutter data, both schemes exhibit higher prediction accuracy and successful design ratio than a conventional ESN with a single reservoir. PMID:17517490

  7. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: New Perpectives and Update

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, Marco; Oliveira, Acary Bulle; Nascimento, Osvaldo J.M.; Reis, Carlos Henrique Melo; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; de Souza, Jano Alves; Pupe, Camila; de Souza, Olivia Gameiro; Bastos, Victor Hugo; de Freitas, Marcos R.G.; Teixeira, Silmar; Bruno, Carlos; Davidovich, Eduardo; Smidt, Benny

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Charcot’s disease or Lou Gehrig’s disease, is a term used to cover the spetrum of syndromes caracterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons, a paralytic disorder caused by motor neuron degeneration. Currently, there are approximately 25,000 patients with ALS in the USA, with an average age of onset of 55 years. The incidence and prevalence of ALS are 1-2 and 4-6 per 100,000 each year, respectively, with a lifetime ALS risk of 1/600 to 1/1000. It causes progressive and cumulative physical disabilities, and leads to eventual death due to respiratory muscle failure. ALS is diverse in its presentation, course, and progression. We do not yet fully understand the causes of the disease, nor the mechanisms for its progression; thus, we lack effective means for treating this disease. In this chapter, we will discuss the diagnosis, treatment, and how to cope with impaired function and end of life based on of our experience, guidelines, and clinical trials. Nowadays ALS seems to be a more complex disease than it did two decades – or even one decade – ago, but new insights have been plentiful. Clinical trials should be seen more as experiments on pathogenic mechanisms. A medication or combination of medications that targets more than one pathogenic pathway may slow disease progression in an additive or synergistic fashion. PMID:26487927

  8. Growth and later health: a general perspective.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Whilst growth and its derangement in disease have been a long-standing focus in pediatrics, increasing evidence points to a further, fundamental role of early growth in the programming of later health. In studies on animals and humans, rapid early growth is associated with higher risk of obesity and cardiovascular disease, and in animals, senescence and life span - a concept encapsulated in the postnatal growth acceleration hypothesis. This hypothesis explains the benefits of breastfeeding to infants for reduced cardiovascular disease risk in terms of their slower early growth and the fetal origins hypothesis in terms of the adverse postnatal catch-up growth in infants born small. Early growth, notably prior to full term, also influences brain development and cognition - and emerging evidence suggests diverse, broader effects, for instance cancer and the onset of puberty. Understanding the mechanisms, triggers and windows for such effects is important, given the major public health implications, including potential new opportunities for primary prevention of adult disease. PMID:20139670

  9. Field-effect-tuned lateral organic diodes

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Bal Mukund; Kini, Geetha S.; Xia, Guoqiang; Jung, Byung Jun; Markovic, Nina; Katz, Howard E.

    2010-01-01

    The operation of organic diodes in solar cells and light-emitting displays strongly depends on the properties of the interfaces between hole- and electron-carrying organic semiconductors. Such interfaces are difficult to characterize, as they are usually buried under the surface or exist as an irregular “bulk heterojunction.” Using a unique fluorinated barrier layer-based lithographic technique, we fabricated a lateral organic p-n junction, allowing the first observation of the potential at an organic p-n interface simultaneously with the charge transport measurements. We find that the diode characteristics of the device (current output and rectification ratio) are consistent with the changes in the surface potentials near the junction, and the current-voltage curves and junction potentials are strongly and self-consistently modulated by a third, gate electrode. The generality of our technique makes this an attractive method to investigate the physics of organic semiconductor junctions. The lithographic technique is applicable to a wide variety of soft material patterns. The observation of built-in potentials makes an important connection between organic junctions and textbook descriptions of inorganic devices. Finally, these kinds of potentials may prove to be controlling factors in charge separation efficiency in organic photovoltaics. PMID:20160116

  10. Retinoid signaling alterations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kolarcik, Christi L; Bowser, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neuromuscular disease for which effective therapeutic interventions and an understanding of underlying disease mechanism are lacking. A variety of biochemical pathways are believed to contribute to the pathophysiology of ALS that are common to both sporadic and familial forms of the disease. Evidence from both human and animal studies indicates that expression of retinoid signaling genes is altered in ALS and may contribute to motor neuron loss. Our goals were to examine the expression and distribution of proteins of the retinoid signaling pathway in spinal cord samples from patients with sporadic and familial ALS and to evaluate the role of these proteins in motor neuron cell survival. In sporadic ALS, the cytoplasmic binding protein that facilitates nuclear translocation of retinoic acid, cellular retinoic acid binding protein-II (CRABP-II), was localized to the nucleus and retinoic acid receptor β (RARβ) was significantly increased in motor neuron nuclei when compared to either familial ALS patients or non-neurologic disease controls. Motor neurons with increased nuclear RARβ were negative for markers of apoptosis. Pre-treatment of primary motor neuron-enriched cultures with a pan-RAR or RARβ-specific agonist decreased motor neuron cell death associated with oxidative injury/stress while a RARβ-specific antagonist enhanced cell death. Our data suggest retinoid signaling is altered in ALS and increased nuclear RARβ occurs in motor neurons of sporadic ALS patients. Activation of RARβ protects motor neurons from oxidative-induced cell death. PMID:23383387

  11. Risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ingre, Caroline; Roos, Per M; Piehl, Fredrik; Kamel, Freya; Fang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neuron disease. It is typically fatal within 2–5 years of symptom onset. The incidence of ALS is largely uniform across most parts of the world, but an increasing ALS incidence during the last decades has been suggested. Although recent genetic studies have substantially improved our understanding of the causes of ALS, especially familial ALS, an important role of non-genetic factors in ALS is recognized and needs further study. In this review, we briefly discuss several major genetic contributors to ALS identified to date, followed by a more focused discussion on the most commonly examined non-genetic risk factors for ALS. We first review factors related to lifestyle choices, including smoking, intake of antioxidants, physical fitness, body mass index, and physical exercise, followed by factors related to occupational and environmental exposures, including electromagnetic fields, metals, pesticides, β-methylamino-L-alanine, and viral infection. Potential links between ALS and other medical conditions, including head trauma, metabolic diseases, cancer, and inflammatory diseases, are also discussed. Finally, we outline several future directions aiming to more efficiently examine the role of non-genetic risk factors in ALS. PMID:25709501

  12. Some results on lateral suppression obtained in a partial-masking lateralization paradigm.

    PubMed

    Bezemer, A W

    1981-10-01

    Results were reported of psychophysical forward-masking experiments using a lateralization method. A general interpretation of masking was given, considering masking to be the combined result of three different mechanisms: the overlap mechanism, the adaptation mechanism, and the suppression mechanism. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the use of the lateralization method in a masking experiment. Masking was measured in a band-widening experiment using a test tone frequency of 3 kHz, which is the center frequency of the masking noise. It was found that the effect of the suppression mechanism depends in a complex way on the difference between masker level and test tone level, as does the bandwidth at which maximum masking occurs. These level effects could be described qualitatively by means of nonlinear excitation patterns. PMID:7288044

  13. Laterality patterns of brain functional connectivity: gender effects.

    PubMed

    Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D

    2012-06-01

    Lateralization of brain connectivity may be essential for normal brain function and may be sexually dimorphic. Here, we study the laterality patterns of short-range (implicated in functional specialization) and long-range (implicated in functional integration) connectivity and the gender effects on these laterality patterns. Parallel computing was used to quantify short- and long-range functional connectivity densities in 913 healthy subjects. Short-range connectivity was rightward lateralized and most asymmetrical in areas around the lateral sulcus, whereas long-range connectivity was rightward lateralized in lateral sulcus and leftward lateralizated in inferior prefrontal cortex and angular gyrus. The posterior inferior occipital cortex was leftward lateralized (short- and long-range connectivity). Males had greater rightward lateralization of brain connectivity in superior temporal (short- and long-range), inferior frontal, and inferior occipital cortices (short-range), whereas females had greater leftward lateralization of long-range connectivity in the inferior frontal cortex. The greater lateralization of the male's brain (rightward and predominantly short-range) may underlie their greater vulnerability to disorders with disrupted brain asymmetries (schizophrenia, autism). PMID:21878483

  14. Les succédanés du sucre durant la grossesse

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Eliza; Koren, Gideon; Bozzo, Pina

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Question J’ai une patiente enceinte qui consomme souvent des succédanés du sucre et elle m’a demandé si cette pratique continue pouvait nuire à sa grossesse ou à son enfant. Que devrais-je lui répondre et existe-t-il d’autres meilleurs choix durant la grossesse? Réponse Il faudrait faire plus de recherche pour déterminer plus exactement les effets de l’exposition aux succédanés du sucre in utero, mais les données disponibles ne laissent pas présager d’effets indésirables durant la grossesse. Toutefois, il est recommandé de consommer des substituts du sucre en quantités modérées et de se conformer aux doses journalières admissibles établies par les organismes de règlementation.

  15. Homozygosity analysis in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Kin; Laaksovirta, Hannu; Tienari, Pentti J; Peuralinna, Terhi; Myllykangas, Liisa; Chi, Adriano; Traynor, Bryan J; Nalls, Michael A; Gurunlian, Nicole; Shatunov, Aleksey; Restagno, Gabriella; Mora, Gabriele; Nigel Leigh, P; Shaw, Chris E; Morrison, Karen E; Shaw, Pamela J; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Hardy, John; Orrell, Richard W

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) may appear to be familial or sporadic, with recognised dominant and recessive inheritance in a proportion of cases. Sporadic ALS may be caused by rare homozygous recessive mutations. We studied patients and controls from the UK and a multinational pooled analysis of GWAS data on homozygosity in ALS to determine any potential recessive variant leading to the disease. Six-hundred and twenty ALS and 5169 controls were studied in the UK cohort. A total of 7646 homozygosity segments with length >2?Mb were identified, and 3568 rare segments remained after filtering common' segments. The mean total of the autosomal genome with homozygosity segments was longer in ALS than in controls (unfiltered segments, P=0.05). Two-thousand and seventeen ALS and 6918 controls were studied in the pooled analysis. There were more regions of homozygosity segments per case (P=1 10?5), a greater proportion of cases harboured homozygosity (P=2 10?5), a longer average length of segment (P=1 10?5), a longer total genome coverage (P=1 10?5), and a higher rate of these segments overlapped with RefSeq gene regions (P=1 10?5), in ALS patients than controls. Positive associations were found in three regions. The most significant was in the chromosome 21 SOD1 region, and also chromosome 1 2.94.8?Mb, and chromosome 5 in the 65?Mb region. There are more than twenty potential genes in these regions. These findings point to further possible rare recessive genetic causes of ALS, which are not identified as common variants in GWAS. PMID:23612577

  16. Tracing the Geomorphic Signature of Lateral Faulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvall, A. R.; Tucker, G. E.

    2012-12-01

    Active strike-slip faults are among the most dangerous geologic features on Earth. Unfortunately, it is challenging to estimate their slip rates, seismic hazard, and evolution over a range of timescales. An under-exploited tool in strike-slip fault characterization is quantitative analysis of the geomorphic response to lateral fault motion to extract tectonic information directly from the landscape. Past geomorphic work of this kind has focused almost exclusively on vertical motion, despite the ubiquity of horizontal motion in crustal deformation and mountain building. We seek to address this problem by investigating the landscape response to strike-slip faulting in two ways: 1) examining the geomorphology of the Marlborough Fault System (MFS), a suite of parallel strike-slip faults within the actively deforming South Island of New Zealand, and 2) conducting controlled experiments in strike-slip landscape evolution using the CHILD landscape evolution model. The MFS offers an excellent natural experiment site because fault initiation ages and cumulative displacements decrease from north to south, whereas slip rates increase over four fold across a region underlain by a single bedrock unit (Torlesse Greywacke). Comparison of planform and longitudinal profiles of rivers draining the MFS reveals strong disequilibrium within tributaries that drain to active fault strands, and suggests that river capture related to fault activity may be a regular process in strike-slip fault zones. Simple model experiments support this view. Model calculations that include horizontal motion as well as vertical uplift demonstrate river lengthening and shortening due to stream capture in response to shutter ridges sliding in front of stream outlets. These results suggest that systematic variability in fluvial knickpoint location, drainage area, and incision rates along different faults or fault segments may be expected in catchments upstream of strike-slip faults and could act as useful indicators of fault activity.

  17. Hemodynamic stress in lateral saccular aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Liepsch, D W; Steiger, H J; Poll, A; Reulen, H J

    1987-01-01

    The flow velocities in glass and silastic lateral aneurysm models were quantitatively measured with the non-invasive laser Doppler method. The influences of the elasticity of the wall, the pulse wave and the properties of the perfusion medium on the intra-aneurysmal circulation were investigated. As shown previously, the inflow into the aneurysm arose from the downstream lip and was directed toward the center of the fundus. Backflow to the parent vessel took place along the walls of the fundus. With non-pulsatile perfusion, flow velocities in the center of the standardized aneurysms varied between 0.4 and 2% of the maximum velocity in the parent vessel. With pulsatile perfusion, flow velocities in the center of the fundus ranged between 8 and 13% of the flow velocity in the axis of the parent vessel. Flow velocities in the aneurysms were slower with a polymer suspension with blood-like properties compared to a glycerol/water solution. Flow velocity measurements near the aneurysmal wall allowed the estimation of the shear stresses at critical locations. The maximum shear stresses at the downstream lip of the aneurysm were in the range of the stresses measured at the flow divider of an arterial bifurcation. The present results suggest that in human saccular aneurysms intra-aneurysmal flow and shear stress on the wall are directly related to the pulsatility of perfusion, i.e. the systolic/diastolic pressure difference and that the tendency to spontaneous thrombosis depends on the viscoelastic properties of the blood, namely the hematocrit. PMID:2971404

  18. The endocannabinoid system in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bilsland, Lynsey G; Greensmith, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative condition characterised by the selective loss of motor neurons from the spinal cord, brainstem and motor cortex. Although the pathogenic mechanisms that underlie ALS are not yet fully understood, there is significant evidence that several neurotoxic mechanisms including excitotoxicity, inflammation and oxidative stress, all contribute to disease pathogenesis. Furthermore, recent results have established that although primarily a motor neuron specific disorder, ALS is not cell-autonomous and non-neuronal cells including astroglia and microglia play a critical role in mechanism of disease. Currently the only licensed therapy available for the treatment of ALS is the anti-glutamatergic agent Riluzole, which has limited therapeutic effects. However, there is increasing evidence that cannabinoids and manipulation of the endocannabinoid system may have therapeutic value in ALS, in addition to other neurodegenerative conditions. Cannabinoids exert anti-glutamatergic and anti-inflammatory actions through activation of the CB(1) and CB(2) receptors, respectively. Activation of CB(1) receptors may therefore inhibit glutamate release from presynaptic nerve terminals and reduce the postsynaptic calcium influx in response to glutamate receptor stimulation. Meanwhile, CB(2) receptors may influence inflammation, whereby receptor activation reduces microglial activation, resulting in a decrease in microglial secretion of neurotoxic mediators. Finally, cannabinoid agents may also exert anti-oxidant actions by a receptor-independent mechanism. Therefore the ability of cannabinoids to target multiple neurotoxic pathways in different cell populations may increase their therapeutic potential in the treatment of ALS. Recent studies investigating this potential in models of ALS, in particular those that focus on strategies that activate CB(2) receptors, are discussed in this review. PMID:18781981

  19. The AASM Scoring Manual Four Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Grigg-Damberger, Madeleine M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of Review: Review published studies and critiques which evaluate the impact and effects of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) Sleep Scoring Manual in the four years since its publication. Findings: Using the AASM Manual rules to score sleep and events in a polysomnogram (PSG) results in: (1) very large differences in apnea-hypopnea indexes (AHI) when using the recommended and alternative rule for scoring hypopneas in adults; (2) increases in NREM 1 and sleep stage shifts with compensatory decreases in NREM 2 in children and adults when following rule 5.C.b. for ending NREM 2 sleep; (3) increases in NREM 3 in adults scoring slow wave activity in the frontal EEG derivations; (4) improved interscorer reliability; and (5) successfully identified fragmented sleep in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) from primary snorers or normal controls because they had more NREM 1 and stage shifts using rule 5.C.b. Criticism of the Manual most often cited: (1) two rules for scoring hypopneas; (2) alternative EEG montage cancellation effects; (3) scoring stages 3 and 4 as NREM 3; and (4) too few rules for scoring arousals and REM sleep without atonia. Summary: Four years have passed since the AASM Scoring Manual was published with far less criticism than those who developed it feared. The AASM Manual provides a foundation upon which we all can build rules and methods which identify the complexity of sleep and its disorders. Citation: Grigg-Damberger MM. The AASM Scoring Manual four years later. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(3):323-332. PMID:22701392

  20. Lateral Shock of the R Aquarii Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, J. M.; Pedelty, J. A.; Kafatos, M.

    1997-01-01

    The R Aqr jet was observed with the VLA B-configuration at two epochs separated by approximately 13.2 yr. Comparison of the resulting 6 cm continuum images show that the radio jet has undergone a lateral counterclockwise rotation of approximately 6 deg-12 deg on the plane of the sky. The model of jet parcels on independent trajectories is difficult to reconcile with these observations and leads us to consider a path-oriented jet (i.e., younger parcels follow the same path as older parcels). Comparison of the most recent radio image with a nearly contemporaneous HST/FOC ultraviolet image at approximately 2330 Angstroms suggests that the ultraviolet emission lies along the leading side of the rotating radio jet. In conjunction with a proper motion analysis of the jet material that yields empirical space-velocity and resulting acceleration-magnitude relationships as a function of distance from the central source, we evaluate the observational results in terms of a schematic model in which the jet emission consists of plane-parallel isothermal shocks along the leading edge of rotation. In such a radiating shock, the ultraviolet-emitting region is consistent with the adiabatic region in the form of a high-temperature, low-density sheath that surrounds the cooled postshock radio-emitting region. Within the context of the schematic model, we obtain the temperatures, densities, and pressures within the preshock, adiabatic, and postshock regions as a function of distance from the central source; the physical parameters so derived compare favorably to previously published estimates. We obtain a total jet mass of 3.1 x 10(exp -5) solar mass and an age of approximately 115 yr. We evaluate the model in the context of its density-boundary condition, its applicability to an episodic or quasi-continuous jet, and angular momentum considerations.

  1. Determination of lateral-stability derivatives and transfer-function coefficients from frequency-response data for lateral motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donegan, James J; Robinson, Samuel W , Jr; Gates, Ordway, B , jr

    1955-01-01

    A method is presented for determining the lateral-stability derivatives, transfer-function coefficients, and the modes for lateral motion from frequency-response data for a rigid aircraft. The method is based on the application of the vector technique to the equations of lateral motion, so that the three equations of lateral motion can be separated into six equations. The method of least squares is then applied to the data for each of these equations to yield the coefficients of the equations of lateral motion from which the lateral-stability derivatives and lateral transfer-function coefficients are computed. Two numerical examples are given to demonstrate the use of the method.

  2. Laterality enhances numerical skills in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata

    PubMed Central

    Dadda, Marco; Agrillo, Christian; Bisazza, Angelo; Brown, Culum

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that cerebral lateralization can significantly enhance cognition and that this was one of the primary selective forces shaping its wide-spread evolution amongst vertebrate taxa. Here, we tested this hypothesis by examining the link between cerebral lateralization and numerical discrimination. Guppies, Poecilia reticulata, were sorted into left, right and non-lateralized groups using a standard mirror test and their numerical discrimination abilities tested in both natural shoal choice and abstract contexts. Our results show that strongly lateralized guppies have enhanced numerical abilities compared to non-lateralized guppies irrespective of context. These data provide further credence to the notion that cerebral lateralization can enhance cognitive efficiency. PMID:26578915

  3. Artificial lateral line with biomimetic neuromasts to emulate fish sensing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yingchen; Nguyen, Nam; Chen, Nannan; Lockwood, Michael; Tucker, Craig; Hu, Huan; Bleckmann, Horst; Liu, Chang; Jones, Douglas L

    2010-03-01

    Hydrodynamic imaging using the lateral line plays a critical role in fish behavior. To engineer such a biologically inspired sensing system, we developed an artificial lateral line using MEMS (microelectromechanical system) technology and explored its localization capability. Arrays of biomimetic neuromasts constituted an artificial lateral line wrapped around a cylinder. A beamforming algorithm further enabled the artificial lateral line to image real-world hydrodynamic events in a 3D domain. We demonstrate that the artificial lateral line system can accurately localize an artificial dipole source and a natural tail-flicking crayfish under various conditions. The artificial lateral line provides a new sense to man-made underwater vehicles and marine robots so that they can sense like fish. PMID:20061601

  4. Development and validation of a lateral MREs isolator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Zhi-Wei; Yu, Miao; Fu, Jie; Zhao, Lu-Jie

    2015-02-01

    A novel lateral vibration isolator utilizing magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) with the field-dependent damping and stiffness was proposed in order to improve the adaptive performance. First, soft silicone rubber MREs with a highly adjustable shear storage modulus was fabricated. Then, the lateral MREs isolator was developed with a unique laminated structure of MRE layers and steel plates, which enables to withstand large vertical loads and adapts to the situation of large lateral displacement. Also, the electromagnetic analysis and design employed electromagnetic finite element method (FEM) to optimize magnetic circuit inside the proposed device. To evaluate the effectiveness of the lateral MREs isolator, a series of experimental tests were carried out under various applied magnetic fields. Experimental results show that the proposed MREs isolator can triumphantly change the lateral stiffness and equivalent damping up to 140% and 125%, respectively. This work demonstrates the performance of the designed lateral MREs isolator and its capacity in vibration mitigation for the complex situation.

  5. Lateral position detection and control for friction stir systems

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, Paul; Lammlein, David H.; Cook, George E.; Wilkes, Don Mitchell; Strauss, Alvin M.; Delapp, David R.; Hartman, Daniel A.

    2012-06-05

    An apparatus and computer program are disclosed for processing at least one workpiece using a rotary tool with rotating member for contacting and processing the workpiece. The methods include oscillating the rotary tool laterally with respect to a selected propagation path for the rotating member with respect to the workpiece to define an oscillation path for the rotating member. The methods further include obtaining force signals or parameters related to the force experienced by the rotary tool at least while the rotating member is disposed at the extremes of the oscillation. The force signals or parameters associated with the extremes can then be analyzed to determine a lateral position of the selected path with respect to a target path and a lateral offset value can be determined based on the lateral position. The lateral distance between the selected path and the target path can be decreased based on the lateral offset value.

  6. Lateral position detection and control for friction stir systems

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, Paul; Lammlein, David H.; Cook, George E.; Wilkes, Don Mitchell; Strauss, Alvin M.; Delapp, David R.; Hartman, Daniel A.

    2011-11-08

    Friction stir methods are disclosed for processing at least one workpiece using a rotary tool with rotating member for contacting and processing the workpiece. The methods include oscillating the rotary tool laterally with respect to a selected propagation path for the rotating member with respect to the workpiece to define an oscillation path for the rotating member. The methods further include obtaining force signals or parameters related to the force experienced by the rotary tool at least while the rotating member is disposed at the extremes of the oscillation. The force signals or parameters associated with the extremes can then be analyzed to determine a lateral position of the selected path with respect to a target path and a lateral offset value can be determined based on the lateral position. The lateral distance between the selected path and the target path can be decreased based on the lateral offset value.

  7. Deep transverse friction massage for treating lateral elbow or lateral knee tendinitis.

    PubMed

    Loew, Laurianne M; Brosseau, Lucie; Tugwell, Peter; Wells, George A; Welch, Vivian; Shea, Beverley; Poitras, Stephane; De Angelis, Gino; Rahman, Prinon

    2014-01-01

    Background Deep transverse friction massage, one of several physical therapy interventions suggested for the management of tendinitis pain, was first demonstrated in the 1930s by Dr James Cyriax, a renowned orthopedic surgeon in England. Its goal is to prevent abnormal fibrous adhesions and abnormal scarring. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2001.Objectives To assess the benefits and harms of deep transverse friction massage for treating lateral elbow or lateral knee tendinitis.Search methods We searched the following electronic databases: the specialized central registry of the Cochrane Field of Physical and Related Therapies,the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL),MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Clinicaltrials.gov, and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), up until July 2014. The reference lists of these trials were consulted for additional studies.Selection criteria All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing deep transverse friction massage with control or other active interventions for study participants with two eligible types of tendinitis (ie, extensor carpi radialis tendinitis (lateral elbow tendinitis, tennis elbow or lateral epicondylitis or lateralis epicondylitis humeri) and iliotibial band friction syndrome (lateral knee tendinitis)) were selected. Only studies published in English and French languages were included.Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed the studies on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results of individual trials were extracted from the included study using extraction forms prepared by two independent review authors before the review was begun.Data were cross-checked by a third review author. Risk of bias of the included studies was assessed using the "Risk of bias"tool of The Cochrane Collaboration. A pooled analysis was performed using mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes and risk ratio (RR)for dichotomous outcomes with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).Main results Two RCTs (no new additional studies in this update) with 57 participants met the inclusion criteria. These studies demonstrated high risk of performance and detection bias, and the risk of selection, attrition, and reporting bias was unclear.The first study included 40 participants with lateral elbow tendinitis and compared (1) deep transverse friction massage combined with therapeutic ultrasound and placebo ointment (n = 11) versus therapeutic ultrasound and placebo ointment only (n = 9) and (2)deep transverse friction massage combined with phonophoresis (n = 10) versus phonophoresis only (n = 10). No statistically significant differences were reported within five weeks for mean change in pain on a 0 to 100 visual analog scale (VAS) (MD -6.60, 95%CI -28.60 to 15.40; 7% absolute improvement), grip strength measured in kilograms of force (MD 0.10, 95% CI -0.16 to 0.36) and function ona 0 to 100 VAS (MD -1.80, 95% CI -0.18.64 to 15.04; 2% improvement), pain-free function index measured as the number of painfree items (MD 1.10, 95% CI -1.00 to 3.20) and functional status (RR 3.3, 95% CI 0.4 to 24.3) for deep transverse friction massage,and therapeutic ultrasound and placebo ointment compared with therapeutic ultrasound and placebo ointment only. Likewise for deep transverse friction massage and phonophoresis compared with phonophoresis alone, no statistically significant differences were found for pain (MD -1.2, 95% CI -20.24 to 17.84; 1% improvement), grip strength (MD -0.20, 95% CI -0.46 to 0.06) and function (MD3.70, 95% CI -14.13 to 21.53; 4% improvement). In addition, the GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach was used to evaluate the quality of evidence for the pain outcome, which received a score of "very low".Pain relief of 30% or greater, quality of life, patient global assessment, adverse events, and withdrawals due to adverse events were not assessed or reported.The second study included 17 participants with iliotibial band friction syndrome (knee tendinitis) and compared deep transverse friction massage with physical therapy intervention versus physical therapy intervention alone, at two weeks. Deep transverse friction massage with physical therapy intervention showed no statistically significant differences in the three measures of pain relief on a 0 to 10 VAS when compared with physical therapy alone: daily pain (MD -0.40, 95% CI -0.80 to -0.00; absolute improvement 4%), pain while running (scale from 0 to 150) (MD -3.00, 95% CI -11.08 to 5.08), and percentage of maximum pain while running (MD -0.10, 95% CI -3.97 to 3.77). For the pain outcome, absolute improvement showed a 4% reduction in pain. However, the quality of the body of evidence received a grade of "very low."Pain relief of 30% or greater, function, quality of life, patient global assessment of success, adverse events, and withdrawals due to adverse events were not assessed or reported.Authors' conclusions We do not have sufficient evidence to determine the effects of deep transverse friction on pain, improvement in grip strength, and functional status for patients with lateral elbow tendinitis or knee tendinitis, as no evidence of clinically important benefits was found.The confidence intervals of the estimate of effects overlapped the null value for deep transverse friction massage in combination with physical therapy compared with physical therapy alone in the treatment of lateral elbow tendinitis and knee tendinitis. These conclusions are limited by the small sample size of the included randomized controlled trials. Future trials, utilizing specific methods and adequate sample sizes, are needed before conclusions can be drawn regarding the specific effects of deep transverse friction massage on lateral elbow tendinitis. PMID:25380079

  8. Enhanced performance of methamphetamine lateral flow cassettes using an electronic lateral flow reader

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jerome P.; Sammons, Deborah L.; Robertson, Shirley A.; Snawder, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Surface contamination from methamphetamine in meth labs continues to be a problem. We had previously developed a lateral flow assay cassette for field detection of methamphetamine contamination that is commercially available and has been used by a number of groups to assess contamination. This cassette uses the complete disappearance of the test line as an end point for detection of 50 ng/100 cm2 of methamphetamine contamination for surface sampling with cotton swabs. In the present study, we further evaluate the response of the cassettes using an electronic lateral flow reader to measure the intensities of the test and control lines. The cassettes were capable of detecting 0.25 ng/ml for calibration solutions. For 100 cm2 ceramic tiles that were spiked with methamphetamine and wiped with cotton tipped wooden swabs wetted in assay/sampling buffer, 1 ng/tile was detected using the reader. Semi-quantitative results can be produced over the range 0–10 ng/ml for calibration solutions and 0–25 ng/tile for spiked tiles using either a 4-parameter logistic fit of test line intensity versus concentration or spiked mass or the ratio of the control line to the test line intensity fit to concentration or spiked mass. Recovery from the tiles was determined to be about 30% using the fitted curves. Comparison of the control line to the test line was also examined as a possible visual detection end point and it was found that the control line became more intense than the test line at 0.5 to 1 ng/ml for calibration solutions or 1 to 2 ng/tile for spiked tiles. Thus the lateral flow cassettes for methamphetamine have the potential to produce more sensitive semi-quantitative results if an electronic lateral flow reader is used and can be more sensitive for detection if the comparison of the control line to the test line is used as the visual end point. PMID:25379615

  9. 24. CULVERT WITH CONCRETE HEADWALL AND SIDEWALLS CARRYING THE LATERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. CULVERT WITH CONCRETE HEADWALL AND SIDEWALLS CARRYING THE LATERAL UNDER 8TH AVENUE. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  10. 2. COURSE OF THE LATERAL THROUGH DEL NORTHWEST MAR PARK. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. COURSE OF THE LATERAL THROUGH DEL NORTHWEST MAR PARK. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  11. 7. SEGMENT OF LATERAL WITH YUCCA ALONG BANKS, SOUTH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. SEGMENT OF LATERAL WITH YUCCA ALONG BANKS, SOUTH OF 6TH AVENUE (SECTION 10). - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. 4. SEGMENT OF LATERAL WEST OF C STREET (SECTION 10) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SEGMENT OF LATERAL WEST OF C STREET (SECTION 10) ON THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN ARSENAL (RMA). - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  13. 13. TREES ALONG LATERAL SEGMENT AT THE NORTHERN END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. TREES ALONG LATERAL SEGMENT AT THE NORTHERN END OF LAKE LADORA. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  14. 8. GENERAL VIEW OF LARGE DIVERSION STRUCTURE ON LATERAL WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. GENERAL VIEW OF LARGE DIVERSION STRUCTURE ON LATERAL WEST OF LOWER DERBY LAKE (SECTION 2). - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  15. Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Former Addison County Railroad (later, Rutland Railroad, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Former Addison County Railroad (later, Rutland Railroad, Addison Branch), spanning Lemon Fair River above Richville Pond, west of East Shoreham Road, Shoreham, Addison County, VT

  16. 23. VIEW SHOWING SALT RIVER PROJECT CREWS SLIPFORMING LATERAL DURING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW SHOWING SALT RIVER PROJECT CREWS SLIPFORMING LATERAL DURING REHABILITATION AND BETTERMENT PROGRAM Photographer: unknown. April 1968 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  17. The Effect of Stroke on Pharyngeal Laterality During Swallowing

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Seoyon; Son, Yu Ri

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether patterns of dysphagia and swallowing laterality differ according to the location of brain lesions in patients with stroke. Methods Patients with stroke >20 years of age were enrolled in this study. A videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) including the anterior-posterior view was used to assess swallowing. Patterns of swallowing were classified into three types according to the width of barium sulfate flow while passing the pharyngoesophageal segment: right-side-dominant flow, left-side-dominant flow, and no laterality in flow. Laterality was defined when the width of one side was twice or more the width of the other side. Results A total of 92 patients who underwent swallowing function evaluations by VFSS were enrolled from Sep-tember 2012 to May 2013. Of these, 72 patients had supratentorial lesions (group I) and 20 patients had infratento-rial lesions (group II). Only 10 patients (13.9%) in group I and three patients (15.0%) in group II showed laterality. Of these 13 patients, laterality occurred on the left side regardless of the side of the brain lesion. No relationships were found between swallowing laterality and location of stroke or motor weakness. Conclusion The results suggest that swallowing laterality was not prevalent among patients with stroke and that lesion side, location of the brain lesion, or motor weakness did not influence swallowing laterality. Although stroke can cause symptoms of dysphagia, it is difficult to conclude that stroke has a crucial impact on swallowing laterality. PMID:26361586

  18. Shaping a root system: regulating lateral versus primary root growth.

    PubMed

    Tian, Huiyu; De Smet, Ive; Ding, Zhaojun

    2014-07-01

    Primary and lateral roots comprise root systems, which are vital to the growth and survival of plants. Several molecular mechanisms associated with primary and lateral root growth have been described, including some common regulatory factors for their initiation and development. However, in this opinion article, we discuss the distinct growth behavior of lateral roots in response to environmental cues, such as salinity, gravity, and nutrient availability, which are mediated via specific regulators. We propose that differential growth dynamics between primary and lateral roots are crucial for plants to adapt to the ever-changing environmental conditions. PMID:24513255

  19. Laterality of a second player position affects lateral deviation of basketball shooting.

    PubMed

    Viggiano, Andrea; Chieffi, Sergio; Tafuri, Domenico; Messina, Giovanni; Monda, Marcellino; De Luca, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetrically placed visual distractors are known to cause a lateral bias in the execution of a movement directed toward a target. The aim of the present experiment was to verify if the trajectory of the ball and the trajectory of the jump for a basket-shot can be affected by the sole position of a second player, who stays in front of the shooting player in one of three possible positions (centre, left or right) but too far to physically interfere with the shot. Young basketball players were asked to perform 60 shots at 6.25 m from a regular basket, with or without a second player staying in front of them in, alternately, a centre, left or right position. A computerised system measured the angular deviation of the jump direction from the vertical direction and the lateral deviation of the ball trajectory from the midline. The results showed that both the jump direction and the entry position of the ball deviated toward the opposite side from the second player's side; however, these effects were too small to significantly affect the mean goal percentage. This result confirms that some placements of the players can have an effect as visual distractors. Further studies are necessary to find what game conditions can make such distractors harmful for the athletic performance. PMID:23876006

  20. Tidal variability of lateral advection in a coastal plain estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basdurak, N. B.; Valle-Levinson, A.

    2013-07-01

    Tidal variability of lateral advection of momentum (vuy, where u and v are along-estuary and lateral flows, respectively, and the subindex indicates differentiation with respect to the cross-estuary direction) was investigated in a coastal plain estuary with observations at Hampton Roads, which is the transition between the James River and Chesapeake Bay. Towed current velocity profiles and hydrographic profiles were captured during 9 expeditions in 2004 and 2005, to determine the intratidal and spatial changes in lateral advection of momentum and its contribution to along-channel flow. Curvature effects and lateral density gradients were important in driving lateral circulation and in modifying intratidal lateral advection of momentum. Lateral advection had the same order of magnitude as the baroclinic pressure gradient. Its contribution to the along-channel momentum balance was greatest during or just after peak flood and weakest at the end of ebb. During peak flood and peak ebb, the spatial distribution of vuy was seaward at the southern (left) side near surface and at the northern side (right) near bed (looking up-estuary), and landward in the rest of the channel. During slack periods the vuy structures were mostly landward. Observations were in good agreement with analytical model results during peak ebb and flood, but inconsistent during slack periods. The discrepancies between model results and field measurements can be attributed to bathymetry-density gradient interactions, which enhanced ebb-to-flood asymmetries in the along-channel and lateral flow.

  1. 32 CFR 33.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 33.51 Section 33.51 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND... LOCAL GOVERNMENTS After-The-Grant Requirements § 33.51 Later disallowances and adjustments. The...

  2. Children's Rorschach Scores as Predictors of Later Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuber, Steven B.

    1983-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that Rorschach measures of object relations and thought organization could help predict later adjustment. Former patients (N=70) at a child residential treatment center were followed up as adults. Object relations measures were found to be effective discriminators and predictors of later rehospitalization for boys. (JAC)

  3. IQ, Fetal Testosterone and Individual Variability in Children's Functional Lateralization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercure, Evelyne; Ashwin, Emma; Dick, Frederic; Halit, Hanife; Auyeung, Bonnie; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Johnson, Mark H.

    2009-01-01

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies have revealed that faces and words show a robust difference in the lateralization of their N170. The present study investigated the development of this differential lateralization in school-age boys. We assessed the potential role of fetal testosterone (FT) level as a factor biasing the prenatal

  4. 20 CFR 437.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 437.51 Section 437.51 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS After-the-Grant Requirements 437.51 Later disallowances and adjustments....

  5. 38 CFR 43.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 43.51 Section 43.51 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... GOVERNMENTS After-The-Grant Requirements § 43.51 Later disallowances and adjustments. The closeout of a...

  6. 40 CFR 31.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 31.51 Section 31.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... GOVERNMENTS After-the-Grant Requirements § 31.51 Later disallowances and adjustments. The closeout of a...

  7. 45 CFR 92.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 92.51 Section 92.51 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM...-the-Grant Requirements § 92.51 Later disallowances and adjustments. The closeout of a grant does...

  8. IQ, Fetal Testosterone and Individual Variability in Children's Functional Lateralization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercure, Evelyne; Ashwin, Emma; Dick, Frederic; Halit, Hanife; Auyeung, Bonnie; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Johnson, Mark H.

    2009-01-01

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies have revealed that faces and words show a robust difference in the lateralization of their N170. The present study investigated the development of this differential lateralization in school-age boys. We assessed the potential role of fetal testosterone (FT) level as a factor biasing the prenatal…

  9. 29 CFR 1470.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 1470.51 Section 1470.51 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE UNIFORM... Requirements § 1470.51 Later disallowances and adjustments. The closeout of a grant does not affect: (a)...

  10. 36 CFR 1207.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 1207.51 Section 1207.51 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS After-The-Grant Requirements § 1207.51 Later disallowances and adjustments....

  11. 14 CFR 1273.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 1273.51 Section 1273.51 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM... Requirements § 1273.51 Later disallowances and adjustments. The closeout of a grant does not affect: (a)...

  12. 21 CFR 1403.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 1403.51 Section 1403.51 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS... § 1403.51 Later disallowances and adjustments. The closeout of a grant does not affect: (a) The...

  13. What Specific Preschool Math Skills Predict Later Math Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Tutrang; Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie; Wolfe, Christopher B.; Spitler, Mary Elaine

    2015-01-01

    The widespread concern about mathematics achievement has drawn extensive research attention to what skills predict later academic achievement. There is clear and consistent evidence that math achievement at school entry is the strongest predictor of later school success and educational attainment. Early childhood math achievement can thus have…

  14. Confessions of a Schoolman--On Dyslexia and Laterality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Che Kan

    1984-01-01

    The paper relates early work of Samuel Orton on cerebral dominance to current neuropsychological concepts of laterality as reciprocal functions of the two cerebral hemispheres. The genetic-cultural perspectives of laterality and functional asymmetry in relation to learning disorders are discussed. (Author/CL)

  15. LATERAL TURBULENCE INTENSITY AND PLUME MEANDERING DURING STABLE CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is much evidence in the literature for the presence of mesoscale lateral meanders in the stable nighttime boundary layer. These meanders result in relatively high lateral turbulence intensities and diffusion rates when averaged over an hour. Anemometer data from 17 overnigh...

  16. 14 CFR 27.485 - Lateral drift landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lateral drift landing conditions. 27.485 Section 27.485 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 27.485 Lateral drift landing conditions. (a)...

  17. 14 CFR 29.485 - Lateral drift landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lateral drift landing conditions. 29.485 Section 29.485 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 29.485 Lateral drift landing conditions. (a)...

  18. The development of lateral line placodes: taking a broader view.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, Tatjana; Baker, Clare V H

    2014-05-01

    The lateral line system of anamniote vertebrates enables the detection of local water movement and weak bioelectric fields. Ancestrally, it comprises neuromasts - small sense organs containing mechanosensory hair cells - distributed in characteristic lines over the head and trunk, flanked on the head by fields of electroreceptive ampullary organs, innervated by afferent neurons projecting respectively to the medial and dorsal octavolateral nuclei in the hindbrain. Given the independent loss of the electrosensory system in multiple lineages, the development and evolution of the mechanosensory and electrosensory components of the lateral line must be dissociable. Nevertheless, the entire system arises from a series of cranial lateral line placodes, which exhibit two modes of sensory organ formation: elongation to form sensory ridges that fragment (with neuromasts differentiating in the center of the ridge, and ampullary organs on the flanks), or migration as collectives of cells, depositing sense organs in their wake. Intensive study of the migrating posterior lateral line placode in zebrafish has yielded a wealth of information concerning the molecular control of migration and neuromast formation in this migrating placode, in this cypriniform teleost species. However, our mechanistic understanding of neuromast and ampullary organ formation by elongating lateral line placodes, and even of other zebrafish lateral line placodes, is sparse or non-existent. Here, we attempt to highlight the diversity of lateral line development and the limits of the current research focus on the zebrafish posterior lateral line placode. We hope this will stimulate a broader approach to this fascinating sensory system. PMID:24582732

  19. Open Right Hemicolectomy:Lateral to Medial or Medial to Lateral Approach?

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qi; Zhong, Yunshi; Tang, Wentao; Feng, Qingyang; Zheng, Peng; Ji, Meiling; Wei, Ye; Xu, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Currently, no published studies have compared the clinical outcomes of the medial-to-lateral approach (MA) and lateral-to-medial approach (LA) for open right hemicolectomy. Thus, the present study aimed to assess whether one of these approaches has any potential benefits over the other. Methods A retrospective study was performed of all patients who underwent open right hemicolectomy with pathologically confirmed disease who met the eligibility criteria between June 2008 and June 2012. The population was divided into an MA group and an LA group by propensity scoring. We compared patient demographic and clinical characteristic variables between the two groups and assessed short-term and long-term outcomes. Results A total of 450 patients (MA, n = 150; LA, n = 300) were evaluated. The operation time (MA,138.4 minutesvs.LA,166.2 minutes; P < .05) and blood loss (MA,52.0mL vs. LA,62.6mL; P < .05)were significantly lower in the MA group. No differences in the number of harvested lymph nodes and oncologic outcomes were observed between the two groups. Further subgroup analysis for stage III colon cancer revealed that the MA group had significantly more retrieved lymph nodes (MA,18.8vs. LA,16.0; P = .028). There were no differences in other variables between the two groups. Conclusions The MA reduced operative time and blood loss compared with the LA. We thus concluded that the MA provided short-term benefits compared with the LA in open right hemicolectomy for right-sided colon cancer. PMID:26720634

  20. [Agenesis of the maxillary lateral incisors: orthodontic and implant approach].

    PubMed

    Sabri, Roy; Aboujaoude, Nadim

    2008-12-01

    Missing maxillary lateral incisors create a major esthetic problem due to their strategic position in the smile. The two treatment approaches commonly taken are creating adequate space to prosthetically replace the missing lateral incisors or closing the spaces and replacing the missing lateral incisors by the canines. This article will discuss indications, advantages, disadvantages and problems encountered in cases of space opening and space closure for missing laterals. The amount of space to be created, the preparation and the timing for implant placement, the bone volume, the implant size and prosthetic considerations will also be discussed. The methods for reshaping canines and building them up to simulate lateral incisors in orthodontic space closure, and positioning the canines and first premolars - so that they resemble to the teeth they are replacing - will be described. PMID:19061632

  1. A novel approach to the lumbar sympathetic chain: lateral access.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Shaun D; Engler, John A; Perin, Noel L

    2013-07-01

    Plantar hyperhydrosis is a disabling condition of excessive, symmetric, focal sweating of the feet with social, psychological, and medical implications. Treatment options include topical agents, iontophoresis, botulinum toxin injection, and surgical disruption of the lumbar sympathetic chain. Surgical corridors include transperitoneal and retroperitoneal approaches. We report our technique with a novel minimally invasive lateral retroperitoneal approach commonly used for lateral interbody fusions. The lateral approach for sectioning of the sympathetic chain in the treatment of hyperhydrosis appears safe. The approach may be advantageous for the patient and surgeons familiar with lateral interbody fusion. Further studies may elucidate the long term efficacy and safety of the lateral approach. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/Q82SGpmAXng. PMID:23829842

  2. Phototropism and gravitropism in lateral roots of Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, John Z.; Miller, Kelley M.; Ogden, Lisa A.; Roth, Kelly K.

    2002-01-01

    Gravitropism and, to a lesser extent, phototropism have been characterized in primary roots, but little is known about structural/functional aspects of these tropisms in lateral roots. Therefore, in this study, we report on tropistic responses in lateral roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Lateral roots initially are plagiogravitropic, but when they reach a length of approximately 10 mm, these roots grow downward and exhibit positive orthogravitropism. Light and electron microscopic studies demonstrate a correlation between positive gravitropism and development of columella cells with large, sedimented amyloplasts in wild-type plants. Lateral roots display negative phototropism in response to white and blue light and positive phototropism in response to red light. As is the case with primary roots, the photoresponse is weak relative to the graviresponse, but phototropism is readily apparent in starchless mutant plants, which are impaired in gravitropism. To our knowledge, this is the first report of phototropism of lateral roots in any plant species.

  3. Two distinct forms of functional lateralization in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Gotts, Stephen J.; Jo, Hang Joon; Wallace, Gregory L.; Saad, Ziad S.; Cox, Robert W.; Martin, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The hemispheric lateralization of certain faculties in the human brain has long been held to be beneficial for functioning. However, quantitative relationships between the degree of lateralization in particular brain regions and the level of functioning have yet to be established. Here we demonstrate that two distinct forms of functional lateralization are present in the left vs. the right cerebral hemisphere, with the left hemisphere showing a preference to interact more exclusively with itself, particularly for cortical regions involved in language and fine motor coordination. In contrast, right-hemisphere cortical regions involved in visuospatial and attentional processing interact in a more integrative fashion with both hemispheres. The degree of lateralization present in these distinct systems selectively predicted behavioral measures of verbal and visuospatial ability, providing direct evidence that lateralization is associated with enhanced cognitive ability. PMID:23959883

  4. Left-Handedness and Language Lateralization in Children

    PubMed Central

    Szaflarski, Jerzy P.; Rajagopal, Akila; Altaye, Mekibib; Byars, Anna W.; Jacola, Lisa; Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Schapiro, Mark B.; Plante, Elena; Holland, Scott K.

    2011-01-01

    This fMRI study investigated the development of language lateralization in left- and right-handed children between 5 and 18 years of age. Twenty-seven left-handed children (17 boys, 10 girls) and 54 age- and gender-matched right-handed children were included. We used functional MRI at 3T and a verb generation task to measure hemispheric language dominance based on either frontal or temporo-parietal regions of interest (ROIs) defined for the entire group and applied on an individual basis. Based on the frontal ROI, in the left-handed group, 23 participants (85%) demonstrated left-hemispheric language lateralization, 3 (11%) demonstrated symmetric activation, and 1 (4%) demonstrated right-hemispheric lateralization. In contrast, 50 (93%) of the right-handed children showed left-hemisphere lateralization and 3 (6%) demonstrated a symmetric activation pattern, while one (2%) demonstrated a right- hemisphere lateralization. The corresponding values for the temporo-parietal ROI for the left-handed children were 18 (67%) left-dominant, 6 (22%) symmetric, 3 (11%) right-dominant and for the right-handed children 49 (91%), 4 (7%), 1 (2%). Left-hemispheric language lateralization increased with age in both groups but somewhat different lateralization trajectories were observed in girls when compared to boys. The incidence of atypical language lateralization in left-handed children in this study was similar to that reported in adults. We also found similar rates of increase in left-hemispheric language lateralization with age between groups (i.e., independent of handedness) indicating the presence of similar mechanisms for language lateralization in left- and right-handed children. PMID:22177775

  5. Tratamiento ayuda a mujeres jóvenes a preservar fertilidad durante quimioterapia para cáncer de seno

    Cancer.gov

    Las mujeres jóvenes con cáncer de seno (mama) lograron preservar la fertilidad durante los tratamientos del cáncer con un fármaco inyectable bloqueador de hormonas que les provocó menopausia temporal. Los resultados del estudio se anunciaron hoy en el con

  6. Epigenesis of behavioural lateralization in humans and other animals

    PubMed Central

    Schaafsma, S.M.; Riedstra, B.J.; Pfannkuche, K.A.; Bouma, A.; Groothuis, T.G.G.

    2008-01-01

    Despite several decades of research, the epigenesis of behavioural and brain lateralization is still elusive, although its knowledge is important in understanding developmental plasticity, function and evolution of lateralization, and its relationship with developmental disorders. Over the last decades, it has become clear that behavioural lateralization is not restricted to humans, but a fundamental principle in the organization of behaviour in vertebrates. This has opened the possibility of extending descriptive studies on human lateralization with descriptive and experimental studies on other vertebrate species. In this review, we therefore explore the evidence for the role of genes and environment on behavioural lateralization in humans and other animals. First, we discuss the predominant genetic models for human handedness, and conclude that their explanatory power alone is not sufficient, leaving, together with ambiguous results from adoption studies and selection experiments in animals, ample opportunity for a role of environmental factors. Next, we discuss the potential influence of such factors, including perinatal asymmetrical perception induced by asymmetrical head position or parental care, and social modulation, both in humans and other vertebrates, presenting some evidence from our own work on the domestic chick. We conclude that both perinatal asymmetrical perception and later social modulation are likely candidates in influencing the degree or strength of lateralization in both humans and other vertebrates. However, in most cases unequivocal evidence for this is lacking and we will point out further avenues for research. PMID:19064352

  7. Visual Laterality of Calf–Mother Interactions in Wild Whales

    PubMed Central

    Baranov, Vladimir; Osipova, Ludmila; Krasnova, Vera; Malashichev, Yegor

    2010-01-01

    Background Behavioral laterality is known for a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Laterality in social interactions has been described for a wide range of species including humans. Although evidence and theoretical predictions indicate that in social species the degree of population level laterality is greater than in solitary ones, the origin of these unilateral biases is not fully understood. It is especially poorly studied in the wild animals. Little is known about the role, which laterality in social interactions plays in natural populations. A number of brain characteristics make cetaceans most suitable for investigation of lateralization in social contacts. Methodology/Principal Findings Observations were made on wild beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in the greatest breeding aggregation in the White Sea. Here we show that young calves (in 29 individually identified and in over a hundred of individually not recognized mother-calf pairs) swim and rest significantly longer on a mother's right side. Further observations along with the data from other cetaceans indicate that found laterality is a result of the calves' preference to observe their mothers with the left eye, i.e., to analyze the information on a socially significant object in the right brain hemisphere. Conclusions/Significance Data from our and previous work on cetacean laterality suggest that basic brain lateralizations are expressed in the same way in cetaceans and other vertebrates. While the information on social partners and novel objects is analyzed in the right brain hemisphere, the control of feeding behavior is performed by the left brain hemisphere. Continuous unilateral visual contacts of calves to mothers with the left eye may influence social development of the young by activation of the contralateral (right) brain hemisphere, indicating a possible mechanism on how behavioral lateralization may influence species life and welfare. This hypothesis is supported by evidence from other vertebrates. PMID:21072179

  8. Lateral Pressure and VAS Pain Score Analysis for the Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion Procedure

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) procedure is a minimally invasive procedure that has become widely utilized. The LLIF procedure typically involves bending the table to access the disc spaces of interest due to anatomical constraints. It is unknown if this bending process is painful or what pressures are exhibited on the downside part of the body. The goal of the study was to determine whether sex, height, weight, body mass index, bed angle, or positioning relative to the break of the bed affects the downside skin pressures and VAS pain scores in awake volunteers. Methods Fifty-six volunteers were placed in the lateral decubitus position and pressure sensors were placed at the downside part of their anatomy (shoulder, T10 rib , iliac crest, and greater trochanter). The pressures were checked with the iliac crest or greater trochanter at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 degree bed angles. VAS scores were checked when the iliac crest or greater trochanter were at the maximum bed break angles. Results A significant positive association was found between increased bed angle and pressure at all five areas on the downside body locations (p<0.0001). The greatest pressures were located at the iliac crest and greater trochanter when these specific locations were centered over the break of the bed (p<0.0001). When the iliac crest was placed at maximal bed break, each unit increase in BMI increased the VAS pain by 0.13 (p<0.0001)and men had 1.96 (p=0.0009)higher VAS scores then women. When the greater trochanter was placed at the maximal bed break, each unit increase in BMI decreased VAS pain by 0.19 (p<0.0001) and women had 1.55 (p=0.0002)higher VAS pain scores then men. Conclusions In awake volunteers, the pressure at the iliac crest or greater trochanter at the break of the bed increases by increasing the bed angle. Women with a lower BMI had high VAS pain scores when their greater trochanter was at maximal bed break. Men with higher BMI had high VAS pain scores when their iliac crest was at maximal bed break. An awareness of the iliac crest or greater trochanter at the break of the bed should be considered to prevent pain and increased pressure based on the patient's sex and BMI. PMID:26512342

  9. Guided VLS growth of epitaxial lateral Si nanowires.

    PubMed

    Rathi, Somilkumar J; Smith, David J; Drucker, Jeff

    2013-08-14

    Using the Au-seeded vapor-liquid-solid technique, epitaxial single-crystal Si nanowires (NWs) can be grown laterally along Si(111) substrates that have been miscut toward [112¯]. The ratio of lateral-to-vertical NWs increases as the miscut angle increases and as disilane pressure and substrate temperature decrease. By exploiting these trends, conditions can be identified whereby all of the deposited Au seeds form lateral NWs. Growth is guided along the nanofaceted substrate via a mechanism that involves pinning of the trijunction at the liquid/solid interface of the growing nanowire. PMID:23899006

  10. Lateral Casimir force between self-affine rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajik, Fatemeh; Masoudi, Amir Ali; Khorrami, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    The effect of self-affine roughness on the lateral Casimir force between two plates is studied using a perturbative expansion method. The PWS (pairwise summation) method is applicable only at lateral correlation lengths much larger than the separation between two plates. The effect of the roughness parameters on the lateral Casimir force is investigated, and it is seen that this effect is significant, enabling one to tailor roughness parameters so that to obtain the desirable Casimir force and increase the yield of micro- or nano-electromechanical devices based on the vacuum fluctuations.

  11. 11. CONTINUATION OF LATERAL LEAVING THE DIVERSION STRUCTURE WEST OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. CONTINUATION OF LATERAL LEAVING THE DIVERSION STRUCTURE WEST OF LOWER DERBY LAKE (SECTION 2), SHOWING MEASURING GAUGE. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. 1. HEAD GATE OF THE SAND CREEK LATERAL AT THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. HEAD GATE OF THE SAND CREEK LATERAL AT THE HIGH LINE CANAL ON THE SOUTH END OF THE PEORIA STREET BRIDGE. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  13. 12. CONCRETE LINING ON A CURVING SEGMENT OF THE LATERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. CONCRETE LINING ON A CURVING SEGMENT OF THE LATERAL NEAR THE NORTHEAST END OF LAKE LADORA (SECTION 2). - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  14. 30. NORTHERN SEGMENT OF THE LATERAL IN THE NORTHWEST QUARTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. NORTHERN SEGMENT OF THE LATERAL IN THE NORTHWEST QUARTER OF SECTION 25 STRUCTURE PICTURED IN CO-43-A-28. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  15. Is Schizophrenia a lateralized brain disorder? Editor's introduction.

    PubMed

    Gur, R E

    1999-01-01

    Lateralization of brain function was established on the basis of clinical-pathological correlations over a century ago. In the past two decades, this line of research has attempted to link the complex behaviors evident in schizophrenia to the failure to develop and maintain a normal pattern of hemispheric activity. This issue of Schizophrenia Bulletin reviews and presents data from multiple perspectives of methods applied to the study of laterality in schizophrenia. Brain disorders affecting systems that modulate complex behavior are commonly related to laterality. Therefore, this dimension of brain function merits further investigation in schizophrenia. PMID:10098911

  16. Thermodynamic and kinetic control of the lateral Si wire growth

    SciTech Connect

    Dedyulin, Sergey N. Goncharova, Lyudmila V.

    2014-03-24

    Reproducible lateral Si wire growth has been realized on the Si (100) surface. In this paper, we present experimental evidence showing the unique role that carbon plays in initiating lateral growth of Si wires on a Si (100) substrate. Once initiated in the presence of ≈5 ML of C, lateral growth can be achieved in the range of temperatures, T = 450–650 °C, and further controlled by the interplay of the flux of incoming Si atoms with the size and areal density of Au droplets. Critical thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the growth are discussed in detail.

  17. Lateral Thinking About Leptin: A Review of Leptin Action via the Lateral Hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Leinninger, Gina M.

    2011-01-01

    The lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) was initially described as a “feeding center” but we are now beginning to understand that the LHA contributes to other aspects of physiology as well. Indeed, the best-characterized neuronal populations of the LHA (which contain melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) or the hypocretins/orexins (OX) are not strictly orexigenic, but also have roles in regulation of the autonomic and sympathetic nervous systems as well as in modulating motivated behavior. Leptin is an anorectic hormone that regulates energy homeostasis and the mesolimbic DA system (which transduces the wanting of food, drugs of abuse and sex) in part, via actions at the LHA. At least three populations of LHA neurons are regulated by leptin: those containing MCH, OX or the long form of the leptin receptor, LepRb. The emerging picture of leptin interaction with these LHA populations suggests that the LHA is not merely regulating feeding, but is a crucial integrator of energy balance and motivated behavior. PMID:21550356

  18. Laterality and mental disorders in the postgenomic age--A closer look at schizophrenia and language lateralization.

    PubMed

    Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Güntürkün, Onur; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Hirnstein, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Most people are right-handed and show left-hemispheric language lateralization, but a minority exhibits left-handedness and right-hemispheric language lateralization. This atypical laterality pattern is observed significantly more often in schizophrenia patients than in the general population, which led several authors to conclude that there is a genetic link between laterality and schizophrenia. It has even been suggested that a failure in the lateralization process, orchestrated by genes, could be the primary cause of schizophrenia. However, the molecular genetic evidence for a link between laterality and schizophrenia is weak. Recent genetic evidence indicates that schizophrenia is not a single disorder but a group of heritable disorders caused by different genotypic networks leading to distinct clinical symptoms. To uncover the link between schizophrenia and laterality we therefore suggest a paradigm shift where genetics are not mapped on schizophrenia as a whole but on discrete schizophrenia symptoms. In addition, we provide a critical evaluation of current theories on the genetic link between schizophrenia and brain asymmetry. PMID:26598216

  19. Treatment of lateral open bite with vertical dentoalveolar distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Aras, Işıl; Olmez, Sultan; Akay, Mehmet Cemal; Oztürk, Veli Ozgen; Aras, Aynur

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the surgical, orthodontic, and periodontal treatment of an adult patient with a lateral open bite, anterior crowding, and gingival recession on the mandibular right lateral incisor. The lateral open bite, which resisted conventional mechanics, was successfully corrected by the combination of dento-osseous osteotomies and vertical alveolar distraction using orthodontic multibracket appliances in conjunction with nickel-titanium archwires and intermaxillary elastics. After the orthodontic treatment, the denuded root surface of the mandibular right lateral incisor was closed using a coronally advanced flap technique with platelet-rich fibrin. The results at the 2-year posttreatment follow-up were satisfactory from both the occlusal and the periodontal standpoints. PMID:26232841

  20. 11. Detail of sway braces, struts and top lateral braces' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Detail of sway braces, struts and top lateral braces' view to north-northwest - Milk River Bridge, Spanning Milk River approximately one mile north of Tampico on Tampico North Road, Tampico, Valley County, MT

  1. Absence of the lateral and third ventricles associated with holoprosencephaly

    PubMed Central

    Ciftcioglu, Engin; Ozyurek, Hamit; Nural, Mehmet Selim; Incesu, Lutfi; Ogur, Gonul

    2015-01-01

    We describe a 6-month-old boy suffering from motor and mental retardation. All radiological features were suggestive of holoprosencephaly with no identifiable lateral or third ventricles and fusion of the thalami. PMID:26417484

  2. EEG Patterns of Preterm Infants, Home Environment, and Later IQ.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckwith, Leila; Parmelee, Arthur H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Studied the sleep state organization and EEG patterns at term date in 53 preterm infants as an index of the maturity and integrity of neurophysiological organization that may have implications for their later development. (HOD)

  3. Itch Is Required for Lateral Line Development in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Angers, Annie; Drapeau, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish posterior lateral line is formed during early development by the deposition of neuromasts from a migrating primordium. The molecular mechanisms regulating the regional organization and migration of the primordium involve interactions between Fgf and Wnt/-catenin signaling and the establishment of specific cxcr4b and cxcr7b cytokine receptor expression domains. Itch has been identified as a regulator in several different signaling pathways, including Wnt and Cxcr4 signaling. We identified two homologous itch genes in zebrafish, itcha and itchb, with generalized expression patterns. By reducing itchb expression in particular upon morpholino knockdown, we demonstrated the importance of Itch in regulating lateral line development by perturbing the patterns of cxcr4b and cxcr7b expression. Itch knockdown results in a failure to down-regulate Wnt signaling and overexpression of cxcr4b in the primordium, slowing migration of the posterior lateral line primordium and resulting in abnormal development of the lateral line. PMID:25369329

  4. 10. EYEBAR PIN CONNECTION JOINING VERTICAL SUSPENSION STRINGER WITH LATERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. EYEBAR PIN CONNECTION JOINING VERTICAL SUSPENSION STRINGER WITH LATERAL BRACING MEMBERS - Spruce Street Bridge, East Spruce Street, 500 Block, spanning Power Canal, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  5. 29. DECK / WEB / LATERAL BRACING DETAIL OF CANTILEVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. DECK / WEB / LATERAL BRACING DETAIL OF CANTILEVER ARM OF THROUGH TRUSS. VIEW TO WEST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  6. 11. VIEW OF SOUTH BRIDGE PIER, BOTTOM LATERAL BRACING, LOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF SOUTH BRIDGE PIER, BOTTOM LATERAL BRACING, LOWER CHORD, STRINGERS, END POST AND BEARING SEAT; FACING SOUTHEAST. - Walker Bridge, Spanning Klamath River and connecting Highway 96 and Walker Road, Klamath River, Siskiyou County, CA

  7. 23. TEMPORARY CENTRIFUGAL PUMP. NOTE CHAPMAN HYDRAULICOPERATED VALVE FOR LATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. TEMPORARY CENTRIFUGAL PUMP. NOTE CHAPMAN HYDRAULIC-OPERATED VALVE FOR LATER CONNECTION OF ENGINE PUMP ENG TO DISCHARGE HEADER. - Lakeview Pumping Station, Clarendon & Montrose Avenues, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  8. 22. TEMPORARY CENTRIFIGAL PUMP. NOTE CHAPMAN HYDRAULICOPERATED VALVE FOR LATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. TEMPORARY CENTRIFIGAL PUMP. NOTE CHAPMAN HYDRAULIC-OPERATED VALVE FOR LATER CONNECTION OF ENGINE PUMP END TO DISCHARGE HEADER. - Lakeview Pumping Station, Clarendon & Montrose Avenues, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  9. Quantifying Lateral Inhomogeneity of Cholesterol-Containing Membranes.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Tejada, Celsa; Ariz-Extreme, Igor; Awasthi, Neha; Hub, Jochen S

    2015-12-01

    Lateral inhomogeneity plays a critical role for many properties of cholesterol-containing membranes, yet the thermodynamic forces involved in inhomogeneity remain poorly understood. Based on coarse-grained simulations of cholesterol in four increasingly unsaturated phospholipids, we computed lateral density fluctuations and free energies of domain formation, and we quantitatively relate those to variations in the chemical potential of cholesterol. Our simulations suggest that the lateral organization is dominated by weak repulsive cholesterol interactions, leading to a significantly more homogeneous distribution as compared to a two-dimensional ideal gas. Hence, phospholipids provide a "good" solvent for cholesterol. Unexpectedly, the degree of unsaturation of the phospholipid has only a minor effect on the lateral inhomogeneity of cholesterol in binary lipid mixtures. These results provide a link between functional properties and thermal fluctuations in lipid membranes. PMID:26575955

  10. 5. EAST (FIREPLACE) WALL INTERIOR SHOWING ORIGINAL FIREPLACE OPENING, LATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EAST (FIREPLACE) WALL INTERIOR SHOWING ORIGINAL FIREPLACE OPENING, LATER CHIMNEY AND SMALL WINDOW TO LEFT OF FIREPLACE (4 x 5 negative) - Thomas Jefferson Walling Log Cabin, Henderson, Rusk County, TX

  11. "Cheese" room in halfcellar showing stone trough, later fireplace supports, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "Cheese" room in half-cellar showing stone trough, later fireplace supports, stairs inserted in original relieving arch. - Scheetz Farm, House, 7161 Camp Hill Road, Fort Washington, Montgomery County, PA

  12. 6. Tempe Crosscut Canal, looking west from Division Gates. Lateral ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Tempe Crosscut Canal, looking west from Division Gates. Lateral at left is for local delivery of irrigation water. Photographer: Mark Durben, February 1989. Source: SRPA - Tempe Canal, South Side Salt River in Tempe, Mesa & Phoenix, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  13. 20 CFR 437.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 437.51 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR... disallow costs and recover funds on the basis of a later audit or other review; (b) The grantee's...; and (e) Audit requirements in 437.26....

  14. Quantifying molecular stiffness and interaction with lateral force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Weymouth, Alfred John; Hofmann, Thomas; Giessibl, Franz J

    2014-03-01

    The spatial resolution of atomic force microscopy (AFM) can be drastically increased by terminating the tip with a single carbon monoxide (CO) molecule. However, the CO molecule is not stiff, and lateral forces, such as those around the sides of molecules, distort images. This issue begs a larger question of how AFM can probe structures that are laterally weak. Lateral force microscopy (LFM) can probe lateral stiffnesses that are not accessible to normal-force AFM, resulting in higher spatial resolution. With LFM, we determined the torsional spring constant of a CO-terminated tip molecule to be 0.24 newtons per meter. This value is less than that of a surface molecule and an example of a system whose stiffness is a product not only of bonding partners but also local environment. PMID:24505131

  15. The Effects of Enriched Neonatal Experiences Upon Later Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachs, Theodore D.; Cucinotta, Pattiann

    1971-01-01

    The data reported in this small study confirm previous research indicating that early stimulation, though initially affecting human behavior, has little permanent effect upon later functioning. (Author/WY)

  16. 9. DETAIL VIEW OF SUPPORT COLUMNS AND LATERAL BRACINGS INSIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL VIEW OF SUPPORT COLUMNS AND LATERAL BRACINGS INSIDE CUPOLA - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  17. DETAIL OF ORIGINAL DOOR (LOUVERS ADDED LATER) ON THE SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF ORIGINAL DOOR (LOUVERS ADDED LATER) ON THE SOUTH SIDE. VIEW FACING NORTH-NORTHWEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Aviation Storehouse, Vincennes Avenue at Simms Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. 4. Photocopy of measured drawing, ca. 1880, LATERAL SECTION, OIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of measured drawing, ca. 1880, LATERAL SECTION, OIL ROOM AND CISTERN SECTION, SPECIFICATIONS FOR PLUMBING FIXTURES - Faro de las Cabezas de San Juan, Cabezas de San Juan, Las Croabas, Fajardo Municipio, PR

  19. Brain Function Lateralization and Language Acquisition: the Evidence from Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanches, Mary

    1979-01-01

    Presents evidence of differences in brain function lateralization between Japanese-speakers and speakers of Indo-European languages, and suggests that current conceptualizations of brain function specialization are not adequate. (AM)

  20. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Indications, Outcomes, and Complications.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Brian; Kim, David Hanwuk

    2016-02-01

    Lateral lumbar interbody fusion is a minimally invasive spinal fusion technique that uses the retroperitoneal approach to the anterior spinal column. Mechanical and technical results of the technique compare favorably with those of anterior lumbar interbody fusion in regard to large graft placement, graft volumes, and early initial stability. Lateral lumbar interbody fusion uses the transpsoas approach and traverses near the lumbar plexus. It is not, however, without its unique complications. Groin pain or numbness is well tolerated and often temporary; however, quadriceps palsy can be long-lasting and debilitating. Rarer but serious complications include vascular and visceral injury. Lateral lumbar interbody fusion has been used successfully to treat common degenerative spinal conditions such as spinal instability, stenosis, scoliosis, and degenerative disk disease. While understanding of the lumbar plexus and the technical challenges of the procedure improves, lateral lumbar interbody fusion will continue to provide safe and successful clinical outcomes with less morbidity than traditional procedures. PMID:26803545

  1. 8. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING OUTRIGGERS FOR LATERAL BRACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING OUTRIGGERS FOR LATERAL BRACING FOR TRUSSES AND BOTTOM CHORD CONNECTIONS. - White Bowstring Arch Truss Bridge, Spanning Yellow Creek at Cemetery Drive (Riverside Drive), Poland, Mahoning County, OH

  2. 31. THE BRICK BUILDING IS THE FACTORY BEFORE LATER ADDITIONS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. THE BRICK BUILDING IS THE FACTORY BEFORE LATER ADDITIONS, LOOKING NORTHWEST. TAKEN CIRCA 1886-90, PHOTOGRAPHER UNKNOWN. - Ybor Cigar Factory, 1916 North Fourteenth Street, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  3. 16. Photocopy of blueprint. VIEW SHOWING ELEVATON AND LATERAL BRACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photocopy of blueprint. VIEW SHOWING ELEVATON AND LATERAL BRACING (Original blueprint in the possession of Franklin Consultants, Inc., Columbus, Ohio) - Main Street Bridge, Spanning Grand River at Main Street, Painesville, Lake County, OH

  4. Antenna cab interior showing waveguide from external parabolic antenna (later ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Antenna cab interior showing waveguide from external parabolic antenna (later addition), looking north. - Western Union Telegraph Company, Jennerstown Relay, Laurel Summit Road off U.S. 30, Laughlintown, Westmoreland County, PA

  5. Detail, external parabolic antenna (later addition). Note how waveguide was ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, external parabolic antenna (later addition). Note how waveguide was cut to remove active portion of antenna. - Western Union Telegraph Company, Jennerstown Relay, Laurel Summit Road off U.S. 30, Laughlintown, Westmoreland County, PA

  6. 13. VIEW OF LOG BRIDGE (LATER SUPERSEDED BY THE WIREROPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF LOG BRIDGE (LATER SUPERSEDED BY THE WIRE-ROPE SUSPENSION BRIDGE), SHOWING OVERHANG WHERE ROCK WAS BLASTED OUT, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Goat Trail Mining Road, Highway 20, 1.5 miles North of Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  7. 14. VIEW OF LOG BRIDGE (LATER SUPERSEDED BY THE WIREROPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF LOG BRIDGE (LATER SUPERSEDED BY THE WIRE-ROPE SUSPENSION BRIDGE), SHOWING OVERHANG WHERE ROCK WAS BLASTED OUT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Goat Trail Mining Road, Highway 20, 1.5 miles North of Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  8. 51. photocopy of Indian figure which later was mounted on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. photocopy of Indian figure which later was mounted on Tower. Photograph taken at Tacony Iron and Metal Co. works, c. 1892. PCA - The New Public Buildings, Penn Square, Broad & Market Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. 22. Top Lateral Bracing & Top Chord, Vertical Tension Member ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Top Lateral Bracing & Top Chord, Vertical Tension Member 6, end Vertical Compression Members 5 & 4; South Swing Span; looking N. - Pacific Shortline Bridge, U.S. Route 20,spanning Missouri River, Sioux City, Woodbury County, IA

  10. LDV measurements in lateral model aneurysms of various sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, T.-M.; Chang, W.-C.; Liao, C.-C.

    Laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) measurements are presented of three-dimensional flow fields in lateral model aneurysms arising from a straight parent vessel at a 90° angle. The flow considered was pulsatile and the aneurysm wall was rigid. The mean, peak, and minimal Reynolds numbers based on the bulk average velocity and diameter of the parent vessel were 550, 790, and 375, respectively. Comparisons among present in vitro studies, previous in vitro studies, computational simulations, and in vivo studies were made. It was found that the inflow angle into the lateral aneurysm, the maximum wall shear stress acting on the distal lip of the lateral aneurysm, and the intra-aneurysmal vortical motion increased with decreasing aneurysm size. This fact together with the impingement bifurcation of the inflow at the aneurysm dome provide possible hemodynamic factors for the rupture of the lateral aneurysm at small critical size.

  11. 8. BLACK RIVER CANAL LOOKING DOWN CANAL WITH LATERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. BLACK RIVER CANAL - LOOKING DOWN CANAL WITH LATERAL TURNOUT NO. 1 ON THE RIGHT. VIEW TO THE SOUTHEAST - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Black River Canal, 15 miles Southeast of Carlsbad near Malaga, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

  12. Severe Asthma in Childhood Linked to COPD Risk Later

    MedlinePlus

    ... 158815.html Severe Asthma in Childhood Linked to COPD Risk Later Treatments for kids didn't seem ... go on to develop chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in early adulthood, a new study suggests. People ...

  13. Absence of the lateral and third ventricles associated with holoprosencephaly.

    PubMed

    Ciftcioglu, Engin; Ozyurek, Hamit; Nural, Mehmet Selim; Kopuz, Cem; Incesu, Lutfi; Ogur, Gonul

    2015-09-01

    We describe a 6-month-old boy suffering from motor and mental retardation. All radiological features were suggestive of holoprosencephaly with no identifiable lateral or third ventricles and fusion of the thalami. PMID:26417484

  14. Distant touch hydrodynamic imaging with an artificial lateral line

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yingchen; Chen, Jack; Engel, Jonathan; Pandya, Saunvit; Chen, Nannan; Tucker, Craig; Coombs, Sheryl; Jones, Douglas L.; Liu, Chang

    2006-01-01

    Nearly all underwater vehicles and surface ships today use sonar and vision for imaging and navigation. However, sonar and vision systems face various limitations, e.g., sonar blind zones, dark or murky environments, etc. Evolved over millions of years, fish use the lateral line, a distributed linear array of flow sensing organs, for underwater hydrodynamic imaging and information extraction. We demonstrate here a proof-of-concept artificial lateral line system. It enables a distant touch hydrodynamic imaging capability to critically augment sonar and vision systems. We show that the artificial lateral line can successfully perform dipole source localization and hydrodynamic wake detection. The development of the artificial lateral line is aimed at fundamentally enhancing human ability to detect, navigate, and survive in the underwater environment. PMID:17132735

  15. 14. VIEW OF BOTTOM LATERAL BRACING WITH STRINGERS AND FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF BOTTOM LATERAL BRACING WITH STRINGERS AND FLOOR BEAMS, NORTHWEST SPAN, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Linden Avenue Bridge, Spanning Purgatoire River on Linden Avenue, Trinidad, Las Animas County, CO

  16. Analysis of aircraft performance during lateral maneuvering for microburst avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avila De Melo, Denise; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Aircraft response to a severe and a moderate three-dimensional microburst model using nonlinear numerical simulations of a Boeing 737-100 is studied. The relative performance loss is compared for microburst escape procedures with and without lateral maneuvering. The results show that the hazards caused by the penetration of a microburst in the landing phase are attenuated if lateral escape maneuvers are applied in order to turn the aircraft away from the microburst core rather than flying straight through. If the lateral escape maneuver is initiated close to the microburst core, high bank angles tend to deteriorate aircraft performance. Lateral maneuvering is also found to reduce the advanced warning required to escape from microburst hazards but requires that information of the existence and location of the microburst is available (i.e., remote detection) in order to avoid an incorrect turn toward the microburst core.

  17. 14 CFR 25.177 - Static lateral-directional stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... VFC/MFC (as appropriate for the airplane configuration). (b) The static lateral stability (as shown by... VMO/MMO. (2) From VMO/MMO to VFC/MFC, unless the divergence is— (i) Gradual; (ii) Easily...

  18. 6. DETAIL VIEW OF OUTRIGGER USED FOR LATERAL BRACING, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL VIEW OF OUTRIGGER USED FOR LATERAL BRACING, LOOKING SOUTH - Springfield-Des Arc Bridge, Spanning North Branch of Cadron Creek at Old Springfield-Des Arc Road (County Road 222), Springfield, Conway County, AR

  19. 5. DETAIL VIEW OF LATERAL BRACING POST, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL VIEW OF LATERAL BRACING POST, LOOKING WEST - Springfield-Des Arc Bridge, Spanning North Branch of Cadron Creek at Old Springfield-Des Arc Road (County Road 222), Springfield, Conway County, AR

  20. 9. View of connection to top chord, diagonals, verticals, lateral ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View of connection to top chord, diagonals, verticals, lateral bracing, struts and spandrels. Looking at south side, east end of west span. This is typical of all diagonaland vertical connections. - Boomershine Bridge, Spanning Twin Creek, Farmersville, Montgomery County, OH

  1. Alterations in the hypothalamic melanocortin pathway in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Vercruysse, Pauline; Sinniger, Jérôme; El Oussini, Hajer; Scekic-Zahirovic, Jelena; Dieterlé, Stéphane; Dengler, Reinhard; Meyer, Thomas; Zierz, Stephan; Kassubek, Jan; Fischer, Wilhelm; Dreyhaupt, Jens; Grehl, Torsten; Hermann, Andreas; Grosskreutz, Julian; Witting, Anke; Van Den Bosch, Ludo; Spreux-Varoquaux, Odile; Ludolph, Albert C; Dupuis, Luc

    2016-04-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the most common adult-onset motor neuron disease, leads to death within 3 to 5 years after onset. Beyond progressive motor impairment, patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis suffer from major defects in energy metabolism, such as weight loss, which are well correlated with survival. Indeed, nutritional intervention targeting weight loss might improve survival of patients. However, the neural mechanisms underlying metabolic impairment in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis remain elusive, in particular due to the lack of longitudinal studies. Here we took advantage of samples collected during the clinical trial of pioglitazone (GERP-ALS), and characterized longitudinally energy metabolism of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in response to pioglitazone, a drug with well-characterized metabolic effects. As expected, pioglitazone decreased glycaemia, decreased liver enzymes and increased circulating adiponectin in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, showing its efficacy in the periphery. However, pioglitazone did not increase body weight of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis independently of bulbar involvement. As pioglitazone increases body weight through a direct inhibition of the hypothalamic melanocortin system, we studied hypothalamic neurons producing proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and the endogenous melanocortin inhibitor agouti-related peptide (AGRP), in mice expressing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutant SOD1(G86R). We observed lowerPomcbut higherAgrpmRNA levels in the hypothalamus of presymptomatic SOD1(G86R) mice. Consistently, numbers of POMC-positive neurons were decreased, whereas AGRP fibre density was elevated in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of SOD1(G86R) mice. Consistent with a defect in the hypothalamic melanocortin system, food intake after short term fasting was increased in SOD1(G86R) mice. Importantly, these findings were replicated in two other amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mouse models based on TDP-43 (Tardbp) and FUS mutations. Finally, we demonstrate that the melanocortin defect is primarily caused by serotonin loss in mutant SOD1(G86R) mice. Altogether, the current study combined clinical evidence and experimental studies in rodents to provide a mechanistic explanation for abnormalities in food intake and weight control observed in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Importantly, these results also show that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis progression impairs responsiveness to classical drugs leading to weight gain. This has important implications for pharmacological management of weight loss in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:26984187

  2. Laterally injected light-emitting diode and laser diode

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Mary A.; Crawford, Mary H.; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2015-06-16

    A p-type superlattice is used to laterally inject holes into an III-nitride multiple quantum well active layer, enabling efficient light extraction from the active area. Laterally-injected light-emitting diodes and laser diodes can enable brighter, more efficient devices that impact a wide range of wavelengths and applications. For UV wavelengths, applications include fluorescence-based biological sensing, epoxy curing, and water purification. For visible devices, applications include solid state lighting and projection systems.

  3. Maxillary lateral incisor with two roots: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ravindranath, Mithun; Neelakantan, Prasanna; Subba Rao, C V

    2011-01-01

    Although the dental literature has indicated that 100% of maxillary lateral incisors have a single canal anatomy, it is possible for these teeth to have extra canals. These extra canals must be identified and debrided to prevent endodontic failure. This report presents an uncommon case involving a maxillary lateral incisor with two roots. Even when the frequency of radicular anatomy abnormality is extremely low, dentists must consider the possibility that a tooth has extra root canals or even extra roots. PMID:21613043

  4. Supplemental data and calculations of the lateral stability of airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathias, Gotthold

    1934-01-01

    In connection with the DVL Report 272 on the theory of the lateral stability of airplanes, the formal results are here amplified in some respects and their technical significance again briefly explained. Three numerical examples show how model tests for checking the lateral stability are to be evaluated and supplemented, if necessary, and how the stability limits depend on the design of the airplane and on the conditions of flight.

  5. Lateral epicondylitis in tennis: update on aetiology, biomechanics and treatment

    PubMed Central

    De Smedt, Thomas; de Jong, Andy; Van Leemput, Wim; Lieven, Dossche; Van Glabbeek, Francis

    2007-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) is the most frequent type of myotendinosis and can be responsible for substantial pain and loss of function of the affected limb. Tennis biomechanics, player characteristics and equipment are important in preventing the condition. This article presents an overview of the current knowledge on lateral epicondylitis, and focuses on treatment strategies. Conservative and surgical treatment options are discussed, and recent techniques are outlined. PMID:17616547

  6. Large Lateral Photovoltaic Effect in Metal-(Oxide-) Semiconductor Structures

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chongqi; Wang, Hui

    2010-01-01

    The lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) can be used in position-sensitive detectors to detect very small displacements due to its output of lateral photovoltage changing linearly with light spot position. In this review, we will summarize some of our recent works regarding LPE in metal-semiconductor and metal-oxide-semiconductor structures, and give a theoretical model of LPE in these two structures. PMID:22163463

  7. Delta-Notch Lateral Inhibition within the Organ of Corti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, R.; Abdulla, T.; Luff, R.

    2013-09-01

    Lateral inhibition is described as an emergent property of the Delta-Notch signalling network. Two separate model representations of lateral inhibition are proposed for different purposes. One provides information about bioenergetics while the other has the capability to produce a physical representation. It is proposed that both can be used in further studies of the sensory pathways in the human connectome model of brain function.

  8. Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Blumberg, Bruce; Chapin, Robert E.; Cote, Ila; Graziano, Joseph H.; Janesick, Amanda; Lane, Robert; Lillycrop, Karen; Myatt, Leslie; States, J. Christopher; Thayer, Kristina A.; Waalkes, Michael P.; Rogers, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events. Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from early-life exposures in order to identify in utero and postnatal indicators of later-life diseases, develop an agenda for future research, and consider the risk assessment implications of this emerging knowledge. Methods: This review was developed based on our participation in a National Research Council workshop titled “Use of in Utero and Postnatal Indicators to Predict Health Outcomes Later in Life: State of the Science and Research Recommendations.” We used a case study approach to highlight the later-life consequences of early-life malnutrition and arsenic exposure. Discussion: The environmental sensitivity of the epigenome is viewed as an adaptive mechanism by which the developing organism adjusts its metabolic and homeostatic systems to suit the anticipated extrauterine environment. Inappropriate adaptation may produce a mismatch resulting in subsequent increased susceptibility to disease. A nutritional mismatch between the prenatal and postnatal environments, or early-life obesogen exposure, may explain at least some of the recent rapid increases in the rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Early-life arsenic exposure is also associated with later-life diseases, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Conclusions: With mounting evidence connecting early-life exposures and later-life disease, new strategies are needed to incorporate this emerging knowledge into health protective practices. PMID:22672778

  9. Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  10. Calculation of the lateral-dynamic stability of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raikh, A

    1952-01-01

    Graphs and formulas are given with the aid of which all the aerodynamic coefficients required for computing the lateral dynamic stability can be determined. A number of numerical examples are given for obtaining the stability derivatives and solving the characteristic-stability equation. Approximate formulas are derived with the aid of which rapid preliminary computations may be made and the stability coefficients corrected for certain modifications of the airplane. A derivation of the lateral-dynamic-stability equations is included.

  11. Medial and lateral discoid menisci: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Discoid menisci on both medial and lateral tibial plateau are very rare abnormalities. We report a 44-year-old woman with bilateral medial and lateral discoid menisci. She also had anomalous insertion of discoid medial meniscus to anterior cruciate ligament, and pathologic medial patellar plica on the right knee. Meniscectomies has been performed for her torn discoid menisci with satisfactory result on the latest follow-up. PMID:20731824

  12. Lateral scout radiograph in CT-guided aspiration biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Vogelzang, R.L.; Matalon, T.A.; Neiman, H.L.; Sakowicz, B.A.

    1983-01-01

    Easy, accurate,and rapid determination of needle-tip location is readily accomplished on any CT scanner with lateral scout radiograph capability. After needle placement, a lateral scout radiograph is obtained and the needle tip can be seen. A single CT section is then obtained at precisely the level of the tip. Aspiration can then be performed if needle placement is appropriate. If the needle lies outside the desired site, it can be easily repositioned.

  13. Initiation and elongation of lateral roots in Lactuca sativa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, N; Hasenstein, K H

    1999-01-01

    Lactuca sativa cv. Baijianye seedlings do not normally produce lateral roots, but removal of the root tip or application of auxin, especially indole-butyric acid, triggered the formation of lateral roots. Primordia initiated within 9 h and were fully developed after 24 h by activating the pericycle cells opposite the xylem pole. The pericycle cells divided asymmetrically into short and long cells. The short cells divided further to form primordia. The effect of root tip removal and auxin application was reversed by 6-benzylaminopurine at concentrations >10(-8) M. The cytokinin oxidase inhibitor N1-(2chloro4pyridyl)-N2-phenylurea also suppressed auxin-induced lateral rooting. The elongation of primary roots was promoted by L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl) glycine and silver ions, but only the latter enhanced elongation of lateral roots. The data indicate that the induction of lateral roots is controlled by basipetally moving cytokinin and acropetally moving auxin. Lateral roots appear to not produce ethylene. PMID:11542270

  14. Lateral Femoral Epicondylar Osteotomy: An Extensile Posterolateral Knee Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Andrea L.

    2008-01-01

    Open exposure of the posterolateral corner of the knee is challenged by limitations of posterolateral ligamentous tissues and posterior neurovascular structures. We have used a modification of a lateral femoral epicondyle osteotomy, described historically for surgical management of posterolateral rotatory instability, as an approach to the posterolateral intraarticular structures. The historic technique for ligamentous reconstruction has been abandoned because its nonanatomic fixation does not restore ligamentous isometry. In this report, osteotomy of a bone block from the lateral femoral epicondyle is used to access the joint space. The lateral collateral ligament is reflected distally and posteriorly through traction on the block. Once the intraarticular disorder has been addressed, the lateral femoral epicondyle is secured in its native, anatomic position, thereby restoring isometry and normal joint mechanics after surgery. This technique has been used successfully to address posterolateral articular disorders on femoral and tibial sides. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging verified restoration of lateral collateral ligament anatomy. Physical examination at 0 and 30 knee flexion showed clinical stability at all postoperative evaluations through 6 and 10months followup. Using this technique, intraarticular disorders at the posterolateral corner may be addressed in an open manner with anatomic reduction and preserved postoperative function of the lateral collateral ligament. Level of Evidence: Level V, expert opinion. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18373126

  15. Effects of a continuous lateral turning device on pressure relief.

    PubMed

    Do, Nam Ho; Kim, Deog Young; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Choi, Jong Hyun; Joo, So Young; Kang, Na Kyung; Baek, Yoon Su

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the pressure-relieving effects of a continuous lateral turning device on common pressure ulcer sites. [Subjects] Twenty-four healthy adults participated. [Methods] The design of our continuous lateral turning device was motivated by the need for an adequate pressure-relieving device for immobile and/or elderly people. The procedure of manual repositioning is embodied in our continuous lateral turning device. The interface pressure and time were measured, and comfort grade was evaluated during sessions of continuous lateral turning at 0°, 15°, 30°, and 45°. We quantified the pressure-relieving effect using peak pressure, mean pressure, and pressure time integration. [Results] Participants demonstrated pressure time integration values below the pressure-time threshold at 15°, 30°, and 45° at all the common pressure ulcer sites. Moreover, the most effective angles for pressure relief at the common pressure ulcer sites were 30° at the occiput, 15° at the left scapula, 45° at the right scapula, 45° at the sacrum, 15° at the right heel, and 30° at the left heel. However, angles greater than 30° induced discomfort. [Conclusion] Continuous lateral turning with our specially designed device effectively relieved the pressure of targeted sites. Moreover, the suggested angles of continuous lateral turning can be used to relieve pressure at targeted sites. PMID:27065531

  16. Effects of a continuous lateral turning device on pressure relief

    PubMed Central

    Do, Nam Ho; Kim, Deog Young; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Choi, Jong Hyun; Joo, So Young; Kang, Na Kyung; Baek, Yoon Su

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the pressure-relieving effects of a continuous lateral turning device on common pressure ulcer sites. [Subjects] Twenty-four healthy adults participated. [Methods] The design of our continuous lateral turning device was motivated by the need for an adequate pressure-relieving device for immobile and/or elderly people. The procedure of manual repositioning is embodied in our continuous lateral turning device. The interface pressure and time were measured, and comfort grade was evaluated during sessions of continuous lateral turning at 0°, 15°, 30°, and 45°. We quantified the pressure-relieving effect using peak pressure, mean pressure, and pressure time integration. [Results] Participants demonstrated pressure time integration values below the pressure-time threshold at 15°, 30°, and 45° at all the common pressure ulcer sites. Moreover, the most effective angles for pressure relief at the common pressure ulcer sites were 30° at the occiput, 15° at the left scapula, 45° at the right scapula, 45° at the sacrum, 15° at the right heel, and 30° at the left heel. However, angles greater than 30° induced discomfort. [Conclusion] Continuous lateral turning with our specially designed device effectively relieved the pressure of targeted sites. Moreover, the suggested angles of continuous lateral turning can be used to relieve pressure at targeted sites. PMID:27065531

  17. Lateral line diversity among ecologically divergent threespine stickleback populations

    PubMed Central

    Wark, A. R.; Peichel, C. L.

    2010-01-01

    The lateral line is a mechanoreceptive sensory system that allows fish to sense objects and motion in their local environment. Variation in lateral line morphology may allow fish in different habitats to differentially sense and respond to salient cues. Threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) occupy a diverse range of aquatic habitats; we therefore hypothesized that populations within the G. aculeatus species complex might show variation in the morphology of the lateral line sensory system. We sampled 16 threespine stickleback populations from marine, stream and lake (including benthic and limnetic) habitats and examined the distribution, type and number of neuromasts on different regions of the body. We found that the threespine stickleback has a reduced lateral line canal system, completely lacking canal neuromasts. Although the arrangement of lines of superficial neuromasts on the body was largely the same in all populations, the number of neuromasts within these lines varied across individuals, populations and habitats. In pairwise comparisons between threespine sticklebacks adapted to divergent habitats, we found significant differences in neuromast number. Stream residents had more neuromasts than marine sticklebacks living downstream in the same watershed. In two independent lakes, benthic sticklebacks had more trunk neuromasts than sympatric limnetic sticklebacks, providing evidence for parallel evolution of the lateral line system. Our data provide the first demonstration that the lateral line sensory system can vary significantly between individuals and among populations within a single species, and suggest that this sensory system may experience different selection regimes in alternative habitats. PMID:20008367

  18. Exploring human brain lateralization with molecular genetics and genomics.

    PubMed

    Francks, Clyde

    2015-11-01

    Lateralizations of brain structure and motor behavior have been observed in humans as early as the first trimester of gestation, and are likely to arise from asymmetrical genetic-developmental programs, as in other animals. Studies of gene expression levels in postmortem tissue samples, comparing the left and right sides of the human cerebral cortex, have generally not revealed striking transcriptional differences between the hemispheres. This is likely due to lateralization of gene expression being subtle and quantitative. However, a recent re-analysis and meta-analysis of gene expression data from the adult superior temporal and auditory cortex found lateralization of transcription of genes involved in synaptic transmission and neuronal electrophysiology. Meanwhile, human subcortical mid- and hindbrain structures have not been well studied in relation to lateralization of gene activity, despite being potentially important developmental origins of asymmetry. Genetic polymorphisms with small effects on adult brain and behavioral asymmetries are beginning to be identified through studies of large datasets, but the core genetic mechanisms of lateralized human brain development remain unknown. Identifying subtly lateralized genetic networks in the brain will lead to a new understanding of how neuronal circuits on the left and right are differently fine-tuned to preferentially support particular cognitive and behavioral functions. PMID:25950729

  19. Lockhart Clarke's contribution to the description of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Turner, Martin R; Swash, Michael; Ebers, George C

    2010-11-01

    The definition of the clinicopathological entity of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis evolved over half a century. Although the definitive term amyotrophic lateral sclerosis that acknowledged both upper and lower motor neuron involvement was attributed to Jean-Martin Charcot in 1874, his initial case was published nearly a decade earlier; and it is accepted that, from at least the 1830s, several others (including Charles Bell, François-Amilcar Aran and Jean Cruveilhier) had already recognized a progressive lower motor neuron-only syndrome within a broader, clinically-defined group of disorders, termed progressive muscular atrophy. Although William Gowers first grouped the three phenotypes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, progressive muscular atrophy and progressive bulbar palsy together as part of the same syndrome, the term motor neuron disease, as an over-arching label, was not suggested until nearly a century later by W. Russell Brain. Augustus Jacob Lockhart Clarke (1817-80) is best known for his descriptions of spinal cord anatomy. However, in two detailed case reports from the 1860s, he carried out rigorous post-mortem neuropathological studies of what appear to be classical cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Furthermore, he recognized the additional involvement of the corticospinal tracts that distinguished this from progressive muscular atrophy. Several aspects of the exquisite clinical histories documented as part of both studies, one by Charles Bland Radcliffe, resonate with contemporary debates concerning the evolution of disease in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These 'past masters' still have much to teach us. PMID:20576696

  20. [Failure in anterior rehabilitation of agenesic maxillary lateral incisors].

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Michel; Philippart-Rochaix, Martine; Philip-Alliez, Camille

    2016-03-01

    Agenesis of the maxillary lateral incisors poses particular problems for dentists, orthodontists and patients. Treatment of these ageneses is still highly controversial, both functionally and esthetically. The patient's smile and anterior guidance are affected and must be restored. The diagnosis is easy. Few mistakes are possible. However, managing patients with missing maxillary lateral incisors can be a challenge, commonly involving two possible treatment approaches: space opening to replace the missing lateral incisor with a prosthetic unit (denture, bridge or implant) or orthodontic space closure replacing the missing lateral incisor with the maxillary canine camouflaged to mimic the appearance of a lateral incisor. One of these two options will be adopted using multiple means...liable to trigger a multitude of possible errors. Ultimately, optimal results can only be achieved if there is excellent coordination between different practitioners in various specialties. Each clinician will have a specific role to play. Also, the patient and family are at the heart of the decision-making process, by virtue of their consent (treatment duration, financial resources) and their motivation. This multi-factorial, multi-disciplinary decision process means that treatment of the lateral incisor is an ongoing challenge for the clinician striving for the best possible result. Each case is different. No set rules exist. No single factor can be neglected if we are to avoid "failure". PMID:27083223

  1. Masticatory laterality--evaluation and influence of food texture.

    PubMed

    Mizumori, T; Tsubakimoto, T; Iwasaki, M; Nakamura, T

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study is the objective and quantitative evaluation of masticatory laterality and its daily variability. Various foods with different textures were used to investigate whether food texture influenced masticatory laterality. Ten healthy subjects and seven foods were used. Recordings of chewing movements were repeated three times at intervals of 1 week. Masticatory laterality was assessed with an Asymmetry Index [AI: (number of right side strokes - number of left side strokes)/number of total strokes]. Medians and ranges of the three recordings were calculated. The observed AI ranges in the three trials were limited with the exception of two subjects. Among the other subjects, averages of the absolute values of the medians were from 32.5 to 73.4%. Statistically significant differences between the hardest food and softer foods were observed in absolute value of AI medians. Masticatory laterality could be evaluated by an AI. Eight of 10 subjects showed limited ranges of AI in three recordings. It should be noted that a few people actually chew on either side but might chew on one side only on a particular day. Hard food evoked more masticatory laterality, and seemed more appropriate for laterality examinations. PMID:12974859

  2. Initiation and elongation of lateral roots in Lactuca sativa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    Lactuca sativa cv. Baijianye seedlings do not normally produce lateral roots, but removal of the root tip or application of auxin, especially indole-butyric acid, triggered the formation of lateral roots. Primordia initiated within 9 h and were fully developed after 24 h by activating the pericycle cells opposite the xylem pole. The pericycle cells divided asymmetrically into short and long cells. The short cells divided further to form primordia. The effect of root tip removal and auxin application was reversed by 6-benzylaminopurine at concentrations >10(-8) M. The cytokinin oxidase inhibitor N1-(2chloro4pyridyl)-N2-phenylurea also suppressed auxin-induced lateral rooting. The elongation of primary roots was promoted by L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl) glycine and silver ions, but only the latter enhanced elongation of lateral roots. The data indicate that the induction of lateral roots is controlled by basipetally moving cytokinin and acropetally moving auxin. Lateral roots appear to not produce ethylene.

  3. Hydrocode analysis of lateral stress gauges in shocked tantalum

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, E. J.; Winter, R. E.

    2007-12-12

    Experiments published by other workers, on the resistance change of manganin stress gauges embedded in a lateral orientation in tantalum targets shocked to a range of stresses, have been analysed using an adaptive mesh refinement hydrocode. It was found that for all of the four experiments the shape of the time profile of the computed lateral stress in the mounting layer closely matched the shape of the experimental lateral stress profiles. However, the calculated lateral stresses at the gauge location in the mounting layer are significantly less than the lateral stresses that would have been produced in the target if no gauge had been present. The perturbation caused by the gauge increased as the strength of the applied shock increased. When the perturbations are taken into account values of flow stress that are significantly smaller than those reported in the original research paper are derived. The work shows that the lateral gauge technique can give valuable information on strength provided high resolution simulation is used to compensate for the perturbations caused by the gauges.

  4. Lateral line canal morphology and signal to noise ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Adrian; Herzog, Hendrik; Bleckmann, Horst

    2011-04-01

    The lateral line system of fish is important for many behaviors, including spatial orientation, prey detection, shoaling, intra specific communication and entraining. The smallest sensory unit of the lateral line is the neuromast that occurs free standing on the skin and in fluid filled canals. With aid of the lateral line fish perceive minute water motions. In their natural habitat fish are not only faced with biotic water motion but also with the abiotic fluctuations caused by various inanimate sources. The detection of meaningful signals is crucial for survival, and therefore animals should be able to separate meaningful signals from noise. Fishes live in various habitats (e.g. in still water or in running water). Therefore it is not surprising that the number and distribution of neuromasts as well as canal dimension, canal shape and canal branching patterns differ among fish species. We studied how lateral line canal parameters influence the filter properties of lateral line canals. To do so we exposed artificial lateral line canals, equipped with artificial neuromasts (sensors), to the vortex street shed by a submerged cylinder and to air bubble noise. We found that certain canal parameters significantly can enhance the signal to noise ratio.

  5. Linking lateral interactions in flicker perception to lateral geniculate nucleus cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Kozyrev, Vladislav; Silveira, Luiz Carlos L; Kremers, Jan

    2007-01-01

    The perception of flicker strength in a circular stimulus can be changed by altering the relative temporal phase of a simultaneously flickering surrounding annulus: perceived flicker is weak when the two stimuli are modulated in-phase and strong when the two are modulated in counter-phase. Previously, we found that responses of single neurons in the monkey lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) to such stimuli resemble the psychophysical data. On the basis of the resemblance in data, it was proposed that the physiological basis for the flicker perception may be present as proximal as the LGN. To strengthen this hypothesis, we simulated the response of an array of LGN neurons, the receptive fields (RFs) of which are covered by the stimulus. The simulations were based upon single-cell recordings in the LGN of anaesthetized marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) using the same stimuli as previously. The measurements were repeated for different spatial displacement between the stimulus and the RF. The responses depended upon the spatial displacement and the relative phase between centre and surround stimuli. The neuronal responses can be adequately described by a difference-of-Gaussians (DOG) model with a time delay in the RF surround. The model responses at different displacements can be considered to be identical to the output of an array of ideal and identical LGN cells with different RF locations. To be able to describe physiological and psychophysical data, obtained at different stimulus contrasts, it was necessary to consider previously described non-linear interactions between the RF centres and surrounds. We applied a spatial peak-to-trough detector with a subsequent saturation and threshold to simulate a simple cortical decision mechanism. The output of this peak-to-trough detector could adequately describe the psychophysical data. PMID:17412770

  6. Lateralization for dynamic facial expressions in human superior temporal sulcus.

    PubMed

    De Winter, François-Laurent; Zhu, Qi; Van den Stock, Jan; Nelissen, Koen; Peeters, Ronald; de Gelder, Beatrice; Vanduffel, Wim; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu

    2015-02-01

    Most face processing studies in humans show stronger activation in the right compared to the left hemisphere. Evidence is largely based on studies with static stimuli focusing on the fusiform face area (FFA). Hence, the pattern of lateralization for dynamic faces is less clear. Furthermore, it is unclear whether this property is common to human and non-human primates due to predisposing processing strategies in the right hemisphere or that alternatively left sided specialization for language in humans could be the driving force behind this phenomenon. We aimed to address both issues by studying lateralization for dynamic facial expressions in monkeys and humans. Therefore, we conducted an event-related fMRI experiment in three macaques and twenty right handed humans. We presented human and monkey dynamic facial expressions (chewing and fear) as well as scrambled versions to both species. We studied lateralization in independently defined face-responsive and face-selective regions by calculating a weighted lateralization index (LIwm) using a bootstrapping method. In order to examine if lateralization in humans is related to language, we performed a separate fMRI experiment in ten human volunteers including a 'speech' expression (one syllable non-word) and its scrambled version. Both within face-responsive and selective regions, we found consistent lateralization for dynamic faces (chewing and fear) versus scrambled versions in the right human posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), but not in FFA nor in ventral temporal cortex. Conversely, in monkeys no consistent pattern of lateralization for dynamic facial expressions was observed. Finally, LIwms based on the contrast between different types of dynamic facial expressions (relative to scrambled versions) revealed left-sided lateralization in human pSTS for speech-related expressions compared to chewing and emotional expressions. To conclude, we found consistent laterality effects in human posterior STS but not in visual cortex of monkeys. Based on our results, it is tempting to speculate that lateralization for dynamic face processing in humans may be driven by left-hemispheric language specialization which may not have been present yet in the common ancestor of human and macaque monkeys. PMID:25463458

  7. Spatially variant regularization of lateral displacement measurement using variance.

    PubMed

    Sumi, Chikayoshi; Itoh, Toshiki

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to confirm the effectiveness of our proposed spatially variant displacement component-dependent regularization for our previously developed ultrasonic two-dimensional (2D) displacement vector measurement methods, i.e., 2D cross-spectrum phase gradient method (CSPGM), 2D autocorrelation method (AM), and 2D Doppler method (DM). Generally, the measurement accuracy of lateral displacement spatially varies and the accuracy is lower than that of axial displacement that is accurate enough. This inaccurate measurement causes an instability in a 2D shear modulus reconstruction. Thus, the spatially variant lateral displacement regularization using the lateral displacement variance will be effective in obtaining an accurate lateral strain measurement and a stable shear modulus reconstruction than a conventional spatially uniform regularization. The effectiveness is verified through agar phantom experiments. The agar phantom [60mm (height) x 100 mm (lateral width) x 40 mm (elevational width)] that has, at a depth of 10mm, a circular cylindrical inclusion (dia.=10mm) of a higher shear modulus (2.95 and 1.43 x 10(6)N/m(2), i.e., relative shear modulus, 2.06) is compressed in the axial direction from the upper surface of the phantom using a commercial linear array type transducer that has a nominal frequency of 7.5-MHz. Because a contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) expresses the detectability of the inhomogeneous region in the lateral strain image and further has almost the same sense as that of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for strain measurement, the obtained results show that the proposed spatially variant lateral displacement regularization yields a more accurate lateral strain measurement as well as a higher detectability in the lateral strain image (e.g., CNRs and SNRs for 2D CSPGM, 2.36 vs 2.27 and 1.74 vs 1.71, respectively). Furthermore, the spatially variant lateral displacement regularization yields a more stable and more accurate 2D shear modulus reconstruction than the uniform regularization (however, for the regularized relative shear modulus reconstructions, slightly accurate, e.g., for 2D CSPGM, 1.51 vs 1.50). These results indicate that the spatially variant displacement component-dependent regularization will enable the 2D shear modulus reconstruction to be used as practical diagnostic and monitoring tools for the effectiveness of various noninvasive therapy techniques of soft tissue diseases (e.g., breast, liver cancers). Application of the regularization to the elevational displacement will also increase the stability of a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. PMID:19155036

  8. Form matters: morphological aspects of lateral root development

    PubMed Central

    Szymanowska-Pułka, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Background The crucial role of roots in plant nutrition, and consequently in plant productivity, is a strong motivation to study the growth and functioning of various aspects of the root system. Numerous studies on lateral roots, as a major determinant of the root system architecture, mostly focus on the physiological and molecular bases of developmental processes. Unfortunately, little attention is paid either to the morphological changes accompanying the formation of a lateral root or to morphological defects occurring in lateral root primordia. The latter are observed in some mutants and occasionally in wild-type plants, but may also result from application of external factors. Scope and Conclusions In this review various morphological aspects of lateral branching in roots are analysed. Morphological events occurring during the formation of a typical lateral root are described. This process involves dramatic changes in the geometry of the developing organ that at early stages are associated with oblique cell divisions, leading to breaking of the symmetry of the cell pattern. Several types of defects in the morphology of primordia are indicated and described. Computer simulations show that some of these defects may result from an unstable field of growth rates. Significant changes in both primary and lateral root morphology may also be a consequence of various mutations, some of which are auxin-related. Examples reported in the literature are considered. Finally, lateral root formation is discussed in terms of mechanics. In this approach the primordium is considered as a physical object undergoing deformation and is characterized by specific mechanical properties. PMID:24190952

  9. Improved accuracy in Risser sign grading with lateral spinal radiography

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Development of the ossification of the iliac crest is used to assess the remaining spinal growth. The clinical value of the Risser sign has been questioned because of its inaccuracy in grades 3 and 4. Estimation of the Risser sign based on the lateral spinal radiograph has not been reported. The aim of the study was to evaluate the course of ossification of the iliac apophysis along its full extension and to investigate relevance of the lateral spinal radiograph for more accurate Risser sign grading. Cross sectional analysis of spinal frontal and lateral long cassette standing spinal radiographs of 201 girls aged from 10.2 to 20.0 years were done. On the lateral spinal view, the ossification of the posterior part of the iliac apophysis was quantified at four grades: absent (A), partial (B), complete (C) or fused (D). The position of the posterior superior iliac spine was studied on both views as well as in pelvic specimens. The results showed that the posterior one-third portion of the iliac apophysis was sagittally oriented and obscured on the frontal radiograph by the sacroiliac junction. It could be studied on the lateral radiograph and revealed a different grading of the apophysis excursion in 58 of 201 (29%) patients, comparing to the frontal view. Both advanced or delayed ossification was observed and assessed with Lateral Risser Modifiers. Twenty-five percent of the patients at Risser 0 or 1 or 2 demonstrated a simultaneous ossification of the most anterior and the most posterior part of the iliac crest. The Risser grades of capping or fusion could be more precisely diagnosed using lateral radiograph in complement to the frontal one. The conclusions drawn from this study were: (1) Currently used Risser sign grading does not consider the actual excursion of the iliac apophysis, because one-third of the apophysis cannot be observed on the frontal radiograph. (2) Iliac apophysis full excursion or fusion can be more accurately estimated when the lateral spinal radiograph is analyzed with Lateral Risser Modifiers. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00586-008-0794-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18946691

  10. The Utility of Proximal-Accretion Stratigraphy in Lateral Moraines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samolczyk, M. A.; Osborn, G.

    2010-12-01

    Lateral-moraine stratigraphy is a valuable tool that can be used to constrain the timing and magnitude of alpine glacier fluctuations. Numerous lateral moraines, conventionally thought to have been constructed during the Little Ice Age (LIA), have been shown to be composite landforms that contain multiple till layers deposited by successively larger glacier advances. Organic matter and/or tephra sandwiched between the till layers constrain times of advance and retreat; wood fragments within till may provide the age of the till. Observation of contemporary lateral moraines has lead to the recognition of two means of lateral moraine construction: (1) accretion of tills onto the distal flank of the pre-existing lateral moraine, and (2) accretion or plastering of tills onto the proximal flank of the pre-existing moraine. In composite lateral moraines, distal and proximal accretion result in paleosurfaces that trend parallel to the current distal and proximal slope, respectively. Published work using lateral-moraine stratigraphy, for example at Bugaboo and Stutfield glaciers in the Canadian Rockies, has used evidence only from distal-accretion moraines. However, proximal-accretion moraines that provide chronological information have been found at Nisqually Glacier on Mount Rainier in Washington State, USA, and Columbia Glacier, an outlet of the Columbia Icefield in the Canadian Rockies. A gully cut into the left-lateral moraine at Nisqually Glacier exposes a sandy seam, with associated wood fragments, that runs parallel to the proximal moraine flank for ~20 m. Wood collected from different elevations along the seam have radiocarbon ages of 1715±15, 1700±15, and 1670±50 14C yr BP, indicating that the seam is similar in age along its extent and likely marks a paleosurface separating older till below and till of the First Millennium advance above. At Columbia Glacier, some till exposures in the prominent right-lateral moraine show a fissility dipping variably 40 to 50° toward the valley axis; this orientation is semi-parallel to the proximal flank of the moraine, which however is steeper due to ongoing erosion. Five wood fragments encased in the till over a broad area of the flank, and exposed by gullying, have ages ranging from 1920±70 to 2340±70 14C yr BP. This suggests that (1) most of what appears to be a LIA moraine was deposited in earlier Neoglacial time, and (2) that the glacier was nearly as extensive ca. 2400-1900 ka as it was during the LIA.

  11. Lateral line placodes are induced during neurulation in the axolotl.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, G; Northcutt, R G

    2001-06-01

    In order to determine the time window for induction of lateral line placodes in the axolotl, we performed two series of heterotopic and isochronic transplantations from pigmented to albino embryos at different stages of embryogenesis and assessed the distribution of pigmented neuromasts in the hosts at later stages. First, ectoderm from the prospective placodal region was transplanted to the belly between early neurula and mid tailbud stages (stages 13-27). Whereas grafts from early neurulae typically differentiated only into epidermis, grafts from late neural fold stages on reliably resulted in differentiation of ectopic pigmented neuromasts. Second, belly ectoderm was transplanted to the prospective placodal region between early neurula and tailbud stages (stages 13-35). Normal lateral lines containing pigmented neuromasts formed in most embryos when grafts were performed prior to early tailbud stages (stage 24) but not when they were performed later. Our findings indicate that lateral line placodes, from which neuromasts originate, are already determined at late neural fold stages (first series of grafts) but are inducible until early tailbud stages (second series of grafts). A further series of heterochronic transplantations demonstrated that the decline of inducibility at mid tailbud stages is mainly due to the loss of ectodermal competence. PMID:11356019

  12. Stabilization control of a hovering model insect: lateral motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-Lai; Sun, Mao

    2011-10-01

    Our previous study shows that the lateral disturbance motion of a model drone fly does not have inherent stability (passive stability), because of the existence of an unstable divergence mode. But drone flies are observed to fly stably. Constantly active control must be applied to stabilize the flight. In this study, we investigate the lateral stabilization control of the model drone fly. The method of computational fluid dynamics is used to compute the lateral control derivatives and the techniques of eigenvalue and eigenvector analysis and modal decomposition are used for solving the equations of motion. Controllability analysis shows that although inherently unstable, the lateral disturbance motion is controllable. By feeding back the state variables (i.e. lateral translation velocity, yaw rate, roll rate and roll angle, which can be measured by the sensory system of the insect) to produce anti-symmetrical changes in stroke amplitude and/or in angle of attack between the left and right wings, the motion can be stabilized, explaining why the drone flies can fly stably even if the flight is passively unstable.

  13. Lateral orbitofrontal cortex links social impressions to political choices.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chenjie; Stolle, Dietlind; Gidengil, Elisabeth; Fellows, Lesley K

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies of political behavior suggest that voting decisions can be influenced substantially by "first-impression" social attributions based on physical appearance. Separate lines of research have implicated the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in the judgment of social traits on the one hand and economic decision-making on the other, making this region a plausible candidate for linking social attributions to voting decisions. Here, we asked whether OFC lesions in humans disrupted the ability to judge traits of political candidates or affected how these judgments influenced voting decisions. Seven patients with lateral OFC damage, 18 patients with frontal damage sparing the lateral OFC, and 53 matched healthy participants took part in a simulated election paradigm, in which they voted for real-life (but unknown) candidates based only on photographs of their faces. Consistent with previous work, attributions of "competence" and "attractiveness" based on candidate appearance predicted voting behavior in the healthy control group. Frontal damage did not affect substantially the ability to make competence or attractiveness judgments, but patients with damage to the lateral OFC differed from other groups in how they applied this information when voting. Only attractiveness ratings had any predictive power for voting choices after lateral OFC damage, whereas other frontal patients and healthy controls relied on information about both competence and attractiveness in making their choice. An intact lateral OFC may not be necessary for judgment of social traits based on physical appearance, but it seems to be crucial in applying this information in political decision-making. PMID:26041918

  14. Lateral Downflows in Sunspot Penumbral Filaments and their Temporal Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban Pozuelo, S.; Bellot Rubio, L. R.; de la Cruz Rodríguez, J.

    2015-04-01

    We study the temporal evolution of downflows observed at the lateral edges of penumbral filaments in a sunspot located very close to the disk center. Our analysis is based on a sequence of nearly diffraction-limited scans of the Fe i 617.3 nm line taken with the CRisp Imaging Spectro-Polarimeter instrument at the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope. We compute Dopplergrams from the observed intensity profiles using line bisectors and filter the resulting velocity maps for subsonic oscillations. Lateral downflows appear everywhere in the center-side penumbra as small, weak patches of redshifts next to or along the edges of blueshifted flow channels. These patches have an intermittent life and undergo mergings and fragmentations quite frequently. The lateral downflows move together with the hosting filaments and react to their shape variations, very much resembling the evolution of granular convection in the quiet Sun. There is a good relation between brightness and velocity in the center-side penumbra, with downflows being darker than upflows on average, which is again reminiscent of quiet Sun convection. These results point to the existence of overturning convection in sunspot penumbrae, with elongated cells forming filaments where the flow is upward but very inclined, and weak lateral downward flows. In general, the circular polarization profiles emerging from the lateral downflows do not show sign reversals, although sometimes we detect three-lobed profiles that are suggestive of opposite magnetic polarities in the pixel.

  15. Lateral position detection and control for friction stir systems

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, Paul; Lammlein, David; Cook, George E.; Wilkes, Don Mitchell; Strauss, Alvin M.; Delapp, David; Hartman, Daniel A.

    2010-12-14

    A friction stir system for processing at least a first workpiece includes a spindle actuator coupled to a rotary tool comprising a rotating member for contacting and processing the first workpiece. A detection system is provided for obtaining information related to a lateral alignment of the rotating member. The detection system comprises at least one sensor for measuring a force experienced by the rotary tool or a parameter related to the force experienced by the rotary tool during processing, wherein the sensor provides sensor signals. A signal processing system is coupled to receive and analyze the sensor signals and determine a lateral alignment of the rotating member relative to a selected lateral position, a selected path, or a direction to decrease a lateral distance relative to the selected lateral position or selected path. In one embodiment, the friction stir system can be embodied as a closed loop tracking system, such as a robot-based tracked friction stir welding (FSW) or friction stir processing (FSP) system.

  16. Reduced Lateral Root Branching Density Improves Drought Tolerance in Maize.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ai; Schneider, Hannah; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2015-08-01

    An emerging paradigm is that root traits that reduce the metabolic costs of soil exploration improve the acquisition of limiting soil resources. Here, we test the hypothesis that reduced lateral root branching density will improve drought tolerance in maize (Zea mays) by reducing the metabolic costs of soil exploration, permitting greater axial root elongation, greater rooting depth, and thereby greater water acquisition from drying soil. Maize recombinant inbred lines with contrasting lateral root number and length (few but long [FL] and many but short [MS]) were grown under water stress in greenhouse mesocosms, in field rainout shelters, and in a second field environment with natural drought. Under water stress in mesocosms, lines with the FL phenotype had substantially less lateral root respiration per unit of axial root length, deeper rooting, greater leaf relative water content, greater stomatal conductance, and 50% greater shoot biomass than lines with the MS phenotype. Under water stress in the two field sites, lines with the FL phenotype had deeper rooting, much lighter stem water isotopic signature, signifying deeper water capture, 51% to 67% greater shoot biomass at flowering, and 144% greater yield than lines with the MS phenotype. These results entirely support the hypothesis that reduced lateral root branching density improves drought tolerance. The FL lateral root phenotype merits consideration as a selection target to improve the drought tolerance of maize and possibly other cereal crops. PMID:26077764

  17. Development of automobile tyre lateral runout measurement sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xie; Ye, Lingjian; Yao, Guanghui; Wang, Di; Zhi, Xiongfei

    2013-10-01

    Automobile tyre lateral runout is one of the important indexes to measure the quality of the tyre, it will affect the safety of the automobile in moving. This paper introduces a sensor for automobile tyre lateral runout measurement. The variation of the automobile tyre lateral runout causes the change of guide rod probe displacement and deforms of the cantilever beam which connects with the guide bar. The deformation of the cantilever beam leads to the change of the resistance value of strain gauge which is pasted on the cantilever beam. Through measuring circuit, the resistance value of the strain gauge is converted into output voltage that has a certain relationship with automobile tyre lateral runout. Then, the voltage signal is transformed by A/D convertor and send to SCM to process and display the value of runout. Meanwhile, SCM output control signal to control the actuator and adjust the equipment running status in real time so as to ensure the tyre lateral runout is within the allowed range.

  18. Preliminary Evidence for Reduced Auditory Lateral Suppression in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ramage, Erin. M.; Weintraub, David M.; Vogel, Sally J.; Sutton, Griffin P.; Ringdahl, Erik N.; Allen, Daniel N.; Snyder, Joel S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Well-documented auditory processing deficits such as impaired frequency discrimination and reduced suppression of auditory brain responses in schizophrenia (SZ) may contribute to abnormal auditory functioning in everyday life. Lateral suppression of non-stimulated neurons by stimulated neurons has not been extensively assessed in SZ and likely plays an important role in precise encoding of sounds. Therefore, this study evaluated whether lateral suppression of activity in auditory cortex is impaired in SZ. Methods SZ participants and control participants watched a silent movie with subtitles while listening to trials composed of a 0.5 s control stimulus (CS), a 3 s filtered masking noise (FN), and a 0.5 s test stimulus (TS). The CS and TS were identical on each trial and had energy corresponding to the high energy (recurrent suppression) or low energy (lateral suppression) portions of the FN. Event-related potentials were recorded and suppression was measured as the amplitude change between CS and TS. Results Peak amplitudes of the auditory P2 component (160–260 ms) showed reduced lateral but not recurrent suppression in SZ participants. Conclusions Reduced lateral suppression in SZ participants may lead to overlap of neuronal populations representing different auditory stimuli. Such imprecise neural representations may contribute to the difficulties SZ participants have in discriminating complex stimuli in everyday life. PMID:25583249

  19. An Assay for Lateral Line Regeneration in Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Dhliwayo, Nyembezi; Intine, Robert V.; Sarras,, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the clinical importance of hearing and balance disorders in man, model organisms such as the zebrafish have been used to study lateral line development and regeneration. The zebrafish is particularly attractive for such studies because of its rapid development time and its high regenerative capacity. To date, zebrafish studies of lateral line regeneration have mainly utilized fish of the embryonic and larval stages because of the lower number of neuromasts at these stages. This has made quantitative analysis of lateral line regeneration/and or development easier in the earlier developmental stages. Because many zebrafish models of neurological and non-neurological diseases are studied in the adult fish and not in the embryo/larvae, we focused on developing a quantitative lateral line regenerative assay in adult zebrafish so that an assay was available that could be applied to current adult zebrafish disease models. Building on previous studies by Van Trump et al.17 that described procedures for ablation of hair cells in adult Mexican blind cave fish and zebrafish (Danio rerio), our assay was designed to allow quantitative comparison between control and experimental groups. This was accomplished by developing a regenerative neuromast standard curve based on the percent of neuromast reappearance over a 24 hr time period following gentamicin-induced necrosis of hair cells in a defined region of the lateral line. The assay was also designed to allow extension of the analysis to the individual hair cell level when a higher level of resolution is required. PMID:24747778

  20. Effects of lateral osteotomy on surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, T F M; Pereira-Filho, V A; Gabrielli, M A C; Gonçales, E S; Santos-Pinto, A

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the potential effects of two different osteotomy designs of the maxillary lateral wall on dental and skeletal changes after surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME). Thirty adult patients were divided into two groups according to the lateral osteotomy design: group 1 (n=16) underwent lateral osteotomy performed in a horizontal straight fashion, and group 2 (n=14) underwent lateral osteotomy performed in parallel to the occlusal plane with a step at the zygomatic buttress. Cone beam computed tomography scans were obtained preoperatively (T1), immediately after expansion (T2), and 6 months after expansion (T3). Mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for the statistical analysis. The results showed no significant interaction effect between groups and time points. Therefore, maxillary expansion was effective in both groups. Statistically significant increases in all dental and skeletal measurements were observed immediately after expansion (P<0.001). Relapse of the nasal floor width, tipping of the supporting teeth, and an increase in root distance in molars occurred at T3 (P<0.05). In summary, the maxillary lateral osteotomy design did not influence the results of SARME, which occurred mainly through the inclination of maxillary segments. PMID:26688294

  1. Embryonic exposure to predator odour modulates visual lateralization in cuttlefish

    PubMed Central

    Jozet-Alves, Christelle; Hébert, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Predation pressure acts on the behaviour and morphology of prey species. In fish, the degree of lateralization varies between high- and low-predation populations. While lateralization appears to be widespread in invertebrates, we do not know whether heredity and early experience interact during development as in vertebrates. Here we show, for the first time, that an exposure to predator odour prior to hatching modulates visual lateralization in newly hatched cuttlefish. Only cuttlefish that have been exposed to predator odour display a left-turning bias when tested with blank seawater in a T-shaped apparatus. Exposure to predator odour all the incubation long could appear as an acute predictor of a high-predation surrounding environment. In addition, cuttlefish of all groups display a left-turning preference when tested with predator odour in the apparatus. This suggests the ability of cuttlefish to innately recognize predator odour. To our knowledge, this is the first clear demonstration that lateralization is vulnerable to ecological challenges encountered during embryonic life, and that environmental stimulation of the embryo through the olfactory system could influence the development of subsequent visual lateralization. PMID:23235708

  2. Preschoolers' Psychopathology and Temperament Predict Mothers' Later Mood Disorders.

    PubMed

    Allmann, Anna E S; Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; Klein, Daniel N

    2016-04-01

    Considerable research exists documenting the relationship between maternal mood disorders, primarily major depressive disorder (MDD), and a variety of negative child outcomes. By contrast, research exploring the reverse pathway whereby child traits are associated with later maternal mood disorders is much more limited. We examined whether young children's temperament and psychopathology predicted maternal mood disorders approximately 6 years later. Child temperament and symptoms were assessed at age three using semi-structured diagnostic interviews and parent-report inventories. Maternal psychopathology was assessed with semi-structured interviews when children were 3 and 9 years old. Mothers also reported on their marital satisfaction when children were 3 and 6 years old. Child temperamental negative affectivity (NA), depressive symptoms, and externalizing behavior problems significantly predicted maternal mood disorders over and above prior maternal mood, anxiety, and substance disorders. The link between children's early externalizing symptoms and maternal mood disorders 6 years later was mediated by maternal marital satisfaction 3 years after the initial assessment. These findings suggest that early child temperament and psychopathology contribute to risk for later maternal mood disorders both directly and through their impact on the marital system. Research indicates that effective treatment of maternal depression is associated with positive outcomes for children; however, this study suggests that treating early child problems may mitigate the risk of later maternal psychopathology. PMID:26219263

  3. Lateral root initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana: a force awakens.

    PubMed

    Vermeer, Joop E M; Geldner, Niko

    2015-01-01

    Osmotically driven turgor pressure of plant cells can be higher than that of a car tire. It puts tremendous forces onto cell walls and drives cell growth and changes in cell shape. This has given rise to unique mechanisms to control organ formation compared to metazoans. The fascinating interplay between forces and local cellular reorganization is still poorly understood. Growth of lateral roots is a prominent example of a developmental process in which mechanical forces between neighboring cells are generated and must be dealt with. Lateral roots initiate from a single cell layer that resides deep within the primary root. On their way out, lateral roots grow through the overlying endodermal, cortical, and epidermal cell layers. It was recently demonstrated that endodermal cells actively accommodate lateral root formation. Interfering genetically with these accommodating responses in the endodermis completely blocks cell proliferation in the pericycle. The lateral root system provides a unique opportunity to elucidate the molecular and cellular mechanisms whereby mechanical forces and intercellular communication regulate spatial accommodation during plant development. PMID:25926983

  4. Analysis of quantitative trait loci for behavioral laterality in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Roubertoux, Pierre L; Le Roy, Isabelle; Tordjman, Sylvie; Cherfou, Améziane; Migliore-Samour, Danièle

    2003-01-01

    Laterality is believed to have genetic components, as has been deduced from family studies in humans and responses to artificial selection in mice, but these genetic components are unknown and the underlying physiological mechanisms are still a subject of dispute. We measured direction of laterality (preferential use of left or right paws) and degree of laterality (absolute difference between the use of left and right paws) in C57BL/6ByJ (B) and NZB/BlNJ (N) mice and in their F(1) and F(2) intercrosses. Measurements were taken of both forepaws and hind paws. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) did not emerge for direction but did for degree of laterality. One QTL for forepaw (LOD score = 5.6) and the second QTL for hind paw (LOD score = 7.2) were both located on chromosome 4 and their peaks were within the same confidence interval. A QTL for plasma luteinizing hormone concentration was also found in the confidence interval of these two QTL. These results suggest that the physiological mechanisms underlying degree of laterality react to gonadal steroids. PMID:12663540

  5. An assay for lateral line regeneration in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Pisano, Gina C; Mason, Samantha M; Dhliwayo, Nyembezi; Intine, Robert V; Sarras, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    Due to the clinical importance of hearing and balance disorders in man, model organisms such as the zebrafish have been used to study lateral line development and regeneration. The zebrafish is particularly attractive for such studies because of its rapid development time and its high regenerative capacity. To date, zebrafish studies of lateral line regeneration have mainly utilized fish of the embryonic and larval stages because of the lower number of neuromasts at these stages. This has made quantitative analysis of lateral line regeneration/and or development easier in the earlier developmental stages. Because many zebrafish models of neurological and non-neurological diseases are studied in the adult fish and not in the embryo/larvae, we focused on developing a quantitative lateral line regenerative assay in adult zebrafish so that an assay was available that could be applied to current adult zebrafish disease models. Building on previous studies by Van Trump et al. that described procedures for ablation of hair cells in adult Mexican blind cave fish and zebrafish (Danio rerio), our assay was designed to allow quantitative comparison between control and experimental groups. This was accomplished by developing a regenerative neuromast standard curve based on the percent of neuromast reappearance over a 24 hr time period following gentamicin-induced necrosis of hair cells in a defined region of the lateral line. The assay was also designed to allow extension of the analysis to the individual hair cell level when a higher level of resolution is required. PMID:24747778

  6. Socially dependent auditory laterality in domestic horses (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    Basile, Muriel; Boivin, Sarah; Boutin, Anaïs; Blois-Heulin, Catherine; Hausberger, Martine; Lemasson, Alban

    2009-07-01

    Laterality is now known to be an ubiquitous phenomenon among the vertebrates. Particularly, laterality of auditory processing has been demonstrated in a variety of species, especially songbirds and primates. Such a hemispheric specialization has been shown to depend on factors such as sound structure, species specificity and types of stimuli. Much less is known on the possible influence of social familiarity although a few studies suggest such an influence. Here we tested the influence of the degree of familiarity on the laterality of the auditory response in the domestic horse. This species is known for its social system and shows visible reactions to sounds, with one or two ears moving towards a sound source. By comparing such responses to the playback of different conspecific whinnies (group member, neighbor and stranger), we could demonstrate a clear left hemisphere (LH) preference for familiar neighbor calls while no preference was found for group member and stranger calls. Yet, we found an opposite pattern of ear side preference for neighbor versus stranger calls. These results are, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate auditory laterality in an ungulate species. They open further lines of thought on the influence of the social "value" of calls and the listener's arousal on auditory processing and laterality. PMID:19283416

  7. Characterization of Laterally Attached Main-Chain Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calhoun, Bret H.; Pugh, Coleen R.; Cheng, Stephen Z. D.

    2000-03-01

    Most common polymeric liquid crystals (PLCs) have mesogens that are linked at their ends to the polymer backbone by a flexible spacer. Main-chain PLCs with mesogens linked laterally by flexible spacers have been studied much less. This type of PLC has the potential of exhibiting interesting phase properties due to the lateral attachment of the mesogens to the backbone, which could result in additional orientational ordering. In this investigation, polyesters with laterally linked mesogens containing one and four carbon spacers and varying terminal group lengths have been synthesized. Characterization of the monomers as well as the polymers was carried out using standard techniques. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), and polarized light microscopy (PLM) have revealed the existence of both crystalline and liquid crystalline phases. DSC experiments show the presence of multiple phase transitions for both monomers and polymers. PLM and WAXD results indicate the existence of liquid crystalline phases of higher order than nematic phases.

  8. Nucleation-mediated lateral growth on foreign substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, Da-Jun; Wang, Mu; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Zhenyu; Peng, Ru-Wen; Zhang, Rong; Ming, Nai-Ben

    2007-01-01

    A model is developed to deal with lateral growth of a crystalline layer on a foreign substrate, which is mediated by successive nucleation at the concave corner defined by the meeting of a crystal facet and the substrate. It is demonstrated that due to an imbalance of surface/interface tensions at the concave corner, once the embryo of a nucleus is formed, the crystallographic orientation of the nucleus is spontaneously twisted. By successive nucleation at the concave corner, the crystalline layer develops laterally on the substrate, with its crystallographic orientation continuously rotated. In this way, a regular spatial pattern with well-defined long-range order is eventually achieved. Our model provides a criterion to predict when such an effect becomes observable in the nucleation-mediated lateral growth. The theoretical expectations are consistent with the experimental observations.

  9. Strategies of Healthy Adults Walking on a Laterally Oscillating Treadmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Rachel A.; Peters, Brian T.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2008-01-01

    We mounted a treadmill on top of a six degree-of-freedom motion base platform to investigate locomotor responses produced by healthy adults introduced to a dynamic walking surface. The experiment examined self-selected strategies employed by participants when exposed to continuous, sinusoidal lateral motion of the support surface while walking. Torso translation and step width were used to classify responses used to stabilize gait in a novel, dynamic environment. Two response categories emerged. Participants tended to either fix themselves in space (FIS), allowing the treadbelt to move laterally beneath them, or they fixed themselves to the base (FTB), moving laterally as the motion base oscillated. The degree of fixation in both extremes varied across participants. This finding suggests that normal adults have innate and varied preferences for reacquiring gait stability, some depending more heavily on vision (FIS group) and others on proprioception (FTB group). Keywords: Human locomotion, Unstable surface, Treadmill, Adaptation, Stability

  10. Arthroscopic anatomical reconstruction of the lateral ankle ligaments.

    PubMed

    Guillo, S; Takao, M; Calder, J; Karlson, Jon; Michels, Frederick; Bauer, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Chronic ankle instability secondary to lateral ligament insufficiency is common after sports injury. Many surgical techniques have been described for the treatment of the lateral ankle ligament complex. They can be classified into repair or reconstruction, and non-anatomical or anatomical. A few authors have recently published innovative techniques for arthroscopic ankle ligament management. This paper describes the arthroscopic techniques enabling anatomical lateral ligament reconstruction using gracilis autograft or allograft for chronic ankle instability. This technique and the steps have been developed by the Ankle Instability Group to make this a reproducible procedure. The purpose of this presentation is to document the technique in the future with a view to a clinical study investigating the results of such surgery in a cohort of suitable patients with chronic ankle instability. Level of evidence V. PMID:26408309

  11. LATER models of neural decision behavior in choice tasks

    PubMed Central

    Noorani, Imran

    2014-01-01

    Reaction time has been increasingly used over the last few decades to provide information on neural decision processes: it is a direct reflection of decision time. Saccades provide an excellent paradigm for this because many of them can be made in a very short time and the underlying neural pathways are relatively well-known. LATER (linear approach to threshold with ergodic rate) is a model originally devised to explain reaction time distributions in simple decision tasks. Recently, however it is being extended to increasingly more advanced tasks, including those with decision errors and those requiring voluntary control such as the antisaccade task and those where sequential decisions are required. The strength of this modeling approach lies in its detailed, quantitative predictions of behavior, yet LATER models still retain their conceptual simplicity that made LATER initially successful in explaining reaction times in simple decision tasks. PMID:25202242

  12. Influence of coulomb screening on lateral lasing in VECSELs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengao; Malloy, Kevin; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2015-12-14

    Parasitic lateral lasing in certain optically pumped semiconductor disc lasers drains the gain of the vertical mode and thus causes power scaling degradation and premature rollover in surface emitting operation. We have observed this effect in both multiple quantum wells (MQW) (GaInAs/GaAs) and double heterostructures (DHS) (GaInP/GaAs/GaInP) under pulsed excitation even when the gain chip lateral dimensions are much larger than the diameter of the pump laser. Lateral lasing occurs persistently between cleaved facets at a band-tail wavelength much longer than the peak of the gain. We show that the effect of bandgap renormalization due to Coulomb screening explains this phenomena. Exploiting the simple analytical plasma theory of bulk semiconductors (Banyai & Koch, 1986), we can account for such an effect in double heterostructures. PMID:26699044

  13. Vehicle Lateral State Estimation Based on Measured Tyre Forces

    PubMed Central

    Tuononen, Ari J.

    2009-01-01

    Future active safety systems need more accurate information about the state of vehicles. This article proposes a method to evaluate the lateral state of a vehicle based on measured tyre forces. The tyre forces of two tyres are estimated from optically measured tyre carcass deflections and transmitted wirelessly to the vehicle body. The two remaining tyres are so-called virtual tyre sensors, the forces of which are calculated from the real tyre sensor estimates. The Kalman filter estimator for lateral vehicle state based on measured tyre forces is presented, together with a simple method to define adaptive measurement error covariance depending on the driving condition of the vehicle. The estimated yaw rate and lateral velocity are compared with the validation sensor measurements. PMID:22291535

  14. Image enhancement algorithm based on improved lateral inhibition network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Haijiao; Wu, Zhiyong; Wang, Guanjun; Tong, Gang; Yang, Hua

    2016-05-01

    There is often substantial noise and blurred details in the images captured by cameras. To solve this problem, we propose a novel image enhancement algorithm combined with an improved lateral inhibition network. Firstly, we built a mathematical model of a lateral inhibition network in conjunction with biological visual perception; this model helped to realize enhanced contrast and improved edge definition in images. Secondly, we proposed that the adaptive lateral inhibition coefficient adhere to an exponential distribution thus making the model more flexible and more universal. Finally, we added median filtering and a compensation measure factor to build the framework with high pass filtering functionality thus eliminating image noise and improving edge contrast, addressing problems with blurred image edges. Our experimental results show that our algorithm is able to eliminate noise and the blurring phenomena, and enhance the details of visible and infrared images.

  15. A theory for lateral wing-tip blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavella, D.; Roberts, L.

    1985-01-01

    The concept of lateral blowing consists in utilizing thin jets of air, which are ejected in the spanwise direction from slots at the tips of straight and swept wings, or along the leading edges of delta wings, to generate aerodynamic forces without the assistance of deflecting solid surfaces. For weak intensities of blowing the so-generated forces could be used for roll and lateral control of aircraft. In this work a theory for this concept as applied to straight wings is presented, revealing the analytical relationship between blowing and aerodynamic forces. The approach is based on perturbing the span of an elliptically loaded wing. Scaling laws involving blowing intensity, aspect ratio, and angle of attack are derived and compared with experiments. It is concluded that this concept has potential as a novel roll and lateral control device.

  16. Directional Terahertz Radiation from GalnP Lateral Superlattice.

    PubMed

    Yim, Jong-Hyuk; Song, Kyoung-Jin; Park, Kwang-Wook; Kang, Seok-Jin; Lee, Yong-Tak; Jho, Young-Dahl

    2015-07-01

    We devised directionally controllable THz emission sources based on lateral composition modulation (LCM) structures. LCM structures were composed of In-rich Ga0.47In0.53P and Ga-rich Ga0.51In0.49P layers whose period was in quantum scale of ~`5 nm. The inherent type II band alignment in these structures leads to electron-hole (e-h) separation and plays a key role in generating later- ally polarized dipole ensembles, thus concomitantly emitting enhanced transmissive THz waves as compared to bulk sample. On the other hand, in lateral geometry, changes in THz fields between LCM and bulk structures turned out to negligible since the vertical electronic diffusion was allowed in both samples. PMID:26373100

  17. Minimally invasive unilateral arytenoid lateralization in dogs: A cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Shipov, A; Israeli, I; Weiser, M; Kelmer, E; Klainbart, S; Milgram, J

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a minimally invasive thyroarytenoid lateralization technique (MITAL). Eleven unilateral MITAL procedures were performed on 11 canine cadavers. Two hypodermic needles were passed through the skin into the lumen of the larynx, penetrating the thyroid and arytenoid cartilages. Suture material was passed through the needles to lateralize the arytenoid cartilage. A rigid endoscope was used to visualize needle insertion and suture material placement. A key-hole approach to the larynx was performed and the suture material was knotted on the lateral aspect of the thyroid cartilage. The change in the rima glottidis area was recorded as were the duration of the procedure and complications encountered. The landmarks for needle insertion were easily palpated, and a significant increase in the area of the rima glottidis was documented after performing unilateral MITAL. In conclusion, unilateral MITAL is a quick, minimally invasive procedure which increases the area of the rima glottidis in cadaveric dogs. PMID:26412529

  18. DSMC numerical simulation of lateral jet interaction with rarefied atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jie; Li, Zhihui; Li, Xuguo; Fang, Ming

    2014-12-01

    Hybrid Cartesian grids and surface unstructured triangular cells are used in the DSMC method to simulate lateral jet interaction flow with rarefied atmosphere in transitional regime. The self-adaption of uniform Cartesian grid is conducted according to the local density gradient. The parallel DSMC code is used to compute the lateral jet interaction of a three-dimensional flat plate model on low density wind tunnel test conditions. The results of complex flow field structures, surface flow characteristics and separation lengths agree well with experimental data. The supersonic and hypersonic lateral jet interactions with hypersonic rarefied incoming flow on a slender blunt double-cone are investigated. The effects of flight altitudes, free stream velocities and angles of attack on plume-atmosphere interaction flow fields are numerically analyzed. The influences of parameter distributions with uniform /non-uniform nozzle exit on the separation distance and vortex structure near the jet are simulated in detail.

  19. Signaling Delays Preclude Defects in Lateral Inhibition Patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, David S.; Jin, Xiaofan; Riedel-Kruse, Ingmar H.

    2016-03-01

    Lateral inhibition represents a well-studied example of biology's ability to self-organize multicellular spatial patterns with single-cell precision. Despite established biochemical mechanisms for lateral inhibition (e.g., Delta-Notch), it remains unclear how cell-cell signaling delays inherent to these mechanisms affect patterning outcomes. We investigate a compact model of lateral inhibition highlighting these delays and find, remarkably, that long delays can ensure defect-free patterning. This effect is underscored by an interplay with synchronous oscillations, cis interactions, and signaling strength. Our results suggest that signaling delays, though previously posited as a source of developmental defects, may in fact be a general regulatory knob for tuning developmental robustness.

  20. Squamous cell carcinoma of the lateral nail fold.

    PubMed

    Figus, A; Kanitkar, S; Elliot, D

    2006-04-01

    The digital nail complex is occasionally involved by squamous cell carcinoma. The published literature has either been indiscriminating of the site of origin of this tumour within the nail complex or has concentrated attention on the nail bed as the site of pathology. Tumours originating in the lateral nail fold can be clearly differentiated from those of the nail bed itself. This study identifies six cases of squamous cell carcinoma arising in the lateral nail fold. While surgical convention remains to amputate the digital tip for squamous cell carcinoma of any part of the nail complex, the dermatological literature identifies that local surgery can be curative for these tumours, when presenting early and without bone involvement, although offering no discussion of reconstruction. Reconstruction is desirable and methods of achieving this following local excision of lateral nail fold tumours are illustrated in this series. PMID:16356611

  1. Nanoparticle embedded enzymes for improved lateral flow sensors.

    PubMed

    Özalp, Veli C; Zeydanlı, Uğur S; Lunding, Anita; Kavruk, Murat; Öz, M Tufan; Eyidoğan, Füsun; Olsen, Lars F; Öktem, Hüseyin A

    2013-08-01

    In this study, combining the nanoparticle embedded sensors with lateral flow assays, a novel strategy for ensuring the quality of signalling in lateral flow assays (LFAs) was developed. A LFA for reactive oxygen species (ROS) is reported that is based on horse radish peroxidase (HRP) which is co-entrapped with Texas Red dextran inside porous polyacrylamide nanoparticles. In this system, enzymes are protected in the porous matrix of polyacrylamide which freely allows the diffusion of the analyte. The sensor is rapid and sensitive for quantification of hydrogen peroxide concentrations. A test solution of hydrogen peroxides was quantified with this novel LFA-ROS sensor to obtain a linear range between 1 and 25 μM. Nanoparticle embedding of enzymes is proposed here as a general strategy for developing enzyme-based lateral flow assays, eliminating adverse effects associated with biological samples. PMID:23730687

  2. Fracture of the lateral cuneiform only: a rare foot injury.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kalpesh; Odgaard, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The three (medial, intermediate, and lateral) cuneiforms and their articulations in the foot are small and relatively well protected from injury. An isolated fracture of the lateral cuneiform is a rare finding. However, isolated injuries may occur as the result of direct trauma. We report a case of an isolated fracture of the lateral cuneiform that was not seen on initial radiographs and only became evident on plain radiographs 4 weeks after the injury. As each of the cuneiform bones articulates with four other bones in the midpart of the foot, persistent displacement of any fracture (subluxation or dislocation) may result in post-traumatic arthritis. We believe that in suspected cases with negative radiographic findings, further imaging (computed tomography or bone scanning) should be requested. Without the use of additional imaging techniques, many fractures may be misdiagnosed as ankle sprains or foot contusions, and patients may be discharged from the hospital. PMID:18024845

  3. Lateral vibration effects in atomic-scale friction

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, R.; Fajardo, O. Y.; Mazo, J. J.; Meyer, E.; Gnecco, E.

    2014-02-24

    The influence of lateral vibrations on the stick-slip motion of a nanotip elastically pulled on a flat crystal surface is studied by atomic force microscopy measurements on a NaCl(001) surface in ultra-high vacuum. The slippage of the nanotip across the crystal lattice is anticipated at increasing driving amplitude, similarly to what is observed in presence of normal vibrations. This lowers the average friction force, as explained by the Prandtl-Tomlinson model with lateral vibrations superimposed at finite temperature. Nevertheless, the peak values of the lateral force, and the total energy losses, are expected to increase with the excitation amplitude, which may limit the practical relevance of this effect.

  4. Sensitivity of atypical lateral fire spread to wind and slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Colin. C.; Sharples, Jason J.; Evans, Jason P.

    2016-02-01

    This study presents new knowledge of the environmental sensitivity of a dynamic mode of atypical wildland fire spread on steep lee-facing slopes. This is achieved through a series of idealized numerical simulations performed with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and WRF-Fire coupled atmosphere-fire models. The sensitivity of the atypical lateral fire spread across lee slopes is tested for a varying background wind speed, wind direction relative to the terrain aspect, and lee slope steepness. The results indicate that the lateral spread characteristics are highly sensitive to each of these environmental conditions, and there is a broad agreement with the empirical thresholds calculated for lateral spread events observed in the 2003 Canberra bushfires. A theory to explain these environmental thresholds and their apparent interdependency is presented. The results are expected to have important implications for the management of wildland fires in rugged terrain.

  5. Rates of Lateral Gene Transfer in Prokaryotes: High but Why?

    PubMed

    Vos, Michiel; Hesselman, Matthijn C; te Beek, Tim A; van Passel, Mark W J; Eyre-Walker, Adam

    2015-10-01

    Lateral gene transfer is of fundamental importance to the evolution of prokaryote genomes and has important practical consequences, as evidenced by the rapid dissemination of antibiotic resistance and virulence determinants. Relatively little effort has so far been devoted to explicitly quantifying the rate at which accessory genes are taken up and lost, but it is possible that the combined rate of lateral gene transfer and gene loss is higher than that of point mutation. What evolutionary forces underlie the rate of lateral gene transfer are not well understood. We here use theory developed to explain the evolution of mutation rates to address this question and explore its consequences for the study of prokaryote evolution. PMID:26433693

  6. Laparoscopic repair of recurrent lateral enterocele and rectocele.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Ellen R; Muffly, Tyler M; Hull, Tracy; Paraiso, Marie Fidela R

    2015-01-01

    It is difficult to determine what types of procedures should be attempted in patients who have recurrent prolapse. We present a case of recurrent lateral enterocele and rectocele after the patient had undergone multiple surgeries for pelvic organ prolapse (POP), including a vaginal hysterectomy, bladder-neck suspension, anterior colporrhaphy, site-specific rectocele repair, apical mesh implant, iliococcygeus vault suspension, and transobturator suburethral sling procedure. With recurrence, the patient underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic sacral colpopexy, tension-free vaginal tape transobturator sling insertion, rectocele repair, and perineorrhaphy with cystoscopy. She then presented with defecatory outlet obstruction and constipation and subsequently was treated with a stapled transanal rectal resection. The patient returned with continued defecatory dysfunction and a recurrent lateral enterocele and rectocele. The recurrence was treated laparoscopically using a lightweight polypropylene mesh. The postoperative period was uneventful. Two years later, the patient reported decreased defecatory symptoms and no further symptomatic prolapse. PMID:25224146

  7. Signaling Delays Preclude Defects in Lateral Inhibition Patterning.

    PubMed

    Glass, David S; Jin, Xiaofan; Riedel-Kruse, Ingmar H

    2016-03-25

    Lateral inhibition represents a well-studied example of biology's ability to self-organize multicellular spatial patterns with single-cell precision. Despite established biochemical mechanisms for lateral inhibition (e.g., Delta-Notch), it remains unclear how cell-cell signaling delays inherent to these mechanisms affect patterning outcomes. We investigate a compact model of lateral inhibition highlighting these delays and find, remarkably, that long delays can ensure defect-free patterning. This effect is underscored by an interplay with synchronous oscillations, cis interactions, and signaling strength. Our results suggest that signaling delays, though previously posited as a source of developmental defects, may in fact be a general regulatory knob for tuning developmental robustness. PMID:27058104

  8. Patterns of prokaryotic lateral gene transfers affecting parasitic microbial eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The influence of lateral gene transfer on gene origins and biology in eukaryotes is poorly understood compared with those of prokaryotes. A number of independent investigations focusing on specific genes, individual genomes, or specific functional categories from various eukaryotes have indicated that lateral gene transfer does indeed affect eukaryotic genomes. However, the lack of common methodology and criteria in these studies makes it difficult to assess the general importance and influence of lateral gene transfer on eukaryotic genome evolution. Results We used a phylogenomic approach to systematically investigate lateral gene transfer affecting the proteomes of thirteen, mainly parasitic, microbial eukaryotes, representing four of the six eukaryotic super-groups. All of the genomes investigated have been significantly affected by prokaryote-to-eukaryote lateral gene transfers, dramatically affecting the enzymes of core pathways, particularly amino acid and sugar metabolism, but also providing new genes of potential adaptive significance in the life of parasites. A broad range of prokaryotic donors is involved in such transfers, but there is clear and significant enrichment for bacterial groups that share the same habitats, including the human microbiota, as the parasites investigated. Conclusions Our data show that ecology and lifestyle strongly influence gene origins and opportunities for gene transfer and reveal that, although the outlines of the core eukaryotic metabolism are conserved among lineages, the genes making up those pathways can have very different origins in different eukaryotes. Thus, from the perspective of the effects of lateral gene transfer on individual gene ancestries in different lineages, eukaryotic metabolism appears to be chimeric. PMID:23442822

  9. Postburn Neck Lateral Contracture Anatomy and Treatment: A New Approach.

    PubMed

    Grishkevich, Viktor M; Grishkevich, Max

    2015-01-01

    Lateral contracture of the neck is a rare and insufficiently researched burn consequent. Contracture restricts head motion, can cause a secondary face deformity, presents severe cosmetic defects, and, therefore, requires surgical reconstruction. Literature does not sufficiently address the issue; therefore, anatomy not researched and treatment techniques not developed. The anatomy of postburn lateral cervical flexion contracture was studied in 21 operated patients. Using obtained data, new approaches were investigated, which were directed toward maximal efficacy of the local tissues use. Follow-up results were observed from 6 months to 9 years. Lateral cervical contractures were divided into two types based on their anatomy: edge and medial. Edge contractures were caused by burns and scars located on the posterior neck surface and were characterized by the presence of the fold in central lateral zone. In the fold, only one (posterior) sheet is scars that cause the contracture. Medial contractures were caused by scars located on the lateral cervical surface and were characterized by the presence of the fold in which both sheets were scars. In both types, contracture was caused by scar sheet surface deficiency in length, which has a trapezoid form (contracture cause). In all cases, there was surface surplus in the fold's sheets allowed contracture release with local tissue. The technique that allows the maximum local tissue use and ensures full contracture elimination is the trapeze-flap plasty. Two anatomic types of lateral cervical scar contractures were identified: edge and medial. An anatomically justified efficacy reconstructive technique for both types is trapeze-flap plasty. PMID:25501780

  10. Clinical Implications of Septal Deviation in Lateralized Olfaction

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon-Seok; Ryu, Yoon-Jong; Rhee, Jihye; Seok, Jungirl; Han, Sungjun; Jin, Hong Ryul; Kim, Dae Woo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Results of butanol threshold tests (BTTs) have shown that birhinal olfaction tends to converge toward monorhinal olfaction of the dominant nostril. However, birhinal olfaction may also be worse than dominant-side monorhinal olfaction. The goal of our study was to investigate the effect of deviated nasal septum on birhinal olfaction in patients with lateralized olfaction and to examine the effect of septoplasty in these patients. Methods A retrospective study with planned data collection was conducted in 518 patients who underwent BTTs. Lateralized olfaction was defined as monorhinal BTT scores that differed by >2 between sides. Underestimated birhinal olfaction was defined as a birhinal BTT score >2 lower than the dominant nostril monorhinal BTT score. Patients with lateralized olfaction were divided into 2 groups: group 1, underestimated birhinal olfaction; and group 2, without underestimated birhinal olfaction. Results Among 518 patients, 112 with lateralized olfaction were enrolled in this study. Group 1 included 23 patients (20.5%) and group 2 included 89 patients (79.5%). The severity of septal deviation (ratio of the distance of narrower side to wider side) did not differ between the 2 groups. Septal deviation to the dominant nostril was more common in group 1 than group 2 (73.9% vs. 37.6%; P=0.002). Five patients with septal deviation to the dominant nostril with underestimated birhinal olfaction underwent septoplasty. Improved lateralized olfaction occurred in all 5 patients postoperatively (P=0.041). Conclusion Septal deviation of the dominant nostril in patients with lateralized olfaction is associated with underestimated birhinal olfaction. Septoplasty may improve olfaction by increasing airflow in the dominant olfactory side. PMID:26976025

  11. Analysis of sphenoid sinus lateral pneumatization for endonasal endoscopic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Ryogo; Toda, Masahiro; Tomita, Toshiki; Ogawa, Kaoru; Yoshida, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to analyze sphenoid sinus lateral pneumatization (SSLP), especially in Asian populations, and to identify cautionary items when using the endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) for parasellar/lateral lesions. Methods: We analyzed SSLP and the width of SS (SSW) in 121 patients who had undergone EEA from 2008 to 2013 at the Division of Neurosurgery, Keio University Hospital. SSLP was defined as the distance between the SS lateral edge and the medial aspect of the pterygoid process on coronal reconstruction computed tomography. SSW was defined as the distance between the midline and lateral wall. We recorded SSLP and SSW for 242 sides. Further, we present two characteristic cases. Results: The average SSLP and SSW were 7.0 mm (−10.0–25.8 mm) and 21.8 mm (6.0–40.2 mm), respectively. No correlation between pneumatization and age was observed at age 15 or more. Sphenoid pneumatization was significantly wider in male than in female patients. There was no relationship between lateral and sagittal plane pneumatization. In a patient with recurrent chordoma who had an undeveloped SSLP, the tumor was removed via the medial space in the internal carotid artery. In another patient who had a giant pituitary adenoma and average SSLP, the tumor was located in the middle cranial fossa and was removed via the lateral internal carotid space through the left SSLP. Conclusions: Wide variations were observed in SSLP and SSW. For EEA, pneumatization is an instrument corridor. Preoperative assessment of SSLP is important, especially for parasellar lesions. PMID:26962467

  12. Isolated Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome of the Lateral Lower Leg

    PubMed Central

    van Zantvoort, Aniek P.M.; de Bruijn, Johan A.; Winkes, Michiel B.; Dielemans, Jeanne P.; van der Cruijsen-Raaijmakers, Marike; Hoogeveen, Adwin R.; Scheltinga, Marc R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exercise-induced lower leg pain may be caused by chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS). The anterior (ant-CECS) or deep posterior compartment (dp-CECS) is usually affected. Knowledge regarding CECS of the lateral compartment (lat-CECS) is limited. Purpose: To describe demographic characteristics and symptoms in a consecutive series of patients with isolated CECS of the lateral compartment of the leg. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Since 2001, patients undergoing dynamic intracompartmental pressure (ICP) measurements for suspected CECS in a single institution were prospectively monitored. Individuals with a history possibly associated with lat-CECS and elevated ICP measurements (Pedowitz criteria) were identified. Exclusion criteria were concomitant ipsilateral ant-CECS/dp-CECS, acute compartment syndrome, recent significant trauma, peroneal nerve entrapment, or vascular claudication. Results: During an 11-year time period, a total of 26 patients with isolated lat-CECS fulfilled study criteria (15 females; median age, 21 years; range, 14-48 years). Frequently identified provocative sports were running (n = 4), walking (n = 4), field hockey (n = 3), soccer (n = 3), and volleyball (n = 2). Exercise-induced lateral lower leg pain (92%) and tightness (42%) were often reported. The syndrome was bilateral in almost two-thirds (62%, n = 16). Delay in diagnosis averaged 24 months (range, 2 months to 10 years). Conclusion: Young patients with exercise-induced pain in the lateral portions of the lower leg may suffer from isolated CECS of the lateral compartment. ICP measurements in the lateral compartment in these patients are recommended. PMID:26740955

  13. Comparative squamation of the lateral line canal pores in sharks.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, R W; Motta, P J; Rohr, J R

    2014-05-01

    The current study collected the first quantitative data on lateral line pore squamation patterns in sharks and assessed whether divergent squamation patterns are similar to experimental models that cause reduction in boundary layer turbulence. In addition, the hypothesis that divergent orientation angles are exclusively found in fast-swimming shark species was tested. The posterior lateral line and supraorbital lateral line pore squamation of the fast-swimming pelagic shortfin mako shark Isurus oxyrinchus and the slow-swimming epi-benthic spiny dogfish shark Squalus acanthias was examined. Pore scale morphology and pore coverage were qualitatively analysed and compared. In addition, pore squamation orientation patterns were quantified for four regions along the posterior lateral line and compared for both species. Isurus oxyrinchus possessed consistent pore scale coverage among sampled regions and had a divergent squamation pattern with multiple scale rows directed dorsally and ventrally away from the anterior margin of the pore with an average divergent angle of 13° for the first row of scales. Squalus acanthias possessed variable amounts of scale coverage among the sampled regions and had a divergent squamation pattern with multiple scale rows directed ventrally away from the anterior margin of the pore with an average angle of 19° for the first row of scales. Overall, the squamation pattern measured in I. oxyrinchus fell within the parameters used in the fluid flow analysis, which suggests that this pattern may reduce boundary layer turbulence and affect lateral line sensitivity. The exclusively ventral oriented scale pattern seen in S. acanthias possessed a high degree of divergence but the pattern did not match that of the fluid flow models. Given current knowledge, it is unclear how this would affect boundary layer flow. By studying the relationship between squamation patterns and the lateral line, new insights are provided into sensory biology that warrant future investigation due to the implications for the ecology, morphology and sensory evolution of sharks. PMID:24655049

  14. LATERAL GENE TRANSFER AND THE HISTORY OF BACTERIAL GENOMES

    SciTech Connect

    Howard Ochman

    2006-02-22

    The aims of this research were to elucidate the role and extent of lateral transfer in the differentiation of bacterial strains and species, and to assess the impact of gene transfer on the evolution of bacterial genomes. The ultimate goal of the project is to examine the dynamics of a core set of protein-coding genes (i.e., those that are distributed universally among Bacteria) by developing conserved primers that would allow their amplification and sequencing in any bacterial taxa. In addition, we adopted a bioinformatic approach to elucidate the extent of lateral gene transfer in sequenced genome.

  15. Two blowing concepts for roll and lateral control of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavella, D. A.; Wood, N. J.; Lee, C. S.; Roberts, L.

    1986-01-01

    Two schemes to modulate aerodynamic forces for roll and lateral control of aircraft have been investigated. The first scheme, called the lateral blowing concept, consists of thin jets of air exiting spanwise, or at small angle with the spanwise direction, from slots at the tips of straight wings. For this scheme, in addition to experimental measurements, a theory was developed showing the analytical relationship between aerodynamic forces and jet and wing parameters. Experimental results confirmed the theoretically derived scaling laws. The second scheme, which was studied experimentally, is called the jet spoiler concept and consists of thin jets exiting normally to the wing surface from slots aligned with the spanwise direction.

  16. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis treatment with ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide: a case report.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Simonetta

    2012-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons which leads to muscular atrophy, paralysis and death in 3-5 years from starting symptoms. This disorder is accompanied by noteworthy spinal inflammation mediated in particular by microglia and mast cells. No effective therapy is available. This report describes the effects of administering the anti-inflammatory agent palmitoylethanolamide in a case of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Palmitoylethanolamide treatment led to an improved clinical picture, as evidenced by electromyographic analysis and pulmonary function. Conceivably, the action of palmitoylethanolamide could result, in part, from its ability to dampen mast cell and microglia activation. PMID:22998138

  17. An Improved Method of Manufacturing Corrugated Boxes: Lateral Corrugator

    SciTech Connect

    Frank C. Murray Ph.D.; , Roman Popil Ph.D.; Michael Shaepe

    2008-12-18

    Paper physicists have known that a corrugated box constructed from outer liner sheets having a predominant fiber orientation aligned with the corrugating flute direction would have higher stiffness and crush resistance (per unit of fiber weight) than the conventional box construction. Such increased performance per unit of fiber weight could result in fiber reduction and energy savings for boxes having equivalent performance specifications. The goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a commercially viable lateral corrugating process. This included designing and building a pilot lateral corrugator, testing and evaluating pilot machine made boxes, and developing a strategy for commercialization.

  18. Lateral groundwater inflows into alluvial aquifers of main alpine valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    In alpine regions the topography is mainly characterised by deep incised valleys, mountain slopes and ridges. Usually the main valleys contain aquifers in alluvial soft rock. Lateral these aquifers are confined by mountainous hard rock slopes covered by heterogeneous sediments with different thickness. The slopes can be incised by lateral valleys. Numerical models for the main alluvial aquifers ask for lateral hydrogeological boundaries. Usually no flow boundaries or Constant head Boundaries are used, even if the lateral inflows to the main aquifers are rarely known. In this example a data set for a detailed investigated and monitored area is studied to give an answer on the location and the quantification of these lateral subsurface inflows. The study area is a typical main alpine valley with a thick alluvial aquifer (appr. 120m thick), lateral confined by granite, covered at the base of the steep slopes by quaternary sediments (Burger at al. 2012). The study consists of several steps 1.) Analytical calculation of the inflows on the base of investigated and monitored 2d profiles along fault zones (Perello et al 2013) which pinch out in the main valley 2.) Analytical models along typical W-dipping slopes with monitored slope springs 3.) Evaluating temperature and electrical conductivity profiles measured in approx. 30 groundwater wells in the alluvial aquifers and along the slopes to locate main lateral subsurface inflows 4.) Output of a regional model used for the hydrogeological back analyses of the excavation of a tunnel (Baietto et al. 2014) 5.) Output of a local numerical model calibrated with a monitoring dataset and results of a pumping test of big scale (450l/s for 10days) Results of these analyses are shown to locate and quantify the lateral groundwater inflows in the main alluvial aquifer. References Baietto A., Burger U., Perello P. (2014): Hydrogeological modelling applications in tunnel excavations: examples from tunnel excavations in granitic rocks; congress of IAEG, Engineering Geology for Society and Territory, Torino Burger U., San Nicoló L. Bösel D. und Perello P. (2012): Hydrogeologische Modelle - Hilfsmittel für die Planung am Beispiel des Brenner Basistunnel, Beiträge zur Beiträge zur COGeo 2011, Salzburg COGEO Perello P., Baietto A., Burger U., Skuk S. (2013): Excavation of the Aica-Mules pilot tunnel for the Brenner base tunnel: information gained on water inflows in tunnels in granitic massifs, Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, DOI 10.1007/s00603-013-0480-x

  19. Resume and analysis of NACA lateral control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weick, Fred E; Jones, Robert T

    1937-01-01

    An analysis of the principal results of recent NACA lateral control research is made by utilizing the experience and progress gained during the course of the investigation. Two things are considered of primary importance in judging the effectiveness of different control devices: the (calculated) banking and yawing motion of a typical small airplane caused by a deflection of the control, and the stick force required to produce this deflection. The report includes a table in which a number of different lateral control devices are compared on these bases.

  20. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh Dang; Julien, Jean-Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurological disorder that selectively affects motor neurons of brain and spinal cord. Emerging evidence indicates an involvement of the serine/threonine-cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) in the pathogenesis. Deregulation of Cdk5 by its truncated co-activators, p25 and p29, contributes to neurodegeneration by altering the phosphorylation state of cytosolic and cytoskeletal proteins and, possibly, through the induction of cell cycle regulators. The present paper reviews these findings and proposes new perspectives to decipher the mechanisms of neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis induced by Cdk5. PMID:14673208

  1. Released micromachined beams utilizing laterally uniform porosity porous silicon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Suspended micromachined porous silicon beams with laterally uniform porosity are reported, which have been fabricated using standard photolithography processes designed for compatibility with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) processes. Anodization, annealing, reactive ion etching, repeated photolithography, lift off and electropolishing processes were used to release patterned porous silicon microbeams on a Si substrate. This is the first time that micromachined, suspended PS microbeams have been demonstrated with laterally uniform porosity, well-defined anchors and flat surfaces. PACS 81.16.-c; 81.16.Nd; 81.16.Rf PMID:25221457

  2. Divided maxillary artery in relation to the lateral pterygoid muscle.

    PubMed

    Aland, R Claire; Shaw, Vivien

    2016-03-01

    We describe an anatomical variation of the right maxillary artery. The variation loops deep, giving off a middle meningeal artery with an extremely short extracranial segment, then bifurcates into unequal branches. The smaller branch passes superficial to the lateral pterygoid head and distributes primarily to the masticatory muscles. The larger partially pierces the lateral pterygoid lower head, re-emerges superficially, branches again and passes into the pterygopalatine fossa. The larger lies superficial to the lingual and inferior alveolar nerves and deep to the buccal nerve. An embryonic development origin of the cranial arteries is suggested. PMID:26077959

  3. Safety and the anatomy of the retroperitoneal lateral corridor with respect to the minimally invasive lateral lumbar intervertebral fusion approach.

    PubMed

    Regev, Gilad J; Kim, Choll W

    2014-04-01

    Safe and reproducible outcomes of the lateral lumbar intervertebral fusion (LLIF) procedure rely on meticulous care and understanding of the anatomy of the lateral corridor. This review aims to describe the different important anatomic considerations when performing LLIF and offer technical notes that may help increase the safety of this procedure. The LLIF procedure is divided into 5 stages: patient positioning, abdominal wall dissection, retroperitoneal space dissection, deployment of the surgical retractors, and diskectomy. Each stage is preformed in a distinct anatomic compartment that may cause different typical complications. PMID:24703441

  4. Spatiotemporal Coupling of the Tongue in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuruvilla, Mili S.; Green, Jordan R.; Yunusova, Yana; Hanford, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The primary aim of the investigation was to identify deficits in spatiotemporal coupling between tongue regions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The relations between disease-related changes in tongue movement patterns and speech intelligibility were also determined. Methods: The authors recorded word productions from 11

  5. Planning in Middle Childhood: Early Predictors and Later Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Sarah L.; Scholnick, Ellin K.; Bender, Randall H.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Spieker, Susan; Pasek, Kathy Hirsh; Keating, Daniel P.; Park, Yoonjung

    2014-01-01

    Data from 1,364 children and families who participated in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were analyzed to track the early correlates and later academic outcomes of planning during middle childhood. Maternal education, through its effect on parenting quality when

  6. A review of lateralization of spatial functioning in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Oleksiak, Anna; Postma, Albert; van der Ham, Ineke J M; Klink, P Christiaan; van Wezel, Richard J A

    2011-06-24

    The majority of research on functional cerebral lateralization in primates revolves around vocal abilities, addressing the evolutionary origin of the human language faculty and its predominance in the left hemisphere of the brain. Right hemisphere specialization in spatial cognition is commonly reported in humans. This functional asymmetry is especially evident in the context of the unilateral neglect, a deficit in attention to and awareness of one side of space, that more frequently occurs after right-side rather than left-side brain damage. Since most of the research efforts are concentrated on vocalization in primates, much less is known about the presence or absence of spatial functions lateralization. Obtaining this knowledge can provide insight into the evolutionary aspect of the functionally lateralized brain of Homo sapiens and deliver refinement and validation of the nonhuman primate unilateral neglect model. This paper reviews the literature on functional brain asymmetries in processing spatial information, limiting the search to nonhuman primates, and concludes there is no clear evidence that monkeys process spatial information with different efficiency in the two hemispheres. We suggest that lateralization of spatial cognition in humans represents a relatively new feature on the evolutionary time scale, possibly developed as a by-product of the left hemisphere intrusion of language competence. Further, we argue that the monkey model of hemispatial neglect requires reconsideration. PMID:21059373

  7. Styling in a Language Learned Later in Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampton, Ben

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses the styles of English produced by an adult migrant who started to speak the language later in life, and it approaches them from the perspective of quantitative style-shifting and discursive stylization. After defining style and the procedures needed to justify the term "L2," the study describes the focal…

  8. Hormonal Control of Lateral Root and Nodule Development in Legumes

    PubMed Central

    Bensmihen, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Many plants can establish symbioses with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, some of which lead to nodulation, including legumes. Indeed, in the rhizobium/legume symbiosis, new root organs, called nodules, are formed by the plant in order to host the rhizobia in protective conditions, optimized for nitrogen fixation. In this way, these plants can benefit from the reduction of atmospheric dinitrogen into ammonia by the hosted bacteria, and in exchange the plant provides the rhizobia with a carbon source. Since this symbiosis is costly for the plant it is highly regulated. Both legume nodule and lateral root organogenesis involve divisions of the root inner tissues, and both developmental programs are tightly controlled by plant hormones. In fact, most of the major plant hormones, such as auxin, cytokinins, abscisic acid, and strigolactones, control both lateral root formation and nodule organogenesis, but often in an opposite manner. This suggests that the sensitivity of legume plants to some phytohormones could be linked to the antagonism that exists between the processes of nodulation and lateral root formation. Here, we will review the implication of some major phytohormones in lateral root formation in legumes, compare them with their roles in nodulation, and discuss specificities and divergences from non-legume eudicot plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana.

  9. Why segment the maxilla between laterals and canines?

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Lucas Senhorinho; dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Sullivan, Steven M.; Martins, Luana Maria Rosário; Ávila, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Maxillary surgery on a bone segment enables movement in the sagittal and vertical planes. When performed on multiple segments, it further provides movement in the transverse plane. Typical sites for interdental osteotomies are between laterals and canines, premolars and canines, or between incisors. Additionally, osteotomies can be bilateral, unilateral or asymmetric. The ability to control intercanine width, buccolingual angulation of incisors, and correct Bolton discrepancy are some of the advantages of maxillary segmentation between laterals and canines. Objective: This article describes important features to be considered in making a clinical decision to segment the maxilla between laterals and canines when treating a dentoskeletal deformity. It further discusses the history of this surgical approach, the indications for its clinical use, the technique used to implement it, as well as its advantages, disadvantages, complications and stability. It is therefore hoped that this paper will contribute to disseminate information on this topic, which will inform the decision-making process of those professionals who wish to make use of this procedure in their clinical practice. Conclusions: Segmental maxillary osteotomy between laterals and canines is a versatile technique with several indications. Furthermore, it offers a host of advantages compared with single-piece osteotomy, or between canines and premolars. PMID:27007769

  10. SENSORY HAIR CELL REGENERATION IN THE ZEBRAFISH LATERAL LINE

    PubMed Central

    Lush, Mark E.; Piotrowski, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Damage or destruction of sensory hair cells in the inner ear leads to hearing or balance deficits that can be debilitating, especially in older adults. Unfortunately, the damage is permanent, as regeneration of the inner ear sensory epithelia does not occur in mammals. Zebrafish and other non-mammalian vertebrates have the remarkable ability to regenerate sensory hair cells and understanding the molecular and cellular basis for this regenerative ability will hopefully aid us in designing therapies to induce regeneration in mammals. Zebrafish not only possess hair cells in the ear but also in the sensory lateral line system. Hair cells in both organs are functionally analogous to hair cells in the inner ear of mammals. The lateral line is a mechanosensory system found in most aquatic vertebrates that detects water motion and aids in predator avoidance, prey capture, schooling and mating. Although hair cell regeneration occurs in both the ear and lateral line, most research to date has focused on the lateral line due to its relatively simple structure and accessibility. Here we review the recent discoveries made during the characterization of hair cell regeneration in zebrafish. PMID:25045019

  11. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, August 1951 LATERAL VIEW, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, August 1951 LATERAL VIEW, EAST FRONT, OLD PHOTOGRAPH c. 1850 Restricted: Permission for use must be obtained in writing from Art Library, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. - Skinner-Trowbridge House, 46 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  12. The Joint Development of Hemispheric Lateralization for Words and Faces

    PubMed Central

    Dundas, Eva M.; Plaut, David C.; Behrmann, Marlene

    2014-01-01

    Consistent with longstanding findings from behavioral studies, neuroimaging investigations have identified a region of the inferior temporal cortex that, in adults, shows greater face-selectivity in the right than left hemisphere and, conversely, a region that shows greater word-selectivity in the left than right hemisphere. What has not been determined is how this pattern of mature hemispheric specialization emerges over the course of development. The current study examines the hemispheric superiority for faces and words in children, young adolescents and adults in a discrimination task in which stimuli are presented briefly in either hemifield. Whereas adults showed the expected left and right visual field superiority for face and word discrimination, respectively, the young adolescents demonstrated only the right field superiority for words and no field superiority for faces. Although the children's overall accuracy was lower than that of the older groups, like the young adolescents, they exhibited a right visual field superiority for words but no field superiority for faces. Interestingly, the emergence of face lateralization was correlated with reading competence, measured on an independent standardized test, after regressing out age, quantitative reasoning scores, and face discrimination accuracy. Taken together, these findings suggest that the hemispheric organization of face and word recognition do not develop independently, and that word lateralization, which emerges earlier, may drive later face lateralization. A theoretical account in which competition for visual representations unfolds over the course of development is proposed to account for the findings. PMID:22866684

  13. 22 CFR 135.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 135.51 Section 135.51 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS After-The-Grant Requirements §...

  14. 40 CFR 31.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....51 Section 31.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... GOVERNMENTS After-the-Grant Requirements § 31.51 Later disallowances and adjustments. The closeout of a grant does not affect: (a) The Federal agency's right to disallow costs and recover funds on the basis of...

  15. 34 CFR 80.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 80.51 Section 80.51 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR... transactions; (c) Records retention as required in § 80.42; (d) Property management requirements in §§...

  16. 34 CFR 80.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 80.51 Section 80.51 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR... transactions; (c) Records retention as required in § 80.42; (d) Property management requirements in §§...

  17. 34 CFR 80.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 80.51 Section 80.51 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR... transactions; (c) Records retention as required in § 80.42; (d) Property management requirements in §§...

  18. 34 CFR 80.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 80.51 Section 80.51 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR... transactions; (c) Records retention as required in § 80.42; (d) Property management requirements in §§...

  19. 34 CFR 80.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 80.51 Section 80.51 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR... transactions; (c) Records retention as required in § 80.42; (d) Property management requirements in §§...

  20. 15 CFR 24.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 24.51 Section 24.51 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce UNIFORM... in §§ 24.31 and 24.32; and (e) Audit requirements in § 24.26....

  1. Acoustic Investigations into the Later Acquisition of Syllabic "-es" Plurals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mealings, Kiri T.; Cox. Felicity; Demuth, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Children acquire /-ez/ syllabic plurals (e.g., buses) later than /-s, -z/ segmental plurals (e.g., cats,dogs). In this study, the authors explored whether increased syllable number or segmental factors best explains poorer performance with syllabic plurals. Method: An elicited imitation experiment was conducted with 14 two-year-olds…

  2. Read Hard, Play Later: Putting Summer Reading into Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wemett, Lisa C.; Bolan, Kimberly

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of "Read on the Wild Side," a summer reading program for young adults established by the Webster (New York) Public Library, and "Read Hard, Play Later," a young adult summer reading program of the Pioneer Library System (New York). Highlights include reading logs, T-shirts, publicity, program evaluation, benefits, summer

  3. Forecasting the path of a laterally propagating dike

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimisson, Elías Rafn; Hooper, Andrew; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn

    2015-12-01

    An important aspect of eruption forecasting is predicting the path of propagating dikes. We show how lateral dike propagation can be forecast using the minimum potential energy principle. We compare theory to observed propagation paths of dikes originating at the Bárðarbunga volcano, Iceland, in 2014 and 1996, by developing a probability distribution for the most likely propagation path. The observed propagation paths agree well with the model prediction. We find that topography is very important for the model, and our preferred forecasting model considers its influence on the potential energy change of the crust and magma. We tested the influence of topography by running the model assuming no topography and found that the path of the 2014 dike could not be hindcasted. The results suggest that lateral dike propagation is governed not only by deviatoric stresses but also by pressure gradients and gravitational potential energy. Furthermore, the model predicts the formation of curved dikes around cone-shaped structures without the assumption of a local deviatoric stress field. We suggest that a likely eruption site for a laterally propagating dike is in topographic lows. The method presented here is simple and computationally feasible. Our results indicate that this kind of a model can be applied to mitigate volcanic hazards in regions where the tectonic setting promotes formation of laterally propagating vertical intrusive sheets.

  4. Lateral Knee Braces in Football: Do They Prevent Injury?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulos, Lonnie E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The results of three recently presented clinical studies and a biomechanical study of the use of lateral knee braces to prevent knee injuries are reviewed. The results raise serious doubts about the efficacy of the preventive knee braces which are currently available. (Author/MT)

  5. 17. View of passage (formerly Spicket Street; later, railroad rightofway) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. View of passage (formerly Spicket Street; later, railroad right-of-way) between Paper Machine Building (on left) and Wilder Mill (on right), from inside security fence; view to north. - Champion-International Paper Company, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  6. 15. View of passage (formerly Spicket Street; later, railroad rightofway) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. View of passage (formerly Spicket Street; later, railroad right-of-way) between Wilder Mill (on left) and Paper Machine Building (on right), showing collapsed area of stone arch bridge spanning raceway in foreground; view to south - Champion-International Paper Company, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  7. 16. View of passage (formerly Spicket Street; later, railroad rightofway) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. View of passage (formerly Spicket Street; later, railroad right-of-way) between Paper Machine Building (on left) and Wilder Mill (on right), from Canal Street; view to north. - Champion-International Paper Company, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  8. Later Life Leisure: How They Play in Peoria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, John R.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated the extent to which leisure is more than a time-filler for adults aged 40 and older. Analyzes how leisure is a social space of relative freedom for expression, development, and community through the adult life course in relation to styles of later life coping. (Author/ABB)

  9. Lateralized frontal activity for Japanese phonological processing during child development

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Takaaki; Kita, Yosuke; Suzuki, Kota; Koike, Toshihide; Inagaki, Masumi

    2015-01-01

    Phonological awareness is essential for reading, and is common to all language systems, including alphabetic languages and Japanese. This cognitive factor develops during childhood, and is thought to be associated with shifts in brain activity. However, the nature of this neurobiological developmental shift is unclear for speakers of Japanese, which is not an alphabetical language. The present study aimed to reveal a shift in brain functions for processing phonological information in native-born Japanese children. We conducted a phonological awareness task and examined hemodynamic activity in 103 children aged 7–12 years. While younger children made mistakes and needed more time to sort phonological information in reverse order, older children completed the task quickly and accurately. Additionally, younger children exhibited increased activity in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which may be evidence of immature phonological processing skills. Older children exhibited dominant activity in the left compared with the right DLPFC, suggesting that they had already acquired phonological processing skills. We also found significant effects of age and lateralized activity on behavioral performance. During earlier stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a smaller effect on behavioral performance. Conversely, in later stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a stronger influence on behavioral performance. These initial findings regarding a neurobiological developmental shift in Japanese speakers suggest that common brain regions play a critical role in the development of phonological processing skills among different languages systems, such as Japanese and alphabetical languages. PMID:26236223

  10. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients' Perspectives on Use of Mechanical Ventilation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jenny M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Interviewed 13 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. All believed that they alone should make decision regarding use of mechanical ventilation. Factors they considered important were quality of life, severity of disability, availability of ventilation by means of nasal mask, possible admission to long-term care facility, ability to discontinue…

  11. Body composition in infancy: impact on health later in life

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From retrospective studies, there is substantial evidence that birthweight and the rate of weight gain during early infancy are associated with increased risk for adverse health outcomes later in life. Birthweight is the marker of the integrative effects of the prenatal environment, while the rate o...

  12. Stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy under lateral decubitus position

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hyup; Jung, Youn Joo; Jung, Hyuk Jae; Kim, Jee Yeon; Choo, Ki Seok; Nam, Kyung Jin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VAB) has been established as a standard method for histological diagnosis of microcalcification or nonpalpable breast lesions on mammography. Generally, the procedure has been done under the prone position or upright sitting position. We herein attempt to evaluate clinical utility of Stereotactic VAB under lateral decubitus position. Methods One hundred six women (mean age, 51.2 years) with mammographically detected microcalcification underwent lateral decubitus positioning VAB using the 8G probe. In all cases, we obtained mammography specimens for identification of microcalcification and postprocedure mammography. We reviewed mean procedure time, pieces of specimen, pathology and follow-up mammography. Results The procedure took approximately 20 minutes (range, 15-24 minutes). Average number of obtained specimens was 8.5 pieces (range, 6-12 pieces). Microcalcifications were confirmed in both specimen mammography and microscopic slides. Of 106 cases, 10 cases were diagnosed as ductal carcinoma in situ. Additional surgical management was performed. Atypical ductal hyperplasias were found in 8 cases, and fibrocystic changes in 88 cases. Conclusion Stereotactic VAB using the 8G probe under lateral decubitus position does not need a dedicated table, and is easier to maintain the position. Also, this procedure is accurate and safe. Thus, stereotactic VAB using the 8G probe under lateral decubitus position will be a useful method for diagnosis of microcalcification or nonpalpable breast lesions on mammography. PMID:26793688

  13. Predictors of Early versus Later Spelling Development in Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber; Juul, Holger

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined phoneme awareness, phonological short term memory, letter knowledge, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and visual-verbal paired associate learning (PAL) as longitudinal predictors of spelling skills in an early phase (Grade 2) and a later phase (Grade 5) of development in a sample of 140 children learning to spell in the…

  14. Androgynous Gender Roles in Later Life: Conceptual Critique and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Kathleen; McGee, Jeanne

    Recent theoretical formulations by Gutmann and Sinnott about the nature of men's and women's roles in later life are critiqued on conceptual and empirical grounds. This paper proposes a multidimensional conceptualization of gender role that stresses dynamic linkages between psychological and social psychological levels of analysis. Requisites of a…

  15. Beyond Subjection: Notes on the Later Foucault and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This article argues against the doxa that Foucault's analysis of education inevitably undermines self-originating ethical intention on the part of teachers or students. By attending to Foucault's lesser known, later work--in particular, the notion of "biopower" and the deepened level of materiality it entails--the article shows how the earlier…

  16. [Repositioning latero-lateral cephalometric films in terminal hinge position].

    PubMed

    Avril, C M

    1989-11-01

    Latero-lateral cephalometric films of the mandible in maximum intercuspation should be repositioned in centric relation to avoid misinterpretation in the VTO. A technique involving the combined use of articulator-mounted study models and a cephalometric analysis allows the center of rotation to be accurately determined for VTO. PMID:2637831

  17. Chemical Ototoxicity of the Fish Inner Ear and Lateral Line.

    PubMed

    Coffin, Allison B; Ramcharitar, John

    2016-01-01

    Hair cell-driven mechanosensory systems are crucial for successful execution of a number of behaviors in fishes, and have emerged as good models for exploring questions relevant to human hearing. This review focuses on ototoxic effects in the inner ear and lateral line system of fishes. We specifically examine studies where chemical ototoxins such as aminoglycoside antibiotics have been employed as tools to disable the lateral line. Lateral line ablation results in alterations to feeding behavior and orientation to water current in a variety of species. However, neither behavior is abolished in the presence of additional sensory cues, supporting the hypothesis that many fish behaviors are driven by multisensory integration. Within biomedical research, the larval zebrafish lateral line has become an important model system for understanding signaling mechanisms that contribute to hair cell death and for developing novel pharmacological therapies that protect hair cells from ototoxic damage. Furthermore, given that fishes robustly regenerate damaged hair cells, ototoxin studies in fishes have broadened our understanding of the molecular and genetic events in an innately regenerative system, offering potential targets for mammalian hair cell regeneration. Collectively, studies of fish mechanosensory systems have yielded insight into fish behavior and in mechanisms of hair cell death, protection, and regeneration. PMID:26515324

  18. Severe hypoxia impairs lateralization in a marine teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Lucon-Xiccato, Tyrone; Nati, Julie J H; Blasco, Felipe Rocco; Johansen, Jacob L; Steffensen, John F; Domenici, Paolo

    2014-12-01

    In intertidal environments, the recurring hypoxic condition at low tide is one of the main factors affecting fish behaviour, causing broad effects on ecological interactions. We assessed the effects of hypoxia on lateralization (e.g. the tendency to turn left or right), a behaviour related to brain functional asymmetry, which is thought to play a key role in several life history aspects of fish. Using staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus), a benthic fish that typically inhabits the intertidal zone, we found that hypoxia affects behavioural lateralization at the population level. On average, staghorn sculpins showed a distinct preference for right turns under normoxic conditions (>90% oxygen saturation), but an equal probability of turning right or left after exposure to hypoxia for 2 h (20% oxygen saturation). The specific turning preference observed in the staghorn sculpin control population is likely to have an adaptive value, for example in predator-prey interactions by enhancing attack success or survival from predatory attacks. Therefore the alteration of lateralization expressed by staghorn sculpins under hypoxic conditions may have far-reaching implications for species ecology and trophic interactions. Moreover, our work raises the need to study this effect in other species, in which a hypoxia-driven disruption of lateralization could affect a wider range of behaviours, such as social interactions and schooling. PMID:25359933

  19. Social Learning Modulates the Lateralization of Emotional Valence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G.; Lavidor, Michal; Aharon-Peretz, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Although neuropsychological studies of lateralization of emotion have emphasized valence (positive vs. negative) or type (basic vs. complex) dimensions, the interaction between the two dimensions has yet to be elucidated. The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that recognition of basic emotions is processed preferentially by…

  20. Transitions into and out of Cohabitation in Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Susan L.; Bulanda, Jennifer Roebuck; Lee, Gary R.

    2012-01-01

    Cohabitation among adults over age 50 is rising rapidly, more than doubling from 1.2 million in 2000 to 2.75 million in 2010. A small literature provides a descriptive portrait of older cohabitors, but no study has investigated transitions into and out of cohabitation during later life. Drawing on demographic and life course perspectives, the…

  1. 13. ONE OF TWO LATERAL ROOF TRUSSES AND ROOF SUPPORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. ONE OF TWO LATERAL ROOF TRUSSES AND ROOF SUPPORT BEAMS OF SARATOGA GAS LIGHT COMPANY GASHOLDER NO. 2 HOUSE LOOKING WEST. THE WIRES AND BEAM AT RIGHT CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH HAVE BEEN ADDED TO STABILIZE TRUSS SYSTEM - Saratoga Gas Light Company, Gasholder No. 2, Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation Substation Facility, intersection of Excelsior & East Avenues, Saratoga Springs, NY

  2. Tuning the lateral mobility of thin block copolymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermudez, Harry; Kourouklis, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Polymer mobility in confined environments is of both theoretical and practical interest. The controlled formation and characterization of systems where such effects can be studied remain active areas of investigation. In this work, we created ultrathin (< 50 nm) supported films of amphiphilic polybutylene-poly(ethylene) oxide diblock copolymers, through Langmuir-Blodgett and Langmuir-Schaefer techniques. To adjust the lateral mobility of these ultrathin films, short polyisobutylene homopolymer was introduced during the film assembly process. Preliminary fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) results show that the lateral mobility of the block copolymers is proportional to the logarithm of homopolymer concentration. The mobility can be varied by up to a factor of 8 with as little as 1 mol% of homopolymer. The role of the added homopolymer on the block copolymer lateral mobility is likely to be related with several features such as chain entanglements, interfacial constraints, and interlayer friction. By varying the concentration and the molecular weight of the homopolymer introduced into the films, we attempt to explain the underlying physical mechanisms that are responsible for changes in lateral mobility. National Science Foundation

  3. Spatiotemporal Coupling of the Tongue in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuruvilla, Mili S.; Green, Jordan R.; Yunusova, Yana; Hanford, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The primary aim of the investigation was to identify deficits in spatiotemporal coupling between tongue regions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The relations between disease-related changes in tongue movement patterns and speech intelligibility were also determined. Methods: The authors recorded word productions from 11…

  4. Ratchet effects in graphene and quantum wells with lateral superlattice

    SciTech Connect

    Golub, L. E.; Nalitov, A. V.; Ivchenko, E. L.; Olbrich, P.; Kamann, J.; Eroms, J.; Weiss, D.; Ganichev, S. D.

    2013-12-04

    Theoretical and experimental studies on the ratchet effects in graphene and in quantum wells with a lateral superlattice excited by alternating electric fields of terahertz frequency range are presented. We discuss the Seebeck ratchet effect and helicity driven photocurrents and show that the photocurrent generation is based on the combined action of a spatially periodic in-plane potential and a spatially modulated light.

  5. TIBIOTARSAL COMPRESSION ARTHRODESIS USING A LATERAL LOCKING PLATE

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Michael J.; Nery, Caio; Baumfeld, Daniel; Jastifer, James

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Tibiotalar (TT) arthrodesis is still a very important option in the treatment of primary or post-traumatic arthritis of the ankle but persists the controversy regarding the optimal method for the fixation of the arthrodesis site. No matter the implant used, the goal is to obtain a solid, healthy, pain-free fusion. The purpose of the current study is to present the preliminary results of a novel laterally based tibiotalar compression arthrodesis system using a locked plate. Methods: Thirteen consecutive patients with tibiotalar arthritis were submitted to an arthrodesis using a new lateral plating system. The average age was 59.7 years (range 36~72); nine patients were male and four female. Using a cutting guide, the remaining articular surfaces of the tibia and talus were removed. A compression device was applied to avoid malalignment of the ankle and a precontoured lateral locking plate was used to achieve the joint fusion. Results: Both the AOFAS ankle-hindfoot score and the VAS score improved with the surgery. All patients’ ankles fused by 6 months. In all patients we found a very good alignment in the sagittal, coronal and transverse planes. Conclusion: We believe that a combination of a bilateral compression, contoured bony cuts, and lateral locked plating offers a novel, accurate and useful technique for ankle arthrodesis. PMID:27047874

  6. 17. Photocopy of drawing, Erection Plan of Top Lateral Bracing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of drawing, Erection Plan of Top Lateral Bracing of Bridge at South Norwalk for the N.Y., N.H. and H.R.R., dated June 12, 1895. Original on file with Metro North Commuter Railroad. - South Norwalk Railroad Bridge, South Main & Washington Streets, Norwalk, Fairfield County, CT

  7. Acoustic Investigations into the Later Acquisition of Syllabic "-es" Plurals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mealings, Kiri T.; Cox. Felicity; Demuth, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Children acquire /-ez/ syllabic plurals (e.g., buses) later than /-s, -z/ segmental plurals (e.g., cats,dogs). In this study, the authors explored whether increased syllable number or segmental factors best explains poorer performance with syllabic plurals. Method: An elicited imitation experiment was conducted with 14 two-year-olds

  8. 9. VIEW SHOWING CHILDREN SWIMMING IN A LATERAL OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW SHOWING CHILDREN SWIMMING IN A LATERAL OF THE GRAND CANAL LOCATION UNKNOWN. THE HUGE COTTONWOOD TREES THAT ONCE-LINED MOST CANALS AND DITCHES WERE CUT DOWN WHEN IT WAS DISCOVERED THAT THEY CONSUMED HUNDREDS OF GALLONS OF WATER EACH DAY. Photographer unknown, no date - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. Lateral diffusion in inhomogeneous membranes. Model membranes containing cholesterol.

    PubMed Central

    Owicki, J C; McConnell, H M

    1980-01-01

    The problem of lateral diffusion in inhomogeneous membranes is illustrated by a theoretical calculation of the lateral diffusion of a fluorescent lipid probe in binary mixtures of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol under conditions of temperature and composition such that this lipid mixture consists of alternating parallel domains of fluid and solid lipid, having separations that are small compared with the distance scale employed in photobleaching experiments. The theoretical calculations clearly illustrate how inhomogeneities in membrane composition affecting the lateral motion of membrane components on a small (10-100 nm) distance scale can give complex diffusive responses in experiments such as fluorescence photobleaching that employ comparatively macroscopic distances (10-100 micrometers) for the measurement of diffusive recovery. The theoretical calculations exhibit the unusual dependence of the apparent lateral diffusion coefficient of a fluorescent lipid probe on lipid composition in binary mixtures of cholesterol and phosphatidylcholines as reported by Rubenstein et al. (1979, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 76:15-18). PMID:6894875

  10. 12. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF FIRST CENTRE FAMILY DWELLING HOUSE, LATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF FIRST CENTRE FAMILY DWELLING HOUSE, LATER FARMER DEACON'S SHOP, WITH SECOND CENTRE FAMILY DWELLING HOUSE IN BACKGROUND - Shaker Centre Family Dwelling House (First), North side of Village Road, North of U.S. Route 68 & State Route 33 intersection, Shakertown, Mercer County, KY

  11. Modeling, Simulation, and Parameter Estimation of Lateral Spacecraft Fuel Slosh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatman, Yadira; Gangadharan, Sathya; Marsell, Brandon; Schlee, Keith; Sudermann, James; Walker, Charles; Ristow, James

    2008-01-01

    Predicting the effect of fuel slosh on a spacecraft and/or launch vehicle attitude control system is a very important and a challenging task. Whether the spacecraft is under spinning or lateral moving conditions, the dynamic effect of the fuel slosh will help determine whether the spacecraft will remain on its chosen trajectory. There are three categories of slosh that can be caused by launch vehicle and/or spacecraft maneuvers when the fuel is in the presence of an acceleration field. These include bulk fluid motion, subsurface wave motion, and free surface slosh. Each of these slosh types have a periodic component that is defined by either a spinning or lateral motion. For spinning spacecraft, all three types of slosh can play a major role in determining stability. Bulk fluid motion and free surface slosh can affect the lateral slosh characteristics. For either condition, the possibility for an unpredicted coupled resonance between the spacecraft and its on board fuel can have mission threatening affects. This on-going research effort aims at improving the accuracy and efficiency of modeling techniques used to predict these types of lateral fluid motions. In particular, efforts will focus on analyzing the effects of viscoelastic diaphragms on slosh dynamics.

  12. The Effects of Bilateral Presentations on Lateralized Lexical Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandino, Leonardo; Iacoboni, Marco; Zaidel, Eran

    2007-01-01

    We investigated how lateralized lexical decision is affected by the presence of distractors in the visual hemifield contralateral to the target. The study had three goals: first, to determine how the presence of a distractor (either a word or a pseudoword) affects visual field differences in the processing of the target; second, to identify the

  13. Lateral and Anterior Thalamic Lesions Impair Independent Memory Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Anna S.; Dalrymple-Alford, John C.

    2006-01-01

    Damage to the medial region of the thalamus, both in clinical cases (e.g., patients with infarcts or the Korsakoff's syndrome) and animal lesion models, is associated with variable amnesic deficits. Some studies suggest that many of these memory deficits rely on the presence of lateral thalamic lesions (LT) that include the intralaminar nuclei,…

  14. National motives predict psychogenic death rates 25 years later.

    PubMed

    Rudin, S A

    1968-05-24

    Achievement motivation scores derived fromn analyses of content of children's stories from 16 countries predicted death rates dut to ulcers and hypertension, and power motivation scores predicted death rates due to murder, suicide, and cirrhosis of the liver 25 years later. PMID:5647837

  15. Lateral Eye Movement and Cogitation in Junior High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauria, Mark W.; Wichman, Harvey

    In a between-subject experimental design, 31 randomly selected junior high school students demonstrated lateral eye movement (LEM) immediately following the administration of each question in a group of questions, designed to alternately activate either the left or the right cerebral hemisphere. Because the subjects showed consistency in their…

  16. Role of gas pressure and lateral stress on blistering

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfer, W.G.

    1980-04-01

    Both gas pressure in bubbles and lateral stress have been suggested as primary causes of blistering. An analysis of both mechanisms is presented, and the conditions for blistering are examined. To realistically predict the gas pressure in bubbles, a recently derived high-density equation of state for helium is utilized.

  17. Cultivating stem cells for treating amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shengwen Calvin; Yin, Hong Zhen; Loudon, William G; Weiss, John H

    2012-01-01

    This editorial addresses the current challenges and future directions in the use of stem cells as an approach for treating amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A wide variety of literature has been reviewed to enlighten the reader on the many facets of stem cell research that are important to consider before using them for a cell based therapy. PMID:23516096

  18. Cultivating stem cells for treating amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Shengwen Calvin; Yin, Hong Zhen; Loudon, William G; Weiss, John H

    2012-12-26

    This editorial addresses the current challenges and future directions in the use of stem cells as an approach for treating amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A wide variety of literature has been reviewed to enlighten the reader on the many facets of stem cell research that are important to consider before using them for a cell based therapy. PMID:23516096

  19. Cushioning and lateral stability functions of cloth sport shoes.

    PubMed

    Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui; Hong, Youlian; Li, Jing Xian

    2007-09-01

    In this study, we evaluated the protective functions of cloth sport shoes, including cushioning and lateral stability. Twelve male students participated in the study (mean +/- s: age 12.7 +/- 0.4 years, mass 40.7 +/- 5.9kg, height 1.50 +/- 0.04m). Cloth sport shoes, running shoes, basketball shoes, crosstraining shoes, and barefoot conditions were investigated in random sequence. Human pendulum and cutting movement tests were used to assess cushioning performance and lateral stability, respectively. For cushioning, the running shoes (2.06 body weight, BW) performed the best, while the cross-training shoes (2.30 BW) and the basketball shoes (2.37 BW) both performed better than the cloth sport shoes (2.55 BW) and going barefoot (2.63 BW). For the lateral stability test, range of inversion--eversion was found to be from 3.6 to 4.9 degrees, which was far less than that for adult participants (> 20 degrees). No significant differences were found between conditions. All conditions showed prolonged durations from foot-strike to maximum inversion (66-95 ms), which was less vigorous than that for adult participants (< 40 ms) and was unlikely to evoke intrinsic stability failure. In conclusion, the cloth sport shoe showed inferior cushioning capability but the same lateral stability as the other sports shoes for children. PMID:17933201

  20. Cerebral Laterality Effects in the Dual Processing of Prose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Raymond S.

    1984-01-01

    The degree to which concreteness of prose material presented in an auditory fashion would interact with learners' lateral preference under different right hemispheric presentation conditions was investigated with 96 adults. Subjects recalled a greater number of ideas when the passage was concrete. Abstractness interacted with cerebral dominance.…