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1

[Evaluation of AO kit screw fixation of medial condyle and epicondyle distal humeral epiphyseal fractures in children].  

PubMed

In the Pediatric Surgery Department of the Voivodeship Hospital in Koszalin the use of screw fixation claims to be the method od choice for treating the fractures of medial epicondyle and condyles of the distal humeral bone epiphysis in children, thus challenging Kirschner's wire fixation being commonly applied in these traumas, and in consequence making it necessary to compare the results obtained after resorting to each of these methods. The accomplished comparative study covered the total of 101 persons, aged from 5 to 28 years, over the period from 1 to 15 years (mean 6 years) after trauma, treated due to the above-mentioned injuries in the years 1976-1990, at this Department (86 persons), and in the years 1980-1990 at the Pediatric Surgery Clinic of the Pomeranian Medical Academy in Szczecin (15 persons) exclusively by means of Kirschner's wire fixation. In 64 patients screw fixation was implanted, and in 37-Kirschner's wire. The studied material was divided into 4 subgroups (Tab. 1) comprising respectively: 41 persons (subgroup A) after past fracture of medial epicondyle treated by screw fixation; 26 persons (subgroup A1) with past medial epicondyle fracture treated by Kirschner's wire fixation: 23 persons with past condyle fracture treated by screw fixation (subgroup B) and 11 persons after condyle fracture treated by Kirschner's wire fixation (subgroup B1). Three control groups were set up: control group I, showed normal reference values, represented the assessments of healthy ulnar joints contrasting with the previously inflicted injury in 101 persons of the studied group. The control group II, concerning the physical examinations, incorporated 43 persons burdened neither by past trauma, nor by any other lesions of the ulnar joints, randomly selected: 23 children, 12 under the care of their parents, and 11 persons of juvenile age, registered with the pediatric surgery or rehabilitation consulting centres in Koszalin. Control group III, concerned with correct radiologic measurements included 45 persons randomly selected, aged from 5 to 27 years in whom radiograms of their ulnar joints were made on indications not involving the trauma of the joint. The clinical evaluation took into account the anamnesis data, assessment of the ulnar joint shape, appearance of the postoperative scar, innervation status within the ulnar nerve range, measurements of the length of arm, its circumference, flexion and extension movement (with analysis of the range of movement) value of the angle of the arm axis deviation in relation to forearm axis, as well as muscle power. The radiographic evaluation encompassed the measurements of angles: humeral, ulnar, physiological valgity as well as diaphysio-epiphysial one, and moreover, the evaluation of the symphysis quality, outlines of distal epiphysis of the humeral bone and its bony structure. The mentioned parameters of the clinical evaluation, two of the parameters of the radiological evaluation, and also the final point estimation of the treatment results were subjected to statistical analysis by applying the analysis of variance, with the level of significance being accepted as p = 0.05. The noted results have shown that significant findings in the clinical evaluation were primarily the measurements of both the range of movements and the angle of the arm axis deviation, in relation to the forearm axis, while in the radiological evaluation-the symphysis quality estimation and occasionally occurring absence of correlation between the result of clinical evaluation and the radiological one (Fig. 1). Moreover, the recorded results pointed to the screw fixation as being more favourable, than Kirschner's wire fixation, method of treating the mentioned injuries in children (clinical and radiological data were favouring the screw fixation in fractures of medial epicondyle-whereas in condyle fractures-first of all the clinical data). (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED) PMID:9471919

Szyma?ska, E

1997-01-01

2

Posterior cruciate ligament mediated avulsion fracture of the lateral tibial condyle: a case report.  

PubMed

Avulsion fractures of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) are uncommon. On the basis of the site of damage of the PCL, hyperflexion, pretibial trauma, and hyperextension are proposed as mechanisms of PCL injuries. On the other hand, avulsion fractures of the tibial condyle are also rare. We report a PCL-mediated avulsion fracture of the lateral tibial condyle along with the tibial insertion of the PCL by extension-distraction force on the knee that has not been previously described in any study. This rare case may imply that application of an extension-distraction force to the PCL cause the avulsion fracture. PMID:20825638

Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Sumi, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Katsuji

2010-01-01

3

Long-term results of arthroscopic excision of unstable osteochondral lesions of the lateral femoral condyle.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term functional and radiological outcomes of arthroscopic removal of unstable osteochondral lesions with subchondral drilling in the lateral femoral condyle. We reviewed the outcome of 23 patients (28 knees) with stage III or IV osteochondritis dissecans lesions of the lateral femoral condyle at a mean follow-up of 14 years (10 to 19). The functional clinical outcomes were assessed using the Lysholm score, which improved from a mean of 38.1 (SD 3.5) pre-operatively to a mean of 87.3 (SD 5.4) at the most recent review (p = 0.034), and the Tegner activity score, which improved from a pre-operative median of 2 (0 to 3) to a median of 5 (3 to 7) at final follow-up (p = 0.021). The radiological degenerative changes were evaluated according to Tapper and Hoover's classification and when compared with the pre-operative findings, one knee had grade 1, 22 knees had grade 2 and five knees had grade 3 degenerative changes. The overall outcomes were assessed using Hughston's rating scale, where 19 knees were rated as good, four as fair and five as poor. We found radiological evidence of degenerative changes in the third or fourth decade of life at a mean of 14 years after arthroscopic excision of the loose body and subchondral drilling for an unstable osteochondral lesion of the lateral femoral condyle. Clinical and functional results were more satisfactory. PMID:22323683

Lim, H-C; Bae, J-H; Park, Y-E; Park, Y-H; Park, J-H; Park, J-W; Suh, D-H

2012-02-01

4

Quantitative proteomics reveals regulatory differences in the chondrocyte secretome from human medial and lateral femoral condyles in osteoarthritic patients  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is a destructive joint disease and there are no known biomarkers available for an early diagnosis. To identify potential disease biomarkers and gain further insight into the disease mechanisms of OA we applied quantitative proteomics with SILAC technology on the secretomes from chondrocytes of OA knees, designated as high Mankin (HM) scored secretome. A quantitative comparison was made between the secretomes of the medial and lateral femur condyle chondrocytes in the same knee since the medial femur condyle is usually more affected in OA than the lateral condyle, which was confirmed by Mankin scoring. The medial/lateral comparison was also made on the secretomes from chondrocytes taken from one individual with no clinically apparent joint-disease, designated as low Mankin (LM) scored secretome. Results We identified 825 proteins in the HM secretome and 69 of these showed differential expression when comparing the medial and lateral femoral compartment. The LM scored femoral condyle showed early signs of OA in the medial compartment as assessed by Mankin score. We here report the identification and relative quantification of several proteins of interest for the OA disease mechanism e.g. CYTL1, DMD and STAB1 together with putative early disease markers e.g. TIMP1, PPP2CA and B2M. Conclusions The present study reveals differences in protein abundance between medial/lateral femur condyles in OA patients. These regulatory differences expand the knowledge regarding OA disease markers and mechanisms. PMID:24090399

2013-01-01

5

Selective lateral muscle activation in moderate medial knee osteoarthritis subjects does not unload medial knee condyle.  

PubMed

There is some debate in the literature regarding the role of quadriceps-hamstrings co-contraction in the onset and progression of knee osteoarthritis. Does co-contraction during walking increase knee contact loads, thereby causing knee osteoarthritis, or might it be a compensatory mechanism to unload the medial tibial condyle? We used a detailed musculoskeletal model of the lower limb to test the hypothesis that selective activation of lateral hamstrings and quadriceps, in conjunction with inhibited medial gastrocnemius, can actually reduce the joint contact force on the medial compartment of the knee, independent of changes in kinematics or external forces. "Baseline" joint loads were computed for eight subjects with moderate medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) during level walking, using static optimization to resolve the system of muscle forces for each subject's scaled model. Holding all external loads and kinematics constant, each subject's model was then perturbed to represent non-optimal "OA-type" activation based on mean differences detected between electromyograms (EMG) of control and osteoarthritis subjects. Knee joint contact forces were greater for the "OA-type" than the "Baseline" distribution of muscle forces, particularly during early stance. The early-stance increase in medial contact load due to the "OA-type" perturbation could implicate this selective activation strategy as a cause of knee osteoarthritis. However, the largest increase in the contact load was found at the lateral condyle, and the "OA-type" lateral activation strategy did not increase the overall (greater of the first or second) medial peak contact load. While "OA-type" selective activation of lateral muscles does not appear to reduce the medial knee contact load, it could allow subjects to increase knee joint stiffness without any further increase to the peak medial contact load. PMID:24581816

Brandon, Scott C E; Miller, Ross H; Thelen, Darryl G; Deluzio, Kevin J

2014-04-11

6

Intraosseous ganglion in the subchondral region of the lateral femoral condyle in an 11-year-old girl: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the case of a patient with intraosseous ganglion in the lateral femoral condyle. An 11-year-old girl presented with right knee pain following a twisting injury. Plain radiographs of the knee showed a small circumscribed radiolucency with a thin sclerotic margin in the subchondral region of the lateral femoral condyle. Although the image findings and location are not typical,

Hiroshi Nakayama; Masayoshi Yagi; Shinichi Yoshiya

2009-01-01

7

Non-operative treatment regime including eccentric training for lateral humeral epicondylalgia.  

PubMed

In a pilot study 38 patients with lateral humeral epicondylalgia were randomly allocated to two treatment groups. Group S (stretching) was treated with a contract-relax-stretching program while group E (eccentric exercise) underwent an eccentric exercise program. Both groups also received forearm bands and wrist support nightly. The programs were carried out daily at home during 12 weeks. Evaluation before and 3, 6 and 12 months after treatment, included subjective assessment of symptoms using visual analogue scales and grip strength measurements. Thirty-five patients were available for follow-up. Five patients, three in group S and two in group E, did not complete the programs due to increased pain while 30 (86%) reported complete recovery or improvement. Reduced pain and increased grip strength were seen in both treatment groups but 12 out of 17 patients (71%) in group E rated themselves as completely recovered as compared to 7 out of 18 (39%) in group S (P=0.09), and in group E the increase in grip strength after 6 months was statistically significantly larger than in group S. In a second study the eccentric training regime was used in a consecutive series of 129 patients with lateral epicondylalgia. The patients were divided into two groups with one group consisting of patients with less than one year duration of symptoms and the other comprised patients with a duration of symptoms for more than one year. The results of treatment were evaluated in the same way as in the pilot study, and also after 3.4 years using the scoring system by Verhaar et al. At the end of the treatment period statistically significant improvements were seen in all VAS recordings and in grip strength. After 3.4 years 38% had excellent, 28% good, 25% fair and 9% poor results according to the score. In the self-rated outcome 54% regarded themselves as completely recovered, 43% improved, 2% unchanged and 2% worse. No significant differences were seen between patients with a duration of symptoms for more than one year compared to patients with symptoms for less than one year. The eccentric training regime can considerably reduce symptoms in a majority of patients with lateral humeral epicondylalgia, regardless of duration, and is possibly superior to conventional stretching. PMID:11782264

Svernlöv, B; Adolfsson, L

2001-12-01

8

Humeral Lateral Epicondylitis Complicated by Hydroxyapatite Dihydrite Deposition Disease: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this case report is to differentiate the recovery timeline expected for patients with simple lateral epicondylitis from an abnormal recovery period, in which case an underlying condition should be suspected. Clinical features A 49-year-old woman presented to a chiropractic clinic with posterolateral right elbow pain. The history included chronic recurrent lateral elbow pain, followed by a traumatic event leading to sustained pain and disability. Intervention and outcomes Following a trial of conservative therapy including activity restrictions, soft tissue therapy, joint mobilizations, and therapeutic ultrasonography that led to no significant improvement, the patient was referred for diagnostic imaging that revealed hydroxyapatite dihydrite deposition disease. Conclusion This report describes a case for which lateral epicondylitis symptoms failed to resolve because of an underlying condition (hydroxyapatite dihydrite deposition disease). This case emphasizes that primary care practitioners treating lateral epicondylitis should consider referral for further investigations when positive results are not achieved. PMID:24711788

Marchand, Andrée-Anne; O’Shaughnessy, Julie; Descarreaux, Martin

2014-01-01

9

Characterization of Initial Microfracture Defects in Human Condyles  

E-print Network

-computed tomography subchondral bone bone marrow Abstract Microfracture (MFX) is a cartilage repair technique that depends on cell migration from marrow-rich trabecular bone cavities into the cartilage lesion. This study bone marrow access in condyles with Grade III to IV lesions. Lateral and medial condyles from total

Buschmann, Michael

10

Proximal Humeral Fractures  

PubMed Central

The purpose of our study was to biomechanically compare, under cyclic loading conditions, fracture site motion, humeral head collapse, and intra-articular hardware penetration in simulated 3-part osteoporotic proximal humeral fractures stabilized with 1 of 2 locking-plate constructs. We performed fixation on simulated 3-part proximal humeral fractures in 10 pairs of cadaveric osteoporotic humeri with a Hand Innovations S3 Proximal Humerus Plate (S3 plate) or an LCP Proximal Humerus Plate (LCP plate; 1 each for each pair). The specimens were potted, mounted on a materials testing machine, and subjected to 5000 cycles of abduction in the scapular plane, loading through the supraspinatus tendon. Interfragmentary displacement at 2 virtual points (the most medial aspect of the calcar and the most superior aspect of the osteotomy line between the greater tuberosity and humeral head) was measured using an optical tracking system. Humeral head rotation was also measured. We used a generalized linear latent and mixed model to check for an effect of cyclic loading and treatment on the parameters of interest (significance, P < .05). After cyclic loading, the S3 plate humeri showed significantly greater displacement of the greater tuberosity fragment and rotation of the humeral head and a trend (not a significant difference) toward greater displacement at the calcar. No hardware penetration was noted for either repair. Although the S3 plate repairs resulted in significantly more fracture site motion, it is unknown whether the magnitude of the motion is clinically significant. PMID:23569665

Rose, David M.; Sutter, Edward G.; Mears, Simon C.; Gupta, Rohit R.; Belkoff, Stephen M.

2010-01-01

11

Proximal Humeral Fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite more than 3,000 articles published proximal humeral fractures remain diffi cult to defi ne and classify, natural evolution\\u000a has been poorly defi ned and the best treatment option is yet to be established. Current trends in management of these complex\\u000a fractures are analyzed and rationale decision-making is presented.

C. Torrens

12

Radial nerve safety in Dorgan's lateral cross-pinning of the supracondylar humeral fracture in children: a case report and cadaveric study.  

PubMed

We encountered an iatrogenic radial nerve injury following Dorgan's lateral cross-pinning in a 5-year-old girl with a supracondylar fracture of the humerus. This prompted a cadaveric study to define a safe entry point for the proximal lateral Kirschner -wire. A child's cadaveric humerus was pinned laterally in three coronal planes, simulating the proximal entry pin. The radial nerve lay farthest from the wire in the posterolateral plane, 1 and 2 cm proximal to the lateral epicondyle. We report the first incidence of radial nerve injury with lateral cross-pinning and suggest that the wire should be placed posterolaterally within 2 cm from the lateral epicondyle. PMID:25238330

Gangadharan, Sangeet; Rathinam, Bertha; Madhuri, Vrisha

2014-11-01

13

Superolateral Dislocation of Bilateral Intact Condyles—An Unusual Presentation: Report of a Case and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Dislocation of the mandibular condyle is the clinical condition of the condyle head being displaced out of the glenoid fossa but still remaining within the joint capsule. However, the anatomy of the mandibular condyle, glenoid fossa, and zygomatic arch usually prevent the dislocation of intact condyles out of the glenoid fossa whenever the mandible is subjected to high impact. Complete dislocation of the mandibular condyle from the glenoid fossa can be classified into four groups: anterior, posterior, lateral, and superior dislocation. All the groups except anterior dislocation are rare. Superolateral dislocation of the intact mandibular condyle occurs very rarely. We report a case of lateral dislocation of bilateral intact condyles associated with left parasymphysis fracture. The purpose of this report is to review all of the available English literature on this dislocation and discuss the possible causative mechanism and diagnostic features, as well as clinical management. PMID:24436761

Singh, Virendra; Gupta, Pranav; Khatana, Shruti; Bhagol, Amrish

2013-01-01

14

[Mandibular condyle fractures fixation via intraoral approach with endoscopic assistance].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of mandibular condyle fractures fixation via intraoral approach with endoscopic assistance. Thirty-nine patients with low mandibular condyle fractures with lateral (34 patients) or medial (5 patients) displacement were included in the study. The paper contains detailed description of operation technique considering displacement type. This minimally invasive procedure resulted in stable fixation of the fracture so that maxillomandibular splinting was limited to 9-14 days after operation. The patients were discharged 4 to 7 days postoperatively. The study revealed no cases of facial palsies and all patients were highly satisfied with the absence of visible scars. PMID:25588342

Nerobeev, A I; Chkhaidze, G G; Khandzratsian, A S; Koga?, V V

2014-01-01

15

A computerized analysis of femoral condyle radii in ACL intact and contralateral ACL reconstructed knees using 3D CT.  

PubMed

The bony geometry of the distal femoral condyles may have a significant influence on knee joint kinematics. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the size of the medial and lateral femoral condyles in different planes. Seventy-four three dimensional (3D) CT reconstructions of 37 patients with ACL intact and contralateral ACL reconstructed knees were used and the data were imported into a graphical software program. The radii of the medial and lateral femoral condyles were analyzed in the sagittal, coronal, and axial planes by digitally reconstructed circular arcs along the bony condylar profiles marked with multiple digital surface points. Intra- and interobserver testing was performed. In the intact knees the average sagittal radius of the distal medial and lateral femoral condyles was similar. There was a significant difference between the radii of the distal medial femoral condyles compared to lateral femoral condyles in the coronal plane (22.4 vs. 27.8 mm, P < 0.001) as well as between the radii of the medial femoral condyles in the axial plane in 90 knee flexion compared to the lateral femoral condyles (21.3 vs. 18.3 mm, P < 0.001). The average radius of the medial femoral condyles was significantly smaller in extension compared to 90 of flexion (21.2 vs. 22.4 mm, P = 0.05) and the average radius of the lateral femoral condyles was significantly larger in extension compared to 90 of flexion (27.8 vs. 18.3 mm, P < 0.001). The 37 ACL reconstructed knees demonstrated similar radii in all three planes when compared to the intact knees without any significant difference. The described method of assessing the architecture of the distal femoral condyles is non-invasive, reproducible, and provides reliable geometric parameters necessary for the 3D reconstruction of the femoral geometry in vivo. The radii of the FC were similar in the sagittal planes but demonstrate a significant asymmetry in the axial and coronal planes. The average radius of the lateral femoral condyles was significantly larger in extension whereas the radius of the medial femoral condyles was significantly larger in flexion. We did not find any significant difference in the shape of the femoral condyles in ACL intact and contralateral ACL reconstructed knees indicating that the geometry of the femoral condyles might not influence the injury mechanism of ACL rupture. The asymmetry between the femoral condyles may be considered when designing new anatomical femoral components in knee arthroplasty. PMID:19847402

Siebold, Rainer; Axe, Jeremie; Irrgang, James J; Li, Kang; Li, Kanglai; Tashman, Scott; Fu, Freddie H

2010-01-01

16

21 CFR 872.3960 - Mandibular condyle prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Mandibular condyle prosthesis. 872.3960 Section 872.3960... § 872.3960 Mandibular condyle prosthesis. (a) Identification. A mandibular condyle prosthesis is a device that is intended to...

2011-04-01

17

21 CFR 872.3960 - Mandibular condyle prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Mandibular condyle prosthesis. 872.3960 Section 872.3960... § 872.3960 Mandibular condyle prosthesis. (a) Identification. A mandibular condyle prosthesis is a device that is intended to...

2010-04-01

18

Where should implants be anchored in the humeral head?  

PubMed

To determine histomorphometric and bone strength distribution of the proximal humerus, analyses were done on 24 freshly harvested human cadaveric humeri. Median ages of 46 and 69 years were recorded respectively for the male group (n = 11; minimum, 34 years; maximum, 76 years) and the female group (n = 13; minimum, 46 years; maximum, 90 years). The humeral head was sliced into four equal horizontal levels (Levels 1-4). Five regions of interest were defined in each cutting plane: anterior, posterior, lateral, medial, and central. Histomorphometric analyses evaluated structural parameters (tissue volume to bone volume ratio, trabecular thickness), connectivity (number of nodes, node to node length), and trabecular orientation (mean bone length). The peak values of histomorphometric parameters and bone strength were identified for the cranial section and decreased caudally. The medial and dorsal aspects of the proximal humeral head were found to be the areas of highest bone strength. The trabecular network formed a pattern that connected the center of the gleaned cavity. The structural and connectivity parameters, bone strength, and trabecular orientation showed region- and level-related characteristics. Knowledge of distribution, microstructure, and quality of bone in the humeral head allows the remaining bone stock to be used effectively, even in elderly patients, with a minimally invasive approach and maximum mechanical stability. PMID:14612640

Hepp, Pierre; Lill, Helmut; Bail, Hermann; Korner, Jan; Niederhagen, Manuel; Haas, Norbert P; Josten, Christoph; Duda, Georg N

2003-10-01

19

Tuberculous osteomyelitis of mandibular condyle: a diagnostic dilemma  

PubMed Central

The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) is increasing worldwide and so are its consequences. Its oral manifestations are infrequent, occurring in approximately 3% of all cases. Although the primary lesion occurs as a pulmonary infection, the extrapulmonary infections have also shown an increase over the past few years. These infections generally involve the head and neck through haematogenous or lymphatic routes. The clinical presentation may be as an ulcer, granuloma, orofacial TB, TB of the salivary glands or tuberculous lymphadenitis. Rarely, secondary oral manifestations associated with pulmonary infection are seen, which can appear as lesions on the gingiva, palate, lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, frenulum and in the jaw bones. Owing to the rarity of orofacial TB, it seldom arouses clinical suspicion, especially when a positive history of a systemic infection or therapy is denied. Tuberculous involvement of the mandibular condyle is even rarer, and only two such cases are reported so far, both in English-language literature. Further, the diagnosis of such a case is extremely difficult as there are no specific signs pathogonomic of infection. The only manifestation may be a localized painful swelling of the jaw. The presented case is of osteomyelitis of the mandibular condyle in a 20-year-old male patient in whom TB was later suspected. In this case report the role of diagnostic techniques is emphasized as the osteomyelitis of the condyle has the risk of being easily missed owing to its atypical signs and symptoms and atypical radiographic appearance. PMID:22074872

Sheikh, S; Pallagatti, S; Gupta, D; Mittal, A

2012-01-01

20

Characterization of initial microfracture defects in human condyles.  

PubMed

Microfracture (MFX) is a cartilage repair technique that depends on cell migration from marrow-rich trabecular bone cavities into the cartilage lesion. This study tested the hypothesis that MFX awls with distinct geometry generate different hole shapes and variable bone marrow access in condyles with Grade III to IV lesions. Lateral and medial condyles from total knee arthroplasty (N = 24 male and female patients, 66 ± 9 years) were systematically microfractured ex vivo to 2 and 4 mm deep and the bone holes analyzed by micro-computed tomography. Subchondral bone in lesional condyles showed different degrees of sclerosis up to 2 mm deep ("porous," sclerotic, extremely dense). MFX holes ranged from 1.1 to 2.0 mm in diameter, and retained the awl shape with evidence of slight bone elastic rebound and bone compaction lining the holes that were increased by wider awl diameter and deeper MFX. Marrow access was significantly diminished by sclerosis for all three awls, with an average marrow access varying from 70% (nonlesional bone) to 40% (extremely dense bone). This study revealed that subchondral bone sclerosis can reach a critical limit beyond which MFX creates bone compaction and fissures instead of marrow access. PMID:23529699

Hoemann, Caroline D; Gosselin, Yoann; Chen, Hongmei; Sun, Jun; Hurtig, Mark B; Carli, Alberto; Stanish, William D

2013-10-01

21

Hominoid humeral morphology: 3D morphometric analysis.  

PubMed

Variation in humeral morphology among hominoids has long been recognized in relation to both phylogeny and behavior. Here, we use 3D landmark data to analyze humeral shape among hominoids, including hylobatids (n?=?37), Pongo (n?=?33), Homo (n?=?74), Pan (n?=?55), and Gorilla (n?=?45) to examine the relative influence of phylogenetic history vs. locomotor adaptation on humeral shape. Principal components analysis (PCA) of Procrustes shape data derived from 19 humeral type II or type III landmarks (Bookstein, 1991) for these taxa reveals the following: PC1, which primarily reflects the humeral torsion (or lack thereof) and relative diaphyseal and epiphyseal breadths, separates the relatively narrow-shafted, small articular dimensions and low humeral torsion Hylobates, and to a lesser extent, Pongo, humeri from those of the African hominoids. PC2, which largely contrasts shafts that are posteriorly convex (high PC2 scores) with antero-posteriorly straight humeral shafts (low PC2 scores) separates Homo, who tend to have A-P straighter shafts, from the more A-P bowed humeral shafts of the apes. These shape patterns suggest that the bowed shafts of Pan, Pongo, and Gorilla (and to a lesser extent, hylobatids) are due to the fact that in each of these taxa, the humerus is a weight-bearing bone, whereas the shafts of Homo are freed from locomotion. More subtle behavioral indicators are also elucidated, whereas cluster analyses (minimum spanning tree fit to a principal coordinates [PCO] plot and UPGMA dendrogram) reveal strong phylogenetic signals in the hominoid humerus as well. PMID:24132859

Holliday, Trenton W; Friedl, Lukáš

2013-12-01

22

Rigid fixation of mandibular condyle fractures.  

PubMed

This article reviews the anatomy and surgical approaches for treating fractures of the mandibular condyle with plate and screw fixation. Advantages and disadvantages of the preauricular, submandibular, intraoral, retromandibular, and rhytidectomy approaches are presented. PMID:8351124

Ellis, E; Dean, J

1993-07-01

23

A computerized analysis of femoral condyle radii in ACL intact and contralateral ACL reconstructed knees using 3D CT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bony geometry of the distal femoral condyles may have a significant influence on knee joint kinematics. The aim of this\\u000a study was to analyze the relationship between the size of the medial and lateral femoral condyles in different planes. Seventy-four\\u000a three-dimensional (3D) CT reconstructions of 37 patients with ACL intact and contralateral ACL reconstructed knees were used\\u000a and the

Rainer Siebold; Jeremie Axe; James J. Irrgang; Kanglai Li; Scott Tashman; Freddie H. Fu

2010-01-01

24

Extra corporeal fixation of fractured mandibular condyle.  

PubMed

Condylar fracture is the second most common site in the mandibular fractures. Motor vehicle accident and fall are the major causes of such fractures. Because of the anatomical weakness of the condyle and the shape of the condylar head the antero-medial dislocation of the condyle is common. Open reduction and closed reduction is always debatable. The open reduction will bring back the normal function much earlier than closed reduction. Medially dislocated condylar fracture fragments are always managed with open method. In superior or high condylar fractures,exact reduction with conventional open reduction can be difficult due to the limited surgical and visual fields. In such cases extracorporeal fixation of condyle using vertical ramus osteotomy may be better choice to achieve perfect alignment and absolute maintaince of vertical height of the ramus and facial symmetry. We here present a case of extracorporeal fixation of unilateral left high condylar fracture. PMID:25386546

Kannadasan, Kamal; Shenoy K, Vandana; Kengagsubbiah, Srivatsa; V, Sathyabhama; Priya, Vishnu

2014-09-01

25

Extra Corporeal Fixation of Fractured Mandibular Condyle  

PubMed Central

Condylar fracture is the second most common site in the mandibular fractures. Motor vehicle accident and fall are the major causes of such fractures. Because of the anatomical weakness of the condyle and the shape of the condylar head the antero-medial dislocation of the condyle is common. Open reduction and closed reduction is always debatable. The open reduction will bring back the normal function much earlier than closed reduction. Medially dislocated condylar fracture fragments are always managed with open method. In superior or high condylar fractures,exact reduction with conventional open reduction can be difficult due to the limited surgical and visual fields. In such cases extracorporeal fixation of condyle using vertical ramus osteotomy may be better choice to achieve perfect alignment and absolute maintaince of vertical height of the ramus and facial symmetry. We here present a case of extracorporeal fixation of unilateral left high condylar fracture. PMID:25386546

Shenoy K, Vandana; Kengagsubbiah, Srivatsa; V, Sathyabhama; Priya, Vishnu

2014-01-01

26

Osteochondritis dissecans of the medial femoral condyle associated with malformation of the menisci.  

PubMed

Osteochondritis dissecans is a form of osteochondrosis limited to the articular epiphysis and the relationship of osteochondritis dissecans and discoid lateral meniscus has been clearly identified. This article presents a 10-year-old boy with osteochondritis dissecans of the medial femoral condyle associated with hypoplastic medial and partial deficient lateral menisci. The patient presented with activity-related pain and intermittent swellings of his left knee for 2 months without any evidence of significant knee trauma. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed anomalous medial meniscus mimicking displaced bucket-handle tear and partially deficient lateral meniscus with osteochondritis dissecans at the lateral aspect of medial femoral condyle without any significant bone loss with a non-dislocated fragment. Arthroscopy of the knee revealed an incomplete separated osteochondral flap with partial discontinuity that was unstable on probing on the lateral aspect of the medial femoral condyle. The medial meniscus was hypoplastic without a body and only the meniscal rim could be seen. The lateral meniscus had an anomalous vertical insertion of the posterior horn, normal body, but an absent anterior horn. The anterior cruciate ligament was intact, but looked like a peacock's tail. Arthroscopic fixation of the chondral lesion was performed. At 30-months follow-up, the boy had no limitation in his daily and sports activity. The present case is the first description of congenital anomaly of the both menisci and osteochondritis dissecans together. Meniscal or ligamentous anomalies of the knee may be associated with osteochondritis dissecans. PMID:19292299

Beyzadeoglu, Tahsin; Gokce, Alper; Bekler, Halil

2008-05-01

27

[Humeral fracture caused by arm wrestling].  

PubMed

Humeral shaft fractures may occur as a result of arm wrestling ("Indian wrestling," "iron arm"), a contest in which the antagonists sit face-to-face, grip hands with their elbows on a table, and try to force the opponent's arm back. A case of this type is reported. PMID:7262682

Alkalay, I; Greenberg, B; Daniel, M

1981-02-01

28

Prosthetic replacement for proximal humeral fractures.  

PubMed

The ideal management of complex proximal humeral fractures continues to be debatable. Evolution of proximal humeral fracture management, during the past decade, led to the implementation of many innovations in surgical treatment. Even though the pendulum of treatment seems to swing towards new trends such as locked plating, hemiarthroplasty remains a valid and reliable option that serves the patient's needs well. Hemiarthroplasty is indicated for complex proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients with poor bone stock and when internal fixation is difficult or unreliable. Hemiarthroplasty provides a better result when it is performed early post-injury. Stem height, retroversion and tuberosity positioning are technical aspects of utmost importance. Additionally reverse total shoulder arthroplasty is an alternative new modality that can be used as a primary solution in selected patients with proximal humeral fracture treatment. Failed hemiarthroplasty and fracture sequelae can be successfully managed with reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Individual decision-making and tailored treatment that takes into consideration the personality of the fracture and the patient's characteristics should be used. PMID:19036360

Kontakis, George; Tosounidis, Theodoros; Galanakis, Ioannis; Megas, Panagiotis

2008-12-01

29

Undiagnosed Hoffa fracture of medial femoral condyle presenting as chronic pain in a post-polio limb.  

PubMed

Isolated coronal fracture of medial femoral condyle with intact lateral femoral condyle is extremely rare. A high index of suspicion is necessary for early diagnosis especially in cases of undisplaced fractures. Here we report a case of medial Hoffa fracture in a post-polio limb presenting as chronic pain. Management of such fractures in limbs affected by late sequelae of poliomyelitis is particularly problematic in view of osteoporosis and osseous hypoplasia. The fracture was approached through medial parapatellar arthrotomy and fixation was done with cannulated cancellous screws in anteroposterior direction. Union was achieved at 16 weeks. PMID:24889985

Mootha, Aditya Krishna; Majety, Priyanka; Kumar, Vishal

2014-06-01

30

In Vivo Motion of Femoral Condyles During Weight-Bearing Flexion After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture Using Biplane Radiography  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate in vivo three- dimensional tibiofemoral kinematics and femoral condylar motion in knees with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency during a knee bend activity. Ten patients with unilateral ACL rupture were enrolled. Both the injured and contralateral normal knees were imaged using biplane radiography at extension and at 15°, 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120° of flexion. Bilateral knees were next scanned by computed tomography, from which bilateral three-dimensional knee models were created. The in vivo tibiofemoral motion at each flexion position was reproduced through image registration using the knee models and biplane radiographs. A joint coordinate system containing the geometric center axis of the femur was used to measure the tibiofemoral motion. In ACL deficiency, the lateral femoral condyle was located significantly more posteriorly at extension and at 15° (p < 0.05), whereas the medial condylar position was changed only slightly. This constituted greater posterior translation and external rotation of the femur relative to the tibia at extension and at 15° (p < 0.05). Furthermore, ACL deficiency led to a significantly reduced extent of posterior movement of the lateral condyle during flexion from 15° to 60° (p < 0.05). Coupled with an insignificant change in the motion of the medial condyle, the femur moved less posteriorly with reduced extent of external rotation during flexion from 15° to 60° in ACL deficiency (p < 0.05). The medial- lateral and proximal-distal translations of the medial and lateral condyles and the femoral adduction-abduction rotation were insignificantly changed after ACL deficiency. The results demonstrated that ACL deficiency primarily changed the anterior-posterior motion of the lateral condyle, producing not only posterior subluxation at low flexion positions but also reduced extent of posterior movement during flexion from 15° to 60°. Key Points Three-dimensional tibiofemoral kinematics and femoral condylar motion in ACL-deficient knees during upright weight-bearing flexion were measured using biplane radiography with the geometric center axis. ACL deficiency caused posterior subluxation of the lateral condyle with excess external femoral rotation at early flexion positions. On flexion from 15° to 60°, the lateral condyle moved slightly posteriorly in ACL deficiency leading to reduced extent of external femoral rotation. PMID:24149168

Chen, Kaining; Yin, Li; Cheng, Liangjun; Li, Chuan; Chen, Cheng; Yang, Liu

2013-01-01

31

Bifid mandibular condyle: Report of two cases of varied etiology  

PubMed Central

Bifid condyle is a rare anatomic variation of mandibular condyle. It can be symptomatic or diagnosed incidentally on routine radiographic examination. No definite etiologic factor has been identified. It is suggested that bifid condyle could be a developmental anomaly or secondary to trauma. We are reporting two cases of bifid mandibular condyle. Both were diagnosed using computed tomography scan, which additionally revealed the associated pathosis in the angle of the mandible in first patient and the ankylosis of temporomandibular joint in the second patient. PMID:22442558

Faisal, Mohammad; Ali, Iqbal; Pal, U.S.; Bannerjee, Kalyan

2010-01-01

32

Humeral head translation after a suprascapular nerve block.  

PubMed

Subacromial impingement syndrome is the most common shoulder disorder. Abnormal superior translation of the humeral head is believed to be a major cause of this pathology. The first purpose of the study was to examine the effects of suprascapular nerve block on superior translation of the humeral head and scapular upward rotation during dynamic shoulder elevation. The secondary purpose was to assess muscle activation patterns during these motions. Twenty healthy subjects participated in the study. Using fluoroscopy and electromyography, humeral head translation and muscle activation were measured before and after a suprascapular nerve block. The humeral head was superiorly located at 60 degrees of humeral elevation, and the scapula was more upwardly rotated from 30 to 90 degrees of humeral elevation after the block. The differences were observed during midrange of motion. In addition, the deltoid muscle group demonstrated increased muscle activation after the nerve block. The study's results showed a compensatory increase in humeral head translation, scapular upward rotation, and deltoid muscle activation due to the nerve block. These outcomes suggest that increasing muscular strength and endurance of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles could prevent any increased superior humeral head translation. This may be beneficial in reducing shoulder impingement or rotator cuff tears over time. PMID:22927503

San Juan, Jun G; Kosek, Peter; Karduna, Andrew R

2013-08-01

33

Snapping popliteus tendon within an osteochondritis dissecans lesion: an unusual case of lateral knee pain.  

PubMed

The popliteus muscle is an important structure in the posterior knee, coursing from the distal lateral femoral condyle to the posterior tibia, and it initiates knee flexion, protects the lateral meniscus, and resists tibial external rotation. Abnormalities in the lateral femoral condyle may result in impaired tracking of the popliteus tendon over the lateral femoral condyle, causing pain and a snapping sensation. We report a case of a snapping popliteus tendon caused by an osteochondral defect of the lateral femoral condyle. We obtained a thorough medical history, performed a detailed physical examination, and performed diagnostic ultrasonography to accurately diagnose the condition. The patient underwent open popliteus tenotomy and tibial tenodesis with excellent results and full return to activity. Any abnormality of the lateral femoral condyle may predispose patients to snapping popliteus tendon and we believe early diagnosis utilizing ultrasonography imaging and surgical intervention may benefit these patients significantly. PMID:25251535

Shukla, Dave R; Levy, Bruce A; Kuzma, Scott A; Stuart, Michael J

2014-09-01

34

Fracture-separation of the medial humeral epicondyle caused by arm wrestling.  

PubMed

Ten cases with fracture-separation of the medial humeral epicondyle occurring during arm wrestling were studied to clarify the nature of injury and the mechanism involved. Patients were all male, aged 13 to 15 years. The following results were obtained: (1) the injury often occurred in children immediately before closure of the epiphyseal plate, (2) the injury occurred only when the arm wrestler took a posture in which his center of gravity could shift easily, (3) the injury developed only when one wrestler tried to force the end of the match and the other countered that move, and (4) no lateral instability of the elbow was observed in patients with this injury. These results suggest that the injury is caused by muscular violence. When the maximally contracted muscles attaching to the medial humeral epicondyle are suddenly and passively stretched by shifting of the patient's center of gravity and by the opposing wrestler's counterattack, a shift from concentric contraction to eccentric contraction could occur and apply a large muscle force to the medial humeral epicondyle. PMID:8810969

Ogawa, K; Ui, M

1996-09-01

35

Role of hybrid monolateral fixators in managing humeral length and deformity correction  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Humeral lengthening and deformity correction are now being done increasingly for various etiologies. Monolateral external fixators have advantages over traditional Ilizarov circular fixators; they are easy to apply, they are less bulky, and they are therefore more convenient for the patient. We assessed the effectiveness of hybrid monolateral lateral fixators in humeral lengthening and deformity correction. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 23 patients (40 humeri) with various pathologies who underwent lengthening—with or without deformity correction using monolateral external fixator—between 2003 and 2008. Mean age at the time of the surgery was 14 (10–22) years. The mean follow-up time was 3.4 (1–7) years. Results The average duration of external fixator use was 8.3 (6–19) months. The mean lengthening achieved was 8.8 (4–11) cm and percentage lengthening was 49% (19–73). The healing index was 28 (13–60) days/cm. The major complications were refracture in 3 humeri and varus angulation of 2 humeri. The minor complications were superficial pin tract infection (6 segments), transient radial nerve palsy (1 segment), and elbow flexion contracture (5 segments). All complications resolved. Interpretation Hybrid monolateral fixators can be used for humeral lengthening and deformity correction. The advantage over circular fixators is that they are less bulky and patients can perform their day-to-day activities with the fixator in situ. PMID:23506166

2013-01-01

36

Humeral bone fragility in patients with shoulder prosthesis: a case of humeral periprosthetic refracture.  

PubMed

In recent decades there has been an increase in upper limb prosthetic surgery, primarily for the shoulder, for osteoarthritis disease and for traumatic pathology. It is occurring in parallel an increase in periprosthetic fractures of the humerus, although with less impact than other anatomical districts such as the hip.We report a case of humeral periprosthetic refracture in a 66-years-old female patient.The humerus bone quality is worse than in other districts in patient of the same age.The fragility humerus fracture are increasing, affecting relatively younger individuals than those with femoral neck fractures and represent an independent risk factor for the occurrence of subsequent fractures.Actually humeral BMD is underestimated by traditional densitometric evaluation techniques. PMID:22783338

Giannotti, Stefano; Bottai, Vanna; Dell'osso, Giacomo; Donati, Daniela; Bugelli, Giulia; De Paola, Gaia; Guido, Giulio

2012-01-01

37

Tetrafid mandibular condyle: a unique case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Morphological changes such as bifid and trifid mandibular condyle are rare entities. The aim of the present report is to describe a unique morphological variation of the mandibular condyle which has four separate condylar heads (tetrafid mandibular condyle) and to discuss clinical and radiological differential diagnosis of tetrafid mandibular condyle with advanced imaging techniques. PMID:22065803

?ahman, H; Etöz, OA; ?ekerci, AE; Etöz, M; ?i?man, Y

2011-01-01

38

Myositis ossificans of the humeral insertion of pectoralis major  

PubMed Central

We report on a rare case of myositis ossificans of the humeral insertion of pectoralis major muscle following a single episode of trauma which, to our knowledge, has not previously been documented. PMID:25114419

Mogere, Viga; Thyagarajan, David S. K.; Fairbairn, K. Julia; Wallace, Angus

2014-01-01

39

TMJ in facial class III deformity. Condyle/fossa relations  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to ascertain the joint space present in the TMJ of subjects diagnosed with Class III dentofacial deformity with an indication for orthognathic surgery. Fourteen subjects were recruited from the Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at the Universidad de La Frontera, Chile. All subjects were admitted to the study after signing an informed consent and undergoing cephalometric analyses to define the severity of the deformity. Then, the joint space was analyzed, studying a cone beam CT image of the TMJ, which was evaluated in the coronal and sagittal views, defining the most anterior, median and posterior joint space (sagittal view), as well as the lateral, median and medial joint space (coronal view). The data were recorded in millimeters by an observer and data were analyzed after measuring the same parameter at three different times. A student’s t-test was used for the analyses. Differences observed in both joints were not greater than 0.2 mm with spaces between 2 mm and 1.5 mm, thereby establishing the homogeneity of the sample, which presented no significant differences between the two joint spaces (right and left). It can be concluded that the joint space is symmetrical in both condyles and that no important changes are present compared to the results indicated in the international literature. PMID:25356133

Muñoz, Gonzalo; Olate, Sergio; Cantín, Mario; Vásquez, Bélgica; del Sol, Mariano; Fariña, Rodrigo

2014-01-01

40

Fracture separation of the distal humeral physis in the newborn.  

PubMed

Fracture separation of the distal humeral physis in the newborn is a rare injury. Two case reports are presented, both with a history of traumatic delivery and a clinical examination revealing swelling, hypermobility, and muffled crepitance about the elbow. Radiographs demonstrated posteromedial displacement of the distal humeral epiphysis with respect to the shaft. Closed reduction with splint immobilization is the most common form of treatment. PMID:6490887

Barrett, W P; Almquist, E A; Staheli, L T

1984-09-01

41

True chondroma of the mandibular condyle: A rare case  

PubMed Central

Chondroma of the mandibular condyle is a rare benign tumor, with just a handful of cases reported in the literature. Chondromas are rare in the maxillofacial region, but are quite common in the bones of the hands and feet. So far only eight cases of true chondroma have been reported. Here, we present a case of true chondroma of the mandibular condyle of the right side, for which condylectomy was done. No signs of recurrence are noted at 2 years follow-up.

Dhirawani, Rajesh B.; Anand, Kavneet; Lalwani, Gaurav; Pathak, Sanyog; Thakkar, Bhushan

2014-01-01

42

An adult case of TMJ osteoarthrosis treated with splint therapy and the subsequent orthodontic occlusal reconstruction: Adaptive change of the condyle during the treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports treatment for a 21-year 11-month old female patient with severe osteoarthrosis of the TMJ with a special reference to adaptive changes of the condyle during the treatment. She had severe open bite with a Class II molar relationship; she had limited mouth opening, TMJ sounds, pain, and tinnitus. Lateral tomograms showed flattening and deep erosion on the

Eiji Tanaka; Kazuaki Kikuchi; Akiko Sasaki; Kazuo Tanne

2000-01-01

43

A Review of Management Options for Proximal Humeral Fractures  

PubMed Central

Proximal humeral fractures are common and although the majority can be managed non-operatively, the optimal treatment of displaced or complex fractures remains controversial. Non-operative treatment is typically selected for minimally displaced fractures where union rates are high and good or excellent outcomes can be expected in approximately 80% of cases. The aims of surgical fixation are to restore articular surface congruency, alignment and the relationship between the tuberosities and the humeral head. Hemiarthroplasty provides patients with reliable pain relief and its indications include fracture dislocations, humeral head splitting fractures and some three- and four- part fractures. The key areas of surgical technique that influence functional outcome include correctly restoring the humeral height, humeral version and tuberosity position. Function, however, is poor if the tuberosities either fail to unite or mal-unite. The interest in reverse shoulder arthroplasty as an alternative option has therefore recently increased, particularly in older patients with poor bone quality and tuberosity comminution. The evidence supporting this, however, is currently limited to multiple case series with higher level studies currently underway. PMID:25067968

Jordan, Robert W; Modi, Chetan S

2014-01-01

44

Feasibility of purely endoscopic intramedullary fixation of mandibular condyle fractures.  

PubMed

The investigators of this study hypothesized that fractures of the mandibular condyle can be repaired using short-segment intramedullary implants and purely endoscopic surgical technique, using a basic science, human cadaver model in an academic center. Endoscopic instrumentation was used through a transoral mucosal incision to place intramedullary implants of 2 cm in length into osteotomized mandibular condyles. The surgical maneuvers that required to insert these implants, including condyle positioning, reaming, implant insertion, and seating of the mandibular ramus, are described herein. Primary outcome was considered as successful completion of the procedure. Ten cadaveric mandibular condyles were successfully repaired with rigid intramedullary internal fixation without the use of external incisions. Both insertion of a peg-type implant and screwing a threaded implant into the condylar head were possible. The inferior portion of the implant remained exposed, and the ramus of the mandible was manipulated into position on the implant using retraction at the sigmoid notch. The results of this study suggest that purely endoscopic repair of fractures of the mandibular condyle is possible by using short-segment intramedullary titanium implants and a transoral endoscopic approach without the need for facial incisions or punctures. The biomechanical advantages of these intramedullary implants, including improved strength and resistance to mechanical failure compared with miniplates, have been recently established. The combination of improved implant design and purely endoscopic technique may allow for improved fixation and reduced surgical- and implant-related morbidity in the treatment of condylar fractures. PMID:25534058

Frake, Paul C; Goodman, Joseph F; Joshi, Arjun S

2015-01-01

45

Thermal damage during humeral reaming in total shoulder resurfacing  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Total shoulder resurfacing (TSR) provides a reliable solution for the treatment of glenohumeral arthritis. It confers a number of advantages over traditional joint replacement with stemmed humeral components, in terms of bone preservation and improved joint kinematics. This study aimed to determine if humeral reaming instruments produce a thermal insult to subchondral bone during TSR. Patients and Methods: This was tested in vivo on 13 patients (8 with rheumatoid arthritis and 5 with osteoarthritis) with a single reaming system and in vitro with three different humeral reaming systems on saw bone models. Real-time infrared thermal video imaging was used to assess the temperatures generated. Results: Synthes (Epoca) instruments generated average temperatures of 40.7°C (SD 0.9°C) in the rheumatoid group and 56.5°C (SD 0.87°C) in the osteoarthritis group (P = 0.001). Irrigation with room temperature saline cooled the humeral head to 30°C (SD 1.2°C). Saw bone analysis generated temperatures of 58.2°C (SD 0.79°C) in the Synthes (Epoca) 59.9°C (SD 0.81°C) in Biomet (Copeland) and 58.4°C (SD 0.88°C) in the Depuy Conservative Anatomic Prosthesis (CAP) reamers (P = 0.12). Conclusion: Humeral reaming with power driven instruments generates considerable temperatures both in vivo and in vitro. This paper demonstrates that a significant thermal effect beyond the 47°C threshold needed to induce osteonecrosis is observed with humeral reamers, with little variation seen between manufacturers. Irrigation with room temperature saline cools the reamed bone to physiological levels and should be performed regularly during this step in TSR. PMID:24167401

McCann, Philip A.; Sarangi, Partha P.; Baker, Richard P.; Blom, Ashley W.; Amirfeyz, Rouin

2013-01-01

46

Mandibular asymmetry: a three-dimensional quantification of bilateral condyles  

PubMed Central

Introduction The shape and volume of the condyle is considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of the mandibular deviation. Curvature analysis is informative for objectively assess whether the shape of the condyles matches that of the glenoid fossa. In this study, a three-dimensional (3-D) quantification of bilateral asymmetrical condyles was firstly conducted to identify the specific role of 3-D condylar configuration for mandibular asymmetry. Methods 55 adult patients, 26 males (26?±?5 yrs) and 29 females (26?±?5 yrs), diagnosed with mandibular asymmetry were included. The examination of deviation of chin point, deviation of dental midlines, inclination of occlusal plane, and depth of the mandibular occlusal plane were conducted. After the clinical investigation, computed tomography images from the patients were used to reconstruct the 3-D mandibular models. Then the condylar volume, surface size, surface curvature and bone mineral density were evaluated independently for each patient on non-deviated and deviated sides of temporomandibular joint. Results Both the condylar surface size and volume were significantly larger on deviated side (surface size: 1666.14?±?318.3 mm2, volume: 1981.5?±?418.3 mm3). The anterior slope of the condyle was flatter (0.12?±?0.06) and the posterior slope (0.39?±?0.08) was prominently convex on the deviated side. The corresponding bone mineral density values were 523.01 ±118.1 HU and 549.07 ±120. 6 HU on anterior and posterior slopes. Conclusions The incongruence presented on the deviated side resulted in a reduction in contact areas and, thus, an increase in contact stresses and changes of bone density. All aforementioned results suggest that the difference existing between deviated and non-deviated condyles correlates with facial asymmetrical development. In mandibular asymmetry patients, the 3-D morphology of condyle on deviated side differ from the non-deviated side, which indicates the association between asymmetrical jaw function and joint remodeling. PMID:24354862

2013-01-01

47

[Contact analysis between artificial humeral head and glenoid fossa during humeral external rotation].  

PubMed

We developed a three-dimensional finite element model of the shoulder glenohumeral joint after shoulder arthroplasty including humerus shaft, scapular, scapular cartilage and eight muscles, while each of the muscles was simulated with 50 spring elements. To reduce the element number and improve the analytical precision, we used mixed tetrahedral and hexahedral elements in the model. We then used the model to calculate the biomechanics of the shoulder glenohumeral joint after hemiarthroplasty during humeral external rotation. Results showed that the maximum joint reaction force was 374.72 N and the maximum contact stress was 6. 573 MPa together with the contact ar eas at 40 degrees external rotation. These might be one of the reasons for prosthetic disarticulation, and would provide theoretical bases to prosthetic design. PMID:24804496

Zhang, Linlin; Zhu, Ming; Shen, Ling; Zheng, Feng

2014-02-01

48

Early intrathoracic migration of Kirschner wires used for percutaneous osteosynthesis of a two-part humeral neck fracture: a case report.  

PubMed

We present an unusual case of early migration of three Kirschner wires used for percutaneous osteosynthesis of a two-part humeral neck fracture, causing hemothorax. An 85-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency room after casual accident. She was found to have suffered a two-part fracture of the surgical neck of the right humerus. The humeral fracture was treated by closed reduction and percutaneous osteosynthesis with three threaded Kirschner wires, which were bent subcutaneously. Ten days after the accident the patient presented with dyspnea and laterocervical pain. Plain X-rays and complementary CT demonstrated intrathoracic migration of the three Kirschner wires with hemothorax. Two of the wires were seen under the right clavicle and adjacent to the C7 vertebra. The third wire reached the lateral chest wall. Immediate surgery was performed, with withdrawal of the wires and placement of a drainage tube. The patient had an uneventful recovery after surgery. The humeral fracture resulted in a nonunion, which was well tolerated by the patient and was left untreated. The use of Kirschner wires for osteosynthesis of proximal humeral fractures may cause significant thoracic morbidity, even if various prophylactic measures, including the use of threaded wires, subcutaneous bending, and close radiographic follow-up, are adopted. The use of Kirschner wires should anyway be restricted to carefully selected cases, in order to avoid major complications. PMID:15278700

Mellado, J M; Calmet, J; García Forcada, I L; Saurí, A; Giné, J

2004-08-01

49

Metallosis and pseudotumor after failed ORIF of a humeral fracture.  

PubMed

Metallosis following open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) for fracture, usually presenting as a soft tissue mass, is barely discussed in the literature. In this case report, the imaging and pathological findings of metallosis after ORIF for a humeral fracture are presented and comprehensively discussed. PMID:22035401

Edelstein, Yudell; Ohm, Hyunsook; Rosen, Yale

2011-01-01

50

Intermittent Axillary Nerve Palsy Caused by a Humeral Exostosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an uncommon case of intermittent axillary nerve palsy caused by a humeral exostosis in an 11-year-old boy. After excision of the cartilagenous exostosis of the proximal end of the left humerus, the pre-operative symptoms of axillary nerve compression were alleviated.

J. WITTHAUT; K. J. STEFFENS; E. KOOB

1994-01-01

51

Humeral lengthening by distraction osteogenesis: a safe procedure?  

PubMed

This study was conducted to assess the safety of humeral lengthening using an Ilizarov frame. We retrospectively reviewed 26 humeral segments in 17 patients that were lengthened at our department between 1993 and 2011. There were varying aetiologies including achondroplasia, epiphyseal dysplasia, Oilier disease, trauma or infection of the proximal humeral growth-plate, unicameral bone cyst and brachial plexus injury. Mean age at start of surgery was 17.05 years (range : 5-40). The mean lengthening achieved was 8.85 (3-13) cm. Mean lengthening percentage was 353% (range : 10-48). Average healing index was 30.56 days/cm (range : 17.46-4232). There was a significant difference in healing index between achondroplasia patients (28.79 days/cm) compared to others (33.41 days/cm). Minor problems included pin tract infection (14 segments). More important obstacles were temporary elbow flexion contracture (7 segments), premature consolidation (6 segments), radial nerve dysaesthesia (6 segments) and loosening of a Schanz screw (1 segment). Complications included one fracture and one progressive bowing after frame removal. One planned lengthening was not completely achieved. Despite a lot of obstacles, humeral lengthening using an Ilizarov frame provided a reliable method to treat the functional or cosmetic problems of upper limb shortening. PMID:24563967

Ruette, Peter; Lammens, Johan

2013-12-01

52

Positional change of the condyle after orthodontic-orthognathic surgical treatment: is there a relationship to skeletal relapse?  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the condylar position in relation to the glenoid fossa before and after orthodontic-orthognathic surgical treatment and to investigate the relationship with skeletal relapse. Materials and Methods Lateral cephalograms and temporomandibular joint tomograms from 19 patients with mandibular prognathism who received orthodontic-orthognathic surgery were included in this study. Samples were divided into two groups based on skeletal change during the retention period. The relapse group consisted of 7 patients (3 females and 4 males; mean age, 21.9 years) whose pogonion or menton displaced more than 1 mm during the retention period and the stable group consisted of 12 patients (5 females and 7 males; mean age, 21.7 years). Anterior joint space, posterior joint space, superior joint space, and anteroposterior index were measured on tomograms at pretreatment and posttreatment timepoints. Condyle position and frequency of the positional change were compared between both groups. Results In the relapse group and stable group, 42.9% and 45.8% of the condyles, respectively, showed forward or backward displacement at posttreatment. However, the changes were small and the mean anterior, posterior, superior joint spaces and frequencies of the positional changes did not differ statistically between both groups. Conclusion Our results suggest that small positional changes of the condyle, which may occur after orthodontic-orthognathic surgery treatment, may not be related to skeletal relapse after removal of the orthodontic appliances. PMID:25247145

Zafar, Husanov; Jang, Insan; Cha, Bong-Kuen; Park, Young-Wook

2014-01-01

53

General Amphibian characteristics: 1) Two occipital condyles  

E-print Network

the populations that they function as though they were two separate, non- interbreeding species. Caecilians Order aquatic caecilians, with four genera in South America, some to 75 cm. The posterior body is laterally? Characteristics of Caecilians l Elongate, limbless, & primitively fossorial (built for burrowing)­ some

Dever, Jennifer A.

54

Management of Humeral and Glenoid Bone Loss in Recurrent Glenohumeral Instability  

PubMed Central

Recurrent shoulder instability and resultant glenoid and humeral head bone loss are not infrequently encountered in the population today, specifically in young, athletic patients. This review on the management of bone loss in recurrent glenohumeral instability discusses the relevant shoulder anatomy that provides stability to the shoulder joint, relevant history and physical examination findings pertinent to recurrent shoulder instability, and the proper radiological imaging choices in its workup. Operative treatments that can be used to treat both glenoid and humeral head bone loss are outlined. These include coracoid transfer procedures and allograft/autograft reconstruction at the glenoid, as well as humeral head disimpaction/humeroplasty, remplissage, humeral osseous allograft reconstruction, rotational osteotomy, partial humeral head arthroplasty, and hemiarthroplasty on the humeral side. Clinical outcomes studies reporting general results of these techniques are highlighted. PMID:25136461

Rusen, Jamie; Leiter, Jeff; Chahal, Jaskarndip; MacDonald, Peter

2014-01-01

55

Outpatient Treatment for Humeral Fractures in Five Calves  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Humeral fractures were treated in 5 calves using unilateral external fixation with epoxy putty fixator (type I). The surgeries were performed under sedation and analgesia, and it involved application of ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block. The surgical procedures were completed in 60 to 90 min, and each calf was returned to the farm on the same day. The fixation allowed each calf to remain with the dam and suckle without strict stall rest and was removed 11 to 62 days post-surgery. The clinical sign of diminished radial nerve function disappeared 40 days to 4 months post-surgery. These observations suggest that this repair technique represents a feasible outpatient treatment for humeral fractures in calves. PMID:25056675

YAMAGISHI, Norio; DEVKOTA, Bhuminand; TAKAHASHI, Masahiro

2014-01-01

56

Plate fixation or intramedullary fixation of humeral shaft fractures  

PubMed Central

Background The optimal approach to operative treatment of humeral shaft fractures remains debatable. Previously published trials have been limited in size and have been inconclusive regarding important patient outcome variables following treatment with either intramedullary nails or plates. We conducted a meta-analysis of available trials comparing treatment of humeral shaft fractures. Methods We performed a literature search from 1967 to November 2007 in the main medical search engines and selected 4 randomized trials that compared nails and plates in patients with humeral shaft fractures and that reported on complications due to surgery. We statistically pooled patient data using standard meta-analytic approaches. Our primary outcome was the total complication rate, comprised of all complications listed in the articles included. Secondary outcomes included non-union, infection, nerve palsy, and reoperation rate. Methodology was assessed using the CLEAR NPT. Results When pooling the data of the 4 trials (n = 203 patients), we did not find a statistically significant difference between implants in the rate of total complications, non-union, infection, nerve-palsy, or the need for reoperation. The studies included were small and had methodological limitations. Conclusions Our meta-analysis suggests stastistically insignificant differences between plates and nails in the treatment of humeral shaft fractures. Small sample sizes, study heterogeneity, and methodological limitations argue strongly for a definitive, large trial. We recommend that this trial should be a randomized controlled trial with appropriate allocation of patients and blinding of patients and care providers and outcome assessors, and that it should include patient-important outcomes. PMID:20170424

Poolman, Rudolf W; Nork, Sean E; Ponsen, Kees-Jan; Bhandari, Mohit

2010-01-01

57

Temporomandibular joint forces measured at the condyle of Macaca arctoides.  

PubMed

Forces were measured at the articular surface of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condyle in two stump-tail monkeys (Macaca arctoides) during chewing, incisal biting, and drinking and also during aggressive behaviors. Force was measured with a thin piezoelectric foil transducer, which was cemented over the anterior and superior surfaces of the condyle. Wires from the upper and lower surfaces of the foil were insulated between two layers of Teflon tape and run subcutaneously to a telemetry unit, which was implanted in the upper back. Force applied across the foil by the condyle was detected by the telemetry unit and transmitted to an FM radio receiver outside the animal. The FM signals were received and demodulated, and a signal proportional to the force applied between the condyle and the TMJ fossa was displayed on a chart recorder. Data were collected over an 8-day period. The animals were not constrained. The TMJ was found to be load bearing. The greatest force of 39.0 lb (17.7 kg) was measured during feisty vocal aggression. Forces ranged as high as 34.5 lb (15.7 kg) during chewing and 28.5 lb (13.0 kg) during incisal biting. Forces were greater on the working (food) side than on the nonworking (balancing) side by average ratios of 1.4 to 2.6. A large unilateral interference at the most distal molar greatly disturbed chewing. It reduced TMJ forces by 50% or more, and the monkey refused to chew on the side opposite the interference. PMID:2353676

Boyd, R L; Gibbs, C H; Mahan, P E; Richmond, A F; Laskin, J L

1990-06-01

58

Assessing the mobility of the mandibular condyle by sonography  

PubMed Central

Purpose Traditionally, the measurement of the maximal mouth opening was regarded as the mobility of the temporomandibular joint. The information, however, was not reliable. Sonography was often used to diagnose disc displacement in the temporomandibular joint and its validity was well established. The tool was also appropriate for measuring the outcome of temporomandibular disorders management. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to examine completely the reliability and error for evaluating the mobility of the mandibular condyle by sonography. In addition, the existing methods were modified to improve the repeatability. Patients and methods The reliability examinations included between-image and within-image explorations to represent the reliabilities of the image capturing and the mobility measuring, respectively. Sixty-two subjects were recruited to receive ultrasonic examination for condylar mobility. The images of the condyle in mouth closing and opening were captured and the horizontal displacement of the condyles was measured as the anterior translation of the condyle. To confirm that the probe did not move during mouth opening, a marker was placed between the skin and the ultrasonic probe as the landmark. Results The results demonstrated that the intrarater and interrater reliabilities in the within-image test were 0.986 and 0.970 and the reliabilities in the between-image test were 0.904 and 0.857, respectively. The standard errors of measurement in the within-image and between-image tests were 0.04 cm and 0.09 cm, respectively. Conclusion Sonography is a reliable tool to assess condylar mobility and can be used to measure the treatment outcome for temporomandibular disorders. PMID:25342888

Chen, Han-Yu; Wu, Shyi-Kuen; Lu, Chuan-Chin; You, Jia-Yuan; Lai, Chung-Liang

2014-01-01

59

Chronic slipping of bilateral distal humeral epiphyses in a gymnastist.  

PubMed

In children, fracture-separation of the epiphyseal plate near the elbow joint is a common occurrence. However, separation of the distal humeral epiphysis is very rare, and in most cases, it is caused by high-impact trauma. In all reported cases, there has been a clear mechanism of injury. We report a case of an 11-year-old male patient who sustained separation of the distal humeral epiphyses bilaterally after 2 years of gymnastics, without a clear mechanism of injury. This patient had been using the vault since he was 9 years old, although children of that age do not normally perform on the vault. When gymnasts place their hands on the vault with their elbows flexed and subsequently extend their elbows to push off, the biomechanical load is placed equally on the right and left arms. Consequently, this type of repeated stress induces injury to the epiphyseal cartilages bilaterally, resulting in chronic progression of separation of the distal humeral epiphyses. PMID:25438108

Oda, Ryo; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Ichimaru, Kozo; Morihara, Toru; Ikeda, Takumi; Kubo, Toshikazu

2015-01-01

60

Primary osteomyelitis of the mandibular condyle--a rare case.  

PubMed

Osteomyelitis is an inflammatory process involving cortical and cancellous bone. In the maxillofacial region, the mandible is the most frequently affected bone. In the vast majority, a bacterial focus can be identified as the origin of the disease. Chronic progress of the disease may lead to destruction of mandibular bony structures, resulting in mild or severe loss of function if no adequate treatment is applied. In some cases, the etiology of osteomyelitis remains unclear. Review of literature revealed two cases of necrosis of the mandibular condyle caused by primary osteomyelitis. We report a case of primary osteomyelitis of the mandibular condyle in a 51-year-old woman. Radiography revealed an almost complete destruction of the right mandibular condyle, resulting in malocclusion. The patient was treated with long-term antibiotics. No surgical intervention had been performed. After remission of the symptoms, the malocclusion had been corrected prosthetically. After a 4-year follow up period, the occlusion is stabile and there are no signs of progression of the disease. PMID:20349324

Zemann, Wolfgang; Feichtinger, Matthias; Pau, Mauro; Kärcher, Hans

2011-06-01

61

Collet-Sicard Syndrome Associated with Occipital Condyle Fracture and Epidural Hematoma  

PubMed Central

A 31-year-old male was presented with a very rare case of ipsilateral palsies of the nerves IX through XII (Collet-Sicard syndrome) after a closed head injury. An occipital condyle fracture that was associated with epidural hematoma was diagnosed by computed tomography. The patient was conservatively managed, and following the treatment, partial neurological recovery ensued. The phenomenon of occipital condyle fracture involving the last four cranial nerve palsies is relatively rare. Although 3 cases of Collet-Sicard syndrome that were caused by an occipital condyle fracture has been reported, the association between condyle fracture and epidural hematoma has never been described before. PMID:17326254

Topsakal, Cahide; Kaplan, Metin; Y?ld?r?m, Hanifi; Ozveren, Mehmet Faik

2007-01-01

62

Humeral Avulsion of the Inferior Glenohumeral Ligament in College Female Volleyball Players Caused by Repetitive Microtrauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Humeral avulsion of the inferior glenohumeral ligament is a rare injury resulting from hyperabduction and external rotation, and it is most commonly seen with sports-related injuries, including those from volleyball. The anterior band of the inferior glenohumeral ligament is most commonly injured (93%), whereas the posterior band is infrequently injured. The axillary pouch humeral avulsion of the inferior glenohumeral

Mihra S. Taljanovic; Jon K. Nisbet; Tim B. Hunter; Randy P. Cohen; Lee F. Rogers

2011-01-01

63

Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of positional relationship between the disk and condyle in asymptomatic young adult mandibular prognathism.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to clarify disk position relative to the condyle and condylar position relative to the glenoid fossa in clinically asymptomatic and orthodontically untreated young adult Class III patients by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, the relationship between skeletal Class III morphology and positional changes of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) components were investigated. The material consisted of 34 bilateral sagittal oblique TMJ MR images (MRIs) and lateral cephalometric radiographs taken in a closed mouth position. The mean age of the patients was 20.71 +/- 0.82 years (range 16-29 years). Only clinically symptom-free subjects were included in this study. Measurements made on the MRIs and lateral cephalographs were used to calculate means and minimum and maximum values. The right and left TMJ variables were compared with the Student's t-test. Correlation coefficients between bilateral TMJ variables and skeletal variables were calculated. In the right TMJ, the disk was positioned anteriorly and the condyle was positioned posteriorly, whereas the left TMJ was normal. A negative correlation existed between the vertical skeletal morphology and the anterior joint space of the TMJ. A positive correlation was found between the left disk position and the vertical skeletal morphology because of the differentiation of the condylar head angle in each side. As a result, clinically asymptomatic Class III patients may be candidates for TMJ derangements. For this reason, clinical and visual examinations should be performed simultaneously to eliminate diagnostic errors before orthognathic treatment. PMID:14580023

Gökalp, Hatice

2003-10-01

64

Histological analysis of the growth of the mandibular condyle in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative and quantitative data on the growth of the mandib- ular condyle in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) are limited. The purpose of this investigation was to provide such data, with emphasis on variation in the size of the cartilaginous layers in the condyle and on condylar growth at five maturational levels (i.e., neonate, infant, juvenile, adolescent and young adult).

David S. Carlson; James A. McNamara; Douglas H. Jaul

1978-01-01

65

MRI and arthroscopic findings in the temporomandibular joint after mandibulectomy including the unilateral condyle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, the MRI and arthroscopic findings in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of two patients who underwent partial mandibulectomy including the condyle are presented. The disc and superior joint compartment of the affected TMJs were preserved in both patients. MRI of the affected TMJs without condyle demonstrated that the intermediate zone of the discs was located anteriorly to the

Yoshiki Hamada; Toshirou Kondoh; Norihiko Takada; Kanichi Seto

2000-01-01

66

The mandibular condyle in juvenile chronic arthritis patients with mandibular hypoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract.In 12 JCA patients with severe mandibular hypoplasia, who all strongly demanded early treatment, 21 mandibular condyles were replaced by costochondral grafts. All of them had radiographic morphological changes in the mandibular condyles with varying degrees of destruction of the articular cartilages. Severe pathological changes in the lower joint compartments were consistently observed at surgery. Hence, the lower joint compartments

B. Svensson; Å. Larsson; R. Adell

2001-01-01

67

The application of the Risdon approach for mandibular condyle fractures  

PubMed Central

Background Many novel approaches to mandibular condyle fracture have been reported, but there is a relative lack of reports on the Risdon approach. In this study, the feasibility of the Risdon approach for condylar neck and subcondylar fractures of the mandible is demonstrated. Methods A review of patients with mandibular condylar neck and subcondylar fractures was performed from March 2008 to June 2012. A total of 25 patients, 19 males and 6 females, had 14 condylar neck fractures and 11 subcondylar fractures. Results All of the cases were reduced using the Risdon approach. For subcondylar fractures, reduction and fixation with plates was done under direct vision. For condylar neck fractures, reduction and fixation was done with the aid of a trochar in adults and a percutaneous threaded Kirschner wire in children. There were no malunions or nonunions revealed in follow-up care. Mild transient neuropraxia of the marginal mandibular nerve was seen in 4 patients, which was resolved within 1–2 months. Conclusions The Risdon approach is a technique for reducing the condylar neck and subcondylar fractures that is easy to perform and easy to learn. Its value in the reduction of mandibular condyle fractures should be emphasized. PMID:23829537

2013-01-01

68

Overexpressed TGF-? in subchondral bone leads to mandibular condyle degradation.  

PubMed

Emerging evidence has implied that subchondral bone plays an important role during osteoarthritis (OA) pathology. This study was undertaken to investigate whether abnormalities of the condylar subchondral bone lead to temporomandibular joint (TMJ) OA. We used an osteoblast-specific mutant TGF-?1 transgenic mouse, the CED mouse, in which high levels of active TGF-?1 occur in bone marrow, leading to abnormal bone remodeling. Subchondral bone changes in the mandibular condyles were investigated by micro-CT, and alterations in TMJ condyles were confirmed by histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. Abnormalities in the condylar subchondral bone, characterized as fluctuant bone mineral density and microstructure and increased but uncoupled activity of osteoclasts and osteoblasts, were apparent in the 1- and 4-month CED mouse groups, while obvious cartilage degradation, in the form of cell-free regions and proteoglycan loss, was observed in the 4-month CED group. In addition, increased numbers of apoptotic chondrocytes and MMP9- and VEGF-positive chondrocytes were observed in the condylar cartilage in the 4-month CED group, but not in the 1-month CED group, compared with their respective age-matched controls. This study demonstrated that progressive degradation of mandibular condylar cartilage could be induced by the abnormal remodeling of the underlying subchondral bone during TMJOA progression. PMID:24309371

Jiao, K; Zhang, M; Niu, L; Yu, S; Zhen, G; Xian, L; Yu, B; Yang, K; Liu, P; Cao, X; Wang, M

2014-02-01

69

An inconvenient truth: treatment of displaced paediatric supracondylar humeral fractures.  

PubMed

The need for emergent management of displaced paediatric supracondylar humeral fractures is being questioned in the literature. Open reduction rates of up to 46% have been reported in the non-emergent management of these injuries. At our institution these fractures are managed as operative emergencies by senior personnel. To examine the ongoing need for this policy we reviewed our results. All patients managed over a five year period with Gartland type IIB or III paeditric supracondylar humeral fractures were identified and a comprehensive chart and radiographic review undertaken. The mean time from injury to fracture reduction and stabilization was 6.6 h. Consultants performed or supervised 90% of cases. Open reduction was necessary in 5% of cases. Complications included a perioperative nerve injury rate of 6% and a superficial pin site infection rate of 3%. This study suggests that, despite the challenge to trauma on-call rostering, the emergency management of these injuries is advantageous to patients in units of our size. Based on the data presented here we continue our practice of emergent management. We suggest that units of a similar size to our own would show a benefit from an analogous policy albeit an inconvenient truth. PMID:22525415

Donnelly, M; Green, C; Kelly, I P

2012-06-01

70

Articular impingement in malunited fracture of the humeral head.  

PubMed

We report on the case of a fracture of the humeral metaepiphysis, surgical neck, and greater tuberosity treated conservatively. Malunion of a fracture of the greater tuberosity developed an impingement on the glenoid surface, causing an articular locking in internal rotation that resolved with slight pressure and a painful "click." The impinging bone was removed arthroscopically. Its extreme posterior position required opening a second, novel portal close to the posterior edge of the acromion for instrument access. Complete removal of the impinging bone restored free internal rotation without signs of impingement on the glenoid surface. Passive motion was initiated immediately postoperatively, and active motion in a water pool was initiated after 2 weeks. After 1 year, the patient has no pain, has maintained complete range of motion, and experiences no limitations in daily or sports activities. The peculiar features of this case are the absence of soft tissue scar stiffness and deficiency of the rotator cuff, because malunion of the bone fragment to the posterior edge of the humeral head produced a mechanical block of internal rotation, and the arthroscopic treatment of the impingement through an atypical superoposterior portal, which has not been described in the literature before. PMID:12368799

Porcellini, Giuseppe; Campi, Fabrizio; Paladini, Paolo

2002-10-01

71

Trends in the surgical treatment of proximal humeral fractures – a nationwide 23-year study in Finland  

PubMed Central

Background Proximal humeral fractures are common osteoporotic fractures. Most proximal humeral fractures are treated non-surgically, although surgical treatment has gained popularity. The purpose of this study was to determine changes in the surgical treatment of proximal humeral fractures in Finland between 1987 and 2009. Methods The study covered the entire adult (>19 y) population in Finland over the 23-year period from 1st of January 1987 to 31st of December 2009. We assessed the number and incidence of surgically treated proximal humeral fractures in each year of observation and recorded the type of surgery used. The cohort study was based on data from Finnish National Hospital Discharge Register. Results During the 23-year study period, a total of 10,560 surgical operations for proximal humeral fractures were performed in Finland. The overall incidence of these operations nearly quadrupled between 1987 and 2009. After the year 2002, the number of patients treated with plating increased. Conclusion An increase in the incidence of the surgical treatment of proximal humeral fractures was seen in Finland in 1987–2009. Fracture plating became increasingly popular since 2002. As optimal indications for each surgical treatment modality in the treatment of proximal humeral fractures are not known, critical evaluation of each individual treatment method is needed. PMID:23273247

2012-01-01

72

Foramen magnum meningiomas: To drill or not to drill the occipital condyle? A series of 12 patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Despite the development of microsurgery and cranial base techniques, the surgical management of Foramen Magnum Meningiomas (FMM) continues to be a technical challenge to neurosurgeons. Controversy concerning the utility of systematic condyle drilling for approaching FMM has been raised. Our aim was to describe the surgical technique, analyze its safety, and the postoperative outcome in 12 consecutive FMM patients. Methods: From 1986 to 2011, 12 patients with FMM underwent operations in the Department of Neurosurgery at Servidores do Estado Hospital and in a private clinic. All patients were operated using a standard suboccipital craniectomy, preserving the occipital condyle, opening of the Foramen Magnum, and ipsilateral removal of the posterior arch of C1. Results: There was no operative mortality, nine patients achieved Glasgow Outcome Scale 4 or 5. Condylar resection was not deemed necessary in any case. Gross total resection was achieved in nine patients. After surgery, four patients developed lower cranial nerve weakness. There was no significant postoperative complication in the remaining patients. The average follow-up is 8.2 years. Conclusion The vast majority of FMM can be safely removed with a retrocondylar lateral suboccipital approach without condylar resection, using meticulous microsurgical techniques. PMID:23776759

Lynch, Jose Carlos; Temponi, Vicente; Emmerich, João Cláudio; Pereira, Celestino Esteves; Gonçalves, Mariangela Barbi

2013-01-01

73

Superolateral dislocation of the intact mandibular condyle associated with panfacial fracture: a case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Superolateral dislocation of the intact mandibular condyle (SDIMC) is rare. This case report focuses on a 15-year-old teenager who was involved in a motor vehicle accident as well a literature review regarding the SDIMC. Clinical examination demonstrated a diffuse edema in the midfacial area and a left lateral deflection of the mandible, including an open bite and a crepitation in the symphyseal region. Three-dimensional computed tomography scans were taken, which presented a superolateral dislocation of the left mandibular condyle as well as panfacial fracture. The patient was set in intermaxillary fixation for 2 weeks and underwent subsequent active jaw physiotherapy, the evaluation of which presented satisfactory results. This case study also presents a literature review, which demonstrated 21 well-documented cases of SDIMC. The patients' mean age was of 29 years. The male gender proved to be more prevalent, with road traffic collisions representing the most common form of accident. Type II, with unilateral dislocation, proved to be the most common. The mean reduction time was 7 days. The open methods were the most commonly used reduction methods. Mandible fracture was associated with dislocation in 82% of the cases, with other facial fractures appearing in only 23% of the cases. Patient follow up presented satisfactory results in 59% of the cases. PMID:21342438

Amaral, Márcio Bruno; Bueno, Sebastião Cristian; Silva, Alice Araújo Ferreira; Mesquita, Ricardo Alves

2011-06-01

74

Protection of the Medial Femoral Condyle Articular Cartilage During Drilling of the Femoral Tunnel Through the Accessory Medial Portal in Anatomic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Accurate positioning of the femoral tunnel in the native femoral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) footprint requires drilling through an accessory medial portal (AMP). The AMP is located far medial and at a low level. Despite the benefits of drilling through the AMP, it is possible that the drill bit head will injure the articular cartilage of the medial femoral condyle as it slides along the guide pin to the femoral insertion of the ACL. Because more surgeons are now performing anatomic ACL reconstructions and shifting from transtibial drilling toward transportal drilling, the risk of this injury might be increasing, especially during the beginning of their learning curve. To avoid such injury, a bio-interference screw sheath is used. It is inserted through the AMP over the guide pin until it reaches near the medial wall of the lateral femoral condyle. The drill bit is inserted over the guide pin and through the bio-interference screw sheath. Using the bio-interference screw sheath not only protects the articular cartilage of the medial femoral condyle but also protects the medial meniscus, posterior cruciate ligament, and skin of the AMP from injury because of the close proximity of the drill bit head to these structures during transportal drilling. PMID:23766987

Abdelkafy, Ashraf

2012-01-01

75

[Indication for condyle reconstruction in TMJ fractures during childhood].  

PubMed

Four cases of unilateral juvenile growth retardation of the lower jaw caused by trauma of the temporomandibular joint are presented (age 5-13 years, 1 female, 3 male). Three cases had ankylosis of the TMJ. In all patients, a reconstruction of the condyle by transplantation of rib or iliac crest grafts was performed. Follow-up time was 1.5 to 3 years. Postoperatively, good function was achieved in all cases; a tendency for growth induction was found in 3 cases, overgrowth in one case. Severe impediment of lower jaw mobility, when combined with foreseeable growth impediment, as well as traumatically induced hypoplasia are proposed as indications for autologous joint reconstruction. PMID:1811976

Reich, R H

1991-01-01

76

Humeral fractures by arm wrestling in adult: a biomechanical study.  

PubMed

Humeral shaft fractures may occur as a result of arm wrestling. We discuss the biomechanics of this rare injury mechanism. Using Strength of materials concepts, Computerized Tomography and Bone Density Scans we studied the biomechanical and anatomical conditions that predispose to this particular fracture. An unfavorable ratio between inner-outer diameter and a low bone mineral concentration in the distal third of humerus compared to other sections of bone were seen as critical aspects. The biomechanical study observed the primary importance of these factors to explain the typical shape and location of this fracture. These results indicate that each arm wrestler should be conscious of the risks of practicing this activity. (www.actabiomedica.it). PMID:23393920

Pedrazzini, Alessio; Pedrazzoni, Mario; De Filippo, Massimo; Nicoletto, Gianni; Govoni, Riccardo; Ceccarelli, Francesco

2012-08-01

77

Osteosynthesis in Fractures of the Distal Third of Humeral Diaphysis  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Objectives: To compare the clinical results of osteosynthesis with plate and screws versus anterograde locked intramedullary nail in fractures of the distal third of humeral diaphysis. Material and methods: 184 patients with fractures of the distal third of humeral diaphysis were included in a prospective study. 82 patients underwent open reduction and internal fixation with plate and screws (Group 1), while in 102 cases, closed reduction and osteosynthesis with locked intramedullary nail was performed (Group 2). The 2 groups were similar in terms of age and gender distribution and pattern of fractures. The function of shoulder and elbow were assessed using the Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS) and Oxford Elbow Score (OES). Operating time, duration of hospital stay, complications and moment of union were recorded. Outcomes: 6 months after surgery the average OSS was 44.42 in Group I and 40.23 in Group II, while the mean OES was 40.88 in Group I and 46.54 in Group II. The average duration of the surgical procedure was 87 min in Group1 and 43 min in the nail group (p<0.001).The mean duration of hospital stay was 2.6 days in Group 1 and 1.8 days in Group 2 (p<0.05). The rate of non-unions was 3.66% in the plate group and 2.94% in the retrograde nail group (p>0.05). Conclusions: The clinical results of the 2 methods of osteosynthesis were similar, but the operating time and the duration of hospital stay were longer after plate osteosynthesis. Shoulder function was slightly impaired in the nail group but not statistically significant. PMID:25553125

RADULESCU, Radu; BADILA, Adrian; NUTIU, Octavian; JAPIE, Ionut; TERINTE, Silvia; RADULESCU, Dragos; MANOLESCU, Robert

2014-01-01

78

Repositioning of the humeral tuberosities can be guided by pectoralis major insertion.  

PubMed

In complex proximal humerus fractures, positioning of the tuberosities can be a challenge. This study demonstrates the constant angle between the pectoralis major (PM) and the medial lip of the bicipital groove (BG) on the horizontal axial plane. This angle can be used to determine the rotation, as well as the positioning of the tuberosities, when planning a hemiarthroplasty or a reconstruction. Thirty-one shoulder MRIs were reviewed by three independent observers. The measurements were taken by superposing the axial cut of the proximal humerus, at the level of the distal bicipital groove, and the cut at the top of the PM insertion. By aligning the centers of rotation, we could determine the arcs of rotation between the insertion of the PM and the lips of the medial and lateral bicipital groove (MBG and LBG). Both angles were compared in terms of reliability, reproducibility, and precision. The mean PM-MBG angle was 3.7° [standard deviation (SD) 14.7°] and 27.4° (SD 14.4°) for the PM-LBG angle. We obtained good and very good intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) results for inter- (0.675) and intra-observer (0.793) reliabilities on the medial angle, plus excellent results for the lateral angle (inter-observers 0.962 and intra-observer 0.895). This study demonstrates that the repositioning of humeral tuberosities can be guided by pectoralis major insertion. This will help achieve proper positioning of the metaphysis in relation to the diaphysis during surgery for complex proximal humerus fractures. PMID:25524132

Cikes, Alec; Trudeau-Rivest, Étienne; Canet, Fanny; Hébert-Davies, Jonah; Rouleau, Dominique M

2014-11-01

79

Influences of implant condyle geometry on bone and screw strains in a temporomandibular implant.  

PubMed

A 3D finite element model of an in vitro implanted mandible was analysed. The load point was placed on the condyle in three positions (inside the mouth, centred and outside) to simulate different contact points between the mandible condyle and the temporal bone. The strain fields in the condyle were assessed and detailed around the surgical screws. The temporomandibular implant studied here was modelled on a commercial device that uses four screws to fix it in vivo in a very similar position. The boundary conditions of the numerical model simulated a load on the incisors with a 15 mm mouth aperture. The same contact loads were applied to the two condyles. Numerical results were successfully obtained for the three different contact points: the inside contact produced lower strains on the condyle. The first screw created a critical strain distribution in the bone, just under the screw. The study shows that centred and inside contact induces lower strain distributions. This suggests that spherical condyle geometry should be applied in order to reduce the strains in fixation. As the top screw was observed to play the most critical role, the third screw is in fact unnecessary, since the lower strain distribution suggests that it will be loosened. PMID:23726645

Mesnard, M; Ramos, A; Simões, J A

2014-04-01

80

Operative management of Hoffa fracture of the femoral condyle.  

PubMed

Hoffa fracture is a rare injury consisting of unicondylar tangential posterior fracture of the distal femur and only very few cases have been reported in the literature. These fractures are due to high energy trauma and conservative treatment generally yields poor results, but rigid internal fixation allows early functional rehabilitation and decreases the incidence of complications. The purpose of the study was to prospectively analyse the clinico-radiological and functional outcome following open surgical treatment. From July 2005 to July 2010, 22 patients (14 males and 8 females) were recruited from Emergency and outpatient department having closed and open Hoffa fracture of the femoral condyle. All patients were operated under general or spinal anesthesia. Post-operatively, all the patients were followed for 12 months. Fractures were united in a mean time of 10 weeks (range from 6 - 16 weeks) depending on the type of fracture pattern. Fractures were reduced anatomically in all except in one patient. During follow-up, there were no losses of reduction or fixation. Full weight bearing were started in the mean time of 8.8 weeks. Mean duration of hospital stay were 9.8 days. Complications were stiffness and pain in one patient, collateral laxity in one patient and progression of arthritis in one patient. The results were excellent in 90.90% and good in 9.09% patients. Finally, we conclude that the early anatomical reduction and rigid fixation with screws provide best results and minimal complications. PMID:25130151

Sahu, Ramji Lal; Gupta, Pratiksha

2014-01-01

81

Injectable biocomposites for bone healing in rabbit femoral condyle defects.  

PubMed

A novel biomimetic bone scaffold was successfully prepared in this study, which was composed of calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH), collagen and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAC). CSH/nHAC was prepared and observed with scanning electron microscope and rhBMP-2 was introduced into CSH/nHAC. The released protein content from the scaffold was detected using high performance liquid chromatography at predetermined time interval. In vivo bone formation capacity was investigated by means of implanting the scaffolds with rhBMP-2 or without rhBMP-2 respectively into a critical size defect model in the femoral condyle of rabbit. The releasing character of rhBMP-2 was that an initial burst release (37.5%) was observed in the first day, followed by a sustained release and reached 100% at the end of day 20. The CSH/nHAC showed a gradual decrease in degradation with the content of nHAC increase. The results of X-rays, Micro CT and histological observation indicated that more new bone was formed in rhBMP-2 group. The results implied that this new injectable bone scaffold should be very promising for bone repair and has a great potential in bone tissue engineering. PMID:24146770

Liu, Jianheng; Mao, Kezheng; Liu, Zhengsheng; Wang, Xiumei; Cui, Fuzhai; Guo, Wenguang; Mao, Keya; Yang, Shuying

2013-01-01

82

Bifid mandibular condyle with ankylosis in a 3-year-old child: A rare presentation and review  

PubMed Central

Bifid mandibular condyle with ankylosis is an extremely rare condition and may arise as a developmental or traumatic defect. It may be associated with ankylosis. We here report a case of unilateral bifid mandibular condyle with ankylosis in a 3-year-old child. This is the youngest patient reported with the condition making it one of its first kind in the literature. The detailed description of the case, its radiological findings, and the literature on bifid condyles are reviewed. PMID:22114377

Mainali, Sneedha; Tandon, Shobha

2010-01-01

83

Humeral shaft fracture management, a prospective study; nailing or plating  

PubMed Central

Introduction In this fast moving & advancing era no body want to remain handicapped in immobilization by cast with limited movement. As our knowledge is growing, orthopedic implants and appliances also advancing, and creating a very potential options to manage fracture shaft of humerus by internal fixation either by plate osteosynthesis or interlocking nailing. We are here to evaluate the options of internal fixation; nailing and plating. Material and method We prospectively evaluated the results of 30 patients having humeral Shaft fracture. Who were internally fixed by antegrade interlocking nailing (15) and DCP plate (15). Patients are followed up on average of 16–19 months and results were evaluated with standard protocol. Results All fractures united uneventfully with usual complication. However we need 2 reoperation in nailing and 1 case of plating for bone grafting. Conclusion Internal fixation have immense use in providing better results in form of less deformity, early mobilization and good union. Plating is better option for fixation in terms of less union time, better joint function and lesser reoperation However Nailing is good alternative as minimal invasive approach, less infection, less nerve injury, less chance of implant failure.

Kumar, Rupesh; Singh, Pankaj; Chaudhary, Lal Jee; Singh, Shailendra

2012-01-01

84

Revision to reverse shoulder arthroplasty with retention of the humeral component  

PubMed Central

Background Revision in failed shoulder arthroplasty often requires removal of the humeral component with a significant risk of fracture and bone loss. Newer modular systems allow conversion from anatomic to reverse shoulder arthroplasty with retention of a well-fixed humeral stem. We report on a prospectively evaluated series of conversions from hemiarthroplasty to reverse shoulder arthroplasty. Methods In 14 cases of failed hemiarthroplasty due to rotator cuff deficiency and painful pseudoparalysis (in 13 women), revision to reverse shoulder arthroplasty was performed between October 2006 and 2010, with retention of the humeral component using modular systems. Mean age at the time of operation was 70 (56–80) years. Pre- and postoperative evaluation followed a standardized protocol including Constant score, range of motion, and radiographic analysis. Mean follow-up time was 2.5 (2–5.5) years. Results Mean Constant score improved from 9 (2–16) to 41 (17–74) points. Mean lengthening of the arm was 2.6 (0.9–4.7) cm without any neurological complications. One patient required revision due to infection. Interpretation Modular systems allow retainment of a well-fixed humeral stem with good outcome. There is a risk of excessive humeral lengthening. PMID:24032523

2013-01-01

85

Arthroscopic Anatomic Humeral Head Reconstruction With Osteochondral Allograft Transplantation for Large Hill-Sachs Lesions  

PubMed Central

Anatomic reconstruction of the humeral head with osteochondral allograft has been reported as a solution for large Hill-Sachs lesions with or without glenoid bone loss. However, to date, varying techniques have been used. This technical note describes an arthroscopic reconstruction technique using fresh-frozen, side- and size-matched osteochondral humeral head allograft. Allograft plugs are press fit into the defect without internal fixation and seated flush with the surrounding articular surface. This technique restores the native articular contour of the humeral head without compromising shoulder range of motion. Potential benefits of this all-arthroscopic approach include minimal trauma to the soft tissue and articular surface without the need for hardware or staged reoperation. PMID:24266001

Snir, Nimrod; Wolfson, Theodore S.; Hamula, Mathew J.; Gyftopoulos, Soterios; Meislin, Robert J.

2013-01-01

86

Metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma to the mandibular condyle: a rare clinical presentation.  

PubMed

Metastatic disease to the oral cavity is rare, representing only 1-8% of oral malignancies, and involvement of the mandibular condyle is even less prevalent. In a recent literature review of 796 cases of metastatic disease to the oral cavity, only 39 (13.8%) involved the condyle. This report is a unique case of metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma to the condyle. There are only 5 documented cases of metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma to the oral cavity, one of which metastasized to the condyle. This is an important case because metastatic lesions to the condyle may mimic temporomandibular joint disorders making clinical diagnosis and decision-making extremely challenging for the oral and maxillofacial surgeon. The requirement for arrival at an appropriate and prompt diagnosis is crucial for determining the most appropriate treatment regimens and improved outcomes. Additionally, in approximately 33% of cases, the oral metastatic lesion may be the first indication of an undiscovered distant primary tumor, making timely evaluation and treatment critical from an oncologic perspective. PMID:23911149

Kolokythas, Antonia; Miloro, M Beth; Olsson, Alexis B; Miloro, Michael

2014-01-01

87

Triangle tilt and humeral surgery: Meta-analysis of efficacy and functional outcome  

PubMed Central

AIM: To systematically review and analyze the overall impact and effectiveness of bony surgical procedures, the triangle tilt and humeral surgery in a comparative manner in permanent obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) patients. METHODS: We conducted a literature search and identified original full research articles of OBPI patients treated with a secondary bony surgery, particularly addressing the limitation of shoulder abduction and functions. Further, we analyzed and compared the efficacy and the surgical outcomes of 9 humeral surgery papers with 179 patients, and 4 of our secondary bony procedure, the triangle tilt surgical papers with 86 patients. RESULTS: Seven hundred and thirty-one articles were identified, using the search term “brachial plexus” and obstetric or pediatric (246 articles) or neonatal (219 articles) or congenital (188 articles) or “birth palsy” (121 articles). Further, only a few articles were identified using the bony surgery search, osteotomy “brachial plexus” obstetric (35), “humeral osteotomy” and “brachial plexus” (17), and triangle tilt “brachial plexus” (14). Of all, 12 studies reporting pre- and post- operative or improvement in total Mallet functional score were included in this study. Among these, 9 studies reported the humeral surgery and 4 were triangle tilt surgery. We used modified total Mallet functional score in this analysis. Various studies with humeral surgery showed improvement of 1.4, 2.3, 5.0 and 5.6 total Mallet score, whereas the triangle tilt surgery showed improvement of 5.0, 5.5, 6.0 and 6.2. CONCLUSION: The triangle tilt surgery improves on what was achieved by humeral osteotomy in the management of shoulder function in OBPI patients.

Nath, Rahul K; Somasundaram, Chandra

2015-01-01

88

Full arthroscopic lateral retinacular release with hook knife and quadriceps pressure-pull test: long-term follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important causes of anterior knee pain include patellofemoral malalignment which causes patella–condyle contact anomalies at the patellofemoral joint, excessive patellar lateral pressure increase, trauma and overuse. In this article, besides presentation of late clinical results of 169 lateral retinacular release cases which were surgically treated between January 1995 and December 2002 with the help of a hook knife

Osman Ugur Calpur; Mert Ozcan; Hakan Gurbuz; Fatma Nesrin Turan

2005-01-01

89

Humeral head cysts: association with rotator cuff tears and age.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the prevalence of the cystic changes at rotator cuff footprint on proximal humeral tuberosities and investigate their relationship with rotator cuff tears and patient age. Magnetic resonance (MR) images of 657 patients who underwent shoulder arthroscopy for treatment of rotator cuff disorders were reviewed to localize the cystic changes at anterior (supraspinatus insertion) and posterior (infraspinatus insertion) aspects of greater tuberosity (GT) and lesser tuberosity (subscapularis insertion). Preoperative MR reports as well as cyst size and locations on MR images were correlated with arthroscopic records of rotator cuff pathology (tear type, size, location and tendon involvement) and patient age. The prevalence of cystic changes was 9.1% (60 patients) in the study population. Anterior GT cysts were found in 56% of patients and were strongly associated with full-thickness (p<.001) and articular-sided partial-thickness rotator cuff tears (p=.02). Posterior GT and lesser tuberosity cysts were found in 27 and 17% of patients, respectively, and were not significantly related to rotator cuff tears, although there was an increased trend of posterior cysts in patients with infraspinatus tears (p=.09). A significant relation was found between patient age and the cyst size (p=.01), while none of the cyst localizations were statistically related to age. Anterior GT cysts were more common in this patient group and demonstrated a strong association with rotator cuff disorders regardless of age. Posterior GT and lesser tuberosity cysts were less common and showed no association with rotator cuff pathology or patient age. PMID:23748696

Suluova, Fatih; Kanatli, Ulunay; Ozturk, Burak Yagmur; Esen, Erdinc; Bolukbasi, Selcuk

2014-07-01

90

Humeral cross-sectional shape in suspensory primates and sloths.  

PubMed

Studies on the cross-sectional geometry of long bones in African apes have documented that shape ratios derived from second moments of area about principle axes (e.g., Imax /Imin ) are often correlated with habitual locomotor behaviors. For example, humeral cross-sections tend to appear more circular in more arboreal and forelimb suspensory chimpanzees compared with terrestrial quadrupedal gorillas. These data support the hypothesis that cross-sections that are more circular in shape are adapted for multidirectional loading regimes and bending moments encountered when using acrobatic locomotor behaviors. Whether a more circular humerus reflects greater use of forelimb suspension in other primates and nonprimate mammals is unknown. In this study, cross-sections at or near midshaft of the humerus were obtained from anthropoid primates that differ in their use of forelimb suspension, as well as from two genera of suspensory sloths. Imax /Imin ratios were compared within and between groups, and correlations were made with behavioral data. In broad comparisons, observed differences in morphology follow predicted patterns. Humeri of suspensory sloths are circular. Humeri of the more suspensory hominoids tend to be more circular than those of quadrupedal taxa. Humeri of the suspensory atelines are similar to hominoids, while those of Cebus are more like nonsuspensory cercopithecoids. There is, however, considerable overlap between taxa and within finer comparisons variation between species are not in the predicted direction. Thus, although Imax /Imin ratios of the humerus are informative for characterizing generalized locomotor modes (i.e., forelimb suspensory vs. quadrupedal), additional structural information is needed for more fine-grained assessments of locomotion. PMID:23408647

Patel, Biren A; Ruff, Christopher B; Simons, Erin L R; Organ, Jason M

2013-04-01

91

Incipient malunion of an isolated humeral trochlea fracture treated with an elbow hemiarthroplasty: case report.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 49-year-old woman with severe elbow ankylosis 10 weeks after a trochlea fracture treated with open reduction and internal fixation. Imaging confirmed failure of open reduction and internal fixation with a displaced and severely damaged trochlea. We treated the nascent malunited trochlea and associated elbow ankylosis with a distal humeral hemiarthroplasty and circumferential elbow arthrolysis. The patient regained functional range of motion of the elbow and had minimal pain. Distal humeral hemiarthroplasty, which has been indicated for acute fractures involving the capitellum or the entire distal humerus, may also be indicated for certain isolated complex fractures of the trochlea. PMID:25542436

Lechasseur, Benoit; Laflamme, Mélissa; Leclerc, Alexandre; Bédard, Anne-Marie

2015-02-01

92

Mandibular condyle and infratemporal fossa reconstruction using vascularized costochondral and calvarial bone grafts  

PubMed Central

There are some difficulties in approaching and removing the lesion in infratemporal fossa because of its anatomical location. After wide excision of tumor lesion, it is also difficult for reconstruction of mandibular condyle and cranium base on infratemporal fossa. Besides, there are some possibilities of cerebrospinal fluid leakage, intracranial infection and bone resorption. It is also challenging for functional reconstruction that allows normal mandibular movement, preventing mandibular condyle from invaginating into the skull. In this report, we present 14-month follow-up results of a patient who had undergone posterior segmental mandibulectomy including condyle and infratemporal calvarial bone and mandible reconstruction with free vascularized costochondral rib and calvarial bone graft to restoration of the temporomandibular joint area. PMID:24868505

Jang, Hyo Won; Kim, Nam-Kyoo; Lee, Won-Sang; Kim, Hyung Jun; Cha, In-Ho

2014-01-01

93

Sagittal split ramus osteotomy for aneurysmal bone cyst of the mandibular condyle.  

PubMed

Aneurysmal bone cyst is a benign pseudocystic osseous lesion characterized by a fibrous connective tissue stroma with cellular fibrous tissue, multinucleated giant cells, and large blood-filled spaces with no endothelial lining. The entity is uncommon in facial bones, and it rarely involves the mandibular condyle. Resection of the lesion is the most accepted treatment. The present case is the 11th reported case of aneurysmal bone cyst of the mandibular condyle in the existing literature and the first where, rather than using conventional extra oral approach, sagittal split ramus osteotomy was used to excise the lesion successfully with no recurrence after 3 years of follow-up. PMID:25565239

Bhandari, Amit; Sharma, Rohit; Muralidharan, Chiyyarath Gopalan

2015-01-01

94

Functional outcomes of preauricular underparotid retrograde approach for mandibular condyle fractures.  

PubMed

Management of condyle fractures includes a wide spectrum of alternatives including analgesia alone, physiotherapy, intermaxillary fixation, and open reduction and internal fixation. Various approaches have been previously mentioned for the access to the mandibular condyle. The aim of this retrospective clinical study was to evaluate our clinical results on preauricular underparotid retrograde approach for condylar fractures. This retrospective study included 20 condylar fractures in 16 patients who were treated surgically using a preauricular transparotid retrograde approach between 2010 and 2013. Functional outcomes with this method were addressed in light of the results obtained in this clinical series. We suggest this method in the management of condylar fractures. PMID:24717314

Pilanci, Özgur; Basaran, Karaca; Ceran, Fatih; Kuvat, Samet Vasfi

2014-05-01

95

Temporal changes in Arikara humeral and femoral cross-sectional geometry associated with horticultural intensification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humeral and femoral cross-sectional properties from three archaeological variants of the Arikara, an American Great Plains Indian tribe, were analyzed for temporal (16th to 19th centuries) changes in long bone architecture, asymmetry, and sexual dimorphism associated with intensification of horticulture during the late protohistoric and early historic periods. There were a number of significant changes in long bone, especially femoral,

Daniel J. Wescott; Deborah L. Cunningham

2006-01-01

96

Humeres et al.: Control of Avocado Lace Bug 35 EVALUATION OF NATURAL ENEMIES AND INSECTICIDES  

E-print Network

Humeres et al.: Control of Avocado Lace Bug 35 EVALUATION OF NATURAL ENEMIES AND INSECTICIDES of Food and Agriculture, Sacramento, CA 95832, USA ABSTRACT Three natural enemies naturally present, Pseudacysta perseae (Heidemann), in the laboratory. The natural enemies tested were adult females

Hoddle, Mark S.

97

Distal humeral epiphyseal separation in young children: an often-missed fracture-radiographic signs and ultrasound confirmatory diagnosis.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. Distal humeral epiphyseal separation is rare and often misdiagnosed. The purpose of this study was to summarize an experience with radiography and ultrasound of distal humeral epiphyseal separation. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The records of all children younger than 36 months with the diagnosis of distal humeral epiphyseal separation from 2006 to 2013 were identified. Medical and imaging records were reviewed for diagnosis with radiography and ultrasound, cause, treatment, and follow-up. The initial diagnosis, relation of the radius and ulna to the distal humerus, presence of other fractures, and signs of elbow effusion were evaluated. RESULTS. Sixteen patients (10 boys, six girls; mean age, 8.6 months) were evaluated for distal humeral epiphyseal separation. All patients had elbow radiographs. Fifteen (94%) patients had medial and six (38%) had posterior displacement of the radius and ulna. The diagnosis was missed on radiographs of nine (56%) patients. Ultrasound was performed for 12 patients and showed distal humeral epiphyseal separation in all. In 10 (63%) patients, one or more additional humeral fractures were found: bucket-handle fractures in five patients and condylar avulsion fracture in six patients. In the six (38%) patients younger than 1 month, distal humeral epiphyseal separation was secondary to birth trauma. In 4 of the 10 (40%) older patients, nonaccidental trauma was diagnosed. All patients underwent follow-up with a pediatric orthopedist and had full range of motion. Two patients had mild varus deformities. CONCLUSION. The diagnosis of distal humeral epiphyseal separation is often missed on radiographs. Radiologists should be aware that posteromedial displacement of the radius and ulna in young children is highly suggestive of distal humeral epiphyseal separation and that the diagnosis can be confirmed with ultrasound. PMID:25615780

Supakul, Nucharin; Hicks, Ralph A; Caltoum, Christine Beth; Karmazyn, Boaz

2015-02-01

98

Avascular necrosis in proximal humeral fractures in patients treated with operative fixation: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Proximal humeral fractures are common lesions of the elderly, but there are no established treatment guidelines. A surgical treatment for comminuted and displaced fractures of the proximal humerus was developed and is still evolving. The aim of this study was to perform a quantitative review to evaluate the risk of avascular necrosis (AVN) in patients with proximal humeral fractures who were treated by operative fixation compared with conservative treatment. Methods We searched the PubMed, MEDLINE, Springer, Elsevier Science Direct, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (in Chinese), and Wanfang database (in Chinese) up to December 2013 to identify studies related to operative fixation and AVN in patients with proximal humeral fractures. Results Seven studies with a total of 291 patients (142 operative fixation cases and 149 conservative treatment cases) with proximal humeral fractures were considered in the meta-analysis. The overall meta-analysis showed no significant difference in the incidence of AVN between the two groups [odds ratio (OR) 1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33–6.11, p?=?0.64]. The subgroup meta-analysis by study design (retrospective/prospective), sample size (?40/>40), and ethnicity (European/Asian) demonstrated similar results. However, the subgroup analysis by specific operative approach (plate fixation/tension band wiring fixation/others) indicated that plate fixation was associated with a higher rate of AVN than conservative treatment (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05–0.76, p?=?0.019). Conclusions Plate fixation was associated with a higher risk of AVN development than conservative treatment in patients with proximal humeral fractures. PMID:24767176

2014-01-01

99

Long-term results after non-plate head-preserving fixation of proximal humeral fractures  

PubMed Central

A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate displaced proximal humeral fractures treated with a non-plate head-preserving fixation and to detect factors predicting functional outcome. After a median follow-up period of 79.7 months, 105 patients with nine A-fractures, 36 B-fractures and 60 C-fractures (nine two-part-fractures, 41 three-part fractures and 55 four-part fractures) were assessed. Functional outcome was measured based on the Constant and UCLA scores. Of all patients, 70–75% had excellent or good Constant and UCLA scores. In 74% a good or satisfactory quality of initial reduction fracture was achieved. About one-fifth (21%) of the fractures showed a secondary displacement. Twenty-seven percent of the patients had signs of humeral head necrosis and 22% had implant related problems. There were significant correlations between a high final score and young age, low AO fracture severity, good quality of fracture reduction and residual osseous deformity, absence of secondary fracture displacement, implant-related complications, shoulder arthrosis and humeral head necrosis at the time of follow-up. In conclusion, the non-plate head-preserving fixation of proximal humeral fractures is an alternative treatment for displaced proximal humeral fractures. Especially in severely displaced C-fractures in older patients, non-anatomical reduction leads to a high rate of secondary displacement, residual osseous deformity and only a fair shoulder function. For these cases alternative methods such as prosthetic replacement should be chosen. PMID:19705115

Bahrs, Christian; Rolauffs, Bernd; Weise, Kuno; Zipplies, Sebastian; Dietz, Klaus; Eingartner, Christoph

2009-01-01

100

Long-term results after non-plate head-preserving fixation of proximal humeral fractures.  

PubMed

A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate displaced proximal humeral fractures treated with a non-plate head-preserving fixation and to detect factors predicting functional outcome. After a median follow-up period of 79.7 months, 105 patients with nine A-fractures, 36 B-fractures and 60 C-fractures (nine two-part-fractures, 41 three-part fractures and 55 four-part fractures) were assessed. Functional outcome was measured based on the Constant and UCLA scores. Of all patients, 70-75% had excellent or good Constant and UCLA scores. In 74% a good or satisfactory quality of initial reduction fracture was achieved. About one-fifth (21%) of the fractures showed a secondary displacement. Twenty-seven percent of the patients had signs of humeral head necrosis and 22% had implant related problems. There were significant correlations between a high final score and young age, low AO fracture severity, good quality of fracture reduction and residual osseous deformity, absence of secondary fracture displacement, implant-related complications, shoulder arthrosis and humeral head necrosis at the time of follow-up. In conclusion, the non-plate head-preserving fixation of proximal humeral fractures is an alternative treatment for displaced proximal humeral fractures. Especially in severely displaced C-fractures in older patients, non-anatomical reduction leads to a high rate of secondary displacement, residual osseous deformity and only a fair shoulder function. For these cases alternative methods such as prosthetic replacement should be chosen. PMID:19705115

Bahrs, Christian; Badke, Andreas; Rolauffs, Bernd; Weise, Kuno; Zipplies, Sebastian; Dietz, Klaus; Eingartner, Christoph

2010-08-01

101

Unerupted lower third molars and their influence on fractures of the mandibular angle and condyle.  

PubMed

Our aim was to assess the influence of the presence and state of impaction of mandibular third molars on the incidence of fractures of the mandibular angle and condyle. We designed a retrospective study of patients who presented for the treatment of mandibular fractures from January 2006 to April 2011. The independent variables were the presence and degree of impaction of lower third molars, and the outcome variables were the incidence of fractures of the mandibular angle and condyle. The information was acquired from hospital records and panoramic radiographs. Personal data included age, sex, mechanism of injuries, and number of fractures of the mandibular angle and condyle. We studied 110 fractures of the mandibular condyle and 80 of the angle. The incidence of fractures of the mandibular angle was higher in the group with incompletely erupted third molars (37/80, p<0.001) and that of condylar fractures was higher in the group without (67/110, p<0.001). An incompletely erupted third molar reduces the risk of condylar fractures and increases the risk of fractures of the mandibular angle. PMID:21764189

Patil, Pavan M

2012-07-01

102

An Unusual Metallic Foreign Body inside the Knee Medial Femoral Condyle  

PubMed Central

Foreign bodies in the knee joint are uncommon, particularly those not related to surgical procedures. In this paper, we present a case of an intraosseous metallic foreign body situated in the medial femoral condyle for one year, causing pain, which was removed with complete resolution of the symptoms. PMID:25506452

Helito, Camilo Partezani; Faria, Carlos Eduardo Nunes; Bonadio, Marcelo Batista; Pecora, Jose Ricardo; Camanho, Gilberto Luis; Demange, Marco Kawamura

2014-01-01

103

Prevalence of Bifid Mandibular Condyle in a Selected Population in South of Iran  

PubMed Central

Statement of the Problem: Bifid mandibular condyle (BMC) is a rare anomaly of uncertain origin which may play a role in some defects in temporomandibular joints. Since it may be misinterpreted as fractures or tumors in condylar area, proper diagnosis will help to prevent unnecessary treatments. A comprehensive knowledge about BMC may help to understand the developmental course of condyle and temporomandibular joints more clearly. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of bifidity of condyle in a selected population in Iran by employing dental panoramic view. Materials and Method: Panoramic views of 1000 individuals (767 female, 233 male individuals) were assessed for bifidity. The patients were over 18 years old and had attended the radiology department of Shiraz dental school from September 2012 to March 2013. Results: A total of 35(3.5%) case of bifidity was detected. Unilateral form was much more prevalent (32 unilateral cases versus 3 bilateral). The left-side bifidity was 3 times more prevalent than the right side. A large number of bifid condyles (63%) have shown symptoms of temporomandibular joint pain or click or both. Conclusion: The prevalence of bifidity in our population was about 3.5%, which was significantly high compared to the other published reports. Symptoms (click and pain) were also much more detected in our study. PMID:25469353

Haghnegahdar, Abdol Aziz; Bronoosh, Pegah; Khojastepour, Leila; Tahmassebi, Parissa

2014-01-01

104

Bone marrow edema of the mandibular condyle related to internal derangement, osteoarthrosis, and joint effusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate whether common magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) variables such as temporomandibular joint (TMJ) internal derangement, osteoarthrosis, and effusion may predict the diagnostic group of bone marrow edema of the mandibular condyle. Materials and Methods: The relationship between bone marrow edema and TMJ disc displacement, osteoarthrosis, and effusion was analyzed in MRIs

Iris Brandlmaier; Christoph Schmid; Stefan Bertram; Ansgar Rudisch

2003-01-01

105

Fixation of dicapitular fractures of the mandibular condyle with a headless bone screw  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fixation of diacapitular fractures of the mandibular condyle utilising a headless cannulated bone screw (Martin HBS®) is described. An open approach was used with primary fixation of the fracture with a K-wire, over which the cannulated screw was inserted. The method and results are described.

R. A. Loukota

2007-01-01

106

The effect of condylectomy on extreme lateral transcondylar approach to the anterior foramen magnum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The dorsolateral, suboccipital, transcondylar technique was used in this cadaveric study. The angle and distance measurements\\u000a in the corridors were taken intradurally both superior and inferior of the foramen magnum level. In the first stage of this\\u000a study, the findings which were gained from the standard lateral suboccipital approach were compared with the findings after\\u000a condyle and lateral atlantal mass

S. C. Açikba?; R. Tuncer; I. Demirez; Ö. Rahat; S. Kazan; M. Saveren

1997-01-01

107

Throwing in the Middle and Upper Paleolithic: inferences from an analysis of humeral retroversion.  

PubMed

When in evolutionary history did long-range projectile weapons become an important component of hunting toolkits? The archeological evidence for the development of projectile weaponry is complex and generally indirect, and has led to different conclusions about the origin and spread of this technology. Lithic evidence from the Middle Stone Age (MSA) has led some researchers to suggest that true long- range projectile weaponry developed in Africa perhaps as early as 80,000 years ago, and was part of the subsistence toolkit carried by modern humans who expanded out of Africa after 50,000 years ago. Alternatively, temporal patterns in the morphology of pointed lithics has led others to posit an independent, convergent origin of projectile weaponry in Africa, the Near East, and Europe during the interval between 50,000-40,000 years ago. By either scenario, projectile weapons would not have been a component of the hunting arsenal of Neandertals, but may have been in use by European early modern humans and thus, projectile technology may have entered into the competitive dynamics that existed between these two groups. The origins of projectile weapons can be addressed, in part, through analyses of the skeletal remains of the prehistoric humans who made and used them. Habitual behavior patterns--including those related to the production and use of technology--can be imprinted on the skeleton through both genetic and epigenetic pathways. Recent studies in the field of sports medicine indicate that individuals who engage in habitual throwing have increased humeral retroversion angles in their throwing arms and a greater degree of bilateral asymmetry in retroversion angles than do non-throwers. This contribution investigates humeral torsion through analysis of the retroversion angle in samples of Eurasian Neandertals, European early modern humans of the middle and late Upper Paleolithic, and comparative samples of recent humans. This analysis was conducted under the assumption that if throwing-based projectile weaponry was used by early modern Europeans but not Neandertals, Upper Paleolithic samples should be similar to recent human groups engaged in habitual throwing in the degree of humeral retroversion in the dominant limb and in bilateral asymmetry in this feature. Neandertals on the other hand, would not be expected to show marked asymmetry in humeral retroversion. Consistent with other studies, Neandertals exhibit increased retroversion angles (decreased humeral torsion or a more posteriorly oriented humeral head) relative to most modern human samples, although this appears more likely related to body form and overall activity levels than to habitual throwing. Although Neandertals with bilaterally preserved humeri sufficient for measurement are rare (consisting of only two males and one female), levels of bilateral asymmetry in humeral retroversion are low, suggesting a lack of regular throwing. While patterning across fossil and comparative samples in levels of humeral retroversion was not clear cut, males of both the middle and late Upper Paleolithic demonstrate a high level of bilateral asymmetry, comparable to or in excess of that seen in samples of throwing athletes. This may indicate habitual use of throwing-based projectile weaponry by middle Upper Paleolithic times. Small sample sizes and relatively great variance in the fossil samples makes these results, however, suggestive rather than conclusive. PMID:19004469

Rhodes, Jill A; Churchill, Steven E

2009-01-01

108

Radiological and biomechanical analysis of humeral fractures occurring during arm wrestling  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Arm wrestling has recently become one of the most popular sports among young people, mainly due to its simplicity and spectacularity. Yet, unfortunately it is also injury prone. The aim of the study was to perform a biomechanical analysis of the forces which act during arm wrestling, as well as to explain the mechanism of the occurrence of humeral fractures of a similar topology as observed on X-rays. Material/Methods During the period 2001 to 2008 nine cases of humeral fractures resulting from arm wrestling were consulted and treated at the Clinic. The assessment of the limb condition included an interview and the examination of the fractured extremity. All the patients underwent surgical treatment, using the method of open reduction and internal fixation. The virtual dynamic model of the upper limb was established on the basis of a series of computer tomography scans of the bone, and literature data. The biomechanical analysis was carried out using the Finite Elements Method (FEM). Results There were five cases of the 12-B1 type in the AO Classification with butterfly fragments in five cases, and four of the 12-A1 type without the butterfly fragment. The maximum bone stress resulting from torsional loading which occurs during arm wrestling amounted to 60 MPa and was located 115 mm above the elbow on the medial - posterior side of the humeral. Conclusions The strength analysis carried out during arm wrestling revealed that the forces of the acting muscles significantly exert stresses within the distal third of the humeral. PMID:22534710

Kruczy?ski, Jacek; Nowicki, Jaros?aw Jaszczur; Topoli?ski, Tomasz; Srokowski, Grzegorz; Ma?ko, Grzegorz; Chantsoulis, Marzena; Frankowska, Ma?gorzata; Frankowski, Pawe?

2012-01-01

109

Scapular and humeral movement patterns of people with stroke during range of motion exercises  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Range-of-motion (ROM) exercises may contribute to hemiparetic shoulder pain, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. This study examined scapular and humeral movement patterns in people with hemiparesis post stroke as they performed commonly prescribed ROM exercises. Methods Using kinematic techniques, we studied 13 people with hemiparesis, both with and without pain, as they performed three commonly prescribed ROM exercises: person-assisted ROM, self-assisted ROM, and cane-assisted ROM. Their data were compared to a group of 12 matched control subjects performing scapular plane shoulder elevation using mixed model ANOVAs. Correlation analyses were used to examine the relationship between participants’ ratings of pain and kinematic data. Results The hemiparetic group had mild pain at rest that increased during the performance of the exercises. During shoulder elevation, humeral external rotation in the hemiparetic group was decreased in all three ROM exercises compared to the control group. Scapular upward rotation in the hemiparetic group was decreased for the person-assisted ROM exercise only. No differences in scapular tilt were found between groups. The extent of movement abnormalities was not related to pain severity. Discussion and Conclusions People with hemiparesis had altered scapular and humeral movement patterns and increased shoulder pain when performing the ROM exercises. These data can assist clinicians in making decisions regarding which exercises to prescribe to preserve shoulder motion and prevent contractures in this population. PMID:21475080

Hardwick, Dustin D.; Lang, Catherine E.

2011-01-01

110

A comparison of proximal humeral cancellous bone of great apes and humans.  

PubMed

The shoulder is the most mobile joint in the primate body, and is involved in both locomotor and manipulative activities. The presumed functional sensibility of trabecular bone can offer a way of decoding the activities to which the forelimbs of fossil primates were subjected. We examine the proximal humeral trabecular architecture in a relatively closely related group of similarly sized hominids (Pongo pygmaeus, Pan troglodytes, and Homo sapiens), in order to evaluate the effect of diverging habitual motion behaviors of the shoulder complex in a coherent phylogenetic group. In order to characterize and compare the humeral trabecular architectures of the three species, we imaged a large sample by high-resolution computed tomography (HrCT) and quantified their trabecular architectures by standard bone 3D morphometric parameters. Univariate statistical analysis was performed, showing significant differences among the species. However, univariate statistics could not highlight the structural particularity in the cancellous bone of each species. A principal component analysis also showed clear separation of the three taxa and enabled a structural characterization of the humeral trabecular bone of each species. We conclude that the differences in the architectural setup of the three hominids likely reflect multiple differences in their habitual activity patterns of their shoulder joint, although individual structural features are difficult to relate to specific loading conditions. PMID:23680068

Scherf, H; Harvati, K; Hublin, J-J

2013-07-01

111

Osseous alterations in the condylar head after unilateral surgical directional change in rabbit mandibular condyles: Preliminary study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate bony changes in the mandibular condyle when the surface not normally subjected to masticatory forces was subjected to functional loading using a unilateral surgical experiment. Fifteen male New Zealand white rabbits, divided into two groups, were used. Oblique vertical body osteotomies of the mandible and counterclockwise rotation (CCWR) of the proximal segment (PS) [six with 1 mm (group I), six with 3 mm (group II)] were performed on the right side. Osseous changes of condyles were analyzed using micro-computed tomography and histological evaluation four weeks postoperatively. The comparison was performed between condyles on the right and left sides. Since the left condyle (control) might be affected by the operation on the right side, the results were also compared with the healthy control (group III, n = 3, 6 condyles). CCWR of the PS led to osteoporotic changes of the condyle including significantly reduced bone volume and bone mineral density (p < 0.05), thin and small number of trabeculae (p < 0.05). In addition, thinning of condylar cartilage and reduced density of cartilaginous cells were observed. However, these changes were not affected by the amount of CCWR of the PS. PMID:24969760

Yang, Hoon Joo; Hwang, Soon Jung

2014-12-01

112

Subchondral insufficiency fracture of the femoral head and medial femoral condyle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case report documents the clinical, radiographic, and histologic findings in a 69-year-old obese man, who had subchondral\\u000a insufficiency fracture both in the femoral head and medial femoral condyle. On plain radiographs, both lesions underwent subchondral\\u000a collapse. Magnetic resonance images of the left hip showed a bone marrow edema pattern with associated low-intensity band\\u000a on T1-weighted images, which was convex

Takuaki Yamamoto; Peter G. Bullough

2000-01-01

113

CAD-CAM-generated hydroxyapatite scaffold to replace the mandibular condyle in sheep: preliminary results.  

PubMed

In this study, rapid CAD-CAM prototyping of pure hydroxyapatite to replace temporomandibular joint condyles was tested in sheep. Three adult animals were implanted with CAD-CAM-designed porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds as condyle substitutes. The desired scaffold shape was achieved by subtractive automated milling machining (block reduction). Custom-made surgical guides were created by direct metal laser sintering and were used to export the virtual planning of the bone cut lines into the surgical environment. Using the same technique, fixation plates were created and applied to the scaffold pre-operatively to firmly secure the condyles to the bone and to assure primary stability of the hydroxyapatite scaffolds during masticatory function. Four months post-surgery, the sheep were sacrificed. The hydroxyapatite scaffolds were explanted, and histological specimens were prepared. Different histological tissues penetrating the scaffold macropores, the sequence of bone remodeling, new apposition of bone and/or cartilage as a consequence of the different functional anatomic role, and osseointegration at the interface between the scaffold and bone were documented. This animal model was found to be appropriate for testing CAD-CAM customization and the biomechanical properties of porous, pure hydroxyapatite scaffolds used as joint prostheses. PMID:22492196

Ciocca, Leonardo; Donati, Davide; Fantini, Massimiliano; Landi, Elena; Piattelli, Adriano; Iezzi, Giovanna; Tampieri, Anna; Spadari, Alessandro; Romagnoli, Noemi; Scotti, Roberto

2013-08-01

114

Proposed graphical system of evaluating disc-condyle displacements of the temporomandibular joint in MRI.  

PubMed

The aim of this preliminary study was to standardize the reading of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). The MRI was conducted on a control group of eight subjects. In this study, the analysis of joint relationships was limited to the oblique sagittal plane, during the movement of controlled opening. The sections were analyzed by a computer-assisted quantitative method of graphical evaluation. The total surface area (TS) of the disc section was divided into an anterior surface area (AS) and a posterior area (PA), in accordance with a line joining the center of the condyle (C) to the center of the articular tubercle of the temporal bone (T). The disc-condyle relationships in the chosen plane of section were evaluated by the AS/TS ratio. If TS remains relatively constant, the AS/TS values on average decrease from 0.5 to 0.3 between the closed mouth position and the 25 mm open position. The results show good intra-observer reproducibility (p=0.26), evaluated by Wilcoxon's test. In conclusion, this protocol enables the displacement of the disc-condyle assembly during mouth opening to be described. Observed on a larger sample, the AS/TS would be able to show a range of variability in functional disc positions. PMID:16211323

Benbelaïd, R; Fleiter, B; Zouaoui, A; Gaudy, J F

2005-12-01

115

Arthroscopic treatment of a large lateral femoral notch in acute anterior cruciate ligament tear.  

PubMed

A 24-year-old professional soccer player suffered an acute anterior cruciate ligament tear associated with a radiologically evident impression fracture of the lateral femoral condyle, the so-called "lateral femoral notch sign". Following MRI validation of the injury with detection of an additional lateral meniscus tear, arthroscopy was carried out 3 days after the injury. Due to the extended impression of about 5 mm, arthroscopically assisted closed reduction of the depression fracture was performed. A 3.2 mm tunnel was drilled at the lateral femoral condyle in a supero-inferior direction using an ACL tibial guide and the depressed area could be restored using an elevator. The resulting subchondral bone defect in the femoral condyle was filled with freeze-dried human cancellous bone allograft. As a one-stage procedure ACL reconstruction was carried out using a hamstring tendon technique. At 1-year follow up the patient has returned to full sporting function, including playing soccer with a radiographically reduced lateral femoral notch sign. PMID:18060552

Tauber, Mark; Fox, Michael; Koller, Heiko; Klampfer, Helmut; Resch, Herbert

2008-11-01

116

Minor influence of humeral component size on torsional stiffness of the Souter-Strathclyde total elbow prosthesis  

PubMed Central

The use of Souter-Strathclyde total elbow prostheses is a well-studied replacement therapy for reconstruction of the elbow, but loosening of the humeral component is still of concern at long-term follow-up. In this study we looked at the effect of humeral component size and bone mineral density with respect to the bone size, torsional stiffness and torque to failure in cadaveric bones. Fourteen cadaveric humeri were available for testing purposes and four different humeral component size categories were used. First, we calculated the bone quality using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The torsional stiffness of the prosthetic humeri was measured during two mechanical tests: Firstly, the applied torque was recorded during a torsion fatigue test. The change of torsional stiffness between the tenth and last cycle was calculated. Secondly, a simple torsion test was performed and the torque to failure was recorded. No significant differences in outcome were seen between sizes of humeral components, even after correction for the bone size. Torsional stiffness and torque to failure were significantly correlated with bone mineral density and not with component size. In conclusion, bone quality seems to be a major eminent factor in the fixation of the humeral component in elbow replacement surgery. PMID:20091031

Suarez, Daniel R.; van der Steenhoven, Tim J.; Nelissen, Rob G. H. H.

2009-01-01

117

An Evaluation of the Brachial Plexus Block at the Humeral Canal Using a Neurostimulator (1417 Patients): The Efficacy, Safety, and Predictive Criteria of Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the multiple pe- ripheral nerve block technique at the humeral canal (humeral block) with the use of a neurostimulator, we prospectively studied 1417 patients undergoing upper limb surgery with a brachial plexus block at the hu- meral canal (1468 blocks). The success rate (defined as sensory block (in all nerve distributions) and\\/or the

Michel Carles; Alphonse Pulcini; Philippe Macchi; Patrick Duflos; Marc Raucoules-Aime; Dominique Grimaud

2001-01-01

118

Later Childbearing  

MedlinePLUS

... is there a concern about having a child later in life? Becoming pregnant after age 35 years ... well. What specific health concerns are there for later childbearing? Older women are more likely to have ...

119

Pullulan/dextran/nHA Macroporous Composite Beads for Bone Repair in a Femoral Condyle Defect in Rats  

PubMed Central

The repair of bone defects is of particular interest for orthopedic, oral, maxillofacial, and dental surgery. Bone loss requiring reconstruction is conventionally addressed through bone grafting. Depending on the size and the location of the defect, this method has limits and risks. Biomaterials can offer an alternative and have features supporting bone repair. Here, we propose to evaluate the cellular penetration and bone formation of new macroporous beads based on pullulan/dextran that has been supplemented with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite in a rat model. Cross-linked beads of 300–500 µm diameters were used in a lateral femoral condyle defect and analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging, micro-computed tomography, and histology in comparison to the empty defects 15, 30, and 70 days after implantation. Inflammation was absent for both conditions. For empty defects, cellularisation and mineralization started from the periphery of the defect. For the defects containing beads, cellular structures filling out the spaces between the scaffolds with increasing interconnectivity and trabecular-like organization were observed over time. The analysis of calcified sections showed increased mineralization over time for both conditions, but was more pronounced for the samples containing beads. Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content were both significantly higher at day 70 for the beads in comparison to empty defects as well as compared with earlier time points. Analysis of newly formed tissue around the beads showed an increase of osteoid tissue, measured as percentage of the defect surface. This study suggests that the use of beads for the repair of small size defects in bone may be expanded on to meet the clinical need for a ready-to-use fill-up material that can favor bone formation and mineralization, as well as promote vessel ingrowth into the defect site. PMID:25330002

Schlaubitz, Silke; Derkaoui, Sidi Mohammed; Marosa, Lydia; Miraux, Sylvain; Renard, Martine; Catros, Sylvain; Le Visage, Catherine; Letourneur, Didier; Amédée, Joëlle; Fricain, Jean-Christophe

2014-01-01

120

Humeral external rotation handling by using the Bobath concept approach affects trunk extensor muscles electromyography in children with cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the electromyographic activity of cervical and trunk extensors muscles in children with cerebral palsy during two handlings according to the Bobath concept. A crossover trial involving 40 spastic diplegic children was conducted. Electromyography (EMG) was used to measure muscular activity at sitting position (SP), during shoulder internal rotation (IR) and shoulder external rotation (ER) handlings, which were performed using the elbow joint as key point of control. Muscle recordings were performed at the fourth cervical (C4) and at the tenth thoracic (T10) vertebral levels. The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) was used to assess whether muscle activity would vary according to different levels of severity. Humeral ER handling induced an increase on EMG signal of trunk extensor muscles at the C4 (P=0.007) and T10 (P<0.001) vertebral levels. No significant effects were observed between SP and humeral IR handling at C4 level; However at T10 region, humeral IR handling induced an increase of EMG signal (P=0.019). Humeral ER resulted in an increase of EMG signal at both levels, suggesting increase of extensor muscle activation. Furthermore, the humeral ER handling caused different responses on EMG signal at T10 vertebra level, according to the GMFCS classification (P=0.017). In summary, an increase of EMG signal was observed during ER handling in both evaluated levels, suggesting an increase of muscle activation. These results indicate that humeral ER handling can be used for diplegic CP children rehabilitation to facilitate cervical and trunk extensor muscles activity in a GMFCS level-dependent manner. PMID:25462474

Grazziotin Dos Santos, C; Pagnussat, Aline S; Simon, A S; Py, Rodrigo; Pinho, Alexandre Severo do; Wagner, Mário B

2014-10-20

121

Use of a proximal humeral plate for a paediatric peri-prosthetic femoral fracture  

PubMed Central

In this case an 18-year-old female with cerebral palsy sustained a peri-prosthetic femoral fracture adjacent to a blade plate previously inserted for a femoral varus osteotomy. The injury was treated using a long proximal humeral locking plate. The existing blade plate was removed. The fracture was reduced and held, and a 10-hole PHILOS™ plate applied with near anatomical reduction. There were no post-operative complications. Radiographic union was confirmed at 11 months. To our knowledge, this is the first reported use of a PHILOS™ plate in the management of a femoral peri-prosthetic fracture and successfully demonstrated a straightforward method for revision fixation. PMID:24986984

Shaw, C.R.; Badhesha, J.; Ayana, G.; Abu-Rajab, R.

2014-01-01

122

Medial Calcar Support and Radiographic Outcomes of Plate Fixation for Proximal Humeral Fractures  

PubMed Central

Plate fixation remains one of the most popular surgical procedures for treating proximal humeral fractures (PHFx); however, substantial rates of complications have been reported in the literature. The objectives of the study were to examine how medial calcar support (MCS) affects the radiographic outcomes and to determine the prognostic factors predicting treatment failure. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 89 adult patients who had PHFx and were treated with plate fixation at our institution in 2007–2011. The enrolled patients were separated into two groups according to disruption of medial calcar. Our results revealed an increased rate of poor radiographic outcomes in patients with disrupted medial calcar. Osteonecrosis of the humeral head and redisplacement were the two radiographic outcomes which had a positive causality with disruption of medial calcar (P = 0.008 and 0.050, resp.). Deficient medial calcar, inadequate reduction, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and chronic liver disease were all significant predictors for the development of osteonecrosis in patients after PHFx surgery. Inadequate reduction was also a predictor for redisplacement. We confirmed that the restoration of medial calcar as well as comorbid conditions plays key roles in treatment of patients having PHFx with disrupted medial calcar.

Lin, Shih-Jie; Tsai, Yao-Hung; Yang, Tien-Yu; Shen, Shih-Hsun; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Lee, Mel S.

2015-01-01

123

The frequency of bifid mandibular condyle in a Turkish patient population  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency and pattern of bifid mandibular condyles (BMCs). Methods A retrospective study was performed using panoramic radiographs from 10 200 patients undergoing dental treatment in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology (Erzurum, Turkey) between 1996 and 2008. Results Of the 10 200 patients, 32 (0.3%) had BMCs, of whom 17 were female (53.1%) and 15 were male (46.9%). The age range of the patients with BMCs was 5 to 71 years (mean age 30.0±0.40). Of these 32 patients, 24 (75.0%) had unilateral and 8 (25.0%) had bilateral BMCs, none of the patients had a history of trauma. No symptoms associated with bifid condyles were observed in any of the patients with BMCs. Conclusions It is possible that BMC is a more frequent condition than is commonly perceived. However, because of the minimal symptoms associated with this condition, the authors believe that it will remain an incidental finding upon routine radiographic examination, rather than a clinical observation. Nevertheless, in symptomatic cases or in cases where surgical treatment is planned, panoramic radiographs should be supplemented with CT. PMID:20089743

Miloglu, O; Yalcin, E; Buyukkurt, MC; Yilmaz, AB; Harorli, A

2010-01-01

124

Current Concepts in the Mandibular Condyle Fracture Management Part II: Open Reduction Versus Closed Reduction  

PubMed Central

In the treatment of mandibular condyle fracture, conservative treatment using closed reduction or surgical treatment using open reduction can be used. Management of mandibular condylar fractures remains a source of ongoing controversy in oral and maxillofacial trauma. For each type of condylar fracture,the treatment method must be chosen taking into consideration the presence of teeth, fracture height, patient'sadaptation, patient's masticatory system, disturbance of occlusal function, and deviation of the mandible. In the past, closed reduction with concomitant active physical therapy conducted after intermaxillary fixation during the recovery period had been mainly used, but in recent years, open treatment of condylar fractures with rigid internal fixation has become more common. The objective of this review was to evaluate the main variables that determine the choice of an open or closed method for treatment of condylar fractures, identifying their indications, advantages, and disadvantages, and to appraise the current evidence regarding the effectiveness of interventions that are used in the management of fractures of the mandibular condyle. PMID:22872831

Yang, Jung-Dug; Chung, Ho-Yun; Cho, Byung-Chae

2012-01-01

125

Reliability of computational measurement of the condyles on digital panoramic radiographs  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of a computational method for assessing three condylar measurements on digital panoramic radiographs: condylar height, area and perimeter. Methods A computer calculation of the area, the perimeter and the height of 34 condyles was determined on digital panoramic radiographs taken from 17 patients. The test–retest precision of measurements calculation was estimated using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Dahlberg's formula at 2 week intervals on the same radiograph to assess intraobserver precision and on two radiographs (RX1 and RX2) to assess the radiographic procedure precision. Changes between measurements on RX1 and RX2 were estimated using paired t-tests to detect systematic errors. Results Precision of all indices was very high when measurements were made on the same radiograph, thus confirming good reliability for the present computational measuring method. The precision was lower when two different radiographs were compared but was still within an acceptable range of tolerance. There were no statistically significant changes in condylar area, perimeter or height values between RX1 and RX2. Conclusions This study has demonstrated that (1) the height of the condyle can be rapidly and reliably assessed using a specific computer system directly on digital panoramic radiographs; (2) although less reliable, area and perimeter can also be acceptably evaluated; and (3) this method has the potential for being routinely used to monitor changes in clinical follow-up as well as for research purposes. PMID:21960403

Momjian, A; Courvoisier, D; Kiliaridis, S; Scolozzi, P

2011-01-01

126

Neer Award 2006: Biomechanical assessment of inferior tuberosity placement during hemiarthroplasty for four-part proximal humeral fractures.  

PubMed

Tuberosity malpositioning commonly occurs and is associated with a decline in clinical function after prosthetic shoulder reconstruction for proximal humeral fractures. This study assesses the biomechanical effects of inferior tuberosity position on glenohumeral joint forces and humeral head position at multiple positions. Eight fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders were tested. Hemiarthroplasty was performed with preservation of anatomic tuberosity height and with 10 mm and 20 mm of inferior tuberosity displacement. The rotator cuff, deltoid, pectoralis major, and latissimus dorsi muscles were statically loaded. Contact forces and humeral head position were recorded within a functional range of motion. Glenohumeral joint forces shifted significantly superiorly (P < .05) at 30 degrees of abduction after both 10 mm and 20 mm of tuberosity displacement. At 60 degrees of glenohumeral abduction, glenohumeral joint forces remained significantly altered after tuberosity displacement of 10 mm and 20 mm compared with the intact height (P < .005). This study demonstrates that, during hemiarthroplasty performed for proximal humeral fractures, malpositioning the tuberosities inferiorly results in significant superior glenohumeral joint force displacement. These findings suggest that the mechanical advantage of the shoulder abductor muscles is compromised with inferior tuberosity malpositioning and may help to explain inferior functional results seen in these patients. PMID:18234528

Huffman, G Russell; Itamura, John M; McGarry, Michelle H; Duong, Long; Gililland, Jeremy; Tibone, James E; Lee, Thay Q

2008-01-01

127

The medial-lateral force distribution in the ovine stifle joint during walking.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the load distribution in the knee is essential for understanding the interaction between mechanics and biology in both the healthy and diseased joint. While the sheep stifle joint is a predominant model for better understanding regeneration after injury, little is known about the compartmental force distribution between the medial and lateral condyles. By including sheep specific anatomy and gait analyses, we used computational musculoskeletal analyses to estimate the medial-lateral joint contact force distribution in ovine stifle joints during walking by simplifying the system of equations into a 2D problem that was solved directly. Gait analysis was conducted using bone markers in three female Merino-mix sheep. Joint contact forces were computed with respect to the specific anatomy of the ovine tibia, resulting in low (<0.13 bodyweight) mean anteroposterior shear forces throughout the gait cycle, with mean peak contact forces perpendicular to the tibial plateau of 2.2 times bodyweight. The medial-lateral compartmental load distribution across the tibial condyles was determined and revealed loading predominantly on the medial condyle, bearing approximately 75% of the total load during phases of peak loading. By considering the anatomical characteristics of the ovine stifle joint, together with the dynamic forces during gait, this study provides evidence for predominantly medial loading in sheep, somewhat similar to the distribution reported in man. However, the exact conditions under which the loading in the ovine stifle joint is representative of the human situation will need to be elucidated in further studies. PMID:20957731

Taylor, William R; Poepplau, Berry M; König, Christian; Ehrig, Rainald M; Zachow, Stefan; Duda, Georg N; Heller, Markus O

2011-04-01

128

Intramedullary Nail versus Dynamic Compression Plate Fixation in Treating Humeral Shaft Fractures: Grading the Evidence through a Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

There is a debate regarding the choice of operative intervention in humeral shaft fractures that require surgical intervention. The choices for operative interventions include intramedullary nailing (IMN) and dynamic compression plate (DCP). This meta-analysis was performed to compare fracture union, functional outcomes, and complication rates in patients treated with IMN or DCP for humeral shaft fractures and to develop GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation)-based recommendations for using the procedures to treat humeral shaft fractures. A systematic search of all the studies published through December 2012 was conducted using the Medline, Embase, Sciencedirect, OVID and Cochrane Central databases. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that compared IMN with DCP in treating adult patients with humeral shaft fractures and provided data regarding the safety and clinical effects were identified. The demographic characteristics, adverse events and clinical outcomes were manually extracted from all of the selected studies. Ten studies that included a total of 448 patients met the inclusion criteria. The results of a meta-analysis indicated that both IMN and DCP can achieve similar fracture union with a similar incidence of radial nerve injury and infection. IMN was associated with an increased risk of shoulder impingement, more restriction of shoulder movement, an increased risk of intraoperative fracture comminution, a higher incidence of implant failure, and an increased risk of re-operation. The overall GRADE system evidence quality was very low, which reduces our confidence in the recommendations of this system. DCP may be superior to IMN in the treatment of humeral shaft fractures. Because of the low quality evidence currently available, high-quality RCTs are required. PMID:24358141

Ma, XinLong; Gao, Feng; Wei, Qiang; Jia, HaoBo; Feng, Rui; Yu, JingTao; Wang, Jie

2013-01-01

129

A clinical investigation on disc displacement in sagittal fracture of the mandibular condyle and its association with TMJ ankylosis development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This retrospective study evaluated the potential influence of the sagittal fracture pattern and articular disc displacement on the development of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis. 33 sagittal fractures of mandibular condyles (SFMCs) in 19 patients were treated conservatively and were divided into non-ankylosis and ankylosis groups based on their prognosis. Using computed tomography (CT) images, the SFMCs were classified into types

D. H. Duan; Y. Zhang

2011-01-01

130

Bone Marrow Stimulation of the Medial Femoral Condyle Produces Inferior Cartilage and Bone Repair Compared to the Trochlea in a  

E-print Network

Bone Marrow Stimulation of the Medial Femoral Condyle Produces Inferior Cartilage and Bone Repair femoral condylar (MFC) versus femoral trochlear (TR) defects 3 months after bone marrow stimulation histomorphom- etry and histological scoring showed that bone marrow stimulation produced inferior soft tissue

Buschmann, Michael

131

Treatment of Mandibular Condyle Fractures Using a Modified Transparotid Approach via the Parotid Mini-Incision: Experience with 31 Cases  

PubMed Central

Surgery for mandibular condyle fractures must allow direct vision of the fracture, reduce surgical trauma and achieve reduction and fixation while avoiding facial nerve injury. This prospective study was conducted to introduce a new surgical approach for open reduction and internal fixation of mandibular condyle fractures using a modified transparotid approach via the parotid mini-incision, and surgical outcomes were evaluated. The modified transparotid approach via the parotid mini-incision was applied and rigid internal fixation using a small titanium plate was carried out for 36 mandibular condyle fractures in 31 cases. Postoperative follow-up of patients ranged from 3 to 26 months; in the first 3 months after surgery, outcomes for all patients were analyzed by evaluating the degree of mouth opening, occlusal relationship, facial nerve function and results of imaging studies. The occlusal relationships were excellent in all patients and none had symptoms of intraoperative ipsilateral facial nerve injury. The mean degree of mouth opening was 4.0 (maximum 4.8 cm, minimum 3.0 cm). No mandibular deviations were noted in any patient during mouth opening. CT showed complete anatomical reduction of the mandibular condyle fracture in all patients. The modified transparotid approach via the smaller, easily concealed parotid mini-incision is minimally invasive and achieves anatomical reduction and rigid internal fixation with a simplified procedure that directly exposes the fracture site. Study results showed that this procedure is safe and feasible for treating mandibular condyle fracture, and offers a short operative path, protection of the facial nerve and satisfactory aesthetic outcomes. PMID:24386221

Shi, Jun; Yuan, Hao; Xu, Bing

2013-01-01

132

Intermittent Pre-Excitation-Syndrome in Facio-Scapulo-Humeral Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Pre-excitation-syndrome has not been reported as a phenotypic feature of facio-scapulo-humeral muscular dystrophy (FSH-MD). In a 39-year-old male with FSH-MD due to a reduced tandem repeat size in the D4Z4-locus on chromosome 4q35, cardiac involvement, manifesting as an incomplete right bundle-branch-block, tall T-waves in V 3-5, ST-elevation in V 2-4, and mild thickening of the left ventricular myocardium, was first recognised 10 years earlier. Follow-up at age 39 years revealed mild myocardial thickening, two intra-ventricular aberrant bands, and, surprisingly, intermittent pre-excitation on a routine electrocardiography. Cardiac involvement in FSH-MD may manifest as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or various arrhythmias, of which one may be pre-excitation-syndrome. PMID:25278989

Stöllberger, Claudia; Gatterer, Edmund; Jakubiczka, Sibylle

2014-01-01

133

Subchondral insufficiency fracture of the femoral head and medial femoral condyle.  

PubMed

This case report documents the clinical, radiographic, and histologic findings in a 69-year-old obese man, who had subchondral insufficiency fracture both in the femoral head and medial femoral condyle. On plain radiographs, both lesions underwent subchondral collapse. Magnetic resonance images of the left hip showed a bone marrow edema pattern with associated low-intensity band on T1-weighted images, which was convex to the articular surface. The histopathologic findings in the hip and knee were characterized by the presence of a subchondral fracture with associated callus and granulation tissue along both sides of a fracture line. There was no evidence of antecedent osteonecrosis. To our knowledge, this is the first case report to describe the multiple occurrence of collapsed subchondral insufficiency fracture. PMID:10663588

Yamamoto, T; Bullough, P G

2000-01-01

134

Superolateral Dislocation of the Mandibular Condyle: Report of a Case with Review of Literature and a Proposed Modification in the Classification  

PubMed Central

Anteromedial fracture dislocation of the mandibular condyle is common but a superolateral dislocation of an intact condyle is quite rare. Only ~19 cases of such dislocation have been reported in the world English literature. This type of dislocation is often misdiagnosed or completely overlooked and hence inadequately addressed. A case of superolateral dislocation of the condyle associated with a symphyseal fracture is presented. We discuss the dynamics, diagnostic features and clinical management of such dislocations with the review of literature and propose a modification in the existing classification. PMID:22110826

Tauro, David; Lakshmi, Subha; Mishra, Madan

2010-01-01

135

Posterior circumflex humeral artery injury with distal embolisation in professional volleyball players: a discussion of three cases.  

PubMed

Presented are three cases of volleyball players with ischaemia of the hand due to arterial emboli originating from an injured posterior circumflex humeral artery (PCHA). An operative treatment with ligation of the PCHA was performed in all patients because of the proximity of the occlusion to the axillary artery. After a rehabilitation programme, all patients could return to their previous level of competition. During overhead motion, the PCHA is prone to injury in its position overlying the humeral head and its course through the quadrilateral space. Recognition of the vascular origin of these symptoms in athletes is important to prevent serious ischaemic complications. Signs of ischaemia might be subtle and may be misdiagnosed as musculoskeletal injuries. Therefore, the examining physician must have a high index of suspicion and awareness about these injuries is important. PMID:22709560

Atema, J J; Unlü, C; Reekers, J A; Idu, M M

2012-08-01

136

Mapping the Articular Contact Area of the Long Head of the Biceps Tendon on the Humeral Head  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this investigation was to calculate the contact surface area of the long head of the biceps (LHB) in neutral position and abduction. We sought to determine whether the LHB articulates with the humeral head in a consistent pattern comparing articular contact area in neutral position and abduction. Eleven fresh frozen matched cadaveric shoulders were analyzed. The path of the biceps tendon on the articular surface of the humeral head and the total articular surface were digitized using a MicronTracker 2 H3-60 three-dimensional optical tracker. Contact surface area was significantly less in abduction than in neutral position (P = 0.002) with a median ratio of 41% (36%, 47.5%). Ratios of contact area in neutral position to full articular surface area were consistent between left and right shoulders (rho = 1, P = 0.017) as were ratios of abduction area to full articular surface area (rho = 0.97, P = 0.005). The articular contact surface area is significantly greater in neutral position than abduction. The ratios of articular contact surface areas to total humeral articular surface areas have a narrow range and are consistent between left and right shoulders of the same cadaver. PMID:25210631

Morris, Brent J.; Byram, Ian R.; Lathrop, Ray A.; Dunn, Warren R.; Kuhn, John E.

2014-01-01

137

The incidence of hip, forearm, humeral, ankle, and vertebral fragility fractures in Italy: results from a 3-year multicenter study  

PubMed Central

Introduction We aimed to assess the incidence and hospitalization rate of hip and "minor" fragility fractures in the Italian population. Methods We carried out a 3-year survey at 10 major Italian emergency departments to evaluate the hospitalization rate of hip, forearm, humeral, ankle, and vertebral fragility fractures in people 45 years or older between 2004 and 2006, both men and women. These data were compared with those recorded in the national hospitalizations database (SDO) to assess the overall incidence of fragility fractures occurring at hip and other sites, including also those events not resulting in hospital admissions. Results We observed 29,017 fractures across 3 years, with hospitalization rates of 93.0% for hip fractures, 36.3% for humeral fractures, 31.3% for ankle fractures, 22.6% for forearm/wrist fractures, and 27.6% for clinical vertebral fractures. According to the analyses performed with the Italian hospitalization database in year 2006, we estimated an annual incidence of 87,000 hip, 48,000 humeral, 36,000 ankle, 85,000 wrist, and 155,000 vertebral fragility fractures in people aged 45 years or older (thus resulting in almost 410,000 new fractures per year). Clinical vertebral fractures were recorded in 47,000 events per year. Conclusions The burden of fragility fractures in the Italian population is very high and calls for effective preventive strategies. PMID:21190571

2010-01-01

138

Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Platelet Gel Improve Bone Deposition within CAD-CAM Custom-Made Ceramic HA Scaffolds for Condyle Substitution  

PubMed Central

Purpose. This study evaluated the efficacy of a regenerative approach using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and CAD-CAM customized pure and porous hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds to replace the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condyle. Methods. Pure HA scaffolds with a 70% total porosity volume were prototyped using CAD-CAM technology to replace the two temporomandibular condyles (left and right) of the same animal. MSCs were derived from the aspirated iliac crest bone marrow, and platelets were obtained from the venous blood of the sheep. Custom-made surgical guides were created by direct metal laser sintering and were used to export the virtual planning of the bone cut lines into the surgical environment. Sheep were sacrificed 4 months postoperatively. The HA scaffolds were explanted, histological specimens were prepared, and histomorphometric analysis was performed. Results. Analysis of the porosity reduction for apposition of newly formed bone showed a statistically significant difference in bone formation between condyles loaded with MSC and condyles without (P < 0.05). The bone ingrowth (BI) relative values of split-mouth comparison (right versus left side) showed a significant difference between condyles with and without MSCs (P < 0.05). Analysis of the test and control sides in the same animal using a split-mouth study design was performed; the condyle with MSCs showed greater bone formation. Conclusion. The split-mouth design confirmed an increment of bone regeneration into the HA scaffold of up to 797% upon application of MSCs. PMID:24073409

Ciocca, L.; Donati, D.; Ragazzini, S.; Dozza, B.; Rossi, F.; Fantini, M.; Spadari, A.; Romagnoli, N.; Landi, E.; Tampieri, A.; Piattelli, A.; Iezzi, G.; Scotti, R.

2013-01-01

139

Cone beam computed tomography findings of ectopic mandibular third molar in the mandibular condyle: report of a case  

PubMed Central

Impaction of third molar is a common developmental abnormality. However, ectopic impaction of the mandibular third molar in condylar region is an extremely rare condition. This report describes a case of impacted tooth in the mandibular condyle without any associated pathologic condition. Also, this report presents the spatial relationship of the impacted mandibular third molar to the surrounding anatomic structures using cone beam computed tomography. PMID:22010071

2011-01-01

140

Sliding reconstruction of the condyle using posterior border of mandibular ramus in patients with temporomandibular joint ankylosis.  

PubMed

The traditional approach for ankylosis is gap arthroplasty or interpositional arthroplasty followed by reconstruction of the condyle using, for example, costochondral grafts. As these are non-pedicled grafts, there is eventual resorption with subsequent decrease in height of the ramus, facial asymmetry and deviated mouth opening. The authors have applied the method of total and partial sliding vertical osteotomy on the posterior border of the mandibular ramus for reconstruction of the mandible condyle as a pedicled graft for the correction of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis. From 2004 to 2008, 18 patients who were diagnosed with TMJ ankylosis underwent operations for resection of the ankylosed condyle. Two methods were performed depending on the level of osteotomy on the posterior part of the mandibular ramus. All patients were followed-up for an average of 36 months (range 24-48 months). All patients showed apparent improved joint function with no cases of re-ankylosis. The results showed that sliding vertical osteotomy on the posterior border of the mandibular ramus seems to be an alternative and promising method for condylar reconstruction in patients with TMJ bony ankylosis. PMID:21620677

Liu, Y; Khadka, A; Li, J; Hu, J; Zhu, S; Hsu, Y; Wang, Q; Wang, D

2011-11-01

141

Lateral Thinking about Lateral Inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT has recently been asserted1 that the well known apparent expansion of acute angles is due not to the lateral inhibition proposed by Blakemore et al.2, but to an adaptation effect similar to the Gibson tilt after-effect3,4. The arguments by which Coltheart arrives at this conclusion, however, seem to us to be based on a complete misreading, and hence misrepresentation,

Colin Blakemore; R. H. S. Carpenter; M. A. GEORGESON

1971-01-01

142

OSTEOCHONDRAL INTERFACE REGENERATION OF THE RABBIT MANDIBULAR CONDYLE WITH BIOACTIVE SIGNAL GRADIENTS  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Tissue engineering solutions focused on the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) have expanded in number and variety over the past decade to address the treatment of TMJ disorders. The existing literature on approaches for healing small defects in the TMJ condylar cartilage and subchondral bone, however, is sparse. The purpose of this study was thus to evaluate the performance of a novel gradient-based scaffolding approach to regenerate osteochondral defects in the rabbit mandibular condyle. MATERIALS AND METHODS Miniature bioactive plugs for regeneration of small mandibular condylar defects in New Zealand White rabbits were fabricated. The plugs were constructed from poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres with a gradient transition between cartilage-promoting and bone-promoting growth factors. RESULTS At six weeks of healing, results suggested that the implants provided support for the neo-synthesized tissue as evidenced by histology and 9.4T magnetic resonance imaging. CONCLUSION The inclusion of bioactive factors in a gradient-based scaffolding design is a promising new treatment strategy for focal defect repair in the TMJ. PMID:21470747

Dormer, Nathan H.; Busaidy, Kamal; Berkland, Cory J.; Detamore, Michael S.

2011-01-01

143

Arthroscopic Repair of “Peel-Off” Lesion of the Posterior Cruciate Ligament at the Femoral Condyle  

PubMed Central

Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries are uncommon, and most occur in association with other lesions. The treatment of PCL injuries remains controversial; in addition, PCL injuries have been documented to have a propensity to heal. In the literature several different patterns of PCL injury have been described including midsubstance tears/injuries, tibial bony avulsions, femoral bony avulsions, and femoral “peel-off” injuries. A peel-off injury is a complete or incomplete soft-tissue disruption of the PCL at its femoral attachment site without associated bony avulsion. In recent years arthroscopic repair of femoral avulsion and peel-off lesions of the PCL has been reported. In most of these articles, a transosseous repair with sutures passed through 2 bone tunnels into the medial femoral condyle has been described. We present a case of a femoral PCL avulsion in a 20-year-old collegiate football player with an associated medial collateral ligament injury, and we report about a novel technique for PCL repair using 2 No. 2 FiberWire sutures and two 2.9-mm PushLock anchors (Arthrex) to secure tensioning the ligament at its footprint. PMID:24749037

Rosso, Federica; Bisicchia, Salvatore; Amendola, Annunziato

2014-01-01

144

Tissue formation and vascularization in anatomically shaped human joint condyle ectopically in vivo.  

PubMed

Scale-up of bioengineered grafts toward clinical applications is a challenge in regenerative medicine. Here, we report tissue formation and vascularization of anatomically shaped human tibial condyles ectopically with a dimension of 20 x 15 x 15 mm(3). A composite of poly-epsilon-caprolactone and hydroxyapatite was fabricated using layer deposition of three-dimensional interlaid strands with interconnecting microchannels (400 microm) and seeded with human bone marrow stem cells (hMSCs) with or without osteogenic differentiation. An overlaying layer (1 mm deep) of poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogel encapsulating hMSCs or hMSC-derived chondrocytes was molded into anatomic shape and anchored into microchannels by gel infusion. After 6 weeks of subcutaneous implantation in athymic rats, hMSCs generated not only significantly more blood vessels, but also significantly larger-diameter vessels than hMSC-derived osteoblasts, although hMSC-derived osteoblasts yielded mineralized tissue in microchannels. Chondrocytes in safranin-O-positive glycosaminoglycan matrix were present in the cartilage layer seeded with hMSC-derived chondrogenic cells, although significantly more cells were present in the cartilage layer seeded with hMSCs than hMSC-derived chondrocytes. Together, MSCs elaborate substantially more angiogenesis, whereas their progenies yield corresponding differentiated tissue phenotypes. Scale up is probable by incorporating a combination of stem cells and their progenies in repeating modules of internal microchannels. PMID:19563263

Lee, Chang H; Marion, Nicholas W; Hollister, Scott; Mao, Jeremy J

2009-12-01

145

Finite element analysis of three patterns of internal fixation of fractures of the mandibular condyle.  

PubMed

The most stable pattern of internal fixation for fractures of the mandibular condyle is a matter for ongoing discussion. In this study we investigated the stability of three commonly used patterns of plate fixation, and constructed finite element models of a simulated mandibular condylar fracture. The completed models were heterogeneous in the distribution of bony material properties, contained about 1.2 million elements, and incorporated simulated jaw-adducting musculature. Models were run assuming linear elasticity and isotropic material properties for bone. This model was considerably larger and more complex than previous finite element models that have been used to analyse the biomechanical behaviour of differing plating techniques. The use of two parallel 2.0 titanium miniplates gave a more stable configuration with lower mean element stresses and displacements over the use of a single miniplate. In addition, a parallel orientation of two miniplates resulted in lower stresses and displacements than did the use of two miniplates in an offset pattern. The use of two parallel titanium plates resulted in a superior biomechanical result as defined by mean element stresses and relative movement between the fractured fragments in these finite element models. PMID:22981343

Aquilina, Peter; Chamoli, Uphar; Parr, William C H; Clausen, Philip D; Wroe, Stephen

2013-06-01

146

Humeral shaft fracture sustained during arm wrestling: report on 30 cases and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Thirty cases of humeral shaft fracture sustained during arm wrestling were analyzed. Twenty eight were men and two were women. Eighteen were fractures of the right arm and 12 were of the left. The patients ranged in age from 15 to 60 years old, averaging 30 years. Although there was no prominent tendency for the injuries to occur at a certain phase of the match, they happened in all cases while full force was being exerted in an effort to win or to change the tide of the contest. All cases were spiral fractures, of which 23% presented with a medial butterfly fragment, and also 23% of which had radial nerve palsy. We infer that, through a shift in body weight and subsequent counterattack from the opponent, the shoulder internal rotator muscles suddenly changed from their maximum concentric contraction to eccentric contraction, resulting in development of an intense rotational force leading to the subsequent fracture. Therefore, this type of fracture may occur in anyone of any age engaging in this type of sport. PMID:9042875

Ogawa, K; Ui, M

1997-02-01

147

3D-corrective osteotomy using surgical guides for posttraumatic distal humeral deformity.  

PubMed

An original technique was developed to correct distal humerus malunion using a three-dimensional computer-assisted planning and a custom-made surgical guide. The technique was used in three cases (two with cubitus varus and one with cubitus valgus).A CT-scan of the distal humerus was obtained. The correction was simulated by software. A three-dimensional model of the patient's affected humerus was created by rapid prototyping, allowing creation of a surgical guide and premoulding of the osteosynthesis plate. At the time of surgery, the sterilised guide was placed on the surface of the bone to guide the saw blade. Osteosynthesis was performed using the moulded plate. At the latest follow-up, all three patients were asymptomatic and had regained full elbow mobility. Satisfying correction was obtained in all three cases. One complication was encountered: a postoperative infection that healed with plate removal and systemic antibiotic administration. Using an osteotomy guide facilitates three-dimensional humeral correction. This technique presents several benefits: it decreases the operating time and minimizes the surgical incision. Fluoroscopy is unnecessary during the procedure and accuracy is increased. Disadvantages are the time for planning and guide confection, the need of a CT-scanner and the increased cost. PMID:23019789

Tricot, Mathias; Duy, Khanh Tran; Docquier, Pierre-Louis

2012-08-01

148

Microcomputed tomographic analysis of human condyles in unilateral condylar hyperplasia: increased cortical porosity and trabecular bone volume fraction with reduced mineralisation.  

PubMed

Unilateral condylar hyperplasia or hyperactivity is a disorder of growth that affects the mandible, and our aim was to visualise the 3-dimensional bony microstructure of resected mandibular condyles of affected patients. We prospectively studied 17 patients with a clinical presentation of progressive mandibular asymmetry and an abnormal single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) scan. All patients were treated by condylectomy to arrest progression. The resected condyles were scanned with micro-CT (18 ?m resolution). Rectangular volumes of interest were selected in 4 quadrants (lateromedial and superoinferior) of the trabecular bone of each condyle. Variables of bone architecture (volume fraction, trabecular number, thickness, and separation, degree of mineralisation, and degree of structural anisotrophy) were calculated with routine morphometric software. Eight of the 17 resected condyles showed clear destruction of the subchondral layer of cortical bone. There was a significant superoinferior gradient for all trabecular variables. Mean (SD) bone volume fraction (25.1 (6) %), trabecular number (1.69 (0.26) mm(-1)), trabecular thickness (0.17 (0.03) mm), and degree of mineralisation (695.39 (39.83) mg HA/cm(3)) were higher in the superior region. Trabecular separation (0.6 (0.16) mm) and structural anisotropy (1.84 (0.28)) were higher in the inferior region. The micro-CT analysis showed increased cortical porosity in many of the condyles studied. It also showed a higher bone volume fraction, greater trabecular thickness and trabecular separation, greater trabecular number, and less mineralisation in the condyles of the 17 patients compared with the known architecture of unaffected mandibular condyles. PMID:25219775

Karssemakers, L H E; Nolte, J W; Tuinzing, D B; Langenbach, G E J; Raijmakers, P G; Becking, A G

2014-12-01

149

Additive fiber-cerclages in proximal humeral fractures stabilized by locking plates  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose The effect of additive fiber-cerclages in proximal humeral fractures stabilized by locking plates on fracture stabilization and rotator cuff function is unclear. Here it was assessed in a human cadaver study. Methods 24 paired human shoulder specimens were harvested from median 77-year-old (range 66–85) female donors. An unstable 3-part fracture model with an intact rotator cuff was developed. 1 specimen of each pair received an additive fiber-cerclage of the rotator cuff after plate fixation, and the other one received a plate fixation without an additive fiber-cerclage. Force-controlled hydraulic cylinders were used to simulate physiological rotator cuff tension, while a robot-assisted shoulder simulator performed 4 relevant cases of load: (1) axial loading at 0°, (2) glenohumeral abduction at 60°, (3) internal rotation at 0° abduction, and (4) external rotation at 0° abduction, and imitated hanging arm weight during loading without affecting joint kinematics. A 3-dimensional real-time interfragmentary motion analysis was done in fracture gaps between the greater tuberosity and the head, as well as subcapital. The capacity of the rotator cuff to strain was analyzed with an optical system. Results Interfragmentary motion was similar between the groups with and without fiber-cerclages, in both fracture gaps and in any of the cases of load. Cerclages did not impair the capacity of the rotator cuff to strain. Interpretation Provided that unstable 3-part fractures are reduced and stabilized anatomically by a locking plate, additive fiber-cerclages do not reduce interfragmentary motion. Additive fiber-cerclages may be necessary in locking plate osteosyntheses of multiple-fractured greater tuberosities or lesser tuberosity fractures that cannot be fixed sufficiently by the plate. PMID:19562564

Hurschler, Christof; Rech, Louise; Vosshenrich, Rolf; Lill, Helmut

2009-01-01

150

Anconeus pedicle olecranon flip osteotomy: an approach for the fixation of complex intra-articular distal humeral fractures.  

PubMed

In order to achieve satisfactory reduction of complex distal humeral fractures, adequate exposure of the fracture fragments and the joint surface is required. Several surgical exposures have been described for distal humeral fractures. We report our experience using the anconeus pedicle olecranon flip osteotomy approach. This involves detachment of the triceps along with a sliver of olecranon, which retains the anconeus pedicle. We report the use of this approach in ten patients (six male, four female) with a mean age of 38.4 years (28 to 51). The mean follow-up was 15 months (12 to 18) with no loss to follow-up. Elbow function was graded using the Mayo Score. The results were excellent in four patients, good in five and fair in one patient. The mean time to both fracture and osteotomy union was 10.6 weeks (8 to 12) and 7.1 weeks (6 to 8), respectively. We found this approach gave reliably good exposure for these difficult fractures enabling anatomical reduction and bicondylar plating without complications. PMID:25183599

Habib, M; Tanwar, Y S; Jaiswal, A; Singh, S P; Sinha, S; Lal, H

2014-09-01

151

Investigation of metallic and carbon fibre PEEK fracture fixation devices for three-part proximal humeral fractures.  

PubMed

A computational investigation of proximal humeral fracture fixation has been conducted. Four devices were selected for the study; a locking plate, intramedullary nail (IM Nail), K-wires and a Bilboquet device. A 3D model of a humerus was created using a process of thresholding based on the grayscale values of a CT scan of an intact humerus. An idealised three part fracture was created in addition to removing a standard volume from the humeral head as a representation of bone voids that occur as a result of the injury. All finite element simulations conducted represent 90° arm abduction. Simulations were conducted to investigate the effect of filling this bone void with calcium phosphate cement for each device. The effect of constructing devices from carbon fibre polyetheretherketone (CFPEEK) was investigated. Simulations of cement reinforced devices predict greater stability for each device. The average unreinforced fracture line opening (FLO) is reduced by 48.5% for metallic devices with a lesser effect on composite devices with FLO reduced by 23.6%. Relative sliding (shear displacement) is also reduced between fracture fragments by an average of 58.34%. CFPEEK device simulations predict reduced stresses at the device-bone interface. PMID:22989528

Feerick, Emer M; Kennedy, Jim; Mullett, Hannan; FitzPatrick, David; McGarry, Patrick

2013-06-01

152

Reliability of a set of protractors for direct anatomical measurements around the glenoid and humeral head rims  

PubMed Central

Functional biomechanics studies of the glenohumeral (GH) soft tissues require an understanding of their sites of bony attachment. Anatomical positions of GH capsular structures have often been quantified relative to the rims of the glenoid and humeral head (HH). The aim of this study was twofold: (1) to quantify the reliability of a set of protractors that directly fit on to the glenoid and HH rims and (2) to use this to determine direct angular position referencing of landmarks and soft tissue attachment points. Three assessors independently used the protractors to assess nine prescribed landmarks on 30 dry bone specimens (15 glenoids and 15 HHs) recording the angular positions of the structures relative to the glenoid and HH. The collected data showed high levels of validity as indicated by the protractor’s intra- and inter-assessor reliabilities: 98.2 and 98.7% for the glenoid component, and 96.2 and 96.5% for the humeral component, respectively. The device could be useful in anatomical studies, description of defects and pathologies on glenohumeral articulation, and planning of scapular reconstructive surgery. PMID:22404237

Amadi, Hippolite O; Fogg, Quentin A; Ugbolue, Ukadike C; Emery, Roger J H; Bull, Anthony M J

2012-01-01

153

The prognostic value of the fracture level in the treatment of Gartland type III supracondylar humeral fracture in children.  

PubMed

A small proportion of children with Gartland type III supracondylar humeral fracture (SCHF) experience troubling limited or delayed recovery after operative treatment. We hypothesised that the fracture level relative to the isthmus of the humerus would affect the outcome. We retrospectively reviewed 230 children who underwent closed reduction and percutaneous pinning (CRPP) for their Gartland type III SCHFs between March 2003 and December 2012. There were 144 boys and 86 girls, with the mean age of six years (1.1 to 15.2). The clinico-radiological characteristics and surgical outcomes (recovery of the elbow range of movement, post-operative angulation, and the final Flynn grade) were recorded. Multivariate analysis was employed to identify prognostic factors that influenced outcome, including fracture level. Multivariate analysis revealed that a fracture below the humeral isthmus was significantly associated with poor prognosis in terms of the range of elbow movement (p < 0.001), angulation (p = 0.001) and Flynn grade (p = 0.003). Age over ten years was also a poor prognostic factor for recovery of the range of elbow movement (p = 0.027). This is the first study demonstrating a subclassification system of Gartland III fractures with prognostic significance. This will guide surgeons in peri-operative planning and counselling as well as directing future research aimed at improving outcomes. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:134-40. PMID:25568427

Kang, S; Kam, M; Miraj, F; Park, S-S

2015-01-01

154

Objective assessments of medial osteoarthritic knee severity by MRI: new computer software to evaluate femoral condyle contours  

PubMed Central

An irregular contour of the medial femoral condyle (MFC) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appears to indicate the severity of medial-type knee osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of this study was to establish a system to enable objective assessments of OA knee severity using newly developed software that semi-automatically measures irregularity of the MFC. (1) We evaluated 48 patients aged 50–83 years with 55 knees of medial-type OA. The following scores were recorded: Lysholm score, visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure (JKOM). MFC irregularity was automatically calculated by newly programmed computer software. Four parameters for condyle irregularity were calculated: (a) the average thickness of the contour (ATC), (b) the ratio of the upper surface length to the lower surface length of the contour (RUL), (c) average squared thickness of the contour (ASTC) and (d) standard deviation of the contour thickness (SDC). (2) Nine knees that underwent total knee arthroplasty were further analysed histopathologically and compared with irregularity score. Statistically, the RUL and SDC were significantly correlated with the Lysholm score, VAS and JKOM, with good reliability. Histological examinations showed that an irregular contour reflected the density of cystic lesions formed in subchondral bone. An irregularity of MFC on MRI is correlated with OA disease severity clinically and histopathologically. The new computer software is useful to objectively assess OA disease severity. PMID:19763568

Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Tahara, Masamichi; Watanabe, Atsuya; Matsuki, Kei; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Miyake, Yoichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Wada, Yuichi; Moriya, Hideshige

2009-01-01

155

The glenohumeral joint - a mismatching system? A morphological analysis of the cartilaginous and osseous curvature of the humeral head and the glenoid cavity  

PubMed Central

Background Radial mismatch, glenohumeral conformity ratios and differences between cartilaginous and osseous radii highly depend on the measured plane. The comparison of cartilaginous radii between humeral head and glenoid in different planes provides new information to understand the degree of conformity during abduction of the upper limb. Methods To investigate the radii, CT-images in soft-tissue kernel of 9 specimen were analysed using an image visualization software. Statistical analysis of the obtained data was performed using the t-test. Results Measurements of the radii in the glenoid revealed a significantly larger radius for bone than cartilage, whereas for the humeral head the opposite was the case. Highest ratios for cartilage in the transverse plane were found in the inferior and central areas of the joint surface, whereas the smallest ratios were found in the superior area. The radial mismatch varied between 0.1 mm and 13.6 mm, depending on the measured plane. Conclusions The results suggest that in abduction, the cartilaginous guidance of the humeral head decreases. This might permit the humeral head an anterior-posterior shifting as well as superior-inferior translation. Surgical reconstruction of the normal glenohumeral relationships necessitates precise information about the glenohumeral morphology to ensure proper sizing and correct placement of prosthetic components and osteochondral allografts. PMID:24886613

2014-01-01

156

The functional outcome of operative treatment of ununited fractures of the humeral diaphysis in older patients.  

PubMed

Twenty-two elderly patients (average age, seventy-two years) who had an atrophic, unstable, ununited fracture of the humeral diaphysis were managed with plate-and-screw fixation and application of an autogenous bone graft from the iliac crest. Fifteen of the patients had had at least one previous operation in an attempt to obtain union of the fracture. One patient had an active infection and two had a quiescent infection, all with Staphylococcus epidermidis. The average duration of nonunion before the patients were first seen by us was two years and four months (range, five months to sixteen years). Fifteen of the nonunions were synovial. In each patient, at least one modification of the standard technique of plate-and-screw fixation was needed as a result of osteopenia. In order to enhance fixation, the standard protocol incorporated the use of a long plate (with an average of eleven holes and an average length that was 76 percent of that of the bone), a plate with a blade (used in thirteen patients), and replacement of loose, 4.5-millimeter cortical-bone screws with 6.5-millimeter cancellous-bone screws (twelve patients). Spiked nuts (Schuhli nut; Synthes, Paoli, Pennsylvania) that lock the screws to the plate, creating a solid point of fixation analogous to a blade, were incorporated into the protocol when they became available (used in six patients). In five limbs, the nonunion was associated with an osseous defect that could not be addressed by shortening of the bone alone. Three of these limbs were stabilized with a bridge plate that had been contoured to stand away from the bone at the site of nonunion (so-called wave-plate osteosynthesis), and the remaining two limbs were stabilized with a combination of intramedullary and extramedullary plates. In one of these two limbs, the extramedullary plate was contoured (that is, a wave plate). The fracture united in twenty (91 percent) of the patients. There was no progressive loosening or breakage of a fixation device, even in two patients who had radiographs that were suggestive of an incomplete union. Five of the patients were followed for a limited duration (average, one year and six months) as a result of death or illness. They had two excellent results, two good results, and one poor result according to a modification of the rating system of Constant and Murley. The remaining seventeen patients, including the two who had a persistent nonunion, were followed for an average of three years and one month (range, two years to five years and ten months). They had significant improvements in all of the functional scores at the most recent follow-up evaluation: the average score according to the modified system of Constant and Murley increased from 9 to 72 points (p < 0.001), the average score according to the Enforced Social Dependency Scale decreased from 39 to 9 points (p < 0.001), and the average score based on the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand Questionnaire decreased from 77 to 24 points (p < 0.001). According to the scores based on the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand Questionnaire, nine of the seventeen patients who had been followed for more than two years had an excellent result, four had a good result, two had a fair result, and the two who had a persistent nonunion had a poor result. Complications included postoperative delirium, a stitch abscess, transient radial nerve palsy, a fracture distal to the plate, and the need for a blood transfusion, in one patient each. Two patients had a fibrous union. There were no major medical complications. An unstable, united fracture of the humeral diaphysis can be extremely disabling and may threaten the ability of an elderly patient to function independently. Operative treatment can be very successful when the techniques of plate-and-screw fixation are modified to address osteopenia and relative or absolute loss of bone. Healing of the fracture substantially improves function and the degree of independence PMID:10073581

Ring, D; Perey, B H; Jupiter, J B

1999-02-01

157

Internal Fixation Versus Nonoperative Treatment for Displaced 3-Part or 4-Part Proximal Humeral Fractures in Elderly Patients: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials  

PubMed Central

Background A few studies focused on open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) or nonoperative treatment of displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients have been published, all of whom had a low number of patients. In this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), we aimed to assess the effect of ORIF or nonoperative treatment of displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients on the clinical outcomes and re-evaluate of the potential benefits of conservative treatment. Methods We searched PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases for randomized controlled trials comparing ORIF and nonoperative treatment of displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients. Our outcome measures were the Constant scores. Results: Three randomized controlled trials with a total of 130 patients were identified and analyzed. The overall results based on fixed-effect model did not support the treatment of open reduction and internal fixation to improve the functional outcome when compared with nonoperative treatment for treating elderly patients with displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures (WMD ?0.51, 95% CI: ?7.25 to 6.22, P?=?0.88, I2?=?0%). Conclusions Although our meta-analysis did not support the treatment of open reduction and internal fixation to improve the functional outcome when compared with nonoperative treatment for treating elderly patients with displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures, this result must be considered in the context of variable patient demographics. Only a limited recommendation can be made based on current data. Considering the limitations of included studies, a large, well designed trial that incorporates the evaluation of clinically relevant outcomes in participants with different underlying risks of shoulder function is required to more adequately assess the role for ORIF or nonoperative treatment. PMID:24066182

Li, Jing; Chen, Aimin

2013-01-01

158

Successful treatment of a humeral capitulum osteonecrosis with bone morphogenetic protein-7 combined with autologous bone grafting  

PubMed Central

We present the case of a 27-year-old female with subcortical osteonecrosis of the humeral capitulum. Percutaneous retrograde drilling of the lesion and application of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-7 were combined with autologous bone grafting. At follow-up the patient was almost pain-free, had normalized her range of motion, and radiography showed consolidation of the lesion without any heterotopic bone formation. By timing surgery prior to subchondral collapse, biomechanical stability of the subchondral bone was maintained. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the treatment of an osteonecrosis in this location with a BMP, and this strategy could potentially be applied in other locations with juxta-articular osteonecrosis. PMID:25017508

Marsell, Richard

2014-01-01

159

P18 - The Incidence of Hip, Forearm, Humeral, Ankle, and Vertebral Fragility Fractures: Results of a Three-Year Multicentre Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: We aimed to assess the incidence and hospitalisation rate of hip fractures and “minor” fragility fractures and their incidence in the Italian population. Methods: We conducted a three-year survey at 10 major Italian emergency departments in order to evaluate the hospitalisation rate for hip, forearm, humeral, ankle, and vertebral fragility fractures occurring in people aged ?45 years between 2004 and 2006, both men and women. These data were compared to those recorded in the national hospitalisations database (SDO) in order to assess the overall incidence of hip fractures and minor fragility fractures, also including those events not resulting in hospital admissions. Results: We have estimated that a total of 430,000 new hip, humeral, wrist, ankle and vertebral fragility fractures occur in Italy each year. Hospitalisation rates, referring to a total of 29,017 fractures, were the following: 92.7% for hip fractures, 36.3% for humeral fractures, 31.3% for ankle fractures, 22.6% for forearm/wrist fractures, and 27.6% for clinical vertebral fractures. According to the analyses performed on the SDO database, we estimated an annual incidence of 100,000 hip (0.40 per 100 adults), 39,000 humeral (0.15 per 100), 47,000 ankle (0.18 per 100), 73,000 wrist (0.21 per 100) and 190,000 (0.76 per 100 adults) vertebral fragility fractures in people aged >45 years. Clinical vertebral fractures were computed as 56,000 events per year (0.22 per 100). Conclusion: A national registry of fragility fractures is needed in order adequately to assess the incidence of osteoporotic fractures in the Italian population.

Tarantino, U.; Capone, A.; Planta, M.; D’Arienzo, M.; Letizia, M. G.; Impagliazzo, A.; Formica, D.; Pallotta, F.; Patella, V.; Spinarelli, A.; Pazzaglia, U.E.; Zarattini, G.; Roselli, M.; Montanari, G.; Sessa, G.; Privitera, M.; Verdoia, C.A.; Corradini, C.; Feola, M.; Padolino, A.; Saturnino, L.; Scialdoni, A.; Brandi, M.L.; Piscitelli, P.

2010-01-01

160

Sensitivity and specificity of a new MRI method evaluating temporo-mandibular joint disc–condyle relationships: an in vivo study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of a new method to locate temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ) disc using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and analyze disc–condyle relationships, in asymptomatic subjects and patients with disc displacement. Twenty-nine sagittal MRI of 16 subjects, 8 asymptomatic volunteers and 8 subjects with anterior disc displacement, were carried out during controlled opening

R. Benbelaïd; B. Fleiter

2006-01-01

161

Expression of matrix metalloproteinases-8 and -9 and their tissue inhibitor in the condyles of diabetic rats with mandibular advancement  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of type 1 diabetes mellitus on the condylar response during treatment with a functional appliance. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups, normal (NG), diabetes (DG) and diabetes with insulin-treatment (TG). Bite-jumping appliances were fitted to the rats in the experimental groups. At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days following fitting, animals were sacrificed and condyles were excised and processed using routine histological techniques. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8, MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) was detected using immunohistochemical analysis. Mandibular advancement increased the expression levels of MMP-8 (peaked on day 28), MMP-9 (peaked on day 21), TIMP-1 (peaked on days 21 and 28) and the ratio of MMP-8 to TIMP-1 and MMP-9 to TIMP-1. In the DG, diabetes decreased the expression levels of MMP-8 and MMP-9 induced by mandibular advancement and increased the expression levels of TIMP-1 compared with that of the NG. The ratio of MMP-8 to TIMP-1 and MMP-9 to TIMP-1 also showed a significant decrease in the DG compared with that of the NG. A recovery of these parameters was observed in the TG. Diabetes significantly altered the condylar response, which was triggered by mandibular advancement, and weakened subsequent bone deposition. The results from the TG were not significantly different from that of the NG. PMID:25289023

ZHONG, XIAOHUAN; WANG, HUIXIN; JIAN, XINCHUN

2014-01-01

162

Evolution of bone compactness in extant and extinct moles (Talpidae): exploring humeral microstructure in small fossorial mammals  

PubMed Central

Background Talpids include forms with different degree of fossoriality, with major specializations in the humerus in the case of the fully fossorial moles. We studied the humeral microanatomy of eleven extant and eight extinct talpid taxa of different lifestyles and of two non-fossorial outgroups and examined the effects of size and phylogeny. We tested the hypothesis that bone microanatomy is different in highly derived humeri of fossorial taxa than in terrestrial and semi-aquatic ones, likely due to special mechanical strains to which they are exposed to during digging. This study is the first comprehensive examination of histological parameters in an ecologically diverse and small-sized mammalian clade. Results No pattern of global bone compactness was found in the humeri of talpids that could be related to biomechanical specialization, phylogeny or size. The transition zone from the medullary cavity to the cortical compacta was larger and the ellipse ratio smaller in fossorial talpids than in non-fossorial talpids. No differences were detected between the two distantly related fossorial clades, Talpini and Scalopini. Conclusions At this small size, the overall morphology of the humerus plays a predominant role in absorbing the load, and microanatomical features such as an increase in bone compactness are less important, perhaps due to insufficient gravitational effects. The ellipse ratio of bone compactness shows relatively high intraspecific variation, and therefore predictions from this ratio based on single specimens are invalid. PMID:23442022

2013-01-01

163

Lateral flow strip assay  

DOEpatents

A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

Miles, Robin R. (Danville, CA); Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA); Coleman, Matthew A. (Oakland, CA); Pearson, Francesca S. (Livermore, CA); Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L. (Livermore, CA)

2011-03-08

164

CD146 as a new marker for an increased chondroprogenitor cell sub-population in the later stages of osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Cartilage-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been isolated with different methods. In this study lateral and medial femoral condyles were respectively collected from patients with late-stage osteoarthritis during the total knee arthroplasty. After digestion of the cartilage tissues with type II collagenase and analysis by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) with CD146, a chondroprogenitor cell sub-population were isolated and purified. The expression of other MSC-associated markers in the CD146(+) chondroprogenitors was analyzed by flow cytometry. Multi-lineage differentiation capacity of CD146(+) chondroprogenitors was compared with that of unsorted chondrocytes and adipose-derived MSCs (ADMSCs). Higher percentage of CD146(+) chondroprogenitors isolated from the medial femoral condyles was observed than that from the lateral. CD146(+) chondroprogenitors expressed high levels of MSC-specific surface antigens, and showed higher chondrogenesis capacity than ADMSCs and unsorted chondrocytes in a 3D cell pellet culture model. Thus CD146 might be a new cell surface marker for cartilage progenitor cell population in the late-stage osteoarthritis. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 33:84-91, 2015. PMID:25266708

Su, Xinlin; Zuo, Wei; Wu, Zhihong; Chen, Jun; Wu, Nan; Ma, Pei; Xia, Zenan; Jiang, Chao; Ye, Zixing; Liu, Sen; Liu, Jiaqi; Zhou, Guangqian; Wan, Chao; Qiu, Guixing

2015-01-01

165

Hemiarthroplasty of the shoulder joint using a custom-designed high-density nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide prosthesis with a polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel humeral head surface in rabbits.  

PubMed

In this study, a novel custom-designed high-density nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide (n-HA/PA) prosthesis with a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel humeral head surface was employed to repair the shoulder joint head for hemiarthroplasty in rabbits. The prosthesis was fabricated using three-dimensional computed tomography and computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing systems for perfect fitting. Sixteen New Zealand white rabbits underwent humeral head excision, and received the composite prostheses for hemiarthroplasty. The implant sites were free from suppuration and necrosis at all periods. The X-ray results showed that there was a clear space between the prosthesis head and the glenoid surface, and the joint capsules and surfaces of the glenoid and PVA were well preserved without any damage during the whole inspection period. A high density of bone was observed around the firmware part of the prosthesis. Histological results revealed that significant osteogenesis was surrounding the firmware part, and the joint space was clear and the cartilage of the upper joint surface was basically intact. There was no visible absorption of the joint surfaces even after 3 months of continuous functional motions. The maximum tensile strength between the prosthesis and host bone reached 2.63?MPa at the 12th week postimplantation. In conclusion, the customized prosthesis by combination of PVA and high-density n-HA/PA has excellent biocompatibility and biological fixation, and offers a promising substitute for both the cartilage and the bone of the humeral head in a rabbit model as level V evidence. PMID:24404998

Guo, Yongwen; Guo, Jun; Bai, Ding; Wang, Hang; Zheng, Xiaohui; Guo, Weihua; Tian, Weidong

2014-07-01

166

The effect of local injection of the human growth hormone on the mandibular condyle growth in rabbit  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of local injection of human growth hormone (GH) in stimulating cartilage and bone formation in a rabbit model of temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Materials and Methods: In an experimental animal study, 16 male Albino New Zealand white rabbits aged 12 weeks were divided into two groups: In the first group (7 rabbits) 2 mg/kg/1 ml human GH and in the control group (9 rabbits) 1 ml normal saline was administered locally in both mandibular condyles. Injections were employed under sedation and by single experienced person. Injections were made for 6 times with 3 injections a week in the all test and control samples. Rabbits were sacrified at the 20th day from the beginning of study and TMJs were histologically examined. ANOVA (two-sided) with Dunnett post hoc test was used to compare data of bone and cartridge thickness while chi-square test was used to analyze hyperplasia and disk deformity data. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Cartilage layer thickness was greater in the GH-treated (0.413 ± 0.132) than the control group (0.287 ± 0.098) (P value = 0.02). Although bone thickness and condylar cartilage hyperplasia were greater in the GH-treated group, these differences were not statistically significant (P value = 0.189 and 0.083, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference between two groups regarding the disc deformity (P value = 0.46). Conclusion: Local injection of human GH in the TMJ is able to accelerate growth activity of condylar cartilage in rabbit. PMID:25225555

Feizbakhsh, Masood; Razavi, Mohammad; Minaian, Mohsen; Teimoori, Fatemeh; Dadgar, Sepideh; Maghsoodi, Shahlaa

2014-01-01

167

Heat-induced segmental necrosis after reaming of one humeral and two tibial fractures with a narrow medullary canal.  

PubMed

In three cases referred to our clinic (a simple fracture of the humeral shaft, a simple, closed fracture, and a wedge fracture of the mid-third of the tibia), bone necrosis had resulted from excessive heat produced by reaming extremely narrow medullary cavities (5-5.5 mm diameter) with the 9 mm front-cutting reamer as part of a reamed nailing procedure. In any one case, different degrees of damage can occur from the metaphysis to the diaphysis. Based on the clinical course and the histological evaluation, we postulate that heat-induced damage can be divided into four degrees of severity (0-3): Grade 0: no damage; no devascularization, no heat-induced damage. Grade 1: The heat damaged zone is cut away during subsequent reaming, the only damage is devascularization. Grade 2: The damaged zones are not eliminated by subsequent reaming. The bone is devascularized and heat damaged. Grade 3: The entire cross section of the bone including the periosteum is devitalized by exposure to excessive heat. Depending on the severity of additional damage to the soft tissues, grave consequences are to be expected and further operations are unavoidable. The effects of heat-induced damage are particularly critical in the presence of infection (cases 2 and 3). The fundamental aspects and the extent of heat necrosis will be discussed. After discussion with the AO Technical Commission on the cause of heat-induced necrosis, we would recommend the following preventive measures: 1. preoperative measurement of the smallest diameter of the medullary cavity in two planes. 2. reaming with the standard instrumentation (9 mm) only if the medullary cavity has a diameter of at least 8 mm at its narrowest point. 3. Extremely narrow cavities should first be reamed manually or an alternative to nailing should be sought. 4. It is strongly recommended that only sharp reamers be used in such cases and blunt or damaged reamers replaced. PMID:10341889

Ochsner, P E; Baumgart, F; Kohler, G

1998-01-01

168

Glenohumeral joint cartilage contact in the healthy adult during scapular plane elevation depression with external humeral rotation.  

PubMed

The shoulder (glenohumeral) joint has the greatest range of motion of all human joints; as a result, it is particularly vulnerable to dislocation and injury. The ability to non-invasively quantify in-vivo articular cartilage contact patterns of joints has been and remains a difficult biomechanics problem. As a result, little is known about normal in-vivo glenohumeral joint contact patterns or the consequences that surgery has on altering them. In addition, the effect of quantifying glenohumeral joint contact patterns by means of proximity mapping, both with and without cartilage data, is unknown. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to (1) describe a technique for quantifying in-vivo glenohumeral joint contact patterns during dynamic shoulder motion, (2) quantify normal glenohumeral joint contact patterns in the young healthy adult during scapular plane elevation depression with external humeral rotation, and (3) compare glenohumeral joint contact patterns determined both with and without articular cartilage data. Our results show that the inclusion of articular cartilage data when quantifying in-vivo glenohumeral joint contact patterns has significant effects on the anterior-posterior contact centroid location, the superior-inferior contact centroid range of travel, and the total contact path length. As a result, our technique offers an advantage over glenohumeral joint contact pattern measurement techniques that neglect articular cartilage data. Likewise, this technique may be more sensitive than traditional 6-Degree-of-Freedom (6-DOF) joint kinematics for the assessment of overall glenohumeral joint health. Lastly, for the shoulder motion tested, we found that glenohumeral joint contact was located on the anterior-inferior glenoid surface. PMID:25047740

Massimini, Daniel F; Warner, Jon J P; Li, Guoan

2014-09-22

169

Anatomic examination of the upper head of the lateral pterygoid muscle using magnetic resonance imaging and clinical data.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to ascertain the different kinds of insertion of the upper head of the lateral pterygoid muscle (LPM) on the temporomandibular joint and to clarify its physiology to understand its possible role in the dysfunction at the temporomandibular joint. Magnetic resonance imaging examinations were used in this work to achieve a direct view of the LPM on a large number of selected patients with dysfunction at the temporomandibular joint.The study population was composed of 92 patients, of whom 74 were women and 18 were men. Their age range was from 19 to 53 years (mean age, 31 years). The images were analyzed using the following parameters: symmetry of morphologic insertions of the upper head of the LPM, types of muscular insertion divided into 3 groups (A, single bundle on the capsule and condyle; B, one bundle on the disk and a second bundle on the condyle; and C, one bundle only on the disk), and relationship between disk position regarding the condyle in patients with disk dislocations with or without reduction and upper head of the LPM. The chi-square test was used to measure the magnitude of the results.It is possible to impute to the C-type insertion morphology a negative prognostic value for a long-term improvement of disk pathology and to consider the possibility that this muscle may contribute to dislocating the disk when its insertion was directed only on the disk itself. When the upper head of the LPM was inserted on the disk, the percentage of disk dislocation without reduction was greater. PMID:19816287

Mazza, Dario; Marini, Mario; Impara, Luca; Cassetta, Michele; Scarpato, Paolo; Barchetti, Flavio; Di Paolo, Carlo

2009-09-01

170

Open reduction and internal fixation of extracapsular mandibular condyle fractures: a long-term clinical and radiological follow-up of 25 patients  

PubMed Central

Background During the last 2 decades, many studies on the treatment of mandibular condyle fracture have been published. The incidence of mandibular condyle fractures is variable, ranging from 17.5% to 52% of all mandibular fractures. This retrospective study evaluated the long-term clinical and radiological outcomes after surgical treatment of 25 patients with a total of 26 extracapsular condyle fractures. Methods We used 2 types of surgical approaches, the retromandibular retroparotid or preauricular approach. Three kinds of rigid internal fixation plates were used—single plate, double plate, and trapezoidal plate. The following post-operative clinical parameters were evaluated: dental occlusion, facial nerve functionality, skin scarring, and temporomandibular joint functionality. All patients underwent post-operative orthopanoramic radiography and computed tomography. The patients were also monitored for complications such as Frey’s syndrome, infection, salivary fistula, plate fracture, and permanent paralysis of the facial nerve; the patient’s satisfaction was also recorded. Results Of the 25 patients, 80% showed occlusion recovery, 88% had no facial nerve injury, and 88% presented good surgical skin scarring. The patients showed early complete recovery of temporomandibular joint functionality and 72% of them were found to be asymptomatic. The postoperative radiographs of all patients indicated good recovery of the anatomical condylar region, and 80% of them had no postoperative complications. The average degree of patient satisfaction was 8.32 out of 10. Our results confirm that the technique of open reduction and internal fixation in association with postoperative functional rehabilitation therapy should be considered for treating patients with extracapsular condylar fractures. Conclusion The topic of condylar injury has generated more discussion and controversy than any other topic in the field of maxillofacial trauma. We confirm that open reduction and internal fixation is the treatment of choice for patients with neck and sub-condylar mandibular fractures. PMID:25196114

2014-01-01

171

Lateral subtalar dislocation.  

PubMed

Subtalar dislocations are rare in routine orthopedic practice. While many of these dislocations are a result of high-energy injuries such as fall from a height or traffic accidents, it is not uncommon for patients to present after slipping down a few stairs. Two types of dislocation have been described, medial and lateral. The type of dislocation is described according to the position of the foot. In lateral subtalar dislocation the head of talus is found medially and the calcaneus is dislocated laterally. The navicular may lie dorsolateral to the talus. The reverse is true of lateral dislocation. Medial dislocation has been referred to as "basketball foot" due to its preponderance in basketball players.4 The deciding factor is the inverted or everted position of the foot when the force is dissipated through the weak talonavicular and talocalcaneal ligaments. This article presents a case of an adult with lateral subtalar dislocation following a fall. PMID:19292363

Sharda, Praveen; DuFosse, Julian

2008-07-01

172

Lateral superlattice solar cells  

SciTech Connect

A novel structure which comprises of a lateral superlattice as the active layer of a solar cell is proposed. If the alternating regions A and B of a lateral superlattice ABABAB... are chosen to have a Type-II band offset, it is shown that the performance of the active absorbing region of the solar cell is optimized. In essence, the Type-II lateral superlattice region can satisfy the material requirements for an ideal solar cells active absorbing region, i.e. simultaneously having a very high transition probability for photogeneration and a very long minority carrier recombination lifetime.

Mascarenhas, A.; Zhang, Y. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Millunchick, J.M.; Twesten, R.D.; Jones, E.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-10-01

173

A lateral meniscus tear incarcerated behind the popliteus tendon: a case report.  

PubMed

A 51-year-old male, sustained an injury to his left knee after being pinned between his motorcycle and a road barrier. In the ER, the patient complained of medial knee pain, and had a significant joint effusion. MRI demonstrated an ACL injury, medial meniscal tear, bone bruising and impaction at the lateral femoral condyle and tibial plateau, and a tear of the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus that was displaced behind the popliteus. Unfortunately, the patient also presented with a deep vein thrombosis and thus could not proceed to the operating room for two months. During this time, scar tissue developed around the lateral meniscus. The purpose of this report is to present an unusual variant of a common injury pattern previously unreported where the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus became incarcerated behind the popliteus tendon and was left in place. It is likely that our patient will develop osteoarthritis in the future, but considering the circumstances he received a favorable early clinical outcome. Early recognition and a mobile fragment are essential restoring a patient's original anatomical features and achieving an optimal clinical outcome. PMID:19897371

Eskander, Mark S; Drew, Jacob M; Osuch, Daniel B; Metzmaker, Jeff

2010-10-01

174

Laterally bendable belt conveyor  

DOEpatents

An endless, laterally flexible and bendable belt conveyor particularly adapted for coal mining applications in facilitating the transport of the extracted coal up- or downslope and around corners in a continuous manner is disclosed. The conveying means includes a flat rubber belt reinforced along the middle portion thereof along which the major portion of the belt tension is directed so as to cause rotation of the tubular shaped belt when trammed around lateral turns thus preventing excessive belt bulging distortion between adjacent belt supports which would inhibit belt transport. Pretension induced into the fabric reinforced flat rubber belt by conventional belt take-up means supports the load conveyed when the belt conveyor is making lateral turns. The carrying and return portions of the belt are supported and formed into a tubular shape by a plurality of shapers positioned along its length. Each shaper is supported from above by a monorail and includes clusters of idler rollers which support the belt. Additional cluster rollers in each shaper permit the belt supporting roller clusters to rotate in response to the belt's operating tension imposed upon the cluster rollers by induced lateral belt friction forces. The freely rotating roller clusters thus permit the belt to twist on lateral curves without damage to itself while precluding escape of the conveyed material by effectively enclosing it in the tube-shaped, inner belt transport length.

Peterson, William J. (Coraopolis, PA)

1985-01-01

175

The relationship between lateral meniscus shape and joint contact parameters in the knee: a study using data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative  

PubMed Central

Introduction The meniscus has an important role in force transmission across the knee, but a detailed three-dimensional (3D) morphometric shape analysis of the lateral meniscus to elucidate subject-specific function has not been conducted. The aim of this study was to perform 3D morphometric analyses of the lateral meniscus in order to correlate shape variables with anthropometric parameters, thereby gaining a better understanding of the relationship between lateral meniscus shape and its load-bearing function. Methods The lateral meniscus (LM) was manually segmented from magnetic resonance images randomly selected from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) non-exposed control subcohort. A 3D statistical shape model (SSM) was constructed to extract the principal morphological variations (PMV) of the lateral meniscus for 50 subjects (25 male and 25 female). Correlations between the principal morphological variations and anthropometric parameters were tested. Anthropometric parameters that were selected included height, weight, body mass index (BMI), femoral condyle width and axial rotation. Results The first principal morphological variation (PMV) was found to correlate with height (r?=?0.569), weight (r?=?0.647), BMI (r?=?0.376), and femoral condyle width (r?=?0.622). The third PMV was found to correlate with height (r?=?0.406), weight (r?=?0.312), and femoral condyle width (r?=?0.331). The percentage of the tibial plateau covered by the lateral meniscus decreases as anthropometric parameters relating to size of the subject increase. Furthermore, when the size of the subject increases, the posterior and anterior horns become proportionally longer and wider. Conclusion The correlations discovered suggest that variations in meniscal shape can be at least partially explained by the levels of loads transmitted across the knee on a regular basis. Additionally, as the size of the subject increases and body weight rises, the coverage percentage of the meniscus is reduced, suggesting that there would be an increase in the load-bearing by the cartilage. However, this reduced coverage percentage is compensated by the proportionally wider and longer meniscal horn. PMID:24467794

2014-01-01

176

The processing and characterization of animal-derived bone to yield materials with biomedical applications Part 1: Modifiable porous implants from bovine condyle cancellous bone and characterization of bone materials as a function of processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study on the development of a process to form materials suitable for biomedical xenograft implants from bovine cancellous bone is presented. Bone cubes cut from the condyle portion of bovine femurs sourced from abattoir waste were subjected to a defatting and subsequent deproteination procedure to produce shape-modifiable materials in which the biocompatible mineral calcium hydroxycarbonate apatite component was preserved

Glenn S. Johnson; Michael R. Mucalo; Michel A. Lorier

2000-01-01

177

Effects of humeral head compression taping on the isokinetic strength of the shoulder external rotator muscle in patients with rotator cuff tendinitis  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of humeral head compression taping (HHCT) on the strength of the shoulder external rotator muscle in patients with rotator cuff tendinitis. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty patients with rotator cuff tendinitis were recruited. The shoulder external rotator strength was measured using a Biodex isokinetic dynamometer system. A paired t-test was performed to evaluate within-group differences in the strength of the shoulder external rotator muscle. [Results] Significantly higher shoulder external rotator peak torque and peak torque per body weight were found in the HHCT condition than in the no-taping condition. [Conclusion] HHCT may effectively increase the shoulder external rotator muscle strength in patients with rotator cuff tendinitis.

Kim, Moon-Hwan; Oh, Jae-Seop

2015-01-01

178

Lateral tibial plateau fracture.  

PubMed

The patient was a 30-year-old man who was initially seen by a physical therapist for a chief complaint of left knee pain. Due to concern for a fracture, the physical therapist ordered radiographs of the left knee, which revealed a fracture of the left lateral tibial plateau. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2012;42(9):819. doi:10.2519/jospt.2012.0416. PMID:22951597

Flautt, Warren; Miller, Joseph; Ratcliff, Jennifer Robyn

2012-09-01

179

Does Lateral Knee Geometry Influence Bone Bruise Patterns after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury? A Report of two Cases  

PubMed Central

Bone bruise patterns are commonly seen after acute anterior cruciate ligament injuries; they represent a subchondral impaction injury that occurs in the lateral knee joint between the mid-lateral femoral condyle and the posterior lateral tibial plateau. These contusion patterns are present in the majority of noncontact ACL injuries. These injury patterns vary significantly in severity and this aspect is poorly understood. Edema patterns have gained increased interest in the literature of late; they may indicate the severity of the initial injury. They also may be correlated with the development of subsequent osteochondral defects and osteoarthritis. Given the location of this subchondral injury, it is plausible to assume that the geometry of the lateral femorotibial joint may play a role in ACL injury mechanism and severity of injury. We are reporting two cases of clinically identical ACL injuries. A patient with a flat lateral tibial plateau was noted to have a much larger bone edema pattern than a second patient with the highly convex lateral tibial plateau. This may shed light on the pathomechanics of ACL injury and suggests that an individual with a relatively flat tibial plateau has a stable lateral knee joint. Therefore, we hypothesize that much greater force is required to dislocate a flat and stable lateral femorotibial joint in a pivot shift pattern to produce an ACL injury. The greater force required results in a large bone edema pattern. Conversely, the individual with a relatively short and convex tibial plateau has an inherently unstable lateral joint and relatively smaller amounts of force would be needed to produce the identical injury to the ACL. As less force is required, smaller bone edema patterns result. PMID:24027487

Westermann, Robert W; Wolf, Brian R; Wahl, Christopher J

2013-01-01

180

Growth in the lateral part of the human skull during the second trimester.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to report dimensional changes in the lateral part of the prenatal human skull during the second trimester. The sample comprised 37 fetuses obtained in connection with requested autopsy. Gestational ages (GA) were available for 27 fetuses, ranging from 13 to 24 weeks. Crown-rump lengths (CRL) of 23 fetuses ranged from 78 to 228 mm. For 21 fetuses both CRL and GA were available. After excision of the midsagittal segment of the skulls by two paramedian sections from the frontal bone to the foramen magnum through the optic foramina, an incision was made through the middle of the occipital squama, bisecting the skull. The present study was based on the skull components of the resulting 74 lateral cranial tissue blocks. The tissue blocks were radiographed with a Hewlett Packard Faxitron unit. Seven reference points were digitized from each film and eight linear dimensions were calculated. Method errors ranged from 0.12 mm to 0.52 mm. The dimensions were related to crown-rump length (CRL) and lateral segment developmental stages (LSS). The increases in the linear dimensions of the anterior part of the lateral skull segments were similar to those found previously for the median skull segment. The dimensions of the anterior part of the lateral skull segments were found to increase by 150% during the second trimester, while those of the posterior part increased by 100% during the same period. Between maturity stages LSS 4 and 5 the dimensions increased by 30-50%, whereas less increase was observed between stages 5, 6, 7, and 8. This reduction was attributed to the progressive ossification of the cranial base. The almost horizontal distance from the mandibular condyle (condylion) to the anterior tympanic ring did not change significantly during the second trimester. Comparison of the bilateral skull segments showed no systematic asymmetry, but a significant individual biological variability in symmetry with standard deviations of 0.7-1.8 mm was found. PMID:8719349

Bach-Petersen, S; Solow, B; Fischer-Hansen, B; Kjaer, I

1995-01-01

181

Creativity in later life.  

PubMed

The ageing population presents significant challenges for the provision of social and health services. Strategies are needed to enable older people to cope within a society ill prepared for the impacts of these demographic changes. The ability to be creative may be one such strategy. This review outlines the relevant literature and examines current public health policy related to creativity in old age with the aim of highlighting some important issues. As well as looking at the benefits and negative aspects of creative activity in later life they are considered in the context of the theory of "successful ageing". Creative activity plays an important role in the lives of older people promoting social interaction, providing cognitive stimulation and giving a sense of self-worth. Furthermore, it is shown to be useful as a tool in the multi-disciplinary treatment of health problems common in later life such as depression and dementia. There are a number of initiatives to encourage older people to participate in creative activities such as arts-based projects which may range from visual arts to dance to music to intergenerational initiatives. However, participation shows geographical variation and often the responsibility of provision falls to voluntary organisations. Overall, the literature presented suggests that creative activity could be a useful tool for individuals and society. However, further research is needed to establish the key factors which contribute to patterns of improved health and well-being, as well as to explore ways to improve access to services. PMID:24974278

Price, K A; Tinker, A M

2014-08-01

182

Lateral conduction infrared photodetector  

DOEpatents

A photodetector for detecting infrared light in a wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m is disclosed. The photodetector has a mesa structure formed from semiconductor layers which include a type-II superlattice formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. Impurity doped regions are formed on sidewalls of the mesa structure to provide for a lateral conduction of photo-generated carriers which can provide an increased carrier mobility and a reduced surface recombination. An optional bias electrode can be used in the photodetector to control and vary a cut-off wavelength or a depletion width therein. The photodetector can be formed as a single-color or multi-color device, and can also be used to form a focal plane array which is compatible with conventional read-out integrated circuits.

Kim, Jin K. (Albuquerque, NM); Carroll, Malcolm S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2011-09-20

183

“8 Plate”: An Alternative Device to Fix Highly Recurrent Traumatic Anterior Gleno-Humeral Instability in Patients with Severe Impairment of the Anterior Capsule  

PubMed Central

Background: There is still debate about the best treatment option for highly recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation in patients with severe impairment of the anterior capsule and/or recurrence after either arthroscopic or open capsulorrhaphy. Materials and Methods: The clinical and radiological findings of 7 patients treated with an open capsulorrhaphy stabilized with an “8 plate” for a highly recurrent traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation with severe impairment of the anterior capsule and a large Bankart lesion were retrospectively reviewed. Follow-up evaluation included VAS for pain, Constant-Murley, Simple Shoulder Test, ASES, UCLA, Quick DASH, Rowe, Walsch-Duplay scores, as well as X-rays of the operated shoulder. Results: At follow-up none of the patients reported subsequent dislocations. Range of motion of the shoulder was complete in all cases, but one. Results of the functional scoring systems were satisfactory. X-rays showed no osteolysis and good position of the plate. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature about an open capsular tensioning and Bankart lesion repair performed with an “8 plate”. We believe that this is a reliable and effective procedure to address traumatic anterior re-dislocation of the gleno-humeral joint when the capsule is extensively torn and frayed or in revision cases. Moreover the “8 plate” is ideal to be applied in such a narrow space on the slant surface of the scapular neck close to the glenoid rim.

C, Tudisco; S, Bisicchia; E, Savarese; E, Ippolito

2014-01-01

184

Evaluation of injectable strontium-containing borate bioactive glass cement with enhanced osteogenic capacity in a critical-sized rabbit femoral condyle defect model.  

PubMed

The development of a new generation of injectable bone cements that are bioactive and have enhanced osteogenic capacity for rapid osseointegration is receiving considerable interest. In this study, a novel injectable cement (designated Sr-BBG) composed of strontium-doped borate bioactive glass particles and a chitosan-based bonding phase was prepared and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The bioactive glass provided the benefits of bioactivity, conversion to hydroxyapatite, and the ability to stimulate osteogenesis, while the chitosan provided a cohesive biocompatible and biodegradable bonding phase. The Sr-BBG cement showed the ability to set in situ (initial setting time = 11.6 ± 1.2 min) and a compressive strength of 19 ± 1 MPa. The Sr-BBG cement enhanced the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro when compared to a similar cement (BBG) composed of chitosan-bonded borate bioactive glass particles without Sr. Microcomputed tomography and histology of critical-sized rabbit femoral condyle defects implanted with the cements showed the osteogenic capacity of the Sr-BBG cement. New bone was observed at different distances from the Sr-BBG implants within eight weeks. The bone-implant contact index was significantly higher for the Sr-BBG implant than it was for the BBG implant. Together, the results indicate that this Sr-BBG cement is a promising implant for healing irregularly shaped bone defects using minimally invasive surgery. PMID:25591177

Zhang, Yadong; Cui, Xu; Zhao, Shichang; Wang, Hui; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Liu, Zhongtang; Huang, Wenhai; Zhang, Changqing

2015-02-01

185

The scale-up of a tissue engineered porous hydroxyapatite polymer composite scaffold for use in bone repair: An ovine femoral condyle defect study.  

PubMed

The development of an osteogenic bone graft substitute has important practical and cost implications in many branches of medicine where bone regeneration is required. Previous in vitro and small animal (murine) in vivo studies highlighted a porous hydroxyapatite/poly (dl-lactic acid) composite scaffold in combination with skeletal stem cells (SSCs) as a potential bone graft substitute candidate. The aim of the current study was to scale up the bone cell-scaffold construct to large animals and examine the potential for repair of a critical-sized defect via an ovine model. SSC seeded scaffolds (and unseeded scaffold controls) were implanted bilaterally into ovine femoral condyle critical defects for 3 months. A parallel in vitro analysis of ovine SSC seeded scaffolds was also performed. Post mortem mechanical indentation testing showed the bone strengths of the defect sites were 20% (controls) and 11% (SSC seeded scaffolds) those of normal cancellous bone (p?

Tayton, Edward; Purcell, Matthew; Smith, James O; Lanham, Stuart; Howdle, Steven M; Shakesheff, Kevin M; Goodship, Allen; Blunn, Gordon; Fowler, Darren; Dunlop, Douglas G; Oreffo, Richard O C

2014-07-16

186

Synergetic effects of hBMSCs and hPCs in osteogenic differentiation and their capacity in the repair of critical-sized femoral condyle defects.  

PubMed

Tissue-engineered bone grafts require an osteoblastic cellular source to be utilized in bone transplantation therapy. Human bone marrow stem cells (hBMSCs) and periosteal-derived stem cells (hPCs) are the commonly used cellular sources for bone tissue engineering and are essential in fracture healing. In the present study, hBMSCs and hPCs were co-cultured from the same donors, as the cellular source. In monolayer cultivation, co-culturing hBMSCs and hPCs demonstrated more robust mineralized nodule formation and stronger alkaline phosphatase (ALP) positive staining than hBMSCs or hPCs. Three-dimensional (3-D) culturing on porous ?-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds and co-culturing of hBMSCs and hPCs significantly promoted the osteogenic specific mRNA expression of COL1?1, BMP-2, osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OC). For in vivo bone formation and neovascularization assessment, the cellular-?-TCP scaffolds were transplanted into critical-sized femoral condyle defects in rabbits. The results confirmed that co-culturing hBMSCs and hPCs accelerated bone regeneration and enhanced mature bone formation, but also facilitated central vascularization in scaffold pores. Based on these data, we recommend co-culturing hBMSCs and hPCs as a promising cellular source for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:25373389

Chen, Daoyun; Shen, Hao; He, Yaohua; Chen, Yunsu; Wang, Qi; Lu, Jianxi; Jiang, Yao

2015-02-01

187

Effect of a ?-TCP collagen composite bone substitute on healing of drilled bone voids in the distal femoral condyle of rabbits.  

PubMed

In this study, we tested the performance and biocompatibility of a composite of ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) to collagen as a bone void filler (Cerasorb(®) Ortho Foam) in a rabbit distal femoral condyle model. ?-TCP is a completely resorbable synthetic calcium phosphate and the addition of a collagen matrix couples the osteoconductive effects of the two components. Furthermore, the malleable properties of the implant material during surgical applications for shape control will be enhanced. A critical size defect of 6 mm in diameter and 10 mm in depth was drilled into each distal femur of the rabbits. One hole was filled with the test substance and the other was left empty for control. After 1, 3, and 6 months the animals were killed and the degree of bone healing analyzed. In total, 18 animals were investigated. When the ?-TCP composite was used, histological, histomorphometric, and biomechanical evaluations revealed significantly better bone healing in terms of quantity and quality of the newly formed bone. Moreover, no signs of inflammation were observed in the animals and no allergic or foreign body reaction was noted. This suggests high biocompatibility and osteoconductivity of the investigated material to a bone void in an immune responsive species. PMID:24039106

Zheng, Hellen; Bai, Yajun; Shih, Mei-Shu; Hoffmann, Christiane; Peters, Fabian; Waldner, Christoph; Hübner, Wolf-Dietrich

2014-02-01

188

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by progressive muscular paralysis reflecting degeneration of motor neurones in the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, brainstem and spinal cord. Incidence (average 1.89 per 100,000/year) and prevalence (average 5.2 per 100,000) are relatively uniform in Western countries, although foci of higher frequency occur in the Western Pacific. The mean age of onset for sporadic ALS is about 60 years. Overall, there is a slight male prevalence (M:F ratio approximately 1.5:1). Approximately two thirds of patients with typical ALS have a spinal form of the disease (limb onset) and present with symptoms related to focal muscle weakness and wasting, where the symptoms may start either distally or proximally in the upper and lower limbs. Gradually, spasticity may develop in the weakened atrophic limbs, affecting manual dexterity and gait. Patients with bulbar onset ALS usually present with dysarthria and dysphagia for solid or liquids, and limbs symptoms can develop almost simultaneously with bulbar symptoms, and in the vast majority of cases will occur within 1-2 years. Paralysis is progressive and leads to death due to respiratory failure within 2-3 years for bulbar onset cases and 3-5 years for limb onset ALS cases. Most ALS cases are sporadic but 5-10% of cases are familial, and of these 20% have a mutation of the SOD1 gene and about 2-5% have mutations of the TARDBP (TDP-43) gene. Two percent of apparently sporadic patients have SOD1 mutations, and TARDBP mutations also occur in sporadic cases. The diagnosis is based on clinical history, examination, electromyography, and exclusion of 'ALS-mimics' (e.g. cervical spondylotic myelopathies, multifocal motor neuropathy, Kennedy's disease) by appropriate investigations. The pathological hallmarks comprise loss of motor neurones with intraneuronal ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions in upper motor neurones and TDP-43 immunoreactive inclusions in degenerating lower motor neurones. Signs of upper motor neurone and lower motor neurone damage not explained by any other disease process are suggestive of ALS. The management of ALS is supportive, palliative, and multidisciplinary. Non-invasive ventilation prolongs survival and improves quality of life. Riluzole is the only drug that has been shown to extend survival. PMID:19192301

Wijesekera, Lokesh C; Leigh, P Nigel

2009-01-01

189

Compound fracture of humeral shaft associated with two-part fracture dislocation of ipsilateral shoulder: a rare combination.  

PubMed

Humerus fracture is very rarely associated with ipsilateral shoulder dislocation. Here, we have reported probably the first case of compound fracture of humerus associated with a two-part fracture dislocation of ipsilateral shoulder. A 30-year-old female presented to the emergency department after a road traffic accident. The vehicle in which she was travelling skidded off the road and she got trapped. She had degloving injury over her left arm with a fracture of left humerus and anterior dislocation of ipsilateral shoulder and greater tuberosity fracture. She was managed initially with wound debridement, external fixation over humerus, closed reduction of shoulder dislocation, and open reduction and internal fixation of greater tuberosity fracture. Skin grafting was done over the wound later on. Fracture united at 4 months with a good range of movement at shoulder at the final follow-up. PMID:25650388

Gupta, Yogendra; Jha, Ranjib Kumar

2015-01-01

190

4, 317348, 2007 Lateral carbon  

E-print Network

BGD 4, 317­348, 2007 Lateral carbon exchange in a tidal mangrove creek S. Bouillon et al. Title mangrove creek (Ras Dege, Tanzania) S. Bouillon 1,2 , J. J. Middelburg 2 , F. Dehairs 1 , A. V. Borges 3, France 317 #12;BGD 4, 317­348, 2007 Lateral carbon exchange in a tidal mangrove creek S. Bouillon et al

Boyer, Edmond

191

VOLCANO INSTABILITY AND LATERAL COLLAPSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active volcanoes are dynamically evolving structures, the life-cycles of which are punctuated by episodes of flank instability and lateral failure. Such behaviour is now recognised as ubiquitous and lateral collapses are estimated to have occurred at least four times a century over the past 500 years. In the Andes, three quarters of the large volcanic edifices have experienced collapse, while

W. J. McGuire

2003-01-01

192

Lateral Transorbital Neuroendoscopic Approach to the Lateral Cavernous Sinus  

PubMed Central

Objective?To design and assess the quality of a novel lateral retrocanthal endoscopic approach to the lateral cavernous sinus. Design?Computer modeling software was used to optimize the geometry of the surgical pathway, which was confirmed on cadaver specimens. We calculated trajectories and surgically accessible areas to the middle fossa while applying a constraint on the amount of soft tissue retraction. Setting?Virtual computer model to simulate the surgical approach and cadaver laboratory. Participants?The authors. Main Outcome Measures?Adequate surgical access to the lateral cavernous sinus and adjacent regions as determined by operations on the cadaver specimens. Additionally, geometric limitations were imposed as determined by the model so that retraction on soft tissue structures was maintained at a clinically safe distance. Results?Our calculations revealed adequate access to the lateral cavernous sinus, Meckel cave, orbital apex, and middle fossa floor. Cadaveric testing revealed sufficient access to these areas using <10?mm of orbital retraction. Conclusions?Our study validates not only the use of computer simulation to plan operative approaches but the feasibility of the lateral retrocanthal approach to the lateral cavernous sinus. PMID:24498584

Bly, Randall A.; Ramakrishna, Rohan; Ferreira, Manuel; Moe, Kris S.

2013-01-01

193

The processing and characterization of animal-derived bone to yield materials with biomedical applications: part 1: modifiable porous implants from bovine condyle cancellous bone and characterization of bone materials as a function of processing.  

PubMed

A study on the development of a process to form materials suitable for biomedical xenograft implants from bovine cancellous bone is presented. Bone cubes cut from the condyle portion of bovine femurs sourced from abattoir waste were subjected to a defatting and subsequent deproteination procedure to produce shape-modifiable materials in which the biocompatible mineral calcium hydroxycarbonate apatite component was preserved in the original osseous architecture of the bovine bone. Optimum defatting was achieved by (1) thawing of the precut bone cubes in water, (2) pressure cooking at 15 psi in water, (3) soaking in 0.1 mol l(-1) NaOH followed by a thorough rinse under running water, (4) microwave heating of the bone cubes in water, (5) refluxing in methyl acetate and finally (6) removal of internal liquid from the cubes by shaking and then air drying. Subsequent deproteination of the defatted bone cubes was optimally achieved by (1) soaking in 5% sodium hypochlorite solution at ambient temperature using ultrasonication, (2) thorough rinsing of the cubes in water followed by drying. The final product is a defatted/deproteinated, bleached material that can be molded into various shapes for implant use in the body. The bone specimens were characterized by a suite of analytical techniques (i.e. infrared, 31P and 13C solid magic-angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, atomic absorption (AA) spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)) in order to follow compositional changes during the various stages of processing. In general, bovine condyles proved to be the best source of xenograft materials with condyles from other animal species (i.e. deer, sheep and ostrich) being too small to constitute a utilizable source of cancellous bone. This study shows how value can be added to a hitherto underutilized abattoir by-product by using simple processing techniques. PMID:15348008

Johnson, G S; Mucalo, M R; Lorier, M A

2000-07-01

194

Lateral Diffusion in an Archipelago  

PubMed Central

Lateral diffusion of molecules in lipid bilayer membranes can be hindered by the presence of impermeable domains of gel-phase lipid or of proteins. Effective-medium theory and percolation theory are used to evaluate the effective lateral diffusion constant as a function of the area fraction of fluid-phase lipid and the permeability of the obstructions to the diffusing species. Applications include the estimation of the minimum fraction of fluid lipid needed for bacterial growth, and the enhancement of diffusion-controlled reactions by the channeling effect of solid patches of lipid. PMID:7052153

Saxton, Michael J.

1982-01-01

195

Lateral gas diffusion inside leaves.  

PubMed

Diffusion of CO2 inside leaves is generally regarded to be from the substomatal cavities to the assimilating tissues, i.e. in the vertical direction of the leaf blades. However, lateral gas diffusion within intercellular air spaces may be much more effective than hitherto considered. In a previous work it was demonstrated that, when 'clamp-on' leaf chambers are used, leaf internal 'CO2 leakage' beyond the leaf chamber gaskets may seriously affect gas exchange measurement. This effect has been used in the present paper to quantify gas conductance (g(leaf,l), mmol m(-2) s(-1)) in the lateral directions within leaves and significant differences between homo- and heterobaric leaves were observed. For the homobaric leaves, lateral gas conductance measured over a distance of 6 or 8 mm (the widths of the chamber gaskets) was 2-20% of vertical conductance taken from published data measured over much smaller distances of 108-280 microm (the thickness of the leaves). The specific internal gas diffusion properties of the leaves have been characterized by gas conductivities (g*(leaf), micromol m(-1) s(-1)). Gas conductivities in the lateral directions of heterobaric leaves were found to be small but not zero. In homobaric leaves, they were between 67 and 209 micromol m(-1) s(-1) and thus even larger than those in the vertical direction of the leaf blades (between 15 and 78 micromol m(-1) s(-1)). The potential implications for experimentalists performing gas exchange measurements are discussed. PMID:15668225

Pieruschka, Roland; Schurr, Ulrich; Jahnke, Siegfried

2005-03-01

196

Sexual desire in later life  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been relatively little research on sexuality in later life, particularly among persons over 60 years of age. The existing literature consists of studies of small samples, much of it from a biomedical perspective. This literature suggests that age, hormone levels, specific illnesses, and various medications negatively affect sexual functioning in older persons. This study reports results from a

John D. DeLamater; Morgan Sill

2005-01-01

197

Excitotoxicity and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its description by Charcot more than 130 years ago, the pathogenesis of selective motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) remains unsolved. Over the years, many pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed. Amongst others these include: oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, aggregate formation, inflammation, growth factor deficiency and neurofilament disorganization. This multitude of contributing factors indicates that ALS is a complex

P. Van Damme; M. Dewil; W. Robberecht; L. Van Den Bosch

2005-01-01

198

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Severity Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) severity scale has been developed to provide an ordinal staging system and a means of rapid functional assessment for patients with ALS. The scale allows an examiner to evaluate the symptoms of ALS numerically in four categories that describe speech, swallowing, lower extremity, and upper extremity abilities. These scores, combined with a vital capacity measured

Allen D. Hillel; Robert M. Miller; Kathryn Yorkston; Evelyn McDonald; Forbes H. Norris; Nancy Konikow

1989-01-01

199

Diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review of the differential diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis focuses on two themes. The first is practical, how to establish the diagnosis based primarily on clinical findings buttressed by electrodiagnosis. The main considerations are multifocal motor neuropathy and cervical spondylotic myelopathy. The second theme is the relationship of motor neuron disease to other conditions, including benign fasciculation (Denny–Brown, Foley

Lewis P Rowland

1998-01-01

200

Laterally extended naphthalene tetracarboxylic bisimides.  

PubMed

The colorless naphthalene tetracarboxylic bisimides were laterally extended with imidazole rings to give colored and highly fluorescent materials. Donor-substituted phenyl groups at the imidazole rings cause further bathochromic shifts in fluorescence where the strong solvent influence in the spectra is typical for a TICT process. Applications are discussed. PMID:20964395

Langhals, Heinz; Kinzel, Simon

2010-11-19

201

Normal and transplanted lateral knee menisci: evaluation of extrusion using magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound.  

PubMed

The aim of the study is to develop a clinically useful and reproducible method for evaluating lateral meniscal extrusion in normal and transplanted knees under different axial loading conditions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) were used to assess meniscal extrusion. Both types of imaging were performed at least 6 months postoperatively (mean 23.5 months). Coronal MR images (DESS-3D sequence) of the lateral compartments of 10 normal knees and 17 transplanted lateral knees were analyzed. Extrusion was defined as the distance measured from the femoral condyle or tibial plateau to the outer edge of the meniscus. Subjects were examined in the supine position. Ultrasound print-outs of the lateral compartment of both knees of ten patients (transplanted side and contralateral normal side) were analyzed. Extrusion cross-sectional area (CSA) and distance were measured just anterior to the lateral collateral ligament: the former was defined as the CSA of the meniscus outside the knee, the latter as the greatest distance from a line connecting the femur and tibia to the outer edge of the lateral meniscus. Patients were examined in the supine position, bipodal stance and unipodal stance. The viable meniscal allograft was securely sutured to a bleeding functional meniscal rim. No bone blocks were used to fix the allograft; instead, the anterior and posterior horn were firmly sutured to their enthesis. The MRI results (tibial) show the transplanted lateral meniscus to be significantly (p<0.005) more extruded in comparison to the normal lateral meniscus. The anterior horn (mean 5.8 mm, SD=2.8) of the transplanted lateral meniscus tends to be more extruded than the posterior horn (mean 2.7 mm, SD=1.48). The posterior horn of the normal lateral meniscus does not (mean 0 mm) extrude, while the mean extrusion of the anterior horn is 0.8 mm (SD=0.92). In the US results, the transplanted lateral meniscus is significantly (p<0.005) more extruded than the normal lateral meniscus in all patient positions. Both cross-sectional surface and distance are equally good parameters to determine meniscal extrusion. There is no statistical difference between patient positions. The transplanted lateral meniscus extrudes, in the supine position, bipodal and unipodal stance 6.43 (SD=1.84), 6.01 (SD=1.93) and 6.99 mm (SD=2.7) respectively. The extrusion surface of the lateral transplanted meniscus is 50.50 mm2 (SD=15.32), 47.24 mm2 (SD=14.35) and 58.61 mm2 (SD=29.65) in the supine position, bipodal stance and unipodal stance respectively. The normal lateral meniscus extrudes in the supine position, bipodal and unipodal stance 3.77 (SD=1.76), 3.94 (SD=1.66) and 3.79 mm (SD=1.79) respectively. The extrusion surface of the normal lateral meniscus is 22.42 mm2 (SD=12.54), 23.24 mm2 (SD=12.74) and 24.79 mm2 (SD=10.18) in the supine position, bipodal stance and unipodal stance respectively. The presented data shows that the transplanted lateral meniscus, without bone block fixation but with firm fixation of the horns to the original entheses, extrudes in the lateral direction significantly more than the normal meniscus. The transplanted lateral meniscus, however, does not extrude more in the lateral direction under axial load. The anterior horn of both normal and transplanted menisci is extruded more laterally than the posterior horn. Both methods are adequate to measure laterally-directed extrusion of the normal and transplanted lateral meniscus, but have distinctive advantages and disadvantages: MRI in this series visualizes the complete-from posterior to anterior-meniscal body, but only in the supine, non-weight-bearing position. Using ultrasound one can evaluate the meniscal extrusion in different conditions of axial loading, but only from a single examination point. PMID:15146312

Verdonk, Peter; Depaepe, Yves; Desmyter, Stefan; De Muynck, Martine; Almqvist, Karl Fredrik; Verstraete, Koenraad; Verdonk, René

2004-09-01

202

Lateral dampers for thrust bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of lateral damping schemes for thrust bearings was examined, ranking their applicability to various engine classes, selecting the best concept for each engine class and performing an in-depth evaluation. Five major engine classes were considered: large transport, military, small general aviation, turboshaft, and non-manrated. Damper concepts developed for evaluation were: curved beam, constrained and unconstrained elastomer, hybrid boost bearing, hydraulic thrust piston, conical squeeze film, and rolling element thrust face.

Hibner, D. H.; Szafir, D. R.

1985-01-01

203

School Readiness and Later Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using 6 longitudinal data sets, the authors estimate links between three key elements of school readiness—school-entry academic, attention, and socioemotional skills—and later school reading and math achievement. In an effort to isolate the effects of these school-entry skills, the authors ensured that most of their regression models control for cognitive, attention, and socioemotional skills measured prior to school entry, as

Greg J. Duncan; Chantelle J. Dowsett; Amy Claessens; Katherine Magnuson; Aletha C. Huston; Pamela Klebanov; Linda S. Pagani; Leon Feinstein; Mimi Engel; Jeanne Brooks-Gunn; Holly Sexton; Kathryn Duckworth; Crista Japel

2007-01-01

204

Lateralization of interictal EEG findings.  

PubMed

Several reports indicate that interictal epileptiform discharges (IED) may be more likely to occur over the left cerebral hemisphere than over the right. The objective of our study was to determine the frequency and type of IED on routine and multihour EEGs in a tertiary epilepsy center to estimate the frequency of left-sided versus right-sided IED and to determine interictal spike distribution pattern differences between adult and pediatric epilepsy patients. The current study retrospectively reviewed 31,207 EEGs (25,793 routine EEGs and 5414 multihour EEGs) recorded on 24,003 patients during the period from 1993 to 2003. All EEGs were read according to a systematic EEG classification system. Every patient was considered only once by including the first abnormal EEG. Regional unilateral or bilateral IEDs were recorded in 1707 patients (7%). Regional unilateral or bilateral slow was recorded in 2297 patients (9.6%). Left-sided regional IED were seen in 828 patients and accounted for 58% of all unilateral IED. Left-sided slow was seen in 1389 patients and accounted for 65% of all unilateral slow. Lateralization of slow was due to intermittent slow, whereas continuous slow involved both hemispheres equally. There was no lateralization difference in benign focal epileptiform discharges of childhood. Lateralization shows a tendency toward greater left-sided lateralization of interictal findings with aging. Benign focal epileptiform discharges were only seen under the age of 20 years old. Regional IEDs were seen in approximately 7% of patients and slowing occurs in 10% of patients. Both abnormalities were seen more frequently in the left hemisphere. Age adjusted analysis of the data revealed that this left-sided predominance was mildly increased in adults as compared with pediatric patients. PMID:17912060

Loddenkemper, Tobias; Burgess, Richard C; Syed, Tanvir; Pestana, Elia M

2007-10-01

205

Torsional Micromirrors with Lateral Actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the first implementation of laterally actuated high aspect ratio torsionally suspended micromirrors. In-plane actuation is transformed into out-of- plane motion and rotation, enabling monolithic integration of a wide variety of SOI-MEMS sensors, actuators and micromirrors. The new actuation methodology features highly controllable and agile micromirror devices for optical communications. Two types of device structures integrated with comb-drive actuators

Veljko Milanovic; Matthew Last; Kristofer S. J. Pister

2001-01-01

206

Humeral fractures in 'arm wrestlers'.  

PubMed

We report three cases of fractures of the shaft of the humerus occurring during arm wrestling contests, which have now become a common pub--and even professional--sport. We then review all the literature on the subject. This is an unusual injury occurring in arm wrestling, but does occur and it should be remembered that radiological assessment is vital if this injury is not to be missed and the injury mismanaged. PMID:1457319

Owen, T D

1992-01-01

207

Clinical Neurogenetics: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, about which our understanding is expanding rapidly as its genetic causes are uncovered. The pace of new gene discovery over the last 5 years has accelerated, providing new insights into the pathogenesis of disease and highlighting biological pathways for target for therapeutic development. This article reviews our current understanding of the heritability of ALS, provides an overview of each of the major ALS genes, highlighting their phenotypic characteristics and frequencies as a guide for clinicians evaluating patients with ALS. PMID:24176417

Harms, Matthew B.; Baloh, Robert H.

2013-01-01

208

Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life  

MedlinePLUS

... Download PDF Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life Tools and Tips Printer-friendly PDF Click here ...

209

Gestational Diabetes May Influence Daughter's Weight Later  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Gestational Diabetes May Influence Daughter's Weight Later Girls' risk of being overweight may be more ... may be at increased risk for being obese later in childhood, a new study suggests. The research ...

210

Hemispheric Laterality in Music and Math  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hemispheric laterality may be a useful concept in teaching, learning, training, and in understanding more about human development. To address this issue, a measure of hemispheric laterality was compared to musical and mathematical ability. The Human Information Processing Survey (HIPS) instrument, designed to measure hemispheric laterality, was…

Szirony, Gary Michael; Burgin, John S.; Pearson, L. Carolyn

2008-01-01

211

Kepler: 400 years later Jonas Karlsson  

E-print Network

Kepler: 400 years later #12;Outline Kepler's laws Proof that closed orbits are ellipses The hydrogen atom Geodesic ow and the Kepler manifold Jonas Karlsson Kepler: 400 years later #12;Kepler's laws Johannes Kepler (1571 - 1630) Jonas Karlsson Kepler: 400 years later #12;Kepler's laws First law (1609

Weinberger, Hans

212

ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Linkage of Familial Amyotrophic Lateral  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Linkage of Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis With Frontotemporal of combined disorders, such as amyo- trophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with frontotemporal dementia (FTD-Vance, PhD H. Robert Horvitz, PhD Robert H. Brown, Jr, DPhil, MD A MYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLE- rosis (ALS

Horvitz, H. Robert

213

LATERAL DISTRIBUTION OF COSMIC RAY MUONS UNDERGROUND  

E-print Network

LATERAL DISTRIBUTION OF COSMIC RAY MUONS UNDERGROUND: Results from the CosmoALEPH ExperimentË?at Siegen Siegen 2006 #12; LATERAL DISTRIBUTION OF COSMIC RAY MUONS UNDERGROUND: Results from the Cosmo; ABSTRACT LATERAL DISTRIBUTION OF COSMIC RAY MUONS UNDERGROUND: Results from the CosmoALEPH Experiment

Siegen, Universität

214

Lateral adaptive control for vehicle lane keeping  

Microsoft Academic Search

We deal with the vehicle lateral control problem. More precisely, we solve this problem by properly applying the self-tuning regulator proposed in [Marino, R and Tomei, P (1995)] to the concerned vehicle lateral model. The interest of this solution is that only the lateral displacement at a look-ahead distance is used as the measure for the controller. From a practical

Manana S. Netto; Salim Chaib; S. Mammar

2004-01-01

215

[Genetics of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].  

PubMed

Although the pathophysiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis remains currently unknown, involvement of genetic factors is worldwide accepted as a key clue in the motor neuron death. Since 1993 and the discovery of mutation in the SOD1 gene, number of genes linked to or promoting ALS had always growing. Among them, only four (SOD1, TARDBP, FUS and C9ORF72 genes) are unanimously recognized as convincing causative genetic factors for more than 60% of familial and probably 10% of sporadic ALS cases. Geographic origin of the studied populations tends to become one of the major items in the gene-ALS relationship: this was extremely stressed for C9ORF72. Concerning susceptibility genes factors, an increase of the risk of ALS is clearly shown for SMN1 and ATXN2 genes and accepted for some VEGF haplotypes. Finally, some modulating effects might also exist as underline for the relationships between ApoE and ALS that differ between European and North American studies. In inherited ALS, The European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) edited rules that gave a legal frame to situations for which research of mutations were justified. Progress in the field of genetic raises major questions concerning the relevance of genetic studies from asymptomatic relatives. This first implies that the mutation identified in the proband case is perfectly characterized as a pathogenic mutation. PMID:24703222

Corcia, Philippe; Blasco, Hélène; Camu, William

2014-05-01

216

Gunshot residue, ten years later.  

PubMed

Gunshot residues may be central to a competent reconstruction of a shooting incident. When a young boy was shot in the neck by a playmate using a .22-caliber single-action revolver, permanent paralysis from mid-thorax downward ensued. Ten years later the victim sued the importer, the vendor, the German manufacturer, and the shooter's family. Investigative reports indicated "horseplay" and questionable emergency medical team care. Depositions were contradictory. The entry wound, removed at surgery, was fixed and processed for slides. The histopathologist referred to "black pigment granules" in the wound track. The 10-year-old slides and block were retrieved. The coverslip was removed from a representative slide that was examined under the scanning, x-ray dispersive microscope. The black granules contained amounts of lead, barium, and antimony far beyond any normal range. The firing range had to have been no greater than 6-12 in (15.24-30.48 cm). The case was promptly settled out of court. PMID:1750390

Wilber, C G; Lantz, R K; Sulik, P L

1991-09-01

217

Summary of lateral-control research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary has been made of the available information on lateral control. A discussion is given of the criterions used in lateral-control specifications, of the factors involved in obtaining satisfactory lateral control, and of the methods employed in making lateral-control investigations in flight and in wind tunnels. The available data on conventional flap-type ailerons having various types of aerodynamic balance are presented in a form convenient for use in design. The characteristics of spoiler devices and booster mechanisms are discussed. The effects of Mach number, boundary layer, and distortion of the wing or of the lateral-control system are considered insofar as the available information permits. An example is included to illustrate the use of the design data. The limitations of the available information and some of the lateral-control problems that remain to be solved are indicated.

Toll, Thomas A

1947-01-01

218

Lateral Nanomechanics of Cartilage Aggrecan Macromolecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the role of the brush-like proteoglycan, aggrecan, in the shear behavior of cartilage tissue, we measured the lateral resistance to deformation of a monolayer of chemically end-attached cartilage aggrecan on a microcontact printed surface in aqueous NaCl solutions via lateral force microscopy. The effects of bath ionic strength (IS, 0.001–1.0M) and lateral displacement rate (?1–100?m\\/s) were studied using

Lin Han; Delphine Dean; Christine Ortiz; Alan J. Grodzinsky

2007-01-01

219

Lateral unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateral unicondylar knee arthroplasty (UKA) has been utilized as a treatment for isolated lateral tibiofemoral osteoarthritis\\u000a (OA) since the first description of UKA in the 1970s. To date, there remains some controversy on UKA procedures. As indications\\u000a for lateral UKA are usually rare, surgeon experience seems to be the key factor for a successful intervention. Better understanding\\u000a of biomechanics of

Thomas J. HeyseCarsten; Carsten O. Tibesku

2010-01-01

220

Human olfactory lateralization requires trigeminal activation.  

PubMed

Rats are able to lateralize odors. This ability involves specialized neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex which are able to process the left, right and bilateral presentation of stimuli. However, it is not clear whether this function is preserved in humans. Humans are in general not able to differentiate whether a selective olfactory stimulant has been applied to the left or right nostril; however exceptions have been reported. Following a screening of 152 individuals with an olfactory lateralization test, we identified 19 who could lateralize odors above chance level. 15 of these "lateralizers" underwent olfactory fMRI scanning in a block design and were compared to 15 controls matched for age and sex distribution. As a result, both groups showed comparable activation of olfactory eloquent brain areas. However, subjects with lateralization ability had a significantly enhanced activation of cerebral trigeminal processing areas (somatosensory cortex, intraparietal sulcus). In contrast to controls, lateralizers furthermore exhibited no suppression in the area of the trigeminal principal sensory nucleus. An exploratory study with an olfactory change detection paradigm furthermore showed that lateralizers oriented faster towards changes in the olfactory environment. Taken together, our study suggests that the trigeminal system is activated to a higher degree by the odorous stimuli in the group of "lateralizers". We conclude that humans are not able to lateralize odors based on the olfactory input alone, but vary in the degree to which the trigeminal system is recruited. PMID:24825502

Croy, Ilona; Schulz, Max; Blumrich, Anna; Hummel, Cornelia; Gerber, Johannes; Hummel, Thomas

2014-09-01

221

Does lateral gas diffusion in leaves matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosynthesis depends on the diffusion of gaseous CO2 inside the leaf spaces from the stomatal entry point to the mesophyll cell walls. Although most research considers only the vertical diffusion from stomata on upper and\\/or leaf lower surfaces, some of the gas will diffuse in the lateral (paradermal) direction. The importance of lateral CO2 dif- fusion is reviewed, and the

JAMES I. L. MORISON; TRACY LAWSON

2007-01-01

222

Loss and Grief in Later Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to help readers understand loss and grief, and to sensitively respond to the grief of others. Although emphasis is on losses experienced in later life, most information is equally applicable to grief throughout adulthood. A section on understanding loss in later life lists a number of losses that are associated with aging.…

Washington State Univ., Pullman. Cooperative Extension Service.

223

Lateralized behavior in northern fur seals  

Microsoft Academic Search

171 Studies on behavioral asymmetries or lateralized behavior in various animal species are important for understanding the functional asymmetry of the brain. Preferential use of the right or left limbs (or hand, in humans) for manipulating with objects and circular movements of animals in cages and enclosures are the best known examples of motor asymmetry. Numerous data on lateralized behavior

Yu. P. Pryaslova; O. I. Lyamin; L. M. Mukhametov

2009-01-01

224

Aeromonas hydrophila Lateral Flagellar Gene Transcriptional Hierarchy  

PubMed Central

Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3 lateral flagella are not assembled when bacteria grow in liquid media; however, lateral flagellar genes are transcribed. Our results indicate that A. hydrophila lateral flagellar genes are transcribed at three levels (class I to III genes) and share some similarities with, but have many important differences from, genes of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A. hydrophila lateral flagellum class I gene transcription is ?70 dependent, which is consistent with the fact that lateral flagellum is constitutively transcribed, in contrast to the characteristics of V. parahaemolyticus. The fact that multiple genes are included in class I highlights that lateral flagellar genes are less hierarchically transcribed than polar flagellum genes. The A. hydrophila lafK-fliEJL gene cluster (where the subscript L distinguishes genes for lateral flagella from those for polar flagella) is exclusively from class I and is in V. parahaemolyticus class I and II. Furthermore, the A. hydrophila flgAMNL cluster is not transcribed from the ?54/LafK-dependent promoter and does not contain class II genes. Here, we propose a gene transcriptional hierarchy for the A. hydrophila lateral flagella. PMID:23335410

Wilhelms, Markus; Gonzalez, Victor; Merino, Susana

2013-01-01

225

Lateral displacement and rotational displacement sensor  

DOEpatents

A position measuring sensor formed from opposing sets of capacitor plates measures both rotational displacement and lateral displacement from the changes in capacitances as overlapping areas of capacitors change. Capacitances are measured by a measuring circuit. The measured capacitances are provided to a calculating circuit that performs calculations to obtain angular and lateral displacement from the capacitances measured by the measuring circuit.

Duden, Thomas

2014-04-22

226

Vehicle Lateral Control for Highway Automation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of lateral control for highway automation are to let vehicles track the center of a lane with small error and to maintain good ride quality under different vehicle speeds, loads, wind gust disturbances, and road conditions. In this paper, the lateral feedback and feedforward controllers are designed to satisfy these objectives by utilizing the frequency-shaped linear quadratic (FSLQ)

Huei Peng; Masayoshi Tomizuka

1990-01-01

227

A modified Larson’s method of posterolateral corner reconstruction of the knee reproducing the physiological tensioning pattern of the lateral collateral and popliteofibular ligaments  

PubMed Central

Background Consensus has been lacking as to how to reconstruct the posterolateral corner (PLC) of the knee in patients with posterolateral instability. We describe a new reconstructive technique for PLC based on Larson's method, which reflects the physiological load-sharing pattern of the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) and popliteofibular ligament (PFL). Findings Semitendinosus graft is harvested, and one limb of the graft comprises PFL and the other comprises LCL. Femoral bone tunnels for the LCL and popliteus tendon are made at their anatomical insertions. Fibular bone tunnel is prepared from the anatomical insertion of the LCL to the proximal posteromedial portion of the fibular head, which corresponds to the insertion of the PFL. The graft end for popliteus tendon is delivered into the femoral bone tunnel and secured on the medial femoral condyle. The other end for LCL is passed through the fibular tunnel from posterior to anterior. While the knee is held in 90 of flexion, the graft is secured in the fibular tunnel using a 5?mm interference screw. Then, the LCL end is passed into the femoral bone tunnel and secured at the knee in extension. Conclusions Differential tension patterns between LCL and PFL is critical when securing these graft limbs. Intrafibular fixation of the graft using a small interference screw allows us to secure these two graft limbs independently with intended tension at the intended flexion angle of the knee. PMID:23095740

2012-01-01

228

Model to Design Drip Hose Lateral Line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction The design criterion for non-pressure compensating drip hose is normally to have 10% of flow variation (?q) in the lateral line, corresponding to 20% of head pressure variation (?H). Longer lateral lines in drip irrigation systems using conventional drippers provide cost reduction, but it is necessary to obtain to the uniformity of irrigation [1]. The use of ?q higher levels can provide longer lateral lines. [4] proposes the use of a 30% ?q and he found that this value resulted in distribution uniformity over 80%. [1] considered it is possible to extend the lateral line length using two emitters spacing in different section. He assumed that the spacing changing point would be at 40% of the total length, because this is approximately the location of the average flow according with [2]. [3] found that, for practical purposes, the average pressure is located at 40% of the length of the lateral line and that until this point it has already consumed 75% of total pressure head loss (hf ). In this case, the challenge for designers is getting longer lateral lines with high values of uniformity. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a model to design longer lateral lines using non-pressure compensating drip hose. Using the developed model, the hypotheses to be evaluated were: a) the use of two different spacing between emitters in the same lateral line allows longer length; b) it is possible to get longer lateral lines using high values of pressure variation in the lateral lines since the distribution uniformity stays below allowable limits. Methodology A computer program was developed in Delphi® based on the model developed and it is able to design lateral lines in level using non-pressure compensating drip hose. The input data are: desired distribution uniformity (DU); initial and final pressure in the lateral line; coefficients of relationship between emitter discharge and pressure head; hose internal diameter; pipe cross-sectional area with the dripper; and roughness coefficient for the Hazen-Williams equation. The program allows calculate the lateral line length with three possibilities: selecting two spacing between emitters and defining the exchange point; using two pre-established spacing between emitters and calculating the length of each section with different spacing; using one emitter spacing. Results Results showed that the use of two sections with different spacing between drippers in the lateral line didn't allow longer length but got better uniformity when compared with lateral line with one spacing between emitters. The adoption of two spacing increased the flow rate per meter in the final section which represented approximately 80% of the lateral line total length and this justifies their use. The software allowed DU above 90% with pressure head variation of 40% and the use of two spacing between emitters. Conclusions The developed model/software showed to be accurate, easy to handle and useful for lateral line design using non-pressure compensating drip hose. References [1] ANDRADE, L. A. D. Estudo de uniformidade de emissão de água utilizando diferentes espaçamentos entre gotejadores na linha lateral. 2009. 87 f. Tese (Doutorado em Agronomia/Irigação e Drenagem) - Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas, Universidade Estadual Paulista 'Julio de Mesquita Filho', Botucatu, (2009). [2] KELLER, J.; BLIESNER, R. D. Sprinkle and trickle irrigation. Caldwell: Blackburn Press, (1990). 652 p. [3] TALENS, J. A. M. Riego localizado y fertirrigacion. Madrid: Mundi-Prensa, (2002). 533 p. [4] WU, I. P. An assessment of hydraulic design of micro-irrigation systems. Agricultural Water Management, Amsterdan, v. 32, n. 3

Ludwig, Rafael; Cury Saad, João Carlos

2014-05-01

229

Lateralized suckling in domestic horses (Equus caballus).  

PubMed

Brain lateralization enables preferential processing of certain stimuli and more effective utilization of these stimuli in either the left or the right cerebral hemisphere. Horses show both motor and sensory lateralization patterns. Our aim was to determine whether a lateralized response could be detected in foals during the naturally side-biased behaviour, suckling. The foals' preferred suckling side could be the effect of either visual or motor lateralization. In the case of a visual lateralized response, foals are expected to suck more often from the mother's right side, so potential danger can be detected by the better adapted right hemisphere (i.e. left eye). Motor lateralization can be identified when a foal will suck predominantly from one side, either left or right. We found no population trend in the preferred suckling side, but we detected significant differences amongst individual foals. One-third (35.4 %) of 79 foals showed a strong, either right or left side preference which increased with age. The mothers did not influence the foals' suckling side preferences either by side-biased rejection or termination of suckling. According to our findings, a general pattern of sucking with the left eye open for better danger detection and recognition is unlikely in foals up to 7 months old. Foals of this age are probably young or fully focused on suckling and rely on their mothers' vigilance. Individual side preferences amongst foals are suggested to be based on motor lateralization. PMID:23117229

Komárková, Martina; Bartošová, Jitka

2013-05-01

230

Lateral Deflections Of Ball Bearings Reveal Wear  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wear in ball bearings supporting shaft in housing quantified via measurement of lateral deflection of shaft with respect to housing as function of lateral force applied between shaft and housing. Method devised to estimate wear in bearings of high-pressure-liquid-oxygen turbopump of main engine of Space Shuttle, without having to disassemble pump or dismount it from engine. Applicable to other rotating machinery. Helps inspectors determine quickly, noninvasively, and in field whether bearings should be replaced. Force necessary to produce given lateral deflection measured over range large enough to characterize radial clearances and stiffness.

Gurada, Gaston A.; Wineland, David L.

1992-01-01

231

Rapid prototyping of lateral flow assays.  

PubMed

Principles and characteristics of lateral flow strip assays are reviewed. Recent technology developments permit the use of inexpensive electronic readers for interrogating lateral flow strip test results, thus avoiding the inevitable variation and subjectivity of visual inspection to assess the capture of reporter-labeled analyte on test lines of the strip. Protocols for developing lateral flow assays are described, including two specific case studies for assaying cotinine (a small-molecule metabolite of nicotine) in a competitive format, and assaying HIV antibodies in a sandwich-type assay format. PMID:19159100

Volkov, Alexander; Mauk, Michael; Corstjens, Paul; Niedbala, R Sam

2009-01-01

232

Lateral-deflection-controlled friction force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lateral-deflection-controlled dual-axis friction force microscopy (FFM) is presented. In this method, an electrostatic force generated with a probe-incorporated micro-actuator compensates for friction force in real time during probe scanning using feedback control. This equivalently large rigidity can eliminate apparent boundary width and lateral snap-in, which are caused by lateral probe deflection. The method can evolve FFM as a method for quantifying local frictional properties on the micro/nanometer-scale by overcoming essential problems to dual-axis FFM.

Fukuzawa, Kenji; Hamaoka, Satoshi; Shikida, Mitsuhiro; Itoh, Shintaro; Zhang, Hedong

2014-08-01

233

Experiments and analysis of lateral piezoresistance gauges  

SciTech Connect

The response of lateral piezoresistance gauges to shock wave uniaxial strain loading has been examined in a combined experimental and calculational effort. Plate impact experiments provided lateral gauge data which were analyzed using quasi-static and dynamic inclusion analyses. Experimental data showed that the response of the lateral gauge output depended upon the matrix material and gauge emplacement method. The calculations indicated that these differences were due to complex gauge-matrix interactions. These interactions were influenced by the stress and strain distributions in and around the gauge, plasticity effects, properties of the gauge and matrix materials, and emplacement conditions.

Wong, M.K.W.

1993-07-01

234

Genetics Home Reference: Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis  

MedlinePLUS

... and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding juvenile primary lateral sclerosis? autosomal ; autosomal recessive ; cell ; difficulty swallowing ; gene ; inherited ; juvenile ; motor ; protein ; recessive ; sclerosis ; spasticity You may find definitions for ...

235

Transplant Problems That May Show Up Later  

MedlinePLUS

... soon after transplant Next Topic Other transplant issues Transplant problems that may show up later The type ... called Second Cancers Caused by Cancer Treatment . Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder Post-transplant lymphoproliferative ( lim -fo-pruh- ...

236

Cooling Therapy Helps Newborns Years Later  

MedlinePLUS

... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Cooling Therapy Helps Newborns Years Later A cooling treatment for infants ... that a cooling therapy called hypothermia treatment could help these babies. The treatment involves placing newborns on ...

237

Early Orthodontics May Mean Less Treatment Later  

MedlinePLUS

Early Orthodontics May Mean Less Treatment Later Making Braces Hip Still Take Getting Used To Beyond Braces Look at ... earlier age. Some patients with special problems begin orthodontic treatment at age 7 or younger. "The American ...

238

Alcohol Problems in lAter life  

E-print Network

Alcohol Problems in lAter life A Pacific Northwest Extension Publication Oregon State University When alcohol use becomes a problem ................. 4 How an alcohol problem develops ....................... 6 Recognizing an alcohol problem .......................... 8 Guidelines for family and friends

Tullos, Desiree

239

49 CFR 229.63 - Lateral motion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.63 Lateral...the hubs of the wheels and boxes, between boxes and pedestals or both...1 inch on non-powered axles and friction bearing powered axles, or 3/4 inch on...

2011-10-01

240

49 CFR 229.63 - Lateral motion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.63 Lateral...the hubs of the wheels and boxes, between boxes and pedestals or both...1 inch on non-powered axles and friction bearing powered axles, or 3/4 inch on...

2012-10-01

241

49 CFR 229.63 - Lateral motion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.63 Lateral...the hubs of the wheels and boxes, between boxes and pedestals or both...1 inch on non-powered axles and friction bearing powered axles, or 3/4 inch on...

2010-10-01

242

49 CFR 229.63 - Lateral motion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.63 Lateral...the hubs of the wheels and boxes, between boxes and pedestals or both...1 inch on non-powered axles and friction bearing powered axles, or 3/4 inch on...

2013-10-01

243

Lateral releases of the subscapularis tendon  

PubMed Central

The technique of arthroscopic subscapularis repair continues to evolve. A three-sided subscapularis release (e.g. anterior, posterior, superior) is commonly advocated for improving tendon excursion to bone. However, a lateral release is commonly required as well, particularly for full thickness, upper subscapularis tears and full thickness, complete subscapularis tears. We describe the techniques to identify and release the lateral subscapularis border, which aids in the completion of other releases. PMID:24403761

Lo, Ian K.Y.; Nelson, Atiba A.; Burkhart, Stephen S

2013-01-01

244

Brain and behavioral lateralization in invertebrates  

PubMed Central

Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioral asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left–right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which has asymmetric odor sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behavior with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with a specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test the evolutionary hypothesis. PMID:24376433

Frasnelli, Elisa

2013-01-01

245

Laterality enhances cognition in Australian parrots.  

PubMed

Cerebral lateralization refers to the division of information processing in either hemisphere of the brain and is a ubiquitous trait among vertebrates and invertebrates. Given its widespread occurrence, it is likely that cerebral lateralization confers a fitness advantage. It has been hypothesized that this advantage takes the form of enhanced cognitive function, potentially via a dual processing mechanism whereby each hemisphere can be used to process specific types of information without contralateral interference. Here, we examined the influence of lateralization on problem solving by Australian parrots. The first task, a pebble-seed discrimination test, was designed for small parrot species that feed predominately on small seeds, which do not require any significant manipulation with the foot prior to ingestion. The second task, a string-pull problem, was designed for larger bodied species that regularly use their feet to manipulate food objects. In both cases, strongly lateralized individuals (those showing significant foot and eye biases) outperformed less strongly lateralized individuals, and this relationship was substantially stronger in the more demanding task. These results suggest that cerebral lateralization is a ubiquitous trait among Australian parrots and conveys a significant foraging advantage. Our results provide strong support for the enhanced cognitive function hypothesis. PMID:19726480

Magat, Maria; Brown, Culum

2009-12-01

246

Language lateralization shifts with learning by adults.  

PubMed

For the majority of the population, language is a left-hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting that this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to an unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left-lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short term within a learning context, independent of maturation. PMID:25285756

Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K; Vance, Christopher J; Asbjørnsen, Arve E

2015-05-01

247

Lateral restraint assembly for reactor core  

DOEpatents

A restraint assembly for use in restraining lateral movement of a reactor core relative to a reactor vessel wherein a plurality of restraint assemblies are interposed between the reactor core and the reactor vessel in circumferentially spaced relation about the core. Each lateral restraint assembly includes a face plate urged against the outer periphery of the core by a plurality of compression springs which enable radial preloading of outer reflector blocks about the core and resist low-level lateral motion of the core. A fixed radial key member cooperates with each face plate in a manner enabling vertical movement of the face plate relative to the key member but restraining movement of the face plate transverse to the key member in a plane transverse to the center axis of the core. In this manner, the key members which have their axes transverse to or subtending acute angles with the direction of a high energy force tending to move the core laterally relative to the reactor vessel restrain such lateral movement.

Gorholt, Wilhelm (San Diego, CA); Luci, Raymond K. (Del Mar, CA)

1986-01-01

248

Lateral flow immunoassay using magnetoresistive sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic particles have been adapted for use as labels in biochemical lateral flow strip tests. Standard gold particle lateral flow assays are generally qualitative; however, with magnetic particles, quantitative results can be obtained by using electronic detection systems with giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors. As described here, these small integrated sensor chips can detect the presence of magnetic labels in capture spots whose volume is approximately 150 ?m×150 ?m×150 ?m. The range of linear detection is better than two orders of magnitude; the total range is up to four orders of magnitude. The system was demonstrated with both indirect and sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for protein detection of rabbit IgG and interferon-?, respectively, achieving detection of 12 pg/ml protein. Ultimately, the goal is for the detector to be fully integrated into the lateral flow strip backing to form a single consumable item that is interrogated by a handheld electronic reader.

Taton, Kristin; Johnson, Diane; Guire, Patrick; Lange, Erik; Tondra, Mark

2009-05-01

249

Recovery of Dysphagia in Lateral Medullary Stroke  

PubMed Central

Lateral medullary stroke is typically associated with increased likelihood of occurrence of dysphagia and exhibits the most severe and persistent form. Worldwide little research exists on dysphagia in brainstem stroke. An estimated 15% of all patients admitted to stroke rehabilitation units experience a brainstem stroke out of which about 47% suffer from dysphagia. In India, a study showed that 22.3% of posterior circulation stroke patients develop dysphagia. Dearth of literature on dysphagia and its outcome in brainstem stroke particularly lateral medullary stroke motivated the author to present an actual case study of a patient who had dysphagia following a lateral medullary infarct. This paper documents the severity and management approach of dysphagia in brainstem stroke, with traditional dysphagia therapy and VitalStim therapy. Despite being diagnosed with a severe form of dysphagia followed by late treatment intervention, the patient had complete recovery of the swallowing function. PMID:25045555

Gupta, Hitesh; Banerjee, Alakananda

2014-01-01

250

Talbot interferometer for radial and lateral derivatives.  

PubMed

The theory and experimental evidence of a shearing interferometer based on the Talbot effect are presented. Multiple-shearing interferences are obtained that can be reduced to triple-shearing or doubleshearing interferences by the addition of simple spatial filtering. When the shear is less than the width of the details in the object, these interferences become either the second or first derivative of the object under test, respectively. Either lateral or constant radial shear can be introduced by choosing Ronchi rulings or circular gratings. Thus both lateral and radial derivatives are easily obtained. If white light is used as a source, color fringes of high contrast are observed. PMID:20119380

Silva, D E

1972-11-01

251

Lateral chest X-rays. Radiographic anatomy.  

PubMed

Lateral chest views constitute an essential part of chest X-ray examinations, so it is fundamental to know the anatomy on these images and to be able to detect the variations manifested on these images in different diseases. The aim of this article is to review the normal anatomy and main normal variants seen on lateral chest views. For teaching purposes, we divide the thorax into different spaces and analyze each in an orderly way, especially emphasizing the anatomic details that are most helpful for locating lesions that have already been detected in the posteroanterior view or for detecting lesions that can be missed in the posteroanterior view. PMID:24815721

García Villafañe, C; Pedrosa, C S

252

Artificial lateral line design for robotic fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fishes can avoid colliding with obstacles and track baits depending on the lateral distributed sense nodes which can sense the pressure variances of the surrounding flow field. Moreover, the interacted acoustic pressure field between the tail and the wall can provide useful information of the fish location by extracting the physical meaning of the sense node's measurement. Therefore, this study

Tsung-Ying Hsieh; Sheng-Wei Huang; Ling-Ji Mu; Edward Chen; Jenhwa Guo

2011-01-01

253

CORTICAL CELL DEATH DURING LATERAL ROOT FORMATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root segments of Convolvulus arvensis, the field bindweed, were examined with the electron microscope to make possible a description of the fine structural correlates of lateral root protrusion through cortical parenchyma. Particular attention was directed to the outermost primordium cells, derived by meristematic activity from the endodermis, and to the con- tiguous cortical parenchyma cells. By following the fate of

HOWARD T. BONNETT

1969-01-01

254

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: the role of exercise.  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting both the upper and lower motor neurons. Given the deterioration of skeletal muscle function, historically there has been concern regarding exercise and its affect on ALS. This article reviews and explains current research, helping patients, caregivers, and providers be equipped better to make decisions regarding the treatment of ALS with exercise. PMID:25574882

Lisle, Stuart; Tennison, Matthew

2015-01-01

255

Strain measurement in lateral ankle ligaments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured strain in the lateral ligaments of 10 human cadaver ankles while moving the ankle joint and apply ing stress in a variety of ways. We studied the anterior talofibular, calcaneofibular, posterior talofibular, ante rior tibiofibular, and posterior tibiofibular ligaments. Strain measurements in the ligaments were recorded continuously while the ankle was moved from dorsiflex ion into plantar flexion.

Mark R. Colville; Richard A. Marder; John J. Boyle; Bertram Zarins

1990-01-01

256

The lateral cerebellum and visuomotor control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lateral cerebellum receives an abundance of visual input providing the link between visual and motor control centers. In this review we discuss experiments designed to increase our understanding of how visual inputs to the cerebellum are arranged in relation to the zonal organization of the cerebellar cortex, and how visual inputs are utilized to assist in the regulation of

N. L. Cerminara; A. L. Edge; D. E. Marple-Horvat; R. Apps

2005-01-01

257

Depression in Later Life: Recognition and Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to help readers understand depression and factors related to its onset in later life; recognize signs of depression and potential suicide; and know actions they can take if they suspect an older family member or friend may be depressed or contemplating suicide. Following a brief introduction, a chapter on depression…

Schmall, Vicki L.; And Others

258

Non-traumatic lateral abdominal wall hernia.  

PubMed

A rare lateral abdominal wall hernia is described in an adult patient. This was diagnosed in a patient with a prominent right lateral abdominal wall deformity. The patient had been experiencing pain that increased progressively in severity over time. A computerized tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen revealed the location of the lateral abdominal wall defect. The hernia defect was through the transversus abdominis and the internal oblique, with the inferior aspect of the 11th rib forming part of the superior border of the defect. A 4-cm bony spur from the inferior aspect of the rib formed part of the lateral margin of the defect. The hernia sac was contained within a space underneath the external oblique muscle. The association of the hernia defect with a bony spur was highly suggestive of a congenital etiology. The hernia was successfully repaired laparoscopically with Parietex mesh (Sofradim, Lyons, France), and the patient had resolution of the symptoms on discharge and follow-up visits. PMID:18949442

Castillo-Sang, M; Gociman, B; Almaroof, B; Fath, J; Cason, F

2009-06-01

259

SUBSURFACE LATERAL TRANSPORT IN GLACIAL TILL SOILS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An understanding of water and solute flow patterns in a landscape is necessary to define water and nutrient use by crops, as well as nutrient contamination of groundwater, tile water, and streams. Subsurface water and solute movement in a landscape can occur laterally as well as vertically, especial...

260

Biphasic cell responses on laterally mobile films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The engineering of polymer surfaces or matrices that are capable of controlling cell adhesion has been widely explored. In nearly all of these works, the polymer chains (and ligands) are chemically attached to the underlying substrate, and therefore these systems are inherently static. By contrast, cellular environments such as the extracellular matrix (ECM) are dynamic and remodeled by biochemical reactions and biophysical forces. Borrowing this concept from Nature, we created polymer films by an interfacial self-assembly process, whereby individual chains can exhibit lateral mobility (in-plane diffusive motion). NIH 3T3 fibroblasts seeded on such RGD-presenting polymer films show biphasic responses in spreading and adhesion strength to lateral mobility, with a minimal response for intermediate mobility values. Futhermore, preliminary immuno-staining experiments reveal that the total area of focal adhesions demonstrates a similar biphasic trend to the cellular-scale behaviors. In contrast, actin filaments or stress fibers appear to be unaffected by the substrate lateral mobility. These results show that lateral mobility is an important, although not fully explored aspect of mechano-sensing by cells, and can potentially give new perspectives on cell-ECM interactions.

Kourouklis, Andreas; Lerum, Ronald; Bermudez, Harry

2013-03-01

261

Autosomal dominant juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a form of chronic motor neuron disease characterized by combined upper and lower motor neuron symptoms and signs with onset prior to age 25 years. We report the clinical and electrodiagnostic findings in 49 affected family members and neuropathological findings from two autopsies of a Maryland kindred with autosomal dominant juvenile ALS linked

Bruce A. Rabin; John W. Griffin; Barbara J. Crain; Mena Scavina; Philip F. Chance; David R. Cornblath

1999-01-01

262

Early Reactions to Cannabis Predict Later Dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context:Whilethereisagrowingliteratureonthelink- ages between early subjective responses to nicotine and alcohol and later risks of nicotine or alcohol depen- dence, to date there has been no study of this issue in relation to cannabis. Objective: To examine the extent to which subjective responses to early (prior to the age of 16 years) canna- bis use were associated with subsequent cannabis de-

David M. Fergusson; L. John Horwood; Michael T. Lynskey; Pamela A. F. Madden

2003-01-01

263

Hip arthroscopy by the lateral approach.  

PubMed

Performing hip arthroscopy with the patient in the lateral decubitus position is advantageous in aiding in visualization of the hip joint, in maneuvering instruments in obese patients, and in facilitating entry to the hip joint in patients with spurs on the anterolateral aspect of the acetabulum. The patient is placed in the lateral decubitus position with the hip on which the surgery is being performed on the top. The leg is placed in traction and a well-padded perineal post is applied for countertraction. An image intensifier is placed around the hip to help direct the instruments into the hip joint. Traction is necessary to reach the depths of the hip joint. After traction is applied, two portals are made over the greater trochanter and one directly anterior to the greater trochanter. A capsulotomy is performed at each portal site to maintain the portals and to aid in maneuvering the arthroscope and instruments. Traction is released and the hip is flexed to allow visualization of the intracapsular area around the femoral neck. An additional, ancillary portal (made anterior and distal to the first direct anterior portal) may be required to reach the intracapsular portion around the femoral neck. A regular traction table requires adjustments of the perineal and traction posts to apply traction to the leg of a patient in the lateral decubitus position. Special traction devices make setup easier. The lateral approach to hip arthroscopy provides a safe and consistent method of entering, visualizing, and performing surgical procedures on the hip. PMID:16958467

Glick, James M

2006-01-01

264

Profiling 1366 Technologies: One Year Later  

SciTech Connect

Last January, we took a look at how ARPA-E performer, 1366 Technologies is working to dramatically reduce the cost of solar energy. A year later, we revisited their headquarters in Lexington, MA to see the progress they've made.

Van Mierlo, Frank; Sachs, Ely

2011-01-01

265

Lateralization of Speech and Auditory Temporal Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the role of temporal processing in language lateralization, we monitored asymmetry of cerebral activation in human volunteers using positron emission tomography (PET). Subjects were scanned during passive auditory stimulation with nonverbal sounds containing rapid (40 msec) or extended (200 msec) frequency transitions. Bilateral symmetric activation was observed in the auditory cortex for slow frequency transitions. In contrast, left-biased

Pascal Belin; Monica Zilbovicius; Sophie Crozier; Lionel Thivard; Anne Fontaine; Marie-Cécile Masure; Yves Samson

1998-01-01

266

Do humpback whales exhibit lateralized behaviour?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateralized behaviour has been documented in non-human species, although many observers believe that it occurs at the individual rather than the population level. Its occurrence in humpback whales,Megaptera novaeangliae, in Massachusetts Bay was investigated by examining active behaviour types in which preference could be given to one direction or side. These included head breaching (direction of spin), flippering (right or

PHILLIP J. CLAPHAM; ELIZABETH LEIMKUHLER; BELINDA K. GRAY; DAVID K. MATTILA

1995-01-01

267

Lateral DMOS design for ESD robustness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design of efficient ESD protection in lateral DMOS (LDMOS) power transistor. Using characterization of the LDMOS transistor under ESD conditions with various gate and drain clamps, the design for minimum power dissipation is established. The results show that for ESD regime of pulses the channel heating effects are minimum and that optimum ESD level can be

Charvaka Duvvury; Fred Carvajal; Clif Jones; David Briggs

1997-01-01

268

Vehicle lateral control system using laser radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces our recent research on vehicle lateral control, a component of an automated highway system (AHS). We have developed a laser radar based automatic steering control system to study the performance and feasibility of such a system in an actual highway environment. Our approach does not require significant infrastructure investment because it is based on the retroreflective road

Masahiko Nakamura; Alan Arai; Mark P. Bendett; Mitsutaka Nakamura; Roy W. Goudy; Yoshinobu Suzuki; Hideki Kusunoki

1995-01-01

269

The Columbine Tragedy Ten Years Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some tragedies are so emblazoned in people's minds that years later they can recall where they were when they first heard the news. The assassinations of John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr., the Challenger explosion, and the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks are among these events. So also is the Columbine High School tragedy of April 20, 1999.…

Hammond, Jane

2009-01-01

270

Cervical stability with lateral mass plating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of study: The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a significant difference in stability between cervical spines instrumented with lateral mass plates affixed with unicortical versus bicortical Magerl screws.Methods used: Eleven human, cadaveric, cervical spines were harvested and radiographed, and all soft tissues except for supporting ligamentous structures were removed. Segments C3 through C5 were

Anthony Muffoletto; Walt Simmons; Jinping Yang; Kim Garges; Mukta Vadhva; Alexander Hadjipavlou

2002-01-01

271

Control augmentation for lateral control wheel steering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight control system design for lateral control wheel steering is discussed. Two alternate designs are presented. The first design is a roll-rate command, bank-angle hold system with a wings-level track-hold submode. The second is a curved-track-hold system. Design details and real-time flight simulator results are included.

Foulkes, R. H., Jr.

1981-01-01

272

Expiratory Muscle Function in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few data exist concerning expiratory muscle function in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We stud- ied 26 patients with ALS (16 with respiratory symptoms and 10 without) and measured the maximal static expiratory mouth pressure (MEP), the gastric pressure during a maximal cough (Cough Pga), and the gastric pressure after magnetic stimulation of the lower thoracic nerve roots (Tw Pga). These

MICHAEL I. POLKEY; REBECCA A. LYALL; MALCOLM GREEN; P. NIGEL LEIGH; JOHN MOXHAM

1998-01-01

273

Therapeutic advances in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and rapidly fatal neurodegenerative disease in which both upper and lower motoneurones are involved. The recent discovery of mutations affecting the superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene has given impetus to research on the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of familial ALS, while further evidence for a role of excitotoxicity in the disease

Adam Doble; J HUGON

1997-01-01

274

Early Classroom Behavior and Later Misconduct.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Longitudinally examines the relationship between teacher-rated behaviors in kindergarten through grade three with police contact as a measure of delinquency and school misconduct throughout adolescence. Urban minority ("high risk") males and females participated. Consistent relationships between early classroom behavior and later misconduct…

Spivack, George; And Others

1986-01-01

275

Lateral Hip Pain in an Athletic Population  

PubMed Central

Context: Historically, the term greater trochanteric pain syndrome has been used to describe a spectrum of conditions that cause lateral-sided hip pain, including greater trochanteric bursitis, snapping iliotibial band, and/or strains or tendinopathy of the abductor mechanism. Diagnosis of these conditions may be difficult because clinical presentations are variable and sometimes inconclusive. Especially difficult is differentiating intrinsic pain from pain referred to the greater trochanteric region. The purposes of this article are to review the relevant anatomy and pathophysiology of the lateral hip. Evidence Acquisition: Data were collected through a thorough review of the literature conducted through a MEDLINE search of all relevant papers between 1980 and January 2010. Results: Recent advances in imaging and an improved understanding of pathomechanics have helped to guide the evaluation, diagnosis, and appropriate treatment for patients presenting with lateral hip pain. Conclusion: Various diagnostic tools and treatment modalities can be used to effectively manage the athletic patient presenting with lateral hip pain. PMID:23015937

Grumet, Robert C.; Frank, Rachel M.; Slabaugh, Mark A.; Virkus, Walter W.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Nho, Shane J.

2010-01-01

276

Extraosseous Ewing's tumor of lateral abdominal wall  

PubMed Central

Extraosseous Ewings tumor (EES) is a rare entity. Few cases have been reported in literature. There are no specific guidelines for management of this disease. We are reporting a case of EES arising from left lateral abdominal wall. We did wide excision of tumor followed by chemoradiation. Patient is asymptomatic after 8 months of follow up. PMID:24765376

Gupta, Nikhil; Chand, Tirlok; Yadav, Nidhi; Kumar, Rajeev; Chauhan, Devender S.; Chaudhary, Poras; Arora, Mohinder P.

2011-01-01

277

Convergent models of handedness and brain lateralization  

PubMed Central

The pervasive nature of handedness across human history and cultures is a salient consequence of brain lateralization. This paper presents evidence that provides a structure for understanding the motor control processes that give rise to handedness. According to the Dynamic Dominance Model, the left hemisphere (in right handers) is proficient for processes that predict the effects of body and environmental dynamics, while the right hemisphere is proficient at impedance control processes that can minimize potential errors when faced with unexpected mechanical conditions, and can achieve accurate steady-state positions. This model can be viewed as a motor component for the paradigm of brain lateralization that has been proposed by Rogers et al. (MacNeilage et al., 2009) that is based upon evidence from a wide range of behaviors across many vertebrate species. Rogers proposed a left-hemisphere specialization for well-established patterns of behavior performed in familiar environmental conditions, and a right hemisphere specialization for responding to unforeseen environmental events. The dynamic dominance hypothesis provides a framework for understanding the biology of motor lateralization that is consistent with Roger's paradigm of brain lateralization. PMID:25339923

Sainburg, Robert L.

2014-01-01

278

The genetic defect of fragmented coronoid process in Labrador retrievers and other skeletal diseases in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fragmented medial coronoid process (FCP) is the main component of elbow dysplasia (ED) in dogs, which also includes osteochondrosis of the humeral condyle (OCD), elbow incongruity (INC), and ununited anconeal process (UAP). FCP is recognized as a hereditary disease in many breeds and is a major concern in working dog breeds such as the Labrador Retriever. Different aspects of FCP

J. Temwichitr

2009-01-01

279

Lateral cephalometric radiograph versus lateral nasopharyngeal radiograph for quantitative evaluation of nasopharyngeal airway space  

PubMed Central

Objective This study compared lateral radiographs of the nasopharynx (LN) and lateral cephalometric radiographs (LC) used to assess nasopharyngeal airway space in children. Material and Methods One examiner measured the nasopharyngeal space of 15 oral breathing patients aged between 5 and 11 years old by using LN and LC. Both assessments were made twice with a 15-day interval in between. Intergroup comparison was performed with t-tests (P < 0.05). Results Comparison between LN and LC measurements showed no significant differences. Conclusion Lateral cephalometric radiograph is an acceptable method used to assess nasopharyngeal airway space. PMID:25279526

Pereira, Suelen Cristina da Costa; Beltrão, Rejane Targino Soares; Janson, Guilherme; Garib, Daniela Gamba

2014-01-01

280

A rare nonincisional lateral abdominal wall hernia  

PubMed Central

A 68-year-old woman presented a rare lateral abdominal wall hernia. Three month before admission to Chungbuk National University Hospital, she found a large protruding mass measuring 8 cm in diameter in the midaxillary line just below the costal margin upon heavy coughing. She had no history of abdominal trauma, infection, or operation previously. The mass was easily reduced manually or by position change to left lateral decubitus. CT scan showed a defect of the right transversus abdominis muscle and internal oblique muscle at the right flank with omental herniation. Its location is different from that of spigelian hernia or lumbar hernia. The peritoneal lining of the hernia sac was smooth and there was no evidence of inflammation or adhesion. The hernia was successfully repaired laparoscopically using Parietex composite mesh with an intraperitoneal onlay mesh technique. The patient was discharged uneventfully and did not show any evidence of recurrence at follow-up visits.

Kim, Dong-Ju

2015-01-01

281

Thrust vectoring for lateral-directional stability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advantages and disadvantages of using thrust vectoring for lateral-directional control and the effects of reducing the tail size of a single-engine aircraft were investigated. The aerodynamic characteristics of the F-16 aircraft were generated by using the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System II panel code. The resulting lateral-directional linear perturbation analysis of a modified F-16 aircraft with various tail sizes and yaw vectoring was performed at several speeds and altitudes to determine the stability and control trends for the aircraft compared to these trends for a baseline aircraft. A study of the paddle-type turning vane thrust vectoring control system as used on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle is also presented.

Peron, Lee R.; Carpenter, Thomas

1992-01-01

282

Kainji resettlement housing: 40 years later  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nigeria's Kainji Dam, completed in 1968, displaced 44,000 people from 239 settlements. Three housing forms were designed to provide for urban, semi?urban, and rural settings, respectively. Forty years later, the urban and semi?urban forms are integrated into the community while the rural form, modeled after a grain storage structure (rumbu) has been less successful. Five lessons are derived from this

Ruth Shinenge Gyuse; Timothy Terver Gyuse

2008-01-01

283

Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay Test Strips  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As easy to read as a home pregnancy test, three Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay (QLFA) strips used to test water for E. coli show different results. The brightly glowing control line on the far right of each strip indicates that all three tests ran successfully. But the glowing test line on the middle left and bottom strips reveal their samples were contaminated with E. coli bacteria at two different concentrations. The color intensity correlates with concentration of contamination.

2003-01-01

284

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A proposed mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Missense mutations in Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) account for 20% of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) through some, as yet undefined, toxic gain of function that leads to gradual death of motor neurons. Mitochondrial swelling and vacuolization are early signs of incipient motor neuron death in FALS. We previously reported that SOD1 exists in the intermembrane space of mitochondria. Herein, we

Ayako Okado-Matsumoto; Irwin Fridovich

2002-01-01

285

Palliative care in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The poor prognosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) makes palliative care a challenge for the neurologist. Most disabilities\\u000a associated with progressive disease can be ameliorated by symptomatic treatment. Prognosis and treatment options should be\\u000a openly discussed with the patient and his\\/her relatives. Nutritional deficiency due to pronounced dysphagia can be efficiently\\u000a relieved by a percutaneous enterogastrostomy. Respiratory insufficiency can be

Gian Domenico Borasio; Raymond Voltz

1997-01-01

286

Glutamate, excitotoxicity and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “glutamate hypothesis” is one of three major pathophysiological mechanisms of motor neurone injury towards which current\\u000a research effort into amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is directed. There is great structural and functional diversity in\\u000a the glutamate receptor family which results from combinations of 14 known gene products and their splice variants, with or\\u000a without additional RNA editing. It is possible

P. J. Shaw; P. G. Ince

1997-01-01

287

Micromachining technology for lateral field emission devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate a range of novel applications of micromachining and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) for achieving efficient and tunable field emission devices (FEDs). Arrays of lateral field emission tips are fabricated with submicron spacing utilizing deep reactive ion etch (DRIE). Current densities above 150 A\\/cm2 are achieved with over 150·106 tips\\/cm2. With sacrificial sidewall spacing, electrodes can be placed at arbitrarily

Veljko Milanovic ´; Lance Doherty; Dana A. Teasdale; Siavash Parsa; Kristofer S. J. Pister

2001-01-01

288

Lateral jet injection into typical combustor flowfields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experimental problem of lateral jet injection into typical flow fields in the absence of combustion was studied. All flow fields being investigated have no expansion of the crossflow (the test section to swirler diameter ratio D/d = 1), after its passage through an optional swirler (with swirl vane angle phi = 0 (swirler removed), 45, and 70 degree). The lateral jet(s) is(are) located one test-section diameter downstream of the test-section inlet (x/D = 1). The lateral jets have round-sectioned nozzles, each of which has an area of 1/100th of the cross sectional area of the crossflow (A sub j/A sub c = 1/100). Jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios of R = v sub j/u sub o = 2, 4, and 6 were investigated. Helium-bubble low visualization, five-hole pitot probe time-mean velocity measurements, and single-wire time-mean velocity and normal and shear stress turbulence data were obtained in the research program.

Lilley, D. G.

1986-01-01

289

High performance amorphous selenium lateral photodetector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lateral amorphous selenium (a-Se) detectors based on the metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) device structure have been studied for indirect detector medical imaging applications. These detectors have raised interest due to their simple structure, ease of fabrication, high-speed, low dark current, low capacitance per unit area and better light utilization. The lateral device structure has a benefit that the electrode spacing may be easily controlled to reduce the required bias for a given desired electric field. In indirect conversion x-ray imaging, the scintillator is coupled to the top of the a-Se MSM photodetector, which itself is integrated on top of the thin-film-transistor (TFT) array. The carriers generated at the top surface of the a-Se layer experience a field that is parallel to the surface, and does not initially sweep them away from the surface. Therefore these carriers may recombine or get trapped in surface states and change the field at the surface, which may degrade the performance of the photodetector. In addition, due to the finite width of the electrodes, the fill factor of the device is less than unity. In this study we examine the effect of lateral drift of carriers and the fill factor on the photodetector performance. The impact of field magnitude on the performance is also investigated.

Abbaszadeh, Shiva; Allec, Nicholas; Karim, Karim S.

2012-03-01

290

Lateral balance control for robotic gait training.  

PubMed

For the rehabilitation of neurological patients robot-aided gait training is increasingly being used. Lack of balance training in these robotic gait trainers might contribute to the fact that they do not live up to the expectations. Therefore, in this study we developed and evaluated an algorithm to support lateral balance during walking, through controlling pelvis motions. This algorithm assists the pelvis, according to a natural pelvic sway pattern, rather than attracting it to the middle of the treadmill. The support algorithm was tested on six healthy young subjects who walked on a treadmill, while different support gains were introduced. Using a higher support gain resulted in a closer approximation of the pelvic sway towards the reference pattern. Step width and step width variability reduced when the external stabilization was provided, and the stability margin increased. This indicates that artificial stabilization reduces the need for active lateral balance control. The presented algorithm to support lateral balance provides a way to assist balance in a more physiological way, compared to attracting the subject to the centre of the treadmill. Here the user is attracted/assisted towards a more natural weight shift pattern. This also facilitates a more natural input of the load receptors, which are largely involved in the regulation of muscle activation patterns and the transitions between the different gait phases. PMID:24187182

Koopman, B; Meuleman, J H; van Asseldonk, E H F; van der Kooij, H

2013-06-01

291

Subcortical structures in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the involvement of deep gray matter, hippocampal subfields, and ventricular changes in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A total of 112 ALS patients and 60 healthy subjects participated. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired using a 3T MRI scanner. Thirty-nine patients underwent a follow-up scan. Volumetric and shape analyses of subcortical structures were performed, measures were correlated with clinical parameters, and longitudinal changes were assessed. At baseline, reduced hippocampal volumes (left: p = 0.007; right: p = 0.011) and larger inferior lateral ventricles (left: p = 0.013; right: p = 0.041) were found in patients compared to healthy controls. Longitudinal analyses demonstrated a significant decrease in volume of the right cornu ammonis 2/3 and 4/dentate gyrus and left presubiculum (p = 0.002, p = 0.045, p < 0.001), and a significant increase in the ventricular volume in the lateral (left: p < 0.001; right: p < 0.001), 3rd (p < 0.001) and 4th (p = 0.001) ventricles. Larger ventricles were associated with a lower ALSFRS-R score (p = 0.021). In conclusion, ALS patients show signs of neurodegeneration of subcortical structures and ventricular enlargement. Subcortical involvement is progressive and correlates with clinical parameters, highlighting its role in the neurodegenerative process in ALS. PMID:25281019

Westeneng, Henk-Jan; Verstraete, Esther; Walhout, Renée; Schmidt, Ruben; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Veldink, Jan H; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; van den Berg, Leonard H

2015-02-01

292

Pranayama increases grip strength without lateralized effects.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to determine whether breathing through a particular nostril has a lateralized effect on hand grip strength. 130 right hand dominant, school children between 11 and 18 yrs of age were randomly assigned to 5 groups. Each group had a specific yoga practice in addition to the regular program for a 10 day yoga camp. The practices were: (1) right-, (2) left-, (3) alternate- nostril breathing (4), breath awareness and (5) practice of mudras. Hand grip strength of both hands was assessed initially and at the end of 10 days for all 5 groups. The right-, left- and alternate-nostril breathing groups had a significant increase in grip strength of both hands, ranging from 4.1% to 6.5%, at the end of the camp though without any lateralization effect. The breath awareness and mudra groups showed no change. Hence the present results suggest that yoga breathing through a particular nostril, or through alternate nostrils increases hand grip strength of both hands without lateralization. PMID:9142556

Raghuraj, P; Nagarathna, R; Nagendra, H R; Telles, S

1997-04-01

293

Genetic factors and breast cancer laterality  

PubMed Central

Background Women are more likely to develop cancer in the left breast than the right. Such laterality may influence subsequent management, especially in elderly patients with heart disease who may require radiation therapy. The purpose of this study was to explore possible factors for such cancer laterality. Methods In this work, clinical data for consecutive patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer were reviewed, with emphasis on clinical presentation and family history. Results Between 2005 and 2012, 687 patients with breast cancer were seen. Two women with incomplete data and eleven men were excluded. In total, 343 (50.9%) patients presented with left breast cancer, 311 (46.1%) with right breast cancer, and 20 (3.0%) with simultaneous bilateral malignancy. There were no significant differences between the three groups, especially in regards to clinical presentation and tumor characteristics. A total of 622 (92.3%) patients had unilateral primary, 20 (3.0%) had simultaneous bilateral, and 32 (4.7%) had metachronous primary breast cancer with subsequent contralateral breast cancer after 7.5–236 months. The worst 10-year survival was for bilateral simultaneous (18%) compared with unilateral (28%) and metachronous primaries (90%). There were no differences in survival in relation to breast cancer laterality, handedness, and presence or absence of a family history of cancer. There were significant similarities between patients and first-degree relatives in regards to breast cancer laterality, namely same breast (30/66, 45.5%), opposite breast (9/66, 13.6%), and bilateral cancer (27/66, 40.9, P=0.01163). This was more evident among patients and their sisters (17/32, 53.1%) or mothers (11/27, 40.7%, P=0.0689). There were also close similarities in relation to age at initial diagnosis of cancer for patients and their first-degree relatives for age differences of ?5 years (48/166, 28.9%), 6–10 years (34/166, 20.5%), and >11 years (84/166, 50.6%, P=0.12065). Conclusion High similarities between patients and their first-degree relatives in regards to cancer laterality and possibly age at initial diagnosis of cancer may suggest an underlying inherited genetic predisposition. PMID:24790468

Amer, Magid H

2014-01-01

294

Involvements of the lateral hypothalamic area in gastric motility and its regulation by the lateral septum.  

PubMed

Ghrelin is an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) pre-dominantly produced in the stomach. Recent studies have shown that it may promote food intake and gastric motility. We aim to explore effects of ghrelin on the gastric distension (GD) sensitive neurons and gastric motility in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), and the possible regulation by the lateral septum. Extracellular single unit discharges were recorded and the gastric motility was monitored by administration of ghrelin into LHA and electrical stimulation of lateral septum. Expression of GHS-R was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), western blot and immunohistochemistry staining. Projection of nerve fiber and expression of ghrelin were observed by retrograde tracer and fluo-immunohistochemistry staining. Results revealed that there were GD neurons in the LHA, and administration of ghrelin could excite both GD-excitatory (GD-E) and GD-inhibited (GD-I) neurons in the LHA. The gastric motility was significantly promoted by administration of ghrelin into LHA with a dose dependent manner, which could be completely abolished by treatment with ghrelin receptor antagonist [D-Lys-3]-GHRP-6 or BIM-28163. c-Fos expression was significantly increased after ghrelin administration to the LHA. Electrical stimulation of the lateral septum could significantly excite GD neurons responsive to ghrelin in the LHA as well as promote gastric motility. However, those effects could be absorbed by pre-treatment of [D-Lys-3]-GHRP-6. GHSR-1a expression in the LHA had no change after ghrelin administration to the LHA or electrical stimulating lateral septum. Electrical lesion of the LHA resulted in the decrease of gastric motility. GHS-R and Ghrelin/FG-double labeled neurons were observed in the LHA and lateral septum, respectively. It is suggested that the LHA may involve in promoting gastric motility via ghrelin. The Lateral septum projects to the LHA and exerts some regulating function on the LHA. PMID:24100167

Gong, Yanling; Xu, Luo; Wang, Hongbo; Guo, Feifei; Sun, Xiangrong; Gao, Shengli

2013-12-01

295

Efferent pathways of the mouse lateral habenula.  

PubMed

The lateral habenula (LHb) is part of the habenula complex of the dorsal thalamus. Recent studies of the LHb have focused on its projections to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), which contain ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons that mediate reward prediction error via inhibition of dopaminergic activity. However, older studies in the rat have also identified LHb outputs to the lateral and posterior hypothalamus, median raphe, dorsal raphe, and dorsal tegmentum. Although these studies have shown that the medial and lateral divisions of the LHb have somewhat distinct projections, the topographic specificity of LHb efferents is not completely understood, and the relative extent of these projections to brainstem targets is unknown. Here we have used anterograde tracing with adeno-associated virus-mediated expression of green fluorescent protein, combined with serial two-photon tomography, to map the efferents of the LHb on a standard coordinate system for the entire mouse brain, and reconstruct the efferent pathways of the LHb in three dimensions. Using automated quantitation of fiber density, we show that in addition to the RMTg, the median raphe, caudal dorsal raphe, and pontine central gray are major recipients of LHb efferents. By using retrograde tract tracing with cholera toxin subunit B, we show that LHb neurons projecting to the hypothalamus, VTA, median raphe, caudal dorsal raphe, and pontine central gray reside in characteristic, but sometimes overlapping regions of the LHb. Together these results provide the anatomical basis for systematic studies of LHb function in neural circuits and behavior in mice. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:32-60, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25099741

Quina, Lely A; Tempest, Lynne; Ng, Lydia; Harris, Julie A; Ferguson, Susan; Jhou, Thomas C; Turner, Eric E

2015-01-01

296

Lateral stress evolution in Chromium Sulfide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the shock response of CrS, a cermet of potential interest as a matrix material for ballistic applications, has been investigated. Compacts with a Chromium: Sulfur ratio of 1.15:1 were investigated via the plate-impact technique. These experiments allowed the material to be loaded under a one-dimensional state of strain. Embedded manganin stress gauges were employed to monitor the temporal evolution of longitudinal and lateral components of stress. Comparison of these two components has allowed assessment of the variation of material shear strength both with impact pressure/strain-rate and time.

Petel, O. E.; Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Hameed, A.; Capozzi, A.; Goroshin, S.; Frost, D. L.; Hazell, P. J.

2014-05-01

297

Responsiveness-to-Intervention: A Decade Later  

PubMed Central

In this introduction to this special issue, “A Decade Later,” we provide an overview of the accomplishments as well as the persistent questions surrounding RTI. We organize this discussion within 3 categories: assessment, instruction, and policy. Within each of these sections, we also highlight how the articles in the present special issue expand upon the key issues. Developed initially for the early grades (kindergarten through third grade) and primarily in the area of reading, many-although not all-of these issues speak to the expansion of RTI to address a broader set of academic content areas and the full range of grade levels. PMID:22539056

Fuchs, Lynn S.; Vaughn, Sharon

2012-01-01

298

Quantifying Disease Progression in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) exhibits characteristic variability of onset and rate of disease progression, with inherent clinical heterogeneity making disease quantitation difficult. Recent advances in understanding pathogenic mechanisms linked to the development of ALS impose an increasing need to develop strategies to predict and more objectively measure disease progression. This review explores phenotypic and genetic determinants of disease progression in ALS, and examines established and evolving biomarkers that may contribute to robust measurement in longitudinal clinical studies. With targeted neuroprotective strategies on the horizon, developing efficiencies in clinical trial design may facilitate timely entry of novel treatments into the clinic. PMID:25223628

Simon, Neil G; Turner, Martin R; Vucic, Steve; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Shefner, Jeremy; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine; Kiernan, Matthew C

2014-01-01

299

Post-ictal, lateralized hyperkinetic motor behavior???  

PubMed Central

Introduction Recognition of a transient, focal neurologic dysfunction after a seizure is important when evaluating patients with idiopathic epilepsy. Todd's palsy, a transient focal weakness after a seizure, is a highly accurate clinical sign indicative of a contralateral, cerebral epileptic focus. In contrast, a transient, lateralized hyperkinetic motor behavior from a contralateral, hemispheric ictal focus has not been emphasized as a localizing clinical sign. The following case demonstrates that transient hyperkinetic behavior occurs as a post-ictal phenomenon and may have a localizing value, as in Todd's palsy.

Beck, Brian; Chang, Gregory Youngnam

2012-01-01

300

Subtle retinal pathology in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by neuro-ophthalmological abnormalities beyond disturbed oculomotor control such as decreased visual acuity and disturbed visual evoked potentials. Here we report retinal alterations in a cohort of 24 patients with clinically definite (n = 20) or probable (n = 4) ALS as compared to matched controls. High-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography with retinal segmentation revealed a subtle reduction in the macular thickness and the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) as well as a marked thinning of the inner nuclear layer (INL). Our data indicate an unprecedented retinal damage pattern and suggest neurodegeneration beyond the motor system in this disease.

Ringelstein, Marius; Albrecht, Philipp; Südmeyer, Martin; Harmel, Jens; Müller, Ann-Kristin; Keser, Nazmiye; Finis, David; Ferrea, Stefano; Guthoff, Rainer; Schnitzler, Alfons; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Methner, Axel; Aktas, Orhan

2014-01-01

301

Cerebral lateralization of frontal lobe language processes and lateralization of the posterior visual word processing system.  

PubMed

The brain areas involved in visual word processing rapidly become lateralized to the left cerebral hemisphere. It is often assumed this is because, in the vast majority of people, cortical structures underlying language production are lateralized to the left hemisphere. An alternative hypothesis, however, might be that the early stages of visual word processing are lateralized to the left hemisphere because of intrinsic hemispheric differences in processing low-level visual information as required for distinguishing fine-grained visual forms such as letters. If the alternative hypothesis was correct, we would expect posterior occipito-temporal processing stages still to be lateralized to the left hemisphere for participants with right hemisphere dominance for the frontal lobe processes involved in language production. By analyzing event-related potentials of native readers of French with either left hemisphere or right hemisphere dominance for language production (determined using a verb generation task), we were able to show that the posterior occipito-temporal areas involved in visual word processing are lateralized to the same hemisphere as language production. This finding could suggest top-down influences in the development of posterior visual word processing areas. PMID:18052778

Cai, Qing; Lavidor, Michal; Brysbaert, Marc; Paulignan, Yves; Nazir, Tatjana A

2008-04-01

302

Compartmentalized Innervation of Primate Lateral Rectus Muscle  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Skeletal and craniofacial muscles are frequently composed of multiple neuromuscular compartments that serve different physiological functions. Evidence of possible regional selectivity in LR intramuscular innervation was sought in a study of the anatomic potential of lateral rectus (LR) muscle compartmentalization. Methods. Whole orbits of two humans and five macaque monkeys were serially sectioned at 10-?m thickness and stained with Masson trichrome. The abducens nerve (CN6) was traced anteriorly from the deep orbit as it branched to enter the LR and arborized among extraocular muscle (EOM) fibers. Three-dimensional reconstruction was performed in human and monkey orbits. Results. Findings were in concordance in the monkey and human orbits. External to the LR global surface, CN6 bifurcated into approximately equal-sized trunks before entering the global layer. Subsequent arborization showed a systematic topography, entering a well-defined inferior zone 0.4 to 2.5 mm more posteriorly than branches entering the largely nonoverlapping superior zone. Zonal innervation remained segregated anteriorly and laterally within the LR. Conclusions. Consistent segregation of intramuscular CN6 arborization in humans and monkeys suggests functionally distinct superior and inferior zones for the LR. Since the LR is shaped as a broad vertical strap, segregated control of the two zones could activate them separately, potentially mediating previously unappreciated but substantial torsional and vertical oculorotary LR actions. PMID:20435590

Peng, Michelle; Poukens, Vadims; da Silva Costa, Roberta Martins; Yoo, Lawrence; Tychsen, Lawrence

2010-01-01

303

Cortical cell death during lateral root formation.  

PubMed

Root segments of Convolvulus arvensis, the field bindweed, were examined with the electron microscope to make possible a description of the fine structural correlates of lateral root protrusion through cortical parenchyma. Particular attention was directed to the outermost primordium cells, derived by meristematic activity from the endodermis, and to the contiguous cortical parenchyma cells. By following the fate of the Casparian strip through numerous divisions of the endodermal cell, information has been obtained relating to the minimum contribution of the endodermis to the root primordium structure. Cortical parenchyma cells during lateral root growth are specifically degraded so that only the cell wall remains. A layer of cell wall material, representing numerous cortical parenchyma cells, accrues at the tip of the advancing root primordium. It is suggested that the intensive coated-vesicle activity along the plasmalemma of the outermost primordium cell and the appearance of the vesicle contents in the outer wall of this cell are indicative of the secretion of hydrolases which move through the wall and attack the adjacent cortical parenchyma cells. PMID:5782442

Bonnett, H T

1969-01-01

304

Dynamics of desorption with lateral diffusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of desorption from a submonolayer of adsorbed atoms or ions are significantly influenced by the absence or presence of lateral diffusion of the adsorbed particles. When diffusion is present, the adsorbate configuration is simultaneously changed by two distinct processes, proceeding in parallel: adsorption/desorption, which changes the total adsorbate coverage, and lateral diffusion, which is coverage conserving. Inspired by experimental results, we here study the effects of these competing processes by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of a simple lattice-gas model. In order to untangle the various effects, we perform large-scale simulations, in which we monitor coverage, correlation length, and cluster-size distributions, as well as the behavior of representative individual clusters, during desorption. For each initial adsorbate configuration, we perform multiple, independent simulations, without and with diffusion, respectively. We find that, compared to desorption without diffusion, the coverage-conserving diffusion process produces two competing effects: a retardation of the desorption rate, which is associated with a coarsening of the adsorbate configuration, and an acceleration due to desorption of monomers "evaporated" from the cluster perimeters. The balance between these two effects is governed by the structure of the adsorbate layer at the beginning of the desorption process. Deceleration and coarsening are predominant for configurations dominated by monomers and small clusters, while acceleration is predominant for configurations dominated by large clusters.

Juwono, Tjipto; Rikvold, Per Arne

2013-09-01

305

Dendroarchitecture and lateral inhibition in thalamic barreloids.  

PubMed

Thalamic cells that relay vibrissa information to barrel cortex are clustered within whisker-related modules termed barreloids. Each barreloid receives input from one principal whisker and inhibitory inputs from reticular thalamic neurons with receptive fields that correspond to that same whisker. Although the proximal dendrites of relay cells are confined to their home barreloid, distal dendrites often extend into surrounding barreloids representing adjacent whiskers on the mystacial pad. It was proposed that this arrangement provides a substrate for a mechanism of lateral inhibition that operates remotely on extrabarreloid dendrites. In the present study, we identified adjacent whiskers that suppressed activity below background levels in barreloid cells, and we used a double-labeling protocol to relate the efficacy of inhibition to the dendroarchitecture of the cells. Significant suppression of background discharges was produced by 92% of adjacent whiskers within rows, by 48% of adjacent whiskers within arcs, but was never observed after deflection of nonadjacent whiskers. The magnitude of lateral inhibition increases linearly as the cumulated length of dendrites increases in the barreloid representing an adjacent whisker (R2 = 0.86; p < 0.0001). As distance between cell bodies and the border of an adjacent barreloid increases, dendritic length in that adjacent barreloid diminishes and so does inhibition. Considering time differences between the arrival of principal and adjacent whisker inputs in barreloids, our data suggest that inhibition operating distally on dendrites acts as a spatial filter that primarily suppresses adjacent whisker inputs and so contributes to enhance edge detection. PMID:15240801

Lavallée, Philippe; Deschênes, Martin

2004-07-01

306

Load transfer approach for laterally loaded piles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-parameter model has been proposed previously for predicting the response of laterally loaded single piles in homogenous soil. A disadvantage of the model is that at high Poisson's ratio, unreliable results may be obtained. In this paper, a new load transfer approach is developed to simulate the response of laterally loaded single piles embedded in a homogeneous medium, by introducing a rational stress field. The approach can overcome the inherent disadvantage of the two-parameter model, although developed in a similar way. Generalized solutions for a single pile and the surrounding soil under various pile-head and base conditions were established and presented in compact forms. With the solutions, a load transfer factor, correlating the displacements of the pile and the soil, was estimated and expressed as a simple equation. Expressions were developed for the modulus of subgrade reaction for a Winkler model as a unique function of the load transfer factor. Simple expressions were developed for estimating critical pile length, maximum bending moment, and the depth at which the maximum moment occurs. All the newly established solutions and/or expressions, using the load transfer factor, offer satisfactory predictions in comparison with the available, more rigorous numerical approaches. The current solutions are applicable to various boundary conditions, and any pile-soil relative stiffness.

Guo, Wei Dong; Lee, F. H.

2001-09-01

307

Lateral Distribution Functions of Extensive Air Showers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy is among the characteristics of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (E>5 x 1019 eV) which could be estimated experimentally. The following paper attempts to estimate the energy of an UHECR proton by applying a Monte Carlo simulation code. A number of extensive air showers, vertical and inclined, is simulated to derive the Lateral Distribution Functions of the shower muons. The scenario of simulations is adopted to the Cerenkov surface detector of the P. AUGER Observatory. Due to the fact that the Lateral Distribution Functions show minimal fluctuations of the muon density at a distance larger than 800 m from the core of the showers, and due to the fact that at a distance of 900 m the distribution functions for inclined showers coincide (which means that it does not change with the zenith angle of the showers), we select the muon density at 900 m to derive the energy of the primary protons. (The project is co-funded by the European Social Fund and National Resources (EPEAEK II) PYTHAGORAS II.)

Geranios, A.; Fokitis, E.; Maltezos, S.; et al.

308

Dynamics of desorption with lateral diffusion.  

PubMed

The dynamics of desorption from a submonolayer of adsorbed atoms or ions are significantly influenced by the absence or presence of lateral diffusion of the adsorbed particles. When diffusion is present, the adsorbate configuration is simultaneously changed by two distinct processes, proceeding in parallel: adsorption/desorption, which changes the total adsorbate coverage, and lateral diffusion, which is coverage conserving. Inspired by experimental results, we here study the effects of these competing processes by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of a simple lattice-gas model. In order to untangle the various effects, we perform large-scale simulations, in which we monitor coverage, correlation length, and cluster-size distributions, as well as the behavior of representative individual clusters, during desorption. For each initial adsorbate configuration, we perform multiple, independent simulations, without and with diffusion, respectively. We find that, compared to desorption without diffusion, the coverage-conserving diffusion process produces two competing effects: a retardation of the desorption rate, which is associated with a coarsening of the adsorbate configuration, and an acceleration due to desorption of monomers "evaporated" from the cluster perimeters. The balance between these two effects is governed by the structure of the adsorbate layer at the beginning of the desorption process. Deceleration and coarsening are predominant for configurations dominated by monomers and small clusters, while acceleration is predominant for configurations dominated by large clusters. PMID:24089794

Juwono, Tjipto; Rikvold, Per Arne

2013-09-28

309

Lateral vision in horses: a behavioral investigation.  

PubMed

This study investigated lateral vision in horses (Equus caballus) for the first time from a behavioral point of view. Three horses were tested using a novel experimental design to determine the range of their lateral and caudolateral vision with respect to stimulus detection and discrimination. Real-life stimuli were presented along a curvilinear wall in one of four different positions (A, B, C, D) and one of two height locations (Top, Bottom) on both sides of the horse. To test for stimulus detection, the correct stimulus was paired against a control; for stimulus discrimination, the correct stimulus was paired against another object. To indicate that the correct stimulus was detected or discriminated, the horses pushed one of two paddles. All horses scored significantly above chance on stimulus detection trials regardless of stimulus position or location. They also accurately discriminated between stimuli when objects appeared in positions A, B, and C for the top or bottom locations; however, they failed to discriminate these stimuli at position D. This study supports physiological descriptions of the equine eye and provides new behavioral data showing that horses can detect the appearance of objects within an almost fully encompassing circle and are able to identify objects within most but not all of their panoramic field of view. PMID:22698758

Hanggi, Evelyn B; Ingersoll, Jerry F

2012-09-01

310

Partial Lateral Patellar Facetectomy as an Alternative to Lateral Release in Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA).  

PubMed

This study presents the selective use of partial patellar lateral facetectomy for maltracking during primary TKA, as an alternative to lateral release. Twenty three partial facetectomies were performed out of 191 TKAs (12%). Balanced tracking was achieved in 22 knees. At follow-up 2 patients had persistent anterior knee pain. Mean Knee Society score (KSS) was 94 and mean functional KSS was 86. Mean patellar score was 28. Patellar tilt angles were within 2 degrees in all but one knee. Patellar translation was within 2 mm in all cases. No complications were recorded. A control group of 46 matched patients had similar functional and radiographic results. If tracking is not satisfactory at the conclusion of TKA, our method of choice would be partial lateral facetectomy. PMID:25064018

Lakstein, Dror; Naser, Muhammad; Adar, Eliyahu; Atoun, Ehud; Edelman, Alexander; Hendel, David

2014-11-01

311

Summary of Methods for Calculating Dynamic Lateral Stability and Response and for Estimating Lateral Stability Derivatives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of methods for making dynamic lateral stability and response calculations and for estimating the aerodynamic stability derivatives required for use in these calculations is presented. The processes of performing calculations of the time histories of lateral motions, of the period and damping of these motions, and of the lateral stability boundaries are presented as a series of simple straightforward steps. Existing methods for estimating the stability derivatives are summarized and, in some cases, simple new empirical formulas are presented. Reference is also made to reports presenting experimental data that should be useful in making estimates of the derivatives. Detailed estimating methods are presented for low-subsonic-speed conditions but only a brief discussion and a list of references are given for transonic- and supersonic-speed conditions.

Campbell, John P; Mckinney, Marion O

1951-01-01

312

Lateralized differences in olfactory bulb volume relate to lateralized differences in olfactory function.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to investigate whether side differences in olfactory bulb (OB) volume correlate to respective differences in olfactory function. In a total of 164 healthy volunteers volumetric measures of the OBs were performed plus lateralized measurements of odor thresholds and odor discrimination. Side differences were defined as 10% difference between the left and right OB. In 39 cases volumes on the right side were larger than on the left side, whereas in 29 cases it was the other way around. Subjects with larger right-sided OB volumes were found to be more sensitive to odorous stimulation of the right as compared to the left nostril in terms of odor thresholds and odor detection; higher sensitivity of the left nostrils (decreased odor threshold) was observed in individuals with larger OB volumes on the left side. These data appear to suggest that OB volume may be partly dependent on lateralized influences on the olfactory system, reflecting its lateralized organization. PMID:23376116

Hummel, T; Haehner, A; Hummel, C; Croy, I; Iannilli, E

2013-05-01

313

5. DETAIL OF TOP CHORD CONNECTION SHOWING LATERAL BRACING, MAIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. DETAIL OF TOP CHORD CONNECTION SHOWING LATERAL BRACING, MAIN TIES, TOP LATERAL STRUT, AND INTERMEDIATE POST - Smith Bridge, Spanning Nottely River on Dooley Road (County Road 83), Blairsville, Union County, GA

314

14 CFR 25.177 - Static lateral-directional stability.  

... false Static lateral-directional stability. 25.177 Section 25.177 Aeronautics...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 25.177 Static lateral-directional stability. (a) The static directional...

2014-01-01

315

14 CFR 23.177 - Static directional and lateral stability.  

...false Static directional and lateral stability. 23.177 Section 23.177 Aeronautics...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 23.177 Static directional and lateral stability. (a)(1) The static...

2014-01-01

316

14 CFR 23.177 - Static directional and lateral stability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Static directional and lateral stability. 23.177 Section 23.177 Aeronautics...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 23.177 Static directional and lateral stability. Link to an amendment published...

2012-01-01

317

14 CFR 25.177 - Static lateral-directional stability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Static lateral-directional stability. 25.177 Section 25.177 Aeronautics...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 25.177 Static lateral-directional stability. (a) The static directional...

2013-01-01

318

14 CFR 25.177 - Static lateral-directional stability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Static lateral-directional stability. 25.177 Section 25.177 Aeronautics...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 25.177 Static lateral-directional stability. Link to an amendment published...

2012-01-01

319

14 CFR 23.177 - Static directional and lateral stability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Static directional and lateral stability. 23.177 Section 23.177 Aeronautics...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 23.177 Static directional and lateral stability. (a)(1) The static...

2013-01-01

320

14 CFR 23.177 - Static directional and lateral stability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Static directional and lateral stability. 23.177 Section 23.177 Aeronautics...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 23.177 Static directional and lateral stability. (a) The static...

2011-01-01

321

14 CFR 25.177 - Static lateral-directional stability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Static lateral-directional stability. 25.177 Section 25...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 25.177 Static lateral-directional stability. (a)-(b)...

2010-01-01

322

Diagnosis and treatment of lateral patellar compression syndrome.  

PubMed

Chronic anterior knee pain with a stable patella is often associated with overload and increased pressure on the lateral facet due to pathologic lateral soft-tissue restraints. "Lateral pressure in flexion" is a term describing the pathologic process of increasing contact pressure over the lateral patellar facet as knee flexion progresses. This report describes a surgical technique developed in response to lateral pressure in flexion and the shortcomings of traditional arthroscopic lateral release procedures. The technique is performed open with the knee in flexion, and the lateral release is repaired with a rotation flap of iliotibial band to close the defect and prevent patellar subluxation. The technique effectively decreases lateral patellar pressure and centers the patella correctly in the trochlear groove with minimal risk of iatrogenic patellar instability. PMID:25473620

Saper, Michael G; Shneider, David A

2014-10-01

323

Study Builds Case for Later High School Starting Time  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Study Builds Case for Later High School Starting Time Researchers followed kids, teens as they ... that lends support to later start times in high schools. Researchers followed 94 children and teens for two ...

324

Differential bilingual laterality: mythical monster found in Wales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paradis (1992) likens studies of bilingual laterality to reported sightings of the Loch Ness Monster, in that although some studies claim differential laterality much conflicting research evidence does not—and like the mythical Scottish monster, what reason have we to suspect that any such phenomenon might exist? This study reexamines differential bilingual laterality using four groups of English–Welsh bilinguals which differ

Judith Evans; Lance Workman; Peter Mayer; Kevin Crowley

2002-01-01

325

Lateral jets improve PDC bit performance in the North Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateral nozzles built into specially manufactured polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits improve hydraulics at the bit face, thereby increasing penetration rates. The new bit manufacturing process, investment casting, uses a unique body material for PDC drill bits, allowing design freedom for a lateral-jet-hydraulics concept. Lateral jets set into the blades of the bit improve the cutter cleaning efficiency. In addition

J. Lewis; A. Dacre

1994-01-01

326

Rare but threatening complication of otitis media: Lateral sinus thrombosis.  

PubMed

Although appropriate use of antibiotics has decreased mortality, lateral sinus thrombosis is a rare, important intracranial complication of acute otitis media. Herein is described the case of a 5-year-old patient with lateral sinus thrombosis after acute otitis media. We emphasize the need to be alert for lateral sinus thrombosis when treating acute otitis media. PMID:25521978

Kafadar, ?hsan; Sözen, Mukaddes Esra; Büyükta? Aytaç, Didem; Yalç?n, Koray

2014-12-01

327

Superficial lateral line sense organs of the mudminnow ( Umbra limi )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Umbra limi has an elaborate developement of superficial neuromasts on the head and body. The individual lateral line organs of the head form rows. Intermittant clusters of organs occur on the body. The “lateral line“ consists of free standing organs, which are oriented alternating horizontally and vertically. A lateral line canal is wanting.

Erich Schwartz; Arthur D. Hasler

1966-01-01

328

Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

329

Motor Unit Firing Characteristics in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

E-print Network

Motor Unit Firing Characteristics in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patrick K. Kasi" 2 neuron dominant forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). EMG recordings were gathered during ALS patients with LMN- and UMN-dominant forms of ALS. Keywords- Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; motor

Clancy, Ted

330

Dynamic markers of altered gait rhythm in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

E-print Network

Dynamic markers of altered gait rhythm in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis JEFFREY M. HAUSDORFF,1 of altered gait rhythm in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Appl Physiol 88: 2045­ 2053, 2000.--Amyotrophic dynamics AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS (ALS) is a disorder primarily affecting the motoneurons

331

The phenotypic variability of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Classic textbook neurology teaches that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative disease that selectively affects upper and lower motor neurons and is fatal 3-5 years after onset--a description which suggests that the clinical presentation of ALS is very homogenous. However, clinical and postmortem observations, as well as genetic studies, demonstrate that there is considerable variability in the phenotypic expression of ALS. Here, we review the phenotypic variability of ALS and how it is reflected in familial and sporadic ALS, in the degree of upper and lower motor neuron involvement, in motor and extramotor involvement, and in the spectrum of ALS and frontotemporal dementia. Furthermore, we discuss some unusual clinical characteristics regarding presentation, age at onset and disease progression. Finally, we address the importance of this variability for understanding the pathogenesis of ALS and for the development of therapeutic strategies. PMID:25311585

Swinnen, Bart; Robberecht, Wim

2014-11-01

332

A rare cause of lateral facial swelling  

PubMed Central

A case of chronic, recurrent and asymptomatic facial swelling in a young male is presented. Swelling extended from lower midface to upper lateral neck and right commissure to anterior massetric border. History, clinical signs and symptoms and examination pointed towards the benign nature of the swelling. Fine-needle aspiration cytology tapered the diagnostic possibilities to a salivary cyst or pseudocyst. Ultrasonography identified the lesion to contain echogenic fluid with irregular borders. “Tail sign” was absent on contrast magnetic resonance imaging, excluding the involvement of the sublingual gland. Surgical excision of the lesion was done along with submandibular gland as both were in continuity via a bottle-neck tract. Final histopathological diagnosis was that of the submandibular gland extravasation phenomenon. As per the best of our knowledge, it is the first case report of a submandibular gland extravasation causing swelling in a retrograde direction onto the face. PMID:25593883

Mohanty, Sujata; Gulati, Ujjwal; Vandana; Singh, Sapna

2014-01-01

333

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a hormonal condition?  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most frequent motor neuron disorder in adults. This fatal condition, due to degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons in spinal and bulbar myotomes, leads to death from respiratory failure after median disease duration of 36 months. ALS is sporadic in more than 90% of cases and familial in the remaining cases. Most studies show male predominance with a gender ratio of 3:2, but gender differences are age related. The phenotype of ALS is also different in males and females with a predominance of limb onset in males and bulbar onset in females. While age and site of onset impact survival rate, and are both related to gender, gender by itself has not clearly been shown to have an effect on survival. Given this complex relationship between gender and ALS, we developed a hypothesis about hormone involvement in ALS aetiology by suggesting protective effect of oestrogens and adverse effect of androgens. PMID:22873563

Blasco, Helene; Guennoc, Anne-Marie; Veyrat-Durebex, Charlotte; Gordon, Paul H; Andres, Christian R; Camu, William; Corcia, Philippe

2012-10-01

334

Autoimmune disease preceding amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objective: To study whether the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is increased in people with prior autoimmune disease. Methods: An all-England hospital record-linkage dataset spanning 1999–2011 was used. Cohorts were constructed of people with each of a range of autoimmune diseases; the incidence of ALS in each disease cohort was compared with the incidence of ALS in a cohort of individuals without prior admission for the autoimmune disease. Results: There were significantly more cases than expected of ALS associated with a prior diagnosis of asthma, celiac disease, younger-onset diabetes (younger than 30 years), multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, myxedema, polymyositis, Sjögren syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, and ulcerative colitis. Conclusions: Autoimmune disease associations with ALS raise the possibility of shared genetic or environmental risk factors. PMID:23946298

Goldacre, Raph; Ramagopalan, Sreeram; Talbot, Kevin; Goldacre, Michael J.

2013-01-01

335

Inertia and scaling in deterministic lateral displacement  

PubMed Central

The ability to separate and analyze chemical species with high resolution, sensitivity, and throughput is central to the development of microfluidics systems. Deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) is a continuous separation method based on the transport of species through an array of obstacles. In the case of force-driven DLD (f-DLD), size-based separation can be modelled effectively using a simple particle-obstacle collision model. We use a macroscopic model to study f-DLD and demonstrate, via a simple scaling, that the method is indeed predominantly a size-based phenomenon at low Reynolds numbers. More importantly, we demonstrate that inertia effects provide the additional capability to separate same size particles but of different densities and could enhance separation at high throughput conditions. We also show that a direct conversion of macroscopic results to microfluidic settings is possible with a simple scaling based on the size of the obstacles that results in a universal curve. PMID:24396545

Bowman, Timothy J.; Drazer, German; Frechette, Joelle

2013-01-01

336

Therapeutic neuroprotective agents for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal chronic neurodegenerative disease whose hallmark is proteinaceous, ubiquitinated, cytoplasmic inclusions in motor neurons and surrounding cells. Multiple mechanisms proposed as responsible for ALS pathogenesis include dysfunction of protein degradation, glutamate excitotoxicity, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. It is therefore essential to gain a better understanding of the underlying disease etiology and search for neuroprotective agents that might delay disease onset, slow progression, prolong survival, and ultimately reduce the burden of disease. Because riluzole, the only Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatment, prolongs the ALS patient’s life by only 3 months, new therapeutic agents are urgently needed. In this review, we focus on studies of various small pharmacological compounds targeting the proposed pathogenic mechanisms of ALS and discuss their impact on disease progression. PMID:23864030

Pandya, Rachna S.; Zhu, Haining; Li, Wei; Bowser, Robert; Friedlander, Robert M.

2014-01-01

337

Large-scale lateral nanowire arrays nanogenerators  

DOEpatents

In a method of making a generating device, a plurality of spaced apart elongated seen members are deposited onto a surface of a flexible non-conductive substrate. An elongated conductive layer is applied to a top surface and a first side of each seed member, thereby leaving an exposed second side opposite the first side. A plurality of elongated piezoelectric nanostructures is grown laterally from the second side of each seed layer. A second conductive material is deposited onto the substrate adjacent each elongated first conductive layer so as to be soupled the distal end of each of the plurality of elongated piezoelectric nanostructures. The second conductive material is selected so as to form a Schottky barrier between the second conductive material and the distal end of each of the plurality of elongated piezoelectric nanostructures and so as to form an electrical contact with the first conductive layer.

Wang, Zhong L; Xu, Chen; Qin, Yong; Zhu, Guang; Yang, Rusen; Hu, Youfan; Zhang, Yan

2014-01-07

338

Hemisphere lateralization of inductive and deductive processes.  

PubMed

Experiments were performed on 453 Wistar rats. Motion-food and electrodefensive behavioral techniques were applied. The following models were used: a conditioned reflex formation, generalization and specialization of a conditioned reflex, the dynamic stereotype, visual image synthesizing, a conditioned reflex to a stimulus complex. Primary and secondary analysis and synthesis of stimuli were discriminated. Induction and deduction were considered as a certain sequence of analysis and synthesis in time. Primary analysis and secondary synthesis were shown to be mainly lateralized in the left hemisphere and primary synthesis and secondary analysis in the right one. The conclusion was drawn that, in animals, the left hemisphere processes information mainly according to the principle of induction (from the particular to the general) and the right one does so according to the principle of deduction (from the general to the particular). PMID:6686837

Bianki, V L

1983-07-01

339

Optical fiber head for providing lateral viewing  

DOEpatents

The head of an optical fiber comprising the sensing probe of an optical heterodyne sensing device includes a planar surface that intersects the perpendicular to axial centerline of the fiber at a polishing angle .theta.. The planar surface is coated with a reflective material so that light traveling axially through the fiber is reflected transverse to the fiber's axial centerline, and is emitted laterally through the side of the fiber. Alternatively, the planar surface can be left uncoated. The polishing angle .theta. must be no greater than 39.degree. or must be at least 51.degree.. The emitted light is reflected from adjacent biological tissue, collected by the head, and then processed to provide real-time images of the tissue. The method for forming the planar surface includes shearing the end of the optical fiber and applying the reflective material before removing the buffer that circumscribes the cladding and the core.

Everett, Matthew J. (Livermore, CA); Colston, Billy W. (Livermore, CA); James, Dale L. (Tracy, CA); Brown, Steve (Livermore, CA); Da Silva, Luiz (Danville, CA)

2002-01-01

340

Pregnancy Complications and Later Development of Hypertension.  

PubMed

Pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia and diabetes affect approximately 5 to 10 % of all pregnancies and compromise maternal and fetal health during gestation. Complications during pregnancy may also contribute to the development of hypertension and future cardiovascular risk in the mother. Moreover, fetal exposure to hypertension and diabetes during pregnancy can program hypertension and cardiovascular disease in the offspring. Transgenerational transmission of programmed cardiovascular risk highlights the importance of understanding the mechanisms that link complications during pregnancy with later hypertension in her offspring and subsequent generations. However, experimental studies are needed to investigate the cause and effect of increased blood pressure in the mother following a complicated pregnancy and provide insight into the development of preventative measures that may improve the long-term cardiovascular health of women and their offspring. PMID:23914279

Intapad, Suttira; Alexander, Barbara T

2013-06-01

341

Towards superlattices: Lateral bipolar multibarriers in graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on transport properties of monolayer graphene with a laterally modulated potential profile, employing striped top gate electrodes with spacings of 100 to 200 nm. Tuning of top and back gate voltages gives rise to local charge carrier density disparities, enabling the investigation of transport properties either in the unipolar (nn') or the bipolar (np ') regime. In the latter, pronounced single- and multibarrier Fabry-Pérot (FP) resonances occur. We present measurements of different devices with different numbers of top gate stripes and spacings. The data are highly consistent with a phase coherent ballistic tight-binding calculation and quantum capacitance model, whereas a superlattice effect and modification of band structure can be excluded.

Drienovsky, Martin; Schrettenbrunner, Franz-Xaver; Sandner, Andreas; Weiss, Dieter; Eroms, Jonathan; Liu, Ming-Hao; Tkatschenko, Fedor; Richter, Klaus

2014-03-01

342

Genetics of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: an update  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder involving both upper motor neurons (UMN) and lower motor neurons (LMN). Enormous research has been done in the past few decades in unveiling the genetics of ALS, successfully identifying at least fifteen candidate genes associated with familial and sporadic ALS. Numerous studies attempting to define the pathogenesis of ALS have identified several plausible determinants and molecular pathways leading to motor neuron degeneration, which include oxidative stress, glutamate excitotoxicity, apoptosis, abnormal neurofilament function, protein misfolding and subsequent aggregation, impairment of RNA processing, defects in axonal transport, changes in endosomal trafficking, increased inflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. This review is to update the recent discoveries in genetics of ALS, which may provide insight information to help us better understanding of the disease neuropathogenesis. PMID:23941283

2013-01-01

343

Side of Limb-Onset Predicts Laterality of Gray Matter Loss in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Conflicting findings have been reported regarding the lateralized brain abnormality in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this study, we aimed to investigate the probable lateralization of gray matter (GM) atrophy in ALS patients. We focused on the relationship between the asymmetry in decreased GM volume and the side of disease onset in patients with limb-onset. Structural imaging evaluation of normalized atrophy (SIENAX) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) were used to assess differences in global and local brain regions in patients with heterogeneous body onset and subgroups with different side of limb-onset. We found global brain atrophy and GM losses in the frontal and parietal areas in each patient group as well as left predominant GM losses in the total cohort. The intriguing findings in subgroup analyses demonstrated that the motor cortex in the contralateral hemisphere of the initially involved limb was most affected. We also found that regional brain atrophy was related to disease progression rate. Our observations suggested that side of limb-onset can predict laterality of GM loss in ALS patients and disease progression correlates with the extent of cortical abnormality. PMID:25093168

Mao, Cuiping; Jin, Jiaoting; Niu, Chen; Dang, Jingxia

2014-01-01

344

Footballer's Lateral Meniscus: Anterior Horn Tears of the Lateral Meniscus with a Stable Knee  

PubMed Central

This paper aimed to identify the characteristics of isolated anterior horn tear of the lateral meniscus in footballers who underwent arthroscopic surgery. We identified 8 patients with stable knee and no ligament injury, who had only isolated anterior horn tear of the lateral meniscus between 2007 and 2009. All 8 patients were footballers, comprising 7 men and 1 woman with mean age of 18.6 years. Arthroscopy revealed multiple longitudinal tears in 2 patients, longitudinal tear in 2 patients, degenerative tear in 3 patients, and flap tear in 1 patient. Two patients were treated by repair, five by partial excision, and one by rasping only. The mean Lysholm score was 65 before surgery and recovered to 89 at the last followup, on average 12 months after surgery. Anterior horn tear of the lateral meniscus in footballers with a stable knee is characterized by pain at the anterolateral aspect of the knee during knee extension, especially when kicking a ball, and pain during weight-bearing knee extension, together with MRI finding of hyperintense signal in the anterior horn of the lateral meniscus. Preoperative diagnosis may be possible based on these findings in footballers. PMID:22084745

Hagino, Tetsuo; Ochiai, Satoshi; Sato, Eiichi; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Senga, Shinya

2011-01-01

345

Laterality and emotions: Visual laterality in the domestic horse ( Equus caballus) differs with objects' emotional value  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateralization of emotions has received great attention in the last decades, both in humans and animals, but little interest has been given to side bias in perceptual processing. Here, we investigated the influence of the emotional valence of stimuli on visual and olfactory explorations by horses, a large mammalian species with two large monocular visual fields and almost complete decussation

Alice De Boyer Des Roches; Marie-Annick Richard-Yris; Séverine Henry; Mohammed Ezzaouïa; Martine Hausberger

2008-01-01

346

Lateral interactions in the outer retina  

PubMed Central

Lateral interactions in the outer retina, particularly negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones and direct feed-forward input from horizontal cells to bipolar cells, play a number of important roles in early visual processing, such as generating center-surround receptive fields that enhance spatial discrimination. These circuits may also contribute to post-receptoral light adaptation and the generation of color opponency. In this review, we examine the contributions of horizontal cell feedback and feed-forward pathways to early visual processing. We begin by reviewing the properties of bipolar cell receptive fields, especially with respect to modulation of the bipolar receptive field surround by the ambient light level and to the contribution of horizontal cells to the surround. We then review evidence for and against three proposed mechanisms for negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones: 1) GABA release by horizontal cells, 2) ephaptic modulation of the cone pedicle membrane potential generated by currents flowing through hemigap junctions in horizontal cell dendrites, and 3) modulation of cone calcium currents (ICa) by changes in synaptic cleft proton levels. We also consider evidence for the presence of direct horizontal cell feed-forward input to bipolar cells and discuss a possible role for GABA at this synapse. We summarize proposed functions of horizontal cell feedback and feed-forward pathways. Finally, we examine the mechanisms and functions of two other forms of lateral interaction in the outer retina: negative feedback from horizontal cells to rods and positive feedback from horizontal cells to cones. PMID:22580106

Thoreson, Wallace B.; Mangel, Stuart C.

2012-01-01

347

Lateralized temporal order judgement in dyslexia.  

PubMed

Temporal and spatial attentional deficits in dyslexia were investigated using a lateralized visual temporal order judgment (TOJ) paradigm that allowed both sensitivity to temporal order and spatial attentional bias to be measured. Findings indicate that adult participants with a positive screen for dyslexia were significantly less sensitive to the temporal order of the stimuli than control participants, but did not show a significantly different lateral bias. However, the data indicated that performance on the TOJ task dissociated into at least three factors. One loaded on trials with long Stimulus Onset Asynchronies (SOA) and was strongly correlated with full-scale IQ (FSIQ), and, while also correlated with both poor reading and with symptoms of attentional deficit disorder, was not specific to these. The second factor loaded on trials with short SOAs in which the left stimulus was presented first. Low scores on this factor were associated with poor non-word reading accuracy, and factor scores accounted for variance in non-word reading accuracy that was not accounted for by either FSIQ or the presence of a phonological deficit. This suggests that a "left mini-neglect" syndrome, also reported in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, may directly contribute to poor non-word reading. However, attentional deficit symptoms loaded not only on this factor, but also on a third factor, representing on trials at short SOAs in which the first stimulus was presented in left hemifield. This suggests that attentional deficit symptoms impaired temporal processing at short SOAs, regardless of the hemifield in with the stimuli were presented. We conclude that people with attentional deficits find a visual TOJ task difficult when the stimuli are presented rapidly, regardless of FSIQ, and that where a rightward attentional bias is present, non-word reading accuracy may be directly impaired, even in the absence of a phonological deficit. PMID:19682473

Liddle, Elizabeth B; Jackson, Georgina M; Rorden, Chris; Jackson, Stephen R

2009-12-01

348

Breast feeding and later psychosocial adjustment.  

PubMed

The relationship between the duration of breast feeding and psychosocial outcomes measured between the ages of 15 and 18 years was examined in a birth cohort of 999 New Zealand children. During the period from birth to 1 year, information was collected on maternal breast-feeding practices. Between the ages of 15 and 18 years, sample members were assessed using a range of psychosocial measures, including measures of the quality of parent-child relationships, juvenile delinquency, substance abuse and mental health. Children who were breast fed for a longer duration were more likely to report higher levels of parental attachment and tended to perceive their mothers as being more caring and less overprotective towards them compared with bottle-fed children. No association was found between the extent of breast feeding and subsequent rates of juvenile offending, substance use and mental health in later life. Mothers who elected to breast feed were also more likely to be older, better educated, living with a partner, less likely to smoke during pregnancy, and to come from advantaged socio-economic backgrounds characterised by better living standards and a higher family income. Rates of breast feeding were also greater among mothers who gave birth to a first-born child of higher birthweight. After adjustment for these maternal and perinatal factors, the duration of breast feeding remained significantly associated with adolescent perceptions of maternal care, with increasing duration of breast feeding being associated with higher levels of perceived maternal care during childhood. It is concluded that: (a) it is unlikely that breast feeding is associated with reduced risks of psychiatric disorder in later life; (b) breast feeding may lead to closer parent-child relationships; and (c) it is unlikely that the association between breast feeding and cognitive development is mediated by intervening processes relating to improved psychosocial adjustment in breast-fed children. PMID:10214606

Fergusson, D M; Woodward, L J

1999-04-01

349

Lateral shift in one-dimensional quasiperiodic chiral photonic crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the lateral shift of a one-dimensional quasiperiodic photonic crystal consisting of chiral and conventional dielectric materials. The effect of structural irregularity on lateral shift is evaluated by stationary-phase approach. Our results show that the lateral shift can be modulated by varying the structural irregularity in quasiperiodic structure. Besides, the position of peak in lateral shift spectrum stays sensitive to the chiral factor of chiral materials. In comparison with that of periodic structure, quasiperiodic structure provides an extra degree of freedom to manipulate the lateral shift.

Da, Jian; Mo, Qi; Cheng, Yaokun; Liu, Taixiang

2015-02-01

350

Management of chronic lateral instability due to lateral collateral ligament deficiency after total knee arthroplasty: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Lateral instability following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a rare condition with limited report of treatment options. The objective of this case presentation is to demonstrate the outcomes of different surgical procedures performed in a single patient with lateral collateral ligament (LCL) deficiency. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of chronic lateral instability due to LCL deficiency after primary

Aasis Unnanuntana; James E Murphy; William J Petersilge

2010-01-01

351

Surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canals of maxillary incisors  

PubMed Central

This case report presents surgical endodontic management outcomes of maxillary incisors that were infected via the lateral canals. Two cases are presented in which endodontically-treated maxillary central incisors had sustained lateral canal infections. A surgical endodontic treatment was performed on both teeth. Flap elevation revealed vertical bone destruction along the root surface and infected lateral canals, and microscopy revealed that the lateral canals were the origin of the lesions. After the infected lateral canals were surgically managed, both teeth were asymptomatic and labial fistulas were resolved. There were no clinical or radiographic signs of surgical endodontic management failure at follow-up visits. This case report highlights the clinical significance and surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canal of maxillary incisor. It is important to be aware of root canal anatomy variability in maxillary incisors. Maxillary central incisors infected via the lateral canal can be successfully managed by surgical endodontic treatment.

2015-01-01

352

Altered Cortical Communication in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disorder associated primarily with the degeneration of the motor system. More recently, functional connectivity studies have demonstrated potentially adaptive changes in ALS brain organization, but disease-related changes in cortical communication remain unknown. We recruited individuals with ALS and age-matched controls to operate a brain-computer interface while electroencephalography was recorded over three sessions. Using normalized symbolic transfer entropy, we measured directed functional connectivity from frontal to parietal (feedback connectivity) and parietal to frontal (feedforward connectivity) regions. Feedback connectivity was not significantly different between groups, but feedforward connectivity was significantly higher in individuals with ALS. This result was consistent across a broad electroencephalographic spectrum (4 – 35 Hz), and in theta, alpha and beta frequency bands. Feedback connectivity has been associated with conscious state and was found to be independent of ALS symptom severity in this study, which may have significant implications for the detection of consciousness in individuals with advanced ALS. We suggest that increases in feedforward connectivity represent a compensatory response to the ALS-related loss of input such that sensory stimuli have sufficient strength to cross the threshold necessary for conscious processing in the global neuronal workspace. PMID:23567743

Blain-Moraes, Stefanie; Mashour, George A.; Lee, Heonsoo; Huggins, Jane E.; Lee, UnCheol

2013-01-01

353

Retinoid signaling alterations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neuromuscular disease for which effective therapeutic interventions and an understanding of underlying disease mechanism are lacking. A variety of biochemical pathways are believed to contribute to the pathophysiology of ALS that are common to both sporadic and familial forms of the disease. Evidence from both human and animal studies indicates that expression of retinoid signaling genes is altered in ALS and may contribute to motor neuron loss. Our goals were to examine the expression and distribution of proteins of the retinoid signaling pathway in spinal cord samples from patients with sporadic and familial ALS and to evaluate the role of these proteins in motor neuron cell survival. In sporadic ALS, the cytoplasmic binding protein that facilitates nuclear translocation of retinoic acid, cellular retinoic acid binding protein-II (CRABP-II), was localized to the nucleus and retinoic acid receptor ? (RAR?) was significantly increased in motor neuron nuclei when compared to either familial ALS patients or non-neurologic disease controls. Motor neurons with increased nuclear RAR? were negative for markers of apoptosis. Pre-treatment of primary motor neuron-enriched cultures with a pan-RAR or RAR?-specific agonist decreased motor neuron cell death associated with oxidative injury/stress while a RAR?-specific antagonist enhanced cell death. Our data suggest retinoid signaling is altered in ALS and increased nuclear RAR? occurs in motor neurons of sporadic ALS patients. Activation of RAR? protects motor neurons from oxidative-induced cell death. PMID:23383387

Kolarcik, Christi L; Bowser, Robert

2012-01-01

354

Lateral gene transfer in the subsurface  

SciTech Connect

Lateral gene transfer (LGT) is an important adaptive mechanism among prokaryotic organisms. This mechanism is particularly important for the response of microorganisms to changing environmental conditions because it facilitates the transfer of a large number of genes and their rapid expression. Together the transferred genes promote rapid genetic and metabolic changes that may enhance survival to newly established and sometimes hostile environmental conditions. The goal of our project was to examine if and how LGT enhances microbial adaptation to toxic heavy metals in subsurface environments that had been contaminated by mixed wastes due to activities associated with the production of nuclear energy and weapons. This task has been accomplished by dividing the project to several sub-tasks. Thus, we: (1) Determined the level of resistance of subsurface bacterial isolates to several toxic metals, all identified as pollutants of concern in subsurface environments; (2) Designed, tested, and applied, a molecular approach that determined whether metal resistance genes had evolved by LGT among subsurface bacteria; and (3) Developed a DNA hybridization array for the identification of broad host range plasmids and of metal resistance plasmids. The results are briefly summarized below with references to published papers and manuscripts in preparation where details about our research can be found. Additional information may be found in copies of our published manuscripts and conference proceedings, and our yearly reports that were submitted through the RIMS system.

Barkay, Tamar; Sobecky, Patricia

2007-08-27

355

[Gene mutations in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive muscle weakness that reflects degeneration of motor neurons in the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, brainstem, and spinal cord. Most ALS cases are sporadic, but about 5%-10% are familial. The majority of familial ALS (FALS) cases follow an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, and include the following mutations: ALS1, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1); ALS3; ALS4, senataxin; ALS6, fused in sarcoma (FUS); ALS7; ALS8, vesicle-associated membrane protein; ALS9, angiogenin; ALS10, TAR DNA-binding protein (TARDBP); and ALS11/FIG4. Some of these gene mutations are rarely seen in sporadic ALS cases. ALS2/alsin and ALS5 show an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern. Recently, mutations in the gene encoding optineurin, earlier reported to be a causative gene for primary open-angle glaucoma, have also been found in patients with ALS. It has also been demonstrated that a mutation in the D-amino acid oxidase gene is associated with classic adult-onset FALS. However, these genetic defects occur in only about 20%-30% FLAS cases, while most genes causing FALS remain unknown. PMID:21301041

Oda, Masaya; Izumi, Yuishin; Kaji, Ryuji

2011-02-01

356

Misregulated RNA processing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) research is undergoing an era of unprecedented discoveries with the identification of new genes as major genetic causes of this disease. These discoveries reinforce the genetic, clinical and pathological overlap between ALS and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Common causes of these diseases include mutations in the RNA/DNA-binding proteins, TDP-43 and FUS/TLS and most recently, hexanucleotide expansions in the C9orf72 gene, discoveries that highlight the overlapping pathogenic mechanisms that trigger ALS and FTLD. TDP-43 and FUS/TLS, both of which participate in several steps of RNA processing, are abnormally aggregated and mislocalized in ALS and FTLD, while the expansion in the C9orf72 pre-mRNA strongly suggests sequestration of one or more RNA binding proteins in pathologic RNA foci. Hence, ALS and FTLD converge in pathogenic pathways disrupting the regulation of RNA processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled RNA-Binding Proteins. PMID:22444279

Polymenidou, Magdalini; Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde; Hutt, Kasey R.; Bennett, C. Frank; Cleveland, Don W.; Yeo, Gene W.

2013-01-01

357

Genetic epidemiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a late onset, rapidly progressive and ultimately fatal neurological disorder, caused by the loss of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Familial aggregation of ALS, with an age-dependent but high penetrance, is a major risk factor for ALS. Familial ALS (FALS) is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. Three genes and linkage to four additional gene loci have been identified so far and may either predominantly lead to ALS (ALSI-ALS6) or cause multisystem neurodegeneration with ALS as an occasional symptom (tauopathies, ALS-dementia complex). This review presents a tentative classification of the "major" ALS genes and ALS "susceptibility" genes, that may act as susceptibility factors for neurodegeneration in interaction with other genetic or environmental risk factors. Considering that mutations in ALS genes explain approximately 10% of familial as well as sporadic ALS, and most remaining cases of the discase are thought to result form the interaction of several genes and environmental factors, ALS is a paradigm for multifactorial discases. PMID:12630951

Majoor-Krakauer, D; Willems, P J; Hofman, A

2003-02-01

358

Extracting Laterally Varying Attenuation from Microseisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noise cross-correlation (NCC) has been successfully used in constructing empirical Green's functions (EGFs) for seismic velocity tomography. However, extracting reliable EGF amplitudes for attenuation estimation remains a challenge despite the fact that there are studies that derive spatially averaged attenuation from noise. In this work we use microseisms recorded by the USArray stations to explore the techniques that may accomplish the task to accurately measure EGF amplitudes and thus provide reliable input to the tomographic mapping of the laterally varying attenuation. Traditional NCC processing often trades amplitude information for phases with a better signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). An equally efficient method, temporal flattening, which removes the dominance of high-level noise in particular time intervals, and yet keeps the relative amplitudes among stations, is to normalize the narrow-band signals at each station by an average of the noise energy level at all stations. In addition to the effect of traditional NCC processing, EGF amplitude can also be biased by the uneven distribution of noise-field intensity in space, time and direction. To mitigate the effect of anisotropic noise field, we calculate EGFs using beam cross-correlation (BCC). Namely we construct beams according to the strike of a station pair and the surface-wave velocity, so that the beam signal contains mainly the energy flux along the strike. We validate our methods by comparing the surface-wave amplitudes from an earthquake with relative EGF amplitudes from a "source" station near the earthquake.

Zhang, J.; Yang, X.; Weaver, R. L.

2011-12-01

359

Implicit Recognition Based on Lateralized Perceptual Fluency  

PubMed Central

In some circumstances, accurate recognition of repeated images in an explicit memory test is driven by implicit memory. We propose that this “implicit recognition” results from perceptual fluency that influences responding without awareness of memory retrieval. Here we examined whether recognition would vary if images appeared in the same or different visual hemifield during learning and testing. Kaleidoscope images were briefly presented left or right of fixation during divided-attention encoding. Presentation in the same visual hemifield at test produced higher recognition accuracy than presentation in the opposite visual hemifield, but only for guess responses. These correct guesses likely reflect a contribution from implicit recognition, given that when the stimulated visual hemifield was the same at study and test, recognition accuracy was higher for guess responses than for responses with any level of confidence. The dramatic difference in guessing accuracy as a function of lateralized perceptual overlap between study and test suggests that implicit recognition arises from memory storage in visual cortical networks that mediate repetition-induced fluency increments. PMID:24962684

Vargas, Iliana M.; Voss, Joel L.; Paller, Ken A.

2012-01-01

360

Implicit recognition based on lateralized perceptual fluency.  

PubMed

In some circumstances, accurate recognition of repeated images in an explicit memory test is driven by implicit memory. We propose that this "implicit recognition" results from perceptual fluency that influences responding without awareness of memory retrieval. Here we examined whether recognition would vary if images appeared in the same or different visual hemifield during learning and testing. Kaleidoscope images were briefly presented left or right of fixation during divided-attention encoding. Presentation in the same visual hemifield at test produced higher recognition accuracy than presentation in the opposite visual hemifield, but only for guess responses. These correct guesses likely reflect a contribution from implicit recognition, given that when the stimulated visual hemifield was the same at study and test, recognition accuracy was higher for guess responses than for responses with any level of confidence. The dramatic difference in guessing accuracy as a function of lateralized perceptual overlap between study and test suggests that implicit recognition arises from memory storage in visual cortical networks that mediate repetition-induced fluency increments. PMID:24962684

Vargas, Iliana M; Voss, Joel L; Paller, Ken A

2012-01-01

361

Epidemiologic correlates of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

SciTech Connect

The authors evaluated 74 selected patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and 201 matched controls for risk factors for ALS by a case-control design and a sequential questionnaire/interview technique to quantitate biographic data. They analyzed occupational and recreational data only for 47 male patients and 47 corresponding patient controls; data for women were insufficient. They used nonparametric analyses to evaluate five primary comparisons of ALS patients with controls: (1) more hard physical labor, p not significant (NS); (2) greater frequency of neurodegenerative disease in family members, p NS; (3) greater exposure to lead, p less than 0.05; (4) more years lived in a rural community, p NS; and (5) more trauma or major surgery, p NS. Men with ALS had worked more frequently at blue-collar jobs (although not a statistically significant difference, p = 0.10) and at welding or soldering (p less than 0.01). These results suggest that there may be an association between ALS in men and exposure to lead vapor. The limited nature of the association favors a multifactorial etiologic mechanism of ALS.

Armon, C.; Kurland, L.T.; Daube, J.R.; O'Brien, P.C. (Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (USA))

1991-07-01

362

Multiplex lateral flow immunoassay for mycotoxin determination.  

PubMed

A new lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) is proposed for qualitative and/or semiquantitative determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), and their analogues (AFs, ZEAs, DONs) in cereal samples. Each of the mycotoxin specific antibody was class specific and there was no cross reactivity to other groups of compounds. The visual limits of detection (vLOD) of the strip were 0.03, 1.6, and 10 ?g/kg for AFB1, ZEA and DON, respectively. The calculated limits of detection (cLOD) were 0.05, 1, and 3 ?g/kg, respectively. Meanwhile the cutoff values were achieved at 1, 50, and 60 ?g/kg for AFB1, ZEA and DON, respectively. Recoveries ranged from 80% to 122% and RSD from 5% to 20%. Both the vLOD and cLOD for the three mycotoxins were lower than the EU maximum levels. Analysis of naturally contaminated maize samples resulted in a good agreement between the multiplex LFA and LC-MS/MS (100% for DONs and AFs, and 81% for ZEAs). Careful analysis of the results further explained the general overestimation of LFA compared to chromatographic methods for quantification of mycotoxins. PMID:24745689

Song, Suquan; Liu, Na; Zhao, Zhiyong; Njumbe Ediage, Emmanuel; Wu, Songling; Sun, Changpo; De Saeger, Sarah; Wu, Aibo

2014-05-20

363

Redox Regulation in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that results from the death of upper and lower motor neurons. Due to a lack of effective treatment, it is imperative to understand the underlying mechanisms and processes involved in disease progression. Regulations in cellular reduction/oxidation (redox) processes are being increasingly implicated in disease. Here we discuss the possible involvement of redox dysregulation in the pathophysiology of ALS, either as a cause of cellular abnormalities or a consequence. We focus on its possible role in oxidative stress, protein misfolding, glutamate excitotoxicity, lipid peroxidation and cholesterol esterification, mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired axonal transport and neurofilament aggregation, autophagic stress, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We also speculate that an ER chaperone protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) could play a key role in this dysregulation. PDI is essential for normal protein folding by oxidation and reduction of disulphide bonds, and hence any disruption to this process may have consequences for motor neurons. Addressing the mechanism underlying redox regulation and dysregulation may therefore help to unravel the molecular mechanism involved in ALS. PMID:23533690

Parakh, Sonam; Spencer, Damian M.; Halloran, Mark A.; Soo, Kai Y.; Atkin, Julie D.

2013-01-01

364

Early Word Recognition and Later Language Skills  

PubMed Central

Recent behavioral and electrophysiological evidence has highlighted the long-term importance for language skills of an early ability to recognize words in continuous speech. We here present further tests of this long-term link in the form of follow-up studies conducted with two (separate) groups of infants who had earlier participated in speech segmentation tasks. Each study extends prior follow-up tests: Study 1 by using a novel follow-up measure that taps into online processing, Study 2 by assessing language performance relationships over a longer time span than previously tested. Results of Study 1 show that brain correlates of speech segmentation ability at 10 months are positively related to 16-month-olds’ target fixations in a looking-while-listening task. Results of Study 2 show that infant speech segmentation ability no longer directly predicts language profiles at the age of five. However, a meta-analysis across our results and those of similar studies (Study 3) reveals that age at follow-up does not moderate effect size. Together, the results suggest that infants’ ability to recognize words in speech certainly benefits early vocabulary development; further observed relationships of later language skills to early word recognition may be consequent upon this vocabulary size effect. PMID:25347057

Junge, Caroline; Cutler, Anne

2014-01-01

365

Impaired Sacculocollic Reflex in Lateral Medullary Infarction  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine saccular dysfunction by measuring cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP) and to correlate abnormality of cVEMP with results of other vestibular function tests in lateral medullary infarction (LMI). Methods: We recorded cVEMP in 21 patients with LMI documented on MRI. cVEMP was induced by a short tone burst and was recorded in contracting sternocleidomastoid muscle while patients turned their heads forcefully to the contralateral side against resistance. Patients also underwent video-oculographic recording of spontaneous, gaze-evoked and head shaking nystagmus (HSN), evaluation of ocular tilt reaction (OTR), measurement of the subjective visual vertical (SVV) tilt, bithermal caloric tests, and audiometry. Results: Nine patients (43%) showed abnormal cVEMP, unilateral in seven and bilateral in two. The cVEMP abnormalities included decreased p13–n23 amplitude in four, delayed p13/n23 responses in five, and both decreased and delayed responses in two. The abnormal cVEMP was ipsilesional in five, contralesional in two, and bilateral in two. The prevalence of OTR/SVV tilt, spontaneous nystagmus, and HSN did not differ between the patients with normal and abnormal cVEMP. Conclusion: cVEMP was abnormal in approximately half of the patients with LMI. The abnormal cVEMP indicates damage to the descending sacculocollic reflex pathway or disruption of commissural modulation between the vestibular nuclei. PMID:21415908

Kim, Seonhye; Kim, Hyo-Jung; Kim, Ji Soo

2011-01-01

366

Cardiovascular autonomic function in lateral medullary infarction.  

PubMed

Even though the medulla contains the baroreceptor regulatory centers, few studies have focused on the autonomic dysfunction of lateral medullary infarction (LMI). Therefore, cardiac parasympathetic and sympathetic functions were compared in LMI patients and age-matched controls. We prospectively recruited 25 LMI patients who had ipsilateral Horner's sign and cardiac autonomic function testing without a history of diabetes, cardiac disease, or previous stroke. Parasympathetic function tests included beat-to-beat heart rate variation during deep breathing, 30:15 heart rate ratio testing while standing, and the valsalva ratio. Sympathetic function tests included blood pressure during active standing and sustained handgrip. The composite autonomic score (CAS) was measured as a total of 10 points; parasympathetic dysfunction was designated as ?3 points in the parasympathetic subscores and sympathetic dysfunction as ?2 points in the sympathetic subscores. Multiple regression analysis was performed to predict parasympathetic or sympathetic dysfunction. The mean age and stroke risk factors of the study population were not significantly different between the LMI group (n = 25) and control group (n = 29). However, cardiac autonomic functions were significantly different in the groups: parasympathetic dysfunction (14 vs. 4 patients, p = 0.011) and sympathetic dysfunction (3 vs. 13 patients, p = 0.008). In univariate analysis, male-gender (p = 0.011), right-side involvement (p = 0.035) and ventral involvement (p = 0.007) were significantly associated with parasympathetic dysfunction (CAS subscore ?3). In multivariable analysis, the ventral involvement remained to be the independent predictor for parasympathetic dysfunction (OR 16.0; 95% CI 2.2-118.3, p = 0.007). This study suggests that LMI patients are susceptible to cardiac parasympathetic dysfunction, especially in the ventral medulla. PMID:23543393

Hong, Ji Man; Kim, Tae Jin; Shin, Dong Hoon; Lee, Jin Soo; Joo, In Soo

2013-11-01

367

Autosomal dominant juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a form of chronic motor neuron disease characterized by combined upper and lower motor neuron symptoms and signs with onset prior to age 25 years. We report the clinical and electrodiagnostic findings in 49 affected family members and neuropathological findings from two autopsies of a Maryland kindred with autosomal dominant juvenile ALS linked to the chromosome 9q34 region (ALS4). Patients ranged in age from 12 to 85 years (mean 45 years) and the mean age of onset was 17 years. Distal weakness and atrophy was associated with pyramidal signs (43/49) and normal sensation (44/49). Motor conduction studies (n = 8) showed reduced evoked amplitudes and normal conduction parameters. Sensory conduction studies (n = 8), quantitative sensory testing (n = 4) and intracutaneous sensory fibres in skin biopsies (n = 6) were normal in all patients tested. Electromyography showed distal more than proximal chronic partial denervation and reinnervation (n = 8). Post-mortem spinal cord tissue demonstrated atrophic spinal cords with marked loss of anterior horn cells and degeneration of corticospinal tracts, as well as loss of neurons in the dorsal root ganglia and degeneration of the posterior columns. Axonal spheroids were present in the grey matter of the spinal cord, the dorsal root entry zones and the peripheral nerves. Motor and sensory roots, as well as peripheral nerves, showed significant axonal loss. Swellings were prominent around motor neurons, probably representing changes in presynaptic terminals. These studies define autosomal dominant juvenile ALS linked to the chromosome 9q34 region (ALS4) and extend the clinical, pathological and genetic heterogeneity of familial ALS and juvenile ALS. PMID:10430837

Rabin, B A; Griffin, J W; Crain, B J; Scavina, M; Chance, P F; Cornblath, D R

1999-08-01

368

Tracing the Geomorphic Signature of Lateral Faulting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active strike-slip faults are among the most dangerous geologic features on Earth. Unfortunately, it is challenging to estimate their slip rates, seismic hazard, and evolution over a range of timescales. An under-exploited tool in strike-slip fault characterization is quantitative analysis of the geomorphic response to lateral fault motion to extract tectonic information directly from the landscape. Past geomorphic work of this kind has focused almost exclusively on vertical motion, despite the ubiquity of horizontal motion in crustal deformation and mountain building. We seek to address this problem by investigating the landscape response to strike-slip faulting in two ways: 1) examining the geomorphology of the Marlborough Fault System (MFS), a suite of parallel strike-slip faults within the actively deforming South Island of New Zealand, and 2) conducting controlled experiments in strike-slip landscape evolution using the CHILD landscape evolution model. The MFS offers an excellent natural experiment site because fault initiation ages and cumulative displacements decrease from north to south, whereas slip rates increase over four fold across a region underlain by a single bedrock unit (Torlesse Greywacke). Comparison of planform and longitudinal profiles of rivers draining the MFS reveals strong disequilibrium within tributaries that drain to active fault strands, and suggests that river capture related to fault activity may be a regular process in strike-slip fault zones. Simple model experiments support this view. Model calculations that include horizontal motion as well as vertical uplift demonstrate river lengthening and shortening due to stream capture in response to shutter ridges sliding in front of stream outlets. These results suggest that systematic variability in fluvial knickpoint location, drainage area, and incision rates along different faults or fault segments may be expected in catchments upstream of strike-slip faults and could act as useful indicators of fault activity.

Duvall, A. R.; Tucker, G. E.

2012-12-01

369

PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS  

PubMed Central

Our objectives were to summarize literature on the association of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with pesticides as a group and to evaluate associations of ALS with specific pesticides. We conducted a meta-analysis of published studies of ALS and pesticides as a group and investigated the association of ALS with specific pesticides, using data from the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a cohort including 84,739 private pesticide applicators and spouses. AHS participants provided information on pesticide use at enrollment in 1993-1997. In mortality data collected through February, 2010, ALS was recorded on death certificates of 41 individuals whom we compared to the remaining cohort (controls), using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age and gender to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals. In the meta-analysis, ALS was associated with use of pesticides as a group (1.9, 1.1-3.1). In the AHS, ALS was not associated with pesticides as a group, but was associated with use of organochlorine insecticides (OCs) (1.6, 0.8-3.5), pyrethroids (1.4, 0.6-3.4), herbicides (1.6, 0.7-3.7), and fumigants (1.8, 0.8-3.9). ORs were elevated for ever use of the specific OCs aldrin (2.1, 0.8-5.1), dieldrin (2.6, 0.9-7.3), DDT (2.1, 0.9-5.0), and toxaphene (2.0, 0.8-4.9). None of these associations was statistically significant. Similar results were observed in an analysis restricted to men. In conclusion, the meta-analysis suggests that ALS risk is associated with use of pesticides as a group, and our analysis of AHS data points to OC use in particular. The latter results are novel but based on a small number of cases and require replication in other populations. PMID:22521219

Kamel, Freya; Umbach, David M; Bedlack, Richard S; Richards, Marie; Watson, Mary; Alavanja, Michael CR; Blair, Aaron; Hoppin, Jane A; Schmidt, Silke; Sandler, Dale P

2012-01-01

370

Differential bilingual laterality: mythical monster found in Wales.  

PubMed

Paradis (1992) likens studies of bilingual laterality to reported sightings of the Loch Ness Monster, in that although some studies claim differential laterality much conflicting research evidence does not-and like the mythical Scottish monster, what reason have we to suspect that any such phenomenon might exist? This study reexamines differential bilingual laterality using four groups of English-Welsh bilinguals which differ in their age of acquisition and in their environment of acquisition. Using a split visual field paradigm we present evidence which, supports the notion of greater right hemisphere processing in a later learned language. Our findings also suggest the pattern of lateralization in bilinguals is strongly affected by the specific language environment during development such that the shift toward greater right hemisphere involvement for the later learned language will be more pronounced in individuals which are brought up in areas where that language is not regularly heard. PMID:12387799

Evans, Judith; Workman, Lance; Mayer, Peter; Crowley, Kevin

2002-11-01

371

23. VIEW SHOWING SALT RIVER PROJECT CREWS SLIPFORMING LATERAL DURING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. VIEW SHOWING SALT RIVER PROJECT CREWS SLIPFORMING LATERAL DURING REHABILITATION AND BETTERMENT PROGRAM Photographer: unknown. April 1968 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

372

Lateral Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction Using a Quadriceps Tendon Graft  

PubMed Central

Medial patellar subluxation (MPS) is normally described after a lateral retinacular release. However, isolated MPS in the absence of a previous lateral release does occur. This type of patellar instability is often overlooked, and a high index of suspicion is needed for appropriate diagnosis and treatment. This report describes a technique developed in response to episodes of isolated MPS. The technique uses a partial-thickness graft from the quadriceps tendon to reconstruct the lateral patellofemoral ligament and provide stability to the lateral side of the patella. PMID:25264506

Saper, Michael G.; Shneider, David A.

2014-01-01

373

Neuromuscular Ultrasound for the Evaluation of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.  

E-print Network

??Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that causes progressive loss of motor neurons, which results in weakness, respiratory compromise, and typically death within… (more)

Cartwright, Michael Stephen

2012-01-01

374

Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Former Addison County Railroad (later, Rutland Railroad, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Former Addison County Railroad (later, Rutland Railroad, Addison Branch), spanning Lemon Fair River above Richville Pond, west of East Shoreham Road, Shoreham, Addison County, VT

375

The lateral plate mesoderm: a novel source of skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

It has been established in the last century that the skeletal muscle cells of vertebrates originate from the paraxial mesoderm. However, recently the lateral plate mesoderm has been identified as a novel source of the skeletal muscle. The branchiomeric muscles, such as masticatory and facial muscles, receive muscle progenitor cells from both the cranial paraxial mesoderm and lateral plate mesoderm. At the occipital level, the lateral plate mesoderm is the sole source of the muscle progenitors of the dorsolateral neck muscle, such as trapezius and sternocleidomastoideus in mammals and cucullaris in birds. The lateral plate mesoderm requires a longer time for generating skeletal muscle cells than the somites. The myogenesis of the lateral plate is determined early, but not cell autonomously and requires local signals. Lateral plate myogenesis is regulated by mechanisms controlling the cranial myogenesis. The connective tissue of the lateral plate-derived muscle is formed by the cranial neural crest. Although the cranial neural crest cells do not control the early myogenesis, they regulate the patterning of the branchiomeric muscles and the cucullaris muscle. Although satellite cells derived from the cranial lateral plate show distinct properties from those of the trunk, they can respond to local signals and generate myofibers for injured muscles in the limbs. In this review, we key feature in detail the muscle forming properties of the lateral plate mesoderm and propose models of how the myogenic fate may have arisen. PMID:25344670

Pu, Qin; Patel, Ketan; Huang, Ruijin

2015-01-01

376

FILM OPTION CURRICULUM (FOR STUDENTS ENTERING FALL, 2011 OR LATER)  

E-print Network

FILM OPTION CURRICULUM (FOR STUDENTS ENTERING FALL, 2011 OR LATER) NOTE ON REVERSE. GATE REQUIREMENTS FOR FILM OPTION: FILM 100IH ­ Introduction to Film & Photography ...................................................................... 3

Lawrence, Rick L.

377

Phylogenetic identification of lateral genetic transfer events  

PubMed Central

Background Lateral genetic transfer can lead to disagreements among phylogenetic trees comprising sequences from the same set of taxa. Where topological discordance is thought to have arisen through genetic transfer events, tree comparisons can be used to identify the lineages that may have shared genetic information. An 'edit path' of one or more transfer events can be represented with a series of subtree prune and regraft (SPR) operations, but finding the optimal such set of operations is NP-hard for comparisons between rooted trees, and may be so for unrooted trees as well. Results Efficient Evaluation of Edit Paths (EEEP) is a new tree comparison algorithm that uses evolutionarily reasonable constraints to identify and eliminate many unproductive search avenues, reducing the time required to solve many edit path problems. The performance of EEEP compares favourably to that of other algorithms when applied to strictly bifurcating trees with specified numbers of SPR operations. We also used EEEP to recover edit paths from over 19 000 unrooted, incompletely resolved protein trees containing up to 144 taxa as part of a large phylogenomic study. While inferred protein trees were far more similar to a reference supertree than random trees were to each other, the phylogenetic distance spanned by random versus inferred transfer events was similar, suggesting that real transfer events occur most frequently between closely related organisms, but can span large phylogenetic distances as well. While most of the protein trees examined here were very similar to the reference supertree, requiring zero or one edit operations for reconciliation, some trees implied up to 40 transfer events within a single orthologous set of proteins. Conclusion Since sequence trees typically have no implied root and may contain unresolved or multifurcating nodes, the strategy implemented in EEEP is the most appropriate for phylogenomic analyses. The high degree of consistency among inferred protein trees shows that vertical inheritance is the dominant pattern of evolution, at least for the set of organisms considered here. However, the edit paths inferred using EEEP suggest an important role for genetic transfer in the evolution of microbial genomes as well. PMID:16472400

Beiko, Robert G; Hamilton, Nicholas

2006-01-01

378

Chapter 15 Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Several forms of genetically defined juvenile amy-otrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have now been charac-terized and discussion of these conditions will form the basis for this chapter. ALS2 is an autosomal recessive form of ALS with a juvenile onset and very slow progression that mapped to chromosome 2q33. Nine different mutations have been identified in the ALS2 gene that result in premature stop codons, suggesting a loss of function in the gene product, alsin. The alsin protein is thought to function as a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for GTPases and may play a role in vesicle transport or membrane trafficking processes. ALS4 is an autosomal dominant form of juvenile onset ALS associated with slow progression, severe muscle weakness and pyramidal signs, in the absence of bulbar and sensory abnormalities. Mutations in the SETX gene cause ALS4, and the SETX gene product senataxin may have DNA and RNA helicase activity and play a role in the regulation of RNA and/or DNA in the cell. A third form of juvenile-onset ALS (ALS5) is associated with slowly progressing lower motor neuron signs (weak-ness and atrophy) initially of the hands and feet, with eventual bulbar involvement. Progressive upper motor neuron disease becomes more obvious with time. ALS5 has been linked to a 6 cM region of chromosome 15q15.1-q21.1, but the causative gene mutation for ALS5 has yet to be identified. The high degree of clin-ical and genetic heterogeneity in the various forms of juvenile ALS can make differential diagnosis difficult, other genetic disorders that must be considered include: spinal muscular atrophy, hereditary spastic paraplegia, SBMA, GM2 gangliosidosis and the hereditary motor neuronopathies/motor forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Acquired disorders that must also be consid-ered include heavy metal intoxications (especially lead), multifocal motor neuropathy, paraneoplastic syndromes, vitamin deficiencies (B12) and infections (HTLV-II, HIV and poliomyelitis). PMID:18808900

Orban, Paul; Devon, Rebecca S; Hayden, Michael R; Leavitt, Blair R

2007-01-01

379

Clinicopathological Characteristics of Laterally Spreading Colorectal Tumor  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Laterally spreading tumor (LST) is a colorectal pre-cancerous lesion. Previous studies have demonstrated distinct LST clinicopathological characteristics in different populations. This study evaluated clinicopathological characteristics of LST in a Chinese population. Methods A total of 259 Chinese LST patients with 289 lesions were recruited for endoscopic and clinicopathological analyses. Results Among these 289 lesions, 185 were granular type (LST-G), whereas 104 were non-granular type (LST-NG). LST-G lesions were further classified into homogeneous G-type and nodular mixed G-type, while LST-NG lesions were further classified into flat elevated NG-type and pseudo-depressed NG-type. Clinically, these four LST subtypes showed distinct clinicopathological characteristics, e.g., lesion size, location, or histopathological features (high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and submucosal carcinoma). The nodular mixed G-type showed larger tumor size and higher incidence of high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia compared to the other three subtypes, while pseudo-depressed NG-type lesions showed the highest incidence of submucosal carcinoma. Noticeably, no diffidence was detected between the lesions of homogeneous G-type and flat elevated NG-type with regard to the histopathological features. Histology of the malignancy potential was associated with nodular mixed G-type [OR?=?2.41, 95% CI (1.09–5.29); P?=?0.029], flat elevated NG-type [OR?=?3.49, 95% CI (1.41–8.22); P?=?0.007], Diameter ?30 mm [OR?=?2.56, 95% CI (1.20–5.20); P?=?0.009], Villous adenoma [OR?=?2.76, 95% CI (1.01–7.58); P?=?0.048] and serrated adenoma [OR?=?6.99, 95% CI (1.81–26.98); P?=?0.005]. Conclusion Chinese LSTs can be divided into four different subtypes, which show distinct clinicopathological characteristics. Morphology, size and pathological characteristics are all independent predictors of advanced histology. PMID:24751926

Xiang, Li; Wang, Yadong; Wang, Xianfei; Li, Aimin; Liu, Side

2014-01-01

380

Lateral variations in the taupo ignimbrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The young non-welded Taupo ignimbrite shows remarkable lateral variations which are documented by granulometric and component analyses, and studies of maximum clast size and density. The grain size spans practically the entire known ignimbrite field, the coarser proximal ignimbrite having a median diameter 100 times greater than the finest distal ignimbrite. The content and maximum size of lithic fragments decrease also by a factor of 100 between proximal and distal parts. The content of free crystals first rises to reach a peak, but thereafter decreases to attain a very low value in far-distal exposures. The pumice maximum size decreases by a factor of about 10, and the most conspicuously coarse pumice rocks occur in a girdle nearly halfway out from vent to distal limit. The pumice in each grain size class decreases in density to half of its near-source value in distal ignimbrite. The overall outward trend is towards an ignimbrite which consists wholly of fine vitric ash; some distal exposures closely approach this condition. These variations are accounted for by a combination of processes operating in the moving ash flow. One is a continuous fragmentation of pumice leading to a rounding of the clasts, a progressive decrease in maximum size, the generation of much vitric dust, and the liberation of crystals. Another is a continuous sedimentation of heavy constituents (lithics and crystals), and an antipathetic rise of lighter coarse pumice towards the top of the flow. These processes operated in a moving flow whose upper layers travelled progressively farther from source; it is the topmost layers, strongly depleted in heavy constituents and enriched in light pumice, which have travelled the farthest and constitute the far-distal parts of the ignimbrite. A number of ignimbrite facies are characterized: the ignimbrite proper, with its proximal, distal, and pumice concentration zone facies; the deposits which form in the head and are then over-ridden by the body of the flow, including the fines-depleted ignimbrite variant and the heavies-enriched ground layer; and the ignimbrite veneer deposits which are left behind by the flow, which differ little from the ignimbrite except in their landscape-mantling form and the occurrence in them of lee-side coarse pumice lenses.

Walker, G. P. L.; Wilson, C. J. N.

1983-10-01

381

Enhanced performance of methamphetamine lateral flow cassettes using an electronic lateral flow reader.  

PubMed

Surface contamination from methamphetamine in meth labs continues to be a problem. We had previously developed a lateral flow assay cassette for field detection of methamphetamine contamination that is commercially available and has been used by a number of groups to assess contamination. This cassette uses the complete disappearance of the test line as an end point for detection of 50 ng/100 cm2 of methamphetamine contamination for surface sampling with cotton swabs. In the present study, we further evaluate the response of the cassettes using an electronic lateral flow reader to measure the intensities of the test and control lines. The cassettes were capable of detecting 0.25 ng/ml for calibration solutions. For 100 cm2 ceramic tiles that were spiked with methamphetamine and wiped with cotton-tipped wooden swabs wetted in assay/sampling buffer, 1 ng/tile was detected using the reader. Semi-quantitative results can be produced over the range 0-10 ng/ml for calibration solutions and 0-25 ng/tile for spiked tiles using either a 4-parameter logistic fit of test line intensity versus concentration or spiked mass or the ratio of the control line to the test line intensity fit to concentration or spiked mass. Recovery from the tiles was determined to be about 30% using the fitted curves. Comparison of the control line to the test line was also examined as a possible visual detection end point and it was found that the control line became more intense than the test line at 0.5 to 1 ng/ml for calibration solutions or 1 to 2 ng/tile for spiked tiles. Thus the lateral flow cassettes for methamphetamine have the potential to produce more sensitive semi-quantitative results if an electronic lateral flow reader is used and can be more sensitive for detection if the comparison of the control line to the test line is used as the visual end point. PMID:25379615

Smith, Jerome P; Sammons, Deborah L; Robertson, Shirley A; Snawder, John E

2015-01-01

382

Functional cerebral lateralization and dual-task efficiency-testing the function of human brain lateralization using fTCD.  

PubMed

It has been hypothesized that functional cerebral lateralization enhances cognitive performance. Evidence was found in birds and fish. Our study aimed to test this hypothesis by analyzing the relationship between cerebral lateralization and both single-task performance and dual-task efficiency in humans. We combined a dynamic Landmark task which is assumed to be primarily processed in the right hemisphere and a frequently used word generation task which is assumed to be primarily processed in the left hemisphere. For each task individual strength and direction of hemispheric lateralization was assessed using functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD). For each subject (15 women, 11 men), performance was measured in the two single-tasks and in the dual-task condition. Performance was not related to strength or direction of lateralization in single-tasks. With regard to dual-task efficiency, we found the expected advantage of having a typical lateralization pattern. Moreover, the results showed a slight negative, rather than a positive, relationship between strength of lateralization and dual-task efficiency. Further analysis showed that this negative relationship may only be present in subjects showing non-significant lateralization for one or both tasks. Therefore, the hypothesis that cerebral lateralization enhances human cognitive performance is too general: having two functions significantly lateralized to different hemispheres enhances dual-task efficiency, in this group strength of lateralized does not matter. However, if one or both functions are not significantly lateralized overall performance is worse and in this group, performance is negatively related to increased strength of lateralization. PMID:21056593

Lust, J M; Geuze, R H; Groothuis, A G G; Bouma, A

2011-03-01

383

Race and Gender Differences in Cognitive Laterality: Implications for Leadership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Replicating research completed in 1986, a study determined the relationship among cognitive laterality, gender, and reading comprehension for African-American students, as well as gender differences in cognitive laterality and in reading comprehension. Subjects, 40 African-American males, 41 African-American females, 12 White males, and 17 White…

Wesson, Linda Hampton; Holman, David

384

High-Risk Infants: Auditory Processing Deficits in Later Childhood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine whether deficits warranting intervention are present in the later functioning of high-risk infants, 22 premature infants who experienced asphyxia or chronic lung disease (CLD) but who had no gross developmental abnormalities were evaluated. Assessments of auditory perception and receptive language ability were made during later

Gilbride, Kathleen E.; And Others

385

Phosphorus lateral movement through subsoil to subsurface tile drains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vertical subsurface P transport to tile drains is well documented, however little research has focused on lateral P transport. A replicated field study investigated the lateral movement of P through 3.0 m of typical Iowa subsoil (sandy loam texture, pH 7.7, 2 mg kg-1 Olsen P) between a 1.2-m deep tr...

386

Integration of emotion and cognition in the lateral prefrontal cortex  

E-print Network

Integration of emotion and cognition in the lateral prefrontal cortex Jeremy R. Gray*, Todd S influence cognition-related neural activity in lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), as evidence for an integration of emotion and cognition. Participants (n 14) watched short videos intended to induce emotional

387

LATERAL TURBULENCE INTENSITY AND PLUME MEANDERING DURING STABLE CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

There is much evidence in the literature for the presence of mesoscale lateral meanders in the stable nighttime boundary layer. These meanders result in relatively high lateral turbulence intensities and diffusion rates when averaged over an hour. Anemometer data from 17 overnigh...

388

The lateral line of the butterfish, Pholis gunnellus L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lateral line of Pholis gunnellus (the butterfish) has been investigated with the scanning electron microscope. The lateral line is divided into two systems, superficial and canal based. The neuromasts of the former are composed of a central mass of tissue which carries the macula with sensory cells arranged centrally in a strip. Fusiform neuromasts have the long axis perpendicular

M. S. Laverack; M. D. Bevan

1991-01-01

389

Lateral Confinement Needed to Suppress Softening of Concrete in Compression  

E-print Network

failure laterally Bazant and Xiang 1997; Bazant and Planas 1998 . Since the compressive stress is reducedLateral Confinement Needed to Suppress Softening of Concrete in Compression Ferhun C. Caner1 are surprisingly high. If they are not used in design, one needs to pay attention to the localization of softening

390

Prevalence and correlates of neuropsychological deficits in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and correlates of neuropsychological impairment in a large cohort (n = 146) of patients with typical, sporadic (non-familial) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. METHODS: A battery of neuropsychological tests was administered to patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis who were attending a monthly outpatient clinic or who were in hospital undergoing diagnostic tests. RESULTS: Comparing individual patient's scores

P J Massman; J Sims; N Cooke; L J Haverkamp; V Appel; S H Appel

1996-01-01

391

An Immersive Media Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

E-print Network

1 An Immersive Media Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Federico Visi, Duncan Williams, Eduardo.williams, eduardo.miranda}@plymouth.ac.uk giovanni.dothel@gmail.com 1. INTRODUCTION Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and sclerosis hardens the affected nerves of the spinal cord. The spatialization in the 3D speaker array

Miranda, Eduardo Reck

392

ARTIFICIAL LATERAL LINE SYSTEMS FOR FEEDBACK CONTROL OF UNDERWATER ROBOTS  

E-print Network

and vehicles by exploiting the inherent sensing capability of ionic polymermetal composites (IPMCs). Analogous to its biological counterpart, the IPMC-based lateral line processes #12;the sensor signals through algorithms with an artificial lateral line prototype made of millimeter-scale IPMC sensors, with sensor

Tan, Xiaobo

393

Sensory systems in sawfishes. 2. The lateral line.  

PubMed

The lateral line system allows elasmobranchs to detect hydrodynamic movements in their close surroundings. We examined the distribution of pit organs and lateral line canals in 4 species of sawfish (Anoxypristis cuspidata, Pristis microdon, P. clavata and P. zijsron). Pit organs could only be located in A. cuspidata, which possesses elongated pits that are lined by dermal denticles. In all 4 pristid species, the lateral line canals are well developed and were separated into regions of pored and non-pored canals. In all species the tubules that extend from pored canals form extensive networks. In A. cuspidata, P. microdon and P. clavata, the lateral line canals on both the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the rostrum possess extensively branched and pored tubules. Based on this morphological observation, we hypothesized that these 3 species do not use their rostrum to search in the substrate for prey as previously assumed. Other batoids that possess lateral line canals adapted to perceive stimuli produced by infaunal prey possess non-pored lateral line canals, which also prevent the intrusion of substrate particles. However, this hypothesis remains to be tested behaviourally in pristids. Lateral line canals located between the mouth and the nostrils are non-pored in all 4 species of sawfish. Thus this region is hypothesized to perceive stimuli caused by direct contact with prey before ingestion. Lateral line canals that contain neuromasts are longest in P. microdon, but canals containing neuromasts along the rostrum are longest in A. cuspidata. PMID:21829005

Wueringer, B E; Peverell, S C; Seymour, J; Squire, L; Collin, S P

2011-01-01

394

The Chinese Calendar of The Later Han Period  

E-print Network

The Chinese Calendar of The Later Han Period Undergraduate Research Opportunities Programme would like to learn some basic knowledge in the Chinese calendar, which is an important part explanations to the Chinese calendar of the Later Han period, Shi Fen Li, and introduce some useful

Aslaksen, Helmer

395

Lateral Deflections of Webs in Air-Flotation Ovens  

E-print Network

­ lateral tilt angle of air-bar, in radians ­ spring constant of air cushion supporting web over bar ­ webLateral Deflections of Webs in Air-Flotation Ovens Peter M. Moretti March 2, 2001 Abstract A long web span supported by many, regularly spaced, alternating air- bars is studied. The focus

396

Phototropism and gravitropism in lateral roots of Arabidopsis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gravitropism and, to a lesser extent, phototropism have been characterized in primary roots, but little is known about structural/functional aspects of these tropisms in lateral roots. Therefore, in this study, we report on tropistic responses in lateral roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Lateral roots initially are plagiogravitropic, but when they reach a length of approximately 10 mm, these roots grow downward and exhibit positive orthogravitropism. Light and electron microscopic studies demonstrate a correlation between positive gravitropism and development of columella cells with large, sedimented amyloplasts in wild-type plants. Lateral roots display negative phototropism in response to white and blue light and positive phototropism in response to red light. As is the case with primary roots, the photoresponse is weak relative to the graviresponse, but phototropism is readily apparent in starchless mutant plants, which are impaired in gravitropism. To our knowledge, this is the first report of phototropism of lateral roots in any plant species.

Kiss, John Z.; Miller, Kelley M.; Ogden, Lisa A.; Roth, Kelly K.

2002-01-01

397

Centrifuge Modeling of Piles Subjected to Lateral Loads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many applications where piles are employed to absorb and deflect lateral impact loads. Structural elements of this type are used to protect infrastructure and are commonly found at marine sites. A series of model tests have been conducted using Columbia University's centrifuge facility to better understand the performance of piles subjected to these loading conditions. A device was designed to install and laterally load single model piles during centrifuge flight. This device uniquely contains two lateral loading systems, one which allows static testing and another appropriate for dynamic tests. This research examines the behavior of tubular steel piles embedded within dry or saturated soil and subjected to varied rates of lateral loading. This investigation provides insight on the contribution of lateral loading rates to the behavior of piles.

Brant, Logan; Ling, Hoe I.

398

Effect of midbrain raphe and lateral mesencephalic stimulation on spontaneous and evoked activity in the lateral geniculate of the cat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Single shock stimulation of the midbrain raphe and lateral reticular formation altered the spontaneous and evoked activity of single cells in the dorsal lateral geniculate of the cat. The effect of stimulation was to produce a facilitation of 64 units with a latency of 15 msec or greater and an inhibition of 30 units with a latency of 7 to

Warren E. Foote; Raymond J. Maciewicz; John P. Mordes

1974-01-01

399

Deep transverse friction massage for treating lateral elbow or lateral knee tendinitis.  

PubMed

Background Deep transverse friction massage, one of several physical therapy interventions suggested for the management of tendinitis pain, was first demonstrated in the 1930s by Dr James Cyriax, a renowned orthopedic surgeon in England. Its goal is to prevent abnormal fibrous adhesions and abnormal scarring. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2001.Objectives To assess the benefits and harms of deep transverse friction massage for treating lateral elbow or lateral knee tendinitis.Search methods We searched the following electronic databases: the specialized central registry of the Cochrane Field of Physical and Related Therapies,the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL),MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Clinicaltrials.gov, and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), up until July 2014. The reference lists of these trials were consulted for additional studies.Selection criteria All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing deep transverse friction massage with control or other active interventions for study participants with two eligible types of tendinitis (ie, extensor carpi radialis tendinitis (lateral elbow tendinitis, tennis elbow or lateral epicondylitis or lateralis epicondylitis humeri) and iliotibial band friction syndrome (lateral knee tendinitis)) were selected. Only studies published in English and French languages were included.Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed the studies on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results of individual trials were extracted from the included study using extraction forms prepared by two independent review authors before the review was begun.Data were cross-checked by a third review author. Risk of bias of the included studies was assessed using the "Risk of bias"tool of The Cochrane Collaboration. A pooled analysis was performed using mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes and risk ratio (RR)for dichotomous outcomes with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).Main results Two RCTs (no new additional studies in this update) with 57 participants met the inclusion criteria. These studies demonstrated high risk of performance and detection bias, and the risk of selection, attrition, and reporting bias was unclear.The first study included 40 participants with lateral elbow tendinitis and compared (1) deep transverse friction massage combined with therapeutic ultrasound and placebo ointment (n = 11) versus therapeutic ultrasound and placebo ointment only (n = 9) and (2)deep transverse friction massage combined with phonophoresis (n = 10) versus phonophoresis only (n = 10). No statistically significant differences were reported within five weeks for mean change in pain on a 0 to 100 visual analog scale (VAS) (MD -6.60, 95%CI -28.60 to 15.40; 7% absolute improvement), grip strength measured in kilograms of force (MD 0.10, 95% CI -0.16 to 0.36) and function ona 0 to 100 VAS (MD -1.80, 95% CI -0.18.64 to 15.04; 2% improvement), pain-free function index measured as the number of painfree items (MD 1.10, 95% CI -1.00 to 3.20) and functional status (RR 3.3, 95% CI 0.4 to 24.3) for deep transverse friction massage,and therapeutic ultrasound and placebo ointment compared with therapeutic ultrasound and placebo ointment only. Likewise for deep transverse friction massage and phonophoresis compared with phonophoresis alone, no statistically significant differences were found for pain (MD -1.2, 95% CI -20.24 to 17.84; 1% improvement), grip strength (MD -0.20, 95% CI -0.46 to 0.06) and function (MD3.70, 95% CI -14.13 to 21.53; 4% improvement). In addition, the GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach was used to evaluate the quality of evidence for the pain outcome, which received a score of "very low".Pain relief of 30% or greater, quality of life, patient global assessment, adverse events, and withdrawals due to adverse events were not assessed or rep

Loew, Laurianne M; Brosseau, Lucie; Tugwell, Peter; Wells, George A; Welch, Vivian; Shea, Beverley; Poitras, Stephane; De Angelis, Gino; Rahman, Prinon

2014-01-01

400

Lateral lymph node dissection for lower rectal cancer.  

PubMed

The mainstay of surgical therapy for rectal cancer is colectomy (including lesions) with lymph node dissection. The lymphatic spread of rectal cancer can proceed in two directions: medially toward the origin of the inferior mesenteric artery or laterally toward the pelvis aslong the internal iliac artery. To prevent postoperative recurrence, lymph nodes situated along these two axes should be adequately dissected, leaving no residual cancer cells. In Japan, the standard procedure for advanced lower rectal cancer is mesorectal excision and lateral lymph node dissection with autonomic nerve preservation. In Europe and North America, lateral lymph node dissection used to be performed, but it led to increased blood loss, complications, and dysfunction, with no improvement in survival. Lateral lymph node dissection is thus no longer performed. Instead, multidisciplinary therapy combining mesorectal excision with preoperative chemoradiotherapy is now the standard treatment for advanced rectal cancer. Although lateral lymph node dissection decreases the rate of local recurrence similar to preoperative chemoradiotherapy, whether it contributes to improved survival remains unclear. In addition, it is unlikely that prophylactic lateral lymph node dissection is required in all patients with rectal cancer. Definition of the indications for lateral lymph node dissection is thus an important concern. PMID:23703637

Nakamura, T; Watanabe, M

2013-08-01

401

Resume and analysis of NACA lateral control research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of the principal results of recent lateral control research is made. Two things are considered of primary importance in judging the effectiveness of different control devices: The (calculated) banking and yawing motion of a typical small airplane caused by a deflection of the control, and the stick force required to produce this deflection. The report includes a table in which a number of different lateral control devices are compared on these bases. Test flights demonstrated that satisfactory lateral control at high angles of attack depends as much on the retention of stability as on aileron effectiveness.

Weick, F. E.; Jones, R. T.

1976-01-01

402

Thermodynamic and kinetic control of the lateral Si wire growth  

SciTech Connect

Reproducible lateral Si wire growth has been realized on the Si (100) surface. In this paper, we present experimental evidence showing the unique role that carbon plays in initiating lateral growth of Si wires on a Si (100) substrate. Once initiated in the presence of ?5 ML of C, lateral growth can be achieved in the range of temperatures, T?=?450–650?°C, and further controlled by the interplay of the flux of incoming Si atoms with the size and areal density of Au droplets. Critical thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the growth are discussed in detail.

Dedyulin, Sergey N., E-mail: sdedyuli@uwo.ca; Goncharova, Lyudmila V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond St., London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada)

2014-03-24

403

Arthroscopic Lateral Epicondylitis Release Using the “Bayonet” Technique  

PubMed Central

Most patients diagnosed with lateral epicondylitis respond well to conservative management. For patients who do not respond to nonoperative modalities, surgical treatment represents a viable option for long-term symptomatic relief. The arthroscopic surgical technique described in this article has been consistently used by the senior author for the treatment of recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis for more than 5 years (198 patients) without the occurrence of any major complications and appears to be a safe, reliable, and efficacious surgical intervention for the management of lateral epicondylitis. PMID:24749034

Stiefel, Eric C.; Field, Larry D.

2014-01-01

404

Arthroscopic lateral epicondylitis release using the "bayonet" technique.  

PubMed

Most patients diagnosed with lateral epicondylitis respond well to conservative management. For patients who do not respond to nonoperative modalities, surgical treatment represents a viable option for long-term symptomatic relief. The arthroscopic surgical technique described in this article has been consistently used by the senior author for the treatment of recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis for more than 5 years (198 patients) without the occurrence of any major complications and appears to be a safe, reliable, and efficacious surgical intervention for the management of lateral epicondylitis. PMID:24749034

Stiefel, Eric C; Field, Larry D

2014-02-01

405

Detail, external parabolic antenna (later addition). Note how waveguide was ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail, external parabolic antenna (later addition). Note how waveguide was cut to remove active portion of antenna. - Western Union Telegraph Company, Jennerstown Relay, Laurel Summit Road off U.S. 30, Laughlintown, Westmoreland County, PA

406

Antenna cab interior showing waveguide from external parabolic antenna (later ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Antenna cab interior showing waveguide from external parabolic antenna (later addition), looking north. - Western Union Telegraph Company, Jennerstown Relay, Laurel Summit Road off U.S. 30, Laughlintown, Westmoreland County, PA

407

Economic viability of multiple-lateral horizontal wells  

E-print Network

. It will focus on the application of multiple-lateral horizontal wells to reduce the risks of economic uncertainty associated with poor reservoir characterization in areally anisotropic reservoirs. Using a state-of-the-art productivity index model, the study...

Smith, Christopher Jason

2012-06-07

408

14. VIEW OF BOTTOM LATERAL BRACING WITH STRINGERS AND FLOOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. VIEW OF BOTTOM LATERAL BRACING WITH STRINGERS AND FLOOR BEAMS, NORTHWEST SPAN, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Linden Avenue Bridge, Spanning Purgatoire River on Linden Avenue, Trinidad, Las Animas County, CO

409

Quantifying molecular stiffness and interaction with lateral force microscopy.  

PubMed

The spatial resolution of atomic force microscopy (AFM) can be drastically increased by terminating the tip with a single carbon monoxide (CO) molecule. However, the CO molecule is not stiff, and lateral forces, such as those around the sides of molecules, distort images. This issue begs a larger question of how AFM can probe structures that are laterally weak. Lateral force microscopy (LFM) can probe lateral stiffnesses that are not accessible to normal-force AFM, resulting in higher spatial resolution. With LFM, we determined the torsional spring constant of a CO-terminated tip molecule to be 0.24 newtons per meter. This value is less than that of a surface molecule and an example of a system whose stiffness is a product not only of bonding partners but also local environment. PMID:24505131

Weymouth, Alfred John; Hofmann, Thomas; Giessibl, Franz J

2014-03-01

410

Commanding lateral acceleration: a natural paradigm for automobile steering  

E-print Network

This thesis describes a joystick automobile steering phics. controller which allows the driver to command the lateral acceleration of the vehicle directly, as opposed to controlling the front tire angle. The purpose of the controller is to improve...

Kenny, Andrew

1998-01-01

411

38. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, LATERAL ELEVATION OF CARETAKER'S COTTAGE FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, LATERAL ELEVATION OF CARETAKER'S COTTAGE FROM ENTRANCE HOUSE TERRACE (4' x 5' negative) - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

412

11. Detail of sway braces, struts and top lateral braces' ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Detail of sway braces, struts and top lateral braces' view to north-northwest - Milk River Bridge, Spanning Milk River approximately one mile north of Tampico on Tampico North Road, Tampico, Valley County, MT

413

PHOTO OPTION CURRICULUM (FOR STUDENTS ENTERING FALL, 2011 OR LATER)  

E-print Network

PHOTO OPTION CURRICULUM (FOR STUDENTS ENTERING FALL, 2011 OR LATER) NOTE ON REVERSE. GATE REQUIREMENTS FOR PHOTO OPTION: FILM 100IH ­ Introduction to Film)..................................................................3 PHOTO OPTION REQUIREMENTS (GATE REQUIRED FOR MOST COURSES): PHOT 255

Dyer, Bill

414

6. VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING TOP LATERAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING TOP LATERAL BRACING, MAIN TIE AND COUNTERS, SWAY STRUTS AND BRACING, AND INTERMEDIATE POSTS - Hart County Bridge, State Route 181, spanning Savannah River, Hartwell, Hart County, GA

415

Mother's Depression Tied to Later Delinquency in Kids  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mother's Depression Tied to Later Delinquency in Kids Treating parent's ... 2015) Monday, December 22, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Depression Parenting Teen Mental Health MONDAY, Dec. 22, 2014 ( ...

416

14. VIEW OF LOG BRIDGE (LATER SUPERSEDED BY THE WIREROPE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. VIEW OF LOG BRIDGE (LATER SUPERSEDED BY THE WIRE-ROPE SUSPENSION BRIDGE), SHOWING OVERHANG WHERE ROCK WAS BLASTED OUT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Goat Trail Mining Road, Highway 20, 1.5 miles North of Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

417

13. VIEW OF LOG BRIDGE (LATER SUPERSEDED BY THE WIREROPE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. VIEW OF LOG BRIDGE (LATER SUPERSEDED BY THE WIRE-ROPE SUSPENSION BRIDGE), SHOWING OVERHANG WHERE ROCK WAS BLASTED OUT, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Goat Trail Mining Road, Highway 20, 1.5 miles North of Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

418

10. EYEBAR PIN CONNECTION JOINING VERTICAL SUSPENSION STRINGER WITH LATERAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. EYEBAR PIN CONNECTION JOINING VERTICAL SUSPENSION STRINGER WITH LATERAL BRACING MEMBERS - Spruce Street Bridge, East Spruce Street, 500 Block, spanning Power Canal, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

419

Prolonged High Cholesterol in Middle Age Raises Heart Risk Later  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Prolonged High Cholesterol in Middle Age Raises Heart Risk Later: Study ... 2015) Monday, January 26, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Cholesterol Heart Diseases MONDAY, Jan. 26, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- ...

420

Being surveyed can change later behavior and related parameter estimates  

E-print Network

Does completing a household survey change the later behavior of those surveyed? In three field studies of health and two of microlending, we randomly assigned subjects to be surveyed about health and/or household finances ...

Zwane, Alix Peterson

421

Electron tunneling and spin relaxation in a lateral quantum dot  

E-print Network

We report measurements that use real-time charge sensing to probe a single-electron lateral quantum dot. The charge sensor is a quantum point contact (QPC) adjacent to the dot and the sensitivity is comparable to other ...

Amasha, Sami

2008-01-01

422

13. DETAIL, LATERAL BRACING FOR INTERIOR OVERHEAD CRANE Delaware, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. DETAIL, LATERAL BRACING FOR INTERIOR OVERHEAD CRANE - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

423

Heterogeneity of cognitive impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis   

E-print Network

This PhD thesis examines the relationship between Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Frontotemporal dementia (FTD). ALS is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by muscle weakness, ...

Van Der Hulst, Egberdina Jozefa

2012-06-27

424

8. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING OUTRIGGERS FOR LATERAL BRACING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING OUTRIGGERS FOR LATERAL BRACING FOR TRUSSES AND BOTTOM CHORD CONNECTIONS. - White Bowstring Arch Truss Bridge, Spanning Yellow Creek at Cemetery Drive (Riverside Drive), Poland, Mahoning County, OH

425

6. Tempe Crosscut Canal, looking west from Division Gates. Lateral ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Tempe Crosscut Canal, looking west from Division Gates. Lateral at left is for local delivery of irrigation water. Photographer: Mark Durben, February 1989. Source: SRPA - Tempe Canal, South Side Salt River in Tempe, Mesa & Phoenix, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

426

Lateral-Pressure Profiles in Cholesterol-DPPC Bilayers  

E-print Network

By means of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, we study cholesterol-DPPC (dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine) bilayers of different composition, from pure DPPC bilayers to a 1:1 mixture of DPPC and cholesterol. The lateral-pressure profiles through the bilayers are computed and separated into contributions from the different components. We find that the pressure inside the bilayer changes qualitatively for cholesterol concentrations of about 20% or higher. The pressure profile then turns from a rather flat shape into an alternating sequence of regions with large positive and negative lateral pressure. The changes in the lateral-pressure profile are so characteristic that specific interaction between cholesterol and molecules such as membrane proteins mediated solely via the lateral-pressure profile might become possible.

Michael Patra

2005-04-05

427

Archives, Records, and Information Management Specialization Fall 2013 and Later  

E-print Network

Archives, Records, and Information Management Specialization ­ Fall 2013 and Later Core Courses 680 Principles of Records and Information Management _____ LBSC 682 Management of Electronic Records, Records, and Information Management _____ LBSC 789 Special Topics in Contemporary Archives Three Electives

Golbeck, Jennifer

428

Lateral crural tensioning for refinement of the wide and underprojected nasal tip: rethinking the lateral crural steal.  

PubMed

Refinement of the wide, ptotic, under protected tip is one of the most difficult challenges in cosmetic nasal surgery yet also among the most common. Although excisional techniques can produce reductions in lobular width, long-term contour alterations are unpredictable and subject to stigmatic tip deformity. Preservation of natural tip support is a fundamental requirement of a successful rhinoplasty. The traditional lateral crural steal is a useful technique for tip refinement, but, when combined with a sturdy septal extension graft, the modified lateral crural steal (lateral crural tensioning) becomes a more potent and versatile rhinoplasty technique that can improve tip contour without jeopardizing function or structural stability. PMID:25430927

Davis, Richard E

2015-02-01

429

Testing of lateral water flow in a moisture barrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have performed large-scale lateral-flow tests in a fine-textured material overlying a coarser medium. The goal was to investigate the effectiveness of a moisture barrier where the finer material has the texture of a silty sand. When we tested for induced lateral flow, a geotextile inhibited penetration of two overlying materials of different particle sizes. Our wick system provided data

W. V. Abeele; G. L. DePoorter

1984-01-01

430

Lateral prefrontal cortex and self-control in intertemporal choice.  

PubMed

Disruption of function of left, but not right, lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) with low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) increased choices of immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards. rTMS did not change choices involving only delayed rewards or valuation judgments of immediate and delayed rewards, providing causal evidence for a neural lateral-prefrontal cortex-based self-control mechanism in intertemporal choice. PMID:20348919

Figner, Bernd; Knoch, Daria; Johnson, Eric J; Krosch, Amy R; Lisanby, Sarah H; Fehr, Ernst; Weber, Elke U

2010-05-01

431

Released micromachined beams utilizing laterally uniform porosity porous silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suspended micromachined porous silicon beams with laterally uniform porosity are reported, which have been fabricated using standard photolithography processes designed for compatibility with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) processes. Anodization, annealing, reactive ion etching, repeated photolithography, lift off and electropolishing processes were used to release patterned porous silicon microbeams on a Si substrate. This is the first time that micromachined, suspended PS microbeams have been demonstrated with laterally uniform porosity, well-defined anchors and flat surfaces.

Sun, Xiao; Keating, Adrian; Parish, Giacinta

2014-08-01

432

Lateral interband tunneling transistor in silicon-on-insulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a lateral interband tunneling transistor, where the source and drain form a heavily doped lateral pn junction in a thin Si film on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate. The transistor action results from the control of the reverse-bias tunneling breakdown under drain bias VD by a gate voltage VG. We observe gate control over tunneling drain current ID

C. Aydin; A. Zaslavsky; S. Luryi; S. Cristoloveanu; D. Mariolle; D. Fraboulet; S. Deleonibus

2004-01-01

433

Large Lateral Photovoltaic Effect in Metal-(Oxide-) Semiconductor Structures  

PubMed Central

The lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) can be used in position-sensitive detectors to detect very small displacements due to its output of lateral photovoltage changing linearly with light spot position. In this review, we will summarize some of our recent works regarding LPE in metal-semiconductor and metal-oxide-semiconductor structures, and give a theoretical model of LPE in these two structures. PMID:22163463

Yu, Chongqi; Wang, Hui

2010-01-01

434

Microdomain Ordering in Laterally Confined Block Copolymer Thin Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the effects of small-scale, hexagonal, lateral confinement on microdomain ordering in AB diblock copolymer thin films using self-consistent field theory simulations. Specifically, we examine a hexagonal confinement well with side length L approximately equal to five cylindrical microdomain lattice spacings. The commensurability constraints of the small-scale, lateral confinement, coupled with surface- induced effects allow the confining well to

August W. Bosse; Carlos J. Garc ´ õa-Cervera; Glenn H. Fredrickson

2007-01-01

435

Endodontic treatment of maxillary lateral incisors with anatomical variations  

PubMed Central

Maxillary lateral incisors usually exhibit a single root with a single canal. However, maxillary lateral incisor teeth with unusual morphology of root canal system are frequently reported. These cases of variable root canal anatomy can be treated well by nonsurgical endodontic methods. A detailed description of root canal morphology is fundamental for successful endodontic treatment. Treatment using an operating microscope, radiographs from different angles, and cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) can produce more predictable endodontic outcomes. PMID:24303362

Lee, Moon-Hwan; Ha, Jung-Hong; Jin, Myoung-Uk; Kim, Young-Kyung

2013-01-01

436

Socially dependent auditory laterality in domestic horses ( Equus caballus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laterality is now known to be an ubiquitous phenomenon among the vertebrates. Particularly, laterality of auditory processing\\u000a has been demonstrated in a variety of species, especially songbirds and primates. Such a hemispheric specialization has been\\u000a shown to depend on factors such as sound structure, species specificity and types of stimuli. Much less is known on the possible\\u000a influence of social

Muriel Basile; Sarah Boivin; Anaïs Boutin; Catherine Blois-Heulin; Martine Hausberger; Alban Lemasson

2009-01-01

437

Field measurement of lateral earth pressures on retaining walls  

E-print Network

FIELD MEASUREMENT OF LATERAL EARTH PRESSURES ON RETAINING WALLS A Thesis by Michael Riggins Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1974... Major Subject: Civil Engineering FIELD MEASUREMENT OF LATERAL EARTH PRESSURES ON RETAINING WALLS A Thesis by Michael Riggins Approved as to style and content by: Cha rman of Committee Memb r Head of Departm t P Etc Member August 1974 ABSTRACT...

Riggins, Michael

2012-06-07

438

Lateral epicondylitis in tennis: update on aetiology, biomechanics and treatment.  

PubMed

Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) is the most frequent type of myotendinosis and can be responsible for substantial pain and loss of function of the affected limb. Tennis biomechanics, player characteristics and equipment are important in preventing the condition. This article presents an overview of the current knowledge on lateral epicondylitis, and focuses on treatment strategies. Conservative and surgical treatment options are discussed, and recent techniques are outlined. PMID:17616547

De Smedt, Thomas; de Jong, Andy; Van Leemput, Wim; Lieven, Dossche; Van Glabbeek, Francis

2007-11-01

439

Lateral thinkers are not so laterally minded: hemispheric asymmetry, interaction, and creativity.  

PubMed

The biological basis of creativity remains a topic of contention. A long-held view suggests that whereas the left hemisphere is intelligent and analytic, the right hemisphere is the source of all creativity. Consequently, activating the right hemisphere should enhance creative thinking, prompting a plethora of popular books hawking a right hemisphere solution to topics ranging from drawing, to money management, to sex. More recently, an alternate proposal has suggested that creativity is not a lateralised function; instead, creativity is argued to stem from the interaction and integration of information across both the left and right hemispheres. According to this view, individuals with greater interhemispheric communication and/or less-lateralised brains will evidence enhanced creative ability. This paper reviews the neural basis of creativity to determine whether creativity stems from activation of the right hemisphere, or from the interaction of both hemispheres. The relationship between creativity and psychopathology is also examined, evaluating the evidence for a causal link between disorders such as schizophrenia, hemispheric activation, and enhanced creativity. Although the research reviewed indicates greater right hemisphere activity during creative tasks, the interaction between many varied, often distant, cortical regions across both the left and right hemispheres is also a crucial component of creativity. This interaction facilitates the integration of a variety of separate cognitive abilities, fostering creative thinking. As such, creativity is better conceptualised as a distributed, rather than a purely lateralised, function; more lateral thinkers have less lateralised brains. PMID:21140315

Lindell, Annukka K

2011-07-01

440

Lateral line canal morphology and signal to noise ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lateral line system of fish is important for many behaviors, including spatial orientation, prey detection, shoaling, intra specific communication and entraining. The smallest sensory unit of the lateral line is the neuromast that occurs free standing on the skin and in fluid filled canals. With aid of the lateral line fish perceive minute water motions. In their natural habitat fish are not only faced with biotic water motion but also with the abiotic fluctuations caused by various inanimate sources. The detection of meaningful signals is crucial for survival, and therefore animals should be able to separate meaningful signals from noise. Fishes live in various habitats (e.g. in still water or in running water). Therefore it is not surprising that the number and distribution of neuromasts as well as canal dimension, canal shape and canal branching patterns differ among fish species. We studied how lateral line canal parameters influence the filter properties of lateral line canals. To do so we exposed artificial lateral line canals, equipped with artificial neuromasts (sensors), to the vortex street shed by a submerged cylinder and to air bubble noise. We found that certain canal parameters significantly can enhance the signal to noise ratio.

Klein, Adrian; Herzog, Hendrik; Bleckmann, Horst

2011-04-01

441

Lateral bending of the lumbar spine during quadrupedalism in strepsirhines.  

PubMed

Much research has been devoted to spinal kinematics of nonmammalian vertebrates, while comparatively little is known about the locomotor role of spinal movements in mammals, especially primates. This study, conducted at the Duke University Primate Center, examines the function of lateral spinal bending during quadrupedal walking among a diverse sample of strepsirhines. The taxa studied include Loris tardigradus (1), Nycticebus coucang (1), N. pygmaeus (1), Cheirogaleus medius (2), Varecia variegata (2), Eulemur fulvus (2), and a total sample size of 261 strides. Lateral bending varies among the taxa with respect to both magnitude and effects of velocity, and does not appear to be correlated with body size. In addition, the timing of lateral bending during a stride appears to differ from that reported for other (nonmammalian) tetrapods. On average, maximum lateral flexion occurs just after ipsilateral foot touchdown, which may be functionally associated with touchdown of the contralateral forelimb during diagonal sequence gait. For some of the taxa, lateral flexion coincides more closely with foot touchdown as velocity increases, suggesting a functional role in increasing hindlimb stride length. Both of these timing patterns contrast with those reported for lizards. Finally, although lorids as a group have been described as having a "sinuous" gait, this study shows more pronounced lateral flexion in Nycticebus than in Loris. PMID:11180987

Shapiro, L J; Demes, B; Cooper, J

2001-03-01

442

Effects of cyclic lateral loads on piles in sand  

SciTech Connect

The effect of repetitive lateral loads on deflections of two drilled piers in Tampa Bay were significantly greater than predicted by a p-y procedure commonly used in practice. Reasons for the discrepancy between predicted and measured deflections are discussed. Two methods for predicting the effect of repetitive lateral loads are developed using results of 34 cyclic lateral load tests to quantify model parameters important to the behavior of piles subjected to repetitive lateral loading. The two methods model cyclic lateral load behavior of a pile by degrading soil resistance as a function of number of cycles of load, method of pile installation, soil density, and character of cyclic load. The two methods differ in the computational effort required to make the prediction. The first method is most suitable for hand calculation and rule-of-thumb estimation and is based upon a beam-on-an-elastic foundation model with a soil reaction modulus, K{sub h}, increasing proportionally with depth. The second method modifies nonlinear static p-y curves to derive a cyclic p-y curve. The two methods provides a simple means for estimating effects of cyclic lateral load.

Long, J.H. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Vanneste, G.

1994-01-01

443

Initiation and elongation of lateral roots in Lactuca sativa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lactuca sativa cv. Baijianye seedlings do not normally produce lateral roots, but removal of the root tip or application of auxin, especially indole-butyric acid, triggered the formation of lateral roots. Primordia initiated within 9 h and were fully developed after 24 h by activating the pericycle cells opposite the xylem pole. The pericycle cells divided asymmetrically into short and long cells. The short cells divided further to form primordia. The effect of root tip removal and auxin application was reversed by 6-benzylaminopurine at concentrations >10(-8) M. The cytokinin oxidase inhibitor N1-(2chloro4pyridyl)-N2-phenylurea also suppressed auxin-induced lateral rooting. The elongation of primary roots was promoted by L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl) glycine and silver ions, but only the latter enhanced elongation of lateral roots. The data indicate that the induction of lateral roots is controlled by basipetally moving cytokinin and acropetally moving auxin. Lateral roots appear to not produce ethylene.

Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.

1999-01-01

444

Lockhart Clarke's contribution to the description of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

The definition of the clinicopathological entity of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis evolved over half a century. Although the definitive term amyotrophic lateral sclerosis that acknowledged both upper and lower motor neuron involvement was attributed to Jean-Martin Charcot in 1874, his initial case was published nearly a decade earlier; and it is accepted that, from at least the 1830s, several others (including Charles Bell, François-Amilcar Aran and Jean Cruveilhier) had already recognized a progressive lower motor neuron-only syndrome within a broader, clinically-defined group of disorders, termed progressive muscular atrophy. Although William Gowers first grouped the three phenotypes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, progressive muscular atrophy and progressive bulbar palsy together as part of the same syndrome, the term motor neuron disease, as an over-arching label, was not suggested until nearly a century later by W. Russell Brain. Augustus Jacob Lockhart Clarke (1817-80) is best known for his descriptions of spinal cord anatomy. However, in two detailed case reports from the 1860s, he carried out rigorous post-mortem neuropathological studies of what appear to be classical cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Furthermore, he recognized the additional involvement of the corticospinal tracts that distinguished this from progressive muscular atrophy. Several aspects of the exquisite clinical histories documented as part of both studies, one by Charles Bland Radcliffe, resonate with contemporary debates concerning the evolution of disease in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These 'past masters' still have much to teach us. PMID:20576696

Turner, Martin R; Swash, Michael; Ebers, George C

2010-11-01

445

Lateral line diversity among ecologically divergent threespine stickleback populations  

PubMed Central

The lateral line is a mechanoreceptive sensory system that allows fish to sense objects and motion in their local environment. Variation in lateral line morphology may allow fish in different habitats to differentially sense and respond to salient cues. Threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) occupy a diverse range of aquatic habitats; we therefore hypothesized that populations within the G. aculeatus species complex might show variation in the morphology of the lateral line sensory system. We sampled 16 threespine stickleback populations from marine, stream and lake (including benthic and limnetic) habitats and examined the distribution, type and number of neuromasts on different regions of the body. We found that the threespine stickleback has a reduced lateral line canal system, completely lacking canal neuromasts. Although the arrangement of lines of superficial neuromasts on the body was largely the same in all populations, the number of neuromasts within these lines varied across individuals, populations and habitats. In pairwise comparisons between threespine sticklebacks adapted to divergent habitats, we found significant differences in neuromast number. Stream residents had more neuromasts than marine sticklebacks living downstream in the same watershed. In two independent lakes, benthic sticklebacks had more trunk neuromasts than sympatric limnetic sticklebacks, providing evidence for parallel evolution of the lateral line system. Our data provide the first demonstration that the lateral line sensory system can vary significantly between individuals and among populations within a single species, and suggest that this sensory system may experience different selection regimes in alternative habitats. PMID:20008367

Wark, A. R.; Peichel, C. L.

2010-01-01

446

Lateralization for dynamic facial expressions in human superior temporal sulcus.  

PubMed

Most face processing studies in humans show stronger activation in the right compared to the left hemisphere. Evidence is largely based on studies with static stimuli focusing on the fusiform face area (FFA). Hence, the pattern of lateralization for dynamic faces is less clear. Furthermore, it is unclear whether this property is common to human and non-human primates due to predisposing processing strategies in the right hemisphere or that alternatively left sided specialization for language in humans could be the driving force behind this phenomenon. We aimed to address both issues by studying lateralization for dynamic facial expressions in monkeys and humans. Therefore, we conducted an event-related fMRI experiment in three macaques and twenty right handed humans. We presented human and monkey dynamic facial expressions (chewing and fear) as well as scrambled versions to both species. We studied lateralization in independently defined face-responsive and face-selective regions by calculating a weighted lateralization index (LIwm) using a bootstrapping method. In order to examine if lateralization in humans is related to language, we performed a separate fMRI experiment in ten human volunteers including a 'speech' expression (one syllable non-word) and its scrambled version. Both within face-responsive and selective regions, we found consistent lateralization for dynamic faces (chewing and fear) versus scrambled versions in the right human posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), but not in FFA nor in ventral temporal cortex. Conversely, in monkeys no consistent pattern of lateralization for dynamic facial expressions was observed. Finally, LIwms based on the contrast between different types of dynamic facial expressions (relative to scrambled versions) revealed left-sided lateralization in human pSTS for speech-related expressions compared to chewing and emotional expressions. To conclude, we found consistent laterality effects in human posterior STS but not in visual cortex of monkeys. Based on our results, it is tempting to speculate that lateralization for dynamic face processing in humans may be driven by left-hemispheric language specialization which may not have been present yet in the common ancestor of human and macaque monkeys. PMID:25463458

De Winter, François-Laurent; Zhu, Qi; Van den Stock, Jan; Nelissen, Koen; Peeters, Ronald; de Gelder, Beatrice; Vanduffel, Wim; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu

2015-02-01

447

Linking lateral interactions in flicker perception to lateral geniculate nucleus cell responses  

PubMed Central

The perception of flicker strength in a circular stimulus can be changed by altering the relative temporal phase of a simultaneously flickering surrounding annulus: perceived flicker is weak when the two stimuli are modulated in-phase and strong when the two are modulated in counter-phase. Previously, we found that responses of single neurons in the monkey lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) to such stimuli resemble the psychophysical data. On the basis of the resemblance in data, it was proposed that the physiological basis for the flicker perception may be present as proximal as the LGN. To strengthen this hypothesis, we simulated the response of an array of LGN neurons, the