Sample records for lateral humeral condyle

  1. Operative treatment of lateral humeral condyle fractures in children.

    PubMed

    Wirmer, Johannes; Kruppa, Christian; Fitze, Guido

    2012-08-01

    The operative treatment of lateral humeral condyle fractures in children remains controversial. The result of incorrectly treated fractures may lead to complications such as pseudoarthrosis and severe deformity, with considerable functional and cosmetic restrictions. The aim of this study was to determine whether operative treatment of lateral humeral condyle fractures in children using Screw-wires (Orthofix GmbH, Ottobrunn, Germany) has any advantage over treatment with Kirschner wires ("K-wires") (aap-Implantate AG, Berlin, Germany). These results were then compared with operative treatment using lag-screw osteosynthesis. We treated surgically 76 cases of fracture of the lateral humeral condyle in children at the Department of Pediatric Surgery in Dresden between 1989 to 2002 and 2004 to 2008, from which 42 were available for follow-up examination. Within this group, there were seven children that were followed-up twice (in 1996 to 2002). Of these, 21 patients were treated with Screw-wires, and another 21 had K-wires inserted. The results were evaluated according to the Dhillon criteria. Only seven patients (17%) had a fair result in the overall grading according to the Dhillon criteria, four after K-wire and three after Screw-wire osteosyntheses. The remaining patients scored good to excellent results. There were no pseudoarthroses. Six patients (14%) had a varisation in the carrying angle between 10 and 16 degrees (three each procedure), and 15 patients (36%) had no difference in the carrying angle at all. Of these 15 patients, 10 were treated with Screw-wire osteosynthesis. Only one patient (2.4%) had a deficit of more than 10 degrees in elbow joint flexion, while only two (4.8%, one each procedure) had a deficit of more than 10 degrees in elbow joint extension, compared with the uninjured arm. Our results demonstrate that the employment of Screw-wire osteosynthesis is superior to the use of K-wires concerning the carrying angle while scoring alike on the other criteria. Compared with the use of lag screws, both treatments (K-wire and Screw-wire osteosyntheses) bear less risk of nonvascular necrosis or small metaphyseal fragment rupture, by comparable results in the overall outcome. Regarding the long-term development of healed fractures, changes in the carrying angle and the range of motion are of a small degree. Considering the results of this study, we recommend the use of Screw-wire osteosynthesis in the operative treatment of lateral humeral condyle fractures in children. PMID:22570126

  2. Giant cell tumour-a very rare differential for a lytic lesion of the medial condyle of the humerous.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jatin; Mehtani, Anil; Baruah, Tankeshwar

    2015-01-01

    Tumours are rare around the elbow joint, and giant cell tumours are especially rare in this region. A single case report of a giant cell involving the distal humerous was found in the literature and none were found involving the isolated medial condyle. We present a rare case of a 22-year-old woman with progressively increasing painful swelling in her left elbow over a period of 6?months. A plain radiograph revealed an expansile epiphyseometaphyseal, radiolucent lesion in the medial end of the distal humerous, with the rim being thin but still intact. The MRI of the elbow revealed a solid lesion in the medial aspect of the elbow with no breach of cortex. Biopsy of the lesion revealed multinucleated giant cells along with mononuclear cells consistent with a diagnosis of giant cell tumour. Extended curettage with bone cement was performed through an anterior approach. There has been no recurrence of the tumour in 2 years of follow-up; the patient has a good range of elbow movements of 20-110°. PMID:26113586

  3. Two Patients with Osteochondral Injury of the Weight-Bearing Portion of the Lateral Femoral Condyle Associated with Lateral Dislocation of the Patella

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Hiroaki; Atsumi, Satoru; Ichimaru, Shohei; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Complications of patellar dislocation include osteochondral injury of the lateral femoral condyle and patella. Most cases of osteochondral injury occur in the anterior region, which is the non-weight-bearing portion of the lateral femoral condyle. We describe two patients with osteochondral injury of the weight-bearing surface of the lateral femoral condyle associated with lateral dislocation of the patella. The patients were 18- and 11-year-old females. Osteochondral injury occurred on the weight-bearing surface distal to the lateral femoral condyle. The presence of a free osteochondral fragment and osteochondral injury of the lateral femoral condyle was confirmed on MRI and reconstruction CT scan. Treatment consisted of osteochondral fragment fixation or microfracture, as well as patellar stabilization. Osteochondral injury was present in the weight-bearing portion of the lateral femoral condyle in both patients, suggesting that the injury was caused by friction between the patella and lateral femoral condyle when the patella was dislocated or reduced at about 90° flexion of the knee joint. These findings indicate that patellar dislocation may occur and osteochondral injury may extend to the weight-bearing portion of the femur even in deep flexion, when the patella is stabilized on the bones of the femoral groove. PMID:25506015

  4. Quantitative proteomics reveals regulatory differences in the chondrocyte secretome from human medial and lateral femoral condyles in osteoarthritic patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is a destructive joint disease and there are no known biomarkers available for an early diagnosis. To identify potential disease biomarkers and gain further insight into the disease mechanisms of OA we applied quantitative proteomics with SILAC technology on the secretomes from chondrocytes of OA knees, designated as high Mankin (HM) scored secretome. A quantitative comparison was made between the secretomes of the medial and lateral femur condyle chondrocytes in the same knee since the medial femur condyle is usually more affected in OA than the lateral condyle, which was confirmed by Mankin scoring. The medial/lateral comparison was also made on the secretomes from chondrocytes taken from one individual with no clinically apparent joint-disease, designated as low Mankin (LM) scored secretome. Results We identified 825 proteins in the HM secretome and 69 of these showed differential expression when comparing the medial and lateral femoral compartment. The LM scored femoral condyle showed early signs of OA in the medial compartment as assessed by Mankin score. We here report the identification and relative quantification of several proteins of interest for the OA disease mechanism e.g. CYTL1, DMD and STAB1 together with putative early disease markers e.g. TIMP1, PPP2CA and B2M. Conclusions The present study reveals differences in protein abundance between medial/lateral femur condyles in OA patients. These regulatory differences expand the knowledge regarding OA disease markers and mechanisms. PMID:24090399

  5. Selective lateral muscle activation in moderate medial knee osteoarthritis subjects does not unload medial knee condyle.

    PubMed

    Brandon, Scott C E; Miller, Ross H; Thelen, Darryl G; Deluzio, Kevin J

    2014-04-11

    There is some debate in the literature regarding the role of quadriceps-hamstrings co-contraction in the onset and progression of knee osteoarthritis. Does co-contraction during walking increase knee contact loads, thereby causing knee osteoarthritis, or might it be a compensatory mechanism to unload the medial tibial condyle? We used a detailed musculoskeletal model of the lower limb to test the hypothesis that selective activation of lateral hamstrings and quadriceps, in conjunction with inhibited medial gastrocnemius, can actually reduce the joint contact force on the medial compartment of the knee, independent of changes in kinematics or external forces. "Baseline" joint loads were computed for eight subjects with moderate medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) during level walking, using static optimization to resolve the system of muscle forces for each subject's scaled model. Holding all external loads and kinematics constant, each subject's model was then perturbed to represent non-optimal "OA-type" activation based on mean differences detected between electromyograms (EMG) of control and osteoarthritis subjects. Knee joint contact forces were greater for the "OA-type" than the "Baseline" distribution of muscle forces, particularly during early stance. The early-stance increase in medial contact load due to the "OA-type" perturbation could implicate this selective activation strategy as a cause of knee osteoarthritis. However, the largest increase in the contact load was found at the lateral condyle, and the "OA-type" lateral activation strategy did not increase the overall (greater of the first or second) medial peak contact load. While "OA-type" selective activation of lateral muscles does not appear to reduce the medial knee contact load, it could allow subjects to increase knee joint stiffness without any further increase to the peak medial contact load. PMID:24581816

  6. Bone peg fixation of a large chondral fragment in the weight-bearing portion of the lateral femoral condyle in an adolescent: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Chondral fracture of the knee is relatively rare and the optimal treatment option for this injury is still controversial. In this report, we present the case of a patient with this injury who was treated surgically using the bone peg fixation procedure. There has been no literature reporting the use of this technique for fixation of a detached chondral fragment. Case presentation The patient was a 14-year-old Japanese boy who sustained a knee injury while kicking a soccer ball. Although routine radiographs showed no abnormality, magnetic resonance imaging showed a large full-thickness chondral defect in the weight-bearing portion of his lateral femoral condyle and a detached chondral fragment in the anterior region. The size of the defect (fragment) was 2cm by 1.5cm. At surgery, the chondral fragment was fixed with eight cortical bone pegs that were harvested from the anteromedial aspect of his tibia. Conclusions The postoperative magnetic resonance imaging at 4 months and the second-look arthroscopy at 12 months revealed apparent healing of the fragment. In the final follow-up examination at 26 months, a physical examination showed no swelling with recovery of full range of motion, and he could play soccer at the pre-injury level with no complaint. Based on the clinical course of this patient, it is thought that bone peg fixation can be a valuable option for fixation of a large chondral fracture of the knee. PMID:25248689

  7. Management of distal humeral coronal shear fractures.

    PubMed

    Yari, Shahram S; Bowers, Nathan L; Craig, Miguel A; Reichel, Lee M

    2015-05-16

    Coronal shear fractures of the distal humerus are rare, complex fractures that can be technically challenging to manage. They usually result from a low-energy fall and direct compression of the distal humerus by the radial head in a hyper-extended or semi-flexed elbow or from spontaneous reduction of a posterolateral subluxation or dislocation. Due to the small number of soft tissue attachments at this site, almost all of these fractures are displaced. The incidence of distal humeral coronal shear fractures is higher among women because of the higher rate of osteoporosis in women and the difference in carrying angle between men and women. Distal humeral coronal shear fractures may occur in isolation, may be part of a complex elbow injury, or may be associated with injuries proximal or distal to the elbow. An associated lateral collateral ligament injury is seen in up to 40% and an associated radial head fracture is seen in up to 30% of these fractures. Given the complex nature of distal humeral coronal shear fractures, there is preference for operative management. Operative fixation leads to stable anatomic reduction, restores articular congruity, and allows initiation of early range-of-motion movements in the majority of cases. Several surgical exposure and fixation techniques are available to reconstruct the articular surface following distal humeral coronal shear fractures. The lateral extensile approach and fixation with countersunk headless compression screws placed in an anterior-to-posterior fashion are commonly used. We have found a two-incision approach (direct anterior and lateral) that results in less soft tissue dissection and better outcomes than the lateral extensile approach in our experience. Stiffness, pain, articular incongruity, arthritis, and ulnohumeral instability may result if reduction is non-anatomic or if fixation fails. PMID:25984515

  8. Movements of temporomandibular condyles during swallowing.

    PubMed

    ?imi?, Samir; Šimunkovi?, Sonja Kraljevi?; Gospi?, Renata Kevilj; Badel, Tomislav; Dul?i?, Nikša; ?ati?, Amir

    2015-03-01

    There have been studies that investigated mandibular movements and positioning during swallowing, but the results were inconsistent, and still the exact position of the condyles during swallowing is unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to study the kinematics of the mandible and the condyles, and to determine the actual movement paths and position of mandible and condyles during the process of swallowing. The study was performed on a sample of 44 dental students. Measurements were done with an electronic axiograph. After non-occlusing attachment was fixed in the mouth, every subject swallowed for five times from the rest position. The final swallowing position of the left and the right condyles was measured in the sagittal plane. The final swallowing position of the sagittal incisal point was measured in sagittal, frontal and horizontal plane, and data was statistically analyzed. The condyles showed average movement toward posterior (left 0.17 mm, SD 0.28, right 0.16 mm, SD 0.25) and superior (left 0.14 mm, SD 0.20, right 0.14 mm, SD 0.23). Anterior and/or inferior position had 20% of participants. The average sagittal incisal point movement during swallowing was toward anterior (0.30 mm, SD 0.53) and superior (0.81 mm, SD 0.84). The mean mandibular lateral movement was 0.1 mm (SD 0.1). The results of the study suggest that retrusion during swallowing is not the rule, although on average there is a slight tendency of condylar movement toward posterior. Swallowing can be used as auxiliary method for determining vertical dimension of occlusion. PMID:26040084

  9. 21 CFR 872.3960 - Mandibular condyle prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Mandibular condyle prosthesis. 872.3960 Section... MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices...3960 Mandibular condyle prosthesis. (a) Identification. A mandibular condyle prosthesis is a device that...

  10. The effect of humeral rotation on elbow range-of-motion measurements.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Thomas; Azar, Frederick M; Mauck, Benjamin; Smith, Richard; Throckmorton, Thomas W

    2015-02-01

    In 84 patients (85 elbows), a standard goniometer was used to measure elbow flexion and extension with the forearm in 2 positions: full supination (humeral condyles parallel to floor) and neutral forearm rotation (ulnohumeral joint in relative internal rotation). All measurements were made by the same surgeon with a standardized technique. Mean absolute difference in elbow extension measurements was 8°. There was no difference in flexion between measurement positions. Mean difference between neutral and supinated measurements was 6° in extension. There was no difference in flexion for patients with contractures between 0° and 29°. In patients with flexion contractures of more than 30°, mean difference between neutral and supinated measurements was 12° in extension; there was no difference in flexion. Elbow goniometer extension measurements taken in neutral humeral rotation underestimated the degree of elbow hyperextension and elbow flexion contracture. We recommend taking elbow flexion arc measurements in the true plane of motion, with the humerus externally rotated by fully supinating the forearm, such that the distal humeral condyles are parallel to the floor. PMID:25658075

  11. Correlation between anatomical parameters of intertubercular sulcus and retroversion angle of humeral head

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Zhaoxun; Chen, Jun; Qu, Lianjun; Cui, Yan; Sun, Chao; Zhang, Hongxin; Yang, Xiaoming; Guan, Qingli

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To obtain anatomical data on intertubercular sulcus of humerus, evaluate the correlation between intertubercular sulcus and retroversion angle of humeral head, to guide the positioning of torsion angle of prosthesis during total shoulder arthroplasty and provide references for shoulder prosthesis design. Methods: Using a Siemens Ultrahigh speed 64- rows multi-slices spiral CT scanner and 20 dried adult humeral specimens (intact specimen, no fractures or pathological damage), of these, left lateral in 10 cases, right lateral in 10 cases, male or female all inclusive, specimens are all provided by Anatomy Department of Weifang Medical College, scan ranged from the highest point of humeral head to the distal ends of trochlea. And scanned data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: There is a linear correlation between the distance from intertubercular sulcus to central axis line of humeral head, position angle of intertubercular sulcus and retroversion angle of humeral head at the beginning slice of intertubercular sulcus. There is a linear correlation between position angle of intertubercular sulcus and retroversion angle of humeral head at the slice of surgical neck. Conclusion: There is a linear correlation between position of intertubercular sulcus and retroversion angle of humeral head, in total shoulder arthroplasty, using intertubercular sulcus as anatomical landmark will help to accurately position torsion angle of individualized prosthesis. Position angle of intertubercular sulcus is an objective, flexible positioning indicator.

  12. Central chondrosarcoma of a pediatric mandibular condyle: A case report and review

    PubMed Central

    Kumar Reddy, D. Sathya; Kishore Kumar, R. V.; Gali, Rajasekhar; Kannubaddy, Sridhar Reddy; Rao, Mallikarjuna; Akheel, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma of mandibular condyle is an extremely rare clinical entity with only 18 cases reported till date. We report a rare case of central myxoid chondrosarcoma in a 7 year old male child with a complaint of slow growing bony hard swelling of left mandibular condyle. Panoramic radiography and CT scan revealed a 5×3cm osteosclerotic and osteolytic lesion with cortical perforation on the medial side of the left mandibular condyle with a cortical expansion of lateral side. Segmental mandibulectomy with disarticulation of the left condyle was done. To the best of our knowledge it is the first case of chondrosarcoma of the paediatric mandibular condyle to be reported. The etiopathogenesis, clinical, radiological diagnosis and various treatment modalities of chondrosarcoma are discussed PMID:24987606

  13. Biomechanical and morphometric evaluation of occipital condyle for occipitocervical segmental fixation.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jae Taek; Takigawa, Tomoyuki; Sugisaki, Keizo; Espinoza Orías, Alejandro A; Inoue, Nozomu; An, Howard S

    2011-01-01

    Two recent novel techniques of occipital fixation are the occipitoatlantal (C0-C1) transarticular screw technique and the direct occipital condyle screw technique. The present study evaluated and compared the biomechanical stability of the direct occipital condyle screw and C0-C1 transarticular screw with the established method for craniocervical spine fixation using the midline occipital keel screw and C1 lateral mass screw. Morphometric evaluation of the occipital condyle and the hypoglossal canal was performed to avoid hypoglossal nerve injury during the screw placement. Thirteen recently frozen cadaveric specimens were used. The occipital condyle anatomy and the hypoglossal canal dimension were measured using reconstructed computed tomography images. Insertion torque and pullout strength were evaluated to compare the midline occipital keel screw, C0-C1 transarticular screw, C1 lateral mass screw, and direct occipital condyle screw. The dimensions of the occipital condyle allow use of a 3.5 or 4.0-mm diameter screw. Mean pullout strength was 1619.6 N for the midline occipital keel screw, 870.7 N for the C0-C1 transarticular screw, 707.0 N for the C1 lateral mass screw, and 431.7 N for the direct occipital condyle screw. Mean insertion torque was 0.55 Nm for the midline occipital keel screw, 0.32 Nm for the C0-C1 transarticular screw, 0.14 Nm for the C1 lateral mass screw, and 0.11 Nm for the direct occipital condyle screw. The condylar anatomy allows direct insertion of the occipital condyle screw and C0-C1 transarticular screw. These techniques are suitable options for the treatment of craniovertebral junction instabilities in selected patients. PMID:22027245

  14. Proximal humeral fractures: pin, plate, or replace.

    PubMed

    Neviaser, Robert J; Resch, Herbert; Neviaser, Andrew S; Crosby, Lynn A

    2015-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures are becoming increasingly common in individuals older than 60 years, with only fractures of the hip and distal radius occurring with a higher frequency. Most proximal humeral fractures can be managed without surgery; however, if a fracture is displaced or angulated, surgical treatment may be required. There are four main options for the surgical management of proximal humeral fractures: minimally invasive percutaneous reduction and fixation, open reduction and periarticular plating, hemiarthroplasty, and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. PMID:25745906

  15. Bifid mandibular condyle: CT and MRI appearance.

    PubMed

    Tutar, Onur; Bas, Ahmet; Gülsen, Gökçe; Bayraktarov, Elmar

    2012-01-01

    Bifid mandibular condyle (BMC) is a rare asymptomatic morphological alteration with no predilection for age group or gender. Its morphology varies from a shallow groove to two condylar heads with separate necks, oriented mediolaterally or anteroposteriorly. This report describes an unusual case of bilateral mediolateral bifid condyle in a 24-year-old female patient with the main complaint of mouth-opening limitation. MRI and CT findings revealed bilateral bifid condyle. PMID:22922936

  16. History of femoral head fracture and coronal fracture of the femoral condyles.

    PubMed

    Bartoní?ek, Jan; Rammelt, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    The first known description of the coronal fracture of the lateral femoral condyle was published by Busch in 1869. Hoffa used Busch's drawing in the first edition of his book in 1888 and accompanied it only with one sentence. A full case history of this fracture pattern was described by Braun in 1891. However, Braun's article fell into oblivion and so the fracture was popularized only in the fourth edition of Hoffa's textbook, particularly thanks to the drawing, rather than the brief description. Therefore, a fracture of the posterior femoral condyle, or more specifically, of the lateral condyle, could properly be called "Busch-Hoffa fracture". Femoral head fracture was initially described by Birkett in 1869. Of essential importance in this respect were the publications by Christopher in 1924 and, particularly, Pipkin's study of 1957, including his classification that is still in use today. A historically correct eponym for a femoral head fracture would therefore be "Birkitt-Pipkin fracture". PMID:25787681

  17. Arterial blood supply of the proximal humeral epiphysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Duparc; J.-M. Muller; P. Frçger

    2001-01-01

    The arterial blood supply of the proximal humeral epiphysis is known to derive mainly from the anterior humeral circumflex a. (ACA), but this description may minimize the role of the posterior circumflex humeral a. (PCA). The studies of Laing [9] and Gerber [3] emphasized the role of the ACA and of its branches, the ascending anterolateral artery and arcuate artery

  18. Osteochondritis dissecans of the humeral head.

    PubMed

    Lunden, Jason B; Legrand, Alexander B

    2012-10-01

    The patient was a 16-year-old adolescent male who was referred to an orthopaedic surgeon by his pediatrician for a chief complaint of persistent right shoulder pain and crepitus that limited his ability to participate in sporting activities. The patient's progressively worsening right shoulder pain and crepitus, despite no history of injury, was a concern. Therefore, conventional radiographs were completed, which demonstrated an area of radiolucency involving the humeral head. Due to concern for intra-articular pathology, a magnetic resonance arthrogram was ordered, which demonstrated findings consistent with an osteochondritis dissecans lesion of the humeral head. PMID:23023034

  19. 21 CFR 872.3960 - Mandibular condyle prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...temporary reconstruction of the mandibular condyle in patients who have undergone resective procedures to remove malignant or benign tumors, requiring the removal of the mandibular condyle. See § 870.3 of this chapter. [59 FR 65478, Dec. 20, 1994,...

  20. 21 CFR 872.3960 - Mandibular condyle prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...temporary reconstruction of the mandibular condyle in patients who have undergone resective procedures to remove malignant or benign tumors, requiring the removal of the mandibular condyle. See § 870.3 of this chapter. [59 FR 65478, Dec. 20, 1994,...

  1. 21 CFR 872.3960 - Mandibular condyle prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...temporary reconstruction of the mandibular condyle in patients who have undergone resective procedures to remove malignant or benign tumors, requiring the removal of the mandibular condyle. See § 870.3 of this chapter. [59 FR 65478, Dec. 20, 1994,...

  2. Osteochondroma of bilateral mandibular condyle: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qin; Yang, Chi; Chen, Min-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Osteochondroma represents the largest group of benign tumors of bone, which usually develops in long bones and relatively uncommon in the craniofacial region. The condyle and coronoid tip are the most common sites of occurrence in the mandible, but both sides of condyle involved has never been reported. Here, we describe a case of osteochondroma arising from the bilateral mandibular condyle. PMID:25932269

  3. Expandable Total Humeral Replacement in a Child with Osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Eric R.; Gao, Jidi; Groundland, John; Letson, G. Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Case. A right-handed 8-year-old female patient presented with a conventional, high-grade osteosarcoma involving her right humerus; through-shoulder amputation was recommended. After consultation, total humerus resection with expandable, total humeral endoprosthesis reconstruction was performed with a sleeve to encourage soft-tissue ingrowth. At three-year follow-up she has received one lengthening procedure and her functional scores are excellent. Conclusion. Total humeral resection and replacement in the pediatric population are rare and although early reports of expandable total humeral endoprosthesis outcomes demonstrate high failure rates, this patient's success indicates that expandable total humeral replacement is a viable option.

  4. Expandable Total Humeral Replacement in a Child with Osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Eric R; Gao, Jidi; Groundland, John; Binitie, Odion; Letson, G Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Case. A right-handed 8-year-old female patient presented with a conventional, high-grade osteosarcoma involving her right humerus; through-shoulder amputation was recommended. After consultation, total humerus resection with expandable, total humeral endoprosthesis reconstruction was performed with a sleeve to encourage soft-tissue ingrowth. At three-year follow-up she has received one lengthening procedure and her functional scores are excellent. Conclusion. Total humeral resection and replacement in the pediatric population are rare and although early reports of expandable total humeral endoprosthesis outcomes demonstrate high failure rates, this patient's success indicates that expandable total humeral replacement is a viable option. PMID:26090254

  5. In Vivo Motion of Femoral Condyles During Weight-Bearing Flexion After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture Using Biplane Radiography

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kaining; Yin, Li; Cheng, Liangjun; Li, Chuan; Chen, Cheng; Yang, Liu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate in vivo three- dimensional tibiofemoral kinematics and femoral condylar motion in knees with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency during a knee bend activity. Ten patients with unilateral ACL rupture were enrolled. Both the injured and contralateral normal knees were imaged using biplane radiography at extension and at 15°, 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120° of flexion. Bilateral knees were next scanned by computed tomography, from which bilateral three-dimensional knee models were created. The in vivo tibiofemoral motion at each flexion position was reproduced through image registration using the knee models and biplane radiographs. A joint coordinate system containing the geometric center axis of the femur was used to measure the tibiofemoral motion. In ACL deficiency, the lateral femoral condyle was located significantly more posteriorly at extension and at 15° (p < 0.05), whereas the medial condylar position was changed only slightly. This constituted greater posterior translation and external rotation of the femur relative to the tibia at extension and at 15° (p < 0.05). Furthermore, ACL deficiency led to a significantly reduced extent of posterior movement of the lateral condyle during flexion from 15° to 60° (p < 0.05). Coupled with an insignificant change in the motion of the medial condyle, the femur moved less posteriorly with reduced extent of external rotation during flexion from 15° to 60° in ACL deficiency (p < 0.05). The medial- lateral and proximal-distal translations of the medial and lateral condyles and the femoral adduction-abduction rotation were insignificantly changed after ACL deficiency. The results demonstrated that ACL deficiency primarily changed the anterior-posterior motion of the lateral condyle, producing not only posterior subluxation at low flexion positions but also reduced extent of posterior movement during flexion from 15° to 60°. Key Points Three-dimensional tibiofemoral kinematics and femoral condylar motion in ACL-deficient knees during upright weight-bearing flexion were measured using biplane radiography with the geometric center axis. ACL deficiency caused posterior subluxation of the lateral condyle with excess external femoral rotation at early flexion positions. On flexion from 15° to 60°, the lateral condyle moved slightly posteriorly in ACL deficiency leading to reduced extent of external femoral rotation. PMID:24149168

  6. Placement of occipital condyle screws for occipitocervical fixation in a pediatric patient with occipitocervical instability after decompression for Chiari malformation.

    PubMed

    Bekelis, Kimon; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Missios, Symeon; Belden, Clifford; Simmons, Nathan

    2010-08-01

    In cadaveric studies and recently in one adult patient the occipital condyle has been studied as an option to allow bone purchase by fixation devices. In the current case the authors describe the use of occipital condyle screws in a child undergoing occipitocervical fixation. To the best of the authors' knowledge this case is the first reported instance of this technique in a pediatric patient. This girl had a history of posterior fossa decompression for Chiari malformation Type I when she was 22 months of age. When she was 6 years old she presented with neck pain on flexion and extension of her head. Magnetic resonance imaging in flexion and extension revealed occipitocervical instability. She underwent an occiput to C-2 posterior arthrodesis with bilateral screw placement in the occipital condyles, C-2 lamina, and C-1 lateral masses. Postoperatively, she was neurologically intact. Computed tomography demonstrated a stable construct, and her cervical pain had resolved on follow-up. PMID:20672939

  7. Intra-articular fracture of the mandibular condyle: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yura, Shinya; Ohga, Noritaka; Ooi, Kazuhiro; Izumiyama, Yuri

    2012-07-01

    The authors describe a case of intra-articular fracture of the left mandibular condyle, successfully treated by the pumping technique in the upper and lower joint cavities, and show arthroscopic findings in these cavities. The patient was a 15-year-old boy whose maximum mouth opening was 30 mm. Computed tomography revealed a left intra-articular sagittal fracture of the condylar head. Aspiration of the hematoma in the upper and lower joint spaces was performed with ten pumping actions. In the upper and lower joint spaces, arthroscopic examination revealed the disappearance of the hematoma. The patient continued opening, protrusive, and lateral excursive exercises. One month after the surgery, the maximal interincisal distance was improved to 45 mm with straight opening. In the case presented, mouth-opening exercises, along with the pumping technique for treatment of an intraarticular fracture of the mandibular condyle, allowed satisfactory and stable results in the improvement of limited mouth movement. PMID:22916676

  8. Allograft reconstruction of segmental defects of the humeral head associated with posterior dislocations of the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Angel Antonio; Calvo, Angel; Domingo, Javier; Cuenca, Jorge; Herrera, Antonio; Malillos, Manuel

    2008-03-01

    Six men underwent operative management of defects of the humeral head involving at least 40% of the articular surface, following posterior dislocation of the humeral head. The cause of dislocation was a grand mal seizure in three and a fall in three cases. In five cases the dislocation was reduced under general anaesthesia, and in all the posterior dislocation recurred early. Time between dislocation and surgery ranged from 7 to 8 weeks. The defect in the head, revealed by CT, was filled with an allogeneic segment of humeral head contoured to restore the spherical shape. All the patients returned to their occupation 4 months later. The mean duration of follow-up was 62.6 (60-68) months. At discharge, four of the men had no complaints of pain, instability, clicking or catching; two had pain, clicking, catching and stiffness. Radiographs and CT revealed no failures of fixation or of incorporation of the allograft. In four cases the contour and volume of the graft were maintained, but in the two with a bad clinical result, flattening and collapse of the graft and osteoarthrosis were observed. If the procedure fails, prosthetic reconstruction should be simple because the skeletal anatomy has not been distorted. PMID:18243200

  9. Updated classification system for proximal humeral fractures.

    PubMed

    Mora Guix, José M; Pedrós, Juan Sala; Serrano, Alejandro Castaño

    2009-06-01

    Proximal humeral fractures can restrict daily activities and, therefore, deserve efficient diagnoses that minimize complications and sequels. For good diagnosis and treatment, patient characteristics, variability in the forms of the fractures presented, and the technical difficulties in achieving fair results with surgical treatment should all be taken into account. Current classification systems for these fractures are based on anatomical and pathological principles, and not on systematic image reading. These fractures can appear in many different forms, with many characteristics that must be identified. However, many current classification systems lack good reliability, both inter-observer and intra-observer for different image types. A new approach to image reading, following a well-designed set and sequence of variables to check, is needed. We previously reported such an image reading system. In the present study, we report a classification system based on this image reading system. Here we define 21 fracture characteristics and apply them along with classical Codman approaches to classify fractures. We base this novel classification system for classifying proximal humeral fractures on a review of scientific literature and improvements to our image reading protocol. Patient status, fracture characteristics and surgeon circumstances have been important issues in developing this system. PMID:19574487

  10. Updated Classification System for Proximal Humeral Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Guix, José M. Mora; Pedrós, Juan Sala; Serrano, Alejandro Castaño

    2009-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures can restrict daily activities and, therefore, deserve efficient diagnoses that minimize complications and sequels. For good diagnosis and treatment, patient characteristics, variability in the forms of the fractures presented, and the technical difficulties in achieving fair results with surgical treatment should all be taken into account. Current classification systems for these fractures are based on anatomical and pathological principles, and not on systematic image reading. These fractures can appear in many different forms, with many characteristics that must be identified. However, many current classification systems lack good reliability, both inter-observer and intra-observer for different image types. A new approach to image reading, following a well-designed set and sequence of variables to check, is needed. We previously reported such an image reading system. In the present study, we report a classification system based on this image reading system. Here we define 21 fracture characteristics and apply them along with classical Codman approaches to classify fractures. We base this novel classification system for classifying proximal humeral fractures on a review of scientific literature and improvements to our image reading protocol. Patient status, fracture characteristics and surgeon circumstances have been important issues in developing this system. PMID:19574487

  11. Aplasia of the mandibular condyle associated with some orthopaedic abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Canger, E M; Çelenk, P

    2012-01-01

    A rare case of aplasia of mandibular condyle associated with some other orthopaedic problems is presented. A 5-year-old boy attended our clinic with a chief complaint of facial asymmetry and chewing difficulty. The mandible was deviated to the left. The occlusion also showed a deflection to the left of the mandibular midline. He also had walking difficulty owing to a hip abnormality. Panoramic radiographic examination of the patient revealed that the left mandibular condyl was totally absent. The right condyle was unremarkable. His history revealed neither trauma nor any significant disease. Aplasia is a rare anomaly and means the insufficient development of the mandibular condyle. True agnesis of the mandibular condyle is extremely rare. Association of the manifestations of the patient with some orthopaedic problems makes this case interesting. PMID:22116127

  12. Humeral bone fragility in patients with shoulder prosthesis: a case of humeral periprosthetic refracture

    PubMed Central

    Giannotti, Stefano; Bottai, Vanna; Dell’Osso, Giacomo; Donati, Daniela; Bugelli, Giulia; De Paola, Gaia; Guido, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    Summary In recent decades there has been an increase in upper limb prosthetic surgery, primarily for the shoulder, for osteoarthritis disease and for traumatic pathology. It is occurring in parallel an increase in periprosthetic fractures of the humerus, although with less impact than other anatomical districts such as the hip. We report a case of humeral periprosthetic refracture in a 66-years-old female patient. The humerus bone quality is worse than in other districts in patient of the same age. The fragility humerus fracture are increasing, affecting relatively younger individuals than those with femoral neck fractures and represent an independent risk factor for the occurrence of subsequent fractures. Actually humeral BMD is underestimated by traditional densitometric evaluation techniques. PMID:22783338

  13. Osteonecrosis of the humeral head: results of replacement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven J. Hattrup; Robert H. Cofield

    2000-01-01

    One hundred twenty-seven shoulders treated with replacement arthroplasty for osteonecrosis of the humeral head were reviewed and assessed by mailed questionnaire for results, durability, and complications. These included 71 humeral head replacements and 56 total shoulder replacements. Thirty-six shoulders were lost to follow-up because of death of the patient; an additional 3 shoulders were lacking survey follow-up. Thus current follow-up

  14. CT Scan Method Accurately Assesses Humeral Head Retroversion

    PubMed Central

    Boileau, P.; Mazzoleni, N.; Walch, G.; Urien, J. P.

    2008-01-01

    Humeral head retroversion is not well described with the literature controversial regarding accuracy of measurement methods and ranges of normal values. We therefore determined normal humeral head retroversion and assessed the measurement methods. We measured retroversion in 65 cadaveric humeri, including 52 paired specimens, using four methods: radiographic, computed tomography (CT) scan, computer-assisted, and direct methods. We also assessed the distance between the humeral head central axis and the bicipital groove. CT scan methods accurately measure humeral head retroversion, while radiographic methods do not. The retroversion with respect to the transepicondylar axis was 17.9° and 21.5° with respect to the trochlear tangent axis. The difference between the right and left humeri was 8.9°. The distance between the central axis of the humeral head and the bicipital groove was 7.0 mm and was consistent between right and left humeri. Humeral head retroversion may be most accurately obtained using the patient’s own anatomic landmarks or, if not, identifiable retroversion as measured by those landmarks on contralateral side or the bicipital groove. PMID:18264854

  15. TMJ in facial class III deformity. Condyle/fossa relations

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Gonzalo; Olate, Sergio; Cantín, Mario; Vásquez, Bélgica; del Sol, Mariano; Fariña, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the joint space present in the TMJ of subjects diagnosed with Class III dentofacial deformity with an indication for orthognathic surgery. Fourteen subjects were recruited from the Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at the Universidad de La Frontera, Chile. All subjects were admitted to the study after signing an informed consent and undergoing cephalometric analyses to define the severity of the deformity. Then, the joint space was analyzed, studying a cone beam CT image of the TMJ, which was evaluated in the coronal and sagittal views, defining the most anterior, median and posterior joint space (sagittal view), as well as the lateral, median and medial joint space (coronal view). The data were recorded in millimeters by an observer and data were analyzed after measuring the same parameter at three different times. A student’s t-test was used for the analyses. Differences observed in both joints were not greater than 0.2 mm with spaces between 2 mm and 1.5 mm, thereby establishing the homogeneity of the sample, which presented no significant differences between the two joint spaces (right and left). It can be concluded that the joint space is symmetrical in both condyles and that no important changes are present compared to the results indicated in the international literature. PMID:25356133

  16. 21 CFR 872.3960 - Mandibular condyle prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...3960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3960 Mandibular condyle prosthesis. (a) Identification....

  17. [Orthognathic mandibular osteotomy and condyle positioning: update and innovation].

    PubMed

    Laurentjoye, Mathieu; Charton, Jérôme; Boileau, Marie-José

    2015-03-01

    The temporomandibular joints function in synergy with the dental occlusion within the manducatory system. Orthodontists and surgeons must take into account the condylar position since any problem related to positioning of the condyle could result in occlusal disorders including relapse and the risk of occurrence, decompensation or worsening of temporomandibular dysfunction. We wanted to answer three questions: What is the position of the condyle following orthognathic surgery? What benefit is there in repositioning the condyle? What means are available to check condylar position? Finally, in the light of the answers, we describe an innovative occlusal and condylar positioning device for mandibular osteotomies based on computer-assisted surgical planning techniques. It consists of a three-dimensional, printed guide enabling surgeons to position the condyles as desired. It is accurate, simple, reproducible, independent of operator experience as well as rapid and economical. PMID:25888044

  18. Osteochondroma of condyle: case discussion and review of treatment modalities.

    PubMed

    Arora, Piyush; Deora, Shakti Singh; Kiran, Shital; Bargale, Seema Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) forms a synovial articulation between the condyle and the cranium. It is a complex joint and shows hinge and gliding movements. Unlike other articulating heads, condyle grows with intramembranous ossification. TMJ is subjected to excessive loads throughout life as it supports essential functions such as mastication, deglutition, speech and respiration. Traumatic, neoplastic or non-neoplastic pathologies sometimes necessitate joint replacement therapy. Osteochondroma is one such benign tumour originating from condyle which requires surgical replacement of condyle with prosthesis. Various replacement methods have been designed in the past. Alloplastic grafts have been successfully used in joint replacement surgeries like hip joint, knee joint, etc. This case discussion supports the use of titanium-made condylar prosthesis for long-term functional stability of TMJ. PMID:24496065

  19. 21 CFR 888.3180 - Elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic uncemented prosthesis. 888.3180...ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3180 Elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic...

  20. 21 CFR 888.3180 - Elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic uncemented prosthesis. 888.3180...ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3180 Elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic...

  1. 21 CFR 888.3180 - Elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic uncemented prosthesis. 888.3180...ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3180 Elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic...

  2. A Review of Management Options for Proximal Humeral Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Robert W; Modi, Chetan S

    2014-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures are common and although the majority can be managed non-operatively, the optimal treatment of displaced or complex fractures remains controversial. Non-operative treatment is typically selected for minimally displaced fractures where union rates are high and good or excellent outcomes can be expected in approximately 80% of cases. The aims of surgical fixation are to restore articular surface congruency, alignment and the relationship between the tuberosities and the humeral head. Hemiarthroplasty provides patients with reliable pain relief and its indications include fracture dislocations, humeral head splitting fractures and some three- and four- part fractures. The key areas of surgical technique that influence functional outcome include correctly restoring the humeral height, humeral version and tuberosity position. Function, however, is poor if the tuberosities either fail to unite or mal-unite. The interest in reverse shoulder arthroplasty as an alternative option has therefore recently increased, particularly in older patients with poor bone quality and tuberosity comminution. The evidence supporting this, however, is currently limited to multiple case series with higher level studies currently underway. PMID:25067968

  3. Computed tomographic study of the patterns of oesteoarthritic change which occur on the mandibular condyle.

    PubMed

    Lim, Mi-Ji; Lee, Jeong-Yun

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate which parts of the articular surface of the mandibular condyle are involved in osteoarthritic (OA) change (the occurring pattern) and the relationship of these patterns to clinical signs and symptoms. The computed tomographic (CT) images and clinical records of patients with OA involvement of one or both of their temporomandibular joints (TMJs) were reviewed (OA changes confirmed by CT; 684 TMJs included). The condylar articular surface was divided into nine imaginary sections on the CT images: antero-medial (AM), antero-central (AC), antero-lateral (AL), centri-medial (CM), centri-central (CC), centri-lateral (CL), postero-medial (PM), postero-central (PC), and postero-lateral (PL) section. The occurring patterns were classified with hierarchical cluster analysis based on the distribution of the sections involved by OA changes. OA changes were observed the most frequently on the AC (62.4%) followed by the AM (55.0%), CC (48.2%), AL (43.0%), CL (43.3%), CM (33.3%), PC (28.9%), PL (25.3%), and PM (23.1%). The occurring patterns were classified into three types among which subjective joint pain (P < 0.001) and noise (P < 0.05) were more frequently reported in the entire-involved type followed by lateral- and antero-medial types in descending order, while no significant differences for age, gender, side, pain on palpation, clicking, crepitus, mouth opening range and craniomandibular index were observed. OA changes are more likely to occur on the anterior than the posterior and on the medial than the lateral surface of the mandibular condyle, while subjective joint pain and noise are more frequently reported with OA changes involving the lateral or entire part. Pain on palpation, noise, and mouth opening range were not related to the occurring pattern of OA changes. PMID:25240743

  4. Conservative orthodontic treatment of mandibular bilateral condyle fracture.

    PubMed

    Gašpar, Goran; Brakus, Ivan; Kova?i?, Ivan

    2014-09-01

    Maxillofacial trauma is rare in children younger than the age of 5 years (range 0.6%-1.2%), and they can require different clinical treatment strategies compared with fractures in the adult population because of concerns regarding mandibular growth and development of dentition. A 5-year-old girl with a history of falling from a bicycle 7 hours earlier was referred to the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery. Multislice computed tomographic examination demonstrated a bilateral fracture of the mandibular condyle neck associated with minimal fracture of the alveolar ridge of the maxilla. The multislice computed tomographic scan also demonstrated dislocation on the right condyle neck and, on the left side, a medial inclination of approximately 45 degrees associated with greenstick fracture of the right parasymphysis region. In this particular case, orthodontic rubber elastics in combination with fixed orthodontic brackets provided good results in the treatment of bilateral condyle neck fractures associated with greenstick fracture of parasymphysis. PMID:25098573

  5. Mandibular asymmetry: a three-dimensional quantification of bilateral condyles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The shape and volume of the condyle is considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of the mandibular deviation. Curvature analysis is informative for objectively assess whether the shape of the condyles matches that of the glenoid fossa. In this study, a three-dimensional (3-D) quantification of bilateral asymmetrical condyles was firstly conducted to identify the specific role of 3-D condylar configuration for mandibular asymmetry. Methods 55 adult patients, 26 males (26?±?5 yrs) and 29 females (26?±?5 yrs), diagnosed with mandibular asymmetry were included. The examination of deviation of chin point, deviation of dental midlines, inclination of occlusal plane, and depth of the mandibular occlusal plane were conducted. After the clinical investigation, computed tomography images from the patients were used to reconstruct the 3-D mandibular models. Then the condylar volume, surface size, surface curvature and bone mineral density were evaluated independently for each patient on non-deviated and deviated sides of temporomandibular joint. Results Both the condylar surface size and volume were significantly larger on deviated side (surface size: 1666.14?±?318.3 mm2, volume: 1981.5?±?418.3 mm3). The anterior slope of the condyle was flatter (0.12?±?0.06) and the posterior slope (0.39?±?0.08) was prominently convex on the deviated side. The corresponding bone mineral density values were 523.01 ±118.1 HU and 549.07 ±120. 6 HU on anterior and posterior slopes. Conclusions The incongruence presented on the deviated side resulted in a reduction in contact areas and, thus, an increase in contact stresses and changes of bone density. All aforementioned results suggest that the difference existing between deviated and non-deviated condyles correlates with facial asymmetrical development. In mandibular asymmetry patients, the 3-D morphology of condyle on deviated side differ from the non-deviated side, which indicates the association between asymmetrical jaw function and joint remodeling. PMID:24354862

  6. Movements of the Mandibular Condyle Kinematic Center during Jaw Opening and Closing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Yatabe; A. Zwijnenburg; C. C. E. J. Megens; M. Naeije

    1997-01-01

    Little is known about the detailed kinematics of the human temporomandibular condyle during jaw opening and closing. According to the rotate and swing model by Osborn (1989), the condyle is kept in close contact with the articular eminence during opening. Whether the condyle is in closer contact with the articular eminence during opening than during closing is unknown. Another consequence

  7. Contribution of Axial Arm Rotation to Humeral Head Translation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eiji Itoi; Neil E. Motzkin; Bernard F. Morrey; Kai-Nan An

    1994-01-01

    The contribution of axial arm rotation to translation of the humeral head with the arm in the hanging position was examined using nine fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders. Three standard clinical tests were simulated: anterior and posterior translation and sulcus tests. In both the anterior translation and sulcus tests, anterior and infe rior displacements were significantly restricted in inter nal rotation but

  8. Primate Humeral Remains from the Middle Eocene of China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel L. Gebo; Marian Dagosto; K. Christopher Beard; Xijun Ni; Tao Qi

    2007-01-01

    Two distal humeral fragments are described from the middle Eocene Shanghuang fissures (southern Jiangsu Province, China). These specimens provide the first evidence of forelimb morphology among Shanghuang primates. One specimen belongs to an adapiform strepsirhine primate that is morphologically similar to European adapines, while the other pertains to a small haplorhine primate having numerous features in common with North American

  9. Occipital condyle to cervical spine fixation in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Kosnik-Infinger, Libby; Glazier, Steven S; Frankel, Bruce M

    2014-01-01

    Fixation at the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) is necessary in a variety of pediatric clinical scenarios. Traditionally an occipital bone to cervical fusion is preformed, which requires a large amount of hardware to be placed on the occiput of a child. If a patient has previously undergone a posterior fossa decompression or requires a decompression at the time of the fusion procedure, it can be difficult to anchor a plate to the occipital bone. The authors propose a technique that can be used when faced with this difficult challenge by using the occipital condyle as a point of fixation for the construct. Adult cadaveric and a limited number of case studies have been published using occipital condyle (C-0) fixation. This work was adapted for the pediatric population. Between 2009 and 2012, 4 children underwent occipital condyle to axial or subaxial spine fixation. One patient had previously undergone posterior fossa surgery for tumor resection, and 1 required decompression at the time of operation. Two patients underwent preoperative deformity reduction using traction. One child had a Chiari malformation Type I. Each procedure was performed using polyaxial screw-rod constructs with intraoperative neuronavigation supplemented by a custom navigational drill guide. Smooth-shanked 3.5-mm polyaxial screws, ranging in length from 26 to 32 mm, were placed into the occipital condyles. All patients successfully underwent occipital condyle to cervical spine fixation. In 3 patients the construct extended from C-0 to C-2, and in 1 from C-0 to T-2. Patients with preoperative halo stabilization were placed in a cervical collar postoperatively. There were no new postoperative neurological deficits or vascular injuries. Each patient underwent postoperative CT, demonstrating excellent screw placement and evidence of solid fusion. Occipital condyle fixation is an effective option in pediatric patients requiring occipitocervical fusion for treatment of deformity and/or instability at the CVJ. The use of intraoperative neuronavigation allows for safe placement of screws into C-0, especially when faced with a challenging patient in whom fixation to the occipital bone is not possible or is less than ideal. PMID:24206344

  10. Locked nailing of severely comminuted or segmental humeral fractures.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jinn; Hou, Sheng-Mou

    2003-01-01

    Some comminuted or segmental humeral fractures have been well-treated by functional bracing, but some also have been reported to have a bad outcome. If surgery is required, unlocked nailing has the disadvantage of unstable fixation, and plating has the disadvantage of extensive soft tissue injury. In the current study, closed locked nailing was used to treat 23 Orthopaedic Trauma Association Type C humeral fractures (C1, five; C2, three; C3, 15). The patients were 12 men and 11 women with a mean age of 42.4 years. There were 16 closed fractures and four Type I, two Type II, and one Type IIIA open fractures. Eight fractures were in the proximal third, seven in the middle third, and eight in the distal third. With one nailing, 21 of 23 (91%) fractures achieved solid union in an average of 13.2 weeks. The two nonunions eventually united after another revision nailing and bone grafting. No patients had significant impairment of elbow function. Excellent or satisfactory shoulder function was obtained in 20 patients. Closed locked nailing showed reliable treatment results for severely comminuted or segmental humeral fractures. The keys to success include compression of the fractures, static locking, postoperative external support, and experienced surgical technique. PMID:12579019

  11. Intrathoracic dislocation of the humeral head accompanied by polytrauma: How to treat it?

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinming; Yan, Jin; Wang, Shenhua; Zhong, Huiming; Zhou, Haibo

    2015-03-01

    High-energy trauma to the shoulder is associated with multiple injuries and is often difficult to evaluate. One of these complex traumas is the displacement of the humeral head into the thoracic cavity. This study aimed to report a patient who presented after falling three floors. Initially, the patient underwent chest drainage and thoracoscopy to remove the displaced humeral head and, subsequently, underwent delayed artificial humeral head replacement. Hemodynamic stability, systematic evaluation, removal of the humeral head, and individual shoulder reconstruction are recommended for these patients. PMID:25904278

  12. Posterior condyle surface damage on retrieved femoral knee components.

    PubMed

    Burnell, Colin D C; Brandt, Jan-M; Petrak, Martin J; Bourne, Robert B

    2011-12-01

    Twenty-two retrieved femoral knee components were identified with posterior condyle surface damage on average at 99° flexion (range, 43°-135° flexion). Titanium alloy material transfer and abrasive surface damage were evident on cobalt-chromium alloy femoral components that were in contact with titanium alloy tibial trays. Surface damage on the retrieved Oxinium femoral components (Smith and Nephew, Inc, Memphis, Tenn) that were in contact with titanium alloy tibial trays showed gouging, associated with the removal and cracking of the oxide and exposure of the zirconium-niobium alloy substrate. Cobalt-chromium alloy femoral components that were in contact with cobalt-chromium alloy tibial trays showed abrasive wear. Contact between the femoral component and tibial tray should be avoided to prevent surface damage to the femoral condyles, which could potentially accelerate polyethylene wear in vivo. PMID:21570806

  13. Occipital condyle syndrome secondary to bone metastases from rectal cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jordi Marruecos; Carlos Conill; Izaskun Valduvieco; Mauricio Vargas; Joan Berenguer; Joan Maurel

    2008-01-01

    Skull-base metastases are very unfrequent. Occipital condyle syndrome (OCS) is usually underdiagnosed. Until now few cases\\u000a have been reported in the literature. We present a 71-year-old woman with metastatic rectum adenocarcinoma, with right occipital\\u000a headache and ipsilateral hypoglossal palsy, diagnosed by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of OCS due to\\u000a a skull-base metastasis and treated with radiation therapy.

  14. Occipital condyle syndrome secondary to bone metastases from rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Marruecos, J; Conill, C; Valduvieco, I; Vargas, M; Berenguer, J; Maurel, J

    2008-01-01

    Skull-base metastases are very unfrequent. Occipital condyle syndrome (OCS) is usually underdiagnosed. Until now few cases have been reported in the literature. We present a 71-year-old woman with metastatic rectum adenocarcinoma, with right occipital headache and ipsilateral hypoglossal palsy, diagnosed by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of OCS due to a skull-base metastasis and treated with radiation therapy. PMID:18208794

  15. Chondrosarcoma of the mandible involving angle, ramus, and condyle.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Murguialday, Mikel; Lasa-Menéndez, Victor; Ignacio Iriarte-Ortabe, Jose; Couce, Marta

    2012-07-01

    Chondrosarcomas (CHSs) are malignant tumors of cartilaginous origin rarely found in the jawbone. Only 5% to 10% of CHSs occur in the head and neck region. These tumors have strong tendency to recur locally after surgical removal. Here, we present the case of a 45-year-old man with a CHS of the mandible. We describe the removal of the mandibular condyle, which requires the reconstruction of the temporomandibular joint. This raises the difficulty of reconstruction because of the location of the tumor in a region of great aesthetic and functional impact. In our case, the patient with computed tomography scan had a mandibular osteolytic and expansive multilocular lesion located in the mandibular branch and left mandibular angle involving the condyle. A biopsy revealed a moderately differentiated CHS (World Health Organization grade II). We decided to perform a wide surgical excision of the lesion without neck dissection because of the infrequent lymphatic spread. It was carried out with a left mandibulectomy, including the mandibular condyle. The reconstruction was performed by using a microsurgical fibula flap and fixing it to the meniscus and articular capsule with a Mitek anchor. The patient has no clinical signs of recurrence or aesthetic or functional limitations 3 years after surgery. This case has brought us to review a very uncommon matter in this location, which emphasizes the importance of a wide resection crucial in the disease prognosis. PMID:22801134

  16. Occipital condyle fractures: incidence and clinical follow-up at a level 1 trauma centre

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory M. Malham; Helen M. Ackland; Rachel Jones; Owen D. Williamson; Dinesh K. Varma

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the incidence, management, and outcomes of occipital condyle fractures at a level\\u000a 1 trauma center. Blunt trauma patients with occipital condyle fracture admitted to a level 1 trauma center over a 3-year period\\u000a were identified. Prospective clinical and functional follow-up was undertaken, including further radiographic imaging. The\\u000a incidence of occipital condyle fracture

  17. Outcome of locking compression plates in humeral shaft nonunions

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Malhar N; Ravindranath, V Pratap; Ravishankar, MR

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nonunion of diaphyseal fractures of the humerus are frequently seen in clinical practice (incidence of up to 15% in certain studies) and osteosynthesis using dynamic compression plates, intra medullary nails and Ilizarov fixators have been reported previously. Locking compression plates (LCP) are useful in the presence of disuse osteoporosis, segmental bone loss and cortical defects that preclude strong fixation. We report a prospective followup study of the outcome of the use of LCP for humeral nonunion following failed internal fixation in which implants other than LCP had been used. Materials and Methods: Twenty four patients with nonunion of humeral shaft fractures following failed internal fixation were included in the study. The mean followup period was 3.4 years (range: 2.4 to 5.7 years) and the minimum followup period was 2 years. Mean age of the patients was 41.04 years (range: 24 to 57 years). All 24 patients underwent osteosynthesis using LCP and autologous bone grafting (cortico-cancellous iliac crest graft combined with or without fibular strut graft). Main outcome measurements included radiographic assessment of fracture union and pre and postoperative functional evaluation using the modified Constant and Murley scoring system. Results: 23 out of 24 fractures united following osteosynthesis. Average time to union was 16 weeks (range: 10 to 28 weeks). Complications included delayed union (n = 2), transient radial nerve palsy (n = 2) and persistent nonunion (n = 1). Functional evaluation using the Constant and Murley score showed excellent results in 11, good in 10, fair in two and poor outcome in one patient. Conclusions: Locking compression plating and cancellous bone grafting is a reliable option for achieving union in humeral diaphyseal nonunion with failed previous internal fixation and results in good functional outcome in patients with higher physiological demands. PMID:23682176

  18. Tissue-engineered Neogenesis of Human-shaped Mandibular Condyle from Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Alhadlaq; J. J. Mao

    2003-01-01

    The temporomandibular joint is susceptible to diseases and trauma that may ultimately lead to structural degeneration. Current approaches for replacing degenerated mandibular condyles suffer from deficiencies such as donor site morbidity, immunorejection, implant wear and tear, and pathogen transmission. The hypothesis of this study was that a human-shaped mandibular condyle can be tissue-engineered from rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) encapsulated

  19. Structural Characterization of the Mandibular Condyle in Human Fetuses: Light and Electron Microscopy Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Ben-Ami; D. Lewinson; M. Silbermann

    1992-01-01

    Mandibular condyles from 18- to 20-week-old human fetuses were examined in the light and electron microscope with particular attention to intratissue organization and extracellular matrix. In the human fetus the condyle has been divided into five layers: (1) the most superficial, articular layer, (2) chondroprogenitor cell layer, (3) condroblast cell layer, (4) nonmineralized hypertrophic cell layer, and (5) mineralized hypertrophic

  20. Occipital condyle screw placement and occipitocervical instrumentation using three-dimensional image-guided navigation.

    PubMed

    Le, Tien V; Burkett, Clint; Ramos, Edwin; Uribe, Juan S

    2012-05-01

    Occipital condyle (OC) screws are an alternative cephalad fixation point in occipitocervical fusion. Safe placement of occipital, C1 lateral mass, and C2 pars screws have been described previously, but not OC screws. The craniocervical junction is complex, and a thorough understanding of the anatomy is needed. Three-dimensional (3D) image-guided navigation was used in six patients. There were no complications related to image-guided navigation during the placement of 12 OC screws and we found that this navigation can serve as a useful adjunct when placing an OC screw. Technical considerations of placing OC and C1 lateral mass screws are discussed with particular reference to patient positioning and the StealthStation® S7™ image-guided navigational platform (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA). The reference arc is attached to the head-clamp and faces forward. The optical camera and monitor are positioned at the head of the table for a direct, non-obstructed line-of-sight. To minimize intersegmental movement, the OC should not be drilled until all other screws have been placed. We conclude that 3D image-guided navigation is a useful adjunct that can be safely and effectively used for placement of instrumentation of the upper cervical spine including the OC. PMID:22356730

  1. Protection of the medial femoral condyle articular cartilage during drilling of the femoral tunnel through the accessory medial portal in anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Abdelkafy, Ashraf

    2012-12-01

    Accurate positioning of the femoral tunnel in the native femoral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) footprint requires drilling through an accessory medial portal (AMP). The AMP is located far medial and at a low level. Despite the benefits of drilling through the AMP, it is possible that the drill bit head will injure the articular cartilage of the medial femoral condyle as it slides along the guide pin to the femoral insertion of the ACL. Because more surgeons are now performing anatomic ACL reconstructions and shifting from transtibial drilling toward transportal drilling, the risk of this injury might be increasing, especially during the beginning of their learning curve. To avoid such injury, a bio-interference screw sheath is used. It is inserted through the AMP over the guide pin until it reaches near the medial wall of the lateral femoral condyle. The drill bit is inserted over the guide pin and through the bio-interference screw sheath. Using the bio-interference screw sheath not only protects the articular cartilage of the medial femoral condyle but also protects the medial meniscus, posterior cruciate ligament, and skin of the AMP from injury because of the close proximity of the drill bit head to these structures during transportal drilling. PMID:23766987

  2. Humeral chondrosarcoma in a Hokkaido brown bear (Ursus arctos yesoensis).

    PubMed

    Murakami, Tomoaki; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Chiba, Shiori; Kurauchi, Yuki; Sakamoto, Hideyuki; Sasaki, Motoki; Matsui, Takane

    2012-09-01

    Humeral chondrosarcoma was found in an 18-year-old male Hokkaido brown bear (Ursus arctos yesoensis). Necropsy revealed a large firm mass under the left superficial pectoral muscle at the axillary region. The mass involved the left shoulder joint and peripheral muscles, and connected to the head of the humerus with osteolysis. Histopathologically, the mass was composed of irregularly shaped myxomatous to cartilaginous tumor lobules. The tumor cell showed moderate nuclear atypia with a relatively high mitotic index, especially in the edges of the myxomatous lobules. The tumor cells were positively immunostained with vimentin and S-100 protein. Based on these findings, the tumors were diagnosed as chondrosarcoma. Metastases were found in the left axillary lymph node, lungs, liver and kidney. PMID:22571896

  3. Anterior plating as a surgical alternative in the treatment of humeral shaft non-union

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno Livani; William Belangero; Giovanna Medina; Ciro Pimenta; Rodrigo Zogaib; Mauricio Mongon

    2010-01-01

    This study included 15 patients with humeral shaft fractures who had no clinical, radiological or bone scan signs of healing\\u000a after eight months. The patients were followed for a mean of 35.8 months. No patient was lost to follow-up. Anterior plating\\u000a of humeral shaft nonunion via an anterior approach was performed using a straight plate and compression for well-vascularised\\u000a non-unions and wave

  4. Mosaic arthroplasty of the medial femoral condyle in horses - An experimental study.

    PubMed

    Bodó, Gábor; Vásárhelyi, Gábor; Hangody, László; Módis, László

    2014-06-01

    One Arabian and 5 Hungarian half-bred horses were used to study the macroscopic and microscopic survival of autologous osteochondral grafts in the weight-bearing surface of the medial femoral condyle (MFC). Grafts were harvested from the cranial surface of the medial femoral trochlea (MFT) under arthroscopic control. Three of them were transplanted into the weight-bearing surface of the contralateral MFC using an arthrotomy approach. Three months later this transplantation procedure was repeated on the opposite stifle joints in the same animals, but at that time transplantation was performed arthroscopically. Follow-up arthroscopy was carried out 12 months after the first operations, and biopsies were taken from both the recipient and the donor sites for histological examination. During follow-up arthroscopy, the transplanted areas looked congruent and smooth. Microscopically, the characteristics of hyaline cartilage were present in 5 out of the 10 biopsies examined; however, in the other half of biopsies glycosaminoglycan (GAG) loss and change in the architecture of the transplanted cartilage was observed. In a 16-year-old horse, all grafts broke during harvesting, and thus transplantation was not performed. No radiological signs of osteoarthritic changes were detected 9 to 12 months after the operations in the donor and recipient joints. Clinically, no lameness or effusion was present three months after the transplantations. PMID:24334083

  5. Relationship between mandibular condyle and angle fractures and the presence of mandibular third molars

    PubMed Central

    Mah, Deuk-Hyun; Moon, Seong-Yong; Oh, Ji-Su; You, Jae-Seek

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We retrospectively evaluated the impact of mandibular third molars on the occurrence of angle and condyle fractures. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective investigation using patient records and radiographs. The sample set consisted of 440 patients with mandibular fractures. Eruption space, depth and angulation of the third molar were measured. Results Of the 144 angle fracture patients, 130 patients had third molars and 14 patients did not. The ratio of angle fractures when a third molar was present (1.26 : 1) was greater than when no third molar was present (0.19 : 1; odds ratio, 6.58; P<0.001). Of the 141 condyle fractures patients, the third molar was present in 84 patients and absent in 57 patients. The ratio of condyle fractures when a third molar was present (0.56 : 1) was lower than when no third molar was present (1.90 : 1; odds ratio, 0.30; P<0.001). Conclusion The increased ratio of angle fractures with third molars and the ratio of condyle fractures without a third molar were statistically significant. The occurrence of angle and condyle fractures was more affected by the continuity of the cortical bone at the angle than by the depth of a third molar. These results demonstrate that a third molar can be a determining factor in angle and condyle fractures. PMID:25741462

  6. Occipital Condyle Fracture With Isolated Unilateral Hypoglossal Nerve Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jin Won; Lim, Oh Kyung; Park, Ki Deok

    2014-01-01

    Occipital condyle fractures (OCFs) with selective involvement of the hypoglossal canal are rare. OCFs usually occur after major trauma and combine multiple fractures. We describe a 38-year-old man who presented with neck pain and a tongue deviation to the right side after a traffic accident. Severe limitations were detected during active and passive range of neck motion in all directions. A physical examination revealed a normal gag reflex and normal mobility of the palate, larynx, and shoulder girdle. He had normal taste and general sensation in his tongue. However, he presented with a tongue deviation to the right side on protrusion. A videofluoroscopic swallowing study revealed piecemeal deglutition due to decreased tongue mobility but no aspiration of food. Plain X-ray film findings were negative, but a computed tomography study with coronal reconstruction demonstrated a right OCF involving the hypoglossal canal. An electrodiagnostic study revealed evidence of right hypoglossal nerve palsy. We report a rare case of isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy caused by an OCF. PMID:25379499

  7. Taxonomic identification of Lower Pleistocene fossil hominins based on distal humeral diaphyseal cross-sectional shape

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The coexistence of multiple hominin species during the Lower Pleistocene has long presented a challenge for taxonomic attribution of isolated postcrania. Although fossil humeri are well-suited for studies of hominin postcranial variation due to their relative abundance, humeral articular morphology has thus far been of limited value for differentiating Paranthropus from Homo. On the other hand, distal humeral diaphyseal shape has been used to justify such generic distinctions at Swartkrans. The potential utility of humeral diaphyseal shape merits larger-scale quantitative analysis, particularly as it permits the inclusion of fragmentary specimens lacking articular morphology. This study analyzes shape variation of the distal humeral diaphysis among fossil hominins (c. 2-1 Ma) to test the hypothesis that specimens can be divided into distinct morphotypes. Coordinate landmarks were placed on 3D laser scans to quantify cross-sectional shape at a standardized location of the humeral diaphysis (proximal to the olecranon fossa) for a variety of fossil hominins and extant hominids. The fossil sample includes specimens attributed to species based on associated craniodental remains. Mantel tests of matrix correlation were used to assess hypotheses about morphometric relationships among the fossils by comparing empirically-derived Procrustes distance matrices to hypothetical model matrices. Diaphyseal shape variation is consistent with the hypothesis of three distinct morphotypes (Paranthropus, Homo erectus, non-erectus early Homo) in both eastern and southern Africa during the observed time period. Specimens attributed to non-erectus early Homo are unique among hominids with respect to the degree of relative anteroposterior flattening, while H. erectus humeri exhibit morphology more similar to that of modern humans. In both geographic regions, Paranthropus is characterized by a morphology that is intermediate with respect to those morphological features that differentiate the two forms of early Homo. This study demonstrates the utility of the humeral diaphysis for taxonomic identification of isolated postcranial remains and further documents a high degree of postcranial diversity in early Homo.

  8. Triangle tilt and humeral surgery: Meta-analysis of efficacy and functional outcome

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Rahul K; Somasundaram, Chandra

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To systematically review and analyze the overall impact and effectiveness of bony surgical procedures, the triangle tilt and humeral surgery in a comparative manner in permanent obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) patients. METHODS: We conducted a literature search and identified original full research articles of OBPI patients treated with a secondary bony surgery, particularly addressing the limitation of shoulder abduction and functions. Further, we analyzed and compared the efficacy and the surgical outcomes of 9 humeral surgery papers with 179 patients, and 4 of our secondary bony procedure, the triangle tilt surgical papers with 86 patients. RESULTS: Seven hundred and thirty-one articles were identified, using the search term “brachial plexus” and obstetric or pediatric (246 articles) or neonatal (219 articles) or congenital (188 articles) or “birth palsy” (121 articles). Further, only a few articles were identified using the bony surgery search, osteotomy “brachial plexus” obstetric (35), “humeral osteotomy” and “brachial plexus” (17), and triangle tilt “brachial plexus” (14). Of all, 12 studies reporting pre- and post- operative or improvement in total Mallet functional score were included in this study. Among these, 9 studies reported the humeral surgery and 4 were triangle tilt surgery. We used modified total Mallet functional score in this analysis. Various studies with humeral surgery showed improvement of 1.4, 2.3, 5.0 and 5.6 total Mallet score, whereas the triangle tilt surgery showed improvement of 5.0, 5.5, 6.0 and 6.2. CONCLUSION: The triangle tilt surgery improves on what was achieved by humeral osteotomy in the management of shoulder function in OBPI patients. PMID:25621221

  9. Segmentation of humeral head from axial proton density weighted shoulder MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezer, Aysun; Sezer, Hasan Basri; Albayrak, Songul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of segmentation of axial MR proton density (PD) images of bony humeral head. PD sequence images which are included in standard shoulder MRI protocol are used instead of T1 MR images. Bony structures were reported to be successfully segmented in the literature from T1 MR images. T1 MR images give more sharp determination of bone and soft tissue border but cannot address the pathological process which takes place in the bone. In the clinical settings PD images of shoulder are used to investigate soft tissue alterations which can cause shoulder instability and are better in demonstrating edema and the pathology but have a higher noise ratio than other modalities. Moreover the alteration of humeral head intensity in patients and soft tissues in contact with the humeral head which have the very similar intensities with bone makes the humeral head segmentation a challenging problem in PD images. However segmentation of the bony humeral head is required initially to facilitate the segmentation of the soft tissues of shoulder. In this study shoulder MRI of 33 randomly selected patients were included. Speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion (SRAD) method was used to decrease noise and then Active Contour Without Edge (ACWE) and Signed Pressure Force (SPF) models were applied on our data set. Success of these methods is determined by comparing our results with manually segmented images by an expert. Applications of these methods on PD images provide highly successful results for segmentation of bony humeral head. This is the first study to determine bone contours in PD images in literature.

  10. Proximal humeral fractures and intramedullary nailing: Experience with a new nail system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jochen Blum; Matthias Hansen; Mathias Müller; Pol M. Rommens; Helmut Matuschka; Antonio Olmeda; Marek J. Radziejowski; Wolfgang Merbold; Stefan Nijs; Renzo Angeloni

    2009-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives:\\u000a   The goal of this study was to evaluate fracture healing and alignment as well as functional outcome and complication risks\\u000a after internal fixation with the intramedullary proximal humeral nail (PHN). This device shows promise for applications involving\\u000a the reconstruction of the humeral shaft and head with minimal soft tissue stripping and for providing a locked, fixed-angle\\u000a construct for

  11. Incipient malunion of an isolated humeral trochlea fracture treated with an elbow hemiarthroplasty: case report.

    PubMed

    Lechasseur, Benoit; Laflamme, Mélissa; Leclerc, Alexandre; Bédard, Anne-Marie

    2015-02-01

    We report the case of a 49-year-old woman with severe elbow ankylosis 10 weeks after a trochlea fracture treated with open reduction and internal fixation. Imaging confirmed failure of open reduction and internal fixation with a displaced and severely damaged trochlea. We treated the nascent malunited trochlea and associated elbow ankylosis with a distal humeral hemiarthroplasty and circumferential elbow arthrolysis. The patient regained functional range of motion of the elbow and had minimal pain. Distal humeral hemiarthroplasty, which has been indicated for acute fractures involving the capitellum or the entire distal humerus, may also be indicated for certain isolated complex fractures of the trochlea. PMID:25542436

  12. Lateral unicompartmental replacement: a road less traveled.

    PubMed

    Scott, Richard D

    2005-09-01

    Lateral unicompartmental replacement is performed less frequently than medial replacement and is technically more difficult. The ratio of medial to lateral arthroplasties is approximately 10:1. Differences in technique include the following: The patella is more vulnerable to impingement on the leading edge of the femoral component and must be carefully recessed. Because the wear pattern in lateral disease is more posterior than in medial disease, there often is residual cartilage on the distal femoral condyle. This is also the case when UKA is performed for the sequella of a lateral plateau fracture. To avoid this impingement, residual cartilage should probably be removed from the distal condyle before its resection and the femoral component should be undersized anteriorly. Initial tibial resection should be very conservative to avoid the need for very thick tibial components to restore alignment and stability. Err toward shifting the femoral component laterally and the tibial component medially to maximize mediolateral congruency. Consider a medial parapatellar approach (avoiding the anterior horn of the medial meniscus) to facilitate visibility and component alignment. Avoid excessive posterior tibial slope. PMID:16190078

  13. Total elbow arthroplasty as primary treatment for distal humeral fractures in elderly patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Ray; K. Kakarlapudi; C. Rajsekhar; M. S. Bhamra

    2000-01-01

    Distal humeral fractures are difficult to treat. In the elderly population, the problems are compounded by osteoporosis and gross comminution. Open reduction and internal fixation for such fractures is sometimes difficult and may be associated with poor results. Total elbow arthroplasty has been suggested as a last-ditch effort to salvage functional use for such difficult fractures in the elderly. We

  14. Humeral shaft fractures as predictors of intra-abdominal injury in motor vehicle collision victims

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Adili; Mohit Bhandari; Sheila Sprague; Brett R. Dunlop; Emil H. Schemitsch

    2002-01-01

    To assess the utility of humeral shaft fractures as predictors of organ injuries and skeletal injuries in multiply injured patients involved in motor vehicle collisions (MVCs). A prospectively collected database of multiply injured motor vehicle occupants with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) greater than 12 admitted to a level I regional trauma centre during a 102-month period (January 1992 to

  15. Neurological impairment in proximal humeral fractures-dislocations undergoing shoulder replacement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Padua; L. Padua; R. Bondì; A. Insola; E. Ceccarelli; A. Campi

    2004-01-01

    The outcome of shoulder replacement for trauma has been studied in large series but not always all factors have been examined for their effects on the final results. One important element not sufficiently considered regards neurological impairment. This complication is reported in 1%–67% of shoulder dislocations and humeral neck fractures. Electromyography has an important role in revealing nerve injuries undetected

  16. Occipital Condyle Syndrome in a Young Male: A Rare Presentation of Cranio-Vertebral Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Yogesh, Patidar; Vinod, Puri; A, Khwaja Geeta

    2014-01-01

    Occipital condyle syndrome (OCS) is a rare syndrome characterized by severe, unilateral, occipital headache and ipsilateral 12th nerve palsy. Tumors are a common cause of OCS. Inflammatory lesions causing OCS is however rare. We describe a young male with OCS as the only manifestation of cranio-vertebral tuberculosis. PMID:25664279

  17. An Unusual Metallic Foreign Body inside the Knee Medial Femoral Condyle

    PubMed Central

    Helito, Camilo Partezani; Faria, Carlos Eduardo Nunes; Bonadio, Marcelo Batista; Pecora, Jose Ricardo; Camanho, Gilberto Luis; Demange, Marco Kawamura

    2014-01-01

    Foreign bodies in the knee joint are uncommon, particularly those not related to surgical procedures. In this paper, we present a case of an intraosseous metallic foreign body situated in the medial femoral condyle for one year, causing pain, which was removed with complete resolution of the symptoms. PMID:25506452

  18. Prevalence of Bifid Mandibular Condyle in a Selected Population in South of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Haghnegahdar, Abdol Aziz; Bronoosh, Pegah; Khojastepour, Leila; Tahmassebi, Parissa

    2014-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Bifid mandibular condyle (BMC) is a rare anomaly of uncertain origin which may play a role in some defects in temporomandibular joints. Since it may be misinterpreted as fractures or tumors in condylar area, proper diagnosis will help to prevent unnecessary treatments. A comprehensive knowledge about BMC may help to understand the developmental course of condyle and temporomandibular joints more clearly. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of bifidity of condyle in a selected population in Iran by employing dental panoramic view. Materials and Method: Panoramic views of 1000 individuals (767 female, 233 male individuals) were assessed for bifidity. The patients were over 18 years old and had attended the radiology department of Shiraz dental school from September 2012 to March 2013. Results: A total of 35(3.5%) case of bifidity was detected. Unilateral form was much more prevalent (32 unilateral cases versus 3 bilateral). The left-side bifidity was 3 times more prevalent than the right side. A large number of bifid condyles (63%) have shown symptoms of temporomandibular joint pain or click or both. Conclusion: The prevalence of bifidity in our population was about 3.5%, which was significantly high compared to the other published reports. Symptoms (click and pain) were also much more detected in our study. PMID:25469353

  19. Ilizarov treatment of humeral shaft nonunion in an antiepileptic drug patient with uncontrolled generalized tonic-clonic seizure activity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Nonunion of the humeral shaft in patients with antiepileptic drug associated metabolic bone disorder constitute a challenging surgical problem difficult to treat due to seizure activity, osteoporosis, and poor stabilization options. We report a case of nonunion of the humeral shaft in an antiepileptic drug patient with uncontrolled generalized tonic-clonic seizure activity successfully treated with Ilizarov external fixator and a follow-up of 4 years. PMID:20667134

  20. Novel use of ultrasound in the ED: ultrasound-guided hematoma block of a proximal humeral fracture.

    PubMed

    Lovallo, Emily; Mantuani, Daniel; Nagdev, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures are a common injury after falls, particularly in the elderly population. An ultrasound-guided hematoma block is a novel technique for analgesia in cases when standard intravenous analgesia is not efficacious. We present a case in which ultrasound-guided hematoma block was the ideal method for adjunctive pain control in a patient with a comminuted humeral head fracture. PMID:25082594

  1. Clinical and radiological outcomes after treatment of sagittal fracture of mandibular condyle (SFMC) by using occlusal splint in children.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-Kui; Meng, Fan-Wen; Tan, Xin-Ying; Xu, Juan; Liu, Hua-Wei; Liu, San-Xia; Huang, Hai-Tao; Yan, Rong-Zeng; Hu, Min; Hu, Kai-Jin

    2014-02-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of occlusal splints in the treatment of sagittal fractures of the mandibular condyle in children. From January 1995 to December 2011, 37 sagittal fractures of the mandibular condyle in 30 patients aged 4-8 years old were included in this study. All the patients were treated with 1-2mm occlusal splints in the molar region. The mouths of the patients were kept slightly open by the occlusal splints for 3-6 months, and we reviewed the clinical and radiological remodelling of the affected condyles after treatment. Excellent (n=20) and good (n=10) clinical outcomes were achieved with full radiological remodelling seen in 19 and partial remodelling in 11. Treatment with occlusal splints is effective in delivering good results and function with minimal morbidity in children with sagittal fractures of the condyle, while permitting ongoing remodelling and growth in the short term. PMID:24262674

  2. Management of non-union of humeral fractures with the Stryker T2™ compression nail

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Fenton; Ford Qureshi; Nithin Bejjanki; David Potter

    2011-01-01

    Introduction  Fractures of the humeral shaft are relatively common injuries and the majority achieve union uneventfully; however, non-union\\u000a rates of up to 13% are reported when managed either conservatively or operatively. Despite the many surgical techniques described\\u000a for the management of non-unions, including plate fixation, intramedullary nailing or external fixation, some cases remain\\u000a resistant to treatment with ongoing problems achieving union.

  3. A quantitative study of humeral cartilage in individuals with spinal cord injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Ruckstuhl; J Krzycki; N Petrou; B Vanwanseele; E Stussi

    2008-01-01

    Study design:Cross-sectional design.Objectives:In this in vivo study, we investigated the influence of different load situations on humeral cartilage thickness in individuals with paraplegia and quadriplegia.Setting:ETH Zurich and Swiss Paraplegic Centre Nottwil, Switzerland.Methods:A previously validated three-dimensional (3D) gradient echo MRI-sequence with selective water excitation was used. Three groups were compared: individuals with paraplegia with high shoulder demand (n=11), individuals with quadriplegia

  4. Interlocking nailing of humeral shaft fractures: the Oxford experience 1991 to 1994

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. E. J. Hems; T. P. S. Bhullar

    1996-01-01

    Forty-three patients with fractures of the humeral shaft were treated by locked intermedullary nailing, using the Russell-Taylor nailing system. Overall there were few technical problems with nail insertion. Additional fracture comminution occurred in five patients but affected stability in only one case. Twenty-six nails were inserted into 22 patients with pathological fractures. The objective of fracture stabilization and pain relief

  5. Unicameral bone cyst of the humeral head: arthroscopic curettage and bone grafting.

    PubMed

    Randelli, Pietro; Arrigoni, Paolo; Cabitza, Paolo; Denti, Matteo

    2009-01-01

    Arthroscopic surgery has improved greatly over the past decade. Treatment of various juxta-articular disorders around the shoulder have benefited from endoscopic approaches. Cystic lesions of the shoulder on the scapular side have been treated in this way. This article describes a case of a 29-year-old patient with a unicameral bone cyst on the posterior aspect of the humeral head. Arthroscopic visualization using an accessory posteroinferior portal localized the cyst through the bare area of the humeral head. A cannulated burr was used to create an opening through the cortical wall between the cyst and the joint, and a careful curettage was performed. The cavity was filled with a demineralized bone matrix enriched with autologous blood packed into an arthroscopic cannula and delivered through the accessory portal. The patient reported pain relief immediately postoperatively and at follow-up. This case demonstrates the feasibility of arthroscopic treatment of a simple bone cyst of the humeral head. We believe that the knowledge of the juxta-articular anatomy allows the applications of scope-assisted procedures to be expanded, maximizing the results of a technique that allows a shorter recovery and less painful rehabilitation. PMID:19226028

  6. Bone Graft Substitute Provides Metaphyseal Fixation for a Stemless Humeral Implant.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung-Sun; Kovacevic, David; Milks, Ryan A; Jun, Bong-Jae; Rodriguez, Eric; Delozier, Katherine R; Derwin, Kathleen A; Iannotti, Joseph P

    2015-07-01

    Stemless humeral fixation has become an alternative to traditional total shoulder arthroplasty, but metaphyseal fixation may be compromised by the quality of the trabecular bone that diminishes with age and disease, and augmentation of the fixation may be desirable. The authors hypothesized that a bone graft substitute (BGS) could achieve initial fixation comparable to polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. Fifteen fresh-frozen human male humerii were randomly implanted using a stemless humeral prosthesis, and metaphyseal fixation was augmented with either high-viscosity PMMA bone cement (PMMA group) or a magnesium-based injectable BGS (OsteoCrete; Bone Solutions Inc, Dallas, Texas) (OC group). Both groups were compared with a control group with no augmentation. Initial stiffness, failure load, failure displacement, failure cycle, and total work were compared among groups. The PMMA and OC groups showed markedly higher failure loads, failure displacements, and failure cycles than the control group (P<.01). There were no statistically significant differences in initial stiffness, failure load, failure displacement, failure cycle, or total work between the PMMA and OC groups. The biomechanical properties of magnesium-based BGS fixation compared favorably with PMMA bone cement in the fixation of stemless humeral prostheses and may provide sufficient initial fixation for this clinical application. Future work will investigate the long-term remodeling characteristics and bone quality at the prosthetic-bone interface in an in vivo model to evaluate the clinical efficacy of this approach. [Orthopedics. 2015; 38(7):e597-e603.]. PMID:26186322

  7. Review of Literature of Radial Nerve Injuries Associated with Humeral Fractures—An Integrated Management Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qiang; Wu, QiuLi; Li, Yan; Feng, ShiQing

    2013-01-01

    Background Radial nerve palsy associated with fractures of the shaft of the humerus is the most common nerve lesion complicating fractures of long bones. However, the management of radial nerve injuries associated with humeral fractures is debatable. There was no consensus between observation and early exploration. Methods and Findings The PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Google Scholar, CINAHL, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, and Social Sciences Citation Index were searched. Two authors independently searched for relevant studies in any language from 1966 to Jan 2013. Thirty studies with 2952 humeral fractures participants were identified. Thirteen studies favored conservative strategy. No significant difference between early exploration and no exploration groups (OR, 1.03, 95% CI 0.61, 1.72; I2?=?0.0%, p?=?0.918 n.s.). Three studies recommend early radial nerve exploration in patients with open fractures of humerus with radial nerve injury. Five studies proposed early exploration was performed in high-energy humeral shaft fractures with radial nerve injury. Conclusions The conservative strategy was a good choice for patients with low-energy closed fractures of humerus with radial nerve injury. We recommend early radial nerve exploration (within the first 2 weeks) in patients with open fractures or high-energy closed fractures of humerus with radial nerve injury. PMID:24250799

  8. Elastic stable intramedullary nailing for displaced proximal humeral fractures in older children

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Keith J; Metcalfe, James; Konstantoulakis, Charompolis; Jones, Stanley; Fernandes, James

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the effectiveness of intramedullary fixation of severely displaced proximal humeral physeal fractures in skeletally immature children using the elastic stable intramedullary nail (ESIN). Methods Retrospective recruitment of 14 patients aged 10–15-years old with severely displaced proximal humeral physeal fractures between 1999 and 2004 in a single regional specialist paediatric orthopaedic hospital. The fractures were graded using the Neer classification; severe displacement constituted Neer II–IV or displacement >1 cm and angulation >45°. Patients were followed up and assessed using the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score (DASH) and the Neer Shoulder score. Radiographs were assessed for deformity. Subjective satisfaction was assessed. Results Fourteen patients with mean follow-up of 30 months (12–66 m) from surgery. All fractures were radiologically united at a median time of eight weeks (7–10 weeks). At follow-up, Neer Shoulder mean score was 96.79 (range 83–100) and DASH mean score 2.26 (0–7.5). Subjectively 71% were very satisfied and 29% were satisfied. Conclusions We commend stabilisation using ESIN in the management of the displaced proximal humeral physeal fracture in older children, once reduction of the fracture has been achieved by either closed or open means. ESIN is safe and allows early return to pre-injury function. PMID:19308598

  9. Lateral sided snapping elbow caused by a meniscus: two case reports and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kang, Shin-Taek; Kim, Tae-Ho

    2010-06-01

    Lateral sided snapping elbow is an unusual condition, and it is apt to be misdiagnosed as lateral epicondylitis. The causes of lateral sided snapping elbow have been attributed to intraarticular loose bodies, instability, synovial plicae and torn annular ligament. We report our experiences for treating lateral sided snapping elbow caused by a meniscus in the radio-humeral joint. In the present cases, the cause of snapping was detected using double contrast arthrogram under fluoroscopic control, and histology revealed that it was a meniscus. Complete removal of the meniscus allowed immediate relief of the symptom, and there was no recurrence in both cases. PMID:20151108

  10. Adult Stem Cell Driven Genesis of Human-Shaped Articular Condyle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adel Alhadlaq; Jennifer H. Elisseeff; Liu Hong; Christopher G. Williams; Arnold I. Caplan; Blanka Sharma; Ross A. Kopher; Sara Tomkoria; Donald P. Lennon; Aurora Lopez; Jeremy J. Mao

    2004-01-01

    Uniform design of synovial articulations across mammalian species is challenged by their common susceptibility to joint degeneration. The present study was designed to investigate the possibility of creating human-shaped articular condyles by rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) encapsulated in a biocompatible poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogel. Rat MSCs were harvested, expanded in culture, and treated with either chondrogenic or osteogenic

  11. Medial femoral condyle fracture following traumatic allogenic bone transfer - A case report.

    PubMed

    Kondreddi, Vamsi; Roy, Kishore; Yalamanchili, Ranjith Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Open fractures can cause an "out-in" injury, wherein a foreign body can penetrate the skin causing fracture. There are few reports of allogenic bone getting embedded in soft tissue, but one causing fracture to the host bone has not been reported till date. We present a case, wherein a large cortical bony fragment from one individual penetrated the thigh of another person causing fracture of medial femoral condyle during a head-on collision involving two motorbikes. PMID:26155058

  12. Central giant cell granuloma of the mandibular condyle: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jadu, F M; Pharoah, M J; Lee, L; Baker, G I; Allidina, A

    2011-01-01

    Central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) is a benign intraosseous lesion. The true nature of this lesion is controversial and remains unknown; the three competing theories are that it could be a reactive lesion, a developmental anomaly or a benign neoplasm. Furthermore, the actual aetiology of CGCG is still unclear, although inflammation, haemorrhage and local trauma have all been suggested; it has also been hypothesized that CGCG may have a genetic aetiology. Lesions central to the mandibular condylar head are very rare, with only three documented cases in the English language literature, none of which elaborates on the CT features. In this case report, a 31-year-old male patient complaining of a left pre-auricular mass underwent radiographic investigation. CT images revealed a lesion central to the mandibular condyle and demonstrated features that were highly suggestive of CGCG. The patient underwent surgical curettage, and the subsequent histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of CGCG. 3 years after the procedure the patient presented with a recurrence and underwent complete resection of the mandibular condyle with immediate reconstruction. This report presents CT characteristics of a rare occurrence of CGCG of the mandibular condyle, compares it with other published cases and poses the question of the role of radiology in predicting the degree of aggressive behaviour of these lesions before surgery. PMID:21159917

  13. Changes in the medial and lateral posterior condylar offset in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Yoshinori; Noguchi, Hideo; Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Ishii, Hisanori; Toyabe, Shin-Ichi

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the changes between preoperation and postoperation in each posterior condylar offset (PCO) using computed tomography (CT) and to compare them to conventional radiographic (x-ray) evaluation in total knee arthroplasty. One hundred nine knees in 97 patients were evaluated. The medial PCO was significantly larger before surgery. The lateral PCO was significantly larger after surgery. Changes in the PCO on x-ray showed no significant correlation with the changes observed in the CT-evaluated medial (R = 0.028) and lateral PCO (R = 0.190). Changes in PCO observed by x-ray did not reflect those of the medial or lateral condyles on CT. We recommend CT-based evaluation of PCO by condyle when assessing the influence of PCO on range of motion following total knee arthroplasty. PMID:20663641

  14. Arthroscopic treatment of a large lateral femoral notch in acute anterior cruciate ligament tear.

    PubMed

    Tauber, Mark; Fox, Michael; Koller, Heiko; Klampfer, Helmut; Resch, Herbert

    2008-11-01

    A 24-year-old professional soccer player suffered an acute anterior cruciate ligament tear associated with a radiologically evident impression fracture of the lateral femoral condyle, the so-called "lateral femoral notch sign". Following MRI validation of the injury with detection of an additional lateral meniscus tear, arthroscopy was carried out 3 days after the injury. Due to the extended impression of about 5 mm, arthroscopically assisted closed reduction of the depression fracture was performed. A 3.2 mm tunnel was drilled at the lateral femoral condyle in a supero-inferior direction using an ACL tibial guide and the depressed area could be restored using an elevator. The resulting subchondral bone defect in the femoral condyle was filled with freeze-dried human cancellous bone allograft. As a one-stage procedure ACL reconstruction was carried out using a hamstring tendon technique. At 1-year follow up the patient has returned to full sporting function, including playing soccer with a radiographically reduced lateral femoral notch sign. PMID:18060552

  15. An Evaluation of the Brachial Plexus Block at the Humeral Canal Using a Neurostimulator (1417 Patients): The Efficacy, Safety, and Predictive Criteria of Failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Carles; Alphonse Pulcini; Philippe Macchi; Patrick Duflos; Marc Raucoules-Aime; Dominique Grimaud

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the multiple pe- ripheral nerve block technique at the humeral canal (humeral block) with the use of a neurostimulator, we prospectively studied 1417 patients undergoing upper limb surgery with a brachial plexus block at the hu- meral canal (1468 blocks). The success rate (defined as sensory block (in all nerve distributions) and\\/or the

  16. Humeral external rotation handling by using the Bobath concept approach affects trunk extensor muscles electromyography in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Grazziotin Dos Santos, C; Pagnussat, Aline S; Simon, A S; Py, Rodrigo; Pinho, Alexandre Severo do; Wagner, Mário B

    2014-10-20

    This study aimed to investigate the electromyographic activity of cervical and trunk extensors muscles in children with cerebral palsy during two handlings according to the Bobath concept. A crossover trial involving 40 spastic diplegic children was conducted. Electromyography (EMG) was used to measure muscular activity at sitting position (SP), during shoulder internal rotation (IR) and shoulder external rotation (ER) handlings, which were performed using the elbow joint as key point of control. Muscle recordings were performed at the fourth cervical (C4) and at the tenth thoracic (T10) vertebral levels. The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) was used to assess whether muscle activity would vary according to different levels of severity. Humeral ER handling induced an increase on EMG signal of trunk extensor muscles at the C4 (P=0.007) and T10 (P<0.001) vertebral levels. No significant effects were observed between SP and humeral IR handling at C4 level; However at T10 region, humeral IR handling induced an increase of EMG signal (P=0.019). Humeral ER resulted in an increase of EMG signal at both levels, suggesting increase of extensor muscle activation. Furthermore, the humeral ER handling caused different responses on EMG signal at T10 vertebra level, according to the GMFCS classification (P=0.017). In summary, an increase of EMG signal was observed during ER handling in both evaluated levels, suggesting an increase of muscle activation. These results indicate that humeral ER handling can be used for diplegic CP children rehabilitation to facilitate cervical and trunk extensor muscles activity in a GMFCS level-dependent manner. PMID:25462474

  17. Use of a proximal humeral plate for a paediatric peri-prosthetic femoral fracture

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, C.R.; Badhesha, J.; Ayana, G.; Abu-Rajab, R.

    2014-01-01

    In this case an 18-year-old female with cerebral palsy sustained a peri-prosthetic femoral fracture adjacent to a blade plate previously inserted for a femoral varus osteotomy. The injury was treated using a long proximal humeral locking plate. The existing blade plate was removed. The fracture was reduced and held, and a 10-hole PHILOS™ plate applied with near anatomical reduction. There were no post-operative complications. Radiographic union was confirmed at 11 months. To our knowledge, this is the first reported use of a PHILOS™ plate in the management of a femoral peri-prosthetic fracture and successfully demonstrated a straightforward method for revision fixation. PMID:24986984

  18. Pullulan/dextran/nHA Macroporous Composite Beads for Bone Repair in a Femoral Condyle Defect in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Schlaubitz, Silke; Derkaoui, Sidi Mohammed; Marosa, Lydia; Miraux, Sylvain; Renard, Martine; Catros, Sylvain; Le Visage, Catherine; Letourneur, Didier; Amédée, Joëlle; Fricain, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The repair of bone defects is of particular interest for orthopedic, oral, maxillofacial, and dental surgery. Bone loss requiring reconstruction is conventionally addressed through bone grafting. Depending on the size and the location of the defect, this method has limits and risks. Biomaterials can offer an alternative and have features supporting bone repair. Here, we propose to evaluate the cellular penetration and bone formation of new macroporous beads based on pullulan/dextran that has been supplemented with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite in a rat model. Cross-linked beads of 300–500 µm diameters were used in a lateral femoral condyle defect and analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging, micro-computed tomography, and histology in comparison to the empty defects 15, 30, and 70 days after implantation. Inflammation was absent for both conditions. For empty defects, cellularisation and mineralization started from the periphery of the defect. For the defects containing beads, cellular structures filling out the spaces between the scaffolds with increasing interconnectivity and trabecular-like organization were observed over time. The analysis of calcified sections showed increased mineralization over time for both conditions, but was more pronounced for the samples containing beads. Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content were both significantly higher at day 70 for the beads in comparison to empty defects as well as compared with earlier time points. Analysis of newly formed tissue around the beads showed an increase of osteoid tissue, measured as percentage of the defect surface. This study suggests that the use of beads for the repair of small size defects in bone may be expanded on to meet the clinical need for a ready-to-use fill-up material that can favor bone formation and mineralization, as well as promote vessel ingrowth into the defect site. PMID:25330002

  19. Quantitative measurement of femoral condyle cartilage in the knee by magnetic resonance imaging: validation study by multi-readers

    PubMed Central

    Fujinaga, Yasunari; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Sakai, Toshinori; Sakai, Yoko; Souza, Felipe; Lang, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine reproducibility of the femoral condyle cartilage volume (CV) in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies using various 3D imaging techniques at 1.5 T and 3T. Materials and methods In 21 subjects with osteoarthritis, MR images including four different sequences (sagittal 3D fat suppressed SPGR at 1.5T, fat suppressed FLASH at 3T, water-excitation DESS at 3T, and water-excitation MEDIC at 3T) were acquired at baseline and approximately one year later. The CV measured using semi-automated segmentation software by three readers was analyzed. Results The mean of interclass correlation coefficient between each reader from SPGR, FLASH, DESS, and MEDIC was 0.899, 0.948, 0.943, and 0.954, respectively. The mean CV (×104 mm3) measured by each reader from SPGR/FLASH/DESS/MEDIC sequences was the following in this order: 1.34/1.52/1.50/1.35, 1.21/1.43/1.40/1.27, 1.22/1.37/1.36/1.22, and 1.17/1.36/1.35/1.21 by readers 1, 2, 3 (first analysis), and 3(second analysis), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in CV between any readers in any sequences. The CV measured on FLASH and DESS tended to be greater than that on SPGR or MEDIC. Conclusion Inter- and intra-observer reproducibility of cartilage segmentation using semi-automated software was validated. Although there is no statistical significance, there is a tendency of under- or overestimating CV by each sequence. PMID:24123712

  20. Regional variation of bone tissue properties at the human mandibular condyle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Gyoon; Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Kosel, Erin; Agnew, Amanda M; McComb, David W; Bodnyk, Kyle; Hart, Richard T; Kim, Min Kyung; Han, Sang Yeun; Johnston, William M

    2015-08-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) bears different types of static and dynamic loading during occlusion and mastication. As such, characteristics of mandibular condylar bone tissue play an important role in determining the mechanical stability of the TMJ under the macro-level loading. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine regional variation of the elastic, plastic, and viscoelastic mechanical properties of human mandibular condylar bone tissue using nanoindentation. Cortical and trabecular bone were dissected from mandibular condyles of human cadavers (9 males, 54-96 years). These specimens were scanned using microcomputed tomography to obtain bone tissue mineral distribution. Then, nanoindentation was conducted on the surface of the same specimens in hydration. Plastic hardness (H) at a peak load, viscoelastic creep (Creep/Pmax), viscosity (?), and tangent delta (tan ?) during a 30 second hold period, and elastic modulus (E) during unloading were obtained by a cycle of indentation at the same site of bone tissue. The tissue mineral and nanoindentation parameters were analyzed for the periosteal and endosteal cortex, and trabecular bone regions of the mandibular condyle. The more mineralized periosteal cortex had higher mean values of elastic modulus, plastic hardness, and viscosity but lower viscoelastic creep and tan ? than the less mineralized trabecular bone of the mandibular condyle. These characteristics of bone tissue suggest that the periosteal cortex tissue may have more effective properties to resist elastic, plastic, and viscoelastic deformation under static loading, and the trabecular bone tissue to absorb and dissipate time-dependent viscoelastic loading energy at the TMJ during static occlusion and dynamic mastication. PMID:25913634

  1. Solitary eosinophilic granuloma of mandibular condyle: literature review and report of a rare case.

    PubMed

    Guruprasad, Yadavalli; Chauhan, Dinesh Singh

    2015-03-01

    Solitary eosinophilic granuloma (EG) is traditionally included as 1 of the 3 clinical manifestations of the histiocytosis-X group of diseases, which also encompasses Hand-Schuller-Christian disease and Letterer-Siwe disease. EG is the most common lesion in the spectrum of disorders under the classification of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. EG represents the monostotic form of the disease with the head and neck region representing the most common site of initial presentation. We report a rare case of solitary EG involving mandibular condyle in a 49-year-old male patient, which is the first reported case in Indian literature. PMID:25861187

  2. Aequalis Humeral Head Resurfacing in Glenohumeral Arthritis at a Minimum Followup of 2 Years

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Amitabh J.; Chambler, Andrew F. W.

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate results of Aequalis humeral head resurfacing in patients with end-stage glenohumeral arthritis at a minimum followup of two years. Patients and Methods. Twenty-one consecutive patients underwent humeral head resurfacing hemiarthroplasty between 2007 and 2009. Three patients did not fulfill the inclusion criteria. 18 patients with mean age of 75.1 years (range 58–91 years) and a mean duration of preoperative symptoms of 33.6 months (range 6–120 months) were analyzed. Patients' self-reported Oxford shoulder score (OSS) was collected prospectively and was used as an assessment tool to measure final outcome. Results. The mean initial OSS was 15 (range 3–29). The score improved by an average of 19.5 points at a mean followup of 36.3 months (range 24–54 months) to reach a mean final OSS of 34.5 (range 6–47). The improvement of OSS was highly significant with a two-tailed P value less than 0.0001. The overall patient satisfaction was 94%. Conclusion. This study demonstrates Aequalis shoulder resurfacing hemiarthroplasty as a reliable procedure, away from its originating center, for improvement of shoulder function as shown by the patients' self-reported outcome score (OSS) in end-stage glenohumeral arthritis at a minimum followup of 2 years. PMID:24967109

  3. Epidemiology and treatment outcome of surgically treated mandibular condyle fractures. A five years retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Zrounba, Hugues; Lutz, Jean-Christophe; Zink, Simone; Wilk, Astrid

    2014-09-01

    Surgical management of mandibular condyle fractures is still controversial. Although it provides better outcome than closed treatment questions still remain about the surgical approach and the osteosynthesis devices to be used. Between 2005 and 2010, we managed 168 mandibular condyle fractures with open treatment. Two surgical approaches were used in this study, a pre-auricular and a high submandibular approach (one or the other or as a combined approach). Internal fixation was performed using TCP(®) plates (Medartis, Basel, Switzerland) or with two lag screws (15 and 17 mm). Delta plates were used in 15 cases (8.9%). We report the epidemiology of these fractures and the outcomes of the surgical treatment. We assessed the complications related to the surgical procedure and those related to the osteosynthesis material. The facial nerve related complication rate was very low and the osteosynthesis materials used proved to be strong enough to realize a stable fixation. The two approaches used in this study appeared to be safe with good aesthetic results. Most of the surgical procedure failures occurred in high subcondylar fractures especially when bilateral. PMID:24485271

  4. Assessment of Condyle and Glenoid Fossa Morphology Using CBCT in South-East Asians

    PubMed Central

    Al-koshab, May; Nambiar, Phrabhakaran; John, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Proper imaging allows practitioners to evaluate an asymptomatic tempormandibular joint (TMJ) for potential degenerative changes prior to surgical and orthodontic treatment. The recently developed cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) allows measurement of TMJ bony structures with high accuracy. A study was undertaken to determine the morphology, and its variations, of the mandibular condyle and glenoid fossa among Malay and Chinese Malaysians. Methods CBCT was used to assess 200 joints in 100 subjects (mean age, 30.5 years). i-CAT CBCT software and The Mimics 16.0 software were employed to measure the volume, metrical size, position of each condyle sample and the thickness of the roof of the glenoid fossa (RGF). Results No significant gender differences were noted in thickness of the RGF and condylar length; however condylar volume, width, height and the joint spaces were significantly greater among males. With regards to comparison of both TMJs, the means of condylar volume, width and length of the right TMJ were significantly higher, while the means of the left condylar height and thickness of RGF were higher. When comparing the condylar measurements and the thickness of RGF between the two ethnic groups, we found no significant difference for all measurements with exception of condylar height, which is higher among Chinese. Conclusion The similarity in measurements for Malays and Chinese may be due to their common origin. This information can be clinically useful in establishing the diagnostic criteria for condylar volume, metrical size, and position in the Malaysian East Asians population. PMID:25803868

  5. Posterior dislocation of the shoulder with ipsilateral humeral shaft fracture : A case report and review of literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kedar CHIRPUTKAR; Prabhudeva BASAPPA; Ian MCLEAN; Gavin NIMON

    2006-01-01

    Isolated posterior dislocation of the shoulder with ipsilateral humeral shaft fracture is a rare combina- tion. Three cases of such co-existence have been reported so far. We report a fourth case and review the literature. Our aim is to highlight the importance of this rare co-existence. A high index of suspicion is necessary to diagnose posterior dislocation of the shoulder

  6. Lack of Benefit of Physical Therapy on Function Following Supracondylar Humeral Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Schmale, Gregory A.; Mazor, Suzan; Mercer, Laina D.; Bompadre, Viviana

    2014-01-01

    Background: The goal of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of physical therapy in restoring function and mobility after a pediatric supracondylar humeral fracture. Methods: The study included sixty-one patients from five to twelve years of age with a supracondylar humeral fracture that was treated with casting or with closed reduction and pinning followed by casting. Patients were randomized to receive either no further treatment (no-PT group) or six sessions of a standardized hospital-based physical therapy program (PT group). The ASK-p (Activities Scale for Kids-performance version) and self-assessments of activity were used to assess function at one, nine, fifteen, and twenty-seven weeks after injury. Motion was measured at nine and fifteen weeks after injury by a blinded therapist. Anxiety was measured at one and nine weeks after injury with a self-assessment. Differences in ASK-p scores and anxiety level were analyzed with use of multivariate generalized estimating equations. Results: ASK-p scores were significantly better in the no-PT group at nine and fifteen weeks after injury (p = 0.02 and 0.01, respectively) but the difference at twenty-seven weeks was not significant. There were no differences between groups with respect to performance of activities of daily living or time to return to sports. Anxiety at nine weeks was associated with worse ASK-p scores at nine and fifteen weeks in the PT group and with better ASK-p scores in the no-PT group at these time points (p = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively). There were no differences between the groups with respect to elbow motion in the injured arm at any time. Severity of injury had no impact on function or elbow motion in either the PT or the no-PT group. Conclusions: Children undergoing closed treatment of a supracondylar humeral fracture that was limited to approximately three weeks of cast immobilization received no benefit involving either return of function or elbow motion from a short course of physical therapy. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:24897743

  7. Arthroscopic assessment of human cartilage stiffness of the femoral condyles and the patella with a new tactile sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y Uchio; M Ochi; N Adachi; K Kawasaki; J Iwasa

    2002-01-01

    We measured the stiffness of the cartilage of the human femoral condyles via an ultrasonic tactile sensor under arthroscopic control. The stiffness and the degeneration of articular cartilage were assessed in 105 knees in 74 patients (39 men, 35 women, age: 9–72 years) who underwent arthroscopic observation or surgery. Twenty-five knees suffered from traumatic cartilage injury, 14 from osteochondritis dissecans,

  8. Prosthetic rehabilitation of a patient with unilateral dislocated condyle fracture after treatment with a mandibular repositioning splint: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Noh, Kwantae; Choi, Woojin; Pae, Ahran; Kwon, Kung-Rock

    2013-06-01

    This clinical report describes the use of a mandibular repositioning splint and the subsequent prosthodontic treatment of a unilateral dislocated condyle fracture for a patient whose injury resulted in significant mandibular deviation and malocclusion. The use of a mandibular repositioning splint considerably reduced the mandibular deviation, and a stable mandibular position was maintained with the definitive prosthesis. PMID:23763780

  9. [Proposal for an auxiliary tool designed to reduce retake rates for lateral radiography of the knee joint].

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Yu; Sato, Hisaya; Ohsawa, Miwa; Takahashi, Kanji; Noda, Chikara; Sai, Syogo; Sukezaki, Fumio; Nakazawa, Yasuo

    2013-10-01

    The reproducibility of lateral radiography of the knee joint in the lateral position is low because patient positioning can be easily affected by passive rotation of the knee joint. We calculated the correction angle of the femoral external rotation and the lower leg elevation and developed our own auxiliary tool for obtaining a lateral view image. We were able to obtain, in a single attempt, an image with misalignment of the condyle limited to less than 7 mm. Our tool also contributed to the reduction of the re-imaging rate, suggesting its usefulness in contributing to a lower re-imaging rate for lateral radiography of the knee joint. PMID:24140902

  10. A complicated, metastatic, humeral air sac cystadenocarcinoma in a timneh African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus timneh).

    PubMed

    Azmanis, Panagiotis; Stenkat, Julia; Hübel, Jens; Böhme, Julia; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria Elisabeth; Schmidt, Volker

    2013-03-01

    A 9-year-old male timneh African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus timneh) was presented because of inability to fly and suspected trauma. The owner also had observed dyspnea, with tail bobbing and open-beak breathing. On clinical examination, a hard, painful mass was palpable in the left proximal humerus and axillary area. Radiographs revealed a radiodense soft tissue mass of the left humerus with no bony involvement, multifocal opacities in lung and air sacs, and an enlarged spleen. An asymmetric, vascularized cyst was detected in the mass by ultrasound examination. Results of biopsy of the mass revealed multifocal cysts composed of unilayer isoprismatic cells laying in vascularized connective tissue. Because of the severity of clinical signs and the poor clinical condition, the bird was euthanatized. On postmortem examination, the findings were air sac cystadenocarcinoma involving the humeral air sac with metastases in the spleen and kidneys, atherosclerosis, pneumoconiosis, and mycotic granulomatous pneumonia and airsacculitis with isolation of Aspergillus niger. PMID:23772455

  11. Humeral cortical thickness in female Bantu - its relationship to the incidence of femoral neck fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, R.A.; Pogrund, H.

    1982-03-01

    Measurements of the humeral cortical thickness demonstrate that generalised osteoporosis in female Bantu commences in the fifth decade and gradually increases until, in the ninth decade, all subjects are osteoporotic. The combined cortical thickness (CCT) of the humerus in young adults is very similar to that found previously in a white London population and the loss of cortex with age is very similar. It is concluded that the known low incidence of femoral neck fracture in Bantu is not due to a lower incidence of generalised osteoporosis but to environmental factors. The chief environmental factor postulated is the greater amount of physical work performed by the Bantu. A more careful mode of walking is suggested as a subsidiary cause.

  12. Finite element analysis of patient-specific condyle fracture plates: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Aquilina, Peter; Parr, William C H; Chamoli, Uphar; Wroe, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Various patterns of internal fixation of mandibular condyle fractures have been proposed in the literature. This study investigates the stability of two patient-specific implants (PSIs) for the open reduction and internal fixation of a subcondylar fracture of the mandible. A subcondylar fracture of a mandible was simulated by a series of finite element models. These models contained approximately 1.2 million elements, were heterogeneous in bone material properties, and also modeled the muscles of mastication. Models were run assuming linear elasticity and isotropic material properties for bone. The stability and von Mises stresses of the simulated condylar fracture reduced with each of the PSIs were compared. The most stable of the plate configurations examined was PSI 1, which had comparable mechanical performance to a single 2.0?mm straight four-hole plate. PMID:26000081

  13. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Platelet Gel Improve Bone Deposition within CAD-CAM Custom-Made Ceramic HA Scaffolds for Condyle Substitution

    PubMed Central

    Ciocca, L.; Donati, D.; Ragazzini, S.; Dozza, B.; Rossi, F.; Fantini, M.; Spadari, A.; Romagnoli, N.; Landi, E.; Tampieri, A.; Piattelli, A.; Iezzi, G.; Scotti, R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. This study evaluated the efficacy of a regenerative approach using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and CAD-CAM customized pure and porous hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds to replace the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condyle. Methods. Pure HA scaffolds with a 70% total porosity volume were prototyped using CAD-CAM technology to replace the two temporomandibular condyles (left and right) of the same animal. MSCs were derived from the aspirated iliac crest bone marrow, and platelets were obtained from the venous blood of the sheep. Custom-made surgical guides were created by direct metal laser sintering and were used to export the virtual planning of the bone cut lines into the surgical environment. Sheep were sacrificed 4 months postoperatively. The HA scaffolds were explanted, histological specimens were prepared, and histomorphometric analysis was performed. Results. Analysis of the porosity reduction for apposition of newly formed bone showed a statistically significant difference in bone formation between condyles loaded with MSC and condyles without (P < 0.05). The bone ingrowth (BI) relative values of split-mouth comparison (right versus left side) showed a significant difference between condyles with and without MSCs (P < 0.05). Analysis of the test and control sides in the same animal using a split-mouth study design was performed; the condyle with MSCs showed greater bone formation. Conclusion. The split-mouth design confirmed an increment of bone regeneration into the HA scaffold of up to 797% upon application of MSCs. PMID:24073409

  14. [A trans-parotid approach to the osteosynthesis of fractures of the mandibular condyle. A study apropos of 30 cases].

    PubMed

    Jallut, Y; Tort, C; Aldegheri, A; Perrand, M; Silbert, I; Mourali, K

    1994-01-01

    The authors report a homogeneous series of 30 cases with fractures of the mandibular condyles treated by internal fixation with a mini-plaque via the transparotidial route. The patient were treated between 1987 and 1992, with a minimum follow-up of one year. The transparotidial route has the reputation of being dangerous because of the proximity of the facial nerve and the poor vascular supply to the condyle. It is described in detail. Indications are exclusively extra-articular fractures. Complications were observed although no definitive facial nerve paralysis was seen. The authors conclude that the best indications are subcondylian fractures with or without luxation. In cases with luxation, it is important to verify the menisco-ligament system simultaneously. The authors emphasize the complementary nature of this treatment with the functional method. PMID:8153551

  15. Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee involving both the medial femoral condyle and the medial tibial plateau: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kwang Am; Lee, Su Chan; Hwang, Seung Hyun; Kim, Duk Su; Kim, Taek Keun

    2008-08-01

    Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee (SPONK) usually involves a single condyle or plateau. The medial femoral condyle (MFC) is most often involved and spontaneous osteonecrosis of the medial tibial plateau (MTP) is a rare condition, representing only 2% of all necroses reported in the knee. SPONK involving both the MFC and the MTP is extremely rare. SPONK occurring in either the MFC or the MTP individually might extend to the corresponding side of the knee in the advanced end-stage; however, in that situation, significant degenerative changes would exist and it might be difficult to differentiate end-stage SPONK form severe osteoarthritis. SPONK affecting both the MFC and the MTP without significant secondary osteoarthritic changes has not been reported, even though it is difficult to know which occurs first. We have cared for three patients with histologically proven osteonecrosis of the MFC and MTP and report their radiologic features. PMID:18516591

  16. Treatment of traumatic dislocation of the mandibular condyle into the cranial fossa: development of a probable treatment algorithm.

    PubMed

    He, Y; Zhang, Y; Li, Z-L; An, J-G; Yi, Z-Q; Bao, S-D

    2015-07-01

    This study summarizes our experience of treating three rare cases of traumatic superior dislocation of the mandibular condyle into the cranial fossa and provides a potential treatment algorithm. Between the years 2002 and 2012, three patients with traumatic superior dislocation of the mandibular condyle into the cranial fossa were admitted to our department. After evaluating the interval from injury to treatment, the associated facial injuries including neurological complications, and the computed tomography imaging findings, an individualized treatment plan was developed for each patient. One patient underwent closed reduction under general anaesthesia. Two patients underwent open reduction with craniotomy and glenoid fossa reconstruction. All three patients were followed up for 1 year. Mouth opening and occlusal function recovered well, but all patients had mandibular deviation during mouth opening. Closed reduction under general anaesthesia, open surgical reduction with craniotomy, and mandibular condylotomy are the three main treatment methods for traumatic superior dislocation of the mandibular condyle into the cranial fossa. The treatment method should be selected on the basis of the interval from injury to treatment, associated facial injuries including neurological complications, and computed tomography imaging findings. PMID:25670388

  17. 3D-corrective osteotomy using surgical guides for posttraumatic distal humeral deformity.

    PubMed

    Tricot, Mathias; Duy, Khanh Tran; Docquier, Pierre-Louis

    2012-08-01

    An original technique was developed to correct distal humerus malunion using a three-dimensional computer-assisted planning and a custom-made surgical guide. The technique was used in three cases (two with cubitus varus and one with cubitus valgus).A CT-scan of the distal humerus was obtained. The correction was simulated by software. A three-dimensional model of the patient's affected humerus was created by rapid prototyping, allowing creation of a surgical guide and premoulding of the osteosynthesis plate. At the time of surgery, the sterilised guide was placed on the surface of the bone to guide the saw blade. Osteosynthesis was performed using the moulded plate. At the latest follow-up, all three patients were asymptomatic and had regained full elbow mobility. Satisfying correction was obtained in all three cases. One complication was encountered: a postoperative infection that healed with plate removal and systemic antibiotic administration. Using an osteotomy guide facilitates three-dimensional humeral correction. This technique presents several benefits: it decreases the operating time and minimizes the surgical incision. Fluoroscopy is unnecessary during the procedure and accuracy is increased. Disadvantages are the time for planning and guide confection, the need of a CT-scanner and the increased cost. PMID:23019789

  18. A Pitfall in Fixation of Distal Humeral Fractures with Pre-Contoured Locking Compression Plate

    PubMed Central

    Jayakumar, Prakash; Ring, David

    2015-01-01

    Anatomically precontoured locking plates are intended to facilitate the fixation of articular fractures and particularly those associated with osteoporosis. Fractures of the distal humerus are relatively uncommon injuries where operative intervention can be exceptionally challenging. The distal humeral trochlea provides a very narrow anatomical window through which to pass a fixed-angle locking screw, which must also avoid the olecranon, coronoid, and radial fossae. We describe 3 patients (ages 27, 49, and 73 years) with a bicolumnar fracture of the distal humerus where very short distal locking screws were used. Intra-articular screw placement was avoided but loss of fixation occurred in two patients and a third was treated with a prolonged period of immobilization. We postulate that fixed-angle screw trajectories may make it difficult for the surgeon to place screws of adequate length in this anatomically confined region, and may lead to insufficient distal fixation. Surgical tactics should include placement of as many screws as possible into the distal fragment, as long as possible and that each screw passes through a plate without necessarily locking in. PMID:26110181

  19. Arthroscopic Repair of “Peel-Off” Lesion of the Posterior Cruciate Ligament at the Femoral Condyle

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Federica; Bisicchia, Salvatore; Amendola, Annunziato

    2014-01-01

    Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries are uncommon, and most occur in association with other lesions. The treatment of PCL injuries remains controversial; in addition, PCL injuries have been documented to have a propensity to heal. In the literature several different patterns of PCL injury have been described including midsubstance tears/injuries, tibial bony avulsions, femoral bony avulsions, and femoral “peel-off” injuries. A peel-off injury is a complete or incomplete soft-tissue disruption of the PCL at its femoral attachment site without associated bony avulsion. In recent years arthroscopic repair of femoral avulsion and peel-off lesions of the PCL has been reported. In most of these articles, a transosseous repair with sutures passed through 2 bone tunnels into the medial femoral condyle has been described. We present a case of a femoral PCL avulsion in a 20-year-old collegiate football player with an associated medial collateral ligament injury, and we report about a novel technique for PCL repair using 2 No. 2 FiberWire sutures and two 2.9-mm PushLock anchors (Arthrex) to secure tensioning the ligament at its footprint. PMID:24749037

  20. A new automatic landmark extraction framework on ultrasound images of femoral condyles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson-Sibut, Agnès; Nakib, Amir; Petit, Eric; Leitner, François

    2012-03-01

    In Computer Assisted Orthopaedic Surgery (CAOS), surgeons have to acquire some anatomical landmarks as inputs to the system. To do so, they use manual pointers that are localized in the Operating Room (OR) space using an infrared camera. When the needed landmark is not reachable through an opening, it is palpated directly on skin and there is a loss of precision that can vary from several millimeters to centimeters depending on the thickness of soft tissues. In this paper, we propose a new framework based on three main steps to register the bone surface and extract automatically anatomical landmarks with an ultrasound probe. This framework is based on an oriented gradient calculation, a simulated-compound and a contour closure using a graph representation. The oriented gradient allows extracting a set of pixels that probably belong to the bone surface. The simulatedcompound step allows using ultrasound images properties to define a set of small segments which may belong to the bone surface, and the graph representation allows eliminating false positive detection among remaining segments. The proposed method has been validated on a database of 230 ultrasound images of anterior femoral condyles (on the knee). The average computation time is 0.11 sec per image, and average errors are: 0.54 mm for the bone surface extraction, 0.31 mm for the condylar line, and 1.4 mm for the trochlea middle.

  1. Combination of microvascular medial femoral condyle and iliac crest flap for hemi-midface reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Brandtner, C; Hachleitner, J; Buerger, H; Gaggl, A

    2015-06-01

    In midface defects including the orbit (Brown class III and IV), no single flap can provide adequate reconstruction. In this technical note, the combination of vascularized iliac crest flap and vascularized medial femoral condyle flap (MFC) is described. The vascularized iliac crest flap is reported to be the gold standard for maxilla reconstruction. There is, however, no consensus on the best method for orbital and nasal wall reconstruction. The MFC flap can be harvested as a thin corticoperiosteal flap or as an osteomyocutaneous flap. Due to the periosteal blood supply, this flap can be customized for an individual defect of the upper hemi-midface. It is therefore of great benefit in orbital and nasal wall reconstruction. By combining the deep circumflex iliac artery (DCIA) bone flap and the MFC flap, the best standard reconstruction technique of the hemi-maxilla can be combined with a new anatomical precise microvascular reconstruction technique of the orbit. A nearly symmetric midface appearance can be achieved. PMID:25835757

  2. A mechanical comparison between conventional and modified angular plates for proximal humeral fractures.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Eduardo F; Nicolao, Fabio A; Netto, Nicola Archetti; Carvalho, Renato L; Dos Reis, Fernando B; Giordani, Enrico José

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to present a modified angular blade plate for fixing 2-part and even 3-part fractures of the proximal humerus, as well as the results of the comparative mechanical test between the conventional angular blade plate and this new modified plate. The plates were tested in flexion and rotational trials in a wooden model that simulated a 2-part humeral fracture of the proximal extremity. The results (mean +/- SD) of bending strength and stiffness obtained after testing showed findings of 601 +/- 349 N and 0.5 +/- 0.2 N/mm, respectively, for the conventional plate and 4005 +/- 164 N and 3.9 +/- 0.7 N/mm, respectively, for the modified plate. The torsional stiffness test showed findings of 1.26 +/- 0.09 KN.mm degrees for the conventional plate and 1.74 +/- 0.21 KN.mm degrees for the modified plate. The test of torsional moment showed findings of 57.0 +/- 7.6 KN.mm for the conventional plate and 115.2 +/- 9.3 KN.mm for the modified plate. The test of angular displacement at the torsional moment showed findings of 50.8 degrees +/- 7.2 degrees for the conventional plate and 70.2 degrees +/- 2.6 degrees for the modified plate. The results of the mechanical trials of flexion and rotation were superior for the modified angular blade plate compared with the conventional angular blade plate. PMID:18359646

  3. HUMeral Shaft Fractures: MEasuring Recovery after Operative versus Non-operative Treatment (HUMMER): a multicenter comparative observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fractures of the humeral shaft are associated with a profound temporary (and in the elderly sometimes even permanent) impairment of independence and quality of life. These fractures can be treated operatively or non-operatively, but the optimal tailored treatment is an unresolved problem. As no high-quality comparative randomized or observational studies are available, a recent Cochrane review concluded there is no evidence of sufficient scientific quality available to inform the decision to operate or not. Since randomized controlled trials for this injury have shown feasibility issues, this study is designed to provide the best achievable evidence to answer this unresolved problem. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate functional recovery after operative versus non-operative treatment in adult patients who sustained a humeral shaft fracture. Secondary aims include the effect of treatment on pain, complications, generic health-related quality of life, time to resumption of activities of daily living and work, and cost-effectiveness. The main hypothesis is that operative treatment will result in faster recovery. Methods/design The design of the study will be a multicenter prospective observational study of 400 patients who have sustained a humeral shaft fracture, AO type 12A or 12B. Treatment decision (i.e., operative or non-operative) will be left to the discretion of the treating surgeon. Critical elements of treatment will be registered and outcome will be monitored at regular intervals over the subsequent 12 months. The primary outcome measure is the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score. Secondary outcome measures are the Constant score, pain level at both sides, range of motion of the elbow and shoulder joint at both sides, radiographic healing, rate of complications and (secondary) interventions, health-related quality of life (Short-Form 36 and EuroQol-5D), time to resumption of ADL/work, and cost-effectiveness. Data will be analyzed using univariate and multivariable analyses (including mixed effects regression analysis). The cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed from a societal perspective. Discussion Successful completion of this trial will provide evidence on the effectiveness of operative versus non-operative treatment of patients with a humeral shaft fracture. Trial registration The trial is registered at the Netherlands Trial Register (NTR3617). PMID:24517194

  4. Fractures of the occipital condyle clinical spectrum and course in eight patients

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Antonio; Oberkircher, Ludwig; Frangen, Thomas; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Kühne, Christian; Junge, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Occipital condyle fractures (OCFs) are considered to be rare injuries. OCFs are now diagnosed more often because of the widespread use of computed tomography. Our aim is to report the incidence, treatment and long term outcome of 8 patients with OCFs. Materials and Methods: All patients presenting with multiple trauma from 1993 to 2006 were analyzed retrospectively. Characteristics and course of the treatment were evaluated. Follow-up was performed after 11,7 years (range 5,9 to 19,3 years). Results: Nine cases of OCF in 8 patients were identified. All injuries resulted from high velocity trauma. The average scores on the ISS Scale were 39,6 (24-75) and 7,3 (3-15) on the GCS. According to Anderson's classification, 5 cases of Type III and 4 cases of Type I fractures were identified. According to Tuli's classification, 5 cases of Type IIA and 4 cases of Type I were found. Indications for immobilization with the halo-vest were type III injuries according to Anderson's classification or Tuli's type IIA injuries, respectively. Patients with Tuli's type I injuries were treated with a Philadelphia collar for 6 weeks. In one patient with initial complete tetraplegia and one with incomplete neurological deficits the final follow-up neurologic examination showed no neurological impairment at all (Frankel-grade A to E, respectively B to E). At follow-up, 3 patients were asymptomatic. Four patients suffered from mild pain when turning their head, pain medication was necessary in one case only. Discussion: OCF's are virtually undetectable using conventional radiography. In cases of high velocity, cranio-cervical trauma or impaired consciousness, high resolution CT-scans of the craniocervical junction must be performed. We suggest immobilization using a halo device for type III injuries according to Anderson's classification or Tuli's type IIa injuries, respectively. Patients with Tuli's type I injuries should be treated with a Philadelphia collar. PMID:24744561

  5. Torsional stability of the femur after harvest of the medial femoral condyle corticocancellous flap.

    PubMed

    Endara, Matthew R; Brown, Benjamin J; Shuck, John; Bachabi, Malick; Parks, Brent G; Higgins, James P

    2015-06-01

    Background?Increasingly large segments of medial femoral condyle (MFC) corticocancellous flaps have been harvested for transfer. Biomechanical evaluations demonstrated no osseous stability impairment under axial loading regardless of flap size harvested. The purpose of this study was to determine the donor site's response to torsional forces. Methods?Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scanning was performed on 16 pairs of cadaver legs followed by removal of all soft tissues, except knee capsule and ligaments. Specimens were randomly assigned to three groups with bone harvest defects measuring 3, 5, or 7 cm in length and a control group with no osseous resection. Torsional load was applied until fracture or ligamentous failure. Results?Bone failure rates were 12.5, 12.5, 28.6, and 55.6% for control, 3, 5, and 7 cm groups, respectively. Bone failure rate increased with increasing harvest size; the 7 cm group demonstrated a significantly higher rate compared with the other groups combined (55.6 vs. 17.4%; p?=?0.03). Failure torque was 45.5, 29.35, 27.4, and 30.83 Nm for the control, 3, 5, and 7 cm groups, respectively (p?=?0.11). Harvest of any size segment resulted in a significant decrease in failure torque (p?=?0.01). Bone mineral density (BMD) and Z-scores were no different among groups (p?=?0.79 and 0.59, respectively). A direct relationship was identified between force required for failure and BMD (p?=?0.02) and Z-scores (p?=?0.05) but not for failure location and BMD (p?=?0.09) or Z-scores (p?=?0.94). Conclusion?MFC corticocancellous flap harvest of any size decreases donor site failure torque. Flap harvests?>?7 cm demonstrate a higher frequency of iatrogenic fracture and therefore warrant caution with torsional loading of the knee postoperatively. Routine preoperative DEXA scans may not be warranted. PMID:25769083

  6. Occipital condyle fractures. Prospective follow-up of 31 cases within 5 years at a level 1 trauma centre

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franz Josef Mueller; Bernd Fuechtmeier; Bernd Kinner; Michael Rosskopf; Carsten Neumann; Michael Nerlich; Carsten Englert

    Purpose  Prospective investigation of incidence and outcome of occipital condyle fractures (OCF) in a level 1 trauma centre.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Over a period of 5 years, we prospectively recorded all cases of OCF, and performed a 1-year post-injury radiological and\\u000a clinical follow-up using CT imaging, SF-36 and Neck Disability Index, respectively.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  A total of 31 patients with OCF were identified. Based on a total

  7. Seasonal Temperature and Pin Site Care Regimen Affect the Incidence of Pin Site Infection in Pediatric Supracondylar Humeral Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mei-Chuan; Lee, Wei-Chun; Yang, Wen-E; Chang, Chia-Hsieh

    2015-01-01

    Pin site infection is a common complication after fracture fixation and bone lengthening, and daily pin site care is recommended. Weather is a strong environmental factor of infection, but few articles studied the issue of weather and pin site infection. We performed a prospective comparative study of 61 children with supracondylar humeral fractures treated by closed reduction and percutaneous pinning. The patients were divided into high-temperature season or low-temperature season by the months they received surgery. The patients within each season were further allocated to 2 groups by the different postoperative pin site care methods of daily care or noncare. The infection rate per patient was significantly higher in the high-temperature season compared to low-temperature season (45% versus 19%, P = 0.045). In the high-temperature season, the infection rate per patient was significantly higher in the daily care group versus the noncare group (70% versus 20%, P = 0.001). In the low-temperature season, the infection rate per patient was not significantly different in the daily care group versus the noncare group (10% versus 27.3%, P = 0.33). We recommend that careful monitoring of infection signs, rather than pin site cleaning, would be appropriate in the treatment of pediatric supracondylar humeral fractures, especially during the summer months.

  8. Three-dimensional quantitative analysis of the bone density of mandibular condyle in dentulous and edentulous jaws: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Himanshi; Singh, Raghuwar D; Kumar, Manoj; Singh, Ragini; Siddhartha, Ramashanker; Jurel, Sunit Kumar; Agrawal, Kaushal K; Kumar, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Studies have reported that masticatory function and occlusal force are low in edentulous patients, which brings about a change in the density, thickness, and alignment of bony trabeculae. However, studies that have quantitatively measured the differential cortical and medullary bone densities of the mandibular condyle in vivo remain rare. This study determined and compared the cortical and medullary bone density of the mandibular condyle in dentulous and edentulous jaws, using multidetector computed tomography (CT). Forty mandibular condyles with no clinical signs of temporomandibular disorders were investigated in 2 groups with 10 subjects (aged 50-80 yr) in each group (group I: dentulous subjects with maintained occlusion; group II: completely edentulous patients) with multidetector CT. The density of condylar cortical and medullary bone was determined by using bone density analysis algorithms available within the proprietary software. Data were analyzed statistically with the 1-way analysis of variance test (p<0.05). The mean cortical bone density of the right and left condyles of group I was 686.11±102.78 Hounsfield unit (HU) and 775.91±89.62 HU, respectively and that of group II was 531.33±289.73 HU and 648.53±294.39 HU, respectively. The mean medullary bone density of the right and left condyles was maximum in group I subjects (429.69±102.62 HU and 486.62±108.60 HU, respectively) than in group II subjects (214.89±104.37 HU and 205.36±90.91 HU, respectively) with a statistically significant decrease in the mean scores (p<0.001). Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the cortical and medullary densities of the mandibular condyle are more in dentulous than the edentulous jaws. PMID:25439457

  9. Objective assessments of medial osteoarthritic knee severity by MRI: new computer software to evaluate femoral condyle contours

    PubMed Central

    Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Tahara, Masamichi; Watanabe, Atsuya; Matsuki, Kei; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Miyake, Yoichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Wada, Yuichi; Moriya, Hideshige

    2009-01-01

    An irregular contour of the medial femoral condyle (MFC) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appears to indicate the severity of medial-type knee osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of this study was to establish a system to enable objective assessments of OA knee severity using newly developed software that semi-automatically measures irregularity of the MFC. (1) We evaluated 48 patients aged 50–83 years with 55 knees of medial-type OA. The following scores were recorded: Lysholm score, visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure (JKOM). MFC irregularity was automatically calculated by newly programmed computer software. Four parameters for condyle irregularity were calculated: (a) the average thickness of the contour (ATC), (b) the ratio of the upper surface length to the lower surface length of the contour (RUL), (c) average squared thickness of the contour (ASTC) and (d) standard deviation of the contour thickness (SDC). (2) Nine knees that underwent total knee arthroplasty were further analysed histopathologically and compared with irregularity score. Statistically, the RUL and SDC were significantly correlated with the Lysholm score, VAS and JKOM, with good reliability. Histological examinations showed that an irregular contour reflected the density of cystic lesions formed in subchondral bone. An irregularity of MFC on MRI is correlated with OA disease severity clinically and histopathologically. The new computer software is useful to objectively assess OA disease severity. PMID:19763568

  10. Objective assessments of medial osteoarthritic knee severity by MRI: new computer software to evaluate femoral condyle contours.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Sasho, Takahisa; Tahara, Masamichi; Watanabe, Atsuya; Matsuki, Kei; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Miyake, Yoichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Wada, Yuichi; Moriya, Hideshige

    2010-08-01

    An irregular contour of the medial femoral condyle (MFC) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appears to indicate the severity of medial-type knee osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of this study was to establish a system to enable objective assessments of OA knee severity using newly developed software that semi-automatically measures irregularity of the MFC. (1) We evaluated 48 patients aged 50-83 years with 55 knees of medial-type OA. The following scores were recorded: Lysholm score, visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure (JKOM). MFC irregularity was automatically calculated by newly programmed computer software. Four parameters for condyle irregularity were calculated: (a) the average thickness of the contour (ATC), (b) the ratio of the upper surface length to the lower surface length of the contour (RUL), (c) average squared thickness of the contour (ASTC) and (d) standard deviation of the contour thickness (SDC). (2) Nine knees that underwent total knee arthroplasty were further analysed histopathologically and compared with irregularity score. Statistically, the RUL and SDC were significantly correlated with the Lysholm score, VAS and JKOM, with good reliability. Histological examinations showed that an irregular contour reflected the density of cystic lesions formed in subchondral bone. An irregularity of MFC on MRI is correlated with OA disease severity clinically and histopathologically. The new computer software is useful to objectively assess OA disease severity. PMID:19763568

  11. Complication rates and outcomes stratified by treatment modalities in proximal humeral fractures: a systematic literature review from 1970–2009

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The optimal treatment of complex, displaced proximal humeral fractures is controversial. A systematic literature review of the time period from 1970 to 2009 was conducted. The purpose was to evaluate the clinical success and complications of the available treatment modalities to determine specific treatment recommendations for the different fracture patterns. Methods The databases (PubMed/EMBASE) were searched for the time period (01/1970–09/2009). Study quality, treatment modalities, classification, outcome scores and complications of 200 publications including 9377 patients were analyzed. Interventions were compared by analysis of variance with subsequent Tukey’s-test. Complication rates among methods were compared by using Pearson’s-chi-square-test and pairwise comparisons using Fisher’s-two-tailed-exact-test. Results Hemiarthroplasty, angle-stable plate and non-operative treatment were used for 63% of the follow-up-patients. For 3- and 4-part fractures, patients with hemiarthroplasty [3-Part: 56.4 (lower/upper 95% confidence interval (CI): 43.3-68.7); 4-Part: 49.4 (CI: 42.2-56.7)] received a lower score than different surgical head-preserving methods such as ORIF [3-Part: 82.4 (CI: 76.6-86.9); 4-Part: 83.0 (CI:78.7-86.6)], intramedullary nailing [3-Part: 79.1 (CI:74.0-83.4)] or angle-stable plates [4-Part: 66.4 (CI: 59.7-72.4)]. The overall complication rate was 56%. The most common complications were fracture-displacement, malunion, humeral head necrosis and malreduction. The highest complication rates were documented for conventional plate and hemiarthroplasty and for AO-C, AO-A, for 3- and 4-part fractures. Only 25% of the data were reported with detailed classification results and the corresponding outcome scores. Discussion Despite the large amount of patients included, it is difficult to determine adequate recommendations for the treatment of proximal humeral fractures because a relevant lack of follow-up data impaired subsequent analysis. For displaced 3- and 4-part fractures head-preserving therapy received better outcome scores than hemiarthroplasty. However, a higher number of complications occurred in more complex fractures and when hemiarthroplasty or conventional plate osteosynthesis was performed. Thus, when informing the patient for consent, both the clinical results and the possibly expected complications with a chosen treatment modality should be addressed. PMID:24268107

  12. Acute calcific periarthiritis of the knee presenting with calcification within the lateral collateral ligament.

    PubMed

    Watura, Karen; Greenish, Davyd; Williams, Martin; Webb, Jason

    2015-01-01

    A 71-year-old woman was admitted with acute swelling of the right knee, pain on the lateral aspect and restricted movement. There was no instability or locking. She had no history of trauma and was generally in good health. Plain radiographs demonstrated a calcific opacity adjacent to the lateral femoral condyle. This was shown to be within the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) at ultrasound and MRI. A diagnosis of acute calcific periarthritis (ACP) was made. The patient's symptoms resolved within a few weeks with simple analgaesia. ACP presenting with calcification within the LCL is rare. It is important to recognise the clinical and imaging findings of this condition as it may mimic other more serious pathologies such as infection and gout. This may result in unnecessary investigations, misdiagnoses and incorrect treatments. PMID:26063105

  13. Stemless humeral component in reverse shoulder prosthesis in patient with Parkinson’s disease: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Giannotti, Stefano; Bottai, Vanna; Dell’Osso, Giacomo; Bugelli, Giulia; Guido, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Summary Introduction In patients with Parkinson’s disease falling is very common and for this reason, the prosthetic surgical indication in shoulder is reserved for special cases. PD has been linked to several interrelated factors that may contribute to failure of shoulder arthroplasty. Case presentation A 65-year-old woman with PD, severe pain, recurrent bursitis, swelling and functional limitation to all movements in left shoulder presented to our attention. Radiographic and CT exams show cuff-tear arthropathy. The patient was submitted to implantation of a Reverse Shoulder Comprehensive Nano cementless modular system (Biomet®, Warsaw, IN, USA) with anterosuperior surgical approach. We chose this kind of solution of stemless humeral component after bone mineral consideration. Discussion Reverse shoulder arthroplasty represents an option in the management of glenohumeral arthritis. Poor functional results of RTSA in patients with PD have been attributed to increased muscle tone, severity of tremor and an increased mortality rate. In general, post operative complications related to the humeral component are dominated by fractures (between 1 and 3%): in patients with PD this percentage is higher because of falls often occur. With a stemless implant revisions can be performed easily. Overall, the anterosuperior surgical exposure gives a low risk of postoperative instability. Conclusion In selected cases of patients with PD, after carefully analysis of bone quality, the use of a stemless component is of benefit in the possible revision cases for periprosthetic fractures and the use of an anterosuperior exposure reduces the percentage of instability. The results obtained about the pain relief are excellent in contrast with functional outcomes that remain poor. PMID:26136798

  14. Femoral Condyle Fracture during Revision of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Case Report and a Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Keyhani, Sohrab; Vaziri, Arash Sharafat; shafiei, Hossein; Mardani-Kivi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    A rare and devastating complication following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) revision reconstruction is femoral fracture. A 35-year old male soccer player with a history of ACL tear from one year ago, who underwent arthroscopic ACL reconstruction and functioned well until another similar injury caused ACL re-rupture. Revision of ACL reconstruction was performed and after failure of graft tension during the pumping, a fluoroscopic assessment showed a femoral condyle fracture. The patient referred to our knee clinic and was operated on in two stages first fixation of the fracture and then ACL re-revision after fracture healing was complete. Not inserting multiple guide pins, keeping a safe distance from the posterior cortex and giving more attention during graft tensioning, especially in revision surgeries, are all small points that can reduce the risk of fracture during the revision of ACL reconstruction. PMID:26110183

  15. Analysis of Range of Motion and Isokinetic Strength of Internal and External Rotation According to Humeral Retroversion of the Dominant Shoulder in Youth Baseball Players: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    RHI, Soung-Yob; SO, Wi-Young

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background We aimed to analyze the range of motion (ROM) and internal rotation (IR) and external rotation (ER) isokinetic strength according to humeral retroversion of the dominant shoulder. Methods We included 40 elite baseball players in Korea (OBP group: n=20 players with careers spanning >10 years, age: 19.37±2.21 years, height: 181.00±5.41 cm, weight: 84.58±7.85 kg; BBP group: n=20 players with careers spanning <10 years, age: 16.55±1.36 years, height: 177.27±7.57 cm, weight: 77.27±8.14 kg). Radiography was performed to examine humeral retroversion, a goniometer was used to measure IROM and EROM, and a dynamometer was used to measure IR and ER isokinetic strength (speed set at 180°/s or 300°/s). Results The BBP and OBP groups had significantly different IR and ER isokinetic strength (180°/s and 300°/s) (P<0.001) and dominant shoulder retroversion (P=0.009). In the BBP group, retroversion had no correlation with ROM and with IR or ER isokinetic strength (180°/s and 300°/s). In the OBP group, retroversion had no correlation with ROM and with ER isokinetic strength at 180°/s, but had significant correlation with IR isokinetic strength at both 180°/s (r=0.483, P=0.007) and 300°/s (r=0.373, P=0.043) and ER isokinetic strength at 300°/s (r=0.366, P=0.046). Conclusion Thus, youth players with careers spanning >10 years had significantly higher humeral retroversion, IROM, EROM, and IR and ER isokinetic strength of the dominant shoulder than youth players with careers spanning <10 years. Furthermore, humeral retroversion and ROM were not significantly related, but IR and ER isokinetic strength were significantly positively related with retroversion in both groups.

  16. Dynamic biomechanics of the human head in lateral impacts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiangyue; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    The biomechanical responses of human head (translational head CG accelerations, rotational head accelerations, and HIC) under lateral impact to the parietal-temporal region were investigated in the current study. Free drop tests were conducted at impact velocities ranging from 2.44 to 7.70 m/s with a 40 durometer, a 90 durometer flat padding, and a 90 durometer cylinder. Specimens were isolated from PMHS subjects at the level of occipital condyles, and the intracranial substance was replaced with brain simulant (Sylgard 527). Three tri-axial accelerometers were instrumented at the anterior, posterior, and vertex of the specimen, and a pyramid nine accelerometer package (pNAP) was used at the contra-lateral site. Biomechanical responses were computed by transforming accelerations measured at each location to the head CG. The results indicated significant “hoop effect” from skull deformation. Translational head CG accelerations were accurately measured by transforming the pNAP, the vertex accelerations, or the average of anterior/posterior acceleration to the CG. The material stiffness and structural rigidity of the padding changed the biomechanical responses of the head with stiffer padding resulting in higher head accelerations. At the skull fracture, HIC values were more than 2–3x higher than the frontal skull fracture threshold (HIC=1000), emphasizing the differences between frontal and lateral impact. Rotational head accelerations up to 42.1 krad/s2 were observed before skull fracture, indicating possible severe brain injury without skull fracture in lateral head impact. These data will help to establish injury criteria and threshold in lateral impacts for improved automotive protection and help clinicians understand the biomechanics of lateral head impact from improved diagnosis. PMID:20184848

  17. Chondral fracture of the lateral trochlea of the femur occurring in an adolescent: mechanism of injury.

    PubMed

    Oohashi, Yoshikazu; Oohashi, Yoshinori

    2007-11-01

    The trochlea of the femur is a very unusual site for chondral fracture. Little is known of the mechanism of injuries confined to the articular cartilage of the trochlea of the femur. A very unusual case of chondral fracture of the lateral trochlea of the femur occurring in an adolescent is reported here. The mechanism by which this injury occurred could be evaluated in this patient. The cartilage on the convex surface of the lateral trochlea was likely avulsed proximally by shear force of the patella during rapid extension of the weight-bearing knee from a flexed position. From a viewpoint of mechanism, this injury differs from the more usual osteochondral or chondral fractures of the weight bearing area of the femoral condyle, which are usually accompanied by twisting forces. PMID:17024462

  18. Pathways of Lateral Spreading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Jacobi; S. Schanzer; H.-J. Weigmann; A. Patzelt; T. Vergou; W. Sterry; J. Lademann

    2011-01-01

    In the case of topically applied substances, usually both lateral spreading and competitive penetration into the skin occur in parallel. In the present study, the pathways of lateral spreading were studied quantitatively and visually. The local distribution and lateral spreading of the UV filter substance butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane applied in an o\\/w emulsion was studied on the forearm and the back.

  19. [Significance of rotation errors in supracondylar humeral fractures in the child].

    PubMed

    Resch, H; Helweg, G

    1987-04-01

    To get information about the importance of malrotation for posttraumatic varus or valgus deformity a clinical, radiological and CT follow-up examination of 20 children who were treated for supracondylar fracture from 1983 to 1985 was done. Rotational-displacement was measured on computed tomographical images taken from the region where fracture had happened. On the ap follow-up X-ray from both, the fractured and the other side, and the X-ray which was made after reduction, the medial and lateral colonne were measured from a "special point" in the middle of the shaft of the humerus. The length of the colonnes and their difference were compared. 15 of the 20 patients showed internal malrotation, 1 patient external malrotation and 4 showed no rotational-displacement. In 15 of the 16 patients with malrotation, the rotational-displacement caused a change in the length of the colonnes. Just in one case malrotation caused a minimal deformity of the carrying angle without alteration of the length of the colonnes. 93% of the cases with internal malrotation showed varus deformity. In 3 cases we saw growth disturbance of the epiphyseal plate, but the induced alteration of the length of the colonnes were minimal compared with the changes caused by malrotation. PMID:2884828

  20. Open reduction and internal fixation of extracapsular mandibular condyle fractures: a long-term clinical and radiological follow-up of 25 patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background During the last 2 decades, many studies on the treatment of mandibular condyle fracture have been published. The incidence of mandibular condyle fractures is variable, ranging from 17.5% to 52% of all mandibular fractures. This retrospective study evaluated the long-term clinical and radiological outcomes after surgical treatment of 25 patients with a total of 26 extracapsular condyle fractures. Methods We used 2 types of surgical approaches, the retromandibular retroparotid or preauricular approach. Three kinds of rigid internal fixation plates were used—single plate, double plate, and trapezoidal plate. The following post-operative clinical parameters were evaluated: dental occlusion, facial nerve functionality, skin scarring, and temporomandibular joint functionality. All patients underwent post-operative orthopanoramic radiography and computed tomography. The patients were also monitored for complications such as Frey’s syndrome, infection, salivary fistula, plate fracture, and permanent paralysis of the facial nerve; the patient’s satisfaction was also recorded. Results Of the 25 patients, 80% showed occlusion recovery, 88% had no facial nerve injury, and 88% presented good surgical skin scarring. The patients showed early complete recovery of temporomandibular joint functionality and 72% of them were found to be asymptomatic. The postoperative radiographs of all patients indicated good recovery of the anatomical condylar region, and 80% of them had no postoperative complications. The average degree of patient satisfaction was 8.32 out of 10. Our results confirm that the technique of open reduction and internal fixation in association with postoperative functional rehabilitation therapy should be considered for treating patients with extracapsular condylar fractures. Conclusion The topic of condylar injury has generated more discussion and controversy than any other topic in the field of maxillofacial trauma. We confirm that open reduction and internal fixation is the treatment of choice for patients with neck and sub-condylar mandibular fractures. PMID:25196114

  1. Lateral superlattice solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Mascarenhas; Yong Zhang; J. Mirecki Millunchick; R. D. Twesten; E. D. Jones

    1997-01-01

    A novel structure which comprises of a lateral superlattice as the active layer of a solar cell is proposed. If the alternating regions A and B of a lateral superlattice ABABAB... are chosen to have a Type-II band offset, it is shown that the performance of the active absorbing region of the solar cell is optimized. In essence, the Type-II

  2. Lateral subtalar dislocation.

    PubMed

    Sharda, Praveen; DuFosse, Julian

    2008-07-01

    Subtalar dislocations are rare in routine orthopedic practice. While many of these dislocations are a result of high-energy injuries such as fall from a height or traffic accidents, it is not uncommon for patients to present after slipping down a few stairs. Two types of dislocation have been described, medial and lateral. The type of dislocation is described according to the position of the foot. In lateral subtalar dislocation the head of talus is found medially and the calcaneus is dislocated laterally. The navicular may lie dorsolateral to the talus. The reverse is true of lateral dislocation. Medial dislocation has been referred to as "basketball foot" due to its preponderance in basketball players.4 The deciding factor is the inverted or everted position of the foot when the force is dissipated through the weak talonavicular and talocalcaneal ligaments. This article presents a case of an adult with lateral subtalar dislocation following a fall. PMID:19292363

  3. Lateral superlattice solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mascarenhas, A.; Zhang, Y. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Millunchick, J.M.; Twesten, R.D.; Jones, E.D. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    1997-04-01

    A novel structure which comprises of a lateral superlattice as the active layer of a solar cell is proposed. If the alternating regions A and B of a lateral superlattice ABABAB{hor_ellipsis} are chosen to have a Type-II band offset, it is shown that the performance of the active absorbing region of the solar cell is optimized. In essence, the Type-II lateral superlattice region can satisfy the material requirements for an ideal solar cells active absorbing region, i.e. simultaneously having a very high transition probability for photogeneration and a very long minority carrier recombination lifetime. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Lateral superlattice solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mascarenhas, A.; Zhang, Y. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Millunchick, J.M.; Twesten, R.D.; Jones, E.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-10-01

    A novel structure which comprises of a lateral superlattice as the active layer of a solar cell is proposed. If the alternating regions A and B of a lateral superlattice ABABAB... are chosen to have a Type-II band offset, it is shown that the performance of the active absorbing region of the solar cell is optimized. In essence, the Type-II lateral superlattice region can satisfy the material requirements for an ideal solar cells active absorbing region, i.e. simultaneously having a very high transition probability for photogeneration and a very long minority carrier recombination lifetime.

  5. Lateral Failure of Spars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bromley, Stevens; Robison, William H , Jr

    1926-01-01

    It was concluded that after the critical span or depth-breadth ratio has been reached, the modulus of rupture varies approximately inversely as the first power of the span and of the depth-breadth ratio. The direction of the lateral deflection is alternate between successive supports. For this reason, we believe that rib spacing along the spar is more important in reducing lateral deflection than the distance between supports at the strut points. Furthermore, we believe that, within the limits of modern design, any increase in distance between strut points can well be compensated for by spacing the ribs closer together, providing the ribs do furnish lateral support.

  6. Primary Lateral Sclerosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sclerosis? Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) is a rare neuromuscular disease with slowly progressive weakness in voluntary muscle ... NINDS conducts a broad range of research on neuromuscular disorders such as PLS. This research is aimed ...

  7. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    MedlinePLUS

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a nervous system disease that attacks nerve cells called neurons in your ... people with ALS die from respiratory failure. The disease usually strikes between age 40 and 60. More ...

  8. Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... technique and improper equipment may be risk factors. Unknown Lateral epicondylitis can occur without any recognized repetitive ... This occurence is called “insidious” or of an unknown cause. Symptoms The symptoms of tennis elbow develop ...

  9. Lateral superlattice solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Mascarenhas; Yong Zhang; J. Mirecki Millunchick; R. D. Twesten; E. D. Jones

    1997-01-01

    A novel structure which comprises of a lateral superlattice as the active layer of a solar cell is proposed. If the alternating regions A and B of a lateral superlattice ABABAB&ellip; are chosen to have a Type-II band offset, it is shown that the performance of the active absorbing region of the solar cell is optimized. In essence, the Type-II

  10. Preventing errors in laterality.

    PubMed

    Landau, Elliot; Hirschorn, David; Koutras, Iakovos; Malek, Alexander; Demissie, Seleshie

    2015-04-01

    An error in laterality is the reporting of a finding that is present on the right side as on the left or vice versa. While different medical and surgical specialties have implemented protocols to help prevent such errors, very few studies have been published that describe these errors in radiology reports and ways to prevent them. We devised a system that allows the radiologist to view reports in a separate window, displayed in a simple font and with all terms of laterality highlighted in separate colors. This allows the radiologist to correlate all detected laterality terms of the report with the images open in PACS and correct them before the report is finalized. The system is monitored every time an error in laterality was detected. The system detected 32 errors in laterality over a 7-month period (rate of 0.0007 %), with CT containing the highest error detection rate of all modalities. Significantly, more errors were detected in male patients compared with female patients. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that with our system, laterality errors can be detected and corrected prior to finalizing reports. PMID:25273506

  11. The relationship between lateral meniscus shape and joint contact parameters in the knee: a study using data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The meniscus has an important role in force transmission across the knee, but a detailed three-dimensional (3D) morphometric shape analysis of the lateral meniscus to elucidate subject-specific function has not been conducted. The aim of this study was to perform 3D morphometric analyses of the lateral meniscus in order to correlate shape variables with anthropometric parameters, thereby gaining a better understanding of the relationship between lateral meniscus shape and its load-bearing function. Methods The lateral meniscus (LM) was manually segmented from magnetic resonance images randomly selected from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) non-exposed control subcohort. A 3D statistical shape model (SSM) was constructed to extract the principal morphological variations (PMV) of the lateral meniscus for 50 subjects (25 male and 25 female). Correlations between the principal morphological variations and anthropometric parameters were tested. Anthropometric parameters that were selected included height, weight, body mass index (BMI), femoral condyle width and axial rotation. Results The first principal morphological variation (PMV) was found to correlate with height (r?=?0.569), weight (r?=?0.647), BMI (r?=?0.376), and femoral condyle width (r?=?0.622). The third PMV was found to correlate with height (r?=?0.406), weight (r?=?0.312), and femoral condyle width (r?=?0.331). The percentage of the tibial plateau covered by the lateral meniscus decreases as anthropometric parameters relating to size of the subject increase. Furthermore, when the size of the subject increases, the posterior and anterior horns become proportionally longer and wider. Conclusion The correlations discovered suggest that variations in meniscal shape can be at least partially explained by the levels of loads transmitted across the knee on a regular basis. Additionally, as the size of the subject increases and body weight rises, the coverage percentage of the meniscus is reduced, suggesting that there would be an increase in the load-bearing by the cartilage. However, this reduced coverage percentage is compensated by the proportionally wider and longer meniscal horn. PMID:24467794

  12. The lateral bending sign.

    PubMed

    Weitz, E M

    1981-01-01

    In lumbar disc herniations, musculoskeletal findings usually predominate at the outset. There is often an acute list or impaired lateral mobility to one side or the other. This finding represents a protective mechanism to splint the affected disc space in the position where the disc prolapse exerts the least possible pressure on the affected nerve root. An attempt was therefore made to determine whether the relationship of the disc herniation to the nerve root could be delineated by having the patient bend maximally to each side. Three hundred patients who would normally be candidates for routine (static) x-ray study of the lumbar spine had lateral bending (dynamic) films instead. These were then correlated with myelograms and/or surgery, when performed. Lateral bending roentgenograms can often pinpoint the level of lumbar disc herniation. PMID:7280828

  13. Lateral Skull Base Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Manolidis, Spiros; Jackson, C. Gary; Von Doersten, Peter G.; Pappas, Dennis; Glasscock, Michael E.

    1997-01-01

    Lateral skull base surgery has remained the surgical frontier of new developments in the treatment of lesions heretofore difficult to access. Examination of surgical results stimulates technical innovation and provides an intervention risk-benefit ratio assessment for particular lesions useful in management planning. With this in mind, we report the updated collective experience with lateral skull base surgery at the Otology Group over the past 20 years. Two hundred ninety-eight patients underwent surgical intervention for lateral skull base lesions. In 81 patients these lesions were malignant; in 217, benign. Of the benign lesions, 165 were glomus tumors: 139 glomus jugulare, 19 glomus vagale, and 7 glomus tympanicum. The remainder comprised 21 menigniomas, 14 neuromas, two neurofibromas, and a small group of much rarer entities. The philosophy of surgical approach, results, and follow-up are discussed. PMID:17171022

  14. Lateral IMPATT diodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Stabile; B. Lalevic

    1989-01-01

    Conventional IMPATT diodes are the highest-power microwave semiconductor devices, but they are difficult to couple light into, challenging to integrate into monolithic circuits, to incorporate a third terminal, or to series combine. The lateral IMPATT diode is proposed as a solution to these problems. This device is planar and features contact and drift regions that are all adjacent to the

  15. Stamina in later life.

    PubMed

    Colerick, E J

    1985-01-01

    Patterns of aging raise a number of important questions concerning the paths to successful adaptation. What gives some older individuals their staying power in the face of misfortune? What causes others to function less effectively when stressed, to resist change? Clearly, the margin of safety, the degree of elasticity and resilience varies across individuals in the later years. This study focuses on event histories and current behavior of 62 elderly men and women (Phase I) and reports by their confidants (N = 62; Phase II). A central proposition, that stamina in later life depends, in part, on the appraisal of previous events involving loss is investigated using a model that incorporates aspects of earlier life, cognitive appraisal and clinically judged dimensions of stamina in old age. Multivariate (particularly path analytic) techniques are used to test the links between variable foci. Results suggest that antecedents of stamina involve the interaction of social resources and cognitive orientations. Specifically, stamina in later life is contingent, for the most part, on a triumphant, positive outlook during periods of adversity. Elderly so oriented are also those with robust health histories and marked educational accomplishments. Conversely, persons who view situations involving loss as threatening, overwhelming and potentially defeating experience no such outcome; low levels of stamina mark their later years. Interestingly, quality childhood ties matter for stamina in old age only by increasing the likelihood of perceptions of a supportive environment during hard times. The findings corroborate the general pattern of research documenting the importance of cognitive orientations in adaptive processes. PMID:4081826

  16. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, J D; Borasio, G D

    2007-06-16

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (known in the UK as motor neuron disease) is a devastating illness with uncertain pathogenesis. In this Seminar, we review its natural history, clinical features, diagnostic criteria, variant and mimic syndromes, genetic forms, and epidemiology. Several hypotheses about causes of the disorder are discussed, such as excitotoxicity and oxidant stress, and we review past and present putative disease-modifying treatments. Disease-management strategies, from telling the patient about their illness to end-of-life decisions and palliative care, are presented. We review options for control of the main symptoms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis--including dysphagia, dysarthria, respiratory distress, pain, and psychological disorders--and care in the terminal phase. The need for good psychosocial and spiritual care of patients and families is emphasised. We conclude with an overview of some current major issues and future prospects, ranging from the search for disease markers to challenging developments such as stem-cell and gene therapy. PMID:17574095

  17. Lateral MEMS microcontact considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ezekiel J. J. Kruglick; Kristofer S. J. Pister

    1999-01-01

    A lateral switching relay structure has been developed which provides a double gold contact with as low as 70-m? measured contact resistance, 0.45-A current-carrying ability at MEMS compatible force levels, TTL compatible actuation, and air gap isolation when open. The die area used for the relay mechanism itself (distinct from the actuation) is approximately 75 ?m by 100 ?m and

  18. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lokesh C Wijesekera; P Nigel Leigh

    2009-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by progressive muscular paralysis reflecting degeneration of motor neurones in the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, brainstem and spinal cord. Incidence (average 1.89 per 100,000\\/year) and prevalence (average 5.2 per100,000) are relatively uniform in Western countries, although foci of higher frequency occur in the Western Pacific. The mean age of onset

  19. Lateral transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven J. Shichman; C. D. Anthony Herndon; R. Ernest Sosa; Giles F. Whalen; Dougald C. MacGillivray; Carl D. Malchoff; E. Darracott Vaughan

    1999-01-01

    Several laparoscopic approaches to the adrenal gland have been described. The lateral transperitoneal approach has several\\u000a distinct advantages when contrasted with other techniques for laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA). We present our technique and\\u000a results obtained in 50 consecutive transperitoneal LAs. We review 50 consecutive laparoscopic adrenalectomies (28 female,\\u000a 19 male) performed from 1993 to 1998. S.J. Shichman or R.E. Sosa was

  20. Start School Later

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Last month, Pediatrics, the official journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), issued a formal policy statement concerning School Start Times for Adolescents (http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2014/08/19/peds.2014-1697.abstract?sid=3f739b0e-a552-4a4a-bd0a-907809e20255). In essence, the AAP called for schools to start later, citing sleep deprivation among teenagers as â??an important public health issue.â? This site from Start School Later, a group advocating for â??health, safety and equity in education,â? provides good, if somewhat one-sided, information on the topic. If youâ??re unfamiliar, start with Research & Info, which provides links to a number of informative sites about adolescent sleep needs and the impact of early school start times. Success Stories takes readers to schools around the country that have experimented with, and benefited from, later start times. If you're inspired, you can also Get Involved. Whatever your position on the issue, this is an informative and interesting site.

  1. The Efficacy of Intra-Articular Injections for Pain Control Following the Closed Reduction and Percutaneous Pinning of Pediatric Supracondylar Humeral Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Georgopoulos, Gaia; Carry, Patrick; Pan, Zhaoxing; Chang, Frank; Heare, Travis; Rhodes, Jason; Hotchkiss, Mark; Miller, Nancy H.; Erickson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this single-blinded, randomized, controlled trial was to compare the analgesic efficacy of intra-articular injections of bupivacaine or ropivacaine with that of no injection for postoperative pain control after the operative treatment of supracondylar humeral fractures in a pediatric population. Methods: Subjects (n = 124) were randomized to treatment with 0.25% bupivacaine (Group B) (n = 42), 0.20% ropivacaine (Group R) (n = 39), or no injection (Group C) (n = 43). The opioid doses and the times of administration as well as child-reported pain severity (Faces Pain Scale-Revised) and parent-reported pain severity (Total Quality Pain Management survey) were recorded. Results: The proportion of subjects who required morphine and/or fentanyl injections was significantly (p = 0.004) lower in Group B (10%) as compared with Group R (36%) and Group C (44%). On the basis of the log-rank test, the opioid-free survival rates were significantly greater in Group B as compared to Groups C and R. Total opioid consumption (morphine equivalent mg/kg) in the first seventy-two hours postoperatively was significantly less in Group B as compared with Group C (mean difference, 0.225; [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.0152 to 0.435]; p = 0.036). Parent-reported pain scores were also significantly lower in Group B as compared with both Group C (mean difference, 1.81 [95% CI, 0.38 to 3.25]; p = 0.014) and Group R (mean difference, 1.66; 95% CI, 0.20 to 3.12; p = 0.027). There were no significant differences across the three groups in terms of self-reported pain. Differences between Groups R and C were not significant for any of the outcome variables. Conclusions: The intra-articular injection of 0.25% bupivacaine significantly improves postoperative pain control following the closed reduction and percutaneous pinning of supracondylar humeral fractures in pediatric patients. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:22878686

  2. Creativity in later life.

    PubMed

    Price, K A; Tinker, A M

    2014-08-01

    The ageing population presents significant challenges for the provision of social and health services. Strategies are needed to enable older people to cope within a society ill prepared for the impacts of these demographic changes. The ability to be creative may be one such strategy. This review outlines the relevant literature and examines current public health policy related to creativity in old age with the aim of highlighting some important issues. As well as looking at the benefits and negative aspects of creative activity in later life they are considered in the context of the theory of "successful ageing". Creative activity plays an important role in the lives of older people promoting social interaction, providing cognitive stimulation and giving a sense of self-worth. Furthermore, it is shown to be useful as a tool in the multi-disciplinary treatment of health problems common in later life such as depression and dementia. There are a number of initiatives to encourage older people to participate in creative activities such as arts-based projects which may range from visual arts to dance to music to intergenerational initiatives. However, participation shows geographical variation and often the responsibility of provision falls to voluntary organisations. Overall, the literature presented suggests that creative activity could be a useful tool for individuals and society. However, further research is needed to establish the key factors which contribute to patterns of improved health and well-being, as well as to explore ways to improve access to services. PMID:24974278

  3. “8 Plate”: An Alternative Device to Fix Highly Recurrent Traumatic Anterior Gleno-Humeral Instability in Patients with Severe Impairment of the Anterior Capsule

    PubMed Central

    Tudisco, C; Bisicchia, S; Savarese, E; Ippolito, E

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is still debate about the best treatment option for highly recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation in patients with severe impairment of the anterior capsule and/or recurrence after either arthroscopic or open capsulorrhaphy. Materials and Methods: The clinical and radiological findings of 7 patients treated with an open capsulorrhaphy stabilized with an “8 plate” for a highly recurrent traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation with severe impairment of the anterior capsule and a large Bankart lesion were retrospectively reviewed. Follow-up evaluation included VAS for pain, Constant-Murley, Simple Shoulder Test, ASES, UCLA, Quick DASH, Rowe, Walsch-Duplay scores, as well as X-rays of the operated shoulder. Results: At follow-up none of the patients reported subsequent dislocations. Range of motion of the shoulder was complete in all cases, but one. Results of the functional scoring systems were satisfactory. X-rays showed no osteolysis and good position of the plate. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature about an open capsular tensioning and Bankart lesion repair performed with an “8 plate”. We believe that this is a reliable and effective procedure to address traumatic anterior re-dislocation of the gleno-humeral joint when the capsule is extensively torn and frayed or in revision cases. Moreover the “8 plate” is ideal to be applied in such a narrow space on the slant surface of the scapular neck close to the glenoid rim. PMID:25621080

  4. Adaptation of scapula lateral rotation after reverse anatomy shoulder replacement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Kontaxis; Garth R. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    Scapula motion is significant for support of the arm and stability of the shoulder. The effect of the humeral elevation on scapular kinematics has been well investigated for normal subjects, but there are limited published studies investigating adaptations after shoulder arthroplasty.Scapula kinematics was measured on 10 shoulders (eight subjects) with a reverse total joint replacement. The measurements were performed using

  5. Timely recognition of traumatic atlanto-occipital dislocation in a child based on occipital condyle-C1 interval analysis: excellent neurological recovery.

    PubMed

    Gluncic, Vicko; Turner, Michael; Kranzler, Leonard; Frim, David

    2010-05-01

    A case of atlanto-occipital dislocation (AOD) is presented to illustrate the importance of subtle imaging findings and the occipital condyle-C1 interval (CCI) measurement in the evaluation of high cervical spine injury. Although AOD is commonly considered to be fatal, recently there have been an increasing number of reports of children surviving this injury. Prompt recognition and treatment of AOD are crucial for survival. The authors present a case of an 8-year-old boy who sustained a destabilizing injury without bone disruption but with ligamentous tears that rendered his cervical spine unstable from the occiput to the C-1 level. On admission, imaging findings were consistent with tectorial membrane damage, perimedullary subarachnoid hemorrhage, and extraaxial blood from the clivus to the C-2 level. Most standard cervical spine radiological indices were within normal limits except the CCI. After initial management in a cervical collar, the patient was placed in halo vest, and subsequently underwent occiput to C-3 fusion. Timely recognition of the injury and subsequent craniocervical stabilization with internal fixation resulted in full neurological recovery. This report supports CCI as a valuable index for the prompt recognition of AOD. It also supports recent literature suggesting that AOD is a survivable injury with the possibility for an excellent neurological recovery. PMID:20433259

  6. Evaluation of injectable strontium-containing borate bioactive glass cement with enhanced osteogenic capacity in a critical-sized rabbit femoral condyle defect model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yadong; Cui, Xu; Zhao, Shichang; Wang, Hui; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Liu, Zhongtang; Huang, Wenhai; Zhang, Changqing

    2015-02-01

    The development of a new generation of injectable bone cements that are bioactive and have enhanced osteogenic capacity for rapid osseointegration is receiving considerable interest. In this study, a novel injectable cement (designated Sr-BBG) composed of strontium-doped borate bioactive glass particles and a chitosan-based bonding phase was prepared and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The bioactive glass provided the benefits of bioactivity, conversion to hydroxyapatite, and the ability to stimulate osteogenesis, while the chitosan provided a cohesive biocompatible and biodegradable bonding phase. The Sr-BBG cement showed the ability to set in situ (initial setting time = 11.6 ± 1.2 min) and a compressive strength of 19 ± 1 MPa. The Sr-BBG cement enhanced the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro when compared to a similar cement (BBG) composed of chitosan-bonded borate bioactive glass particles without Sr. Microcomputed tomography and histology of critical-sized rabbit femoral condyle defects implanted with the cements showed the osteogenic capacity of the Sr-BBG cement. New bone was observed at different distances from the Sr-BBG implants within eight weeks. The bone-implant contact index was significantly higher for the Sr-BBG implant than it was for the BBG implant. Together, the results indicate that this Sr-BBG cement is a promising implant for healing irregularly shaped bone defects using minimally invasive surgery. PMID:25591177

  7. Laterally oscillating nitinol engine

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, R.

    1987-09-08

    This patent describes a laterally oscillating nitinol engine comprising: a first L-shaped drive member journalled for pivoting horizontal oscillation about the juncture of the legs of the L-shaped member, a second drive member journalled for pivoting about a point proximate the outboard end of the shorter leg of the L-shaped member at a distance from the pivot journal of the L-shaped member, a bearing block secured to the end of longer leg of the L-shaped and having a guide hole. The second member extending through the guide hole and arranged to reciprocate therein, a shape memory alloy power element disposed in flexure secured at its ends to the bearing block and to the second member intermediate the sliding connection with the bearing block and the pivotal connection of the second member, means for disposing different temperature baths below the element whereby as the drive members oscillate about their journals the element alternately dips into one bath and then the other, and means for absorbing a portion of the energy developed by the engine and moving the power element from the cold bath to the hot bath.

  8. Arthroscopic release for lateral epicondylitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brett D. Owens; Kevin P. Murphy; Timothy R. Kuklo

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: This study was performed to review the results of our early experience with recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis treated arthroscopically. Type of Study: This study is a case series consisting of consecutive patients with lateral epicondylitis treated arthroscopically by 1 surgeon. Methods: Patients failing a minimum of 6 months of conservative treatment underwent arthroscopic release of the extensor carpi radialis brevis

  9. CT navigated lateral interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Drazin, Doniel; Liu, John C; Acosta, Frank L

    2013-10-01

    Lateral interbody fusion techniques are heavily reliant on fluoroscopy for retractor docking and graft placement, which expose both the patient and surgeon to high doses of radiation. Use of image-guided technologies with CT-based images, however, can eliminate this radiation exposure for the surgeon. We describe the surgical technique of performing lateral lumbar interbody fusion using CT navigation. PMID:23931938

  10. Advantage of Minimally Invasive Lateral Approach Relative to Conventional Deltopectoral Approach for Treatment of Proximal Humerus Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kuan; Liu, Peng-cheng; Liu, Run; Wu, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the wide application of open reduction and internal fixation with locking plates for the treatment of proximal humeral fractures, the surgical invasive approach remains controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the pros and cons of the minimally invasive lateral approach for the treatment of proximal humeral fracture (PHF) in comparison with the deltopectoral approach. Material/Methods All patients who sustained a PHF and received open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) surgery with locking plate through either minimally invasive subacromial approach or conventional deltopectoral approach between January 2008 and February 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into the conventional group and min-group according to the surgical incision. Surgery-related information, postoperative radiography, complications, and shoulder functional measurement scores in a 2-year follow-up were collected and evaluated. Results Ninety-one patients meeting the inclusion criteria were included in this study. We observed a significant difference in both surgery time (81.8±18.3 vs. 91.0±18.4) (p=0.021) and blood loss (172±54.2 vs. 205±73.6) (p=0.016) between the min-group and conventional group. Compared to the conventional group, the min-group had significantly better Constant-Murley score and DASH score at early follow-up (p<0.05) and higher patients satisfaction rate (8.1±1.1 vs. 7.6±1.2) (p= 0.019). The multiple linear regression analysis indicated that age, PHF types, surgical groups, surgery time, and blood loss have significant effect on the activity of affected shoulder in both abduction and forward flexion (p<0.05) except for gender factor. While larger range of movement of the affected shoulder, mainly in the 2-part and 3-part fractures, was observed in the min-group, the conventional group obtained better movement in the 4-part fractures. Conclusions The minimally invasive lateral approach is the optimal alternative for the treatment of Neer’s type 2 and 3 proximal humerus fractures. PMID:25682320

  11. Network Science, A Decade Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Alan; Konold, Cliff; Coulter, Bob

    1999-01-01

    Presents an excerpt from "Network Science, A Decade Later: The Internet and Classroom Learning", a publication based on four years of research that examines the role of technology in fostering inquiry-based approaches to learning. (Author/NB)

  12. The Effect of Emboss Enhancement on Reliability of Landmark Identification in Digital Lateral Cephalometric Images

    PubMed Central

    Nikneshan, Sima; Mohseni, Sudeh; Nouri, Mahtab; Hadian, Hoora; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evaluation of the craniofacial bones is the oldest method to measure the facial proportion ratio in orthodontics. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of emboss enhancement on the reliability of landmark identification in digital lateral cephalometric images. Materials and Methods: Ten digital lateral cephalograms were selected from the archive of an oral and maxillofacial radiology center. Using DIGORA software, these images were saved in two formats; common images and 3D emboss images. On these images, 32 skeletal, dental, and soft tissue landmarks were marked at least twice with a 2-week interval by four observers (two radiologists and two orthodontists). In order to determine the position of the marked landmarks (in x and y coordinates), a software was designed. The statistical analysis was performed in SPSS software and the reliability of each observer was obtained by means of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: In three skeletal landmarks [Orbit (Or), condyl top (Cond), and pogonion (Pog)], the enhancement caused significant reduction in the reliability, and in four skeletal [Anterior Nasal Spine (ANS), B, A, and Basion (Ba)], two dental (U1 root, L1 incisal), and one soft tissue landmark (Menton soft tissue), the enhancement increased the reliability of landmark detection between the two phases of the study. Totally, ICC of embossed images in both x and y coordinates were greater than the typical images, but the difference was not statistically significant. However, the effect of enhancement on the improvement of the reliability of landmark identification was higher in the x-axis than the y-axis. Conclusions: Using embossed images is only effective in increasing the reliability of detection in a few numbers of cephalometric landmarks.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis On this page: Description Genetic ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed July 2013 What is juvenile primary lateral sclerosis? Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis is ...

  14. Bilateral Multiple Level Lateral Meningocoele

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, B. E. Panil; Hegde, Kishor V.; Kumari, G. Lalitha; Agrawal, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Lateral meningocoele is a very rare disorder characterized by extensions of the dura and arachnoid through an enlarged neural foramen. We report a case of a 23-year-old female with deformity of spine who presented with low back pain and no neurological deficits. A whole spine magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple well-defined cystic masses involving dorsal, lumbar, and sacral spinal levels bilaterally, with dural ectasia and neural foraminal widening suggestive of bilateral multiple level lateral meningocoele. The patient is being managed conservatively and is on regular follow-up. PMID:23607071

  15. Observation of lateral vehicle dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Kiencke; A. Daiß

    1997-01-01

    By observation of lateral vehicle dynamics the detection of critical driving situations is made possible, as well as the estimation of adhesion characteristics during cornering. This paper presents a comparison of a linear and a nonlinear observer for the vehicle and tyre side-slip angles. The modelling, especially the model reduction and simplification, is shown.

  16. Laterality of Basic Auditory Perception

    PubMed Central

    Sininger, Yvonne S.; Bhatara, Anjali

    2010-01-01

    Laterality (left-right ear differences) of auditory processing was assessed using basic auditory skills: 1) gap detection 2) frequency discrimination and 3) intensity discrimination. Stimuli included tones (500, 1000 and 4000 Hz) and wide-band noise presented monaurally to each ear of typical adult listeners. The hypothesis tested was: processing of tonal stimuli would be enhanced by left ear (LE) stimulation and noise by right ear (RE) presentations. To investigate the limits of laterality by 1) spectral width, a narrow band noise (NBN) of 450 Hz bandwidth was evaluated using intensity discrimination and 2) stimulus duration, 200, 500 and 1000 ms duration tones were evaluated using frequency discrimination. Results A left ear advantage (LEA) was demonstrated with tonal stimuli in all experiments but an expected REA for noise stimuli was not found. The NBN stimulus demonstrated no LEA and was characterized as a noise. No change in laterality was found with changes in stimulus durations. The LEA for tonal stimuli is felt to be due to more direct connections between the left ear and the right auditory cortex which has been shown to be primary for spectral analysis and tonal processing. The lack of a REA for noise stimuli is unexplained. Sex differences in laterality for noise stimuli were noted but were not statistically significant. This study did establish a subtle but clear pattern of LEA for processing of tonal stimuli. PMID:22385138

  17. Laterality of basic auditory perception.

    PubMed

    Sininger, Yvonne S; Bhatara, Anjali

    2012-01-01

    Laterality (left-right ear differences) of auditory processing was assessed using basic auditory skills: (1) gap detection, (2) frequency discrimination, and (3) intensity discrimination. Stimuli included tones (500, 1000, and 4000 Hz) and wide-band noise presented monaurally to each ear of typical adult listeners. The hypothesis tested was that processing of tonal stimuli would be enhanced by left ear (LE) stimulation and noise by right ear (RE) presentations. To investigate the limits of laterality by (1) spectral width, a narrow-band noise (NBN) of 450-Hz bandwidth was evaluated using intensity discrimination, and (2) stimulus duration, 200, 500, and 1000 ms duration tones were evaluated using frequency discrimination. A left ear advantage (LEA) was demonstrated with tonal stimuli in all experiments, but an expected REA for noise stimuli was not found. The NBN stimulus demonstrated no LEA and was characterised as a noise. No change in laterality was found with changes in stimulus durations. The LEA for tonal stimuli is felt to be due to more direct connections between the left ear and the right auditory cortex, which has been shown to be primary for spectral analysis and tonal processing. The lack of a REA for noise stimuli is unexplained. Sex differences in laterality for noise stimuli were noted but were not statistically significant. This study did establish a subtle but clear pattern of LEA for processing of tonal stimuli. PMID:22385138

  18. Functional Lateralization of the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Raymond S.

    1984-01-01

    Research concerning lateralization of human brain functions is examined in light of the recent publication of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. Following a review of research methodologies and functions ascribed to the hemispheres of the brain, differences are portrayed as complementary and coexisting modes of cognitive processing.…

  19. School Readiness and Later Achievement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg J. Duncan; Chantelle J. Dowsett; Amy Claessens; Katherine Magnuson; Aletha C. Huston; Pamela Klebanov; Linda S. Pagani; Leon Feinstein; Mimi Engel; Jeanne Brooks-Gunn; Holly Sexton; Kathryn Duckworth; Crista Japel

    2007-01-01

    Using 6 longitudinal data sets, the authors estimate links between three key elements of school readiness—school-entry academic, attention, and socioemotional skills—and later school reading and math achievement. In an effort to isolate the effects of these school-entry skills, the authors ensured that most of their regression models control for cognitive, attention, and socioemotional skills measured prior to school entry, as

  20. Laterally proximized aluminum tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koski, J. V.; Peltonen, J. T.; Meschke, M.; Pekola, J. P.

    2011-05-01

    This letter presents experiments on junctions fabricated by a technique that enables the use of high-quality aluminum oxide tunnel barriers with normal metal electrodes at low temperatures. Inverse proximity effect is applied to diminish the superconductivity of an aluminum dot through a clean lateral connection to a normal metal electrode. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this method, fully normal-state single electron transistors (SETs) and normal metal-insulator-superconductor (NIS) junctions applying proximized Al junctions were fabricated. The transport characteristics of the junctions were similar to those obtained from standard theoretical models of regular SETs and NIS junctions.

  1. Lateral organic bilayer heterojunction photoconductors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Ho; Alexi Arango; Vladimir Bulovic

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate a two-terminal, lateral organic bilayer photoconductor that generates an external quantum efficiency of (12+\\/-1)%, with an internal quantum efficiency of (140+\\/-2)% indicative of photon-to-electron conversion gain. The photoconductor incorporates a heterojunction between N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (TPD) and 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic bisbenzimidazole (PTCBI). Excitons generated with photoexcitation of PTCBI dissociate at the PTCBI\\/TPD interface and raise the charge carrier concentration in TPD, increasing

  2. Kepler: 400 years later Jonas Karlsson

    E-print Network

    Weinberger, Hans

    Kepler: 400 years later #12;Outline Kepler's laws Proof that closed orbits are ellipses The hydrogen atom Geodesic ow and the Kepler manifold Jonas Karlsson Kepler: 400 years later #12;Kepler's laws Johannes Kepler (1571 - 1630) Jonas Karlsson Kepler: 400 years later #12;Kepler's laws First law (1609

  3. Lateral epicondylosis: emerging management options.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Carolyn; Visco, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Lateral epicondylosis is one of the most prevalent disorders of the arm and results in significantly decreased function among the workforce and athletes. Historically, the disorder has been diagnosed clinically and treated as an inflammatory entity. Management strategies have included anti-inflammatory medications and techniques, including oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, injected corticosteroid, and physical therapy with modalities. More recent literature postulates a degenerative or compressive etiology, directing some clinicians to try new, more regenerative management strategies such as platelet-rich plasma and stem cell injections. To date, literature evaluating these new treatment methods has shown positive results, although no definitive conclusions can be drawn. More research is needed to evaluate these new treatment methods, and a new look at the diagnosis of the disorder with ultrasound imaging may be reasonable to consider. PMID:25968855

  4. Eccentricity effects on lateral interactions.

    PubMed

    Shani, Revital; Sagi, Dov

    2005-07-01

    We attempted to resolve an apparent conflict between the lack of psychophysical evidence of collinear facilitation at the near-periphery and physiological evidence from the monkey showing collinear effects extra-fovealy. We compared collinear and orthogonal configurations to discount facilitation due to reduced positional uncertainty. Detection thresholds were measured for Gabor targets at eccentricities of 0 degrees - 4 degrees, flanked by collinear or orthogonal flankers. Like in previous reports in the literature, results varied among subjects when the stimulus position was off-fixation. We found reduced facilitation at eccentricities as small as 1 degrees - 2 degrees. Moreover, facilitation did not increase when the stimuli were M-scaled or when observers received more practice. However, a larger proportion of subjects showed collinear facilitation when attention was directed to the tested configurations. The results suggest that differences in allocation of attention along the visual field may affect the underlying lateral interactions, consequently resulting in eccentricity effects as well as inter-observer variability. PMID:15820518

  5. [Genetics of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Corcia, Philippe; Blasco, Hélène; Camu, William

    2014-05-01

    Although the pathophysiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis remains currently unknown, involvement of genetic factors is worldwide accepted as a key clue in the motor neuron death. Since 1993 and the discovery of mutation in the SOD1 gene, number of genes linked to or promoting ALS had always growing. Among them, only four (SOD1, TARDBP, FUS and C9ORF72 genes) are unanimously recognized as convincing causative genetic factors for more than 60% of familial and probably 10% of sporadic ALS cases. Geographic origin of the studied populations tends to become one of the major items in the gene-ALS relationship: this was extremely stressed for C9ORF72. Concerning susceptibility genes factors, an increase of the risk of ALS is clearly shown for SMN1 and ATXN2 genes and accepted for some VEGF haplotypes. Finally, some modulating effects might also exist as underline for the relationships between ApoE and ALS that differ between European and North American studies. In inherited ALS, The European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) edited rules that gave a legal frame to situations for which research of mutations were justified. Progress in the field of genetic raises major questions concerning the relevance of genetic studies from asymptomatic relatives. This first implies that the mutation identified in the proband case is perfectly characterized as a pathogenic mutation. PMID:24703222

  6. Lateral interface anisotropy in nanomagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowburn, R. P.; Koltsov, D. K.; Adeyeye, A. O.; Welland, M. E.

    2000-05-01

    The results are presented of a study into the magnetic properties of deep submicron elliptical nanomagnets. Small arrays of 2:1 aspect ratio ellipses of major axis size 500-100 nm and of thickness 5-10 nm have been fabricated out of supermalloy. A high sensitivity magneto-optical method has then been used to measure the hysteresis loops of each array. From these measurements the effective shape anisotropy in the elongated elements can be accurately determined. The measured shape anisotropy is found to be significantly smaller (approximately 50%) than that which would be expected from standard magnetostatic calculations. It is shown experimentally and theoretically that lateral interface (i.e., edge) roughness of only a few nanometers, which is present in any real nanomagnet, leads to the appearance of a powerful anisotropy of magnetostatic origin which competes strongly with the in-plane shape anisotropy, thus accounting for the anomalously low experimental values. The significance of this for data stability in magnetic random access memory is discussed.

  7. Summary of lateral-control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, Thomas A

    1947-01-01

    A summary has been made of the available information on lateral control. A discussion is given of the criterions used in lateral-control specifications, of the factors involved in obtaining satisfactory lateral control, and of the methods employed in making lateral-control investigations in flight and in wind tunnels. The available data on conventional flap-type ailerons having various types of aerodynamic balance are presented in a form convenient for use in design. The characteristics of spoiler devices and booster mechanisms are discussed. The effects of Mach number, boundary layer, and distortion of the wing or of the lateral-control system are considered insofar as the available information permits. An example is included to illustrate the use of the design data. The limitations of the available information and some of the lateral-control problems that remain to be solved are indicated.

  8. Retroviruses and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Alfahad, Tariq; Nath, Avindra

    2013-08-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, invariably fatal neurologic disorder resulting from upper and lower motor neuron degeneration, which typically develops during the sixth or seventh decade of life, and is diagnosed based on standard clinical criteria. Its underlying cause remains undetermined. The disease may occur with increased frequency within certain families, often in association with specific genomic mutations, while some sporadic cases have been linked to environmental toxins or trauma. Another possibility, first proposed in the 1970s, is that retroviruses play a role in pathogenesis. In this paper, we review the published literature for evidence that ALS is associated either with infection by an exogenous retrovirus or with the expression of human endogenous retroviral (HERV) sequences in cells of the central nervous system. A small percentage of persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) or human T cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) develop ALS-like syndromes. While HTLV-1 associated ALS-like syndrome has several features that may distinguish it from classical ALS, HIV-infected patients may develop neurological manifestations that resemble classical ALS although it occurs at a younger age and they may show a dramatic improvement following the initiation of antiretroviral therapy. However, most patients with probable or definite ALS show no evidence of HIV-1 or HTLV-1 infection. In contrast, recent reports have shown a stronger association with HERV, as analysis of serum samples, and postmortem brain tissue from a number of patients with a classical ALS has revealed significantly increased expression of HERV-K, compared to controls. These findings suggest that endogenous retroviral elements are involved in the pathophysiology of ALS, but there is no evidence that they are the primary cause of the syndrome. PMID:23707220

  9. Retroviruses and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Alfahad, Tariq; Nath, Avindra

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, invariably fatal neurologic disorder resulting from upper and lower motor neuron degeneration, which typically develops during the sixth or seventh decade of life, and is diagnosed based on standard clinical criteria. Its underlying cause remains undetermined. The disease may occur with increased frequency within certain families, often in association with specific genomic mutations, while some sporadic cases have been linked to environmental toxins or trauma. Another possibility, first proposed in the 1970s, is that retroviruses play a role in pathogenesis. In this paper, we review the published literature for evidence that ALS is associated either with infection by an exogenous retrovirus or with the expression of human endogenous retroviral (HERV) sequences in cells of the central nervous system. A small percentage of persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) or human T cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) develop ALS-like syndromes. While HTLV-1 associated ALS-like syndrome has several features that may distinguish it from classical ALS, HIV-infected patients may develop neurological manifestations that resemble classical ALS although it occurs at a younger age and they may show a dramatic improvement following the initiation of antiretroviral therapy. However, most patients with probable or definite ALS show no evidence of HIV-1 or HTLV-1 infection. In contrast, recent reports have shown a stronger association with HERV, as analysis of serum samples, and postmortem brain tissue from a number of patients with a classical ALS has revealed significantly increased expression of HERV-K, compared to controls. These findings suggest that endogenous retroviral elements are involved in the pathophysiology of ALS, but there is no evidence that they are the primary cause of the syndrome. PMID:23707220

  10. Absence of lateral palpebral raphe in Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Goold, Lucy; Kakizaki, Hirohiko; Malhotra, Raman; Selva, Dinesh

    2009-01-01

    Classical anatomical teaching reports the presence of the lateral palpebral raphe formed at the union in the preseptal and orbital parts of the orbicularis oculi muscle, or by the tendon adhering these to the underlying zygomatic bone. The lateral palpebral raphe has been shown to be absent in Asian cadavers. The current study uses both evidence from the anatomical dissection of five eyelids from three Caucasian cadavers, and histological assessment of the lateral canthus of 13 eyelids from seven Caucasian cadavers to illustrate the absence of the lateral palpebral raphe in Caucasian population. PMID:19684845

  11. Vehicle Lateral Control for Highway Automation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huei Peng; Masayoshi Tomizuka

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of lateral control for highway automation are to let vehicles track the center of a lane with small error and to maintain good ride quality under different vehicle speeds, loads, wind gust disturbances, and road conditions. In this paper, the lateral feedback and feedforward controllers are designed to satisfy these objectives by utilizing the frequency-shaped linear quadratic (FSLQ)

  12. Aeromonas hydrophila Lateral Flagellar Gene Transcriptional Hierarchy

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelms, Markus; Gonzalez, Victor; Merino, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3 lateral flagella are not assembled when bacteria grow in liquid media; however, lateral flagellar genes are transcribed. Our results indicate that A. hydrophila lateral flagellar genes are transcribed at three levels (class I to III genes) and share some similarities with, but have many important differences from, genes of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A. hydrophila lateral flagellum class I gene transcription is ?70 dependent, which is consistent with the fact that lateral flagellum is constitutively transcribed, in contrast to the characteristics of V. parahaemolyticus. The fact that multiple genes are included in class I highlights that lateral flagellar genes are less hierarchically transcribed than polar flagellum genes. The A. hydrophila lafK-fliEJL gene cluster (where the subscript L distinguishes genes for lateral flagella from those for polar flagella) is exclusively from class I and is in V. parahaemolyticus class I and II. Furthermore, the A. hydrophila flgAMNL cluster is not transcribed from the ?54/LafK-dependent promoter and does not contain class II genes. Here, we propose a gene transcriptional hierarchy for the A. hydrophila lateral flagella. PMID:23335410

  13. Later Life: A Time to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Helen

    2008-01-01

    In this article, an emerging framework for investigating and interpreting the experiences of learning in later life is presented. This framework is contextualized by a study in which the lived experiences of later-life computer learners were investigated. Significant ontological and existential interpretations from the study provided insights into…

  14. Diagnosing Dyslexia: The Screening of Auditory Laterality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansen, Kjeld

    A study investigated whether a correlation exists between the degree and nature of left-brain laterality and specific reading and spelling difficulties. Subjects, 50 normal readers and 50 reading disabled persons native to the island of Bornholm, had their auditory laterality screened using pure-tone audiometry and dichotic listening. Results…

  15. 49 CFR 229.63 - Lateral motion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...229.63 Lateral motion. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b), the total uncontrolled lateral motion between the hubs of the wheels and boxes, between boxes and pedestals or both, on any pair of wheels may not exceed 1 inch on...

  16. Is the Lateral Lymph Node Compartment Relevant?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moritz Koch; Peter Kienle; Dalibor Antolovic; Markus W. Büchler; Jürgen Weitz

    Lateral pelvic lymphadenectomy is routinely performed in advanced lower rectal cancers by Japanese surgeons, whereas in the western world it has not progressed to a frequently performed technique. Claimed benefit for this extensive surgery is an improved locoregional control; on the other hand, low positive lateral lymph node yields, questionable prognostic significance, and high morbidity (urinary and sexual dysfunction) are

  17. Does lateral gas diffusion in leaves matter?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES I. L. MORISON; TRACY LAWSON

    2007-01-01

    Photosynthesis depends on the diffusion of gaseous CO2 inside the leaf spaces from the stomatal entry point to the mesophyll cell walls. Although most research considers only the vertical diffusion from stomata on upper and\\/or leaf lower surfaces, some of the gas will diffuse in the lateral (paradermal) direction. The importance of lateral CO2 dif- fusion is reviewed, and the

  18. Task-specific initial impact phase adjustments in lateral jumps and lateral landings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jana Fleischmann; Dominic Gehring; Guillaume Mornieux; Albert Gollhofer

    Load-dependant adjustments in lateral jumps are thought to rely on foot placement and on upper leg’s kinematic and neuromuscular\\u000a adaptations. The aim of this study was to elucidate task-specific adjustments during the initial impact phase under varying\\u000a stretch-loads by the comparison of lateral jumps and lateral landings. Ten subjects performed lateral jumps and landings from\\u000a four distances. Electromyographic (EMG) data

  19. Vannevar Bush: Fifty Years Later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    It is ironic that the 50th anniversary year of Vannevar Bush's Report to President Truman entitled "Science the Endless Frontier", which put into motion the eminently successful current system of education of scientists in this country occurs at a time when serious questions are being asked about the usefulness of that very system. Bush viewed his proposal to establish a national research foundation (later to be called the National Science Foundation) as a "social compact." Judgment of scientific merit would be delegated to expert peers in return for scientific progress, which would ultimately benefit the nation in terms of scientific needs--military security, economic productivity, and enhanced quality of life. Bush wanted the funding of basic research intertwined with training, and preferred to use universities for this purpose rather than industrial or national labs. Bush viewed college and university scientists as teachers and investigators. He believed university-based research would uniquely encourage and engage the next generation of scientists as no other institutional arrangement could. Bush did not trust industry's commitment to basic research, an instinct that proved prophetic. The academic reserve of scientists (PhD's in training and postdoctoral students) that existed before World War II, and upon which the United States could draw for its needs, which were primarily associated with defense efforts, was probably one of the defining factors in Bush's suggested strategy. Currently, that reserve of talent has gotten so large that it is the obvious throttle in the pipeline slowing the continued development of the university research enterprise. Since 1977, the rate at which we have trained new scientists exceeds an average of 4% annually. Since 1987, the "science work force"--PhD's--has grown at three times the rate of the general labor supply. Temporary positions for postdoctoral scientists have grown even faster (over 5% per year since 1989). To compound the problem, the 1990 Immigration Reform Act resulted in a tripling of job-based visas, with scientists representing nearly one-third of the total. In 1979, two of every three postdoctoral scientists were U.S.-born; in 1992, the ratio was about one to one. Over that period, the cohort of postdoctoral scientists grew from 18,000 to 33,000. Adding to the coincidence of events that have compounded one another is the admission of 20,000 Chinese scientists in a ten-year period, the sudden and unexpected availability of Russian scientists, the elimination of many industrial laboratories as a result of downsizing, changes in the mandatory retirement age for faculty, and the disappearance of the Cold War, which all but eliminated the need for scientists for national security purposes. Is it any wonder that postdoctoral scientists have been called the migrant workers of today's high-tech society? What once was a reservoir of enthusiastic talent is becoming a dumping ground for credentialed and capable scientists exiled from the main stream of their disciplines. From a broader point of view, the problems facing U.S. science are those of our society: an imposing deficit that is shrinking discretionary funding; the end of the Cold War, which has refocused spending for national security; and a robust science work force that can no longer expand. The business world's response to these societal problems is, basically, downsizing, which often means the elimination of large segments of the work force, usually at the middle-management level. The initial academic response to these same problems is either to insist on more resources being made available, usually through federal agencies, in an attempt to maintain the status quo, or to engage in some form of "academic birth control." The former strategy is unrealistic because it just perpetuates the problem; there will never be enough research professorships in the academic world for every aspiring PhD produced in a discipline. The latter strategy will invariably decrease the flow of truly n

  20. Lateralized suckling in domestic horses (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    Komárková, Martina; Bartošová, Jitka

    2013-05-01

    Brain lateralization enables preferential processing of certain stimuli and more effective utilization of these stimuli in either the left or the right cerebral hemisphere. Horses show both motor and sensory lateralization patterns. Our aim was to determine whether a lateralized response could be detected in foals during the naturally side-biased behaviour, suckling. The foals' preferred suckling side could be the effect of either visual or motor lateralization. In the case of a visual lateralized response, foals are expected to suck more often from the mother's right side, so potential danger can be detected by the better adapted right hemisphere (i.e. left eye). Motor lateralization can be identified when a foal will suck predominantly from one side, either left or right. We found no population trend in the preferred suckling side, but we detected significant differences amongst individual foals. One-third (35.4 %) of 79 foals showed a strong, either right or left side preference which increased with age. The mothers did not influence the foals' suckling side preferences either by side-biased rejection or termination of suckling. According to our findings, a general pattern of sucking with the left eye open for better danger detection and recognition is unlikely in foals up to 7 months old. Foals of this age are probably young or fully focused on suckling and rely on their mothers' vigilance. Individual side preferences amongst foals are suggested to be based on motor lateralization. PMID:23117229

  1. Twenty years later Jean-Pierre Jouannaud

    E-print Network

    Jouannaud, Jean-Pierre

    Twenty years later Jean-Pierre Jouannaud LIX, ´Ecole Polytechnique 91400 Palaiseau, France Email: jouannaud@lix.polytechnique.fr http://www.lix.polytechnique.fr/Labo/jouannaud Abstract. The first RTA

  2. Pancreatic function in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 1

    PubMed Central

    Utterback, Robert A.; Cummins, Alvin J.; Cape, Charles A.; Goldenberg, Julio

    1970-01-01

    No abnormality of exocrine function of the pancreas was found in 10 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Eight patients showed abnormal glucose metabolism, attributed to the effects of age, malnutrition, diminished physical activity, and decreased muscle mass. PMID:5505684

  3. Lateral Transpsoas Fusion: Indications and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vishal C.; Park, Daniel K.; Herkowitz, Harry N.

    2012-01-01

    Spinal fusion historically has been used extensively, and, recently, the lateral transpsoas approach to the thoracic and lumbar spine has become an increasingly common method to achieve fusion. Recent literature on this approach has elucidated its advantage over more traditional anterior and posterior approaches, which include a smaller tissue dissection, potentially lower blood loss, no need for an access surgeon, and a shorter hospital stay. Indications for the procedure have now expanded to include degenerative disc disease, spinal stenosis, degenerative scoliosis, nonunion, trauma, infection, and low-grade spondylolisthesis. Lateral interbody fusion has a similar if not lower rate of complications compared to traditional anterior and posterior approaches to interbody fusion. However, lateral interbody fusion has unique complications that include transient neurologic symptoms, motor deficits, and neural injuries that range from 1 to 60% in the literature. Additional studies are required to further evaluate and monitor the short- and long-term safety, efficacy, outcomes, and complications of lateral transpsoas procedures. PMID:23213303

  4. Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life

    MedlinePLUS

    ... previous page Related Topics Diabetes Related Documents PDF Living with Diabetes Download PDF Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources Managing Complications ...

  5. Alcohol Problems in lAter life

    E-print Network

    Tullos, Desiree

    Alcohol Problems in lAter life A Pacific Northwest Extension Publication Oregon State University When alcohol use becomes a problem ................. 4 How an alcohol problem develops ....................... 6 Recognizing an alcohol problem .......................... 8 Guidelines for family and friends

  6. Temporal Integration in Nasal Lateralization of Ethanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul M. Wise; Thomas M. Canty; Charles J. Wysocki

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments examined the trade-off between concentration and stimulus duration in nasal lateralization of n-ethyl alcohol. In nasal lateralization, a common measure of irritation threshold, subjects receive chemical vapor in one nostril and clean air in the other. Subjects try to determine which nostril received the chemical. Within experimental runs, subjects received fixed concen- trations (1650-5000 ppm) of ethanol, and

  7. Lateral field emission diodes using SIMOX wafer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jung-Hyeon Park; Hyung-Il Lee; Heung-Sik Tae; Jeung-Soo Huh; Jung-Hee Lee

    1997-01-01

    Lateral field emission diodes were fabricated by using separation by implantation of oxygen (SIMOX) wafer and their current-voltage characteristics (I-V) were analyzed. Applying conventional photolithography and local oxidation of silicon (LOGOS) process, we fabricated single-crystalline lateral silicon field emitters with very sharp cathode and anode tips and very short cathode to anode spacing ranging from 0.3 to 0.8 ?m as

  8. Listeners' impressions of speakers with lateral lisps.

    PubMed

    Silverman, E M

    1976-11-01

    This paper reports research conducted to determine whether the lateral lisp is a speech defect. The specific purpose of this research was to determine whether the lateral lisp calls adverse attention to the speaker. Two groups of broadcast communication students rates the concept "The Person Speaking" on a 49-scale semantic differential. One group performed the task after listening to a tape recording of a young woman reading contextual material with a simulated lateral lisp. The other group performed the task after listening to a recording of the same woman reading the material in a normal manner. Analyses of the scale values computed for the two conditions indicated that the lateral lisp called adverse attention to the speaker. A systematic replication was undertaken to assess the generality of this finding. The procedures of the original investigation were followed except that business administration students served as judges. The results replicated those of the original investigation. These data indicate that the lateral lisp is probably a speech defect and suggest that the practice of eliminating school speech services for children whose only speech difference is a lateral lisp should be reconsidered. PMID:994486

  9. Arthroscopic approaches and intraarticular anatomy of the equine elbow.

    PubMed

    Nixon, A J

    1990-01-01

    Periarticular anatomy and techniques for arthroscopic access to the equine elbow were studied in six joints from cadavers. Caudomedial and craniolateral approaches were evaluated subsequently in 11 anesthetized horses. The caudomedial approach was made between the flexor carpi radialis and flexor carpi ulnaris muscle bellies. Most of the caudal articular surfaces of the humeral condyles, the caudal perimeter of the radius, and the trochlear notch and portions of the anconeal process of the ulna could be identified. The voluminous caudal joint capsule cul-de-sac proximal to the anconeal process was readily entered. A 70 degree arthroscope allowed examination of more of the joint recesses and articular surfaces of the olecranon fossa than a 25 degree arthroscope. A second portal for intraarticular instrument manipulation was made caudal and slightly proximal to the arthroscope entry. Entry more proximal than the level of the radiohumeral articulation carried significant risk of damage to the ulnar nerve and collateral ulnar artery and vein. For examination of the cranial regions of the elbow, a craniolateral portal was established cranial to the lateral collateral ligament. An instrument portal was made through the muscle bellies of the extensor carpi radialis or common digital extensor muscles. The cranial articular surfaces of the humeral condyles were readily exposed by extension of the elbow. The weight-bearing articular surface of the radius could not be seen. Eight horses were euthanatized without recovery from anesthesia and the elbows were dissected for examination. Three horses were allowed to recover from anesthesia and were euthanatized on days 3, 30, and 60.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2333691

  10. Lateral decubitus positioning stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy with true lateral mammography.

    PubMed

    Jung, Youn Joo; Bae, Young Tae; Lee, Jee Yeon; Seo, Hyung-Il; Kim, Jee Yeon; Choo, Ki Seok

    2011-03-01

    Stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VAB) has been used to evaluate microcalcifications or non-palpable breast lesions on mammography. Although stereotactic VAB is usually performed in a prone or upright position, an expensive prone table is necessary and vasovagal reactions often occur during the procedure. For these reasons, the lateral decubitus position can be applied for stereotactic VAB, and true lateral mammography can be used to detect the lesion. We report on 15 cases of lateral decubitus positioning for stereotactic VAB with true lateral mammography for non-palpable breast lesions or microcalcifications. The mean procedure time was approximately 30.1 minutes, and no complications occurred during the procedures. Fourteen cases had benign breast lesions and one case had a ductal carcinoma in situ. The lateral decubitus stereotactic VAB with true lateral mammography can be applied for microcalcifications or non-palpable breast lesions and helps to minimize anxiety and vasovagal reactions in patients. PMID:21847397

  11. Lateralization of cognitive processes in the brain.

    PubMed

    Hugdahl, K

    2000-12-01

    The lateralization of cognitive processes in the brain is discussed. The traditional view of a language-visuo/spatial dichotomy of function between the hemispheres has been replaced by more subtle distinctions. The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study brain morphology has resulted in a renewed focus on the relationship between structural and functional asymmetry. Focus has been on the role played by the planum temporale area in the posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus for language asymmetry, and the possible significance of the larger left planum. The dichotic listening technique is used to illustrate the difference between bottom-up, or stimulus-driven laterality versus top-down, or instruction-driven laterality. It is suggested that the hemispheric dominance observed at any time is the sum result of the dynamic interaction between bottom-up and top-down processing tendencies. Stimulus-driven laterality dominance is always monitored and modulated through top-down cognitive processes, like shifting of attention and changes in arousal. A model of top-down modulation of bottom-up laterality is presented with special reference to the understanding of psychiatric disorders. PMID:11194413

  12. Spatial phase-shifting lateral shearing interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaoxian; Zeng, Aijun; Huang, Huijie

    2008-12-01

    The phase-shifting lateral shearing interferometer is widely adopted for wavefront measurement with high accuracy. For real-time wavefront measurement, a spatial phase-shifting lateral shearing interferometer is proposed. The interferometer includes a polarization lateral shearing module, a spatial phase-shifting module and an imaging module. The polarization lateral shearing module consists of a Savart polariscope. The spatial phase-shifting module is component of a non-polarization beam splitter, a polarization beam splitter, two rectangular prisms and a half wave-plate. The imaging module includes an imaging system and a CCD. The measured wavefront is sheared by the polarization lateral shearing module. The polarization directions of the two shearing beams are perpendicular to each other. The two shearing beams are split into four groups of beams by the spatial phase-shifting module to form four interferograms in a 2x2 matrix. The phase step of the four interferograms is 90 degrees. The four interferograms are captured in a single frame image by the imaging module. In experiments, a spherical wavefront with large radius of curvature was measured. Four spatial phase-shifting interferograms of the wavefront was obtained simultaneously. The usefulness of the interferometer is verified.

  13. Lateral restraint assembly for reactor core

    DOEpatents

    Gorholt, Wilhelm (San Diego, CA); Luci, Raymond K. (Del Mar, CA)

    1986-01-01

    A restraint assembly for use in restraining lateral movement of a reactor core relative to a reactor vessel wherein a plurality of restraint assemblies are interposed between the reactor core and the reactor vessel in circumferentially spaced relation about the core. Each lateral restraint assembly includes a face plate urged against the outer periphery of the core by a plurality of compression springs which enable radial preloading of outer reflector blocks about the core and resist low-level lateral motion of the core. A fixed radial key member cooperates with each face plate in a manner enabling vertical movement of the face plate relative to the key member but restraining movement of the face plate transverse to the key member in a plane transverse to the center axis of the core. In this manner, the key members which have their axes transverse to or subtending acute angles with the direction of a high energy force tending to move the core laterally relative to the reactor vessel restrain such lateral movement.

  14. Language lateralization shifts with learning by adults.

    PubMed

    Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K; Vance, Christopher J; Asbjørnsen, Arve E

    2015-05-01

    For the majority of the population, language is a left-hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting that this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to an unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left-lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short term within a learning context, independent of maturation. PMID:25285756

  15. Lateral stress evolution in Chromium Sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petel, Oren; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth; Hameed, Amer; Capozzi, Alexander; Frost, David; Hazell, Paul

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the shock response of chromium sulfide, a cermet of potential interest as a matrix material for ballistic applications, has been investigated. Compacts with a Chromium:Sulfur ratio of 1.15:1 were investigated via the plate-impact technique. These experiments allowed the material to be loaded under a one-dimensional state of strain. Embedded manganin stress gauges were employed to monitor the temporal evolution of longitudinal and lateral components of stress. Comparison of these two components has allowed assessment of the variation of material shear strength both with impact pressure/strain-rate and time. Interestingly tentative evidence of what appeared to be an elastic-plastic transition was noted on the lateral traces, despite the absence of a lateral shock.

  16. Lateral step initiation behavior in older adults.

    PubMed

    Sparto, Patrick J; Jennings, J Richard; Furman, Joseph M; Redfern, Mark S

    2014-02-01

    Older adults have varied postural responses during induced and voluntary lateral stepping. The purpose of the research was to quantify the occurrence of different stepping strategies during lateral step initiation in older adults and to relate the stepping responses to retrospective history of falls. Seventy community-ambulating older adults (mean age 76 y, range 70-94 y) performed voluntary lateral steps as quickly as possible to the right or left in response to a visual cue, in a blocked design. Vertical ground reaction forces were measured using a forceplate, and the number and latency of postural adjustments were quantified. Subjects were assigned to groups based on their stepping strategy. The frequency of trials with one or two postural adjustments was compared with data from 20 younger adults (mean age 38 y, range 21-58 y). Logistic regression was used to relate presence of a fall in the previous year with the number and latency of postural adjustments. In comparison with younger adults, who almost always demonstrated one postural adjustment when stepping laterally, older adults constituted a continuous distribution in the percentage of step trials made with one postural adjustment (from 0% to 100% of trials). Latencies of the initial postural adjustment and foot liftoff varied depending on the number of postural adjustments made. A history of falls was associated a larger percentage of two postural adjustments, and a longer latency of foot liftoff. In conclusion, the number and latency of postural adjustments made during voluntary lateral stepping provides additional evidence that lateral control of posture may be a critical indicator of aging. PMID:24295896

  17. Demonstration of the Lateral Casimir Force

    E-print Network

    F. Chen; U. Mohideen; G. L. Klimchitskaya; V. M. Mostepanenko

    2002-01-19

    The lateral Casimir force between a sinusoidally corrugated gold coated plate and large sphere was measured for surface separations between 0.2 $\\mu$m to 0.3 $\\mu$m using an atomic force microscope. The measured force shows the required periodicity corresponding to the corrugations. It also exhibits the necessary inverse fourth power distance dependence. The obtained results are shown to be in good agreement with a complete theory taking into account the imperfectness of the boundary metal. This demonstration opens new opportunities for the use of the Casimir effect for lateral translation in microelectromechanical systems.

  18. Biphasic cell responses on laterally mobile films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourouklis, Andreas; Lerum, Ronald; Bermudez, Harry

    2013-03-01

    The engineering of polymer surfaces or matrices that are capable of controlling cell adhesion has been widely explored. In nearly all of these works, the polymer chains (and ligands) are chemically attached to the underlying substrate, and therefore these systems are inherently static. By contrast, cellular environments such as the extracellular matrix (ECM) are dynamic and remodeled by biochemical reactions and biophysical forces. Borrowing this concept from Nature, we created polymer films by an interfacial self-assembly process, whereby individual chains can exhibit lateral mobility (in-plane diffusive motion). NIH 3T3 fibroblasts seeded on such RGD-presenting polymer films show biphasic responses in spreading and adhesion strength to lateral mobility, with a minimal response for intermediate mobility values. Futhermore, preliminary immuno-staining experiments reveal that the total area of focal adhesions demonstrates a similar biphasic trend to the cellular-scale behaviors. In contrast, actin filaments or stress fibers appear to be unaffected by the substrate lateral mobility. These results show that lateral mobility is an important, although not fully explored aspect of mechano-sensing by cells, and can potentially give new perspectives on cell-ECM interactions. The engineering of polymer surfaces or matrices that are capable of controlling cell adhesion has been widely explored. In nearly all of these works, the polymer chains (and ligands) are chemically attached to the underlying substrate, and therefore these systems are inherently static. By contrast, cellular environments such as the extracellular matrix (ECM) are dynamic and remodeled by biochemical reactions and biophysical forces. Borrowing this concept from Nature, we created polymer films by an interfacial self-assembly process, whereby individual chains can exhibit lateral mobility (in-plane diffusive motion). NIH 3T3 fibroblasts seeded on such RGD-presenting polymer films show biphasic responses in spreading and adhesion strength to lateral mobility, with a minimal response for intermediate mobility values. Futhermore, preliminary immuno-staining experiments reveal that the total area of focal adhesions demonstrates a similar biphasic trend to the cellular-scale behaviors. In contrast, actin filaments or stress fibers appear to be unaffected by the substrate lateral mobility. These results show that lateral mobility is an important, although not fully explored aspect of mechano-sensing by cells, and can potentially give new perspectives on cell-ECM interactions. National Science Foundation

  19. Microscopic histopathology of chronic refractory lateral epicondylitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Regan; Lester E. Wold; Ralph Coonrad; Bernard F. Morrey

    1992-01-01

    The histopathologic features from 11 patients who were treated surgically for lateral epicondylitis were graded and compared to similar tissue from 12 cadaveric spec imens. All studies were done by a single pathologist who had no knowledge of the origin of the specimen. The surgical specimens were interpreted as abnormal in all 11 specimens, and all 12 of the control

  20. Later?life satisfaction: Does leisure contribute?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Kelly; Marjorie W. Steinkamp; Janice R. Kelly

    1987-01-01

    “Activity theories”; of aging as well as the common wisdom in recreation presume that greater activity leads to greater satisfaction with life in later years. Research, however, has produced conflicting results. Review and meta?analysis of previous research on the contribution of leisure and social activity to subjective well?being has produced a sequence of questions: (1) Do frequency and breadth of

  1. Lateral transmission system for buried instrumentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. W. H. Caffey; D. E. Barnes; C. R. Nidever; J. E. Baughman

    1980-01-01

    A telemetry system that measures temperatures within a burning coal seam from beneath the seam is described. The temperature data are laterally transmitted through the earth to a receiver outside the high-temperature zone and then sent to the surface by wire. The system has a range of 46 m, battery capacity for 6-months operation, and performs 12 external measurements each

  2. Oxidative Pathology in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert H. Brown

    1. CLINICAL INTRODUCTION Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurological disease caused by death of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Its essential clinical aspect is unrelenting paralysis that usually begins focally and then spreads. Most cases of ALS reveal evidence of concurrent corticospinal (upper) and spinal (lower) motor neuron death. The mean age of onset in

  3. Establishment of polarity in angiosperm lateral organs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John L. Bowman; Yuval Eshed; Stuart F. Baum

    2002-01-01

    In seed plants, lateral organs such as leaves and floral organs are formed from the flanks of apical meristems. Therefore, they have an inherent positional relationship: organ primordia have an adaxial side next to the meristem, and an abaxial one away from the meristem. Surgical and genetic studies suggest that a morphogenetic gradient, which originates in the meristem, converts the

  4. Psychotherapists and the clergy: Fifty years later

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Marvin Spiegelman

    1984-01-01

    Jung's two powerful articles on psychotherapy and the clergy, written in 1928 and 1932. are looked at from the vantage point of fifty years later and the author's experience in conducting analysis with many people from both vocations. He notes that relatively few people achieve the kind of integration of the ego that Jung writes about-an essentially religious experience-wherein the

  5. Profiling 1366 Technologies: One Year Later

    SciTech Connect

    Van Mierlo, Frank; Sachs, Ely

    2011-01-01

    Last January, we took a look at how ARPA-E performer, 1366 Technologies is working to dramatically reduce the cost of solar energy. A year later, we revisited their headquarters in Lexington, MA to see the progress they've made.

  6. Control augmentation for lateral control wheel steering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foulkes, R. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Flight control system design for lateral control wheel steering is discussed. Two alternate designs are presented. The first design is a roll-rate command, bank-angle hold system with a wings-level track-hold submode. The second is a curved-track-hold system. Design details and real-time flight simulator results are included.

  7. Cooling Therapy Helps Newborns Years Later

    MedlinePLUS

    ... newborns on a special blanket with cool circulating water. The study showed that treated babies had a lower risk of death and disability nearly 2 years later. The therapy is now used in many neonatal intensive care units. In the new study, scientists looked to see if the benefits ...

  8. Motor laterality in 4 breeds of dog

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul D. McGreevy; Alex Brueckner; Peter C. Thomson; Nicholas J. Branson

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the current study was designed to explore possible breed differences in a basic behavioral phenotype in dogs. It measured paw use during food-retrieval from a cylindrical, hollow, rubber toy to assess motor laterality (pawedness) in 4 breeds of dogs selected for their morphological differences: 45 greyhounds (males n = 23\\/females n = 22), 47 whippets (15\\/32), 46

  9. F35% Revisited Ten Years Later

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William G. Clark

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the original derivation of the F35% (later F40%) harvest strategy, which consists of fishing at a rate that reduces spawning biomass per recruit to 35% (or 40%) of the unfished value, and investigates its applicability to long-lived stocks with low resiliency, such as some of the Pacific Coast rockfishes Sebastes spp. The life history parameters are unimportant

  10. Profiling 1366 Technologies: One Year Later

    ScienceCinema

    Van Mierlo, Frank; Sachs, Ely;

    2013-05-29

    Last January, we took a look at how ARPA-E performer, 1366 Technologies is working to dramatically reduce the cost of solar energy. A year later, we revisited their headquarters in Lexington, MA to see the progress they've made.

  11. Lateral capacity of helical piles in clays

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Y.V.S.N. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, Newfoundland (Canada). Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science] [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, Newfoundland (Canada). Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

    1996-11-01

    Helical piles, also known as screw anchors, consist of one or more helical-shaped circular plates welded to a central steel shaft at a specified spacing. Currently, helical piles are being used as tower foundations on land and in offshore areas to secure moorings, cables, and sea-bed pipelines to the sea bed. In this paper, the behavior of helical piles under lateral loads in clayey soils is examined through an experimental investigation on model piles. Tests were conducted on rigid helical piles with different numbers of plates. Model anchors were made of 13.8 mm diameter mild steel shafts to which mild steel plates of 33 mm diameter were welded. For comparison, a single straight shaft with a diameter of 13.8 mm was also tested. Test results revealed that the lateral capacity of helical piles is greater than that of straight shaft piles. A simple theoretical model is suggested to estimate the lateral capacity of rigid helical piles. The theoretical model suggested incorporates lateral resistance of the soil on the shaft, bearing resistance on the bottom of the helical plate, uplift resistance on the top of the helical plate, and frictional resistance on the surface of the helical plate. The validity of this model is examined.

  12. Artificial lateral line design for robotic fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsung-Ying Hsieh; Sheng-Wei Huang; Ling-Ji Mu; Edward Chen; Jenhwa Guo

    2011-01-01

    Fishes can avoid colliding with obstacles and track baits depending on the lateral distributed sense nodes which can sense the pressure variances of the surrounding flow field. Moreover, the interacted acoustic pressure field between the tail and the wall can provide useful information of the fish location by extracting the physical meaning of the sense node's measurement. Therefore, this study

  13. Stem cell treatment in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Letizia Mazzini; Katia Mareschi; Ivana Ferrero; Elena Vassallo; Giuseppe Oliveri; Nicola Nasuelli; Gaia Donata Oggioni; Lucia Testa; Franca Fagioli

    2007-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis is a progressive fatal neurodegenerative disease that targets motor neurons. Its origin is unknown but a main role of reactive astrogliosis and microglia activation in the pathogenesis has been recently demonstrated. Surrounding neurons with healthy adjoining cells completely stops motor neuron death in some cases. Hence stem cell transplantation might represent a promising therapeutic strategy. In this

  14. Simulation of lateral flow with SWAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calibration of the SWAT model for the Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed (GCEW) showed that percolation through the restrictive claypan layer, lateral flow above that layer, and redistribution of excess moisture up to the ground surface were not correctly simulated. In addition, surface runoff a...

  15. CORTICAL CELL DEATH DURING LATERAL ROOT FORMATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HOWARD T. BONNETT

    1969-01-01

    Root segments of Convolvulus arvensis, the field bindweed, were examined with the electron microscope to make possible a description of the fine structural correlates of lateral root protrusion through cortical parenchyma. Particular attention was directed to the outermost primordium cells, derived by meristematic activity from the endodermis, and to the con- tiguous cortical parenchyma cells. By following the fate of

  16. Lateral Hip Pain in an Athletic Population

    PubMed Central

    Grumet, Robert C.; Frank, Rachel M.; Slabaugh, Mark A.; Virkus, Walter W.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Nho, Shane J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Historically, the term greater trochanteric pain syndrome has been used to describe a spectrum of conditions that cause lateral-sided hip pain, including greater trochanteric bursitis, snapping iliotibial band, and/or strains or tendinopathy of the abductor mechanism. Diagnosis of these conditions may be difficult because clinical presentations are variable and sometimes inconclusive. Especially difficult is differentiating intrinsic pain from pain referred to the greater trochanteric region. The purposes of this article are to review the relevant anatomy and pathophysiology of the lateral hip. Evidence Acquisition: Data were collected through a thorough review of the literature conducted through a MEDLINE search of all relevant papers between 1980 and January 2010. Results: Recent advances in imaging and an improved understanding of pathomechanics have helped to guide the evaluation, diagnosis, and appropriate treatment for patients presenting with lateral hip pain. Conclusion: Various diagnostic tools and treatment modalities can be used to effectively manage the athletic patient presenting with lateral hip pain. PMID:23015937

  17. Posterior Fossa Lateral Ependymoma in Childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmoud G. Nagib; Therese O’Fallon

    1996-01-01

    Over a period extending from 1984 to 1993, 16 children ranging in ages from 2 months to 12 years with posterior fossa ependymoma were treated. Four of these tumors were classified as lateral ependymomas because of their configuration and suspected site of origin. These 4 patients’ ages ranged from

  18. One hand clapping: lateralization of motor control

    PubMed Central

    Welniarz, Quentin; Dusart, Isabelle; Gallea, Cécile; Roze, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Lateralization of motor control refers to the ability to produce pure unilateral or asymmetric movements. It is required for a variety of coordinated activities, including skilled bimanual tasks and locomotion. Here we discuss the neuroanatomical substrates and pathophysiological underpinnings of lateralized motor outputs. Significant breakthroughs have been made in the past few years by studying the two known conditions characterized by the inability to properly produce unilateral or asymmetric movements, namely human patients with congenital “mirror movements” and model rodents with a “hopping gait”. Whereas mirror movements are associated with altered interhemispheric connectivity and abnormal corticospinal projections, abnormal spinal cord interneurons trajectory is responsible for the “hopping gait”. Proper commissural axon guidance is a critical requirement for these mechanisms. Interestingly, the analysis of these two conditions reveals that the production of asymmetric movements involves similar anatomical and functional requirements but in two different structures: (i) lateralized activation of the brain or spinal cord through contralateral silencing by cross-midline inhibition; and (ii) unilateral transmission of this activation, resulting in lateralized motor output.

  19. Is migraine a lateralization defect? Jani Kaaroa

    E-print Network

    Hadjikhani, Nouchine

    .We measured the absolute displacement of a midline structure, the pineal gland, on brain scans of 39 migraineurs and 26 controls. We found a signi¢cant asymmetry of the pineal gland in migraineurs compared, lateralization, migraine, pineal gland, serotonin Introduction Migraine is a disabling neurological disease

  20. Measuring acetabular component position on lateral radiographs - ischio-lateral method.

    PubMed

    Pulos, Nicholas; Tiberi Iii, John V; Schmalzried, Thomas P

    2011-01-01

    The standard method for the evaluation of arthritis and postoperative assessment of arthroplasty treatment is observation and measurement from plain films, using the flm edge for orientation. A more recent employment of an anatomical landmark, the ischial tuberosity, has come into use as orientation for evaluation and is called the ischio-lateral method. In this study, the use of this method was evaluated as a first report to the literature on acetabular component measurement using a skeletal reference with lateral radiographs. Postoperative radiographs of 52 hips, with at least three true lateral radiographs taken at different time periods, were analyzed. Component position was measured with the historical method (using the flm edge for orientation) and with the new method using the ischio-lateral method. The mean standard deviation (SD) for the historical approach was 3.7° and for the ischio-lateral method, 2.2° (p < 0.001). With the historical method, 19 (36.5%) hips had a SD greater than ± 4°, compared to six hips (11.5%) with the ischio-lateral method. By using a skeletal reference, the ischio-lateral method provides a more consistent measurement of acetabular component position. The high intra-class correlation coefficients for both intra- and inter-observer reliability indicate that the angle measured with this simple method, which employs no further technology, increased time, or cost, is consistent and reproducible for multiple observers. PMID:22035491

  1. White matter alterations differ in primary lateral sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Nobue K.; Kwan, Justin Y.; Danielian, Laura E.; Butman, John A.; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Bayat, Elham

    2011-01-01

    Primary lateral sclerosis is a sporadic disorder characterized by slowly progressive corticospinal dysfunction. Primary lateral sclerosis differs from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis by its lack of lower motor neuron signs and long survival. Few pathological studies have been carried out on patients with primary lateral sclerosis, and the relationship between primary lateral sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis remains uncertain. To detect in vivo structural differences between the two disorders, diffusion tensor imaging of white matter tracts was carried out in 19 patients with primary lateral sclerosis, 18 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 19 age-matched controls. Fibre tracking was used to reconstruct the intracranial portion of the corticospinal tract and three regions of the corpus callosum: the genu, splenium and callosal fibres connecting the motor cortices. Both patient groups had reduced fractional anisotropy, a measure associated with axonal organization, and increased mean diffusivity of the reconstructed corticospinal and callosal motor fibres compared with controls, without changes in the genu or splenium. Voxelwise comparison of the whole brain white matter using tract-based spatial statistics confirmed the differences between patients and controls in the diffusion properties of the corticospinal tracts and motor fibres of the callosum. This analysis further revealed differences in the regional distribution of white matter alterations between the patient groups. In patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the greatest reduction in fractional anisotropy occurred in the distal portions of the intracranial corticospinal tract, consistent with a distal axonal degeneration. In patients with primary lateral sclerosis, the greatest loss of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity occurred in the subcortical white matter underlying the motor cortex, with reduced volume, suggesting tissue loss. Clinical measures of upper motor neuron dysfunction correlated with reductions in fractional anisotropy in the corticospinal tract in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and increased mean diffusivity and volume loss of the corticospinal tract in patients with primary lateral sclerosis. Changes in the diffusion properties of the motor fibres of the corpus callosum were strongly correlated with changes in corticospinal fibres in patients, but not in controls. These findings indicate that degeneration is not selective for corticospinal neurons, but affects callosal neurons within the motor cortex in motor neuron disorders. PMID:21798965

  2. An In Vitro Model to Investigate Filling of Lateral Canals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mauro Venturi; Carlo Prati; Lorenzo Breschi

    Aims of this work were to examine lateral canals in extracted teeth, to propose a new technique to produce artificial lateral canals, and to compare two obturation techniques. Cleared roots were examined to record measure and shape of lateral canals. Artificial lateral canals were prepared on human demineralized teeth before final clearing. Specimens were divided in two groups: canals of

  3. A rare nonincisional lateral abdominal wall hernia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Ju

    2015-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman presented a rare lateral abdominal wall hernia. Three month before admission to Chungbuk National University Hospital, she found a large protruding mass measuring 8 cm in diameter in the midaxillary line just below the costal margin upon heavy coughing. She had no history of abdominal trauma, infection, or operation previously. The mass was easily reduced manually or by position change to left lateral decubitus. CT scan showed a defect of the right transversus abdominis muscle and internal oblique muscle at the right flank with omental herniation. Its location is different from that of spigelian hernia or lumbar hernia. The peritoneal lining of the hernia sac was smooth and there was no evidence of inflammation or adhesion. The hernia was successfully repaired laparoscopically using Parietex composite mesh with an intraperitoneal onlay mesh technique. The patient was discharged uneventfully and did not show any evidence of recurrence at follow-up visits. PMID:25692123

  4. Nanoparticle-based lateral flow biosensors.

    PubMed

    Quesada-González, Daniel; Merkoçi, Arben

    2015-11-15

    Lateral flow biosensors (LFBs) are paper-based devices which permit the performance of low-cost and fast diagnostics with good robustness, specificity, sensitivity and low limits of detection. The use of nanoparticles (NPs) as labels play an important role in the design and fabrication of a lateral flow strip (LFS). The choice of NPs and the corresponding detection method directly affect the performance of these devices. This review discusses aspects related to the application of different nanomaterials (e.g. gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, quantum dots, up-converting phosphor technologies, and latex beads, between others) in LFBs. Moreover, different detection methods (colorimetric, fluorescent, electrochemical, magnetic, etc.) and signal enhancement strategies (affording secondary reactions or modifying the architecture of the LFS) as well as the use of devices such as smartphones to mediate the response of LFSs will be analyzed. PMID:26043315

  5. Establishment of polarity in angiosperm lateral organs.

    PubMed

    Bowman, John L; Eshed, Yuval; Baum, Stuart F

    2002-03-01

    In seed plants, lateral organs such as leaves and floral organs are formed from the flanks of apical meristems. Therefore, they have an inherent positional relationship: organ primordia have an adaxial side next to the meristem, and an abaxial one away from the meristem. Surgical and genetic studies suggest that a morphogenetic gradient, which originates in the meristem, converts the inherent polarity into a functional one. Once an adaxial-abaxial axis of polarity is established within organ primordia, it provides cues for proper lamina growth and asymmetrical development. Several key participants in this process have been identified, and analyses of these genes support and refine our views of axis formation in plants. The complex relationships between and within various members of these plant-specific gene families (class III HD-ZIPs, YABBYs and KANADIs) might account for a substantial part of the morphological variation in lateral organs of seed plants. PMID:11858837

  6. Polarization phase shifting lateral shearing interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Zeng, Aijun; Zhu, Linglin; Song, Qiang; Huang, Huijie

    2013-08-01

    A polarization phase shifting lateral shearing interferometer based on a polarization beam splitting plate(PBSP) is proposed. The front surface of the PBSP is coated with polarization beam splitting film and its back surface is coated with total reflection film. The beam to be tested is split by the PBSP with an incidence angle of 45° and divided into two mutually perpendicular linearly polarization beams. Phase shifting can be introduced to the interferometer when the PBSP is combined with a polarzation temporal or spatial phase shifter. A polarizaiton temporal phase shifting lateral shearing interferometer system is built up both with the ASAP software and the experiments. The usefulness of the interferometer is verified.

  7. Mesoscopic Lateral Diffusion in Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Ayton, Gary S.; Voth, Gregory A.

    2004-01-01

    The lateral diffusion in bilayers is modeled with a multiscale mesoscopic simulation. The methodology consists of two simulations, where the first employs atomistic models to obtain exact results for the mesoscopic model. The second simulation takes the results obtained from the first to parameterize an effective force field that is employed in a new coarse-grained model. The multiscale aspect of this scheme occurs at the point where the microscopic time-averaged results of the first simulation are employed to parameterize the second simulation that operates in a higher spatial and temporal domain. The results of both simulation schemes give quantitative information on the details associated with lipid lateral diffusion. PMID:15339807

  8. Lateral prefrontal cortex contributes to maladaptive decisions

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Gui; Juan, Chi-Hung; Chang, Chi-Fu; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Dong, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Humans consistently make suboptimal decisions involving random events, yet the underlying neural mechanisms remain elusive. Using functional MRI and a matching pennies game that captured subjects’ increasing tendency to predict the break of a streak as it continued [i.e., the “gambler's fallacy” (GF)], we found that a strong blood oxygen level-dependent response in the left lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) to the current outcome preceded the use of the GF strategy 10 s later. Furthermore, anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the left LPFC, which enhances neuronal firing rates and cerebral excitability, increased the use of the GF strategy, and made the decisions more “sticky.” These results reveal a causal role of the LPFC in implementing suboptimal decision strategy guided by false world models, especially when such strategy requires great resources for cognitive control. PMID:22393013

  9. Robust lateral control of highway vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, R.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abdallah, C. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). EECE Dept.

    1994-08-01

    Vehicle lateral dynamics are affected by vehicle mass, longitudinal velocity, vehicle inertia, and the cornering stiffness of the tires. All of these parameters are subject to variation, even over the course of a single trip. Therefore, a practical lateral control system must guarantee stability, and hopefully ride comfort, over a wide range of parameter changes. This paper describes a robust controller which theoretically guarantees stability over a wide range of parameter changes. The robust controller is designed using a frequency domain transfer function approach. An uncertainty band in the frequency domain is determined using simulations over the range of expected parameter variations. Based on this bound, a robust controller is designed by solving the Nevanlinna-Pick interpolation problem. The performance of the robust controller is then evaluated over the range of parameter variations through simulations.

  10. Lateral IMPATT diodes in standard CMOS technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Al-Attar; M. D. Mulligan; T. H. Lee

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the use of a lateral IMPATT diode built in 0.25?m CMOS technology as a high frequency power source. These diodes are monolithically integrated in coplanar waveguides and characterized by S-parameter measurements from 40 MHz to 110 GHz. These measurements show excellent agreement with predictions of theoretical models. To our knowledge, this is the first such structure built in

  11. Micromachining technology for lateral field emission devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veljko Milanovic ´; Lance Doherty; Dana A. Teasdale; Siavash Parsa; Kristofer S. J. Pister

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate a range of novel applications of micromachining and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) for achieving efficient and tunable field emission devices (FEDs). Arrays of lateral field emission tips are fabricated with submicron spacing utilizing deep reactive ion etch (DRIE). Current densities above 150 A\\/cm2 are achieved with over 150·106 tips\\/cm2. With sacrificial sidewall spacing, electrodes can be placed at arbitrarily

  12. Kainji resettlement housing: 40 years later

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth Shinenge Gyuse; Timothy Terver Gyuse

    2008-01-01

    Nigeria's Kainji Dam, completed in 1968, displaced 44,000 people from 239 settlements. Three housing forms were designed to provide for urban, semi?urban, and rural settings, respectively. Forty years later, the urban and semi?urban forms are integrated into the community while the rural form, modeled after a grain storage structure (rumbu) has been less successful. Five lessons are derived from this

  13. Lateral resolution of digital holographic system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huaying Wang; Hongjun Wei; Yi Wang; Jie Zhao; Dayong Wang

    2008-01-01

    Based on Fresnel diffraction theory, the point spread function (PSF) of the off-axis lensless Fourier transform digital holographic system with pre-magnification is deduced for the first time to the best of our knowledge. The limited lateral resolutions of the digital holographic systems with and without pre-magnification are analyzed in detail. For lensless Fourier digital holography, the expression of the limit

  14. Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty for lateral gonarthrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshihiro Ohdera; Junichi Tokunaga; Akira Kobayashi

    2001-01-01

    Thirty-eight lateral compartment arthroplasties were performed in 22 years. Eighteen joints in 17 patients with an average age of 64.5 years were evaluated with minimum 5-year follow-up. Using the Hospital for Special Surgery knee score, 16 of 18 joints had satisfactory results in terms of function and pain relief. The average preoperative alignment on standing was 14.9° of valgus angulation,

  15. F 35% Revisited Ten Years Later

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William G. Clark

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the original derivation of the F35% (later F40%) harvest strategy, which consists of fishing at a rate that reduces spawning biomass per recruit to 35% (or 40%) of the unfished value, and investigates its applicability to long-lived stocks with low resiliency, such as some of the Pacific Coast rockfishesSebastes spp. The life history parameters are unimportant (at

  16. Palliative care in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gian Domenico Borasio; Raymond Voltz

    1997-01-01

    The poor prognosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) makes palliative care a challenge for the neurologist. Most disabilities\\u000a associated with progressive disease can be ameliorated by symptomatic treatment. Prognosis and treatment options should be\\u000a openly discussed with the patient and his\\/her relatives. Nutritional deficiency due to pronounced dysphagia can be efficiently\\u000a relieved by a percutaneous enterogastrostomy. Respiratory insufficiency can be

  17. Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay Test Strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    As easy to read as a home pregnancy test, three Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay (QLFA) strips used to test water for E. coli show different results. The brightly glowing control line on the far right of each strip indicates that all three tests ran successfully. But the glowing test line on the middle left and bottom strips reveal their samples were contaminated with E. coli bacteria at two different concentrations. The color intensity correlates with concentration of contamination.

  18. Lateral Spine Densitometry in Obese Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. R. Brooks; D. Heltz; P. Wozniak; C. Partington; J. C. Lovejoy

    1998-01-01

    .   The lateral (LAT) spine scan has been suggested as a more sensitive measure than posterior-anterior (PA) scanning for assessing\\u000a age-related bone loss in normal-weight postmenopausal women. The measurement error of PA and LAT bone mineral density (BMD)\\u000a using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has also been shown to rise with incremental increases in fat and from large\\u000a variance in

  19. Lateral jet injection into typical combustor flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilley, D. G.

    1986-01-01

    The experimental problem of lateral jet injection into typical flow fields in the absence of combustion was studied. All flow fields being investigated have no expansion of the crossflow (the test section to swirler diameter ratio D/d = 1), after its passage through an optional swirler (with swirl vane angle phi = 0 (swirler removed), 45, and 70 degree). The lateral jet(s) is(are) located one test-section diameter downstream of the test-section inlet (x/D = 1). The lateral jets have round-sectioned nozzles, each of which has an area of 1/100th of the cross sectional area of the crossflow (A sub j/A sub c = 1/100). Jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios of R = v sub j/u sub o = 2, 4, and 6 were investigated. Helium-bubble low visualization, five-hole pitot probe time-mean velocity measurements, and single-wire time-mean velocity and normal and shear stress turbulence data were obtained in the research program.

  20. Lateral thermal damage along pulsed laser incisions.

    PubMed

    Zweig, A D; Meierhofer, B; Müller, O M; Mischler, C; Romano, V; Frenz, M; Weber, H P

    1990-01-01

    The damage adjacent to incisions created in dorsal mouse skin by overlapping Er3+ and CO2 laser pulses of a duration of 250 microseconds is investigated histologically. It is compared to injuries induced by long-term heating. We demonstrate how the lateral thermal damage near the laser cuts can be explained by heat conduction. We show that it is necessary to introduce as a heat reservoir a layer of tissue that has been liquified during the cutting process. The width of the thermally damaged region depends mainly on the extension of the liquid material that remains in the cut after the laser-tissue interaction. PMID:2345475

  1. Psychotherapists and the clergy: Fifty years later.

    PubMed

    Spiegelman, J M

    1984-03-01

    Jung's two powerful articles on psychotherapy and the clergy, written in 1928 and 1932. are looked at from the vantage point of fifty years later and the author's experience in conducting analysis with many people from both vocations. He notes that relatively few people achieve the kind of integration of the ego that Jung writes about-an essentially religious experience-wherein the center of their existence now gravitates about the Self. Yet Jung's work and views have had a profound effect on spiritually inclined people of all ages. The predictions of Jung's articles, regarding therapy, the dissemination of pyschology to the masses, and other issues are examined. PMID:24306937

  2. Responsiveness-to-Intervention: A Decade Later

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    In this introduction to this special issue, “A Decade Later,” we provide an overview of the accomplishments as well as the persistent questions surrounding RTI. We organize this discussion within 3 categories: assessment, instruction, and policy. Within each of these sections, we also highlight how the articles in the present special issue expand upon the key issues. Developed initially for the early grades (kindergarten through third grade) and primarily in the area of reading, many-although not all-of these issues speak to the expansion of RTI to address a broader set of academic content areas and the full range of grade levels. PMID:22539056

  3. Towards reproducible, scalable lateral molecular electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durkan, Colm; Zhang, Qian

    2014-08-01

    An approach to reproducibly fabricate molecular electronic devices is presented. Lateral nanometer-scale gaps with high yield are formed in Au/Pd nanowires by a combination of electromigration and Joule-heating-induced thermomechanical stress. The resulting nanogap devices are used to measure the electrical properties of small numbers of two different molecular species with different end-groups, namely 1,4-butane dithiol and 1,5-diamino-2-methylpentane. Fluctuations in the current reveal that in the case of the dithiol molecule devices, individual molecules conduct intermittently, with the fluctuations becoming more pronounced at larger biases.

  4. Uniform lateral load capacity of infilled frames

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.D. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Engineering Division; Bennett, R.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1993-11-11

    Three tests were conducted on 2.4 meter by 2.4 meter steel frames infilled with structural clay tile to determine the behavior and capacity when subjected to uniform lateral loads. An air bag was used to apply the out-of-plane loads. The walls were subjected to increasing load-unload cycles until virtual destruction of the infill. Cracking in the mortar joints occurred early in the tests, and then the primary load resisting mechanism was arching of the infilled panel. Typically, vertical arching occurred until failure of the top and bottom course tiles. Following failure of these courses, horizontal arching developed enabling the walls to maintain stability.

  5. Photolithography using lateral surface of nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhen; Bai, Jian; Wang, Chen; Hu, Neibin; Xu, Jianfeng; Yao, Yuan; Liang, Yiyong; Wang, Kaiwei; Hou, Changlun; Yang, Guoguang

    2015-05-01

    To enhance the resolution of photolithography, we demonstrate a technique that confines the exposure area by using lateral surface of nanofibers. Due to evanescent wave and optical tunneling effect, the interaction area of optical energy and the photoresist layer is confined into sub-wavelength dimension. Illuminated by a He-Cd laser device with a 442 nm wavelength, exposed lines with sub-wavelength width were obtained by using a nanofiber with a 247 nm diameter. Furthermore, curve lines and annular lines were obtained by manipulating the shape of nanofibers on the photoresist layer.

  6. Subtle retinal pathology in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ringelstein, Marius; Albrecht, Philipp; Südmeyer, Martin; Harmel, Jens; Müller, Ann-Kristin; Keser, Nazmiye; Finis, David; Ferrea, Stefano; Guthoff, Rainer; Schnitzler, Alfons; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Methner, Axel; Aktas, Orhan

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by neuro-ophthalmological abnormalities beyond disturbed oculomotor control such as decreased visual acuity and disturbed visual evoked potentials. Here we report retinal alterations in a cohort of 24 patients with clinically definite (n = 20) or probable (n = 4) ALS as compared to matched controls. High-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography with retinal segmentation revealed a subtle reduction in the macular thickness and the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) as well as a marked thinning of the inner nuclear layer (INL). Our data indicate an unprecedented retinal damage pattern and suggest neurodegeneration beyond the motor system in this disease. PMID:25590041

  7. Lateral stress evolution in Chromium Sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petel, O. E.; Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Hameed, A.; Capozzi, A.; Goroshin, S.; Frost, D. L.; Hazell, P. J.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper the shock response of CrS, a cermet of potential interest as a matrix material for ballistic applications, has been investigated. Compacts with a Chromium: Sulfur ratio of 1.15:1 were investigated via the plate-impact technique. These experiments allowed the material to be loaded under a one-dimensional state of strain. Embedded manganin stress gauges were employed to monitor the temporal evolution of longitudinal and lateral components of stress. Comparison of these two components has allowed assessment of the variation of material shear strength both with impact pressure/strain-rate and time.

  8. Sonographic diagnosis of talar lateral process fracture.

    PubMed

    Copercini, Michele; Bonvin, Florent; Martinoli, Carlo; Bianchi, Stefano

    2003-06-01

    The frequency of fractures of the lateral process of the talus (LPT) has markedly increased because of the expansion of snowboard activity. These lesions are difficult to diagnose, because they have aspecific signs, and standard radiographs do not show the fractures in 50% of cases. Sonography is used more and more in the assessment of ankle trauma, but it is rarely performed for detection of bone fractures. We report a case of a patient in which sonography directly showed an LPT fracture. PMID:12795560

  9. Lateral Pectoral Nerve Injury Mimicking Cervical Radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Ilknur; Palamar, Deniz; Akgun, Kenan

    2015-07-01

    The lateral pectoral nerve (LPN) is commonly injured along with the brachial plexus, but its isolated lesions are rare. Here, we present a case of an isolated LPN lesion confused with cervical radiculopathy. A 41-year-old man was admitted to our clinic because of weakness in his right arm. Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination revealed right posterolateral protrusion at the C6-7 level. At the initial assessment, atrophy of the right pectoralis major muscle was evident, and mild weakness of the right shoulder adductor, internal rotator, and flexor muscles was observed. Therefore, electrodiagnostic evaluation was performed, and a diagnosis of isolated LPN injury was made. Nerve injury was thought to have been caused by weightlifting exercises and traction injury. Lateral pectoral nerve injury can mimic cervical radiculopathy, and MRI examination alone may lead to misdiagnosis. Repeated physical examinations during the evaluation and treatment phase will identify the muscle atrophy that occurs 1 or more months after the injury. PMID:25290103

  10. Religious Attendance and Loneliness in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Rote, Sunshine; Hill, Terrence D.; Ellison, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: ?Studies show that loneliness is a major risk factor for health issues in later life. Although research suggests that religious involvement can protect against loneliness, explanations for this general pattern are underdeveloped and undertested. In this paper, we propose and test a theoretical model, which suggests that social integration and social support are key mechanisms that link religious attendance and loneliness. Design and Methods: ?To formally test our theoretical model, we use data from the National Social Life Health and Aging Project (2005/2006), a large national probability sample of older adults aged 57–85 years. Results: ?We find that religious attendance is associated with higher levels of social integration and social support and that social integration and social support are associated with lower levels of loneliness. A series of mediation tests confirm our theoretical model. Implications: ?Taken together, our results suggest that involvement in religious institutions may protect against loneliness in later life by integrating older adults into larger and more supportive social networks. Future research should test whether these processes are valid across theoretically relevant subgroups. PMID:22555887

  11. Dual-domain lateral shearing interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Naulleau, Patrick P.; Goldberg, Kenneth Alan

    2004-03-16

    The phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI) was developed to address the problem of at-wavelength metrology of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical systems. Although extremely accurate, the fact that the PS/PDI is limited to use with coherent EUV sources, such as undulator radiation, is a drawback for its widespread use. An alternative to the PS/PDI, with relaxed coherence requirements, is lateral shearing interferometry (LSI). The use of a cross-grating, carrier-frequency configuration to characterize a large-field 4.times.-reduction EUV lithography optic is demonstrated. The results obtained are directly compared with PS/PDI measurements. A defocused implementation of the lateral shearing interferometer in which an image-plane filter allows both phase-shifting and Fourier wavefront recovery. The two wavefront recovery methods can be combined in a dual-domain technique providing suppression of noise added by self-interference of high-frequency components in the test-optic wavefront.

  12. Prototype cantilevers for quantitative lateral force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Reitsma, Mark G.; Gates, Richard S.; Friedman, Lawrence H.; Cook, Robert F. [Nanomechanical Properties Group, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Prototype cantilevers are presented that enable quantitative surface force measurements using contact-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). The ''hammerhead'' cantilevers facilitate precise optical lever system calibrations for cantilever flexure and torsion, enabling quantifiable adhesion measurements and friction measurements by lateral force microscopy (LFM). Critically, a single hammerhead cantilever of known flexural stiffness and probe length dimension can be used to perform both a system calibration as well as surface force measurements in situ, which greatly increases force measurement precision and accuracy. During LFM calibration mode, a hammerhead cantilever allows an optical lever ''torque sensitivity'' to be generated for the quantification of LFM friction forces. Precise calibrations were performed on two different AFM instruments, in which torque sensitivity values were specified with sub-percent relative uncertainty. To examine the potential for accurate lateral force measurements using the prototype cantilevers, finite element analysis predicted measurement errors of a few percent or less, which could be reduced via refinement of calibration methodology or cantilever design. The cantilevers are compatible with commercial AFM instrumentation and can be used for other AFM techniques such as contact imaging and dynamic mode measurements.

  13. Lateral Distribution Functions of Extensive Air Showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geranios, A.; Fokitis, E.; Maltezos, S.; et al.

    The energy is among the characteristics of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (E>5 x 1019 eV) which could be estimated experimentally. The following paper attempts to estimate the energy of an UHECR proton by applying a Monte Carlo simulation code. A number of extensive air showers, vertical and inclined, is simulated to derive the Lateral Distribution Functions of the shower muons. The scenario of simulations is adopted to the Cerenkov surface detector of the P. AUGER Observatory. Due to the fact that the Lateral Distribution Functions show minimal fluctuations of the muon density at a distance larger than 800 m from the core of the showers, and due to the fact that at a distance of 900 m the distribution functions for inclined showers coincide (which means that it does not change with the zenith angle of the showers), we select the muon density at 900 m to derive the energy of the primary protons. (The project is co-funded by the European Social Fund and National Resources (EPEAEK II) PYTHAGORAS II.)

  14. Bioenergetic markers in skin fibroblasts of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and progressive lateral sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Kathryne; Gennings, Chris; Hupf, Jonathan C; Tadesse, Saba; D'Aurelio, Marilena; Kawamata, Hibiki; Valsecchi, Federica; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Manfredi, Giovanni

    2014-10-01

    Energy metabolism could influence amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and progressive lateral sclerosis (PLS) pathogenesis and the response to therapy. We developed a novel assay to simultaneously assess mitochondrial content and membrane potential in patients' skin fibroblasts. In ALS and PLS fibroblasts, membrane potential was increased and mitochondrial content decreased, relative to healthy controls. In ALS higher mitochondrial membrane potential correlated with age at diagnosis, and in PLS it correlated with disease severity. These unprecedented findings in ALS and PLS fibroblasts could shed new light onto disease pathogenesis and help in developing biomarkers to predict disease evolution and the individual response to therapy in motor neuron diseases. PMID:25090982

  15. Macroscopic Lateral Heterogeneity Observed in a Laterally-Mobile Immiscible Mixed Polyelectrolyte/Neutral Polymer Brush

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hoyoung; Tsouris, Vasilios; Lim, Yunho; Mustafa, Rafid; Choi, Je; Choi, Yun Hwa; Park, Hae-Woong; Meron, Mati; Lin, Binhua; Won, You-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    We studied mixed poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) brushes. The question we attempted to answer was: When the chain grafting points are laterally mobile, how will this lateral mobility influence the structure and phase behavior of the mixed brush? Three different model mixed PEO/PDMAEMA brush systems were prepared: (1) a laterally-mobile mixed brush by spreading onto the air-water interface a mixture of poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PEO-PnBA) and poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)-poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PDMAEMA-PnBA) diblock copolymers (the specific diblock copolymers used will be denoted as PEO113-PnBA100 and PDMAEMA118-PnBA100, where the subscripts refer to the number-average degrees of polymerization of the individual blocks), (2) a mobility-restricted (inseparable) version of the above mixed brush prepared using a PEO-PnBA-PDMAEMA triblock copolymer (denoted as PEO113-PnBA89-PDMAEMA120) having respective brush molecular weights matched to those of the diblock copolymers, and (3) a different laterally-mobile mixed PEO and PDMAEMA brush prepared from a PEO113-PnBA100 and PDMAEMA200-PnBA103 diblock copolymer combination, which represents a further more height-mismatched mixed brush situation than described in (1). These three mixed brush systems were investigated by surface pressure-area isotherm and X-ray (XR) reflectivity measurements. These experimental data were analyzed within the theoretical framework of a continuum self-consistent field (SCF) polymer brush model. The combined experimental and theoretical results suggest that the mobile mixed brush derived using the PEO113-PnBA100 and PDMAEMA118-PnBA100 combination (i.e., Mixed Brush System #1) undergoes a lateral macroscopic phase separation at high chain grafting densities, whereas the more height-mismatched system (System #3) is only microscopically phase separated under comparable brush density conditions even though the lateral mobility of the grafted chains is unrestricted. The macroscopic phase separation observed in the laterally-mobile mixed brush system is in contrast to the microphase separation behavior commonly observed in two-dimensional laterally-mobile charged small molecule mixtures. Further study is needed to determine the detailed morphologies of the macro and microphase-separated mixed PEO/PDMAEMA brushes. PMID:24695635

  16. Diagnosis and Treatment of Lateral Patellar Compression Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Saper, Michael G.; Shneider, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic anterior knee pain with a stable patella is often associated with overload and increased pressure on the lateral facet due to pathologic lateral soft-tissue restraints. “Lateral pressure in flexion” is a term describing the pathologic process of increasing contact pressure over the lateral patellar facet as knee flexion progresses. This report describes a surgical technique developed in response to lateral pressure in flexion and the shortcomings of traditional arthroscopic lateral release procedures. The technique is performed open with the knee in flexion, and the lateral release is repaired with a rotation flap of iliotibial band to close the defect and prevent patellar subluxation. The technique effectively decreases lateral patellar pressure and centers the patella correctly in the trochlear groove with minimal risk of iatrogenic patellar instability. PMID:25473620

  17. Lesional location of lateral medullary infarction presenting hiccups (singultus)

    PubMed Central

    Park, M; Kim, B; Koh, S; Park, M; Park, K; Lee, D

    2005-01-01

    Background: Hiccups are an infrequent result of lateral medullary infarction. Their importance may be underestimated and they can cause distress, exhaustion, and aspiration. Hiccups in lateral medullary infarction remain poorly understood Objective: To evaluate the relation between the lesional loci of lateral medullary infarction and hiccups. Methods: 51 patients with lateral medullary infarction were investigated by magnetic resonance imaging within three days of the onset of infarction. Seven of the 51 patients developed hiccup. Results: All patients with hiccups had middle level lateral medullary lesions, including two with lower level lesions and four with upper level lesions. In the middle level lateral medullary lesions, dorsolateral lesions were most often involved. All patients with lateral medullary infarction presenting with hiccups also had vertigo, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and dysphagia. Conclusions: The observations suggest that middle level and dorsolateral lesion locations in lateral medullary infarction frequently induce hiccups. PMID:15608002

  18. 14 CFR 25.177 - Static lateral-directional stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Static lateral-directional stability. 25.177 Section 25...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 25.177 Static lateral-directional stability. (a)-(b)...

  19. Pseudoaneurysm of the lateral plantar artery after foot laceration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian P. Thornton; David J. Minion; Rhonda Quick; Henry C. Vasconez; Eric D. Endean

    2003-01-01

    Two children with lateral plantar artery pseudoaneurysms are presented. Both cases were associated with a plantar laceration and were successfully treated with ligation. Only one other report of a lateral plantar artery pseudoaneurysm was found in the literature; no reports involving the medial plantar artery have been reported. A cadaver dissection supports the hypothesis that the lateral plantar artery is

  20. Lateralized eye use in Octopus vulgaris shows antisymmetrical distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth A. Byrne; Michael J. Kuba; Daniela V. Meisel

    2004-01-01

    Behavioural lateralization has been demonstrated in many species of vertebrates, but there has been scarce evidence for it in invertebrates. We have previously documented lateral asymmetry of eye use in individual octopuses. In the present study we investigated lateralization at the population level. Octopus eyes are on the sides of the head, and these animals prefer monocular to binocular vision.

  1. Effective use of botox for lateral canthal rhytids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Matarasso; Michael Glassman

    2001-01-01

    The authors discuss why Botox is their preferred nonsurgical treatment for lateral canthal rhytids, or crow's-feet. Three or 4 injections are spaced at 1.0- to 1.5-cm intervals beginning immediately beneath the lateral edge of the eyebrow and extending down to the lateral infraorbital rim. Complications are infrequent and can usually be avoided with the injection techniques described.

  2. 10 CFR 600.251 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 600...Post-Award Requirements § 600.251 Later disallowances and adjustments. The...costs and recover funds on the basis of a later audit or other review; (b) The...

  3. 29 CFR 97.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Later disallowances and adjustments. 97...After-The-Grant Requirements § 97.51 Later disallowances and adjustments. The...costs and recover funds on the basis of a later audit or other review; (b) The...

  4. 13 CFR 143.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 143...After-the-Grant Requirements § 143.51 Later disallowances and adjustments. The...costs and recover funds on the basis of a later audit or other review; (b) The...

  5. 21 CFR 1403.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 1403...After-The-Grant Requirements § 1403.51 Later disallowances and adjustments. The...costs and recover funds on the basis of a later audit or other review; (b) The...

  6. 32 CFR 33.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 33...After-The-Grant Requirements § 33.51 Later disallowances and adjustments. The...costs and recover funds on the basis of a later audit or other review; (b) The...

  7. 29 CFR 1470.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 1470...After-The-Grant Requirements § 1470.51 Later disallowances and adjustments. The...costs and recover funds on the basis of a later audit or other review; (b) The...

  8. 40 CFR 31.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 31...After-the-Grant Requirements § 31.51 Later disallowances and adjustments. The...costs and recover funds on the basis of a later audit or other review; (b) The...

  9. 20 CFR 437.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 437...After-the-Grant Requirements § 437.51 Later disallowances and adjustments. The...costs and recover funds on the basis of a later audit or other review; (b) The...

  10. 49 CFR 18.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 18...After-The-Grant Requirements § 18.51 Later disallowances and adjustments. The...costs and recover funds on the basis of a later audit or other review; (b) The...

  11. 38 CFR 43.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 43...After-The-Grant Requirements § 43.51 Later disallowances and adjustments. The...costs and recover funds on the basis of a later audit or other review; (b) The...

  12. 45 CFR 1157.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 1157...After-the-Grant Requirements § 1157.51 Later disallowances and adjustments. The...costs and recover funds on the basis of a later audit or other review; (b) The...

  13. 34 CFR 80.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 80...After-the-Grant Requirements § 80.51 Later disallowances and adjustments. The...costs and recover funds on the basis of a later audit or other review; (b) The...

  14. 41 CFR 105-71.151 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 105-71...15-After-the-Grant Requirements § 105-71.151 Later disallowances and adjustments. The...costs and recover funds on the basis of a later audit or other review; (b) The...

  15. 45 CFR 602.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 602...After-the-Grant Requirements § 602.51 Later disallowances and adjustments. The...costs and recover funds on the basis of a later audit or other review; (b) The...

  16. 22 CFR 135.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 135...After-The-Grant Requirements § 135.51 Later disallowances and adjustments. The...costs and recover funds on the basis of a later audit or other review; (b) The...

  17. 14 CFR 1273.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 1273...After-the-Grant Requirements § 1273.51 Later disallowances and adjustments. The...costs and recover funds on the basis of a later audit or other review; (b) The...

  18. Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

  19. The Lateral Dynamical Analysis of the Magnetic Levitation System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongpo Wang; Jie Li; Kun Zhang

    2007-01-01

    The lateral dynamic character of the maglev system is investigated by constructing the model of it with the lateral tie. To analyze the relationship between vertical stability and lateral displacement of the electromagnet, the dynamic model is linearized at the equilibrium. Runge-Kutta numerical method is employed to obtain the numerical solution of the differential equations. The boundary curves are drawn,

  20. ELECTRICAL RESPONSES FROM LATERAL-LINE NERVES OF FISHES. III

    PubMed Central

    Hoagland, Hudson

    1933-01-01

    Evidence indicates that lateral-line fibers, other than those mediating the "spontaneous" activity of the lateral-line receptors, are brought into play in response to pressure stimuli in catfish and in trout. The distribution and mode of stimulation of mechanoreceptors along the lateral-lines of trout and catfish are discussed in relation to the natural activities of these forms. PMID:19872765

  1. Coverage of Exposed Bone of the Lateral Malleolus With a Proximally Based Lateral Malleolar Perforator Flap.

    PubMed

    van der Zee, Caroline W; Moerman, Esther; Haverlag, Robert; Schepers, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of soft tissue defects of the ankle, combined with an implant-related infection, remains a challenge. The present case report illustrates the use of a pedicled perforator flap for soft tissue reconstruction to cover a postoperative defect at the lateral malleolus after an ankle fracture. PMID:25154652

  2. Large-scale lateral nanowire arrays nanogenerators

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhong L; Xu, Chen; Qin, Yong; Zhu, Guang; Yang, Rusen; Hu, Youfan; Zhang, Yan

    2014-01-07

    In a method of making a generating device, a plurality of spaced apart elongated seen members are deposited onto a surface of a flexible non-conductive substrate. An elongated conductive layer is applied to a top surface and a first side of each seed member, thereby leaving an exposed second side opposite the first side. A plurality of elongated piezoelectric nanostructures is grown laterally from the second side of each seed layer. A second conductive material is deposited onto the substrate adjacent each elongated first conductive layer so as to be soupled the distal end of each of the plurality of elongated piezoelectric nanostructures. The second conductive material is selected so as to form a Schottky barrier between the second conductive material and the distal end of each of the plurality of elongated piezoelectric nanostructures and so as to form an electrical contact with the first conductive layer.

  3. [Dysphagia with lateral medullary infarction (Wallenberg's syndrome)].

    PubMed

    Oshima, Fumiko

    2011-11-01

    Dysphagia after lateral medullary infarction (LMI) is common. The dysphagia of LMI is dynamically characterized by a failure in triggering of the pharyngeal-phase swallowing movements, reduced output, and lack of coordination (swallowing pattern abnormality). Based on accurate evaluation, we can select suitable rehabilitative approaches for individual patients, including respiratory therapy, food modification, postural changes, and oral care. We focused on the absence of upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening of the unaffected side of the medullae. The movement pattern was defined as failure of bolus passage through the intact side of the UES, occurring at least once during the videofluorographic evaluation of each individual. Three abnormal patterns of UES opening were classified. The passage pattern abnormality shows the failure of the stereotyped motor sequence. For severe cases, it is necessary to consider long-term treatment, including botulinum toxin injection or surgery to prevent aspiration and adequate nutritional management. PMID:22277480

  4. Genetics of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: an update

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder involving both upper motor neurons (UMN) and lower motor neurons (LMN). Enormous research has been done in the past few decades in unveiling the genetics of ALS, successfully identifying at least fifteen candidate genes associated with familial and sporadic ALS. Numerous studies attempting to define the pathogenesis of ALS have identified several plausible determinants and molecular pathways leading to motor neuron degeneration, which include oxidative stress, glutamate excitotoxicity, apoptosis, abnormal neurofilament function, protein misfolding and subsequent aggregation, impairment of RNA processing, defects in axonal transport, changes in endosomal trafficking, increased inflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. This review is to update the recent discoveries in genetics of ALS, which may provide insight information to help us better understanding of the disease neuropathogenesis. PMID:23941283

  5. Catalytic antioxidants to treat amyotropic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Crow, John P

    2010-01-01

    Catalytic antioxidants are comprised of specialised classes of organometallic complexes that can catalyse the decomposition of injurious biological oxidants. These complexes have been shown to prevent the formation of several oxidative markers in spinal cord of G93A amyotropic lateral sclerosis mice and markedly extend survival, even when administered at symptom onset; however, it is now clear that some complexes lacking in antioxidant activity are also protective. New proteomics data suggest that these complexes also induce a broad spectrum of endogenous cellular defense mechanisms. The combination of antioxidant and adaptive resistance effects may explain the remarkable potency of these compounds and may also suggest wide applicability for them in a number of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:17040198

  6. Analysis of flexible structures under lateral impact

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, D. F. [Paul C. Kizzo and Associates Inc., Seismic Structural Group, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States); Razavi, H. [AREVA Inc., Civil Seismic Group, San Jose, CA 95119 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Three methods for analysis of flexible structures under lateral impact are presented. The first proposed method (Method A) consists of: (1) modifying an available deceleration on a rigid target with conservation principles to account for structural flexibility; and (2) transient nonlinear analysis of the structure with the corrected forcing function. The second proposed method (Method B) is similar to Method A in obtaining the forcing function but it solves the equations of motion of an idealized two-degree-of-freedom system instead of directly using conservation principles. The last method simply provides the maximum force in the structure using the conservation of energy and linear momentum. A coupled simulation is also performed in LS-DYNA and compared against the proposed methods. A case study is presented to illustrate the applicability of all three methods and the LS-DYNA simulation. (authors)

  7. [An unusual lateral cervico-facial fistula].

    PubMed

    Skevas, A; Bliouras, K; Papadopoulos, N; Tsoulias, T

    1989-08-01

    Lateral cervical sinuses of fistula are usually derivatives of the branchial clefts and pouches and have a more or less typical course in the neck. We present a patient with an extremely long sinus extending from the left supraclavicular area, via the cheek up to the left infraorbital rim. We could not find a similar report in literature. The diagnostic evaluation as well as the successful surgical removal of the malformation through a skin incision in the neck and a second incision in the sulcus gingivobucalis are described. On the basis of a brief review in the embryology of the congenital anomalies of the neck and face some considerations about the possible origin of the cervico-facial sinuses are discussed. PMID:2789577

  8. Nanoindentation of laterally overgrown epitaxial gallium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martyniuk, M.; Parish, G.; Marchand, H.; Fini, P. T.; DenBaars, S. P.; Faraone, L.

    2012-04-01

    Nanoindentation has been used to investigate and compare the mechanical properties of GaN grown by the lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) method and the defective seed region prepared by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition. Common modulus of elasticity values (˜230 GPa) and hardness values (˜19 GPa) were found for both materials. The GaN response to nanoindentation was found to be purely elastic for low indentation loads with the onset of plasticity being marked by discontinuities or "pop-in" events in the indenter load-penetration curves. The maximum shear stress under the indenter at pop-in events for LEO GaN corresponds well with the critical shear stress necessary for homogeneous dislocation nucleation, indicating that the defects in this region are too sparse and do not aid in dislocation nucleation.

  9. Surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canals of maxillary incisors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This case report presents surgical endodontic management outcomes of maxillary incisors that were infected via the lateral canals. Two cases are presented in which endodontically-treated maxillary central incisors had sustained lateral canal infections. A surgical endodontic treatment was performed on both teeth. Flap elevation revealed vertical bone destruction along the root surface and infected lateral canals, and microscopy revealed that the lateral canals were the origin of the lesions. After the infected lateral canals were surgically managed, both teeth were asymptomatic and labial fistulas were resolved. There were no clinical or radiographic signs of surgical endodontic management failure at follow-up visits. This case report highlights the clinical significance and surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canal of maxillary incisor. It is important to be aware of root canal anatomy variability in maxillary incisors. Maxillary central incisors infected via the lateral canal can be successfully managed by surgical endodontic treatment. PMID:25671217

  10. Does cerebral lateralization develop? A study using functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound assessing lateralization for language production and visuospatial memory

    PubMed Central

    Groen, Margriet A; Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Badcock, Nicholas A; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2012-01-01

    In the majority of people, language production is lateralized to the left cerebral hemisphere and visuospatial skills to the right. However, questions remain as to when, how, and why humans arrive at this division of labor. In this study, we assessed cerebral lateralization for language production and for visuospatial memory using functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound in a group of 60 typically developing children between the ages of six and 16 years. The typical pattern of left-lateralized activation for language production and right-lateralized activation for visuospatial memory was found in the majority of the children (58%). No age-related change in direction or strength of lateralization was found for language production. In contrast, the strength of lateralization (independent of direction) for visuospatial memory function continued to increase with age. In addition, boys showed a trend for stronger right-hemisphere lateralization for visuospatial memory than girls, but there was no gender effect on language laterality. We tested whether having language and visuospatial functions in the same hemisphere was associated with poor cognitive performance and found no evidence for this “functional crowding” hypothesis. We did, however, find that children with left-lateralized language production had higher vocabulary and nonword reading age-adjusted standard scores than other children, regardless of the laterality of visuospatial memory. Thus, a link between language function and left-hemisphere lateralization exists, and cannot be explained in terms of maturational change. PMID:22741100

  11. Determination of lateral-stability derivatives and transfer-function coefficients from frequency-response data for lateral motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donegan, James J; Robinson, Samuel W , Jr; Gates, Ordway, B , jr

    1955-01-01

    A method is presented for determining the lateral-stability derivatives, transfer-function coefficients, and the modes for lateral motion from frequency-response data for a rigid aircraft. The method is based on the application of the vector technique to the equations of lateral motion, so that the three equations of lateral motion can be separated into six equations. The method of least squares is then applied to the data for each of these equations to yield the coefficients of the equations of lateral motion from which the lateral-stability derivatives and lateral transfer-function coefficients are computed. Two numerical examples are given to demonstrate the use of the method.

  12. Miro1 deficiency in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Wang, Wenzhang; Siedlak, Sandra L.; Liu, Yingchao; Liu, Jun; Jiang, Keji; Perry, George; Zhu, Xiongwei; Wang, Xinglong

    2015-01-01

    Proper transportation of mitochondria to sites with high energy demands is critical for neuronal function and survival. Impaired mitochondrial movement has been repeatedly reported in motor neurons of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and indicated as an important mechanism contributing to motor neuron degeneration in ALS. Miro1, a RhoGTPase also referred to as Rhot1, is a key regulator of mitochondrial movement linking mitochondria and motor proteins. In this study, we investigated whether the expression of Miro1 was altered in ALS patients and ALS animal models. Immunoblot analysis revealed that Miro1 was significantly reduced in the spinal cord tissue of ALS patients. Consistently, the decreased expression of Miro1 was also noted only in the spinal cord, and not in the brain tissue of transgenic mice expressing ALS-associated SOD1 G93A or TDP-43 M337V. Glutamate excitotoxicity is one of the major pathophysiological mechanisms implicated in the pathogenesis of ALS, and we found that excessive glutamate challenge lead to significant reduction of Miro1 expression in spinal cord motor neurons both in vitro and in mice. Taken together, these findings show Miro1 deficiency in ALS patients and ALS animal models and suggest glutamate excitotoxicity as a likely cause of Miro1 deficiency.

  13. Redox Regulation in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Parakh, Sonam; Spencer, Damian M.; Halloran, Mark A.; Soo, Kai Y.; Atkin, Julie D.

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that results from the death of upper and lower motor neurons. Due to a lack of effective treatment, it is imperative to understand the underlying mechanisms and processes involved in disease progression. Regulations in cellular reduction/oxidation (redox) processes are being increasingly implicated in disease. Here we discuss the possible involvement of redox dysregulation in the pathophysiology of ALS, either as a cause of cellular abnormalities or a consequence. We focus on its possible role in oxidative stress, protein misfolding, glutamate excitotoxicity, lipid peroxidation and cholesterol esterification, mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired axonal transport and neurofilament aggregation, autophagic stress, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We also speculate that an ER chaperone protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) could play a key role in this dysregulation. PDI is essential for normal protein folding by oxidation and reduction of disulphide bonds, and hence any disruption to this process may have consequences for motor neurons. Addressing the mechanism underlying redox regulation and dysregulation may therefore help to unravel the molecular mechanism involved in ALS. PMID:23533690

  14. Laterally graded multilayer double-monochromator.

    SciTech Connect

    Als-Nielsen, J.; Erdmann, J.; Gaarde, P.; Krasnicki, S.; Liu, C.; Macrander, A. T.; Maj, J.; Mancini, D.

    1999-09-01

    The authors describe a tunable multilayer monochromator with an adjustable bandpass to be used for reflectivity and grazing incidence diffraction studies on surfaces at energies near 10 keV. Multilayers have a bandpass typically 100 times larger than the Si(111) reflection, and by using multilayers an experimenter can significantly increase data collection rates over those available with a Si monochromator. The transmission through 1 and 2 laterally graded multilayer (LGML) reflections was recorded versus photon energy. The identical LGMLs were comprised of 60 bilayers of W and C on 100 x 25 x 3 mm float glass with a bilayer spacing varying from 35 to 60 {angstrom}. The average gradient was 0.27 {angstrom}/mm along the long dimension. The rms deviation of the data for the bilayer spacing from a linear fit was 0.36 {angstrom}. Data were obtained for a nondispersive ({+-}) double-multilayer arrangement. The relative bandpass width (FWHM) when the two multilayers exposed the same bilayer spacing was measured to be 2.2% with a transmission of 78.7 {+-} 1.6%. This value is consistent with the transmission of 88.9% that they also measured for a single LGML at HASYLAB beamline D4. The bandpass was tunable in the range 1.1% to 2.2%.

  15. Aeroservoelastic tailoring for lateral control enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, Terrence A.; Changho, Nam

    1989-01-01

    The need for effective aileron power for aircraft lateral control and turning maneuvers dates back to the Wright Brothers and their wing warping concept for active stabilization of their aircraft. Early researchers in Great Britain, Japan, Germany and the United States explored ways to increase the effectiveness of control aileron to generate a roll moment. The basic problem of aileron effectiveness and the interrelationship between structural distortion and the loads applied by the control surface is illustrated. A rigid wing/aileron surface will develop the capability to generate increased roll rates as airspeed increases. A flexible surface will become less effective as airspeed increases because of the twisting distortion created by the aft-mounted control surface. This tendency is further worsened by bending distortion of an aft swept wing. This study focuses its attention on the ability of a combined effort between structural redesign of a wing and sizing and placement of a control surface to create specified roll performance with a minimum hinge moment. This design optimization problem indicates the advantages of simultaneous consideration of structural design and control design.

  16. Field-effect-tuned lateral organic diodes

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Bal Mukund; Kini, Geetha S.; Xia, Guoqiang; Jung, Byung Jun; Markovic, Nina; Katz, Howard E.

    2010-01-01

    The operation of organic diodes in solar cells and light-emitting displays strongly depends on the properties of the interfaces between hole- and electron-carrying organic semiconductors. Such interfaces are difficult to characterize, as they are usually buried under the surface or exist as an irregular “bulk heterojunction.” Using a unique fluorinated barrier layer-based lithographic technique, we fabricated a lateral organic p-n junction, allowing the first observation of the potential at an organic p-n interface simultaneously with the charge transport measurements. We find that the diode characteristics of the device (current output and rectification ratio) are consistent with the changes in the surface potentials near the junction, and the current-voltage curves and junction potentials are strongly and self-consistently modulated by a third, gate electrode. The generality of our technique makes this an attractive method to investigate the physics of organic semiconductor junctions. The lithographic technique is applicable to a wide variety of soft material patterns. The observation of built-in potentials makes an important connection between organic junctions and textbook descriptions of inorganic devices. Finally, these kinds of potentials may prove to be controlling factors in charge separation efficiency in organic photovoltaics. PMID:20160116

  17. Implicit Recognition Based on Lateralized Perceptual Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Iliana M.; Voss, Joel L.; Paller, Ken A.

    2012-01-01

    In some circumstances, accurate recognition of repeated images in an explicit memory test is driven by implicit memory. We propose that this “implicit recognition” results from perceptual fluency that influences responding without awareness of memory retrieval. Here we examined whether recognition would vary if images appeared in the same or different visual hemifield during learning and testing. Kaleidoscope images were briefly presented left or right of fixation during divided-attention encoding. Presentation in the same visual hemifield at test produced higher recognition accuracy than presentation in the opposite visual hemifield, but only for guess responses. These correct guesses likely reflect a contribution from implicit recognition, given that when the stimulated visual hemifield was the same at study and test, recognition accuracy was higher for guess responses than for responses with any level of confidence. The dramatic difference in guessing accuracy as a function of lateralized perceptual overlap between study and test suggests that implicit recognition arises from memory storage in visual cortical networks that mediate repetition-induced fluency increments. PMID:24962684

  18. Lateral canal paroxysmal positional vertigo revisited.

    PubMed

    Nuti, Daniele; Mandalà, Marco; Salerni, Lorenzo

    2009-05-01

    The first reports of an involvement of the lateral canal (LC) in paroxysmal positional vertigo (PPV), were published in 1985, by Luciano Cipparrone et al., from Italy and Joseph McClure from Canada. The increasing interest of otolaryngologists and neurologists has led to a progressive advance in the knowledge of this labyrinthine disorder regarding its epidemiological, physiopathological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects. According to the most recent data, LC-benign PPV accounts for 17% of all PPV patients, regardless of gender and between the two labyrinths. The LC-PPV syndrome is characterized by intense positional vertigo and direction-changing geotropic horizontal nystagmus, both caused by rotation of the head in the supine position. Less frequently, it presents with apogeotropic nystagmus. In some patients nystagmus is also detectable in the sitting position, mimicking a spontaneous nystagmus. In most cases nystagmus is caused by displaced otoconia floating in the semicircular canal. The pathological side, which must be identified for successful treatment, is usually indicated by nystagmus intensity: the more intense positional nystagmus beats toward the affected ear. In a few cases, where there is no difference in nystgmus intensity, other indicators are necessary to determine the pathological side. Vestibular neuritis and posterior fossa lesions should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Treatment of LC-PPV relies on some physical maneuvers, the objective of which is to allow the otoconial debris to exit from the LC by centrifugal inertia and/or by gravitation. PMID:19645918

  19. Altered cortical communication in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Blain-Moraes, Stefanie; Mashour, George A; Lee, Heonsoo; Huggins, Jane E; Lee, Uncheol

    2013-05-24

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disorder associated primarily with the degeneration of the motor system. More recently, functional connectivity studies have demonstrated potentially adaptive changes in ALS brain organization, but disease-related changes in cortical communication remain unknown. We recruited individuals with ALS and age-matched controls to operate a brain-computer interface while electroencephalography was recorded over three sessions. Using normalized symbolic transfer entropy, we measured directed functional connectivity from frontal to parietal (feedback connectivity) and parietal to frontal (feedforward connectivity) regions. Feedback connectivity was not significantly different between groups, but feedforward connectivity was significantly higher in individuals with ALS. This result was consistent across a broad electroencephalographic spectrum (4-35 Hz), and in theta, alpha and beta frequency bands. Feedback connectivity has been associated with conscious state and was found to be independent of ALS symptom severity in this study, which may have significant implications for the detection of consciousness in individuals with advanced ALS. We suggest that increases in feedforward connectivity represent a compensatory response to the ALS-related loss of input such that sensory stimuli have sufficient strength to cross the threshold necessary for conscious processing in the global neuronal workspace. PMID:23567743

  20. Retinoid signaling alterations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kolarcik, Christi L; Bowser, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neuromuscular disease for which effective therapeutic interventions and an understanding of underlying disease mechanism are lacking. A variety of biochemical pathways are believed to contribute to the pathophysiology of ALS that are common to both sporadic and familial forms of the disease. Evidence from both human and animal studies indicates that expression of retinoid signaling genes is altered in ALS and may contribute to motor neuron loss. Our goals were to examine the expression and distribution of proteins of the retinoid signaling pathway in spinal cord samples from patients with sporadic and familial ALS and to evaluate the role of these proteins in motor neuron cell survival. In sporadic ALS, the cytoplasmic binding protein that facilitates nuclear translocation of retinoic acid, cellular retinoic acid binding protein-II (CRABP-II), was localized to the nucleus and retinoic acid receptor ? (RAR?) was significantly increased in motor neuron nuclei when compared to either familial ALS patients or non-neurologic disease controls. Motor neurons with increased nuclear RAR? were negative for markers of apoptosis. Pre-treatment of primary motor neuron-enriched cultures with a pan-RAR or RAR?-specific agonist decreased motor neuron cell death associated with oxidative injury/stress while a RAR?-specific antagonist enhanced cell death. Our data suggest retinoid signaling is altered in ALS and increased nuclear RAR? occurs in motor neurons of sporadic ALS patients. Activation of RAR? protects motor neurons from oxidative-induced cell death. PMID:23383387

  1. Possession divestment by sales in later life.

    PubMed

    Ekerdt, David J; Addington, Aislinn

    2015-08-01

    Residential relocation in later life is almost always a downsizing, with many possessions to be divested in a short period of time. This article examines older movers' capacities for selling things, and ways that selling attenuates people's ties to those things, thus accomplishing the human dis-possession of the material convoy. In qualitative interviews in 79 households in the Midwestern United States, older adults reported their experience with possession sales associated with residential relocation. Among this group, three-quarters of the households downsized by selling some belongings. Informal sales seemed the least fraught of all strategies, estate sales had mixed reviews, and garage sales were recalled as laborious. Sellers' efforts were eased by social relations and social networks as helpers and buyers came forward. As selling proceeded, sentiment about possessions waned as their materiality and economic value came to the fore, easing their detachment from the household. Possession selling is challenging because older adults are limited in the knowledge, skills, and efforts that they can apply to the recommodification of their belongings. Selling can nonetheless be encouraged as a divestment strategy as long as the frustrations and drawbacks are transparent, and the goal of ridding is kept in view. PMID:26162722

  2. Alcoholic Marriage: Later Start, Sooner End

    PubMed Central

    Waldron, Mary; Heath, Andrew C.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although associations between drinking behavior and marital status are well documented, timing of marital transitions as a function of alcohol use or disorder has received limited empirical attention. Methods We examine the relationship between lifetime history of alcohol dependence (AD) and timing and survival of first marriages in a sample of 3575 female and 1845 male adult Australian twins born mostly between 1940 and 1964. Survival analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results Results indicate moderate delays in marriage associated with AD for both women and men. Among ever married respondents, AD was strongly predictive of early separation, with similar effects observed for women and men. Heritable sources of covariation were also documented. For women, genetic influences shared between early-onset AD and marital timing were found. Genetic influences shared between AD and marital survival were observed for women without regard to onset and for men with later-onset AD. Conclusions Results confirm the importance of AD as a predictor of both timing and survival of first marriages, with genetic influences contributing to observed associations. PMID:21244438

  3. Altered Cortical Communication in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Blain-Moraes, Stefanie; Mashour, George A.; Lee, Heonsoo; Huggins, Jane E.; Lee, UnCheol

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disorder associated primarily with the degeneration of the motor system. More recently, functional connectivity studies have demonstrated potentially adaptive changes in ALS brain organization, but disease-related changes in cortical communication remain unknown. We recruited individuals with ALS and age-matched controls to operate a brain-computer interface while electroencephalography was recorded over three sessions. Using normalized symbolic transfer entropy, we measured directed functional connectivity from frontal to parietal (feedback connectivity) and parietal to frontal (feedforward connectivity) regions. Feedback connectivity was not significantly different between groups, but feedforward connectivity was significantly higher in individuals with ALS. This result was consistent across a broad electroencephalographic spectrum (4 – 35 Hz), and in theta, alpha and beta frequency bands. Feedback connectivity has been associated with conscious state and was found to be independent of ALS symptom severity in this study, which may have significant implications for the detection of consciousness in individuals with advanced ALS. We suggest that increases in feedforward connectivity represent a compensatory response to the ALS-related loss of input such that sensory stimuli have sufficient strength to cross the threshold necessary for conscious processing in the global neuronal workspace. PMID:23567743

  4. Genetic epidemiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Majoor-Krakauer, D; Willems, P J; Hofman, A

    2003-02-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a late onset, rapidly progressive and ultimately fatal neurological disorder, caused by the loss of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Familial aggregation of ALS, with an age-dependent but high penetrance, is a major risk factor for ALS. Familial ALS (FALS) is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. Three genes and linkage to four additional gene loci have been identified so far and may either predominantly lead to ALS (ALSI-ALS6) or cause multisystem neurodegeneration with ALS as an occasional symptom (tauopathies, ALS-dementia complex). This review presents a tentative classification of the "major" ALS genes and ALS "susceptibility" genes, that may act as susceptibility factors for neurodegeneration in interaction with other genetic or environmental risk factors. Considering that mutations in ALS genes explain approximately 10% of familial as well as sporadic ALS, and most remaining cases of the discase are thought to result form the interaction of several genes and environmental factors, ALS is a paradigm for multifactorial discases. PMID:12630951

  5. Lateral position detection and control for friction stir systems

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, Paul; Lammlein, David H.; Cook, George E.; Wilkes, Don Mitchell; Strauss, Alvin M.; Delapp, David R.; Hartman, Daniel A.

    2012-06-05

    An apparatus and computer program are disclosed for processing at least one workpiece using a rotary tool with rotating member for contacting and processing the workpiece. The methods include oscillating the rotary tool laterally with respect to a selected propagation path for the rotating member with respect to the workpiece to define an oscillation path for the rotating member. The methods further include obtaining force signals or parameters related to the force experienced by the rotary tool at least while the rotating member is disposed at the extremes of the oscillation. The force signals or parameters associated with the extremes can then be analyzed to determine a lateral position of the selected path with respect to a target path and a lateral offset value can be determined based on the lateral position. The lateral distance between the selected path and the target path can be decreased based on the lateral offset value.

  6. Lateral position detection and control for friction stir systems

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, Paul (Boulder, CO); Lammlein, David H. (Houston, TX); Cook, George E. (Brentwood, TN); Wilkes, Don Mitchell (Nashville, TN); Strauss, Alvin M. (Nashville, TN); Delapp, David R. (Ashland City, TN); Hartman, Daniel A. (Fairhope, AL)

    2011-11-08

    Friction stir methods are disclosed for processing at least one workpiece using a rotary tool with rotating member for contacting and processing the workpiece. The methods include oscillating the rotary tool laterally with respect to a selected propagation path for the rotating member with respect to the workpiece to define an oscillation path for the rotating member. The methods further include obtaining force signals or parameters related to the force experienced by the rotary tool at least while the rotating member is disposed at the extremes of the oscillation. The force signals or parameters associated with the extremes can then be analyzed to determine a lateral position of the selected path with respect to a target path and a lateral offset value can be determined based on the lateral position. The lateral distance between the selected path and the target path can be decreased based on the lateral offset value.

  7. Differential bilingual laterality: mythical monster found in Wales.

    PubMed

    Evans, Judith; Workman, Lance; Mayer, Peter; Crowley, Kevin

    2002-11-01

    Paradis (1992) likens studies of bilingual laterality to reported sightings of the Loch Ness Monster, in that although some studies claim differential laterality much conflicting research evidence does not-and like the mythical Scottish monster, what reason have we to suspect that any such phenomenon might exist? This study reexamines differential bilingual laterality using four groups of English-Welsh bilinguals which differ in their age of acquisition and in their environment of acquisition. Using a split visual field paradigm we present evidence which, supports the notion of greater right hemisphere processing in a later learned language. Our findings also suggest the pattern of lateralization in bilinguals is strongly affected by the specific language environment during development such that the shift toward greater right hemisphere involvement for the later learned language will be more pronounced in individuals which are brought up in areas where that language is not regularly heard. PMID:12387799

  8. Lateral Shock of the R Aquarii Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, J. M.; Pedelty, J. A.; Kafatos, M.

    1997-01-01

    The R Aqr jet was observed with the VLA B-configuration at two epochs separated by approximately 13.2 yr. Comparison of the resulting 6 cm continuum images show that the radio jet has undergone a lateral counterclockwise rotation of approximately 6 deg-12 deg on the plane of the sky. The model of jet parcels on independent trajectories is difficult to reconcile with these observations and leads us to consider a path-oriented jet (i.e., younger parcels follow the same path as older parcels). Comparison of the most recent radio image with a nearly contemporaneous HST/FOC ultraviolet image at approximately 2330 Angstroms suggests that the ultraviolet emission lies along the leading side of the rotating radio jet. In conjunction with a proper motion analysis of the jet material that yields empirical space-velocity and resulting acceleration-magnitude relationships as a function of distance from the central source, we evaluate the observational results in terms of a schematic model in which the jet emission consists of plane-parallel isothermal shocks along the leading edge of rotation. In such a radiating shock, the ultraviolet-emitting region is consistent with the adiabatic region in the form of a high-temperature, low-density sheath that surrounds the cooled postshock radio-emitting region. Within the context of the schematic model, we obtain the temperatures, densities, and pressures within the preshock, adiabatic, and postshock regions as a function of distance from the central source; the physical parameters so derived compare favorably to previously published estimates. We obtain a total jet mass of 3.1 x 10(exp -5) solar mass and an age of approximately 115 yr. We evaluate the model in the context of its density-boundary condition, its applicability to an episodic or quasi-continuous jet, and angular momentum considerations.

  9. 7. SEGMENT OF LATERAL WITH YUCCA ALONG BANKS, SOUTH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. SEGMENT OF LATERAL WITH YUCCA ALONG BANKS, SOUTH OF 6TH AVENUE (SECTION 10). - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  10. 13. TREES ALONG LATERAL SEGMENT AT THE NORTHERN END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. TREES ALONG LATERAL SEGMENT AT THE NORTHERN END OF LAKE LADORA. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  11. 8. GENERAL VIEW OF LARGE DIVERSION STRUCTURE ON LATERAL WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. GENERAL VIEW OF LARGE DIVERSION STRUCTURE ON LATERAL WEST OF LOWER DERBY LAKE (SECTION 2). - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. 4. SEGMENT OF LATERAL WEST OF C STREET (SECTION 10) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SEGMENT OF LATERAL WEST OF C STREET (SECTION 10) ON THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN ARSENAL (RMA). - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  13. 24. CULVERT WITH CONCRETE HEADWALL AND SIDEWALLS CARRYING THE LATERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. CULVERT WITH CONCRETE HEADWALL AND SIDEWALLS CARRYING THE LATERAL UNDER 8TH AVENUE. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  14. 2. COURSE OF THE LATERAL THROUGH DEL NORTHWEST MAR PARK. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. COURSE OF THE LATERAL THROUGH DEL NORTHWEST MAR PARK. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  15. Modified obtuse-angled lateral exposure of the calcaneum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tarek Hussain; Husain Al-Mutairi; Sabrine Al-Zamel; Waleed Al-Tunaib

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to compare the incidence of post-operative skin healing problems between the classic extensile lateral calcaneal approach and a modified obtuse-angle lateral exposure during the period 1994–2003.Methods: The classic extensile lateral calcaneal approach as described in the literature was (used in 55 cases of calcaneal fractures), while the obtuse-angled approach (used in other 39

  16. Development of the lateral line system in the shovelnose sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Melissa A; Northcutt, R Glenn

    2004-01-01

    The lateral line systems of aquatic amphibians and all chondrichthyan and osteichthyan fish present a similar array of mechanoreceptors. However, electroreceptors, the second major component of the lateral line system, have clearly undergone more significant evolutionary change. Chondrichthyans and non-neopterygian fish possess primitive ampullary organ electroreceptors, whereas significantly different 'new' ampullary organs and tuberous electroreceptors are found in a few groups of teleosts (mormyrids, gymnotids and some catfish). The pairing of mechano- and electroreceptors in the lateral line system, as well as the morphologically and physiologically distinct electroreceptors of teleosts have inspired several recent studies on the origin and evolution of the lateral line receptors. We described the development of the lateral line system in sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) as part of an outgroup analysis of lateral line development in three taxa: vertebrates that have both mechanoreceptive neuromasts and primitive electroreceptors; neopterygian fish that only have mechanoreceptors; and teleosts that have re-evolved new electroreceptors. Development in Scaphirhynchus was consistent with previously studied taxa in that the lateral line system developed from a series of six dorsolateral placodes. Interestingly, we found that the octaval placode was bound rostrally and caudally by large placodal fields, out of which the six lateral line placodes arose. This finding supports recent suggestions for a common placodal primordium for all placodes. Each of the six placodes gave rise to the lateral line nerves before elongating into sensory ridges, which contained neuromast primordia. The ampullary organ fields of Scaphirhynchus arose from the lateral zones of the anterodorsal, anteroventral, otic and supratemporal sensory ridges, which is also consistent with recently studied taxa. Comparisons of the lateral line system of Scaphirhynchus and close relatives, Acipenser and Polyodon, indicate that variation in some aspects of lateral line receptor numbers and distribution are related to changes in head morphology and feeding strategy, whereas other changes, such as a reduction in receptor number without a change in placode field size, indicate changes in placode development. PMID:15205543

  17. Review of common and unusual causes of lateral ankle pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Surabhi Choudhary; Eugene McNally

    Lateral ankle pain is a common clinical presentation having several important causes, including lateral ligament injury, peroneal\\u000a tendon injury, sinus tarsi syndrome, and nerve entrapments. However, other causes should be kept in mind in patients with\\u000a unusual patterns of pain or intractable symptoms. We present a review of common and some unusual causes of lateral ankle pain\\u000a including a review

  18. Lateral Patellotibial Ligament Reconstruction for Medial Patellar Instability

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, Gregory A.; Cram, Tyler; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Medial patellar instability, though infrequently recognized, can be a disabling complication of a lateral retinacular release. Patients with persistent anterior knee pain and instability after lateral release should be evaluated closely. If evidence of increased medial patellar translation is identified on physical examination, a trial of reverse McConnell taping should be prescribed. If there is noted improvement in symptoms after this taping trial, reconstruction of the lateral patellotibial ligament should be considered. This article details our technique for lateral patellotibial ligament reconstruction using iliotibial band and patellar tendon autografts. PMID:25473603

  19. Lateral Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction Using a Quadriceps Tendon Graft

    PubMed Central

    Saper, Michael G.; Shneider, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Medial patellar subluxation (MPS) is normally described after a lateral retinacular release. However, isolated MPS in the absence of a previous lateral release does occur. This type of patellar instability is often overlooked, and a high index of suspicion is needed for appropriate diagnosis and treatment. This report describes a technique developed in response to episodes of isolated MPS. The technique uses a partial-thickness graft from the quadriceps tendon to reconstruct the lateral patellofemoral ligament and provide stability to the lateral side of the patella. PMID:25264506

  20. Gene for a protein capable of enhancing lateral root formation.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Y; Horiike, G; Kuroyanagi, M; Noguchi, H; Shimizu, M; Niwa, Y; Kobayashi, H

    1999-05-14

    Analysis of genes preferentially expressed in hairy roots caused by infection with Agrobacterium rhizogenes has provided insights into the regulation of lateral root formation. A hairy root preferential cDNA, HR7, has been cloned from hairy roots of Hyoscyamus niger. HR7 encodes a novel protein partially homologous to a metallocarboxypeptidase inhibitor and is expressed exclusively in the primordium and base of lateral roots in hairy roots. Overexpression of HR7 in transgenic roots of H. niger dramatically enhances the frequency of lateral root formation. The results of this study indicate that expression of HR7 plays a critical role in initiating lateral root formation. PMID:10356981

  1. FILM OPTION CURRICULUM (FOR STUDENTS ENTERING FALL, 2011 OR LATER)

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    FILM OPTION CURRICULUM (FOR STUDENTS ENTERING FALL, 2011 OR LATER) NOTE ON REVERSE. GATE REQUIREMENTS FOR FILM OPTION: FILM 100IH ­ Introduction to Film & Photography ...................................................................... 3

  2. 19. DETAIL VIEW OF LATERAL BRACING, NORTH ELEVATION, LOOKING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. DETAIL VIEW OF LATERAL BRACING, NORTH ELEVATION, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Mystic River Drawbridge No. 7, Spanning Mystic River at Boston & Maine Railroad Eastern Route, Somerville, Middlesex County, MA

  3. 23. VIEW SHOWING SALT RIVER PROJECT CREWS SLIPFORMING LATERAL DURING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW SHOWING SALT RIVER PROJECT CREWS SLIPFORMING LATERAL DURING REHABILITATION AND BETTERMENT PROGRAM Photographer: unknown. April 1968 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  4. Serotonergic mechanisms in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sandyk, Reuven

    2006-07-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) has been intimately linked with global regulation of motor behavior, local control of motoneuron excitability, functional recovery of spinal motoneurons as well as neuronal maturation and aging. Selective degeneration of motoneurons is the pathological hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Motoneurons that are preferentially affected in ALS are also densely innervated by 5-HT neurons (e.g., trigeminal, facial, ambiguus, and hypoglossal brainstem nuclei as well as ventral horn and motor cortex). Conversely, motoneuron groups that appear more resistant to the process of neurodegeneration in ALS (e.g., oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nuclei) as well as the cerebellum receive only sparse 5-HT input. The glutamate excitotoxicity theory maintains that in ALS degeneration of motoneurons is caused by excessive glutamate neurotransmission, which is neurotoxic. Because of its facilitatory effects on glutaminergic motoneuron excitation, 5-HT may be pivotal to the pathogenesis and therapy of ALS. 5-HT levels as well as the concentrations 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), the major metabolite of 5-HT, are reduced in postmortem spinal cord tissue of ALS patients indicating decreased 5-HT release. Furthermore, cerebrospinal fluid levels of tryptophan, a precursor of 5-HT, are decreased in patients with ALS and plasma concentrations of tryptophan are also decreased with the lowest levels found in the most severely affected patients. In ALS progressive degeneration of 5-HT neurons would result in a compensatory increase in glutamate excitation of motoneurons. Additionally, because 5-HT, acting through presynaptic 5-HT1B receptors, inhibits glutamatergic synaptic transmission, lowered 5-HT activity would lead to increased synaptic glutamate release. Furthermore, 5-HT is a precursor of melatonin, which inhibits glutamate release and glutamate-induced neurotoxicity. Thus, progressive degeneration of 5-HT neurons affecting motoneuron activity constitutes the prime mover of the disease and its progression and treatment of ALS needs to be focused primarily on boosting 5-HT functions (e.g., pharmacologically via its precursors, reuptake inhibitors, selective 5-HT1A receptor agonists/5-HT2 receptor antagonists, and electrically through transcranial administration of AC pulsed picotesla electromagnetic fields) to prevent excessive glutamate activity in the motoneurons. In fact, 5HT1A and 5HT2 receptor agonists have been shown to prevent glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in primary cortical cell cultures and the 5-HT precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) improved locomotor function and survival of transgenic SOD1 G93A mice, an animal model of ALS. PMID:16861147

  5. Laterality of a second player position affects lateral deviation of basketball shooting.

    PubMed

    Viggiano, Andrea; Chieffi, Sergio; Tafuri, Domenico; Messina, Giovanni; Monda, Marcellino; De Luca, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetrically placed visual distractors are known to cause a lateral bias in the execution of a movement directed toward a target. The aim of the present experiment was to verify if the trajectory of the ball and the trajectory of the jump for a basket-shot can be affected by the sole position of a second player, who stays in front of the shooting player in one of three possible positions (centre, left or right) but too far to physically interfere with the shot. Young basketball players were asked to perform 60 shots at 6.25 m from a regular basket, with or without a second player staying in front of them in, alternately, a centre, left or right position. A computerised system measured the angular deviation of the jump direction from the vertical direction and the lateral deviation of the ball trajectory from the midline. The results showed that both the jump direction and the entry position of the ball deviated toward the opposite side from the second player's side; however, these effects were too small to significantly affect the mean goal percentage. This result confirms that some placements of the players can have an effect as visual distractors. Further studies are necessary to find what game conditions can make such distractors harmful for the athletic performance. PMID:23876006

  6. Orienting asymmetries and lateralized processing of sounds in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Fischer; Christoph Teufel; Matthis Drolet; Annika Patzelt; Rudolf Rübsamen; D Yves von Cramon; Ricarda I Schubotz

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lateralized processing of speech is a well studied phenomenon in humans. Both anatomical and neurophysiological studies support the view that nonhuman primates and other animal species also reveal hemispheric differences in areas involved in sound processing. In recent years, an increasing number of studies on a range of taxa have employed an orienting paradigm to investigate lateralized acoustic processing.

  7. Study of design directions for lateral vehicle control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jurgen Guldner; Han-Shue Tan; Satyajit Patwardhan

    1997-01-01

    Lateral vehicle control for passenger cars, a vital control subsystem of automated highway systems (AHS), has been studied for several decades. Different reference systems have been examined for detecting the lateral vehicle displacement from the lane center. Implementations of `look-down' reference systems, however, encountered practical constraints, limiting driving speed to approximately 20 m\\/s under realistic conditions. This paper presents new

  8. Lateral asymmetry of eye use in Octopus vulgaris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth A. Byrne; Michael Kuba; Ulrike Griebel

    2002-01-01

    The lateralization of sensory and motor functions has been recently demonstrated in various groups of vertebrates. We examined lateral asymmetry of eye use in Octopus vulgaris by behavioural methods. Octopus vulgaris uses monocular vision almost exclusively and can move its eyes independently. The amount of binocular vision is small because the eyes are on the sides of the head. We

  9. Early teaching of Chinese literacy skills and later literacy outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui Li; Loraine F. Corrie; Betty Kit Mei Wong

    2008-01-01

    This study followed 88 children in Beijing and Hong Kong for three years to investigate the relationships between the early teaching of literacy skills and later literacy outcomes. The children were administered the Preschool and Primary Chinese Literacy Scale at the age of five years, and three years later. Their parents and teachers reported on their involvement in literacy teaching,

  10. Phosphorus lateral movement through subsoil to subsurface tile drains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vertical subsurface P transport to tile drains is well documented, however little research has focused on lateral P transport. A replicated field study investigated the lateral movement of P through 3.0 m of typical Iowa subsoil (sandy loam texture, pH 7.7, 2 mg kg-1 Olsen P) between a 1.2-m deep tr...

  11. Semiconductor alloy nanoribbon lateral heterostructures for high-performance photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Guo, Pengfei; Hu, Wei; Zhang, Qinglin; Zhuang, Xiujuan; Zhu, Xiaoli; Zhou, Hong; Shan, Zhengping; Xu, Jinyou; Pan, Anlian

    2014-05-01

    High-performance visible-light photodetectors are achieved based on single nanoribbon lateral heterostructures composed of two different semiconductor alloys epitaxially grown in the lateral direction. They reveal superior spectral response range, responsivity, Ion/Ioff ratio, and external quantum efficiency, relative to devices based on single composition structures. PMID:24677130

  12. Evidence for Presynaptic Inhibition in the Lateral Geniculate Body

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Angel; F. Magni; P. Strata

    1965-01-01

    SZENTÀGOTHAI1 reported the presence of axo-axonic endings on fibres entering the lateral geniculate body from the retina. Bizzi and Brooks2 have shown that in the unanaesthetized, unrestrained cat irregular groups of waves could be recorded simultaneously from the pontine reticular formation and the lateral geniculate body during the desynchronized phase of sleep. The latter waves could no longer be recorded

  13. Lateralization of magnetic compass orientation in a migratory bird

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Wiltschko; Joachim Traudt; Onur Güntürkün; Helmut Prior; Roswitha Wiltschko

    2002-01-01

    Lateralization of brain functions, once believed to be a human characteristic, has now been found to be widespread among vertebrates. In birds, asymmetries of visual functions are well studied, with each hemisphere being specialized for different tasks. Here we report lateralized functions of the birds' visual system associated with magnetoperception, resulting in an extreme asymmetry of sensing the direction of

  14. CEE 812 Structural Engineering Seminar Series Approximate Lateral Analysis

    E-print Network

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    CEE 812 ­ Structural Engineering Seminar Series Approximate Lateral Analysis of Steel Moment of analysis and design of steel moment frame structures under lateral load and defining a quick analysis Frame Structures by John McCarthy, SE, PE Structural Engineer, Black & Veatch Corporation Ann Arbor

  15. Cognitive Impairment in the Lateralized Phenotype of Corticobasal Degeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rita Moretti; Paola Torre; Rodolfo M. Antonello; Tatiana Cattaruzza; Giuseppe Cazzato

    2005-01-01

    Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is a rare disorder, which normally includes a combination of neurobehavioural features, movement disorders and other manifestations. It is now recognized that CBD patients usually present with two phenotypes: the lateralized phenotype and the dementia phenotype. The aim of our work was to determine the nature and the progression of cognitive and behavioural impairment in 10 lateralized

  16. Learning Objectives: Frontal Lisp, Lateral List, Distorted R

    E-print Network

    Elsherbeni, Atef Z.

    Learning Objectives: Frontal Lisp, Lateral List, Distorted R · Diagnosis · Create central groove the consonantal & vocalic "R" · Design appropriate homework for the lisps & "R" Carryover in Articulation Therapy-SLP Frontal Lisp, Lateral Lisp, Distorted R Developing Carryover in Articulation Therapy Sponsored by: UM

  17. Tidal variability of lateral advection in a coastal plain estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basdurak, N. B.; Valle-Levinson, A.

    2013-07-01

    Tidal variability of lateral advection of momentum (vuy, where u and v are along-estuary and lateral flows, respectively, and the subindex indicates differentiation with respect to the cross-estuary direction) was investigated in a coastal plain estuary with observations at Hampton Roads, which is the transition between the James River and Chesapeake Bay. Towed current velocity profiles and hydrographic profiles were captured during 9 expeditions in 2004 and 2005, to determine the intratidal and spatial changes in lateral advection of momentum and its contribution to along-channel flow. Curvature effects and lateral density gradients were important in driving lateral circulation and in modifying intratidal lateral advection of momentum. Lateral advection had the same order of magnitude as the baroclinic pressure gradient. Its contribution to the along-channel momentum balance was greatest during or just after peak flood and weakest at the end of ebb. During peak flood and peak ebb, the spatial distribution of vuy was seaward at the southern (left) side near surface and at the northern side (right) near bed (looking up-estuary), and landward in the rest of the channel. During slack periods the vuy structures were mostly landward. Observations were in good agreement with analytical model results during peak ebb and flood, but inconsistent during slack periods. The discrepancies between model results and field measurements can be attributed to bathymetry-density gradient interactions, which enhanced ebb-to-flood asymmetries in the along-channel and lateral flow.

  18. Pattern formation in the lateral line of zebrash Nicolas Gompela

    E-print Network

    Montpellier II, Université

    . The major branch of the PLL, called the lateral or midbody branch (L-PLL), runs from head to tail along each that heterogeneities within the migrating primordium pre®gure neuromast formation. q 2001 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd comprises two major components: the anterior lateral line (ALL) which includes the neuromasts present

  19. River Elongation as a Proxy for Lateral Channel Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Lauer

    2009-01-01

    Lateral channel movement is a process that is tightly linked to both channel hydraulics and sediment transport, strongly influences floodplain ecology, and also has great relevance for banktop property owners. The correlation between channel migration rate and channel curvature usually causes meandering river channels to elongate as they migrate laterally. Over the long term, the increase in sinuosity is compensated

  20. LATERAL GENE TRANSFER IN MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSPECIES PARATUBERCULOSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lateral gene transfer is an integral part of genome evolution in most bacteria. Bacteria can readily change the contents of their genomes in order to increase adaptability to ever changing surroundings and to generate evolutionary novelty. Here, we report instances of lateral gene transfer in M. avi...

  1. Children's Rorschach Scores as Predictors of Later Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuber, Steven B.

    1983-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that Rorschach measures of object relations and thought organization could help predict later adjustment. Former patients (N=70) at a child residential treatment center were followed up as adults. Object relations measures were found to be effective discriminators and predictors of later rehospitalization for boys. (JAC)

  2. Development of the Lateral Line System in the Shovelnose Sturgeon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melissa A. Gibbs; R. Glenn Northcutt

    2004-01-01

    The lateral line systems of aquatic amphibians and all chondrichthyan and osteichthyan fish present a similar array of mechanoreceptors. However, electroreceptors, the second major component of the lateral line system, have clearly undergone more significant evolutionary change. Chondrichthyans and non-neopterygian fish possess primitive ampullary organ electroreceptors, whereas significantly different ‘new’ ampullary organs and tuberous electroreceptors are found in a few

  3. On the Relationship Between Lateralized Brain Function and Orienting Asymmetries

    E-print Network

    Ghazanfar, Asif

    areas of the brain (Broca, 1861; Wernicke, 1874). The loci of brain lesions detected by postmortemOn the Relationship Between Lateralized Brain Function and Orienting Asymmetries Christoph Teufel will require a much better understanding of how lateralized brain functions interact with overt behaviors

  4. Non-spatially lateralized mechanisms in hemispatial neglect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masud Husain; Chris Rorden

    2003-01-01

    Hemispatial neglect is a common, disabling disorder that results from brain damage, most frequently stroke. Research on patients with neglect has provided important insights into normal brain mechanisms involved in directing attention, representing space and controlling movement. Although much work has focused on the lateralized components of neglect, recent investigations have also revealed deficits that are not spatially lateralized, consistent

  5. Long-term results of the lateral tunnel Fontan operation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christof Stamm; Ingeborg Friehs; John E. Mayer; David Zurakowski; John K. Triedman; Adrian M. Moran; Edward P. Walsh; James E. Lock; Richard A. Jonas; Pedro J. del Nido

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: Completion of a total cavopulmonary anastomosis with an intra-atrial lateral tunnel is known to yield good early and midterm results. In this study, we sought to determine the long-term outcome (10 years) after a lateral tunnel Fontan procedure. Methods: Between October 1987 and December 1991, 220 patients (aged 11 months to 32 years) with a wide range of underlying

  6. Lateral Preference and Cognitive Skills: An Indirect Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coren, Stanley; Porac, Clare

    1982-01-01

    Lateral preferences as manifest in handedness, footedness, eyedness, and earedness were assessed in college students. Consistent right-handedness was most prevalent in language and literature majors. No relationships between major and other indexes of lateral preference were found. (Author/RD)

  7. Semiconductor Lateral Surface Superlattice Devices Fabricated by Electron Beam Lithography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Ma

    1990-01-01

    The advent of nanofabrication technology has led to the fabrication of ultra-small semiconductor devices and structures with lateral dimensions down to tens of nanometers. In this dissertation research, experimental studies on a more complicated nanostructure, the semiconductor lateral surface superlattice (LSSL), in which novel quantum interference effects are observable due to the small feature sizes of the device, have been

  8. Otitis Media in Early Childhood and Later Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Joanne E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between early otitis media with effusion (OME) and later language development was examined in a prospective cohort of 30 children from middle class families and 33 children from low income families. Findings suggested no reliable relationship between early OME experience and later language development. (Author/DB)

  9. Two distinct forms of functional lateralization in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Gotts, Stephen J.; Jo, Hang Joon; Wallace, Gregory L.; Saad, Ziad S.; Cox, Robert W.; Martin, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The hemispheric lateralization of certain faculties in the human brain has long been held to be beneficial for functioning. However, quantitative relationships between the degree of lateralization in particular brain regions and the level of functioning have yet to be established. Here we demonstrate that two distinct forms of functional lateralization are present in the left vs. the right cerebral hemisphere, with the left hemisphere showing a preference to interact more exclusively with itself, particularly for cortical regions involved in language and fine motor coordination. In contrast, right-hemisphere cortical regions involved in visuospatial and attentional processing interact in a more integrative fashion with both hemispheres. The degree of lateralization present in these distinct systems selectively predicted behavioral measures of verbal and visuospatial ability, providing direct evidence that lateralization is associated with enhanced cognitive ability. PMID:23959883

  10. Centrifuge Modeling of Piles Subjected to Lateral Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brant, Logan; Ling, Hoe I.

    There are many applications where piles are employed to absorb and deflect lateral impact loads. Structural elements of this type are used to protect infrastructure and are commonly found at marine sites. A series of model tests have been conducted using Columbia University's centrifuge facility to better understand the performance of piles subjected to these loading conditions. A device was designed to install and laterally load single model piles during centrifuge flight. This device uniquely contains two lateral loading systems, one which allows static testing and another appropriate for dynamic tests. This research examines the behavior of tubular steel piles embedded within dry or saturated soil and subjected to varied rates of lateral loading. This investigation provides insight on the contribution of lateral loading rates to the behavior of piles.

  11. ELECTRICAL RESPONSES FROM THE LATERAL-LINE NERVES OF FISHES

    PubMed Central

    Hoagland, Hudson

    1934-01-01

    Records of spontaneous discharge of nerve impulses, similar to that previously described in catfish and in trout, have been obtained from lateral-line nerves of goldfish and perch, by the use of concentric micro electrodes slipped under the nerve in situ. These impulses have been followed into the central nervous system. They enter the tuberculum acusticum and thence apparently spread diffusely through the cerebellum. Cutting the lateral-line nerve on one side silences the ipsilateral tuberculum acusticum, but only reduces the intensity of ipsilateral cerebellar activity. Cutting the remaining lateral-line nerve silences activity throughout the tuberculum acusticum and the cerebellum. The maintenance of tonic activity in the tuberculum acusticum by way of lateral-line discharge may account for the inhibitory effects of the lateral-line system on auditory responses. PMID:19872827

  12. Syndesmosis and lateral ankle sprains in the National Football League.

    PubMed

    Osbahr, Daryl C; Drakos, Mark C; O'Loughlin, Padhraig F; Lyman, Stephen; Barnes, Ronnie P; Kennedy, John G; Warren, Russell F

    2013-11-01

    Syndesmosis sprains in the National Football League (NFL) can be a persistent source of disability, especially compared with lateral ankle injuries. This study evaluated syndesmosis and lateral ankle sprains in NFL players to allow for better identification and management of these injuries. Syndesmosis and lateral ankle sprains from a single NFL team database were reviewed over a 15-year period, and 32 NFL team physicians completed a questionnaire detailing their management approach. A comparative analysis was performed analyzing several variables, including diagnosis, treatment methods, and time lost from sports participation. Thirty-six syndesmosis and 53 lateral ankle sprains occurred in the cohort of NFL players. The injury mechanism typically resulted from direct impact in the syndesmosis and torsion in the lateral ankle sprain group (P=.034). All players were managed nonoperatively. The mean time lost from participation was 15.4 days in the syndesmosis and 6.5 days in the lateral ankle sprain groups (P?.001). National Football League team physicians varied treatment for syndesmosis sprains depending on the category of diastasis but recommended nonoperative management for lateral ankle sprains. Syndesmosis sprains in the NFL can be a source of significant disability compared with lateral ankle sprains. Successful return to play with nonoperative management is frequently achieved for syndesmosis and lateral ankle sprains depending on injury severity. With modern treatment algorithms for syndesmosis sprains, more aggressive nonoperative treatment is advocated. Although the current study shows that syndesmosis injuries require longer rehabilitation periods when compared with lateral ankle sprains, the time lost from participation may not be as prolonged as previously reported. PMID:24200441

  13. Effect of midbrain raphe and lateral mesencephalic stimulation on spontaneous and evoked activity in the lateral geniculate of the cat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Warren E. Foote; Raymond J. Maciewicz; John P. Mordes

    1974-01-01

    Summary  Single shock stimulation of the midbrain raphe and lateral reticular formation altered the spontaneous and evoked activity of single cells in the dorsal lateral geniculate of the cat. The effect of stimulation was to produce a facilitation of 64 units with a latency of 15 msec or greater and an inhibition of 30 units with a latency of 7 to

  14. Imaging Findings Associated with Cognitive Performance in Primary Lateral Sclerosis and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Meoded, Avner; Kwan, Justin Y.; Peters, Tracy L.; Huey, Edward D.; Danielian, Laura E.; Wiggs, Edythe; Morrissette, Arthur; Wu, Tianxia; Russell, James W.; Bayat, Elham; Grafman, Jordan; Floeter, Mary Kay

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Executive dysfunction occurs in many patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but it has not been well studied in primary lateral sclerosis (PLS). The aims of this study were to (1) compare cognitive function in PLS to that in ALS patients, (2) explore the relationship between performance on specific cognitive tests and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics of white matter tracts and gray matter volumes, and (3) compare DTI metrics in patients with and without cognitive and behavioral changes. Methods The Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (DRS-2), and other behavior and mood scales were administered to 25 ALS patients and 25 PLS patients. Seventeen of the PLS patients, 13 of the ALS patients, and 17 healthy controls underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and DTI. Atlas-based analysis using MRI Studio software was used to measure fractional anisotropy, and axial and radial diffusivity of selected white matter tracts. Voxel-based morphometry was used to assess gray matter volumes. The relationship between diffusion properties of selected association and commissural white matter and performance on executive function and memory tests was explored using a linear regression model. Results More ALS than PLS patients had abnormal scores on the DRS-2. DRS-2 and D-KEFS scores were related to DTI metrics in several long association tracts and the callosum. Reduced gray matter volumes in motor and perirolandic areas were not associated with cognitive scores. Conclusion The changes in diffusion metrics of white matter long association tracts suggest that the loss of integrity of the networks connecting fronto-temporal areas to parietal and occipital areas contributes to cognitive impairment. PMID:24052798

  15. Deep transverse friction massage for treating lateral elbow or lateral knee tendinitis.

    PubMed

    Loew, Laurianne M; Brosseau, Lucie; Tugwell, Peter; Wells, George A; Welch, Vivian; Shea, Beverley; Poitras, Stephane; De Angelis, Gino; Rahman, Prinon

    2014-01-01

    Background Deep transverse friction massage, one of several physical therapy interventions suggested for the management of tendinitis pain, was first demonstrated in the 1930s by Dr James Cyriax, a renowned orthopedic surgeon in England. Its goal is to prevent abnormal fibrous adhesions and abnormal scarring. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2001.Objectives To assess the benefits and harms of deep transverse friction massage for treating lateral elbow or lateral knee tendinitis.Search methods We searched the following electronic databases: the specialized central registry of the Cochrane Field of Physical and Related Therapies,the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL),MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Clinicaltrials.gov, and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), up until July 2014. The reference lists of these trials were consulted for additional studies.Selection criteria All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing deep transverse friction massage with control or other active interventions for study participants with two eligible types of tendinitis (ie, extensor carpi radialis tendinitis (lateral elbow tendinitis, tennis elbow or lateral epicondylitis or lateralis epicondylitis humeri) and iliotibial band friction syndrome (lateral knee tendinitis)) were selected. Only studies published in English and French languages were included.Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed the studies on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results of individual trials were extracted from the included study using extraction forms prepared by two independent review authors before the review was begun.Data were cross-checked by a third review author. Risk of bias of the included studies was assessed using the "Risk of bias"tool of The Cochrane Collaboration. A pooled analysis was performed using mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes and risk ratio (RR)for dichotomous outcomes with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).Main results Two RCTs (no new additional studies in this update) with 57 participants met the inclusion criteria. These studies demonstrated high risk of performance and detection bias, and the risk of selection, attrition, and reporting bias was unclear.The first study included 40 participants with lateral elbow tendinitis and compared (1) deep transverse friction massage combined with therapeutic ultrasound and placebo ointment (n = 11) versus therapeutic ultrasound and placebo ointment only (n = 9) and (2)deep transverse friction massage combined with phonophoresis (n = 10) versus phonophoresis only (n = 10). No statistically significant differences were reported within five weeks for mean change in pain on a 0 to 100 visual analog scale (VAS) (MD -6.60, 95%CI -28.60 to 15.40; 7% absolute improvement), grip strength measured in kilograms of force (MD 0.10, 95% CI -0.16 to 0.36) and function ona 0 to 100 VAS (MD -1.80, 95% CI -0.18.64 to 15.04; 2% improvement), pain-free function index measured as the number of painfree items (MD 1.10, 95% CI -1.00 to 3.20) and functional status (RR 3.3, 95% CI 0.4 to 24.3) for deep transverse friction massage,and therapeutic ultrasound and placebo ointment compared with therapeutic ultrasound and placebo ointment only. Likewise for deep transverse friction massage and phonophoresis compared with phonophoresis alone, no statistically significant differences were found for pain (MD -1.2, 95% CI -20.24 to 17.84; 1% improvement), grip strength (MD -0.20, 95% CI -0.46 to 0.06) and function (MD3.70, 95% CI -14.13 to 21.53; 4% improvement). In addition, the GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach was used to evaluate the quality of evidence for the pain outcome, which received a score of "very low".Pain relief of 30% or greater, quality of life, patient global assessment, adverse events, and withdrawals due to adverse events were not assessed or rep

  16. Epigenesis of behavioural lateralization in humans and other animals

    PubMed Central

    Schaafsma, S.M.; Riedstra, B.J.; Pfannkuche, K.A.; Bouma, A.; Groothuis, T.G.G.

    2008-01-01

    Despite several decades of research, the epigenesis of behavioural and brain lateralization is still elusive, although its knowledge is important in understanding developmental plasticity, function and evolution of lateralization, and its relationship with developmental disorders. Over the last decades, it has become clear that behavioural lateralization is not restricted to humans, but a fundamental principle in the organization of behaviour in vertebrates. This has opened the possibility of extending descriptive studies on human lateralization with descriptive and experimental studies on other vertebrate species. In this review, we therefore explore the evidence for the role of genes and environment on behavioural lateralization in humans and other animals. First, we discuss the predominant genetic models for human handedness, and conclude that their explanatory power alone is not sufficient, leaving, together with ambiguous results from adoption studies and selection experiments in animals, ample opportunity for a role of environmental factors. Next, we discuss the potential influence of such factors, including perinatal asymmetrical perception induced by asymmetrical head position or parental care, and social modulation, both in humans and other vertebrates, presenting some evidence from our own work on the domestic chick. We conclude that both perinatal asymmetrical perception and later social modulation are likely candidates in influencing the degree or strength of lateralization in both humans and other vertebrates. However, in most cases unequivocal evidence for this is lacking and we will point out further avenues for research. PMID:19064352

  17. Resume and analysis of NACA lateral control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weick, F. E.; Jones, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of the principal results of recent lateral control research is made. Two things are considered of primary importance in judging the effectiveness of different control devices: The (calculated) banking and yawing motion of a typical small airplane caused by a deflection of the control, and the stick force required to produce this deflection. The report includes a table in which a number of different lateral control devices are compared on these bases. Test flights demonstrated that satisfactory lateral control at high angles of attack depends as much on the retention of stability as on aileron effectiveness.

  18. Lateral Mass Fixation in the Subaxial Cervical Spine.

    PubMed

    Kurd, Mark F; Millhouse, Paul W; Schroeder, Gregory D; Kepler, Christopher K; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2015-08-01

    The use of lateral mass screws and rods in the subaxial spine has become the standard method of fixation for posterior cervical spine fusions. Multiple techniques have been described for the placement of lateral mass screws, including the Magerl, the Anderson, and the An techniques. While these techniques are all slightly different, the overall goal is to obtain solid bony fixation while avoiding the neurovascular structures. The use of lateral mass screws has been shown to be a safe and effective technique for achieving a posterior cervical fusion. PMID:26049972

  19. 11. CONTINUATION OF LATERAL LEAVING THE DIVERSION STRUCTURE WEST OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. CONTINUATION OF LATERAL LEAVING THE DIVERSION STRUCTURE WEST OF LOWER DERBY LAKE (SECTION 2), SHOWING MEASURING GAUGE. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  20. 1. HEAD GATE OF THE SAND CREEK LATERAL AT THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. HEAD GATE OF THE SAND CREEK LATERAL AT THE HIGH LINE CANAL ON THE SOUTH END OF THE PEORIA STREET BRIDGE. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  1. 12. CONCRETE LINING ON A CURVING SEGMENT OF THE LATERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. CONCRETE LINING ON A CURVING SEGMENT OF THE LATERAL NEAR THE NORTHEAST END OF LAKE LADORA (SECTION 2). - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  2. 30. NORTHERN SEGMENT OF THE LATERAL IN THE NORTHWEST QUARTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. NORTHERN SEGMENT OF THE LATERAL IN THE NORTHWEST QUARTER OF SECTION 25 STRUCTURE PICTURED IN CO-43-A-28. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  3. [Extreme lateral lumbar intervertebral disk displacement. Incidence, symptoms and therapy].

    PubMed

    Ebeling, U; Mattle, H; Reulen, H J

    1990-04-01

    Upper lumbar nerve root compression or a femoralgia is often caused by extreme lateral lumbar disc herniation. This type of lumbar disc herniation compresses the nerve root inside or laterally to the intervertebral canal, while mediolateral disc herniations squeeze it in the lateral recess. Pain radiating obliquely over the thigh is the dominant clinical symptom. Bending the body to the ipsilateral side usually increases the pain. When neurologic signs are present, motor deficits tend to be more prominent than sensory and the deficits never affect more than one nerve root. Most frequently a weakness of knee extension occurs. PMID:2191229

  4. Thermodynamic and kinetic control of the lateral Si wire growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedyulin, Sergey N.; Goncharova, Lyudmila V.

    2014-03-01

    Reproducible lateral Si wire growth has been realized on the Si (100) surface. In this paper, we present experimental evidence showing the unique role that carbon plays in initiating lateral growth of Si wires on a Si (100) substrate. Once initiated in the presence of ?5 ML of C, lateral growth can be achieved in the range of temperatures, T = 450-650 °C, and further controlled by the interplay of the flux of incoming Si atoms with the size and areal density of Au droplets. Critical thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the growth are discussed in detail.

  5. 38. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, LATERAL ELEVATION OF CARETAKER'S COTTAGE FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, LATERAL ELEVATION OF CARETAKER'S COTTAGE FROM ENTRANCE HOUSE TERRACE (4' x 5' negative) - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. 6. Tempe Crosscut Canal, looking west from Division Gates. Lateral ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Tempe Crosscut Canal, looking west from Division Gates. Lateral at left is for local delivery of irrigation water. Photographer: Mark Durben, February 1989. Source: SRPA - Tempe Canal, South Side Salt River in Tempe, Mesa & Phoenix, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  7. Detail view, looking west from eastern pier, showing stringers, lateral ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view, looking west from eastern pier, showing stringers, lateral bracing and turnbuckles. - Monongahela Railroad, New Geneva Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River, South of Lock & Dam No. 7, New Geneva, Fayette County, PA

  8. 22. TEMPORARY CENTRIFIGAL PUMP. NOTE CHAPMAN HYDRAULICOPERATED VALVE FOR LATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. TEMPORARY CENTRIFIGAL PUMP. NOTE CHAPMAN HYDRAULIC-OPERATED VALVE FOR LATER CONNECTION OF ENGINE PUMP END TO DISCHARGE HEADER. - Lakeview Pumping Station, Clarendon & Montrose Avenues, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  9. 23. TEMPORARY CENTRIFUGAL PUMP. NOTE CHAPMAN HYDRAULICOPERATED VALVE FOR LATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. TEMPORARY CENTRIFUGAL PUMP. NOTE CHAPMAN HYDRAULIC-OPERATED VALVE FOR LATER CONNECTION OF ENGINE PUMP ENG TO DISCHARGE HEADER. - Lakeview Pumping Station, Clarendon & Montrose Avenues, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  10. DETAIL OF ORIGINAL DOOR (LOUVERS ADDED LATER) ON THE SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF ORIGINAL DOOR (LOUVERS ADDED LATER) ON THE SOUTH SIDE. VIEW FACING NORTH-NORTHWEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Aviation Storehouse, Vincennes Avenue at Simms Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. Economic viability of multiple-lateral horizontal wells 

    E-print Network

    Smith, Christopher Jason

    1995-01-01

    . It will focus on the application of multiple-lateral horizontal wells to reduce the risks of economic uncertainty associated with poor reservoir characterization in areally anisotropic reservoirs. Using a state-of-the-art productivity index model, the study...

  12. Simple Fuzzy control Structure for a Lateral Missile Control Problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nabil Aouf; C. A. Rabbath; M. Lauzon

    2003-01-01

    The paper proposes a bank-to-turn lateral missile autopilot technique that is based on a simple fuzzy control structure. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed approach provides satisfactory performance over the entire nonlinear missile flight envelope.

  13. Lateral width of shower image in the auger fluorescence detector

    SciTech Connect

    Barbosa, H.; de Souza, V.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Engel, R.; Gora, D.; Heck, D.; Homola, P.; Klages, H.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Ortiz, J.A.; Pekala, J.; Risse, M.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.

    2005-09-01

    The impact of the lateral distribution of light in extensive air showers on the detection and reconstruction of shower profiles is investigated for the Auger fluorescence telescopes. Based on three-dimensional simulations, the capability of the Auger telescopes to measure the lateral distribution of light is evaluated. The ability to infer the actual lateral distribution is confirmed by the comparison of detailed simulations with real data. The contribution of pixels located far from the axis of the shower image is calculated and the accepted signal is rescaled in order to reconstruct a correct shower profile. The analysis presented here shows that: (a) the Auger telescopes are able to observe the lateral distribution of showers and (b) the energy corrections to account for the signal in outlying pixels can exceed 10%, depending on shower geometry.

  14. Lateral width of shower image in the Auger fluorescence detector

    E-print Network

    H. Barbosa; V. de Souza; C. Dobrigkeit; R. Engel; D. Gora; D. Heck; P. Homola; H. Klages; G. Medina-Tanco; J. A. Ortiz; J. Pekala; M. Risse; B. Wilczynska; H. Wilczynski

    2005-09-16

    The impact of the lateral distribution of light in extensive air showers on the detection and reconstruction of shower profiles is investigated for the Auger fluorescence telescopes. Based on three-dimensional simulations, the capability of the Auger telescopes to measure the lateral distribution of light is evaluated. The ability to infer the actual lateral distribution is confirmed by the comparison of detailed simulations with real data. The contribution of pixels located far from the axis of the shower image is calculated and the accepted signal is rescaled in order to reconstruct a correct shower profile. The analysis presented here shows that: (a) the Auger telescopes are able to observe the lateral distribution of showers and (b) the energy corrections to account for the signal in outlying pixels can exceed 10%, depending on shower geometry.

  15. Extreme lateral lumbar disc herniation. Diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Perno, J R; Rossitch, E

    1993-05-01

    Extreme lateral disc herniation accounts for about 10% of lumbar disc ruptures and is more common in the elderly. Patients will frequently complain of pain in the groin and anterior thigh but little if any back pain. Because the L4 root is often involved, the physical exam often shows quadriceps weakness and a diminished patellar reflex. Other important signs include a negative Lasèque's sign and reproduction of pain with lateral bending of the back toward the involved extremity. Currently, CT or MRI are the diagnostic procedures of choice. The initial treatment for extreme lateral disc herniation is bed rest and NSAIDs with surgery if conservative therapy fails. Primary care physicians should consider extreme lateral disc herniation when they evaluate patients with low back and leg pain. PMID:8510777

  16. 31. Underside of tracks showing columns, concreteencased Ibeams, lateral bracing, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Underside of tracks showing columns, concrete-encased I-beams, lateral bracing, and ramps. Looking south. - Stillwell Avenue Station, Intersection of Stillwell & Surf Avenues, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  17. Multimedia Systems Manuscript Nr. (will be inserted by hand later)

    E-print Network

    Eleftheriadis, Alexandros

    Multimedia Systems Manuscript Nr. (will be inserted by hand later) Silence detection for multimedia algorithms are required in order to maintain QoS. As an example, the large delay variation (jitter) that may

  18. 8. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING OUTRIGGERS FOR LATERAL BRACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING OUTRIGGERS FOR LATERAL BRACING FOR TRUSSES AND BOTTOM CHORD CONNECTIONS. - White Bowstring Arch Truss Bridge, Spanning Yellow Creek at Cemetery Drive (Riverside Drive), Poland, Mahoning County, OH

  19. KEY PARAMETERS FOR PRECISE LATERAL DISPLACEMENT ESTIMATION IN ULTRASOUND ELASTOGRAPHY

    E-print Network

    Konofagou, Elisa E.

    of biological tissues [1]. This technique has been successfully applied to the diagnosis of breast lesions to equivalent expansion in the lateral (in plane, orthogonal) and elevational (out of plane, orthogonal

  20. FUNDAMENTAL ANALYSIS OF LATERAL DISPLACEMENT ESTIMATION QUALITY IN ULTRASOUND ELASTOGRAPHY

    E-print Network

    Konofagou, Elisa E.

    to the diagnosis of breast lesions and is currently clinically used [2]. Typically, only the axial displacement incompressible [3], i.e., the axial compression leads to expansion in the lateral and elevational directions

  1. Armadillo-related proteins promote lateral root development in Arabidopsis

    E-print Network

    Haseloff, Jim

    Armadillo-related proteins promote lateral root development in Arabidopsis Juliet C. Coates) Armadillo -catenin and related proteins have important func- tions during animal and Dictyostelium development, regulating cell differentiation, proliferation, and adhesion. Armadillo-repeat- containing

  2. 29. DECK / WEB / LATERAL BRACING DETAIL OF CANTILEVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. DECK / WEB / LATERAL BRACING DETAIL OF CANTILEVER ARM OF THROUGH TRUSS. VIEW TO WEST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  3. Surgical anatomy of the minimally invasive lateral lumbar approach.

    PubMed

    Bina, Robert W; Zoccali, Carmine; Skoch, Jesse; Baaj, Ali A

    2015-03-01

    The lateral lumbar interbody fusion approach (LLIF), which encompasses the extreme lateral interbody fusion or direct lateral interbody fusion techniques, has gained popularity as an alternative to traditional posterior approaches. With rapidly expanding applications, this minimally invasive surgery (MIS) approach is now utilized in basic degenerative pathologies as well as complex lumbar degenerative deformities and tumors. Given the intimate relationship of the psoas muscle, and hence the lumbar plexus, to this MIS approach, several authors have examined the surgical anatomy of this approach. Understanding this regional neural anatomy is imperative given the potential for serious injuries to both the motor and sensory nerves of the lumbar plexus. In this review, we critically and comprehensively discuss all published studies detailing the surgical anatomy of the lateral lumbar approach with respect to the MIS LLIF techniques. This is a timely review given the rapidly growing number of surgeons utilizing this technique. PMID:25449209

  4. Archives, Records, and Information Management Specialization Fall 2013 and Later

    E-print Network

    Golbeck, Jennifer

    Archives, Records, and Information Management Specialization ­ Fall 2013 and Later Core Courses _____ LBSC 605 Archival Principles, Practices, and Programs _____ LBSC 631 Achieving Organization Excellence Designing Principled Inquiry MLS Required Course: _____ LBSC 703 Field Study in Archives, Records

  5. Electron tunneling and spin relaxation in a lateral quantum dot

    E-print Network

    Amasha, Sami

    2008-01-01

    We report measurements that use real-time charge sensing to probe a single-electron lateral quantum dot. The charge sensor is a quantum point contact (QPC) adjacent to the dot and the sensitivity is comparable to other ...

  6. Commanding lateral acceleration: a natural paradigm for automobile steering 

    E-print Network

    Kenny, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    and that commanding lateral acceleration is a natural way to steer a car. A1l test drivers preferred this system over joystick systems currently available to handicapped drivers which require the driver to command front wheel turn angle....

  7. On the importance of encapsulation environment for lateral gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painter, Jonathan David; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth James; Hazell, Paul; Winter, Ron; Harris, Ernest Joseph; Owen, Gareth D.; Wood, David Christopher

    2012-03-01

    In principle, embedded wire-element lateral manganin pressure gauges allow the lateral component of stress during shock loading to be directly monitored. However, such gauges require target materials to be sectioned before insertion into an encapsulating MylarTM/epoxy layer, leading to debate over their analysis. In particular, recent computational modelling has suggested that, amongst other factors, gauge response may be linked to the nature of material flow within the encapsulation under shock loading. Here, this phenomenon was experimentally and computationally investigated by variation of the geometric environment of embedded lateral T-gauges (Vishay Micro-Measurements® type J2M-SS-580SF-025) in Tantalum (Ta) targets. In particular, inclusion of high impedance backing plates allowed restriction of encapsulation material flow under shock. Subsequent comparison to hydrocode simulations provided additional insights into lateral gauge interpretation.

  8. PHOTO OPTION CURRICULUM (FOR STUDENTS ENTERING FALL, 2011 OR LATER)

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    PHOTO OPTION CURRICULUM (FOR STUDENTS ENTERING FALL, 2011 OR LATER) NOTE ON REVERSE. GATE REQUIREMENTS FOR PHOTO OPTION: FILM 100IH ­ Introduction to Film)..................................................................3 PHOTO OPTION REQUIREMENTS (GATE REQUIRED FOR MOST COURSES): PHOT 255

  9. Poor Health as Teen, Poor Job Prospects Later, Study Suggests

    MedlinePLUS

    Poor Health as Teen, Poor Job Prospects Later, Study Suggests Chronic mental or physical problems were tied to worse education, employment goals in ... News) -- Mental or physical health problems during the teen years may make it harder to get a ...

  10. 20. WEB / DECK / LATERAL BRACING DETAIL OF THROUGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. WEB / DECK / LATERAL BRACING DETAIL OF THROUGH TRUSSES. VIEW TO WEST. - Abraham Lincoln Memorial Bridge, Spanning Missouri River on Highway 30 between Nebraska & Iowa, Blair, Washington County, NE

  11. 14. VIEW OF BOTTOM LATERAL BRACING WITH STRINGERS AND FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF BOTTOM LATERAL BRACING WITH STRINGERS AND FLOOR BEAMS, NORTHWEST SPAN, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Linden Avenue Bridge, Spanning Purgatoire River on Linden Avenue, Trinidad, Las Animas County, CO

  12. 11. VIEW OF SOUTH BRIDGE PIER, BOTTOM LATERAL BRACING, LOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF SOUTH BRIDGE PIER, BOTTOM LATERAL BRACING, LOWER CHORD, STRINGERS, END POST AND BEARING SEAT; FACING SOUTHEAST. - Walker Bridge, Spanning Klamath River and connecting Highway 96 and Walker Road, Klamath River, Siskiyou County, CA

  13. How important is lateral masking in visual search?

    PubMed

    Wertheim, A H; Hooge, I T C; Krikke, K; Johnson, A

    2006-04-01

    Five experiments are presented, providing empirical support of the hypothesis that the sensory phenomenon of lateral masking may explain many well-known visual search phenomena that are commonly assumed to be governed by cognitive attentional mechanisms. Experiment I showed that when the same visual arrays are used in visual search and in lateral masking experiments, the factors (1) number of distractors, (2) distractor density, and (3) search type (conjunction vs disjunction) have the same effect on search times as they have on lateral masking scores. Experiment II showed that when the number of distractors and eccentricity is kept constant in a search task, the effect of reducing density (which reduces the lateral masking potential of distractors on the target) is to strongly reduce the disjunction-conjunction difference. In experiment III, the lateral masking potential of distractors on a target was measured with arrays that typically yield asymmetric search times in visual search studies (a Q among Os vs. an O among Qs). The lateral masking scores showed the same asymmetry. Experiment IV was a visual search study with such asymmetric search arrays in which the number of distractors and eccentricity was kept constant, while manipulating density. Reducing density (i.e., reducing lateral masking) produced a strong reduction of the asymmetry effect. Finally in experiment V, we showed that the data from experiment IV cannot be explained due to a difference between a fine and a coarse grain attentional mechanism. Taken together with eye movement data and error scores from experiment II and with similar findings from the literature, these results suggest that the sensory mechanism of lateral masking could well be a very important (if not the main) factor causing many of the well-known effects that are traditionally attributed to higher level cognitive or attentional mechanisms in visual search. PMID:16328267

  14. How important is lateral masking in visual search?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. Wertheim; I. T. C. Hooge; K. Krikke; A. Johnson

    2006-01-01

    Five experiments are presented, providing empirical support of the hypothesis that the sensory phenomenon of lateral masking\\u000a may explain many well-known visual search phenomena that are commonly assumed to be governed by cognitive attentional mechanisms.\\u000a Experiment I showed that when the same visual arrays are used in visual search and in lateral masking experiments, the factors\\u000a (1) number of distractors,

  15. Vehicle Lateral Control and Yaw Stability Control through Differential Braking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chenming Zhao; Weidong Xiang; P. Richardson

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of a brake-by-wire system with the uses of differential brake torque for lateral control and yaw stability control in the context of intelligent vehicle highway systems. Differential braking easily realized by the brake-by-wire system can generate the vehicle yaw moment. The resulting yaw moment affects vehicle lateral position and yaw rate, thereby providing a limited

  16. Large Lateral Photovoltaic Effect in Metal-(Oxide-) Semiconductor Structures

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chongqi; Wang, Hui

    2010-01-01

    The lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) can be used in position-sensitive detectors to detect very small displacements due to its output of lateral photovoltage changing linearly with light spot position. In this review, we will summarize some of our recent works regarding LPE in metal-semiconductor and metal-oxide-semiconductor structures, and give a theoretical model of LPE in these two structures. PMID:22163463

  17. Discoid lateral meniscus: diagnosis and results of arthroscopic treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet Asik; Cengiz Sen; Omer F. Taser; Aziz K. Alturfan; Yunus V. Sozen

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the results of arthroscopic meniscectomy in patients with discoid lateral menisci of the knee. Discoid lateral menisci were detected in 308 patients, of whom 197 (124 males, 73 females; mean age 34.5 years, range 6-67) were clinically, radiologically, and arthroscopically found to be symptomatic and underwent partial meniscectomy. The average period between injury and operation was 13.2 months

  18. Driving Capability by Lateral BJT-CMOS Inverter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiro Akino

    A new mode of operation for a gated lateral BJT (Bipolar Junction Transistor) on SOI (Silicon-On-Insulator) is investigated. A partially depleted n-channel MOSFET with four terminals inherently includes a lateral npn BJT with three terminals. We propose such a pulsed current scheme to this p-type base terminal that enhances the driving capability by using the high collector current conduction when

  19. Lateral transpsoas lumbar interbody fusion: outcomes and deformity correction.

    PubMed

    Dahdaleh, Nader S; Smith, Zachary A; Snyder, Laura A; Graham, Randall B; Fessler, Richard G; Koski, Tyler R

    2014-04-01

    The lateral transpsoas approach for interbody fusion is a minimally invasive technique that has been gaining increasing popularity in the management of a variety of spinal degenerative disorders. Recently, there has been increasing utilization of this technique in the management of adult deformity. The authors present a review of the current evidence of using the lateral lumbar transpsoas approach in the correction of adult degenerative scoliosis. PMID:24703453

  20. Calculation of the lateral-dynamic stability of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raikh, A

    1952-01-01

    Graphs and formulas are given with the aid of which all the aerodynamic coefficients required for computing the lateral dynamic stability can be determined. A number of numerical examples are given for obtaining the stability derivatives and solving the characteristic-stability equation. Approximate formulas are derived with the aid of which rapid preliminary computations may be made and the stability coefficients corrected for certain modifications of the airplane. A derivation of the lateral-dynamic-stability equations is included.

  1. Masticatory laterality--evaluation and influence of food texture.

    PubMed

    Mizumori, T; Tsubakimoto, T; Iwasaki, M; Nakamura, T

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study is the objective and quantitative evaluation of masticatory laterality and its daily variability. Various foods with different textures were used to investigate whether food texture influenced masticatory laterality. Ten healthy subjects and seven foods were used. Recordings of chewing movements were repeated three times at intervals of 1 week. Masticatory laterality was assessed with an Asymmetry Index [AI: (number of right side strokes - number of left side strokes)/number of total strokes]. Medians and ranges of the three recordings were calculated. The observed AI ranges in the three trials were limited with the exception of two subjects. Among the other subjects, averages of the absolute values of the medians were from 32.5 to 73.4%. Statistically significant differences between the hardest food and softer foods were observed in absolute value of AI medians. Masticatory laterality could be evaluated by an AI. Eight of 10 subjects showed limited ranges of AI in three recordings. It should be noted that a few people actually chew on either side but might chew on one side only on a particular day. Hard food evoked more masticatory laterality, and seemed more appropriate for laterality examinations. PMID:12974859

  2. Extra-articular Mimickers of Lateral Meniscal Tears

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Joseph U.; Strauss, Eric J.; Lodha, Sameer; Bach, Bernard R.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Lateral meniscus tears are a common entity seen in sports medicine. Although lateral-side knee pain is often the result of a meniscus injury, several extra-articular pathologies share signs and symptoms with a meniscus tear. It is critical for the clinician to be able to identify and understand extra-articular pathologies that can present similar to a lateral meniscus tear. Evidence Acquisition: Data were collected through a thorough review of the literature conducted through a MEDLINE search for all relevant articles between 1980 and February 2010. Study Type: Clinical review. Results: Common extra-articular pathologies that can mimic lateral meniscal tears include iliotibial band syndrome, proximal tibiofibular joint instability, snapping biceps femoris or popliteus tendons, and peroneal nerve compression syndrome or neuritis. The patient history, physical examination features, and radiographic findings can be used to separate these entities from the more common intra-articular knee pathologies. Conclusions: In treating patients who present with lateral-sided knee pain, clinicians should be able to recognize and treat extra-articular pathologies that can present in a similar fashion as lateral meniscus tears. PMID:23015995

  3. Lateral line diversity among ecologically divergent threespine stickleback populations

    PubMed Central

    Wark, A. R.; Peichel, C. L.

    2010-01-01

    The lateral line is a mechanoreceptive sensory system that allows fish to sense objects and motion in their local environment. Variation in lateral line morphology may allow fish in different habitats to differentially sense and respond to salient cues. Threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) occupy a diverse range of aquatic habitats; we therefore hypothesized that populations within the G. aculeatus species complex might show variation in the morphology of the lateral line sensory system. We sampled 16 threespine stickleback populations from marine, stream and lake (including benthic and limnetic) habitats and examined the distribution, type and number of neuromasts on different regions of the body. We found that the threespine stickleback has a reduced lateral line canal system, completely lacking canal neuromasts. Although the arrangement of lines of superficial neuromasts on the body was largely the same in all populations, the number of neuromasts within these lines varied across individuals, populations and habitats. In pairwise comparisons between threespine sticklebacks adapted to divergent habitats, we found significant differences in neuromast number. Stream residents had more neuromasts than marine sticklebacks living downstream in the same watershed. In two independent lakes, benthic sticklebacks had more trunk neuromasts than sympatric limnetic sticklebacks, providing evidence for parallel evolution of the lateral line system. Our data provide the first demonstration that the lateral line sensory system can vary significantly between individuals and among populations within a single species, and suggest that this sensory system may experience different selection regimes in alternative habitats. PMID:20008367

  4. Laterality Influences Schooling Position in Rainbowfish, Melanotaenia spp

    PubMed Central

    Bibost, Anne-Laurence; Brown, Culum

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral lateralization is a widespread trait among animals, is often manifested as side biases in behaviour (laterality) and has been suggested to provide fitness benefits. Here we examined the influence of laterality on the organisation of fish schools using rainbowfish (Melanotaenia spp) as model species. The pattern and strength of laterality for each individual was determined by examining eye preferences whilst examining their reflection in a mirror. Schools of four fish of known laterality were then created and the preferred position for each fish within the school was repeatedly observed in a flume. Fish which showed right eye preferences in the mirror test preferentially adopted a position on the left side of the school. Conversely, fish that showed left eye preferences in the mirror test or where non-lateralised preferentially adopted a position slightly to the right side of the school. However, this general pattern varied depending on the species and sex of the school. Our results strongly implicate individual laterality in the geometry of school formation. PMID:24260506

  5. Lateral Femoral Epicondylar Osteotomy: An Extensile Posterolateral Knee Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Andrea L.

    2008-01-01

    Open exposure of the posterolateral corner of the knee is challenged by limitations of posterolateral ligamentous tissues and posterior neurovascular structures. We have used a modification of a lateral femoral epicondyle osteotomy, described historically for surgical management of posterolateral rotatory instability, as an approach to the posterolateral intraarticular structures. The historic technique for ligamentous reconstruction has been abandoned because its nonanatomic fixation does not restore ligamentous isometry. In this report, osteotomy of a bone block from the lateral femoral epicondyle is used to access the joint space. The lateral collateral ligament is reflected distally and posteriorly through traction on the block. Once the intraarticular disorder has been addressed, the lateral femoral epicondyle is secured in its native, anatomic position, thereby restoring isometry and normal joint mechanics after surgery. This technique has been used successfully to address posterolateral articular disorders on femoral and tibial sides. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging verified restoration of lateral collateral ligament anatomy. Physical examination at 0° and 30° knee flexion showed clinical stability at all postoperative evaluations through 6 and 10 months followup. Using this technique, intraarticular disorders at the posterolateral corner may be addressed in an open manner with anatomic reduction and preserved postoperative function of the lateral collateral ligament. Level of Evidence: Level V, expert opinion. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18373126

  6. Dynamics Study on Morphological Stabilities of Cellular Crystal Lateral Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Guowei; Chen, Shuying; Li, Qingchun; Yue, Xudong; Jin, Guangcan

    2012-06-01

    The lateral wall stabilities during the growing process of cellular crystal in the melt were studied in this article. The dynamics equation of cylindrical solid-liquid interface morphological stabilities in melt was first derived, and then the expression of criterion for cylindrical solid-liquid interface morphological stabilities was defined. The effect of the shape factor, solid radius, and other relevant factors on the morphological stabilities was analyzed. Also, the critical shape factor and critical growth rate for keeping the stabilities of the interface were determined. The phenomenon during the lateral growth process of ?-phase cellular crystal in carbon steel was observed under a high-temperature confocal scanning laser microscope (HTCSLM), which was used to verify the theoretical analysis and calculated results. The results indicate that the shape factor is beneficial to improving the stabilities of the cellular crystal lateral wall. During the increase process of the cellular crystal radius, however, there is a certain value of the cellular crystal radius, which induces the shape factor to reduce stabilities of the cellular crystal lateral wall rapidly. Even if the other conditions are unchanged, the shape of the cellular crystal may also cause the cellular crystal lateral wall to lose its stabilities. There are two critical growth rates to keep the cellular crystal lateral wall growing stably under the conditions of this research. For the Fe-0.15 pct C-0.8 pct Mn alloy, these two critical growth rates are 10-4 and 10 cm/s orders of magnitude, respectively. The difference between them is more than 105 times, so the slow critical growth rate conforms to the actual critical growth rate. The radius of the cellular crystal is the main influencing factor of lateral wall stabilities. The bigger the radius of the cellular crystal is, the worse the stabilities of the lateral wall are. That is also one of the reasons that the fine cellular crystal can survive during a certain period. The results of the theoretical analysis about stabilities of the cellular crystal lateral wall agree well with the lateral growth phenomena of ? phase cellular crystal in carbon steel observed by a HTCSLM. The theoretically calculated results of the radial critical growth rates are coincident with the experimental results.

  7. Lateral mass fixation in subaxial cervical spine: anatomic review.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Elrahmany; Ihab, Zidan; Moaz, Anwar; Ayman, Nabawi; Haitham, Abo-Elw

    2012-03-01

    Introduction?The cervical spine is a highly mobile segment of the spinal column, liable to a variety of diseases and susceptible to trauma. It is a complex region where many vital structures lie in close proximity. Lateral mass screw fixation has become the method of choice in stabilizing subaxial cervical spine among other posterior cervical fixation techniques whenever the posterior elements are absent or compromised. Objective?This study examined cervical specimens of cadavers and cervical computed tomography (CT) scans to minimize as much as possible complications of cervical lateral mass screw placement such as vertebral artery or nerve root injuries, facet joint violations, or inadequate placement. Methods?Forty normal cervical CT scans, obtained from the emergency unit as part of the trauma workup, were included in this study plus 10 cervical cadaveric specimens obtained from the Alexandria Neuro-anatomy laboratory. There were three fixed parameters for screw insertion in this study. First, the point of screw insertion was the midpoint of the lateral mass; it was the crossing point between the sagittal and axial planes of the posterior cortex of the lateral mass. Second, the direction of the screw in the craniocaudal plane was 30 degrees cranially to avoid facet joint penetration. Third, the exit point of the screw was located on the ventral cortex of the lateral mass just lateral to the root of the transverse process in the midaxial cut of each lateral mass, to make a sound bicortical fixation without injuring the vertebral artery or the nerve root. The selected screw trajectory in this study was the line drawn between the inlet and exit points. The depth and width of the lateral mass of the cervical vertebrae from C3 to C7 were measured as well as the angle of screw trajectory from the sagittal plane. All these measures were applied on the cadaveric specimens to make sure that no injury to the vertebral artery, nerve root, or facet joint occurred. Results?As regards the collected measurements of the lateral mass of all subaxial cervical vertebrae, the study revealed that the average depth of the lateral mass was 12.83?±?1.28 mm. The average width of the lateral mass was 11.92?±?0.96 mm. The average divergent angle of bicortical screw insertion without injury to the vertebral artery or the nerve root was 19.51?±?1.83 degrees. As regard the cadaveric specimens, based on all the collected measurements taken from the CT scans, there was no reported injury to the vertebral arteries or nerve roots or penetration to the facet joints. Conclusion?Lateral mass fixation can be applied easily and safely for all levels of subaxial cervical spine from C3 to C6 with the following parameters: (1) the point of entry is the midpoint of the lateral mass; (2) the screw trajectory is directed 30 degrees cranially and 20 degrees laterally; (3) the screw length is 13 to 15 mm. PMID:24353945

  8. Detection and Correction of Laterality Errors in Radiology Reports.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Han; Yang, Jaemoon; Suh, Jin-Suck

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of the study are to introduce the development of supervising software for double-checking of laterality error in radiology reports and to evaluate the usefulness of detection and correction software by applying it to radiology report systems. An AutoHotkey macro program was applied to the design for double-checking of laterality errors. The software was performed according to the flowchart below: (1) detecting laterality discrepancies between radiologic examination names and the context of the radiology report and (2) providing conditioned discrepancy correction with a pop-up window. The accuracy of the detection was evaluated with 300 radiologic examinations that include the intended discrepancies and concordance of lateralities. The number of detections and corrections were quantified, and the confidence intervals were calculated for accuracy. We also applied this module to previous radiology reports with laterality errors from the radiologic examination database to validate the module. The AutoHotkey-scripted macro program functioned well in the reading workstation, and it was acted successfully as additional software. The detection accuracy was 99.67 % (95 % CI; 99.01-%) in the 300 radiologic examinations from the radiologic reading session. There was one running failure, caused by a temporary lag in the hospital's computer network, but no failures resulted during the second trial. We found that there were laterality errors in 0.048 % (n?=?14/29,257) of the examinations from the database. We developed detection and correction software aimed at double-checking for laterality errors. This method can be successfully adopted in any hospital software and is expected to be included for a better radiologic reading environment. PMID:25712502

  9. Effects of lateralized cues on the processing of lateralized auditory stimuli.

    PubMed

    Schröger, E; Eimer, M

    1996-06-28

    We examined the influence of auditory spatial cues on the processing of subsequently presented lateralized auditory target stimuli. In three experiments, effects of the position of the cue on event-related potentials (ERPs) and reaction times (RTs) to the target, which could occur at the same or at a different position to the cue, were examined. In Experiments I and II, stimulus-pairs were delivered via loudspeakers 13 degrees to the right or left of fixation. The cue was task-irrelevant in the sense that it never required a response, whereas the target was task-relevant. In Experiment I, the cue was not informative about the position of the succeeding target, that is, the target was presented at the same or at a different position to the cue with equal probability. In Experiment II, the cue predicted a target with high validity, occurring at the position opposite to the cue. In both experiments, the ERPs to targets presented at the same position as the preceding cue were negatively modulated compared with the ERPs to targets presented at a different position. This negative difference (Nd) between the ERPs to same and different position stimuli occurring between 200-300 ms relative to target onset was also obtained in situations where no overt behavior was required. Effects of cue position on RTs to the target were only observed in Experiment II, being shorter for validly predicted targets. These Nd effects either reflect refractoriness of location-specific exogeneous ERP components or involuntary attentional selection. In order to decide between these alternatives, a third experiment was performed, in which stimulus-pairs were presented via headphones to the left and right ear in attend and ignore condition. An Nd effect was obtained in the attend condition only. The absence of Nd effects in the ignore condition suggests that the Nd obtained in attend condition cannot completely be explained by refractoriness of exogeneous ERP components and thus reflects attentional processes. PMID:8831955

  10. River Elongation as a Proxy for Lateral Channel Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauer, J. W.

    2009-12-01

    Lateral channel movement is a process that is tightly linked to both channel hydraulics and sediment transport, strongly influences floodplain ecology, and also has great relevance for banktop property owners. The correlation between channel migration rate and channel curvature usually causes meandering river channels to elongate as they migrate laterally. Over the long term, the increase in sinuosity is compensated by a rapid decrease in sinuosity where and when river bends shorten through cutoff processes. However, the elongation for most meander bends in systems free to migrate across wide floodplains often occurs relatively uniformly throughout the system. Consequently, the rate of elongation of individual river bends, integrated across a river reach, offers a simple mechanism for characterizing the reach’s lateral activity. Spatial series of accumulated elongation can also be used to delineate reaches with similar properties. We use aerial imagery pairs to compare rates of lateral channel centerline shifting with channel centerline elongation for reaches many bends long along eight different rivers with widths ranging from 12 to 584 m. Except where bends translate downstream without changing form, elongation rates are closely linked to lateral shifting. In several cases, a change in elongation rate corresponds closely with a change in channel width, discharge, and/or bed material. For reaches free to migrate across a wide, unconfined floodplain and where lateral migration measurements are likely of high quality, the average ratio between the reach average migration rate normalized by channel width and the rate of sinuosity increase (excluding bends that experienced a cutoff between imagery dates) is approximately 5.6. Since elongation rate measurements can be made accurately even from photos that are poorly aligned, the relationship between sinuosity increase and lateral migration potentially provides a means of bypassing time-consuming georeferencing, allowing immediate use of any set of adequately scaled historical photography for estimating lateral channel activity. It may also allow measurements of lateral activity over very short time periods of several years, rather than the typical decadal timescale, or from relatively low resolution imagery.

  11. Stabilization control of a hovering model insect: lateral motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-Lai; Sun, Mao

    2011-10-01

    Our previous study shows that the lateral disturbance motion of a model drone fly does not have inherent stability (passive stability), because of the existence of an unstable divergence mode. But drone flies are observed to fly stably. Constantly active control must be applied to stabilize the flight. In this study, we investigate the lateral stabilization control of the model drone fly. The method of computational fluid dynamics is used to compute the lateral control derivatives and the techniques of eigenvalue and eigenvector analysis and modal decomposition are used for solving the equations of motion. Controllability analysis shows that although inherently unstable, the lateral disturbance motion is controllable. By feeding back the state variables (i.e. lateral translation velocity, yaw rate, roll rate and roll angle, which can be measured by the sensory system of the insect) to produce anti-symmetrical changes in stroke amplitude and/or in angle of attack between the left and right wings, the motion can be stabilized, explaining why the drone flies can fly stably even if the flight is passively unstable.

  12. Cerebral Lateralization is Protective in the Very Prematurely Born.

    PubMed

    Scheinost, Dustin; Lacadie, Cheryl; Vohr, Betty R; Schneider, Karen C; Papademetris, Xenophon; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2015-07-01

    Individuals born prematurely are at risk for developmental delay, and converging data suggest alterations in neural networks in the developing preterm brain. Nevertheless, those critical period processes such as cerebral lateralization that underlie these findings remain largely unexplored. To test the hypothesis that preterm birth alters the fundamental program of corticogenesis in the developing brain, we interrogated cerebral lateralization at rest in very prematurely born participants and term controls at young adulthood. Employing a novel, voxel-based measure of functional connectivity, these data demonstrate for the first time that cerebral lateralization of functional connectivity in right hemisphere language homologs is altered for very preterm participants. Very preterm participants with no evidence for severe brain injury exhibited a significant decrease in right hemisphere lateralization in the right parietal and temporal lobes in this data driven analysis. Further, for the very preterm participants, but not the term participants, these fundamental alterations in the cerebral lateralization for language significantly correlate with language scores. These findings provide evidence that cerebral asymmetry is both plastic and experiential, and suggest the need for further study of underlying environmental factors responsible for these changes. PMID:24451659

  13. Development of automobile tyre lateral runout measurement sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xie; Ye, Lingjian; Yao, Guanghui; Wang, Di; Zhi, Xiongfei

    2013-10-01

    Automobile tyre lateral runout is one of the important indexes to measure the quality of the tyre, it will affect the safety of the automobile in moving. This paper introduces a sensor for automobile tyre lateral runout measurement. The variation of the automobile tyre lateral runout causes the change of guide rod probe displacement and deforms of the cantilever beam which connects with the guide bar. The deformation of the cantilever beam leads to the change of the resistance value of strain gauge which is pasted on the cantilever beam. Through measuring circuit, the resistance value of the strain gauge is converted into output voltage that has a certain relationship with automobile tyre lateral runout. Then, the voltage signal is transformed by A/D convertor and send to SCM to process and display the value of runout. Meanwhile, SCM output control signal to control the actuator and adjust the equipment running status in real time so as to ensure the tyre lateral runout is within the allowed range.

  14. Embryonic exposure to predator odour modulates visual lateralization in cuttlefish

    PubMed Central

    Jozet-Alves, Christelle; Hébert, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Predation pressure acts on the behaviour and morphology of prey species. In fish, the degree of lateralization varies between high- and low-predation populations. While lateralization appears to be widespread in invertebrates, we do not know whether heredity and early experience interact during development as in vertebrates. Here we show, for the first time, that an exposure to predator odour prior to hatching modulates visual lateralization in newly hatched cuttlefish. Only cuttlefish that have been exposed to predator odour display a left-turning bias when tested with blank seawater in a T-shaped apparatus. Exposure to predator odour all the incubation long could appear as an acute predictor of a high-predation surrounding environment. In addition, cuttlefish of all groups display a left-turning preference when tested with predator odour in the apparatus. This suggests the ability of cuttlefish to innately recognize predator odour. To our knowledge, this is the first clear demonstration that lateralization is vulnerable to ecological challenges encountered during embryonic life, and that environmental stimulation of the embryo through the olfactory system could influence the development of subsequent visual lateralization. PMID:23235708

  15. Embryonic exposure to predator odour modulates visual lateralization in cuttlefish.

    PubMed

    Jozet-Alves, Christelle; Hébert, Marie

    2013-02-01

    Predation pressure acts on the behaviour and morphology of prey species. In fish, the degree of lateralization varies between high- and low-predation populations. While lateralization appears to be widespread in invertebrates, we do not know whether heredity and early experience interact during development as in vertebrates. Here we show, for the first time, that an exposure to predator odour prior to hatching modulates visual lateralization in newly hatched cuttlefish. Only cuttlefish that have been exposed to predator odour display a left-turning bias when tested with blank seawater in a T-shaped apparatus. Exposure to predator odour all the incubation long could appear as an acute predictor of a high-predation surrounding environment. In addition, cuttlefish of all groups display a left-turning preference when tested with predator odour in the apparatus. This suggests the ability of cuttlefish to innately recognize predator odour. To our knowledge, this is the first clear demonstration that lateralization is vulnerable to ecological challenges encountered during embryonic life, and that environmental stimulation of the embryo through the olfactory system could influence the development of subsequent visual lateralization. PMID:23235708

  16. Lateral position detection and control for friction stir systems

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, Paul (Boulder, CO); Lammlein, David (Houston, TX); Cook, George E. (Brentwood, TN); Wilkes, Don Mitchell (Nashville, TN); Strauss, Alvin M. (Nashville, TN); Delapp, David (Ashland City, TN); Hartman, Daniel A. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2010-12-14

    A friction stir system for processing at least a first workpiece includes a spindle actuator coupled to a rotary tool comprising a rotating member for contacting and processing the first workpiece. A detection system is provided for obtaining information related to a lateral alignment of the rotating member. The detection system comprises at least one sensor for measuring a force experienced by the rotary tool or a parameter related to the force experienced by the rotary tool during processing, wherein the sensor provides sensor signals. A signal processing system is coupled to receive and analyze the sensor signals and determine a lateral alignment of the rotating member relative to a selected lateral position, a selected path, or a direction to decrease a lateral distance relative to the selected lateral position or selected path. In one embodiment, the friction stir system can be embodied as a closed loop tracking system, such as a robot-based tracked friction stir welding (FSW) or friction stir processing (FSP) system.

  17. Alcohol and lateral inhibitory interactions in human vision.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Kevin; Timney, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Acute alcohol consumption detrimentally affects many aspects of visual function, but few studies have addressed the neural mechanisms underlying such changes. One candidate mechanism that may be responsible for some alcohol-induced changes in visual function is lateral inhibition. Alcohol has been shown to abolish lateral inhibitory interactions in experimental preparations in which it is applied directly to the retina, but few studies have attempted to link alcohol-induced reductions in lateral inhibitory interactions with psychophysical performance in assessments of visual function dependent on this mechanism. In the present series of studies we addressed this by investigating the effects of alcohol consumption on a perceptual phenomenon mediated in part by lateral inhibition, the Hermann grid illusion. Participants estimated the contrast of the illusory blobs present at the grid intersections using a matching procedure after consumption of a drink containing alcohol or a nonalcoholic drink. The magnitude of the illusion was diminished in the alcohol condition, and this effect was consistent when we parametrically varied the contrast of the grid squares and widths of the grid bars. These data suggest that alcohol reduces lateral inhibitory interactions in human vision. PMID:24649633

  18. Lateral gene transfer in Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Marri, Pradeep Reddy; Bannantine, John P; Paustian, Michael L; Golding, G Brian

    2006-06-01

    Lateral gene transfer is an integral part of genome evolution in most bacteria. Bacteria can readily change the contents of their genomes to increase adaptability to ever-changing surroundings and to generate evolutionary novelty. Here, we report instances of lateral gene transfer in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, a pathogenic bacteria that causes Johne's disease in cattle. A set of 275 genes are identified that are likely to have been recently acquired by lateral gene transfer. The analysis indicated that 53 of the 275 genes were acquired after the divergence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from M. avium subsp. avium, whereas the remaining 222 genes were possibly acquired by a common ancestor of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium subsp. avium after its divergence from the ancestor of M. tuberculosis complex. Many of the acquired genes were from proteobacteria or soil dwelling actinobacteria. Prominent among the predicted laterally transferred genes is the gene rsbR, a possible regulator of sigma factor, and the genes designated MAP3614 and MAP3757, which are similar to genes in eukaryotes. The results of this study suggest that like most other bacteria, lateral gene transfers seem to be a common feature in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and that the proteobacteria contribute most of these genetic exchanges. PMID:16788724

  19. Experiment and Simulation of the Lateral Gauge in Glass Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, P. D.; Grief, A.; Tsembelis, K.; Proud, W. G.; Murray, N. H.

    2004-07-01

    The lateral stress in materials has been measured, under shock wave loading, using manganin gauges mounted normal to the direction of shock propagation. Generally the sample has been sectioned along the direction of impact and adhered again with the gauge in this plane. A series of previous papers have reported a two-step structure in the lateral gauge history, the presence or absence of which indicates the presence of failure fronts in a variety of materials, such as ceramics and glasses. In glasses the evidence also includes velocity interferometry (VISAR) traces and high-speed photography where the failure front is also seen. The gauge configurations have been simulated using the QinetiQ Eulerian hydrocode GRIM3D to identify the effect of local material response on the function of the lateral gauge. These initial results have illustrated that tensile fractures occur along the material at the gauge/sample interface, which propagate behind the main shock front. Another feature is that the flyer plate can jet into the region of the lateral cut and therefore impart a separate shock into this region. Curiously these effects seem to have little impact on the predicted lateral stress history.

  20. Socially dependent auditory laterality in domestic horses (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    Basile, Muriel; Boivin, Sarah; Boutin, Anaïs; Blois-Heulin, Catherine; Hausberger, Martine; Lemasson, Alban

    2009-07-01

    Laterality is now known to be an ubiquitous phenomenon among the vertebrates. Particularly, laterality of auditory processing has been demonstrated in a variety of species, especially songbirds and primates. Such a hemispheric specialization has been shown to depend on factors such as sound structure, species specificity and types of stimuli. Much less is known on the possible influence of social familiarity although a few studies suggest such an influence. Here we tested the influence of the degree of familiarity on the laterality of the auditory response in the domestic horse. This species is known for its social system and shows visible reactions to sounds, with one or two ears moving towards a sound source. By comparing such responses to the playback of different conspecific whinnies (group member, neighbor and stranger), we could demonstrate a clear left hemisphere (LH) preference for familiar neighbor calls while no preference was found for group member and stranger calls. Yet, we found an opposite pattern of ear side preference for neighbor versus stranger calls. These results are, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate auditory laterality in an ungulate species. They open further lines of thought on the influence of the social "value" of calls and the listener's arousal on auditory processing and laterality. PMID:19283416

  1. Lateral orbitofrontal cortex links social impressions to political choices.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chenjie; Stolle, Dietlind; Gidengil, Elisabeth; Fellows, Lesley K

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies of political behavior suggest that voting decisions can be influenced substantially by "first-impression" social attributions based on physical appearance. Separate lines of research have implicated the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in the judgment of social traits on the one hand and economic decision-making on the other, making this region a plausible candidate for linking social attributions to voting decisions. Here, we asked whether OFC lesions in humans disrupted the ability to judge traits of political candidates or affected how these judgments influenced voting decisions. Seven patients with lateral OFC damage, 18 patients with frontal damage sparing the lateral OFC, and 53 matched healthy participants took part in a simulated election paradigm, in which they voted for real-life (but unknown) candidates based only on photographs of their faces. Consistent with previous work, attributions of "competence" and "attractiveness" based on candidate appearance predicted voting behavior in the healthy control group. Frontal damage did not affect substantially the ability to make competence or attractiveness judgments, but patients with damage to the lateral OFC differed from other groups in how they applied this information when voting. Only attractiveness ratings had any predictive power for voting choices after lateral OFC damage, whereas other frontal patients and healthy controls relied on information about both competence and attractiveness in making their choice. An intact lateral OFC may not be necessary for judgment of social traits based on physical appearance, but it seems to be crucial in applying this information in political decision-making. PMID:26041918

  2. Lateral hyporheic exchange throughout the Mississippi River network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiel, Brian A.; Bayani Cardenas, M.

    2014-06-01

    River water circulates vertically through the river bed and laterally through bank sediments. This hyporheic exchange brings river water into contact with microbes in the adjacent sediments, otherwise known as the hyporheic exchange zone. As such, hyporheic zones act as hotspots for the biogeochemical cycling of carbon, metals and nutrients in rivers, and can, for example, influence the export of nitrogen to downstream ecosystems. Here, we calculate the extent and duration of lateral hyporheic exchange throughout the Mississippi River network, using a physics-based numerical model that takes into account the distribution of groundwater baseflow, river discharge, alluvium permeability and river morphology. We find that in our simulations, lateral exchange occurs throughout the network: practically all of the river water that reaches the mouth of the Mississippi River network has circulated through the lateral hyporheic zone. River water residence time in the hyporheic zone ranges from less than an hour in headwaters to over a month in larger channels. Comparison of the residence times that we derive to a previously reported residence time threshold for denitrification suggests that around one quarter of the lateral hyporheic zones in the Mississippi River network favour denitrification, and thus nitrogen loss. Given that river water can circulate many times through the river bank before reaching the river mouth, and can undergo vertical exchange with the river bed, we suggest that our estimates serve as a lower limit for potential nitrogen loss.

  3. Minimally invasive device to effect vocal fold lateralization.

    PubMed

    Cummings, C W; Redd, E E; Westra, W H; Flint, P W

    1999-09-01

    Despite many operative procedures focused on vocal fold lateralization, none has achieved an acceptable level of dependability. Bilateral vocal fold abductor paralysis is treated by arytenoidectomy, cordotomy, suture lateralization, or partial cordectomy. Tracheotomy remains the gold standard for maximizing the airway and preserving phonatory function. We have developed a device that is minimally invasive, tunable, and reversible, with the potential for lateralization or medialization of the vocal process. The device consists of a polyethylene collar, a Vitallium cam, and a double-helix core for engaging soft tissue. It is introduced through a circular opening in the thyroid cartilage by a modified thyroplasty approach. Both the first and second iterations of this device have been evaluated for clinical effectiveness in 9 sheep by means of photographic and video documentation. Effectiveness in humans is currently being assessed. The results of the animal study permit us to have substantial optimism with respect to the clinical application of this device. PMID:10527272

  4. Issues Related to Lateral Stress Measurements in Alumina Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, J. E.; Tsembelis, K.; Brar, N. S.; Proud, W. G.; Dandekar, D. P.; Rosenberg, Z.

    2004-07-01

    Failure fronts or "waves" in brittle materials have been the subject of extensive research. This is a phenomenon where a damage front propagates behind the main shock wave and reduces the strength. It is reported to be observed by means of embedded lateral gauges where it manifests itself as a two-step structure. Such profiles were obtained when impacts were performed using copper flyers. Later, it was shown that this second rise in lateral stress was not evident in ceramic targets when either a ceramic projectile plate was employed or a thin ceramic cover plate was mounted on the front of the target. We now extend the use of different projectile materials such as heat treated 4340 steel and tungsten. We find that the second step is not evident and may instead be an effect of the experimental parameters and not related to the failure front.

  5. Vehicle Lateral State Estimation Based on Measured Tyre Forces

    PubMed Central

    Tuononen, Ari J.

    2009-01-01

    Future active safety systems need more accurate information about the state of vehicles. This article proposes a method to evaluate the lateral state of a vehicle based on measured tyre forces. The tyre forces of two tyres are estimated from optically measured tyre carcass deflections and transmitted wirelessly to the vehicle body. The two remaining tyres are so-called virtual tyre sensors, the forces of which are calculated from the real tyre sensor estimates. The Kalman filter estimator for lateral vehicle state based on measured tyre forces is presented, together with a simple method to define adaptive measurement error covariance depending on the driving condition of the vehicle. The estimated yaw rate and lateral velocity are compared with the validation sensor measurements. PMID:22291535

  6. Vehicle lateral state estimation based on measured tyre forces.

    PubMed

    Tuononen, Ari J

    2009-01-01

    Future active safety systems need more accurate information about the state of vehicles. This article proposes a method to evaluate the lateral state of a vehicle based on measured tyre forces. The tyre forces of two tyres are estimated from optically measured tyre carcass deflections and transmitted wirelessly to the vehicle body. The two remaining tyres are so-called virtual tyre sensors, the forces of which are calculated from the real tyre sensor estimates. The Kalman filter estimator for lateral vehicle state based on measured tyre forces is presented, together with a simple method to define adaptive measurement error covariance depending on the driving condition of the vehicle. The estimated yaw rate and lateral velocity are compared with the validation sensor measurements. PMID:22291535

  7. Analysis of laterally loaded pile groups in clay

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimha Rao, S.; Ramakrishna, V.G.S.T. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Madras (India). Ocean Engineering Centre

    1995-12-31

    The problem of pile groups subjected to lateral loads is of interest particularly in offshore and coastal regions. An understanding of pile-soil interaction is essential in designing such pile foundations. In this paper, a simplified finite element analysis in conjunction with Yegian and Wright approach has been presented to study the behavior of pile groups under lateral loads. The pile is treated as a shear beam and the soil media is assumed to be linear elastic. The results of the analysis are used to estimate: (1) Lateral Group Efficiency and (2) Extent of stress influence around the pile. The results obtained from the theoretical predictions are found to be reasonably in good agreement with the published literature.

  8. Nucleation-mediated lateral growth on foreign substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, Da-Jun [unknown; Wang, Mu [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Liu, Feng [ORNL; Zhang, Zhenyu [ORNL; Peng, Ru-Wen [unknown; Zhang, Rong [unknown; Ming, Nai-Ben [unknown

    2007-01-01

    A model is developed to deal with lateral growth of a crystalline layer on a foreign substrate, which is mediated by successive nucleation at the concave corner defined by the meeting of a crystal facet and the substrate. It is demonstrated that due to an imbalance of surface/interface tensions at the concave corner, once the embryo of a nucleus is formed, the crystallographic orientation of the nucleus is spontaneously twisted. By successive nucleation at the concave corner, the crystalline layer develops laterally on the substrate, with its crystallographic orientation continuously rotated. In this way, a regular spatial pattern with well-defined long-range order is eventually achieved. Our model provides a criterion to predict when such an effect becomes observable in the nucleation-mediated lateral growth. The theoretical expectations are consistent with the experimental observations.

  9. Lateral vibration effects in atomic-scale friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, R.; Fajardo, O. Y.; Mazo, J. J.; Meyer, E.; Gnecco, E.

    2014-02-01

    The influence of lateral vibrations on the stick-slip motion of a nanotip elastically pulled on a flat crystal surface is studied by atomic force microscopy measurements on a NaCl(001) surface in ultra-high vacuum. The slippage of the nanotip across the crystal lattice is anticipated at increasing driving amplitude, similarly to what is observed in presence of normal vibrations. This lowers the average friction force, as explained by the Prandtl-Tomlinson model with lateral vibrations superimposed at finite temperature. Nevertheless, the peak values of the lateral force, and the total energy losses, are expected to increase with the excitation amplitude, which may limit the practical relevance of this effect.

  10. LATER models of neural decision behavior in choice tasks

    PubMed Central

    Noorani, Imran

    2014-01-01

    Reaction time has been increasingly used over the last few decades to provide information on neural decision processes: it is a direct reflection of decision time. Saccades provide an excellent paradigm for this because many of them can be made in a very short time and the underlying neural pathways are relatively well-known. LATER (linear approach to threshold with ergodic rate) is a model originally devised to explain reaction time distributions in simple decision tasks. Recently, however it is being extended to increasingly more advanced tasks, including those with decision errors and those requiring voluntary control such as the antisaccade task and those where sequential decisions are required. The strength of this modeling approach lies in its detailed, quantitative predictions of behavior, yet LATER models still retain their conceptual simplicity that made LATER initially successful in explaining reaction times in simple decision tasks. PMID:25202242

  11. Eliminating lateral violence in the ambulatory setting: one center's strategies.

    PubMed

    Dimarino, Tina J

    2011-05-01

    Lateral violence (eg, disruptive, disparaging, or uncivil behavior inflicted by one peer on another) creates an unpleasant work environment that can have harmful effects on individual nurses, team members, patients, and the bottom line of the health care organization. Educating nurses about the most common forms of lateral violence and strategies for handling inappropriate behavior can be the first step toward eliminating this behavior. Effective nursing leaders develop and maintain a "zero-tolerance" culture that includes clear and concise behavioral expectations and consequences for employees who exhibit unprofessional behavior. Use of a code of conduct, open communication, and quick resolution of issues that arise are strategies that one ambulatory surgery center has used to successfully combat lateral violence in the workplace. PMID:21530706

  12. 2D ultrasonic elastography with lateral displacement estimation using statistics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhihong; Liu, Haolin; Cheng, Yangjie

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound elastography is the method of obtaining relative stiffness information of biological tissue, which plays an important role in early diagnosis. Generally, a gradient-based strain imaging algorithm assumes that motion only occurs in an axial direction. However, because tissue has different relative stiffness, the scatter presents lateral motion under high freehand compression. Therefore, errors occur in estimating the cross-correlation phase in the calculation window. A 2D elastography algorithm with lateral displacement estimation using statistics was proposed to reduce errors. The new method was investigated through simulation, and the experiment confirmed that errors introduced by lateral tissue movement have been greatly reduced with no sacrifice of real-time ultrasonic imaging quality. PMID:25226983

  13. DSMC numerical simulation of lateral jet interaction with rarefied atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jie; Li, Zhihui; Li, Xuguo; Fang, Ming

    2014-12-01

    Hybrid Cartesian grids and surface unstructured triangular cells are used in the DSMC method to simulate lateral jet interaction flow with rarefied atmosphere in transitional regime. The self-adaption of uniform Cartesian grid is conducted according to the local density gradient. The parallel DSMC code is used to compute the lateral jet interaction of a three-dimensional flat plate model on low density wind tunnel test conditions. The results of complex flow field structures, surface flow characteristics and separation lengths agree well with experimental data. The supersonic and hypersonic lateral jet interactions with hypersonic rarefied incoming flow on a slender blunt double-cone are investigated. The effects of flight altitudes, free stream velocities and angles of attack on plume-atmosphere interaction flow fields are numerically analyzed. The influences of parameter distributions with uniform /non-uniform nozzle exit on the separation distance and vortex structure near the jet are simulated in detail.

  14. Laparoscopic repair of recurrent lateral enterocele and rectocele.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Ellen R; Muffly, Tyler M; Hull, Tracy; Paraiso, Marie Fidela R

    2015-01-01

    It is difficult to determine what types of procedures should be attempted in patients who have recurrent prolapse. We present a case of recurrent lateral enterocele and rectocele after the patient had undergone multiple surgeries for pelvic organ prolapse (POP), including a vaginal hysterectomy, bladder-neck suspension, anterior colporrhaphy, site-specific rectocele repair, apical mesh implant, iliococcygeus vault suspension, and transobturator suburethral sling procedure. With recurrence, the patient underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic sacral colpopexy, tension-free vaginal tape transobturator sling insertion, rectocele repair, and perineorrhaphy with cystoscopy. She then presented with defecatory outlet obstruction and constipation and subsequently was treated with a stapled transanal rectal resection. The patient returned with continued defecatory dysfunction and a recurrent lateral enterocele and rectocele. The recurrence was treated laparoscopically using a lightweight polypropylene mesh. The postoperative period was uneventful. Two years later, the patient reported decreased defecatory symptoms and no further symptomatic prolapse. PMID:25224146

  15. Strategies of Healthy Adults Walking on a Laterally Oscillating Treadmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Rachel A.; Peters, Brian T.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2008-01-01

    We mounted a treadmill on top of a six degree-of-freedom motion base platform to investigate locomotor responses produced by healthy adults introduced to a dynamic walking surface. The experiment examined self-selected strategies employed by participants when exposed to continuous, sinusoidal lateral motion of the support surface while walking. Torso translation and step width were used to classify responses used to stabilize gait in a novel, dynamic environment. Two response categories emerged. Participants tended to either fix themselves in space (FIS), allowing the treadbelt to move laterally beneath them, or they fixed themselves to the base (FTB), moving laterally as the motion base oscillated. The degree of fixation in both extremes varied across participants. This finding suggests that normal adults have innate and varied preferences for reacquiring gait stability, some depending more heavily on vision (FIS group) and others on proprioception (FTB group). Keywords: Human locomotion, Unstable surface, Treadmill, Adaptation, Stability

  16. A theory for lateral wing-tip blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavella, D.; Roberts, L.

    1985-01-01

    The concept of lateral blowing consists in utilizing thin jets of air, which are ejected in the spanwise direction from slots at the tips of straight and swept wings, or along the leading edges of delta wings, to generate aerodynamic forces without the assistance of deflecting solid surfaces. For weak intensities of blowing the so-generated forces could be used for roll and lateral control of aircraft. In this work a theory for this concept as applied to straight wings is presented, revealing the analytical relationship between blowing and aerodynamic forces. The approach is based on perturbing the span of an elliptically loaded wing. Scaling laws involving blowing intensity, aspect ratio, and angle of attack are derived and compared with experiments. It is concluded that this concept has potential as a novel roll and lateral control device.

  17. [Chemical constituents of lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Sun, Gui-Bo; Lei, Qi-Fang; Li, Guang-Zhi; Wang, Jun-Chi; Si, Jian-Yong

    2014-08-01

    In order to find the cardiotonic constituents of lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx., the investigation was carried out. Silica gel column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20, medium-pressure MCI and reverse phase ODS column chromatography were used to separate the 90% EtOH extract of the lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx. The structures of the isolated compounds have been identified by chemical properties and spectroscopic analyses. Ten compounds were isolated and their structures were elucidated as benzoic acid-5-hydroxy-2-benzoyl-amino methyl ester (1), honokiol (2), pinoresinol (3), salicylic acid (4), p-hydroxy-cinnamic acid (5), songorine (6), karakoline (7), mesaconitine (8), hypaconitine (9) and 14-benzoylhypaconitine (10), separetely. Compound 1 is a new compound and its structure has been established by NMR, HR-ESI-MS, UV, IR and X-Ray. Compound 2-5 are isolated from the lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx. for the first time. PMID:25322557

  18. 38 CFR 3.318 - Presumptive service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. 3.318 Section 3.318 Pensions...service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis manifested at any time after...

  19. 76 FR 78823 - Schedule for Rating Disabilities; Evaluation of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ...criterion for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in the VA Schedule...from the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Association. The comments...the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Association strongly...proposed rule would ``rate multiple disabilities as a...

  20. Evaluation of importance of lateral acceleration derivatives in extraction of lateral-directional derivatives at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, L. T.

    1974-01-01

    A theoretical investigation was conducted to determine the importance of the lateral acceleration (beta) derivatives in the extraction of lateral-directional stability derivatives for swept wing airplanes at high angles of attack. Representative values of lateral acceleration derivatives in yaw and roll (Cn beta and Cl beta) were used in a computer program to generate representative flight motions at several angles of attack and altitudes. The computer-generated motions were then subjected to a parameter identification process based on a modified Newton-Raphson method. Two identification techniques were evaluated, one which included the beta derivatives and one which neglected them. The results of the study indicate that omission of the beta derivatives from mathematical models used in the derivative-extraction techniques can produce erroneous values for the lateral-directional stability derivatives particularly at high angles of attack, where the beta derivatives are large. The largest errors occur in the dynamic derivatives, but large errors may also occur in the static derivatives for cases in which the beta derivatives have large effects on the flight motions of the airplane. In addition, the resulting identified mathematical models provide poor motion prediction as well as erroneous predictions of dynamic modal characteristics. These results strongly indicate that the effects of beta derivatives should be considered in any attempt to extract lateral-directional aerodynamic parameters at high angles of attack.

  1. Morphological characteristics of lateral pelvic lymph nodes in rectal carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyoshi Matsuoka; Tadahiko Masaki; Masanori Sugiyama; Yutaka Atomi; Yasuo Ohkura; Atsuhiko Sakamoto

    2007-01-01

    Aim  Macroscopic and imaging indicators for lymph node metastasis have been documented not in lateral pelvic lymph nodes but in\\u000a mesorectal lymph nodes in patients with rectal carcinoma. We conducted this study to uncover morphological characteristics\\u000a of lateral pelvic lymph nodes in patients with rectal carcinoma.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Fifty-eight patients with locally advanced rectal carcinoma who had total mesorectal excision and

  2. Resume and analysis of NACA lateral control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weick, Fred E; Jones, Robert T

    1937-01-01

    An analysis of the principal results of recent NACA lateral control research is made by utilizing the experience and progress gained during the course of the investigation. Two things are considered of primary importance in judging the effectiveness of different control devices: the (calculated) banking and yawing motion of a typical small airplane caused by a deflection of the control, and the stick force required to produce this deflection. The report includes a table in which a number of different lateral control devices are compared on these bases.

  3. Lateral load test of a drilled shaft in clay 

    E-print Network

    Kasch, Vernon R

    1977-01-01

    LATERAL LOAD TEST OF A DRILLED SHAFT IN CLAY A Thesis by VERNON RAY KASCH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1977 Major Subject...: Civil Engineering LATERAL LOAD TEST OF A DRILLED SHAFT IN CLAY A Thesis by VERNON RAY KASCH Approved as to style and content by: Harry M. Coyle - Ch irman of Committee Charles H. Samson, Jr. Head of Department Wayne . Dunlap - Ne er Christop er C...

  4. Specific biomembrane adhesion -Indirect lateral interactions between bound receptor molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, C. W.; Behrisch, A.; Kloboucek, A.; Simson, D. A.; Merkel, R.

    We studied biomembrane adhesion using the micropipet aspiration technique. Adhesion was caused by contact site A, a laterally mobile and highly specific cell adhesion molecule from Dictyostelium discoideum, reconstituted in lipid vesicles of DOPC (L-?-dioleoylphosphatidylcholine) with an addition of 5 mol % DOPE-PEG{2000} (1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine-N-[poly(ethyleneglycol) 2000]). The "fuzzy" membrane mimics the cellular plasma membrane including the glycocalyx. We found adhesion and subsequent receptor migration into the contact zone. Using membrane tension jumps to probe the equation of state of the two-dimensional "gas" of bound receptor pairs within the contact zone, we found strong, attractive lateral interactions.

  5. An Improved Method of Manufacturing Corrugated Boxes: Lateral Corrugator

    SciTech Connect

    Frank C. Murray Ph.D.; , Roman Popil Ph.D.; Michael Shaepe (formerly with IPST, now at Cargill. Inc)

    2008-12-18

    Paper physicists have known that a corrugated box constructed from outer liner sheets having a predominant fiber orientation aligned with the corrugating flute direction would have higher stiffness and crush resistance (per unit of fiber weight) than the conventional box construction. Such increased performance per unit of fiber weight could result in fiber reduction and energy savings for boxes having equivalent performance specifications. The goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a commercially viable lateral corrugating process. This included designing and building a pilot lateral corrugator, testing and evaluating pilot machine made boxes, and developing a strategy for commercialization.

  6. Negative quantum capacitance in graphene nanoribbons with lateral gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, R.; Derra, U.; Birner, S.; Terrés, B.; Libisch, F.; Burgdörfer, J.; Stampfer, C.

    2014-03-01

    We present numerical simulations of the capacitive coupling between graphene nanoribbons of various widths and gate electrodes in different configurations. We compare the influence of lateral metallic or graphene side gate structures on the overall back gate capacitive coupling. Most interestingly, we find a complex interplay between quantum capacitance effects in the graphene nanoribbon and the lateral graphene side gates, giving rise to an unconventional negative quantum capacitance. The emerging nonlinear capacitive couplings are investigated in detail. The experimentally relevant relative lever arm, the ratio between the coupling of the different gate structures, is discussed.

  7. Lateral groundwater inflows into alluvial aquifers of main alpine valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    In alpine regions the topography is mainly characterised by deep incised valleys, mountain slopes and ridges. Usually the main valleys contain aquifers in alluvial soft rock. Lateral these aquifers are confined by mountainous hard rock slopes covered by heterogeneous sediments with different thickness. The slopes can be incised by lateral valleys. Numerical models for the main alluvial aquifers ask for lateral hydrogeological boundaries. Usually no flow boundaries or Constant head Boundaries are used, even if the lateral inflows to the main aquifers are rarely known. In this example a data set for a detailed investigated and monitored area is studied to give an answer on the location and the quantification of these lateral subsurface inflows. The study area is a typical main alpine valley with a thick alluvial aquifer (appr. 120m thick), lateral confined by granite, covered at the base of the steep slopes by quaternary sediments (Burger at al. 2012). The study consists of several steps 1.) Analytical calculation of the inflows on the base of investigated and monitored 2d profiles along fault zones (Perello et al 2013) which pinch out in the main valley 2.) Analytical models along typical W-dipping slopes with monitored slope springs 3.) Evaluating temperature and electrical conductivity profiles measured in approx. 30 groundwater wells in the alluvial aquifers and along the slopes to locate main lateral subsurface inflows 4.) Output of a regional model used for the hydrogeological back analyses of the excavation of a tunnel (Baietto et al. 2014) 5.) Output of a local numerical model calibrated with a monitoring dataset and results of a pumping test of big scale (450l/s for 10days) Results of these analyses are shown to locate and quantify the lateral groundwater inflows in the main alluvial aquifer. References Baietto A., Burger U., Perello P. (2014): Hydrogeological modelling applications in tunnel excavations: examples from tunnel excavations in granitic rocks; congress of IAEG, Engineering Geology for Society and Territory, Torino Burger U., San Nicoló L. Bösel D. und Perello P. (2012): Hydrogeologische Modelle - Hilfsmittel für die Planung am Beispiel des Brenner Basistunnel, Beiträge zur Beiträge zur COGeo 2011, Salzburg COGEO Perello P., Baietto A., Burger U., Skuk S. (2013): Excavation of the Aica-Mules pilot tunnel for the Brenner base tunnel: information gained on water inflows in tunnels in granitic massifs, Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, DOI 10.1007/s00603-013-0480-x

  8. A TACTILE DISPLAY USING LATERAL SKIN STRETCH Jrme Pasquero

    E-print Network

    Hayward, Vincent

    STRESS: A TACTILE DISPLAY USING LATERAL SKIN STRETCH Jérôme Pasquero Department of ElectricalSS (« Stimulator for Tactile Receptors by Skin Stretch »), un nouvel afficheur tactile qui stimule la peau du bout Jérôme Pasquero, MMIII #12;ii ABSTRACT This thesis describes a new tactile display device (Stimulator

  9. Tactile interface for stimulation of fingertip via lateral traction.

    E-print Network

    Hartmann, Mitra J. Z.

    Tactile interface for stimulation of fingertip via lateral traction. M. Wiertlewski 1 , J. Lozada 1 Intelligents et de Robotique, 75005, Paris, France Abstract: Tactile displays are gaining recognition as new human-machine interfaces. This paper present a low-weight, single-axis tactile interface designed

  10. Restricted lateral diffusion of luteinizing hormone receptors in membrane microdomains.

    PubMed

    Wolf-Ringwall, Amber L; Winter, Peter W; Liu, Jingjing; Van Orden, Alan K; Roess, Deborah A; Barisas, B George

    2011-08-26

    Single particle tracking was used to evaluate lateral motions of individual FLAG-tagged human luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors expressed on CHO cells and native LH receptors on both KGN human granulosa-derived tumor cells and M17 human neuroblastoma cells before and after exposure to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Compared with LH receptors on untreated cells, LH receptors on cells treated with 100 nm hCG exhibit restricted lateral diffusion and are confined in small, nanometer-scale, membrane compartments. Similar to LH receptors labeled with Au-hCG, LH receptors labeled with gold-deglycosylated hCG, an hCG antagonist, also exhibit restricted lateral diffusion and are confined in nanoscale membrane compartments on KGN cells treated with 100 nm hCG. LH receptor point mutants lacking potential palmitoylation sites remain in large compartments despite treatment with 100 nm hCG as do LH receptors on cells treated with cytochalasin D. Finally, both polarization homotransfer fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging and photon counting histogram analysis indicate that treatment with hCG induces aggregation of YFP-coupled LH receptors stably expressed on CHO cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate that binding of hCG induces aggregation of LH receptors within nanoscale, cell surface membrane compartments, that hCG binding also affects the lateral motions of antagonist binding LH receptors, and that receptor surface densities must be considered in evaluating the extent of hormone-dependent receptor aggregation. PMID:21690095

  11. Thomson Reuters to release Book Citation Index later this year

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maxine Aldred

    2011-01-01

    Thomson Reuters will launch its new Book Citation Index later this year. Projected to include 25,000 volumes from major publishers and university presses in science, social science, and the humanities, the Book Citation Index will cover scholarly books (both series and nonseries) that present original research or literature reviews. The current effort regarding the science section is focused on books

  12. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: New Developments in Diagnostic Markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reinhard Dengler; Nils von Neuhoff; Johannes Bufler; Klaus Krampfl; Thomas Peschel; Julian Grosskreutz

    2005-01-01

    There is an intensive search for diagnostic markers in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Protein analysis (proteomics) of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) appears particularly promising using mass spectrometry and 2-D gel electrophoresis to detect low and high molecular weight proteins, respectively. It is open whether protein changes specific for ALS will be found. This also holds true for inflammatory proteins such

  13. Severe hypoxia impairs lateralization in a marine teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Lucon-Xiccato, Tyrone; Nati, Julie J H; Blasco, Felipe Rocco; Johansen, Jacob L; Steffensen, John F; Domenici, Paolo

    2014-12-01

    In intertidal environments, the recurring hypoxic condition at low tide is one of the main factors affecting fish behaviour, causing broad effects on ecological interactions. We assessed the effects of hypoxia on lateralization (e.g. the tendency to turn left or right), a behaviour related to brain functional asymmetry, which is thought to play a key role in several life history aspects of fish. Using staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus), a benthic fish that typically inhabits the intertidal zone, we found that hypoxia affects behavioural lateralization at the population level. On average, staghorn sculpins showed a distinct preference for right turns under normoxic conditions (>90% oxygen saturation), but an equal probability of turning right or left after exposure to hypoxia for 2 h (20% oxygen saturation). The specific turning preference observed in the staghorn sculpin control population is likely to have an adaptive value, for example in predator-prey interactions by enhancing attack success or survival from predatory attacks. Therefore the alteration of lateralization expressed by staghorn sculpins under hypoxic conditions may have far-reaching implications for species ecology and trophic interactions. Moreover, our work raises the need to study this effect in other species, in which a hypoxia-driven disruption of lateralization could affect a wider range of behaviours, such as social interactions and schooling. PMID:25359933

  14. Lateralization of gene expression in human language cortex.

    PubMed

    Karlebach, Guy; Francks, Clyde

    2015-06-01

    Lateralization is an important aspect of the functional brain architecture for language and other cognitive faculties. The molecular genetic basis of human brain lateralization is unknown, and recent studies have suggested that gene expression in the cerebral cortex is bilaterally symmetrical. Here we have re-analyzed two transcriptomic datasets derived from post mortem human cerebral cortex, with a specific focus on superior temporal and auditory language cortex in adults. We applied an empirical Bayes approach to model differential left-right expression, together with gene ontology (GO) analysis and meta-analysis. There was robust and reproducible lateralization of individual genes and GO groups that are likely to fine-tune the electrophysiological and neurotransmission properties of cortical circuits, most notably synaptic transmission, nervous system development and glutamate receptor activity. Our findings anchor the cerebral biology of language to the molecular genetic level. Future research in model systems may determine how these molecular signatures of neurophysiological lateralization effect fine-tuning of cerebral cortical function, differently in the two hemispheres. PMID:25863470

  15. Fluid dynamics based prediction of liquefaction induced lateral spreading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Uzuoka; A. Yashima; T. Kawakami; J.-M. Konrad

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents and verifies a numerical method to predict the lateral spreading of liquefied subsoil based on fluid dynamics. A numerical fluid dynamics code is modified to incorporate the Bingham viscosity with the minimum undrained strength of liquefied subsoil. The numerical method is applied to shaking table tests of a liquefied slope with and without an underground structure and

  16. Rupture of the quadriceps tendon after arthroscopic lateral meniscectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renato Viola; Nicola Marzano; Roberto Vianello

    2001-01-01

    We report a case of complete quadriceps tendon rupture that occured a few days after arthroscopic lateral meniscectomy. Complications following arthroscopy are rare; there have been many reports of quadriceps tendon rupture in the literature, but none by this kind of mechanism.

  17. Lateral sinus thrombosis associated with zoster sine herpete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Chan; Richard T. Bergstrom; Donald C. Lanza; John G. Oas

    2004-01-01

    Herpes zoster results from reactivation of the varicella zoster virus (VZV). Zoster sine herpete (ZSH) is an uncommon manifestation of VZV infection and presents with similar symptoms but without the vesicular rash. We describe an unusual case of lateral sinus thrombosis (LST) that developed during the clinical course of ZSH in the C2 distribution. A 55-year-old woman presented with a

  18. Preview Control for Vehicle Lateral Guidance in Highway Automation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huei Peng; Masayoshi Tomizuka

    1991-01-01

    Continuous deterministic preview control is applied to the vehicle lateral contol problem. It is shown that the preview control consists of a feedback term and two feedforward terms. If the preview control algorithm is applied on the FSLQ augmented system, the feedback term will be exactly the same as the FSLQ feedback control law. Therefore, the advantages of the FSLQ

  19. Planning in Middle Childhood: Early Predictors and Later Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Sarah L.; Scholnick, Ellin K.; Bender, Randall H.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Spieker, Susan; Pasek, Kathy Hirsh; Keating, Daniel P.; Park, Yoonjung

    2014-01-01

    Data from 1,364 children and families who participated in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were analyzed to track the early correlates and later academic outcomes of planning during middle childhood. Maternal education, through its effect on parenting quality when…

  20. Lateral Position Dependence of MIMO Capacity in a Hallway

    E-print Network

    Ellingson, Steven W.

    Lateral Position Dependence of MIMO Capacity in a Hallway at 2.4 GHz Steve Ellingson & Mahmud Harun & State University ellingson@vt.edu #12;2 MIMO Capacity Ellingson ­ Jan 5, 2008 Hallway Scenarios Capacity Ellingson ­ Jan 5, 2008 MIMO in Hallways (From: D. Porrat, P. Kyritsi, and D.C. Cox, "MIMO

  1. Insular Lateralization in Tinnitus Distress.1 van der Loo, E.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Insular Lateralization in Tinnitus Distress.1 van der Loo, E. 1 , Congedo, M. 2 , Vanneste, S. 1;Abstract8 Tinnitus affects 15% of the population. Of these 1­2% are severely disabled by it. The role of9 the autonomic system in tinnitus is hardly being investigated. The aim of this study is to10 investigate

  2. Later Life Learning Experience among Chinese Elderly in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Angela; Lui, Yu-Hon; Chi, Iris

    2005-01-01

    In a world with increasing numbers of older adults and a worldwide emphasis placed on lifelong learning, it is crucial to examine and formulate appropriate policy for learning in later life (LLL). Hong Kong has a rapidly aging population, which is projected to double within the next 25 years. However, lifelong learning for the elderly has yet to…

  3. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, August 1951 LATERAL VIEW, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, August 1951 LATERAL VIEW, EAST FRONT, OLD PHOTOGRAPH c. 1850 Restricted: Permission for use must be obtained in writing from Art Library, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. - Skinner-Trowbridge House, 46 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  4. Ratchet effects in graphene and quantum wells with lateral superlattice

    SciTech Connect

    Golub, L. E.; Nalitov, A. V.; Ivchenko, E. L. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Olbrich, P.; Kamann, J.; Eroms, J.; Weiss, D.; Ganichev, S. D. [Terahertz Center, University of Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany)

    2013-12-04

    Theoretical and experimental studies on the ratchet effects in graphene and in quantum wells with a lateral superlattice excited by alternating electric fields of terahertz frequency range are presented. We discuss the Seebeck ratchet effect and helicity driven photocurrents and show that the photocurrent generation is based on the combined action of a spatially periodic in-plane potential and a spatially modulated light.

  5. A Longitudinal Study of the Development of Dichhaptic Lateralization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Blerkom, Malcolm L.

    A follow-up study was made of cross-sectional research on the development of dichhaptic lateralization. One hundred and eighty students in grades 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 from two school districts were tested. Participants were 9 boys and 9 girls from each grade level for each district. Subjects were at least 90 percent right-handed, as determined by…

  6. Acoustic Investigations into the Later Acquisition of Syllabic "-es" Plurals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mealings, Kiri T.; Cox. Felicity; Demuth, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Children acquire /-ez/ syllabic plurals (e.g., buses) later than /-s, -z/ segmental plurals (e.g., cats,dogs). In this study, the authors explored whether increased syllable number or segmental factors best explains poorer performance with syllabic plurals. Method: An elicited imitation experiment was conducted with 14 two-year-olds…

  7. Differences in motor laterality between breeds of performance horse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul D. McGreevy; Peter C. Thomson

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between motor laterality in horses bred for different types of work and therefore different temperaments. Foreleg preference during grazing was measured in three populations of domestic horse, Thoroughbreds (TB, bred to race at the gallop), Standardbreds (SB, bred for pacing) and Quarter Horses (QH, in this case bred for so-called “cutting work” which involves manoeuvring

  8. CRJ Aircraft Flight Simulation: A Lateral System Identification Study

    E-print Network

    Liu, Hugh H.T.

    CRJ Aircraft Flight Simulation: A Lateral System Identification Study Prof. Hugh H.T. Liu 30-Jul-2007 The "Flight Systems and Control" research laboratory at the UTIAS is in- terested in aircraft integrated modeling and simulation. Our previous work [1] investigated system identification for longitudinal

  9. Electrical Transport Study of Patterned Lateral Niobium-Permalloy Junctions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saidur Rahman Bakaul; Kebin Li; Guchang Han; Yihong Wu

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the interplay between magnetic domain walls and superconductivity we study the electrical transport property of lateral Nb-permalloy-Nb junctions where the permalloy thickness is varied from 50 to 90 nm. Magnetic force microscopy images confirm the presence of domain walls in the ferromagnetic portion between the two superconducting electrodes for samples with permalloy thickness of 60, 70

  10. Controller design for improving lateral vehicle dynamic stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung-Jin Heo; Inho Baek

    2001-01-01

    A vehicle dynamics control system has been developed in this study for improving vehicle dynamic stability under critical lateral motions. The system consists of a feedforward controller, a state feedback controller, and an estimator for the body sideslip angle. The linear quadratic regulator theory has been exploited for the state feedback gain, and for estimation of the body sideslip angle,

  11. Language Lateralization in Children Using Functional Transcranial Doppler Sonography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haag, Anja; Moeller, Nicola; Knake, Susanne; Hermsen, Anke; Oertel, Wolfgang H.; Rosenow, Felix; Hamer, Hajo M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Language lateralization with functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) and lexical word generation has been shown to have high concordance with the Wada test and functional magnetic resonance imaging in adults. We evaluated a nonlexical paradigm to determine language dominance in children. Method: In 23 right-handed children (12…

  12. Characterization of charge carrier lateral conduction in irradiated dielectric materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Hanna; T. Paulmier; M. Belhaj; P. Molinie; B. Dirassen; D. Payan; N. Balcon

    2011-01-01

    A characterization method for surface charging analysis on insulators submitted to electron irradiation has been developed. This method, based on the use of two Kelvin probes (KPs), provides details on the transit time motion for injection of both holes and electrons. It can also be used to assess the isotropy of lateral electrical conduction on the sample. The feasibility of

  13. 14 CFR 25.147 - Directional and lateral control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...allow normal maneuvers (such as recovery from upsets produced by gusts and the initiation of evasive maneuvers). There must be...to allow a limited amount of maneuvering and to correct for gusts. Lateral control must be enough at any speed up to V FC...

  14. 14 CFR 25.147 - Directional and lateral control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...allow normal maneuvers (such as recovery from upsets produced by gusts and the initiation of evasive maneuvers). There must be...to allow a limited amount of maneuvering and to correct for gusts. Lateral control must be enough at any speed up to V FC...

  15. 14 CFR 25.147 - Directional and lateral control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...allow normal maneuvers (such as recovery from upsets produced by gusts and the initiation of evasive maneuvers). There must be...to allow a limited amount of maneuvering and to correct for gusts. Lateral control must be enough at any speed up to V FC...

  16. 14 CFR 25.147 - Directional and lateral control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...allow normal maneuvers (such as recovery from upsets produced by gusts and the initiation of evasive maneuvers). There must be...to allow a limited amount of maneuvering and to correct for gusts. Lateral control must be enough at any speed up to V FC...

  17. Traumatic transection of the lateral rectus muscle with chorioretinitis sclopetaria.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Kelly; Verity, David; Ali, Nadeem

    2015-03-01

    A man, aged 67 years, sustained monocular trauma to the left eye while gardening, presenting with light perception, complete absence of abduction, and chorioretinitis sclopetaria. At surgery, the lateral rectus was found to be transected at the equator of the globe, with an area of locally abraded sclera. A few posterior muscle fibers were identified and sutured to the residual anterior fibers. With a partial improvement of the esodeviation, after a further 6 months he proceeded to lateral transposition of the superior and inferior recti to healthy sclera 4?mm from the limbus, with adjunctive medial rectus botulinum toxin. Six months later, the angle of primary deviation remained stable at 4 prism diopters base out with improved abduction. Vision in the eye remained reduced at 20/200 (with eccentric fixation) due to macular changes secondary to the sclopetaria. In conclusion, this case describes a rare example of complete traumatic transection of the lateral rectus with chorioretinitis sclopetaria, due to orbital injury. With appropriate surgery, the angle of deviation can be considerably improved despite complete muscle transection and scleral injury. PMID:25790075

  18. 9. VIEW SHOWING CHILDREN SWIMMING IN A LATERAL OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW SHOWING CHILDREN SWIMMING IN A LATERAL OF THE GRAND CANAL LOCATION UNKNOWN. THE HUGE COTTONWOOD TREES THAT ONCE-LINED MOST CANALS AND DITCHES WERE CUT DOWN WHEN IT WAS DISCOVERED THAT THEY CONSUMED HUNDREDS OF GALLONS OF WATER EACH DAY. Photographer unknown, no date - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. Minimal incision rhytidectomy (short scar face lift) with lateral SMASectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel C. Baker

    2001-01-01

    Minimal incision rhytidectomy has the primary advantages of preserving the posterior hairline and avoiding retroauricular scars. This short-scar face lift with lateral SMASectomy and platysma resection, performed by the author on more than 500 patients in the past 3 years, provides the versatility of traditional SMAS flap undermining and the safety and rapidity of SMAS plication.

  20. Early Father's and Mother's Involvement and Child's Later Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, E.; Buchanan, A.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated the individual long-term contributions that mothers and fathers make to their children's schooling. Aims: (1) To explore the role of early father involvement in children's later educational attainment independently of the role of early mother involvement and other confounds, (2) to investigate whether…