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1

Nonunion of slightly displaced fractures of the lateral humeral condyle in children: an update.  

PubMed

Inadequate treatment continues to be the leading cause of nonunion of slightly displaced fractures of pediatric lateral humeral condyles, despite references to prevention in the orthopaedic literature. In most cases, the elbow was established nonunion can be salvaged by early stabilization and bone grafting, provided that the fragment is in acceptable position and the growth plate of the condylar fragment is open. Procrastination may allow the physis of the condylar fragment to close prematurely, preemptying the golden opportunity to salvage the child's elbow. The author has collected 23 similar cases from correspondence with 17 orthopaedic surgeons. PMID:2600178

Flynn, J C

2

Screw osteosynthesis in the treatment of fracture lateral humeral condyle in children.  

PubMed

We reviewed the results of screw osteosynthesis for the treatment of fracture lateral condylar physis in twenty children whose average age was six years old (range, two to ten years) at the time of operation from January 1998 till December 2000. The average interval between the injury and the operation was three and half days (range, one day to two weeks). The average duration of follow up was one year (range, one year to two years). Osteosynthesis was revised in two patients due to anterior placement of screw and rotated distal fracture fragment. Osseous union was achieved in all twenty patients. The result was rated excellent in nineteen patients and good in one patient. PMID:14569766

Baharuddin, M; Sharaf, I

2001-12-01

3

Management of neglected lateral condyle fractures of humerus in children: A retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Background: Late presentation of humeral lateral condylar fracture in children is a surgical dilemma. Osteosynthesis of the fracture fragment or correction of elbow deformity with osteotomies and ulnar nerve transposition or sometimes both procedures combined is a controversial topic. We retrospectively evaluated open reduction and fixation cases in late presentation of lateral humeral condyle fracture in pediatric cases with regards to union and functional results. Materials and Methods: Twenty two pediatric (?12 years) patients with fractures of lateral condyle presenting 4 weeks or more post injury between the study period of 2006 and 2010 were included. Multiple K-wires / with or without screws along with bone grafting were used. At final evaluation, union (radiologically) and elbow function (Liverpool Elbow Score, LES) was assessed. Results: There were 19 boys and 3 girls. Followup averaged 33 months. Pain (n=9), swelling (n=6), restriction of elbow motion (n=6), prominence of lateral condylar region (n=4), valgus deformity (n=4) were the main presenting symptoms. Ulnar nerve function was normal in all patients. There were nine Milch type I and 13 type II fractures. Union occurred in 20 cases. One case had malunion and in another case there was resorption of condyle following postoperative infection and avascular necrosis. Prominent lateral condyles (4/12), fish tail appearance (n=7), premature epiphyseal closure (n=2) were other observations. LES averaged 8.12 (range, 6.66-9.54) at final followup. Conclusions: There is high rate of union and satisfactory elbow function in late presenting lateral condyle fractures in children following osteosynthesis attempt. Our study showed poor correlation between patient's age, duration of late presentation or Milch type I or II and final elbow function as determined by LES.

Agarwal, Anil; Qureshi, Nadeem Akhtar; Gupta, Neeraj; Verma, Indreshwar; Pandey, Devreshi Kumar

2012-01-01

4

Osteochondritis dissecans of the lateral femoral condyle following total resection of the discoid lateral meniscus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical presentation of 6 athletically active children with symptomatic osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the lateral femoral condyle following total resection for a torn discoid lateral meniscus and to discuss its cause. Type of Study: Case series. Methods: Six patients in whom OCD affecting the lateral femoral condyle developed after total

Hiroshi Mizuta; Eiichi Nakamura; Yutaka Otsuka; Satoshi Kudo; Katsumasa Takagi

2001-01-01

5

Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Lateral Femoral Condyle of the Knee Joint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Differences in the features of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) affecting the lateral and medial femoral condyles were investigated in 13 patients (14 knees) treated from 1991 to 1994. OCD affected the lateral femoral condyle in 6 knees (lateral group) and the medial condyle in 8 knees (medial group). The lateral group was younger (mean age, 14 v 20 years). The

Tomoki Mitsuoka; Konsei Shino; Masayuki Hamada; Shuji Horibe

1999-01-01

6

Quantifying lateral femoral condyle ellipticalness in chimpanzees, gorillas, and humans.  

PubMed

Articular surfaces of limb bones provide information for understanding animal locomotion because their size and shape are a reflection of habitual postures and movements. Here we present a novel method for quantifying the ellipticalness (i.e., departure from perfectly circular) of the lateral femoral condyle (LFC), applying this technique to hominid femora. Three-dimensional surface models were created for 49 Homo sapiens, 34 Pan troglodytes and 25 Gorilla gorilla femora. Software was developed that fit separate cylinders to each of the femoral condyles. These cylinders were constrained to have a single axis, but could have different radii. The cylinder fit to the LFC was allowed to assume an elliptical cross-section, while the cylinder fit to the medial condyle was constrained to remain circular. The shape of the elliptical cylinder (ratio of the major and minor axes of the ellipse) was recorded, and the orientation of the elliptical cylinder quantified as angles between the major axis of the ellipse and the anatomical and mechanical axes of the femur. Species were compared using analysis of variance and post hoc multiple comparisons tests. Confirming qualitative descriptions, human LFCs are more elliptical than those of chimpanzees and gorillas. Human femora exhibit a narrow range for the angle between the major axis of the elliptical cylinder and femoral axes. Conversely, the chimpanzee sample is bimodal for these angles, exhibiting two ellipse orientations, while Gorilla shows no preferred angle. Our results suggest that like modern human femora, chimpanzee femoral condyles have preferentially used regions. PMID:23042636

Sylvester, Adam D; Pfisterer, Theresa

2012-10-05

7

Meniscoplasty for stable osteochondritis dissecans of the lateral femoral condyle combined with a discoid lateral meniscus: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Osteochondritis dissecans of the lateral femoral condyle is relatively rare, and it is reported to often be combined with a discoid lateral meniscus. Given the potential for healing, conservative management is indicated for stable osteochondritis dissecans in patients who are skeletally immature. However, patients with osteochondritis dissecans of the lateral femoral condyle combined with a discoid lateral meniscus often have persistent symptoms despite conservative management. Case presentation We present the case of a seven-year-old Korean girl who had osteochondritis dissecans of the lateral femoral condyle combined with a discoid lateral meniscus, which healed after meniscoplasty for the symptomatic lateral discoid meniscus without surgical intervention for the osteochondritis dissecans. In addition, healing of the osteochondritis dissecans lesion was confirmed by an MRI scan five months after the operation. Conclusions Meniscoplasty can be recommended for symptomatic stable juvenile osteochondritis dissecans of the lateral femoral condyle combined with a discoid lateral meniscus when conservative treatment fails.

2011-01-01

8

Intra-articular lateral femoral condyle fracture following an ACL revision reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateral femoral condyle fractures following an ACL reconstruction are rare. To our knowledge, this is the first case report\\u000a of a lateral femoral condyle fracture following a revision ACL reconstruction. The patient’s fracture was intra-articular,\\u000a had a significant amount of soft tissue damage, and was further complicated by a large defect involving the bone tunnel from\\u000a the ACL revision reconstruction.

Benjamin R. Coobs; Stanislav I. Spiridonov; Robert F. LaPrade

2010-01-01

9

Treatment of displaced supracondylar humeral fractures among children: Crossed versus lateral pinning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This retrospective study evaluated different pinning configurations used in the treatment of displaced supracondylar humeral fractures among children, mainly regarding maintenance of fracture reduction and avoidance of complications. The fractures (41 type II and 67 type III) of 108 children (mean age 6.48 years) were treated by closed reduction and percutaneous pinning: 37 with crossed pins, 37 with two lateral

Mohammed M. Zamzam; Khalid A. Bakarman

2008-01-01

10

Treatment of displaced supracondylar humeral fractures among children: Crossed versus lateral pinning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This retrospective study evaluated different pinning configurations used in the treatment of displaced supracondylar humeral fractures among children, mainly regarding maintenance of fracture reduction and avoidance of complications. The fractures (41 type II and 67 type III) of 108 children (mean age 6.48 years) were treated by closed reduction and percutaneous pinning: 37 with crossed pins, 37 with two lateral

Mohammed M. Zamzam; Khalid A. Bakarman

2009-01-01

11

Arthroscopically-assisted reduction and fixation of an old osteochondral fracture of the lateral femoral condyle  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Osteochondral fracture (OCF) of the lateral femoral condyle has a low incidence and old OCF is even more rarely seen; it is difficult to differentiate from late osteochondritis dissecans (OCD). Case Report In this report, we present the case of a 20-year-old male patient with an old OCF of the lateral femoral condyle. The possible etiology of OCF is discussed, along with its clinical manifestation, diagnosis, and treatment. He underwent arthroscopically-assisted reduction and fixation with cannulated screws. Four months after the surgery, arthroscopy showed good osteochondral healing, and screws were removed. He had achieved good functional recovery by the follow-up visit. Conclusions Old OCF should be distinguished from OCD in clinical practice, and osteochondral bodies should be preserved as much as possible. Osteochondral reduction and fixation under arthroscopy was minimal and the clinical effect was good.

Li, Runguang; Guo, Gang; Chen, Bin; Zhu, Lijun; Lin, Angru

2012-01-01

12

Is there an influence of the tibial slope of the lateral condyle on the ACL lesion?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effect of the tibial slope on the anterior cruciate ligament lesion (separately on the lateral and\\u000a medial tibial condyle). The study consisted of 33 matched pairs of patients divided into two groups: an examined group with\\u000a a diagnosed ACL lesion, and a control group with diagnosed patellofemoral pain. The patients were matched on the basis of

Lazar Stijak; Richard F. Herzog; Pascal Schai

2008-01-01

13

Lateral condyle fracture of a child's humerus: the radiographic features may be subtle.  

PubMed

Fractures of the lateral condyle of the humerus in children are relatively common and can be easily missed on initial plain radiographs especially in the younger age group. We present a case in which diagnosis of this fracture was delayed for five weeks and therefore presented more challenging surgical management. The salient features that were apparent on the initial radiograph at presentation are discussed as is the use of further imaging techniques that may help to clarify the initial diagnosis. This could significantly reduce the risk of serious complications such as chronic pain, deformity and nerve palsy. PMID:22859815

Gaston, M S; Irwin, G J; Huntley, J S

2012-08-01

14

The role of the lateral pterygoid muscle in the sagittal fracture of mandibular condyle (SFMC) healing process.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the role of the lateral peterygoid muscle in the reconstruction of the shape of the condyle during healing of a sagittal fracture of the mandibular condyle. Twenty adult sheep were divided into 2 groups: all had a unilateral operation on the right side when the anterior and posterior attachments of the discs were cut, and an oblique vertical osteotomy was made from the lateral pole of the condyle to the medial side of the condylar neck. Ten sheep had the lateral pterygoid muscle cut, and the other 10 sheep did not. Sheep were killed at 4 weeks (n=2 from each group), 12 weeks (n=4), and 24 weeks (n=4) postoperatively. Computed tomograms (CT) were taken before and after operations. We dissected the joints, and recorded with the naked eye the shape, degree of erosion, and amount of calcification of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). In the group in which the lateral peterygoid muscle had not been cut the joints showed overgrowth of new bone and more advanced ankylosis. Our results show that the lateral pterygoid muscle plays an important part in reconstructing the shape of the condyle during the healing of a sagittal fracture of the mandibular condyle, and combined with the dislocated and damaged disc is an important factor in the aetiology of traumatic ankylosis of the TMJ. PMID:21802803

Liu, Chng-Kui; Liu, Ping; Meng, Fan-Wen; Deng, Bang-Lian; Xue, Yang; Mao, Tian-Qiu; Hu, Kai-Jin

2011-07-29

15

Evaluation of compression generated by self compressing Orthofix bone pins and lag screws in simulated lateral humeral condylar fractures.  

PubMed

A simulated lateral humeral condylar fracture was created in each of the 52 humeri collected from 26 dogs. One humerus from each pair was stabilized with a 2.0 mm cortical bone screw which was inserted in lag fashion. The other humerus from each pair was stabilized with a 2.2 mm threaded diameter Orthofix pin inserted across the condyle. Prior to each repair, an antirotational K-wire was placed and then the Pressurex Sensitive film was inserted in the osteotomy site in order to determine the compressive pressure (MPa), compressive force (KN), and area of compression (cm(2)) achieved during fixation. The maximum insertional torque achieved before stripping was measured for each implant. The mean compression generated by insertion of a 2.0 mm lag screw was 20.36 +/- 1.51 MPa compared to 18.88 +/- 1.76 MPa generated by a 2.2 mm Orthofix pin (p < 0.003). The mean area of compression generated by insertion of a 2.0 mm lag screw was 2.39 +/- 1.29 cm(2), compared to 1.16 +/- 0.84 cm(2) generated by insertion of a 2.2 mm Orthofix pin (p < 0.0001). The mean compressive force (compression x area compressed) generated by insertion of a 2.0 mm lag screw was 4.96 +/- 2.90 Kn, compared to 2.20 +/- 1.65 Kn generated by insertion of a 2.2 mm Orthofix pin (p < 0.0001). The mean insertion torque to failure for the lag screws was 0.49 +/- 0.07 NM, compared to 0.91 NM +/- 0.18 NM generated by the Orthofix pins (P < 0.0001). Both repair methods are likely to be acceptable for the repair of similar fractures in small breed dogs. PMID:17846682

Daubs, B M; McLaughlin, R M; Silverman, E; Rizon, J

2007-01-01

16

Treatment of displaced supracondylar humeral fractures among children: crossed versus lateral pinning.  

PubMed

This retrospective study evaluated different pinning configurations used in the treatment of displaced supracondylar humeral fractures among children, mainly regarding maintenance of fracture reduction and avoidance of complications. The fractures (41 type II and 67 type III) of 108 children (mean age 6.48 years) were treated by closed reduction and percutaneous pinning: 37 with crossed pins, 37 with two lateral pins and 34 with two lateral and one medial pin. Mean follow-up period was 7.4 months. Type III fractures fixed by two lateral pins were found significantly prone to postoperative instability, late complications and need for medial pin fixation. There was a significant relation between either delay to surgery or postoperative instability and occurrence of complications. Final outcome was significantly poorer in type III than in type II fractures. Fixation by two lateral pins only is not recommended for treating type III supracondylar humeral fractures, but could be used initially to fix severely unstable fractures to allow extension of the elbow before inserting a medial pin. Every effort should be made to avoid iatrogenic ulnar nerve injury while inserting the medial pin. PMID:19394928

Zamzam, Mohammed M; Bakarman, Khalid A

2009-04-23

17

Patellar instability with increased knee flexion due to lateral femoral condyle distal dysplasia: a report of two cases.  

PubMed

We present two case reports with clinical and radiological assessment of the anatomical features at the distal lateral end of trochlea and femur in patients with patellar instability in higher knee flexion and how these findings could possibly be involved in the genesis of this rare type of patellar instability. Both patients underwent several (nine and seven) surgical procedures, but the patellar instability could not be successfully eliminated. Our hypothesis was that a short and flattened lateral distal condyle/trochlea may cause lateral patellar instability in higher flexion. We found considerable anatomical variations at the distal lateral femoral condyle and trochlea in both patients. Individually tailored surgical procedures were selected for each patient according to the documented variations and the previous operations. Our surgical interventions consisted of different components, such as osteotomy of the distal lateral femoral condyle/trochlea with lengthening and elevation, balancing of the medial and lateral patellar soft tissue structures, MPFL reconstruction, transposition of the medialised tibial tubercle and the patellar tendon back to lateral to the normal initial anatomical position. With these procedures, lateral patellar instability with increased flexion could be completely eliminated in both patients at the 1- and 2-year follow-up. Our experience of assessment and treatment of these patients let us conclude that variations of the distal lateral femoral condyle/trochlea morphology may be responsible for patellar instability with increased flexion. This is another type of patellar instability caused by distal condyle/trochlea dysplasia compared to the well known and often described types of patellar instability close to extension caused by proximal trochlea dysplasia. PMID:21440445

Biedert, Roland M

2011-03-25

18

Outcome of lateral humeral condylar mass fractures in children associated with elbow dislocation or olecranon fracture  

PubMed Central

Of 2,502 elbow/humeral injuries treated at our department between 1990 and 2005, we identified a cohort of 20 lateral condylar mass (LCM) fractures of the humerus in children associated with elbow dislocation (n?=?12; mean age 8.2 years) or with olecranon fracture (n?=?8; mean age 4.1 years). Eight patients with undisplaced fracture pattern were treated conservatively yielding a satisfactory outcome. Good to excellent results were obtained in the majority (85%). Overall, the result was poor in three patients (15%; 25% of the operated cohort) due to terminal 20–30° loss of extension. There was no obvious difference in the outcome between the isolated displaced LCM fractures described in the literature and this cohort. Testing of elbow stability by examination under anaesthesia is stressed. Undisplaced fracture patterns need to be closely observed. Parents should be warned about the likelihood of some degree of unfavourable outcome in the displaced LCM fractures with associated elbow injuries.

Sibinski, M.; Sherlock, D. A.

2007-01-01

19

Giant cell tumour of bone: reconstruction of the index metacarpophalangeal joint with an osteochondral graft from the lateral femoral condyle.  

PubMed

We describe the successful reconstruction of the index finger metacarpophalangeal joint with an osteochondral autograft from the lateral femoral condyle following failed curettage and cementation of a giant cell tumour of the proximal phalanx base. At the 2-year follow-up, a good functional outcome was noted with 0-80° range of motion of the metacarpophalangeal joint and no clinical or radiographic evidence of tumour recurrence. PMID:22999591

Spiro, Alexander S; Pogoda, Pia; Amling, Michael; Meenen, Norbert M; Zustin, Jozef; Rueger, Johannes M; Priemel, Matthias H

2012-09-19

20

Outcome of lateral humeral condylar mass fractures in children associated with elbow dislocation or olecranon fracture.  

PubMed

Of 2,502 elbow/humeral injuries treated at our department between 1990 and 2005, we identified a cohort of 20 lateral condylar mass (LCM) fractures of the humerus in children associated with elbow dislocation (n = 12; mean age 8.2 years) or with olecranon fracture (n = 8; mean age 4.1 years). Eight patients with undisplaced fracture pattern were treated conservatively yielding a satisfactory outcome. Good to excellent results were obtained in the majority (85%). Overall, the result was poor in three patients (15%; 25% of the operated cohort) due to terminal 20-30 degrees loss of extension. There was no obvious difference in the outcome between the isolated displaced LCM fractures described in the literature and this cohort. Testing of elbow stability by examination under anaesthesia is stressed. Undisplaced fracture patterns need to be closely observed. Parents should be warned about the likelihood of some degree of unfavourable outcome in the displaced LCM fractures with associated elbow injuries. PMID:17940766

Sharma, H; Sibinski, M; Sherlock, D A

2007-10-17

21

The position of anterior cruciate ligament in frontal and sagittal plane and its relation to the inner side of the lateral femoral condyle.  

PubMed

The position of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the anatomical factors that lead to its injury. We evaluated 66 patients divided in two groups: 33 patients in the examined group with a diagnosed ACL lesion, and 33 patients in the control group with diagnosed patellofemoral pain. The patients were matched by age, sex, type of lesion (whether it was profession related) and whether the lesion was left or right sided. Measurements were carried out by radiography and MRI. The following positions of angles were measured: the angle of ACL in sagittal and frontal plane, the angle of the inner side of lateral condyle in frontal and horizontal plane and the angle between the course of ACL and the inner side of lateral condyle. In our study there is a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the degree of the ACL angles in the frontal plane between the examined group (74.5 degrees) and the control group (70.6 degrees). Also, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the degree of the ACL angle in the sagittal plane between the examined group (48 degrees ) and the control (50.4 degrees). The angle between the inner side of the lateral condyle of the femur and the ACL of the examined group (32.9 degrees) differs significantly (P < 0.01) from the same angle of the control group (40.6 degrees ). According to the results of our study it appears that the increment of the ACL angle in the frontal plane, the decrement of the ACL angle in the sagittal plane and the decrement of the angle between the ACL and the inner side of the lateral condyle in the frontal plane are associated with the rupture of the ACL. PMID:19229517

Stijak, Lazar; Radonji?, Vidosava; Nikoli?, Valentina; Blagojevi?, Zoran; Herzog, Richard F

2009-02-20

22

Is there an influence of the tibial slope of the lateral condyle on the ACL lesion? A case-control study.  

PubMed

This study examines the effect of the tibial slope on the anterior cruciate ligament lesion (separately on the lateral and medial tibial condyle). The study consisted of 33 matched pairs of patients divided into two groups: an examined group with a diagnosed ACL lesion, and a control group with diagnosed patellofemoral pain. The patients were matched on the basis of four attributes: age, sex, type of lesion (whether it was profession-related), and whether the lesion was left- or right-sided. Measurements were carried out by radiography and MRI. In the examined group, the lateral tibial plateau was significantly greater than in the control group (P < 0.001), and the medial tibial plateau had lower tibial slope values than the control group; however, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.066). In both groups, the difference between the slopes on the lateral and medial plateaus was statistically significant (P < 0.001). In relation to ACL intact patients, population with ACL rupture have greater tibial slope of the lateral condyle. The greater tibial slope of the lateral tibial plateau may be the factor that leads to the injury of the anterior cruciate ligament. Compared to the medial plateau, the population with ACL rupture have a greater tibial slope on the lateral plateau, while the population of the intact ACL have greater tibial slope on the medial plateau. The tibial slope of the medial and lateral condyle should be compared separately because the values obtained from the two sets of data were different, revealing apparently opposing effects on the ACL lesion. PMID:18239948

Stijak, Lazar; Herzog, Richard F; Schai, Pascal

2007-11-16

23

Resorption of the postero-superior corner of the lateral part of the mandibular condyle correlates with progressive TMJ internal derangement.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that resorption of postero-superior corner of lateral part of the mandibular condyle (RLC) occurs with the advancement of TMJ internal derangement (ID). One hundred and sixty-seven TMJs in 122 patients were studied. RLC was assessed on plane radiographs of frontal oblique projection. The correlation between the prevalence of RLC and radiological stage of ID was analysed and clinical correlations to the radiological stage of ID and the prevalence of RLC were discussed. The higher prevalence of RLC in joints with advanced ID was statistically significant (Mann-Whitney U-test, P< 0.05). There was no correlation between the prevalence of RLC and neither OA on the articular surface of the condyle nor clinical symptoms/signs. The result of this study suggests that RLC appears to occur in joints with advanced ID as a result of remodelling changes secondary to ID. PMID:14505617

Kurita, H; Ohtsuka, A; Kobayashi, H; Kurashina, K

2003-08-01

24

Histological and molecular characterisation of feline humeral condylar osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is a clinically important and common disease of older cats. The pathological changes and molecular mechanisms which underpin the disease have yet to be described. In this study we evaluated selected histological and transcriptomic measures in the articular cartilage and subchondral bone (SCB) of the humeral condyle of cats with or without OA. Results The histomorphometric changes in humeral condyle were concentrated in the medial aspect of the condyle. Cats with OA had a reduction in articular chondrocyte density, an increase in the histopathological score of the articular cartilage and a decrease in the SCB porosity of the medial part of the humeral condyle. An increase in LUM gene expression was observed in OA cartilage from the medial part of the humeral condyle. Conclusions Histopathological changes identified in OA of the feline humeral condyle appear to primarily affect the medial aspect of the joint. Histological changes suggest that SCB is involved in the OA process in cats. Differentiating which changes represent OA rather than the aging process, or the effects of obesity and or bodyweight requires further investigation.

2013-01-01

25

Late-diagnosed large osteochondral fracture of the lateral femoral condyle in an adolescent: a case report.  

PubMed

In this case report, we describe a large osteochondral fracture of the anterolateral femoral condyle in an adolescent athlete while dancing. At 3 months after the misdiagnosed injury, the condylar defect was covered by a layer of disorganized fibrous tissue rich in blood vessels. To achieve good repair, an accurate curettage of the fractured surfaces, a precise reduction, and a stable internal fixation of the fragments were performed. Two poly-L-lactic acid bioabsorbable screws were used to obtain appropriate compression. At the 2-year follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic and had resumed her previous dancing activity. An MRI scan showed no interruptions of the cartilage layer at the boundary with the healthy tissue, but cartilage thinning and extensive subchondral remodeling were detected. PMID:23511583

Enea, Davide; Busilacchi, Alberto; Cecconi, Stefano; Gigante, Antonio

2013-07-01

26

Mathematical reconstruction of human femoral condyles.  

PubMed

There is a direct correlation between ligament function and the articulating surface of the normal knee, and changes to any of these structures can affect the other. This is also true for knee replacements, where the articulating surface is greatly changed compared to the natural knee. This study investigated the morphometry of healthy knees and proposes a method to predict original normal knee profiles. A variety of mathematical techniques are compared in terms of the accuracy with which they can represent the original knee joint geometry. Additionally, a method of predicting the irregular femoral condyle geometry for an individual knee is described by making use of the mathematical techniques presented, and the accuracy of this method is also investigated. The mathematical approach using B-splines provides flexibility and can accurately describe the complex geometry of the femoral condyles in both the sagittal and transverse planes. It was further found that the condyles are highly asymmetrical; therefore simpler methods cannot portray the condyles sufficiently and are especially inaccurate in representing the lateral condyle. The study proposes a method for predicting the geometry of the femoral condyles with good accuracy. The B-spline model showed best results. PMID:21744933

van den Heever, Dawie J; Scheffer, Cornie; Erasmus, Pieter; Dillon, Edwin

2011-06-01

27

Hypoplastic occipital condyle and third occipital condyle: Review of their dysembryology.  

PubMed

Disruption or embryologic derailment of the normal bony architecture of the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) may result in symptoms. As studies of the embryology and pathology of hypoplasia of the occipital condyles and third occipital condyles are lacking in the literature, the present review was performed. Standard search engines were accessed and queried for publications regarding hypoplastic occipital condyles and third occipital condyles. The literature supports the notion that occipital condyle hypoplasia and a third occipital condyle are due to malformation or persistence of the proatlas, respectively. The Pax-1 gene is most likely involved in this process. Clinically, condylar hypoplasia may narrow the foramen magnum and lead to lateral medullary compression. Additionally, this maldevelopment can result in transient vertebral artery compression secondary to posterior subluxation of the occiput. Third occipital condyles have been associated with cervical canal stenosis, hypoplasia of the dens, transverse ligament laxity, and atlanto-axial instability causing acute and chronic spinal cord compression. Treatment goals are focused on craniovertebral stability. A better understanding of the embryology and pathology related to CVJ anomalies is useful to the clinician treating patients presenting with these entities. Clin. Anat. 26:928-932, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23338989

Tubbs, R Shane; Lingo, Patrick Ryan; Mortazavi, Martin M; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

2013-01-21

28

Proximal Humeral Fractures  

PubMed Central

The purpose of our study was to biomechanically compare, under cyclic loading conditions, fracture site motion, humeral head collapse, and intra-articular hardware penetration in simulated 3-part osteoporotic proximal humeral fractures stabilized with 1 of 2 locking-plate constructs. We performed fixation on simulated 3-part proximal humeral fractures in 10 pairs of cadaveric osteoporotic humeri with a Hand Innovations S3 Proximal Humerus Plate (S3 plate) or an LCP Proximal Humerus Plate (LCP plate; 1 each for each pair). The specimens were potted, mounted on a materials testing machine, and subjected to 5000 cycles of abduction in the scapular plane, loading through the supraspinatus tendon. Interfragmentary displacement at 2 virtual points (the most medial aspect of the calcar and the most superior aspect of the osteotomy line between the greater tuberosity and humeral head) was measured using an optical tracking system. Humeral head rotation was also measured. We used a generalized linear latent and mixed model to check for an effect of cyclic loading and treatment on the parameters of interest (significance, P < .05). After cyclic loading, the S3 plate humeri showed significantly greater displacement of the greater tuberosity fragment and rotation of the humeral head and a trend (not a significant difference) toward greater displacement at the calcar. No hardware penetration was noted for either repair. Although the S3 plate repairs resulted in significantly more fracture site motion, it is unknown whether the magnitude of the motion is clinically significant.

Rose, David M.; Sutter, Edward G.; Mears, Simon C.; Gupta, Rohit R.; Belkoff, Stephen M.

2010-01-01

29

A biomechanical evaluation of mandibular condyle fracture plating techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the biomechanical behavior of various rigid internal fixation techniques for mandibular condylar process fractures. Materials and Methods: Synthetic mandible replicas (Synbone, Landquart, Switzerland) were used to evaluate a control, and four monocortical mandibular condyle plating techniques. Each group was subjected to linear loading in lateral to medial, medial to lateral and

Richard H. Haug; Gilman P. Peterson; Michele Goltz

2002-01-01

30

Correlation between the Condyle Position and Intra-Extraarticular Clinical Findings of Temporomandibular Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To investigate the relationship between different clinical findings and condyle position. Methods: Tenderness on masseter (MM), temporal (TM), lateral pyterigoid (LPM), medial pyterigoid (MPM) and posterior cervical (PSM) muscles, limitation, deviation and deflection in opening of mouth, clicking, crepitating, tenderness on lateral palpation of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) area for each side of 85 patients were evaluated. Each side of patients was categorized into the clinical findings: no sign and/or symptom of temporomandibular dysfunctions (TMDs), only extraarticular findings and only intraarticular findings, extra and intraarticular findings. Condyle positions of 170 TMJs were determined the narrowest anterior (a) and posterior interarticular distance (p) on mid-sagittal MRIs of condyles and expressed as p/a ratio and these ratio were transformed into logarithmic base e. Spearman’s Correlation was used to investigate the relationship between the condyle position and the clinical findings. The difference between the condyle positions of different groups was tested by T test. Reliability statistic was used to determine intra-observer concordance of two measurements of condylar position. Results: A significant relationship was found between the condyle position and tenderness of PSM. There was no significant difference between the groups in aspect of the condyle position. Occlusion and condyle position correlated with significantly. Conclusions: The inclination of the upper cervical spine and craniocervical angulations can cause the signs and symptoms of TMD and condyle position is not main cause of TMDs alone but it may be effective together with other possible etiological factors synergistically.

Sener, Sevgi; Akgunlu, Faruk

2011-01-01

31

Muscle pedicled bone graft in revascularization of aseptic necrosis of the humeral head.  

PubMed

A deltoid muscle-pedicled bone graft was used to treat avascular necrosis of the humeral head. Eighteen months later there was evidence of clinical improvement of the joint function, and plain x-rays and tomography showed signs of graft fusion in the recipient bed with reorganization of the formerly necrotic bone matrix in the humeral head. PMID:3324919

Rindell, K

1987-01-01

32

Y-T humeral fractures with supracondylar comminution in five cats.  

PubMed

Five cats with Y-T fractures of the humeral condyle were reviewed. Breeds presented included domestic shorthair (four cats) and Maine Coon (one cat). Age ranged from two to 16 years. All the cats were neutered males. A road traffic accident was suspected in all cases. Four of the fractures were severely comminuted and one fracture had four fragments. The fractures were repaired via combined medial and lateral approaches. Fixation of the epicondylar ridges was performed using buttress plates in four cases and neutralisation plates in one case. The intracondylar fracture was stabilised using a 2.7 mm lag screw in four cases and a 3.5 mm lag screw in the other. A corticocancellous bone graft was applied in two cases. The intracondylar fracture was accurately reduced in all cases. Complete radiographic healing was documented in two cases 6 and 11 weeks following surgery. Failure of the fixation occurred in the most severely comminuted fracture five days postoperatively. Surgical revision was not performed, and the limb was amputated. Three cats were free of lameness and had resumed outdoor activities at follow-up (five to eight months after surgery). Marked lameness due to loss of elbow movement was observed in the other case. PMID:16438696

Macias, C; Gibbons, S E; McKee, W M

2006-02-01

33

Wegener's Disease Presenting with Occipital Condyle Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Tumors or chronic inflammatory lesions of the occipital condyle may cause occipital pain associated with an ipsilateral hypoglossal nerve injury (occipital condyle syndrome). We describe a young woman with recurrent otitis media and occipital condyle syndrome associated with a limited form of Wegener’s disease.

Hornik, Alejandro; Rodriguez-Porcel, Federico; Ersahin, Cagatay H.; Kadanoff, Ruth; Biller, Jose

2012-01-01

34

Archaic and modern human distal humeral morphology.  

PubMed

The morphology of the proximal ulna has been shown to effectively differentiate archaic or premodern humans (such as Homo heidelbergensis and H. neanderthalensis) from modern humans (H. sapiens). Accordingly, the morphology of adjacent, articulating elements should be able to distinguish these two broad groups as well. Here we test the taxonomic utility of another portion of the elbow, the distal humerus, as a discriminator of archaic and modern humans. Principal components analysis was employed on a suite of log-raw and log-shape distal humeral measures to examine differences between Neandertal and modern human distal humeri. In addition, the morphological affinities of Broken Hill (Kabwe) E.898, an archaic human distal humeral fragment from the middle Pleistocene of Zambia, and five Pliocene and early Pleistocene australopith humeri were assessed. The morphometric analyses effectively differentiated the Neandertals from the other groups, while the Broken Hill humerus appears morphologically similar to modern human distal humeri. Thus, an archaic/modern human dichotomy-as previously reported for proximal ulnar morphology-is not supported with respect to distal humeral morphology. Relative to australopiths and modern humans, Neandertal humeri are characterized by large olecranon fossae and small distodorsal medial and lateral pillars. The seeming disparity in morphological affinities of proximal ulnae (in which all archaic human groups appear distinct from modern humans) and distal humeri (in which Neandertals appear distinct from modern humans, but other archaic humans do not) is probably indicative of a highly variable, possibly transitional population of which our knowledge is hampered by sample-size limitations imposed by the scarcity of middle-to-late Pleistocene premodern human fossils outside of Europe. PMID:16959299

Yokley, Todd R; Churchill, Steven E

2006-07-21

35

The Use of Shoulder Hemiarthroplasty and Humeral Head Resurfacing: A Review of Current Concepts  

PubMed Central

Since Neer’s early work in the 1950s shoulder arthroplasty has evolved as a treatment option for various glenohumeral joint disorders. Both hemiarthroplasty and total shoulder prostheses have associated problems. This has led to further work with regards to potential resurfacing, with the aim of accurately restoring native proximal humeral anatomy while preserving bone stock for later procedures if required. Hemiarthroplasty remains a valuable treatment option in the low demand patient or in the trauma setting. Additional work is required to further define the role of humeral resurfacing, with the potential for it to become the gold standard for younger patients with isolated humeral head arthritis.

Widnall, James C; Dheerendra, Sujay K; MacFarlane, Robert J; Waseem, Mohammad

2013-01-01

36

Proximal humeral fractures: internal fixation.  

PubMed

Fractures of the proximal humerus are common injuries that are increasing in incidence as the population ages. These fractures are often treated nonsurgically; however, surgery is indicated if displacement, concurrent dislocation, or unacceptable alignment is present. Knowledge of the anatomic and physiologic characteristics of the proximal humerus and shoulder joint and familiarity with the available fixation elements will help surgeons make informed and patient-specific decisions regarding treatment. Reduction and internal fixation of proximal humeral fractures has expanding indications in comparison with arthroplasty, in part because of improvements in fixation technology and a better understanding of anatomy and physiology. The outcomes of proximal humeral fractures managed with percutaneous pinning, open reduction and locked-plate fixation, and intramedullary fixation are being actively investigated. PMID:23395021

Aaron, Daniel; Shatsky, Joshua; Paredes, Juan Carlos S; Jiang, Chunyan; Parsons, Bradford O; Flatow, Evan L

2013-01-01

37

Tuberculous osteomyelitis of mandibular condyle: a diagnostic dilemma  

PubMed Central

The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) is increasing worldwide and so are its consequences. Its oral manifestations are infrequent, occurring in approximately 3% of all cases. Although the primary lesion occurs as a pulmonary infection, the extrapulmonary infections have also shown an increase over the past few years. These infections generally involve the head and neck through haematogenous or lymphatic routes. The clinical presentation may be as an ulcer, granuloma, orofacial TB, TB of the salivary glands or tuberculous lymphadenitis. Rarely, secondary oral manifestations associated with pulmonary infection are seen, which can appear as lesions on the gingiva, palate, lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, frenulum and in the jaw bones. Owing to the rarity of orofacial TB, it seldom arouses clinical suspicion, especially when a positive history of a systemic infection or therapy is denied. Tuberculous involvement of the mandibular condyle is even rarer, and only two such cases are reported so far, both in English-language literature. Further, the diagnosis of such a case is extremely difficult as there are no specific signs pathogonomic of infection. The only manifestation may be a localized painful swelling of the jaw. The presented case is of osteomyelitis of the mandibular condyle in a 20-year-old male patient in whom TB was later suspected. In this case report the role of diagnostic techniques is emphasized as the osteomyelitis of the condyle has the risk of being easily missed owing to its atypical signs and symptoms and atypical radiographic appearance.

Sheikh, S; Pallagatti, S; Gupta, D; Mittal, A

2012-01-01

38

Unilateral trifid mandibular condyle: a case report.  

PubMed

Trifid mandibular condyle is an exceptionally rare entity, diagnosed accidentally on radiographic examination. Its etiology is controversial. Dental professionals should have knowledge of this anatomic abnormality and of the problems caused by it in normal function, as well as appropriate treatment modalities. In the literature, only three such cases have been reported. The current case report (the fourth reported) is of a unilateral trifid condyle reported in a 37-year-old woman seeking treatment for a missing tooth. A panoramic radiograph accidentally revealed a discrete modification of the right mandibular condyle. Computed tomography (CT) with 3-D construction was done to confirm the diagnosis. PMID:21370772

Warhekar, Ashish M; Wanjari, Panjab V; Phulambrikar, Tushar

2011-01-01

39

Relationship of TMJ Articular Soft Tissue to Underlying Bone in Young Adult Condyles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation used a histological model to study the relationship of articular soft-tissue thickness and contour to the underlying bone in the TMJ condyle of young adults. The usefulness of selected dental and demographic factors in the prediction of the articular soft-tissue thickness and contour was also tested. One sagittal histological section was studied from the lateral, central, and medial

A. G. Pullinger; F. Baldioceda; C. A. Bibb

1990-01-01

40

Fragment fixation with a bone graft and dynamic staples for osteochondritis dissecans of the humeral capitellum  

Microsoft Academic Search

To attain bony union of the fragment in osteochondritis dissecans of the humeral capitellum, fragment fixation was performed with a bone graft and dynamic staples in 4 patients. The staples were inserted not from the articular surface but from the lateral aspect of the capitellum. All patients achieved bony union without complication, and 3 of them returned to playing competitive

Mikio Harada; Toshihiko Ogino; Masatoshi Takahara; Daisuke Ishigaki; Hideo Kashiwa; Yumiko Kanauchi

2002-01-01

41

Isolated Humeral Metastasis in Uterine Cervical Cancer: A Rare Entity  

PubMed Central

Bone metastasis in cancer of uterine cervix, especially in the form of isolated bone involvement is a rare manifestation. Herein, we report the first case of isolated humeral metastasis in a known case of locally advanced cervical cancer. A fifty-six-year old female presented with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Stage IV A squamous cell carcinoma of uterine cervix. She was treated with a combination of radiation and chemotherapy and then total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Seven months later, she developed an isolated lytic lesion in the left humerus, which turned out to be a bone metastatic lesion.

Malek, Mahrooz; Kanafi, Alireza Rajabzadeh; Pourghorban, Ramin; Nafisi-Moghadam, Reza

2012-01-01

42

21 CFR 872.3960 - Mandibular condyle prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3960 Mandibular condyle prosthesis. (a) Identification. A mandibular condyle prosthesis...

2013-04-01

43

[Forms of fractures of the occipital condyles].  

PubMed

In contrast to the large fracture system of the base of the skull, little attention has so far been paid to fractures of the occipital condyles. The mechanics of these fractures have mostly been described in the form of case reports. Here an attempt is made to classify fractures of the occipital condyle based on the literature and our own material. Fractures of the condyles in the sense of bursting or the injuries themselves are classified under the following forms of strain: 1. Axial compression (Jefferson type) condylar impression; 2. Axial traction (hangman's type) condylar retraction; 3. Rotation with axial strain condylar retraction; 4. Oblique compression (bursting fracture of the abutment) frontal condylar fracture; contralateral; 5. Oblique traction (horizontal thrust); a tearing at the base of the skull as in a contralateral condylar horizontal fracture; 6. Transverse thrust (longitudinal fracture of the base of the skull) partial condylar avulsion The functional connection between a longitudinal clivus and condylar fracture is illustrated by typical examples. Furthermore, the elliptical deformation model for a burst fracture at the base of the skull in the longitudinal axis is extended by the deeper transverse thrust stabilization of the condyles. PMID:3425007

Saternus, K S

1987-01-01

44

Improved repair of chondral and osteochondral defects in the ovine trochlea compared with the medial condyle.  

PubMed

Associations between topographic location and articular cartilage repair in preclinical animal models are unknown. Based on clinical investigations, we hypothesized that lesions in the ovine femoral condyle repair better than in the trochlea. Full-thickness chondral and osteochondral defects were simultaneously established in the weightbearing area of the medial femoral condyle and the lateral trochlear facet in sheep, with chondral defects subjected to subchondral drilling. After 6 months in vivo, cartilage repair and osteoarthritis development was evaluated by macroscopic, histological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical analyses. Macroscopic and histological articular cartilage repair and type-II collagen immunoreactivity were better in the femoral trochlea, regardless of the defect type. Location-independently, osteochondral defects induced more osteoarthritic degeneration of the adjacent cartilage than drilled chondral lesions. DNA and proteoglycan contents of chondral defects were higher in the condyle, reflecting physiological topographical differences. The results indicate that topographic location dictates the structural patterns and biochemical composition of the repair tissue in sheep. These findings suggest that repair of cartilage defects at different anatomical sites of the ovine stifle joint needs to be assessed independently and that the sheep trochlea exhibits cartilage repair patterns reflective of the human medial femoral condyle. © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 31:1772-1779, 2013. PMID:23813860

Orth, Patrick; Meyer, Heinz-Lothar; Goebel, Lars; Eldracher, Mona; Ong, Mei Fang; Cucchiarini, Magali; Madry, Henning

2013-06-27

45

Salvage of humeral non-union by extendible total humeral endoprosthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an elderly patient with an aseptic, diaphyseal non-union of the Humerus, where other methods of management had failed. An extendible total humeral endoprosthetic replacement was used with adequate functional results.

R. J. Grimer

46

Humeral head resurfacing for glenohumeral arthritis associated with dysplasia.  

PubMed

Humeral head resurfacing is indicated for the treatment of glenohumeral arthrosis in a variety of well-described situations, including humeral shaft abnormalities and obstructing hardware. This report of 2 cases emphasizes the benefit of this stemless device in situations in which dislocation of the humeral head and access to the humeral canal is not possible. In these 2 patients with developmental dysplasia and secondary glenohumeral arthrosis, humeral head resurfacing arthroplasty resulted in successful improvement of severe preoperative pain. In cases in which the humeral head cannot be dislocated due to severe dysplastic changes and joint line medialization, humeral resurfacing arthroplasty allows prosthetic placement through nontraditional exposures and results in high patient satisfaction and excellent pain relief. PMID:22893883

Duralde, Xavier A

2012-07-01

47

Humeral Torque in Professional Baseball Pitchers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Spontaneous fracture of the humeral shaft in throwers is a rare but well-known phenomenon. Although it has been hypothesized that the biomechanics of the throw cause such fractures, it is not clear how or when the fractures occur in the pitching motion.Methods: The torque acting about the long axis of the humerus was calculated in 25 professional baseball pitchers

Michelle B. Sabick; Michael R. Torry; Young-Kyu Kim; Richard J. Hawkins

2004-01-01

48

Humeral fracture secondary to civilian gunshot injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Violence is the leading cause of death in the USA. The cost of violence due to gunshot wound is about $425 billion. While the closed fracture of the humerus is common, humeral shaft fractures caused by gunshot wound occur infrequently. There is much controversy regarding their management, i.e. should these injuries be treated surgically or can they be safely treated

Atul Joshi; Marc Labbe; Ronald W. Lindsey

1998-01-01

49

Prosthetic replacement for proximal humeral fractures.  

PubMed

The ideal management of complex proximal humeral fractures continues to be debatable. Evolution of proximal humeral fracture management, during the past decade, led to the implementation of many innovations in surgical treatment. Even though the pendulum of treatment seems to swing towards new trends such as locked plating, hemiarthroplasty remains a valid and reliable option that serves the patient's needs well. Hemiarthroplasty is indicated for complex proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients with poor bone stock and when internal fixation is difficult or unreliable. Hemiarthroplasty provides a better result when it is performed early post-injury. Stem height, retroversion and tuberosity positioning are technical aspects of utmost importance. Additionally reverse total shoulder arthroplasty is an alternative new modality that can be used as a primary solution in selected patients with proximal humeral fracture treatment. Failed hemiarthroplasty and fracture sequelae can be successfully managed with reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Individual decision-making and tailored treatment that takes into consideration the personality of the fracture and the patient's characteristics should be used. PMID:19036360

Kontakis, George; Tosounidis, Theodoros; Galanakis, Ioannis; Megas, Panagiotis

2008-11-25

50

In Vivo Motion of Femoral Condyles During Weight-Bearing Flexion After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture Using Biplane Radiography  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate in vivo three- dimensional tibiofemoral kinematics and femoral condylar motion in knees with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency during a knee bend activity. Ten patients with unilateral ACL rupture were enrolled. Both the injured and contralateral normal knees were imaged using biplane radiography at extension and at 15°, 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120° of flexion. Bilateral knees were next scanned by computed tomography, from which bilateral three-dimensional knee models were created. The in vivo tibiofemoral motion at each flexion position was reproduced through image registration using the knee models and biplane radiographs. A joint coordinate system containing the geometric center axis of the femur was used to measure the tibiofemoral motion. In ACL deficiency, the lateral femoral condyle was located significantly more posteriorly at extension and at 15° (p < 0.05), whereas the medial condylar position was changed only slightly. This constituted greater posterior translation and external rotation of the femur relative to the tibia at extension and at 15° (p < 0.05). Furthermore, ACL deficiency led to a significantly reduced extent of posterior movement of the lateral condyle during flexion from 15° to 60° (p < 0.05). Coupled with an insignificant change in the motion of the medial condyle, the femur moved less posteriorly with reduced extent of external rotation during flexion from 15° to 60° in ACL deficiency (p < 0.05). The medial- lateral and proximal-distal translations of the medial and lateral condyles and the femoral adduction-abduction rotation were insignificantly changed after ACL deficiency. The results demonstrated that ACL deficiency primarily changed the anterior-posterior motion of the lateral condyle, producing not only posterior subluxation at low flexion positions but also reduced extent of posterior movement during flexion from 15° to 60°. Key Points Three-dimensional tibiofemoral kinematics and femoral condylar motion in ACL-deficient knees during upright weight-bearing flexion were measured using biplane radiography with the geometric center axis. ACL deficiency caused posterior subluxation of the lateral condyle with excess external femoral rotation at early flexion positions. On flexion from 15° to 60°, the lateral condyle moved slightly posteriorly in ACL deficiency leading to reduced extent of external femoral rotation.

Chen, Kaining; Yin, Li; Cheng, Liangjun; Li, Chuan; Chen, Cheng; Yang, Liu

2013-01-01

51

Placement of occipital condyle screws for occipitocervical fixation in a pediatric patient with occipitocervical instability after decompression for Chiari malformation.  

PubMed

In cadaveric studies and recently in one adult patient the occipital condyle has been studied as an option to allow bone purchase by fixation devices. In the current case the authors describe the use of occipital condyle screws in a child undergoing occipitocervical fixation. To the best of the authors' knowledge this case is the first reported instance of this technique in a pediatric patient. This girl had a history of posterior fossa decompression for Chiari malformation Type I when she was 22 months of age. When she was 6 years old she presented with neck pain on flexion and extension of her head. Magnetic resonance imaging in flexion and extension revealed occipitocervical instability. She underwent an occiput to C-2 posterior arthrodesis with bilateral screw placement in the occipital condyles, C-2 lamina, and C-1 lateral masses. Postoperatively, she was neurologically intact. Computed tomography demonstrated a stable construct, and her cervical pain had resolved on follow-up. PMID:20672939

Bekelis, Kimon; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Missios, Symeon; Belden, Clifford; Simmons, Nathan

2010-08-01

52

Anatomical study of the radius and center of curvature of the distal femoral condyle.  

PubMed

In this anatomical study, the anteroposterior curvature of the surface of 16 cadaveric distal femurs was examined in terms of radii and center point. Those two parameters attract high interest due to their significance for total knee arthroplasty. Basically, two different conclusions have been drawn in foregoing studies: (1) The curvature shows a constant radius and (2) the curvature shows a variable radius. The investigations were based on a new method combining three-dimensional laser-scanning and planar geometrical analyses. This method is aimed at providing high accuracy and high local resolution. The high-precision laser scanning enables the exact reproduction of the distal femurs-including their cartilage tissue-as a three-dimensional computer model. The surface curvature was investigated on intersection planes that were oriented perpendicularly to the surgical epicondylar line. Three planes were placed at the central part of each condyle. The intersection of either plane with the femur model was approximated with the help of a b-spline, yielding three b-splines on each condyle. The radii and center points of the circles, approximating the local curvature of the b-splines, were then evaluated. The results from all three b-splines were averaged in order to increase the reliability of the method. The results show the variation in the surface curvatures of the investigated samples of condyles. These variations are expressed in the pattern of the center points and the radii of the curvatures. The standard deviations of the radii for a 90 deg arc on the posterior condyle range from 0.6 mm up to 5.1 mm, with an average of 2.4 mm laterally and 2.2 mm medially. No correlation was found between the curvature of the lateral and medial condyles. Within the range of the investigated 16 samples, the conclusion can be drawn that the condyle surface curvature is not constant and different for all specimens when viewed along the surgical epicondylar axis. For the portion of the condylar surface that articulates with the tibia during knee flexion-extension, the determined center points approximate the location of the centers of rotation. The results suggest that the concept of a fixed flexion-extension axis is not applicable for every specimen. PMID:20815636

Kosel, Jürgen; Giouroudi, Ioanna; Scheffer, Cornie; Dillon, Edwin; Erasmus, Pieter

2010-09-01

53

Aneurysmal Bone Cyst located in the Mandibular Condyle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rare case of aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) located in the mandibular condyle in a 10-year-old boy is presented. The patient came to our attention for a sudden swelling in the right temporomandibular region, the mouth opening was not reduced. A rapid growing mass, depicting soft tissue invasion, in the right condyle of the mandible was found. Clinically and radiographically

Sandro Pelo; Giulio Gasparini; Roberto Boniello; Alessandro Moro; Pier Francesco Amoroso

2009-01-01

54

Aplasia of the mandibular condyle associated with some orthopaedic abnormalities.  

PubMed

A rare case of aplasia of mandibular condyle associated with some other orthopaedic problems is presented. A 5-year-old boy attended our clinic with a chief complaint of facial asymmetry and chewing difficulty. The mandible was deviated to the left. The occlusion also showed a deflection to the left of the mandibular midline. He also had walking difficulty owing to a hip abnormality. Panoramic radiographic examination of the patient revealed that the left mandibular condyl was totally absent. The right condyle was unremarkable. His history revealed neither trauma nor any significant disease. Aplasia is a rare anomaly and means the insufficient development of the mandibular condyle. True agnesis of the mandibular condyle is extremely rare. Association of the manifestations of the patient with some orthopaedic problems makes this case interesting. PMID:22116127

Canger, E M; Celenk, P

2011-11-24

55

Bilateral bifid mandibular condyles diagnosed with three-dimensional reconstruction.  

PubMed

Bifid mandibular condyles (BMCs) are rare anomalies. The overwhelming majority of prior reports described their predominantly unilateral occurrence diagnosed by panoramic radiography. We present an even rarer case of bilateral BMC initially identified by panoramic radiography and confirmed with colour-enhanced three-dimensional CT. These images substantiate the theory that the secondary condyles arise from the neck of the mandible (Lopez-Lopez et al. Bifid condyle: review of the literature of the last 10 years and report of two cases. Cianio 2010; 28: 136-140). PMID:22241877

Tanner, J M; Friedlander, A H; Chang, T I

2012-01-12

56

[Periprosthetic humeral fracture: complex circumstances need critical selection of therapy].  

PubMed

Although periprosthetic humeral fractures were previously rare injuries, they will increase because of the rising life expectancy of patients and increasing implantation of shoulder prostheses. This article describes a case of an 86-year-old female patient with very thin humeral cortex and a prosthesis filling the medullary cavity. The morphology of fractures and the surrounding circumstances determine choice of therapy. PMID:23881166

Ullerich, F; Rixen, D

2013-08-01

57

Humeral head translation after a suprascapular nerve block.  

PubMed

Subacromial impingement syndrome is the most common shoulder disorder. Abnormal superior translation of the humeral head is believed to be a major cause of this pathology. The first purpose of the study was to examine the effects of suprascapular nerve block on superior translation of the humeral head and scapular upward rotation during dynamic shoulder elevation. The secondary purpose was to assess muscle activation patterns during these motions. Twenty healthy subjects participated in the study. Using fluoroscopy and electromyography, humeral head translation and muscle activation were measured before and after a suprascapular nerve block. The humeral head was superiorly located at 60 degrees of humeral elevation, and the scapula was more upwardly rotated from 30 to 90 degrees of humeral elevation after the block. The differences were observed during midrange of motion. In addition, the deltoid muscle group demonstrated increased muscle activation after the nerve block. The study's results showed a compensatory increase in humeral head translation, scapular upward rotation, and deltoid muscle activation due to the nerve block. These outcomes suggest that increasing muscular strength and endurance of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles could prevent any increased superior humeral head translation. This may be beneficial in reducing shoulder impingement or rotator cuff tears over time. PMID:22927503

San Juan, Jun G; Kosek, Peter; Karduna, Andrew R

2012-08-22

58

Extended Neviaser portal approach to antegrade humeral nailing.  

PubMed

Certain arthropathies can distort the normal acromiohumeral relationship and make traditional anterolateral access to the proximal humerus for nailing difficult or impossible. This article presents a case of bilateral antegrade humeral nailing in which the Neviaser portal approach was used for humeral shaft fractures in a patient with distorted shoulder anatomy secondary to severe cuff tear arthropathy and rheumatoid arthritis. Based on a literature review, extending the traditional superomedial (Neviaser) portal to the shoulder to perform humeral nailing has never been described clinically. An 85-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis and bilateral cuff tear arthropathy presented after a mechanical fall from standing height with bilateral acute humeral shaft fractures. Preoperative fluoroscopy confirmed the inability to access the traditional starting point with an anterolateral approach due to a shield acromion resulting from cuff tear arthropathy and rheumatoid arthritis. Bilateral locked antegrade humeral nails were successfully placed through a 3-cm incision just off the medial border of the acromion and directly posterior to the acromioclavicular joint (the extended Neviaser portal approach). Postoperatively, the patient demonstrated early evidence of clinical and radiographic union. She was able to return to her preinjury function level, with an active range of motion comparable with her baseline. The Neviaser portal approach to antegrade humeral nailing is an effective solution to diaphyseal humeral fractures when access to the traditional anterolateral proximal humeral starting port is not possible due to distorted shoulder anatomy. PMID:23383679

Dilisio, Matthew F; Fitzgerald, Ryan E; Miller, Eric T

2013-02-01

59

Locked intramedullary nailing for difficult nonunions of the humeral diaphysis.  

PubMed

Antegrade intramedullary nailing and bone grafting was carried out for 27 patients with resistant atrophic nonunion of the humeral diaphysis. The initial fracture was open in 12 cases and closed in 15. There were ten proximal humeral fractures, 13 mid-shaft fractures and four distal humeral shaft fractures. Most had previous attempts at internal fixation with bone grafting. Fifteen cases united, but 12 remained ununited necessitating further surgical treatment. The failures were all in the more complex cases. Lack of rigidity and compression may be the problem. PMID:12761651

Ilyas, I; Younge, D A

2003-05-22

60

An adult case of TMJ osteoarthrosis treated with splint therapy and the subsequent orthodontic occlusal reconstruction: Adaptive change of the condyle during the treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports treatment for a 21-year 11-month old female patient with severe osteoarthrosis of the TMJ with a special reference to adaptive changes of the condyle during the treatment. She had severe open bite with a Class II molar relationship; she had limited mouth opening, TMJ sounds, pain, and tinnitus. Lateral tomograms showed flattening and deep erosion on the

Eiji Tanaka; Kazuaki Kikuchi; Akiko Sasaki; Kazuo Tanne

2000-01-01

61

Osteochondritis dissecans of the humeral capitellum in identical twins  

PubMed Central

Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the humeral capitellum is a disorder affecting mainly boys between the ages of 12 and 15 years. The exact etiology of OCD is not clear, but it is believed that repetitive trauma is the primary cause. Genetic factors are thought to play a secondary role in the pathogenesis. We present 17-year-old identical twins with similar MRI and arthroscopic findings, suggesting that genetic components are involved in the etiology of OCD of the humeral capitellum.

Pudas, Tomi; Koskinen, Seppo K; Hiltunen, Ari; Mattila, Kimmo T

2012-01-01

62

Osteochondroma of mandibular condyle: A clinic-radiographic correlation  

PubMed Central

Osteochondroma (OC) of temporo mandibular joint is a rare, slow growing, benign tumor that causes a progressive enlargement of the condyle, usually resulting in facial asymmetry, temporo mandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction, limited mouth opening and malocclusion. Pain is rarely associated with this tumor. OC is composed of cartilaginous and osseous tissues. Radiographically, there is unilaterally enlarged condyle usually with an exophytic outgrowth of the tumor from the condylar head. We present a rare case of osteochondroma of right mandibular condyle in a 45-year-old male who reported with painless swelling over TMJ area and progressive limited mouth opening. Panoramic radiograph and computed tomography (CT) was performed for better evaluation of the pathological condition. This paper describes the clinico-radiographic features and differential diagnosis of OC.

More, Chandramani B.; Gupta, Swati

2013-01-01

63

Gene expression during osteogenic differentiation in mandibular condyles in vitro  

PubMed Central

The cartilagenous tissue of mandibular condyles of newborn mice contains progenitor cells as well as young and mature chondrogenic cells. During in vitro cultivation of the tissue, progenitor cells undergo osteogenic differentiation and form new bone (Silbermann, M., D. Lewinson, H. Gonen, M. A. Lizarbe, and K. von der Mark. 1983. Anat. Rec. 206:373-383). We have studied the expression of genes that typify osteogenic differentiation in mandibular condyles during in vitro cultivation. RNAs of the genes for collagen type I, osteonectin, alkaline phosphatase, and bone gla protein were sequentially expressed in progenitor cells and hypertrophic chondrocytes during culture. Osteopontin expression peaked in both the early and the late phase of the differentiation process. The data indicate a distinct sequence of expression of osteoblast-specific genes during osteogenic differentiation and new bone formation in mandibular condyles.

1990-01-01

64

[Clinical study of mandibular condyle injury].  

PubMed

Mandibular condyle fractures develop frequently and show the variable type of injury and complication. New opinions have emerged from recent investigation into condylar fractures. The author investigated 246 patients with condylar fractures who visited SNUDH from January 1980 to August, 1988, 8. with regard to clinical and treatment aspects, area and displacement of fractures, associated teeth injury and other body injury, complications. At last I have got the following results. 1. The incidence to condylar fractures in a series of 765 mandibular fractures may be as high as 32.2%. 2. The male patients are 3 times more than female patients. The highest frequency was recorded in the group 21-30 years of age. (34.1%). 3. Falls caused the greatest number of condylar fractures (45.2%) and next was in assult (25.6%), traffic accidents (22.4%). 4. Unilateral condylar fractures were present in 74.8%, giving a left: right ratio of 1.2:1. In cases of unilateral fracture, subcondylar fractures were by far the commonest (32.9%) but in cases of bilateral fracture, condylar neck fractures were by far the commonest. In children under 15 years of age, condylar neck fractures were more common but in patients over 16 years of age, subcondylar fractures were common. 5. Anteromedial fracture dislocations were by far the commonest (20.3%). In children under 15 years of age, fracture deviations were common but in patients over 16 years of age, fracture displacements were common. 6. 44.7% of patients with condylar fractures sustained the teeth injuries. Teeth fractures were by far the commonest. 7. Single condylar fractures showed a frequency of 30.5%. Of the concomitant fractures elsewhere in the mandible, symphysis fractures were by far the commonest (54.1%). 8. Associated other body injuries showed a frequency of 28.0%. Of them, head injuries were by far the commonest. 9. The mean interval from injury to treatment was 14.3 days. Of the treatment of condylar fractures, open reduction was by far the commonest (70.3%). Closed reduction comprised 19.9% and functional therapy comprised 8.5%. 10. In 67 patients with possible follow up period, the following complications were developed, two ankylosis, anterior open bite, mouth opening limitation, mouth opening deviation. PMID:2489622

Kim, Y K; Min, B I

1989-11-01

65

21 CFR 888.3180 - Elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic uncemented prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 8 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic uncemented prosthesis. 888.3180...ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3180 Elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic...

2009-04-01

66

21 CFR 888.3180 - Elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic uncemented prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic uncemented prosthesis. 888.3180...ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3180 Elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic...

2010-04-01

67

Sex differences in proximal humeral outline shape: elliptical Fourier functions.  

PubMed

A method is presented for the numerical analysis of sex differences in size and shape of the proximal humeral outlines using elliptical Fourier functions (EFFs). A skeletal sample consisting of right and left humeri pairs of 69 individuals, 36 males and 33 females, was used. The proximal superior view in the plane of the proximo-distal axis of each humerus was photographed and then 54 boundary points were located on the two-dimensional outline tracings. These points were digitized and used to compute EFFs with 27 harmonics. From the EFFs, a set of expected points on the proximal humeral outline was generated using the centroid as an origin. Superimposition of the male and female outlines on this centroid provided a detailed picture of the relative sex differences in size and shape with respect to that center. The bounded area of the proximal humeral outline showed statistically significant sex differences. Additionally, statistical results of the amplitudes derived from the "area-standardized" EFFs and visual assessments of the mean outline plots indicated significant sex differences in shape of the proximal humeral outlines. Focusing on localized regional differences, the greater tubercle was located more postero-medially and the lesser tubercle was located more anteriorly in the males compared to the females. Sex determinations from the proximal humeri were also examined with discriminant functions based on the amplitudes, which represent shape characteristics of the outline, and the hounded area. Using a cross-validation method, predictions of the percentages of cases correctly classified with the discriminant functions were ranged from 92.8% to 95.7% for the right and left humeral data. These results suggest that differences in size and shape of the proximal humeral outlines may be better predictors of sex when compared with conventional measurements of the humerus. PMID:10782949

Tanaka, H; Lestrel, P E; Uetake, T; Kato, S; Ohtsuki, F

2000-03-01

68

Chondrosarcoma of the mandible involving angle, ramus, and condyle.  

PubMed

Chondrosarcomas (CHSs) are malignant tumors of cartilaginous origin rarely found in the jawbone. Only 5% to 10% of CHSs occur in the head and neck region. These tumors have strong tendency to recur locally after surgical removal. Here, we present the case of a 45-year-old man with a CHS of the mandible. We describe the removal of the mandibular condyle, which requires the reconstruction of the temporomandibular joint. This raises the difficulty of reconstruction because of the location of the tumor in a region of great aesthetic and functional impact. In our case, the patient with computed tomography scan had a mandibular osteolytic and expansive multilocular lesion located in the mandibular branch and left mandibular angle involving the condyle. A biopsy revealed a moderately differentiated CHS (World Health Organization grade II). We decided to perform a wide surgical excision of the lesion without neck dissection because of the infrequent lymphatic spread. It was carried out with a left mandibulectomy, including the mandibular condyle. The reconstruction was performed by using a microsurgical fibula flap and fixing it to the meniscus and articular capsule with a Mitek anchor. The patient has no clinical signs of recurrence or aesthetic or functional limitations 3 years after surgery. This case has brought us to review a very uncommon matter in this location, which emphasizes the importance of a wide resection crucial in the disease prognosis. PMID:22801134

Ramos-Murguialday, Mikel; Lasa-Menéndez, Victor; Ignacio Iriarte-Ortabe, Jose; Couce, Marta

2012-07-01

69

Numerical analysis of the proximal humeral outline: Bilateral shape differences.  

PubMed

A new method is presented for the numerical analysis of bilateral differences in the size and shape of the proximal humeral outlines using elliptical Fourier functions (EFFs). A skeletal sample of 36 pairs of right and left humeri was used. The proximal superior view in the plane of the proximodistal axis of each humerus was photographed with an 800 mm telephoto lens. The two-dimensional humeral outlines were carefully traced onto acetate sheets and 54 boundary points were located. These points were digitized and used to compute size-standardized EFFs with 27 harmonics. From the EFFs, a set of expected points on the proximal humeral outline was generated using the centroid as an origin. Superimposition of the right and left humeral outlines on this centroid provided a detailed picture of the relative bilateral shape differences with respect to that center. The proximal humeri showed significant bilateral size and shape differences, although the pattern of asymmetry in shape varied with respect to the region on the boundary outline. In particular, one localized aspect, the tubercular region of the proximal humeri showed significant bilateral shape differences. In contrast, the humeral head consistently showed not only a much smaller degree of bilateral shape differences, but also much less variability in size as well as shape. The results suggest that while the overall articular shape changes little with altered mechanical loadings placed on articular surfaces, the changes in the tubercular regions of the proximal humeri may be susceptible to the varying stresses associated with particular physical activities. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 11:343-357, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:11533955

Tanaka, Hideyuki

1999-01-01

70

Biomechanics of the Shoulder in Youth Baseball PitchersImplications for the Development of Proximal Humeral Epiphysiolysis and Humeral Retrotorsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The effects of repetitive throwing on the shoulders of developing athletes are not well understood because of the paucity of data describing the biomechanics of youth pitchers and the plasticity of the developing skeleton.Hypothesis: The direction and magnitude of the stresses that exist at the proximal humeral physis during the fastball pitching motion are consistent with the development of

Michelle B. Sabick; Young-Kyu Kim; Michael R. Torry; Michael A. Keirns; Richard J. Hawkins

2005-01-01

71

Locked intramedullary nailing of humeral shaft fractures. Implant design, surgical technique, and clinical results.  

PubMed

We report our experience with a modified implant and a new technique for locked intramedullary nailing of the humerus in 41 patients. Locking was by cross-screws placed from lateral to medial in the proximal humerus, and anteroposteriorly in the distal humerus. Early in the series, 11 nails were inserted at the shoulder, but we found that rehabilitation was faster after retrograde nailing through the olecranon fossa, which was used for the other 30. We used a closed technique for 29 of the nailings. Of the 41 patients treated, 21 had acute fractures, five had nonunion, and 15 had pathological fractures. Secure fixation was obtained for comminuted and osteoporotic fractures in any part of the humeral shaft, which allowed the early use of crutches and walking frames. Two nails were locked at only one end, and one of these became the only failure of union after an acute fracture. PMID:8300675

Ingman, A M; Waters, D A

1994-01-01

72

The humeral origin of the brachioradialis muscle: An unusual site of high radial nerve compression.  

PubMed

Radial nerve compression is seldom encountered in the upper arm, and most commonly described compression syndromes have their anatomical cause in the forearm. The teres major, the triceps muscle, the intermuscular septum region and the space between the brachialis and brachioradialis muscles have all been identified as radial nerve compression sites above the elbow. We describe the case of a 38-year-old male patient who presented with dorso-lateral forearm pain and paraesthesias without neurological deficit. Surgical exploration revealed radial nerve compression at the humeral origin of the brachioradialis muscle. Liberation of the nerve at this site was successful at relieving the symptoms. To our knowledge, this compression site has not been described in the literature. PMID:23643776

Cherchel, A; Zirak, C; De Mey, A

2013-05-02

73

Aneurysmal bone cyst, a lesion of the mandibular condyle.  

PubMed

Benign and malignant tumors of the temporomandibular joint are rare. An aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) of the condyle is even more unusual and usually presents as a slowly enlarging firm swelling which occasionally may be associated with pain and tenderness. Surgical curettage or excision is the treatment of choice, in an attempt to reduce the potential problem of recurrence; we undertook surgical resection of the affected bone. Immediate mandibular reconstruction using autologous bone was deferred though it is generally recommended in such type of cases. PMID:23730077

Rai, Kirthi Kumar; Rana Dharmendrasinh N; Shiva Kumar, H R

2011-03-29

74

Humeral Retrotorsion in Collegiate Baseball Pitchers With Throwing-Related Upper Extremity Injury History  

PubMed Central

Background: Collegiate baseball pitchers, as well as position players, exhibit increased humeral retrotorsion compared with individuals with no history of overhead sport participation. Whether the humeral retrotorsion plays a role in the development of throwing-related injuries that are prevalent in collegiate baseball pitchers is unknown. Hypotheses: Humeral retrotorsion will be significantly different in collegiate pitchers with throwing-related shoulder or elbow injury history compared with pitchers with no injury history. Humeral retrotorsion can also discriminate participants with and without shoulder or elbow injury. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Comparisons of ultrasonographically-obtained humeral retrotorsion were made between 40 collegiate pitchers with and without history of throwing-related shoulder or elbow injury. The ability of humeral retrotorsion to discriminate injury history was determined from the receiver operating characteristic area under the curve. Results: Participants with an elbow injury history demonstrated a greater humeral retrotorsion limb difference (mean difference = 7.2°, P = 0.027) than participants with no history of upper extremity injury. Participants with shoulder injury history showed no differences in humeral torsion compared with participants with no history of injury. Humeral retrotorsion limb difference exhibited a fair ability (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve = 0.74) to discriminate elbow injury history. Conclusions: Collegiate pitchers with a history of elbow injury exhibited a greater limb difference in humeral retrotorsion compared with pitchers with no history of injury. No differences in humeral retrotorsion variables were present in participants with and without shoulder injury history. Clinical Relevance: Baseball players with a history of elbow injury demonstrated increased humeral retrotorsion, suggesting that the amount of retrotorsion and the development of elbow injury may be associated.

Myers, Joseph B.; Oyama, Sakiko; Rucinski, Terri Jo; Creighton, R. Alexander

2011-01-01

75

The relationship of Plasmodium falciparum humeral immunity with HIV1 immunosuppression and treatment efficacy in Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: HIV-1 infection affects malaria humeral immunity during pregnancy, but data for non-pregnant adults are lacking. This study reports the impact of HIV-1 infection and other variables on the level of malaria humeral immunity in adults with clinical malaria and whether humeral immune suppression was a risk factor for treatment failure. METHODS: Sera of 224 HIV-1 infected and 115 uninfected

Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden; Erika Van Eijk; Francisca Yosaatmadja; Webster Kasongo; Modest Mulenga; Umberto D'Alessandro; Stephen Rogerson

2009-01-01

76

Comminuted periprosthetic humeral fracture after reverse shoulder prosthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periprosthetic fractures represent a severe complication after joint replacement. A case of comminuted displaced humeral fracture\\u000a around the stem of a SMR reverse shoulder prosthesis is reported. The patient was a 81-year-old lady who had had a total shoulder\\u000a replacement 28 months previously. The surgical solution consisted of a partial revision of the modular implant with conservation\\u000a not only of

Renato Sommacal; Hans Rudolph Bloch; Adriana Ghidelli; Graziano Bettelli; Paolo Dalla Pria

2009-01-01

77

Femoral\\/humeral strength in early African Homo erectus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lower-to-upper limb-bone proportions give valuable clues to locomotor behavior in fossil taxa. However, to date only external linear dimensions have been included in such analyses of early hominins. In this study, cross-sectional measures of femoral and humeral diaphyseal strength are determined for the two most complete early Homo erectus (or ergaster) associated skeletons—the juvenile KNM-WT 15000 and the adult KNM-ER

Christopher Ruff

2008-01-01

78

Histological analysis of the growth of the mandibular condyle in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative and quantitative data on the growth of the mandib- ular condyle in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) are limited. The purpose of this investigation was to provide such data, with emphasis on variation in the size of the cartilaginous layers in the condyle and on condylar growth at five maturational levels (i.e., neonate, infant, juvenile, adolescent and young adult).

David S. Carlson; James A. McNamara; Douglas H. Jaul

1978-01-01

79

Mechanical properties of cancellous bone in the human mandibular condyle are anisotropic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was (1) to test the hypothesis that the elastic and failure properties of the cancellous bone of the mandibular condyle depend on the loading direction, and (2) to relate these properties to bone density parameters. Uniaxial compression tests were performed on cylindrical specimens (n=47) obtained from the condyles of 24 embalmed cadavers. Two loading

E. B. W. Giesen; M. Ding; M. Dalstra; T. M. G. J van Eijden

2001-01-01

80

Bilateral Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Femoral Condyles in Both Knees: A Report of Two Sibling Cases  

PubMed Central

Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of both femoral condyles is very rare, with no previously reported cases of bilateral OCD of both knees in two siblings. We report on a brother and sister with both femoral condyle OCD with a description of surgical technique and clinical results. Fixation using headless compressive screws, osteochondral autologous transplantation and autologous chondrocyte implantation were all successful.

Mascarenhas, Randy; Yoon, Hang Seob

2013-01-01

81

Bilateral osteochondritis dissecans of the femoral condyles in both knees: a report of two sibling cases.  

PubMed

Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of both femoral condyles is very rare, with no previously reported cases of bilateral OCD of both knees in two siblings. We report on a brother and sister with both femoral condyle OCD with a description of surgical technique and clinical results. Fixation using headless compressive screws, osteochondral autologous transplantation and autologous chondrocyte implantation were all successful. PMID:23741705

Jeong, Jae-Hoon; Mascarenhas, Randy; Yoon, Hang Seob

2013-05-29

82

Allografting in Locked Nailing and Interfragmentary Wiring for Humeral Nonunions  

PubMed Central

In this prospective study, we compared outcomes after repair of humeral nonunions when morsellized fresh-frozen allograft or autograft was used to augment repair by intramedullary nailing. Sixty-five patients with humeral shaft nonunions of greater than 6 months’ duration and gross instability at the nonunion site were included and treated by locked nailing, interfragmentary wiring, and bone grafting. Graft type was determined by patient preference. Outcomes assessed included union rate and functional recovery of the arm. Secondary end points included operative blood loss, operation time, hospital stay, time to fracture healing, and complications. Twenty-eight patients with autografts and 36 with allografts were followed up more than 2 years. The baseline conditions of the two groups were similar. The autograft group had greater blood loss and longer operative time than the allograft group. The autograft group also had a longer hospital stay. The healing rate, time to healing, and functional scores did not differ between these two groups. In the autograft group, 43% reported pain and limited mobility as a result of the donor site. We concluded that when used in association with locked nailing for humeral nonunions, allografts can achieve treatment results similar to autografts but without donor site complications. Level of Evidence: Level III, prognostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11999-009-1055-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Lin, Wei-Peng

2009-01-01

83

Occipital condyle screw placement and occipitocervical instrumentation using three-dimensional image-guided navigation.  

PubMed

Occipital condyle (OC) screws are an alternative cephalad fixation point in occipitocervical fusion. Safe placement of occipital, C1 lateral mass, and C2 pars screws have been described previously, but not OC screws. The craniocervical junction is complex, and a thorough understanding of the anatomy is needed. Three-dimensional (3D) image-guided navigation was used in six patients. There were no complications related to image-guided navigation during the placement of 12 OC screws and we found that this navigation can serve as a useful adjunct when placing an OC screw. Technical considerations of placing OC and C1 lateral mass screws are discussed with particular reference to patient positioning and the StealthStation® S7™ image-guided navigational platform (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA). The reference arc is attached to the head-clamp and faces forward. The optical camera and monitor are positioned at the head of the table for a direct, non-obstructed line-of-sight. To minimize intersegmental movement, the OC should not be drilled until all other screws have been placed. We conclude that 3D image-guided navigation is a useful adjunct that can be safely and effectively used for placement of instrumentation of the upper cervical spine including the OC. PMID:22356730

Le, Tien V; Burkett, Clint; Ramos, Edwin; Uribe, Juan S

2012-02-21

84

Influence of Humeral Torsion on Interpretation of Posterior Shoulder Tightness Measures in Overhead Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: The dominant limb of the baseball players demonstrated greater humeral torsion, and less internal rotation and total rotation range of motion, compared with control participants and the non- dominant limb in both groups. Once corrected for torsion, no group or limb differences in internal rotation were present. Statistically significant relationships existed between the amount of humeral torsion and measures

Joseph B. Myers; Sakiko Oyama; Benjamin M. Goerger; Terri Jo Rucinski; J. Troy Blackburn; R. Alexander Creighton

2009-01-01

85

Functional bracing of humeral shaft fractures. A review of clinical studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional bracing has been widely accepted as the gold standard for treating humeral shaft fractures conservatively. We conducted a literature review to verify the efficacy of this treatment method. Sixteen case series and two comparative studies fulfilled the criteria set. Analysis of these clinical studies showed that humeral shaft fractures when treated with functional bracing heal in an average of

Efthimios Papasoulis; Georgios I. Drosos; Athanasios N. Ververidis; Dionisios-Alexandros Verettas

2010-01-01

86

Intramedullary Reaming for Press-Fit Fixation of a Humeral Component Removes Cortical Bone Asymmetrically  

Microsoft Academic Search

houlder arthroplasty is commonly used to manage glenohumeral arthritis and posttraumatic conditions. The humeral component is often press fit to avoid the use of cement. This technique requires sufficiently robust fixation to avoid implant loosening. Since humeral prostheses are generally cylindrical, reaming the endosteal diaphyseal cortex to achieve a cylindrical shape enhances the fit and fixation of the prosthetic stem.

MICHAEL LEE; CAROLINE CHEBLI; DOUG MOUNCE; ALEXANDER BERTELSEN; MICHAEL RICHARDSON; FREDERICK A. MATSEN

87

Protection of the Medial Femoral Condyle Articular Cartilage During Drilling of the Femoral Tunnel Through the Accessory Medial Portal in Anatomic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Accurate positioning of the femoral tunnel in the native femoral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) footprint requires drilling through an accessory medial portal (AMP). The AMP is located far medial and at a low level. Despite the benefits of drilling through the AMP, it is possible that the drill bit head will injure the articular cartilage of the medial femoral condyle as it slides along the guide pin to the femoral insertion of the ACL. Because more surgeons are now performing anatomic ACL reconstructions and shifting from transtibial drilling toward transportal drilling, the risk of this injury might be increasing, especially during the beginning of their learning curve. To avoid such injury, a bio-interference screw sheath is used. It is inserted through the AMP over the guide pin until it reaches near the medial wall of the lateral femoral condyle. The drill bit is inserted over the guide pin and through the bio-interference screw sheath. Using the bio-interference screw sheath not only protects the articular cartilage of the medial femoral condyle but also protects the medial meniscus, posterior cruciate ligament, and skin of the AMP from injury because of the close proximity of the drill bit head to these structures during transportal drilling.

Abdelkafy, Ashraf

2012-01-01

88

Regional structural and viscoelastic properties of fibrocartilage upon dynamic nanoindentation of the articular condyle.  

PubMed

Fibrocartilage,a tissue with macromaterial properties between dense fibrous tissue and hyaline cartilage, is not well understood in its ultrastructure and regional viscoelastic properties. Here nanoindentation with atomic force microscopy was performed on fresh fibrocartilage samples of rabbit jaw joint condyles. Each sample was divided into anteromedial, anterolateral, posteromedial, and posterolateral regions for probing and topographic imaging in 2 x 2 microm and 10 x 10 microm scan sizes. Young's moduli differed significantly among these regions in a descending gradient from the anteromedial (2.34 +/- 0.26 MPa) to the posterolateral (0.95 +/- 0.06 MPa). The Poisson ratio, defined as lateral strain over axial strain, had the same gradient distribution: highest for the anteromedial region (0.46 +/- 0.05) and lowest for the posterolateral region (0.31 +/- 0.05). The same four regions showed a descending gradient of surface roughness: highest for the anteromedial (321.6 +/- 13.8 nm) and lowest for the posterolateral (155.6 +/- 12.6 nm). Thus, the regional ultrastructural and viscoelastic properties of fibrocartilage appear to be coregulated. Based on these region-specific gradient distributions, fibrocartilage is constructed to withstand tissue-borne shear stresses, which likely propagate across its different regions. A model of shear gradient and concentric gradient is proposed to describe the region-specific capacity of fibrocartilage to sustain shear stresses in tendons, ligaments, joints, and the healing bone across species. PMID:11858706

Hu, K; Radhakrishnan, P; Patel, R V; Mao, J J

2001-10-01

89

Ossifying fibroma affecting the mandibular condyle: report of an uncommon case.  

PubMed

We describe the surgical management of an uncommon case of ossifying fibroma affecting the mandibular condyle. A condylectomy was performed with an immediate temporomandibular joint reconstruction by a total temporomandibular joint prosthesis. PMID:23851866

Zavattero, Emanuele; Garzino-Demo, Paolo; Berrone, Sid

2013-07-01

90

Free vascularized medial femoral condyle autograft for challenging upper extremity nonunions.  

PubMed

Free vascularized bone grafts from the medial femoral condyle have increasingly demonstrated utility in the successful treatment of challenging nonunions and bony defects. The consistent, robust vascular anatomy and the versatility to function as either a thin, flexible periosteal or corticoperiosteal graft or as a structural corticocancellous graft have made this graft a valuable option for addressing recalcitrant nonunions. The rationale, indications, vascular anatomy, and surgical technique of harvesting these grafts from the medial femoral condyle are presented. PMID:23101599

Jones, David B; Rhee, Peter C; Bishop, Allen T; Bishop, Alan T; Shin, Alexander Y

2012-11-01

91

Lateral sided snapping elbow caused by a meniscus: two case reports and literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateral sided snapping elbow is an unusual condition, and it is apt to be misdiagnosed as lateral epicondylitis. The causes\\u000a of lateral sided snapping elbow have been attributed to intraarticular loose bodies, instability, synovial plicae and torn\\u000a annular ligament. We report our experiences for treating lateral sided snapping elbow caused by a meniscus in the radio-humeral\\u000a joint. In the present

Shin-Taek KangTae-Ho Kim; Tae-Ho Kim

2010-01-01

92

A geometric morphometric analysis of the medial tibial condyle of african hominids.  

PubMed

Although the hominid knee has been heavily scrutinized, shape variation of the medial tibial condyle has yet to be described. Humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas differ in the shape of their medial femoral condyles and in their capacity for external and internal rotation of the tibia relative to the femur. I hypothesize that these differences should be reflected in the shape of the medial tibial condyle of these hominids. Here I use geometric morphometric techniques to uncover shape differences between the medial tibial condyles of humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas. Humans are distinguished from the other two species by having a much more oval-shaped medial tibial condyle, while those of chimpanzees and gorillas are more triangular in outline. Gorillas (especially males) are distinguished by having more concavely-curved condyles (mediolateral direction), which is interpreted as an effect of heavy loading through the medial compartment of the knee in conjunction with differences in the degree of arboreality. Anat Rec, 296:1518-1525, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23956043

Sylvester, Adam D

2013-08-19

93

Humeral head osteonecrosis in an adolescent amateur swimming athlete: a case report  

PubMed Central

Osteonecrosis of the humeral head in an adolescent without clear pathogenesis has not been reported in the literature. In this case report, we present such a case of humeral head osteonecrosis in a 15-year-old adolescent. The lesion was located at the subchondral area of the medial part of the humeral head with characteristic appearances on MRI. The shoulder was immobilized in a sling until the pain disappeared, and the patient was told to refrain any kind of sport activities. Bone remodeling was noted five months after the first visit, and it took 2 years for the lesion to be totally healed.

2012-01-01

94

Injectable biocomposites for bone healing in rabbit femoral condyle defects.  

PubMed

A novel biomimetic bone scaffold was successfully prepared in this study, which was composed of calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH), collagen and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAC). CSH/nHAC was prepared and observed with scanning electron microscope and rhBMP-2 was introduced into CSH/nHAC. The released protein content from the scaffold was detected using high performance liquid chromatography at predetermined time interval. In vivo bone formation capacity was investigated by means of implanting the scaffolds with rhBMP-2 or without rhBMP-2 respectively into a critical size defect model in the femoral condyle of rabbit. The releasing character of rhBMP-2 was that an initial burst release (37.5%) was observed in the first day, followed by a sustained release and reached 100% at the end of day 20. The CSH/nHAC showed a gradual decrease in degradation with the content of nHAC increase. The results of X-rays, Micro CT and histological observation indicated that more new bone was formed in rhBMP-2 group. The results implied that this new injectable bone scaffold should be very promising for bone repair and has a great potential in bone tissue engineering. PMID:24146770

Liu, Jianheng; Mao, Kezheng; Liu, Zhengsheng; Wang, Xiumei; Cui, Fuzhai; Guo, Wenguang; Mao, Keya; Yang, Shuying

2013-10-16

95

Injectable Biocomposites for Bone Healing in Rabbit Femoral Condyle Defects  

PubMed Central

A novel biomimetic bone scaffold was successfully prepared in this study, which was composed of calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH), collagen and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAC). CSH/nHAC was prepared and observed with scanning electron microscope and rhBMP-2 was introduced into CSH/nHAC. The released protein content from the scaffold was detected using high performance liquid chromatography at predetermined time interval. In vivo bone formation capacity was investigated by means of implanting the scaffolds with rhBMP-2 or without rhBMP-2 respectively into a critical size defect model in the femoral condyle of rabbit. The releasing character of rhBMP-2 was that an initial burst release (37.5%) was observed in the first day, followed by a sustained release and reached 100% at the end of day 20. The CSH/nHAC showed a gradual decrease in degradation with the content of nHAC increase. The results of X-rays, Micro CT and histological observation indicated that more new bone was formed in rhBMP-2 group. The results implied that this new injectable bone scaffold should be very promising for bone repair and has a great potential in bone tissue engineering.

Liu, Zhengsheng; Wang, Xiumei; Cui, Fuzhai; Guo, Wenguang; Mao, Keya; Yang, Shuying

2013-01-01

96

Nontraumatic bifid mandibular condyles in asymptomatic and symptomatic temporomandibular joint subjects  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study was performed to determine the prevalence of bifid mandibular condyles (BMCs) in asymptomatic and symptomatic temporomandibular joint (TMJ) subjects with no traumatic history, and to assess their impact on clinical and radiographic manifestations of TMJ. Materials and Methods A total of 3,046 asymptomatic and 4,378 symptomatic patients were included in the study. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were reviewed for bifid condyles. T-tests were used to compare the frequency of BMCs when stratified by symptom, gender, and side. In BMC patients, the clinical features of pain and noise, osseous changes, and parasagittal positioning of the condyles were compared between the normally shaped condyle side and the BMC side using chi-squared tests. Results Fifteen (0.49%) asymptomatic and 22 (0.50%) symptomatic patients were found to have BMCs. Among the bilateral cases, the number of condyles were 19 (0.31%) and 25 (0.29%), respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients, between female and male patients, or between the right and left sides (p>0.05). Compared with the normally shaped condyle side, the BMC side showed no statistically significant differences in the distribution of pain and noise, parasagittal condylar position, or condylar osseous changes, with the exception of osteophytes. In the symptomatic group, osteophytes were found more frequently on the normally shaped condyle side than the BMC side (p<0.05). Conclusion BMCs tended to be identified as an incidental finding. The presence of BMC would not lead to any TMJ symptoms or cause osseous changes.

Cho, Bong-Hae

2013-01-01

97

Humeral fractures by arm wrestling in adult: a biomechanical study.  

PubMed

Humeral shaft fractures may occur as a result of arm wrestling. We discuss the biomechanics of this rare injury mechanism. Using Strength of materials concepts, Computerized Tomography and Bone Density Scans we studied the biomechanical and anatomical conditions that predispose to this particular fracture. An unfavorable ratio between inner-outer diameter and a low bone mineral concentration in the distal third of humerus compared to other sections of bone were seen as critical aspects. The biomechanical study observed the primary importance of these factors to explain the typical shape and location of this fracture. These results indicate that each arm wrestler should be conscious of the risks of practicing this activity. (www.actabiomedica.it). PMID:23393920

Pedrazzini, Alessio; Pedrazzoni, Mario; De Filippo, Massimo; Nicoletto, Gianni; Govoni, Riccardo; Ceccarelli, Francesco

2012-08-01

98

Humeral chondrosarcoma in a Hokkaido brown bear (Ursus arctos yesoensis).  

PubMed

Humeral chondrosarcoma was found in an 18-year-old male Hokkaido brown bear (Ursus arctos yesoensis). Necropsy revealed a large firm mass under the left superficial pectoral muscle at the axillary region. The mass involved the left shoulder joint and peripheral muscles, and connected to the head of the humerus with osteolysis. Histopathologically, the mass was composed of irregularly shaped myxomatous to cartilaginous tumor lobules. The tumor cell showed moderate nuclear atypia with a relatively high mitotic index, especially in the edges of the myxomatous lobules. The tumor cells were positively immunostained with vimentin and S-100 protein. Based on these findings, the tumors were diagnosed as chondrosarcoma. Metastases were found in the left axillary lymph node, lungs, liver and kidney. PMID:22571896

Murakami, Tomoaki; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Chiba, Shiori; Kurauchi, Yuki; Sakamoto, Hideyuki; Sasaki, Motoki; Matsui, Takane

2012-04-27

99

Periprosthetic Fractures Associated with Primary Total Shoulder Arthroplasty and Primary Humeral Head Replacement  

PubMed Central

Background: The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of, and risk factors for, periprosthetic fractures during and after shoulder arthroplasty. Methods: All adults treated with a primary total shoulder arthroplasty or humeral head replacement at the Mayo Clinic Medical Center from 1976 to 2008 were identified. Periprosthetic fractures were validated by medical record review. Univariate and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association of demographic factors (age, sex, and body mass index [BMI]), underlying diagnosis, implant fixation (cemented or uncemented), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class, and comorbidity as assessed with the Deyo-Charlson index. Results: The cohort consisted of 2207 patients treated with a total of 2588 primary total shoulder arthroplasties and 1349 patients treated with 1431 humeral head replacements. Seventy-two medical-record-confirmed periprosthetic fractures occurred in association with the total shoulder arthroplasties. These consisted of forty-seven intraoperative fractures (forty humeral fractures, five glenoid fractures, and two fractures for which the site was unclear) and twenty-five postoperative fractures (twenty humeral fractures, three glenoid fractures, and two fractures for which the site was unclear). There were thirty-three fractures associated with the humeral head replacements. Fifteen were intraoperative (eight humeral fractures and seven glenoid fractures), and eighteen were postoperative (sixteen humeral fractures and two glenoid fractures). In the multivariable regression analysis of the total shoulder arthroplasties, female sex (odds ratio [OR], 4.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.82 to 9.62; p < 0.001; a 2.4% rate for women versus 0.6% for men) and the underlying diagnosis (p = 0.04; posttraumatic arthritis: OR, 2.55; 95% CI, 0.92 to 7.12) were associated with a significantly higher risk of intraoperative humeral fracture in general, and female sex was associated with the risk of intraoperative humeral shaft fracture (OR, infinity; p < 0.001). In combined analyses of all patients (treated with either total shoulder arthroplasty or humeral head replacement), a higher Deyo-Charlson index was significantly associated with an increased risk of postoperative periprosthetic humeral shaft fracture (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.45); p < 0.001), after adjusting for the type of surgery (total shoulder arthroplasty or humeral head replacement). Conclusions: The overall risk of periprosthetic fractures after total shoulder arthroplasty or humeral head replacement was low. Women had a significantly higher risk of intraoperative humeral shaft fracture. The underlying diagnosis (especially posttraumatic arthritis) was significantly associated with the risk of intraoperative humeral fracture, and comorbidity was significantly associated with the risk of postoperative humeral shaft fracture. Level of Evidence: Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Singh, Jasvinder A.; Sperling, John; Schleck, Cathy; Harmsen, William; Cofield, Robert

2012-01-01

100

Why is the humeral retroversion of throwing athletes greater in dominant shoulders than in nondominant shoulders?  

PubMed

A rotation angle of the proximal humerus relative to the elbow (bicipital-forearm angle) was measured by use of ultrasonography to determine the relationship between humeral retroversion and growth in dominant and nondominant shoulders of 66 elementary and junior high school baseball players. The subjects were aged 12 years on average. The bicipital-forearm angle was significantly smaller in dominant shoulders than in nondominant shoulders. This indicated that the retroversion angle was greater in dominant shoulders than in nondominant shoulders. Furthermore, there was a moderately positive correlation between age and the bicipital-forearm angle in both dominant and nondominant shoulders. From these data, we conclude that the humeral retroversion angle decreases with age, and the decrease is much smaller in dominant shoulders. We assume that the repetitive throwing motion does not increase the retroversion of the humeral head but rather restricts the physiologic derotation process of the humeral head during growth. PMID:16979051

Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Itoi, Eiji; Minagawa, Hiroshi; Urayama, Masakazu; Saito, Hidetomo; Seki, Nobutoshi; Iwase, Takenobu; Kashiwaguchi, Shinji; Matsuura, Tetsuya

101

Humeral head cysts and rotator cuff tears: an MR arthrographic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Humeral tuberosity cysts are a common finding, with previous reports suggesting they are related to rotator cuff tear or aging. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of cysts in the tuberosities of the humeral head and their relationship with rotator cuff tear and age.Design and patients  Shoulder MR arthrograms were reviewed in 120 consecutive patients—83 males (mean

Martin Williams; Robert G. W. Lambert; Gian S. Jhangri; Michael Grace; Jay Zelaso; Ben Wong; Sukhvinder S. Dhillon

2006-01-01

102

Gender and Side-to-Side Differences of Femoral Condyles Morphology: Osteometric Data from 360 Caucasian Dried Femori  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the present study was to conduct direct measurements in a large sample of dried femori in order to record certain morphometric parameters of the femoral condyles and determine whether there are gender and side differences. Three hundred sixty (Greek) Caucasian dried femori (180 left and 180 right), from 192 males and 168 females, were measured using a digital caliper. The mean age was 67.52 years. The mean bicondylar width of the femur was 8.86?cm ± 0.42?cm in men and 7.85?cm ± 0.30?cm in women (P < 0.01). The relative values for the medial condylar depth were 6.11?cm ± 0.34?cm and 5.59?cm ± 0.29?cm (P < 0.05); for the lateral condylar depth were 6.11?cm ± 0.33?cm and 5.54?cm ± 0.21?cm (P < 0.01); for the intercondylar width were 2.20?cm ± 0.18?cm and 1.87?cm ± 0.10?cm (P < 0.001); for the intercondylar depth were 2.78?cm ± 0.16?cm and 2.37?cm ± 0.12?cm (P < 0.001). No significant side-to-side difference was observed in any parameter. The femoral condyles differences in anatomy between genders might be useful to the design of total knee prostheses. The contralateral healthy side can be safely used for preoperative templating since there were no significant side differences.

Terzidis, Ioannis; Totlis, Trifon; Papathanasiou, Efthymia; Sideridis, Aristotelis; Vlasis, Konstantinos; Natsis, Konstantinos

2012-01-01

103

Proximal Humeral Fractures: A Biomechanical Comparison of Locking Plate Constructs in a Cadaveric 3Part Fracture Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of our study was to biomechanically compare, under cyclic loading conditions, fracture site motion, humeral head collapse, and intra-articular hardware penetration in simulated 3-part osteoporotic proximal humeral fractures stabilized with 1 of 2 locking-plate constructs. We performed fixation on simulated 3-part proximal humeral fractures in 10 pairs of cadaveric osteoporotic humeri with a Hand Innovations S3 Proximal Humerus

David M. Rose; Edward G. Sutter; Simon C. Mears; Rohit R. Gupta; Stephen M. Belkoff

2010-01-01

104

Bony changes at the lateral epicondyle of possible significance in tennis elbow syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of a large number (1232) of elbows from skeletal specimens revealed that 16% displayed a characteristic pattern of bone formation exactly underlying the area of exquisite point tenderness at the lateral humeral epicondyle found in clinical cases of tennis elbow. These changes are usually not seen on standard roentgenograms and can be missed, even at the time of surgery,

Gordon Edelson; Charles A. Kunos; Fina Vigder; Elias Obed

2001-01-01

105

Proximal Humeral Migration in Shoulders with Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Rotator Cuff Tears  

PubMed Central

Background: Proximal humeral migration is commonly seen in rotator-cuff-deficient shoulders. The specific effects of the size of the rotator cuff tear and of pain on glenohumeral kinematics have been poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of cuff tear size and pain, separately, on humeral migration in a series of patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic rotator cuff tears. Methods: Ninety-eight asymptomatic and sixty-two symptomatic shoulders were identified from a cohort of patients with unilateral shoulder pain related to rotator cuff disease. All shoulders underwent ultrasonographic evaluation of the rotator cuff and standardized radiographic evaluation. Humeral migration was measured by three observers using software-enhanced radiographic analysis. Results: There was no significant difference in rotator cuff tear size between the asymptomatic and symptomatic shoulders, although more tears involved the infraspinatus in the symptomatic group (p = 0.01). Proximal humeral migration was greater in the shoulders with a symptomatic tear than it was in those with an asymptomatic tear (p = 0.03). Tears that involved the infraspinatus resulted in more migration than did isolated supraspinatus tears in both the symptomatic (p = 0.01) and the asymptomatic shoulders (p = 0.03). When the symptomatic tears of ?175 mm2 were analyzed separately, the size of the tear was found to correlate strongly with humeral migration (p = 0.01). However, when the symptomatic tears that were <175 mm2 were analyzed, neither tear size nor pain was found to have a significant relationship with migration. When the analysis was limited to full-thickness symptomatic tears of ?175 mm2, both pain (p = 0.002) and tear area (p = 0.0002) were found to have a significant effect on migration. Multivariate analysis showed that tear size (p = 0.01) was the strongest predictor of migration in symptomatic shoulders. Conclusions: Proximal humeral migration correlates with rotator cuff tear size. Tears extending into the infraspinatus tendon are associated with greater humeral migration than is seen with isolated supraspinatus tears. Humeral migration resulting from symptomatic rotator cuff tears is greater than that resulting from asymptomatic tears. Additionally, there is a critical size for tendon tears resulting in humeral migration in painful shoulders. Although both pain and tear size influence glenohumeral kinematics in symptomatic shoulders, only tear size is an independent predictor of humeral migration. Level of Evidence: Prognostic Level II. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Keener, Jay D.; Wei, Anthony S.; Kim, H. Mike; Steger-May, Karen; Yamaguchi, Ken

2009-01-01

106

Characterizing occipital condyle loads under high-speed head rotation.  

PubMed

Because of the need to evaluate anthropomorphic test device (ATD) biofidelity under high-head angular accelerations, the purpose of the present investigation was to develop appropriate instrumentation for intact post mortem human subject (PMHS) testing, validate the instrumentation, and obtain information to characterize the response of the head-neck complex under this loading scenario. A series of rigid-arm pendulum, inertially loaded ATD tests was conducted. Head and neck ATD hydraulic piston chin pull tests were conducted. Subsequently, a series of PMHS tests was conducted to derive the response of the human head-neck under high-rate chin loading. Finally, Hybrid III and THOR-NT ATD head-neck systems were evaluated under the same scenario as the PMHS. A parametric analysis for center of gravity (CG) location and accelerometer orientation determined that even small errors (+/- 3 mm or 2 degrees), produced errors in the force and moment calculations by as much as 17 %. If the moment of inertia (MOI) term was varied by 5 %, resulting moment calculations were affected by as much as 8 %. If the 5 % error in MOI was used to compute occipital condyle moments, and results compared to upper load cell derived moments, peaks differed by as much as 24 %. The head CG and mass MOI should be directly measured for each preparation to obtain accurate results. The injury run on each specimen resulted in predominantly C1-C2 separations or partial separations. The 50(th) percentile probability of AIS=2+ neck injury using tensile force was about 2400 N; for AIS=3+ neck injury the 50(th) percentile risk was about 3180 N. When inserting extension moment as the criteria, the 50(th) percentile probability of an AIS=2+ injury was 51 Nm. The AIS=3+ extension moment at the 50(th) percentile probability was 75 Nm. The new THOR-NT ATD head-neck produced more biofidelic responses with an alternate head-neck junction design compared to the Hybrid III ATD. PMID:17096267

Pintar, Frank A; Yoganandan, Narayan; Baisden, Jamie

2005-11-01

107

Anatomy and histology of the transverse humeral ligament.  

PubMed

The classic literature describes the transverse humeral ligament (THL) as a distinct anatomic structure with a role in biceps tendon stability; however, recent literature suggests that it is not a distinct anatomic structure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gross and microscopic anatomy of the THL, including a specific investigation of the histology of this ligament. Thirty frozen, embalmed cadaveric specimens were dissected to determine the gross anatomy of the THL. Seven specimens were evaluated histologically for the presence of mechanoreceptors and free nerve endings. Two tissue layers were identified in the area described as the THL. In the deep layer, fibers of the subscapularis tendon were found to span the bicipital groove with contributions from the coracohumeral ligament and the supraspinatus tendon. Superficial to this layer was a fibrous fascial covering consisting of distinct bands of tissue. Neurohistology staining revealed the presence of free nerve endings but no mechanoreceptors. This study's findings demonstrate that the THL is a distinct structure continuous with the rotator cuff tendons and the coracohumeral ligament. The finding of free nerve endings in the THL suggests a potential role as a shoulder pain generator. PMID:24093707

Snow, Brian J; Narvy, Steven J; Omid, Reza; Atkinson, Roscoe D; Vangsness, C Thomas

2013-10-01

108

Validity of measuring humeral torsion using palpation of bicipital tuberosities  

PubMed Central

The magnitude of humeral torsion (HT) affects the internal and external rotation range of motion at the shoulder. Currently imaging is required to quantify the HT angle, however, factors such as cost and non-availability of imaging to musculoskeletal clinicians limits its use. The aim of this study was to examine the validity of palpation of the bicipital tuberosities as an alternative to imaging for quantifying HT angles. The bicipital-forearm angle, an indirect measure of HT, was measured using palpation and real-time ultrasound imaging in 25 subjects. The agreement among the two methods was excellent with the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (3,k) = 0.92, and the mean difference between the two methods was ?0.2° (SD 4.1°) with 95% limits of agreement of ?8.3° to 7.9°. Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) among the two methods was 0.85. In a clinical setting, palpation appears to be a practical alternative to US imaging for measuring HT.

Dashottar, Amitabh; Borstad, John D.

2012-01-01

109

Supracondylar humeral fractures in children: Beware the medial spike.  

PubMed

Supracondylar humeral fractures are common in children, but there are no classification systems or radiological parameters that predict the likelihood of having to perform an open reduction. In a retrospective case-control study we evaluated the use of the medial spike angle and fracture tip-skin distance to predict the mode of reduction (closed or open) and the operating time in fractures with posterolateral displacement. A total of 21 patients (4.35%) with a small medial spike angle (< 45°) were identified from a total of 494 patients, and 42 patients with a medial spike angle of > 45° were randomly selected as controls. The medial spike group had significantly smaller fracture tip-skin distances (p < 0.001), longer operating times (p = 0.004) and more complications (p = 0.033) than the control group. There was no significant difference in the mode of reduction and a composite outcome measure. After adjustments for age and gender, only fracture tip-skin distance remained significantly associated with the operating time (? = -0.724, p = 0.042) and composite outcome (OR 0.863 (95% confidence interval 0.746 to 0.998); p = 0.048). Paediatric orthopaedic surgeons should have a lower threshold for open reduction when treating patients with a small medial spike angle and a small fracture tip-skin distance. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:1290-4. PMID:23997148

Lim, K B L; Lim, C T; Tawng, D K

2013-09-01

110

The accuracy of measuring glenohumeral motion with a surface humeral cuff  

PubMed Central

Conclusions about normal and pathologic shoulder motion are frequently made from studies using skin surface markers, yet accuracy of such sensors representing humeral motion is not well known. Nineteen subjects were investigated with flock of birds electromagnetic sensors attached to transcortical pins placed into the scapula and humerus, and a thermoplastic cuff secured on the arm. Subjects completed two repetitions of raising and lowering the arm in the sagittal, scapular and coronal planes, as well as shoulder internal and external rotation with the elbow at the side and abducted to ninety degrees. Humeral motion was recorded simultaneously from surface and bone fixed sensors. The average magnitude of error was calculated for the surface and bone fixed measurements throughout the range of motion. ANOVA tested for differences across angles of elevation, raising and lowering, and differences in body mass index. For all five motions tested, the plane of elevation rotation average absolute error ranged from 0-2°, while the humeral elevation rotation average error ranged from 0-4°. The axial rotation average absolute error was much greater, ranging from 5° during elevation motions to approaching 30° at maximum excursion of internal/external rotation motions. Average absolute error was greater in subjects with body mass index greater than 25. Surface sensors are an accurate way of measuring humeral elevation rotations and plane of elevation rotations. Conversely, there is a large amount of average error for axial rotations when using a humeral cuff to measure glenohumeral internal/external rotation as the primary motion.

Hamming, David; Braman, Jonathan P.; Phadke, Vandana; LaPrade, Robert F.; Ludewig, Paula M.

2012-01-01

111

Ectopic third molar in the mandibular condyle: A review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate the etiopathogenesis, clinical features, therapeutic options, and surgical approaches for removal of ectopic third molars in the mandibular condyle. Study design: MEDLINE search of articles published on ectopic third molars in the mandibular condyle from 1980 to 2011. 14 well-documented clinical cases from the literature were evaluated together with a new clinical case provided by the authors, representing a sample of 15 patients. Results: We found a mean age at diagnosis of 48.6 years and a higher prevalence in women. In 14 patients, associated radiolucent lesions were diagnosed on radiographic studies and confirmed histopathologically as odontogenic cysts. Clinical symptoms were pain and swelling in the jaw or preauricular region, trismus, difficulty chewing, cutaneous fistula and temporomandibular joint dysfunction. Treatment included conservative management in one case and in the other cases, surgical removal by intra- or extraoral approaches, the latter being the most common approach carried out. In most reported cases, serious complications were not outlined. Conclusions: The etiopathogenic theory involving odontogenic cysts in the displacement of third molars to the mandibular condyle seems to be the most relevant. They must be removed if they cause symptoms or are associated with cystic pathology. The surgical route must be planned according to the location and position of the ectopic third molar, and the possible morbidity associated with surgery. Key words:Third molar, ectopic tooth, condyle, mandible.

Iglesias-Martin, Fernando; Torres-Carranza, Eusebio; Prats-Golczer, Victoria-Eugenia; Garcia-Perla-Garcia, Alberto

2012-01-01

112

Long-term radiological findings following reconstruction of the condyle with fibular free flaps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: Fibular bone grafts are considered as one of the best choices for reconstruction of the condyle. However, little data are available on bone remodelling after such reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term radiological outcome.Patients and Methods: Eleven patients underwent condylar reconstruction with a free fibular transplant. In all cases the end of the fibular

Laurent Guyot; Olivier Richard; Walid Layoun; François Cheynet; Vanessa Bellot-Samson; Cyrille Chossegros; Jean-Louis Blanc; Raymond Gola

2004-01-01

113

Endoscopically assisted reconstruction of the mandibular condyle with a costochondral graft through a modified preauricular approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe our experience with reconstruction of the mandibular condyle with a costrochondral graft (CCG). We retrospectively evaluated 122 patients with diagnoses including osteoarthrosis, ankylosis, tumours, idiopathic condylar resorption, comminuted condylar fracture, and chronic osteomyelitis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). We used a modified preauricular approach and an endoscopically assisted technique. The grafts were followed-up by computed tomograms (CTs) and

Ya-ting Qiu; Chi Yang; Min-jie Chen

2010-01-01

114

Bone formation and resorption of highly purified ?-tricalcium phosphate in the rat femoral condyle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to examine the chronological histology associated with highly purified ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) implanted in the rat femoral condyle. Specimens were harvested on days 4, 7, 14, 28 and 56 after implantation, and were analyzed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, immunohistochemistry of the ED1 protein as a marker of the phagocyte system, and in

Naoki Kondo; Akira Ogose; Kunihiko Tokunaga; Tomoyuki Ito; Katsumitsu Arai; Naoko Kudo; Hikaru Inoue; Hiroyuki Irie; Naoto Endo

2005-01-01

115

Frey's syndrome following fracture of the mandibular condyle - a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frey's syndrome (preauricular gustatory sweating) following multiple fractures of maxillofacial structures, including both mandibular condyles, is presented. Condylar fracture is an uncommon cause of this syndrome. The physiology of this syndrome is reviewed. Successful relief of symptoms and technique for objective documentation are presented.

M. Sengezer; R. C. Sadove; M. Deveci

1997-01-01

116

Condyle-fossa modifications and muscle interactions during herbst treatment, part 1. new technological methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the condyle, the glenoid fossa, and the muscles of mastication were investigated in subjects undergoing continuous orthopedic advancement of the mandible with a Herbst-block appliance. The total sample consisted of 56 subjects and included 15 nonhuman primates (in the middle mixed, early permanent, and permanent dentitions), 17 human Herbst patients in the early permanent dentition, and 24 human

John C Voudouris; Donald G Woodside; Gurkan Altuna; Mladen M Kuftinec; Gerassimos Angelopoulos; Paul J Bourque

2003-01-01

117

Functional and Radiological Evaluations of Unstable Displaced Proximal Humeral Fractures Treated with Closed Reduction and Percutaneous Pinning Fixation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the functional and radiological outcomes of patients with unstable displaced proximal humeral fractures treated with closed reduction and percutaneous pinning (CRPP) fixation. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 87 cases of displaced (2-, 3- or 4-part fractures according to Neer classification) proximal humeral fractures treated with CRPP fixation in our center from September

Zhe Yu; Lianhe Zheng; Yucai Wang; Yong Zhang; Xudong Zhang; Bao’an Ma

2010-01-01

118

Force and Acceleration Corridors from Lateral Head Impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to provide force and acceleration corridors at different velocities describing the dynamic biomechanics of the lateral region of the human head. Temporo-parietal impact tests were conducted using specimens from ten unembalmed post-mortem human subjects. The specimens were isolated at the occipital condyle level, and pre-test x-ray and computed tomography images were obtained. They were prepared with

NARAYAN YOGANANDAN; JIANGYUE ZHANG; FRANK A. PINTAR

2004-01-01

119

Humeral cross-sectional shape in suspensory primates and sloths.  

PubMed

Studies on the cross-sectional geometry of long bones in African apes have documented that shape ratios derived from second moments of area about principle axes (e.g., Imax /Imin ) are often correlated with habitual locomotor behaviors. For example, humeral cross-sections tend to appear more circular in more arboreal and forelimb suspensory chimpanzees compared with terrestrial quadrupedal gorillas. These data support the hypothesis that cross-sections that are more circular in shape are adapted for multidirectional loading regimes and bending moments encountered when using acrobatic locomotor behaviors. Whether a more circular humerus reflects greater use of forelimb suspension in other primates and nonprimate mammals is unknown. In this study, cross-sections at or near midshaft of the humerus were obtained from anthropoid primates that differ in their use of forelimb suspension, as well as from two genera of suspensory sloths. Imax /Imin ratios were compared within and between groups, and correlations were made with behavioral data. In broad comparisons, observed differences in morphology follow predicted patterns. Humeri of suspensory sloths are circular. Humeri of the more suspensory hominoids tend to be more circular than those of quadrupedal taxa. Humeri of the suspensory atelines are similar to hominoids, while those of Cebus are more like nonsuspensory cercopithecoids. There is, however, considerable overlap between taxa and within finer comparisons variation between species are not in the predicted direction. Thus, although Imax /Imin ratios of the humerus are informative for characterizing generalized locomotor modes (i.e., forelimb suspensory vs. quadrupedal), additional structural information is needed for more fine-grained assessments of locomotion. PMID:23408647

Patel, Biren A; Ruff, Christopher B; Simons, Erin L R; Organ, Jason M

2013-02-13

120

Perioperative fracture-dislocation of the humeral head during a resurfacing hemiarthroplasty  

PubMed Central

We report a case of perioperative fracture-dislocation of the humeral head produced during the reaming for a resurfacing replacement hemiarthroplasty (RRH) in a 79-year old woman. This is a surgical complication not previously described in the literature for this type of prosthesis design. Resurfacing humeral head implant has been noted as a useful treatment for glenohumeral arthropathies, also in elderly people, with a very low incidence of complications. However, as we report, they are possible. It is advisable that conventional stemmed implants could be available when RRH is performed.

Peidro, L.; Plaza, R.; Sastre, S.

2008-01-01

121

Ossification centre of the hyoid bone in complete transposition of great vessels, Ivemark asplenia syndrome, and Down's syndrome with congenital heart disease: correlation with the humeral capital epiphysis.  

PubMed

The incidence of radiographic visibility of the ossification centres of the body of the hyoid bone and of the humeral capital epiphysis in antero-posterior or lateral chest radiographs taken during the first month of life of 63 autopsied infants were analysed. The group comprised patients with Down's syndrome (DS) with congenital heart disease, 15; complete transposition of the great vessels (TGV), 10; Ivemark asplenia syndrome (IS), 17; and a control group of infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) who had none of the above conditions, nor tetralogy of Fallot, interrupted aortic arch, DiGeorge syndrome or hypoplastic left-heart complex, 31. The incidence of radiographically visible hyoid ossification centre (HOC) in the control group was 71% and of humeral capital epiphysis (HE), 16.1%. Autopsied infants with TGV, IS or DS with CHD showed increased visibility of HOC (100%); the incidence of visible HE was increased in neonates with IS (71.4%) and with TGV (50%). The differences in the incidence of radiographic visibility of HOC and HE in neonates with CHD, in this study and in others in the literature, appear to have diagnostic value. PMID:2947657

Wells, T R; Landing, B H; Senac, M O; Gilsanz, V

1986-11-01

122

Computed tomography evaluation of temporomandibular joint alterations in patients with class II division 1 subdivision malocclusions: condyle-fossa relationship.  

PubMed

Thirty persons with Class II Division 1 subdivision malocclusions, ranging in age from 12 years 8 months to 42 years, underwent computed tomography of the temporomandibular joints. The images obtained from sagittal slices were used to assess the depth of the mandibular fossa, the angulation of the posterior wall of the articular tubercle, the condyle-fossa relationship, and the concentric position of the condyles associated with this malocclusion. Paired Student t tests were applied, and Pearson product moment correlations (r) were determined after measurements on both Class I and Class II sides were obtained. No statistically significant asymmetries were found in the depth of the mandibular fossa, the angulation of the posterior wall of the articular tubercle, or the condyle-fossa relationship. However, a statistically significant (P <.05) anterior positioning of the condyles was observed. PMID:15224058

Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo; Telles, Carlos de Souza; Fraga, Marcelo Reis; de Oliveira, Roberto Sotto Maior Fortes; Tanaka, Orlando Motohiro

2004-07-01

123

Total elbow arthroplasty as primary treatment for distal humeral fractures in elderly patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distal humeral fractures are difficult to treat. In the elderly population, the problems are compounded by osteoporosis and gross comminution. Open reduction and internal fixation for such fractures is sometimes difficult and may be associated with poor results. Total elbow arthroplasty has been suggested as a last-ditch effort to salvage functional use for such difficult fractures in the elderly. We

P. S. Ray; K. Kakarlapudi; C. Rajsekhar; M. S. Bhamra

2000-01-01

124

Mechanical Quantification of Local Bone Quality in the Humeral Head: A Feasibility Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Surgical treatment of proximal humerus fractures can be challenging due to osteoporosis. The weak bone stock makes stable implant anchorage difficult, which can result in low primary stability. Accordingly, significant failure rates, even with modern locking plates, are reported in the literature. Intraoperative knowledge of local bone quality could be helpful in improving results. This study evaluates the feasibility of local bone quality quantification using breakaway torque measurements. Materials and Methods: A torque measurement tool (DensiProbe™) was developed to determine local resistance to breakaway offered by the cancellous bone in the humeral head to quantify local bone quality. The tool was adapted to a standard locking plate (PHILOS, Synthes), allowing measurement in the positions of the six humeral head screws, as provided by the aiming device of the plate. Two hundred and seventy measurements were performed in 44 fresh cadaveric human humeri. Results: Handling of the tool was straight forward and provided reproducible results for the six different positions. The method allows discrimination between the respective positions with statistical significance, and thus provides reliable information on the local distribution of bone quality within the humeral head. Discussion: This study introduces a new method using breakaway torque to determine local bone quality within the humeral head in real time. Because DensiProbe is adapted to a standard locking plate, there is the potential for intraoperative application. The information provided could enable the surgeon to improve fixation of osteoporotic proximal humerus fractures.

Scola, Alexander; Gebhard, Florian; Weckbach, Sebastian; Dehner, Christoph; Schwyn, Ronald; Fliri, Ladina; Roderer, Gotz

2013-01-01

125

A Surgical Treatment for Unstable Osteochondritis Dissecans Lesions of the Humeral Capitellum in Adolescent Baseball Players  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Various methods of surgical treatment for unstable osteochondritis dissecans lesions of the humeral capitellum have shown the potential to lead to osteoarthritis and poor functional results in throwing activities.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of surgical treatment with pull-out wiring and bone grafting (as established by Kondo in 1989) in patients with unstable osteochondritis

Hideaki Takeda; Koji Watarai; Takashi Matsushita; Takao Saito; Yuichiro Terashima

2002-01-01

126

In-vivo biomechanical analysis of osteochondritis dissecans of the humeral trochlea: a case report.  

PubMed

Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the humeral trochlea can occur among adolescent gymnasts or throwing athletes. However, the natural history and treatment strategy remain unclear because of its low incidence. The aim of this report was to determine the biomechanical influence of trochlear OCD on the elbow joint by analyzing three-dimensional in-vivo joint biomechanics in a trochlear OCD case. PMID:23426027

Miyake, Junichi; Kataoka, Toshiyuki; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki

2013-07-01

127

Growth patterns of the humeral and femur length in a multiethnic population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To study whether there are any differences in growth of the femoral and humeral length between the three major ethnic groups in Malaysia viz Malays, Chinese and Indians. The effect on fetal growth by gender of the baby and parity of the mother was also studied. Methods: The setting was the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Thirty-four Malay, 35 Chinese

S. Raman; T. Teoh; S. Nagaraj

1996-01-01

128

Optimal positioning of the humeral component in the reverse shoulder prosthesis.  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION: Total reverse shoulder arthroplasty is becoming more and more the standard therapeutic practice for glenohumeral arthropathy with massive lesions of the rotator cuff. The biomechanical principle of this prosthesis is represented by the reversion of the normal anatomy of the shoulder joint. This non-anatomical prosthesis leads to a medialization of the rotation centre of the glenohumeral joint and also to a distalization of the humeral head. All that causes a deltoid tension increasing so allowing a larger abduction of the arm. Main complications of the reverse shoulder prosthesis are due to the joint instability, the scapular notching and the wear of the polyethylene insert. PURPOSE: The main goal of the present work is to study the effect of the positioning of the humeral component on the intrinsic stability of the reverse shoulder prosthesis. In particular, through finite element method simulations, the variation of the stability ratio of the shoulder joint has been calculated for both vertical and horizontal dislocating loads depending on the humeral stem version angle. Moreover, in order to estimate the wear of the polyethylene cup, some analyses have been developed to calculate the pressures on the polyethylene insert. RESULTS: The obtained results demonstrate the dislocation of a shoulder prosthesis and the wear of the polyethylene insert can be prevented or limited by conveniently varying the version angle of the humeral component. PMID:23719768

Nalbone, L; Adelfio, R; D'arienzo, M; Ingrassia, T; Nigrelli, V; Zabbara, F; Paladini, P; Campi, F; Pellegrini, A; Porcellini, G

2013-05-30

129

21 CFR 888.3180 - Elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic uncemented prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic uncemented prosthesis is a device intended to be implanted made of alloys, such as cobalt-chromium-molybdenum, that is used to replace the distal end of the humerus formed by the trochlea humeri and the...

2013-04-01

130

Temporal changes in Arikara humeral and femoral cross-sectional geometry associated with horticultural intensification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humeral and femoral cross-sectional properties from three archaeological variants of the Arikara, an American Great Plains Indian tribe, were analyzed for temporal (16th to 19th centuries) changes in long bone architecture, asymmetry, and sexual dimorphism associated with intensification of horticulture during the late protohistoric and early historic periods. There were a number of significant changes in long bone, especially femoral,

Daniel J. Wescott; Deborah L. Cunningham

2006-01-01

131

Reduced humeral torsion predicts throwing-related injury in adolescent baseballers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of torsion in the humerus is determined by both genetic and activity-related factors, and affects the external rotation range of motion available at the shoulder. Previous research has shown athletes participating in throwing sports to have a greater amount of humeral retrotorsion in their dominant arm. The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive ability of

Rod J. Whiteley; Roger D. Adams; Leslie L. Nicholson; Karen A. Ginn

2010-01-01

132

A new prosthetic design for proximal humeral fractures: reconstructing the glenohumeral unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new shoulder prosthesis design for proximal humeral fractures has been developed. The rim of the articular component of this prosthesis has several holes to which the bone-tendon junction of the rotator cuff is fixed, to allow an anatomic reconstruction of the glenohumeral unit. The strength of the tuberosity fixation to this prosthesis is investigated in a cadaveric study. Artificial

Lieven F De Wilde; Bart M Berghs; Thomas Beutler; Stephen J Ferguson; René C Verdonk

2004-01-01

133

Biomechanical Analysis of Three Different Types of Implants in Humeral Diaphysis Fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanical behavior of three different types of implants used in the osteosynthesis of comminuted humeral shaft fractures. Materials and methods: We used 16 Sawbones® composite synthetic bones. We created a medial third osteotomy and we removed a 38mm thick fragment. We instrumented the fractures with 3 types of implants: an

R. Asaftei; P. D. Sirbu; E. Carata; M. Bar; P. Botez

2010-01-01

134

Treatment of distal humeral fractures using conventional implants. Biomechanical evaluation of a new implant configuration  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In the face of costly fixation hardware with varying performance for treatment of distal humeral fractures, a novel technique (U-Frame) is proposed using conventional implants in a 180° plate arrangement. In this in-vitro study the biomechanical stability of this method was compared with the established technique which utilizes angular stable locking compression plates (LCP) in a 90° configuration. METHODS:

Markus Windolf; Edgardo Ramos Maza; Boyko Gueorguiev; Volker Braunstein; Karsten Schwieger

2010-01-01

135

Growth potential of the rat mandibular condyle as an isogeneic transplant traversing the interparietal suture.  

PubMed

The mandibular condyle of 5-, 10- or 20-day inbred male rats was transplanted across the interparietal suture of male litter-mates and the transverse dimension of the neurocranium was measured from dry skulls at 25 or 35 days. The width of the neurocranium had increased significantly from days 5 or 10 to 25 in the rats with the transplants, whereas the difference from controls was small or non-existent by 35 days. Histological examination showed that the cartilaginous zone was reduced in the transplants at 25 days but that there were still layers of chondrocytes at 35 days. It is suggested that the rat mandibular condyle is endowed with a tissue-separating, interstitial growth potential that, to some extent, is unrelated to mobility, and essentially effected by chondrocyte hypertrophy. PMID:1877894

Rönning, O; Peltomäki, T

1991-01-01

136

Radio-anatomic position for the lateral radiographic view of the human patello-femoral joint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Recent clinical and epidemiological studies have emphasised the importance of the patello-femoral joint (P-FJ) in osteoarthritis. X-ray examination of this joint for joint space width (JSW) assessment using the standard medio-lateral view is difficult. In 26 femora, the mean angle of inclination between the medial and lateral condyles measured at their inferior and anterior surfaces, relative to a line

B Szebenyi; PA Dieppe; JC Buckland-Wright

1995-01-01

137

The relationship of Plasmodium falciparum humeral immunity with HIV-1 immunosuppression and treatment efficacy in Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background HIV-1 infection affects malaria humeral immunity during pregnancy, but data for non-pregnant adults are lacking. This study reports the impact of HIV-1 infection and other variables on the level of malaria humeral immunity in adults with clinical malaria and whether humeral immune suppression was a risk factor for treatment failure. Methods Sera of 224 HIV-1 infected and 115 uninfected adults were compared for IgG to merozoite antigens AMA-1 and MSP2 (3D7 and FC27 types) determined by ELISA, and for IgG to the Variant Surface Antigens (VSA) of three different parasite line E8B, A4 and HCD6 determined by flow cytometry. Results Compared to HIV-1 uninfected adults, AMA-1 IgG was lower in HIV-1 infected (P = 0.02) and associated with low CD4 count AMA-1 IgG (P = 0.003). Low IgG to all three merozoite antigens was associated with less anemia (P = 0.03). High parasite load was associated with low MSP2 IgG 3D7 and FC27 types (P = 0.02 and P = 0.08). Antibody levels to VSA did not differ between HIV-1 infected and uninfected adults. However, low VSA IgGs were associated with high parasite load (P ? 0.002 for each parasite line) and with treatment failure (P ? 0.04 for each parasite line). Conclusion HIV-1 affects humeral responses to AMA-1, but seems to marginally or not affect humeral responses to other merozoite antigens and VSAs. The latter were important for controlling parasite density and predict treatment outcome.

2009-01-01

138

Autogeneous coronoid process as free graft for reconstruction of mandibular condyle in patients with temporomandibular ankylosis.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of using the autogeneous coronoid process as free graft for reconstruction of mandibular condyle and to achieve structural, functional, as well as esthetic rehabilitation of patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This article presents the clinical results of an evaluation of ten cases of TMJ ankylosis treated by using autogeneous coronoid process as free graft for reconstruction of mandibular condyle after resection of ankylotic mass. RESULTS: Satisfactory mouth opening were obtained in all ten cases. No patient showed signs of re-ankylosis at 12 months follow-up. Preoperative mouth opening ranged from 0 to 15 mm with mean being 4.8 mm. As a result of successful procedure, the immediate postoperative mouth opening increased ranging from 24 to 31 mm (mean, 26.5 mm). Follow up of patients at the first and 12th month showed good results with increase in mouth opening from a range of 24 to 31 mm (mean, 27.8 mm ) to 26 to 36 mm (mean, 33.13 mm). CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that the autogeneous coronoid process as free graft is a suitable graft material for reconstruction of mandibular condyle after resection of ankylotic mass. PMID:23686355

Hu, Weihsin; Thadani, Sandeep; Mukul, Sailesh Kumar; Sood, Ramita

2013-05-18

139

Current Concepts in the Mandibular Condyle Fracture Management Part I: Overview of Condylar Fracture  

PubMed Central

The incidence of condylar fractures is high, but the management of fractures of the mandibular condyle continues to be controversial. Historically, maxillomandibular fixation, external fixation, and surgical splints with internal fixation systems were the techniques commonly used in the treatment of the fractured mandible. Condylar fractures can be extracapsular or intracapsular, undisplaced, deviated, displaced, or dislocated. Treatment depends on the age of the patient, the co-existence of other mandibular or maxillary fractures, whether the condylar fracture is unilateral or bilateral, the level and displacement of the fracture, the state of dentition and dental occlusion, and the surgeonnds on the age of the patient, the co-existence of othefrom which it is difficult to recover aesthetically and functionally;an appropriate treatment is required to reconstruct the shape and achieve the function ofthe uninjured status. To do this, accurate diagnosis, appropriate reduction and rigid fixation, and complication prevention are required. In particular, as mandibular condyle fracture may cause long-term complications such as malocclusion, particularly open bite, reduced posterior facial height, and facial asymmetry in addition to chronic pain and mobility limitation, great caution should be taken. Accordingly, the authors review a general overview of condyle fracture.

Yang, Jung-Dug; Chung, Ho-Yun; Cho, Byung-Chae

2012-01-01

140

Trabecular bone structure in the mandibular condyles of gouging and nongouging platyrrhine primates.  

PubMed

The relationship between mandibular form and biomechanical function is a topic of significant interest to morphologists and paleontologists alike. Several previous studies have examined the morphology of the mandible in gouging and nongouging primates as a means of understanding the anatomical correlates of this feeding behavior. The goal of the current study was to quantify the trabecular bone structure of the mandibular condyle of gouging and nongouging primates to assess the functional morphology of the jaw in these animals. High-resolution computed tomography scan data were collected from the mandibles of five adult common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), saddle-back tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis), and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), respectively, and various three-dimensional morphometric parameters were measured from the condylar trabecular bone. No significant differences were found among the taxa for most trabecular bone structural features. Importantly, no mechanically significant parameters, such as bone volume fraction and degree of anisotropy, were found to vary significantly between gouging and nongouging primates. The lack of significant differences in mechanically relevant structural parameters among these three platyrrhine taxa may suggest that gouging as a habitual dietary behavior does not involve significantly higher loads on the mandibular condyle than other masticatory behaviors. Alternatively, the similarities in trabecular architecture across these three taxa may indicate that trabecular bone is relatively unimportant mechanically in the condyle of these primates and therefore is functionally uninformative. PMID:19918988

Ryan, Timothy M; Colbert, Matthew; Ketcham, Richard A; Vinyard, Christopher J

2010-04-01

141

Ilizarov treatment of humeral shaft nonunion in an antiepileptic drug patient with uncontrolled generalized tonic-clonic seizure activity  

PubMed Central

Nonunion of the humeral shaft in patients with antiepileptic drug associated metabolic bone disorder constitute a challenging surgical problem difficult to treat due to seizure activity, osteoporosis, and poor stabilization options. We report a case of nonunion of the humeral shaft in an antiepileptic drug patient with uncontrolled generalized tonic-clonic seizure activity successfully treated with Ilizarov external fixator and a follow-up of 4 years.

2010-01-01

142

Medial reconstruction technique in the treatment of complex fractures of humeral proximal epiphysis with SMR prosthetic modular system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prosthetic treatment of complex fractures of humeral proximal meta-epiphysis is a very complex surgery that often does not\\u000a lead to satisfactory results. Indeed, although in the last 35 years since Neer’s studies some progress has been made in the\\u000a knowledge of the anatomy of humeral meta-epiphysis proximal portion, surgical technique and prosthetic design, in the literature\\u000a we find non-homogeneous experiences

Raffele Russo; Luigi Vernaglia Lombardi; Fabio Cautiero; Gerardo Giudice; Michele Ciccarelli

2008-01-01

143

The effects of interscalene brachial plexus block on humeral arterial blood flow: a Doppler ultrasound study.  

PubMed

In this study we investigated and quantified the effects of interscalene block (ISB) on humeral arterial blood flow (HBF). Eleven patients scheduled for shoulder arthroscopic surgery under ISB were prospectively studied. A Doppler ultrasound of the humeral artery was performed before, and 30 min after, the ISB. The resistance index and the HBF were measured at the level of the midpoint of the upper arm. The median (interquartile range) of resistance index decreased from 0.98 (0.95-1.00) to 0.81 (0.77-0.91) (P < 0.01). The median HBF increased from 32 (18-46) to 88 (59-98) mL/min (P < 0.01). We conclude that ISB enhances arterial blood flow and decreases arterial resistance. PMID:15976245

Iskandar, Henri; Wakim, Nicolas; Benard, Antoine; Manaud, Bertrand; Ruel-Raymond, Joelle; Cochard, Gyslaine; Huber, Chris

2005-07-01

144

Acute Posterior Shoulder Dislocation with Reverse Hill-Sachs Lesion of the Epiphyseal Humeral Head  

PubMed Central

Posterior dislocation of the shoulder is an unfrequent event that often occurs as a consequence of a direct trauma or epileptic crisis. Frequently the posterior dislocations are misunderstood, so they become chronic lesions. We reported a case of an acute posterior left shoulder dislocation with lesser tuberosity fracture and reverse Hill-Sachs lesions which involved more than 25% of the articular surface of the humeral head, in a 57-old-year man with right hemiparesis. We performed a synthesis of the lesser tuberosity with a screw, and we restored the shape of the humeral head with allograft. We achieved a good result that allows the patient to be able to do his previous activities of daily living.

Patrizio, Luigi; Sabetta, Ettore

2011-01-01

145

Acute posterior shoulder dislocation with reverse hill-sachs lesion of the epiphyseal humeral head.  

PubMed

Posterior dislocation of the shoulder is an unfrequent event that often occurs as a consequence of a direct trauma or epileptic crisis. Frequently the posterior dislocations are misunderstood, so they become chronic lesions. We reported a case of an acute posterior left shoulder dislocation with lesser tuberosity fracture and reverse Hill-Sachs lesions which involved more than 25% of the articular surface of the humeral head, in a 57-old-year man with right hemiparesis. We performed a synthesis of the lesser tuberosity with a screw, and we restored the shape of the humeral head with allograft. We achieved a good result that allows the patient to be able to do his previous activities of daily living. PMID:22084780

Patrizio, Luigi; Sabetta, Ettore

2011-07-25

146

Mucinous breast cancer with solitary metastasis to humeral head: a case report.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the most common cause of metastatic deposits in the skeleton, and bone is the most common site of recurrence of breast cancer. Breast cancer metastasis most commonly affects the spine, ribs, pelvis, and proximal long bones; however, only 3.5% of breast cancer patients develop long-bone metastases. The humerus is the most common upper-extremity site for bony metastasis, and pathologic fractures can result. The patient in the current study presented with breast cancer and discovered to have humeral head metastasis during initial workup. The dilemma was in investigation the modality to confirm humeral head metastasis as there are many differential diagnoses with similar findings. After staging workup, the patient was treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by modified radical mastectomy and radiotherapy of the chest wall and the shoulder. The lesion in humerus was well healed. PMID:24044063

Aljarrah, Adil; Al-Hashmi, Maryam; Malik, Kamran Ahmad; Sukhpal, Sawhney; Hussein, Samir; Al-Riyami, Marwa; Al-Moundhri, Mansour

2013-09-01

147

Mucinous Breast Cancer with Solitary Metastasis to Humeral Head: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is the most common cause of metastatic deposits in the skeleton, and bone is the most common site of recurrence of breast cancer. Breast cancer metastasis most commonly affects the spine, ribs, pelvis, and proximal long bones; however, only 3.5% of breast cancer patients develop long-bone metastases. The humerus is the most common upper-extremity site for bony metastasis, and pathologic fractures can result. The patient in the current study presented with breast cancer and discovered to have humeral head metastasis during initial workup. The dilemma was in investigation the modality to confirm humeral head metastasis as there are many differential diagnoses with similar findings. After staging workup, the patient was treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by modified radical mastectomy and radiotherapy of the chest wall and the shoulder. The lesion in humerus was well healed.

Aljarrah, Adil; Al-Hashmi, Maryam; Malik, Kamran Ahmad; Sukhpal, Sawhney; Hussein, Samir; Al-Riyami, Marwa; Al-Moundhri, Mansour

2013-01-01

148

Trans-fracture transposition of the radial nerve during the open approach of humeral shaft fractures.  

PubMed

The radial nerve constitutes a major problem in humeral shaft fractures; it may be injured immediately or during closed reduction or open reduction and internal fixation with plate and screws. After fixation, the nerve always runs directly over the plate without any interposed structure. If a revision surgery is indicated, the nerve is at high risk as it is usually difficult to dissect from surrounding fibrotic scar tissue or callus formation. To avoid these complications, some authors reported transposition of the radial nerve through the fracture line. We present herein the surgical technique of the trans-fracture transposition of the radial nerve during open reduction and internal fixation of humeral shaft fractures, along with our preliminary results in 6 cases and a review of the literature. PMID:23412197

Chamseddine, Ali H; Zein, Hadi K; Alasiry, Abdullah A; Mansour, Nader A; Bazzal, Ali M

2012-08-11

149

Radiological and biomechanical analysis of humeral fractures occurring during arm wrestling  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Arm wrestling has recently become one of the most popular sports among young people, mainly due to its simplicity and spectacularity. Yet, unfortunately it is also injury prone. The aim of the study was to perform a biomechanical analysis of the forces which act during arm wrestling, as well as to explain the mechanism of the occurrence of humeral fractures of a similar topology as observed on X-rays. Material/Methods During the period 2001 to 2008 nine cases of humeral fractures resulting from arm wrestling were consulted and treated at the Clinic. The assessment of the limb condition included an interview and the examination of the fractured extremity. All the patients underwent surgical treatment, using the method of open reduction and internal fixation. The virtual dynamic model of the upper limb was established on the basis of a series of computer tomography scans of the bone, and literature data. The biomechanical analysis was carried out using the Finite Elements Method (FEM). Results There were five cases of the 12-B1 type in the AO Classification with butterfly fragments in five cases, and four of the 12-A1 type without the butterfly fragment. The maximum bone stress resulting from torsional loading which occurs during arm wrestling amounted to 60 MPa and was located 115 mm above the elbow on the medial - posterior side of the humeral. Conclusions The strength analysis carried out during arm wrestling revealed that the forces of the acting muscles significantly exert stresses within the distal third of the humeral.

Kruczynski, Jacek; Nowicki, Jaroslaw Jaszczur; Topolinski, Tomasz; Srokowski, Grzegorz; Manko, Grzegorz; Chantsoulis, Marzena; Frankowska, Malgorzata; Frankowski, Pawel

2012-01-01

150

Quadrilateral Space Syndrome Caused by a Humeral Osteochondroma: A Case Report and Review of Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quadrilateral space syndrome (QSS) is a rare condition in which the posterior humeral circumflex artery and the axillary nerve\\u000a are entrapped within the quadrilateral space. The main causes of the entrapment are abnormal fibrous bands and hypertrophy\\u000a of the muscular boundaries. Many other space-occupying causes such as a glenoidal labral cyst or fracture hematoma have been\\u000a reported in the literature.

Meric Cirpar; Eftal Gudemez; Ozgur Cetik; Murad Uslu; Fatih Eksioglu

2006-01-01

151

Simultaneous anterior dislocation of the shoulder and fracture of the ipsilateral humeral shaft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Two patients with anterior dislocation of the shoulder and ipsilateral fracture of the shaft of the humerus have been studied\\u000a and the mechanism of their injuries has been documented. Closed reduction of the dislocations was performed under anaesthesia\\u000a during surgery for humeral fixation with a dynamic compression plate. The fractures and dislocations healed without any problems\\u000a at 6 to

C.-H. Chen; P.-L. Lai; C.-C. Niu; W.-J. Chen; C.-H. Shih

1998-01-01

152

Quantitative evaluation of humeral head defects by comparing left and right feature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humeral head (top of arm bone) defect has been diagnosed subjectively by physician. Therefore, it is required to develop a quantitative evaluation method of those defects. In this paper, we propose a quantitative diagnostic method for evaluating humeral head defects by comparing the shapes of the left and right humeral heads. The proposed method is composed of three steps. In the first step, the contour of humerus is extracted from a set of multi-slice CT images by using thresholding technique and active contour model. In the second step, the three-dimensional (3-D) surface model of humerus is reconstructed from extracted contours. In the third step, the reconstructed 3-D shape of left and right humerus is superimposed each other, and then the non-overlapped part is recognized as the defect part. This idea is based on the assumption that human bone structure is symmetrical each other. Finally, the shape of visualized defect part is analyzed by principal component analysis, and we consider that those obtained principal components and contributions represent the feature of the defect part. In this research, seven sets of shoulder multi-slice CT images are analyzed and evaluated.

Kawasaki, Shogo; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Tsumura, Norimichi; Miyake, Yoichi

2008-04-01

153

Scapular and humeral movement patterns of people with stroke during range of motion exercises  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Range-of-motion (ROM) exercises may contribute to hemiparetic shoulder pain, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. This study examined scapular and humeral movement patterns in people with hemiparesis post stroke as they performed commonly prescribed ROM exercises. Methods Using kinematic techniques, we studied 13 people with hemiparesis, both with and without pain, as they performed three commonly prescribed ROM exercises: person-assisted ROM, self-assisted ROM, and cane-assisted ROM. Their data were compared to a group of 12 matched control subjects performing scapular plane shoulder elevation using mixed model ANOVAs. Correlation analyses were used to examine the relationship between participants’ ratings of pain and kinematic data. Results The hemiparetic group had mild pain at rest that increased during the performance of the exercises. During shoulder elevation, humeral external rotation in the hemiparetic group was decreased in all three ROM exercises compared to the control group. Scapular upward rotation in the hemiparetic group was decreased for the person-assisted ROM exercise only. No differences in scapular tilt were found between groups. The extent of movement abnormalities was not related to pain severity. Discussion and Conclusions People with hemiparesis had altered scapular and humeral movement patterns and increased shoulder pain when performing the ROM exercises. These data can assist clinicians in making decisions regarding which exercises to prescribe to preserve shoulder motion and prevent contractures in this population.

Hardwick, Dustin D.; Lang, Catherine E.

2011-01-01

154

Scapula and humeral movement patterns and their relationship with pain: A preliminary investigation  

PubMed Central

Purpose Altered movement patterns may contribute to this shoulder pain following stroke. The purpose of this study was to examine scapular and humeral movement patterns in people with hemiparetic shoulder pain (HSP), and to explore the relationships between pain and these movement patterns. Methods Kinematic data from nine participants with HSP and twelve matched controls were collected as they performed scapular plane shoulder elevation. Correlation analyses were used to examine relationships between participants’ ratings of pain and kinematic data. Results The HSP group had decreased humeral external rotation compared to the control group. Despite a trend toward decreased scapular upward rotation, there was considerable variation in scapular upward rotation movement patterns across the participants with HSP. Scapular tilt was not different between groups. There was an inverse relationship between pain and scapular upward rotation, indicating that those with more pain had less scapular upward rotation. Conclusions People with HSP demonstrated scapular and humeral movement patterns that differed from controls, where some of the altered movement patterns were related to reported pain levels. Rehabilitation management of people with HSP may be improved by careful assessment of scapulohumeral movement patterns and treatments aimed at normalizing these patterns.

Hardwick, Dustin D.; Lang, Catherine E.

2011-01-01

155

Patient demographics and risk factors in pediatric distal humeral supracondylar fractures.  

PubMed

The literature on distal humeral supracondylar fractures does not systematically define relationships between patient characteristics and the severity or complications of these injuries. This study evaluated age, sex, height, and body mass index (BMI) in relation to fracture severity and posttreatment complications in a pediatric population. The medical records of 382 pediatric patients treated for distal humeral supracondylar fractures over a 5-year period at 1 institution were included. Variables included age, sex, height, weight, injury mechanism, fracture severity (Gartland Classification), treatment, follow-up duration, and treatment complications. Body mass index and BMI-for-age percentile were calculated. Descriptive statistics with univariate analyses and logistic regression analysis with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used. Children sustaining Gartland type 3 fractures were significantly older and taller than those sustaining Gartland type 1 and 2 fractures. No significant difference existed in fracture occurrence between boys and girls. Fracture severity did not differ significantly due to sex, BMI, or BMI-for-age percentile. Severe fractures were associated with increased posttreatment complications. Complication rates did not vary significantly by age, sex, height, BMI, or BMI-for-age. Taller children aged 5 to 6 years were at the greatest risk for Gartland type 3 distal humeral supracondylar fractures. Severe fractures are associated with an increased complication risk. Sex, BMI, and BMI-for-age percentile had no effect on fracture severity or complication rates. PMID:23746030

Mitchelson, Andrew J; Illingworth, Kenneth D; Robinson, Brooke S; Elnimeiry, Khider A K; Wilson, Craig J; Markwell, Stephen J; Gabriel, Keith R; McGinty, Jasmin; Saleh, Khaled J

2013-06-01

156

Telegraph antegrade nailing in the treatment of humeral fractures with rotator interval split technique.  

PubMed

Twenty-four proximal humeral fractures were treated by surgical internal fixation with a locked antegrade intramedullary nail. The purpose of this paper was to assess the clinical outcomes of proximal epiphyseal and diaphyseal humeral fractures treated with an antegrade humeral nail implanted after an interval rotator split. We treated six proximal epiphyseal fractures and seven bifocal fractures of the epiphysis and shaft and eleven diaphyseal fractures. The mean follow-up was 23 months (range 12 to 34 months). Twenty patients were available for follow-up. All but two fractures progressed to healing. The Mean Constant score was 80%, Relative Constant score was 95.5%. We divided the clinical outcomes by fracture pattern to define the best surgical indication. There were good clinical outcomes in all three groups, but the clinical score was highest in the shaft fracture group. An intramedullary antegrade nail inserted through the interval rotator without penetrating the rotator cuff had a good clinical outcome and with certain fracture types can be an effective and satisfactory device. PMID:19711164

Russo, Raffaele; Cautiero, Fabio; Lombardi, Luigi Vernaglia; Visconti, Valeria

2009-04-01

157

Autogenous osteochondral graft transplantation for steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral condyle: A report of three young patients  

PubMed Central

Steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral condyle is a relatively uncommon condition and is often difficult to select appropriate treatment especially in young patients. Three young men (aged 25, 18, and 24) presented with severe pain and dysfunction of the knee diagnosed as steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral condyle by magnetic resonance imaging (MRIs). Full-thickness cartilage defects sized 20 × 10, 15 × 10, and 30 × 20 mm respectively were classified as International Cartilage Repair Society Grade IV lesions and treated with osteochondral autograft transplantation. They were treated successfully with osteochondral autograft transplantation certificated by post-operative MRI and second look arthroscopy.

2012-01-01

158

Current Concepts in the Mandibular Condyle Fracture Management Part II: Open Reduction Versus Closed Reduction.  

PubMed

In the treatment of mandibular condyle fracture, conservative treatment using closed reduction or surgical treatment using open reduction can be used. Management of mandibular condylar fractures remains a source of ongoing controversy in oral and maxillofacial trauma. For each type of condylar fracture,the treatment method must be chosen taking into consideration the presence of teeth, fracture height, patient'sadaptation, patient's masticatory system, disturbance of occlusal function, and deviation of the mandible. In the past, closed reduction with concomitant active physical therapy conducted after intermaxillary fixation during the recovery period had been mainly used, but in recent years, open treatment of condylar fractures with rigid internal fixation has become more common. The objective of this review was to evaluate the main variables that determine the choice of an open or closed method for treatment of condylar fractures, identifying their indications, advantages, and disadvantages, and to appraise the current evidence regarding the effectiveness of interventions that are used in the management of fractures of the mandibular condyle. PMID:22872831

Choi, Kang-Young; Yang, Jung-Dug; Chung, Ho-Yun; Cho, Byung-Chae

2012-07-13

159

Dislocation of the mandibular condyle into the middle cranial fossa causing an epidural haematoma.  

PubMed

Dislocation of the mandibular condyle into the middle cranial fossa is a rare complication of mandibular trauma due to anatomical and biomechanical factors. Owing to the proximity of the temporal glenoid fossa to the middle meningeal artery, there is the risk of serious sequelae in case of trauma. The authors report the case of a 36-year-old male patient, who was beaten up in a family dispute and presented with complex mandibular and maxillofacial fractures, including mandibular condyle intrusion into the middle cranial fossa causing extensive meningeal bleeding. The patient underwent immediate surgery, with evacuation of the epidural haematoma via a temporal approach. In addition open reduction and reconstruction of the temporal glenoid fossa via anatomic reduction of the fragments was performed. A functional occlusion was re-established via miniplate reconstruction of the complex mandibular body and ramus fractures. Prompt diagnosis and a multidisciplinary approach are essential to minimize the complications. Advanced imaging modalities of computed tomography are indicated. Treatment options should be individualized in particular in case of suspected neurological injury. PMID:21862340

Struewer, Johannes; Kiriazidis, Ilias; Figiel, Jens; Dukatz, Thomas; Frangen, Thomas; Ziring, Ewgeni

2011-09-08

160

The correlation between mineralization degree and bone tissue stiffness in the porcine mandibular condyle.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to correlate the local tissue mineral density (TMD) with the bone tissue stiffness. It was hypothesized that these variables are positively correlated. Cancellous and cortical bone samples were derived from ten mandibular condyles taken from 5 young and 5 adult female pigs. The bone tissue stiffness was assessed in three directions using nanoindentation. At each of three tested sides 5 indents were made over the width of 5 single bone elements, resulting in a total number of 1500 indents. MicroCT was used to determine the local TMD at the indented sites. The TMD and the bone tissue stiffness were higher in bone from the adult animals than from the young ones, but did not differ between cancellous and cortical bone. In the adult group, both the TMD and the bone tissue stiffness were higher in the center than at the surface of the bone elements. The mean TMD, thus ignoring the local mineral distribution, had a coefficient of determination (R (2)) with the mean bone tissue stiffness of 0.55, p < 0.05, whereas the correlation between local bone tissue stiffness and the concomitant TMD appeared to be weak (R (2) 0.07, p < 0.001). It was concluded that the mineralization degree plays a larger role in bone tissue stiffness in cancellous than in cortical bone. Our data based on bone from the mandibular condyle suggest that the mineralization degree is not a decisive determinant of the local bone tissue stiffness. PMID:23624768

Willems, Nop M B K; Mulder, Lars; den Toonder, Jaap M J; Zentner, Andrej; Langenbach, Geerling E J

2013-04-28

161

Bilateral osteochondritis dissecans of the lateral trochlea of the femur: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteochondritis dissecans of the bilateral trochlea of femur is unusual case for orthopedic surgeon. The patient was a healthy\\u000a 15-year-old male with symptomatic osteochondritis dissecans of the bilateral distal lateral femoral condyle of the trochlea.\\u000a A surgery on the bilateral knee joints was performed simultaneously. The osteochondral free fragment of the right knee was\\u000a resected by a minimum open surgery

Yoshimasa Takahashi; Koji Nawata; Hirokazu Hashiguchi; Kei Kawaguchi; Daisuke Yamasaki; Hidetoshi Tanaka

2008-01-01

162

An Evaluation of the Brachial Plexus Block at the Humeral Canal Using a Neurostimulator (1417 Patients): The Efficacy, Safety, and Predictive Criteria of Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the multiple pe- ripheral nerve block technique at the humeral canal (humeral block) with the use of a neurostimulator, we prospectively studied 1417 patients undergoing upper limb surgery with a brachial plexus block at the hu- meral canal (1468 blocks). The success rate (defined as sensory block (in all nerve distributions) and\\/or the

Michel Carles; Alphonse Pulcini; Philippe Macchi; Patrick Duflos; Marc Raucoules-Aime; Dominique Grimaud

2001-01-01

163

Sliding reconstruction of the condyle using posterior border of mandibular ramus in patients with temporomandibular joint ankylosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional approach for ankylosis is gap arthroplasty or interpositional arthroplasty followed by reconstruction of the condyle using, for example, costochondral grafts. As these are non-pedicled grafts, there is eventual resorption with subsequent decrease in height of the ramus, facial asymmetry and deviated mouth opening. The authors have applied the method of total and partial sliding vertical osteotomy on the

Y. Liu; A. Khadka; J. Li; J. Hu; S. Zhu; Y. Hsu; Q. Wang; D. Wang

164

Quantitative Analysis of Extracellular Matrix Proteins in Hypertrophic Layers of the Mandibular Condyle and Temporal Bone during Human Fetal Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer image analysis of immunostained extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (collagen types I, II, III and V, fibronectin and tenascin) in hypertrophic layers in the mandibular condyle and temporal bone of human fetuses, which ranged in gestational age from 12 to 32 weeks, was performed. The percentage of cells positive for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) increased in almost the

Iwao Sato; Masataka Sunohara; Toru Sato

1999-01-01

165

Histological and cell biological characterization of dissected cartilage fragments in human osteochondritis dissecans of the femoral condyle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) within the weight-bearing femoral condyle carries a high risk of osteoarthritis. The definitive pathogenetic cause is unclear. Therefore biochemical and cellular features of OCD were analyzed and compared to macroscopically normal cartilage of the same joint surface. Materials and methods: Dissected fragments from 14 patients and biopsies of normal cartilage from the intercondylar notch as controls

Matthias Aurich; Jens Anders; Tilo Trommer; Eckehard Liesaus; Mandy Seifert; Jana Schömburg; Bernd Rolauffs; Andreas Wagner; Jürgen Mollenhauer

2006-01-01

166

Anthropometry of the medial tibial condyle to design the tibial component for unicondylar knee arthroplasty for the Korean population.  

PubMed

Unicondylar knee arthroplasty (UKA) has gained popularity in the recent years for treating medial compartment osteoarthritis of the knee joint in the Asian population. There is little information about the anthropometry of the resected bony surfaces of the knee joint in these population groups for designing the appropriate size-matched UKA components. We studied the anthropometry of the resected medial tibial condyles in 50 male and 50 female Korean cadavers by using three-dimensional computer tomography. We measured the anteroposterior dimension, the mediolateral dimension at defined points and the condylar aspect ratio. These measurements were compared with similar dimensions of the tibial components from five conventionally used UKA designs. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test, Paired t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. We found that three of the tibial component designs showed mediolateral overhang for the whole range of measured anteroposterior dimensions of the resected medial tibial condyles, whereas one of the designs (DePuy) showed mediolateral undersizing for the smaller AP dimensions and overhang for the larger AP dimensions of the resected medial tibial condyles. Another design (Smith and Nephew) showed mediolateral undersizing for the whole range of measured anteroposterior dimensions of the resected medial tibial condyle. We found a decrease in the condylar aspect ratio with increasing AP dimension for our cadaver population data. However, the majority of the conventional tibial prosthesis showed either a constant condylar aspect ratio or an increasing aspect ratio (DePuy) with the increasing AP dimension of the resected medial tibial condyle. Our study may provide guidelines for designing appropriate tibial UKA components for a majority of Asian sub-populations and encourage similar studies in other population groups. PMID:16964513

Surendran, Sibin; Kwak, Dai Soon; Lee, U Young; Park, Sang Eun; Gopinathan, Patinharayil; Han, Seung Ho; Han, Chang Whan

2006-09-09

167

Dicondylar humeral fracture stabilisation in a dog using a transilial rod and external fixation.  

PubMed

Repair of a Salter-Harris type IV dicondylar humeral fracture was performed on a 15-week-old pitbull terrier. Interfragmentary compression of the intracondylar component of the fracture was achieved with a transilial rod and locking nuts (Trans-ilial Rod; IMEX Veterinary, Inc.). The transilial rod was articulated with a modified type I external fixator which functioned as adjunctive stabilisation for the supracondylar component of the fracture. Fracture healing was confirmed radiographically five weeks following surgery. The dog had no appreciable lameness when examined 12 months after fracture repair. PMID:17725586

Au, K; Mattern, K L; Lewis, D D

2007-08-23

168

Biomechanical testing of rectangular humeral shaft prosthesis: higher torsional stability without increased fracture risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Rectangular cementless femur shaft prostheses have a higher primary stability than round shafts. A novel rectangular humeral\\u000a shaft design was tested with two questions: does the rectangular design cause a higher fracture risk during implantation than\\u000a round designs, and does it increase the torsional stiffness?\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Two series with six paired human humeri (total 24) were tested on one

Matthias P. Flury; Werner Schmoelz; Ulrich Schreiber; Joerg Goldhahn

2011-01-01

169

Reliability of the Neer classification system in proximal humeral fractures: a systematic review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The Neer classification system for proximal humeral fractures has been in use for more than 30 years. Although it is popular,\\u000a there have been reports raising doubts regarding its reliability. The purpose of this paper was to systematically analyse\\u000a the literature addressing the inter\\/intra-observer agreement of the Neer classification.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  The OVID (Medline) database was used and the Mesh terms “Neer Classification”

D. Mahadeva; D. C. Mackay; S. M. Turner; S. Drew; M. L. Costa

2008-01-01

170

Axillary nerve palsy after retrograde humeral nailing: clinical confirmation of an anatomical fear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Locked antegrade or retrograde nailing of humeral shaft and proximal humerus fractures is a well etablished treatment option.\\u000a Anatomic-morphological studies revealed a potential high risk of axillary nerve injury within proximal interlocking screw\\u000a insertion. However, clinical experiences do not seem to confirm this, as there is a lack of interlocking screw insertion associated\\u000a axillary lesions in literature.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case report  We report

Tim Tobias Lögters; Michael Wild; Joachim Windolf; Wolfgang Linhart

2008-01-01

171

Bilateral condyle fracture of tibial insert in mobile bearing total knee arthroplasty.  

PubMed

We report a case of polyethylene insert breakage in a 45-year-old man after 3.5years of cruciate retaining type mobile bearing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Interstingly, both condyles of the polyethylene insert have fractured. The visual assessment done by stereoscopic microscope in the investigation report suggested that the fracture propagation was a result of cyclic loading and that the fracture was from the articular surface as a result of tibio-femoral and anteroposterior shear loading. The initial flexion-extension gap mismatch and/or specific Asian habits like kneeling or deep knee bending could have been the possible factors for over-stress for the insert causing this complication. After replacement of the broken insert and modification for daily activity preventing deep knee flexion, the patient obtained complete relief of previous symptoms. It remains unclear whether insert breakage was secondary to polyethylene insufficient design or to the polyethylene material fracture propagation. PMID:23340095

Yoon, Jung-Ro; Jeong, Hyeon-Il; Oh, Kwang-Jun; Yang, Jae-Hyuk

2013-01-19

172

Outcomes following operative and non-operative management of humeral midshaft fractures: a prospective, observational cohort study of 47 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Although the non-operative management of closed humeral midshaft fractures has been advocated for years, the increasing popularity\\u000a of operative intervention has left the optimal treatment choice unclear.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To compare the outcomes of operative and non-operative treatment of traumatic closed humeral midshaft fractures in adult patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A multicentre prospective comparative cohort study across 20 centres was conducted. Patients with AO type

J. J. van Middendorp; F. Kazacsay; P. Lichtenhahn; N. Renner; R. Babst; G. Melcher

2011-01-01

173

Lateral epicondylitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 139 limbs from embalmed specimens were dissected to reveal the attachments of extensor muscles in the vicinity of the lateral epicondyle. M. extensor carpi radialis brevis was found to consist of a keelshaped tendon with attachments to m. extensor carpi radialis longus, m. extensor digitorum communis, m. supinator; and to the radial collateral ligament, the orbicular ligament, the capsule

C. A. Briggs; B. G. Elliott

1985-01-01

174

Humeral development from neonatal period to skeletal maturity--application in age and sex assessment.  

PubMed

The goal of the present study is to examine cross-sectional information on the growth of the humerus based on the analysis of four measurements, namely, diaphyseal length, transversal diameter of the proximal (metaphyseal) end of the shaft, epicondylar breadth and vertical diameter of the head. This analysis was performed in 181 individuals (90 ? and 91 ?) ranging from birth to 25 years of age and belonging to three documented Western European skeletal collections (Coimbra, Lisbon and St. Bride). After testing the homogeneity of the sample, the existence of sexual differences (Student's t- and Mann-Whitney U-test) and the growth of the variables (polynomial regression) were evaluated. The results showed the presence of sexual differences in epicondylar breadth above 20 years of age and vertical diameter of the head from 15 years of age, thus indicating that these two variables may be of use in determining sex from that age onward. The growth pattern of the variables showed a continuous increase and followed first- and second-degree polynomials. However, growth of the transversal diameter of the proximal end of the shaft followed a fourth-degree polynomial. Strong correlation coefficients were identified between humeral size and age for each of the four metric variables. These results indicate that any of the humeral measurements studied herein is likely to serve as a useful means of estimating sub-adult age in forensic samples. PMID:22588220

Rissech, Carme; López-Costas, Olalla; Turbón, Daniel

2012-05-17

175

Trabecular bone structure in the humeral and femoral heads of anthropoid primates.  

PubMed

The functional significance of three-dimensional trabecular bone architecture in the primate postcranial skeleton has received significant interest over the last decade. Some previous work has produced promising results, finding significant relationships between femoral head trabecular bone structure and hypothesized locomotor loading in leaping and nonleaping strepsirrhines. Conversely, most studies of anthropoid femoral head bone structure have found broad similarity across taxonomic and locomotor groups. The goal of this study is to expand on past analyses of anthropoid trabecular bone structure by assessing the effects of differential limb usage on the trabecular bone architecture of the forelimb and hindlimb across taxa characterized by diverse locomotor behaviors, including brachiation, quadrupedalism, and climbing. High-resolution x-ray computed tomography scans were collected from the proximal humerus and proximal femur of 55 individuals from five anthropoid primate species, including Symphalangus syndactylus, Papio sp., Presbytis rubicunda, Alouatta caraya, and Pan troglodytes. Trabecular bone structural features including bone volume fraction, anisotropy, trabecular thickness, and trabecular number were quantified in large volumes positioned in the center of the humeral or femoral head. Femoral head trabecular bone volume is consistently and significantly higher than trabecular bone volume in the humerus in all taxa independent of locomotor behavior. Humeral trabecular bone is more isotropic than femoral trabecular bone in all species sampled, possibly reflecting the emphasis on a mobile shoulder joint and manipulative forelimb. The results indicate broad similarity in trabecular bone structure in these bones across anthropoids. PMID:20235327

Ryan, Timothy M; Walker, Alan

2010-04-01

176

Posterior dislocation of the shoulder with ipsilateral humeral shaft fracture : A case report and review of literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated posterior dislocation of the shoulder with ipsilateral humeral shaft fracture is a rare combina- tion. Three cases of such co-existence have been reported so far. We report a fourth case and review the literature. Our aim is to highlight the importance of this rare co-existence. A high index of suspicion is necessary to diagnose posterior dislocation of the shoulder

Kedar CHIRPUTKAR; Prabhudeva BASAPPA; Ian MCLEAN; Gavin NIMON

2006-01-01

177

Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Platelet Gel Improve Bone Deposition within CAD-CAM Custom-Made Ceramic HA Scaffolds for Condyle Substitution  

PubMed Central

Purpose. This study evaluated the efficacy of a regenerative approach using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and CAD-CAM customized pure and porous hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds to replace the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condyle. Methods. Pure HA scaffolds with a 70% total porosity volume were prototyped using CAD-CAM technology to replace the two temporomandibular condyles (left and right) of the same animal. MSCs were derived from the aspirated iliac crest bone marrow, and platelets were obtained from the venous blood of the sheep. Custom-made surgical guides were created by direct metal laser sintering and were used to export the virtual planning of the bone cut lines into the surgical environment. Sheep were sacrificed 4 months postoperatively. The HA scaffolds were explanted, histological specimens were prepared, and histomorphometric analysis was performed. Results. Analysis of the porosity reduction for apposition of newly formed bone showed a statistically significant difference in bone formation between condyles loaded with MSC and condyles without (P < 0.05). The bone ingrowth (BI) relative values of split-mouth comparison (right versus left side) showed a significant difference between condyles with and without MSCs (P < 0.05). Analysis of the test and control sides in the same animal using a split-mouth study design was performed; the condyle with MSCs showed greater bone formation. Conclusion. The split-mouth design confirmed an increment of bone regeneration into the HA scaffold of up to 797% upon application of MSCs.

Ciocca, L.; Donati, D.; Ragazzini, S.; Dozza, B.; Rossi, F.; Fantini, M.; Spadari, A.; Romagnoli, N.; Landi, E.; Tampieri, A.; Piattelli, A.; Iezzi, G.; Scotti, R.

2013-01-01

178

The retrograde nail for distal femoral fractures in the elderly: high failure rate of the condyle screw and nut.  

PubMed

Displaced distal femoral fractures in elderly patients benefit from surgical fixation. We describe the use of a retrograde femoral nail to treat these fractures. The implant has a special condyle screw and nut that allows for manual compression of the fracture when there is an additional inter-condylar split. We present our results when using this implant to treat 16 patients over a 13-month period. The mean patient age was 78 years (range, 65-96 years). All 16 patients were available at the time of final follow up and proceeded to union at an average time of 11 weeks (range, 10-14 weeks). Twenty-six condyle screw and nuts were used. Ten out of 26 condyle screws in 10 out of 16 patients failed by disengaging at a mean time of 10 weeks (range, 8-12 weeks). Our union rate was unaffected by the nut and bolt disengaging. This would suggest that the condylar compression generated by the nut and bolt may not be critical for union. PMID:16499912

Singh, S K; El-Gendy, K A; Chikkamuniyappa, C; Houshian, S

2006-02-24

179

[Humeral epicondylitis].  

PubMed

The semicircular notching of the aponeurosis recommended by G. Hohmann for the treatment of epicondylitis humeri has proved extremely successful in practice, provided it is correctly performed. Patients who experience no definite improvement after appropriate consultation and exhaustive conservative treatment should undergo this relatively harmless operation. Hospitalization and surgical treatment under general anesthetic with exsanguination in an extensive procedure are not necessary. Careful follow-up treatment, as appropriate in each case, appears more important, and in 97% of all cases results in complete restoration of function of the arm thus treated. PMID:7102064

Bengert, O

1982-04-01

180

OSTEOCHONDRAL INTERFACE REGENERATION OF THE RABBIT MANDIBULAR CONDYLE WITH BIOACTIVE SIGNAL GRADIENTS  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Tissue engineering solutions focused on the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) have expanded in number and variety over the past decade to address the treatment of TMJ disorders. The existing literature on approaches for healing small defects in the TMJ condylar cartilage and subchondral bone, however, is sparse. The purpose of this study was thus to evaluate the performance of a novel gradient-based scaffolding approach to regenerate osteochondral defects in the rabbit mandibular condyle. MATERIALS AND METHODS Miniature bioactive plugs for regeneration of small mandibular condylar defects in New Zealand White rabbits were fabricated. The plugs were constructed from poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres with a gradient transition between cartilage-promoting and bone-promoting growth factors. RESULTS At six weeks of healing, results suggested that the implants provided support for the neo-synthesized tissue as evidenced by histology and 9.4T magnetic resonance imaging. CONCLUSION The inclusion of bioactive factors in a gradient-based scaffolding design is a promising new treatment strategy for focal defect repair in the TMJ.

Dormer, Nathan H.; Busaidy, Kamal; Berkland, Cory J.; Detamore, Michael S.

2011-01-01

181

[A composite osteomusculocutaneous free flap from the medial femoral condyle: anatomic characteristics, clinical aspects, new applications].  

PubMed

Advances in plastic and reconstructive surgery allow an almost complete functional and aesthetic reconstruction after severe injuries. However, particularly the treatment of complex defects involving different tissue components is still challenging. The reconstruction requires a combined flap consisting of different tissues from an adequate donor area. In this context, we focused on anatomical and clinical aspects of transplants from the area of the medial femoral condyle. In this study, the anatomical characteristics and potentials of various flaps from the region of this region are described. Moreover, previous literature on this subject is put in context with both the results of our own anatomical study and our clinical experience. The supplying vessel is the descending genicular artery with its branches. In addition to the consistency in vessel length and diameter, the descending genicular artery has a continuous distribution in a periosteal, cutaneous and muscular branch. Due to this anatomical characteristic, this donor site offers the possibility for several customized transplants. Thus, the distal medial thigh is a versatile and reliable donor site for plastic surgical procedures. PMID:22495956

Rahmanian-Schwarz, A; Spetzler, V; Willkomm, L-M; Eisenschenk, A; Bernhard, H; Schaller, H-E

2012-04-11

182

Humeral cortical thickness in female Bantu - its relationship to the incidence of femoral neck fracture  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of the humeral cortical thickness demonstrate that generalised osteoporosis in female Bantu commences in the fifth decade and gradually increases until, in the ninth decade, all subjects are osteoporotic. The combined cortical thickness (CCT) of the humerus in young adults is very similar to that found previously in a white London population and the loss of cortex with age is very similar. It is concluded that the known low incidence of femoral neck fracture in Bantu is not due to a lower incidence of generalised osteoporosis but to environmental factors. The chief environmental factor postulated is the greater amount of physical work performed by the Bantu. A more careful mode of walking is suggested as a subsidiary cause.

Bloom, R.A.; Pogrund, H.

1982-03-01

183

Humeral trochlear hypoplasia secondary to epiphyseal injury as a cause of ulnar nerve palsy.  

PubMed

Humeral trochlear hypoplasia (HTH) is a rare condition that occasionally results in ulnar nerve palsy. A 41-year-old man developed HTH secondary to an epiphyseal injury of the trochlea incurred 33 years earlier. This may be the first report of a case of HTH caused by injury. The ulnar nerve appeared compressed by the malposition of the HTH against the medial head of the triceps brachii when the joint was flexed. The close proximity of the olecranon to the HTH also allowed the triceps brachii muscle to compress the nerve by displacing medially and overriding the bone. The condition was resolved surgically and the patient returned to his former occupation as a coal miner. PMID:2830073

Minami, A; Sugawara, M

1988-03-01

184

Periosteal versus true cross-sectional geometry: a comparison along humeral, femoral, and tibial diaphyses.  

PubMed

Cross-sectional geometric (CSG) properties of human long bone diaphyses are typically calculated from both periosteal and endosteal contours. Though quantification of both is desirable, periosteal contours alone have provided accurate predictions of CSG properties at the midshaft in previous studies. The relationship between CSG properties calculated from external contours and "true" (endosteal and periosteal) CSG properties, however, has yet to be examined along the whole diaphysis. Cross-sectional computed tomography scans were taken from 21 locations along humeral, femoral, and tibial diaphyses in 20 adults from a late prehistoric central Illinois Valley cemetery. Mechanical properties calculated from images with (a) artificially filled medullary cavities ("solid") and (b) true unaltered cross-sections were compared at each section location using least squares regression. Results indicate that, in this sample, polar second moments of area (J), polar section moduli (Z(p) ), and cross-sectional shape (I(max) /I(min) ) calculated from periosteal contours correspond strongly with those calculated from cross-sections that include the medullary cavity. Correlations are high throughout most of the humeral diaphysis and throughout large portions of femoral and tibial diaphyses (R(2) = 0.855-0.998, all P < 0.001, %SEE ? 8.0, %PE ? 5.0), the major exception being the proximal quarter of the tibial diaphysis for J and Z(p). The main source of error was identified as variation in %CA. Results reveal that CSG properties quantified from periosteal contours provide comparable results to (and are likely to detect the same differences among individuals as) true CSG properties along large portions of long bone diaphyses. PMID:23359138

Macintosh, Alison A; Davies, Thomas G; Ryan, Timothy M; Shaw, Colin N; Stock, Jay T

2013-01-28

185

Use of intramedullary fibular strut graft: a novel adjunct to plating in the treatment of osteoporotic humeral shaft nonunion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humeral shaft fractures respond well to conservative treatment and unite without much problem. Since it is uncommon, there\\u000a is not much discussion regarding the management of nonunion in the literature, and hence this is a challenge to the treating\\u000a orthopaedic surgeon. Osteoporosis of the fractured bone and stiffness of the surrounding joints compounds the situation further.\\u000a The Ilizarov fixator, locking

S. Vidyadhara; K. Vamsi; Sharath K. Rao; James J. Gnanadoss; S. Pandian

2009-01-01

186

Formation of cartilage from rib perichondrium grafted to an articular defect in the femur condyle of the rabbit.  

PubMed

In immature and adult rabbits perichondrium from the rib was autologously grafted to a surgically created defect of the articular surface of the femur condyles exposing the subchondral bone. After one week of immobilization the animals were allowed to move freely until sacrifice after 7 and 13 weeks. In all grafted cases newly formed cartilage of a hyalin appearance filled the defect. Using the technique of intraarticular administration of tritiated thymidine, mitotic activity was found in the superficial zone of the regenerated cartilage indicating that the proliferation of cells is initiated from the perichondrium. In control cases where no graft covered the defect no cartilage was found. PMID:542809

Engkvist, O; Wilander, E

1979-01-01

187

The effects of dietary restriction on humeral and mandibular bone in SENCAR, C57BL/6, and DBA/2 mice.  

PubMed

Dietary restriction (DR) increases the life span and retards the development of age-related disorders. However, the low body mass that accompanies DR is associated with risk factors for fracture that may outweigh the beneficial effects of DR on cellular aging that are mediated, in part, by limiting free radical generation and oxidative damage. We tested the effects of DR in murine models that differ in free radical generation capacity (SENCAR > C57 > DBA). Male mice of each strain were killed at 10 weeks of age (t(0); time zero) or randomized to an ad libitum-fed (AL-fed) or 30% DR feeding regimen for 6 months. The food consumption of AL-fed mice was measured daily. DR mice received 70% of the amount of food consumed by their respective AL-fed mice the previous day. The DR diet was normalized with respect to calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and micronutrients. Lean body mass (LBM), bone mineral density (BMD), and bone mineral content (BMC) in the humerus and mandible were determined by PIXImus densitometry. The length and midshaft width of the humerus were determined by direct measurement. There were highly strain- and diet/time-dependent effects on LBM, humerus length, mandibular and humeral BMD, and humeral BMC. The interaction between diet/time and strain was more significant in the humerus than the mandible. All 30% DR mice had lower humeral BMDs and BMCs than their respective AL-fed controls. However, 30% DR C57 and DBA (but not SENCAR) mice had higher humeral BMD and BMC than their respective t(0) controls. There was a linear relationship between LBM and humeral BMD and BMC in both AL-fed and 30% DR mice, suggesting that the lower BMD and BMC in 30% DR mice, relative to AL-fed controls, reflects a physiologic adaptation to lower biomechanical loading. Mandibular BMC in 30% DR C57 (but not DBA or SENCAR) mice was lower than that observed in their AL-fed controls. Mandibular BMD and BMC increased versus t(0) values in 30% DR mice of all strains. PMID:12898460

Murray, Samuel S; Duarte, Maria Eugenia L; Brochmann, Elsa J

2003-08-01

188

Biomechanical testing of rectangular humeral shaft prosthesis: higher torsional stability without increased fracture risk  

PubMed Central

Background Rectangular cementless femur shaft prostheses have a higher primary stability than round shafts. A novel rectangular humeral shaft design was tested with two questions: does the rectangular design cause a higher fracture risk during implantation than round designs, and does it increase the torsional stiffness? Materials and methods Two series with six paired human humeri (total 24) were tested on one side with the rectangular shaft and on the contralateral side with a round shaft. In the first series, the shaft implantation was carried out with a constant speed of 100 mm/min and the maximum force was measured when the fracture occurred. In the second series, the implants were preloaded with 50 N and then rotated at 2° per second with monitoring of the torsional torque. Results The maximum force at fracture showed no significant difference for the two designs (p = 0.34). Higher age and low bone density reduced the force required for fracture. The rectangular shaft showed significant higher torsional moments (p < 0.05). Conclusions In biomechanical testing, the rectangular shaft had a significantly higher primary torsional stability than the round shaft without a higher risk of fracture during cementless implantation. Fracture risk and torsional stability are influenced by age and bone density.

Schmoelz, Werner; Schreiber, Ulrich; Goldhahn, Joerg

2010-01-01

189

Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis for humeral shaft fractures: are results reproducible?  

PubMed Central

Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) has been advocated as a safe approach to humeral shaft fracture management. We evaluated the reproducibility of this technique in a regional hospital. Thirty-five patients underwent MIPO of humerus shaft fractures. Fifteen patients had an open fracture, six a preoperative radial nerve palsy, and nine a concomitant thoracic, musculoskeletal or vascular injury. At an average 12-month follow-up, 91% of fractures healed after a mean of 12 weeks (range, 8–16). Two infections occurred. Final alignment averaged 4° of varus (range, 5° of valgus to 20° of varus). Active elbow ROM averaged 114° (range, 60–135°) and was less than 100° in nine elbows. Five of six preoperative radial nerve injuries recovered spontaneously. Healing and infection rates in this study are consistent with those reported in the literature. Lower elbow ROM and higher fracture angulation at healing were nevertheless found. MIPO is technically demanding and requires adequate intraoperative imaging and surgical experience in order to obtain adequate fracture alignment. Brachialis muscle scarring and inadequate postoperative rehabilitation may be involved in limited elbow range of motion.

Concha, Juan M.; Sandoval, Alejandro

2009-01-01

190

Objective assessments of medial osteoarthritic knee severity by MRI: new computer software to evaluate femoral condyle contours.  

PubMed

An irregular contour of the medial femoral condyle (MFC) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appears to indicate the severity of medial-type knee osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of this study was to establish a system to enable objective assessments of OA knee severity using newly developed software that semi-automatically measures irregularity of the MFC. (1) We evaluated 48 patients aged 50-83 years with 55 knees of medial-type OA. The following scores were recorded: Lysholm score, visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure (JKOM). MFC irregularity was automatically calculated by newly programmed computer software. Four parameters for condyle irregularity were calculated: (a) the average thickness of the contour (ATC), (b) the ratio of the upper surface length to the lower surface length of the contour (RUL), (c) average squared thickness of the contour (ASTC) and (d) standard deviation of the contour thickness (SDC). (2) Nine knees that underwent total knee arthroplasty were further analysed histopathologically and compared with irregularity score. Statistically, the RUL and SDC were significantly correlated with the Lysholm score, VAS and JKOM, with good reliability. Histological examinations showed that an irregular contour reflected the density of cystic lesions formed in subchondral bone. An irregularity of MFC on MRI is correlated with OA disease severity clinically and histopathologically. The new computer software is useful to objectively assess OA disease severity. PMID:19763568

Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Sasho, Takahisa; Tahara, Masamichi; Watanabe, Atsuya; Matsuki, Kei; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Miyake, Yoichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Wada, Yuichi; Moriya, Hideshige

2009-09-08

191

Objective assessments of medial osteoarthritic knee severity by MRI: new computer software to evaluate femoral condyle contours  

PubMed Central

An irregular contour of the medial femoral condyle (MFC) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appears to indicate the severity of medial-type knee osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of this study was to establish a system to enable objective assessments of OA knee severity using newly developed software that semi-automatically measures irregularity of the MFC. (1) We evaluated 48 patients aged 50–83 years with 55 knees of medial-type OA. The following scores were recorded: Lysholm score, visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure (JKOM). MFC irregularity was automatically calculated by newly programmed computer software. Four parameters for condyle irregularity were calculated: (a) the average thickness of the contour (ATC), (b) the ratio of the upper surface length to the lower surface length of the contour (RUL), (c) average squared thickness of the contour (ASTC) and (d) standard deviation of the contour thickness (SDC). (2) Nine knees that underwent total knee arthroplasty were further analysed histopathologically and compared with irregularity score. Statistically, the RUL and SDC were significantly correlated with the Lysholm score, VAS and JKOM, with good reliability. Histological examinations showed that an irregular contour reflected the density of cystic lesions formed in subchondral bone. An irregularity of MFC on MRI is correlated with OA disease severity clinically and histopathologically. The new computer software is useful to objectively assess OA disease severity.

Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Tahara, Masamichi; Watanabe, Atsuya; Matsuki, Kei; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Miyake, Yoichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Wada, Yuichi; Moriya, Hideshige

2009-01-01

192

Osteo-periosteal-cutaneous flaps of the medial femoral condyle: a valuable modification for selected clinical situations.  

PubMed

In situations of bony nonunions with poor skin coverage, transplantation of vascularized soft tissue in addition to bone graft is desirable. The use of the corticoperiosteal vascularized bone graft from the medial femoral condyle is well described. There are only anecdotal reports about its use as an osteocutaneous flap. This article presents our results with the use of an osteocutaneous flap from the medial femoral condyle. Between 2004 and 2009, four patients were treated with supracondylar osteocutaneous flaps for bony nonunions (tibia, ankle, calcaneous) with concomitant soft tissue defects. The size of the osseous grafts ranged from 3 x 5 to 6 x 5 cm. The supplying cutaneous vessels were an unnamed perforator of the descending genicular artery (two cases) or the saphenous branch (two cases). The first three cases healed primarily. Bony union was achieved between 32 and 170 days. The follow-up of the fourth case was too short to achieve a bony union. There was no flap loss or surgery-related complications at the donor site. The transfer of free combined vascularized corticoperiosteal-cutaneous flaps seems to be ideally suited for postradiation-induced fractures or chronic nonunions with poor chances of spontaneous healing and a concomitant small skin defect. PMID:20143299

Pelzer, Michael; Reichenberger, Matthias; Germann, Günter

2010-02-08

193

Locking plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures with impaction of the fracture site to restore medial column support: a biomechanical study.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Despite the advent of locking plate techniques, proximal humeral fracture fixation can fail due to varus collapse, especially in osteoporotic bone with medial cortex comminution. This study investigated the effect of restoring the integrity of the medial column by fracture impaction and shaft medialization with locking plate fixation. This construct was compared with a traditional locking plate construct under conditions of varus cyclical loading. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Proximal humeral fractures with medial comminution were simulated by performing wedge-shaped osteotomies at the surgical neck in cadaveric specimens and removing 1 cm of medial cortex. For each cadaver (n = 6), 1 humeral fracture was fixed with a traditional locking plate construct. The other was fixed with the locking plate construct plus fracture impaction and shaft medialization, resulting in medial column restoration. The humeral head was immobilized, and a repetitive, varus force was applied to the humeral shaft until construct collapse or until 25,000 cycles were completed. RESULTS: None of the constructs with fracture impaction collapsed, whereas 5 of 6 of the nonaugmented constructs collapsed before reaching 25,000 cycles (P = .008). Collapse of the 5 nonimpacted constructs that failed occurred after an average of 11,470 ± 3589 cycles. CONCLUSION: Fracture impaction increased the ability of the locking plate to withstand repetitive varus loading. This technique provides a construct biomechanically superior to locking plate fixation alone. PMID:23639833

Weeks, Colleen A; Begum, Farhana; Beaupre, Lauren A; Carey, Jason P; Adeeb, Samer; Bouliane, Martin J

2013-04-29

194

Variant course of posterior circumflex humeral artery associated with the abnormal origin of radial collateral artery: could it mimic the quadrangular space syndrome?  

PubMed

Variations in the origin of axillary artery branches are common. But, distinctly abnormal course of its posterior circumflex humeral branch is rare. We are reporting a case of posterior circumflex humeral artery (PCHA) originating from the axillary artery, passing through lower triangular space to reach the scapular region where it accompanied the axillary nerve and posterior circumflex humeral vein to pass around surgical neck of humerus, deep to the fibers of deltoid. Other variations observed in this specimen were the radial collateral artery arising from the PCHA, middle collateral artery arising directly from the brachial artery and absence of profunda brachii artery. PCHA forming a hair pin loop, traversing through lower triangular space instead of quadrangular space taking a long course is being reported for the first time. Further, the clinical and surgical importance of this case especially in relation with quadrangular space syndrome and relevant literature is discussed. PMID:23109033

Mohandas Rao, Kappettu Gadahad; Somayaji, Shiroor Nagabhushan; Ashwini, Lagadamane Sathyanarayana; Ravindra, Swamy; Abhinitha, Padavinangadi; Rao, Ashutosh; Sapna, Marpalli; Jyothsna, Patil

2012-01-01

195

Finite element analysis of the temporomandibular joint during lateral excursions of the mandible.  

PubMed

One of the most significant characteristics of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is that it is in fact composed of two joints. Several finite element simulations of the TMJ have been developed but none of them analysed the different responses of its two sides during nonsymmetrical movement. In this paper, a lateral excursion of the mandible was introduced and the biomechanical behaviour of both sides was studied. A three-dimensional finite element model of the joint comprising the bone components, both articular discs, and the temporomandibular ligaments was used. A fibre-reinforced porohyperelastic model was introduced to simulate the behaviour of the articular discs, taking into account the orientation of the fibres in each zone of these cartilage components. The mandible movement during its lateral excursion was introduced as the loading condition in the analysis. As a consequence of the movement asymmetry, the discs were subjected to different load distributions. It was observed that the maximal shear stresses were located in the lateral zone of both discs and that the lateral attachment of the ipsilateral condyle-disc complex suffered a large distortion, due to the compression of this disc against the inferior surface of the temporal bone. These results may be related with possible consequences of a common disorder called bruxism. Although it would be necessary to perform an exhaustive analysis of this disorder, including the contact forces between the teeth during grinding, it could be suggested that a continuous lateral movement of the jaw may lead to perforations of both discs in their lateral part and may damage the lateral attachments of the disc to the condyle. PMID:16125714

Pérez Del Palomar, A; Doblaré, M

2005-08-25

196

"Internal fixation of proximal humeral fractures using the Polarus intramedullary nail: our institutional experience and review of the literature"  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study is to evaluate the functional outcome, union and complication rates after surgical treatment of unstable or displaced proximal humeral fractures using the Polarus intramedullary nail, by reviewing our institutional experience and the relevant current literature. Methods Twenty-seven patients were treated operatively for proximal humeral fracture using the Polarus nail. Fractures were classified according to Neer’s classification. A number of parameters including patient demographics, mechanism of injury, operative time, time to union and complications were recorded. Functional outcome was evaluated using the Constant Shoulder Score. A comparison among functional outcomes in patients >60?years in relation to the younger ones was performed. Moreover, a review of the literature was carried out to evaluate the overall union and complication rates. Results Two patients lost to follow-up were excluded from the analysis. For the twenty-five patients (mean age: 61?years), the mean follow-up was 36?months. There were 7 complications (28%), including one fixation failure, four protruded screws, one superficial infection and one case of impingement. The union rate was 96% (mean time to union: 4.2?months). The mean Constant score was 74.5 (range: 48–89). Patients under the age of 60 had a better functional outcome compared to patients >60?years of age (p<0.05). From the literature review and from a total of 215 patients treated with a Polarus nail, the mean union rate was 95.8%, the overall reported complication rate, including both minor and major complications, ranged widely from 9.3% up to 70%. Conclusions The Polarus nail was found to be an effective implant for stabilisation of proximal humeral fractures. Functional outcome is for the vast majority of the cases excellent or good, but in elderly patients a lower Constant score can be expected.

2012-01-01

197

Indications for computed tomography (CT-) diagnostics in proximal humeral fractures: a comparative study of plain radiography and computed tomography  

PubMed Central

Background Precise indications for computed tomography (CT) in proximal humeral fractures are not established. The purpose of this study was a comparison of conventional radiographic views with different CT reconstructions with 2 D and 3 D imaging to establish indications for additional CT diagnostics depending on the fractured parts. Methods In a prospective diagnostic study in two level 1 trauma centers, 44 patients with proximal humeral fractures were diagnosed with conventional X-rays (22 AP + axillary views, 22 AP + scapular Y-views) and CT (multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) and maximum intensity projection (MIP)) with 2 D and 3 D imaging. 3 observers assessed the technical image quality, the assessment of the relevant anatomical structures (2-sample-t-test) and the percentage of the osseous overlap of the proximal humerus (Welch-test) using a scoring system. The quality of the different diagnostic methods was assessed according to the number of fractured parts (Bonferroni-Holm adjustment). Results There was significantly more overlap of the fractured region on the scapular Y-views (mean 71.5%, range 45–90%) than on axillary views (mean 56.2%, range 10.5–100%). CT-diagnostics allowed a significantly better assessment of the relevant structures than conventional diagnostics (p < 0.05) independently of the fracture severity (two-, three-, and four-part fractures). Conclusion Conventional X-rays with AP view and a high-quality axillary view are useful for primary diagnostics of the fracture and often but not always show a clear presentation of the relevant bony structures such as both tuberosities, the glenoid and humeral head. CT with thin slices technology and additional 3 D imaging provides always a clear presentation of the fractured region. Clinically, a CT should be performed – independently of the number of fractured parts – when the proximal humerus and the shoulder joint are not presented with sufficient X-ray-quality to establish a treatment plan.

Bahrs, Christian; Rolauffs, Bernd; Sudkamp, Norbert P; Schmal, Hagen; Eingartner, Christoph; Dietz, Klaus; Pereira, Philippe L; Weise, Kuno; Lingenfelter, Erich; Helwig, Peter

2009-01-01

198

Proximal humeral reconstruction using nail cement spacer in primary and metastatic tumours of proximal humerus.  

PubMed

Limb salvage surgery for malignant tumours of proximal humerus is an operative challenge, where the surgeon has to preserve elbow and hand functions and retain shoulder stability with as much function as possible. We treated 14 consecutive patients with primary malignant or isolated metastasis of proximal humerus with surgical resection and reconstruction by nail cement spacer. There were 8 females and 6 males, with a mean age of 28.92 years (range 16-51 years) and a mean follow-up of 30.14 months (range 12-52 months). The diagnosis was osteosarcoma in 8 patients, chondrosarcoma in 4 patients and metastasis from thyroid and breast carcinoma in 1 patient each. One of our patients had radial nerve neuropraxia, 1 developed inferior subluxation and 3 developed distant metastasis. Two patients died of disease and one developed local recurrence leading to forequarter amputation, leaving a total of 11 patients with functional extremities for assessment at the time of final follow-up which was done using the Musculoskeletal Tumour Society (MSTS) score. Though we were able to preserve the elbow, wrist and hand functions in all patients, the abductor mechanism, deltoid muscle and axillary nerve were not salvageable in any of cases. The mean MSTS score at the time of final follow-up was 19.09. Thus, proximal humeral reconstruction using nail cement spacer is a technical simple, cost-effective and reproducible procedure which makes it a reliable option in subset of patients where the functions around the shoulder cannot be preserved despite costlier prosthesis. PMID:23925868

Kundu, Zile Singh; Gogna, Paritosh; Gupta, Vinay; Kamboj, Pradeep; Singla, Rohit; Sangwan, Sukhbir Singh

2013-08-08

199

Risk factors for revision surgery following Humeral Head Replacement: 1,431 shoulders over 3 decades  

PubMed Central

Objective Assess long-term risk of revision surgery and its predictors after undergoing humeral head replacement (HHR). Methods We used prospectively collected data from the Mayo Clinic Total Joint registry and other institutional electronic databases. Revision-free survival for HHR at 5-, 10- and 20-years was calculated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. We used univariate and multivariable-adjusted Cox regression analyses to examine the association of age, gender, body mass index (BMI), comorbidity assessed by Deyo-Charlson index, American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) class, implant fixation (cemented versus not) and underlying diagnosis with the risk of revision surgery. Hazard ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI) and p-values are presented. Results 1,359 patients underwent 1,431 shoulder HHRs during the study period, 1976–2008. The average age was 63 years, 63% were female, mean BMI was 28 kg/m2 and 60% implants were cemented. 114 HHRs were revised during the follow-up. At 5-, 10- and 20-years, the shoulder implant survival was 93.6% (95% CI, 92.1%–95%), 90% (95% CI, 88%–92%) and 85% (95% CI, 81.8%–88.4%) respectively. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, older age was associated with lower hazard of revision, hazard ratio, 0.97 (95% CI, 0.96–0.99; p-value<0.001) and higher BMI with higher hazard ratio of 1.04 (95% CI, 1.01–1.08; p-value=0.02). Conclusions Long-term survival of HHR at 20-years was excellent. Obesity and younger age are risk factors for higher revision rate after HHR. Further studies should investigate the biologic rationale for these important associations. Surgeons can discuss these differences in revision risk with patients, especially in young obese patients.

Singh, Jasvinder A.; Sperling, John; Cofield, Robert

2011-01-01

200

Shoulder arthroplasty in cases with avascular necrosis of the humeral head.  

PubMed

Avascular necrosis (AVN) is a relatively uncommon cause of glenohumeral arthritis. Previous retrospective reviews of shoulder arthroplasty for AVN have shown very good results in small numbers of patients. This study prospectively evaluated a consecutive series of 21 shoulders in 19 patients treated with the same modular prosthesis at a single institution. Of the shoulders, 8 developed AVN after a proximal humeral fracture, 1 was associated with a massive rotator cuff tear, 10 developed after corticosteroid therapy, and 2 were idiopathic. The patients, 14 women and 5 men, with a mean age of 54 years, were followed up for a mean of 4.7 years (range, 2 to 8 years). Hemiarthroplasty was performed in 15 shoulders, whereas 6 required total shoulder arthroplasty. Assessment included visual analog scales, the Simple Shoulder Test, and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Shoulder Score Index (SSI). Physical examination was performed, and radiographs were obtained. The visual analog scale scores for pain and function improved significantly after surgery (P < .01). The mean SSI score rose from 36 to 81 (where 0 indicates the worst outcome and 100 indicates the best outcome). The mean number of positive responses on the Simple Shoulder Test increased from 3 to 10. Mean active elevation increased from 88 degrees to 123 degrees . External rotation improved from 7 degrees to 34 degrees , and internal rotation improved from L4 to T12. No difference in outcome was noted based on age or sex. Patients with steroid-related or idiopathic AVN had greater pain and functional impairment preoperatively (mean SSI score, 26) than those with prior fracture or rotator cuff tear (mean SSI score, 49) (P < .01). Postoperatively, however, these groups fared equally well (mean SSI score, 78 vs 82). Shoulder arthroplasty for AVN produces good pain relief and function, although a concurrent series with osteoarthritis yielded better results. Forward elevation did not approach normal as had been previously reported. PMID:17113317

Orfaly, Robert M; Rockwood, Charles A; Esenyel, Cem Zeki; Wirth, Michael A

2006-11-16

201

Migration of a Kirschner wire used in the fixation of a subcapital humeral fracture, causing cardiac tamponade: case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

Metallic pins and wires are frequently used for fixation of fractures and dislocations. Migration is one of the potential complications of such fixation methods. Usually, migration of the pins causes only minor complications, but if the device migrates to a vital cavity, serious damage and even death may ensue. The shoulder girdle is one of the areas in which pins and wires are mostly used, the humeral neck fractures being one of them. We report a case in which a Kirschner wire migrated from a subcapital humeral fracture site into the aorta and pericardium, causing sudden cardiac tamponade and death. PMID:17525569

Freund, E; Nachman, R; Gips, H; Hiss, J

2007-06-01

202

Function Lateralization via Measuring Coherence Laterality  

PubMed Central

A data-driven approach for lateralization of brain function based on the spatial coherence difference of functional MRI (fMRI) data in homologous regions-of-interest (ROI) in each hemisphere is proposed. The utility of using coherence laterality (CL) to determine function laterality was assessed first by examining motor laterality using normal subjects’ data acquired both at rest and with a simple unilateral motor task and subsequently by examining mesial temporal lobe memory laterality in normal subjects and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. The motor task was used to demonstrate that CL within motor ROI correctly lateralized functional stimulation. In patients with unilateral epilepsy studied during a scene-encoding task, CL in a hippocampus-parahippocampus-fusiform (HPF) ROI was concordant with lateralization based on task activation, and the CL index (CLI) significantly differentiated the right side group to the left side group. By contrast, normal controls showed a symmetric HPF CLI distribution. Additionally, similar memory laterality prediction results were still observed using CL in epilepsy patients with unilateral seizures after the memory encoding effect was removed from the data, suggesting the potential for lateralization of pathological brain function based on resting fMRI data. A better lateralization was further achieved via a combination of the proposed approach and the standard activation based approach, demonstrating that assessment of spatial coherence changes provides a complementary approach to quantifying task-correlated activity for lateralizing brain function.

Wang, Ze; Mechanic-Hamilton, Dawn; Pluta, John; Glynn, Simon; Detre, John A.

2009-01-01

203

Transient lateral patellar dislocation: review of imaging findings, patellofemoral anatomy, and treatment options.  

PubMed

Transient patellar dislocation is a common sports-related injury in young adults. Although patients often present to the emergency department with acute knee pain and hemarthrosis, spontaneous reduction frequently occurs, and half of cases are unsuspected clinically. Characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings often lead to the diagnosis. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the MRI findings of lateral patellar dislocation and concomitant injuries, such as kissing contusions of the medial patella and lateral femoral condyle; osteochondral and avulsion fractures; and injuries of the medial patellofemoral ligament/retinacular complex. This article will also briefly review patellofemoral anatomy and passive, active, and static stabilizers. Predisposing factors for patellar instability, including trochlear dysplasia, patella alta, and lateralization of the patella or tibial tuberosity and their relevant measurements will also be highlighted. Treatment options, including surgery, such as medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction, tibial tuberosity transfer, and trochleoplasty, and their postoperative imaging appearances will also be discussed. PMID:22941569

Earhart, Christina; Patel, Dakshesh B; White, Eric A; Gottsegen, Christopher J; Forrester, Deborah M; Matcuk, George R

2012-09-01

204

Investigation of metallic and carbon fibre PEEK fracture fixation devices for three-part proximal humeral fractures.  

PubMed

A computational investigation of proximal humeral fracture fixation has been conducted. Four devices were selected for the study; a locking plate, intramedullary nail (IM Nail), K-wires and a Bilboquet device. A 3D model of a humerus was created using a process of thresholding based on the grayscale values of a CT scan of an intact humerus. An idealised three part fracture was created in addition to removing a standard volume from the humeral head as a representation of bone voids that occur as a result of the injury. All finite element simulations conducted represent 90° arm abduction. Simulations were conducted to investigate the effect of filling this bone void with calcium phosphate cement for each device. The effect of constructing devices from carbon fibre polyetheretherketone (CFPEEK) was investigated. Simulations of cement reinforced devices predict greater stability for each device. The average unreinforced fracture line opening (FLO) is reduced by 48.5% for metallic devices with a lesser effect on composite devices with FLO reduced by 23.6%. Relative sliding (shear displacement) is also reduced between fracture fragments by an average of 58.34%. CFPEEK device simulations predict reduced stresses at the device-bone interface. PMID:22989528

Feerick, Emer M; Kennedy, Jim; Mullett, Hannan; FitzPatrick, David; McGarry, Patrick

2012-09-16

205

Lateral impingements of the temporomandibular joint: a classification system and MRI imaging characteristics.  

PubMed

Finite element analysis of dynamic temporomandibular joint (TMJ) loading reveals a predominance of localization of loading laterally towards the collateral ligament regions and disc/capsule attachments to the mandibular condyle. A previous publication (Kirk, Kirk. OMS Clin North Am 2006;18:345-68) introduced biomechanical principles for surgeons to consider in the diagnostic phase of management as well as initial surgical procedure selection. The concept of impingements and their impact with development of derangement is presented in this paper with an expanded collection of imaging characteristics. Diagnostic coronal imaging using a dual photon imaging technique is presented. This technique is superior to traditional T1 and T2 weighted imaging sequences when sagittal imaging is employed. Coronal imaging using this technique adds a new dimension to preoperative imaging. Impingement presence and the discernment of early lateral disc/capsule rupture from the condyle of the mandible is superior with the dual photon technique. Images and a classification of degrees of impingement are presented. The biomechanical importance of diagnosis of impingement is discussed. PMID:23218512

Kirk, W S

2012-12-05

206

Ontogenetic adaptation to bipedalism: age changes in femoral to humeral length and strength proportions in humans, with a comparison to baboons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase in lower\\/upper limb bone length and strength proportions in adult humans compared to most other anthropoid primates is commonly viewed as an adaptation to bipedalism. The ontogenetic development of femoral to humeral proportions is examined here using a longitudinal sample of 20 individuals measured radiographically at semiannual or annual intervals from 6 months of age to late adolescence

Christopher Ruff

2003-01-01

207

Dynamic biomechanics of the human head in lateral impacts.  

PubMed

The biomechanical responses of human head (translational head CG accelerations, rotational head accelerations, and HIC) under lateral impact to the parietal-temporal region were investigated in the current study. Free drop tests were conducted at impact velocities ranging from 2.44 to 7.70 m/s with a 40 durometer, a 90 durometer flat padding, and a 90 durometer cylinder. Specimens were isolated from PMHS subjects at the level of occipital condyles, and the intracranial substance was replaced with brain simulant (Sylgard 527). Three tri-axial accelerometers were instrumented at the anterior, posterior, and vertex of the specimen, and a pyramid nine accelerometer package (pNAP) was used at the contra-lateral site. Biomechanical responses were computed by transforming accelerations measured at each location to the head CG. The results indicated significant "hoop effect" from skull deformation. Translational head CG accelerations were accurately measured by transforming the pNAP, the vertex accelerations, or the average of anterior/posterior acceleration to the CG. The material stiffness and structural rigidity of the padding changed the biomechanical responses of the head with stiffer padding resulting in higher head accelerations. At the skull fracture, HIC values were more than 2-3x higher than the frontal skull fracture threshold (HIC=1000), emphasizing the differences between frontal and lateral impact. Rotational head accelerations up to 42.1 krad/s(2) were observed before skull fracture, indicating possible severe brain injury without skull fracture in lateral head impact. These data will help to establish injury criteria and threshold in lateral impacts for improved automotive protection and help clinicians understand the biomechanics of lateral head impact from improved diagnosis. PMID:20184848

Zhang, Jiangyue; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A

2009-10-01

208

Dynamic biomechanics of the human head in lateral impacts  

PubMed Central

The biomechanical responses of human head (translational head CG accelerations, rotational head accelerations, and HIC) under lateral impact to the parietal-temporal region were investigated in the current study. Free drop tests were conducted at impact velocities ranging from 2.44 to 7.70 m/s with a 40 durometer, a 90 durometer flat padding, and a 90 durometer cylinder. Specimens were isolated from PMHS subjects at the level of occipital condyles, and the intracranial substance was replaced with brain simulant (Sylgard 527). Three tri-axial accelerometers were instrumented at the anterior, posterior, and vertex of the specimen, and a pyramid nine accelerometer package (pNAP) was used at the contra-lateral site. Biomechanical responses were computed by transforming accelerations measured at each location to the head CG. The results indicated significant “hoop effect” from skull deformation. Translational head CG accelerations were accurately measured by transforming the pNAP, the vertex accelerations, or the average of anterior/posterior acceleration to the CG. The material stiffness and structural rigidity of the padding changed the biomechanical responses of the head with stiffer padding resulting in higher head accelerations. At the skull fracture, HIC values were more than 2–3x higher than the frontal skull fracture threshold (HIC=1000), emphasizing the differences between frontal and lateral impact. Rotational head accelerations up to 42.1 krad/s2 were observed before skull fracture, indicating possible severe brain injury without skull fracture in lateral head impact. These data will help to establish injury criteria and threshold in lateral impacts for improved automotive protection and help clinicians understand the biomechanics of lateral head impact from improved diagnosis.

Zhang, Jiangyue; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.

2009-01-01

209

Internal Fixation Versus Nonoperative Treatment for Displaced 3-Part or 4-Part Proximal Humeral Fractures in Elderly Patients: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials  

PubMed Central

Background A few studies focused on open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) or nonoperative treatment of displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients have been published, all of whom had a low number of patients. In this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), we aimed to assess the effect of ORIF or nonoperative treatment of displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients on the clinical outcomes and re-evaluate of the potential benefits of conservative treatment. Methods We searched PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases for randomized controlled trials comparing ORIF and nonoperative treatment of displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients. Our outcome measures were the Constant scores. Results: Three randomized controlled trials with a total of 130 patients were identified and analyzed. The overall results based on fixed-effect model did not support the treatment of open reduction and internal fixation to improve the functional outcome when compared with nonoperative treatment for treating elderly patients with displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures (WMD ?0.51, 95% CI: ?7.25 to 6.22, P?=?0.88, I2?=?0%). Conclusions Although our meta-analysis did not support the treatment of open reduction and internal fixation to improve the functional outcome when compared with nonoperative treatment for treating elderly patients with displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures, this result must be considered in the context of variable patient demographics. Only a limited recommendation can be made based on current data. Considering the limitations of included studies, a large, well designed trial that incorporates the evaluation of clinically relevant outcomes in participants with different underlying risks of shoulder function is required to more adequately assess the role for ORIF or nonoperative treatment.

Li, Jing; Chen, Aimin

2013-01-01

210

Lateral collateral ligament (image)  

MedlinePLUS

The lateral collateral ligament connects the end of the femur (thigh) to the top of the fibula (the thin bone that runs next to the shin bone). The lateral collateral ligament provides stability against varus stress. Varus stress ...

211

The management of complex periprosthetic humeral fractures: a case series of strut allograft augmentation, and a review of the literature.  

PubMed

There is little published discussion on the management of postoperative periprosthetic humeral fractures where rotator cuff function is poor, the bone stock is dwindling or both. This is a phenomenon increasingly seen in the older, more osteoporotic population and presents an interesting challenge especially in when faced with these patients with poor bone quality. We present the treatment of three fractures with the use of long-stem reverse geometry arthroplasty and other surgical techniques more commonly reserved for periprosthetic fractures of the proximal femur such as cortical strut allograft augmentation. We believe revision to reverse geometry long-stem implant with cortical strut allograft augmentation to be safe and appropriate in the management of these complex injuries, although technically challenging, and has excellent initial and medium-term results. PMID:23457000

Trompeter, Alex J; Gupta, Rohit R

2013-02-28

212

Subclavian perivascular block for open reduction and internal fixation of left midshaft humeral fracture--a case report.  

PubMed

Traumatic injuries affecting bones of the hand and forearm often require peripheral nerve blocks for analgesia and surgical intervention. The successful use of subclavian perivascular block as a sole anaesthetic for orthopaedic surgery has not been reported in our environment. We report the use of this technique for open reduction and internal fixation of a left midshaft humeral fracture. The trunk of the brachial plexus was localized by a Polystim II nerve stimulator. Complete sensorimotor block was achieved within 15 minutes and surgery lasted 55 minutes without complications. This technique obviated the use of general anaesthesia with its risks. The surgeon and the patient were satisfied with the quality of the anaesthesia. PMID:20632675

Rukewe, A; Ogunlade, S O; Idowu, O A; Aderinto, D A

2010-03-01

213

Lateral neck injury assessments in side impact using post mortem human subject tests.  

PubMed

Current neck injury criteria are based on matching upper cervical spine injuries from piglet tests to airbag deployment loads and pairing kinematics from child dummies. These "child-based" scaled data together with adult human cadaver tolerances in axial loading are used to specify neck injury thresholds in axial compression and tension, and flexion and extension moment about the occipital condyles; no thresholds are specified for any other force or moment including lateral bending. The objective of this study was to develop a testing methodology and to determine the lateral bending moment injury threshold under coronal loading. Post mortem human subjects (PMHS) were used. Specimens consisted of whole body and isolated head-neck complexes with intact musculature. Intact specimen positioning included: sitting PMHS upright on a rigid seat, supporting the torso by a plate, maintaining Frankfurt plane horizontal. Isolated head-neck complexes were fixed at T1 with the occiput connected via a custom apparatus to a testing device to induce lateral bending motion. Head angular and linear accelerations and angular velocities were computed using a pyramid nine accelerometer package on the head; specimen-specific physical properties including center of gravity and moments of inertia in the three-dimensions; and equations of equilibrium. These data were used to determine neck loads at the occipital condyles. No specimens sustained injuries, identified by palpation, x-rays, CT, and autopsy. Results from 24 tests indicated that PMHS head-neck complexes can tolerate 75 Nm of coronal moment at low axial load without failure, and this level may be used as an initial estimate of the injury reference value under lateral loading to the human head-neck complex. PMID:22105394

Yoganandan, Narayan; Humm, John; Pintar, Frank A; Wolfla, Christopher E; Maiman, Dennis J

2011-01-01

214

Lateral Neck Injury Assessments in Side Impact Using Post Mortem Human Subject Tests  

PubMed Central

Current neck injury criteria are based on matching upper cervical spine injuries from piglet tests to airbag deployment loads and pairing kinematics from child dummies. These “child-based” scaled data together with adult human cadaver tolerances in axial loading are used to specify neck injury thresholds in axial compression and tension, and flexion and extension moment about the occipital condyles; no thresholds are specified for any other force or moment including lateral bending. The objective of this study was to develop a testing methodology and to determine the lateral bending moment injury threshold under coronal loading. Post mortem human subjects (PMHS) were used. Specimens consisted of whole body and isolated head-neck complexes with intact musculature. Intact specimen positioning included: sitting PMHS upright on a rigid seat, supporting the torso by a plate, maintaining Frankfurt plane horizontal. Isolated head-neck complexes were fixed at T1 with the occiput connected via a custom apparatus to a testing device to induce lateral bending motion. Head angular and linear accelerations and angular velocities were computed using a pyramid nine accelerometer package on the head; specimen-specific physical properties including center of gravity and moments of inertia in the three-dimensions; and equations of equilibrium. These data were used to determine neck loads at the occipital condyles. No specimens sustained injuries, identified by palpation, x-rays, CT, and autopsy. Results from 24 tests indicated that PMHS head-neck complexes can tolerate 75 Nm of coronal moment at low axial load without failure, and this level may be used as an initial estimate of the injury reference value under lateral loading to the human head-neck complex.

Yoganandan, Narayan; Humm, John; Pintar, Frank A.; Wolfla, Christopher E.; Maiman, Dennis J.

2011-01-01

215

Age-related changes in collagen properties and mineralization in cancellous and cortical bone in the porcine mandibular condyle.  

PubMed

Collagen is an important constituent of bone, and it has been suggested that changes in collagen and mineral properties of bone are interrelated during growth. The aim of this study was to quantify age-related changes in collagen properties and the degree of mineralization of bone (DMB). The DMB in cancellous and cortical bone samples from the mandibular condyle of 35 female pigs aged 0-100 weeks was determined using micro-computed tomography. Subsequently, the amount of collagen and the number of pentosidine (Pen), hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP), and lysylpyridinoline (LP) cross-links were quantified by means of high-performance liquid chromatography. The amount of collagen increased with age in cancellous bone but remained unchanged in cortical bone. The number of Pen and LP cross-links decreased in both bone types. In contrast, the number of HP cross-links decreased only in cancellous bone. The sum of the number of HP and LP cross-links decreased with age in cancellous bone only. The DMB increased in cancellous and cortical bone. It was concluded that the largest changes in the number of mature collagen cross-links and the mineralization in porcine cancellous and cortical bone take place before the age of 40 weeks. The low number of mature cross-links after this age suggests that the bone turnover rate continues to be high and thereby prevents the development of mature cross-links. PMID:20225089

Willems, Nop M B K; Langenbach, Geerling E J; Everts, Vincent; Mulder, Lars; Grünheid, Thorsten; Bank, Ruud A; Zentner, Andrej; van Eijden, Theo M G J

2010-03-12

216

Lateral canthal surgery.  

PubMed

The lateral canthus is a delicate and complicated three-dimensional structure with function relevant to the health of the ocular surface. Dysfunction of the lateral canthus, due to aging changes or iatrogenic trauma, results in ocular morbidity ranging from chronic irritation to tearing to recalcitrant keratopathy. From an aesthetic standpoint, symmetric, normally positioned lateral canthi are cornerstones of youthful periorbital appearance, disruption of which leads to cosmetically significant deformity or asymmetry. Reconstruction of the lateral canthus is important in the rehabilitation of the aging eyelid and an unfortunate necessity after failed lateral canthal surgery. The common methods for improving or maintaining position, tone, and shape of the lower eyelid and lateral canthus use tightening or shortening the lower eyelid horizontally, keeping the canthal angle in an appropriate vertical level, and hugging the ocular surface. Many techniques have been described for the reconstruction of the lateral canthus in functional conditions or for aesthetic purposes. These methods have met with varying success. In this article, we begin with a discussion of the anatomy and physiology of the lateral canthus, followed by clinical examples of lateral canthal abnormalities and underlying pathophysiologies. A review of surgical options for the lateral canthus is presented with concluding remarks on postoperative complications. PMID:20524167

Chong, Kelvin Kam-Lung; Goldberg, Robert A

2010-06-03

217

Lateralization of Huggins pitch.  

PubMed

The Huggins pitch is a sensation of pitch generated from a broadband noise having a narrowband boundary region where the interaural phase difference varies rapidly as a function of frequency. Models of binaural hearing predict that the pitch image should be well lateralized. A direct psychophysical experimental method was used to estimate the lateral positions of Huggins pitch images with two different forms of phase boundaries, linear phase and stepped phase. A third experiment measured the lateral positions of sine tones with controlled interaural phase differences. The results showed that the lateralization of Huggins pitch stimuli was similar to that of the corresponding sine tones and that the lateralizations of the two forms of Huggins pitch phase boundaries were even more similar to one another. Both Huggins pitches and sine tones revealed strong laterality compression (exponent approximately 0.5). Ambiguous stimuli, with an interaural phase difference of 180 degrees , were consistently lateralized on one side or the other according to individual asymmetries-an effect called "earedness." An appendix to this article develops a new first-order lateralization model, the salient phase density model, which combines attributes of previous models of dichotic pitch lateralization. PMID:19206813

Zhang, Peter Xinya; Hartmann, William M

2008-12-01

218

Diagnostic performance of dental students in identifying mandibular condyle fractures by panoramic radiography and the usefulness of reference images  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of dental students in detection of mandibular condyle fractures and the effectiveness of reference panoramic images. Materials and Methods Forty-six undergraduates evaluated 25 panoramic radiographs for condylar fractures and the data were analyzed through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. After a month, they were divided into two homogeneous groups based on the first results and re-evaluated the images with (group A) or without (group B) reference images. Eight reference images included indications showing either typical condylar fractures or anatomic structures which could be confused with fractures. Paired t-test was used for statistical analysis of the difference between the first and the second evaluations for each group, and student's t-test was used between the two groups in the second evaluation. The intra- and inter-observer agreements were evaluated with Kappa statistics. Results Intra- and inter-observer agreements were substantial (k=0.66) and moderate (k=0.53), respectively. The area under the ROC curve (Az) in the first evaluation was 0.802. In the second evaluation, it was increased to 0.823 for group A and 0.814 for group B. The difference between the first and second evaluations for group A was statistically significant (p<0.05), however there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in the second evaluation. Conclusion Providing reference images to less experienced clinicians would be a good way to improve the diagnostic ability in detecting condylar fracture.

2011-01-01

219

Determination of the relationship between collagen cross-links and the bone-tissue stiffness in the porcine mandibular condyle.  

PubMed

Although bone-tissue stiffness is closely related to the degree to which bone has been mineralized, other determinants are yet to be identified. We, therefore, examined the extent to which the mineralization degree, collagen, and its cross-links are related to bone-tissue stiffness. A total of 50 cancellous and cortical bone samples were derived from the right mandibular condyles of five young and five adult female pigs. The degree of mineralization of bone (DMB) was assessed using micro-computed tomography. Using high-performance liquid chromatography, we quantified the collagen content and the number of cross-links per collagen molecule of two enzymatic cross-links: hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP) and lysylpyridinoline (LP), and one non-enzymatic cross-link: pentosidine (Pen). Nanoindentation was used to assess bone-tissue stiffness in three directions, and multiple linear regressions were used to calculate the correlation between collagen properties and bone-tissue stiffness, with the DMB as first predictor. Whereas the bone-tissue stiffness of cancellous bone did not differ between the three directions of nanoindentation, or between the two age groups, cortical bone-tissue stiffness was higher in the adult tissue. After correction for DMB, the cross-links studied did not increase the explained variance. In the young group, however, LP significantly improved the explained variance in bone-tissue stiffness. Approximately half of the variation in bone-tissue stiffness in cancellous and cortical bone was explained by the DMB and the LP cross-links and thus they cannot be considered the sole determinants of the bone-tissue stiffness. PMID:21333996

Willems, Nop M B K; Mulder, Lars; Bank, Ruud A; Grünheid, Thorsten; den Toonder, Jaap M J; Zentner, Andrej; Langenbach, Geerling E J

2011-02-18

220

Cerebral Lateralization and Aggression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A resurgence of interest in the relationship between cerebral lateralization (the functional asymmetry of the cerebral cortex) and aggression has occurred. Most recent studies have found that individuals with abnormal patterns of lateralization are overrepresented among violent individuals. Intervening variables (such as drug and alcohol abuse)…

Hillbrand, Marc; And Others

1994-01-01

221

Treatment of Lateral Epicondylitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateral epicondylitis is a common overuse syndrome of the extensor tendons of the forearm. It is sometimes called tennis elbow, although it can occur with many activities. The condition affects men and women equally and is more common in persons 40 years or older. Despite the prevalence of lateral epicondylitis and the numerous treatment strategies available, relatively few high-quality clinical

GREG W. JOHNSON; KARA CADWALLADER; SCOT B. SCHEFFEL

2007-01-01

222

Reading Disability and Laterality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to determine how retarded readers differed from normal readers in the various ways laterality is manifested. An additional purpose was to investigate the development of laterality as seen across several age levels. Subjects were 80 white male 9-, 10-, 11-, and 12-year-olds from regular classrooms in suburban…

Sparrow, Sara S.

223

Lateralization of Huggins pitch  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Huggins pitch is a sensation of pitch generated from a broadband noise having a narrowband boundary region where the interaural phase difference varies rapidly as a function of frequency. Models of binaural hearing predict that the pitch image should be well lateralized. A direct psychophysical experimental method was used to estimate the lateral positions of Huggins pitch images with

Peter Xinya Zhang; William M. Hartmann

2008-01-01

224

Lateral patellofemoral ligament reconstruction.  

PubMed

Abstract Medial dislocation of the patella is a disabling condition; there are several reports in the literature describing this condition and its association with failed lateral retinacular release. The diagnosis and treatment of medial subluxation of the patella may be difficult. Direct repair or imbrication of the lateral retinaculum provides initial stability but a noticeable increase in medial excursion usually reappears. In this article, we describe a simple and reproducible technique to reconstruct the lateral patellofemoral ligament with autogenous tissue that is based on the basic principles of all ligament reconstruction. Reconstruction of the lateral patellofemoral ligament is useful in eliminating the symptoms related to medial instability of the patella after failed lateral retinacular release; however, it must be considered a salvage procedure because it does not address the pathomechanics that led to the initial patellofemoral symptoms. PMID:15525935

Teitge, Robert A; Torga Spak, Roger

2004-11-01

225

Anatomic examination of the upper head of the lateral pterygoid muscle using magnetic resonance imaging and clinical data.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to ascertain the different kinds of insertion of the upper head of the lateral pterygoid muscle (LPM) on the temporomandibular joint and to clarify its physiology to understand its possible role in the dysfunction at the temporomandibular joint. Magnetic resonance imaging examinations were used in this work to achieve a direct view of the LPM on a large number of selected patients with dysfunction at the temporomandibular joint.The study population was composed of 92 patients, of whom 74 were women and 18 were men. Their age range was from 19 to 53 years (mean age, 31 years). The images were analyzed using the following parameters: symmetry of morphologic insertions of the upper head of the LPM, types of muscular insertion divided into 3 groups (A, single bundle on the capsule and condyle; B, one bundle on the disk and a second bundle on the condyle; and C, one bundle only on the disk), and relationship between disk position regarding the condyle in patients with disk dislocations with or without reduction and upper head of the LPM. The chi-square test was used to measure the magnitude of the results.It is possible to impute to the C-type insertion morphology a negative prognostic value for a long-term improvement of disk pathology and to consider the possibility that this muscle may contribute to dislocating the disk when its insertion was directed only on the disk itself. When the upper head of the LPM was inserted on the disk, the percentage of disk dislocation without reduction was greater. PMID:19816287

Mazza, Dario; Marini, Mario; Impara, Luca; Cassetta, Michele; Scarpato, Paolo; Barchetti, Flavio; Di Paolo, Carlo

2009-09-01

226

Laparoscopic lateral pancreaticojejunostomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Lateral pancreaticojejunostomy is considered as the standard surgery for chronic pancreatitis. Yet there are very few reports\\u000a of this procedure being done laparoscopically. We present our experience with laparoscopic lateral pancreaticojejunostomy\\u000a till date and describe our technique.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Material and method  Since 1997, we have done 12 laparoscopic lateral pancreatojejunostomies. There were 9 females and 3 males and the average\\u000a age was

C. Palanivelu; R. Shetty; K. Jani; P. S. Rajan; K. Sendhilkumar; R. Parthasarthi; V. Malladi

2006-01-01

227

New technique of imaging and treatment of pediatric supracondylar humeral fracture without moving the injured limb.  

PubMed

The management of closed, displaced supracondylar fracture of humerus in children can be divided into 3 stages. In stage 1 closed reduction is achieved whose acceptability is confirmed, on table, in stage 2 using an image intensifier. This reduction is maintained in stage 3 by immobilization in slab/cast or by percutaneous Kirschner wire fixation. Although enough literature for proper technique in stage 1 and stage 3 are available, there are certain practical problems encountered in the equally important stage 2, which needs a closer look. Most of the C-arm compatible tables have their metallic base toward the head end of the table with metal bar on the sides for additional attachments. These interfere with the rotation of the image intensifier and also with the quality of the image obtained. As a result, to obtain lateral image many surgeons rotate the fractured upper limb instead of the C arm. This practice is unacceptable, as rotating the fractured limb cannot only add to the injury but it can also cause loss of reduction. Similarly, many surgeons strongly condemn using the image intensifier as an operating table. We are proposing a new surgeon and anesthetist friendly method of positioning the patient in which both anteroposterior and lateral views can be obtained without moving the fractured upper limb. In addition, if required the surgeon can proceed to open reduction without the need to reposition or re drape the patient. PMID:21869652

Kamath, Ghanashyam K; Kamath, Jagannath B; Vardhan, Harsh; Menezes, Ronald J; Sayoojianadhan, Binoy P; Savur, Amarnath D

2011-09-01

228

Sexuality in Later Life  

MedlinePLUS

... normal operations can be found at USA.gov . Sexuality in Later Life Many people want and need ... Depression can be treated. What Else May Cause Sexuality Problems? Surgery. Many of us worry about having ...

229

Laterally bendable belt conveyor  

DOEpatents

An endless, laterally flexible and bendable belt conveyor particularly adapted for coal mining applications in facilitating the transport of the extracted coal up- or downslope and around corners in a continuous manner is disclosed. The conveying means includes a flat rubber belt reinforced along the middle portion thereof along which the major portion of the belt tension is directed so as to cause rotation of the tubular shaped belt when trammed around lateral turns thus preventing excessive belt bulging distortion between adjacent belt supports which would inhibit belt transport. Pretension induced into the fabric reinforced flat rubber belt by conventional belt take-up means supports the load conveyed when the belt conveyor is making lateral turns. The carrying and return portions of the belt are supported and formed into a tubular shape by a plurality of shapers positioned along its length. Each shaper is supported from above by a monorail and includes clusters of idler rollers which support the belt. Additional cluster rollers in each shaper permit the belt supporting roller clusters to rotate in response to the belt's operating tension imposed upon the cluster rollers by induced lateral belt friction forces. The freely rotating roller clusters thus permit the belt to twist on lateral curves without damage to itself while precluding escape of the conveyed material by effectively enclosing it in the tube-shaped, inner belt transport length.

Peterson, William J. (Coraopolis, PA)

1985-01-01

230

Management of peri-prosthetic fracture of the humerus with severe bone loss and loosening of the humeral component after total shoulder replacement.  

PubMed

There is little information about the management of peri-prosthetic fracture of the humerus after total shoulder replacement (TSR). This is a retrospective review of 22 patients who underwent a revision of their original shoulder replacement for peri-prosthetic fracture of the humerus with bone loss and/or loose components. There were 20 women and two men with a mean age of 75 years (61 to 90) and a mean follow-up 42 months (12 to 91): 16 of these had undergone a previous revision TSR. Of the 22 patients, 12 were treated with a long-stemmed humeral component that bypassed the fracture. All their fractures united after a mean of 27 weeks (13 to 94). Eight patients underwent resection of the proximal humerus with endoprosthetic replacement to the level of the fracture. Two patients were managed with a clam-shell prosthesis that retained the original components. The mean Oxford shoulder score (OSS) of the original TSRs before peri-prosthetic fracture was 33 (14 to 48). The mean OSS after revision for fracture was 25 (9 to 31). Kaplan-Meier survival using re-intervention for any reason as the endpoint was 91% (95% confidence interval (CI) 68 to 98) and 60% (95% CI 30 to 80) at one and five years, respectively. There were two revisions for dislocation of the humeral head, one open reduction for modular humeral component dissociation, one internal fixation for nonunion, one trimming of a prominent screw and one re-cementation for aseptic loosening complicated by infection, ultimately requiring excision arthroplasty. Two patients sustained nerve palsies. Revision TSR after a peri-prosthetic humeral fracture associated with bone loss and/or loose components is a salvage procedure that can provide a stable platform for elbow and hand function. Good rates of union can be achieved using a stem that bypasses the fracture. There is a high rate of complications and function is not as good as with the original replacement. PMID:23015565

Sewell, M D; Kang, S N; Al-Hadithy, N; Higgs, D S; Bayley, I; Falworth, M; Lambert, S M

2012-10-01

231

Components in Hemispheric Lateralization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fact that there is an imperfect correlation between the asymmetrical function of the two halves of the brain and handedness has been a source of puzzlement for many investigators. Many theories have been proposed to explain handedness and why handedness does not correlate perfectly with other measures of lateralization. To assess the…

Lynes, Sharon C. S. L.; And Others

232

Components in Hemispheric Lateralization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The fact that there is an imperfect correlation between the asymmetrical function of the two halves of the brain and handedness has been a source of puzzlement for many investigators. Many theories have been proposed to explain handedness and why handedness does not correlate perfectly with other measures of lateralization. To assess the…

Lynes, Sharon C. S. L.; And Others

233

Suboccipital Lateral Approaches (Retrosigmoid)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The lateral suboccipital or the retrosigmoid approach (RSA) was developed by Fedor Krause and utilized for the first time\\u000a by him in 1898. During the following decades it was developed and became one of the main and most frequently applied operative\\u000a approaches in neurosurgery [1–5]. Various pathological entities located in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA), the internal auditory canal (IAC), the

Madjid Samii; Venelin M. Gerganov

234

Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juvenile amytrophic lateral sclerosis (JALS) is a type of motor neuron disease presenting before 25 years of age. It is characterized\\u000a by a combination of upper and lower motor signs. It may be familial or sporadic. We are reporting a sporadic case of JALS\\u000a with onset of symptoms at 4 years of age. Diagnostic criteria and a brief review of

Anju Aggarwal; Shashiraj

2006-01-01

235

Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Juvenile amytrophic lateral sclerosis (JALS) is a type of motor neuron disease presenting before 25 years of age. It is characterized by a combination of upper and lower motor signs. It may be familial or sporadic. We are reporting a sporadic case of JALS with onset of symptoms at 4 years of age. Diagnostic criteria and a brief review of literature are presented. PMID:16567917

Aggarwal, Anju; Shashiraj

2006-03-01

236

Five Years Later  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2000, three groups of health sciences librarians—new library school graduates, those currently working at a medical library, and medical library directors—were interviewed about the status and future of medical reference librarianship. Five years later this follow-up article summarizes the responses from many of the same librarians about the biggest changes, newest trends, evolving roles, challenges, and hopes for the

Nancy W. Clemmons; Susan L. Clemmons

2005-01-01

237

Lateral lumbar interbody fusion.  

PubMed

Since its inception in the year 2001 the minimally invasive trans-psoas Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion (LLIF) approach has gained significant favor among spine surgeons. It is now routinely utilized to treat an array of spinal pathologies including degenerative disc disease, low grade spondylolisthesis, and adult spinal deformity. The intent of this video is to provide a step by step account of the basic procedural details when performing the LLIF procedure for a single level broad based degenerated lumbar disc with herniation. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/dZFMqmCz6Q8. PMID:23829851

Kanter, Adam S; Gandhoke, Gurpreet S

2013-07-01

238

Lateral Abdominal Wall Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Lateral abdominal wall (LAW) defects can manifest as a flank hernias, myofascial laxity/bulges, or full-thickness defects. These defects are quite different from those in the anterior abdominal wall defects and the complexity and limited surgical options make repairing the LAW a challenge for the reconstructive surgeon. LAW reconstruction requires an understanding of the anatomy, physiologic forces, and the impact of deinnervation injury to design and perform successful reconstructions of hernia, bulge, and full-thickness defects. Reconstructive strategies must be tailored to address the inguinal ligament, retroperitoneum, chest wall, and diaphragm. Operative technique must focus on stabilization of the LAW to nonyielding points of fixation at the anatomic borders of the LAW far beyond the musculofascial borders of the defect itself. Thus, hernias, bulges, and full-thickness defects are approached in a similar fashion. Mesh reinforcement is uniformly required in lateral abdominal wall reconstruction. Inlay mesh placement with overlying myofascial coverage is preferred as a first-line option as is the case in anterior abdominal wall reconstruction. However, interposition bridging repairs are often performed as the surrounding myofascial tissue precludes a dual layered closure. The decision to place bioprosthetic or prosthetic mesh depends on surgeon preference, patient comorbidities, and clinical factors of the repair. Regardless of mesh type, the overlying soft tissue must provide stable cutaneous coverage and obliteration of dead space. In cases where the fasciocutaneous flaps surrounding the defect are inadequate for closure, regional pedicled flaps or free flaps are recruited to achieve stable soft tissue coverage.

Baumann, Donald P.; Butler, Charles E.

2012-01-01

239

Does Lateral Knee Geometry Influence Bone Bruise Patterns after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury? A Report of two Cases  

PubMed Central

Bone bruise patterns are commonly seen after acute anterior cruciate ligament injuries; they represent a subchondral impaction injury that occurs in the lateral knee joint between the mid-lateral femoral condyle and the posterior lateral tibial plateau. These contusion patterns are present in the majority of noncontact ACL injuries. These injury patterns vary significantly in severity and this aspect is poorly understood. Edema patterns have gained increased interest in the literature of late; they may indicate the severity of the initial injury. They also may be correlated with the development of subsequent osteochondral defects and osteoarthritis. Given the location of this subchondral injury, it is plausible to assume that the geometry of the lateral femorotibial joint may play a role in ACL injury mechanism and severity of injury. We are reporting two cases of clinically identical ACL injuries. A patient with a flat lateral tibial plateau was noted to have a much larger bone edema pattern than a second patient with the highly convex lateral tibial plateau. This may shed light on the pathomechanics of ACL injury and suggests that an individual with a relatively flat tibial plateau has a stable lateral knee joint. Therefore, we hypothesize that much greater force is required to dislocate a flat and stable lateral femorotibial joint in a pivot shift pattern to produce an ACL injury. The greater force required results in a large bone edema pattern. Conversely, the individual with a relatively short and convex tibial plateau has an inherently unstable lateral joint and relatively smaller amounts of force would be needed to produce the identical injury to the ACL. As less force is required, smaller bone edema patterns result.

Westermann, Robert W; Wolf, Brian R; Wahl, Christopher J

2013-01-01

240

Improved clinical use of Twin-block and Herbst as a result of radiating viscoelastic tissue forces on the condyle and fossa in treatment and long-term retention: growth relativity.  

PubMed

Understanding mechanisms of action for orthopedic appliances is critical for orthodontists who hope to treat and retain the achieved corrections in patients with initial Class II mandibular retrognathism. That knowledge can help orthodontists produce clinically significant bone formation and avoid compression at the condyle-glenoid fossa region. It also assists us to understand the differences between short-term and long-term treatment results. It was previously thought that increased activity in the postural masticatory muscles was the key to promoting condyle-glenoid fossa growth. By analyzing results from several studies, we postulate that growth modification is associated with decreased activity, which leads to our nonmuscular hypothesis. This premise has its foundation on 3 key specific findings: significant glenoid fossa bone formation occurs during treatment that includes mandibular displacement; glenoid fossa modification is a result of the stretch forces of the retrodiskal tissues, capsule, and altered flow of viscous synovium; observations that glenoid fossa bone formation takes place a distance from the soft tissue attachment. The latter observation is explained by transduction or referral of forces. Evidence is presented, therefore, that the 3 trigger switches for glenoid fossa growth can similarly initiate short-term condylar growth modifications because the 2 structures are contiguous. These are displacement, several direct viscoelastic connections, and transduction of forces. Histologic evidence further shows that stretched retrodiskal tissues also insert directly into the condylar head's fibrocartilaginous layer. The impact of the viscoelastic tissues may be highly significant and should be considered along with the standard skeletal, dental, neuromuscular, and age factors that influence condyle-glenoid fossa growth with orthopedic advancement. These biodynamic factors are also capable of reversing effects of treatment on mandibular growth direction, size, and morphology. Relapse occurs as a result of release of the condyle and ensuing compression against the newly proliferated retrodiskal tissues together with the reactivation of muscle activity. To describe condyle-glenoid fossa growth modification, an analogy is made to a light bulb on a dimmer switch. The condyle illuminates in treatment, dims down in the retention period, to near base levels over the long-term. PMID:10715086

Voudouris, J C; Kuftinec, M M

2000-03-01

241

Lateral conduction infrared photodetector  

SciTech Connect

A photodetector for detecting infrared light in a wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m is disclosed. The photodetector has a mesa structure formed from semiconductor layers which include a type-II superlattice formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. Impurity doped regions are formed on sidewalls of the mesa structure to provide for a lateral conduction of photo-generated carriers which can provide an increased carrier mobility and a reduced surface recombination. An optional bias electrode can be used in the photodetector to control and vary a cut-off wavelength or a depletion width therein. The photodetector can be formed as a single-color or multi-color device, and can also be used to form a focal plane array which is compatible with conventional read-out integrated circuits.

Kim, Jin K. (Albuquerque, NM); Carroll, Malcolm S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2011-09-20

242

Sensorimotor and cognitive laterality profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different types of functional asymmetries, which form individual laterality profiles, were compared with the use of a battery of sensorimotor and cognitive laterality tests (TOPOS), the Benziger thinking style assessment (BTSA) test, the Cattell 17PF test, and psychosemantic multidimensional scaling. The proportion of men was shown to be higher among individuals with the left-side, symmetrical, and intersecting motor laterality profiles.

T. V. Chernigovskaya; T. A. Gavrilova; A. V. Voinov; K. N. Strel’nikov

2005-01-01

243

Laterally oscillating nitinol engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a laterally oscillating nitinol engine comprising: a first L-shaped drive member journalled for pivoting horizontal oscillation about the juncture of the legs of the L-shaped member, a second drive member journalled for pivoting about a point proximate the outboard end of the shorter leg of the L-shaped member at a distance from the pivot journal of the L-shaped member, a bearing block secured to the end of longer leg of the L-shaped and having a guide hole. The second member extending through the guide hole and arranged to reciprocate therein, a shape memory alloy power element disposed in flexure secured at its ends to the bearing block and to the second member intermediate the sliding connection with the bearing block and the pivotal connection of the second member, means for disposing different temperature baths below the element whereby as the drive members oscillate about their journals the element alternately dips into one bath and then the other, and means for absorbing a portion of the energy developed by the engine and moving the power element from the cold bath to the hot bath.

Banks, R.

1987-09-08

244

Improved clinical use of Twin-block and Herbst as a result of radiating viscoelastic tissue forces on the condyle and fossa in treatment and long-term retention: Growth relativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding mechanisms of action for orthopedic appliances is critical for orthodontists who hope to treat and retain the achieved corrections in patients with initial Class II mandibular retrognathism. That knowledge can help orthodontists produce clinically significant bone formation and avoid compression at the condyle-glenoid fossa region. It also assists us to understand the differences between short-term and long-term treatment results.

John C. Voudouris; Mladen M. Kuftinec

2000-01-01

245

The evaluation of lateral pterygoid muscle pathologic changes and insertion patterns in temporomandibular joints with or without disc displacement using magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc displacement is a common disorder in patients with internal derangement. Certain anatomic features of TMJ may make the patient prone to this condition, namely lateral pterygoid muscle (LPM) insertion variations. The aim of this study was to investigate LPM attachments and their relationships with disc displacement and subsequent pathologic changes. A total of 26 patients with clinical temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and a control group of 14 unaffected individuals were studied. Magnetic resonance images (MRIs) were taken to evaluate LPM insertion patterns, superior LPM head pathologic changes, and relative disc to condyle position. Data registration and analysis were done using SPSS v. 16.0. The most common variation (type I) was shown to be the superior head with two bundles, one attached to the disc and another to the condyle. No significant relationship between LPM insertion type and disc displacement or pathologic changes of the muscle was found. However, a link between disc displacement and muscle pathologic changes was established (P=0.001). PMID:23746672

Imanimoghaddam, M; Madani, A S; Hashemi, E M

2013-06-06

246

Ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block in a pediatric patient with acute hepatitis -A case report-.  

PubMed

The interscalene brachial plexus block is not commonly used in pediatric regional anesthesia. The increasing popularity of ultrasound has allowed more anesthesiologists to perform regional anesthesia with high success rates in pediatric patients with the direct visualization of the target nerve and spread of local anesthetics. We present a case of interscalene brachial plexus block under ultrasound guidance in a 17-month-old child with acute drug-induced hepatitis who required fixation of a fracture of the lateral humeral condyle. PMID:22778895

Lee, Joon-Ho; Kim, Young-Rok; Yu, Ho-Kyung; Cho, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Chae, Won Seok

2012-06-19

247

Adaptation of scapula lateral rotation after reverse anatomy shoulder replacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scapula motion is significant for support of the arm and stability of the shoulder. The effect of the humeral elevation on scapular kinematics has been well investigated for normal subjects, but there are limited published studies investigating adaptations after shoulder arthroplasty.Scapula kinematics was measured on 10 shoulders (eight subjects) with a reverse total joint replacement. The measurements were performed using

Andreas Kontaxis; Garth R. Johnson

2008-01-01

248

Application of a cephalometric method to the temporomandibular joint in patients with or without alteration in the orientation of the mandibular condyle axis.  

PubMed

In a prior study, the spatial relationship of the mandibular condyle was studied through a cephalogram based on laminographies of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). The present method was developed with the aim of analyzing TMJ morphology and the spatial relationship of the mandibular head within the mandibular fossa, considering references far from these structures, as they may suffer shape alterations. This study was conducted in view of the importance of the study of morphology and the hard structures relationship, which constitutes the temporomandibular joint. Its purpose is to validate a new TMJ cephalogram method by analyzing joints with and without alterations in the orientation of the condylar axis growth. Sixty joints were studied through laminographies in maximal occlusion, examining those joints with and without alterations in the orientation of the axis during condylar growth for subsequent analysis. Results showed that those joints were in a posterior position and rotation of the mandibular head, and that they presented a greater inclination in the articular eminence compared to joints without alterations in the axis orientation. Moreover, a new cephalometric method could be validated, demonstrating that changes in the condylar axis orientation imply pathology; they could also be correlated with changes in the condylar position and in the glenoid fossa morphology. PMID:23461262

Learreta, Jorge A; Barrientos, Esteban E

2013-01-01

249

Quantitative analysis of the resorption and osteoconduction of a macroporous calcium phosphate bone cement for the repair of a critical size defect in the femoral condyle.  

PubMed

Clinical orthopaedic use of calcium phosphate cement has been limited due to its slow resorption rate, but a new macroporous alpha-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-TCP) bone cement has been designed to accelerate resorption and to increase bone ingrowth. To assess its clinical potential, the in vivo behaviour of alpha-TCP was evaluated in a critical-size defect drilled in the femoral condyles of 36 adult female New Zealand rabbits. Macroporous or standard cement was injected immediately after preparation of the defect. The foaming agent was albumen, which gave up to 75% porosity. The rabbits were divided into three groups and the lesions examined histopathologically at 1, 4 and 12 weeks. No inflammatory reaction was detected at any time period following implantation with either macroporous or standard cement. At 12 weeks, the area of the implanted macroporous cement was approximately 35% of the initial lesion size. Bone growth and revascularisation was observed inside the central pores of the macroporous cement, not only at the margins, as was found with standard calcium phosphate cement. The results indicated that both cements were osteoconductive, biocompatible and biodegradable but their different physicochemical and biological properties had a marked influence on their post-implant behaviour. PMID:17980634

Miño-Fariña, Natalia; Muñoz-Guzón, Fernando; López-Peña, Mónica; Ginebra, Maria-Pau; Del Valle-Fresno, Sergio; Ayala, Dolors; González-Cantalapiedra, Antonio

2007-11-05

250

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by progressive muscular paralysis reflecting degeneration of motor neurones in the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, brainstem and spinal cord. Incidence (average 1.89 per 100,000/year) and prevalence (average 5.2 per100,000) are relatively uniform in Western countries, although foci of higher frequency occur in the Western Pacific. The mean age of onset for sporadic ALS is about 60 years. Overall, there is a slight male prevalence (M:F ratio~1.5:1). Approximately two thirds of patients with typical ALS have a spinal form of the disease (limb onset) and present with symptoms related to focal muscle weakness and wasting, where the symptoms may start either distally or proximally in the upper and lower limbs. Gradually, spasticity may develop in the weakened atrophic limbs, affecting manual dexterity and gait. Patients with bulbar onset ALS usually present with dysarthria and dysphagia for solid or liquids, and limbs symptoms can develop almost simultaneously with bulbar symptoms, and in the vast majority of cases will occur within 1–2 years. Paralysis is progressive and leads to death due to respiratory failure within 2–3 years for bulbar onset cases and 3–5 years for limb onset ALS cases. Most ALS cases are sporadic but 5–10% of cases are familial, and of these 20% have a mutation of the SOD1 gene and about 2–5% have mutations of the TARDBP (TDP-43) gene. Two percent of apparently sporadic patients have SOD1 mutations, and TARDBP mutations also occur in sporadic cases. The diagnosis is based on clinical history, examination, electromyography, and exclusion of 'ALS-mimics' (e.g. cervical spondylotic myelopathies, multifocal motor neuropathy, Kennedy's disease) by appropriate investigations. The pathological hallmarks comprise loss of motor neurones with intraneuronal ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions in upper motor neurones and TDP-43 immunoreactive inclusions in degenerating lower motor neurones. Signs of upper motor neurone and lower motor neurone damage not explained by any other disease process are suggestive of ALS. The management of ALS is supportive, palliative, and multidisciplinary. Non-invasive ventilation prolongs survival and improves quality of life. Riluzole is the only drug that has been shown to extend survival.

Wijesekera, Lokesh C; Leigh, P Nigel

2009-01-01

251

CT navigated lateral interbody fusion.  

PubMed

Lateral interbody fusion techniques are heavily reliant on fluoroscopy for retractor docking and graft placement, which expose both the patient and surgeon to high doses of radiation. Use of image-guided technologies with CT-based images, however, can eliminate this radiation exposure for the surgeon. We describe the surgical technique of performing lateral lumbar interbody fusion using CT navigation. PMID:23931938

Drazin, Doniel; Liu, John C; Acosta, Frank L

2013-08-06

252

Lateral motion tracking of automobiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radar sensors, though successful in range parameters tracking, fall short in lateral characteristics tracking. On the other hand, vision systems carry out perfect estimation for lateral motion, but range parameters estimation does not surpass the performance of radar. The exact estimation of vehicle's motion characteristics appears to be a crucial issue in modern automobile collision avoidance systems. Thus, a fusion

Angelos Amditis; Nikolaos Floudas; Aris Polychronopoulos

253

VOLCANO INSTABILITY AND LATERAL COLLAPSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active volcanoes are dynamically evolving structures, the life-cycles of which are punctuated by episodes of flank instability and lateral failure. Such behaviour is now recognised as ubiquitous and lateral collapses are estimated to have occurred at least four times a century over the past 500 years. In the Andes, three quarters of the large volcanic edifices have experienced collapse, while

W. J. McGuire

2003-01-01

254

Lateral Thinking and Technology Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of lateral thinking in recent years is a natural reaction to the enormous increase of information a human being is “bombarded” with, in the post industrial revolution era. Vertical thinking, with its sequential and fixed-order rules, which has been the foundation of traditional education, is increasingly being complemented by lateral thinking which aims at freeing the mind from

Shlomo Waks

1997-01-01

255

The Efficacy of Intra-Articular Injections for Pain Control Following the Closed Reduction and Percutaneous Pinning of Pediatric Supracondylar Humeral Fractures  

PubMed Central

Background: The purpose of this single-blinded, randomized, controlled trial was to compare the analgesic efficacy of intra-articular injections of bupivacaine or ropivacaine with that of no injection for postoperative pain control after the operative treatment of supracondylar humeral fractures in a pediatric population. Methods: Subjects (n = 124) were randomized to treatment with 0.25% bupivacaine (Group B) (n = 42), 0.20% ropivacaine (Group R) (n = 39), or no injection (Group C) (n = 43). The opioid doses and the times of administration as well as child-reported pain severity (Faces Pain Scale-Revised) and parent-reported pain severity (Total Quality Pain Management survey) were recorded. Results: The proportion of subjects who required morphine and/or fentanyl injections was significantly (p = 0.004) lower in Group B (10%) as compared with Group R (36%) and Group C (44%). On the basis of the log-rank test, the opioid-free survival rates were significantly greater in Group B as compared to Groups C and R. Total opioid consumption (morphine equivalent mg/kg) in the first seventy-two hours postoperatively was significantly less in Group B as compared with Group C (mean difference, 0.225; [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.0152 to 0.435]; p = 0.036). Parent-reported pain scores were also significantly lower in Group B as compared with both Group C (mean difference, 1.81 [95% CI, 0.38 to 3.25]; p = 0.014) and Group R (mean difference, 1.66; 95% CI, 0.20 to 3.12; p = 0.027). There were no significant differences across the three groups in terms of self-reported pain. Differences between Groups R and C were not significant for any of the outcome variables. Conclusions: The intra-articular injection of 0.25% bupivacaine significantly improves postoperative pain control following the closed reduction and percutaneous pinning of supracondylar humeral fractures in pediatric patients. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Georgopoulos, Gaia; Carry, Patrick; Pan, Zhaoxing; Chang, Frank; Heare, Travis; Rhodes, Jason; Hotchkiss, Mark; Miller, Nancy H.; Erickson, Mark

2012-01-01

256

Riluzole for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Around one in 20,000 adults in the UK will develop amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the commonest variant of motor neurone disease. Riluzole (Rilutek-Rhône-Poulenc Rorer) was launched in the UK in August 1996 as "the first anti-excitotoxic agent proven to extend life in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis". We review the clinical data on the effectiveness of riluzole and assess its place in the management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a condition that is invariably fatal and has a median survival time from symptom onset of about 2.5 years. PMID:9282413

1997-02-01

257

Lateral collateral ligament (LCL) injury  

MedlinePLUS

LCL injury; Knee injury - lateral collateral ligament (LCL) ... ligament helps keep the outer side of the knee joint stable. ... by pressure or an injury that pushes the knee joint from the inside, which results in stress ...

258

Lateral Dominance and Reading Disability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Theory and research on the relation of lateral dominance to the causation of reading disability are reviewed. Both direct and indirect measures of cerebral hemisphere functioning are considered. (SBH)|

Harris, Albert J.

1979-01-01

259

Lateral Dampers for Thrust Bearings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of lateral damping schemes for thrust bearings was examined, ranking their applicability to various engine classes, selecting the best concept for each engine class and performing an in-depth evaluation. Five major engine classes were cons...

D. H. Hibner D. R. Szafir

1985-01-01

260

"Secondary signs of lateralization" in apogeotropic lateral canalolithiasis  

PubMed Central

Summary The diagnosis of lateral canalolithiasis is based on the typical finding of the horizontal paroxysmal positional nystagmus induced by the Pagnini-Mc Clure manoeuvre. This technique usually identifies also the affected side, namely, the side where the paroxysmal nystagmus is more intense in geotropic forms and the side where the paroxysmal nystagmus is less intense in apogeotropic forms. However, this method is not always applicable since, especially in apogeotropic forms, the intensity of the nystagmus is not so distinctly different between the two sides. Further useful signs to identify the affected side have been described in the Literature: Pseudo-spontaneous nystagmus in the sitting position; Leaning and Bowing nystagmus; Null-point in the vertical plane; Sitting to supine positioning nystagmus; Null-point in the horizontal plane. They are fully explained at pathophysiological level by the mechanism of canalolithiasis, as they are caused by otoliths moving in the ampullopetal direction in the non-ampullary segment (geotropic canalolithiasis) of the lateral canal or in ampullofugal direction in the ampullary segment (apogeotropic canalolithiasis) of the lateral canal. In other words, the movement of otoliths determines excitatory or inhibitory endolymphatic flow that generates specific nystagmic eye-movements. Authors analyse the characteristics of these signs, that they define as “Secondary signs of lateralization”, in 64 cases of apogeotropic lateral canalolithiasis. A decisive contribution of the “Secondary signs of lateralization” to diagnose the pathological side has been verified in 13 out of 64 cases, whereas, in all other cases, Pagnini-Mc Clure diagnostic manoeuvre proved successful in correctly identifying the affected side by itself. Among the “Secondary signs of lateralization”, the Pseudo-spontaneous nystagmus in the sitting position and the Sitting to the supine positioning nystagmus were particularly useful, due to both their frequency and their easy detection, as they do not require additional manoeuvres besides those usually performed during health examination of a patient affected by lateral canalolithiasis. In conclusion, the Authors propose a decision-making algorithm to diagnose and treat lateral canalolithiasis based on the attempt to obtain as much information as possible for a correct diagnosis, with the least trouble and inconvenience for patients.

Califano, L; Melillo, MG; Mazzone, S; Vassallo, A

2010-01-01

261

Borehole optical lateral displacement sensor  

DOEpatents

There is provided by this invention an optical displacement sensor that utilizes a reflective target connected to a surface to be monitored to reflect light from a light source such that the reflected light is received by a photoelectric transducer. The electric signal from the photoelectric transducer is then imputed into electronic circuitry to generate an electronic image of the target. The target`s image is monitored to determine the quantity and direction of any lateral displacement in the target`s image which represents lateral displacement in the surface being monitored. 4 figs.

Lewis, R.E.

1998-10-20

262

Future Research Directions in Laterality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the current conceptual state of research into neuropsychological laterality and considers some issues which might appropriately be considered for the forward development of the field. It considers the biological context which has been adopted for these studies and the psychological significance of performance asymmetries. A principal emphasis of the paper is the degree to which inferences, rather

J. Graham Beaumont

1997-01-01

263

Multiple Resources and Brain Laterality.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two studies were completed to test the multiple resources model of information processing using tachistoscopic lateralized-input techniques. In Exp. 1 37 normal, dextral subjects, 18 men aged 18-21yr. and 19 women 18-21yr. responded manually to a visuo-sp...

E. H. Galluscio

1984-01-01

264

Enhancing Satisfaction in Later Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enhancement of later life satisfaction of long-term care residents is the purpose of this study. Seventy-eight men, residents of two Veterans Affairs nursing home units, completed a survey measuring personal characteristics, relationships with family and friends, and levels of life satisfaction. Findings show that the \\

Husam F. Ghusn; David Hyde; Ellen S. Stevens; Mary Hyde; Thomas A. Teasdale

1996-01-01

265

Color Realism and Hemispheric Laterality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the interaction between cognitive lateral functions and pictorial recognition memory for pictures presented in three different color modes. The stimulus materials used were slides selected from a pool of travel and general geographic scenery slides taken in various parts of North America. One third of the slides were…

Waltz, Esther; Berry, Louis H.

266

Excitotoxicity and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its description by Charcot more than 130 years ago, the pathogenesis of selective motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) remains unsolved. Over the years, many pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed. Amongst others these include: oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, aggregate formation, inflammation, growth factor deficiency and neurofilament disorganization. This multitude of contributing factors indicates that ALS is a complex

P. Van Damme; M. Dewil; W. Robberecht; L. Van Den Bosch

2005-01-01

267

Color Realism and Hemispheric Laterality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the interaction between cognitive lateral functions and pictorial recognition memory for pictures presented in three different color modes. The stimulus materials used were slides selected from a pool of travel and general geographic scenery slides taken in various parts of North America. One third of the slides were…

Waltz, Esther; Berry, Louis H.

268

Sleep Strategies Later in Life  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

Sleep Strategies Later in Life (4:22) Sleep problems are not inevitable as we age, though individuals need to pay attention to healthy sleep habits. choose settings to watch video: Windows Media Player - high | low QuickTime - high | low

269

Anxiety and Lateral Cerebral Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the effect of stressful and nonstressful experimental situations upon the processing capacity of each cerebral hemisphere, through observing the differential performance tasks presented to right and left visual half-fields (VHFs). Also examines attentional bias and lateral eye movements. (Author/RK)|

Tucker, Don M.; And Others

1978-01-01

270

Biomarkers for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention provides a method for diagnosing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in a subject, a method for assessing the effectiveness of a drug in treating ALS, and a method for determining the site of onset of ALS in a subject. Each method comprises ...

R. P. Bowser S. Ranganathan

2004-01-01

271

Observation of lateral vehicle dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

By observation of lateral vehicle dynamics the detection of critical driving situations is made possible, as well as the estimation of adhesion characteristics during cornering. This paper presents a comparison of a linear and a nonlinear observer for the vehicle and tyre side-slip angles. The modelling, especially the model reduction and simplification, is shown.

U. Kiencke; A. Daiß

1997-01-01

272

Translation between the Neer- and the AO/OTA-classification for proximal humeral fractures: do we need to be bilingual to interpret the scientific literature?  

PubMed Central

Background The reporting and interpretation of data from clinical trials of proximal humeral fractures are hampered by the use of two partly incommensurable fracture classification systems: the Neer classification and the AO/OTA classification. It remains difficult to interpret and generalize results, to conduct prognostic studies, and to obtain consensus on treatment recommendations when concise definitions and a common ‘fracture language’ are lacking. Thus, we compared both classifications systems using primary data from large clinical studies to assess how thoroughly both systems conveyed clinically important classification information. Methods Classification data from each study were organized in a cross-table covering the 432 theoretically possible combinations between the 16 Neer categories and the 27 AO/OTA subgroups, and the plausibility of all observed combinations were assessed and discussed by the authors until consensus. Results We analyzed primary data from 2530 observations from seven studies providing primary data from both classification systems. Thirty-five percent (151 out of 432) of the combinations were considered ‘not plausible’ and thirty-four percent (149 out of 432) were considered ‘problematic’. Conclusions Clinically important information was lost within both classification systems. Most important, the varus/valgus distinction was not found within the Neer classification and a clear definition of displacement was lacking in the AO/OTA classification. We encourage surgeons and researches to report data from both classification systems for a more thorough description of the fracture patterns and to enable cross-checking of the coding. A suitable table for cross-checking of the coding is provided herein.

2013-01-01

273

Dysregulation of 4q35- and muscle-specific genes in fetuses with a short D4Z4 array linked to facio-scapulo-humeral dystrophy.  

PubMed

Facio-scapulo-humeral dystrophy (FSHD) results from deletions in the subtelomeric macrosatellite D4Z4 array on the 4q35 region. Upregulation of the DUX4 retrogene from the last D4Z4 repeated unit is thought to underlie FSHD pathophysiology. However, no one knows what triggers muscle defect and when alteration arises. To gain further insights into the molecular mechanisms of the disease, we evaluated at the molecular level, the perturbation linked to the FSHD genotype with no a priori on disease onset, severity or penetrance and prior to any infiltration by fibrotic or adipose tissue in biopsies from fetuses carrying a short pathogenic D4Z4 array (n = 6) compared with fetuses with a non-pathogenic D4Z4 array (n = 21). By measuring expression of several muscle-specific markers and 4q35 genes including the DUX4 retrogene by an RT-PCR and western blotting, we observed a global dysregulation of genes involved in myogenesis including MYOD1 in samples with <11 D4Z4. The DUX4-fl pathogenic transcript was detected in FSHD biopsies but also in controls. Importantly, in FSHD fetuses, we mainly detected the non-spliced DUX4-fl isoform. In addition, several other genes clustered at the 4q35 locus are upregulated in FSHD fetuses. Our study is the first to examine fetuses carrying an FSHD-linked genotype and reveals an extensive dysregulation of several muscle-specific and 4q35 genes at early development stage at a distance from any muscle defect. Overall, our work suggests that even if FSHD is an adult-onset muscular dystrophy, the disease might also involve early molecular defects arising during myogenesis or early differentiation. PMID:23777630

Broucqsault, Natacha; Morere, Julia; Gaillard, Marie-Cécile; Dumonceaux, Julie; Torrents, Julia; Salort-Campana, Emmanuelle; Maues De Paula, André; Bartoli, Marc; Fernandez, Carla; Chesnais, Anne Laure; Ferreboeuf, Maxime; Sarda, Laure; Dufour, Henry; Desnuelle, Claude; Attarian, Shahram; Levy, Nicolas; Nguyen, Karine; Magdinier, Frédérique; Roche, Stéphane

2013-06-17

274

Lateral diffusion in sphingomyelin bilayers.  

PubMed

Sphingomyelin (SM) is an important lipid of eukaryotic cellular membranes and neuronal tissues. We studied lateral diffusion in macroscopically oriented bilayers of synthetic palmitoylsphingomyelin (PSM) and natural sphingomyelins of egg yolk (eSM), bovine brain (bSM) and bovine milk (mSM) by pulsed field gradient NMR (PFG NMR) in the temperature range 45-60 °C. We found that the mean values of lateral diffusion coefficients (LDCs) of SMs are 1.9-fold lower compared with those of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), which is similar in molecular structure. This discrepancy could be explained by the characteristics of intermolecular SM interactions. The LDCs of different SMs differ: egg SM is most similar to PSM; both of them have a 10% higher LDC value compared with the other two natural SMs. Besides, all natural SMs show a complicated form of the spin-echo diffusion decay (DD), which is an indicator of a distribution of LDC values in bilayers. This peculiarity is explained by the broad distributions of hydrocarbon chain lengths of the natural SMs studied here, especially mSM and bSM. We confirmed the relationship between chain length and LDC in the bilayers by computer analysis of a set of (1)H NMR spectra obtained by scanning the value of the pulsed field gradient. There is a correlation between lower LDC values and SM molecules with longer acyl chains. The most probable mechanisms by which long-chain SM molecules decrease their lateral diffusion relative to the average value are protrusion into the other side of the bilayer or lateral separation into areas that diverge with their LDCs. PMID:21031608

Filippov, A V; Rudakova, M A; Munavirov, B V

2010-12-01

275

Subcortical Laterality of Speech Encoding  

PubMed Central

It is well established that in the majority of the population language processing is lateralized to the left hemisphere. Evidence suggests that lateralization is also present in the brainstem. In the current study, the syllable /da/ was presented monaurally to the right and left ears and electrophysiological responses from the brainstem were recorded in adults with symmetrical interaural click-evoked responses. Responses to the right-ear presentation occurred earlier than those to left-ear presentation in two peaks of the frequency following response (FFR) and approached significance for the third peak of the FFR and the offset peak. Interestingly, there were no differences in interpeak latencies indicating the response to right-ear presentation simply occurred earlier over this region. Analyses also showed more robust frequency encoding when stimuli were presented to the right ear than the left ear. The effect was found for the harmonics of the fundamental that correspond to the first formant of the stimulus, but was not seen in the fundamental frequency range. The results suggest that left lateralization of processing acoustic elements important for discriminating speech extends to the auditory brainstem and that these effects are speech specific.

Hornickel, Jane; Skoe, Erika; Kraus, Nina

2009-01-01

276

Clinical neurogenetics: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Our understanding of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease, is expanding rapidly as its genetic causes are uncovered. The pace of new gene discovery over the last 5 years has accelerated, providing new insights into the pathogenesis of disease and highlighting biological pathways as targets for therapeutic development. This article reviews our current understanding of the heritability of ALS and provides an overview of each of the major ALS genes, highlighting their phenotypic characteristics and frequencies as a guide for clinicians evaluating patients with ALS. PMID:24176417

Harms, Matthew B; Baloh, Robert H

2013-11-01

277

Early growth and later atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

The concept that early growth has long-term biological effects is based on extensive studies in animals dating from the 1930s. More recently, compelling evidence for a long-term influence of early growth on later health has also emerged in humans. Substantial data now support the hypothesis that 'accelerated', or too fast infant growth, increases the propensity to obesity, glucose intolerance, raised blood pressure, dyslipidaemia and endothelial dysfunction, the clustering of risk factors which predispose to the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). The association between infant growth and these risk factors is strong, consistent, shows a dose-response effect, and is biologically plausible. Moreover, experimental data from prospective randomized controlled trials strongly support a causal link between infant growth and later cardiovascular risk. These observations suggest, therefore, that the primary prevention of CVD should begin from as early as the first few months of life. The present review considers this evidence, the underlying mechanisms involved, and its implications for public health. PMID:23428696

Singhal, Atul

2013-02-11

278

Laterality in visual speech perception.  

PubMed

The lateralization of visual speech perception was examined in 3 experiments. Participants were presented with a realistic computer-animated face articulating 1 of 4 consonant-vowel syllables without sound. The face appeared at 1 of 5 locations in the visual field. The participants' task was to identify each test syllable. To prevent eye movement during the presentation of the face, participants had to carry out a fixation task simultaneously with the speechreading task. In one study, an eccentricity effect was found along with a small but significant difference in favor of the right visual field (left hemisphere). The same results were found with the face articulating nonlinguistic mouth movements (e.g., kiss). These results suggest that the left-hemisphere advantage is based on the processing of dynamic visual information rather than on the extraction of linguistic significance from facial movements. PMID:9706714

Smeele, P M; Massaro, D W; Cohen, M M; Sittig, A C

1998-08-01

279

49 CFR 230.105 - Lateral motion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lateral motion. 230.105 Section 230.105 Transportation...Tenders Running Gear § 230.105 Lateral motion. (a) Condemning limits. The total lateral motion or play between the hubs of the...

2011-10-01

280

49 CFR 230.105 - Lateral motion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lateral motion. 230.105 Section 230.105 Transportation...Tenders Running Gear § 230.105 Lateral motion. (a) Condemning limits. The total lateral motion or play between the hubs of the...

2012-10-01

281

Hemispheric Laterality in Music and Math  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Hemispheric laterality may be a useful concept in teaching, learning, training, and in understanding more about human development. To address this issue, a measure of hemispheric laterality was compared to musical and mathematical ability. The Human Information Processing Survey (HIPS) instrument, designed to measure hemispheric laterality, was…

Szirony, Gary Michael; Burgin, John S.; Pearson, L. Carolyn

2008-01-01

282

Later-life depression and heart failure.  

PubMed

Using a case history to illustrate key points, this article (1) highlights depression criteria, prevalence, and later-life depression presentations; (2) discusses factors contributing to later-life depression; (3) reviews the interplay between heart failure and later-life depression; and (4) suggests screening and treatment recommendations for depression in patients with heart failure. PMID:21109207

Maixner, Susan M; Struble, Laura; Blazek, Mary; Kales, Helen C

2011-01-01

283

Transcript profiling of early lateral root initiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the onset of lateral root initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana, the phytohormone auxin activates xylem pole pericycle cells for asymmetric cell division. However, the molecular events leading from auxin to lateral root initiation are poorly understood, in part because the few responsive cells in the process are embedded in the root and are thus difficult to access. A lateral root

Kristiina Himanen; Marnik Vuylsteke; Steffen Vanneste; Steven Vercruysse; Elodie Boucheron; Philippe Alard; Dominique Chriqui; Marc van Montagu; Dirk Inzé; Tom Beeckman

2004-01-01

284

Auxin Transport Promotes Arabidopsis Lateral Root Initiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateral root development in Arabidopsis provides a model for the study of hormonal signals that regulate postembry- onic organogenesis in higher plants. Lateral roots originate from pairs of pericycle cells, in several cell files positioned opposite the xylem pole, that initiate a series of asymmetric, transverse divisions. The auxin transport inhibitor N -1-naph- thylphthalamic acid (NPA) arrests lateral root development

Ilda Casimiro; Alan Marchant; Rishikesh P. Bhalerao; Tom Beeckman; Sandra Dhooge; Ranjan Swarup; Neil Graham; Dirk Inzé; Goran Sandberg; Pedro J. Casero; Malcolm Bennett

2001-01-01

285

Exercise and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disease in which much burden is geared towards end-of-life care. Particularly in the earlier stages of ALS, many people have found both physiological and psychological boosts from various types of physical exercise for disused muscles. Proper exercise is important for preventing atrophy of muscles from disuse-a key for remaining mobile for as long as possible-and as long as it is possible to exercise comfortably and safely, for preserving cardiovascular fitness. However, the typical neuromuscular patient features a great physical inactivity and disuse weakness, and for that reason many controversial authors have contested exercise in these patients during years, especially in ALS which is rapidly progressive. There is an urgent need for dissecting in detail the real risks or benefits of exercise in controlled clinical trials to demystify this ancient paradigm. Yet, recent research studies document significant benefits in terms of survival and quality of life in ALS, poor cooperation, small sample size, uncontrolled and short-duration trials, remain the main handicaps. Sedentary barriers such as early fatigue and inherent muscle misuse should be overcome, for instance with body-weight supporting systems or non-invasive ventilation, and exercise should be faced as a potential non-monotonous way for contributing to better health-related quality of life. PMID:22228269

de Almeida, J P Lopes; Silvestre, R; Pinto, A C; de Carvalho, M

2012-01-07

286

Critical band in auditory lateralization.  

PubMed

A new and powerful procedure for determining frequency analysis in the auditory system, as evidence by the critical band, is described. The onset time difference, delta T, needed to lateralize 30-msec tone bursts toward the leading ear was measured as a function of the frequency difference, delta F, between the brust in one ear and the burst in the other ear. When delta F was less than the critical band, threshold delta T was constant at 100 mu sec or less, depending on center frequency; beyond the critical band, delta T increased with delta F. These dichotically measured critical bandwidths increased from 110 Hz at a center frequency of 500 Hz to 1100 Hz at a center frequency of 6000 Hz. They were unaffected by varying signal level from 25 to 80 dB or signal duration from 10 to 300 msec. The sam e critical-band values have been measured with monaural stimuli in loudness summation, maskin, detection, phase perception, consonance, and so forth. PMID:1029081

Scharf, B; Florentine, M; Meiselman, C H

1976-12-01

287

Minimally Invasive Approaches for Lateral Epicondylitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Lateral epicondylitis is a painful condition that affects the lateral aspect of the elbow, usually centered around the epicondyle\\u000a of the humerus. Historically called tennis elbow, this condition occurs in both men and women, usually in the 35- to 50-year\\u000a age range, and rarely in tennis players. Patients present with laterally based elbow pain, exacerbated with repetitive stresses\\u000a to the

Bradford O. Parsons; Michael R. Hausman

288

Chondrolysis after partial lateral meniscectomy in athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid chondrolysis after partial arthroscopic lateral meniscectomy has been seldom reported in literature. Considering the\\u000a relatively high number of partial lateral meniscectomy performed, we cannot understand why this complication is so rare. The\\u000a purpose of this paper is to report a series of athletes developing a chondrolysis associated with posterolateral corner laxity\\u000a after a partial lateral meniscectomy and attempt to

Pier Paolo Mariani; Raffaele Garofalo; Fabrizio Margheritini

2008-01-01

289

Absence of lateral palpebral raphe in Caucasians  

PubMed Central

Classical anatomical teaching reports the presence of the lateral palpebral raphe formed at the union in the preseptal and orbital parts of the orbicularis oculi muscle, or by the tendon adhering these to the underlying zygomatic bone. The lateral palpebral raphe has been shown to be absent in Asian cadavers. The current study uses both evidence from the anatomical dissection of five eyelids from three Caucasian cadavers, and histological assessment of the lateral canthus of 13 eyelids from seven Caucasian cadavers to illustrate the absence of the lateral palpebral raphe in Caucasian population.

Goold, Lucy; Kakizaki, Hirohiko; Malhotra, Raman; Selva, Dinesh

2009-01-01

290

Aeromonas hydrophila Lateral Flagellar Gene Transcriptional Hierarchy  

PubMed Central

Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3 lateral flagella are not assembled when bacteria grow in liquid media; however, lateral flagellar genes are transcribed. Our results indicate that A. hydrophila lateral flagellar genes are transcribed at three levels (class I to III genes) and share some similarities with, but have many important differences from, genes of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A. hydrophila lateral flagellum class I gene transcription is ?70 dependent, which is consistent with the fact that lateral flagellum is constitutively transcribed, in contrast to the characteristics of V. parahaemolyticus. The fact that multiple genes are included in class I highlights that lateral flagellar genes are less hierarchically transcribed than polar flagellum genes. The A. hydrophila lafK-fliEJL gene cluster (where the subscript L distinguishes genes for lateral flagella from those for polar flagella) is exclusively from class I and is in V. parahaemolyticus class I and II. Furthermore, the A. hydrophila flgAMNL cluster is not transcribed from the ?54/LafK-dependent promoter and does not contain class II genes. Here, we propose a gene transcriptional hierarchy for the A. hydrophila lateral flagella.

Wilhelms, Markus; Gonzalez, Victor; Merino, Susana

2013-01-01

291

Laterality and Dyslexia: A Critical View.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research is reviewed concerning the current state of knowledge about normal hemispheric specialization; distinctions among such terms as dominance, laterality, and lateralization; and models of abnormal cerebral organization in dyslexic children. The question of dyslexic subtypes is undertaken along such dimensions as handedness, eyedness, and…

Hiscock, Merrill; Kinsbourne, Marcel

1982-01-01

292

SENSOR DATA FUSION FOR LATERAL SAFE APPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the algorithms that are being developed for the perception layer of the PReVENT subproject LATERAL SAFE. These algorithms aim at achieving a reliable representation of the objects and their kinematics, present at the lateral and rear field of the ego-vehicle. The work presented in this paper is within the fields of radar tracking, sensor network processing, image

Angelos Amditis; Nikolaos Floudas; Aris Polychronopoulos; Dirk Bank; Bas van den Broek; Fred Oechsle; DaimlerChrysler AG; Robert Bosch

293

Lateral Path Controller Design for Autonomous Airship  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the path control problem for unmanned autonomous airship, the lateral path mathematic model was introduced based on the scheme of control system and a kind of lateral path design method of autonomous airship is proposed based on fuzzy logic and adaptive sliding mode control (ASMC). The movement model and dynamic model of autonomous airship is derived from considering

Guo Jian-guo; Zhou Jun

2010-01-01

294

Reversed lateral dominance in identical twins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evidence from this study of 17 pairs of identical twins reveals that one twin is right dominant and the other left dominant in practically every case of the phi-test (a test based on the laterality of apparent movement in binocular perception). Such reversal on other tests of lateral dominance occurs but seldom, although an indication of reversal on both

E. T. Raney

1938-01-01

295

Arthroscopic Centralization of an Extruded Lateral Meniscus  

PubMed Central

Extrusion of the lateral meniscus has been reported after posterior root tear or radial tear, partial meniscectomy, and meniscoplasty of discoid meniscus. It has also been shown to be associated with the development of osteoarthritis. This technical note describes a new arthroscopic technique to centralize and stabilize the mid body of the lateral meniscus to restore and maintain the lateral meniscus function by repairing/preventing extrusion of the meniscus. A JuggerKnot Soft Anchor (Biomet, Warsaw, IN), loaded with a MaxBraid suture (Biomet), was placed on the lateral edge of the lateral tibial plateau, just anterior to the popliteal hiatus, through a midlateral portal. A Micro Suture Lasso Small Curve with Nitinol Wire Loop (Arthrex, Naples, FL) was used to pass 2 limbs of the MaxBraid suture through the meniscus at the margin between the meniscus and the capsule. Another anchor was inserted on the lateral edge of the lateral tibial plateau, 1 cm anterior to the first anchor, and the same procedure was repeated. The sutures were then tied by use of a self-locking sliding knot, achieving centralization and secure stabilization of the lateral meniscus.

Koga, Hideyuki; Muneta, Takeshi; Yagishita, Kazuyoshi; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Mochizuki, Tomoyuki; Horie, Masafumi; Nakamura, Tomomasa; Okawa, Atsushi; Sekiya, Ichiro

2012-01-01

296

Arthroscopic centralization of an extruded lateral meniscus.  

PubMed

Extrusion of the lateral meniscus has been reported after posterior root tear or radial tear, partial meniscectomy, and meniscoplasty of discoid meniscus. It has also been shown to be associated with the development of osteoarthritis. This technical note describes a new arthroscopic technique to centralize and stabilize the mid body of the lateral meniscus to restore and maintain the lateral meniscus function by repairing/preventing extrusion of the meniscus. A JuggerKnot Soft Anchor (Biomet, Warsaw, IN), loaded with a MaxBraid suture (Biomet), was placed on the lateral edge of the lateral tibial plateau, just anterior to the popliteal hiatus, through a midlateral portal. A Micro Suture Lasso Small Curve with Nitinol Wire Loop (Arthrex, Naples, FL) was used to pass 2 limbs of the MaxBraid suture through the meniscus at the margin between the meniscus and the capsule. Another anchor was inserted on the lateral edge of the lateral tibial plateau, 1 cm anterior to the first anchor, and the same procedure was repeated. The sutures were then tied by use of a self-locking sliding knot, achieving centralization and secure stabilization of the lateral meniscus. PMID:23766997

Koga, Hideyuki; Muneta, Takeshi; Yagishita, Kazuyoshi; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Mochizuki, Tomoyuki; Horie, Masafumi; Nakamura, Tomomasa; Okawa, Atsushi; Sekiya, Ichiro

2012-10-22

297

Loss and Grief in Later Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide is designed to help readers understand loss and grief, and to sensitively respond to the grief of others. Although emphasis is on losses experienced in later life, most information is equally applicable to grief throughout adulthood. A section on understanding loss in later life lists a number of losses that are associated with aging.…

Washington State Univ., Pullman. Cooperative Extension Service.

298

Does lateral gas diffusion in leaves matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosynthesis depends on the diffusion of gaseous CO2 inside the leaf spaces from the stomatal entry point to the mesophyll cell walls. Although most research considers only the vertical diffusion from stomata on upper and\\/or leaf lower surfaces, some of the gas will diffuse in the lateral (paradermal) direction. The importance of lateral CO2 dif- fusion is reviewed, and the

JAMES I. L. MORISON; TRACY LAWSON

2007-01-01

299

REVOLUTA regulates meristem initiation at lateral positions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first two authors contributed equally to this work. Summary While the shoot apical meristem (SAM) is indirectly responsible for the initiation of all above-ground postembryonic organs, in most plants the vast majority of these organs are directly initiated by lateral meristems. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the lateral meristems include flower meristems (FMs), which form on the flanks of the SAM,

Denichiro Otsuga; Bernadette DeGuzman; Michael J. Prigge; Gary N. Drews; Steven E. Clark

2001-01-01

300

CONTROL OF STABILITY DURING SLOPE LATERAL WALKING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the centre of pressure (COP) trajectory in level and slope lateral walking. Hopefully the results will provide useful information on improving labors' working safety. Method: Five normal subjects participated in this study. The entire lateral walking cycle can be divided into two double support phases and two single support phases (right

Chien-Ju Lin; Lin-Hwa Wang; Yi-Wen Chang; Fong-Chin Su

301

Lateral Asymmetries in Infant Melody Perception.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two experiments investigated lateral asymmetries in eight-month-olds' perception of contour-altered and contour-preserved melody changes. Found that infants who heard a contour-altered change showed a left-ear advantage, whereas infants who heard a contour-preserved change showed a right-ear advantage. The pattern of lateralization for melody…

Balaban, Marie T.; Anderson, Linda M.; Wisniewski, Amy B.

1998-01-01

302

The anatomy of the lateral canthal tendon.  

PubMed

This report documents the anatomy of the lateral canthus using gross dissection, histologic examination, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical measurement. Lateral canthal dissections of 16 cadaver orbits demonstrated a well-defined attachment of the tarsal plates to the orbital rim, averaging 10.6 mm in length and 10.2 mm in width at their insertion on Whitnall's tubercle, 1.5 mm behind the orbital rim and 9.7 mm inferior to the frontozygomatic suture. Histologic examination showed a band of dense fibrous tissue attached to the tarsal plates, with intermingled muscle fibers from the pretarsal orbicularis oculi muscle. A small pocket of fat was identified posterior to the orbital septum and anterior to the lateral canthal tendon. Clinical measurements of normal adults revealed 2 mm of lateral movement of the canthal angle during abduction, apparently caused by posterior fibrous attachments to the check ligament of the lateral rectus muscle. PMID:3566607

Gioia, V M; Linberg, J V; McCormick, S A

1987-04-01

303

Predicting language lateralization from gray matter  

PubMed Central

It has long been predicted that the degree to which language is lateralized to the left or right hemisphere might be reflected in the underlying brain anatomy. We investigated this relationship on a voxel by voxel basis across the whole brain using structural and functional MRI images from 86 healthy participants. Structural images were converted to gray matter probability images and language activation was assessed during naming and semantic decision. All images were spatially normalized to the same symmetrical template and lateralization images were generated by subtracting right from left hemisphere signal at each voxel. We show that the degree to which language was left or right lateralized was positively correlated with the degree to which gray matter density was lateralized. Post-hoc analyses revealed a general relationship between gray matter probability and BOLD signal. This is the first demonstration that structural brain scans can be used to predict language lateralization on a voxel by voxel basis in the normal healthy brain.

Josse, Goulven; Kherif, Ferath; Flandin, Guillaume; Seghier, Mohamed L; Price, Cathy J

2009-01-01

304

Influence of lateral restraint on lateral-torsional buckling of cold-formed steel purlins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the influence of the lateral restraint provided by cladding on the lateral-torsional buckling of zed-purlin beams is investigated in detail. The analysis is performed using the energy method. The influence of the lateral restraint on the critical load is discussed for beams with various different boundary conditions, loading positions, with and without interval anti-sag bars.

Xiao-ting Chu; Jamie Rickard; Long-yuan Li

2005-01-01

305

Lateral open bite: treatment and stability.  

PubMed

Because of their multifactorial etiologies, dental and skeletal open bites are among the most difficult malocclusions to treat to a successful and stable result. Etiologic factors include vertical maxillary excess, skeletal pattern, abnormalities in dental eruption, and tongue-thrust problems. The purpose of this article was to report the treatment of an adult patient with a lateral open bite and a unilateral posterior crossbite. The treatment involved nonextraction therapy, including intermaxillary elastics, to obtain dentoalveolar extrusion in the region of the lateral open bite. The treatment results were successful and remained stable 2 years later. PMID:20451792

Cabrera, Marise de Castro; Cabrera, Carlos Alberto Gregório; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; Janson, Guilherme; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto

2010-05-01

306

Ultrasound measurement of rotator cuff thickness and acromio-humeral distance in the diagnosis of subacromial impingement syndrome of the shoulder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usefulness of ultrasound measurements in the diagnosis of the subacromial impingement syndrome of the shoulder was evaluated.\\u000a Fifty-seven patients with unilateral symptoms of the impingement syndrome underwent ultrasound examination of both shoulder\\u000a joints, which included assessment of rotator cuff integrity, measurement of rotator cuff thickness and the distance between\\u000a the infero-lateral edge of acromion and the apex of the

Jerzy J. Cholewinski; Damian J. Kusz; Piotr Wojciechowski; Lukasz S. Cielinski; Miroslaw P. Zoladz

2008-01-01

307

Dynamic Lateral Earth Pressure on Underground Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The dynamic lateral earth pressures resulting from underground detonation can cause severe damage to underground structures. The shock exerted on an underground structure caused by an underground explosion will vary with the detonation depth, the intensit...

S. M. Helwany A. Chowdhury

2000-01-01

308

Lateral Transpsoas Fusion: Indications and Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Spinal fusion historically has been used extensively, and, recently, the lateral transpsoas approach to the thoracic and lumbar spine has become an increasingly common method to achieve fusion. Recent literature on this approach has elucidated its advantage over more traditional anterior and posterior approaches, which include a smaller tissue dissection, potentially lower blood loss, no need for an access surgeon, and a shorter hospital stay. Indications for the procedure have now expanded to include degenerative disc disease, spinal stenosis, degenerative scoliosis, nonunion, trauma, infection, and low-grade spondylolisthesis. Lateral interbody fusion has a similar if not lower rate of complications compared to traditional anterior and posterior approaches to interbody fusion. However, lateral interbody fusion has unique complications that include transient neurologic symptoms, motor deficits, and neural injuries that range from 1 to 60% in the literature. Additional studies are required to further evaluate and monitor the short- and long-term safety, efficacy, outcomes, and complications of lateral transpsoas procedures.

Patel, Vishal C.; Park, Daniel K.; Herkowitz, Harry N.

2012-01-01

309

33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...route to be followed. They may be either beacons or buoys. (b) Sidemarks are lateral marks which...Buoyage. Beacons have green square daymarks, while buoys are green can or pillar buoys. (2) Starboard hand marks indicate the...

2013-07-01

310

Perception and a lateral inversion fallacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A subtle misconception concerning the deceptively simple act of observation of reflection by a plane mirror is discussed and a fallacy regarding lateral inversion is analysed. In the analysis, visual perception is used as a metaphor of cognition in general.

E. C. Horsfield

1991-01-01

311

Reliability of the Lateral Dominance Examination.  

PubMed

The reliability of the Lateral Dominance Examination over a 5-year period was evaluated in 162 normal and neurologically impaired adults. Stability of individual test items was appraised as well as that of summary measures of handedness, eyedness, and footedness. Items evaluating handedness rendered highly consistent results with the most reliable item relating to hand used for writing (100%). Eyedness and footedness items were somewhat less reliable. While the data raised the possibility that non-right-handers may be slightly less consistent over time, membership in a neurological group, extent of impairment on neuropsychological tests, and gender were unrelated to consistency in lateral preference measurement. It is concluded that the Lateral Dominance Examination is a reliable measure of lateral preference. PMID:8491844

Dodrill, C B; Thoreson, N S

1993-03-01

312

Projectile Aerodynamic Jump Due to Lateral Impulsives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The linear theory for spinning projectiles is extended to account for the application of a simple lateral square impulse activated during free flight. Analytical results are shown to produce simple contributions to the familiar aerodynamic jump formulatio...

G. R. Cooper

2003-01-01

313

Genetic Basis of Laterality, Reading, Mental Traits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The genetic basis of laterality, reading, and mental traits were studied. The population of inquiry was the Hutterian Brethern of North America who constitute a literature, nonmobile group which does not practice birth control and has exhaustive geneologi...

D. Kolakowski

1982-01-01

314

Lateral attenuation of aircraft flight noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report reviews models for calculating the lateral attenuation of aircraft flight noise, in particular, the change in attenuation for different elevation angles varying from aircraft directly overhead (90 deg. elevation angle) to a zero elevation angle. Sets of noise spectrum-dependent lateral attenuation values derived from theory and from experimental flight measurements were applied to sets of different aircraft noise spectra to determine A-level differences with elevation angle. The lateral attenuation based on the experimental data showed appreciably greater attenuation, but still less attenuation than the SAE model currently incorporated in the Integrated Noise Model (INM) aircraft noise computer program. Based on the experimental curves, a new generalized transition model was developed and is recommended as a replacement for current NOISEMAP lateral transition algorithm.

Bishop, D. E.

1985-03-01

315

Lateral transpsoas fusion: indications and outcomes.  

PubMed

Spinal fusion historically has been used extensively, and, recently, the lateral transpsoas approach to the thoracic and lumbar spine has become an increasingly common method to achieve fusion. Recent literature on this approach has elucidated its advantage over more traditional anterior and posterior approaches, which include a smaller tissue dissection, potentially lower blood loss, no need for an access surgeon, and a shorter hospital stay. Indications for the procedure have now expanded to include degenerative disc disease, spinal stenosis, degenerative scoliosis, nonunion, trauma, infection, and low-grade spondylolisthesis. Lateral interbody fusion has a similar if not lower rate of complications compared to traditional anterior and posterior approaches to interbody fusion. However, lateral interbody fusion has unique complications that include transient neurologic symptoms, motor deficits, and neural injuries that range from 1 to 60% in the literature. Additional studies are required to further evaluate and monitor the short- and long-term safety, efficacy, outcomes, and complications of lateral transpsoas procedures. PMID:23213303

Patel, Vishal C; Park, Daniel K; Herkowitz, Harry N

2012-11-06

316

Postural laterality in torticollis and torsion dystonia.  

PubMed Central

Tests of postural rotational laterality were carried out in 63 patients suffering from torticollis (53) or torsion dystonia with torticollis (10) and in 33 normal subjects. There was a correlation between the predominant direction of postural functions and the direction of the rotatory component of torticollis. Torticollis and torsion dystonia may be due to the release of a postural rotational laterality in pre-disposed subjects and not to a presumed asymmetric lesion of the brain-stem. Images

Stejskal, L; Tomanek, Z

1981-01-01

317

Auxin Induced Lateral Root Formation in Chicory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supply of auxins [2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4D), indole-3 acetic acid (1AA) and ?-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA)] to excised chicory roots induced the formation of lateral root meristems mainly located close to the pre-existing apical root meristem. Lateral root growth induced in non-excised roots required higher auxin concentrations. Inhibition of root elongation and concomittant enlargement of the apices was also observed.

CHRISTOPHE VUYLSTEKER; ERIC DEWAELE; SERGE RAMBOUR

1998-01-01

318

Adolescent Sexual Debut and Later Delinquency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does sexual debut (i.e., experiencing sexual intercourse for the first time) increase the risks of participating in later\\u000a delinquent behavior? Does this risk increase if adolescents experience early sexual debut relative to the timing experienced\\u000a by one’s peers? Although many factors have been linked to sexual debut, little research has examined whether sexual initiation\\u000a is linked to later behavioral outcomes.

Stacy Armour; Dana L. Haynie

2007-01-01

319

Task-specific initial impact phase adjustments in lateral jumps and lateral landings.  

PubMed

Load-dependant adjustments in lateral jumps are thought to rely on foot placement and on upper leg's kinematic and neuromuscular adaptations. The aim of this study was to elucidate task-specific adjustments during the initial impact phase under varying stretch-loads by the comparison of lateral jumps and lateral landings. Ten subjects performed lateral jumps and landings from four distances. Electromyographic (EMG) data of five lower extremity muscles were measured, whilst lower extremity kinematics and kinetics were analysed by 3D motion analysis. Lateral jumps were characterized by increased impact forces, higher lower extremity joint moments with exception of the initial knee abduction moment, greater sagittal knee and hip joint displacements, and a further exorotated foot placement. In lateral landings frontal ankle and hip joint displacements were greater. Thigh muscle and m. tibialis anterior (TA) pre-activity as well as initial post-impact EMG were higher in lateral jumps than in lateral landings, whilst during the reflex-induced phase thigh and shank muscle EMG, except for TA, were enhanced in lateral jumps. From these findings it can be concluded that task specificity in lateral jumps in contrast to lateral landings impedes a stretch-load adequate modulation of initial impact forces which particularly affects ankle joint loading. Foot placement seems to play a decisive role for limiting lateral ankle and medial knee joint loading. Therefore, in sports containing high-impact frontal plane movements a special emphasis in training routines should be paid to foot placement strategy in those movements. Such training interventions might contribute to injury prevention in lateral movements. PMID:21336953

Fleischmann, Jana; Gehring, Dominic; Mornieux, Guillaume; Gollhofer, Albert

2011-02-20

320

Motoric indicators of laterality and determination of lateral dominance in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The literature suggests that schizophrenics exhibit reduced or reversed cerebral lateral dominance relative to normal control subjects. An hypothesis which predicted reduced or reversed cerebral laterality for schizophrenics was tested on 60 young, familially right-handed males, with 20 men in each of the following three groups: schizophrenic inpatients, nonschizophrenic psychiatric inpatient controls, and normal controls. The subjects were administered a battery of seven measures of cerebral laterality. The application of multivariate statistical techniques showed groups did not differ significantly in the degree or the direction of their cerebral lateral dominance. Also there were no significant correlations between the measures of laterality. The findings suggest that cerebral lateral dominance is not necessarily altered concomitantly with psychopathology but rather that it is a complex phenomenon which may not be reliably determined on the basis of simple behavioral characteristics. PMID:4022743

Scott, D G

1985-06-01

321

Predicting language lateralization from gray matter.  

PubMed

It has long been predicted that the degree to which language is lateralized to the left or right hemisphere might be reflected in the underlying brain anatomy. We investigated this relationship on a voxel-by-voxel basis across the whole brain using structural and functional magnetic resonance images from 86 healthy participants. Structural images were converted to gray matter probability images, and language activation was assessed during naming and semantic decision. All images were spatially normalized to the same symmetrical template, and lateralization images were generated by subtracting right from left hemisphere signal at each voxel. We show that the degree to which language was left or right lateralized was positively correlated with the degree to which gray matter density was lateralized. Post hoc analyses revealed a general relationship between gray matter probability and blood oxygenation level-dependent signal. This is the first demonstration that structural brain scans can be used to predict language lateralization on a voxel-by-voxel basis in the normal healthy brain. PMID:19864564

Josse, Goulven; Kherif, Ferath; Flandin, Guillaume; Seghier, Mohamed L; Price, Cathy J

2009-10-28

322

Lateral organization of the postsynaptic density  

PubMed Central

Fast excitatory synaptic transmission is mediated by AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs). It is widely accepted that the number of AMPARs in the postsynaptic density (PSD) critically determines the efficiency of synaptic transmission, but an unappreciated aspect of synapse organization is the lateral positioning of AMPARs within the PSD, that is, their distribution across the face of a single synapse. Receptor lateral positioning is important in a number of processes, most notably because alignment with presynaptic release sites heavily influences the probability of receptor activation. In this review, we summarize current understanding of the mechanisms that dynamically control the subsynaptic positioning of AMPARs. This field is still at early stages, but the recent wave of developments in super-resolution microscopy, synapse tomography, and computational modeling now enable the study of lateral protein distribution and dynamics within the nanometer-scale boundaries of the PSD. We discuss data available measuring the lateral distribution of glutamate receptors and scaffold proteins within the PSD, and discuss potential mechanisms that might give rise to these patterns. Elucidating the mechanisms that underlie the lateral organization of the PSD will be critical to improve our understanding of synaptic processes whose disruption may be unexpectedly important in neurological disorders.

MacGillavry, Harold D.; Kerr, Justin M.; Blanpied, Thomas A.

2011-01-01

323

Evaluation and management of lateral ankle injuries.  

PubMed

The diagnosis and management of lateral ankle injuries require the physician to obtain an accurate history, complete a thorough physical examination, and institute appropriate treatment protocol. Labeling all acute lateral ankle injuries as ankle sprains can lead to long-term mechanical and functional instability and chronic pain around the ankle. Appropriate and aggressive functional rehabilitation of the acute ankle limits the postinjury convalescence and need for surgical reconstruction. If surgical repair of the chronic or acute ankle is warranted, the Brostrom-Gould procedure serves as a highly successful anatomic repair. Lateral ankle tenodesing procedures also are effective; however, in most cases, the loss of rearfoot motion limits this procedure to a secondary reconstructive procedure. PMID:10553227

Lee, M S; Hofbauer, M H

1999-10-01

324

[Fractures of the lateral clavicle and acromion].  

PubMed

Fractures of the lateral clavicle and the acromion are uncommon and represent a separate entity. Fractures of the lateral clavicle demonstrate a high rate of problems, such as non-union, malunion and functional impairment when treated nonoperatively. The aim of any treatment option is full restoration of shoulder function by achieving fracture healing without significant malpositioning. Unstable fracture patterns have to be identified and should be fixed using an appropriate technique, which include plating, K-wire fixation and arthroscopic techniques which bring the dislocated fragments into contact. Dislocated fractures of the acromion can usually be treated by plating. PMID:23007124

Meller, R; Krettek, C

2012-10-01

325

Dynamically stabilized lateral patterns in changed blends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate a thin film consisting of a symmetric melt blend of oppositely charged, yet thermodynamically incompatible polymers. In the absence of an externally applied electric field, microsegregation occurs in this system forming alternating layers of charged material resembling structures formed in layer-by-layer deposition of polyelectrolyte films. However, when subjected to an oscillating electric field aligned along the film normal, lateral striped microsegregation patterns are stabilized. In addition to a linear stability analysis, we present numerical simulation results on the development of the lateral ordering.

Solis, Francisco J.; Pickett, Galen T.

2004-03-01

326

Neonatal behavioral characteristics and later behavioral problems.  

PubMed

The purposes of this study were (1) to evaluate the usefulness of the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) as a tool to assess the risk of later behavioral problems, (2) to analyze the relationship between neonatal behavioral characteristics and behavioral problems in childhood. Subjects were 77 very-low-birth-weight infants admitted to the NICU at the Nagasaki University Hospital, Nagasaki, Japan. The results suggest that behavioral characteristics such as poor motor performance, poor state regulation, and poor interaction ability in the neonatal period are risk factors for behavioral problems in childhood. The NBAS could help clinicians to identify neonates at risk of later behavioral problems. PMID:14601916

Ohgi, Shohei; Takahashi, Tatsuya; Nugent, J Kevin; Arisawa, Kokichi; Akiyama, Tomitaro

2003-10-01

327

Supernumerary auricle on the lateral canthus.  

PubMed

A boy was born with an appendage on his right lateral canthus, with associated supernumerary auricles on the right cheek and a right ocular dermoid. We resected the appendage. Its core was composed of elastic cartilage, as is the external auricle. The lateral canthus overlaps facial cleft line No. 8 in Tessier's classification [Plast Reconstr Surg 4 (1976) 69] and forms the upper part of the first branchial arch. It appears that our patient's appendage was a supernumerary auricle, which had developed from the first branchial arch. PMID:15544783

Shimizu, F; Nishimoto, S; Oyama, T

2004-12-01

328

Lateral epicondylalgia: a musculoskeletal physiotherapy perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tennis elbow or lateral epicondylalgia (LE) is a challenging musculoskeletal condition to treat. This is largely due to the lack of research-based evidence of the clinical efficacy of the myriad of treatment approaches espoused in the literature. In view of this, successful rehabilitation of LE is based on choosing treatments that address the physical impairments found during clinical examination. The

B. Vicenzino

2003-01-01

329

Gender Differences in Lateralized Semantic Priming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous literature suggests that women evidence more bilateral cerebral organization, particularly in language processing, whereas men show greater left hemisphere dominance for language. This study examined the magnitude of these gender differences in a lateralized lexical decision task and the implications of such differences to semantic processing and cerebral organization. As predicted, women, as compared to men, recruited greater bilateral

Sarah A. Van Dyke; Virginia Zuverza; Laura A. Hill; Justin B. Miller; Lisa J. Rapport; R. Douglas Whitman

2009-01-01

330

Pain sensitivity, cerebral laterality, and negative affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The right hemisphere is assumed to play a unique role for pain sensitivity and negative affect. Pressure pain thresholds were assessed daily in eight right-handed participants over a 6-week period in order to obtain reliable measures of pain sensitivity unaffected by situational influences. In an additional session, cerebral laterality was assessed with behavioral and an EEG measures. Psychometric measures were

Paul Pauli; Georg Wiedemann; Matthias Nickola

1999-01-01

331

Lateral Biases in Assumptions of Lighting Position  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People presume that the light source in pictures comes from above, and there is some evidence that this phenomenon also demonstrates lateral biases. When investigators present multiple ambiguous stimuli or visually complex objects, people assume that the source of light is from above, and to the left. However, when single relatively simple stimuli…

Elias, Lorin J.; Robinson, Brent M.

2005-01-01

332

Nanodiamond Lateral VFEM Technology for Harsh Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the first total dose tests on a nanocrystalline diamond lateral vacuum field emission microelectronics (VFEM) technology. This technology operates efficiently at both low and high temperatures (200degC) and is inherently ldquohardrdquo to radiation. No measurable change in device response is observed after 15 Mrad(SiO2) total dose exposure, signifying an emerging electronics for extreme environment.

W. P. Kang; J. L. Davidson; K. Subramanian; B. K. Choi; K. F. Galloway

2007-01-01

333

49 CFR 229.63 - Lateral motion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...wheels and boxes, between boxes and pedestals or both, on any pair of wheels may not exceed 1 inch on non-powered axles and friction bearing powered axles, or 3/4 inch on all other powered axles. (b) The total uncontrolled lateral motion may...

2012-10-01

334

49 CFR 229.63 - Lateral motion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...wheels and boxes, between boxes and pedestals or both, on any pair of wheels may not exceed 1 inch on non-powered axles and friction bearing powered axles, or 3/4 inch on all other powered axles. (b) The total uncontrolled lateral motion may...

2011-10-01

335

Alexithymia, Hemisphericity, and Conjugate Lateral Eye Movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conjugate lateral eye movements (CLEMs) of 102 university students were measured in conjunction with the administration of the Schalling-Sifneos Personality Scale, a self-report measure of alexithymia. There was a significant positive correlation beween CLEM scores and alexithymia scores for all subjects, suggesting the existence of a relationship between right hemishpere activation and alexithymic characteristics. These results are discussed in

Gordon Cole; Paul Bakan

1985-01-01

336

Cerebral Lateralities and Individualized Instruction. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To ascertain whether cerebral lateralities can be considered aptitudes or individual difference measures within an aptitude-treatment-interaction (ATI) framework, hemispheric asymmetries and cognitive psychometric tests were administered to 50 right-handed, Caucasian, male Navy recruits. Principal factor analysis with varimax rotation was…

Federico, Pat-Anthony

337

Human Greater and Canine Lateral Saphenous Veins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine lateral saphenous vein and human greater saphenous vein were studied together to determine similarities and differences. Helical strips of both vessels contracted to norepinephrine with similar sensitivity. Canine veins developed more isometric tension than human veins treated similarly. Histological studies show canine veins to have little connective tissue and a single circular layer of smooth muscle. Human veins have

Michael R. Goldberg; Paul D. Joiner; Albert L. Hyman; Philip J. Kadowitz

1975-01-01

338

Motor laterality in 4 breeds of dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the current study was designed to explore possible breed differences in a basic behavioral phenotype in dogs. It measured paw use during food-retrieval from a cylindrical, hollow, rubber toy to assess motor laterality (pawedness) in 4 breeds of dogs selected for their morphological differences: 45 greyhounds (males n = 23\\/females n = 22), 47 whippets (15\\/32), 46

Paul D. McGreevy; Alex Brueckner; Peter C. Thomson; Nicholas J. Branson

2010-01-01

339

Lateral Stability of Towed Flexible Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The highway transport of mobile homes is a matter of concern for the increasingly safety-minded driving public. The low speeds of towed vehicles necessary to maintain stability, together with the requirements for excessive lane widths due to clearance for the lateral motion, result in increased likelihood of traffic accidents, impeded traffic flow, and reduced highway capacity. A safe increase in

Jeries ABOU-HANNA; Charles R. EVCES; James L. HILL

1988-01-01

340

Lateral Dominance, Pain Perception, and Pain Tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that lateral dominance influences pain perception and pain tolerance ; but when electric stimulation was used on human teeth, there appeared to be no difference in the pain perception threshold values on each side of the midline. Pain tolerance values seem to support the suggestion, but the results were not statistically significant.

A. V. Newton; J. M. Mumford

1972-01-01

341

Lateralization of cognitive processes in the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lateralization of cognitive processes in the brain is discussed. The traditional view of a language-visuo\\/spatial dichotomy of function between the hemispheres has been replaced by more subtle distinctions. The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study brain morphology has resulted in a renewed focus on the relationship between structural and functional asymmetry. Focus has been on the role

Kenneth Hugdahl

2000-01-01

342

Reliability of the Lateral Dominance Examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reliability of the Lateral Dominance Examination over a 5-year period was evaluated in 162 normal and neurologically impaired adults. Stability of individual test items was appraised as well as that of summary measures of handedness, eyedness, and footedness. Items evaluating handedness rendered highly consistent results with the most reliable item relating to hand used for writing (100%). Eyedness and

Carl B. Dodrill; Nathaniel S. Thoreson

1993-01-01

343

Microscopic histopathology of chronic refractory lateral epicondylitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The histopathologic features from 11 patients who were treated surgically for lateral epicondylitis were graded and compared to similar tissue from 12 cadaveric spec imens. All studies were done by a single pathologist who had no knowledge of the origin of the specimen. The surgical specimens were interpreted as abnormal in all 11 specimens, and all 12 of the control

William Regan; Lester E. Wold; Ralph Coonrad; Bernard F. Morrey

1992-01-01

344

Depression in Later Life: Recognition and Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide is designed to help readers understand depression and factors related to its onset in later life; recognize signs of depression and potential suicide; and know actions they can take if they suspect an older family member or friend may be depressed or contemplating suicide. Following a brief introduction, a chapter on depression…

Schmall, Vicki L.; And Others

345

Active Children: Healthy Now And Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Current research is revealing that physical activity can protect against a range of lifestyle diseases and illnesses. Consequently, early childhood practitioners and parents need to adopt guidelines and practices which encourage children of all ages to be physically active. In "Active children: Healthy Now and Later," authors Linley Campbell and…

Campbell, Linley; Musumeci, Josephine

2005-01-01

346

Lateral Shock of the R Aquarii Jet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The R Aqr jet was observed with the VLA B-configuration at two epochs separated by approximately 13.2 yr. Comparison of the resulting 6 cm continuum images show that the radio jet has undergone a lateral counterclockwise rotation of approximately 6 deg-12...

J. M. Hollis J. A. Pedelty M. Kafatos

1997-01-01

347

Teachers Guides to Television: "Sooner or Later."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a teacher's guide to the study of the television program, "Sooner or Later," which is a drama dealing with concerns of love and interpersonal relationships among adolescents. Related multimedia instructional materials available for parent participation in television workshops are described. (CMV)|

Audiovisual Instruction, 1979

1979-01-01

348

Lateralization of Norepinephrine in Human Thalamus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Norepinephrine has a strongly lateralized distribution in the human thalamus. In the pulvinar region the left hemisphere is rich in norepinephrine, whereas in the somatosensory input area the right hemisphere has a higher concentration of this catecholamine. Such naturally occurring left-right differences in concentration of a neurotransmitter represent a new aspect of hemispheric specialization.

Arvin Oke; Richard Keller; Ivan Mefford; Ralph N. Adams

1978-01-01

349

Lateral capacity of helical piles in clays  

SciTech Connect

Helical piles, also known as screw anchors, consist of one or more helical-shaped circular plates welded to a central steel shaft at a specified spacing. Currently, helical piles are being used as tower foundations on land and in offshore areas to secure moorings, cables, and sea-bed pipelines to the sea bed. In this paper, the behavior of helical piles under lateral loads in clayey soils is examined through an experimental investigation on model piles. Tests were conducted on rigid helical piles with different numbers of plates. Model anchors were made of 13.8 mm diameter mild steel shafts to which mild steel plates of 33 mm diameter were welded. For comparison, a single straight shaft with a diameter of 13.8 mm was also tested. Test results revealed that the lateral capacity of helical piles is greater than that of straight shaft piles. A simple theoretical model is suggested to estimate the lateral capacity of rigid helical piles. The theoretical model suggested incorporates lateral resistance of the soil on the shaft, bearing resistance on the bottom of the helical plate, uplift resistance on the top of the helical plate, and frictional resistance on the surface of the helical plate. The validity of this model is examined.

Prasad, Y.V.S.N. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, Newfoundland (Canada). Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

1996-11-01

350

Lateral root organogenesis - from cell to organ.  

PubMed

Unlike locomotive organisms capable of actively approaching essential resources, sessile plants must efficiently exploit their habitat for water and nutrients. This involves root-mediated underground interactions allowing plants to adapt to soils of diverse qualities. The root system of plants is a dynamic structure that modulates primary root growth and root branching by continuous integration of environmental inputs, such as nutrition availability, soil aeration, humidity, or salinity. Root branching is an extremely flexible means to rapidly adjust the overall surface of the root system and plants have evolved efficient control mechanisms, including, firstly initiation, when and where to start lateral root formation; secondly lateral root primordia organogenesis, during which the development of primordia can be arrested for a certain time; and thirdly lateral root emergence. Our review will focus on the most recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of lateral root initiation and organogenesis with the main focus on root system of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:20934368

Benková, Eva; Bielach, Agnieszka

2010-10-08

351

Autosomal dominant juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a form of chronic motor neuron disease characterized by combined upper and lower motor neuron symptoms and signs with onset prior to age 25 years. We report the clinical and electrodiagnostic findings in 49 affected family members and neuropathological findings from two autopsies of a Maryland kindred with autosomal dominant juvenile ALS linked

Bruce A. Rabin; John W. Griffin; Barbara J. Crain; Mena Scavina; Philip F. Chance; David R. Cornblath

1999-01-01

352

CMOS–MEMS Lateral Electrothermal Actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a type of lateral electrothermal (ET) actuator fabricated with post-CMOS micromachining is presented. The actuator is a beam with a multimorph structure, composed of CMOS dielectric and metal interconnect. Following structural release, the actuators demonstrate self-assembly under the moments arising from residual stress. Actuation is achieved through the imbalanced thermal expansion of internal interconnect members, whose relative

Peter J. Gilgunn; Jingwei Liu; Niladri Sarkar; Gary K. Fedder

2008-01-01

353

Pseudoaneurysm of the Lateral Circumflex Femoral Artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an unusual case of pseudo-aneurysm of the lateral circumflex femoral artery following fixation of an undisplaced\\u000a intracapsular neck of femur fracture. We highlight the need for a high index of suspicion and the value of angiography as\\u000a the investigation of choice.

Gopikrishna K. Kakarala; Lee Van Rensburg; Martyn Parker

2006-01-01

354

North Korea: Carrots Now, Sticks Later.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In Book One of Clausewitz's 'On War', he writes, 'In war the result is never final. The defeated state often considers the outcome merely as a transitory evil, for which a remedy may be found in political conditions at some later date. The state of relati...

C. C. Romig

2003-01-01

355

The Columbine Tragedy Ten Years Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Some tragedies are so emblazoned in people's minds that years later they can recall where they were when they first heard the news. The assassinations of John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr., the Challenger explosion, and the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks are among these events. So also is the Columbine High School tragedy of April 20, 1999.…

Hammond, Jane

2009-01-01

356

Lateral buttock congenital dermal sinus tract.  

PubMed

A 6-month-old female presented with purulent discharge from a dimple in the right lateral buttock. A subcutaneous abscess was palpated on the right paravertebral region at the L5-S1 level. She had low-grade fever with laboratory findings of leukocytosis and elevation of C-reactive protein levels. Klebsiella and Enterococcus species were cultured from the pus. Computed tomography (CT) clearly showed a tract traversing the subcutaneous tissue and connecting to the abscess. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed no abnormality in the spinal canal. The diagnosis was infected congenital dermal sinus (CDS) in the right buttock. After normalization of body temperature and laboratory findings in response to antibiotic treatment, the dermal sinus tract was surgically removed. Intraoperative findings showed that the tract gradually tapered and ended at the subcutaneous abscess space over the lumbosacral fascia. Histological examination confirmed the lesion was dermal sinus. Although laterally placed CDS in the buttocks is extremely rare with only 5 previous cases reported, lateral CDS should be included in the differential diagnosis of a dimple in the buttocks. CT as well as MR imaging should be performed to evaluate suspected lateral CDS. PMID:21701114

Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Takeda, Masaaki; Kihara, Hirotaka; Eguchi, Kuniki; Mitsuhara, Takafumi; Matsushige, Toshinori; Kurisu, Kaoru

2011-01-01

357

Lateralized Temporal Order Judgement in Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Temporal and spatial attentional deficits in dyslexia were investigated using a lateralized visual temporal order judgment (TOJ) paradigm that allowed both sensitivity to temporal order and spatial attentional bias to be measured. Findings indicate that adult participants with a positive screen for dyslexia were significantly less sensitive to…

Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Jackson, Georgina M.; Rorden, Chris; Jackson, Stephen R.

2009-01-01

358

Childhood Victimization; Early Adversity, Later Psychopathology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect have both immediate and long-term effects. Different types of abuse have a range of consequences for a childs later physical and psychological well-being, cognitive development, and behavior. But there i...

C. S. Widom

2000-01-01

359

Lateral tensioning system for riser pipe  

SciTech Connect

A novel way is described of maintaining a riser in the approximate center of a moon pool of a drilling barge operating in a shallow water. A single hydropneumatic cylinder is used to support the riser from the barge laterally at four points using a series of cables, sheaves, and a load cell.

Kolpak, M.M.

1980-11-04

360

Regulation of Social Relationships in Later Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals are seen as coproducers of their social environments who actively manage the social resources that contribute to their positive aging. The regulation of social relationships reflects adaptive mechanisms of deliber- ate acquisition, maintenance, transformation, or discontinuation of relationships within the individual's personal network. Mechanisms of relationship regulation in later life are illustrated on the individual level with recent em-

Frieder R. Lang

2001-01-01

361

Cognitive Style and Lateral Eye Movements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The lateral eye movement paradigm was employed to test the hypothesis that narrow categorizers, who are believed to be more analytic in information processing, make characteristic use of the left hemisphere, while broad categorizers, being more holistic, depend more on the right hemisphere. Results are discussed in terms of cerebral…

Huang, Ming-Shiunn; Byrne, Brian

1978-01-01

362

Lateral Eye Movement Behavior in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The conjugate lateral eye movement phenomenon was investigated for 52 children aged 2 through 10 using both spatial and verbal-analytic questions. The phenomenon was observed in 50 subjects and appeared well-established by age 3 1/2. Some interesting developmental findings and discrepancies with the results of adult studies are noted.…

Reynolds, Cecil R.; Kaufman, Alan S.

1980-01-01

363

The lateral hypothalamic area revisited: Ingestive behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the role of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) in feeding and drinking and draws on data obtained from lesion and stimulation studies and neurochemical and electrophysiological manipulations of the area. The LHA is involved in catecholaminergic and serotonergic feeding systems and plays a role in circadian feeding, sex differences in feeding and spontaneous activity. This article discusses

Lee L. Bernardis; Larry L. Bellinger

1996-01-01

364

Fuzzy logic control for lateral vehicle guidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fuzzy logic controller (FLC) is designed and implemented in real time on a Toyota Celica test vehicle to achieve control of the lateral motion of the vehicle. The structure of FLC is modularized as feedback, preview, and gain scheduling rule bases. The parameters of FLC are tuned manually using information from the characteristics of human driving operation and existing

Thomas Hessburg; Masayoshi Tomizuka

1994-01-01

365

An Adaptive Lateral Preview Driver Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Successful modeling and simulation of driver behavior is important for the current industrial thrust of computer-based vehicle development. The main contribution of this paper is the development of an adaptive lateral preview human driver model. This driver model template has a few parameters that can be adjusted to simulate steering actions of human drivers with different driving styles. In

Y. Ungoren; Huei Peng

2004-01-01

366

Oculomotor nuclear pathology in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the oculomotor and\\/or trochlear nuclei of 27 amytrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and 10 controls by histological and immunohistological methods. Their neurons were relatively well preserved. In 7 of 22 sporadic ALS patients (including 3\\/3 ALS with ophthalmoplegia) and in 4 of 5 ALS patients with dementia, some morphological changes similar to those in anterior horns (Bunina bodies,

Koichi Okamoto; Shunsaku Hirai; Masakuni Amari; Tomomichi Iizuka; Mitsunori Watanabe; Nobuyuki Murakami; Masamitsu Takatama

1993-01-01

367

Biphasic cell responses on laterally mobile films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The engineering of polymer surfaces or matrices that are capable of controlling cell adhesion has been widely explored. In nearly all of these works, the polymer chains (and ligands) are chemically attached to the underlying substrate, and therefore these systems are inherently static. By contrast, cellular environments such as the extracellular matrix (ECM) are dynamic and remodeled by biochemical reactions and biophysical forces. Borrowing this concept from Nature, we created polymer films by an interfacial self-assembly process, whereby individual chains can exhibit lateral mobility (in-plane diffusive motion). NIH 3T3 fibroblasts seeded on such RGD-presenting polymer films show biphasic responses in spreading and adhesion strength to lateral mobility, with a minimal response for intermediate mobility values. Futhermore, preliminary immuno-staining experiments reveal that the total area of focal adhesions demonstrates a similar biphasic trend to the cellular-scale behaviors. In contrast, actin filaments or stress fibers appear to be unaffected by the substrate lateral mobility. These results show that lateral mobility is an important, although not fully explored aspect of mechano-sensing by cells, and can potentially give new perspectives on cell-ECM interactions.

Kourouklis, Andreas; Lerum, Ronald; Bermudez, Harry

2013-03-01

368

Electroencephalographic laterality changes during human sexual orgasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Left and right parietal EEGs were recorded while seven subjects experienced sexual climax through self-stimulation. EEG data were quantified by continuous cumulated measurements of the integrated areas of EEG recording during successive 1-sec epochs. In eight out of 12 experiments, this measure revealed a statistically significant change in laterality. Controlled replications with two of the original subjects obviated the possibility

Harvey D. Cohen; Raymond C. Rosen; Leonide Goldstein

1976-01-01

369

Lateral DMOS design for ESD robustness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design of efficient ESD protection in lateral DMOS (LDMOS) power transistor. Using characterization of the LDMOS transistor under ESD conditions with various gate and drain clamps, the design for minimum power dissipation is established. The results show that for ESD regime of pulses the channel heating effects are minimum and that optimum ESD level can be

Charvaka Duvvury; Fred Carvajal; Clif Jones; David Briggs

1997-01-01

370

Eccentric Strengthening for Chronic Lateral Epicondylosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Effective treatments for chronic lateral epicondylosis have not been studied adequately. Eccentric overload exercises have been used with success for other chronic tendinopathy, mainly Achilles and patellar. Hypothesis/Purpose: To compare a wrist extensor eccentric strengthening exercise program with a wrist extensor stretching/modality program for the treatment of chronic lateral epicondylosis. The authors hypothesized that the eccentric strengthening program would produce more favorable results than a stretching/modality program. Study Design: Prospective randomized controlled trial. Methods: Twenty-eight adults with lateral epicondylosis of greater than 4 weeks’ duration were randomized to an eccentric strengthening group or a stretching group. Exercises were taught by a physical therapist, and participants performed most of the exercises on their own at home. Pain scores with visual analog scale from 0 to 100 were obtained at baseline and then at 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks after the start of the exercise program. Results: Both groups improved their pain scores from baseline to the 4-week time point, followed by nonsignificant further decreases in pain scores thereafter. No statistically significant differences were found between the eccentric strengthening group and stretching groups at any follow-up time point. Conclusions: Despite previous reports documenting favorable results with eccentric exercises for other tendinopathy, the authors were unable to show any statistical advantage to eccentric exercises for lateral epicondylosis during these periods compared with local modalities and stretching exercises.

Wen, Dennis Y.; Schultz, Brian J.; Schaal, Bob; Graham, Scott T.; Kim, Byung Sung

2011-01-01

371

Preparing Future Faculty: Ten Years Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When Sean Murphy designed the Graduate Student Internship Program at the College of Lake County (CLC), his 2001 TETYC article about the then two-year-old program detailed his programmatic response to the job market. Ten years later, the CLC-DePaul University partnership remains the strongest of the original dozen cross-sector relationships CLC…

Murphy, Sean P.; Aiossa, Elizabeth; Winter, Mary Mugica

2010-01-01

372

Lateralizing signs during seizures in focal epilepsy.  

PubMed

This article reviews lateralizing semiological signs during epileptic seizures with respect to prediction of the side of the epileptogenic zone and, therefore, presurgical diagnostic value. The lateralizing significance of semiological signs and symptoms can frequently be concluded from knowledge of the cortical representation. Visual, auditory, painful, and autonomic auras, as well as ictal motor manifestations, e.g., version, clonic and tonic activity, unilateral epileptic spasms, dystonic posturing and unilateral automatisms, automatisms with preserved responsiveness, ictal spitting and vomiting, emotional facial asymmetry, unilateral eye blinking, ictal nystagmus, and akinesia, have been shown to have lateralizing value. Furthermore, ictal language manifestations and postictal features, such as Todd's palsy, postictal aphasia, postictal nosewiping, postictal memory dysfunction, as well as peri-ictal water drinking, peri-ictal headache, and ipsilateral tongue biting, are reviewed. Knowledge and recognition of semiological lateralizing signs during seizures is an important component of the presurgical evaluation of epilepsy surgery candidates and adds further information to video/EEG monitoring, neuroimaging, functional mapping, and neuropsychological evaluation. PMID:15975856

Loddenkemper, Tobias; Kotagal, Prakash

2005-08-01

373

The Waiting Servant in Later Roman Art  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although literary sources from the early Empire attest to the importance attached to the presence of a large staff of specialized servants at the banquets of the wealthy, in the art of this period little emphasis is placed upon the servants in banquet scenes, who serve essentially utilitarian functions. By the later Empire, however, figures of attendants bearing offerings become

Katherine M. D. Dunbabin

2003-01-01

374

Terapia manual en epicondalgia lateral (revisión sistemática)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateral epicondylalgia (LE), or tennis elbow, is a musculoskeletal disorder that is difficult to treat due to the poor evidence base for intervention measures. The success of LE rehabilitation is based on clinical experience and on the treatment of the physical limitations found during the clinical examination. The main physical limitation in LE is lack of grip strength due to

R. A. Aguilera Eguía

2009-01-01

375

Genetic steps to organ laterality in zebrafish.  

PubMed

All internal organs are asymmetric along the left-right axis. Here we report a genetic screen to discover mutations which perturb organ laterality. Our particular focus is upon whether, and how, organs are linked to each other as they achieve their laterally asymmetric positions. We generated mutations by ENU mutagenesis and examined F3 progeny using a cocktail of probes that reveal early primordia of heart, gut, liver and pancreas. From the 750 genomes examined, we isolated seven recessive mutations which affect the earliest left-right positioning of one or all of the organs. None of these mutations caused discernable defects elsewhere in the embryo at the stages examined. This is in contrast to those mutations we reported previously (Chen et al., 1997) which, along with left-right abnormalities, cause marked perturbation in gastrulation, body form or midline structures. We find that the mutations can be classified on the basis of whether they perturb relationships among organ laterality. In Class 1 mutations, none of the organs manifest any left-right asymmetry. The heart does not jog to the left and normally leftpredominant BMP4 in the early heart tube remains symmetric. The gut tends to remain midline. There frequently is a remarkable bilateral duplication of liver and pancreas. Embryos with Class 2 mutations have organotypic asymmetry but, in any given embryo, organ positions can be normal, reversed or randomized. Class 3 reveals a hitherto unsuspected gene that selectively affects laterality of heart. We find that visceral organ positions are predicted by the direction of the preceding cardiac jog. We interpret this as suggesting that normally there is linkage between cardiac and visceral organ laterality. Class 1 mutations, we suggest, effectively remove the global laterality signals, with the consequence that organ positions are effectively symmetrical. Embryos with Class 2 mutations do manifest linkage among organs, but it may be reversed, suggesting that the global signals may be present but incorrectly orientated in some of the embryos. That laterality decisions of organs may be independently perturbed, as in the Class 3 mutation, indicates that there are distinctive pathways for reception and organotypic interpretation of the global signals. PMID:18628903

Chen, J N; van Bebber, F; Goldstein, A M; Serluca, F C; Jackson, D; Childs, S; Serbedzija, G; Warren, K S; Mably, J D; Lindahl, P; Mayer, A; Haffter, P; Fishman, M C

2001-01-01

376

Genetic Steps to Organ Laterality in Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

All internal organs are asymmetric along the left–right axis. Here we report a genetic screen to discover mutations which perturb organ laterality. Our particular focus is upon whether, and how, organs are linked to each other as they achieve their laterally asymmetric positions. We generated mutations by ENU mutagenesis and examined F3 progeny using a cocktail of probes that reveal early primordia of heart, gut, liver and pancreas. From the 750 genomes examined, we isolated seven recessive mutations which affect the earliest left–right positioning of one or all of the organs. None of these mutations caused discernable defects elsewhere in the embryo at the stages examined. This is in contrast to those mutations we reported previously (Chen et al., 1997) which, along with left–right abnormalities, cause marked perturbation in gastrulation, body form or midline structures. We find that the mutations can be classified on the basis of whether they perturb relationships among organ laterality. In Class 1 mutations, none of the organs manifest any left–right asymmetry. The heart does not jog to the left and normally leftpredominant BMP4 in the early heart tube remains symmetric. The gut tends to remain midline. There frequently is a remarkable bilateral duplication of liver and pancreas. Embryos with Class 2 mutations have organotypic asymmetry but, in any given embryo, organ positions can be normal, reversed or randomized. Class 3 reveals a hitherto unsuspected gene that selectively affects laterality of heart. We find that visceral organ positions are predicted by the direction of the preceding cardiac jog. We interpret this as suggesting that normally there is linkage between cardiac and visceral organ laterality. Class 1 mutations, we suggest, effectively remove the global laterality signals, with the consequence that organ positions are effectively symmetrical. Embryos with Class 2 mutations do manifest linkage among organs, but it may be reversed, suggesting that the global signals may be present but incorrectly orientated in some of the embryos. That laterality decisions of organs may be independently perturbed, as in the Class 3 mutation, indicates that there are distinctive pathways for reception and organotypic interpretation of the global signals.

Chen, Jau-Nian; van Bebber, Frauke; Goldstein, Allan M.; Serluca, Fabrizio C.; Jackson, Donald; Childs, Sarah; Serbedzija, George; Warren, Kerri S.; Mably, John D.; Lindahl, Per; Mayer, Alan; Haffter, Pascal

2001-01-01

377

Genetics of ALS: Identification of Genes With Roles in Familial and Sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) With Frontotemporal Dementia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis With Frontotemporal Dementia; Lou Gehrig's Disease; Motor Neuron Disease; Primary Lateral Sclerosis

2013-05-03

378

White matter alterations differ in primary lateral sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Primary lateral sclerosis is a sporadic disorder characterized by slowly progressive corticospinal dysfunction. Primary lateral sclerosis differs from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis by its lack of lower motor neuron signs and long survival. Few pathological studies have been carried out on patients with primary lateral sclerosis, and the relationship between primary lateral sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis remains uncertain. To detect in vivo structural differences between the two disorders, diffusion tensor imaging of white matter tracts was carried out in 19 patients with primary lateral sclerosis, 18 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 19 age-matched controls. Fibre tracking was used to reconstruct the intracranial portion of the corticospinal tract and three regions of the corpus callosum: the genu, splenium and callosal fibres connecting the motor cortices. Both patient groups had reduced fractional anisotropy, a measure associated with axonal organization, and increased mean diffusivity of the reconstructed corticospinal and callosal motor fibres compared with controls, without changes in the genu or splenium. Voxelwise comparison of the whole brain white matter using tract-based spatial statistics confirmed the differences between patients and controls in the diffusion properties of the corticospinal tracts and motor fibres of the callosum. This analysis further revealed differences in the regional distribution of white matter alterations between the patient groups. In patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the greatest reduction in fractional anisotropy occurred in the distal portions of the intracranial corticospinal tract, consistent with a distal axonal degeneration. In patients with primary lateral sclerosis, the greatest loss of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity occurred in the subcortical white matter underlying the motor cortex, with reduced volume, suggesting tissue loss. Clinical measures of upper motor neuron dysfunction correlated with reductions in fractional anisotropy in the corticospinal tract in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and increased mean diffusivity and volume loss of the corticospinal tract in patients with primary lateral sclerosis. Changes in the diffusion properties of the motor fibres of the corpus callosum were strongly correlated with changes in corticospinal fibres in patients, but not in controls. These findings indicate that degeneration is not selective for corticospinal neurons, but affects callosal neurons within the motor cortex in motor neuron disorders.

Iwata, Nobue K.; Kwan, Justin Y.; Danielian, Laura E.; Butman, John A.; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Bayat, Elham

2011-01-01

379

Robust lateral control of highway vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Vehicle lateral dynamics are affected by vehicle mass, longitudinal velocity, vehicle inertia, and the cornering stiffness of the tires. All of these parameters are subject to variation, even over the course of a single trip. Therefore, a practical lateral control system must guarantee stability, and hopefully ride comfort, over a wide range of parameter changes. This paper describes a robust controller which theoretically guarantees stability over a wide range of parameter changes. The robust controller is designed using a frequency domain transfer function approach. An uncertainty band in the frequency domain is determined using simulations over the range of expected parameter variations. Based on this bound, a robust controller is designed by solving the Nevanlinna-Pick interpolation problem. The performance of the robust controller is then evaluated over the range of parameter variations through simulations.

Byrne, R.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abdallah, C. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). EECE Dept.

1994-08-01

380

The lateral ankle sprain: an experimental study.  

PubMed

An experimental study in 39 ankles of the mechanisms of lateral ankle sprains was carried out using a simple qualitative apparatus. The mechanisms studied were: 1) supination-inversion, which was divided into ankle in plantar flexion and ankle in neutral position, since the orientation and tension of the ankle capsule and ligaments are related to the ankle position; 2) supination-internal rotation; and 3) supination-plantar flexion. Fresh amputation specimens were used. It was concluded that complete rupture of the anterior fibulotalar ligament is always the first lesion to occur in the lateral ankle sprain except when a supination force is applied to the ankle in neutral position when an incomplete tear of the fibulocalcaneal ligament may precede the total rupture of the anterior fibulotalar ligament. A partial rupture of the anterior deep fibers of the deltoid ligament can occur in extreme degrees of internal rotation or plantar flexion. A four-part grading system is suggested. PMID:108406

Dias, L S

1979-04-01

381

Resonant cavity LEDs by lateral epitaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical cavity light-emitting diode structures with 'buried' mirrors, and their fabrication by lateral epitaxy are described. Single-crystal, high-quality epitaxial layers are formed over substrates coated with patterned, reflective masks using liquid-phase or vapor-phase epitaxial lateral overgrowth processes. The reflecting mask acts as a backside mirror and forms an optical cavity leading to enhanced external quantum efficiencies. An AlGaAs optical cavity LED incorporating a refractory metal 'buried' mirror is assessed: a greater than 3-fold increase in output optical power is measured compared to control devices with no buried mirror. Application of the epitaxial overgrowth techniques to LED structures utilizing electron-beam deposited dielectric/semiconductor 'buried' mirrors and to other semiconductor materials, such as InGaAsSb, SiC, and ZnSe is described.

Mauk, Michael G.; Burch, P. A.; Johnson, S. W.; Shellenbarger, Zane A.; McNeely, James B.; Goodwin, Thomas A.; Feyock, Bryan W.

1997-04-01

382

Lateral prefrontal cortex contributes to maladaptive decisions  

PubMed Central

Humans consistently make suboptimal decisions involving random events, yet the underlying neural mechanisms remain elusive. Using functional MRI and a matching pennies game that captured subjects’ increasing tendency to predict the break of a streak as it continued [i.e., the “gambler's fallacy” (GF)], we found that a strong blood oxygen level-dependent response in the left lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) to the current outcome preceded the use of the GF strategy 10 s later. Furthermore, anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the left LPFC, which enhances neuronal firing rates and cerebral excitability, increased the use of the GF strategy, and made the decisions more “sticky.” These results reveal a causal role of the LPFC in implementing suboptimal decision strategy guided by false world models, especially when such strategy requires great resources for cognitive control.

Xue, Gui; Juan, Chi-Hung; Chang, Chi-Fu; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Dong, Qi

2012-01-01

383

Traumatic lumbosacral lateral dislocation without fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design  A unique case of lumbosacral lateral dislocation without fracture is reported.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To report on the diagnosis and treatment of a traumatic L5-S1 lateral dislocation in a polytrauma 34-year-old male with L5\\u000a nerve root paralysis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  Interbody fusion following decompression, posterior reduction and interbody grafting combined with posterior plating was performed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  At an early stage the patient was able to return

Federico De Iure; Stefania Paderni; Alessandro Gasbarrini; Stefano Bandiera; Stefano Boriani

2008-01-01

384

The management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terms amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or motor neuron disease (MND) refer to a condition characterized by motor system\\u000a degeneration with relative preservation of other pathways. Although there have been advances in symptomatic treatment, ALS\\u000a remains an incurable condition. Advances in ALS management prolong survival but simultaneously raise challenging ethical dilemmas\\u000a for physicians, patients and their families. Here, we review

Julie Phukan; Orla Hardiman

2009-01-01

385

Infant Feeding and Later Obesity Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some 30 years ago, Günter Dörner proposed that exposure to hormones, metabolites and neurotransmitters during limited, sensitive\\u000a periods of early development exert programming effects on disease risk in human adults. Early programming of long term health\\u000a has since received broad scientific support and attention. For example, evidence increases for programming effects of infant\\u000a feeding choices on later obesity risk. Meta-analyses

Berthold Koletzko; R. Kries; R. C. Monasterolo; J. E. Subias; S. Scaglioni; M. Giovannini; J. Beyer; H. Demmelmair; B. Anton; D. Gruszfeld; A. Dobrzanska; A. Sengier; J. P. Langhendries; Marie-Françoise Rolland Cachera; V. Grote

386

Nanodiamond planar lateral field emission diode  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the fabrication and field emission characteristics of the nanodiamond planar lateral field emission diode. Nanodiamond films with grain size as small as 5–10 nm have been realized through the process of CH4\\/H2\\/N2 microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) by employing an effective growth rate reduction technique. Well-controlled processes have been developed; including reactive ion etch (RIE) to

K. Subramanian; W. P. Kang; J. L. Davidson; W. H. Hofmeister; B. K. Choi; M. Howell

2005-01-01

387

Regulation of AMPA receptor lateral movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

An essential feature in the modulation of the efficacy of synaptic transmission is rapid changes in the number of AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid) receptors at post-synaptic sites on neurons. Regulation of receptor endo- and exocytosis has been shown to be involved in this process. Whether regulated lateral diffusion of receptors in the plasma membrane also participates in receptor exchange to

Aren J. Borgdorff; Daniel Choquet

2002-01-01

388

Dilational lateral stress in drying latex films.  

PubMed

Drying latex films usually experience tensile stress due to the reduction in volume. While an unconstrained film would shrink affinely in all three dimensions, a coating can only shrink along the vertical and therefore exerts tensile stress onto the substrate. Using an instrument capable of producing maps of the stress distribution, we found that dilational stress sometimes develops as well. The in-plane stress was monitored by spreading the latex dispersion on a flexible membrane. Usually, the membrane bends upward under the tensile stress exerted by the film, but it may also bend downward. Dilational stress was only found with samples showing a strong coffee stain effect, that is, samples in which there is a significant lateral flow from the center to the edge while the film dries. During drying, particles consolidate first at the edge because of the lower height in this region. Continued evaporation from the consolidated region results in a water flow toward the edge, exerting a force onto the latex particles. At the time, when the network is formed, any single sphere must be in a force-balance condition: the network must exert an elastic force onto the sphere which just compensates the viscous drag. Pictorially speaking, a spring (an elastic network) is created while an external force acts onto it. Once the flow stops, the drag force vanishes and the internal stress, which previously compensated the drag, expands the film laterally. This phenomenon can lead to buckling. Given that lateral flow of liquid while films dry is a rather common occurrence, this mode of structure formation should be widespread. It requires lateral flow in conjunction with elastic recovery of the particle network. PMID:20146486

König, Alexander M; Bourgeat-Lami, Elodie; Mellon, Véronique; von der Ehe, Kerstin; Routh, Alexander F; Johannsmann, Diethelm

2010-03-16

389

Lateral Structure of Showers and Energy Flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter we summarize mainly properties of the lateral structure of all shower particles combined, as recorded by conventional\\u000a surface array detectors. The data that are presented here are a selection from different experiments that are operated at\\u000a atmospheric depths ranging from sea level to the altitude of Mt. Chacaltaya (5,230 m), and from simulations that are representative\\u000a for the

Peter K. F. Grieder

390

Disease progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the results of a long-term economic evaluation of riluzole in the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis\\u000a (ALS) versus best supportive care in the United Kingdom. The analysis included in this contribution aims to provide an update\\u000a of the determination of the phase of the disease that is prolonged by riluzole and also to assess the quality of

Manouche Tavakoli

2002-01-01

391

Frontal lobe dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to investigate the involvement of frontal lobe dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using ocular motor paradigms and neuropsychological testing. Fifty-one patients with ALS participated in the following ocular motor tasks: (1) a three-choice task and (2) a remembered saccade task. The patients underwent a clinical and neuropsychological evaluation. One-third of ALS patients

I Evdokimidis; T. S Constantinidis; P Gourtzelidis; N Smyrnis; I Zalonis; P. V Zis; E Andreadou; C Papageorgiou

2002-01-01

392

Lateral–distortional buckling of monorails  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the elastic lateral–distortional (LD) buckling of single span steel monorail I-beams and its influence on their design strengths. The distortion of a slender web reduces the elastic buckling resistance of an intermediate length beam below its flexural–torsional (FT) resistance. A finite element computer program was used to study the elastic LD buckling of single span

N. S. Trahair

2009-01-01

393

Kainji resettlement housing: 40 years later  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nigeria's Kainji Dam, completed in 1968, displaced 44,000 people from 239 settlements. Three housing forms were designed to provide for urban, semi?urban, and rural settings, respectively. Forty years later, the urban and semi?urban forms are integrated into the community while the rural form, modeled after a grain storage structure (rumbu) has been less successful. Five lessons are derived from this

Ruth Shinenge Gyuse; Timothy Terver Gyuse

2008-01-01

394

The treatment of lateral clavicle fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the results of surgical treatment of 15 displaced Neer type II fractures of the lateral clavicle in 15 patients, which occurred between November 1988 and March 1995 and which were followed up for a mean period of 4.6 years (range 2–9 years). The patients fell into two groups, one ‘acute group’ and one ‘non-union’ group.Patients treated initially

Mark C. B Webber; John F Haines

2000-01-01

395

Glutamate, excitotoxicity and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “glutamate hypothesis” is one of three major pathophysiological mechanisms of motor neurone injury towards which current\\u000a research effort into amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is directed. There is great structural and functional diversity in\\u000a the glutamate receptor family which results from combinations of 14 known gene products and their splice variants, with or\\u000a without additional RNA editing. It is possible

P. J. Shaw; P. G. Ince

1997-01-01

396

Symptomatic torn discoid lateral meniscus in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study were to report degenerative changes that coexist with a symptomatic torn discoid lateral meniscus\\u000a in adults and to analyze the factors associated with the accompanied degenerative changes. From 1997 to 2008, 329 knees in\\u000a the 305 patients were included. Associations between the status of the meniscus and the coexisting degenerative changes on\\u000a the images and

Jin Hwan Ahn; Sang-Hee Choi; Yong Seuk Lee; Jae Chul Yoo; Moon Jong Chang; Sooho Bae; Young Ryeol Bae

2011-01-01

397

Outcome after lateral pancreaticojejunostomy for chronic pancreatitis.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess the outcome of lateral pancreaticojejunostomy in patients with chronic pancreatitis. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Chronic fibrocalcific pancreatitis associated with pancreatic ductal dilation and chronic pain has been managed successfully with lateral pancreaticojejunostomy. Early results, measured by pain relief and postoperative morbidity and mortality, have been excellent; however, long-term follow-up and overall outcome has been less clearly defined in these patients. METHODS: The outcome of 85 patients who had lateral pancreaticojejunostomy was assessed by reviewing hospital inpatient and outpatient records and conducting patient telephone interviews. RESULTS: Of 62 patients who were alive at follow-up, health status was characterized as good in 24%, fair in 31%, and poor in 45%. Alcohol abuse continued in 42% of patients, whereas narcotic use continued in 35%, insulin use continued in 23%, and pancreatic enzyme supplementation continued in 34%. Rehospitalization for recurrent attacks of pancreatitis and pain was necessary in 40% of patients. Six patients required subsequent operations for complications of chronic pancreatitis. Death occurred in 22 patients (26%) and resulted from continued alcohol abuse, progression of chronic pancreatitis, or late complications of the operation in more than one half the cases. CONCLUSIONS: Although lateral pancreaticojejunostomy provided pain relief, had a low morbidity rate, and no early postoperative deaths, long-term outcome was poor based on the patient's health status, continued alcohol and narcotic use, employment status, subsequent hospitalization to treat recurrent pancreatitis or its complications, subsequent operations required for complications of chronic pancreatitis, and postoperative deaths related to comorbid medical conditions or complications of chronic pancreatitis.

Adams, D B; Ford, M C; Anderson, M C

1994-01-01

398

Palliative care in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The poor prognosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) makes palliative care a challenge for the neurologist. Most disabilities\\u000a associated with progressive disease can be ameliorated by symptomatic treatment. Prognosis and treatment options should be\\u000a openly discussed with the patient and his\\/her relatives. Nutritional deficiency due to pronounced dysphagia can be efficiently\\u000a relieved by a percutaneous enterogastrostomy. Respiratory insufficiency can be

Gian Domenico Borasio; Raymond Voltz

1997-01-01

399

High performance amorphous selenium lateral photodetector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lateral amorphous selenium (a-Se) detectors based on the metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) device structure have been studied for indirect detector medical imaging applications. These detectors have raised interest due to their simple structure, ease of fabrication, high-speed, low dark current, low capacitance per unit area and better light utilization. The lateral device structure has a benefit that the electrode spacing may be easily controlled to reduce the required bias for a given desired electric field. In indirect conversion x-ray imaging, the scintillator is coupled to the top of the a-Se MSM photodetector, which itself is integrated on top of the thin-film-transistor (TFT) array. The carriers generated at the top surface of the a-Se layer experience a field that is parallel to the surface, and does not initially sweep them away from the surface. Therefore these carriers may recombine or get trapped in surface states and change the field at the surface, which may degrade the performance of the photodetector. In addition, due to the finite width of the electrodes, the fill factor of the device is less than unity. In this study we examine the effect of lateral drift of carriers and the fill factor on the photodetector performance. The impact of field magnitude on the performance is also investigated.

Abbaszadeh, Shiva; Allec, Nicholas; Karim, Karim S.

2012-02-01

400

Functional parcellation of the lateral mesencephalus.  

PubMed

The mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR), which includes the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) and the cuneiform nucleus (CN), has been recently identified as a key structure for locomotion and gait control in mammals. However, the function and the precise anatomy of the MLR remain unclear in humans. To study the lateral mesencephalus, we used fMRI in 15 right-handed healthy volunteers performing two tasks: imagine walking in a hallway and imagine an object moving along the same hallway. Both tasks were performed at two different speeds: normal and 30% faster. We identified two distinct networks of cortical activation: one involving motor/premotor cortices and the cerebellum for the walking task and the other involving posterior parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices for the object moving task. In the lateral mesencephalus, we found that two different but anatomically connected parts of the MLR were activated during the fast condition of each task. The CN and the dorsal part of the PPN were activated during the fast imaginary walking task, whereas the ventral part of the PPN and the ventral part of the reticular formation were activated while subjects were imagining the object moving fast. Our data suggest that the lateral mesencephalus participates in different aspects of gait in humans, with the CN and dorsal PPN controlling motor aspects of locomotion and the ventral PPN being involved in integrating sensory information. PMID:22764247

Karachi, Carine; André, Arthur; Bertasi, Eric; Bardinet, Eric; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Bernard, Frédéric A

2012-07-01

401

Impaired action knowledge in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative condition affecting the motor system, but recent work also shows more widespread cognitive impairment. This study examined performance on measures requiring knowledge of actions, and related performance to MRI cortical atrophy in ALS. Methods: A total of 34 patients with ALS performed measures requiring word-description matching and associativity judgments with actions and objects. Voxel-based morphometry was used to relate these measures to cortical atrophy using high resolution structural MRI. Results: Patients with ALS were significantly more impaired on measures requiring knowledge of actions than measures requiring knowledge of objects. Difficulty on measures requiring action knowledge correlated with cortical atrophy in motor cortex, implicating degraded knowledge of action features represented in motor cortex of patients with ALS. Performance on measures requiring object knowledge did not correlate with motor cortex atrophy. Several areas correlated with difficulty for both actions and objects, implicating these brain areas in components of semantic memory that are not dedicated to a specific category of knowledge. Conclusion: Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are impaired on measures involving action knowledge, and this appears to be due to at least two sources of impairment: degradation of knowledge about action features represented in motor cortex and impairment on multicategory cognitive components contributing more generally to semantic memory. GLOSSARY ALS = amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; ALSFRS-R = ALS Functional Rating Scale–Revised; FTLD = frontotemporal lobar degeneration; VBM = voxel-based morphometry.

Grossman, M; Anderson, C; Khan, A; Avants, B; Elman, L; McCluskey, L

2008-01-01

402

Lateral dominance in children with learning disabilities.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to investigate the occurrence of lateral dominance problems in a sample of children with learning disabilities. Ninety-one children (62 boys, 29 girls) who attended a school for children with learning disabilities were selected for the study. The Harris tests of lateral dominance were administered individually, and the children were rated as having right, left, or mixed dominance for hand, eye, and foot. When compared with normative data on dominance in children, the results showed that the occurrence of mixed hand dominance was no more frequent, the occurrence of mixed eye dominance was less frequent, and the occurrence of mixed foot dominance was more frequent in the children with learning disabilities. Results also showed that the occurrence of mixed and crossed eye-hand dominance was significantly different in children with learning disabilities when compared with children without learning disabilities. However, the occurrence of mixed eye-hand dominance was found to be significantly greater in children without learning disabilities than in learning disabled children. Age and sex were not found to affect the occurrence of lateral dominance problems in children with learning disabilities. PMID:6823468

Connolly, B H

1983-02-01

403

Transnational connections of later-life migrants.  

PubMed

In this paper a transnational perspective is used to explain whether and how older migrants construct and sustain their social networks. The paper uses a transnational viewpoint on older migrants' lives by analysing their engagement with their former homeland, and the intensity and habitualness of those engagements in old age. The aim of this article is to study the transnational connections of later-life migrants'. Attention is especially paid to the features of old age while maintaining these connections. These considerations are based on analyses of transnational networks in the everyday lives of later-life migrants from the former Soviet Union residing in Finland. The data were collected from 11 later-life migrants. It is found that transnational relationships are a vital part of the everyday lives of older migrants, and that they are sustained in varied ways. These connections mean a concrete source of help, family affiliations, the sharing of emotions, and a larger social network. Economic limitations affect the frequency and type of communication, and various physical limitations may also cause inability to maintain contacts across borders. In these circumstances, family members or other close relatives or friends are needed to deliver messages on the older person's behalf. Old age and immigration status affect the amount and direction of communication across borders, thereby shaping these networks. PMID:23561285

Heikkinen, Sari Johanna; Lumme-Sandt, Kirsi

2013-03-29

404

Lateralized auditory symptoms in central neuroaudiology disorder.  

PubMed

Many individuals with central auditory nervous system (CANS) pathology/disorder report a variety of auditory symptoms with difficulty hearing in noise being one of the most common complaints (Chermak and Musiek, 1992) Interestingly, there seems to be a paucity of information in the literature on lateralized hearing loss symptoms in patients with central auditory disorders. Reported here is a case where the patient reported auditory symptoms, specifically hearing loss that was lateralized distinctly to the right ear. This ear was contralateral to a stroke that involved the left hemisphere with neural compromise limited primarily to the left Heschl's gyrus. Although the patient reported other hearing difficulties, the lateralized symptom of right-sided hearing loss seemed to be the most noticed. While the pure-tone audiogram was totally disassociated from the right ear auditory symptoms, central auditory tests revealed a marked and consistent right ear deficit, which was consistent with the site of lesion. It is rare that a relatively small lesion in Heschl's gyrus results in the perception of hearing loss so specifically localized to the right ear. It is also of interest that a patient with definite complaints of hearing loss would yield a normal, highly symmetrical pure-tone audiogram. The triad of patient symptoms, anatomy of the lesion, and central auditory test findings in this case are discussed, and theories as to possible underlying mechanisms for the patient's auditory deficits are provided. PMID:24047943

Musiek, Frank; Guenette, Linda; Fitzgerald, Krista

405

Laterally-biased quantum dot infrared photodetector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, we are interested in improving the performance of or modifying the capabilities of infrared detectors in order to locate and identify dim and/or distant objects in space. One characteristic we are very interested in is multicolor detection. To this end, we have turned to a novel detector design that we have come to call a Lateral Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetector (LQDIP). In this design, InAs quantum dots are buried in a GaAs quantum well, which in turn is tunnel-coupled to another GaAs quantum well. Photoexcited electrons from the quantum dots tunnel over to the second well and are then swept out via a lateral (perpendicular to the growth direction) bias voltage. This architecture should exhibit the ability to tune to select infrared frequencies with reduced dark current and unity gain. The lateral photocurrent is directed by a vertical (parallel to the growth direction) gate voltage. We will discuss this detector architecture and the LQDIP operating principles and conditions, and we will present some preliminary results of current-voltage, photocurrent, differential conductance, and spectral measurements.

Cardimona, D. A.; Morath, C. P.; Guidry, D. H.; Cowan, V. M.

2013-07-01

406

Lateral Programmable Metallization Cell Devices And Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Programmable Metallization Cell (PMC) is a technology platform which utilizes mass transport in solid or liquid electrolyte coupled with electrochemical (redox) reactions to form or remove nanoscale metallic electrodeposits on or in the electrolyte. The ability to redistribute metal mass and form metallic nanostructure in or on a structure in situ, via the application of a bias on laterally placed electrodes, creates a large number of promising applications. A novel PMC-based lateral microwave switch was fabricated and characterized for use in microwave systems. It has demonstrated low insertion loss, high isolation, low voltage operation, low power and low energy consumption, and excellent linearity. Due to its non-volatile nature the switch operates with fewer biases and its simple planar geometry makes possible innovative device structures which can be potentially integrated into microwave power distribution circuits. PMC technology is also used to develop lateral dendritic metal electrodes. A lateral metallic dendritic network can be grown in a solid electrolyte (GeSe) or electrodeposited on SiO2 or Si using a water-mediated method. These dendritic electrodes grown in a solid electrolyte (GeSe) can be used to lower resistances for applications like self-healing interconnects despite its relatively low light transparency; while the dendritic electrodes grown using water-mediated method can be potentially integrated into solar cell applications, like replacing conventional Ag screen-printed top electrodes as they not only reduce resistances but also are highly transparent. This research effort also laid a solid foundation for developing dendritic plasmonic structures. A PMC-based lateral dendritic plasmonic structure is a device that has metallic dendritic networks grown electrochemically on SiO2 with a thin layer of surface metal nanoparticles in liquid electrolyte. These structures increase the distribution of particle sizes by connecting pre-deposited Ag nanoparticles into fractal structures and result in three significant effects, resonance red-shift, resonance broadening and resonance enhancement, on surface plasmon resonance for light trapping simultaneously, which can potentially enhance thin film solar cells' performance at longer wavelengths.

Ren, Minghan

407

Lateral Pharyngotomy for Selected Cancer of the Lateral Oropharynx. Part II: When and Why.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To analyze local failure following lateral pharyngotomy for selected untreated invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lateral oropharynx. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review from a university teaching hospital. METHODS: Inception cohort of 91 patients who underwent lateral pharyngotomy for an isolated and previously untreated selected invasive carcinoma of the lateral oropharynx classified as T1 (26), T2 (47), T3 (11), and T4 (7). Induction chemotherapy, neck dissection, and postoperative radiation therapy were used in 91.2%, 94.5%, and 53.5% of patients. RESULTS: The 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimate of local failure was 16.6% for T1, 19% for T2, 38.6% for T3, and 16.7% for T4 lesions (P?=?.46). In a logistic regression model, only positive margins of resection statistically increased (P?=?.01) the risk for local failure. In patients with safe margins of resection, the 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimate of local failure was 5.6% for T1 lesions, 10.7% for T2 lesions, 23.8% for T3 lesions, and 20% for T4 lesions (P?=?.4). Local failure had a significant impact on increased nodal failure (P?=?.001) and on reduced survival (P?lateral pharyngotomy approach should be viewed as a valuable oncologic alternative to both mandibulotomy and chemoradiation in patients with selected SCC of the lateral oropharynx. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4. Laryngoscope, 2013. PMID:23775844

Laccourreye, Ollivier; Benito, José; Garcia, Dominique; Menard, Madeleine; Bonfils, Pierre; Holsinger, Floyd Christopher

2013-06-18

408

Lateral Interactions in Monolayer Thick Mercury Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An understanding of lateral adatom-adatom interactions is often an important part of understanding electronic structure and adsorption energetics in monolayer thick films. In this dissertation I use angle-resolved photoemission and thermal desorption spectroscopies to explore the relationship between the adatom-adatom interaction and other characteristics of the adlayer, such as electronic structure, defects, or coexistent structural phases in the adlayer. Since Hg binds weakly to many substrates, the lateral interactions are often a major contribution to the dynamics of the overlayer. Hg adlayer systems are thus ideal for probing lateral interactions. The electronic structures of Hg adlayers on Ag(100), Cu(100), and Cu_3Au(100) are studied with angle-resolved ultraviolet photoemission. The Hg atomic 5d_{5/2} electronic band is observed to split into two levels following adsorption onto some surfaces. The energetic splitting of the Hg 5d_{5/2} level is found to be directly correlated to the adlayer homogeneous strain energy. The existence of the split off level also depends on the order or disorder of the Hg adlayer. The energetics of Hg adsorption on Cu(100) are probed using thermal desorption spectroscopy. Two different ordered adlayer structures are observed for Hg adsorption on Cu(100) at 200 K. Under some adsorption conditions and over a range of exposures, the two phases are seen to coexist on the surface prior to the thermal desorption process. A phase transition from the more dense to the less dense phase is observed to occur during the thermal desorption process. Inherent differences in defect densities are responsible for the observed differences between lateral interactions measured previously with equilibrium (atom beam scattering) and as measured by the non-equilibrium (thermal desorption) technique reported here. Theoretical and experimental evidence for an indirect through-metal interaction between adatoms is also discussed. Although through-metal interactions may play a role in some adsorption systems, there is little compelling evidence that this effect is significant in many experimental reports where the through metal bond is invoked.

Kime, Yolanda Jan

409

Uniform lateral load capacity of infilled frames  

SciTech Connect

Three tests were conducted on 2.4 meter by 2.4 meter steel frames infilled with structural clay tile to determine the behavior and capacity when subjected to uniform lateral loads. An air bag was used to apply the out-of-plane loads. The walls were subjected to increasing load-unload cycles until virtual destruction of the infill. Cracking in the mortar joints occurred early in the tests, and then the primary load resisting mechanism was arching of the infilled panel. Typically, vertical arching occurred until failure of the top and bottom course tiles. Following failure of these courses, horizontal arching developed enabling the walls to maintain stability.

Flanagan, R.D. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Engineering Division; Bennett, R.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1993-11-11

410

Trigemino-abducens synkinesis after lateral orbitotomy.  

PubMed

A 30-year-old man underwent lateral orbitotomy with removal of dermoid cyst in the right orbit. One month after operation, the patient started to experience double vision. He had 25 prism diopters of esotropia in primary gaze with marked limitation of abduction in the right eye. Seven months after the operation, he developed synkinetic movement of the eye when clenching his teeth. He could abduct his right eye while gritting his teeth. This is the fourth reported case of trigemino-abducens synkinesis and the first reported case without brain trauma. PMID:23128534

Park, Kyung-Ah; Oh, Sei Yeul

411

Dynamics of desorption with lateral diffusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of desorption from a submonolayer of adsorbed atoms or ions are significantly influenced by the absence or presence of lateral diffusion of the adsorbed particles. When diffusion is present, the adsorbate configuration is simultaneously changed by two distinct processes, proceeding in parallel: adsorption/desorption, which changes the total adsorbate coverage, and lateral diffusion, which is coverage conserving. Inspired by experimental results, we here study the effects of these competing processes by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of a simple lattice-gas model. In order to untangle the various effects, we perform large-scale simulations, in which we monitor coverage, correlation length, and cluster-size distributions, as well as the behavior of representative individual clusters, during desorption. For each initial adsorbate configuration, we perform multiple, independent simulations, without and with diffusion, respectively. We find that, compared to desorption without diffusion, the coverage-conserving diffusion process produces two competing effects: a retardation of the desorption rate, which is associated with a coarsening of the adsorbate configuration, and an acceleration due to desorption of monomers ``evaporated'' from the cluster perimeters. The balance between these two effects is governed by the structure of the adsorbate layer at the beginning of the desorption process. Deceleration and coarsening are predominant for configurations dominated by monomers and small clusters, while acceleration is predominant for configurations dominated by large clusters.

Juwono, Tjipto; Rikvold, Per Arne

2013-09-01

412

The Cortical Signature of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to explore the pattern of regional cortical thickness in patients with non-familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to investigate whether cortical thinning is associated with disease progression rate. Cortical thickness analysis was performed in 44 ALS patients and 26 healthy controls. Group differences in cortical thickness and the age-by-group effects were assessed using vertex-by-vertex and multivariate linear models. The discriminatory ability of MRI variables in distinguishing patients from controls was estimated using the Concordance Statistics (C-statistic) within logistic regression analyses. Correlations between cortical thickness measures and disease progression rate were tested using the Pearson coefficient. Relative to controls, ALS patients showed a bilateral cortical thinning of the primary motor, prefrontal and ventral frontal cortices, cingulate gyrus, insula, superior and inferior temporal and parietal regions, and medial and lateral occipital areas. There was a significant age-by-group effect in the sensorimotor cortices bilaterally, suggesting a stronger association between age and cortical thinning in ALS patients compared to controls. The mean cortical thickness of the sensorimotor cortices distinguished patients with ALS from controls (C-statistic ?0.74). Cortical thinning of the left sensorimotor cortices was related to a faster clinical progression (r?=??0.33, p?=?0.03). Cortical thickness measurements allowed the detection and quantification of motor and extramotor involvement in patients with ALS. Cortical thinning of the precentral gyrus might offer a marker of upper motor neuron involvement and disease progression.

Agosta, Federica; Valsasina, Paola; Riva, Nilo; Copetti, Massimiliano; Messina, Maria Jose; Prelle, Alessandro; Comi, Giancarlo; Filippi, Massimo

2012-01-01

413

Mirror movements in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive motor syndrome with clinical evidence of upper and lower motor neuron dysfunction. Mirror movements (MM) in ALS have been reported and attributed to a disturbed transcallosal inhibition (TI). Hence, occurrence of MM in ALS might be explained by involvement of transcallosal projecting fibre tracts into the degenerative process of the motor system. Twenty-six consecutive ALS patients were studied by clinical investigation of MM and by transcranial magnetic stimulation testing of TI using evaluation of the ipsilateral silent period. MM were observed in 39% of ALS patients. There was a significant correlation between the revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R) and occurrence of MM (correlation coefficient -0.315; p = 0.044). In conclusion, all MM patients had pathological TI at least in one hemisphere, which indicates involvement of transcallosally projecting output neurons in ALS patients, which in turn may be an early feature of the disease process with the potential of a diagnostic biomarker. PMID:21554031

Wittstock, Mathias; Meister, Steffanie; Walter, Uwe; Benecke, Reiner; Wolters, Alexander

2011-05-09

414

LATER predicts saccade latency distributions in reading.  

PubMed

When saccades are evoked by suddenly presented visual stimuli, the stochastic distribution of their reaction times is typically recinormal, in conformity with the LATER model of decision-making, sometimes with an additional sub-population of early responses. In the real world, saccades are more often spontaneous responses to static features of the visual world; nevertheless, the time between the end of one saccade and the start of the next may be regarded as a reaction time to the new image that is presented to the retina. The distribution of these times is qualitatively similar to that of evoked saccades, but typically with a longer median and more of the early responses. Here, we analyse the statistical distributions of fixation times from a large database of spontaneous saccades made while reading and show that the distributions are altered in characteristic ways by particular features of the current fixation: likely familiarity of the currently fixated word, and its proximity to the preceding fixation. These alterations are of the kind predicted by LATER: familiarity appears to influence the mean rate at which the decision signal approaches completion, whereas proximity to the previous fixation, presumably because it provides partial prior information about the upcoming word, appears to increase prior probability. We conclude that spontaneous saccades may be successfully described by the same decision-making model that can be used for evoked ones. PMID:16977449

Carpenter, R H S; McDonald, Scott A

2006-09-15

415

Lateral attenuation of military aircraft flight noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results are presented of measurements on the noise propagated to the side of military aircraft during a series of controlled level flyovers. Data were acquired on attack/fighter aircraft (A-10A, F4D, F-5E, F-15, F-16, and F-18); bomber aircraft (B-52G and FB-111); cargo/tanker aircraft (C-18, C-141, KC-10A, KC-135A, and KC-135R); and special purpose aircraft (C-21 and E-3A). In addition to the normal attenuation provided by wave divergence (spherical spreading) and atmospheric absorption, noise propagated laterally to the ground from aircraft during flight is further reduced by the combination of several other frequency dependent phenomena such as ground, meteorological, forward flight, and engine/airplane installation effects. Airbase/airport noise models typically define this extra lateral attenuation for single event measures such as the Sound Exposure Level as a function of the elevation angle as viewed from a given location on the ground. Based on the results of these data, a new algorithm was developed and incorporated in the Air Force NOISEMAP model.

Speakman, Jerry D.

1989-07-01

416

The motor cortex and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

On theoretical grounds, abnormalities of the motor cortex in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) could lead to anterograde ("dying-forward") transneuronal degeneration of the anterior horn cells as suggested by Charcot. Conversely, retrograde ("dying-back") degeneration of the corticospinal tracts could affect the motor cortex. Evidence derived from clinical, neuropathological, static, and functional imaging, and physiological studies, favors the occurrence of anterograde degeneration. It is hypothesized that transneuronal degeneration in ALS is an active excitotoxic process in which live but dysfunctional corticomotoneurons, originating in the primary motor cortex, drive the anterior horn cell into metabolic deficit. When this is marked, it will result in more rapid and widespread loss of lower motor neurons. In contrast, slow loss of corticomotoneurons, as occurs in primary lateral sclerosis (PLS), precludes excitotoxic drive and is incompatible with anterograde degeneration. Preservation of slow-conducting non-M1 direct pathways in PLS is not associated with excitotoxicity, and anterior horn cells survive for long periods of time. PMID:11268031

Eisen, A; Weber, M

2001-04-01

417

Prototype cantilevers for quantitative lateral force microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Prototype cantilevers are presented that enable quantitative surface force measurements using contact-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). The ''hammerhead'' cantilevers facilitate precise optical lever system calibrations for cantilever flexure and torsion, enabling quantifiable adhesion measurements and friction measurements by lateral force microscopy (LFM). Critically, a single hammerhead cantilever of known flexural stiffness and probe length dimension can be used to perform both a system calibration as well as surface force measurements in situ, which greatly increases force measurement precision and accuracy. During LFM calibration mode, a hammerhead cantilever allows an optical lever ''torque sensitivity'' to be generated for the quantification of LFM friction forces. Precise calibrations were performed on two different AFM instruments, in which torque sensitivity values were specified with sub-percent relative uncertainty. To examine the potential for accurate lateral force measurements using the prototype cantilevers, finite element analysis predicted measurement errors of a few percent or less, which could be reduced via refinement of calibration methodology or cantilever design. The cantilevers are compatible with commercial AFM instrumentation and can be used for other AFM techniques such as contact imaging and dynamic mode measurements.

Reitsma, Mark G.; Gates, Richard S.; Friedman, Lawrence H.; Cook, Robert F. [Nanomechanical Properties Group, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

2011-09-15

418

Mantle Lateral Variations and Earth Tides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth strain and gravity responses to tides or atmospheric loads, are generally calculated assuming radially stratified earth models, and at hydrostatic equilibrium. However, some local observations show unexplained perturbations on the tidal gravity signal. A possible cause for those perturbations may be the neglect of rheology and density lateral variations as well as the non hydrostaticity of the Earth. We have investigated a non radially symmetrical earth numerical model with the intent to study the earth response to low frequency forcings. This model uses a finite element method (spectral elements) developed on the cubed sphere mesh (Chaljub et al., 2003 ; Ronchi et al., 1996), and has resolved the static gravito-elasticity equations. The non-hydrostaticity has been taken into consideration by a first order perturbation theory. As a first validation of our model, we computed the M2 and M3 tidal earth response for a radially stratified model: the Preliminary Referential Earth Model. We obtained, as expected, PREM Love numbers with a very good accuracy. As a second validation, we calculated the effect of ellipticity of the Earth and compared, for homogeneous model or for PREM, our numerical results with analytical solutions (using Maple computations), or literature solutions. Finally, as first applications, we have investigated the influence of the lateral variations induced by oceanic -continental crust distribution, and the possible influence of a mega-plume on gravity tide. In the future, we also intend to extend our approach to more local studies, for features affected by other forces than Earth tides.

Metivier, L.; Greff-Lefftz, M.; Diament, M.

2003-12-01

419

Strath Terraces, Lateral Planation, and Sediment Supply  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abandoned fluvially eroded bedrock surfaces (strath terraces) are used ubiquitously as indicators of past river elevation. However, little is known about how, why and over what time period they form. Consequently, dates of strath surfaces, or overlying gravels, can be difficult to interpret without a more mechanistic understanding of strath genesis. We mapped strath terraces in detail in the field along the South Fork Eel River and its tributaries in the California Coast Ranges to illuminate the process(es) of lateral bedrock planation. We document two straths along the South Fork Eel: a high strath terrace with a bedrock surface at 9-12 m above the modern low water line and a low strath terrace with a bedrock elevation 2-5 m above modern low water line. Straths are capped with up to 6 meters of gravel, and are locally as much as 3 times the width of the modern river channel. The South Fork Eel incises interbedded sandstone and mudstone of the Franciscan Complex. Straths are usually, but not always, formed in the weaker mudstone. This is consistent with observations in the active river channel indicating mudstone is readily planed down to the low water line by weathering processes and abrasion, whereas sandstone forms resistant ribs that locally constrict the flow. Our observations suggest at least two primary mechanisms drive the lateral planation essential to preserving straths. First, many strath terraces along the South Fork Eel are exposed at the toe of inactive debris fans that entered the channel from tributaries and graded to the higher strath elevation. In these settings, the river has almost always cut vertically through the strath between the outside edge of the fan and a bedrock wall. We interpret this as evidence that when the debris fan was active and the river occupied the high strath, the river was pinned by the debris fan against a bedrock valley wall. This, in turn, suggests lateral sediment input from fans may be important in driving lateral motion of the river. Second, where there is no significant lateral sediment input, straths appear to form at channel meanders. Observations in the active channel suggest that mudstone bedrock will erode much more readily than bars or fans, which are both comprised almost entirely of resistant sandstone boulders. We hypothesize that deposition of point bars, island bars, and debris fans therefore provides a mechanism to preferentially armor one bank of an active channel, leading to erosion of the other bank where mudstone is present. Importantly, along the South Fork Eel the majority of straths appear to form unidirectionally, that is via one continuous sweep of the channel across the strath. Recent dating of strath terraces along the South Fork Eel by others (and additional samples awaiting dating) will be used to evaluate this hypothesis. We assess recent proposals that strath terrace formation on the South Fork Eel is associated with a doubling of hillslope erosion by running HEC- RAS on a LiDAR DEM of the South Fork Eel to model bed sediment transport and bed evolution under different sediment supply scenarios. A primary goal is to explore how up to 6 m of aggradation could be associated with strath terrace formation.

Finnegan, N. J.; Dietrich, W. E.

2008-12-01

420

Mechanical properties and bone densities of canine trabecular bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study were (1) to evaluate the mechanical properties of canine epiphyseal cancellous bones from adult canine femoral heads, femoral condyles, tibial plateau, and humeral heads, using indentation and compression tests, and (2) to measure bone densities (apparent density and ash density) of these cancellous bones so as to develop a normal data base of mechanical strength

Q Kang; Y. H An; R. F Friedman

1998-01-01

421

Lateral Quantum Dots for Quantum Information Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of building a computer that takes advantage of the most subtle nature of quantum physics has been driving a lot of research in atomic and solid state physics for some time. It is still not clear what physical system or systems can be used for this purpose. One possibility that has been attracting significant attention from researchers is to use the spin state of an electron confined in a semiconductor quantum dot. The electron spin is magnetic in nature, so it naturally is well isolated from electrical fluctuations that can a loss of quantum coherence. It can also be manipulated electrically, by taking advantage of the exchange interaction. In this work we describe several experiments we have done to study the electron spin properties of lateral quantum dots. We have developed lateral quantum dot devices based on the silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor, and studied the physics of electrons confined in these quantum dots. We measured the electron spin excited state lifetime, which was found to be as long as 30 ms at the lowest magnetic fields that we could measure. We fabricated and characterized a silicon double quantum dot. Using this double quantum dot design, we fabricated devices which combined a silicon double quantum dot with a superconducting microwave resonator. The microwave resonator was found to be sensitive to two-dimensional electrons in the transistor channel, which we measured and characterized. We developed a new method for extracting information from random telegraph signals, which are produced when we observe thermal fluctuations of electrons in quantum dots. The new statistical method, based on the hidden Markov model, allows us to detect spin-dependent effects in such fluctuations even though we are not able to directly observe the electron spin. We use this analysis technique on data from two experiments involving gallium arsenide quantum dots and use it to measure spin-dependent tunneling rates. Our results advance the understanding of electron spin physics in lateral quantum dots, in silicon and in gallium arsenide.

House, Matthew Gregory

422

RNA interference and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a debilitating neuro-degenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of motor neurons. The etiology and molecular pathogenesis of cell death in most sub-types of the disease are largely unknown. The best documented cause of moto-neuron degeneration is the mutation in the superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) gene, which occurs in 10% of the familial forms of ALS. Discovery of RNA interference (RNAi), which plays an important role in the regulation of gene expression, has proven to be a powerful tool to study the pathogenesis and to develop innovative treatment options for hereditary diseases, including familial variants of ALS. This review summarizes current research advances in RNAi in relation to ALS. PMID:21740381

Rizvanov, Albert A; Gulluoglu, Sukru; Yalvaç, Mehmet E; Palotás, András; Islamov, Rustem R

2011-09-01

423

Frontal lobe dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the involvement of frontal lobe dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using ocular motor paradigms and neuropsychological testing. Fifty-one patients with ALS participated in the following ocular motor tasks: (1) a three-choice task and (2) a remembered saccade task. The patients underwent a clinical and neuropsychological evaluation. One-third of ALS patients presented with signs of frontal dysfunction, as determined by their high distractibility factors (DF) in the three-choice task and their performances in both the Wisconsin and Stroop tests. ALS patients exhibited longer latencies to eye movement than controls in the performance of the remembered saccade task, specifically in performance of both remembered and delayed saccades, but saccade accuracy was not impaired. Finally, performance indices of the ocular motor tasks, in particular the DF, was correlated only with the degree of dysarthria. PMID:11867070

Evdokimidis, I; Constantinidis, T S; Gourtzelidis, P; Smyrnis, N; Zalonis, I; Zis, P V; Andreadou, E; Papageorgiou, C

2002-03-15

424

Genetics of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: an update  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder involving both upper motor neurons (UMN) and lower motor neurons (LMN). Enormous research has been done in the past few decades in unveiling the genetics of ALS, successfully identifying at least fifteen candidate genes associated with familial and sporadic ALS. Numerous studies attempting to define the pathogenesis of ALS have identified several plausible determinants and molecular pathways leading to motor neuron degeneration, which include oxidative stress, glutamate excitotoxicity, apoptosis, abnormal neurofilament function, protein misfolding and subsequent aggregation, impairment of RNA processing, defects in axonal transport, changes in endosomal trafficking, increased inflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. This review is to update the recent discoveries in genetics of ALS, which may provide insight information to help us better understanding of the disease neuropathogenesis.

2013-01-01

425

Catalytic antioxidants to treat amyotropic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Catalytic antioxidants are comprised of specialised classes of organometallic complexes that can catalyse the decomposition of injurious biological oxidants. These complexes have been shown to prevent the formation of several oxidative markers in spinal cord of G93A amyotropic lateral sclerosis mice and markedly extend survival, even when administered at symptom onset; however, it is now clear that some complexes lacking in antioxidant activity are also protective. New proteomics data suggest that these complexes also induce a broad spectrum of endogenous cellular defense mechanisms. The combination of antioxidant and adaptive resistance effects may explain the remarkable potency of these compounds and may also suggest wide applicability for them in a number of neurodegenerative diseases.

Crow, John P

2010-01-01

426

[From gene to disease: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive neurological disorder. It is characterised by selective motor-neuron degeneration in the cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord. Consequently, patients suffer from muscle weakness and usually die within 3-5 years after diagnosis from respiratory insufficiency. About 5-10% of the patients have a family history of ALS, the remaining are classified as sporadic ALS. There is only limited information about genetic susceptibility factors in sporadic ALS. Some patients with familial ALS have mutations in the gene encoding for copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, a protein involved in scavenging superoxide radicals. This results in a toxic gain of function. Mutations in the gene coding for alsin, ALS2, have been shown to be responsible for an autosomal recessive form of juvenile ALS. PMID:15553356

van Vught, P W J; Veldink, J H; Baas, F; van Muiswinkel, F L; van den Berg, L H

2004-10-23

427

Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressing neurodegenerative disorder which is incurable to date. As there are many ongoing studies with therapeutic candidates, it is of major interest to develop biomarkers not only to facilitate early diagnosis but also as a monitoring tool to predict disease progression and to enable correct randomization of patients in clinical trials. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has made substantial progress over the last three decades and is a practical, noninvasive method to gain insights into the pathology of the disease. Disease-specific MRI changes therefore represent potential biomarkers for ALS. In this paper we give an overview of structural and functional MRI alterations in ALS with the focus on task-free resting-state investigations to detect cortical network failures.

Kollewe, Katja; Korner, Sonja; Dengler, Reinhard; Petri, Susanne; Mohammadi, Bahram

2012-01-01

428

Urinary disorders in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis subjects.  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) related disorders are considered to be uncommon. We hypothesize that urinary dysfunction may occur in ALS patients in the context of spasticity of pelvic floor musculature. We recorded data on 54 subjects with ALS. All subjects were evaluated with ALSFRS and M-Ashworth Scale for lower limbs. Bladder scan procedure was performed to asses post void residual (PVR) in all subjects. Forty-one percent of subjects were symptomatic for urinary disorders and 35% of subjects had a PVR > 50 ml. Linear correlation was found between PVR and ALSFRS with a R(2) 0.95 and p = 0.025; a linear correlation was also noted between PVR and lower limbs Ashworth Scale. We conclude that urinary retention is common in ALS. Urological evaluation is indicated in ALS patients with prominent spasticity. PMID:21506896

Lopes de Carvalho, Maria Laura; Motta, Roberta; Battaglia, Mario Alberto; Brichetto, Giampaolo

2011-04-21

429

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: update and new developments  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common form of motor neuron disease. It is typically characterized by adult-onset degeneration of the upper and lower motor neurons, and is usually fatal within a few years of onset. A subset of ALS patients has an inherited form of the disease, and a few of the known mutant genes identified in familial cases have also been found in sporadic forms of ALS. Precisely how the diverse ALS-linked gene products dictate the course of the disease, resulting in compromised voluntary muscular ability, is not entirely known. This review addresses the major advances that are being made in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms giving rise to the disease, which may eventually translate into new treatment options.

Pratt, Ashley J; Getzoff, Elizabeth D; Perry, J Jefferson P

2012-01-01

430

Laterality index in functional MRI: methodological issues?  

PubMed Central

In functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), hemispheric dominance is generally indicated by a measure called the laterality index (LI). The assessment of a meaningful LI measure depends on several methodological factors that should be taken into account when interpreting LI values or comparing between subjects. Principally, these include the nature of the quantification of left and right hemispheres contributions, localisation of volumes of interest within each hemisphere, dependency on statistical threshold, thresholding LI values, choice of activation and baseline conditions and reproducibility of LI values. This review discusses such methodological factors and the different approaches that have been suggested to deal with them. Although these factors are common to a range of fMRI domains, they are discussed here in the context of fMRI of the language system.

Seghier, Mohamed L.

2008-01-01

431

Laterality index in functional MRI: methodological issues.  

PubMed

In functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), hemispheric dominance is generally indicated by a measure called the laterality index (LI). The assessment of a meaningful LI measure depends on several methodological factors that should be taken into account when interpreting LI values or comparing between subjects. Principally, these include the nature of the quantification of left and right hemispheres contributions, localisation of volumes of interest within each hemisphere, dependency on statistical threshold, thresholding LI values, choice of activation and baseline conditions and reproducibility of LI values. This review discusses such methodological factors and the different approaches that have been suggested to deal with them. Although these factors are common to a range of fMRI domains, they are discussed here in the context of fMRI of the language system. PMID:18158224

Seghier, Mohamed L

2007-12-26

432

Lateralized Response Timing Deficits in Autism  

PubMed Central

Background Procedural learning is an implicit process in which a behavioral response is refined through repeated performance. Neural systems supporting this cognitive process include specific frontostriatal systems responsible for the preparation and timing of planned motor responses. Evaluating performance on procedural learning tasks can provide unique information about neurodevelopmental disorders in which frontostriatal disturbances have been reported, such as autism. Methods Fifty-two individuals with autism and 54 age-, IQ-, and gender-matched healthy individuals performed an oculomotor serial reaction time task and a sensorimotor control task. Results Whereas the rate of procedural learning and the precision of planned motor responses were unimpaired in autism, a lateralized alteration in the ability to time predictive responses was observed. Rightward saccadic responses were speeded in individuals with autism relative to healthy control subjects. Conclusions Speeded rightward predictive saccades suggest atypical functioning of left hemisphere striatal chronometric systems in autism.

D'Cruz, Anna-Maria; Mosconi, Matthew W.; Steele, Shelly; Rubin, Leah H.; Luna, Beatriz; Minshew, Nancy; Sweeney, John A.

2011-01-01

433

On lateral competition in dynamic neural networks  

SciTech Connect

Artificial neural networks connected homogeneously, which use retinal image processing methods, are considered. We point out that there are probably two different types of lateral inhibition for each neural element by the neighboring ones-due to the negative connection coefficients between elements and due to the decreasing neuron`s response to a too high input signal. The first case characterized by stable dynamics, which is given by the Lyapunov function, while in the second case, stability is absent and two-dimensional dynamic chaos occurs if the time step in the integration of model equations is large enough. The continuous neural medium approximation is used for analytical estimation in both cases. The result is the partition of the parameter space into domains with qualitatively different dynamic modes. Computer simulations confirm the estimates and show that joining two-dimensional chaos with symmetries provided by the initial and boundary conditions may produce patterns which are genuine pieces of art.

Bellyustin, N.S.

1995-02-01

434

Measuring lateral shuffle and side cut performance.  

PubMed

Whitting, JW, de Melker Worms, JLA, Maurer, C, Nigg, SR, and Nigg, BM. Measuring lateral shuffle and side cut performance. J Strength Cond Res 27(11): 3197-3203, 2013-Lateral shuffle and side cut (SSC) movements are defensive basketball movements where movement speed is critical to performance. The purpose of this study was to compare SSC data obtained using timing lights with motion capture system data and to determine the most appropriate method for measuring SSC performance. Shuffle time data were recorded using both timing lights and a motion capture system while 9 male subjects performed 2 different SSC movement sets, with and without controlling for arm movements, which may influence performance times. Shuffle and side cut times and SSC displacements were used to calculate mean shuffle velocity for each trial. The SEs for the motion capture system were estimated for SSC times (±4.2 milliseconds; ?0.24% of mean shuffle time) and velocities (±5.5 mm·s; ?0.24% of mean shuffle velocity), respectively, indicating high levels of precision. Timing light movement time variability was significantly higher during the uncontrolled (SD = 42 milliseconds) when compared with the controlled (SD = 9 milliseconds, p < 0.001) condition, indicating a significant reduction in variability by controlling non-performance-related variability such as arm movement. A significant positive correlation was found between SSC time and SSC displacement (r = 0.42) indicating that performance times were dependent on displacement. Furthermore, the variance in motion-captured SSC velocity was significantly smaller than the variance in velocity determined using timing lights (p < 0.05). We concluded that motion-captured SSC velocity data reduced systematic errors and non-performance-related movement variability and, therefore, was better able to reflect true performance. As true performance variability in human movement provides important information, the presented method for calculating SSC velocity in this study is recommended for assessing SSC performance. PMID:23439340

Whitting, John W; de Melker Worms, Jonathan L A; Maurer, Christian; Nigg, Sandro R; Nigg, Benno M

2013-11-01

435

Breast feeding and later psychosocial adjustment.  

PubMed

The relationship between the duration of breast feeding and psychosocial outcomes measured between the ages of 15 and 18 years was examined in a birth cohort of 999 New Zealand children. During the period from birth to 1 year, information was collected on maternal breast-feeding practices. Between the ages of 15 and 18 years, sample members were assessed using a range of psychosocial measures, including measures of the quality of parent-child relationships, juvenile delinquency, substance abuse and mental health. Children who were breast fed for a longer duration were more likely to report higher levels of parental attachment and tended to perceive their mothers as being more caring and less overprotective towards them compared with bottle-fed children. No association was found between the extent of breast feeding and subsequent rates of juvenile offending, substance use and mental health in later life. Mothers who elected to breast feed were also more likely to be older, better educated, living with a partner, less likely to smoke during pregnancy, and to come from advantaged socio-economic backgrounds characterised by better living standards and a higher family income. Rates of breast feeding were also greater among mothers who gave birth to a first-born child of higher birthweight. After adjustment for these maternal and perinatal factors, the duration of breast feeding remained significantly associated with adolescent perceptions of maternal care, with increasing duration of breast feeding being associated with higher levels of perceived maternal care during childhood. It is concluded that: (a) it is unlikely that breast feeding is associated with reduced risks of psychiatric disorder in later life; (b) breast feeding may lead to closer parent-child relationships; and (c) it is unlikely that the association between breast feeding and cognitive development is mediated by intervening processes relating to improved psychosocial adjustment in breast-fed children. PMID:10214606

Fergusson, D M; Woodward, L J

1999-04-01

436

Housing in early life and later mortality.  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVES--The aim was to examine the influence of domestic crowding and household amenities in early life on later mortality from all causes and specifically from stomach cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and rheumatic heart disease. DESIGN--This was a retrospective cohort study of people whose houses had been surveyed in 1936 and whose household size was known from the 1939 census. Subjects were followed through the National Health Service Central Register from 1951 to 1989. SETTING--The housing survey had been carried out in the midland town of Chesterfield. SUBJECTS--Subjects comprised 8138 men and women born after 1900. RESULTS--A total of 2929 deaths were observed during the follow up period. All causes mortality in the full cohort was not consistently related to any of the housing variables examined, but among subjects who were still children at the time of the housing survey, death rates were higher in those whose houses were crowded or lacked a hot water tap. No associations could be shown between stomach cancer and domestic crowding or food storage facilities; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and domestic crowding or use of gas for cooking; or rheumatic heart disease and domestic crowding. There were few deaths from these causes, however, in subjects who were children at the time of housing survey. CONCLUSIONS--The findings suggest that the housing of young adults in Chesterfield during the 1930s had little effect on their later mortality. Further follow up of the cohort is needed before firm conclusions can be drawn about the influence of housing at younger ages.

Coggon, D; Barker, D J; Inskip, H; Wield, G

1993-01-01

437

Cerebral Laterality and Handedness in Aviation: Performance and Selection Implications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper reviews the general psychology literature related to handedness and cerebral laterality, beginning with a brief discussion of the research methods employed. Aspects of laterality, including vision, audition, tactile perception, spatial ability,...

J. S. Crowley

1989-01-01

438

5. DETAIL OF TOP CHORD CONNECTION SHOWING LATERAL BRACING, MAIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. DETAIL OF TOP CHORD CONNECTION SHOWING LATERAL BRACING, MAIN TIES, TOP LATERAL STRUT, AND INTERMEDIATE POST - Smith Bridge, Spanning Nottely River on Dooley Road (County Road 83), Blairsville, Union County, GA

439

Footballer's Lateral Meniscus: Anterior Horn Tears of the Lateral Meniscus with a Stable Knee  

PubMed Central

This paper aimed to identify the characteristics of isolated anterior horn tear of the lateral meniscus in footballers who underwent arthroscopic surgery. We identified 8 patients with stable knee and no ligament injury, who had only isolated anterior horn tear of the lateral meniscus between 2007 and 2009. All 8 patients were footballers, comprising 7 men and 1 woman with mean age of 18.6 years. Arthroscopy revealed multiple longitudinal tears in 2 patients, longitudinal tear in 2 patients, degenerative tear in 3 patients, and flap tear in 1 patient. Two patients were treated by repair, five by partial excision, and one by rasping only. The mean Lysholm score was 65 before surgery and recovered to 89 at the last followup, on average 12 months after surgery. Anterior horn tear of the lateral meniscus in footballers with a stable knee is characterized by pain at the anterolateral aspect of the knee during knee extension, especially when kicking a ball, and pain during weight-bearing knee extension, together with MRI finding of hyperintense signal in the anterior horn of the lateral meniscus. Preoperative diagnosis may be possible based on these findings in footballers.

Hagino, Tetsuo; Ochiai, Satoshi; Sato, Eiichi; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Senga, Shinya

2011-01-01

440

Evidence of lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve entrapment during autopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compression of the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm is a rare clinical entrapment syndrome. This report describes the compression of the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve at the level of the lateral margin of the biceps brachii tendon identified during autopsy. This is the first cadaveric case report- ed in the literature. The anatomy, the possible areas of entrapment, the

G. Paraskevas; P. Ph. Tsitsopoulos; B. Papaziogas; K. Natsis; P. Kitsoulis

441

Sex Differences in Cerebral Laterality of Language and Visuospatial Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Sex differences on language and visuospatial tasks are of great interest, with differences in hemispheric laterality hypothesized to exist between males and females. Some functional imaging studies examining sex differences have shown that males are more left lateralized on language tasks and females are more right lateralized on visuospatial…

Clements, A. M.; Rimrodt, S. L.; Abel, J. R.; Blankner, J. G.; Mostofsky, S. H.; Pekar, J. J.; Denckla, M. B.; Cutting, L. E.

2006-01-01

442

Lateral crashing of tri-axially braided composite tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the research that is devoted to analyzing the lateral crash of triaxial braided composite tubes. An existing unit-cell based material model for axial crushing of tubes is modified to model the response of the tri-axially braided composites under lateral loads. Matrix, fiber-tension and fiber-compression failures have been considered to account for lateral crash. \\

Nageswara R Janapala; Zhanjun Wu; Fu-Kuo Chang; Robert K. Goldberg

443

The torque test as a measure of lateral dominance.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to assess the validity of the Torque Test as a measure of functional lateral dominance in children. One hundred forty-nine children were administered the Torque Test and The Harris Test of Lateral Dominance. A low but statistically significant correlation was found between torque and total lateral dominance. PMID:6663294

Kraemer, D; Canavan, P; Brannigan, G G; Hijikata, S

1983-12-01

444

The Relationship Between Lateral Dominance and Divergent Cognitive Thought.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was designed to explore the relationship of lateral dominance to divergent cognitive thought. According to the screening results of the Harris Tests of Lateral Dominance, 36 subjects ranging from 9-12 years were divided equally into three groups of left, right, and mixed lateral dominance. In order to measure divergent cognitive…

Williams, Barbara B.

445

Inelastic lateral buckling strength and design of steel arches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arches resist general loading by a combination of axial compression and bending actions. Under these actions, an arch loaded in-plane may suddenly deflect laterally and twist out of the plane of loading and fail in a lateral buckling mode. This paper investigates the inelastic lateral buckling strength and design of steel arches under general loading using an advanced nonlinear inelastic

Yong-Lin Pi; N. S Trahair

2000-01-01

446

The management of the popliteus hiatus during lateral meniscal transplantation.  

PubMed

Popliteofascicular injury had been proposed as a possible cause of unstable lateral meniscus. Meniscal repair at popliteal hiatus area during lateral meniscal allograft transplantation (MAT) had not been described in literature previously. In this report, a case of unstable lateral meniscus after MAT has been described. Arthroscopic repair for the unstable meniscus at popliteal hiatus resolved the mechanical symptom. PMID:22578893

Yang, Jae-Hyuk; Jeong, Hyeon-Il; Kim, Taik-Sun; Park, Sung-Chul; Yoon, Jung-Ro

2012-05-10

447