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Sample records for lateral humeral condyle

  1. Buried versus unburied Kirschner wires in the management of paediatric lateral condyle elbow fractures: a comparative study from a tertiary centre.

    PubMed

    Ormsby, Neal M; Walton, Roger D M; Robinson, Simon; Brookes-Fazakerly, Stephen; Yuen Chang, Fernando; McGonagle, Lorcan; Wright, David

    2016-01-01

    There is little consensus on whether Kirschner wire (K-wire) burial is preferable in the management of paediatric lateral humeral condyle fractures. We identified 124 patients from May 2008 to August 2014. Sixty received buried K-wires and 64 received unburied wires. We found no significant difference in the infection rates between groups, but a high rate of skin erosion (23%) in the buried group, with a subsequent high rate of infection in this subgroup (40%). We found a strong association of wire erosion following early surgery. There is a considerable cost saving associated with using unburied wires. We therefore recommend the routine use of unburied wires. PMID:26352103

  2. Arthroscopic Microfracture Technique for Cartilage Damage to the Lateral Condyle of the Tibia

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Hiroyuki; Arai, Yuji; Nakagawa, Shuji; Inoue, Hiroaki; Minami, Ginjiro; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the use of arthroscopic microfracture to treat a 10-year-old female patient with extensive damage to the cartilage of the lateral condyle of the tibia before epiphyseal closure, resulting in good cartilage recovery. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a defect in part of the load-bearing surface of the articular cartilage of the condyle articular of the tibia. The patient was diagnosed with damage to the lateral condyle cartilage of the tibia following meniscectomy, and arthroscopic surgery was performed. The cartilage defect measured approximately 20 × 20?mm, and microfracture was performed. Arthroscopy performed four months postoperatively showed that the cartilage defect was completely covered with fibrous cartilage, and the patient was allowed to resume sports activities. Four years postoperatively, she has had no recurrence of pain or hydrarthrosis. PMID:26345523

  3. Two Patients with Osteochondral Injury of the Weight-Bearing Portion of the Lateral Femoral Condyle Associated with Lateral Dislocation of the Patella

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Hiroaki; Atsumi, Satoru; Ichimaru, Shohei; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Complications of patellar dislocation include osteochondral injury of the lateral femoral condyle and patella. Most cases of osteochondral injury occur in the anterior region, which is the non-weight-bearing portion of the lateral femoral condyle. We describe two patients with osteochondral injury of the weight-bearing surface of the lateral femoral condyle associated with lateral dislocation of the patella. The patients were 18- and 11-year-old females. Osteochondral injury occurred on the weight-bearing surface distal to the lateral femoral condyle. The presence of a free osteochondral fragment and osteochondral injury of the lateral femoral condyle was confirmed on MRI and reconstruction CT scan. Treatment consisted of osteochondral fragment fixation or microfracture, as well as patellar stabilization. Osteochondral injury was present in the weight-bearing portion of the lateral femoral condyle in both patients, suggesting that the injury was caused by friction between the patella and lateral femoral condyle when the patella was dislocated or reduced at about 90° flexion of the knee joint. These findings indicate that patellar dislocation may occur and osteochondral injury may extend to the weight-bearing portion of the femur even in deep flexion, when the patella is stabilized on the bones of the femoral groove. PMID:25506015

  4. Chondral fracture of the lateral femoral condyle in children with different treatment methods.

    PubMed

    Song, Kwang Soon; Min, Byung Woo; Bae, Ki Cheor; Cho, Chul Hyun; Lee, Si Wook

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents are predisposed to chondral injuries of the knee; however, the incidence of traumatic chondral and osteochondral fractures and their role in the development of joint degeneration are not fully elucidated. Several methods are described for the treatment of chondral or osteochondral fractures of the knee. In our literature review, we could not find any report on the management of chondral fractures with autologous bone pegs or headless screws. We report three cases of traumatic cartilage fractures of the lateral femoral condyle in adolescents who were treated with three different methods. We also present their follow-up outcomes. PMID:26439672

  5. A case of an unusual Monteggia equivalent type II with lateral condyle fracture.

    PubMed

    Gundavda, Manit K; Chinoy, Rajveer K

    2015-12-01

    Monteggia fracture dislocations are uncommon in childhood. Since the term 'Monteggia equivaents' was termed, various equivalents of this entity have been described. However, these fractures with concomitant elbow injuries are exceedingly rare in young children. We present a case of an 18 month-old girl who sustained a fracture of lateral condyle of right distal end of humerus with posterior dislocation of the elbow. We suggest that the fracture pattern can be included under type II Monteggia equivalent on the basis of its characteristics, biomechanics and the mode of injury with supporting literature review for the same. PMID:26566329

  6. Displaced osteochondral fracture of the lateral femoral condyle associated with an acute anterior cruciate ligament avulsion fracture: a corollary of "the lateral femoral notch sign".

    PubMed

    Sharma, Gaurav; Naik, V Anand; Pankaj, Amite

    2012-08-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is usually accompanied by bone contusions resulting from impact of tibia on femur. The injury sometimes becomes manifest as a depression on the lateral femoral condyle giving rise to "lateral femoral notch" sign. The authors describe a rare case of impaction of the tibia and femur resulting in an osteochondral fracture rather than the usual bone contusion, which frequently occurs with ACL rupture. Open reduction and internal fixation of both the ACL avulsion fracture and the osteochondral fracture from the lateral femoral condyle were done, and the patient had a good outcome at 1-year follow-up. Level of evidence V. PMID:22113226

  7. Osteochondritis dissecans of the lateral femoral condyle in a patient affected by osteogenesis imperfecta: a case report.

    PubMed

    Persiani, Pietro; Di Domenica, Marica; Martini, Lorena; Ranaldi, Filippo M; Zambrano, Anna; Celli, Mauro; Villani, Ciro

    2015-11-01

    Osteochondritis dissecans is a very uncommon phenomenon in osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). A 14-year-old boy, affected by OI and followed in our Center for Congenital Osteodystrophies, had a knee trauma and MRI indicated a hollowed area of 2.5×1.5?cm in the lateral femoral condyle, which was classified as grade III. The patient underwent surgery, performed as a one-step surgical treatment: the osteochondral fragment was removed, curettage of lesion's bottom was performed, and a biphasic scaffold was used to fill the defect, implanted with a press-fit technique. MRI at 12 and 24 months after surgery showed scaffold integration. At the final follow-up, the patient did not feel any pain or articular limitations. It is difficult to provide a guideline on osteochondritis dissecans in patients affected by OI because of the lack of literature reports on this rare disorder in a rare disease. According to our experience, in these patients, osteosynthesis of the bone fragment and the use of autograft are not recommended because of the patient's bone weakness and osteoporosis. Moreover, compared with two-step surgery, one-step surgery is preferred to reduce the risk related to anesthesia, often observed to be higher in these patients. PMID:25919806

  8. Comparative study of depth-dependent characteristics of equine and human osteochondral tissue from the medial and lateral femoral condyles.

    PubMed

    Malda, J; Benders, K E M; Klein, T J; de Grauw, J C; Kik, M J L; Hutmacher, D W; Saris, D B F; van Weeren, P R; Dhert, W J A

    2012-10-01

    Articular cartilage defects are common after joint injuries. When left untreated, the biomechanical protective function of cartilage is gradually lost, making the joint more susceptible to further damage, causing progressive loss of joint function and eventually osteoarthritis (OA). In the process of translating promising tissue-engineering cartilage repair approaches from bench to bedside, pre-clinical animal models including mice, rabbits, goats, and horses, are widely used. The equine species is becoming an increasingly popular model for the in vivo evaluation of regenerative orthopaedic approaches. As there is also an increasing body of evidence suggesting that successful lasting tissue reconstruction requires an implant that mimics natural tissue organization, it is imperative that depth-dependent characteristics of equine osteochondral tissue are known, to assess to what extent they resemble those in humans. Therefore, osteochondral cores (4-8 mm) were obtained from the medial and lateral femoral condyles of equine and human donors. Cores were processed for histology and for biochemical quantification of DNA, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen content. Equine and human osteochondral tissues possess similar geometrical (thickness) and organizational (GAG, collagen and DNA distribution with depth) features. These comparable trends further underscore the validity of the equine model for the evaluation of regenerative approaches for articular cartilage. PMID:22781206

  9. Humeral Lateral Epicondylitis Complicated by Hydroxyapatite Dihydrite Deposition Disease: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Marchand, Andrée-Anne; O’Shaughnessy, Julie; Descarreaux, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this case report is to differentiate the recovery timeline expected for patients with simple lateral epicondylitis from an abnormal recovery period, in which case an underlying condition should be suspected. Clinical features A 49-year-old woman presented to a chiropractic clinic with posterolateral right elbow pain. The history included chronic recurrent lateral elbow pain, followed by a traumatic event leading to sustained pain and disability. Intervention and outcomes Following a trial of conservative therapy including activity restrictions, soft tissue therapy, joint mobilizations, and therapeutic ultrasonography that led to no significant improvement, the patient was referred for diagnostic imaging that revealed hydroxyapatite dihydrite deposition disease. Conclusion This report describes a case for which lateral epicondylitis symptoms failed to resolve because of an underlying condition (hydroxyapatite dihydrite deposition disease). This case emphasizes that primary care practitioners treating lateral epicondylitis should consider referral for further investigations when positive results are not achieved. PMID:24711788

  10. Late-diagnosed large osteochondral fracture of the lateral femoral condyle in an adolescent: a case report.

    PubMed

    Enea, Davide; Busilacchi, Alberto; Cecconi, Stefano; Gigante, Antonio

    2013-07-01

    In this case report, we describe a large osteochondral fracture of the anterolateral femoral condyle in an adolescent athlete while dancing. At 3 months after the misdiagnosed injury, the condylar defect was covered by a layer of disorganized fibrous tissue rich in blood vessels. To achieve good repair, an accurate curettage of the fractured surfaces, a precise reduction, and a stable internal fixation of the fragments were performed. Two poly-L-lactic acid bioabsorbable screws were used to obtain appropriate compression. At the 2-year follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic and had resumed her previous dancing activity. An MRI scan showed no interruptions of the cartilage layer at the boundary with the healthy tissue, but cartilage thinning and extensive subchondral remodeling were detected. PMID:23511583

  11. Management of distal humeral coronal shear fractures

    PubMed Central

    Yari, Shahram S; Bowers, Nathan L; Craig, Miguel A; Reichel, Lee M

    2015-01-01

    Coronal shear fractures of the distal humerus are rare, complex fractures that can be technically challenging to manage. They usually result from a low-energy fall and direct compression of the distal humerus by the radial head in a hyper-extended or semi-flexed elbow or from spontaneous reduction of a posterolateral subluxation or dislocation. Due to the small number of soft tissue attachments at this site, almost all of these fractures are displaced. The incidence of distal humeral coronal shear fractures is higher among women because of the higher rate of osteoporosis in women and the difference in carrying angle between men and women. Distal humeral coronal shear fractures may occur in isolation, may be part of a complex elbow injury, or may be associated with injuries proximal or distal to the elbow. An associated lateral collateral ligament injury is seen in up to 40% and an associated radial head fracture is seen in up to 30% of these fractures. Given the complex nature of distal humeral coronal shear fractures, there is preference for operative management. Operative fixation leads to stable anatomic reduction, restores articular congruity, and allows initiation of early range-of-motion movements in the majority of cases. Several surgical exposure and fixation techniques are available to reconstruct the articular surface following distal humeral coronal shear fractures. The lateral extensile approach and fixation with countersunk headless compression screws placed in an anterior-to-posterior fashion are commonly used. We have found a two-incision approach (direct anterior and lateral) that results in less soft tissue dissection and better outcomes than the lateral extensile approach in our experience. Stiffness, pain, articular incongruity, arthritis, and ulnohumeral instability may result if reduction is non-anatomic or if fixation fails. PMID:25984515

  12. Hominoid humeral morphology: 3D morphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Trenton W; Friedl, Lukáš

    2013-12-01

    Variation in humeral morphology among hominoids has long been recognized in relation to both phylogeny and behavior. Here, we use 3D landmark data to analyze humeral shape among hominoids, including hylobatids (n?=?37), Pongo (n?=?33), Homo (n?=?74), Pan (n?=?55), and Gorilla (n?=?45) to examine the relative influence of phylogenetic history vs. locomotor adaptation on humeral shape. Principal components analysis (PCA) of Procrustes shape data derived from 19 humeral type II or type III landmarks (Bookstein, 1991) for these taxa reveals the following: PC1, which primarily reflects the humeral torsion (or lack thereof) and relative diaphyseal and epiphyseal breadths, separates the relatively narrow-shafted, small articular dimensions and low humeral torsion Hylobates, and to a lesser extent, Pongo, humeri from those of the African hominoids. PC2, which largely contrasts shafts that are posteriorly convex (high PC2 scores) with antero-posteriorly straight humeral shafts (low PC2 scores) separates Homo, who tend to have A-P straighter shafts, from the more A-P bowed humeral shafts of the apes. These shape patterns suggest that the bowed shafts of Pan, Pongo, and Gorilla (and to a lesser extent, hylobatids) are due to the fact that in each of these taxa, the humerus is a weight-bearing bone, whereas the shafts of Homo are freed from locomotion. More subtle behavioral indicators are also elucidated, whereas cluster analyses (minimum spanning tree fit to a principal coordinates [PCO] plot and UPGMA dendrogram) reveal strong phylogenetic signals in the hominoid humerus as well. PMID:24132859

  13. 21 CFR 872.3960 - Mandibular condyle prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...temporary reconstruction of the mandibular condyle in patients who have undergone resective procedures to remove malignant or benign tumors, requiring the removal of the mandibular condyle. See § 870.3 of this chapter. [59 FR 65478, Dec. 20, 1994,...

  14. Impaction fracture of the medial femoral condyle.

    PubMed

    Mabry, Lance M; Ross, Michael D; Abbott, Jessica L

    2013-01-01

    The patient was a 20-year-old man who sustained a noncontact left knee hyperextension injury while playing soccer. In reviewing left knee radiographs that had previously been interpreted as normal, the physical therapist noted an abnormally deep depression of the medial condylopatellar sulcus, which was concerning for a possible impacted osteochondral fracture. After discussing the radiographic findings with a radiologist, the physical therapist ordered magnetic resonance imaging, which revealed a focal indentation of the anterior portion of the medial femoral condyle with adjacent bone marrow edema that was consistent with an impaction fracture of the medial femoral condyle. PMID:23812292

  15. 21 CFR 872.3960 - Mandibular condyle prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mandibular condyle prosthesis. 872.3960 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3960 Mandibular condyle prosthesis. (a) Identification. A mandibular condyle prosthesis is a device that is intended to be implanted in the human jaw...

  16. 21 CFR 872.3960 - Mandibular condyle prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mandibular condyle prosthesis. 872.3960 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3960 Mandibular condyle prosthesis. (a) Identification. A mandibular condyle prosthesis is a device that is intended to be implanted in the human jaw...

  17. 21 CFR 872.3960 - Mandibular condyle prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mandibular condyle prosthesis. 872.3960 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3960 Mandibular condyle prosthesis. (a) Identification. A mandibular condyle prosthesis is a device that is intended to be implanted in the human jaw...

  18. 21 CFR 872.3960 - Mandibular condyle prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mandibular condyle prosthesis. 872.3960 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3960 Mandibular condyle prosthesis. (a) Identification. A mandibular condyle prosthesis is a device that is intended to be implanted in the human jaw...

  19. 21 CFR 872.3960 - Mandibular condyle prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mandibular condyle prosthesis. 872.3960 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3960 Mandibular condyle prosthesis. (a) Identification. A mandibular condyle prosthesis is a device that is intended to be implanted in the human jaw...

  20. Retromandibular approach to condyle fractures: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Danilo Borges; Andrade, Miguel G Setúbal; Marchionni, Antonio Marcio

    2007-10-01

    Retromandibular approach was first described in 1967 for vertical subcondylar osteotomy and later became popular for surgical treatment of temporomandibular joint dysfunction and low condyle fractures. The trajectory of the incision, parallel to the posterior border of the mandibular ramus, allows a good approach with easy separation of the buccal and marginal mandibular branches of the facial nerve, when they are present in the surgical field. When open reduction and internal rigid fixation with plates and screws are indicated for condylar fractures, retromandibular approach offers an excellent esthetic result with low morbidity. Two clinical cases are presented, in which the surgical treatment was carried out for condylar fractures, and clearly illustrate the proposed approach. PMID:17983129

  1. [Computer assisted orthognathic surgery: Condyle repositioning.

    PubMed

    Bettega, G; Leitner, F

    2013-07-17

    Computer aided surgery has become a standard in many fields. It is rarely used in orthognathic surgery. Twenty years ago, we developed a navigation system adapted to this surgery, especially for mandibular condyle repositioning. The system has been improved along with technological progress. The authors of several clinical studies have validated this system. It is now routinely used in our department, because of its educational virtues among other assets. PMID:23871566

  2. Subchondral Impaction Fractures of the Medial Femoral Condyle in Weightlifters: A Report of 5 Cases.

    PubMed

    Grzelak, Piotr; Podgórski, Micha? Tomasz; Stefa?czyk, Ludomir; Krochmalski, Marek; Dom?alski, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Although subchondral impaction fractures have already been reported in the non-weight-bearing portion of the lateral femoral condyle, this study reveals the presence of an intra-articular impaction fracture of the postero-superior region of the non-weight-bearing portion of the medial femoral condyle recognized in 5 of a group of 22 representatives of the Polish national Olympic weightlifting team, who underwent 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging examination. Articular cartilage lesions varied with regard to the type of injury and its severity ranging from healed or subchronic injuries to acute trauma. All described individuals had no clinical history of acute knee trauma and only 3 of them had minor pain symptoms. The accumulation of microtraumas occurring during participation in particular activities associated with weightlifting training seems to be responsible for the development of this type of contusion. This is the first description of impaction fracture observed in this location in professional weightlifters. PMID:25881566

  3. 21 CFR 872.3960 - Mandibular condyle prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3960 Mandibular condyle...prosthesis is a device that is intended to be implanted in the human jaw to replace the mandibular...mandibular condyle prosthesis intended to be implanted in the human jaw for temporary...

  4. 21 CFR 872.3960 - Mandibular condyle prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3960 Mandibular condyle...prosthesis is a device that is intended to be implanted in the human jaw to replace the mandibular...mandibular condyle prosthesis intended to be implanted in the human jaw for temporary...

  5. 21 CFR 872.3960 - Mandibular condyle prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3960 Mandibular condyle...prosthesis is a device that is intended to be implanted in the human jaw to replace the mandibular...mandibular condyle prosthesis intended to be implanted in the human jaw for temporary...

  6. Outcome of humeral shaft fractures treated by functional cast brace

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Jitendra Nath; Biswas, Prahas; Roy, Avik; Hazra, Sunit; Mahato, Somnath

    2015-01-01

    Background: Functional brace application for isolated humeral shaft fracture persistently yields good results. Nonunion though uncommon involves usually the proximal third shaft fractures. Instead of polyethylene bivalve functional brace four plaster sleeves wrapped and molded with little more proximal extension expected to prevent nonunion of proximal third fractures. Periodic compressibility of the cast is likely to yield a better result. This can be applied on the 1st day of the presentation as an outpatient basis. Comprehensive objective scoring system befitting for fracture humeral shaft is a need. Materials and Methods: Sixty six (male = 40, female = 26) unilateral humeral shaft fractures of mean age 34.4 years (range 11–75 years) involving 38 left and 28 right hands were included in this study during April 2008 to December 2012. Fractures involved proximal (n = 18), mid (n = 35) and distal (n = 13) of humerus. Transverse, oblique, comminuted and spiral orientations in 18, 35 and 13 patients respectively. One had segmental fracture and three had a pathological fracture with cystic bone lesion. Mechanisms of injuries as identified in this study were road traffic accidents 57.6% (n = 38), fall 37.9% (n = 25). 12.1% (n = 8) had radial nerve palsy 7.6% (n = 5) had Type I open fracture. Four plaster strips of 12 layers and 5–7.5 cm broad depending on the girth of arm were prepared. Arm was then wrapped with single layer compressed cotton. Lateral and medial strips were applied and then after molding anterior and posterior strips were applied in such a way that permits full elbow range of motion and partial abduction of the shoulder. Care was taken to prevent adherence of one strip with other except in the proximal end. Limb was then put in loose collar and cuff sling intermittently allowing active motion of the elbow ROM and pendular movement of the shoulder. Weekly tightening of the cast by fresh layers of bandage over the existing cast brace continued. Results: The results were assessed using 100 point scoring system where union allotted 30 points and 60 points allotted for angulations (10), elbow motion (10), shoulder abduction (10), shortening (5), rotation (5), absence of infection (10), absence of nerve palsy during treatment (10). Remaining 10 points were allotted for five items with two points each. They were the absence of skin sore, absence of vascular problem, absence of reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD), recovery of paralyzed nerve during injury and recovery of paralyzed nerve during treatment. Results were considered excellent with 90 and above, good with 80–89, fair with 70–79 and poor below 70 point. Results at 6 months were excellent in 43.94% (n = 29), good in 42.42% (n = 28), fair in 9.1% (n = 6), poor in 4.55% (n = 3). Union took place in 98.48% (n = 65) with an average of 10.3 weeks (range 6–16 weeks). 87.5% (n = 7) paralyzed radial nerve recovered. All wounds healed. Four patients had transient skin problem. One patient with mid shaft fracture had nonunion due to the muscle interposition. Conclusion: Modified functional cast brace is one of the options in treatment for humeral shaft fractures as it can be applied on the 1st day of the presentation in most of the situations. Simple objective scoring system was useful particularly in uneducated patients. PMID:26229161

  7. Updated Classification System for Proximal Humeral Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Guix, José M. Mora; Pedrós, Juan Sala; Serrano, Alejandro Castaño

    2009-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures can restrict daily activities and, therefore, deserve efficient diagnoses that minimize complications and sequels. For good diagnosis and treatment, patient characteristics, variability in the forms of the fractures presented, and the technical difficulties in achieving fair results with surgical treatment should all be taken into account. Current classification systems for these fractures are based on anatomical and pathological principles, and not on systematic image reading. These fractures can appear in many different forms, with many characteristics that must be identified. However, many current classification systems lack good reliability, both inter-observer and intra-observer for different image types. A new approach to image reading, following a well-designed set and sequence of variables to check, is needed. We previously reported such an image reading system. In the present study, we report a classification system based on this image reading system. Here we define 21 fracture characteristics and apply them along with classical Codman approaches to classify fractures. We base this novel classification system for classifying proximal humeral fractures on a review of scientific literature and improvements to our image reading protocol. Patient status, fracture characteristics and surgeon circumstances have been important issues in developing this system. PMID:19574487

  8. Updated classification system for proximal humeral fractures.

    PubMed

    Mora Guix, José M; Pedrós, Juan Sala; Serrano, Alejandro Castaño

    2009-06-01

    Proximal humeral fractures can restrict daily activities and, therefore, deserve efficient diagnoses that minimize complications and sequels. For good diagnosis and treatment, patient characteristics, variability in the forms of the fractures presented, and the technical difficulties in achieving fair results with surgical treatment should all be taken into account. Current classification systems for these fractures are based on anatomical and pathological principles, and not on systematic image reading. These fractures can appear in many different forms, with many characteristics that must be identified. However, many current classification systems lack good reliability, both inter-observer and intra-observer for different image types. A new approach to image reading, following a well-designed set and sequence of variables to check, is needed. We previously reported such an image reading system. In the present study, we report a classification system based on this image reading system. Here we define 21 fracture characteristics and apply them along with classical Codman approaches to classify fractures. We base this novel classification system for classifying proximal humeral fractures on a review of scientific literature and improvements to our image reading protocol. Patient status, fracture characteristics and surgeon circumstances have been important issues in developing this system. PMID:19574487

  9. Humeral bone fragility in patients with shoulder prosthesis: a case of humeral periprosthetic refracture

    PubMed Central

    Giannotti, Stefano; Bottai, Vanna; Dell’Osso, Giacomo; Donati, Daniela; Bugelli, Giulia; De Paola, Gaia; Guido, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    Summary In recent decades there has been an increase in upper limb prosthetic surgery, primarily for the shoulder, for osteoarthritis disease and for traumatic pathology. It is occurring in parallel an increase in periprosthetic fractures of the humerus, although with less impact than other anatomical districts such as the hip. We report a case of humeral periprosthetic refracture in a 66-years-old female patient. The humerus bone quality is worse than in other districts in patient of the same age. The fragility humerus fracture are increasing, affecting relatively younger individuals than those with femoral neck fractures and represent an independent risk factor for the occurrence of subsequent fractures. Actually humeral BMD is underestimated by traditional densitometric evaluation techniques. PMID:22783338

  10. Strain induced in the condyle by self-tapping screws in the Biomet alloplastic temporomandibular joint: a preliminary experimental study.

    PubMed

    Ramos, A; Duarte, R J; Mesnard, M

    2015-11-01

    The main aim of this study was to analyze how screws affect the strain concentration induced on the mandibular condyle during implantation, screwing, and drilling, as well as after condylar loading. A clean cadaveric mandible was analyzed experimentally in the intact state and was then implanted with a Biomet/Lorenz Microfixation temporomandibular joint (TMJ) implant with seven bicortical self-tapping screws. The external surface of the mandible was instrumented with three strain gauges. A load of 500N on the TMJ was applied to the condyle before and after implantation. The results showed a strain concentration of -1500?? near the screws due to their implantation on the external surface of the mandible. The drilling process induced up to 80?? near the hole. The strain concentration did not change when there were more than six screws. Loading on the TMJ before and after implantation presented only a 10% difference in maximum principal strain. This study demonstrates the importance of the strain concentration induced by the screws. The process of implanting screws shows the importance of lateral surface preparation for a good fit in the condyle. Strain distribution after implantation and loading of the Biomet implant was found to be similar to that in the intact condyle. PMID:26194773

  11. Injury to the radial nerve caused by fracture of the humeral shaft: timing and neurobiological aspects related to treatment and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Niels O B; Dahlin, Lars B

    2007-01-01

    The radial nerve may not function in association with fractures of the humeral shaft. There are various opinions about the causes and treatment. We report a case of complete rupture of the radial nerve after a fracture of the proximal shaft of the humerus. The nerve injury was treated with grafting and TENDON transfer. Here we discuss diagnoses and treatments including neurobiological aspects of nervous regeneration. We suggest that electrodiagnostic examination after a radial nerve palsy caused by a humeral fracture is done 5-6 weeks after injury and that nerve repair and reconstruction should be done within two, and not later than three, months after injury. PMID:17701727

  12. Current concepts in the treatment of proximal humeral fractures.

    PubMed

    Fakler, Johannes K M; Hogan, Craig; Heyde, Christoph E; John, Thilo

    2008-01-01

    Preoperative classification of proximal humeral fractures in addition to thorough knowledge of the specific anatomy and vascular blood supply is more important for successful treatment than the choice of implant. If reduction and fixation is necessary, aggressive reduction maneuvers can compromise humeral head perfusion with subsequent humeral head necrosis regardless of the implant used. Modern implants such as intramedullary proximal humeral nails and anatomically designed proximal humeral angular stable plates offer high primary stability even in osteoporotic bone with preservation of periosteal blood supply to the humeral head. These implants allow early functional exercises and showed good to excellent results in the majority of patients with an acceptable complication rate. Increasing experience with these relatively new implants and further technical development might improve clinical results and reduce complications. Minimally invasive, percutaneous techniques also demonstrate favorable results comparable to those mentioned above, although mean patient age tends to be younger in these studies and complications requiring reoperation tend to be more pronounced in elderly patients due to poor bone quality. Alternatively, nonoperative treatment of displaced two- and three-part fractures in elderly patients with severe morbidity and high perioperative risks should be considered. In elderly patients with selected displaced four-part fractures or fracture dislocations and head-split fractures, hemiarthroplasty offers high subjective patient satisfaction despite moderate function with most of the patients being pain free. PMID:18269167

  13. Feasibility of purely endoscopic intramedullary fixation of mandibular condyle fractures.

    PubMed

    Frake, Paul C; Goodman, Joseph F; Joshi, Arjun S

    2015-01-01

    The investigators of this study hypothesized that fractures of the mandibular condyle can be repaired using short-segment intramedullary implants and purely endoscopic surgical technique, using a basic science, human cadaver model in an academic center. Endoscopic instrumentation was used through a transoral mucosal incision to place intramedullary implants of 2 cm in length into osteotomized mandibular condyles. The surgical maneuvers that required to insert these implants, including condyle positioning, reaming, implant insertion, and seating of the mandibular ramus, are described herein. Primary outcome was considered as successful completion of the procedure. Ten cadaveric mandibular condyles were successfully repaired with rigid intramedullary internal fixation without the use of external incisions. Both insertion of a peg-type implant and screwing a threaded implant into the condylar head were possible. The inferior portion of the implant remained exposed, and the ramus of the mandible was manipulated into position on the implant using retraction at the sigmoid notch. The results of this study suggest that purely endoscopic repair of fractures of the mandibular condyle is possible by using short-segment intramedullary titanium implants and a transoral endoscopic approach without the need for facial incisions or punctures. The biomechanical advantages of these intramedullary implants, including improved strength and resistance to mechanical failure compared with miniplates, have been recently established. The combination of improved implant design and purely endoscopic technique may allow for improved fixation and reduced surgical- and implant-related morbidity in the treatment of condylar fractures. PMID:25534058

  14. Application of Additional Medial Plate in Treatment of Proximal Humeral Fractures With Unstable Medial Column

    PubMed Central

    He, Yu; He, Jiliang; Wang, Fu; Zhou, Dongsheng; Wang, Yan; Wang, Bomin; Xu, Shihong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to use finite element analysis to compare the biomechanical characteristics after lateral locking plate (LLP) or LLP with a medial anatomical locking plate (LLP-MLP) fixation of proximal humeral fractures with an unstable medial column. First, a 3-dimensional, finite element analysis model was developed. Next, LLP and LLP-MLP implants were instrumented into the proximal humeral fracture models. Compressive and rotational loads were then applied to the humerus model to determine the biomechanical characteristics. Both normal and osteoporotic proximal humerus fractures were simulated using 2 internal fixation methods each under 7 loading conditions. To assess the biomechanical characteristics, the construct stiffness, fracture micromotion, and stress distribution on the implants were recorded and compared. The LLP-MLP method provided both lateral and medial support that reduced the stress on the LLP and the amount of displacement in the fracture region. In contrast, the LLP method resulted in more instability in the medial column and larger magnitudes of stress. In osteoporotic bone, the LLP was more inclined to fail than LLP-MLP. The LLP-MLP method provides a strong support for the medial column and increases the stability of the region surrounding the fracture. PMID:26469918

  15. 21 CFR 888.3690 - Shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis. 888.3690...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3690 Shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic...

  16. 21 CFR 888.3690 - Shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis. 888.3690...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3690 Shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic...

  17. Mandibular asymmetry: a three-dimensional quantification of bilateral condyles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The shape and volume of the condyle is considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of the mandibular deviation. Curvature analysis is informative for objectively assess whether the shape of the condyles matches that of the glenoid fossa. In this study, a three-dimensional (3-D) quantification of bilateral asymmetrical condyles was firstly conducted to identify the specific role of 3-D condylar configuration for mandibular asymmetry. Methods 55 adult patients, 26 males (26?±?5 yrs) and 29 females (26?±?5 yrs), diagnosed with mandibular asymmetry were included. The examination of deviation of chin point, deviation of dental midlines, inclination of occlusal plane, and depth of the mandibular occlusal plane were conducted. After the clinical investigation, computed tomography images from the patients were used to reconstruct the 3-D mandibular models. Then the condylar volume, surface size, surface curvature and bone mineral density were evaluated independently for each patient on non-deviated and deviated sides of temporomandibular joint. Results Both the condylar surface size and volume were significantly larger on deviated side (surface size: 1666.14?±?318.3 mm2, volume: 1981.5?±?418.3 mm3). The anterior slope of the condyle was flatter (0.12?±?0.06) and the posterior slope (0.39?±?0.08) was prominently convex on the deviated side. The corresponding bone mineral density values were 523.01 ±118.1 HU and 549.07 ±120. 6 HU on anterior and posterior slopes. Conclusions The incongruence presented on the deviated side resulted in a reduction in contact areas and, thus, an increase in contact stresses and changes of bone density. All aforementioned results suggest that the difference existing between deviated and non-deviated condyles correlates with facial asymmetrical development. In mandibular asymmetry patients, the 3-D morphology of condyle on deviated side differ from the non-deviated side, which indicates the association between asymmetrical jaw function and joint remodeling. PMID:24354862

  18. Orthopaedic Approaches to Proximal Humeral Fractures Following Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Mafi, Reza; Khan, Wasim; Mafi, Pouya; Hindocha, Sandip

    2014-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures have been a topic of discussion in medical literature dating back as far as 3rd century BC. Today, these fractures are the most common type of humeral fractures and account for about 5-6% of all fractures in adults with the incidence rising rapidly with age. In broad terms the management of proximal humeral fractures can be divided into two categories: conservative versus surgical intervention. The aim of treatment is to stabilize the fracture, aid better union and reduce pain during the healing process. Failure to achieve this can result in impairment of function, and significantly weaken the muscles inserting onto the proximal humerus. With the rising incidence of proximal humeral fractures, especially among the elderly, the short and long term burden for patients as well as the wider society is increasing. Furthermore, there is a lack of consistency in the definitive treatment and management of displaced fractures. This systematic review of literature compares the surgical treatment of proximal humeral fractures with their conservative management, by evaluating the available randomised controlled trials on this topic. PMID:25408786

  19. Management of Humeral Shaft Fractures; Non-Operative Versus Operative

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Nicholas D.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Functional humeral bracing remains the gold standard for treatment of humeral shaft fractures. There is an increasing trend in the literature to perform operative fixation of these fractures. Evidence Acquisition: The aim of this systematic review was to compare the level one evidence for the outcome of non-operative with operative management of humeral shaft fractures in adults. A comprehensive electronic literature search of Medline and PubMed was performed with specific inclusion criteria to identify randomized controlled trials. Results: In total, seventeen different studies were identified from the search terms and combinations used. Only one study met the inclusion criteria; however, this was a published study protocol of an ongoing trial currently being conducted. One additional published protocol for an ongoing trial was also identified, but this was for a prospective comparative observational study. Although this latter study may not be level one evidence, it would offer great insight into the functional outcome of humeral shaft fractures and economic implications of operative management, which is currently not addressed in the literature. Two retrospective comparative studies were also identified, one of which demonstrated a significantly lower rate of nonunion and malunion in those patients undergoing operative management. Conclusions: This systematic review demonstrated a deficiency in the current literature of level one evidence available for the management of humeral shaft fractures. The current ongoing randomized control trail would offer a greater insight into the management of humeral shaft fractures and help confirm or refute the current literature. If this randomized control trial affirms the reduction in the rate of nonunion with operative fixation, a cost economic analysis is essential. As it would seem to offer operative management to all patients may be over treatment and not to offer this at all would undertreat. PMID:26401493

  20. Severe osteoarthrosis after fracture of the mandibular condyle: a clinical and histologic study of seven patients.

    PubMed

    Wu, X G; Hong, M; Sun, K H

    1994-02-01

    The factors that induce complications subsequent to fractures of the mandibular condyle have long been controversial. A clinical and histologic study of seven patients (nine temporomandibular joints [TMJs]) who suffered from severe TMJ problems subsequent to condylar fractures showed that the complications were related to comminution of the condyle, sagittal fracture of the condyle, and subcondylar fracture dislocation. Alterations in these TMJs all involved secondary osteoarthrosis. Additionally, aseptic necrosis, bifid deformity of the condyle (two of the three sagittally fractured condyles), and TMJ ankylosis occurred in these patients. It is suggested that the involved fracture patterns be given more attention by clinicians. PMID:8295047

  1. General Amphibian characteristics: 1) Two occipital condyles

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    that they function as though they were two separate, non- interbreeding species. Caecilians Order Apoda (Gymnophiona aquatic caecilians, with four genera in South America, some to 75 cm. The posterior body is laterally, oviparous #12;4 What makes them different from other amphibians? Characteristics of Caecilians l Elongate

  2. Management of Humeral and Glenoid Bone Loss in Recurrent Glenohumeral Instability

    PubMed Central

    Rusen, Jamie; Leiter, Jeff; Chahal, Jaskarndip; MacDonald, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent shoulder instability and resultant glenoid and humeral head bone loss are not infrequently encountered in the population today, specifically in young, athletic patients. This review on the management of bone loss in recurrent glenohumeral instability discusses the relevant shoulder anatomy that provides stability to the shoulder joint, relevant history and physical examination findings pertinent to recurrent shoulder instability, and the proper radiological imaging choices in its workup. Operative treatments that can be used to treat both glenoid and humeral head bone loss are outlined. These include coracoid transfer procedures and allograft/autograft reconstruction at the glenoid, as well as humeral head disimpaction/humeroplasty, remplissage, humeral osseous allograft reconstruction, rotational osteotomy, partial humeral head arthroplasty, and hemiarthroplasty on the humeral side. Clinical outcomes studies reporting general results of these techniques are highlighted. PMID:25136461

  3. [A bilateral posterior shoulder dislocation caused by humeral head osteonecrosis].

    PubMed

    Barbier, O; Van Gaver, E; Rigal, S

    2010-02-01

    We report a case of simultaneous bilateral posterior shoulders dislocations in a 46-year-old male with antecedent of high-dose corticotherapy. The mechanism was non-traumatic after a contraction of the sub scapularis muscle in internal rotation. The interscapular pain was not initially diagnosed although a tomodensitometry was realized to eliminate a cardiovascular emergency. After reduction, the shoulders were unstable and the MRI showed an osteonecrosis of the humeral heads. The patient underwent surgery with an iliac spongy bone graft in the humeral nick. At 3 months, there was no recurrence and mobilities were good. Bilateral posterior shoulders dislocations are unusual and it is the first case of non-traumatic dislocation. Aetiology are often epilepsy, electrocution, and extreme traumatism. Diagnosis is often misrecognized and the treatment is not well codified. PMID:20093062

  4. [Osteological interdisciplinary management : Exemplified by a bilateral proximal humeral fracture].

    PubMed

    Neuerburg, C; Pietschke, K; Stumpf, U; Sommerey, S; Schmidmaier, R; Ockert, B; Böcker, W; Haasters, F

    2015-11-01

    Following locking plate osteosynthesis of a proximal humeral fracture, a 62-year-old male patient suffered mild secondary dislocation. Subsequent bone densitometry identified an osteoporosis. Laboratory testing and sonography revealed an underlying primary hyperparathyroidism. In the short term, the patient suffered a similar proximal humeral fracture of the contralateral side. Given the knowledge about the underlying osteoporosis a cement-augmented locking plate osteosynthesis was carried out to treat the fracture. Parathyroidectomy was performed shortly thereafter and laboratory parameters returned to normal. Secondary fractures did not arise. Treatment of this patient in a certified osteoporosis center with a multimodal management led to systematic interdisciplinary diagnostics, a specific surgical therapy and ended in an excellent result. PMID:26187431

  5. Outcomes after percutaneous reduction and fixation of proximal humeral fractures.

    PubMed

    Keener, Jay D; Parsons, Brad O; Flatow, Evan L; Rogers, Kenneth; Williams, Gerald R; Galatz, Leesa M

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report the outcomes after closed or percutaneous reduction with percutaneous fixation of displaced proximal humeral fractures. This study included 35 patients from 3 institutions. Of these, 27 were followed up for a minimum of 1 year after surgery. The mean age at injury was 61 years. There were seven 2-part, eight 3-part, and twelve valgus-impacted 4-part proximal humeral fractures. All fractures were reduced and stabilized with percutaneous techniques only. The mean duration of follow-up was 35 months. All fractures healed after the index procedure. The mean pain score on a visual analog scale was 1.4. The mean American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons and Constant scores were 83.4 and 73.9, respectively. Four patients healed with malunion, and in four, glenohumeral joint osteoarthritis developed. Fracture type, age, malunion, or osteoarthritis had no significance influence on measured outcomes. Percutaneous treatment of selected proximal humeral fractures results in predictable union and good clinical results with a low rate of complications. PMID:17321163

  6. Allografting in Locked Nailing and Interfragmentary Wiring for Humeral Nonunions

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Peng

    2009-01-01

    In this prospective study, we compared outcomes after repair of humeral nonunions when morsellized fresh-frozen allograft or autograft was used to augment repair by intramedullary nailing. Sixty-five patients with humeral shaft nonunions of greater than 6 months’ duration and gross instability at the nonunion site were included and treated by locked nailing, interfragmentary wiring, and bone grafting. Graft type was determined by patient preference. Outcomes assessed included union rate and functional recovery of the arm. Secondary end points included operative blood loss, operation time, hospital stay, time to fracture healing, and complications. Twenty-eight patients with autografts and 36 with allografts were followed up more than 2 years. The baseline conditions of the two groups were similar. The autograft group had greater blood loss and longer operative time than the allograft group. The autograft group also had a longer hospital stay. The healing rate, time to healing, and functional scores did not differ between these two groups. In the autograft group, 43% reported pain and limited mobility as a result of the donor site. We concluded that when used in association with locked nailing for humeral nonunions, allografts can achieve treatment results similar to autografts but without donor site complications. Level of Evidence: Level III, prognostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11999-009-1055-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:19701671

  7. Autograft Transfer from the Ipsilateral Femoral Condyle in Depressed Tibial Plateau Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Sferopoulos, N.K

    2014-01-01

    Introduction : The rationale for operative treatment of depressed tibial plateau fractures is anatomic reduction, stable fixation and grafting. Grafting options include autogenous bone graft or bone substitutes. Methods : The autograft group included 18 patients with depressed tibial plateau fractures treated with autogenous bone grafting from the ipsilateral femoral condyle following open reduction and internal fixation. According to Schatzker classification, there were 9 type II, 4 type III, 2 type IV and 3 type V lesions. The average time to union and the hospital charges were compared with the bone substitute group. The latter included 17 patients who had an excellent outcome following treatment of split and/or depressed lateral plateau fractures, using a similar surgical technique but grafting with bone substitutes (allografts). Results : Excellent clinical and radiological results were detected in the autograft group after an average follow-up of 28 months (range 12-37). The average time to union in the autograft group was 14 weeks (range 12-16), while in the bone substitute group it was 18 weeks (range 16-20). The mean total cost was 1276 Euros for the autograft group and 2978 Euros for the bone substitute group. Discussion : The use of autogenous graft from the ipsilateral femoral condyle following open reduction and internal fixation of depressed tibial plateau fractures provided enough bone to maintain the height of the tibial plateau and was not associated with any donor site morbidity. Using this method, the surgical time was not significantly elongated and the rehabilitation was not affected. It also exhibited faster fracture healing without postoperative loss of reduction and it was less expensive than the use of bone substitutes. PMID:25317215

  8. 21 CFR 888.3690 - Shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... uncemented prosthesis. 888.3690 Section 888.3690 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis is a device made of alloys, such as...

  9. 21 CFR 888.3690 - Shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... uncemented prosthesis. 888.3690 Section 888.3690 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis is a device made of alloys, such as...

  10. 21 CFR 888.3180 - Elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... uncemented prosthesis. 888.3180 Section 888.3180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. An elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic uncemented prosthesis is a device intended to be implanted made of...

  11. 21 CFR 888.3690 - Shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... uncemented prosthesis. 888.3690 Section 888.3690 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis is a device made of alloys, such as...

  12. 21 CFR 888.3690 - Shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... uncemented prosthesis. 888.3690 Section 888.3690 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis is a device made of alloys, such as...

  13. 21 CFR 888.3180 - Elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... uncemented prosthesis. 888.3180 Section 888.3180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. An elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic uncemented prosthesis is a device intended to be implanted made of...

  14. 21 CFR 888.3180 - Elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... uncemented prosthesis. 888.3180 Section 888.3180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. An elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic uncemented prosthesis is a device intended to be implanted made of...

  15. 21 CFR 888.3690 - Shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... uncemented prosthesis. 888.3690 Section 888.3690 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis is a device made of alloys, such as...

  16. 21 CFR 888.3180 - Elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... uncemented prosthesis. 888.3180 Section 888.3180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. An elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic uncemented prosthesis is a device intended to be implanted made of...

  17. 21 CFR 888.3180 - Elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... uncemented prosthesis. 888.3180 Section 888.3180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. An elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic uncemented prosthesis is a device intended to be implanted made of...

  18. Humeres et al.: Control of Avocado Lace Bug 35 EVALUATION OF NATURAL ENEMIES AND INSECTICIDES

    E-print Network

    Hoddle, Mark S.

    Humeres et al.: Control of Avocado Lace Bug 35 EVALUATION OF NATURAL ENEMIES AND INSECTICIDES FOR CONTROL OF PSEUDACYSTA PERSEAE (HEMIPTERA: TINGIDAE) ON AVOCADOS IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA EDUARDO C. HUMERES in southern California avocado groves were eval- uated against different stages of the avocado lace bug

  19. The application of the Risdon approach for mandibular condyle fractures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many novel approaches to mandibular condyle fracture have been reported, but there is a relative lack of reports on the Risdon approach. In this study, the feasibility of the Risdon approach for condylar neck and subcondylar fractures of the mandible is demonstrated. Methods A review of patients with mandibular condylar neck and subcondylar fractures was performed from March 2008 to June 2012. A total of 25 patients, 19 males and 6 females, had 14 condylar neck fractures and 11 subcondylar fractures. Results All of the cases were reduced using the Risdon approach. For subcondylar fractures, reduction and fixation with plates was done under direct vision. For condylar neck fractures, reduction and fixation was done with the aid of a trochar in adults and a percutaneous threaded Kirschner wire in children. There were no malunions or nonunions revealed in follow-up care. Mild transient neuropraxia of the marginal mandibular nerve was seen in 4 patients, which was resolved within 1–2 months. Conclusions The Risdon approach is a technique for reducing the condylar neck and subcondylar fractures that is easy to perform and easy to learn. Its value in the reduction of mandibular condyle fractures should be emphasized. PMID:23829537

  20. Overexpressed TGF-? in subchondral bone leads to mandibular condyle degradation.

    PubMed

    Jiao, K; Zhang, M; Niu, L; Yu, S; Zhen, G; Xian, L; Yu, B; Yang, K; Liu, P; Cao, X; Wang, M

    2014-02-01

    Emerging evidence has implied that subchondral bone plays an important role during osteoarthritis (OA) pathology. This study was undertaken to investigate whether abnormalities of the condylar subchondral bone lead to temporomandibular joint (TMJ) OA. We used an osteoblast-specific mutant TGF-?1 transgenic mouse, the CED mouse, in which high levels of active TGF-?1 occur in bone marrow, leading to abnormal bone remodeling. Subchondral bone changes in the mandibular condyles were investigated by micro-CT, and alterations in TMJ condyles were confirmed by histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. Abnormalities in the condylar subchondral bone, characterized as fluctuant bone mineral density and microstructure and increased but uncoupled activity of osteoclasts and osteoblasts, were apparent in the 1- and 4-month CED mouse groups, while obvious cartilage degradation, in the form of cell-free regions and proteoglycan loss, was observed in the 4-month CED group. In addition, increased numbers of apoptotic chondrocytes and MMP9- and VEGF-positive chondrocytes were observed in the condylar cartilage in the 4-month CED group, but not in the 1-month CED group, compared with their respective age-matched controls. This study demonstrated that progressive degradation of mandibular condylar cartilage could be induced by the abnormal remodeling of the underlying subchondral bone during TMJOA progression. PMID:24309371

  1. Conventional Humeral Retroversion Measurements Using Computed Tomography Slices or Ultrasound Images Are Not Correlated With the 3-Dimensional Humeral Retroversion Angle

    PubMed Central

    Saka, Masayuki; Yamauchi, Hiroki; Yoshioka, Toru; Hamada, Hidetoshi; Gamada, Kazuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Humeral retroversion angles determined by previous techniques are varied and/or biased by morphologic variations of the proximal and distal humerus, and their validity should be revisited. To overcome the limitations of previous studies associated with 2-dimensional (2D) images and the reference axes, a 3-dimensional (3D) measurement of humeral retroversion is required. However, comparisons of 2D imaging methods with the 3D computed tomography (CT) measurement as a reference standard have not been heretofore performed. Purpose: To determine whether the 3D CT humeral retroversion angle in baseball players is correlated with conventional humeral retroversion measurements. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods: A total of 28 humeri from 14 male baseball players were used for measuring humeral retroversion. Participants underwent CT scans, and geometric bone models were created for measuring the 3D CT humeral retroversion angle. Using CT slices, the 2D CT humeral retroversion angle was also determined. Bicipital forearm angle was assessed using the indirect ultrasound technique. Linear regressions and Bland-Altman plots were used to determine whether there were agreements among 3 variables: the 3D CT retroversion, 2D CT retroversion, and bicipital forearm angles. Results: In linear regression analyses, the 3D humeral retroversion angle was not predicted by the 2D CT retroversion (R = 0.167, R 2 = 0.028, P = .395) or the bicipital forearm angle (R = 0.049, R 2 = 0.002, P = .805). The bias of these 2 methods was 20.9° and –15.3°, respectively. Regression analysis demonstrated that the bicipital forearm angle was a significant predictor of the 2D CT retroversion angle (R = 0.632, R 2 = 0.400, P < .001). Conclusion: The 3D CT humeral retroversion angle was found to be underestimated by the 2D CT retroversion angle and overestimated by the bicipital forearm angle obtained by the indirect ultrasound, although a previously observed relationship between the 2D CT retroversion and bicipital forearm angles was confirmed. Clinical Relevance: Precise measurement of humeral retroversion angle is important because retroversion has been linked to upper extremity disorders, including throwing-related shoulder and elbow disorders in baseball players.

  2. Osteochondroma of the mandibular condyle: an unusual case of dentofacial asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Power, Andrew; Carter, Lachlan

    2015-05-01

    An osteochondroma of the mandibular condyle is a rare tumour of the maxillofacial region that could first present to the general dental practitioner. This case report describes an osteochondroma of the posterio-medial mandibular condyle presenting with marked facial asymmetry and trismus over a six- month period. Appropriate referral and investigation enabled successful removal of the tumour, recontouring of the condyle and an uncomplicated, positive outcome for our patient. Clinical Relevance: Temporomandibular joint disorders can be a cause of dento-facial asymmetry. Pathology of the temporomandibular joint should be considered in the differential diagnosis when such a patient presents. PMID:26062262

  3. Bone properties of the humeral head and resistance to screw cutout

    PubMed Central

    Frich, Lars Henrik; Jensen, Niels Christian

    2014-01-01

    Surgical treatment of fractures involving the proximal humeral head is hampered by complications. Screw cutout is the major pitfall seen in connection with rigid plating. We have exploited a bony explanation for this phenomenon. Materials and Methods: We examined the convex surface of the humeral head looking at the density and the topographical strength of the subchondral bone using mechanical testing of bone cylinders harvested from the humeral head. We also studied the osseous architecture of the subchondral bone and thickness of the boneplate of the humeral head using a 3-dimensional serial sectioning technique. Results: The bone strength and bone density correlated well and revealed large regional variations across the humeral head. Bone strength and stiffness of the trabecular bone came to a maximum in the most medial anterior and central parts of the humeral head, where strong textural anisotropy was also found. We found in particular a lower bone strength and density in the posterior and inferior regions of the humeral head. A rapid decline in bone strength within a few mm below a relatively thin subchondral plate was also reported. Clinical Relevance: We have in this paper explored some of the most important factors connected with screw stability at the cancellous bone level. We discovered large variations in bone density and bone strength across the joint surface rendering certain areas of the humeral head less suitable for screw placement. The use of rigid plate constructs with divergent screw directions will predictably place screws in areas of the humeral head comprising low density and low strength cancellous bone. New concepts of plates and plating techniques for the surgical treatment of complex fractures of the proximal humerus should take bone distribution, strength, and architecture into account. PMID:24926160

  4. Mosaic arthroplasty of the medial femoral condyle in horses - An experimental study.

    PubMed

    Bodó, Gábor; Vásárhelyi, Gábor; Hangody, László; Módis, László

    2014-06-01

    One Arabian and 5 Hungarian half-bred horses were used to study the macroscopic and microscopic survival of autologous osteochondral grafts in the weight-bearing surface of the medial femoral condyle (MFC). Grafts were harvested from the cranial surface of the medial femoral trochlea (MFT) under arthroscopic control. Three of them were transplanted into the weight-bearing surface of the contralateral MFC using an arthrotomy approach. Three months later this transplantation procedure was repeated on the opposite stifle joints in the same animals, but at that time transplantation was performed arthroscopically. Follow-up arthroscopy was carried out 12 months after the first operations, and biopsies were taken from both the recipient and the donor sites for histological examination. During follow-up arthroscopy, the transplanted areas looked congruent and smooth. Microscopically, the characteristics of hyaline cartilage were present in 5 out of the 10 biopsies examined; however, in the other half of biopsies glycosaminoglycan (GAG) loss and change in the architecture of the transplanted cartilage was observed. In a 16-year-old horse, all grafts broke during harvesting, and thus transplantation was not performed. No radiological signs of osteoarthritic changes were detected 9 to 12 months after the operations in the donor and recipient joints. Clinically, no lameness or effusion was present three months after the transplantations. PMID:24334083

  5. Drifting Diaphyses: Asymmetry in Diametric Growth and Adaptation Along the Humeral and Femoral Length.

    PubMed

    Maggiano, Isabel S; Maggiano, Corey M; Tiesler, Vera G; Chi-Keb, Julio R; Stout, Sam D

    2015-10-01

    This study quantifies regional histomorphological variation along the human humeral and femoral diaphysis in order to gain information on diaphyseal growth and modeling drift patterns. Three thin sections at 40, 50, and 60% bone length were prepared from a modern Mexican skeletal sample with known age and sex to give a longitudinal perspective on the drifting cortex (12 adults and juveniles total, 7 male and 5 female). Point-count techniques were applied across eight cross-sectional regions of interest using the starburst sampling pattern to quantify percent periosteal and endosteal primary lamellar bone at each diaphyseal level. The results of this study show a posterio-medial drift pattern in the humerus with a posterior rotational trend along the diaphysis. In the femur, we observed a consistent lateral to anteriolateral drift and an increase in primary lamellar bone area of both, periosteal and endosteal origin, towards the distal part of the diaphysis. These observations characterize drifting diaphyses in greater detail, raising important questions about how to resolve microscopic and macroscopic cross-sectional analysis towards a more complete understanding of bone growth and mechanical adaptation. Accounting for modeling drift has the potential to positively impact age and physical activity estimation, and explain some of the significant regional variation in bone histomorphology seen within (and between) bone cross-sections due to differing ages of tissue formation. More study is necessary, however, to discern between possible drift scenarios and characterize populational variation. PMID:26224448

  6. Proximal humeral reconstruction after excision of a primary sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Jensen, K L; Johnston, J O

    1995-02-01

    From 1978 to 1991, 19 patients underwent wide resection of the proximal humerus for a primary bone tumor. Reconstructions included intercalary autoclaved autograft and Neer prosthesis composites in 11 patients, intercalary allograft and Neer prosthesis composites in 4 patients, and a Neer prosthesis with methylmethacrylate in 4 patients. All patients were observed for at least 2 years or until death. The functional results and complications of the 19 procedures were evaluated. Function was rated as excellent for 17 patients and good for 2 patients. There were no failures of fixation. Local recurrence occurred in 2 patients. There were 2 cases of recurrent anterior subluxation and 1 of dislocation. Two superficial wound infections were treated successfully with local debridement and antibiotics. The authors conclude that autoclaved autograft or allograft when combined with a long-stem cemented Neer prosthesis offers an excellent composite for proximal humeral reconstruction. PMID:7634572

  7. Proximal humeral osteoarticular allografts: technique, pearls and pitfalls, outcomes.

    PubMed

    Farfalli, German L; Ayerza, Miguel A; Muscolo, D Luis; Aponte-Tinao, Luis A

    2015-12-01

    Allograft transplantation is a biologic reconstruction option for massive bone defects after resection of bone sarcomas. This type of reconstruction not only restores bone stock but it also allows us to reconstruct the joint anatomically. These factors are a major concern, especially in a young and active population.We are describing indications, surgical techniques, pearls and pitfalls, and outcomes of proximal humeral osteoarticular allografts, done at present time in our institution.We found that allograft fractures and articular complications, as epiphyseal resorption and subchondral fracture, are the main complications observed in proximal humerus osteoarticular allograft reconstructions. Nevertheless, only fractures need a reconstruction revision. Joint complications may adversely affect the limb function, but for this reason, an allograft revision is rarely performed. PMID:26428365

  8. 21 CFR 888.3180 - Elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3180 Elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow...metallic uncemented prosthesis is a device intended to be implanted made of alloys, such as...

  9. External fixation for displaced 2-part proximal humeral fractures.

    PubMed

    Benetos, Ioannis S; Karampinas, Panayiotis K; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Romoudis, Pavlos; Pneumaticos, Spiros G; Vlamis, John

    2012-12-01

    Studies have reported conflicting results regarding external fixation for displaced proximal humeral fractures. Compared with open reduction and internal fixation, external fixation for displaced proximal humeral fractures avoids dissection and soft tissue stripping and leads to higher union rates, a lower incidence of avascular necrosis, less scaring of the scapulohumeral interface, and faster rehabilitation. Some authors have reported good or excellent results and minimum complications compared with open reduction and internal fixation; however, others have reported that external fixation does not ensure acceptable reduction and fracture stability, especially in patients with osteoporosis.This article describes 18 patients with displaced 2-part fractures of the surgical neck of the humerus treated with closed reduction and external fixation using the Tension Guide Fixator (Gexfix SA, Carouge, Switzerland) external fixation system between 2010 and 2011. The patients included 14 women and 4 men with a mean age of 39 years. Mean follow-up was 18 months (range, 15-24 months). Fracture union; function using the Constant score, University of California Los Angeles score, Oxford score, and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand shoulder score; and complications were evaluated. All patients experienced fracture union at a mean of 11 weeks (range, 9-13 weeks). The Tension Guide Fixator was removed without anesthesia at the outpatient clinic at a mean of 6 weeks (range, 4-8 weeks) with no loss of reduction or secondary displacement after removal. At 1-year follow-up, mean Constant and University of California Los Angeles scores were excellent, mean Oxford score showed satisfactory joint function, and mean Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score showed minimal pain with no disability. PMID:23218629

  10. Contact mechanics of reverse engineered distal humeral hemiarthroplasty implants.

    PubMed

    Willing, Ryan; King, Graham J W; Johnson, James A

    2015-11-26

    Erosion of articular cartilage is a concern following distal humeral hemiarthroplasty, because native cartilage surfaces are placed in contact with stiff metallic implant components, which causes decreases in contact area and increases in contact stresses. Recently, reverse engineered implants have been proposed which are intended to promote more natural contact mechanics by reproducing the native bone or cartilage shape. In this study, finite element modeling is used in order to calculate changes in cartilage contact areas and stresses following distal humeral hemiarthroplasty with commercially available and reverse engineered implant designs. At the ulna, decreases in contact area were -34±3% (p=0.002), -27±1% (p<0.001) and -14±2% (p=0.008) using commercially available, bone reverse engineered and cartilage reverse engineered designs, respectively. Peak contact stresses increased by 461±57% (p=0.008), 387±127% (p=0.229) and 165±16% (p=0.003). At the radius, decreases in contact area were -21±3% (p=0.013), -13±2% (p<0.006) and -6±1% (p=0.020), and peak contact stresses increased by 75±52% (p>0.999), 241±32% (p=0.010) and 61±10% (p=0.021). Between the three different implant designs, the cartilage reverse engineered design yielded the largest contact areas and lowest contact stresses, but was still unable to reproduce the contact mechanics of the native joint. These findings align with a growing body of evidence indicating that although reverse engineered hemiarthroplasty implants can provide small improvements in contact mechanics when compared with commercially available designs, further optimization of shape and material properties is required in order reproduce native joint contact mechanics. PMID:26493347

  11. Occipital Condyle Fracture With Isolated Unilateral Hypoglossal Nerve Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jin Won; Lim, Oh Kyung; Park, Ki Deok

    2014-01-01

    Occipital condyle fractures (OCFs) with selective involvement of the hypoglossal canal are rare. OCFs usually occur after major trauma and combine multiple fractures. We describe a 38-year-old man who presented with neck pain and a tongue deviation to the right side after a traffic accident. Severe limitations were detected during active and passive range of neck motion in all directions. A physical examination revealed a normal gag reflex and normal mobility of the palate, larynx, and shoulder girdle. He had normal taste and general sensation in his tongue. However, he presented with a tongue deviation to the right side on protrusion. A videofluoroscopic swallowing study revealed piecemeal deglutition due to decreased tongue mobility but no aspiration of food. Plain X-ray film findings were negative, but a computed tomography study with coronal reconstruction demonstrated a right OCF involving the hypoglossal canal. An electrodiagnostic study revealed evidence of right hypoglossal nerve palsy. We report a rare case of isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy caused by an OCF. PMID:25379499

  12. Application of Additional Medial Plate in Treatment of Proximal Humeral Fractures With Unstable Medial Column: A Finite Element Study and Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    He, Yu; He, Jiliang; Wang, Fu; Zhou, Dongsheng; Wang, Yan; Wang, Bomin; Xu, Shihong

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to use finite element analysis to compare the biomechanical characteristics after lateral locking plate (LLP) or LLP with a medial anatomical locking plate (LLP-MLP) fixation of proximal humeral fractures with an unstable medial column.First, a 3-dimensional, finite element analysis model was developed. Next, LLP and LLP-MLP implants were instrumented into the proximal humeral fracture models. Compressive and rotational loads were then applied to the humerus model to determine the biomechanical characteristics. Both normal and osteoporotic proximal humerus fractures were simulated using 2 internal fixation methods each under 7 loading conditions. To assess the biomechanical characteristics, the construct stiffness, fracture micromotion, and stress distribution on the implants were recorded and compared.The LLP-MLP method provided both lateral and medial support that reduced the stress on the LLP and the amount of displacement in the fracture region. In contrast, the LLP method resulted in more instability in the medial column and larger magnitudes of stress. In osteoporotic bone, the LLP was more inclined to fail than LLP-MLP.The LLP-MLP method provides a strong support for the medial column and increases the stability of the region surrounding the fracture. PMID:26469918

  13. Prediction bands and intervals for the scapulo-humeral coordination based on the Bootstrap and two Gaussian methods.

    PubMed

    Cutti, A G; Parel, I; Raggi, M; Petracci, E; Pellegrini, A; Accardo, A P; Sacchetti, R; Porcellini, G

    2014-03-21

    Quantitative motion analysis protocols have been developed to assess the coordination between scapula and humerus. However, the application of these protocols to test whether a subject's scapula resting position or pattern of coordination is "normal", is precluded by the unavailability of reference prediction intervals and bands, respectively. The aim of this study was to present such references for the "ISEO" protocol, by using the non-parametric Bootstrap approach and two parametric Gaussian methods (based on Student's T and Normal distributions). One hundred and eleven asymptomatic subjects were divided into three groups based on their age (18-30, 31-50, and 51-70). For each group, "monolateral" prediction bands and intervals were computed for the scapulo-humeral patterns and the scapula resting orientation, respectively. A fourth group included the 36 subjects (42 ± 13 year-old) for whom the scapulo-humeral coordination was measured bilaterally, and "differential" prediction bands and intervals were computed, which describe right-to-left side differences. Bootstrap and Gaussian methods were compared using cross-validation analyses, by evaluating the coverage probability in comparison to a 90% target. Results showed a mean coverage for Bootstrap from 86% to 90%, compared to 67-70% for parametric bands and 87-88% for parametric intervals. Bootstrap prediction bands showed a distinctive change in amplitude and mean pattern related to age, with an increase toward scapula retraction, lateral rotation and posterior tilt. In conclusion, Bootstrap ensures an optimal coverage and should be preferred over parametric methods. Moreover, the stratification of "monolateral" prediction bands and intervals by age appears relevant for the correct classification of patients. PMID:24485513

  14. Hemi resurfacing of the humeral head for an osteochondral lesion affecting the entire head surface.

    PubMed

    Howard, Anthony; Smith, Matthew; Hughes, Peter; Bale, Stephen

    2009-08-01

    An osteochondral lesion of the entire articular surface of the humeral head has not previously been reported. We report the case of a 73-year-old woman with a huge osteochrondal lesion which affected virtually the whole articular surface of the humeral head, caused by an unusal mechanism of injury. Clinical examination revealed a stiff, weak, painful shoulder. Radiographs were unremarkable and an ultrasound scan suggested a supraspinatus tear with retraction. At arthroscopy the lesion was identified but the lesion was to large for arthroscopic removal. A humeral head hemi-resurfacing as a treatment for this lesion produced excellent results, the patient returned to her pre-injury level of function with no pain. PMID:19774825

  15. Segmentation of humeral head from axial proton density weighted shoulder MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezer, Aysun; Sezer, Hasan Basri; Albayrak, Songul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of segmentation of axial MR proton density (PD) images of bony humeral head. PD sequence images which are included in standard shoulder MRI protocol are used instead of T1 MR images. Bony structures were reported to be successfully segmented in the literature from T1 MR images. T1 MR images give more sharp determination of bone and soft tissue border but cannot address the pathological process which takes place in the bone. In the clinical settings PD images of shoulder are used to investigate soft tissue alterations which can cause shoulder instability and are better in demonstrating edema and the pathology but have a higher noise ratio than other modalities. Moreover the alteration of humeral head intensity in patients and soft tissues in contact with the humeral head which have the very similar intensities with bone makes the humeral head segmentation a challenging problem in PD images. However segmentation of the bony humeral head is required initially to facilitate the segmentation of the soft tissues of shoulder. In this study shoulder MRI of 33 randomly selected patients were included. Speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion (SRAD) method was used to decrease noise and then Active Contour Without Edge (ACWE) and Signed Pressure Force (SPF) models were applied on our data set. Success of these methods is determined by comparing our results with manually segmented images by an expert. Applications of these methods on PD images provide highly successful results for segmentation of bony humeral head. This is the first study to determine bone contours in PD images in literature.

  16. Taxonomic identification of Lower Pleistocene fossil hominins based on distal humeral diaphyseal cross-sectional shape.

    PubMed

    Lague, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    The coexistence of multiple hominin species during the Lower Pleistocene has long presented a challenge for taxonomic attribution of isolated postcrania. Although fossil humeri are well-suited for studies of hominin postcranial variation due to their relative abundance, humeral articular morphology has thus far been of limited value for differentiating Paranthropus from Homo. On the other hand, distal humeral diaphyseal shape has been used to justify such generic distinctions at Swartkrans. The potential utility of humeral diaphyseal shape merits larger-scale quantitative analysis, particularly as it permits the inclusion of fragmentary specimens lacking articular morphology. This study analyzes shape variation of the distal humeral diaphysis among fossil hominins (c. 2-1 Ma) to test the hypothesis that specimens can be divided into distinct morphotypes. Coordinate landmarks were placed on 3D laser scans to quantify cross-sectional shape at a standardized location of the humeral diaphysis (proximal to the olecranon fossa) for a variety of fossil hominins and extant hominids. The fossil sample includes specimens attributed to species based on associated craniodental remains. Mantel tests of matrix correlation were used to assess hypotheses about morphometric relationships among the fossils by comparing empirically-derived Procrustes distance matrices to hypothetical model matrices. Diaphyseal shape variation is consistent with the hypothesis of three distinct morphotypes (Paranthropus, Homo erectus, non-erectus early Homo) in both eastern and southern Africa during the observed time period. Specimens attributed to non-erectus early Homo are unique among hominids with respect to the degree of relative anteroposterior flattening, while H. erectus humeri exhibit morphology more similar to that of modern humans. In both geographic regions, Paranthropus is characterized by a morphology that is intermediate with respect to those morphological features that differentiate the two forms of early Homo. This study demonstrates the utility of the humeral diaphysis for taxonomic identification of isolated postcranial remains and further documents a high degree of postcranial diversity in early Homo. PMID:26213653

  17. Taxonomic identification of Lower Pleistocene fossil hominins based on distal humeral diaphyseal cross-sectional shape

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The coexistence of multiple hominin species during the Lower Pleistocene has long presented a challenge for taxonomic attribution of isolated postcrania. Although fossil humeri are well-suited for studies of hominin postcranial variation due to their relative abundance, humeral articular morphology has thus far been of limited value for differentiating Paranthropus from Homo. On the other hand, distal humeral diaphyseal shape has been used to justify such generic distinctions at Swartkrans. The potential utility of humeral diaphyseal shape merits larger-scale quantitative analysis, particularly as it permits the inclusion of fragmentary specimens lacking articular morphology. This study analyzes shape variation of the distal humeral diaphysis among fossil hominins (c. 2-1 Ma) to test the hypothesis that specimens can be divided into distinct morphotypes. Coordinate landmarks were placed on 3D laser scans to quantify cross-sectional shape at a standardized location of the humeral diaphysis (proximal to the olecranon fossa) for a variety of fossil hominins and extant hominids. The fossil sample includes specimens attributed to species based on associated craniodental remains. Mantel tests of matrix correlation were used to assess hypotheses about morphometric relationships among the fossils by comparing empirically-derived Procrustes distance matrices to hypothetical model matrices. Diaphyseal shape variation is consistent with the hypothesis of three distinct morphotypes (Paranthropus, Homo erectus, non-erectus early Homo) in both eastern and southern Africa during the observed time period. Specimens attributed to non-erectus early Homo are unique among hominids with respect to the degree of relative anteroposterior flattening, while H. erectus humeri exhibit morphology more similar to that of modern humans. In both geographic regions, Paranthropus is characterized by a morphology that is intermediate with respect to those morphological features that differentiate the two forms of early Homo. This study demonstrates the utility of the humeral diaphysis for taxonomic identification of isolated postcranial remains and further documents a high degree of postcranial diversity in early Homo. PMID:26213653

  18. Humeral cross-sectional shape in suspensory primates and sloths.

    PubMed

    Patel, Biren A; Ruff, Christopher B; Simons, Erin L R; Organ, Jason M

    2013-04-01

    Studies on the cross-sectional geometry of long bones in African apes have documented that shape ratios derived from second moments of area about principle axes (e.g., Imax /Imin ) are often correlated with habitual locomotor behaviors. For example, humeral cross-sections tend to appear more circular in more arboreal and forelimb suspensory chimpanzees compared with terrestrial quadrupedal gorillas. These data support the hypothesis that cross-sections that are more circular in shape are adapted for multidirectional loading regimes and bending moments encountered when using acrobatic locomotor behaviors. Whether a more circular humerus reflects greater use of forelimb suspension in other primates and nonprimate mammals is unknown. In this study, cross-sections at or near midshaft of the humerus were obtained from anthropoid primates that differ in their use of forelimb suspension, as well as from two genera of suspensory sloths. Imax /Imin ratios were compared within and between groups, and correlations were made with behavioral data. In broad comparisons, observed differences in morphology follow predicted patterns. Humeri of suspensory sloths are circular. Humeri of the more suspensory hominoids tend to be more circular than those of quadrupedal taxa. Humeri of the suspensory atelines are similar to hominoids, while those of Cebus are more like nonsuspensory cercopithecoids. There is, however, considerable overlap between taxa and within finer comparisons variation between species are not in the predicted direction. Thus, although Imax /Imin ratios of the humerus are informative for characterizing generalized locomotor modes (i.e., forelimb suspensory vs. quadrupedal), additional structural information is needed for more fine-grained assessments of locomotion. PMID:23408647

  19. Humeral head cysts: association with rotator cuff tears and age.

    PubMed

    Suluova, Fatih; Kanatli, Ulunay; Ozturk, Burak Yagmur; Esen, Erdinc; Bolukbasi, Selcuk

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the prevalence of the cystic changes at rotator cuff footprint on proximal humeral tuberosities and investigate their relationship with rotator cuff tears and patient age. Magnetic resonance (MR) images of 657 patients who underwent shoulder arthroscopy for treatment of rotator cuff disorders were reviewed to localize the cystic changes at anterior (supraspinatus insertion) and posterior (infraspinatus insertion) aspects of greater tuberosity (GT) and lesser tuberosity (subscapularis insertion). Preoperative MR reports as well as cyst size and locations on MR images were correlated with arthroscopic records of rotator cuff pathology (tear type, size, location and tendon involvement) and patient age. The prevalence of cystic changes was 9.1% (60 patients) in the study population. Anterior GT cysts were found in 56% of patients and were strongly associated with full-thickness (p<.001) and articular-sided partial-thickness rotator cuff tears (p=.02). Posterior GT and lesser tuberosity cysts were found in 27 and 17% of patients, respectively, and were not significantly related to rotator cuff tears, although there was an increased trend of posterior cysts in patients with infraspinatus tears (p=.09). A significant relation was found between patient age and the cyst size (p=.01), while none of the cyst localizations were statistically related to age. Anterior GT cysts were more common in this patient group and demonstrated a strong association with rotator cuff disorders regardless of age. Posterior GT and lesser tuberosity cysts were less common and showed no association with rotator cuff pathology or patient age. PMID:23748696

  20. Separation of the Proximal Humeral Epiphysis in the Newborn: Rapid Diagnosis with Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Goldfisher, Rachelle; Amodio, John

    2015-01-01

    Separation of the proximal humeral epiphysis (SPHE) is a well-known occurrence and may occur secondary to trauma, infection, and nonaccidental trauma. Since most newborns do not have the proximal humeral epiphysis ossified at birth, the diagnosis may be difficult to make on routine radiographs. Ultrasonography of the shoulder in the newborn is rapid, noninvasive, and nonionizing imaging techniques which can diagnose SPHE. In this report, we describe and emphasize the diagnostic utility of state-of-the-art ultrasonography for the diagnosis of SPHE. PMID:25694841

  1. Improving Distal Fixation with Total Shoulder Arthroplasty in Cases of Severe Humeral Bone Loss.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Amanda; Stroud, Nick; Roche, Christopher P

    2015-12-01

    The usage of and indications for total shoulder arthroplasty have grown in recent years. Certain aspects of these arthro - plasty procedures can be very complex, especially in revi - sion and fracture cases, often leading to proximal humerus bone loss. For cases with significant bone loss, there is a need for improved devices with additional options to treat a wider range of deformities while also mitigating existing complications and rates, such as poor distal fixation, inad - equate soft tissue reattachment options, and joint instability. To that end, a fatigue and torsional test was conducted on two different devices to assess the ability of each to survive an extreme fatigue and torsional load when assembled in worst-case configurations. Evaluation of the Equinoxe ® humeral reconstruction prosthesis demonstrated superior fixation in both the fatigue loading scenario and also the torsional loading scenario as compared to the 8 mm x 215 mm cemented humeral long stem, where each had only 80 mm of cemented fixation. The results of the fatigue test demonstrated that despite the humeral reconstruction pros - thesis being subjected to a 960 N force and 45 Nm bending moment (which was significantly more challenging than the 576 N force and 24.2 Nm bending moment subjected to the cemented humeral long stem), the humeral reconstruction prosthesis completed 1 M cycles without fracture or failure. Additionally, the Equinoxe ® humeral reconstruction pros - thesis was associated with a significantly greater torsional resistance in both the torque to initial slip (29.4 Nm versus 8.2 Nm; p = 0.0002) and also the maximum torque to failure (44.3 Nm versus 12.1 Nm; p < 0.0001). These significant improvements in fixation are at least partially attributed to the application of a novel distal fixation ring, which is press fit around the diaphysis of the humerus to supplement the cemented fixation of the distal stem. These fatigue and torsional test results paired with several novel features of - fer the potential for the Equinoxe ® humeral reconstruction prosthesis to be an improved treatment option for patients with proximal humeral bone loss, though clinical follow-up is necessary to confirm these positive biomechanical results. PMID:26631195

  2. 78 FR 9010 - Dental Devices; Reclassification of Temporary Mandibular Condyle Prosthesis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ..., 1993 (59 FR 65475; December 20, 1994). In response to a petition dated April 30, 1996 (FDA-1996-P-0253... malignant and benign tumors (63 FR 71743). In 2009, FDA published an order for the submission of information on mandibular condyle prostheses indicated for temporary reconstruction (74 FR 16214; April 9,...

  3. Ectopic third molar in the mandibular condyle: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias-Martin, Fernando; Torres-Carranza, Eusebio; Prats-Golczer, Victoria-Eugenia; Garcia-Perla-Garcia, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the etiopathogenesis, clinical features, therapeutic options, and surgical approaches for removal of ectopic third molars in the mandibular condyle. Study design: MEDLINE search of articles published on ectopic third molars in the mandibular condyle from 1980 to 2011. 14 well-documented clinical cases from the literature were evaluated together with a new clinical case provided by the authors, representing a sample of 15 patients. Results: We found a mean age at diagnosis of 48.6 years and a higher prevalence in women. In 14 patients, associated radiolucent lesions were diagnosed on radiographic studies and confirmed histopathologically as odontogenic cysts. Clinical symptoms were pain and swelling in the jaw or preauricular region, trismus, difficulty chewing, cutaneous fistula and temporomandibular joint dysfunction. Treatment included conservative management in one case and in the other cases, surgical removal by intra- or extraoral approaches, the latter being the most common approach carried out. In most reported cases, serious complications were not outlined. Conclusions: The etiopathogenic theory involving odontogenic cysts in the displacement of third molars to the mandibular condyle seems to be the most relevant. They must be removed if they cause symptoms or are associated with cystic pathology. The surgical route must be planned according to the location and position of the ectopic third molar, and the possible morbidity associated with surgery. Key words:Third molar, ectopic tooth, condyle, mandible. PMID:22926463

  4. Short communication Measuring humeral head translation using fluoroscopy: A validation study

    E-print Network

    Karduna, Andrew

    Shoulder impingement syndrome and rotator cuff tears are among the most common chronic shoulder injuries). Superior translation of the humeral head is believed to be one of the causes of shoulder impingement to its involvement with several shoulder pathologies. However, most of the techniques were not validated

  5. In Vivo Measurement of Humeral Elevation Angles and Exposure Using a Triaxial Accelerometer

    E-print Network

    Karduna, Andrew

    , Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. Objective: The aim of this study was to measure the capability to estimate elevation angles and exposure parameters in occupational groups. Method: A magnetic tracking device was used to assess the ability of the Virtual Corset to evaluate humeral elevation angles

  6. Treatment of Humeral Shaft Fractures: Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis Versus Open Reduction and Internal Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Esmailiejah, Ali Akbar; Abbasian, Mohammad Reza; Safdari, Farshad; Ashoori, Keyqobad

    2015-01-01

    Background: The optimal technique for operative fixation of humeral shaft fractures remains controversial and warrants research. Objectives: The purpose of the current study was to compare the functional and clinical outcomes of conventional open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) in patients with fractures in two-third distal humeral shaft. Patients and Methods: In the current prospective case-control study, 65 patients with humeral shaft fractures were treated using ORIF (33 patients) or MIPO (32 patients). Time of surgery, time of union, incidence of varus deformity and complications were compared between the two groups. Also, the university of California-Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder rating scale and Mayo Elbow performance score (MEPS) were used to compare the functional outcomes between the two groups. Results: The median of union time was shorter in the MIPO group (4 months versus 5 months). The time of surgery and functional outcomes based on the UCLA and MEPS scores were the same. The incidence of varus deformity was more than 5° and was higher and the incidence of nonunion, infection and iatrogenic radial nerve injury were lower in the MIPO group; however, the differences were not significant. Conclusions: Due to the shorter union time, to some extent less complication rate and comparable functional and clinical results, the authors recommend to use the MIPO technique in treating the mid-distal humeral shaft fracture. PMID:26543844

  7. Humeral Fractures in South-Eastern Australia: Epidemiology and Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Kara L; Bucki-Smith, Gosia; Morse, Amelia G; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Kotowicz, Mark A; Moloney, David J; Sanders, Kerrie M; Korn, Sam; Timney, Elizabeth N; Dobbins, Amelia G; Pasco, Julie A

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we report the epidemiology and risk factors for humeral fractures (proximal humerus and shaft) among men and women residing in south-eastern Australia. Incident fractures during 2006 and 2007 were identified using X-ray reports (Geelong Osteoporosis Study Fracture Grid). Risk factors were identified using data from case-control studies conducted as part of the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Median age of fracture was lower in males than females for proximal humerus (33.0 vs 71.2 years), but not for humeral shaft (8.9 vs 8.5 years). For females, proximal humerus fractures occurred mainly in the 70-79 and 80+ years age groups, whereas humeral shaft fractures followed a U-shaped pattern. Males showed a U-shaped pattern for both proximal humerus and humeral shaft fractures. Overall age-standardised incidence rates for proximal humerus fractures in males and females were 40.6 (95% CI 32.7, 48.5) and 73.2 (95% CI 62.2, 84.1) per 100,000 person years, respectively. For humeral shaft fractures, the age-standardised rate was 69.3 (95% CI 59.0, 79.6) for males and 61.5 (95% CI 51.9, 71.0) for females. There was an increase in risk of proximal humerus fractures in men with a lower femoral neck BMD, younger age, prior fracture and higher milk consumption. In pre-menopausal women, increased height and falls were both risk factors for proximal humerus fractures. For post-menopausal women, risk factors associated with proximal humerus fractures included a lower non-milk dairy consumption and sustaining a prior fracture. Humeral shaft fractures in both sexes were sustained mainly in childhood, while proximal humerus fractures were sustained in older adulthood. The overall age-standardised rates of proximal humerus fractures were nearly twice as high in females compared to males, whereas the incidence rates of humeral shaft fractures were similar. PMID:26169198

  8. Minimal Invasive Percutaneous Osteosynthesis for Elderly Valgus Impacted Proximal Humeral Fractures with the PHILOS

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hang; Hu, Xiaochuan; Tang, Haochen; Yang, Guoyong; Xiang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing concern about elderly valgus impacted proximal humeral fractures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment and clinical outcomes following minimal invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis (MIPPO) with the proximal humeral internal locking system (PHILOS) for the treatment of elderly valgus impacted proximal humeral fracture. Between May 2008 and May 2012, 27 patients (average age 67.3, range 61–74) with valgus impacted proximal humeral fractures were enrolled in the study. The patients were treated with MIPPO using PHILOS-plate through the anterolateral delta-splitting approach. Rehabilitation exercises were done gradually. The NEER score and Constant-Murley score were used to evaluate shoulder function. All the patients were followed up by routine radiological imaging and clinical examination. There were 15 cases of II-part greater tuberosity fractures, 10 cases of III-part greater tuberosity fractures, and 2 cases of IV-part fractures according to the NEER classification. The surgery was successful in all patients with an average follow-up of 20.8 (range: 11–34) months. The fractures united in an average of 7.2 (6–14) weeks without implant loosening. According to NEER score, there were 17 excellent, 7 satisfactory, 2 unsatisfactory, and 1 poor. The mean Constant-Murley score was 89.4 ± 4.35. No complication including axillary nerve damage, postoperative nerve or vessel damage, infections, DVT, or death was observed. In conclusion, the MIPPO technique with the PHILOS through the anterolateral delta-splitting approach seems to be a safe and easy treatment for elderly valgus impacted proximal humeral fractures. A case-control study and longer follow-up time are needed.

  9. Osteomyelitis of the condyle secondary to pericoronitis of a third molar: a case and literature review.

    PubMed

    Wang, R; Cai, Y; Zhao, Y F; Zhao, J H

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we report a very unusual case of a patient with osteomyelitis of the condyle secondary to pericoronitis of an impacted third molar. The patient was treated by removal of the impacted third molar, opening of the drainage, combined with systemic application of antibiotics for two weeks. This treatment option did not lead to any functional defects or facial asymmetry. The patient fully recovered and the disease did not recur. PMID:24819410

  10. Medial femoral condyle fracture following traumatic allogenic bone transfer – A case report

    PubMed Central

    Kondreddi, Vamsi; Roy, Kishore; Yalamanchili, Ranjith Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Open fractures can cause an “out-in” injury, wherein a foreign body can penetrate the skin causing fracture. There are few reports of allogenic bone getting embedded in soft tissue, but one causing fracture to the host bone has not been reported till date. We present a case, wherein a large cortical bony fragment from one individual penetrated the thigh of another person causing fracture of medial femoral condyle during a head-on collision involving two motorbikes. PMID:26155058

  11. Effect of alendronate on endochondral ossification in mandibular condyles of growing rats

    PubMed Central

    Bradaschia-Correa, V.; Barrence, F.A.C.; Ferreira, L.B.; Massa, L.F.; Arana-Chavez, V.E.

    2012-01-01

    The replacement of the calcified cartilage by bone tissue during the endochondral ossification of the mandibular condyle is dependent of the resorbing activity of osteoclats. After partial resorption, calcified cartilage septa are covered by a primary bone matrix secreted by osteoblasts. Osteoadherin (OSAD) is a small proteoglycan present in bone matrix but absent in cartilage during the endochondral ossification. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of alendronate, a drug known to inhibit bone resorption by osteoclasts, on the endochondral ossification of the mandibular condyle of young rats, by evaluating the distribution of osteoclasts and the presence of OSAD in the bone matrix deposited. Wistar newborn rats (n=45) received daily injections of alendronate (n=27) or sterile saline solution as control (n=18) from the day of birth until the ages of 4, 14 and 30 days. At the days mentioned, the mandibular condyles were collected and processed for transmission electron microscopy analysis. Specimens were also submitted to tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) histochemistry and ultrastructural immunodetection of OSAD. Alendronate treatment did not impede the recruitment and fusion of osteoclasts at the ossification zone during condyle growth, but they presented inactivated phenotype. The trabeculae at the ossification area consisted of cartilage matrix covered by a layer of primary bone matrix that was immunopositive to OSAD at all time points studied. Apparently, alendronate impeded the removal of calcified cartilage and maturation of bone trabeculae in the mandibular ramus, while in controls they occurred normally. These findings highlight for giving attention to the potential side-effects of bisphosphonates administered to young patients once it may represent a risk of disturbing maxillofacial development. PMID:22688305

  12. Proliferative periostitis of the mandibular ramus and condyle: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Hyun; Kim, Seong-Gon

    2015-01-01

    Proliferative periostitis is a rare form of osteomyelitis that is characterized by new bone formation with periosteal reaction common causes of proliferative periostitis are dental caries, periodontitis, cysts, and trauma. While proliferative periostitis typically presents as a localized lesion, in this study, we describe an extensive form of proliferative periostitis involving the whole mandibular ramus and condyle. Because the radiographic findings were similar to osteogenic sarcoma, an accurate differential diagnosis was important for proper treatment. PMID:26339579

  13. Marchetti Vicenzi elastic retrograde nail in the treatment of humeral shaft fractures: review of the current literature.

    PubMed

    Ruffilli, A; Traina, F; Pilla, F; Fenga, D; Faldini, C

    2015-12-01

    Shoulder impairment following anterograde intramedullary nailing for humeral shaft fractures represents a challenging problem for the orthopedic surgeon. Traditional retrograde nailing lowers the rates of shoulder impairment although exposing the surgeons to severe technical issues related to the proximal interlocking. The Marchetti Vicenzi nail (MVN) permits a retrograde insertion along with a self-locking mechanism that lowers the risk of iatrogenic damage during proximal interlocking. Aim of this literature review was to evaluate all the case series dealing with MVN and the obtained results in terms of union rates, complications, and functional outcomes in order to evaluate evidence that would substantiate the adoption of MVN in the treatment of humeral shaft fractures. A search was performed using the keywords "humeral shaft fracture nail," "humeral retrograde nail," "humeral elastic nail," "Marchetti Vicenzi nail," "Marchetti nail," "Vicenzi nail." After accurate revision 13 articles found to be relevant with a total of 532 humeral fractures (traumatic and pathologic) and non-unions treated with MVN. The cumulative healing rate reported is 93.7 % with 6.3 % of non-unions. Despite the fact that obtained results compare favorably to the published data on the outcome of anterograde nailing, the evaluated studies presented a huge number of methodological flaws, thus making it difficult to recommend the adoption of MVN in preference of other better-validated forms of treatment. PMID:26559733

  14. Traumatic dislocation of the mandibular condyle into the middle cranial fossa in an elderly patient.

    PubMed

    Tutela, John P; Verbist, Daniel E; Kelishadi, Shahrooz; Little, Jarrod A

    2013-09-01

    Dislocation of the mandibular condyle into the middle cranial fossa is a rare traumatic injury caused by transmission of upward force through the condyle onto the glenoid fossa resulting in fracture of the fossa and superior displacement of the condylar head. This type of injury occurs when the "safety mechanisms" of the mandible fail or are absent. The authors present the case of a 72-year-old female patient with multiple comorbidities who suffered a subcondylar fracture of the left mandible and dislocation of the right mandibular condyle into the middle cranial fossa after a fall. Bilateral external fixation of the mandible to the zygomatic arch was utilized to minimize operative time and provide definitive treatment. Many factors must be taken into account when determining the treatment modality for this type of injury, and the final decision should be tailored to each individual case based on several factors including the length of time between injury and presentation, concomitant neurologic deficit, age, and stability of the patient. The goals of treatment are reduction of the dislocation, avoidance of neurologic injury, and restoration of mandibular function. A multidisciplinary effort is necessary to optimize patient care. PMID:24036758

  15. Current Concepts in the Mandibular Condyle Fracture Management Part I: Overview of Condylar Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jung-Dug; Chung, Ho-Yun; Cho, Byung-Chae

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of condylar fractures is high, but the management of fractures of the mandibular condyle continues to be controversial. Historically, maxillomandibular fixation, external fixation, and surgical splints with internal fixation systems were the techniques commonly used in the treatment of the fractured mandible. Condylar fractures can be extracapsular or intracapsular, undisplaced, deviated, displaced, or dislocated. Treatment depends on the age of the patient, the co-existence of other mandibular or maxillary fractures, whether the condylar fracture is unilateral or bilateral, the level and displacement of the fracture, the state of dentition and dental occlusion, and the surgeonnds on the age of the patient, the co-existence of othefrom which it is difficult to recover aesthetically and functionally;an appropriate treatment is required to reconstruct the shape and achieve the function ofthe uninjured status. To do this, accurate diagnosis, appropriate reduction and rigid fixation, and complication prevention are required. In particular, as mandibular condyle fracture may cause long-term complications such as malocclusion, particularly open bite, reduced posterior facial height, and facial asymmetry in addition to chronic pain and mobility limitation, great caution should be taken. Accordingly, the authors review a general overview of condyle fracture. PMID:22872830

  16. Secondary Radial Nerve Palsy after Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis of a Distal Humeral Shaft Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Bichsel, Ursina; Nyffeler, Richard Walter

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis is a widely used procedure for the treatment of fractures of the femur and the tibia. For a short time it is also used for the treatment of humeral shaft fractures. Among other advantages, the ambassadors of this technique emphasize the lower risk of nerve injuries when compared to open reduction and internal fixation. We report the case of secondary radial nerve palsy caused by percutaneous fixation of a plate above the antecubital fold. The nerve did not recover and the patient needed a tendon transfer to regain active extension of the fingers. This case points to the importance of adequate exposure of the bone and plate if a humeral shaft fracture extends far distally. PMID:26558125

  17. Four-part proximal humeral fractures: diagnosis with the ‘sunset’ sign on anteroposterior radiograph

    PubMed Central

    Kachramanoglou, C; Chidambaram, R; Mok, D

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Four-part proximal humeral fractures require surgical intervention. However, they can be difficult to diagnose in radiological images. We aim to define a new, easily recognisable, radiological sign as a predictor of four-part fracture of the proximal humerus in a plain anteroposterior radiograph of the shoulder. PATIENTS AND METHODS We describe our ‘sunset’ sign as ‘articular surface of humeral head pointing away from the glenoid and tilted upwards, in the presence of a displaced greater tuberosity fracture’. We postulate that a patient with proximal humerus fracture showing this sign has four-part fracture until proven otherwise. Between 2002 and 2006, 80 consecutive patients had surgical treatment of their proximal humeral fractures in our unit. Pre-operative radiographs and operative notes of 79 patients were evaluated independently by three blinded observers. The presence of ‘sunset’ sign was recorded. Findings were then correlated with the operative diagnoses to confirm whether they were four-part fractures or not. With 95% confidence interval, we calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for our diagnostic sign. RESULTS Of 79 patients, 30 displayed ‘sunset’ sign in their pre-operative radiograph. Of these, 28 had confirmed four-part fractures operatively. The positive predictive value of ‘sunset’ sign was 93%. The specificity and sensitivity were 95% and 78%, respectively. The sensitivity was affected by eight patients with four-part fractures with displaced articular head fragment which had dropped either medially or posteriorly. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that, in patients with proximal humeral fractures, the presence of ‘sunset’ sign in the anteroposterior radiograph is a reliable indicator of four-part fracture. PMID:20522308

  18. Severe humeral erosion in a bedridden patient: a comprehensive intervention to prevent bone fracture.

    PubMed

    Ferriero, Giorgio; Brunetto, Alessandro; Sartorio, Francesco; Vercelli, Stefano

    2004-12-01

    This article reports a 1-yr prospective study related to a bedridden patient with rotator cuff tear arthropathy featuring severe erosion of the proximal part of the humerus. To prevent spontaneous humeral fracture, a comprehensive intervention was planned. This included drug therapy for osteoporosis and pain, nurse team training on patient handling techniques, and patient and caregiver education. After 1 yr, clinical and radiologic findings are stable. PMID:15624573

  19. A comparison of proximal humeral cancellous bone of great apes and humans.

    PubMed

    Scherf, H; Harvati, K; Hublin, J-J

    2013-07-01

    The shoulder is the most mobile joint in the primate body, and is involved in both locomotor and manipulative activities. The presumed functional sensibility of trabecular bone can offer a way of decoding the activities to which the forelimbs of fossil primates were subjected. We examine the proximal humeral trabecular architecture in a relatively closely related group of similarly sized hominids (Pongo pygmaeus, Pan troglodytes, and Homo sapiens), in order to evaluate the effect of diverging habitual motion behaviors of the shoulder complex in a coherent phylogenetic group. In order to characterize and compare the humeral trabecular architectures of the three species, we imaged a large sample by high-resolution computed tomography (HrCT) and quantified their trabecular architectures by standard bone 3D morphometric parameters. Univariate statistical analysis was performed, showing significant differences among the species. However, univariate statistics could not highlight the structural particularity in the cancellous bone of each species. A principal component analysis also showed clear separation of the three taxa and enabled a structural characterization of the humeral trabecular bone of each species. We conclude that the differences in the architectural setup of the three hominids likely reflect multiple differences in their habitual activity patterns of their shoulder joint, although individual structural features are difficult to relate to specific loading conditions. PMID:23680068

  20. Evaluation of reference gene suitability for quantitative expression analysis by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in the mandibular condyle of sheep

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, XIN; XUE, YANG; ZHOU, HONGZHI; LI, SHOUHONG; ZHANG, ZONGMIN; HOU, RUI; DING, YUXIANG; HU, KAIJIN

    2015-01-01

    Reference genes are commonly used as a reliable approach to normalize the results of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and to reduce errors in the relative quantification of gene expression. Suitable reference genes belonging to numerous functional classes have been identified for various types of species and tissue. However, little is currently known regarding the most suitable reference genes for bone, specifically for the sheep mandibular condyle. Sheep are important for the study of human bone diseases, particularly for temporomandibular diseases. The present study aimed to identify a set of reference genes suitable for the normalization of qPCR data from the mandibular condyle of sheep. A total of 12 reference genes belonging to various functional classes were selected, and the expression stability of the reference genes was determined in both the normal and fractured area of the sheep mandibular condyle. RefFinder, which integrates the following currently available computational algorithms: geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and the comparative ?Ct method, was used to compare and rank the candidate reference genes. The results obtained from the four methods demonstrated a similar trend: RPL19, ACTB, and PGK1 were the most stably expressed reference genes in the sheep mandibular condyle. As determined by RefFinder comprehensive analysis, the results of the present study suggested that RPL19 is the most suitable reference gene for studies associated with the sheep mandibular condyle. In addition, ACTB and PGK1 may be considered suitable alternatives. PMID:26238421

  1. Pullulan/dextran/nHA macroporous composite beads for bone repair in a femoral condyle defect in rats.

    PubMed

    Schlaubitz, Silke; Derkaoui, Sidi Mohammed; Marosa, Lydia; Miraux, Sylvain; Renard, Martine; Catros, Sylvain; Le Visage, Catherine; Letourneur, Didier; Amédée, Joëlle; Fricain, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The repair of bone defects is of particular interest for orthopedic, oral, maxillofacial, and dental surgery. Bone loss requiring reconstruction is conventionally addressed through bone grafting. Depending on the size and the location of the defect, this method has limits and risks. Biomaterials can offer an alternative and have features supporting bone repair. Here, we propose to evaluate the cellular penetration and bone formation of new macroporous beads based on pullulan/dextran that has been supplemented with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite in a rat model. Cross-linked beads of 300-500 µm diameters were used in a lateral femoral condyle defect and analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging, micro-computed tomography, and histology in comparison to the empty defects 15, 30, and 70 days after implantation. Inflammation was absent for both conditions. For empty defects, cellularisation and mineralization started from the periphery of the defect. For the defects containing beads, cellular structures filling out the spaces between the scaffolds with increasing interconnectivity and trabecular-like organization were observed over time. The analysis of calcified sections showed increased mineralization over time for both conditions, but was more pronounced for the samples containing beads. Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content were both significantly higher at day 70 for the beads in comparison to empty defects as well as compared with earlier time points. Analysis of newly formed tissue around the beads showed an increase of osteoid tissue, measured as percentage of the defect surface. This study suggests that the use of beads for the repair of small size defects in bone may be expanded on to meet the clinical need for a ready-to-use fill-up material that can favor bone formation and mineralization, as well as promote vessel ingrowth into the defect site. PMID:25330002

  2. Pullulan/dextran/nHA Macroporous Composite Beads for Bone Repair in a Femoral Condyle Defect in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Schlaubitz, Silke; Derkaoui, Sidi Mohammed; Marosa, Lydia; Miraux, Sylvain; Renard, Martine; Catros, Sylvain; Le Visage, Catherine; Letourneur, Didier; Amédée, Joëlle; Fricain, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The repair of bone defects is of particular interest for orthopedic, oral, maxillofacial, and dental surgery. Bone loss requiring reconstruction is conventionally addressed through bone grafting. Depending on the size and the location of the defect, this method has limits and risks. Biomaterials can offer an alternative and have features supporting bone repair. Here, we propose to evaluate the cellular penetration and bone formation of new macroporous beads based on pullulan/dextran that has been supplemented with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite in a rat model. Cross-linked beads of 300–500 µm diameters were used in a lateral femoral condyle defect and analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging, micro-computed tomography, and histology in comparison to the empty defects 15, 30, and 70 days after implantation. Inflammation was absent for both conditions. For empty defects, cellularisation and mineralization started from the periphery of the defect. For the defects containing beads, cellular structures filling out the spaces between the scaffolds with increasing interconnectivity and trabecular-like organization were observed over time. The analysis of calcified sections showed increased mineralization over time for both conditions, but was more pronounced for the samples containing beads. Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content were both significantly higher at day 70 for the beads in comparison to empty defects as well as compared with earlier time points. Analysis of newly formed tissue around the beads showed an increase of osteoid tissue, measured as percentage of the defect surface. This study suggests that the use of beads for the repair of small size defects in bone may be expanded on to meet the clinical need for a ready-to-use fill-up material that can favor bone formation and mineralization, as well as promote vessel ingrowth into the defect site. PMID:25330002

  3. Regional variation of bone tissue properties at the human mandibular condyle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Gyoon; Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Kosel, Erin; Agnew, Amanda M; McComb, David W; Bodnyk, Kyle; Hart, Richard T; Kim, Min Kyung; Han, Sang Yeun; Johnston, William M

    2015-08-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) bears different types of static and dynamic loading during occlusion and mastication. As such, characteristics of mandibular condylar bone tissue play an important role in determining the mechanical stability of the TMJ under the macro-level loading. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine regional variation of the elastic, plastic, and viscoelastic mechanical properties of human mandibular condylar bone tissue using nanoindentation. Cortical and trabecular bone were dissected from mandibular condyles of human cadavers (9 males, 54-96 years). These specimens were scanned using microcomputed tomography to obtain bone tissue mineral distribution. Then, nanoindentation was conducted on the surface of the same specimens in hydration. Plastic hardness (H) at a peak load, viscoelastic creep (Creep/Pmax), viscosity (?), and tangent delta (tan ?) during a 30 second hold period, and elastic modulus (E) during unloading were obtained by a cycle of indentation at the same site of bone tissue. The tissue mineral and nanoindentation parameters were analyzed for the periosteal and endosteal cortex, and trabecular bone regions of the mandibular condyle. The more mineralized periosteal cortex had higher mean values of elastic modulus, plastic hardness, and viscosity but lower viscoelastic creep and tan ? than the less mineralized trabecular bone of the mandibular condyle. These characteristics of bone tissue suggest that the periosteal cortex tissue may have more effective properties to resist elastic, plastic, and viscoelastic deformation under static loading, and the trabecular bone tissue to absorb and dissipate time-dependent viscoelastic loading energy at the TMJ during static occlusion and dynamic mastication. PMID:25913634

  4. Femoral Condyle Curvature is Correlated with Knee Walking Kinematics in Ungulates.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, Adam D

    2015-12-01

    The knee has been the focus of many studies linking mammalian postcranial form with locomotor behaviors and animal ecology. A more difficult task has been linking joint morphology with joint kinematics during locomotor tasks. Joint curvature represents one opportunity to link postcranial morphology with walking kinematics because joint curvature develops in response to mechanical loading. As an initial examination of mammalian knee joint curvature, the curvature of the medial femoral condyle was measured on femora representing 11 ungulate species. The position of a region of low curvature was measured using a metric termed the "angle to low curvature". This low-curvature region is important because it provides the greatest contact area between femoral and tibial condyles. Kinematic knee angles during walking were derived from the literature and kinematic knee angles across the gait cycle were correlated with angle to low curvature values. The highest correlation between kinematic knee angle and the angle to low curvature metric occurred at 20% of the walking gait cycle. This early portion of the walking gait cycle is associated with a peak in the vertical ground reaction force for some mammals. The chondral modeling theory predicts that frequent and heavy loading of particular regions of a joint surface during ontogeny will result in these regions being flatter than the surrounding joint surface. The locations of flatter regions of the femoral condyles of ungulates, and their association with knee angles used during the early stance phase of walking provides support for the chondral modeling theory. Anat Rec, 298:2039-2050, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26414648

  5. Failure of the Stem-Condyle Junction of a Modular Femoral Stem in Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Boe, Chelsea C; Fehring, Keith A; Trousdale, Robert T

    2015-10-01

    Newer technologies have been established in modern revision total knee arthroplasty, including modular junctions, which allow customization of the prosthesis intraoperatively. We report a case of failure of the stem-condyle junction of a modular femoral component of a revision total knee implant, despite appearing well fixed on preoperative radiographs. Intraoperatively, there was dissociation of the condylar component from the well-fixed, cemented stem, creating motion at the stem-condyle junction. To our knowledge, this failure mode has not been reported in the literature. PMID:26447420

  6. Humeral external rotation handling by using the Bobath concept approach affects trunk extensor muscles electromyography in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Grazziotin Dos Santos, C; Pagnussat, Aline S; Simon, A S; Py, Rodrigo; Pinho, Alexandre Severo do; Wagner, Mário B

    2014-10-20

    This study aimed to investigate the electromyographic activity of cervical and trunk extensors muscles in children with cerebral palsy during two handlings according to the Bobath concept. A crossover trial involving 40 spastic diplegic children was conducted. Electromyography (EMG) was used to measure muscular activity at sitting position (SP), during shoulder internal rotation (IR) and shoulder external rotation (ER) handlings, which were performed using the elbow joint as key point of control. Muscle recordings were performed at the fourth cervical (C4) and at the tenth thoracic (T10) vertebral levels. The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) was used to assess whether muscle activity would vary according to different levels of severity. Humeral ER handling induced an increase on EMG signal of trunk extensor muscles at the C4 (P=0.007) and T10 (P<0.001) vertebral levels. No significant effects were observed between SP and humeral IR handling at C4 level; However at T10 region, humeral IR handling induced an increase of EMG signal (P=0.019). Humeral ER resulted in an increase of EMG signal at both levels, suggesting increase of extensor muscle activation. Furthermore, the humeral ER handling caused different responses on EMG signal at T10 vertebra level, according to the GMFCS classification (P=0.017). In summary, an increase of EMG signal was observed during ER handling in both evaluated levels, suggesting an increase of muscle activation. These results indicate that humeral ER handling can be used for diplegic CP children rehabilitation to facilitate cervical and trunk extensor muscles activity in a GMFCS level-dependent manner. PMID:25462474

  7. Epidemiology and treatment outcome of surgically treated mandibular condyle fractures. A five years retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Zrounba, Hugues; Lutz, Jean-Christophe; Zink, Simone; Wilk, Astrid

    2014-09-01

    Surgical management of mandibular condyle fractures is still controversial. Although it provides better outcome than closed treatment questions still remain about the surgical approach and the osteosynthesis devices to be used. Between 2005 and 2010, we managed 168 mandibular condyle fractures with open treatment. Two surgical approaches were used in this study, a pre-auricular and a high submandibular approach (one or the other or as a combined approach). Internal fixation was performed using TCP(®) plates (Medartis, Basel, Switzerland) or with two lag screws (15 and 17 mm). Delta plates were used in 15 cases (8.9%). We report the epidemiology of these fractures and the outcomes of the surgical treatment. We assessed the complications related to the surgical procedure and those related to the osteosynthesis material. The facial nerve related complication rate was very low and the osteosynthesis materials used proved to be strong enough to realize a stable fixation. The two approaches used in this study appeared to be safe with good aesthetic results. Most of the surgical procedure failures occurred in high subcondylar fractures especially when bilateral. PMID:24485271

  8. Shape and Site Dependent in Vivo Degradation of Mg-Zn Pins in Rabbit Femoral Condyle

    PubMed Central

    Han, Pei; Tan, Moyan; Zhang, Shaoxiang; Ji, Weiping; Li, Jianan; Zhang, Xiaonong; Zhao, Changli; Zheng, Yufeng; Chai, Yimin

    2014-01-01

    A type of specially designed pin model of Mg-Zn alloy was implanted into the full thickness of lesions of New Zealand rabbits’ femoral condyles. The recovery progress, outer surface healing and in vivo degradation were characterized by various methods including radiographs, Micro-CT scan with surface rendering, SEM (scanning electron microscope) with EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis) and so on. The in vivo results suggested that a few but not sufficient bridges for holding force were formed between the bone and the implant if there was a preexisting gap between them. The rapid degradation of the implantation in the condyle would result in the appearance of cavities. Morphological evaluation of the specially designed pins indicated that the cusp was the most vulnerable part during degradation. Furthermore, different implantation sites with distinct components and biological functions can lead to different degradation rates of Mg-Zn alloy. The rate of Mg-Zn alloy decreases in the following order: implantation into soft tissue, less trabecular bone, more trabecular bone, and cortical bone. Because of the complexities of in vivo degradation, it is necessary for the design of biomedical Mg-Zn devices to take into consideration the implantation sites used in clinics. PMID:24566138

  9. Impact of the lower third molar presence and position on the fragility of mandibular angle and condyle: A Three-dimensional finite element study.

    PubMed

    Antic, Svetlana; Vukicevic, Arso M; Milasinovic, Marko; Saveljic, Igor; Jovicic, Gordana; Filipovic, Nenad; Rakocevic, Zoran; Djuric, Marija

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influences of the presence and position of a lower third molar (M3) on the fragility of mandibular angle and condyle, using finite element analysis. From computed tomographic scans of a human mandible with normally erupted M3, two additional virtual models were generated: a mandibular model with partially impacted M3 and a model without M3. Two cases of impact were considered: a frontal and a lateral blow. The results are based on the chromatic analysis of the distributed von Mises and principal stresses, and calculation of their failure indices. In the frontal blow, the angle region showed the highest stress in the case with partially impacted M3, and the condylar region in the case without M3. Compressive stresses were dominant but caused no failure. Tensile stresses were recorded in the retromolar areas, but caused failure only in the case with partially impacted M3. In the lateral blow, the stress concentrated at the point of impact, in the ipsilateral and contralateral angle and condylar regions. The highest stresses were recorded in the case with partially impacted M3. Tensile stresses caused the failure on the ipsilateral side, whereas compressive stresses on the contralateral side. PMID:25939313

  10. Zoledronate Therapy for the Pathological Humeral Fracture in Polyostotic Fibrous Dysplasia: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Ikko; Higuchi, Chikahisa

    2015-11-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) of bone is a rare skeletal disease often associated with bone pain, deformities and fractures. The bisphosphonate therapies are reported to be useful for bone pain, but seem to be not suitable for fracture repairs of extremities. This is the first report of zoledronate-induced radiological improvement and long bone fracture union in polyostotic FD. A 30-year-old Japanese female had bilateral shepherd's crook deformities typical to FD and right pathological femoral fracture and left humeral fracture nonunion. These fractures occurred without major traumas and the humeral fracture was not united for 1 year with conservative therapy. Laboratory blood test results were notable for elevated serum alkaline phosphatase and urine N-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen. Her subtrochanteric femoral fracture was percutaneously fixed using Kirschner wires. After surgery, a hip spica cast was applied for 2 months and the orthosis for the next 2 months. Bony union of the femoral fracture was observed 5 months after surgery. Increased bone turnover and typical radiological features suggested that the constant elbow pain was due to both FD itself and humeral nonunion. Considering the possible side effects of zoledronate delaying acute fracture healing, we initiated zoledronate (Zometa(®); Novartis, Tokyo, Japan) therapy after femoral fracture union. Intravenous zoledronate acid was administered at a dose of 2 mg, along with supplementation of calcium (600 mg/day) and vitamin D (alfacalcidol 0.5 ?g/day) to limit the risk of osteomalacia and improve the efficacy of bisphosphonate therapy. The patient's elbow pain rapidly resolved 1 week after treatment. Second therapy with same dose was performed after 6 months. No recurrence of elbow pain was reported and bony union was diagnosed after 1 year from the first administration. This patient is currently doing well without recurrence of bone pain. She can also walk for a short distance with crutches. We presented the case of an FD patient with persistent elbow pain due to FD itself and nonunion of humeral fracture, which was ameliorated promptly by intravenous zoledronate therapies. This case illustrated the benefit of zoledronate treatment in patients with extensive polyostotic FD and pathological fractures of extremities. PMID:26491505

  11. Giant cell tumor of the humeral head treated by denosumab: Implication to shoulder surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Ka Hei; Lam, Albert Ying Lee; Ho, Kenneth Wai Yip; Shek, Tony Wai Hung

    2015-01-01

    Giant cell tumor is a benign bone tumor that is commonly encountered. The optimal treatment of a giant cell tumor which causes extensive bony destruction is controversial. Recent studies on the receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B ligand antagonist denosumab may offer a new treatment option for these patients. We presented a patient with giant cell tumor of the humeral head. He was initially treated with denosumab and subsequently with the operation. The shoulder joint was successfully salvaged. But there are potential difficulties that surgeons may face in patients treated with denosumab.

  12. Dicondylar humeral fracture stabilisation in a dog using a transilial rod and external fixation.

    PubMed

    Au, K; Mattern, K L; Lewis, D D

    2008-03-01

    Repair of a Salter-Harris type IV dicondylar humeral fracture was performed on a 15-week-old pitbull terrier. Interfragmentary compression of the intracondylar component of the fracture was achieved with a transilial rod and locking nuts (Trans-ilial Rod; IMEX Veterinary, Inc.). The transilial rod was articulated with a modified type I external fixator which functioned as adjunctive stabilisation for the supracondylar component of the fracture. Fracture healing was confirmed radiographically five weeks following surgery. The dog had no appreciable lameness when examined 12 months after fracture repair. PMID:17725586

  13. Indications and limitations of the fixator TGF "Gex-Fix" in proximal end humeral fractures.

    PubMed

    Parlato, A; D'Arienzo, A; Ferruzza, M; Galvano, N; D'Arienzo, M

    2014-12-01

    The incidence of fractures of the humerus has increased exponentially in recent years. The most used classifications for humerus fracture are morphological (Neer), biological (AO/ASIF) and descriptive (Hertel). The types of surgical treatment for humerus fracture include prosthetic replacement and synthesis using different devices, including the Tension Guide Fixator (TGF), Gex-Fix. External fixation for displaced proximal humeral fractures avoids dissection and soft tissue stripping and has been reported by some authors to be associated with higher union rates, a lower incidence of avascular necrosis, less scarring of the scapulohumeral interface, and faster rehabilitation compared with open reduction and internal fixation. Other authors have reported that external fixation does not ensure acceptable reduction and fracture stability, particularly in patients with osteoporosis. The external fixation technique involves the introduction of Steinmann's pin to keep manual reduction, the introduction of two K-wires in the humeral head, the removal of the Steinmann's pin, and the introduction of two fiches on the humeral shaft. Hub connectors are mounted on the wires and on the chips to connect the outer bar and tensioning system. A total of 84 patients aged 42-84 years with proximal end humeral fractures (66% had two-part fractures) were treated with Fixator TGF in this study from December 2007 to June 2012. The postoperative recovery was earlier and the active-assisted motion was less painful than has been reported with other surgical techniques. The TGF was removed without anaesthesia at the outpatient clinic at a mean of 7 weeks (range 5-8 weeks) after surgery, and there was no loss of reduction or secondary displacement after removal. These results, after five years of experience, confirm that the best indication for this fixator is two- or three-part fractures because the device enables early active mobilisation. The limitations of this fixator are evident in fractures in which closed reduction is not possible and in three-part fractures with varus displacement because the TGF has less stability than other systems, such as the plate or cage. The short learning curve, reduced surgical time and risk, and low cost encourage the use of this technique. PMID:25457319

  14. Zoledronate Therapy for the Pathological Humeral Fracture in Polyostotic Fibrous Dysplasia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Ikko; Higuchi, Chikahisa

    2015-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) of bone is a rare skeletal disease often associated with bone pain, deformities and fractures. The bisphosphonate therapies are reported to be useful for bone pain, but seem to be not suitable for fracture repairs of extremities. This is the first report of zoledronate-induced radiological improvement and long bone fracture union in polyostotic FD. A 30-year-old Japanese female had bilateral shepherd’s crook deformities typical to FD and right pathological femoral fracture and left humeral fracture nonunion. These fractures occurred without major traumas and the humeral fracture was not united for 1 year with conservative therapy. Laboratory blood test results were notable for elevated serum alkaline phosphatase and urine N-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen. Her subtrochanteric femoral fracture was percutaneously fixed using Kirschner wires. After surgery, a hip spica cast was applied for 2 months and the orthosis for the next 2 months. Bony union of the femoral fracture was observed 5 months after surgery. Increased bone turnover and typical radiological features suggested that the constant elbow pain was due to both FD itself and humeral nonunion. Considering the possible side effects of zoledronate delaying acute fracture healing, we initiated zoledronate (Zometa®; Novartis, Tokyo, Japan) therapy after femoral fracture union. Intravenous zoledronate acid was administered at a dose of 2 mg, along with supplementation of calcium (600 mg/day) and vitamin D (alfacalcidol 0.5 ?g/day) to limit the risk of osteomalacia and improve the efficacy of bisphosphonate therapy. The patient’s elbow pain rapidly resolved 1 week after treatment. Second therapy with same dose was performed after 6 months. No recurrence of elbow pain was reported and bony union was diagnosed after 1 year from the first administration. This patient is currently doing well without recurrence of bone pain. She can also walk for a short distance with crutches. We presented the case of an FD patient with persistent elbow pain due to FD itself and nonunion of humeral fracture, which was ameliorated promptly by intravenous zoledronate therapies. This case illustrated the benefit of zoledronate treatment in patients with extensive polyostotic FD and pathological fractures of extremities. PMID:26491505

  15. Bone Marrow Stimulation of the Medial Femoral Condyle Produces Inferior Cartilage and Bone Repair Compared to the Trochlea in a

    E-print Network

    Buschmann, Michael

    Bone Marrow Stimulation of the Medial Femoral Condyle Produces Inferior Cartilage and Bone Repair femoral condylar (MFC) versus femoral trochlear (TR) defects 3 months after bone marrow stimulation histomorphom- etry and histological scoring showed that bone marrow stimulation produced inferior soft tissue

  16. Late Prosthetic Shoulder Hemiarthroplasty after Failed Management of Complex Proximal Humeral Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Panagopoulos, A.; Tsoumpos, P.; Evangelou, K.; Georgiou, Christos; Triantafillopoulos, I.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to report our experience with shoulder hemiarthroplasty in the context of old trauma. Methods. 33 patients with failed treatment for a complex proximal humeral fracture underwent prosthetic hemiarthroplasty. There were 15 men and 18 women with a mean age of 58.1 years. The average period from initial treatment was 14.9 months. Sequelae included 11 malunions, 4 nonunions, 15 cases with avascular necrosis (AVN) and 3 neglected posterior locked dislocations. Follow up investigation included radiological assessment and clinical evaluation using the Constant score and a visual analogue pain scale. Results. After a mean follow up of 82.5 months the median Constant score was 75.7 points, improved by 60% in comparison to preoperative values. Greater tuberosity displacement, large cuff tears and severe malunion were the factors most affected outcome. No cases of stem loosening or severe migration were noted. 60% of the patients were able to do activities up to shoulder level compared with 24% before reconstruction. Conclusions. Late shoulder hemiarthroplasty is technically difficult and the results are inferior to those reported for acute humeral head replacement, nonetheless remains a satisfactory reconstructive option when primary treatment fails. PMID:23365761

  17. Intraosseous ganglion cyst of the humeral head in a competitive flat water paddler: case report

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Brad; Kissel, Jaclyn A.; Yedon, Dominique Forand

    2011-01-01

    Objective To present the diagnostic and clinical features of an intraosseous ganglion cyst of the humeral head of a female flat water canoe athlete. Clinical Features An 18-year old female flat water canoeist complaining of right shoulder pain following a strenuous paddling training camp. Intervention and outcome A trial of passive care was conducted, including soft tissue therapy, spinal manipulative therapy, acupuncture, and rehabilitation. The patient seemed to be responding with treatment, but pain would always resume with paddling. A diagnostic ultrasound displayed mild thickening and effusion in the subacromial/subdeltoid bursae. Continued passive care was not able to resolve the symptoms and she underwent an MRI which revealed an intraosseus ganglion cyst subjacent to the lesser tuberosity and floor of the intertubercular groove. A subsequent MRA was ordered to assess the labrum, which was intact, but the cyst had progressed in size. She was referred to an orthopedic surgeon who performed surgery. Conclusion An IOG cyst within the humeral head is a rare, potentially painful condition that can mimic other pathologies including impingement and labral tear. It is important to be aware of the clinical features to obtain a prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment of this condition. PMID:22131566

  18. Biomechanics of four techniques for fixation of the four-part humeral head fracture

    PubMed Central

    da Graça, Elpídio; Okubo, Rodrigo; Shimano, Antônio Carlos; Mazzer, Nilton; Barbieri, Cláudio Henrique

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To carry out a biomechanical study of four techniques for fixation of four-part humeral head fractures. METHODS: The fracture was reproduced in 40 plastic humeri, divided into groups of ten according to the fixation technique, each one employing different fixation resources, in different configurations. The humeral models were mounted on an aluminum scapula, with leather straps simulating the rotator cuff tendons, and submitted to bending and torsion tests in a universal testing machine, using relative stiffness as an evaluation parameter. Assemblies with intact humeri were analyzed for comparison. RESULTS: The biomechanical behavior of the fixation techniques varied within a wide range, where the assemblies including the DCP plate and the 4.5mm diameter screws were significantly more rigid than the assemblies with the Kirschner wires and the 3.5mm diameter screws. CONCLUSION: The four fixation techniques were able to bear loads compatible with the physiological demand, but those with higher relative stiffness should be preferred for clinical application. Laboratory investigation . PMID:24453641

  19. Comparison of surgical and nonsurgical treatment of humeral fractures in horses: 22 cases (1980-1989).

    PubMed

    Zamos, D T; Parks, A H

    1992-07-01

    Medical records of 22 horses with humeral fractures were reviewed. The horses were from 2 to 144 months old (mean, 25.8 +/- 37.3 months). Ten horses were treated with stall confinement, 3 were treated surgically, and 9 were euthanatized at the time of diagnosis. Seven of 10 horses treated nonsurgically (stall confinement) were able to be ridden 5 to 12 months after the diagnosis was made (mean, 7.5 +/- 2.6 months). One horse treated nonsurgically was euthanatized 6 months after diagnosis because of laminitis in the contralateral limb. Two horses treated nonsurgically were lost to follow-up evaluation. Two of the 3 horses treated surgically had fractures repaired with Rush pins. The fractured humerus of the third horse was repaired with lag screws. Of the 3 surgically treated horses, 1 was pasture sound 10 months after surgery, but developed varus deviation in the contralateral carpus 6 weeks after repair; 1 horse was euthanatized 2 weeks after surgery because of failure of the implant; and the other horse was sound for riding 10 months after surgery. On the basis of these findings, young horses with humeral fractures that are treated nonsurgically can become sound for riding. PMID:1644630

  20. Aequalis Humeral Head Resurfacing in Glenohumeral Arthritis at a Minimum Followup of 2 Years

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Amitabh J.; Chambler, Andrew F. W.

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate results of Aequalis humeral head resurfacing in patients with end-stage glenohumeral arthritis at a minimum followup of two years. Patients and Methods. Twenty-one consecutive patients underwent humeral head resurfacing hemiarthroplasty between 2007 and 2009. Three patients did not fulfill the inclusion criteria. 18 patients with mean age of 75.1 years (range 58–91 years) and a mean duration of preoperative symptoms of 33.6 months (range 6–120 months) were analyzed. Patients' self-reported Oxford shoulder score (OSS) was collected prospectively and was used as an assessment tool to measure final outcome. Results. The mean initial OSS was 15 (range 3–29). The score improved by an average of 19.5 points at a mean followup of 36.3 months (range 24–54 months) to reach a mean final OSS of 34.5 (range 6–47). The improvement of OSS was highly significant with a two-tailed P value less than 0.0001. The overall patient satisfaction was 94%. Conclusion. This study demonstrates Aequalis shoulder resurfacing hemiarthroplasty as a reliable procedure, away from its originating center, for improvement of shoulder function as shown by the patients' self-reported outcome score (OSS) in end-stage glenohumeral arthritis at a minimum followup of 2 years. PMID:24967109

  1. Treatment of Mandibular Condyle Fractures Using a Modified Transparotid Approach via the Parotid Mini-Incision: Experience with 31 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jun; Yuan, Hao; Xu, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Surgery for mandibular condyle fractures must allow direct vision of the fracture, reduce surgical trauma and achieve reduction and fixation while avoiding facial nerve injury. This prospective study was conducted to introduce a new surgical approach for open reduction and internal fixation of mandibular condyle fractures using a modified transparotid approach via the parotid mini-incision, and surgical outcomes were evaluated. The modified transparotid approach via the parotid mini-incision was applied and rigid internal fixation using a small titanium plate was carried out for 36 mandibular condyle fractures in 31 cases. Postoperative follow-up of patients ranged from 3 to 26 months; in the first 3 months after surgery, outcomes for all patients were analyzed by evaluating the degree of mouth opening, occlusal relationship, facial nerve function and results of imaging studies. The occlusal relationships were excellent in all patients and none had symptoms of intraoperative ipsilateral facial nerve injury. The mean degree of mouth opening was 4.0 (maximum 4.8 cm, minimum 3.0 cm). No mandibular deviations were noted in any patient during mouth opening. CT showed complete anatomical reduction of the mandibular condyle fracture in all patients. The modified transparotid approach via the smaller, easily concealed parotid mini-incision is minimally invasive and achieves anatomical reduction and rigid internal fixation with a simplified procedure that directly exposes the fracture site. Study results showed that this procedure is safe and feasible for treating mandibular condyle fracture, and offers a short operative path, protection of the facial nerve and satisfactory aesthetic outcomes. PMID:24386221

  2. Finite element analysis of patient-specific condyle fracture plates: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Aquilina, Peter; Parr, William C H; Chamoli, Uphar; Wroe, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Various patterns of internal fixation of mandibular condyle fractures have been proposed in the literature. This study investigates the stability of two patient-specific implants (PSIs) for the open reduction and internal fixation of a subcondylar fracture of the mandible. A subcondylar fracture of a mandible was simulated by a series of finite element models. These models contained approximately 1.2 million elements, were heterogeneous in bone material properties, and also modeled the muscles of mastication. Models were run assuming linear elasticity and isotropic material properties for bone. The stability and von Mises stresses of the simulated condylar fracture reduced with each of the PSIs were compared. The most stable of the plate configurations examined was PSI 1, which had comparable mechanical performance to a single 2.0?mm straight four-hole plate. PMID:26000081

  3. Giant Prolactinoma Presenting with Neck Pain and Structural Compromise of the Occipital Condyles

    PubMed Central

    Yecies, Derek; Ajlan, Abdulrazag; Ratliff, John; Ziskin, Jennifer; Hwang, Peter; Vogel, Hannes; Katznelson, Laurence; Harsh, Griffith

    2015-01-01

    Prolactinomas are the most common form of endocrinologically active pituitary adenoma; they account for ? 45% of pituitary adenomas encountered in clinical practice. Giant adenomas are those?>?4 cm in diameter. Less than 0.5% of pituitary adenomas encountered in neurosurgical practice are giant prolactinomas. Patients with giant prolactinomas typically present with highly elevated prolactin levels, endocrinologic disturbances, and neurologic symptoms from mass-induced pressure. Described here is an unusual case of a giant prolactinoma presenting with neck pain and structural compromise of the occipital condyles. Transnasal biopsy of the nasopharyngeal portion of the mass obtained tissue consistent with an atypical prolactinoma with p53 reactivity and a high Ki-67 index of 5%. Despite the size and invasiveness of the tumor, the patient had resolution of his clinical symptoms, dramatic reduction of his hyperprolactinemia, and near-complete disappearance of his tumor following medical treatment. PMID:26623246

  4. [Large intraosseous ganglion in the femoral condyle treated with resorbable cement: clinical case and differential diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Lax-Pérez, R; Ferrero-Manzanal, F; Murcia-Asensio, A; Lax-Pérez, A

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a very large intraosseous ganglion in a patient with Down's syndrome. The lesion was located in the medial femoral condyle and was diagnosed with imaging techniques (X-rays, CAT scan, bone scan and magnetic resonance imaging) that allowed measuring it. Treatment consisted of curettage and filling of the defect with the skeletal repair system carbonated apatite resorbable cement which allowed for immediate early weight bearing during the postoperative period in a non-cooperative patient. We think the location and size of the lesion are of interest, as well as the peculiarities of the patient, which may help understand the pathophysiology of this entity. As far as we know, the use of resorbable cement to treat this kind of lesions has not been reported. PMID:24701765

  5. Free Vascularized Medial Femoral Condyle Structural Flaps for Septic Terminal Digital Bone Loss.

    PubMed

    Henry, Mark

    2015-12-01

    A unique clinical problem exists when the majority of distal bone stock in a digit is destroyed by osteomyelitis, leaving a residual soft tissue envelope with tenuous, random perfusion surrounding a nidus of scar tissue. Pulp pinch is lost in the absence of bony support, and limited options exist. Apart from toe transfer or revision amputation with shortening, non-vascularized bone grafting inside the residual soft tissue envelope risks graft resorption and reactivation of infection. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of free vascularized medial femoral condyle structural bone flaps to restore lost pulp pinch in such cases. Nine patients (8 males, 1 female) with a mean age of 43 years sustained extensive terminal bone loss near digital tips following osteomyelitis. The mean length of bone defect was 28 mm (± 8.4). The patients were reconstructed at a mean of 12 weeks from initial trauma/infection, having undergone a mean of two prior surgeries. A structural block of vascularized bone from the medial femoral condyle replaced the missing bone at the digital tip defect, temporarily fixed with K-wires. The bone flap was encased by the residual soft tissue envelope after removing scar tissue from the prior trauma and infection. All bone flaps incorporated fully, restoring pulp pinch function to the respective digits with a mean time to union of 8.6 (± 2.1) weeks; range 6-11 weeks. With few alternative solutions able to address this unique and difficult problem, the structural block of vascularized bone proved able to resist resorption, nonunion, and reactivation of infection; the problems normally encountered under this scenario. PMID:26578834

  6. Intramedullary Nail versus Dynamic Compression Plate Fixation in Treating Humeral Shaft Fractures: Grading the Evidence through a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, XinLong; Gao, Feng; Wei, Qiang; Jia, HaoBo; Feng, Rui; Yu, JingTao; Wang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    There is a debate regarding the choice of operative intervention in humeral shaft fractures that require surgical intervention. The choices for operative interventions include intramedullary nailing (IMN) and dynamic compression plate (DCP). This meta-analysis was performed to compare fracture union, functional outcomes, and complication rates in patients treated with IMN or DCP for humeral shaft fractures and to develop GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation)-based recommendations for using the procedures to treat humeral shaft fractures. A systematic search of all the studies published through December 2012 was conducted using the Medline, Embase, Sciencedirect, OVID and Cochrane Central databases. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that compared IMN with DCP in treating adult patients with humeral shaft fractures and provided data regarding the safety and clinical effects were identified. The demographic characteristics, adverse events and clinical outcomes were manually extracted from all of the selected studies. Ten studies that included a total of 448 patients met the inclusion criteria. The results of a meta-analysis indicated that both IMN and DCP can achieve similar fracture union with a similar incidence of radial nerve injury and infection. IMN was associated with an increased risk of shoulder impingement, more restriction of shoulder movement, an increased risk of intraoperative fracture comminution, a higher incidence of implant failure, and an increased risk of re-operation. The overall GRADE system evidence quality was very low, which reduces our confidence in the recommendations of this system. DCP may be superior to IMN in the treatment of humeral shaft fractures. Because of the low quality evidence currently available, high-quality RCTs are required. PMID:24358141

  7. Medialized Versus Lateralized Center of Rotation in Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Streit, Jonathan J; Shishani, Yousef; Gobezie, Reuben

    2015-12-01

    Reverse shoulder arthroplasty may be performed using components that medialize or lateralize the center of rotation. The purpose of this prospective study was to directly compare 2 reverse shoulder arthroplasty designs. Two treatment groups and 1 control group were identified. Group I comprised 9 patients using a medialized Grammont-style (GRM) prosthesis with a neck-shaft angle of 155°. Group II comprised 9 patients using a lateralized (LAT) prosthesis with a neck-shaft angle of 135°. Pre- and postoperative assessment of range of motion, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, and visual analog scale pain score were performed. Radiographic measurements of lateral humeral offset and acromiohumeral distance were compared. The GRM prosthesis achieved greater forward flexion (143.9° vs 115.6°; P=.05), whereas the LAT achieved greater external rotation (35.0° vs 28.3°; P=.07). The lateral humeral offset was greater for the LAT prosthesis compared with the GRM prosthesis, but this distance was not significantly different from that found in the control group. The acromiohumeral distance was significantly greater in the GRM prosthesis group compared with both the LAT and the control groups. The results of this study confirm that different reverse shoulder arthroplasty designs produce radiographically different anatomy. Whereas the GRM prosthesis significantly alters the anatomy of the shoulder, the LAT design can preserve some anatomic relationships found in the normal shoulder. The clinical outcomes indicate that this may have an effect on range of motion, with traditional designs achieving greater forward flexion and lateralized designs achieving greater external rotation. [Orthopedics. 2015; 38(12):e1098-e1103.]. PMID:26652330

  8. Humeral cortical thickness in female Bantu - its relationship to the incidence of femoral neck fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, R.A.; Pogrund, H.

    1982-03-01

    Measurements of the humeral cortical thickness demonstrate that generalised osteoporosis in female Bantu commences in the fifth decade and gradually increases until, in the ninth decade, all subjects are osteoporotic. The combined cortical thickness (CCT) of the humerus in young adults is very similar to that found previously in a white London population and the loss of cortex with age is very similar. It is concluded that the known low incidence of femoral neck fracture in Bantu is not due to a lower incidence of generalised osteoporosis but to environmental factors. The chief environmental factor postulated is the greater amount of physical work performed by the Bantu. A more careful mode of walking is suggested as a subsidiary cause.

  9. Supracondylar humeral fractures in children: current concepts for management and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Zorrilla S de Neira, Jaime; Prada-Cañizares, Alfonso; Marti-Ciruelos, Rafael; Pretell-Mazzini, Juan

    2015-11-01

    Supracondylar humeral fractures are the most common elbow fractures in children and represent 3 % of all paediatric fractures. The most common cause is a fall onto an outstretched hand with the elbow in extension, resulting in an extension-type fracture (97-99 % of cases). Currently, the Gartland classification is used, which has treatment implications. Diagnosis is based on plain radiographs, but accurate imaging could be limited due to patient pain. Based on fracture type, the definitive treatment could be either non-operative (type I) or operative (type III/IV); however, when handling type II fractures controversy remains. Neither pin configuration have shown higher efficacy over the other. Complications are ~1 %, the most common being pin migration, with compartment syndrome as the most devastating. Overall, functional outcomes are good, and physical therapy does not appear to be necessary. PMID:26311512

  10. Surface Replacement Arthroplasty of the Humeral Head in Young, Active Patients

    PubMed Central

    Iagulli, Nicholas D.; Field, Larry D.; Hobgood, E. Rhett; Hurt, James A.; Charles, Ryan; O’Brien, Michael J.; Savoie, Felix H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The treatment of glenohumeral arthritis in young, active patients remains controversial. Standard total shoulder arthroplasty in this patient group has not obtained the same satisfaction rate as in older patients. One surgical option that has emerged is humeral resurfacing. Hypothesis: Humeral head surface replacement arthroplasty (SRA) would provide satisfactory clinical outcomes in active patients, allowing them to maintain their normal lifestyle without activity restrictions. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: From 2004 to 2007, all consecutive surface replacement arthroplasties of the humerus performed at the authors’ institution were identified and retrospectively reviewed, and 118 patients who underwent SRA during this time were identified. This study included patients younger than 60 years who wished to maintain an active lifestyle; 52 of the 118 patients met the inclusion criteria. University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder scores and subjective shoulder value (SSV) scores were used to measure clinical outcomes at an average follow-up of 6 years (range, 4-8 years). Of the 52 patients meeting the inclusion criteria, 48 were contacted and examined for the study, with 4 patients lost to follow-up. Results: The mean postoperative UCLA score was 28.03, with 1 patient requiring revision because of pain and glenoid wear. The mean SSV was 92% (range, 0%-100%), with 3 patients restricting their activity because of the shoulder. Forty-seven of the 48 contacted patients stated that, given the option, they would have the same surgery again. One patient required revision surgery because of pain. Conclusion: Surface replacement arthroplasty provided reasonable results in patients younger than 60 years with high activity demands with a low rate of revision at midterm follow-up. PMID:26535268

  11. A clinical evaluation of the long-term outcome of patients treated for bilateral fracture of the mandibular condyles.

    PubMed

    Newman, L

    1998-06-01

    The object of the study was to present our experience of the treatment of bilateral condylar fractures between 1979 and 1995 and give the long-term outcome. The subjects were 61 patients, of whom 33 attended for review. There were 41 men and 20 women, age range 12-80 years (although nearly all the patients were between 17 and 32 years old). Thirty-one patients (51%) had bilateral fractures of the mandibular condyles alone, the remainder also having another mandibular fracture, usually at the parasymphysis. Over half the patients had been injured in falls. Only 8/122 fractures (7%) were intracapsular, 59 were of the condylar neck (48%), and the remaining 55 (45%) were subcondylar. Nearly half of the fractures were undisplaced. Thirty-nine patients (21%) were treated with wire intermaxillary fixation for a mean of 37 days, 13 (21%) were managed conservatively, and 9 (15%) with 10 fractured condyles were managed by open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). The most common complaint after treatment was persistent limitation in mouth opening, which was significantly less in the ORIF group mean (SD) 44 mm (2 mm) than in the intermaxillary fixation group 28 mm (2 mm), P < 0.01. It is concluded that if either of the condyles is displaced ORIF is the most satisfactory method of treatment. PMID:9678880

  12. Sex differences in humeral bilateral asymmetry in two hunter-gatherer populations: California Amerinds and British Columbian Amerinds.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Elizabeth

    2009-09-01

    This study uses two prehistoric Amerindian populations of hunter-gatherer subsistence patterns to determine whether levels of sexual dimorphism in humeral bilateral cross-sectional asymmetry are related to sex-specific differences in activities among these populations. Results confirmed that males of the California Amerind population who engaged in the more unimanual activities of spear hunting and warfare were more asymmetrical than were their female counterparts who engaged in the more bimanual activities of grinding acorns. California Amerind males were also more asymmetrical than British Columbian Amerind males who rowed (using both arms) extensively. Sex differences within British Columbian Amerinds were not statistically significant, nor were female differences between populations. In general, levels of humeral asymmetry appear to be more dependent on sex and population-specific behaviors rather than broad subsistence patterns. PMID:19280674

  13. Posterior circumflex humeral artery injury with distal embolisation in professional volleyball players: a discussion of three cases.

    PubMed

    Atema, J J; Unlü, C; Reekers, J A; Idu, M M

    2012-08-01

    Presented are three cases of volleyball players with ischaemia of the hand due to arterial emboli originating from an injured posterior circumflex humeral artery (PCHA). An operative treatment with ligation of the PCHA was performed in all patients because of the proximity of the occlusion to the axillary artery. After a rehabilitation programme, all patients could return to their previous level of competition. During overhead motion, the PCHA is prone to injury in its position overlying the humeral head and its course through the quadrilateral space. Recognition of the vascular origin of these symptoms in athletes is important to prevent serious ischaemic complications. Signs of ischaemia might be subtle and may be misdiagnosed as musculoskeletal injuries. Therefore, the examining physician must have a high index of suspicion and awareness about these injuries is important. PMID:22709560

  14. [A composite osteomusculocutaneous free flap from the medial femoral condyle: anatomic characteristics, clinical aspects, new applications].

    PubMed

    Rahmanian-Schwarz, A; Spetzler, V; Willkomm, L-M; Eisenschenk, A; Bernhard, H; Schaller, H-E

    2012-04-01

    Advances in plastic and reconstructive surgery allow an almost complete functional and aesthetic reconstruction after severe injuries. However, particularly the treatment of complex defects involving different tissue components is still challenging. The reconstruction requires a combined flap consisting of different tissues from an adequate donor area. In this context, we focused on anatomical and clinical aspects of transplants from the area of the medial femoral condyle. In this study, the anatomical characteristics and potentials of various flaps from the region of this region are described. Moreover, previous literature on this subject is put in context with both the results of our own anatomical study and our clinical experience. The supplying vessel is the descending genicular artery with its branches. In addition to the consistency in vessel length and diameter, the descending genicular artery has a continuous distribution in a periosteal, cutaneous and muscular branch. Due to this anatomical characteristic, this donor site offers the possibility for several customized transplants. Thus, the distal medial thigh is a versatile and reliable donor site for plastic surgical procedures. PMID:22495956

  15. Mapping the Articular Contact Area of the Long Head of the Biceps Tendon on the Humeral Head

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Brent J.; Byram, Ian R.; Lathrop, Ray A.; Dunn, Warren R.; Kuhn, John E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to calculate the contact surface area of the long head of the biceps (LHB) in neutral position and abduction. We sought to determine whether the LHB articulates with the humeral head in a consistent pattern comparing articular contact area in neutral position and abduction. Eleven fresh frozen matched cadaveric shoulders were analyzed. The path of the biceps tendon on the articular surface of the humeral head and the total articular surface were digitized using a MicronTracker 2 H3-60 three-dimensional optical tracker. Contact surface area was significantly less in abduction than in neutral position (P = 0.002) with a median ratio of 41% (36%, 47.5%). Ratios of contact area in neutral position to full articular surface area were consistent between left and right shoulders (rho = 1, P = 0.017) as were ratios of abduction area to full articular surface area (rho = 0.97, P = 0.005). The articular contact surface area is significantly greater in neutral position than abduction. The ratios of articular contact surface areas to total humeral articular surface areas have a narrow range and are consistent between left and right shoulders of the same cadaver. PMID:25210631

  16. Preliminary results from osteosynthesis using Ender nails by means of a percutaneous technique, in humeral diaphysis fractures in adults?

    PubMed Central

    Godinho, Glaydson Gomes; França, Flávio de Oliveira; Freitas, José Márcio Alves; Santos, Flávio Márcio Lago; Correa, Guilherme de Almeida Sellos; Maia, Lucas Russo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the clinical and functional results from treatment of humeral diaphysis fractures using Ender nails. Methods Eighteen patients who underwent osteosynthesis of humeral diaphysis fractures using Ender nails were evaluated. In addition to the clinical and radiographic evaluations, patients with a minimum of one year of follow-up were assessed by means of the Constant, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), Mayo Clinic and Simple Shoulder Value (SSV) functional scores, and in relation to the degree of satisfaction with the final result. The fixation technique used was by means of an anterograde percutaneous route. Results All the patients achieved fracture consolidation, after a mean of 2.9 months (ranging from 2 to 4 months). The mean Constant score was 85.7 (ranging from 54 to 100) and the mean ASES score was 95.9 (ranging from 76 to 100). All the patients achieved the maximum score on the Mayo Clinic scale. Conclusion Fixation of humeral diaphysis fractures using Ender nails by means of a percutaneous technique was shown to be a method with promising preliminary results. PMID:26417566

  17. Treatment of distal humeral fractures using conventional implants. Biomechanical evaluation of a new implant configuration

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the face of costly fixation hardware with varying performance for treatment of distal humeral fractures, a novel technique (U-Frame) is proposed using conventional implants in a 180° plate arrangement. In this in-vitro study the biomechanical stability of this method was compared with the established technique which utilizes angular stable locking compression plates (LCP) in a 90° configuration. Methods An unstable distal 3-part fracture (AO 13-C2.3) was created in eight pairs of human cadaveric humeri. All bone pairs were operated with either the "Frame" technique, where two parallel plates are distally interconnected, or with the LCP technique. The specimens were cyclically loaded in simulated flexion and extension of the arm until failure of the construct occurred. Motion of all fragments was tracked by means of optical motion capturing. Construct stiffness and cycles to failure were identified for all specimens. Results Compared to the LCP constructs, the "Frame" technique revealed significant higher construct stiffness in extension of the arm (P = 0.01). The stiffness in flexion was not significantly different (P = 0.16). Number of cycles to failure was found significantly larger for the "Frame" technique (P = 0.01). Conclusions In an in-vitro context the proposed method offers enhanced biomechanical stability and at the same time significantly reduces implant costs. PMID:20684752

  18. A Pitfall in Fixation of Distal Humeral Fractures with Pre-Contoured Locking Compression Plate

    PubMed Central

    Jayakumar, Prakash; Ring, David

    2015-01-01

    Anatomically precontoured locking plates are intended to facilitate the fixation of articular fractures and particularly those associated with osteoporosis. Fractures of the distal humerus are relatively uncommon injuries where operative intervention can be exceptionally challenging. The distal humeral trochlea provides a very narrow anatomical window through which to pass a fixed-angle locking screw, which must also avoid the olecranon, coronoid, and radial fossae. We describe 3 patients (ages 27, 49, and 73 years) with a bicolumnar fracture of the distal humerus where very short distal locking screws were used. Intra-articular screw placement was avoided but loss of fixation occurred in two patients and a third was treated with a prolonged period of immobilization. We postulate that fixed-angle screw trajectories may make it difficult for the surgeon to place screws of adequate length in this anatomically confined region, and may lead to insufficient distal fixation. Surgical tactics should include placement of as many screws as possible into the distal fragment, as long as possible and that each screw passes through a plate without necessarily locking in. PMID:26110181

  19. A Pitfall in Fixation of Distal Humeral Fractures with Pre-Contoured Locking Compression Plate.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, Prakash; Ring, David

    2015-04-01

    Anatomically precontoured locking plates are intended to facilitate the fixation of articular fractures and particularly those associated with osteoporosis. Fractures of the distal humerus are relatively uncommon injuries where operative intervention can be exceptionally challenging. The distal humeral trochlea provides a very narrow anatomical window through which to pass a fixed-angle locking screw, which must also avoid the olecranon, coronoid, and radial fossae. We describe 3 patients (ages 27, 49, and 73 years) with a bicolumnar fracture of the distal humerus where very short distal locking screws were used. Intra-articular screw placement was avoided but loss of fixation occurred in two patients and a third was treated with a prolonged period of immobilization. We postulate that fixed-angle screw trajectories may make it difficult for the surgeon to place screws of adequate length in this anatomically confined region, and may lead to insufficient distal fixation. Surgical tactics should include placement of as many screws as possible into the distal fragment, as long as possible and that each screw passes through a plate without necessarily locking in. PMID:26110181

  20. Conservative condylectomy alone for the correction of mandibular asymmetry caused by osteochondroma of the mandibular condyle: a report of five cases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Sung; Kim, Jae-Young; Jeong, Chan-Woo; Park, Kwang-Ho

    2015-01-01

    We describe our experience with conservative condylectomy for the correction of facial asymmetry in five patients with osteochondroma of the mandibular condyle. All five patients presented with malocclusion and facial asymmetry, which are common clinical findings of osteochondroma involving the mandibular condyle. We performed conservative condylectomy without additional orthognathic surgery for all five patients, preserving the vertical height of the condylar process as much as possible. Following surgery, intermaxillary traction using a skeletal anchorage system with rubber elastics was performed on all patients to improve occlusion, and, when necessary, additional minimal orthodontic treatment was performed. The mean follow-up period was 42 months. At the last follow-up visit, all patients exhibited satisfactory facial symmetry and remodeling of the remaining condyle, with stable health and no signs of recurrence. In conclusion, conservative condylectomy alone, without subsequent orthognathic surgery, is adequate for the restoration of facial symmetry and the preservation of vertical condylar height in select patients with condylar osteochondroma. PMID:26568928

  1. Arthroscopic Repair of a Posterior Bony Humeral Avulsion of the Glenohumeral Ligament With Associated Teres Minor Avulsion

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Patrick A.; Nuelle, Clayton W.; Bradley, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Humeral avulsion of the inferior glenohumeral ligament (HAGL) has recently gained more recognition as a cause of shoulder instability. Posterior HAGL lesions, being much more infrequent than anterior disruptions, have only recently been documented as a notable cause of posterior instability. We detail the treatment of a previously unreported case of a posterior HAGL variant lesion consisting of a bony avulsion with involvement of the teres minor tendon. Arthroscopic fixation was facilitated by use of a “sheathless” arthroscopic approach with a 70° arthroscope and suture anchor. PMID:24749048

  2. Posterior Capsular Plication Constrains the Glenohumeral Joint by Drawing the Humeral Head Closer to the Glenoid and Resisting Abduction

    PubMed Central

    DeAngelis, Joseph P.; Hertz, Benjamin; Wexler, Michael T.; Patel, Nehal; Walley, Kempland C.; Harlow, Ethan R.; Manoukian, Ohan S.; Masoudi, Aidin; Vaziri, Ashkan; Ramappa, Arun J.; Nazarian, Ara

    2015-01-01

    Background: Shoulder pain is a common problem, with 30% to 50% of the American population affected annually. While the majority of these shoulder problems improve, there is a high rate of recurrence, as 54% of patients experience persistent symptoms 3 years after onset. Purpose: Posterior shoulder tightness has been shown to alter glenohumeral (GH) kinematics. Clinically, posterior shoulder contractures result in a significant loss of internal rotation and abduction (ABD). In this study, the effect of a posterior capsular contracture on GH kinematics was investigated using an intact cadaveric shoulder without violating the joint capsule or the rotator cuff. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Glenohumeral motion, humeral load, and subacromial contact pressure were measured in 6 fresh-frozen left shoulders during passive ABD from 60° to 100° using an automated robotic upper extremity testing system. Baseline values were compared with the experimental condition in which the full thickness of posterior tissues was plicated without decompressing the joint capsule. Results: Posterior soft tissue plication resulted in increased compression between the humeral head and the glenoid (axial load) at 90° of ABD. Throughout ABD, the posterior contracture increased the anterior and superior moment on the humeral head, but it did not change the GH kinematics in this intact model. As a result, there was no increase in the subacromial contact pressure during ABD with posterior plication. Conclusion: In an intact cadaveric shoulder, posterior contracture does not alter GH motion or subacromial contact pressure during passive ABD. By tightening the soft tissue envelope posteriorly, there is an increase in compressive load on the articular cartilage and anterior/superior force on the humeral head. These findings suggest that subacromial impingement in the setting of a posterior soft tissue contracture may result from alterations in scapulothoracic motion, not changes in GH kinematics. Clinical Relevance: This investigation demonstrates that posterior capsular plication increases the axial load on the shoulder joint during ABD. While a significant difference from baseline was observed in the plicated condition, posterior capsular plication did not change GH motion or subacromial contact pressure significantly. PMID:26535390

  3. Prospective evaluation of a pragmatic treatment rationale: open reduction and internal fixation of displaced and dislocated condyle and condylar head fractures and closed reduction of non-displaced, non-dislocated fractures. Part I: condyle and subcondylar fractures.

    PubMed

    Landes, C A; Lipphardt, R

    2005-12-01

    This prospective study evaluated outcomes of closed reduction (CR) in non-displaced, non-dislocated condyle and subcondylar fractures (Class I) and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of displaced (Class II) and dislocated (Class IV) fractures. Forty-five patients with 51 fractures (six (13%) with bilateral fractures), 11 (25%) CR and 34 (75%) ORIF, were enrolled in a 1-year follow up that 20 patients with 25 fractures completed. Condylar translation in Class I fractures recovered to 12mm for vertical opening, 9mm for protrusion, 8mm for mediotrusion; in Class II, respectively, 10, 7 and 9mm; and Class IV, respectively, 8, 7 and 7mm. Incisal movements recovered to 46, 8 and 9mm in Class I; 44, 7 and 9mm in Class II; and 43, 5 and 7mm in Class IV. Vertical and angular fragment reduction versus the non-fractured condyle was +0.3 to -1.9mm, +1.1 degrees to +1.8 degrees in Class I; -2.2 to -1.9mm, +0.6 degrees to -1.2 degrees in Class II; +2.9 to -1.1mm, +18.4 degrees to +6 degrees in Class IV. Malocclusion and joint locking were unreliable determinants for a treatment decision, being forged by concomitant fractures. All complications subsided after 6 months; translation and incisal movements returned to within the normal range in proportion to the severity of displacement and dislocation. Vertical opening translation in Class IV fractures remained short-to-normal and was compensated by rotation. Unacceptable clinical function according to predefined standards was not found after 1 year. Angular reposition was better than vertical reduction. This study documents successful evidence-based treatment according to predefined criteria. PMID:15979851

  4. Using conservative condylectomy for management of a large osteochondroma of the mandibular condyle with 6-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Santos, George Soares; Gomes, Julio Bisinotto; de Sousa Maia, Sergio; Bermejo, Patricia Rota; Shinohara, Elio Hitoshi; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; de Melo, Willian Morais

    2014-01-01

    Osteochondroma is a hamartomatous proliferation of cartilaginous tissue, which is the most common benign tumor of the long bones, but is relatively rare in the maxillofacial region. Most cases of mandibular condylar osteochondroma manifest with facial asymmetry or malocclusion with limited temporomandibular joint movements. Several approaches for management of this lesion have been proposed, as conservative condylectomy technique. This procedure has been suggested a valid approach to minimize facial asymmetry, contributing to the recovery of occlusion associated with no local tumor recurrence, and without condylar reconstruction procedure. Therefore, this article aims to describe a clinical report of a true osteochondroma of the mandibular condyle in a 35-year-old patient who was successfully treated using conservative condylectomy procedure. PMID:24469370

  5. Femoral Condyle Fracture during Revision of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Case Report and a Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Keyhani, Sohrab; Vaziri, Arash Sharafat; shafiei, Hossein; Mardani-Kivi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    A rare and devastating complication following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) revision reconstruction is femoral fracture. A 35-year old male soccer player with a history of ACL tear from one year ago, who underwent arthroscopic ACL reconstruction and functioned well until another similar injury caused ACL re-rupture. Revision of ACL reconstruction was performed and after failure of graft tension during the pumping, a fluoroscopic assessment showed a femoral condyle fracture. The patient referred to our knee clinic and was operated on in two stages first fixation of the fracture and then ACL re-revision after fracture healing was complete. Not inserting multiple guide pins, keeping a safe distance from the posterior cortex and giving more attention during graft tensioning, especially in revision surgeries, are all small points that can reduce the risk of fracture during the revision of ACL reconstruction. PMID:26110183

  6. Primary Lateral Sclerosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Primary Lateral Sclerosis Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Primary Lateral Sclerosis? Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) is a rare ...

  7. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Information Page Clinical Trials Natural History and ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)? Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), sometimes called Lou ...

  8. Scapular Resting Position and Gleno-Humeral Movement Dysfunction in Asymptomatic Racquet Players: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Shimpi, Apurv P.; Bhakti, Shah; Roshni, Karnik; Rairikar, Savita A.; Shyam, Ashok; Sancheti, Parag K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Racquet sports, especially lawn tennis and badminton have been gaining popularity in Asian countries like India. With this increase in popularity, the injury rate in the sport has also increased. Objectives: The study will help detect the presence of gleno-humeral movement dysfunction and scapular resting position abnormality in asymptomatic racquet players, thus providing basis for screening the players and allow the clinician to determine if the asymmetry is a normal adaptation in the player or an abnormal change associated with injury. Materials and Methods: 46 asymptomatic professional players were divided into a study group of 23 players (16 tennis and 7 badminton) and control group of 23 football players. Assessment of passive gleno-humeral range of motion and distance of spine and inferior angle of scapula from corresponding spinous process were measured bilaterally and between groups. Results: There was statistically significant reduction in range of internal rotation (62.17 ± 8.09), extension (39.78 ± 4.12) and an increase in the external rotation (106.95 ± 7.49) of dominant compared to non-dominant arm of racquet players and a statistically significant decrease in internal rotation (78.69 ± 10.24), extension (44.78 ± 3.19), adduction (37.39 ± 6.54) and an increase in external rotation (102.6 ± 5.19) of dominant arm of racquet players compared to football players. Study also showed statistically significant increase in the spino-scapular distance at the level of inferior angle of scapula (10.23 ± 1.43) on dominant side compared to non-dominant. Conclusions: The dominant side scapula of asymptomatic racquet players showed increased external rotation and elevation as compared to the non-dominant side. Also, reduced shoulder internal rotation, extension and adduction and gain in shoulder external rotation was observed on the dominant side of racquet players when compared to the control group. PMID:26715968

  9. Stemless humeral component in reverse shoulder prosthesis in patient with Parkinson’s disease: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Giannotti, Stefano; Bottai, Vanna; Dell’Osso, Giacomo; Bugelli, Giulia; Guido, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Summary Introduction In patients with Parkinson’s disease falling is very common and for this reason, the prosthetic surgical indication in shoulder is reserved for special cases. PD has been linked to several interrelated factors that may contribute to failure of shoulder arthroplasty. Case presentation A 65-year-old woman with PD, severe pain, recurrent bursitis, swelling and functional limitation to all movements in left shoulder presented to our attention. Radiographic and CT exams show cuff-tear arthropathy. The patient was submitted to implantation of a Reverse Shoulder Comprehensive Nano cementless modular system (Biomet®, Warsaw, IN, USA) with anterosuperior surgical approach. We chose this kind of solution of stemless humeral component after bone mineral consideration. Discussion Reverse shoulder arthroplasty represents an option in the management of glenohumeral arthritis. Poor functional results of RTSA in patients with PD have been attributed to increased muscle tone, severity of tremor and an increased mortality rate. In general, post operative complications related to the humeral component are dominated by fractures (between 1 and 3%): in patients with PD this percentage is higher because of falls often occur. With a stemless implant revisions can be performed easily. Overall, the anterosuperior surgical exposure gives a low risk of postoperative instability. Conclusion In selected cases of patients with PD, after carefully analysis of bone quality, the use of a stemless component is of benefit in the possible revision cases for periprosthetic fractures and the use of an anterosuperior exposure reduces the percentage of instability. The results obtained about the pain relief are excellent in contrast with functional outcomes that remain poor. PMID:26136798

  10. Occipital Condyle Fracture with Accompanying Meningeal Spinal Cysts as a result of Cervical Spine Injury in 15-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Wiktor, ?ukasz; Tomaszewski, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    The occipital condyle fracture is rare injury of the craniocervical junction. Meningeal spinal cysts are rare tumors of the spinal cord. Depending on location, these lesions may be classified as extradural and subdural, but extradural spinal cysts are more common. We present the case of a 15-year-old girl who suffered from avulsion occipital condyle fracture treated with use of “halo-vest” system. We established that clinical effect after completed treatment is very good. Control MRI evaluation was performed 12 months after removal of “halo-vest” traction, and clinically silent extradural meningeal spinal cysts were detected at the ventral side of the spinal cord in the cervical segment of the spine. Due to clinically silent course of the disease, we decided to use the conservative treatment. The patient remains under control of our department. PMID:26543656

  11. Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis)

    MedlinePLUS

    .org Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis) Page ( 1 ) Tennis elbow, or lateral epicondyliti s, is a painful condition of the elbow caused by overuse. Not ... called epicondyles. The bony bump on the outside (lateral side) of the elbow is called the lateral ...

  12. Migration of calcium deposits into subacromial-subdeltoid bursa and into humeral head as a rare complication of calcifying tendinitis: sonography and imaging.

    PubMed

    Della Valle, Valeria; Bassi, Emilio Maria; Calliada, Fabrizio

    2015-09-01

    Calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder is a common condition characterized by the deposition of calcium, predominantly hydroxyapatite crystals, in the rotator cuff. A rare complication of this condition is the migration of calcium deposits from tendons, usually the supraspinatus, into the subacromial-subdeltoid bursa or into the humeral greater tuberosity. These complications are responsible for intense acute shoulder pain and functional disability. Patient anamnesis and clinical symptoms must be considered to make the diagnosis, but imaging, particularly sonography, is often necessary, showing a typical presentation related to the locations of calcium deposits. We present sonographic and other imaging features of subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis and humeral osteitis related to the migration of calcium. PMID:26261476

  13. Analysis of Range of Motion and Isokinetic Strength of Internal and External Rotation According to Humeral Retroversion of the Dominant Shoulder in Youth Baseball Players: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    RHI, Soung-Yob; SO, Wi-Young

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background We aimed to analyze the range of motion (ROM) and internal rotation (IR) and external rotation (ER) isokinetic strength according to humeral retroversion of the dominant shoulder. Methods We included 40 elite baseball players in Korea (OBP group: n=20 players with careers spanning >10 years, age: 19.37±2.21 years, height: 181.00±5.41 cm, weight: 84.58±7.85 kg; BBP group: n=20 players with careers spanning <10 years, age: 16.55±1.36 years, height: 177.27±7.57 cm, weight: 77.27±8.14 kg). Radiography was performed to examine humeral retroversion, a goniometer was used to measure IROM and EROM, and a dynamometer was used to measure IR and ER isokinetic strength (speed set at 180°/s or 300°/s). Results The BBP and OBP groups had significantly different IR and ER isokinetic strength (180°/s and 300°/s) (P<0.001) and dominant shoulder retroversion (P=0.009). In the BBP group, retroversion had no correlation with ROM and with IR or ER isokinetic strength (180°/s and 300°/s). In the OBP group, retroversion had no correlation with ROM and with ER isokinetic strength at 180°/s, but had significant correlation with IR isokinetic strength at both 180°/s (r=0.483, P=0.007) and 300°/s (r=0.373, P=0.043) and ER isokinetic strength at 300°/s (r=0.366, P=0.046). Conclusion Thus, youth players with careers spanning >10 years had significantly higher humeral retroversion, IROM, EROM, and IR and ER isokinetic strength of the dominant shoulder than youth players with careers spanning <10 years. Furthermore, humeral retroversion and ROM were not significantly related, but IR and ER isokinetic strength were significantly positively related with retroversion in both groups. PMID:26060741

  14. Magnetic resonance evidence of joint effusion of the temporomandibular joint after fractures of the mandibular condyle: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Tetsu; Ohtani, Maki; Sano, Tsukasa; Ohnuki, Takayoshi; Kondoh, Toshirou; Fukuda, Masayuki

    2004-04-01

    To investigate the clinical significance of magnetic resonance (MR) evidence of joint effusion of the temporomandibular joint after mandibular condylar fractures, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 18 joints in 15 patients with either unilateral or bilateral mandibular condylar fractures using a 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner (Signa, General Electric, Milwaukee, WI). MR evidence of joint effusion was evaluated and compared with the types and the positions of the fractures. MR evidence of joint effusion was observed in 11 of 18 TMJs, which was 61% of the condylar fractures. It appeared more frequently after fractures with dislocation than those without dislocation (p < 0.05). In addition, MR evidence of effusion appeared more frequently in TMJs after high condylar fractures (head to upper neck) than low condylar fractures (lower neck to subcondylar) (p < 0.05). These findings indicate that MR evidence of joint effusion may serve as a marker for the detection of severe intra-articular damage to the TMJ after mandibular condyle fractures. PMID:15134412

  15. [Surgical reposition and fixation of mandibular condyle fractures via intraoral approach].

    PubMed

    Hochban, W; Ellers, M; Umstadt, H E; Juchems, K I

    1996-01-01

    In a case series 54 patients with 61 subcondylar fractures had been treated by surgical repositioning and miniplate-fixation by an intraoral approach. Functional results with special regard to the function of the temporomandibular joint TMJ were registered not earlier than 1 year postoperatively and compared to a case series of 48 patients with 63 conservatively treated subcondylar fractures. Axiographic or pantographic investigation proved higher incidence of TMJ-disorders as it was the case for the common clinical functional examination. TMJ-function was worse in the conservatively treated cases especially in dislocated fractures. Therefore dislocated fractures especially with luxation of the TMJ should be surgically treated. Surgical repositioning and fixation by an intraoral approach is difficult and allows only limited access and view of the fracture, but avoids complications by scaring or facial nerve damage and seems to be sufficient for adequate repositioning. Minor dislocations showed no influence on TMJ-function. Of course surgical repair of disrupted TMJ-ligaments is not possible by an intraoral approach-disrupted TMJ-ligaments in luxated joints seem to be of major importance for the later TMJ-function. PMID:8755407

  16. Lateral collateral ligament (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The lateral collateral ligament connects the end of the femur (thigh) to the top of the fibula (the thin ... that runs next to the shin bone). The lateral collateral ligament provides stability against varus stress. Varus ...

  17. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    MedlinePLUS

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or ALS, is a disease of the nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord that ... PA: Elsevier Elsevier; 2012:chap 74. Shaw PJ. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other motor neuron diseases. In: Goldman L, ...

  18. Lateral flow strip assay

    DOEpatents

    Miles, Robin R. (Danville, CA); Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA); Coleman, Matthew A. (Oakland, CA); Pearson, Francesca S. (Livermore, CA); Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L. (Livermore, CA)

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  19. Diagnostic performance of dental students in identifying mandibular condyle fractures by panoramic radiography and the usefulness of reference images

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of dental students in detection of mandibular condyle fractures and the effectiveness of reference panoramic images. Materials and Methods Forty-six undergraduates evaluated 25 panoramic radiographs for condylar fractures and the data were analyzed through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. After a month, they were divided into two homogeneous groups based on the first results and re-evaluated the images with (group A) or without (group B) reference images. Eight reference images included indications showing either typical condylar fractures or anatomic structures which could be confused with fractures. Paired t-test was used for statistical analysis of the difference between the first and the second evaluations for each group, and student's t-test was used between the two groups in the second evaluation. The intra- and inter-observer agreements were evaluated with Kappa statistics. Results Intra- and inter-observer agreements were substantial (k=0.66) and moderate (k=0.53), respectively. The area under the ROC curve (Az) in the first evaluation was 0.802. In the second evaluation, it was increased to 0.823 for group A and 0.814 for group B. The difference between the first and second evaluations for group A was statistically significant (p<0.05), however there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in the second evaluation. Conclusion Providing reference images to less experienced clinicians would be a good way to improve the diagnostic ability in detecting condylar fracture. PMID:21977475

  20. Open reduction and internal fixation of extracapsular mandibular condyle fractures: a long-term clinical and radiological follow-up of 25 patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background During the last 2 decades, many studies on the treatment of mandibular condyle fracture have been published. The incidence of mandibular condyle fractures is variable, ranging from 17.5% to 52% of all mandibular fractures. This retrospective study evaluated the long-term clinical and radiological outcomes after surgical treatment of 25 patients with a total of 26 extracapsular condyle fractures. Methods We used 2 types of surgical approaches, the retromandibular retroparotid or preauricular approach. Three kinds of rigid internal fixation plates were used—single plate, double plate, and trapezoidal plate. The following post-operative clinical parameters were evaluated: dental occlusion, facial nerve functionality, skin scarring, and temporomandibular joint functionality. All patients underwent post-operative orthopanoramic radiography and computed tomography. The patients were also monitored for complications such as Frey’s syndrome, infection, salivary fistula, plate fracture, and permanent paralysis of the facial nerve; the patient’s satisfaction was also recorded. Results Of the 25 patients, 80% showed occlusion recovery, 88% had no facial nerve injury, and 88% presented good surgical skin scarring. The patients showed early complete recovery of temporomandibular joint functionality and 72% of them were found to be asymptomatic. The postoperative radiographs of all patients indicated good recovery of the anatomical condylar region, and 80% of them had no postoperative complications. The average degree of patient satisfaction was 8.32 out of 10. Our results confirm that the technique of open reduction and internal fixation in association with postoperative functional rehabilitation therapy should be considered for treating patients with extracapsular condylar fractures. Conclusion The topic of condylar injury has generated more discussion and controversy than any other topic in the field of maxillofacial trauma. We confirm that open reduction and internal fixation is the treatment of choice for patients with neck and sub-condylar mandibular fractures. PMID:25196114

  1. Combined autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) with supra-condylar femoral varus osteotomy, following lateral growth-plate damage in an adolescent knee: 8-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We report the 8-year clinical and radiographic outcome of an adolescent patient with a large osteochondral defect of the lateral femoral condyle, and ipsilateral genu valgum secondary to an epiphyseal injury, managed with autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) and supracondylar re-alignment femoral osteotomy. Long-term clinical success was achieved using this method, illustrating the effective use of re-alignment osteotomy in correcting mal-alignment of the knee, protecting the ACI graft site and providing the optimum environment for cartilage repair and regeneration. This is the first report of the combined use of ACI and femoral osteotomy for such a case. PMID:21418566

  2. Hemiarthroplasty of the shoulder joint using a custom-designed high-density nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide prosthesis with a polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel humeral head surface in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yongwen; Guo, Jun; Bai, Ding; Wang, Hang; Zheng, Xiaohui; Guo, Weihua; Tian, Weidong

    2014-07-01

    In this study, a novel custom-designed high-density nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide (n-HA/PA) prosthesis with a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel humeral head surface was employed to repair the shoulder joint head for hemiarthroplasty in rabbits. The prosthesis was fabricated using three-dimensional computed tomography and computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing systems for perfect fitting. Sixteen New Zealand white rabbits underwent humeral head excision, and received the composite prostheses for hemiarthroplasty. The implant sites were free from suppuration and necrosis at all periods. The X-ray results showed that there was a clear space between the prosthesis head and the glenoid surface, and the joint capsules and surfaces of the glenoid and PVA were well preserved without any damage during the whole inspection period. A high density of bone was observed around the firmware part of the prosthesis. Histological results revealed that significant osteogenesis was surrounding the firmware part, and the joint space was clear and the cartilage of the upper joint surface was basically intact. There was no visible absorption of the joint surfaces even after 3 months of continuous functional motions. The maximum tensile strength between the prosthesis and host bone reached 2.63?MPa at the 12th week postimplantation. In conclusion, the customized prosthesis by combination of PVA and high-density n-HA/PA has excellent biocompatibility and biological fixation, and offers a promising substitute for both the cartilage and the bone of the humeral head in a rabbit model as level V evidence. PMID:24404998

  3. Lateral superlattice solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mascarenhas, A.; Zhang, Y.; Millunchick, J.M.; Twesten, R.D.; Jones, E.D.

    1997-10-01

    A novel structure which comprises of a lateral superlattice as the active layer of a solar cell is proposed. If the alternating regions A and B of a lateral superlattice ABABAB... are chosen to have a Type-II band offset, it is shown that the performance of the active absorbing region of the solar cell is optimized. In essence, the Type-II lateral superlattice region can satisfy the material requirements for an ideal solar cells active absorbing region, i.e. simultaneously having a very high transition probability for photogeneration and a very long minority carrier recombination lifetime.

  4. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    MedlinePLUS

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a nervous system disease that attacks nerve cells called neurons in your ... people with ALS die from respiratory failure. The disease usually strikes between age 40 and 60. More ...

  5. Lateral Thinking of Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Xavier, S. Amaladoss

    2013-01-01

    Edward de Bono who invented the term "lateral thinking" in 1967 is the pioneer of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is concerned with the generation of new ideas. Liberation from old ideas and the stimulation of new ones are twin aspects of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is a creative skills from which all people can benefit…

  6. Laterally bendable belt conveyor

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, William J. (Coraopolis, PA)

    1985-01-01

    An endless, laterally flexible and bendable belt conveyor particularly adapted for coal mining applications in facilitating the transport of the extracted coal up- or downslope and around corners in a continuous manner is disclosed. The conveying means includes a flat rubber belt reinforced along the middle portion thereof along which the major portion of the belt tension is directed so as to cause rotation of the tubular shaped belt when trammed around lateral turns thus preventing excessive belt bulging distortion between adjacent belt supports which would inhibit belt transport. Pretension induced into the fabric reinforced flat rubber belt by conventional belt take-up means supports the load conveyed when the belt conveyor is making lateral turns. The carrying and return portions of the belt are supported and formed into a tubular shape by a plurality of shapers positioned along its length. Each shaper is supported from above by a monorail and includes clusters of idler rollers which support the belt. Additional cluster rollers in each shaper permit the belt supporting roller clusters to rotate in response to the belt's operating tension imposed upon the cluster rollers by induced lateral belt friction forces. The freely rotating roller clusters thus permit the belt to twist on lateral curves without damage to itself while precluding escape of the conveyed material by effectively enclosing it in the tube-shaped, inner belt transport length.

  7. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Shoesmith, Christen L.; Strong, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To discuss the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, expected course, prognosis, and treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a degenerative disorder of the nervous system associated with progressive weakness. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched using the MeSH headings “amyotrophic lateral sclerosis,” “therapy,” “epidemiology,” and “etiology.” Articles containing the best available evidence were reviewed. Most provided level II and III evidence. There were some level I drug trials. MAIN MESSAGE Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is associated with progressive dysarthria, dysphagia, and weakness in the extremities. Diagnosis is based on physical examination, electrophysiology, and excluding other confounding conditions. There is no cure for this devastating disorder. Certain treatments, however, can improve survival and quality of life. CONCLUSION Because ALS is a complex disease, care of ALS patients is best provided at multidisciplinary clinics that specialize in managing patients with this disorder. PMID:17279237

  8. Humor in Later Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Billie H.

    This document contains a brief bibliography of peer-reviewed literature, with abstracts, on humor in later life. It is one of 12 bibliographies on aging prepared by the National Agricultural Library for its "Pathfinders" series of publications. Topics covered by the other 11 bibliographies include aging parents, adult children, dementia and…

  9. Effects of humeral intraosseous versus intravenous epinephrine on pharmacokinetics and return of spontaneous circulation in a porcine cardiac arrest model: A randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Don; Garcia-Blanco, Jose; Burgert, James; Fulton, Lawrence; Kadilak, Patrick; Perry, Katherine; Burke, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR), defibrillation, and epinephrine administration are pillars of advanced cardiac life support (ACLS). Intraosseous (IO) access is an alternative route for epinephrine administration when intravenous (IV) access is unobtainable. Previous studies indicate the pharmacokinetics of epinephrine administration via IO and IV routes differ, but it is not known if the difference influences return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The purpose of this prospective, experimental study was to determine the effects of humeral IO (HIO) and IV epinephrine administration during cardiac arrest on pharmacokinetics, ROSC, and odds of survival. Swine (N = 21) were randomized into 3 groups: humeral IO (HIO), peripheral IV (IV) and CPR/defibrillation control. Cardiac arrest was induced under general anesthesia. The swine remained in arrest for 2 min without intervention. Chest compressions were initiated and continued for 2 min. Epinephrine was administered and serial blood samples collected for pharmacokinetic analysis over 4 min. Defibrillation and epinephrine administration proceeded according to ACLS guidelines continuing for 20 min or until ROSC. Seven HIO swine, 4 IV swine, and no control swine had ROSC. There were no significant differences in ROSC, maximum concentration; except at 30 s, and time-to-concentration-maximum between the HIO and IV groups. Significant differences existed between the experimental groups and the control. The HIO delivers a higher concentration of epinephrine than the IV route at 30 s which may be a survival advantage. Clinicians may consider using the IO route to administer epinephrine during CA when there is no preexisting IV access or when IV access is unobtainable. PMID:26468375

  10. Effects of humeral intraosseous versus intravenous epinephrine on pharmacokinetics and return of spontaneous circulation in a porcine cardiac arrest model: A randomized control trial

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Don; Garcia-Blanco, Jose; Burgert, James; Fulton, Lawrence; Kadilak, Patrick; Perry, Katherine; Burke, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR), defibrillation, and epinephrine administration are pillars of advanced cardiac life support (ACLS). Intraosseous (IO) access is an alternative route for epinephrine administration when intravenous (IV) access is unobtainable. Previous studies indicate the pharmacokinetics of epinephrine administration via IO and IV routes differ, but it is not known if the difference influences return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The purpose of this prospective, experimental study was to determine the effects of humeral IO (HIO) and IV epinephrine administration during cardiac arrest on pharmacokinetics, ROSC, and odds of survival. Swine (N = 21) were randomized into 3 groups: humeral IO (HIO), peripheral IV (IV) and CPR/defibrillation control. Cardiac arrest was induced under general anesthesia. The swine remained in arrest for 2 min without intervention. Chest compressions were initiated and continued for 2 min. Epinephrine was administered and serial blood samples collected for pharmacokinetic analysis over 4 min. Defibrillation and epinephrine administration proceeded according to ACLS guidelines continuing for 20 min or until ROSC. Seven HIO swine, 4 IV swine, and no control swine had ROSC. There were no significant differences in ROSC, maximum concentration; except at 30 s, and time-to-concentration-maximum between the HIO and IV groups. Significant differences existed between the experimental groups and the control. The HIO delivers a higher concentration of epinephrine than the IV route at 30 s which may be a survival advantage. Clinicians may consider using the IO route to administer epinephrine during CA when there is no preexisting IV access or when IV access is unobtainable. PMID:26468375

  11. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Paul H; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Hays, Arthur P

    2003-09-01

    In this case study, we describe the symptoms, neurological examination, and pathology of a woman with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). ALS is a rare disorder leading to degeneration of the voluntary motor system and death in, on average, 3 to 4 years. The loss of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord causes the progressive symptoms of muscular weakness, atrophy, fasciculation (muscle twitching), spasticity, and hyperreflexia. Signs of disease in both upper and lower motor neurons are required for a definitive clinical diagnosis. Pathology shows degeneration of the lateral corticospinal tracts, loss of motor neurons and astrogliosis in the brain and brain stem, and neuronal inclusions. This case was marked by the onset of weakness and muscle atrophy in the hand, which spread to involve contiguous muscle segments. Cognition, the extraocular muscles, and the urinary sphincters were spared. Respiratory muscle weakness was a late manifestation. PMID:12954882

  12. 7. UPPER INSIDE CHORD, VERTICAL, LATERAL STRUT, UPPER LATERAL & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. UPPER INSIDE CHORD, VERTICAL, LATERAL STRUT, UPPER LATERAL & GUSSET PLATE, TWO DIAGONAL BRACES - Enterprise Parker Truss Bridge, Spanning Smoky Hill River on K-43 Highway, Enterprise, Dickinson County, KS

  13. 8. UPPER INSIDE CHORD, VERTICAL, LATERAL STRUT, UPPER LATERAL & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. UPPER INSIDE CHORD, VERTICAL, LATERAL STRUT, UPPER LATERAL & GUSSET PLATE, ONE DIAGONAL BRACE - Enterprise Parker Truss Bridge, Spanning Smoky Hill River on K-43 Highway, Enterprise, Dickinson County, KS

  14. Primary Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Statland, Jeffrey M; Barohn, Richard J; Dimachkie, Mazen M; Floeter, Mary Kay; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    Primary lateral sclerosis is characterized by insidious onset of progressive upper motor neuron dysfunction in the absence of clinical signs of lower motor neuron involvement. Patients experience stiffness; decreased balance and coordination; mild weakness; and, if the bulbar region is affected, difficulty speaking and swallowing, and emotional lability. The diagnosis is made based on clinical history, typical examination findings, and diagnostic testing negative for other causes of upper motor neuron dysfunction. Electromyogram is normal, or only shows mild neurogenic findings in a few muscles, not meeting El Escorial criteria. Treatment is largely supportive. PMID:26515619

  15. The lateral line microcosmos.

    PubMed

    Ghysen, Alain; Dambly-Chaudière, Christine

    2007-09-01

    The lateral-line system is a simple sensory system comprising a number of discrete sense organs, the neuromasts, distributed over the body of fish and amphibians in species-specific patterns. Its development involves fundamental biological processes such as long-range cell migration, planar cell polarity, regeneration, and post-embryonic remodeling. These aspects have been extensively studied in amphibians by experimental embryologists, but it is only recently that the genetic bases of this development have been explored in zebrafish. This review discusses progress made over the past few years in this field. PMID:17785522

  16. Custom-made lateral femoral hemiarthroplasty for traumatic bone loss: A case report.

    PubMed

    Stuyts, Bart; Peersman, Geert; Thienpont, Emmanuel; Van den Eeden, Elke; Van der Bracht, Hans

    2015-10-01

    We report the case of a 32-year-old male patient involved in a road traffic accident in which he sustained a grade II open supra- and intercondylar fracture of the left distal femur with substantial bone loss of the lateral femoral condyle and trochlea (AO classification type 33 C3). Normal knee function was no longer possible, as the patella was trapped within the bony defect. Existing reconstructive options such as unicondylar osteoarticular allograft, arthrodesis, and arthroplasty were considered. However, as all these techniques present significant disadvantages, particularly in young and active patients, a custom-made lateral hemiarthroplasty was designed and implanted as an alternative treatment. Follow-up at 24months revealed an excellent, pain-free level of function and radiographs showed no signs of implant loosening or migration. This technique offers the most anatomical means of reconstruction with maximal preservation of the bone stock, thereby better facilitating any revisions that may be necessary in the future. This is an experimental technique reserved for rare indications, and currently has no long-term follow-up results associated with its use. Additional research is therefore needed before widespread adoption of this technique can take place. PMID:26183418

  17. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Alexander; Girardi, Federico; Sama, Andrew; Lebl, Darren; Cammisa, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a relatively new technique that allows the surgeon to access the intervertebral space from a direct lateral approach either anterior to or through the psoas muscle. This approach provides an alternative to anterior lumbar interbody fusion with instrumentation, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for anterior column support. LLIF is minimally invasive, safe, better structural support from the apophyseal ring, potential for coronal plane deformity correction, and indirect decompression, which have has made this technique popular. LLIF is currently being utilized for a variety of pathologies including but not limited to adult de novo lumbar scoliosis, central and foraminal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and adjacent segment degeneration. Although early clinical outcomes have been good, the potential for significant neurological and vascular vertebral endplate complications exists. Nevertheless, LLIF is a promising technique with the potential to more effectively treat complex adult de novo scoliosis and achieve predictable fusion while avoiding the complications of traditional anterior surgery and posterior interbody techniques. PMID:26713134

  18. Creativity in later life.

    PubMed

    Price, K A; Tinker, A M

    2014-08-01

    The ageing population presents significant challenges for the provision of social and health services. Strategies are needed to enable older people to cope within a society ill prepared for the impacts of these demographic changes. The ability to be creative may be one such strategy. This review outlines the relevant literature and examines current public health policy related to creativity in old age with the aim of highlighting some important issues. As well as looking at the benefits and negative aspects of creative activity in later life they are considered in the context of the theory of "successful ageing". Creative activity plays an important role in the lives of older people promoting social interaction, providing cognitive stimulation and giving a sense of self-worth. Furthermore, it is shown to be useful as a tool in the multi-disciplinary treatment of health problems common in later life such as depression and dementia. There are a number of initiatives to encourage older people to participate in creative activities such as arts-based projects which may range from visual arts to dance to music to intergenerational initiatives. However, participation shows geographical variation and often the responsibility of provision falls to voluntary organisations. Overall, the literature presented suggests that creative activity could be a useful tool for individuals and society. However, further research is needed to establish the key factors which contribute to patterns of improved health and well-being, as well as to explore ways to improve access to services. PMID:24974278

  19. The influence of various resistance loads on the ratio of activity of the external rotator muscles of the shoulder and the anterior gliding of the humeral head during external rotation exercise

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Marg-Eun; Lee, Seung-Min; Jang, Jun-Hyeok; Lee, Sang-Yeol

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To quantify the ratio of activation of the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles and the anterior gliding motion of the humeral head during external rotation (ER) motions of the shoulder performed in prone position against different external resistance loads. [Subjects] Twenty healthy women between the ages of 20 and 30?years. [Methods] Activity ratio was quantified as the difference in the root mean square of the smoothed electromyography signal (EMG) of the posterior deltoid to the infraspinatus muscle, and anterior gliding pressure of the humeral head using a pressure biofeedback unit (PBU), for three resistance loads: 0, 1 and 2?kg. [Results] There was a significant correlation among all three variables (load, ratio, and pressure). Anterior gliding pressure correlated with the activity ratio, with activity of the posterior deltoid increasing with the magnitude of the resistance load. [Conclusion] There was a positive association between the magnitude of resistance load, activity of the posterior deltoid and anterior gliding pressure of the humeral head. The PBU could be used to facilitate the recruitment of the infraspinatus muscle at higher loads to improve glenohumeral joint stability during ER exercise against higher resistance. PMID:26644683

  20. Reflexive Planning for Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Margaret A.; Kemp, Candace L.; French, Susan; Gafni, Amiram; Joshi, Anju; Rosenthal, Carolyn J.; Davies, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    Informed by Giddens' (1991) concept of "reflexive life" planning and the notion of later life as a time of increasing social and financial risk, this research explores the idea of "reflexive planning for later life". We utilize a conceptual model that incorporates three types of planning for later life: public protection, self-insurance, and…

  1. The scale-up of a tissue engineered porous hydroxyapatite polymer composite scaffold for use in bone repair: an ovine femoral condyle defect study.

    PubMed

    Tayton, Edward; Purcell, Matthew; Smith, James O; Lanham, Stuart; Howdle, Steven M; Shakesheff, Kevin M; Goodship, Allen; Blunn, Gordon; Fowler, Darren; Dunlop, Douglas G; Oreffo, Richard O C

    2015-04-01

    The development of an osteogenic bone graft substitute has important practical and cost implications in many branches of medicine where bone regeneration is required. Previous in vitro and small animal (murine) in vivo studies highlighted a porous hydroxyapatite/poly (DL-lactic acid) composite scaffold in combination with skeletal stem cells (SSCs) as a potential bone graft substitute candidate. The aim of the current study was to scale up the bone cell-scaffold construct to large animals and examine the potential for repair of a critical-sized defect via an ovine model. SSC seeded scaffolds (and unseeded scaffold controls) were implanted bilaterally into ovine femoral condyle critical defects for 3 months. A parallel in vitro analysis of ovine SSC seeded scaffolds was also performed. Post mortem mechanical indentation testing showed the bone strengths of the defect sites were 20% (controls) and 11% (SSC seeded scaffolds) those of normal cancellous bone (p < 0.01). MicroCT analysis demonstrated new bone formation within all defects with a mean increase of 13.4% in the control scaffolds over the SSC seeded scaffolds (p = 0.14). Histological examination confirmed these findings, with enhanced quality new bone within the control defects. This study highlights important issues and steps to overcome in scale-up and translation of tissue engineered products. The scaffold demonstrated encouraging results as an osteoconductive matrix; however, further work is required with cellular protocols before any human trials. PMID:25044983

  2. Evaluation of injectable strontium-containing borate bioactive glass cement with enhanced osteogenic capacity in a critical-sized rabbit femoral condyle defect model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yadong; Cui, Xu; Zhao, Shichang; Wang, Hui; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Liu, Zhongtang; Huang, Wenhai; Zhang, Changqing

    2015-02-01

    The development of a new generation of injectable bone cements that are bioactive and have enhanced osteogenic capacity for rapid osseointegration is receiving considerable interest. In this study, a novel injectable cement (designated Sr-BBG) composed of strontium-doped borate bioactive glass particles and a chitosan-based bonding phase was prepared and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The bioactive glass provided the benefits of bioactivity, conversion to hydroxyapatite, and the ability to stimulate osteogenesis, while the chitosan provided a cohesive biocompatible and biodegradable bonding phase. The Sr-BBG cement showed the ability to set in situ (initial setting time = 11.6 ± 1.2 min) and a compressive strength of 19 ± 1 MPa. The Sr-BBG cement enhanced the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro when compared to a similar cement (BBG) composed of chitosan-bonded borate bioactive glass particles without Sr. Microcomputed tomography and histology of critical-sized rabbit femoral condyle defects implanted with the cements showed the osteogenic capacity of the Sr-BBG cement. New bone was observed at different distances from the Sr-BBG implants within eight weeks. The bone-implant contact index was significantly higher for the Sr-BBG implant than it was for the BBG implant. Together, the results indicate that this Sr-BBG cement is a promising implant for healing irregularly shaped bone defects using minimally invasive surgery. PMID:25591177

  3. Lateral conduction infrared photodetector

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jin K. (Albuquerque, NM); Carroll, Malcolm S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-09-20

    A photodetector for detecting infrared light in a wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m is disclosed. The photodetector has a mesa structure formed from semiconductor layers which include a type-II superlattice formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. Impurity doped regions are formed on sidewalls of the mesa structure to provide for a lateral conduction of photo-generated carriers which can provide an increased carrier mobility and a reduced surface recombination. An optional bias electrode can be used in the photodetector to control and vary a cut-off wavelength or a depletion width therein. The photodetector can be formed as a single-color or multi-color device, and can also be used to form a focal plane array which is compatible with conventional read-out integrated circuits.

  4. Dome osteotomy using the paratricipital (triceps-sparing) approach for cubitus varus deformity in children: a surgical technique to avoid lateral condylar prominence.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ayman M; Abouelnas, Bassam A; Elgohary, Hatem S A

    2016-01-01

    Twenty patients (11 males and nine females) with cubitus varus deformity were treated with corrective dome osteotomy through the paratricipital approach. Patients presented after an average 3 years of appearance of the deformity. The average age of the patients was 8.5 years (range 6-14 years). All patients had a previous history of supracondylar fracture. Preoperatively, carrying angle, lateral condylar prominent index, and range of motion were recorded. There were no intraoperative complications. Postoperatively, three patients developed a superficial skin infection. No patient had unsightly scarring or a prominent lateral condyle. No patient reported pain, motor weakness, or atrophy of the arm musculature. There was no fixation failure or loss of correction during the healing stage and no revision surgery was needed. The results were graded according to the preoperative and postoperative carrying angle, movement of flexion and extension, and lateral condylar prominence index and they were evaluated statistically. Preoperative and postoperative extension, carrying angle, and lateral condylar prominence index were statistically significant. Corrective dome osteotomy using the paratricipital approach seems to be a reliable technique for correction of cubitus varus in children. The procedure is relatively simple and enables correction of the deformity without inducing lateral condylar prominence. PMID:26340368

  5. Diamond heteroepitaxial lateral overgrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yung-Hsiu

    This dissertation describes improvements in the growth of single crystal diamond by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Heteroepitaxial (001) diamond was grown on 1 cm. 2 a-plane sapphiresubstrates using an epitaxial (001) Ir thin-film as a buffer layer. Low-energy ion bombardment of the Ir layer, a process known as bias-enhanced nucleation, is a key step in achieving a high density of diamond nuclei. Bias conditions were optimized to form uniformly-high nucleation densities across the substrates, which led to well-coalesced diamond thin films after short growth times. Epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) was used as a means of decreasing diamond internal stress by impeding the propagation of threading dislocations into the growing material. Its use in diamond growth requires adaptation to the aggressive chemical and thermal environment of the hydrogen plasma in a CVD reactor. Three ELO variants were developed. The most successful utilized a gold (Au) mask prepared by vacuum evaporation onto the surface of a thin heteroepitaxial diamond layer. The Au mask pattern, a series of parallel stripes on the micrometer scale, was produced by standard lift-off photolithography. When diamond overgrows the mask, dislocations are largely confined to the substrate. Differing degrees of confinement were studied by varying the stripe geometry and orientation. Significant improvement in diamond quality was found in the overgrown regions, as evidenced by reduction of the Raman scattering linewidth. The Au layer was found to remain intact during diamond overgrowth and did not chemically bond with the diamond surface. Besides impeding the propagation of threading dislocations, it was discovered that the thermally-induced stress in the CVD diamond was significantly reduced as a result of the ductile Au layer. Cracking and delamination of the diamond from the substrate was mostly eliminated. When diamond was grown to thicknesses above 0.1 mm it was found that crystallographic perfection continuously improved, leading to a diamond surface nearly free of stress.

  6. Lateral pterygoid muscle: a three-dimensional analysis of neuromuscular partitioning.

    PubMed

    Davies, J C; Charles, M; Cantelmi, D; Liebgott, B; Ravichandiran, M; Ravichandiran, K; Agur, A M

    2012-07-01

    The lateral pterygoid (LP) has been implicated in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pathology. Few studies have examined muscle architecture of the superior (SLP) and inferior (ILP) heads of LP; moreover, the pattern of intramuscular innervation is poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to determine patterns of intramuscular innervation of LP using 3D modeling. The superior and lateral aspects of LP were exposed in 10 embalmed cadaveric specimens. Nerves entering the muscle, all branches of the mandibular nerve (V(3) ), were followed intramuscularly in short segments and sequentially digitized. Muscle volume, surrounding bone, and the TMJ disc were also digitized. The data were reconstructed into 3D models (Maya®) that were used to determine patterns of intramuscular innervation. It was found that the SLP had independent sources of innervation to each of the quadrants in its superior part (masseteric/posterior deep temporal/middle deep temporal/buccal) and one primary source of innervation (buccal) to the quadrants of the inferior part. This difference in innervation is significant as the superior part attaches to the TMJ disc-capsule complex, whereas the inferior part attaches to the mandibular condylar neck. Differing sites of attachment and sources of innervation for each part suggests that movement of the TMJ disc-capsule complex, independent of the condyle, may be possible. The buccal nerve supplied both the medial and lateral quadrants of the ILP, with the medial quadrants receiving additional innervation from V(3) muscular branches. Results of this study could be used to direct EMG/ultrasound studies of LP function as related to TMJ disorders. PMID:22144260

  7. Torn lateral collateral ligament (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    A torn (LCL), is an injury to the lateral collateral ligament, a ligament extending from the top-outside surface of the fibula to the bottom-outside surface of the femur. The ligament prevents the knee joint from side-to-side (lateral) instability.

  8. Advantage of Minimally Invasive Lateral Approach Relative to Conventional Deltopectoral Approach for Treatment of Proximal Humerus Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kuan; Liu, Peng-cheng; Liu, Run; Wu, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the wide application of open reduction and internal fixation with locking plates for the treatment of proximal humeral fractures, the surgical invasive approach remains controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the pros and cons of the minimally invasive lateral approach for the treatment of proximal humeral fracture (PHF) in comparison with the deltopectoral approach. Material/Methods All patients who sustained a PHF and received open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) surgery with locking plate through either minimally invasive subacromial approach or conventional deltopectoral approach between January 2008 and February 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into the conventional group and min-group according to the surgical incision. Surgery-related information, postoperative radiography, complications, and shoulder functional measurement scores in a 2-year follow-up were collected and evaluated. Results Ninety-one patients meeting the inclusion criteria were included in this study. We observed a significant difference in both surgery time (81.8±18.3 vs. 91.0±18.4) (p=0.021) and blood loss (172±54.2 vs. 205±73.6) (p=0.016) between the min-group and conventional group. Compared to the conventional group, the min-group had significantly better Constant-Murley score and DASH score at early follow-up (p<0.05) and higher patients satisfaction rate (8.1±1.1 vs. 7.6±1.2) (p= 0.019). The multiple linear regression analysis indicated that age, PHF types, surgical groups, surgery time, and blood loss have significant effect on the activity of affected shoulder in both abduction and forward flexion (p<0.05) except for gender factor. While larger range of movement of the affected shoulder, mainly in the 2-part and 3-part fractures, was observed in the min-group, the conventional group obtained better movement in the 4-part fractures. Conclusions The minimally invasive lateral approach is the optimal alternative for the treatment of Neer’s type 2 and 3 proximal humerus fractures. PMID:25682320

  9. Investigation of the mechanical behavior of kangaroo humeral head cartilage tissue by a porohyperelastic model based on the strain-rate-dependent permeability.

    PubMed

    Thibbotuwawa, Namal; Oloyede, Adekunle; Senadeera, Wijitha; Li, Tong; Gu, YuanTong

    2015-11-01

    Solid-interstitial fluid interaction, which depends on tissue permeability, is significant to the strain-rate-dependent mechanical behavior of humeral head (shoulder) cartilage. Due to anatomical and biomechanical similarities to that of the human shoulder, kangaroos present a suitable animal model. Therefore, indentation experiments were conducted on kangaroo shoulder cartilage tissues from low (10(-4)/s) to moderately high (10(-2)/s) strain-rates. A porohyperelastic model was developed based on the experimental characterization; and a permeability function that takes into account the effect of strain-rate on permeability (strain-rate-dependent permeability) was introduced into the model to investigate the effect of rate-dependent fluid flow on tissue response. The prediction of the model with the strain-rate-dependent permeability was compared with those of the models using constant permeability and strain-dependent permeability. Compared to the model with constant permeability, the models with strain-dependent and strain-rate-dependent permeability were able to better capture the experimental variation at all strain-rates (p<0.05). Significant differences were not identified between models with strain-dependent and strain-rate-dependent permeability at strain-rate of 5×10(-3)/s (p=0.179). However, at strain-rate of 10(-2)/s, the model with strain-rate-dependent permeability was significantly better at capturing the experimental results (p<0.005). The findings thus revealed the significance of rate-dependent fluid flow on tissue behavior at large strain-rates, which provides insights into the mechanical deformation mechanisms of cartilage tissues. PMID:26275487

  10. Lateral transorbital neuroendoscopic approach to the lateral cavernous sinus.

    PubMed

    Bly, Randall A; Ramakrishna, Rohan; Ferreira, Manuel; Moe, Kris S

    2014-02-01

    Objective?To design and assess the quality of a novel lateral retrocanthal endoscopic approach to the lateral cavernous sinus. Design?Computer modeling software was used to optimize the geometry of the surgical pathway, which was confirmed on cadaver specimens. We calculated trajectories and surgically accessible areas to the middle fossa while applying a constraint on the amount of soft tissue retraction. Setting?Virtual computer model to simulate the surgical approach and cadaver laboratory. Participants?The authors. Main Outcome Measures?Adequate surgical access to the lateral cavernous sinus and adjacent regions as determined by operations on the cadaver specimens. Additionally, geometric limitations were imposed as determined by the model so that retraction on soft tissue structures was maintained at a clinically safe distance. Results?Our calculations revealed adequate access to the lateral cavernous sinus, Meckel cave, orbital apex, and middle fossa floor. Cadaveric testing revealed sufficient access to these areas using <10?mm of orbital retraction. Conclusions?Our study validates not only the use of computer simulation to plan operative approaches but the feasibility of the lateral retrocanthal approach to the lateral cavernous sinus. PMID:24498584

  11. Lateral Dominance and Reading Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Albert J.

    1979-01-01

    Theory and research on the relation of lateral dominance to the causation of reading disability are reviewed. Both direct and indirect measures of cerebral hemisphere functioning are considered. (SBH)

  12. Lateral collateral ligament (LCL) injury

    MedlinePLUS

    LCL injury; Knee injury - lateral collateral ligament (LCL) ... ligament helps keep the outer side of the knee joint stable. ... by pressure or an injury that pushes the knee joint from the inside, which results in stress ...

  13. 49 CFR 230.105 - Lateral motion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lateral motion. 230.105 Section 230.105... Tenders Running Gear § 230.105 Lateral motion. (a) Condemning limits. The total lateral motion or play... require additional lateral motion. (c) Non-interference with other parts. The lateral motion shall in...

  14. Borehole optical lateral displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, R.E.

    1998-10-20

    There is provided by this invention an optical displacement sensor that utilizes a reflective target connected to a surface to be monitored to reflect light from a light source such that the reflected light is received by a photoelectric transducer. The electric signal from the photoelectric transducer is then imputed into electronic circuitry to generate an electronic image of the target. The target`s image is monitored to determine the quantity and direction of any lateral displacement in the target`s image which represents lateral displacement in the surface being monitored. 4 figs.

  15. [The practical significance of laterality].

    PubMed

    Reiss, M

    1991-01-01

    In the present review the practical relevance and the problems of left-handedness have been discussed. Nowadays the diagnosis of the correct hand for writing and learning to write are very important for left-handers. Laterality is a hybrid phenomenon which concerns not only pedagogics but also many other fields, such as medicine, transport, sport and art. PMID:1759637

  16. Functional Lateralization of the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Raymond S.

    1984-01-01

    Research concerning lateralization of human brain functions is examined in light of the recent publication of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. Following a review of research methodologies and functions ascribed to the hemispheres of the brain, differences are portrayed as complementary and coexisting modes of cognitive processing.…

  17. Living Arrangements in Later Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Billie H.

    This document contains a brief bibliography of peer-reviewed literature, with abstracts, on living arrangements in later life. It is one of 12 bibliographies on aging prepared by the National Agricultural Library for its "Pathfinders" series of publications. Topics covered by the other 11 bibliographies include aging parents, adult children,…

  18. 49 CFR 229.63 - Lateral motion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lateral motion. 229.63 Section 229.63....63 Lateral motion. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b), the total uncontrolled lateral motion... powered axles. (b) The total uncontrolled lateral motion may not exceed 11/4 inches on the center axle...

  19. Lateral dampers for thrust bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibner, D. H.; Szafir, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of lateral damping schemes for thrust bearings was examined, ranking their applicability to various engine classes, selecting the best concept for each engine class and performing an in-depth evaluation. Five major engine classes were considered: large transport, military, small general aviation, turboshaft, and non-manrated. Damper concepts developed for evaluation were: curved beam, constrained and unconstrained elastomer, hybrid boost bearing, hydraulic thrust piston, conical squeeze film, and rolling element thrust face.

  20. Lateral thinking: the management of missing upper lateral incisors.

    PubMed

    Millar, B J; Taylor, N G

    1995-08-01

    Absence of the maxillary lateral incisor creates an aesthetic problem which can be managed in various ways. The condition requires careful treatment planning and a consideration of the options and outcomes following either space closure or prosthetic replacement. Recent developments in restorative dentistry have warranted a re-evaluation of the approach to this clinical situation. Factors relating both to the patient and to the teeth, including the presenting malocclusion and the effect on the occlusion, are considered. This review considers the possible options: no treatment; orthodontic space closure with canine modification; space maintenance and replacement of the missing tooth with denture, bridge (adhesive and conventional), or implant. PMID:7546951

  1. Manual lateralization in macaques: handedness, target laterality and task complexity.

    PubMed

    Regaiolli, Barbara; Spiezio, Caterina; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2016-03-01

    Non-human primates represent models to understand the evolution of handedness in humans. Despite several researches have been investigating non-human primates handedness, few studies examined the relationship between target position, hand preference and task complexity. This study aimed at investigating macaque handedness in relation to target laterality and tastiness, as well as task complexity. Seven pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) were involved in three different "two alternative choice" tests: one low-level task and two high-level tasks (HLTs). During the first and the third tests macaques could select a preferred food and a non-preferred food, whereas by modifying the design of the second test, macaques were presented with no-difference alternative per trial. Furthermore, a simple-reaching test was administered to assess hand preference in a social context. Macaques showed hand preference at individual level both in simple and complex tasks, but not in the simple-reaching test. Moreover, target position seemed to affect hand preference in retrieving an object in the low-level task, but not in the HLT. Additionally, individual hand preference seemed to be affected from the tastiness of the item to be retrieved. The results suggest that both target laterality and individual motivation might influence hand preference of macaques, especially in simple tasks. PMID:26292019

  2. Vision assisted aircraft lateral navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohideen, Mohamed Ibrahim; Ramegowda, Dinesh; Seiler, Peter

    2013-05-01

    Surface operation is currently one of the least technologically equipped phases of aircraft operation. The increased air traffic congestion necessitates more aircraft operations in degraded weather and at night. The traditional surface procedures worked well in most cases as airport surfaces have not been congested and airport layouts were less complex. Despite the best efforts of FAA and other safety agencies, runway incursions continue to occur frequently due to incorrect surface operation. Several studies conducted by FAA suggest that pilot induced error contributes significantly to runway incursions. Further, the report attributes pilot's lack of situational awareness - local (e.g., minimizing lateral deviation), global (e.g., traffic in the vicinity) and route (e.g., distance to next turn) - to the problem. An Enhanced Vision System (EVS) is one concept that is being considered to resolve these issues. These systems use on-board sensors to provide situational awareness under poor visibility conditions. In this paper, we propose the use of an Image processing based system to estimate the aircraft position and orientation relative to taxiway markings to use as lateral guidance aid. We estimate aircraft yaw angle and lateral offset from slope of the taxiway centerline and horizontal position of vanishing line. Unlike automotive applications, several cues such as aircraft maneuvers along assigned route with minimal deviations, clear ground markings, even taxiway surface, limited aircraft speed are available and enable us to implement significant algorithm optimizations. We present experimental results to show high precision navigation accuracy with sensitivity analysis with respect to camera mount, optics, and image processing error.

  3. Laterally Mounted Azobenzenes on Platforms.

    PubMed

    Hammerich, Melanie; Herges, Rainer

    2015-11-20

    Triazatriangulenium ions have previously been used as platforms to prepare self-assembled monolayers of functional molecules such as azobenzenes with vertical orientation and that are free-standing on gold surfaces. We have now prepared azobenzenes that are spanned between two posts which are attached on two platforms. Absorbed on a gold surface, the azobenzene should be laterally oriented at a distance of more than 4 Å above and thus electronically decoupled from the surface, and the system should perform a muscle-type movement upon isomerization. PMID:26551306

  4. Diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rowland, L P

    1998-10-01

    This review of the differential diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis focuses on two themes. The first is practical, how to establish the diagnosis based primarily on clinical findings buttressed by electrodiagnosis. The main considerations are multifocal motor neuropathy and cervical spondylotic myelopathy. The second theme is the relationship of motor neuron disease to other conditions, including benign fasciculation (Denny-Brown, Foley syndrome), paraneoplastic syndromes, lymphoproliferative disease, radiation damage, monomelic amyotrophy (Hirayama syndrome), as well as an association with parkinsonism, dementia and multisystem disorders of the central nervous system. PMID:9851643

  5. Is VACTERL a laterality defect?

    PubMed

    Sadler, Thomas W

    2015-11-01

    To date the etiology of the association called VACTERL remains a mystery. Interestingly, clues as to the origin of this collection of defects may reside in an old hypothesis concerning the midline as a developmental field as postulated by Dr. John Opitz. This theory suggested that the midline was not a separate entity, but could be influenced by other developmental signals. With new information concerning the origin of the left-right axis (laterality) and the importance of communications between this axis and the cranio-caudal (anterior-posterior) axis for normal development, it has become clear that coordination of the molecular signals responsible for specification of these domains is essential for normal development. In fact, if the signals regulating laterality are disrupted, then midline and other defects can occur as has been observed in cases of heterotaxy, presumably because of a disruption in this coordinated signaling effort. Thus, the origins of the defects commonly observed in the VACTERL association may be due to altered signaling responsible for establishing the left-right axis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26171769

  6. Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Download PDF Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life Tools and Tips Printer-friendly PDF Click here ...

  7. Kepler: 400 years later Jonas Karlsson

    E-print Network

    Ciocan-Fontanine, Ionut

    Kepler: 400 years later Jonas Karlsson University of Minnesota January 31, 2011 Jonas Karlsson Kepler: 400 years later #12;Outline Kepler's laws Proof that closed orbits are ellipses The hydrogen atom Geodesic ow and the Kepler manifold Jonas Karlsson Kepler: 400 years later #12;Kepler's laws Johannes

  8. ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Linkage of Familial Amyotrophic Lateral

    E-print Network

    Horvitz, H. Robert

    ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Linkage of Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis With Frontotemporal of combined disorders, such as amyo- trophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with frontotemporal dementia (FTD-Vance, PhD H. Robert Horvitz, PhD Robert H. Brown, Jr, DPhil, MD A MYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLE- rosis (ALS

  9. Hemispheric Laterality in Music and Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szirony, Gary Michael; Burgin, John S.; Pearson, L. Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Hemispheric laterality may be a useful concept in teaching, learning, training, and in understanding more about human development. To address this issue, a measure of hemispheric laterality was compared to musical and mathematical ability. The Human Information Processing Survey (HIPS) instrument, designed to measure hemispheric laterality, was…

  10. Discrete emotions in later life.

    PubMed

    Chipperfield, Judith G; Perry, Raymond P; Weiner, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    More positivity than negativity is demonstrated in this analysis of discrete emotions among 353 community-dwelling individuals from 72 to 99 years old. A complexity in positive emotions was displayed, with more happiness, contentment, and gratitude reported than frustration, sadness, and anger. Our results also imply that another individual's presence may elicit negative emotions such as anger and guilt, whereas perceptions of support may elicit various positive emotions. As expected, certain negative emotions were associated with poor health, with a link between sadness and sickness being most prominent. Of note, poor health did not undermine positive emotions. These findings provide an optimistic view of emotions in later life, even among individuals who are poor, not well educated, and/or physically unwell. PMID:12496298

  11. Lateral violence in the perioperative setting.

    PubMed

    Bigony, Lorraine; Lipke, Tammy G; Lundberg, Ashley; McGraw, Carrie A; Pagac, Gretchen L; Rogers, Anne

    2009-04-01

    Lateral violence is disruptive, bullying, intimidating, or unsettling behavior that occurs between nurses in the workplace. The perioperative setting fosters lateral violence because of the inherent stress of performing surgery; high patient acuity; a shortage of experienced personnel; work demands; and the restriction and isolation of the OR, which allows negative behaviors to be concealed more easily. Lateral violence affects nurses' health and well-being and their ability to care for patients. Interventions to reduce lateral violence include empowerment of staff members and zero tolerance for lateral violence. PMID:19434948

  12. Summary of lateral-control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, Thomas A

    1947-01-01

    A summary has been made of the available information on lateral control. A discussion is given of the criterions used in lateral-control specifications, of the factors involved in obtaining satisfactory lateral control, and of the methods employed in making lateral-control investigations in flight and in wind tunnels. The available data on conventional flap-type ailerons having various types of aerodynamic balance are presented in a form convenient for use in design. The characteristics of spoiler devices and booster mechanisms are discussed. The effects of Mach number, boundary layer, and distortion of the wing or of the lateral-control system are considered insofar as the available information permits. An example is included to illustrate the use of the design data. The limitations of the available information and some of the lateral-control problems that remain to be solved are indicated.

  13. Retroviruses and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Alfahad, Tariq; Nath, Avindra

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, invariably fatal neurologic disorder resulting from upper and lower motor neuron degeneration, which typically develops during the sixth or seventh decade of life, and is diagnosed based on standard clinical criteria. Its underlying cause remains undetermined. The disease may occur with increased frequency within certain families, often in association with specific genomic mutations, while some sporadic cases have been linked to environmental toxins or trauma. Another possibility, first proposed in the 1970s, is that retroviruses play a role in pathogenesis. In this paper, we review the published literature for evidence that ALS is associated either with infection by an exogenous retrovirus or with the expression of human endogenous retroviral (HERV) sequences in cells of the central nervous system. A small percentage of persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) or human T cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) develop ALS-like syndromes. While HTLV-1 associated ALS-like syndrome has several features that may distinguish it from classical ALS, HIV-infected patients may develop neurological manifestations that resemble classical ALS although it occurs at a younger age and they may show a dramatic improvement following the initiation of antiretroviral therapy. However, most patients with probable or definite ALS show no evidence of HIV-1 or HTLV-1 infection. In contrast, recent reports have shown a stronger association with HERV, as analysis of serum samples, and postmortem brain tissue from a number of patients with a classical ALS has revealed significantly increased expression of HERV-K, compared to controls. These findings suggest that endogenous retroviral elements are involved in the pathophysiology of ALS, but there is no evidence that they are the primary cause of the syndrome. PMID:23707220

  14. Genetics Home Reference: Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with understanding juvenile primary lateral sclerosis? autosomal ; autosomal recessive ; cell ; difficulty swallowing ; gene ; inherited ; juvenile ; motor ; protein ; recessive ; sclerosis ; spasticity You ...

  15. LATERAL MIGRATIONLATERAL MIGRATION ALLUVIAL CHANNELSALLUVIAL CHANNELS

    E-print Network

    Julien, Pierre Y.

    (IAHR-JHR, 1996) #12;15 Roaring River Alluvial Fan: Dramatic change in sediment supply Qs since flood1 1 LATERAL MIGRATIONLATERAL MIGRATION ofof ALLUVIAL CHANNELSALLUVIAL CHANNELS Pierre Y.Pierre YArgentina November 2011 #12;2 Objectives Discuss the lateral migration of alluvial channels and provide numerous

  16. Minimizing energy requirements for sprinkler laterals

    SciTech Connect

    Kincaid, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    A computer model was developed to utilize single sprinkler pattern tests in simulating stationary lateral sprinkler systems operating under variable wind conditions. The performance of a low pressure nozzle was compared to that of a standard high pressure round nozzle on a typical multiple set lateral system.

  17. Lateral displacement and rotational displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Duden, Thomas

    2014-04-22

    A position measuring sensor formed from opposing sets of capacitor plates measures both rotational displacement and lateral displacement from the changes in capacitances as overlapping areas of capacitors change. Capacitances are measured by a measuring circuit. The measured capacitances are provided to a calculating circuit that performs calculations to obtain angular and lateral displacement from the capacitances measured by the measuring circuit.

  18. Factors Affecting Lateral Stability and Controllability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, John P; Toll, Thomas A

    1948-01-01

    The effects on dynamic lateral stability and controllability of some of the important aerodynamic and mass characteristics are discussed and methods are presented for estimating the various stability parameters to be used in the calculation of the dynamic lateral stability of airplanes with swept and low-aspect-ratio wings.

  19. Laterality and Reading Proficiency in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Che Kan

    1980-01-01

    Discusses some current concepts of the laterality/reading relationship. An overview of Samuel T. Orton's hypotheses of cerebral dominance and "strephosymbolia" is provided, and both visual half-field and dichotic listening studies as direct, empirical tests of laterality are discussed. (MKM)

  20. Laterality and Dyslexia: A Critical View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiscock, Merrill; Kinsbourne, Marcel

    1982-01-01

    Research is reviewed concerning the current state of knowledge about normal hemispheric specialization; distinctions among such terms as dominance, laterality, and lateralization; and models of abnormal cerebral organization in dyslexic children. The question of dyslexic subtypes is undertaken along such dimensions as handedness, eyedness, and…

  1. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lateral marks. 62.25 Section 62.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.25 Lateral marks....

  2. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lateral marks. 62.25 Section 62.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.25 Lateral marks....

  3. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lateral marks. 62.25 Section 62.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.25 Lateral marks....

  4. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lateral marks. 62.25 Section 62.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.25 Lateral marks....

  5. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lateral marks. 62.25 Section 62.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.25 Lateral marks....

  6. Lateralization Characteristics in Learning Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obrzut, John E.; Boliek, Carol A.

    1986-01-01

    The authors consider recent research on brain lateralization in learning disabled children that has used three different experimental paradigms, noting that these studies have advanced knowledge about factors that can affect performance on the tasks that measure lateralization, but they do not produce a conclusive picture of abnormal…

  7. Unusual external resorption of a maxillary lateral.

    PubMed

    Giunta, J L; Kaplan, M A

    1994-01-01

    This article defines an unusual previously unreported entity afflicting a maxillary lateral incisor. Labial idiopathic external root resorption just apical to the cemento-enamel presented as a gingival (periodontal) problem and was misinterpreted as cervical dental caries. This report defines a new possibility for a radicular defect in a maxillary lateral incisor that may cause periodontal problems. PMID:8054293

  8. Lateral orbital approach: Gateway to intraorbital lesions.

    PubMed

    Surej Kumar, L K; Vinod, Moni K; Menon, P Varun

    2014-01-01

    Several approaches to the intraorbital space have been described in the literature. Selection of a proper approach to intraorbital lesions depends on various factors including the location of the tumor, the size of the lesion, and the probable pathology anticipated. The approach should provide a good exposure of intraorbital anatomical structures, allow their functional preservation, and provide good cosmetic results. Intraconal lesions of the orbit usually necessitate transcranial approaches although some intraconal and laterally situated lesions could be removed effectively via lateral orbitotomy. Lateral orbitotomy is a well-known approach for lesions of the lateral orbital cone. In this case report, the lateral orbital approach has been used for exposure of intraorbital lesion, as it is minimally invasive compared to the transcranial approach. PMID:25937740

  9. [Lateral ligament injuries of the ankle joint].

    PubMed

    Walther, M; Kriegelstein, S; Altenberger, S; Volkering, C; Röser, A; Wölfel, R

    2013-09-01

    Lateral ligament injuries are the most common sports injury and have a high incidence even in non-sportive activities. Although lateral ligament injuries are very common there is still a controversial debate on the best management. The diagnosis is based on clinical examination and X-ray images help to rule out fractures. Further imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to diagnose associated injuries. According to the recommendations of the various scientific societies the primary therapy of lateral ligament injuries is conservative. Chronic ankle instability develops in 10-20 % of patients and the instability can be a result of sensomotoric deficits or insufficient healing of the lateral ligament complex. If the patient does not respond to an intensive rehabilitation program an operative reconstruction of the lateral ligaments has to be considered. Most of the procedures currently performed are anatomical reconstructions due to better long-term results compared to tenodesis procedures. PMID:23943058

  10. Auditory brain stem responses evoked by lateralized clicks: is lateralization extracted in the human brain stem?

    E-print Network

    Oldenburg, Carl von Ossietzky, Universität

    Auditory brain stem responses evoked by lateralized clicks: is lateralization extracted of stimulus lateralization in the brain stem. Auditory brain stem responses to binaural click stimuli with all in the human brain stem? Helmut Riedel, Birger Kollmeier * AG Medizinische Physik, Universita«t Oldenburg, D

  11. Vannevar Bush: Fifty Years Later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    It is ironic that the 50th anniversary year of Vannevar Bush's Report to President Truman entitled "Science the Endless Frontier", which put into motion the eminently successful current system of education of scientists in this country occurs at a time when serious questions are being asked about the usefulness of that very system. Bush viewed his proposal to establish a national research foundation (later to be called the National Science Foundation) as a "social compact." Judgment of scientific merit would be delegated to expert peers in return for scientific progress, which would ultimately benefit the nation in terms of scientific needs--military security, economic productivity, and enhanced quality of life. Bush wanted the funding of basic research intertwined with training, and preferred to use universities for this purpose rather than industrial or national labs. Bush viewed college and university scientists as teachers and investigators. He believed university-based research would uniquely encourage and engage the next generation of scientists as no other institutional arrangement could. Bush did not trust industry's commitment to basic research, an instinct that proved prophetic. The academic reserve of scientists (PhD's in training and postdoctoral students) that existed before World War II, and upon which the United States could draw for its needs, which were primarily associated with defense efforts, was probably one of the defining factors in Bush's suggested strategy. Currently, that reserve of talent has gotten so large that it is the obvious throttle in the pipeline slowing the continued development of the university research enterprise. Since 1977, the rate at which we have trained new scientists exceeds an average of 4% annually. Since 1987, the "science work force"--PhD's--has grown at three times the rate of the general labor supply. Temporary positions for postdoctoral scientists have grown even faster (over 5% per year since 1989). To compound the problem, the 1990 Immigration Reform Act resulted in a tripling of job-based visas, with scientists representing nearly one-third of the total. In 1979, two of every three postdoctoral scientists were U.S.-born; in 1992, the ratio was about one to one. Over that period, the cohort of postdoctoral scientists grew from 18,000 to 33,000. Adding to the coincidence of events that have compounded one another is the admission of 20,000 Chinese scientists in a ten-year period, the sudden and unexpected availability of Russian scientists, the elimination of many industrial laboratories as a result of downsizing, changes in the mandatory retirement age for faculty, and the disappearance of the Cold War, which all but eliminated the need for scientists for national security purposes. Is it any wonder that postdoctoral scientists have been called the migrant workers of today's high-tech society? What once was a reservoir of enthusiastic talent is becoming a dumping ground for credentialed and capable scientists exiled from the main stream of their disciplines. From a broader point of view, the problems facing U.S. science are those of our society: an imposing deficit that is shrinking discretionary funding; the end of the Cold War, which has refocused spending for national security; and a robust science work force that can no longer expand. The business world's response to these societal problems is, basically, downsizing, which often means the elimination of large segments of the work force, usually at the middle-management level. The initial academic response to these same problems is either to insist on more resources being made available, usually through federal agencies, in an attempt to maintain the status quo, or to engage in some form of "academic birth control." The former strategy is unrealistic because it just perpetuates the problem; there will never be enough research professorships in the academic world for every aspiring PhD produced in a discipline. The latter strategy will invariably decrease the flow of truly n

  12. Model to Design Drip Hose Lateral Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Rafael; Cury Saad, João Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Introduction The design criterion for non-pressure compensating drip hose is normally to have 10% of flow variation (?q) in the lateral line, corresponding to 20% of head pressure variation (?H). Longer lateral lines in drip irrigation systems using conventional drippers provide cost reduction, but it is necessary to obtain to the uniformity of irrigation [1]. The use of ?q higher levels can provide longer lateral lines. [4] proposes the use of a 30% ?q and he found that this value resulted in distribution uniformity over 80%. [1] considered it is possible to extend the lateral line length using two emitters spacing in different section. He assumed that the spacing changing point would be at 40% of the total length, because this is approximately the location of the average flow according with [2]. [3] found that, for practical purposes, the average pressure is located at 40% of the length of the lateral line and that until this point it has already consumed 75% of total pressure head loss (hf ). In this case, the challenge for designers is getting longer lateral lines with high values of uniformity. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a model to design longer lateral lines using non-pressure compensating drip hose. Using the developed model, the hypotheses to be evaluated were: a) the use of two different spacing between emitters in the same lateral line allows longer length; b) it is possible to get longer lateral lines using high values of pressure variation in the lateral lines since the distribution uniformity stays below allowable limits. Methodology A computer program was developed in Delphi® based on the model developed and it is able to design lateral lines in level using non-pressure compensating drip hose. The input data are: desired distribution uniformity (DU); initial and final pressure in the lateral line; coefficients of relationship between emitter discharge and pressure head; hose internal diameter; pipe cross-sectional area with the dripper; and roughness coefficient for the Hazen-Williams equation. The program allows calculate the lateral line length with three possibilities: selecting two spacing between emitters and defining the exchange point; using two pre-established spacing between emitters and calculating the length of each section with different spacing; using one emitter spacing. Results Results showed that the use of two sections with different spacing between drippers in the lateral line didn't allow longer length but got better uniformity when compared with lateral line with one spacing between emitters. The adoption of two spacing increased the flow rate per meter in the final section which represented approximately 80% of the lateral line total length and this justifies their use. The software allowed DU above 90% with pressure head variation of 40% and the use of two spacing between emitters. Conclusions The developed model/software showed to be accurate, easy to handle and useful for lateral line design using non-pressure compensating drip hose. References [1] ANDRADE, L. A. D. Estudo de uniformidade de emissão de água utilizando diferentes espaçamentos entre gotejadores na linha lateral. 2009. 87 f. Tese (Doutorado em Agronomia/Irigação e Drenagem) - Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas, Universidade Estadual Paulista 'Julio de Mesquita Filho', Botucatu, (2009). [2] KELLER, J.; BLIESNER, R. D. Sprinkle and trickle irrigation. Caldwell: Blackburn Press, (1990). 652 p. [3] TALENS, J. A. M. Riego localizado y fertirrigacion. Madrid: Mundi-Prensa, (2002). 533 p. [4] WU, I. P. An assessment of hydraulic design of micro-irrigation systems. Agricultural Water Management, Amsterdan, v. 32, n. 3

  13. Prospective evaluation of a pragmatic treatment rationale: open reduction and internal fixation of displaced and dislocated condyle and condylar head fractures and closed reduction of non-displaced, non-dislocated fractures Part II: high condylar and condylar head fractures.

    PubMed

    Landes, C A; Lipphardt, R

    2006-02-01

    This study prospectively evaluated closed reduction (CR) outcomes in non-displaced, non-dislocated high-condylar and condylar-head fractures (Class VI after Spiessl and Schroll) and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of displaced (Class III) or dislocated (Class V) fractures. Thirty-eight patients with 54 fractures (16 (42%) with bilateral fractures, 14 (37%) CR, 24 (63%) ORIF) were enrolled in a 1 year follow-up that 18 patients with 33 fractures completed. Condylar translation in Class VI fractures recovered to 11 mm for vertical opening, 8mm for protrusion and 10 mm for mediotrusion; Class III synonymously 8 mm, 8 mm and 6 mm; and Class V 7 mm, 6mm and 7 mm; incisal movements recovered to 38 mm, 8 mm and 8 mm in Class VI; 55 mm, 7 mm and 10 mm in Class III with 1 (8%) malocclusion, 1 (8%) impaired vertical opening and 55 mm, 7 mm and 9 mm in Class V with 2 (18%) malocclusions. Fragment-reduction versus the non-fractured condyle was -0.3 mm to +1.3 mm and +3 degrees to +9 degrees in Class VI, -1 mm to -0.2 mm and +3 degrees to +2 degrees in Class III, -3.3 mm to +3.1 mm and -11.2 degrees to +1 degrees in Class V. Malocclusion and joint locking were unreliable determinants for a treatment decision, being forged by concomitant fractures. Joint movements were within normal range at 1-year follow-up except Classes III and V vertical opening translation. After predefined criteria, 92% successful outcomes were attained. Multiple factor analysis should be used to prospectively evaluate the unacceptable clinical outcomes. Class VI fractures with intact vertical support should prospectively be evaluated whether these benefit from ORIF. PMID:16412949

  14. Lateralized suckling in domestic horses (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    Komárková, Martina; Bartošová, Jitka

    2013-05-01

    Brain lateralization enables preferential processing of certain stimuli and more effective utilization of these stimuli in either the left or the right cerebral hemisphere. Horses show both motor and sensory lateralization patterns. Our aim was to determine whether a lateralized response could be detected in foals during the naturally side-biased behaviour, suckling. The foals' preferred suckling side could be the effect of either visual or motor lateralization. In the case of a visual lateralized response, foals are expected to suck more often from the mother's right side, so potential danger can be detected by the better adapted right hemisphere (i.e. left eye). Motor lateralization can be identified when a foal will suck predominantly from one side, either left or right. We found no population trend in the preferred suckling side, but we detected significant differences amongst individual foals. One-third (35.4 %) of 79 foals showed a strong, either right or left side preference which increased with age. The mothers did not influence the foals' suckling side preferences either by side-biased rejection or termination of suckling. According to our findings, a general pattern of sucking with the left eye open for better danger detection and recognition is unlikely in foals up to 7 months old. Foals of this age are probably young or fully focused on suckling and rely on their mothers' vigilance. Individual side preferences amongst foals are suggested to be based on motor lateralization. PMID:23117229

  15. Experiments and analysis of lateral piezoresistance gauges

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, M.K.W.

    1993-07-01

    The response of lateral piezoresistance gauges to shock wave uniaxial strain loading has been examined in a combined experimental and calculational effort. Plate impact experiments provided lateral gauge data which were analyzed using quasi-static and dynamic inclusion analyses. Experimental data showed that the response of the lateral gauge output depended upon the matrix material and gauge emplacement method. The calculations indicated that these differences were due to complex gauge-matrix interactions. These interactions were influenced by the stress and strain distributions in and around the gauge, plasticity effects, properties of the gauge and matrix materials, and emplacement conditions.

  16. Rapid prototyping of lateral flow assays.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexander; Mauk, Michael; Corstjens, Paul; Niedbala, R Sam

    2009-01-01

    Principles and characteristics of lateral flow strip assays are reviewed. Recent technology developments permit the use of inexpensive electronic readers for interrogating lateral flow strip test results, thus avoiding the inevitable variation and subjectivity of visual inspection to assess the capture of reporter-labeled analyte on test lines of the strip. Protocols for developing lateral flow assays are described, including two specific case studies for assaying cotinine (a small-molecule metabolite of nicotine) in a competitive format, and assaying HIV antibodies in a sandwich-type assay format. PMID:19159100

  17. Lateral Deflections Of Ball Bearings Reveal Wear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurada, Gaston A.; Wineland, David L.

    1992-01-01

    Wear in ball bearings supporting shaft in housing quantified via measurement of lateral deflection of shaft with respect to housing as function of lateral force applied between shaft and housing. Method devised to estimate wear in bearings of high-pressure-liquid-oxygen turbopump of main engine of Space Shuttle, without having to disassemble pump or dismount it from engine. Applicable to other rotating machinery. Helps inspectors determine quickly, noninvasively, and in field whether bearings should be replaced. Force necessary to produce given lateral deflection measured over range large enough to characterize radial clearances and stiffness.

  18. Dynamics and lateral interactions of dipolar chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furst, Eric M.; Gast, Alice P.

    2000-11-01

    The dynamics and lateral interactions of dipolar chains in magnetorheological suspensions determine the long-time microscopic structure and resulting rheological response. In this paper we characterize proposed lateral interaction mechanisms and their implications for long-time coarsening of structure and compare them to direct measurements of the lateral interaction of dipolar chains using optical trap micromanipulation. We observe a long-range far-field attraction between flexible chains, while the near-field interaction can be repulsive or attractive. At high field strengths, we observe the short-range attraction of rigid chains. Chain dynamics measured with videomicroscopy and diffusing wave spectroscopy are described by a local-mode model and are consistent with fluctuation-mediated interaction theories. The subdiffusive behavior at intermediate and long times scales as t0.75, identical to semiflexible molecules. Finally, we show examples of how defects in chains can create lateral attractions or repulsions.

  19. Cooling Therapy Helps Newborns Years Later

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Issue This Issue Features Digging a Vegetarian Diet Massage Therapy Health Capsules Cooling Therapy Helps Newborns Years Later High Blood Pressure in Children Featured Website: Impact of NIH Research ...

  20. Assessment of Phosphorus Retention in Irrigation Laterals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation laterals transport irrigation return flow, including water, sediment, and nutrients, back to surface water bodies. Phosphorus transformations during transport can affect both phosphorus bioavailability and the best management practices selected to minimize phosphorus inputs to waters of ...

  1. 1 Experimental Results in Robust Lateral

    E-print Network

    Abstract Vehicle lateral dynamics are affected by vehicle mass, longitudin* *al velocity, vehicle as on a test vehicle. Test results for experime* *nts conducted on an instrumented track are presented Vehicles Raymond H. Byrne Chaouki T. Abdallah Peter Dorato Sandia

  2. Incidence of Lateral Phoria Among SLD Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, James R.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Compared was the incidence of lateral phoria, a tendency for the eyes to turn in or out, in 45 elementary grade learning disabled children and 364 children in regular elementary education classes. (DB)

  3. Brain and behavioral lateralization in invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Frasnelli, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioral asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left–right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which has asymmetric odor sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behavior with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with a specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test the evolutionary hypothesis. PMID:24376433

  4. Management of horizontally impacted dilacerated lateral incisor

    PubMed Central

    Katta, Anil Kumar; Peddu, Revathi; Vannala, Venkataramana; Dasari, Vaishnavi

    2015-01-01

    Impaction of maxillary lateral incisor with odontome and retained deciduous tooth is not often seen in regular dental practice. Impaction of anterior teeth cause generalized spacing which affects the esthetics of the face. Here we report a case of an 18-year-old patient with horizontally impacted dilacerated lateral incisor, which was bought into occlusion with the help of orthodontic tooth movement within a span of 18 months. PMID:26538954

  5. Laterally displaced pipelines: Finite element analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Altaee, A.; Boivin, R.

    1995-12-31

    The rate effect of lateral soil movement against buried pipes in clay soils is investigated in finite element analyzes using two different computer programs, AGAC and CRISP. Rapid and slow ground movements are considered in ideal undrained and ideal drained analysis, respectively, which represent the two extreme boundaries with respect to rate of loading (rate of ground movement). The analyses address a typical full-scale buried pipe as described by Rizkalla et al. (1992). The pipe considered for the analysis has a diameter of 0.914 m and is placed in a backfilled 2.0 m wide and 1.8 m deep excavation. Results from both AGAC and CRISP analyzes are similar in terms of total lateral force versus lateral pipe movement. For example, both programs indicate the same clear difference in the resulting pipe movement for cases of rapid and slow ground movement, especially at large movement. When the ground movement is rapid, the pipe moves both laterally and upward. One the other hand, when the ground movement is slow, the pipe experiences only lateral movement and no noticeable vertical movement. The total force acting on the pipe (and stresses and strains within the pipe) is larger for the slow rate of loading. The results of analyzes presented herein agree with results of tests on a 5.5 m beam centrifuge performed by the Center for Cold Oceans Resources Engineering.

  6. Lateral restraint assembly for reactor core

    SciTech Connect

    Gorholt, Wilhelm; Luci, Raymond K.

    1986-01-01

    A restraint assembly for use in restraining lateral movement of a reactor core relative to a reactor vessel wherein a plurality of restraint assemblies are interposed between the reactor core and the reactor vessel in circumferentially spaced relation about the core. Each lateral restraint assembly includes a face plate urged against the outer periphery of the core by a plurality of compression springs which enable radial preloading of outer reflector blocks about the core and resist low-level lateral motion of the core. A fixed radial key member cooperates with each face plate in a manner enabling vertical movement of the face plate relative to the key member but restraining movement of the face plate transverse to the key member in a plane transverse to the center axis of the core. In this manner, the key members which have their axes transverse to or subtending acute angles with the direction of a high energy force tending to move the core laterally relative to the reactor vessel restrain such lateral movement.

  7. Lateral flow immunoassay using magnetoresistive sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taton, Kristin; Johnson, Diane; Guire, Patrick; Lange, Erik; Tondra, Mark

    2009-05-01

    Magnetic particles have been adapted for use as labels in biochemical lateral flow strip tests. Standard gold particle lateral flow assays are generally qualitative; however, with magnetic particles, quantitative results can be obtained by using electronic detection systems with giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors. As described here, these small integrated sensor chips can detect the presence of magnetic labels in capture spots whose volume is approximately 150 ?m×150 ?m×150 ?m. The range of linear detection is better than two orders of magnitude; the total range is up to four orders of magnitude. The system was demonstrated with both indirect and sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for protein detection of rabbit IgG and interferon-?, respectively, achieving detection of 12 pg/ml protein. Ultimately, the goal is for the detector to be fully integrated into the lateral flow strip backing to form a single consumable item that is interrogated by a handheld electronic reader.

  8. On the Relationship Between Lateralized Brain Function and Orienting Asymmetries

    E-print Network

    Ghazanfar, Asif

    On the Relationship Between Lateralized Brain Function and Orienting Asymmetries Christoph Teufel will require a much better understanding of how lateralized brain functions interact with overt behaviors in cognitive neuroscience. Evidence has accumulated to suggest that lateralized acoustic processing

  9. Bone suture and lateral sinus lift surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh

    2015-01-01

    Bone suture in lateral sinus lift has four indications. Three of them depend on creating a hole in the lateral maxillary sinus wall above the antrostomy window for securing the elevated medial maxillary sinus membrane to manage perforated Schneiderian membrane. Covering the buccal antrostomy window with the buccal fat pad (BFP) for better nourishment of the inserted graft and as an alternative for bone tags in fixation of collagen membrane has been reported previously. A new indication for firmly anchoring the BFP to the medial maxillary sinus wall as the last resort for the management of perforated Schneiderian membrane is explained in this article.

  10. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Historical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Katz, Jonathan S; Dimachkie, Mazen M; Barohn, Richard J

    2015-11-01

    This article looks back in time to see where the foundational basis for the understanding of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis originated. This foundation was created primarily in France by Jean-Martin Charcot and his fellow countrymen and disciples, along with key contributions from early clinicians in England and Germany. The early work on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis provides a useful foundation for today's clinicians with respect to tying together genetic and biologic aspects of the disorder that have been discovered over the past few decades. PMID:26515617

  11. Control augmentation for lateral control wheel steering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foulkes, R. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Flight control system design for lateral control wheel steering is discussed. Two alternate designs are presented. The first design is a roll-rate command, bank-angle hold system with a wings-level track-hold submode. The second is a curved-track-hold system. Design details and real-time flight simulator results are included.

  12. Lateral Biases in Assumptions of Lighting Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Lorin J.; Robinson, Brent M.

    2005-01-01

    People presume that the light source in pictures comes from above, and there is some evidence that this phenomenon also demonstrates lateral biases. When investigators present multiple ambiguous stimuli or visually complex objects, people assume that the source of light is from above, and to the left. However, when single relatively simple stimuli…

  13. Proportioning the airplane for lateral stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donlan, C. J.

    1976-01-01

    Proportioning for lateral aircraft control included: (1) directional stability (slope of curve of yawing moment coefficient against sideslip), and (2) effective dihedral factor (slope of curve of rolling moment coefficient against sideslip). Basic forces influencing the directional stability of aircraft are indicated. Propeller side force, basic fuselage yaw, and vertical tail side force contributed to yaw moment about center of gravity.

  14. Lateral drug diffusion in human nails.

    PubMed

    Palliyil, Biji B; Li, Cong; Owaisat, Suzan; Lebo, David B

    2014-12-01

    The main objective of the current work is to demonstrate the process of passive lateral diffusion in the human nail plate and its effect on the passive transungual permeation of antifungal drug ciclopirox olamine (CPO). A water soluble dye, methyl red sodium salt (MR) was used to visualize the process of lateral diffusion using a novel suspended nail experiment. The decline in concentration of CPO correlates with that of concentration of MR from the proximal to the distal end of the nail in suspended nail study. Three toenails each were trimmed to 5 mm × 5 mm (25 mm(2)), 7 mm × 7 mm (49 mm(2)), and 9 mm × 9 mm (81 mm(2)) to study the extent and effect of lateral diffusion of the CPO on its in vitro transungual permeation. The permeation flux of CPO decreased as the surface area of the toenail increased. There was a positive correlation between the concentrations of CPO and MR in the area of application and in the peripheral area of the toenails of the three surface areas, confirming the findings in the suspended nail experiment. Profound lateral diffusion of CPO was demonstrated and shown to reduce the in vitro passive transungual drug permeation and prolong the lag-time in human toenails. The study data implies that during passive in vitro transungual permeation experiments, the peripheral nail around the area of drug application has to be kept to a minimum, in order to get reliable data which mimics the in vivo situation. PMID:24970585

  15. One hand clapping: lateralization of motor control

    PubMed Central

    Welniarz, Quentin; Dusart, Isabelle; Gallea, Cécile; Roze, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Lateralization of motor control refers to the ability to produce pure unilateral or asymmetric movements. It is required for a variety of coordinated activities, including skilled bimanual tasks and locomotion. Here we discuss the neuroanatomical substrates and pathophysiological underpinnings of lateralized motor outputs. Significant breakthroughs have been made in the past few years by studying the two known conditions characterized by the inability to properly produce unilateral or asymmetric movements, namely human patients with congenital “mirror movements” and model rodents with a “hopping gait”. Whereas mirror movements are associated with altered interhemispheric connectivity and abnormal corticospinal projections, abnormal spinal cord interneurons trajectory is responsible for the “hopping gait”. Proper commissural axon guidance is a critical requirement for these mechanisms. Interestingly, the analysis of these two conditions reveals that the production of asymmetric movements involves similar anatomical and functional requirements but in two different structures: (i) lateralized activation of the brain or spinal cord through contralateral silencing by cross-midline inhibition; and (ii) unilateral transmission of this activation, resulting in lateralized motor output. PMID:26082690

  16. The Columbine Tragedy Ten Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Some tragedies are so emblazoned in people's minds that years later they can recall where they were when they first heard the news. The assassinations of John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr., the Challenger explosion, and the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks are among these events. So also is the Columbine High School tragedy of April 20, 1999.…

  17. Profiling 1366 Technologies: One Year Later

    SciTech Connect

    Van Mierlo, Frank; Sachs, Ely;

    2011-01-01

    Last January, we took a look at how ARPA-E performer, 1366 Technologies is working to dramatically reduce the cost of solar energy. A year later, we revisited their headquarters in Lexington, MA to see the progress they've made.

  18. Magnetic lateral guidance sensors for automated highways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, Donald R.; Barrett, Mike; Demma, Nick; Dahlin, Thomas J.

    1995-12-01

    Automated highway systems will need sensors both for longitudinal guidance (intelligent speed control) and for lateral guidance relative to the center of the traffic lane. A magnetic sensor combined with a practical magnetic highway marking system provides an all-weather, cost effective lateral guidance technique. A practical system must have robust performance under all weather operation, and be producible at a reasonable cost. Previous schemes have suffered from weather related performance problems, cost of the sensor portion on the vehicle, or the cost of the highway infrastructure. The subject system uses a high sensitivity magneto-resistive sensor and a magnetic marking tape which is a variant of existing traffic marking tapes. In addition to providing lateral position information, the system can encode ancillary data that can be received by the vehicle sensor. An important data item is the road curvature for the next segment of road. If the system operates with closed loop autonomous lateral control, such feedforward data is important for good performance at highway speeds. A preliminary feasibility demonstration illustrated that the system provides a high signal to noise ratio, and good accuracy.

  19. Lateralized Temporal Order Judgement in Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Jackson, Georgina M.; Rorden, Chris; Jackson, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    Temporal and spatial attentional deficits in dyslexia were investigated using a lateralized visual temporal order judgment (TOJ) paradigm that allowed both sensitivity to temporal order and spatial attentional bias to be measured. Findings indicate that adult participants with a positive screen for dyslexia were significantly less sensitive to the…

  20. Lateral interception II: predicting hand movements.

    PubMed

    Michaels, Claire F; Jacobs, David M; Bongers, Raoul M

    2006-04-01

    D. M. Jacobs and C. F. Michaels (2006) concluded that aspects of hand movements in lateral catching were predicted by the ratio of lateral optical velocity to expansion velocity. Their conclusions were based partly on a modified version of the required velocity model of catching (C. E. Peper, R. J. Bootsma, D. R. Mestre, & F. C. Bakker, 1994). The present article considers this optical ratio in detail and asks whether it, together with a control law, predicts the (often curious) hand trajectories observed in lateral interception. The optical ratio was used to create a succession of target-position inputs for the vector integration to endpoint model of hand movements (D. Bullock & S. Grossberg, 1988). The model used this succession, initial hand position, and model parameters (fit to 60 trials) to predict hand trajectories on each trial. Predicted trajectories were then compared with observed hand trajectories. Hand movements were predicted accurately, especially in the binocular condition, and were superior to predictions based on lateral ball position, the input variable of the required velocity model. The authors concluded, as did C. E. Peper et al. (1994), that perceivers continuously couple movements to optics. PMID:16634682

  1. Is migraine a lateralization defect? Jani Kaaroa

    E-print Network

    Hadjikhani, Nouchine

    .We measured the absolute displacement of a midline structure, the pineal gland, on brain scans of 39 migraineurs and 26 controls. We found a signi¢cant asymmetry of the pineal gland in migraineurs compared, lateralization, migraine, pineal gland, serotonin Introduction Migraine is a disabling neurological disease

  2. Depression in Later Life: Recognition and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmall, Vicki L.; And Others

    This guide is designed to help readers understand depression and factors related to its onset in later life; recognize signs of depression and potential suicide; and know actions they can take if they suspect an older family member or friend may be depressed or contemplating suicide. Following a brief introduction, a chapter on depression…

  3. Preparing Future Faculty: Ten Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Sean P.; Aiossa, Elizabeth; Winter, Mary Mugica

    2010-01-01

    When Sean Murphy designed the Graduate Student Internship Program at the College of Lake County (CLC), his 2001 TETYC article about the then two-year-old program detailed his programmatic response to the job market. Ten years later, the CLC-DePaul University partnership remains the strongest of the original dozen cross-sector relationships CLC…

  4. Profiling 1366 Technologies: One Year Later

    ScienceCinema

    Van Mierlo, Frank; Sachs, Ely;

    2013-05-29

    Last January, we took a look at how ARPA-E performer, 1366 Technologies is working to dramatically reduce the cost of solar energy. A year later, we revisited their headquarters in Lexington, MA to see the progress they've made.

  5. Sequential streaming, binaural cues and lateralization.

    PubMed

    David, Marion; Lavandier, Mathieu; Grimault, Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    Interaural time differences (ITDs) and interaural level differences (ILDs) associated with monaural spectral differences (coloration) enable the localization of sound sources. The influence of these spatial cues as well as their relative importance on obligatory stream segregation were assessed in experiment 1. A temporal discrimination task favored by integration was used to measure obligatory stream segregation for sequences of speech-shaped noises. Binaural and monaural differences associated with different spatial positions increased discrimination thresholds, indicating that spatial cues can induce stream segregation. The results also demonstrated that ITDs and coloration were relatively more important cues compared to ILDs. Experiment 2 questioned whether sound segregation takes place at the level of acoustic cue extraction (ITD per se) or at the level of object formation (perceived azimuth). A difference in ITDs between stimuli was introduced either consistently or inconsistently across frequencies, leading to clearly lateralized sounds or blurred lateralization, respectively. Conditions with ITDs and clearly perceived azimuths induced significantly more segregation than the condition with ITDs but reduced lateralization. The results suggested that segregation was mainly based on a difference in lateralization, although the extraction of ITDs might have also helped segregation up to a ceiling magnitude. PMID:26723307

  6. Lateral distribution on charged particles in EAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dedenko, L. G.; Kulikov, G. V.; Solovjeva, V. I.; Sulakov, V. F.

    1985-01-01

    Lateral distribution of charged particles which allow for the finiteness of energy gamma-quanta, the inhomogeneity of the atmosphere and the experimental selection of EAS are needed to interpret experimental data. The effects of finiteness of energy of gamma-quanta which produce the partial electron-photon cascades were considered by substituting K R sub m instead of R sub m in NKG approximation where K was found to be 0.56 from comparison with the experimental data. New results on the lateral distribution of electrons in the partial cascades from gamma-quanta were obtained. It is shown that the coefficient K can be regarded as a constant. The last approximation of K was found to be most adequate when compared with the experimental data. The inhomogeneity of the atmosphere, muons and experimental selection are considered. The calculation of Ne are extended from 100,000 to 10 million for sea level and for Akeno level.

  7. Nanoparticle-based lateral flow biosensors.

    PubMed

    Quesada-González, Daniel; Merkoçi, Arben

    2015-11-15

    Lateral flow biosensors (LFBs) are paper-based devices which permit the performance of low-cost and fast diagnostics with good robustness, specificity, sensitivity and low limits of detection. The use of nanoparticles (NPs) as labels play an important role in the design and fabrication of a lateral flow strip (LFS). The choice of NPs and the corresponding detection method directly affect the performance of these devices. This review discusses aspects related to the application of different nanomaterials (e.g. gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, quantum dots, up-converting phosphor technologies, and latex beads, between others) in LFBs. Moreover, different detection methods (colorimetric, fluorescent, electrochemical, magnetic, etc.) and signal enhancement strategies (affording secondary reactions or modifying the architecture of the LFS) as well as the use of devices such as smartphones to mediate the response of LFSs will be analyzed. PMID:26043315

  8. Thrust vectoring for lateral-directional stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peron, Lee R.; Carpenter, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of using thrust vectoring for lateral-directional control and the effects of reducing the tail size of a single-engine aircraft were investigated. The aerodynamic characteristics of the F-16 aircraft were generated by using the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System II panel code. The resulting lateral-directional linear perturbation analysis of a modified F-16 aircraft with various tail sizes and yaw vectoring was performed at several speeds and altitudes to determine the stability and control trends for the aircraft compared to these trends for a baseline aircraft. A study of the paddle-type turning vane thrust vectoring control system as used on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle is also presented.

  9. Robust lateral control of highway vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, R.H.; Abdallah, C.

    1994-08-01

    Vehicle lateral dynamics are affected by vehicle mass, longitudinal velocity, vehicle inertia, and the cornering stiffness of the tires. All of these parameters are subject to variation, even over the course of a single trip. Therefore, a practical lateral control system must guarantee stability, and hopefully ride comfort, over a wide range of parameter changes. This paper describes a robust controller which theoretically guarantees stability over a wide range of parameter changes. The robust controller is designed using a frequency domain transfer function approach. An uncertainty band in the frequency domain is determined using simulations over the range of expected parameter variations. Based on this bound, a robust controller is designed by solving the Nevanlinna-Pick interpolation problem. The performance of the robust controller is then evaluated over the range of parameter variations through simulations.

  10. Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay Test Strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    As easy to read as a home pregnancy test, three Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay (QLFA) strips used to test water for E. coli show different results. The brightly glowing control line on the far right of each strip indicates that all three tests ran successfully. But the glowing test line on the middle left and bottom strips reveal their samples were contaminated with E. coli bacteria at two different concentrations. The color intensity correlates with concentration of contamination.

  11. Arthroscopic treatment for chronic lateral epicondylitis?

    PubMed Central

    Terra, Bernardo Barcellos; Rodrigues, Leandro Marano; Filho, Anis Nahssen; de Almeida, Gustavo Dalla Bernardina; Cavatte, José Maria; De Nadai, Anderson

    2015-01-01

    Objective To report the clinical and functional results from arthroscopic release of the short radial extensor of the carpus (SREC) in patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis that was refractory to conservative treatment. Methods Over the period from January 2012 to November 2013, 15 patients underwent arthroscopic treatment. The surgical technique used was the one described by Romeo and Cohen, based on anatomical studies on cadavers. The inclusion criteria were that the patients needed to present lateral epicondylitis and that conservative treatment (analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents, corticoid infiltration or physiotherapy) had failed over a period of more than six months. The patients were evaluated based on the elbow functional score of the Mayo Clinic, Nirschl's staging system and a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain. Results A total of 15 patients (9 men and 6 women) were included. The mean Mayo elbow functional score after the operation was 95 (ranging from 90 to 100). The pain VAS improved from a mean of 9.2 before the operation to 0.64 after the operation. On Nirschl's scale, the patients presented an improvement from a mean of 6.5 before the operation to approximately one. There were significant differences from before to after the surgery for the three functional scores used (p < 0.01). No correlations were observed using the Spearman test between the results and age, gender, length of time with symptoms before the operation or injury mechanism (p > 0.05). Conclusion Arthroscopic treatment for lateral epicondylitis was shown to be a safe and effective therapeutic option when appropriately indicated and performed, in refractory cases of chronic lateral epicondylitis. It also allowed excellent viewing of the joint space for diagnosing and treating associated pathological conditions, with a minimally invasive procedure. PMID:26401498

  12. Lateral restraint assembly for reactor core

    SciTech Connect

    Gorholt, W.; Luci, R.K.

    1986-06-24

    In a nuclear reactor including a reactor vessel defining a shielded core cavity having a reactor core extending vertically along a longitudinal axis and being located internally of the cavity, the reactor core is described which has layers of reflector blocks defining an outer peripheral surface for the core spaced from the vessel and being supported in a manner permitting at least limited lateral movement relative to the vessel; the combination therewith comprising lateral restraint means including lateral restraint assemblies disposed in the circumferential spaced relation about the periphery of the reactor core between the core and reactor vessel. The lateral restraint elements are located circumferentially about the outer peripheral surface of the core and being located in a number of layers to engage intermediate layers of reflector blocks between the top and the bottom of the core to restrain the peripheral core surface each of the restraint assemblies including a face plate having a contact surface to contact one of the reflector blocks of the core, spring means biasing the face plate against the reflector block on the outer periphery of the core, the spring means being disposed to allow radial expansion and contraction of the core and vertical movement of the core relative to the vessel. The spring means exert forces substantially horizontally directed between the top and the bottom of the core and only in the radial direction and at locations spaced circumferentially and vertically about the entire peripheral surface of the core, and a key means to restrain core movement in a direction parallel to the contact surface of the face plate and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis relative to the vessel due to seismic loads while allowing substantial vertical movement in a direction parallel to the core axis and radial movement toward and from the core axis.

  13. Lateral balance control for robotic gait training.

    PubMed

    Koopman, B; Meuleman, J H; van Asseldonk, E H F; van der Kooij, H

    2013-06-01

    For the rehabilitation of neurological patients robot-aided gait training is increasingly being used. Lack of balance training in these robotic gait trainers might contribute to the fact that they do not live up to the expectations. Therefore, in this study we developed and evaluated an algorithm to support lateral balance during walking, through controlling pelvis motions. This algorithm assists the pelvis, according to a natural pelvic sway pattern, rather than attracting it to the middle of the treadmill. The support algorithm was tested on six healthy young subjects who walked on a treadmill, while different support gains were introduced. Using a higher support gain resulted in a closer approximation of the pelvic sway towards the reference pattern. Step width and step width variability reduced when the external stabilization was provided, and the stability margin increased. This indicates that artificial stabilization reduces the need for active lateral balance control. The presented algorithm to support lateral balance provides a way to assist balance in a more physiological way, compared to attracting the subject to the centre of the treadmill. Here the user is attracted/assisted towards a more natural weight shift pattern. This also facilitates a more natural input of the load receptors, which are largely involved in the regulation of muscle activation patterns and the transitions between the different gait phases. PMID:24187182

  14. Lateral jet injection into typical combustor flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilley, D. G.

    1986-01-01

    The experimental problem of lateral jet injection into typical flow fields in the absence of combustion was studied. All flow fields being investigated have no expansion of the crossflow (the test section to swirler diameter ratio D/d = 1), after its passage through an optional swirler (with swirl vane angle phi = 0 (swirler removed), 45, and 70 degree). The lateral jet(s) is(are) located one test-section diameter downstream of the test-section inlet (x/D = 1). The lateral jets have round-sectioned nozzles, each of which has an area of 1/100th of the cross sectional area of the crossflow (A sub j/A sub c = 1/100). Jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios of R = v sub j/u sub o = 2, 4, and 6 were investigated. Helium-bubble low visualization, five-hole pitot probe time-mean velocity measurements, and single-wire time-mean velocity and normal and shear stress turbulence data were obtained in the research program.

  15. High Risk of Lateral Nodal Metastasis in Lateral Solitary Solid Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lai, Xing-Jian; Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Yu-Xin; Li, Jian-Chu; Zhao, Rui-Na; Yang, Xiao; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Wen-Bo; Zhu, Shen-Ling

    2016-01-01

    We explored the relationship between ultrasonic intra-thyroidal location and neck node metastasis pattern in solitary solid papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Data on 186 patients were retrospectively reviewed. The association between several characteristics and neck node metastasis pattern were analyzed. Among the 186 thyroid nodules, age ?45 y (p = 0.005), mass size ?2 cm (p = 0.001), presence of calcifications (p < 0.001) and lateral nodal metastasis (p = 0.001) were significantly related to central nodal metastasis in multivariate analysis. Mass size ?2 cm (p = 0.046) and central nodal metastasis (p = 0.002) were significantly related to lateral nodal metastasis in multivariate analysis. Location of an intra-thyroidal solitary solid PTC located non-adjacent to the trachea (lateral) was significantly related to lateral nodal metastasis (p = 0.043) compared with location of an intra-thyroidal solitary solid PTC adjacent to the trachea (medial or isthmus). Lateral lesions have a high risk of lateral nodal metastasis in solitary solid PTC. PMID:26497768

  16. Lateral Flagellar Gene System of Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Bonnie J.; McCarter, Linda L.

    2003-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus possesses dual flagellar systems adapted for movement under different circumstances. A single polar flagellum propels the bacterium in liquid (i.e., swimming) with a motor that is powered by the sodium motive force. Multiple proton-driven lateral flagella enable translocation over surfaces (i.e., swarming). The polar flagellum is produced continuously, while production of lateral flagella is induced when the organism is grown on surfaces. This work describes the isolation of mutants with insertions in the structural and regulatory laf genes. A Tn5-based lux transcriptional reporter transposon was constructed and used for mutagenesis and subsequent transcriptional analysis of the laf regulon. Twenty-nine independent insertions were distributed within 16 laf genes. DNA sequence analysis identified 38 laf genes in two loci. Among the mutants isolated, 11 contained surface-induced lux fusions. A hierarchy of laf gene expression was established following characterization of the laf::lux transcriptional fusion strains and by mutational and primer extension analyses of the laf regulon. The laf system is like many enteric systems in that it is a proton-driven, peritrichous flagellar system; however, laf regulation was different from the Salmonella-Escherichia coli paradigm. There is no apparent flhDC counterpart that encodes master regulators known to control flagellar biosynthesis and swarming in many enteric bacteria. A potential ?54-dependent regulator, LafK, was demonstrated to control expression of early genes, and a lateral-specific ?28 factor controls late flagellar gene expression. Another notable feature was the discovery of a gene encoding a MotY-like product, which previously had been associated only with the architecture of sodium-type polar flagellar motors. PMID:12867460

  17. Efferent pathways of the mouse lateral habenula.

    PubMed

    Quina, Lely A; Tempest, Lynne; Ng, Lydia; Harris, Julie A; Ferguson, Susan; Jhou, Thomas C; Turner, Eric E

    2015-01-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) is part of the habenula complex of the dorsal thalamus. Recent studies of the LHb have focused on its projections to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), which contain ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons that mediate reward prediction error via inhibition of dopaminergic activity. However, older studies in the rat have also identified LHb outputs to the lateral and posterior hypothalamus, median raphe, dorsal raphe, and dorsal tegmentum. Although these studies have shown that the medial and lateral divisions of the LHb have somewhat distinct projections, the topographic specificity of LHb efferents is not completely understood, and the relative extent of these projections to brainstem targets is unknown. Here we have used anterograde tracing with adeno-associated virus-mediated expression of green fluorescent protein, combined with serial two-photon tomography, to map the efferents of the LHb on a standard coordinate system for the entire mouse brain, and reconstruct the efferent pathways of the LHb in three dimensions. Using automated quantitation of fiber density, we show that in addition to the RMTg, the median raphe, caudal dorsal raphe, and pontine central gray are major recipients of LHb efferents. By using retrograde tract tracing with cholera toxin subunit B, we show that LHb neurons projecting to the hypothalamus, VTA, median raphe, caudal dorsal raphe, and pontine central gray reside in characteristic, but sometimes overlapping regions of the LHb. Together these results provide the anatomical basis for systematic studies of LHb function in neural circuits and behavior in mice. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:32-60, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25099741

  18. Towards reproducible, scalable lateral molecular electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Durkan, Colm Zhang, Qian

    2014-08-25

    An approach to reproducibly fabricate molecular electronic devices is presented. Lateral nanometer-scale gaps with high yield are formed in Au/Pd nanowires by a combination of electromigration and Joule-heating-induced thermomechanical stress. The resulting nanogap devices are used to measure the electrical properties of small numbers of two different molecular species with different end-groups, namely 1,4-butane dithiol and 1,5-diamino-2-methylpentane. Fluctuations in the current reveal that in the case of the dithiol molecule devices, individual molecules conduct intermittently, with the fluctuations becoming more pronounced at larger biases.

  19. Cerebral lateralization of frontal lobe language processes and lateralization of the posterior visual word processing system.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qing; Lavidor, Michal; Brysbaert, Marc; Paulignan, Yves; Nazir, Tatjana A

    2008-04-01

    The brain areas involved in visual word processing rapidly become lateralized to the left cerebral hemisphere. It is often assumed this is because, in the vast majority of people, cortical structures underlying language production are lateralized to the left hemisphere. An alternative hypothesis, however, might be that the early stages of visual word processing are lateralized to the left hemisphere because of intrinsic hemispheric differences in processing low-level visual information as required for distinguishing fine-grained visual forms such as letters. If the alternative hypothesis was correct, we would expect posterior occipito-temporal processing stages still to be lateralized to the left hemisphere for participants with right hemisphere dominance for the frontal lobe processes involved in language production. By analyzing event-related potentials of native readers of French with either left hemisphere or right hemisphere dominance for language production (determined using a verb generation task), we were able to show that the posterior occipito-temporal areas involved in visual word processing are lateralized to the same hemisphere as language production. This finding could suggest top-down influences in the development of posterior visual word processing areas. PMID:18052778

  20. Summary of Methods for Calculating Dynamic Lateral Stability and Response and for Estimating Lateral Stability Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, John P; Mckinney, Marion O

    1951-01-01

    A summary of methods for making dynamic lateral stability and response calculations and for estimating the aerodynamic stability derivatives required for use in these calculations is presented. The processes of performing calculations of the time histories of lateral motions, of the period and damping of these motions, and of the lateral stability boundaries are presented as a series of simple straightforward steps. Existing methods for estimating the stability derivatives are summarized and, in some cases, simple new empirical formulas are presented. Reference is also made to reports presenting experimental data that should be useful in making estimates of the derivatives. Detailed estimating methods are presented for low-subsonic-speed conditions but only a brief discussion and a list of references are given for transonic- and supersonic-speed conditions.

  1. Early antibiotic treatment and later asthma.

    PubMed

    Wjst, M; Hoelscher, B; Frye, C; Wichmann, H E; Dold, S; Heinrich, J

    2001-06-28

    The reasons for the asthma epidemic are poorly understood. As the asthma prevalence follows the geographical and temporal trend of antibiotic use into clinical medicine, we examined a possible association in a population-based study of 2,512 children age 5-14 in East Germany. Wheezing was associated with increasing number of antibiotic courses (never versus one time odds ratio 1.9, P = 0.012, 2 to 5 times odds ratio 3.0, P<0.001 and more than 5 times, odds ratio 6.9, P<0.001) which was also seen for asthma diagnosis. The risk increased with earlier administration (never versus second year odds ratio 4.6, month 7-12 odds ratio 5.4 and birth until month 6 odds ratio 7.9, all P<0.001). Also non pulmonary treatment indication was associated with later wheezing (odds ratio 3.9, P<0.001). The most likely possible explanation is reverse causation indicating that frequent upper respiratory infections, an early symptom of asthma, are treated with antibiotics. Antibiotic therapy could also be a proxy of another closely associated genetic or environmental factor. The high dose effect, the time dependency of the administration and the effect by non-pulmonary indications raises the possibility that early antibiotic treatment could itself be related to later asthma. PMID:11432798

  2. Confronting the Material Convoy in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gabriella V.; Ekerdt, David J.

    2011-01-01

    We adapt a metaphor from life course studies to designate the whole of one’s possessions, across time, as a convoy of material support. This dynamic collection of things supports daily life and the self, but it can also present difficulty in later life. To alleviate the purported burdens of the material convoy, a discourse has arisen that urges elders and their family members to reduce the volume of possessions. An analysis of 11 such possession management texts shows authors addressing two distinct audiences about elders’ need to downsize: family members and elders themselves. Authors who speak to family members do so with an urgent, unsentimental tone that echoes mainstream clutter-control advice about disorderly, overfull households. In texts for elders, the standard critique about consumption and unruly lives is gentler, more sensitive to the meaning of things, and underplays the emotions of divestment. There is stress on the responsibility to spare the next generation and control one’s legacy. These latter texts seem to respect that downsizing in later life symbolizes a narrowing of the life world. PMID:21822336

  3. Dual-domain lateral shearing interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Naulleau, Patrick P.; Goldberg, Kenneth Alan

    2004-03-16

    The phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI) was developed to address the problem of at-wavelength metrology of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical systems. Although extremely accurate, the fact that the PS/PDI is limited to use with coherent EUV sources, such as undulator radiation, is a drawback for its widespread use. An alternative to the PS/PDI, with relaxed coherence requirements, is lateral shearing interferometry (LSI). The use of a cross-grating, carrier-frequency configuration to characterize a large-field 4.times.-reduction EUV lithography optic is demonstrated. The results obtained are directly compared with PS/PDI measurements. A defocused implementation of the lateral shearing interferometer in which an image-plane filter allows both phase-shifting and Fourier wavefront recovery. The two wavefront recovery methods can be combined in a dual-domain technique providing suppression of noise added by self-interference of high-frequency components in the test-optic wavefront.

  4. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: one or multiple causes?

    PubMed

    Bastos, Aline Furtado; Orsini, Marco; Machado, Dionis; Mello, Mariana Pimentel; Nader, Sergio; Silva, Júlio Guilherme; da Silva Catharino, Antonio M; de Freitas, Marcos R G; Pereira, Alessandra; Pessoa, Luciane Lacerda; Sztajnbok, Flavio R; Leite, Marco Araújo; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M; Bastos, Victor Hugo

    2011-06-01

    The Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common form of motor neuron disease in the adulthood, and it is characterized by rapid and progressive compromise of the upper and lower motor neurons. The majority of the cases of ALS are classified as sporadic and, until now, a specific cause for these cases still is unknown. To present the different hypotheses on the etiology of ALS. It was carried out a search in the databases: Bireme, Scielo and Pubmed, in the period of 1987 to 2011, using the following keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, motor neuron disease, etiology, causes and epidemiology and its similar in Portuguese and Spanish. It did not have consensus as regards the etiology of ALS. Researches demonstrates evidences as regards intoxication by heavy metals, environmental and occupational causes, genetic mutations (superoxide dismutase 1), certain viral infections and the accomplishment of vigorous physical activity for the development of the disease. There is still no consensus regarding the involved factors in the etiology of ALS. In this way, new research about these etiologies are necessary, for a better approach of the patients, promoting preventive programs for the disease and improving the quality of life of the patients. PMID:21785676

  5. Lateral attenuation of military aircraft flight noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speakman, Jerry D.

    1989-07-01

    The results are presented of measurements on the noise propagated to the side of military aircraft during a series of controlled level flyovers. Data were acquired on attack/fighter aircraft (A-10A, F4D, F-5E, F-15, F-16, and F-18); bomber aircraft (B-52G and FB-111); cargo/tanker aircraft (C-18, C-141, KC-10A, KC-135A, and KC-135R); and special purpose aircraft (C-21 and E-3A). In addition to the normal attenuation provided by wave divergence (spherical spreading) and atmospheric absorption, noise propagated laterally to the ground from aircraft during flight is further reduced by the combination of several other frequency dependent phenomena such as ground, meteorological, forward flight, and engine/airplane installation effects. Airbase/airport noise models typically define this extra lateral attenuation for single event measures such as the Sound Exposure Level as a function of the elevation angle as viewed from a given location on the ground. Based on the results of these data, a new algorithm was developed and incorporated in the Air Force NOISEMAP model.

  6. Lateral contraction of a traveling exciton packet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, Pierre; Fortin, Emery; Mysyrowicz, André

    2004-03-01

    A near-resonant optical probing method is used to determine the spatial extent of a traveling high-density exciton packet. The packet is initially created by an intense laser pulse illumination (? =532nm) incident on a natural single crystal of Cu_2O (at T=1.8K) having (100) symmetry. The traveling packet is laterally probed by a laser pulse tuned in the vicinity of the 1S orthoexciton resonance (? =609.51nm), where the probing beam is additionally attenuated upon being transmitted through the excitonic packet. In order to measure the packet's longitudinal and transversal density profiles, the additional attenuation (NDA) is determined at various probing beam positions relative to the perpendicularly propagating packet. The transversal width of the exciton packet was found to be significantly reduced with respect to its initial width (pump beam diameter). Such a result provides an indication that the packet experiences a lateral contraction leading to a filament-like structure as it travels through the crystal.

  7. Prototype cantilevers for quantitative lateral force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Reitsma, Mark G.; Gates, Richard S.; Friedman, Lawrence H.; Cook, Robert F.

    2011-09-15

    Prototype cantilevers are presented that enable quantitative surface force measurements using contact-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). The ''hammerhead'' cantilevers facilitate precise optical lever system calibrations for cantilever flexure and torsion, enabling quantifiable adhesion measurements and friction measurements by lateral force microscopy (LFM). Critically, a single hammerhead cantilever of known flexural stiffness and probe length dimension can be used to perform both a system calibration as well as surface force measurements in situ, which greatly increases force measurement precision and accuracy. During LFM calibration mode, a hammerhead cantilever allows an optical lever ''torque sensitivity'' to be generated for the quantification of LFM friction forces. Precise calibrations were performed on two different AFM instruments, in which torque sensitivity values were specified with sub-percent relative uncertainty. To examine the potential for accurate lateral force measurements using the prototype cantilevers, finite element analysis predicted measurement errors of a few percent or less, which could be reduced via refinement of calibration methodology or cantilever design. The cantilevers are compatible with commercial AFM instrumentation and can be used for other AFM techniques such as contact imaging and dynamic mode measurements.

  8. The Underlying Mechanisms of the Laterality Judgement Task 

    E-print Network

    Grabski, Anna Meryem

    2012-11-28

    A vast amount of research suggests that making laterality judgments about left and right body parts is achieved by an embodied mental rotation process. Therefore the laterality judgment task has been extensively used in ...

  9. Commanding lateral acceleration: a natural paradigm for automobile steering 

    E-print Network

    Kenny, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    joystick steering controls available to handicapped drivers, The controller design uses feedback from a chassis mounted accelerometer to sense actual vehicle lateral acceleration and cause the vehicle to achieve the lateral acceleration commanded...

  10. Childhood Abuse Linked to Ulcerative Colitis Later in Life

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Childhood Abuse Linked to Ulcerative Colitis Later in Life But study finds no association with another inflammatory ... between childhood abuse and ulcerative colitis later in life. The study was published online recently in the ...

  11. Hemi-seesaw nystagmus in lateral medullary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Khan, Salman R; Lueck, Christian J

    2013-03-26

    Seesaw and hemi-seesaw nystagmus are rare in lateral medullary syndrome. We describe a patient with lateral medullary syndrome who, in addition to other more typical ocular manifestations, demonstrated hemi-seesaw nystagmus (HSSN). PMID:23446678

  12. Tips for Good Health in Later Life: For Older Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Geriatrics Osteoporosis Prevention Related Documents PDF Tips for Good Health in Later Life: For Older Women Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources Tips for Good Health in Later Life: For Older Women Tools ...

  13. 14 CFR 25.177 - Static lateral-directional stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 25.177 Static lateral... configuration). (b) The static lateral stability (as shown by the tendency to raise the low wing in a...

  14. 14 CFR 25.177 - Static lateral-directional stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 25.177 Static lateral... configuration). (b) The static lateral stability (as shown by the tendency to raise the low wing in a...

  15. ARTIFICIAL LATERAL LINE SYSTEMS FOR FEEDBACK CONTROL OF UNDERWATER ROBOTS

    E-print Network

    Tan, Xiaobo

    ARTIFICIAL LATERAL LINE SYSTEMS FOR FEEDBACK CONTROL OF UNDERWATER ROBOTS By Ahmad Taha Abdulsadda FOR FEEDBACK CONTROL OF UNDERWATER ROBOTS By Ahmad Taha Abdulsadda A lateral line system, consisting of arrays a similar sensing module for underwater robots and vehicles. Often known as artificial lateral lines

  16. Electron spins in few-electron lateral quantum dots

    E-print Network

    Electron spins in few-electron lateral quantum dots #12;#12;Electron spins in few-electron lateral of a few-electron lateral quantum dot An electronic version of this thesis, including colour figures, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval

  17. Sex Differences in Cerebral Laterality of Language and Visuospatial Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, A. M.; Rimrodt, S. L.; Abel, J. R.; Blankner, J. G.; Mostofsky, S. H.; Pekar, J. J.; Denckla, M. B.; Cutting, L. E.

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences on language and visuospatial tasks are of great interest, with differences in hemispheric laterality hypothesized to exist between males and females. Some functional imaging studies examining sex differences have shown that males are more left lateralized on language tasks and females are more right lateralized on visuospatial…

  18. Dynamic markers of altered gait rhythm in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    E-print Network

    Dynamic markers of altered gait rhythm in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis JEFFREY M. HAUSDORFF,1 of altered gait rhythm in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Appl Physiol 88: 2045­ 2053, 2000.--Amyotrophic dynamics AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS (ALS) is a disorder primarily affecting the motoneurons

  19. Motor Unit Firing Characteristics in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    E-print Network

    Clancy, Ted

    Motor Unit Firing Characteristics in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patrick K. Kasi" 2 neuron dominant forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). EMG recordings were gathered during ALS patients with LMN- and UMN-dominant forms of ALS. Keywords- Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; motor

  20. Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

  1. Large-scale lateral nanowire arrays nanogenerators

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhong L; Xu, Chen; Qin, Yong; Zhu, Guang; Yang, Rusen; Hu, Youfan; Zhang, Yan

    2014-01-07

    In a method of making a generating device, a plurality of spaced apart elongated seen members are deposited onto a surface of a flexible non-conductive substrate. An elongated conductive layer is applied to a top surface and a first side of each seed member, thereby leaving an exposed second side opposite the first side. A plurality of elongated piezoelectric nanostructures is grown laterally from the second side of each seed layer. A second conductive material is deposited onto the substrate adjacent each elongated first conductive layer so as to be soupled the distal end of each of the plurality of elongated piezoelectric nanostructures. The second conductive material is selected so as to form a Schottky barrier between the second conductive material and the distal end of each of the plurality of elongated piezoelectric nanostructures and so as to form an electrical contact with the first conductive layer.

  2. Cerebrospinal fluid filtration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, J; Mamoli, B

    1999-09-01

    By means of a randomized, controlled and open study the authors wanted to find out if cerebrospinal (CSF)-filtration was of substantial benefit to patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS). Five SALS patients, aged 51-75 years, being treated with riluzole underwent CSF-filtration daily over five days (group A). Five other SALS patients, aged 52-70 years, were treated only with riluzole (group B). Although all five patients in the first group reported a subjective benefit following CSF- filtration, the Norris score, the Frenchay score, the vital capacity, the ulnar nerve F-wave persistence and the peak-ratio of the brachial biceps and anterior tibial muscles did not change significantly after five days of therapy, either in group A or in group B. In conclusion, filtration of 200-250 ml CSF daily, over five days, does not seem to have a substantial therapeutic effect in patients with SALS. PMID:10457394

  3. Distractor inhibition: Evidence from lateralized readiness potentials.

    PubMed

    Pramme, Lisa; Dierolf, Angelika M; Naumann, Ewald; Frings, Christian

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated distractor inhibition on the level of stimulus representation. In a sequential distractor-to-distractor priming task participants had to respond to target letters flanked by distractor digits. Reaction time and stimulus-locked lateralized readiness potentials (S-LRPs) of probe responses were measured. Distractor-target onset asynchrony was varied. For RTs responses to probe targets were faster in the case of prime-distractor repetition compared to distractor changes indicating distractor inhibition. Benefits in RTs and the latency of S-LRP onsets for distractor repetition were also modulated by distractor-target onset asynchrony. For S-LRPs distractor inhibition was only present with a simultaneous onset of distractors and target. The results confirm previous results indicating inhibitory mechanisms of object-based selective attention on the level of distractor representations. PMID:26114922

  4. Optical fiber head for providing lateral viewing

    DOEpatents

    Everett, Matthew J. (Livermore, CA); Colston, Billy W. (Livermore, CA); James, Dale L. (Tracy, CA); Brown, Steve (Livermore, CA); Da Silva, Luiz (Danville, CA)

    2002-01-01

    The head of an optical fiber comprising the sensing probe of an optical heterodyne sensing device includes a planar surface that intersects the perpendicular to axial centerline of the fiber at a polishing angle .theta.. The planar surface is coated with a reflective material so that light traveling axially through the fiber is reflected transverse to the fiber's axial centerline, and is emitted laterally through the side of the fiber. Alternatively, the planar surface can be left uncoated. The polishing angle .theta. must be no greater than 39.degree. or must be at least 51.degree.. The emitted light is reflected from adjacent biological tissue, collected by the head, and then processed to provide real-time images of the tissue. The method for forming the planar surface includes shearing the end of the optical fiber and applying the reflective material before removing the buffer that circumscribes the cladding and the core.

  5. Young victims and their later partners.

    PubMed

    Wageningen, A

    1989-01-01

    Sexual abuse can seriously traumatize the victim, especially if she is a young girl Ambivalent feelings regarding herself and others make it difficult and often impossible for her to find a partner later. Most relationships are brief. If the victim is able to form a lasting relationship both she and her partner will be confronted with the effects of her trauma. They face relational and sexual problems. It is difficult for the partner to accept her trauma emotionally. Therapy, usually carried out individually or in groups and without the partner, often fails to prevent the breakdown of their relationship or marriage. The partner's presence in or involvement with the treatment has proved very helpful provided the relationship has possibilities for change. PMID:2516591

  6. A rare cause of lateral facial swelling

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Sujata; Gulati, Ujjwal; Vandana; Singh, Sapna

    2014-01-01

    A case of chronic, recurrent and asymptomatic facial swelling in a young male is presented. Swelling extended from lower midface to upper lateral neck and right commissure to anterior massetric border. History, clinical signs and symptoms and examination pointed towards the benign nature of the swelling. Fine-needle aspiration cytology tapered the diagnostic possibilities to a salivary cyst or pseudocyst. Ultrasonography identified the lesion to contain echogenic fluid with irregular borders. “Tail sign” was absent on contrast magnetic resonance imaging, excluding the involvement of the sublingual gland. Surgical excision of the lesion was done along with submandibular gland as both were in continuity via a bottle-neck tract. Final histopathological diagnosis was that of the submandibular gland extravasation phenomenon. As per the best of our knowledge, it is the first case report of a submandibular gland extravasation causing swelling in a retrograde direction onto the face. PMID:25593883

  7. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a long preclinical period?

    PubMed

    Eisen, Andrew; Kiernan, Matthew; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Swash, Michael

    2014-11-01

    The onset of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is conventionally considered as commencing with the recognition of clinical symptoms. We propose that, in common with other neurodegenerations, the pathogenic mechanisms culminating in ALS phenotypes begin much earlier in life. Animal models of genetically determined ALS exhibit pathological abnormalities long predating clinical deficits. The overt clinical ALS phenotype may develop when safety margins are exceeded subsequent to years of mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation or an imbalanced environment of excitation and inhibition in the neuropil. Somatic mutations, the epigenome and external environmental influences may interact to trigger a metabolic cascade that in the adult eventually exceeds functional threshold. A long preclinical and subsequent presymptomatic period pose a challenge for recognition, since it offers an opportunity for protective and perhaps even preventive therapeutic intervention to rescue dysfunctional neurons. We suggest, by analogy with other neurodegenerations and from SOD1 ALS mouse studies, that vulnerability might be induced in the perinatal period. PMID:24648037

  8. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: update and new developments

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Ashley J; Getzoff, Elizabeth D; Perry, J Jefferson P

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common form of motor neuron disease. It is typically characterized by adult-onset degeneration of the upper and lower motor neurons, and is usually fatal within a few years of onset. A subset of ALS patients has an inherited form of the disease, and a few of the known mutant genes identified in familial cases have also been found in sporadic forms of ALS. Precisely how the diverse ALS-linked gene products dictate the course of the disease, resulting in compromised voluntary muscular ability, is not entirely known. This review addresses the major advances that are being made in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms giving rise to the disease, which may eventually translate into new treatment options. PMID:23019386

  9. On lateral competition in dynamic neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Bellyustin, N.S.

    1995-02-01

    Artificial neural networks connected homogeneously, which use retinal image processing methods, are considered. We point out that there are probably two different types of lateral inhibition for each neural element by the neighboring ones-due to the negative connection coefficients between elements and due to the decreasing neuron`s response to a too high input signal. The first case characterized by stable dynamics, which is given by the Lyapunov function, while in the second case, stability is absent and two-dimensional dynamic chaos occurs if the time step in the integration of model equations is large enough. The continuous neural medium approximation is used for analytical estimation in both cases. The result is the partition of the parameter space into domains with qualitatively different dynamic modes. Computer simulations confirm the estimates and show that joining two-dimensional chaos with symmetries provided by the initial and boundary conditions may produce patterns which are genuine pieces of art.

  10. A comprehensive review of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Sara; Carr, Karen; Reiley, Luz; Diaz, Kelvin; Guerra, Orleiquis; Altamirano, Pablo Fernandez; Pagani, Wilfredo; Lodin, Daud; Orozco, Gloria; Chinea, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a late-onset fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons with an incidence of about 1/100,000. Most ALS cases are sporadic, but 5–10% of the cases are familial ALS. Both sporadic and familial ALS (FALS) are associated with degeneration of cortical and spinal motor neurons. The etiology of ALS remains unknown. However, mutations of superoxide dismutase 1 have been known as the most common cause of FALS. In this study, we provide a comprehensive review of ALS. We cover all aspects of the disease including epidemiology, comorbidities, environmental risk factor, molecular mechanism, genetic factors, symptoms, diagnostic, treatment, and even the available supplement and management of ALS. This will provide the reader with an advantage of receiving a broad range of information about the disease. PMID:26629397

  11. Analysis of flexible structures under lateral impact

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, D. F.; Razavi, H.

    2012-07-01

    Three methods for analysis of flexible structures under lateral impact are presented. The first proposed method (Method A) consists of: (1) modifying an available deceleration on a rigid target with conservation principles to account for structural flexibility; and (2) transient nonlinear analysis of the structure with the corrected forcing function. The second proposed method (Method B) is similar to Method A in obtaining the forcing function but it solves the equations of motion of an idealized two-degree-of-freedom system instead of directly using conservation principles. The last method simply provides the maximum force in the structure using the conservation of energy and linear momentum. A coupled simulation is also performed in LS-DYNA and compared against the proposed methods. A case study is presented to illustrate the applicability of all three methods and the LS-DYNA simulation. (authors)

  12. [Lateralization of behavioral reactions and otolith asymmetry].

    PubMed

    Lychakov, D V

    2013-01-01

    Lateralized behavior is widely spread among vertebrate animals and is determined first of ally by structural-functional brain asymmetry as well as by the presence of somatic and visceral asymmetry. Some kinds of asymmetric reactions are suggested to be due to the presence of asymmetry at the level of sense organs, in particular, of otolith organs. This review presents data on value and character of otolith asymmetry (OA) in animals of various species and classes, on action upon it of weightlessness and hypergravity; the problem of effect of OA on vestibular and auditory functions is considered. In symmetric vertebrates, OA has been shown to be of fluctuation character and its chi coefficient varies in diapason from -0.2 to 0.2; in the overwhelmed majority of individuals, /chi/ < 0.06. The low OA level allows the paired otolith organs to work coordinately; this it why OA is at the equally low level regardless of the individual's taxonomic and ecologic position, its size, age, and otolith growth rate. Individuals with abnormally high OA level can experience difficulties in analysis of auditory and vestibular stimuli, therefore in nature the majority of such individuals are eliminated in the process of natural selection. Unlike symmetrical vertebrates, labyrinths of many Pleuronectiformes have pronounced OA--otoliths of the lower labyrinth, on a average, are significantly heavier than those of the upper labyrinth. Their organs are the only example when OA with directed character seem to play an essential role in lateralized behavior and are suggested to be used in the spatial localization of the sound source. The short-time action of weightlessness and relatively weak hypergravity (< or = 2g) do not affect OA. However, it cannot be ruled out that the long-term stay under conditions of weightlessness and hypergravity > or = 3g, as well as some diseases and shifts connected with processes of aging can enhance OA and cause several functional disturbances. PMID:24459865

  13. Lateral interactions in the outer retina

    PubMed Central

    Thoreson, Wallace B.; Mangel, Stuart C.

    2012-01-01

    Lateral interactions in the outer retina, particularly negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones and direct feed-forward input from horizontal cells to bipolar cells, play a number of important roles in early visual processing, such as generating center-surround receptive fields that enhance spatial discrimination. These circuits may also contribute to post-receptoral light adaptation and the generation of color opponency. In this review, we examine the contributions of horizontal cell feedback and feed-forward pathways to early visual processing. We begin by reviewing the properties of bipolar cell receptive fields, especially with respect to modulation of the bipolar receptive field surround by the ambient light level and to the contribution of horizontal cells to the surround. We then review evidence for and against three proposed mechanisms for negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones: 1) GABA release by horizontal cells, 2) ephaptic modulation of the cone pedicle membrane potential generated by currents flowing through hemigap junctions in horizontal cell dendrites, and 3) modulation of cone calcium currents (ICa) by changes in synaptic cleft proton levels. We also consider evidence for the presence of direct horizontal cell feed-forward input to bipolar cells and discuss a possible role for GABA at this synapse. We summarize proposed functions of horizontal cell feedback and feed-forward pathways. Finally, we examine the mechanisms and functions of two other forms of lateral interaction in the outer retina: negative feedback from horizontal cells to rods and positive feedback from horizontal cells to cones. PMID:22580106

  14. Costa Rica's Chain of laterally collapsed volcanoes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, E.; Fernandez, E.

    2007-05-01

    From the NW extreme to the SW end of Costa Rica's volcanic backbone, a number of laterally collapsed volcanoes can be observed. Due to several factors, attention has been given to active volcanoes disregarding the importance of collapsed features in terms of assessing volcanic hazards for future generations around inhabited volcanoes. In several cases the typical horseshoe shape amphitheater-like depression can be easily observed. In other cases due to erosion, vegetation, topography, seismic activity or drastic weather such characteristics are not easily recognized. In the order mentioned above appear: Orosi-Cacao, Miravalles, Platanar, Congo, Von Frantzius, Cacho Negro and Turrialba volcanoes. Due to limited studies on these structures it is unknown if sector collapse occurred in one or several phases. Furthermore, in the few studied cases no evidence has been found to relate collapses to actual eruptive episodes. Detailed studies on the deposits and materials composing dome-like shapes will shed light on unsolved questions about petrological and chemical composition. Volume, form and distance traveled by deposits are part of the questions surrounding most of these collapsed volcanoes. Although most of these mentioned structures are extinct, at least Irazú volcano (active volcano) has faced partial lateral collapses recently. It did presented strombolian activity in the early 60s. Collapse scars show on the NW flank show important mass removal in historic and prehistoric times. Moreover, in 1994 a minor hydrothermal explosion provoked the weakening of a deeply altered wall that holds a crater lake (150m diameter, 2.6x106 ). A poster will depict images of the collapsed volcanoes named above with mayor descriptive characteristics. It will also focus on the importance of deeper studies to assess the collapse potential of Irazú volcano with related consequences. Finally, this initiative will invite researchers interested in such topic to join future studies in these Costarrican volcanoes.

  15. Study of LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES (LOB) Genetic Pathways in Boundary Maintenance of Arabidopsis

    E-print Network

    Yu, Lifeng

    2012-01-01

    Genetic interaction between LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES (LOB) and LATERAL SUPPRESSOR (Genetic interaction between LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES (LOB) and LATERAL SUPPRESSOR (genetic pathway. Work in Chapter 3 revealed that LOB and LATERAL SUPPRESSOR (

  16. Laterality Patterns of Brain Functional Connectivity: Gender Effects

    PubMed Central

    Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D.

    2012-01-01

    Lateralization of brain connectivity may be essential for normal brain function and may be sexually dimorphic. Here, we study the laterality patterns of short-range (implicated in functional specialization) and long-range (implicated in functional integration) connectivity and the gender effects on these laterality patterns. Parallel computing was used to quantify short- and long-range functional connectivity densities in 913 healthy subjects. Short-range connectivity was rightward lateralized and most asymmetrical in areas around the lateral sulcus, whereas long-range connectivity was rightward lateralized in lateral sulcus and leftward lateralizated in inferior prefrontal cortex and angular gyrus. The posterior inferior occipital cortex was leftward lateralized (short- and long-range connectivity). Males had greater rightward lateralization of brain connectivity in superior temporal (short- and long-range), inferior frontal, and inferior occipital cortices (short-range), whereas females had greater leftward lateralization of long-range connectivity in the inferior frontal cortex. The greater lateralization of the male's brain (rightward and predominantly short-range) may underlie their greater vulnerability to disorders with disrupted brain asymmetries (schizophrenia, autism). PMID:21878483

  17. Surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canals of maxillary incisors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This case report presents surgical endodontic management outcomes of maxillary incisors that were infected via the lateral canals. Two cases are presented in which endodontically-treated maxillary central incisors had sustained lateral canal infections. A surgical endodontic treatment was performed on both teeth. Flap elevation revealed vertical bone destruction along the root surface and infected lateral canals, and microscopy revealed that the lateral canals were the origin of the lesions. After the infected lateral canals were surgically managed, both teeth were asymptomatic and labial fistulas were resolved. There were no clinical or radiographic signs of surgical endodontic management failure at follow-up visits. This case report highlights the clinical significance and surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canal of maxillary incisor. It is important to be aware of root canal anatomy variability in maxillary incisors. Maxillary central incisors infected via the lateral canal can be successfully managed by surgical endodontic treatment. PMID:25671217

  18. Adsorption kinetics of laterally and polarly flagellated Vibrio.

    PubMed Central

    Belas, M R; Colwell, R R

    1982-01-01

    The adsorption of laterally and polarly flagellated bacteria to chitin was measured, and from the data obtained, a modified Langmuir adsorption isotherm was derived. Results indicated that the adsorption of laterally flagellated Vibrio parahaemolyticus follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, a type of adsorption referred to as surface saturation kinetics, when conditions are favorable for the production of lateral flagella. When conditions were not favorable for the production of lateral flagella, bacterial adsorption did not follow the Langmuir adsorption isotherm; instead, proportional adsorption kinetics were observed. The adsorption of some polarly flagellated bacteria exhibited surface saturation kinetics. However, the binding index (the product of the number of binding sites and bacterial affinity to the surface) of polarly flagellated bacteria differed significantly from that of laterally flagellated bacteria, suggesting that polarly flagellated bacteria adsorb to chitin by a different mechanism from that used by the laterally flagellated bacteria. From the results of dual-label adsorption competition experiments, in which polarly flagellated V. cholerae competed with increasing concentrations of laterally flagellated V. parahaemolyticus, it was observed that laterally flagellated bacteria inhibited the adsorption of polarly flagellated bacteria. In contrast, polarly flagellated bacteria enhanced the adsorption of V. cholerae. In competition experiments, where V. parahaemolyticus competed against increasing concentrations of other bacteria, polarly flagellated bacteria enhanced V. parahaemolyticus adsorption significantly, whereas laterally flagellated bacteria only slightly enhanced the process. The direct correlation observed between surface saturation kinetics, the production of lateral flagella, and the ability of laterally flagellated bacteria to inhibit the adsorption of polarly flagellated bacteria suggests that lateral flagella represent a component of bacterial structure that is important in the adsorption of laterally flagellated bacteria to surfaces. A model for adsorption events of laterally flagellated bacteria is proposed, based on the evidence presented. Images PMID:7107559

  19. Laterally graded multilayer double-monochromator.

    SciTech Connect

    Als-Nielsen, J.; Erdmann, J.; Gaarde, P.; Krasnicki, S.; Liu, C.; Macrander, A. T.; Maj, J.; Mancini, D.

    1999-09-01

    The authors describe a tunable multilayer monochromator with an adjustable bandpass to be used for reflectivity and grazing incidence diffraction studies on surfaces at energies near 10 keV. Multilayers have a bandpass typically 100 times larger than the Si(111) reflection, and by using multilayers an experimenter can significantly increase data collection rates over those available with a Si monochromator. The transmission through 1 and 2 laterally graded multilayer (LGML) reflections was recorded versus photon energy. The identical LGMLs were comprised of 60 bilayers of W and C on 100 x 25 x 3 mm float glass with a bilayer spacing varying from 35 to 60 {angstrom}. The average gradient was 0.27 {angstrom}/mm along the long dimension. The rms deviation of the data for the bilayer spacing from a linear fit was 0.36 {angstrom}. Data were obtained for a nondispersive ({+-}) double-multilayer arrangement. The relative bandpass width (FWHM) when the two multilayers exposed the same bilayer spacing was measured to be 2.2% with a transmission of 78.7 {+-} 1.6%. This value is consistent with the transmission of 88.9% that they also measured for a single LGML at HASYLAB beamline D4. The bandpass was tunable in the range 1.1% to 2.2%.

  20. Risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ingre, Caroline; Roos, Per M; Piehl, Fredrik; Kamel, Freya; Fang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neuron disease. It is typically fatal within 2–5 years of symptom onset. The incidence of ALS is largely uniform across most parts of the world, but an increasing ALS incidence during the last decades has been suggested. Although recent genetic studies have substantially improved our understanding of the causes of ALS, especially familial ALS, an important role of non-genetic factors in ALS is recognized and needs further study. In this review, we briefly discuss several major genetic contributors to ALS identified to date, followed by a more focused discussion on the most commonly examined non-genetic risk factors for ALS. We first review factors related to lifestyle choices, including smoking, intake of antioxidants, physical fitness, body mass index, and physical exercise, followed by factors related to occupational and environmental exposures, including electromagnetic fields, metals, pesticides, ?-methylamino-L-alanine, and viral infection. Potential links between ALS and other medical conditions, including head trauma, metabolic diseases, cancer, and inflammatory diseases, are also discussed. Finally, we outline several future directions aiming to more efficiently examine the role of non-genetic risk factors in ALS. PMID:25709501

  1. LATER FIRST MARRIAGE AND MARITAL SUCCESS

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Norval D.; Uecker, Jeremy; Love, Robert W. B.

    2012-01-01

    The research reported here used measures of marital success based on both marital survival and marital quality to assess how well first marriages entered at relatively late ages fare in comparison with those entered younger. Analysis of data from five American data sets indicated that the later marriages fare very well in survival but rather poorly in quality. The greatest indicated likelihood of being in an intact marriage of the highest quality is among those who married at ages 22-25, net of the estimated effects of time since first marriage and several variables that might commonly affect age at marriage and marital outcomes. The negative relationship beyond the early to mid twenties between age at marriage and marital success is likely to be at least partially spurious, and thus it would be premature to conclude that the optimal time for first marriage for most persons is ages 22-25. However, the findings do suggest that most persons have little or nothing to gain in the way of marital success by deliberately postponing marriage beyond the mid twenties. PMID:22948068

  2. Possession divestment by sales in later life.

    PubMed

    Ekerdt, David J; Addington, Aislinn

    2015-08-01

    Residential relocation in later life is almost always a downsizing, with many possessions to be divested in a short period of time. This article examines older movers' capacities for selling things, and ways that selling attenuates people's ties to those things, thus accomplishing the human dis-possession of the material convoy. In qualitative interviews in 79 households in the Midwestern United States, older adults reported their experience with possession sales associated with residential relocation. Among this group, three-quarters of the households downsized by selling some belongings. Informal sales seemed the least fraught of all strategies, estate sales had mixed reviews, and garage sales were recalled as laborious. Sellers' efforts were eased by social relations and social networks as helpers and buyers came forward. As selling proceeded, sentiment about possessions waned as their materiality and economic value came to the fore, easing their detachment from the household. Possession selling is challenging because older adults are limited in the knowledge, skills, and efforts that they can apply to the recommodification of their belongings. Selling can nonetheless be encouraged as a divestment strategy as long as the frustrations and drawbacks are transparent, and the goal of ridding is kept in view. PMID:26162722

  3. Treatment algorithm for chronic lateral ankle instability

    PubMed Central

    Giannini, Sandro; Ruffilli, Alberto; Pagliazzi, Gherardo; Mazzotti, Antonio; Evangelisti, Giulia; Buda, Roberto; Faldini, Cesare

    2014-01-01

    Summary Introduction: ankle sprains are a common sports-related injury. A 20% of acute ankle sprains results in chronic ankle instability, requiring surgery. Aim of this paper is to report the results of a series of 38 patients treated for chronic lateral ankle instability with anatomic reconstruction. Materials and methods: thirty-eight patients were enrolled in the study. Seventeen patients underwent a surgical repair using the Brostrom-modified technique, while the remaining underwent anatomic reconstruction with autologous or allogenic graft. Results: at a mean follow-up of 5 years the AOFAS score improved from 66.1 ± 5.3 to 92.2 ± 5.6. Discussion: the findings of this study confirm that anatomic reconstruction is an effective procedure with satisfactory subjective and objective results which persist at long-term follow-up along with a low complication rate. No differences, in term of clinical and functional outcomes, were observed between the Brostrom-modified repair and the anatomic reconstruction technique. Level of evidence: level IV. PMID:25767783

  4. Post-transplant Adjustment – The Later Years

    PubMed Central

    Fredericks, Emily M.; Zelikovsky, Nataliya; Aujoulat, Isabelle; Hames, Anna; Wray, Jo

    2014-01-01

    As survival rates for pediatric solid organ transplantation have continued to improve, researchers and health care providers have increasingly focused on understanding and enhancing the health related quality of life (HRQOL) and psychosocial functioning of their patients. This manuscript reviews the psychosocial functioning of pediatric transplant recipients during the “later years”, defined as more than 3 years post-transplant, and focuses on the day-to-day impact of living with a transplant after the immediate period of adjustment and early years after surgery. Key topics reviewed include health-related quality of life, cognitive functioning, impact on the family, regimen adherence, and transition of responsibility for self-management tasks. Overall, pediatric transplant recipients evidence impairment in HRQOL, neuropsychological outcomes, and family functioning as compared to non-transplant recipients. However, the degree of impairment is influenced by a variety of factors including, disease severity, age, solid organ type, and study methodologies. Studies are limited by small samples, cross-sectional design, and the lack of universal assessment battery to allow for comparisons across solid organ populations. Areas for future research are discussed. PMID:25220845

  5. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: New Perpectives and Update

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, Marco; Oliveira, Acary Bulle; Nascimento, Osvaldo J.M.; Reis, Carlos Henrique Melo; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; de Souza, Jano Alves; Pupe, Camila; de Souza, Olivia Gameiro; Bastos, Victor Hugo; de Freitas, Marcos R.G.; Teixeira, Silmar; Bruno, Carlos; Davidovich, Eduardo; Smidt, Benny

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Charcot’s disease or Lou Gehrig’s disease, is a term used to cover the spetrum of syndromes caracterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons, a paralytic disorder caused by motor neuron degeneration. Currently, there are approximately 25,000 patients with ALS in the USA, with an average age of onset of 55 years. The incidence and prevalence of ALS are 1-2 and 4-6 per 100,000 each year, respectively, with a lifetime ALS risk of 1/600 to 1/1000. It causes progressive and cumulative physical disabilities, and leads to eventual death due to respiratory muscle failure. ALS is diverse in its presentation, course, and progression. We do not yet fully understand the causes of the disease, nor the mechanisms for its progression; thus, we lack effective means for treating this disease. In this chapter, we will discuss the diagnosis, treatment, and how to cope with impaired function and end of life based on of our experience, guidelines, and clinical trials. Nowadays ALS seems to be a more complex disease than it did two decades – or even one decade – ago, but new insights have been plentiful. Clinical trials should be seen more as experiments on pathogenic mechanisms. A medication or combination of medications that targets more than one pathogenic pathway may slow disease progression in an additive or synergistic fashion. PMID:26487927

  6. CSF markers in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tarasiuk, Joanna; Ku?akowska, Alina; Drozdowski, Wies?aw; Kornhuber, Johannes; Lewczuk, Piotr

    2012-07-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, 'Lou Gehrig disease') is the most common, progressive, neurodegenerative, motor neuron disease, causing damage to upper and lower motor neurons, leading to paralysis and death within 3-5 years. Majority of ALS cases are sporadic ALS (SALS) and only 5-10 % of cases are familial ALS (FALS). Pathogenesis of ALS is complicated and still unclear, including genetic, glutamate excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, neurofilament accumulation, impaired trophic support, altered glial function, viral infection, immune imbalance and impairment of the blood-brain, blood-spinal cord and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers (BBB/BSCB/BCSFB). The CSF analysis is still one of the basic laboratory tools and might reflect pathophysiological alterations in the course of the disease and could provide an insight into disease pathomechanisms. The most important aim of its analysis is evaluation of blood-CSF barrier, which is altered in 46 % of ALS patients. The CSF biomarkers may give insight into ALS pathophysiology and may be useful for early, presymptomatic diagnosis, therapeutic monitoring and the development of new therapeutic strategies. This review summarizes the general concepts of biomarkers in CSF of ALS patients and their potential usefulness in further research. PMID:22555610

  7. Controversies and priorities in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Martin R; Hardiman, Orla; Benatar, Michael; Brooks, Benjamin R; Chio, Adriano; de Carvalho, Mamede; Ince, Paul G; Lin, Cindy; Miller, Robert G; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Nicholson, Garth; Ravits, John; Shaw, Pamela J; Swash, Michael; Talbot, Kevin; Traynor, Bryan J; den Berg, Leonard H Van; Veldink, Jan H; Vucic, Steve; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2015-01-01

    Summary Two decades after the discovery that 20% of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases were linked to mutations in the superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) gene, a substantial proportion of the remainder of cases of familial ALS have now been traced to an expansion of the intronic hexanucleotide repeat sequence in C9orf72. This breakthrough provides an opportunity to re-evaluate longstanding concepts regarding the cause and natural history of ALS, coming soon after the pathological unification of ALS with frontotemporal dementia through a shared pathological signature of cytoplasmic inclusions of the ubiquitinated protein TDP-43. However, with profound clinical, prognostic, neuropathological, and now genetic heterogeneity, the concept of ALS as one disease appears increasingly untenable. This background calls for the development of a more sophisticated taxonomy, and an appreciation of ALS as the breakdown of a wider network rather than a discrete vulnerable population of specialised motor neurons. Identification of C9orf72 repeat expansions in patients without a family history of ALS challenges the traditional division between familial and sporadic disease. By contrast, the 90% of apparently sporadic cases and incomplete penetrance of several genes linked to familial cases suggest that at least some forms of ALS arise from the interplay of multiple genes, poorly understood developmental, environmental, and age-related factors, as well as stochastic events. PMID:23415570

  8. Arthroscopic stapling repair for chronic lateral instability.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, R B

    1987-10-01

    We have presented a preliminary report on a limited number of patients with chronic lateral instability of the ankle treated with arthroscopic stapling reconstruction. As stated, the longest follow-ups are about 5 years, so the results over the long term are not yet known. Early adults have been quite encouraging, however, with improved functional stability of the ankle. Only one patient in more than two dozen has had recurrent instability that required more surgery. He returned with a history of additional sports trauma. The principle of secure fixation of ligaments to exposed bone surfaces with staples is a well-accepted and effective technique familiar to surgeons for many years. What is changing is that microsurgical techniques can be adapted to common orthopedic problems. Ankle arthroscopy is expanding continually to meet the needs of many patients. Discomfort is minimal, and many patients do not even fill their prescriptions for analgesic medication. The period of disability is relatively short and rehabilitation is rapid. Because most patients prefer arthroscopy to an open procedure, we must continue to explore all avenues of surgical technique. New tools and developments are constantly on the horizon. As in most arthroscopic surgical procedures, instruments of the correct size are most important, as is precise surgical technique. The key to successful arthroscopic surgery is careful forethought, meticulous planning, constant education, and a dependable team. PMID:2960443

  9. Epidemiologic correlates of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Armon, C.; Kurland, L.T.; Daube, J.R.; O'Brien, P.C. )

    1991-07-01

    The authors evaluated 74 selected patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and 201 matched controls for risk factors for ALS by a case-control design and a sequential questionnaire/interview technique to quantitate biographic data. They analyzed occupational and recreational data only for 47 male patients and 47 corresponding patient controls; data for women were insufficient. They used nonparametric analyses to evaluate five primary comparisons of ALS patients with controls: (1) more hard physical labor, p not significant (NS); (2) greater frequency of neurodegenerative disease in family members, p NS; (3) greater exposure to lead, p less than 0.05; (4) more years lived in a rural community, p NS; and (5) more trauma or major surgery, p NS. Men with ALS had worked more frequently at blue-collar jobs (although not a statistically significant difference, p = 0.10) and at welding or soldering (p less than 0.01). These results suggest that there may be an association between ALS in men and exposure to lead vapor. The limited nature of the association favors a multifactorial etiologic mechanism of ALS.

  10. Early Word Recognition and Later Language Skills

    PubMed Central

    Junge, Caroline; Cutler, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Recent behavioral and electrophysiological evidence has highlighted the long-term importance for language skills of an early ability to recognize words in continuous speech. We here present further tests of this long-term link in the form of follow-up studies conducted with two (separate) groups of infants who had earlier participated in speech segmentation tasks. Each study extends prior follow-up tests: Study 1 by using a novel follow-up measure that taps into online processing, Study 2 by assessing language performance relationships over a longer time span than previously tested. Results of Study 1 show that brain correlates of speech segmentation ability at 10 months are positively related to 16-month-olds’ target fixations in a looking-while-listening task. Results of Study 2 show that infant speech segmentation ability no longer directly predicts language profiles at the age of five. However, a meta-analysis across our results and those of similar studies (Study 3) reveals that age at follow-up does not moderate effect size. Together, the results suggest that infants’ ability to recognize words in speech certainly benefits early vocabulary development; further observed relationships of later language skills to early word recognition may be consequent upon this vocabulary size effect. PMID:25347057

  11. Lateral gene transfer in the subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Barkay, Tamar; Sobecky, Patricia

    2007-08-27

    Lateral gene transfer (LGT) is an important adaptive mechanism among prokaryotic organisms. This mechanism is particularly important for the response of microorganisms to changing environmental conditions because it facilitates the transfer of a large number of genes and their rapid expression. Together the transferred genes promote rapid genetic and metabolic changes that may enhance survival to newly established and sometimes hostile environmental conditions. The goal of our project was to examine if and how LGT enhances microbial adaptation to toxic heavy metals in subsurface environments that had been contaminated by mixed wastes due to activities associated with the production of nuclear energy and weapons. This task has been accomplished by dividing the project to several sub-tasks. Thus, we: (1) Determined the level of resistance of subsurface bacterial isolates to several toxic metals, all identified as pollutants of concern in subsurface environments; (2) Designed, tested, and applied, a molecular approach that determined whether metal resistance genes had evolved by LGT among subsurface bacteria; and (3) Developed a DNA hybridization array for the identification of broad host range plasmids and of metal resistance plasmids. The results are briefly summarized below with references to published papers and manuscripts in preparation where details about our research can be found. Additional information may be found in copies of our published manuscripts and conference proceedings, and our yearly reports that were submitted through the RIMS system.

  12. Modelling suicide risk in later life.

    PubMed

    Lo, C F; Kwok, Cordelia M Y

    2006-08-01

    Affective disorder is generally regarded as the prominent risk factor for suicide in the old age population. Despite the large number of empirical studies available in the literature, there is no attempt in modelling the dynamics of an individual's level of suicide risk theoretically yet. In particular, a dynamic model which can simulate the time evolution of an individual's level of risk for suicide and provide quantitative estimates of the probability of suicide risk is still lacking. In the present study we apply the contingent claims analysis of credit risk modelling in the field of quantitative finance to derive a theoretical stochastic model for estimation of the probability of suicide risk in later life in terms of a signalling index of affective disorder. Our model is based upon the hypothesis that the current state of affective disorder of a patient can be represented by a signalling index and exhibits stochastic movement and that a threshold of affective disorder, which signifies the occurrence of suicide, exists. According to the numerical results, the implications of our model are consistent with the clinical findings. Hence, we believe that such a dynamic model will be essential to the design of effective suicide prevention strategies in the target population of older adults, especially in the primary care setting. PMID:16797044

  13. Implicit Recognition Based on Lateralized Perceptual Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Iliana M.; Voss, Joel L.; Paller, Ken A.

    2012-01-01

    In some circumstances, accurate recognition of repeated images in an explicit memory test is driven by implicit memory. We propose that this “implicit recognition” results from perceptual fluency that influences responding without awareness of memory retrieval. Here we examined whether recognition would vary if images appeared in the same or different visual hemifield during learning and testing. Kaleidoscope images were briefly presented left or right of fixation during divided-attention encoding. Presentation in the same visual hemifield at test produced higher recognition accuracy than presentation in the opposite visual hemifield, but only for guess responses. These correct guesses likely reflect a contribution from implicit recognition, given that when the stimulated visual hemifield was the same at study and test, recognition accuracy was higher for guess responses than for responses with any level of confidence. The dramatic difference in guessing accuracy as a function of lateralized perceptual overlap between study and test suggests that implicit recognition arises from memory storage in visual cortical networks that mediate repetition-induced fluency increments. PMID:24962684

  14. Lateral position detection and control for friction stir systems

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, Paul (Boulder, CO); Lammlein, David H. (Houston, TX); Cook, George E. (Brentwood, TN); Wilkes, Don Mitchell (Nashville, TN); Strauss, Alvin M. (Nashville, TN); Delapp, David R. (Ashland City, TN); Hartman, Daniel A. (Fairhope, AL)

    2011-11-08

    Friction stir methods are disclosed for processing at least one workpiece using a rotary tool with rotating member for contacting and processing the workpiece. The methods include oscillating the rotary tool laterally with respect to a selected propagation path for the rotating member with respect to the workpiece to define an oscillation path for the rotating member. The methods further include obtaining force signals or parameters related to the force experienced by the rotary tool at least while the rotating member is disposed at the extremes of the oscillation. The force signals or parameters associated with the extremes can then be analyzed to determine a lateral position of the selected path with respect to a target path and a lateral offset value can be determined based on the lateral position. The lateral distance between the selected path and the target path can be decreased based on the lateral offset value.

  15. Lateral position detection and control for friction stir systems

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, Paul; Lammlein, David H.; Cook, George E.; Wilkes, Don Mitchell; Strauss, Alvin M.; Delapp, David R.; Hartman, Daniel A.

    2012-06-05

    An apparatus and computer program are disclosed for processing at least one workpiece using a rotary tool with rotating member for contacting and processing the workpiece. The methods include oscillating the rotary tool laterally with respect to a selected propagation path for the rotating member with respect to the workpiece to define an oscillation path for the rotating member. The methods further include obtaining force signals or parameters related to the force experienced by the rotary tool at least while the rotating member is disposed at the extremes of the oscillation. The force signals or parameters associated with the extremes can then be analyzed to determine a lateral position of the selected path with respect to a target path and a lateral offset value can be determined based on the lateral position. The lateral distance between the selected path and the target path can be decreased based on the lateral offset value.

  16. Artificial lateral line with biomimetic neuromasts to emulate fish sensing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yingchen; Nguyen, Nam; Chen, Nannan; Lockwood, Michael; Tucker, Craig; Hu, Huan; Bleckmann, Horst; Liu, Chang; Jones, Douglas L

    2010-03-01

    Hydrodynamic imaging using the lateral line plays a critical role in fish behavior. To engineer such a biologically inspired sensing system, we developed an artificial lateral line using MEMS (microelectromechanical system) technology and explored its localization capability. Arrays of biomimetic neuromasts constituted an artificial lateral line wrapped around a cylinder. A beamforming algorithm further enabled the artificial lateral line to image real-world hydrodynamic events in a 3D domain. We demonstrate that the artificial lateral line system can accurately localize an artificial dipole source and a natural tail-flicking crayfish under various conditions. The artificial lateral line provides a new sense to man-made underwater vehicles and marine robots so that they can sense like fish. PMID:20061601

  17. Development and validation of a lateral MREs isolator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Zhi-Wei; Yu, Miao; Fu, Jie; Zhao, Lu-Jie

    2015-02-01

    A novel lateral vibration isolator utilizing magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) with the field-dependent damping and stiffness was proposed in order to improve the adaptive performance. First, soft silicone rubber MREs with a highly adjustable shear storage modulus was fabricated. Then, the lateral MREs isolator was developed with a unique laminated structure of MRE layers and steel plates, which enables to withstand large vertical loads and adapts to the situation of large lateral displacement. Also, the electromagnetic analysis and design employed electromagnetic finite element method (FEM) to optimize magnetic circuit inside the proposed device. To evaluate the effectiveness of the lateral MREs isolator, a series of experimental tests were carried out under various applied magnetic fields. Experimental results show that the proposed MREs isolator can triumphantly change the lateral stiffness and equivalent damping up to 140% and 125%, respectively. This work demonstrates the performance of the designed lateral MREs isolator and its capacity in vibration mitigation for the complex situation.

  18. Laterality enhances numerical skills in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata

    PubMed Central

    Dadda, Marco; Agrillo, Christian; Bisazza, Angelo; Brown, Culum

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that cerebral lateralization can significantly enhance cognition and that this was one of the primary selective forces shaping its wide-spread evolution amongst vertebrate taxa. Here, we tested this hypothesis by examining the link between cerebral lateralization and numerical discrimination. Guppies, Poecilia reticulata, were sorted into left, right and non-lateralized groups using a standard mirror test and their numerical discrimination abilities tested in both natural shoal choice and abstract contexts. Our results show that strongly lateralized guppies have enhanced numerical abilities compared to non-lateralized guppies irrespective of context. These data provide further credence to the notion that cerebral lateralization can enhance cognitive efficiency. PMID:26578915

  19. Lateral Shock of the R Aquarii Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, J. M.; Pedelty, J. A.; Kafatos, M.

    1997-01-01

    The R Aqr jet was observed with the VLA B-configuration at two epochs separated by approximately 13.2 yr. Comparison of the resulting 6 cm continuum images show that the radio jet has undergone a lateral counterclockwise rotation of approximately 6 deg-12 deg on the plane of the sky. The model of jet parcels on independent trajectories is difficult to reconcile with these observations and leads us to consider a path-oriented jet (i.e., younger parcels follow the same path as older parcels). Comparison of the most recent radio image with a nearly contemporaneous HST/FOC ultraviolet image at approximately 2330 Angstroms suggests that the ultraviolet emission lies along the leading side of the rotating radio jet. In conjunction with a proper motion analysis of the jet material that yields empirical space-velocity and resulting acceleration-magnitude relationships as a function of distance from the central source, we evaluate the observational results in terms of a schematic model in which the jet emission consists of plane-parallel isothermal shocks along the leading edge of rotation. In such a radiating shock, the ultraviolet-emitting region is consistent with the adiabatic region in the form of a high-temperature, low-density sheath that surrounds the cooled postshock radio-emitting region. Within the context of the schematic model, we obtain the temperatures, densities, and pressures within the preshock, adiabatic, and postshock regions as a function of distance from the central source; the physical parameters so derived compare favorably to previously published estimates. We obtain a total jet mass of 3.1 x 10(exp -5) solar mass and an age of approximately 115 yr. We evaluate the model in the context of its density-boundary condition, its applicability to an episodic or quasi-continuous jet, and angular momentum considerations.

  20. Tracing the Geomorphic Signature of Lateral Faulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvall, A. R.; Tucker, G. E.

    2012-12-01

    Active strike-slip faults are among the most dangerous geologic features on Earth. Unfortunately, it is challenging to estimate their slip rates, seismic hazard, and evolution over a range of timescales. An under-exploited tool in strike-slip fault characterization is quantitative analysis of the geomorphic response to lateral fault motion to extract tectonic information directly from the landscape. Past geomorphic work of this kind has focused almost exclusively on vertical motion, despite the ubiquity of horizontal motion in crustal deformation and mountain building. We seek to address this problem by investigating the landscape response to strike-slip faulting in two ways: 1) examining the geomorphology of the Marlborough Fault System (MFS), a suite of parallel strike-slip faults within the actively deforming South Island of New Zealand, and 2) conducting controlled experiments in strike-slip landscape evolution using the CHILD landscape evolution model. The MFS offers an excellent natural experiment site because fault initiation ages and cumulative displacements decrease from north to south, whereas slip rates increase over four fold across a region underlain by a single bedrock unit (Torlesse Greywacke). Comparison of planform and longitudinal profiles of rivers draining the MFS reveals strong disequilibrium within tributaries that drain to active fault strands, and suggests that river capture related to fault activity may be a regular process in strike-slip fault zones. Simple model experiments support this view. Model calculations that include horizontal motion as well as vertical uplift demonstrate river lengthening and shortening due to stream capture in response to shutter ridges sliding in front of stream outlets. These results suggest that systematic variability in fluvial knickpoint location, drainage area, and incision rates along different faults or fault segments may be expected in catchments upstream of strike-slip faults and could act as useful indicators of fault activity.

  1. Homozygosity analysis in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Kin; Laaksovirta, Hannu; Tienari, Pentti J; Peuralinna, Terhi; Myllykangas, Liisa; Chiò, Adriano; Traynor, Bryan J; Nalls, Michael A; Gurunlian, Nicole; Shatunov, Aleksey; Restagno, Gabriella; Mora, Gabriele; Nigel Leigh, P; Shaw, Chris E; Morrison, Karen E; Shaw, Pamela J; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Hardy, John; Orrell, Richard W

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) may appear to be familial or sporadic, with recognised dominant and recessive inheritance in a proportion of cases. Sporadic ALS may be caused by rare homozygous recessive mutations. We studied patients and controls from the UK and a multinational pooled analysis of GWAS data on homozygosity in ALS to determine any potential recessive variant leading to the disease. Six-hundred and twenty ALS and 5169 controls were studied in the UK cohort. A total of 7646 homozygosity segments with length >2?Mb were identified, and 3568 rare segments remained after filtering ‘common' segments. The mean total of the autosomal genome with homozygosity segments was longer in ALS than in controls (unfiltered segments, P=0.05). Two-thousand and seventeen ALS and 6918 controls were studied in the pooled analysis. There were more regions of homozygosity segments per case (P=1 × 10?5), a greater proportion of cases harboured homozygosity (P=2 × 10?5), a longer average length of segment (P=1 × 10?5), a longer total genome coverage (P=1 × 10?5), and a higher rate of these segments overlapped with RefSeq gene regions (P=1 × 10?5), in ALS patients than controls. Positive associations were found in three regions. The most significant was in the chromosome 21 SOD1 region, and also chromosome 1 2.9–4.8?Mb, and chromosome 5 in the 65?Mb region. There are more than twenty potential genes in these regions. These findings point to further possible rare recessive genetic causes of ALS, which are not identified as common variants in GWAS. PMID:23612577

  2. 4. SEGMENT OF LATERAL WEST OF C STREET (SECTION 10) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SEGMENT OF LATERAL WEST OF C STREET (SECTION 10) ON THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN ARSENAL (RMA). - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  3. 13. TREES ALONG LATERAL SEGMENT AT THE NORTHERN END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. TREES ALONG LATERAL SEGMENT AT THE NORTHERN END OF LAKE LADORA. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  4. 24. CULVERT WITH CONCRETE HEADWALL AND SIDEWALLS CARRYING THE LATERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. CULVERT WITH CONCRETE HEADWALL AND SIDEWALLS CARRYING THE LATERAL UNDER 8TH AVENUE. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  5. 2. COURSE OF THE LATERAL THROUGH DEL NORTHWEST MAR PARK. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. COURSE OF THE LATERAL THROUGH DEL NORTHWEST MAR PARK. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  6. 8. GENERAL VIEW OF LARGE DIVERSION STRUCTURE ON LATERAL WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. GENERAL VIEW OF LARGE DIVERSION STRUCTURE ON LATERAL WEST OF LOWER DERBY LAKE (SECTION 2). - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  7. 7. SEGMENT OF LATERAL WITH YUCCA ALONG BANKS, SOUTH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. SEGMENT OF LATERAL WITH YUCCA ALONG BANKS, SOUTH OF 6TH AVENUE (SECTION 10). - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  8. Lateral plate asymmetry, diet and parasitism in threespine stickleback

    E-print Network

    Reimchen, Thomas E.

    . In an insular lake population of stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from the Queen Charlotte Islands, Western; Gasterosteus; immunocompetence; lateral plates; parasitism; stickleback. Abstract Individuals with random left

  9. Lateral Patellotibial Ligament Reconstruction for Medial Patellar Instability

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, Gregory A.; Cram, Tyler; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Medial patellar instability, though infrequently recognized, can be a disabling complication of a lateral retinacular release. Patients with persistent anterior knee pain and instability after lateral release should be evaluated closely. If evidence of increased medial patellar translation is identified on physical examination, a trial of reverse McConnell taping should be prescribed. If there is noted improvement in symptoms after this taping trial, reconstruction of the lateral patellotibial ligament should be considered. This article details our technique for lateral patellotibial ligament reconstruction using iliotibial band and patellar tendon autografts. PMID:25473603

  10. Lateral patellotibial ligament reconstruction for medial patellar instability.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Gregory A; Cram, Tyler; LaPrade, Robert F

    2014-10-01

    Medial patellar instability, though infrequently recognized, can be a disabling complication of a lateral retinacular release. Patients with persistent anterior knee pain and instability after lateral release should be evaluated closely. If evidence of increased medial patellar translation is identified on physical examination, a trial of reverse McConnell taping should be prescribed. If there is noted improvement in symptoms after this taping trial, reconstruction of the lateral patellotibial ligament should be considered. This article details our technique for lateral patellotibial ligament reconstruction using iliotibial band and patellar tendon autografts. PMID:25473603

  11. Are lateral compartment osteophytes a predictor for lateral cartilage damage in varus osteoarthritic knees? : Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    PubMed

    Faschingbauer, M; Renner, L; Waldstein, W; Boettner, F

    2015-12-01

    We studied whether the presence of lateral osteophytes on plain radiographs was a predictor for the quality of cartilage in the lateral compartment of patients with varus osteoarthritic of the knee (Kellgren and Lawrence grade 2 to 3). The baseline MRIs of 344 patients from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) who had varus osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee on hip-knee-ankle radiographs were reviewed. Patients were categorised using the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) osteophyte grading system into 174 patients with grade 0 (no osteophytes), 128 grade 1 (mild osteophytes), 28 grade 2 (moderate osteophytes) and 14 grade 3 (severe osteophytes) in the lateral compartment (tibia). All patients had Kellgren and Lawrence grade 2 or 3 arthritis of the medial compartment. The thickness and volume of the lateral cartilage and the percentage of full-thickness cartilage defects in the lateral compartment was analysed. There was no difference in the cartilage thickness or cartilage volume between knees with osteophyte grades 0 to 3. The percentage of full-thickness cartilage defects on the tibial side increased from < 2% for grade 0 and 1 to 10% for grade 3. The lateral compartment cartilage volume and thickness is not influenced by the presence of lateral compartment osteophytes in patients with varus OA of the knee. Large lateral compartment osteophytes (grade 3) increase the likelihood of full-thickness cartilage defects in the lateral compartment. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1634-9. PMID:26637677

  12. Laterality of a second player position affects lateral deviation of basketball shooting.

    PubMed

    Viggiano, Andrea; Chieffi, Sergio; Tafuri, Domenico; Messina, Giovanni; Monda, Marcellino; De Luca, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetrically placed visual distractors are known to cause a lateral bias in the execution of a movement directed toward a target. The aim of the present experiment was to verify if the trajectory of the ball and the trajectory of the jump for a basket-shot can be affected by the sole position of a second player, who stays in front of the shooting player in one of three possible positions (centre, left or right) but too far to physically interfere with the shot. Young basketball players were asked to perform 60 shots at 6.25 m from a regular basket, with or without a second player staying in front of them in, alternately, a centre, left or right position. A computerised system measured the angular deviation of the jump direction from the vertical direction and the lateral deviation of the ball trajectory from the midline. The results showed that both the jump direction and the entry position of the ball deviated toward the opposite side from the second player's side; however, these effects were too small to significantly affect the mean goal percentage. This result confirms that some placements of the players can have an effect as visual distractors. Further studies are necessary to find what game conditions can make such distractors harmful for the athletic performance. PMID:23876006

  13. Laterality and emotions: visual laterality in the domestic horse (Equus caballus) differs with objects' emotional value.

    PubMed

    De Boyer Des Roches, Alice; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick; Henry, Séverine; Ezzaouïa, Mohammed; Hausberger, Martine

    2008-06-01

    Lateralization of emotions has received great attention in the last decades, both in humans and animals, but little interest has been given to side bias in perceptual processing. Here, we investigated the influence of the emotional valence of stimuli on visual and olfactory explorations by horses, a large mammalian species with two large monocular visual fields and almost complete decussation of optic fibres. We confronted 38 Arab mares to three objects with either a positive, negative or neutral emotional valence (novel object). The results revealed a gradient of exploration of the 3 objects according to their emotional value and a clear asymmetry in visual exploration. When exploring the novel object, mares used preferentially their right eyes, while they showed a slight tendency to use their left eyes for the negative object. No asymmetry was evidenced for the object with the positive valence. A trend for an asymmetry in olfactory investigation was also observed. Our data confirm the role of the left hemisphere in assessing novelty in horses like in many vertebrate species and the possible role of the right hemisphere in processing negative emotional responses. Our findings also suggest the importance of both hemispheres in the processing positive emotions. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate clearly that the emotional valence of a stimulus induces a specific visual lateralization pattern. PMID:18455205

  14. High-Risk Infants: Auditory Processing Deficits in Later Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbride, Kathleen E.; And Others

    To determine whether deficits warranting intervention are present in the later functioning of high-risk infants, 22 premature infants who experienced asphyxia or chronic lung disease (CLD) but who had no gross developmental abnormalities were evaluated. Assessments of auditory perception and receptive language ability were made during later

  15. Children's Rorschach Scores as Predictors of Later Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuber, Steven B.

    1983-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that Rorschach measures of object relations and thought organization could help predict later adjustment. Former patients (N=70) at a child residential treatment center were followed up as adults. Object relations measures were found to be effective discriminators and predictors of later rehospitalization for boys. (JAC)

  16. Early Speech Perception and Later Language Development: Implications

    E-print Network

    Early Speech Perception and Later Language Development: Implications for the "Critical Period In this article, we present a summary of recent research linking speech perception in infancy to later language by the end of the 1st year. Exploiting this transition in phonetic perception between 6 and 12 months of age

  17. Space availability influence laterality in donkeys (Equus asinus).

    PubMed

    Zucca, Paolo; Cerri, Francesco; Carluccio, Augusto; Baciadonna, Luigi

    2011-09-01

    Cerebral lateralization is the portioning of the cognitive functions between the two cerebral hemispheres. Several factors, like embryological manipulations, light exposure, health conditions, sex and age can influence the left-right brain asymmetries and contribute to increasing the variability in the strength and direction of laterality within most species. We investigated the influence of an environmental constraint, namely space availability, as a new source of variation on laterality in an adult vertebrate model, the donkey. In a baseline condition we tested whether donkeys show a motor lateralization bias at population level, while in an experimental condition we manipulated space availability to verify if a reduction in this parameter could represent a new source of variation in laterality. Results show that donkeys are lateralized at population level with a strong bias to standing with the right forelimb advanced over the left and that a reduction of space availability is an important source of variation in the laterality strength and direction within this species. The comparative analysis of the environmental and developmental factors that give origin to neural and behavioural laterality in animal models will be very important for a better understanding of the evolutionary origin of such multifaceted phenomenon. PMID:21741459

  18. 14 CFR 23.177 - Static directional and lateral stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Static directional and lateral stability... Flight Stability § 23.177 Static directional and lateral stability. (a) The static directional stability... first, and at speeds from 1.2 VS1 to VO, the rudder pedal force must not reverse. (b) The static...

  19. 14 CFR 23.147 - Directional and lateral control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Directional and lateral control. 23.147... Controllability and Maneuverability § 23.147 Directional and lateral control. (a) For each multiengine airplane... degrees, except that the heading change at which the rudder force corresponds to the limits specified...

  20. 14 CFR 25.147 - Directional and lateral control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Directional and lateral control. 25.147... § 25.147 Directional and lateral control. (a) Directional control; general. It must be possible, with... force is 150 pounds need not be exceeded), and with— (1) The critical engine inoperative and...

  1. 14 CFR 1273.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 1273.51 Section 1273.51 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM... Requirements § 1273.51 Later disallowances and adjustments. The closeout of a grant does not affect: (a)...

  2. 29 CFR 1470.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 1470.51 Section 1470.51 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE UNIFORM... Requirements § 1470.51 Later disallowances and adjustments. The closeout of a grant does not affect: (a)...

  3. 36 CFR 1207.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 1207.51 Section 1207.51 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS After-The-Grant Requirements § 1207.51 Later disallowances and adjustments....

  4. 32 CFR 33.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 33.51 Section 33.51 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND... LOCAL GOVERNMENTS After-The-Grant Requirements § 33.51 Later disallowances and adjustments. The...

  5. 21 CFR 1403.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 1403.51 Section 1403.51 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS... § 1403.51 Later disallowances and adjustments. The closeout of a grant does not affect: (a) The...

  6. 45 CFR 92.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 92.51 Section 92.51 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM...-the-Grant Requirements § 92.51 Later disallowances and adjustments. The closeout of a grant does...

  7. 40 CFR 31.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 31.51 Section 31.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... GOVERNMENTS After-the-Grant Requirements § 31.51 Later disallowances and adjustments. The closeout of a...

  8. 38 CFR 43.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 43.51 Section 43.51 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... GOVERNMENTS After-The-Grant Requirements § 43.51 Later disallowances and adjustments. The closeout of a...

  9. Lateral variations in suspended sediment concentration over dunes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The magnitude of the lateral variations in the concentration of suspended sediment over dunes in an alluvial sand-bed channel are poorly known. Characterizing the lateral distributions of suspended sediment is important for understanding its causes and for accurate measurement of the rate of sedim...

  10. Measures of Lateral Dominance: Interrelationships and Temporal Stability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sappington, John T.

    1980-01-01

    This study measured test-retest reliabilities and interrelationships of four common measures of lateral dominance: dowel balancing, peg placement, grip strength, and conjugate lateral eye movement. Moderate reliabilities for all measures except grip strength were obtained. Subjects' sex may be an important reliability variable. Correlations among…

  11. Confessions of a Schoolman--On Dyslexia and Laterality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Che Kan

    1984-01-01

    The paper relates early work of Samuel Orton on cerebral dominance to current neuropsychological concepts of laterality as reciprocal functions of the two cerebral hemispheres. The genetic-cultural perspectives of laterality and functional asymmetry in relation to learning disorders are discussed. (Author/CL)

  12. 14 CFR 1273.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Later disallowances and adjustments. 1273.51 Section 1273.51 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS After-the-Grant Requirements § 1273.51 Later...

  13. An Immersive Media Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    E-print Network

    Miranda, Eduardo Reck

    1 An Immersive Media Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Federico Visi, Duncan Williams, Eduardo.williams, eduardo.miranda}@plymouth.ac.uk giovanni.dothel@gmail.com 1. INTRODUCTION Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and sclerosis hardens the affected nerves of the spinal cord. The spatialization in the 3D speaker array

  14. LATERAL GENE TRANSFER IN MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSPECIES PARATUBERCULOSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lateral gene transfer is an integral part of genome evolution in most bacteria. Bacteria can readily change the contents of their genomes in order to increase adaptability to ever changing surroundings and to generate evolutionary novelty. Here, we report instances of lateral gene transfer in M. avi...

  15. IQ, Fetal Testosterone and Individual Variability in Children's Functional Lateralization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercure, Evelyne; Ashwin, Emma; Dick, Frederic; Halit, Hanife; Auyeung, Bonnie; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Johnson, Mark H.

    2009-01-01

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies have revealed that faces and words show a robust difference in the lateralization of their N170. The present study investigated the development of this differential lateralization in school-age boys. We assessed the potential role of fetal testosterone (FT) level as a factor biasing the prenatal…

  16. Systems/Circuits The Synchronous Activity of Lateral Habenular Neurons

    E-print Network

    Fukai, Tomoki

    Brain Science Institute, Machida, Tokyo, 194-8610, Japan Lateral habenula (LHb) has attracted growingSystems/Circuits The Synchronous Activity of Lateral Habenular Neurons Is Essential for Regulating,3 1RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan, 2Tokyo Medical and Dental University

  17. A novel approach to the lumbar sympathetic chain: lateral access.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Shaun D; Engler, John A; Perin, Noel L

    2013-07-01

    Plantar hyperhydrosis is a disabling condition of excessive, symmetric, focal sweating of the feet with social, psychological, and medical implications. Treatment options include topical agents, iontophoresis, botulinum toxin injection, and surgical disruption of the lumbar sympathetic chain. Surgical corridors include transperitoneal and retroperitoneal approaches. We report our technique with a novel minimally invasive lateral retroperitoneal approach commonly used for lateral interbody fusions. The lateral approach for sectioning of the sympathetic chain in the treatment of hyperhydrosis appears safe. The approach may be advantageous for the patient and surgeons familiar with lateral interbody fusion. Further studies may elucidate the long term efficacy and safety of the lateral approach. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/Q82SGpmAXng. PMID:23829842

  18. Phototropism and gravitropism in lateral roots of Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, John Z.; Miller, Kelley M.; Ogden, Lisa A.; Roth, Kelly K.

    2002-01-01

    Gravitropism and, to a lesser extent, phototropism have been characterized in primary roots, but little is known about structural/functional aspects of these tropisms in lateral roots. Therefore, in this study, we report on tropistic responses in lateral roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Lateral roots initially are plagiogravitropic, but when they reach a length of approximately 10 mm, these roots grow downward and exhibit positive orthogravitropism. Light and electron microscopic studies demonstrate a correlation between positive gravitropism and development of columella cells with large, sedimented amyloplasts in wild-type plants. Lateral roots display negative phototropism in response to white and blue light and positive phototropism in response to red light. As is the case with primary roots, the photoresponse is weak relative to the graviresponse, but phototropism is readily apparent in starchless mutant plants, which are impaired in gravitropism. To our knowledge, this is the first report of phototropism of lateral roots in any plant species.

  19. Visualization of later stage embryos Our tools can also be used for visualizing embryos at later developmental

    E-print Network

    Hamann, Bernd

    Visualization of later stage embryos Our tools can also be used for visualizing embryos at later to overcome this challenge using images of whole Drosophila embryos. Specific tools under development permit 1-section from an image stack, and to explore the interior of an embryo Brightness = "Raw data"; Color

  20. Lateral force calibration in atomic force microscopy: A new lateral force calibration method and general guidelines for optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Cannara, Rachel J.; Eglin, Michael; Carpick, Robert W.

    2006-05-15

    Proper force calibration is a critical step in atomic and lateral force microscopies (AFM/LFM). The recently published torsional Sader method [C. P. Green et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1988 (2004)] facilitates the calculation of torsional spring constants of rectangular AFM cantilevers by eliminating the need to obtain information or make assumptions regarding the cantilever's material properties and thickness, both of which are difficult to measure. Complete force calibration of the lateral signal in LFM requires measurement of the lateral signal deflection sensitivity as well. In this article, we introduce a complete lateral force calibration procedure that employs the torsional Sader method and does not require making contact between the tip and any sample. In this method, a colloidal sphere is attached to a 'test' cantilever of the same width, but different length and material as the 'target' cantilever of interest. The lateral signal sensitivity is calibrated by loading the colloidal sphere laterally against a vertical sidewall. The signal sensitivity for the target cantilever is then corrected for the tip length, total signal strength, and in-plane bending of the cantilevers. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this approach in comparison with the other established lateral force calibration techniques, and make a direct comparison with the 'wedge' calibration method. The methods agree to within 5%. The propagation of errors is explicitly considered for both methods and the sources of disagreement discussed. Finally, we show that the lateral signal sensitivity is substantially reduced when the laser spot is not centered on the detector.

  1. Thermodynamic and kinetic control of the lateral Si wire growth

    SciTech Connect

    Dedyulin, Sergey N. Goncharova, Lyudmila V.

    2014-03-24

    Reproducible lateral Si wire growth has been realized on the Si (100) surface. In this paper, we present experimental evidence showing the unique role that carbon plays in initiating lateral growth of Si wires on a Si (100) substrate. Once initiated in the presence of ?5 ML of C, lateral growth can be achieved in the range of temperatures, T?=?450–650?°C, and further controlled by the interplay of the flux of incoming Si atoms with the size and areal density of Au droplets. Critical thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the growth are discussed in detail.

  2. 12. CONCRETE LINING ON A CURVING SEGMENT OF THE LATERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. CONCRETE LINING ON A CURVING SEGMENT OF THE LATERAL NEAR THE NORTHEAST END OF LAKE LADORA (SECTION 2). - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  3. 30. NORTHERN SEGMENT OF THE LATERAL IN THE NORTHWEST QUARTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. NORTHERN SEGMENT OF THE LATERAL IN THE NORTHWEST QUARTER OF SECTION 25 STRUCTURE PICTURED IN CO-43-A-28. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  4. 11. CONTINUATION OF LATERAL LEAVING THE DIVERSION STRUCTURE WEST OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. CONTINUATION OF LATERAL LEAVING THE DIVERSION STRUCTURE WEST OF LOWER DERBY LAKE (SECTION 2), SHOWING MEASURING GAUGE. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  5. 1. HEAD GATE OF THE SAND CREEK LATERAL AT THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. HEAD GATE OF THE SAND CREEK LATERAL AT THE HIGH LINE CANAL ON THE SOUTH END OF THE PEORIA STREET BRIDGE. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  6. Resume and analysis of NACA lateral control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weick, F. E.; Jones, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of the principal results of recent lateral control research is made. Two things are considered of primary importance in judging the effectiveness of different control devices: The (calculated) banking and yawing motion of a typical small airplane caused by a deflection of the control, and the stick force required to produce this deflection. The report includes a table in which a number of different lateral control devices are compared on these bases. Test flights demonstrated that satisfactory lateral control at high angles of attack depends as much on the retention of stability as on aileron effectiveness.

  7. The usefulness of the bilobed flap for lateral cheek defects

    PubMed Central

    White, Colin P; Rosen, Nathan; Muhn, Channy Y

    2012-01-01

    The cheek and nose are common areas for skin cancers. There are multiple approaches to surgical excision and reconstruction, depending on the size of defect, tissue quality, adjacent cosmetic units and hairline. An effective solution to skin defects of the lateral cheek is the bilobed flap. This flap tends to be underused in the lateral cheek area because primary closure and skin grafts are perceived to be easier methods of reconstruction. However, the use of the bilobed flap for lateral cheek and other defect closures is encouraged. There are several basic principles that are key when performing this flap. These components of the procedure are highlighted. PMID:23598770

  8. Lateral Mass Fixation in the Subaxial Cervical Spine.

    PubMed

    Kurd, Mark F; Millhouse, Paul W; Schroeder, Gregory D; Kepler, Christopher K; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2015-08-01

    The use of lateral mass screws and rods in the subaxial spine has become the standard method of fixation for posterior cervical spine fusions. Multiple techniques have been described for the placement of lateral mass screws, including the Magerl, the Anderson, and the An techniques. While these techniques are all slightly different, the overall goal is to obtain solid bony fixation while avoiding the neurovascular structures. The use of lateral mass screws has been shown to be a safe and effective technique for achieving a posterior cervical fusion. PMID:26049972

  9. Analysis of aircraft performance during lateral maneuvering for microburst avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avila De Melo, Denise; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Aircraft response to a severe and a moderate three-dimensional microburst model using nonlinear numerical simulations of a Boeing 737-100 is studied. The relative performance loss is compared for microburst escape procedures with and without lateral maneuvering. The results show that the hazards caused by the penetration of a microburst in the landing phase are attenuated if lateral escape maneuvers are applied in order to turn the aircraft away from the microburst core rather than flying straight through. If the lateral escape maneuver is initiated close to the microburst core, high bank angles tend to deteriorate aircraft performance. Lateral maneuvering is also found to reduce the advanced warning required to escape from microburst hazards but requires that information of the existence and location of the microburst is available (i.e., remote detection) in order to avoid an incorrect turn toward the microburst core.

  10. Performance analysis for lateral-line-inspired sensor arrays

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Vicente I

    2011-01-01

    The lateral line is a critical component of the fish sensory system, found to affect numerous aspects of behavior including maneuvering in complex fluid environments, schooling, prey tracking, and environment mapping. This ...

  11. Submit no later than 4 weeks prior to event UFPA: _________________

    E-print Network

    Dranishnikov, Alexander

    Submit no later than 4 weeks prior to event UFPA: _________________ 1 of 16 EVENT INFORMATION Date Submitted: _________________ EVENT Please give a brief outline of the event: How is the event to be listed on the UFPA Website?: Performance

  12. DETAIL OF ORIGINAL DOOR (LOUVERS ADDED LATER) ON THE SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF ORIGINAL DOOR (LOUVERS ADDED LATER) ON THE SOUTH SIDE. VIEW FACING NORTH-NORTHWEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Aviation Storehouse, Vincennes Avenue at Simms Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. 13. VIEW OF LOG BRIDGE (LATER SUPERSEDED BY THE WIREROPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF LOG BRIDGE (LATER SUPERSEDED BY THE WIRE-ROPE SUSPENSION BRIDGE), SHOWING OVERHANG WHERE ROCK WAS BLASTED OUT, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Goat Trail Mining Road, Highway 20, 1.5 miles North of Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  14. 14. VIEW OF LOG BRIDGE (LATER SUPERSEDED BY THE WIREROPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF LOG BRIDGE (LATER SUPERSEDED BY THE WIRE-ROPE SUSPENSION BRIDGE), SHOWING OVERHANG WHERE ROCK WAS BLASTED OUT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Goat Trail Mining Road, Highway 20, 1.5 miles North of Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  15. "Cheese" room in halfcellar showing stone trough, later fireplace supports, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "Cheese" room in half-cellar showing stone trough, later fireplace supports, stairs inserted in original relieving arch. - Scheetz Farm, House, 7161 Camp Hill Road, Fort Washington, Montgomery County, PA

  16. Lateral Shift Makes a Ground-Plane Cloak Detectable

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Baile

    We examine the effectiveness of the ground-plane invisibility cloak generated from quasiconformal mapping of electromagnetic space. This cloak without anisotropy will generally lead to a lateral shift of the scattered wave, ...

  17. 11. Detail of sway braces, struts and top lateral braces' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Detail of sway braces, struts and top lateral braces' view to north-northwest - Milk River Bridge, Spanning Milk River approximately one mile north of Tampico on Tampico North Road, Tampico, Valley County, MT

  18. 51. photocopy of Indian figure which later was mounted on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. photocopy of Indian figure which later was mounted on Tower. Photograph taken at Tacony Iron and Metal Co. works, c. 1892. PCA - The New Public Buildings, Penn Square, Broad & Market Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. Economic viability of multiple-lateral horizontal wells 

    E-print Network

    Smith, Christopher Jason

    1995-01-01

    . It will focus on the application of multiple-lateral horizontal wells to reduce the risks of economic uncertainty associated with poor reservoir characterization in areally anisotropic reservoirs. Using a state-of-the-art productivity index model, the study...

  20. Itch Is Required for Lateral Line Development in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Angers, Annie; Drapeau, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish posterior lateral line is formed during early development by the deposition of neuromasts from a migrating primordium. The molecular mechanisms regulating the regional organization and migration of the primordium involve interactions between Fgf and Wnt/-catenin signaling and the establishment of specific cxcr4b and cxcr7b cytokine receptor expression domains. Itch has been identified as a regulator in several different signaling pathways, including Wnt and Cxcr4 signaling. We identified two homologous itch genes in zebrafish, itcha and itchb, with generalized expression patterns. By reducing itchb expression in particular upon morpholino knockdown, we demonstrated the importance of Itch in regulating lateral line development by perturbing the patterns of cxcr4b and cxcr7b expression. Itch knockdown results in a failure to down-regulate Wnt signaling and overexpression of cxcr4b in the primordium, slowing migration of the posterior lateral line primordium and resulting in abnormal development of the lateral line. PMID:25369329

  1. 23. TEMPORARY CENTRIFUGAL PUMP. NOTE CHAPMAN HYDRAULICOPERATED VALVE FOR LATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. TEMPORARY CENTRIFUGAL PUMP. NOTE CHAPMAN HYDRAULIC-OPERATED VALVE FOR LATER CONNECTION OF ENGINE PUMP ENG TO DISCHARGE HEADER. - Lakeview Pumping Station, Clarendon & Montrose Avenues, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  2. Development of novel diagnostics and therapeutics for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    E-print Network

    Townsend, Seth A. (Seth Alan)

    2008-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease with diagnostics and treatments that are ineffective at stopping the progression. This thesis examines new ways of both diagnosing and treating ALS, including ...

  3. Heterogeneity of cognitive impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 

    E-print Network

    Van Der Hulst, Egberdina Jozefa

    2012-06-27

    This PhD thesis examines the relationship between Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Frontotemporal dementia (FTD). ALS is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by muscle weakness, ...

  4. Detail, external parabolic antenna (later addition). Note how waveguide was ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, external parabolic antenna (later addition). Note how waveguide was cut to remove active portion of antenna. - Western Union Telegraph Company, Jennerstown Relay, Laurel Summit Road off U.S. 30, Laughlintown, Westmoreland County, PA

  5. 31. Underside of tracks showing columns, concreteencased Ibeams, lateral bracing, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Underside of tracks showing columns, concrete-encased I-beams, lateral bracing, and ramps. Looking south. - Stillwell Avenue Station, Intersection of Stillwell & Surf Avenues, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  6. 20. WEB / DECK / LATERAL BRACING DETAIL OF THROUGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. WEB / DECK / LATERAL BRACING DETAIL OF THROUGH TRUSSES. VIEW TO WEST. - Abraham Lincoln Memorial Bridge, Spanning Missouri River on Highway 30 between Nebraska & Iowa, Blair, Washington County, NE

  7. Absence of the lateral and third ventricles associated with holoprosencephaly

    PubMed Central

    Ciftcioglu, Engin; Ozyurek, Hamit; Nural, Mehmet Selim; Incesu, Lutfi; Ogur, Gonul

    2015-01-01

    We describe a 6-month-old boy suffering from motor and mental retardation. All radiological features were suggestive of holoprosencephaly with no identifiable lateral or third ventricles and fusion of the thalami. PMID:26417484

  8. Brain Function Lateralization and Language Acquisition: the Evidence from Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanches, Mary

    1979-01-01

    Presents evidence of differences in brain function lateralization between Japanese-speakers and speakers of Indo-European languages, and suggests that current conceptualizations of brain function specialization are not adequate. (AM)

  9. 10. EYEBAR PIN CONNECTION JOINING VERTICAL SUSPENSION STRINGER WITH LATERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. EYEBAR PIN CONNECTION JOINING VERTICAL SUSPENSION STRINGER WITH LATERAL BRACING MEMBERS - Spruce Street Bridge, East Spruce Street, 500 Block, spanning Power Canal, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  10. 14 CFR 25.177 - Static lateral-directional stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 25.177 Static lateral... the tendency to raise the low wing in a sideslip with the aileron controls free) for any landing...

  11. 6. Tempe Crosscut Canal, looking west from Division Gates. Lateral ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Tempe Crosscut Canal, looking west from Division Gates. Lateral at left is for local delivery of irrigation water. Photographer: Mark Durben, February 1989. Source: SRPA - Tempe Canal, South Side Salt River in Tempe, Mesa & Phoenix, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. Directional sensitivity of velocity sense in lateral trunk flexion

    E-print Network

    Soltys, Joseph S.; Wilson, Sara E.

    2008-01-04

    motion were examined during paraspinal muscle vibration. Seventeen healthy subjects performed lateral trunk flexion movements while lying prone with pelvis fixed. A 44.5 Hz vibratory stimulus was applied to the paraspinal muscles at the L3 level...

  13. Fitness in Youth Can Pay Off Decades Later

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155964.html Fitness in Youth Can Pay Off Decades Later: Study ... adults found that those with good heart/lung fitness had a lower risk of heart disease and ...

  14. Lateral Pressure and VAS Pain Score Analysis for the Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion Procedure

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) procedure is a minimally invasive procedure that has become widely utilized. The LLIF procedure typically involves bending the table to access the disc spaces of interest due to anatomical constraints. It is unknown if this bending process is painful or what pressures are exhibited on the downside part of the body. The goal of the study was to determine whether sex, height, weight, body mass index, bed angle, or positioning relative to the break of the bed affects the downside skin pressures and VAS pain scores in awake volunteers. Methods Fifty-six volunteers were placed in the lateral decubitus position and pressure sensors were placed at the downside part of their anatomy (shoulder, T10 rib , iliac crest, and greater trochanter). The pressures were checked with the iliac crest or greater trochanter at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 degree bed angles. VAS scores were checked when the iliac crest or greater trochanter were at the maximum bed break angles. Results A significant positive association was found between increased bed angle and pressure at all five areas on the downside body locations (p<0.0001). The greatest pressures were located at the iliac crest and greater trochanter when these specific locations were centered over the break of the bed (p<0.0001). When the iliac crest was placed at maximal bed break, each unit increase in BMI increased the VAS pain by 0.13 (p<0.0001)and men had 1.96 (p=0.0009)higher VAS scores then women. When the greater trochanter was placed at the maximal bed break, each unit increase in BMI decreased VAS pain by 0.19 (p<0.0001) and women had 1.55 (p=0.0002)higher VAS pain scores then men. Conclusions In awake volunteers, the pressure at the iliac crest or greater trochanter at the break of the bed increases by increasing the bed angle. Women with a lower BMI had high VAS pain scores when their greater trochanter was at maximal bed break. Men with higher BMI had high VAS pain scores when their iliac crest was at maximal bed break. An awareness of the iliac crest or greater trochanter at the break of the bed should be considered to prevent pain and increased pressure based on the patient's sex and BMI. PMID:26512342

  15. Lateral blasts at Mount St. Helens and hazard zonation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crandell, D.R.; Hoblitt, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    Lateral blasts at andesitic and dacitic volcanoes can produce a variety of direct hazards, including ballistic projectiles which can be thrown to distances of at least 10 km and pyroclastic density flows which can travel at high speed to distances of more than 30 km. Indirect effect that may accompany such explosions include wind-borne ash, pyroclastic flows formed by the remobilization of rock debris thrown onto sloping ground, and lahars. Two lateral blasts occurred at a lava dome on the north flank of Mount St. Helens about 1200 years ago; the more energetic of these threw rock debris northeastward across a sector of about 30?? to a distance of at least 10 km. The ballistic debris fell onto an area estimated to be 50 km2, and wind-transported ash and lapilli derived from the lateral-blast cloud fell on an additional lobate area of at least 200 km2. In contrast, the vastly larger lateral blast of May 18, 1980, created a devastating pyroclastic density flow that covered a sector of as much as 180??, reached a maximum distance of 28 km, and within a few minutes directly affected an area of about 550 km2. The May 18 lateral blast resulted from the sudden, landslide-induced depressurization of a dacite cryptodome and the hydrothermal system that surrounded it within the volcano. We propose that lateral-blast hazard assessments for lava domes include an adjoining hazard zone with a radius of at least 10 km. Although a lateral blast can occur on any side of a dome, the sector directly affected by any one blast probably will be less than 180??. Nevertheless, a circular hazard zone centered on the dome is suggested because of the difficulty of predicting the direction of a lateral blast. For the purpose of long-term land-use planning, a hazard assessment for lateral blasts caused by explosions of magma bodies or pressurized hydrothermal systems within a symmetrical volcano could designate a circular potential hazard area with a radius of 35 km centered on the volcano. For short-term hazard assessments, if seismicity and deformation indicate that magma is moving toward the flank of a volcano, it should be recognized that a landslide could lead to the sudden unloading of a magmatic or hydrothermal system and thereby cause a catastrophic lateral blast. A hazard assessment should assume that a lateral blast could directly affect an area at least 180?? wide to a distance of 35 km from the site of the explosion, irrespective of topography. ?? 1986 Springer-Verlag.

  16. Lateral Stress Measurements in Pure Tungsten during Shock Loading

    SciTech Connect

    Millett, J. C. F.; Gray, G. T. III; Bourne, N. K.

    2006-07-28

    Longitudinal and lateral stresses during the shock loading of pure tungsten have been measured using manganin stress gauges. The Hugoniot has been compared to the previous work of others and shown to be in close agreement. Lateral stresses have been shown to increase behind the shock front, implying that the shear strength decreases. Whilst this is similar to results in tantalum, comparison with recovery experiments in the literature suggests that this may be due in part to a brittle failure process.

  17. Simulated nonlinear dynamics of laterally interactive arrayed neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katagiri, Yoshitada; Aida, Kazuo

    2008-11-01

    A diffusion-current theory based on the superposition theorem of constant-current sources is applied to analyzing nerve impulses transmitting through arrayed neurons laterally coupled via excitatory and inhibitory lateral connection paths. Nonlinear dynamic responses to density-modulated impulses are simulated for simple point stimulus. Responses to spatially distributed stimulus are also simulated to show that the arrayed neurons not only enhance contours of objects to be detected but also exhibit some illusions.

  18. Large Lateral Photovoltaic Effect in Metal-(Oxide-) Semiconductor Structures

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chongqi; Wang, Hui

    2010-01-01

    The lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) can be used in position-sensitive detectors to detect very small displacements due to its output of lateral photovoltage changing linearly with light spot position. In this review, we will summarize some of our recent works regarding LPE in metal-semiconductor and metal-oxide-semiconductor structures, and give a theoretical model of LPE in these two structures. PMID:22163463

  19. Laterally injected light-emitting diode and laser diode

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Mary A.; Crawford, Mary H.; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2015-06-16

    A p-type superlattice is used to laterally inject holes into an III-nitride multiple quantum well active layer, enabling efficient light extraction from the active area. Laterally-injected light-emitting diodes and laser diodes can enable brighter, more efficient devices that impact a wide range of wavelengths and applications. For UV wavelengths, applications include fluorescence-based biological sensing, epoxy curing, and water purification. For visible devices, applications include solid state lighting and projection systems.

  20. Lateral epicondylitis in tennis: update on aetiology, biomechanics and treatment

    PubMed Central

    De Smedt, Thomas; de Jong, Andy; Van Leemput, Wim; Lieven, Dossche; Van Glabbeek, Francis

    2007-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) is the most frequent type of myotendinosis and can be responsible for substantial pain and loss of function of the affected limb. Tennis biomechanics, player characteristics and equipment are important in preventing the condition. This article presents an overview of the current knowledge on lateral epicondylitis, and focuses on treatment strategies. Conservative and surgical treatment options are discussed, and recent techniques are outlined. PMID:17616547

  1. Released micromachined beams utilizing laterally uniform porosity porous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao; Keating, Adrian; Parish, Giacinta

    2014-08-01

    Suspended micromachined porous silicon beams with laterally uniform porosity are reported, which have been fabricated using standard photolithography processes designed for compatibility with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) processes. Anodization, annealing, reactive ion etching, repeated photolithography, lift off and electropolishing processes were used to release patterned porous silicon microbeams on a Si substrate. This is the first time that micromachined, suspended PS microbeams have been demonstrated with laterally uniform porosity, well-defined anchors and flat surfaces.

  2. Large lateral photovoltaic effect in metal-(oxide-) semiconductor structures.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chongqi; Wang, Hui

    2010-01-01

    The lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) can be used in position-sensitive detectors to detect very small displacements due to its output of lateral photovoltage changing linearly with light spot position. In this review, we will summarize some of our recent works regarding LPE in metal-semiconductor and metal-oxide-semiconductor structures, and give a theoretical model of LPE in these two structures. PMID:22163463

  3. Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Blumberg, Bruce; Chapin, Robert E.; Cote, Ila; Graziano, Joseph H.; Janesick, Amanda; Lane, Robert; Lillycrop, Karen; Myatt, Leslie; States, J. Christopher; Thayer, Kristina A.; Waalkes, Michael P.; Rogers, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events. Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from early-life exposures in order to identify in utero and postnatal indicators of later-life diseases, develop an agenda for future research, and consider the risk assessment implications of this emerging knowledge. Methods: This review was developed based on our participation in a National Research Council workshop titled “Use of in Utero and Postnatal Indicators to Predict Health Outcomes Later in Life: State of the Science and Research Recommendations.” We used a case study approach to highlight the later-life consequences of early-life malnutrition and arsenic exposure. Discussion: The environmental sensitivity of the epigenome is viewed as an adaptive mechanism by which the developing organism adjusts its metabolic and homeostatic systems to suit the anticipated extrauterine environment. Inappropriate adaptation may produce a mismatch resulting in subsequent increased susceptibility to disease. A nutritional mismatch between the prenatal and postnatal environments, or early-life obesogen exposure, may explain at least some of the recent rapid increases in the rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Early-life arsenic exposure is also associated with later-life diseases, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Conclusions: With mounting evidence connecting early-life exposures and later-life disease, new strategies are needed to incorporate this emerging knowledge into health protective practices. PMID:22672778

  4. Masticatory laterality--evaluation and influence of food texture.

    PubMed

    Mizumori, T; Tsubakimoto, T; Iwasaki, M; Nakamura, T

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study is the objective and quantitative evaluation of masticatory laterality and its daily variability. Various foods with different textures were used to investigate whether food texture influenced masticatory laterality. Ten healthy subjects and seven foods were used. Recordings of chewing movements were repeated three times at intervals of 1 week. Masticatory laterality was assessed with an Asymmetry Index [AI: (number of right side strokes - number of left side strokes)/number of total strokes]. Medians and ranges of the three recordings were calculated. The observed AI ranges in the three trials were limited with the exception of two subjects. Among the other subjects, averages of the absolute values of the medians were from 32.5 to 73.4%. Statistically significant differences between the hardest food and softer foods were observed in absolute value of AI medians. Masticatory laterality could be evaluated by an AI. Eight of 10 subjects showed limited ranges of AI in three recordings. It should be noted that a few people actually chew on either side but might chew on one side only on a particular day. Hard food evoked more masticatory laterality, and seemed more appropriate for laterality examinations. PMID:12974859

  5. The effect of response mode on lateralized lexical decision performance.

    PubMed

    Weems, Scott A; Zaidel, Eran

    2005-01-01

    We examined the effect of manipulations of response programming, i.e. post-lexical decision making requirements, on lateralized lexical decision. Although response hand manipulations tend to elicit weaker laterality effects than those involving visual field of presentation, the implementation of different lateralized response strategies remains relatively unexplored. Four different response conditions were compared in a between-subjects design: (1) unimanual, (2) bimanual, (3) congruent visual field/response hand, and (4) confounded response hand/target lexicality response. It was observed that hemispheric specialization and interaction effects during the lexical decision task remained unchanged despite the very different response requirements. However, a priori examination of each condition revealed that some manipulations yielded a reduced power to detect laterality effects. The consistent observation of left hemisphere specialization, and both left and right hemisphere lexicality priming effects (interhemispheric transfer), indicate that these effects are relatively robust and unaffected by late occurring processes in the lexical decision task. It appears that the lateralized response mode neither determines nor reflects the laterality of decision processes. In contrast, the target visual half-field is critical for determining the deciding hemisphere and is a sensitive index of hemispheric specialization, as well as of directional interhemispheric transfer. PMID:15707615

  6. Initiation and elongation of lateral roots in Lactuca sativa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    Lactuca sativa cv. Baijianye seedlings do not normally produce lateral roots, but removal of the root tip or application of auxin, especially indole-butyric acid, triggered the formation of lateral roots. Primordia initiated within 9 h and were fully developed after 24 h by activating the pericycle cells opposite the xylem pole. The pericycle cells divided asymmetrically into short and long cells. The short cells divided further to form primordia. The effect of root tip removal and auxin application was reversed by 6-benzylaminopurine at concentrations >10(-8) M. The cytokinin oxidase inhibitor N1-(2chloro4pyridyl)-N2-phenylurea also suppressed auxin-induced lateral rooting. The elongation of primary roots was promoted by L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl) glycine and silver ions, but only the latter enhanced elongation of lateral roots. The data indicate that the induction of lateral roots is controlled by basipetally moving cytokinin and acropetally moving auxin. Lateral roots appear to not produce ethylene.

  7. Lockhart Clarke's contribution to the description of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Turner, Martin R; Swash, Michael; Ebers, George C

    2010-11-01

    The definition of the clinicopathological entity of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis evolved over half a century. Although the definitive term amyotrophic lateral sclerosis that acknowledged both upper and lower motor neuron involvement was attributed to Jean-Martin Charcot in 1874, his initial case was published nearly a decade earlier; and it is accepted that, from at least the 1830s, several others (including Charles Bell, François-Amilcar Aran and Jean Cruveilhier) had already recognized a progressive lower motor neuron-only syndrome within a broader, clinically-defined group of disorders, termed progressive muscular atrophy. Although William Gowers first grouped the three phenotypes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, progressive muscular atrophy and progressive bulbar palsy together as part of the same syndrome, the term motor neuron disease, as an over-arching label, was not suggested until nearly a century later by W. Russell Brain. Augustus Jacob Lockhart Clarke (1817-80) is best known for his descriptions of spinal cord anatomy. However, in two detailed case reports from the 1860s, he carried out rigorous post-mortem neuropathological studies of what appear to be classical cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Furthermore, he recognized the additional involvement of the corticospinal tracts that distinguished this from progressive muscular atrophy. Several aspects of the exquisite clinical histories documented as part of both studies, one by Charles Bland Radcliffe, resonate with contemporary debates concerning the evolution of disease in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These 'past masters' still have much to teach us. PMID:20576696

  8. Lateral bending of the lumbar spine during quadrupedalism in strepsirhines.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, L J; Demes, B; Cooper, J

    2001-03-01

    Much research has been devoted to spinal kinematics of nonmammalian vertebrates, while comparatively little is known about the locomotor role of spinal movements in mammals, especially primates. This study, conducted at the Duke University Primate Center, examines the function of lateral spinal bending during quadrupedal walking among a diverse sample of strepsirhines. The taxa studied include Loris tardigradus (1), Nycticebus coucang (1), N. pygmaeus (1), Cheirogaleus medius (2), Varecia variegata (2), Eulemur fulvus (2), and a total sample size of 261 strides. Lateral bending varies among the taxa with respect to both magnitude and effects of velocity, and does not appear to be correlated with body size. In addition, the timing of lateral bending during a stride appears to differ from that reported for other (nonmammalian) tetrapods. On average, maximum lateral flexion occurs just after ipsilateral foot touchdown, which may be functionally associated with touchdown of the contralateral forelimb during diagonal sequence gait. For some of the taxa, lateral flexion coincides more closely with foot touchdown as velocity increases, suggesting a functional role in increasing hindlimb stride length. Both of these timing patterns contrast with those reported for lizards. Finally, although lorids as a group have been described as having a "sinuous" gait, this study shows more pronounced lateral flexion in Nycticebus than in Loris. PMID:11180987

  9. Licensing stop place before laterals : a study of acoustic cues relevant to the perception of stop-lateral sequences

    E-print Network

    Michaels, Jennifer M. (Jennifer Marie)

    2011-01-01

    In phonological analyses of both adult and child language, a *dl constraint has frequently been used as a shorthand to indicate that coronal stops are dispreferred before laterals (Dinnsen et al. 2001). This dispreference ...

  10. Fold patterns, lateral ramps and seismicity in central Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohn, H. A.; Coleman, J. L.

    1991-02-01

    The Susquehanna lateral ramp crosses the entire length of Pennsylvania in a NNE direction and extends into southern New York State. Its presence was first suspected because of a dramatic change in fold wavelength across the Susquehanna River, seen on both side-looking airborne radar (SLAR ?) data and the geologic map of Pennsylvania. Seismic reflection profiles confirm the presence of a ramp and show the detailed nature of structures associated with it. These structures include antiformal stacks, juxtaposed anticlines and synclines, and folds beheaded by thrust faults. The change in the fold pattern, which led to recognizing the lateral ramp, occurs above a rapid dropoff in depth to the basement suggesting that the ramp and the basement configuration may somehow be related. In plan view, eleven earthquakes are spatially related to the Susquehanna lateral ramp, although they are in the basement rocks rather than in the cover rocks which contain the lateral ramp itself. The earthquakes are, therefore, not likely directly associated with the ramp, though they may be affiliated with strike-slip faulting in the basement which, itself, appears to be partly responsible for the formation of the ramp. The initial age of the faulting along, and in the vicinity of, the Susquehanna lateral ramp is presumably Early to Middle Paleozoic. However, the presence of a surficially-exposed Mesozoic dike along the ramp and modern seismicity suggest that the Susquehanna lateral ramp may be a zone of protracted, and perhaps repeated, tectonism which is currently being reactivated. A preliminary evaluation of the distribution of modern earthquakes in the Valley and Ridge, Blue Ridge and Appalachian Plateau shows that nearly half of the earthquakes are located under lateral ramps. If this observation is true, the presence of ramps may be a useful geological indicator of areas susceptible to seismicity.

  11. Fold patterns, lateral ramps and seismicity in central Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pohn, H.A.; Coleman, J.L., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The Susquehanna lateral ramp crosses the entire length of Pennsylvania in a NNE direction and extends into southern New York State. Its presence was first suspected because of a dramatic change in fold wavelength across the Susquehanna River, seen on both side-looking airborne radar (SLAR *) data and the geologic map of Pennsylvania. Seismic reflection profiles confirm the presence of a ramp and show the detailed nature of structures associated with it. These structures include antiformal stacks, juxtaposed anticlines and synclines, and folds beheaded by thrust faults. The change in the fold pattern, which led to recognizing the lateral ramp, occurs above a rapid dropoff in depth to the basement suggesting that the ramp and the basement configuration may somehow be related. In plan view, eleven earthquakes are spatially related to the Susquehanna lateral ramp, although they are in the basement rocks rather than in the cover rocks which contain the lateral ramp itself. The earthquakes are, therefore, not likely directly associated with the ramp, though they may be affiliated with strike-slip faulting in the basement which, itself, appears to be partly responsible for the formation of the ramp. The initial age of the faulting along, and in the vicinity of, the Susquehanna lateral ramp is presumably Early to Middle Paleozoic. However, the presence of a surficially-exposed Mesozoic dike along the ramp and modern seismicity suggest that the Susquehanna lateral ramp may be a zone of protracted, and perhaps repeated, tectonism which is currently being reactivated. A preliminary evaluation of the distribution of modern earthquakes in the Valley and Ridge, Blue Ridge and Appalachian Plateau shows that nearly half of the earthquakes are located under lateral ramps. If this observation is true, the presence of ramps may be a useful geological indicator of areas susceptible to seismicity. ?? 1991.

  12. Form matters: morphological aspects of lateral root development

    PubMed Central

    Szymanowska-Pu?ka, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Background The crucial role of roots in plant nutrition, and consequently in plant productivity, is a strong motivation to study the growth and functioning of various aspects of the root system. Numerous studies on lateral roots, as a major determinant of the root system architecture, mostly focus on the physiological and molecular bases of developmental processes. Unfortunately, little attention is paid either to the morphological changes accompanying the formation of a lateral root or to morphological defects occurring in lateral root primordia. The latter are observed in some mutants and occasionally in wild-type plants, but may also result from application of external factors. Scope and Conclusions In this review various morphological aspects of lateral branching in roots are analysed. Morphological events occurring during the formation of a typical lateral root are described. This process involves dramatic changes in the geometry of the developing organ that at early stages are associated with oblique cell divisions, leading to breaking of the symmetry of the cell pattern. Several types of defects in the morphology of primordia are indicated and described. Computer simulations show that some of these defects may result from an unstable field of growth rates. Significant changes in both primary and lateral root morphology may also be a consequence of various mutations, some of which are auxin-related. Examples reported in the literature are considered. Finally, lateral root formation is discussed in terms of mechanics. In this approach the primordium is considered as a physical object undergoing deformation and is characterized by specific mechanical properties. PMID:24190952

  13. Automated lung segmentation in digital lateral chest radiographs.

    PubMed

    Armato, S G; Giger, M L; Ashizawa, K; MacMahon, H

    1998-08-01

    We are developing a fully automated computerized scheme for segmenting the lung fields in digital lateral chest radiographs. Existing computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) schemes and automated lung segmentation methods have focused exclusively on the posteroanterior view, despite the diagnostic importance of the lateral view. Information from the lateral radiograph is routinely incorporated by radiologists in their decision-making process, and thus computer analysis of lateral images may potentially add another dimension to current CAD schemes. Automated analysis of the lung fields in lateral images will necessarily require accurate segmentation. Our scheme employs an initial procedure to eliminate external and subcutaneous pixels. Global gray-level histogram analysis then allows for the identification of a range of gray-level thresholds. An iterative gray-level thresholding scheme is implemented using this range of thresholds to construct a series of binary images in which contiguous regions are identified and geometrically analyzed. Regions determined to be outside the lungs are prevented from contributing to binary images at later iterations. Adaptive local gray-level thresholding is applied along the initial contour that results from the global thresholding procedure to extend the contour closer to the true lung borders. This local thresholding method uses regions of interest of various dimensions, depending on the enclosed anatomy. Smoothing and polynomial curve fitting complete the segmentation. A database of 100 normal and 100 abnormal lateral images was analyzed. Quantitative comparison of computer-segmented lung regions with lung regions manually delineated by two radiologists indicated that 83% and 84% of normal and abnormal images, respectively, displayed segmentation contours within three standard deviations of the mean inter-radiologist contour degree-of-overlap value. PMID:9725142

  14. Lateral RF image synthesis using a synthetic aperture imaging technique.

    PubMed

    Liebgott, Hervé; Basarab, Adrian; Gueth, Pierre; Cachard, Christian; Delachartre, Philippe

    2008-09-01

    The oscillating profile naturally present in ultrasound images has been shown to be extremely valuable in different applications, particularly in motion estimation. Recent studies have shown that it is possible to produce images with transverse oscillations (TOs) based on a specific type of beamforming. However, there is still a great difference between the nature of the lateral oscillations produced with current methods and the axial profile of ultrasound images. In this study, we propose to combine synthetic aperture imaging (synthetic transmit aperture, STA) using a specific beamformer in both transmit mode and receive mode combined with a heterodyning demodulation method to produce lateral radiofrequency signals (LRFs). The aim was to produce lateral signals as close as possible to conventional axial signals, which would make it possible to estimate lateral displacements with the same accuracy as in the axial direction. The feasibility of this approach was validated in simulation and experimentally on an ultrasound research platform, the Ultrasonix RP system. We show that the combination of STA and the heterodyning demodulation can divide the wavelength of the LRF signals by 4 and divide the width of the lateral envelope of the point spread function (PSF) by 2 compared with the previous approaches using beamforming in receive mode only. Finally, we also illustrate the potential of our beamforming for motion estimation compared with previous TO methods. PMID:18986907

  15. Post-seismic relaxation theory on laterally heterogeneous viscoelastic model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, F.F.

    2003-01-01

    Investigation was carried out into the problem of relaxation of a laterally heterogeneous viscoelastic Earth following an impulsive moment release event. The formal solution utilizes a semi-analytic solution for post-seismic deformation on a laterally homogeneous Earth constructed from viscoelastic normal modes, followed by application of mode coupling theory to derive the response on the aspherical Earth. The solution is constructed in the Laplace transform domain using the correspondence principle and is valid for any linear constitutive relationship between stress and strain. The specific implementation described in this paper is a semi-analytic discretization method which assumes isotropic elastic structure and a Maxwell constitutive relation. It accounts for viscoelastic-gravitational coupling under lateral variations in elastic parameters and viscosity. For a given viscoelastic structure and minimum wavelength scale, the computational effort involved with the numerical algorithm is proportional to the volume of the laterally heterogeneous region. Examples are presented of the calculation of post-seismic relaxation with a shallow, laterally heterogeneous volume following synthetic impulsive seismic events, and they illustrate the potentially large effect of regional 3-D heterogeneities on regional deformation patterns.

  16. Inducible system for lateral roots in Arabidopsis thaliana and maize.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Leen; Parizot, Boris; Beeckman, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The study of biological processes contributing to plant growth can be complicated by the small number of cells involved and by the brief and sudden appearance of some crucial developmental steps. Given such troublesome circumstances, methods to monitor the timing or to increase the number of concerned cells can be of great advantage to researchers. Lateral root initiation is a process taking place endogenously in a discrete number of cells of the parent root. It represents the onset of the formation of a new meristem and provides the below ground part of the plant the ability to react on environmental conditions such as nutrient and water availability. Insights into the underlying mechanisms of this developmental event can be of major importance to provide means of improving tolerance to nutrient and water deficient conditions. The exact timing and site of lateral root initiation are, however, impossible to predict, hampering exhaustive studies of the sequence of events directing this process. Here, we present a method to synchronize the induction of lateral roots in Arabidopsis thaliana and maize. By initially preventing the formation of laterals in young seedlings and subsequently inducing lateral root initiation, this method not only allows controlling the process in time but also enlarges significantly the population of cells involved, opening up the way to systems biology approaches. PMID:23299673

  17. Analysis of quantitative trait loci for behavioral laterality in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Roubertoux, Pierre L; Le Roy, Isabelle; Tordjman, Sylvie; Cherfou, Améziane; Migliore-Samour, Danièle

    2003-01-01

    Laterality is believed to have genetic components, as has been deduced from family studies in humans and responses to artificial selection in mice, but these genetic components are unknown and the underlying physiological mechanisms are still a subject of dispute. We measured direction of laterality (preferential use of left or right paws) and degree of laterality (absolute difference between the use of left and right paws) in C57BL/6ByJ (B) and NZB/BlNJ (N) mice and in their F(1) and F(2) intercrosses. Measurements were taken of both forepaws and hind paws. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) did not emerge for direction but did for degree of laterality. One QTL for forepaw (LOD score = 5.6) and the second QTL for hind paw (LOD score = 7.2) were both located on chromosome 4 and their peaks were within the same confidence interval. A QTL for plasma luteinizing hormone concentration was also found in the confidence interval of these two QTL. These results suggest that the physiological mechanisms underlying degree of laterality react to gonadal steroids. PMID:12663540

  18. A role for lateral hypothalamic orexin neurons in reward seeking.

    PubMed

    Harris, Glenda C; Wimmer, Mathieu; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2005-09-22

    The lateral hypothalamus is a brain region historically implicated in reward and motivation, but the identity of the neurotransmitters involved are unknown. The orexins (or hypocretins) are neuropeptides recently identified as neurotransmitters in lateral hypothalamus neurons. Although knockout and transgenic overexpression studies have implicated orexin neurons in arousal and sleep, these cells also project to reward-associated brain regions, including the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area. This indicates a possible role for these neurons in reward function and motivation, consistent with previous studies implicating these neurons in feeding. Here we show that activation of lateral hypothalamus orexin neurons is strongly linked to preferences for cues associated with drug and food reward. In addition, we show that chemical activation of lateral hypothalamus orexin neurons reinstates an extinguished drug-seeking behaviour. This reinstatement effect was completely blocked by prior administration of an orexin A antagonist. Moreover, administration of the orexin A peptide directly into the ventral tegmental area also reinstated drug-seeking. These data reveal a new role for lateral hypothalamus orexin neurons in reward-seeking, drug relapse and addiction. PMID:16100511

  19. Reduced Lateral Root Branching Density Improves Drought Tolerance in Maize.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ai; Schneider, Hannah; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2015-08-01

    An emerging paradigm is that root traits that reduce the metabolic costs of soil exploration improve the acquisition of limiting soil resources. Here, we test the hypothesis that reduced lateral root branching density will improve drought tolerance in maize (Zea mays) by reducing the metabolic costs of soil exploration, permitting greater axial root elongation, greater rooting depth, and thereby greater water acquisition from drying soil. Maize recombinant inbred lines with contrasting lateral root number and length (few but long [FL] and many but short [MS]) were grown under water stress in greenhouse mesocosms, in field rainout shelters, and in a second field environment with natural drought. Under water stress in mesocosms, lines with the FL phenotype had substantially less lateral root respiration per unit of axial root length, deeper rooting, greater leaf relative water content, greater stomatal conductance, and 50% greater shoot biomass than lines with the MS phenotype. Under water stress in the two field sites, lines with the FL phenotype had deeper rooting, much lighter stem water isotopic signature, signifying deeper water capture, 51% to 67% greater shoot biomass at flowering, and 144% greater yield than lines with the MS phenotype. These results entirely support the hypothesis that reduced lateral root branching density improves drought tolerance. The FL lateral root phenotype merits consideration as a selection target to improve the drought tolerance of maize and possibly other cereal crops. PMID:26077764

  20. Plane development of lateral surfaces for inspection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francini, F.; Fontani, D.; Jafrancesco, D.; Mercatelli, L.; Sansoni, P.

    2006-08-01

    The problem of developing the lateral surfaces of a 3D object can arise in item inspection using automated imaging systems. In an industrial environment, these control systems typically work at high rate and they have to assure a reliable inspection of the single item. For compactness requirements it is not convenient to utilise three or four CCD cameras to control all the lateral surfaces of an object. Moreover it is impossible to mount optical components near the object if it is placed on a conveyor belt. The paper presents a system that integrates on a single CCD picture the images of both the frontal surface and the lateral surface of an object. It consists of a freeform lens mounted in front of a CCD camera with a commercial lens. The aim is to have a good magnification of the lateral surface, maintaining a low aberration level for exploiting the pictures in an image processing software. The freeform lens, made in plastics, redirects the light coming from the object to the camera lens. The final result is to obtain on the CCD: - the frontal and lateral surface images, with a selected magnification (even with two different values for the two images); - a gap between these two images, so an automatic method to analyse the images can be easily applied. A simple method to design the freeform lens is illustrated. The procedure also allows to obtain the imaging system modifying a current inspection system reducing the cost.

  1. Lateral Downflows in Sunspot Penumbral Filaments and their Temporal Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban Pozuelo, S.; Bellot Rubio, L. R.; de la Cruz Rodríguez, J.

    2015-04-01

    We study the temporal evolution of downflows observed at the lateral edges of penumbral filaments in a sunspot located very close to the disk center. Our analysis is based on a sequence of nearly diffraction-limited scans of the Fe i 617.3 nm line taken with the CRisp Imaging Spectro-Polarimeter instrument at the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope. We compute Dopplergrams from the observed intensity profiles using line bisectors and filter the resulting velocity maps for subsonic oscillations. Lateral downflows appear everywhere in the center-side penumbra as small, weak patches of redshifts next to or along the edges of blueshifted flow channels. These patches have an intermittent life and undergo mergings and fragmentations quite frequently. The lateral downflows move together with the hosting filaments and react to their shape variations, very much resembling the evolution of granular convection in the quiet Sun. There is a good relation between brightness and velocity in the center-side penumbra, with downflows being darker than upflows on average, which is again reminiscent of quiet Sun convection. These results point to the existence of overturning convection in sunspot penumbrae, with elongated cells forming filaments where the flow is upward but very inclined, and weak lateral downward flows. In general, the circular polarization profiles emerging from the lateral downflows do not show sign reversals, although sometimes we detect three-lobed profiles that are suggestive of opposite magnetic polarities in the pixel.

  2. Lateral orbitofrontal cortex links social impressions to political choices.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chenjie; Stolle, Dietlind; Gidengil, Elisabeth; Fellows, Lesley K

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies of political behavior suggest that voting decisions can be influenced substantially by "first-impression" social attributions based on physical appearance. Separate lines of research have implicated the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in the judgment of social traits on the one hand and economic decision-making on the other, making this region a plausible candidate for linking social attributions to voting decisions. Here, we asked whether OFC lesions in humans disrupted the ability to judge traits of political candidates or affected how these judgments influenced voting decisions. Seven patients with lateral OFC damage, 18 patients with frontal damage sparing the lateral OFC, and 53 matched healthy participants took part in a simulated election paradigm, in which they voted for real-life (but unknown) candidates based only on photographs of their faces. Consistent with previous work, attributions of "competence" and "attractiveness" based on candidate appearance predicted voting behavior in the healthy control group. Frontal damage did not affect substantially the ability to make competence or attractiveness judgments, but patients with damage to the lateral OFC differed from other groups in how they applied this information when voting. Only attractiveness ratings had any predictive power for voting choices after lateral OFC damage, whereas other frontal patients and healthy controls relied on information about both competence and attractiveness in making their choice. An intact lateral OFC may not be necessary for judgment of social traits based on physical appearance, but it seems to be crucial in applying this information in political decision-making. PMID:26041918

  3. Deep Transverse Lateral Retinaculum Reconstruction for Medial Patellar Instability

    PubMed Central

    Sanchis-Alfonso, Vicente; Montesinos-Berry, Erik; Monllau, Joan Carles; Andrish, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Medial patellar instability can be a disabling complication of an extensive lateral retinaculum release. It is often overlooked, and for the diagnosis, it is necessary to have a high index of suspicion. Typically, the patient feels a new pain and new instability after the lateral retinaculum release that are distinct from, and much worse than, those before surgery. All of our patients had significant relief from their pain with “reverse” McConnell taping. If there is a significant improvement in symptoms after this taping and stress radiographs or stress axial computed tomography scans show an objective pathologic medial patellar displacement, reconstruction of the lateral retinaculum should be considered. This article details our technique for reconstruction of the deep transverse layer of the lateral retinaculum using an anterior strip of the iliotibial band. This strip is detached from its insertion onto the Gerdy tubercle and then reflected proximally beyond the level of the lateral femoral epicondyle. Finally, it is attached either by direct suture to the remaining prepatellar and peripatellar retinaculum if there is adequate tissue present or by a suture anchor. PMID:26258038

  4. Cerebral Lateralization is Protective in the Very Prematurely Born.

    PubMed

    Scheinost, Dustin; Lacadie, Cheryl; Vohr, Betty R; Schneider, Karen C; Papademetris, Xenophon; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2015-07-01

    Individuals born prematurely are at risk for developmental delay, and converging data suggest alterations in neural networks in the developing preterm brain. Nevertheless, those critical period processes such as cerebral lateralization that underlie these findings remain largely unexplored. To test the hypothesis that preterm birth alters the fundamental program of corticogenesis in the developing brain, we interrogated cerebral lateralization at rest in very prematurely born participants and term controls at young adulthood. Employing a novel, voxel-based measure of functional connectivity, these data demonstrate for the first time that cerebral lateralization of functional connectivity in right hemisphere language homologs is altered for very preterm participants. Very preterm participants with no evidence for severe brain injury exhibited a significant decrease in right hemisphere lateralization in the right parietal and temporal lobes in this data driven analysis. Further, for the very preterm participants, but not the term participants, these fundamental alterations in the cerebral lateralization for language significantly correlate with language scores. These findings provide evidence that cerebral asymmetry is both plastic and experiential, and suggest the need for further study of underlying environmental factors responsible for these changes. PMID:24451659

  5. Lateral Brow Lift: A Multi-Point Suture Fixation Technique

    PubMed Central

    Foustanos, Andreas; Panagiotopoulos, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Background Descent of the lateral aspect of the brow is one of the earliest signs of aging. The purpose of this study was to describe an open surgical technique for lateral brow lifts, with the goal of achieving reliable, predictable, and long-lasting results. Methods An incision was made behind and parallel to the temporal hairline, and then extended deeper through the temporoparietal fascia to the level of the deep temporal fascia. Dissection was continued anteriorly on the surface of the deep temporal fascia and subperiosteally beyond the temporal crest, to the level of the superolateral orbital rim. Fixation of the lateral brow and tightening of the orbicularis oculi muscle was achieved with the placement of sutures that secured the tissue directly to the galea aponeurotica on the lateral aspect of the incision. An additional fixation was made between the temporoparietal fascia and the deep temporal fascia, as well as between the temporoparietal fascia and the galea aponeurotica. The excess skin in the temporal area was excised and the incision was closed. Results A total of 519 patients were included in the study. Satisfactory lateral brow elevation was obtained in most of the patients (94.41%). The following complications were observed: total relapse (n=8), partial relapse (n=21), neurapraxia of the frontal branch of the facial nerve (n=5), and limited alopecia in the temporal incision (n=9). Conclusions We consider this approach to be a safe and effective procedure, with long-lasting results. PMID:26430629

  6. Ring-shaped lateral meniscus with hypoplasic anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Cátia; Castro, Ricardo; Cadilha, Rui; Raposo, Frederico; Melão, Lina

    2015-12-01

    Knee joint lesions can be solitary or occur concomitantly with other lower limb abnormalities. Ring-shaped lateral meniscus (RSM) and hypoplasic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are two rare malformations. The therapeutic management of such abnormalities is not consensual, and highly depends on clinical symptomatology. We report a case of a 25-year-old girl with progressive knee pain whose MRI demonstrated a continuous segment of lateral meniscus situated along the medial aspect of the lateral compartment, continuous with the otherwise normal-appearing lateral meniscus, compatible with an RSM. This anatomic variant can be mistaken by a displaced meniscal fragment, like a bucket-handle tear, a central tear of a discoid meniscus, or incomplete discoid meniscus, as previously reported. Her MRI examination also showed a thinned ACL with anomalous lateral course. This abnormality may be mistaken for an ACL rupture and/or a meniscofemoral ligament with agenesis of ACL. Multiple images in different planes as well as following the course of meniscal and ligaments are critical clues to avoid misdiagnosis. As a result, the diagnosis of an RSM along with hypoplasic ACL with abnormal attachment was assumed based on MRI and confirmed during arthroscopy. The patient was treated conservatively with clinical outcome improvement. PMID:26178136

  7. Lateral position detection and control for friction stir systems

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, Paul (Boulder, CO); Lammlein, David (Houston, TX); Cook, George E. (Brentwood, TN); Wilkes, Don Mitchell (Nashville, TN); Strauss, Alvin M. (Nashville, TN); Delapp, David (Ashland City, TN); Hartman, Daniel A. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2010-12-14

    A friction stir system for processing at least a first workpiece includes a spindle actuator coupled to a rotary tool comprising a rotating member for contacting and processing the first workpiece. A detection system is provided for obtaining information related to a lateral alignment of the rotating member. The detection system comprises at least one sensor for measuring a force experienced by the rotary tool or a parameter related to the force experienced by the rotary tool during processing, wherein the sensor provides sensor signals. A signal processing system is coupled to receive and analyze the sensor signals and determine a lateral alignment of the rotating member relative to a selected lateral position, a selected path, or a direction to decrease a lateral distance relative to the selected lateral position or selected path. In one embodiment, the friction stir system can be embodied as a closed loop tracking system, such as a robot-based tracked friction stir welding (FSW) or friction stir processing (FSP) system.

  8. A theory for lateral wing-tip blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavella, D.; Roberts, L.

    1985-01-01

    The concept of lateral blowing consists in utilizing thin jets of air, which are ejected in the spanwise direction from slots at the tips of straight and swept wings, or along the leading edges of delta wings, to generate aerodynamic forces without the assistance of deflecting solid surfaces. For weak intensities of blowing the so-generated forces could be used for roll and lateral control of aircraft. In this work a theory for this concept as applied to straight wings is presented, revealing the analytical relationship between blowing and aerodynamic forces. The approach is based on perturbing the span of an elliptically loaded wing. Scaling laws involving blowing intensity, aspect ratio, and angle of attack are derived and compared with experiments. It is concluded that this concept has potential as a novel roll and lateral control device.

  9. Mach bands in the lateral eye of Limulus

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    Patterns of optic nerve activity were computed for stationary step patterns of illumination from theoretical models of lateral inhibiton based on revised Hartlin-Ratliff equations. The computed response patterns contain well-defined Mach bands which match closely in amplitude and shape those recorded from single optic nerve fibers of the Limulus lateral eye. Theory and experiment show that the amplitude of the Mach bands is reduced by in inhibitory nonlinearity, the width of the Mach bands is approximately equal to the lateral dimension of the inhibitory field, but the shapes of the Mach bands are poor indices of the precise configuration of the inhibitory field. Theorems are proved establishing the equivalence of Mach-band patterns for models of different dimensions and a uniqueness condition for solutions of the piecewise linear model. PMID:172594

  10. Strategies of Healthy Adults Walking on a Laterally Oscillating Treadmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Rachel A.; Peters, Brian T.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2008-01-01

    We mounted a treadmill on top of a six degree-of-freedom motion base platform to investigate locomotor responses produced by healthy adults introduced to a dynamic walking surface. The experiment examined self-selected strategies employed by participants when exposed to continuous, sinusoidal lateral motion of the support surface while walking. Torso translation and step width were used to classify responses used to stabilize gait in a novel, dynamic environment. Two response categories emerged. Participants tended to either fix themselves in space (FIS), allowing the treadbelt to move laterally beneath them, or they fixed themselves to the base (FTB), moving laterally as the motion base oscillated. The degree of fixation in both extremes varied across participants. This finding suggests that normal adults have innate and varied preferences for reacquiring gait stability, some depending more heavily on vision (FIS group) and others on proprioception (FTB group). Keywords: Human locomotion, Unstable surface, Treadmill, Adaptation, Stability

  11. [Chemical constituents of lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Sun, Gui-Bo; Lei, Qi-Fang; Li, Guang-Zhi; Wang, Jun-Chi; Si, Jian-Yong

    2014-08-01

    In order to find the cardiotonic constituents of lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx., the investigation was carried out. Silica gel column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20, medium-pressure MCI and reverse phase ODS column chromatography were used to separate the 90% EtOH extract of the lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx. The structures of the isolated compounds have been identified by chemical properties and spectroscopic analyses. Ten compounds were isolated and their structures were elucidated as benzoic acid-5-hydroxy-2-benzoyl-amino methyl ester (1), honokiol (2), pinoresinol (3), salicylic acid (4), p-hydroxy-cinnamic acid (5), songorine (6), karakoline (7), mesaconitine (8), hypaconitine (9) and 14-benzoylhypaconitine (10), separetely. Compound 1 is a new compound and its structure has been established by NMR, HR-ESI-MS, UV, IR and X-Ray. Compound 2-5 are isolated from the lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx. for the first time. PMID:25322557

  12. Nanoparticle embedded enzymes for improved lateral flow sensors.

    PubMed

    Özalp, Veli C; Zeydanl?, U?ur S; Lunding, Anita; Kavruk, Murat; Öz, M Tufan; Eyido?an, Füsun; Olsen, Lars F; Öktem, Hüseyin A

    2013-08-01

    In this study, combining the nanoparticle embedded sensors with lateral flow assays, a novel strategy for ensuring the quality of signalling in lateral flow assays (LFAs) was developed. A LFA for reactive oxygen species (ROS) is reported that is based on horse radish peroxidase (HRP) which is co-entrapped with Texas Red dextran inside porous polyacrylamide nanoparticles. In this system, enzymes are protected in the porous matrix of polyacrylamide which freely allows the diffusion of the analyte. The sensor is rapid and sensitive for quantification of hydrogen peroxide concentrations. A test solution of hydrogen peroxides was quantified with this novel LFA-ROS sensor to obtain a linear range between 1 and 25 ?M. Nanoparticle embedding of enzymes is proposed here as a general strategy for developing enzyme-based lateral flow assays, eliminating adverse effects associated with biological samples. PMID:23730687

  13. LATER models of neural decision behavior in choice tasks

    PubMed Central

    Noorani, Imran

    2014-01-01

    Reaction time has been increasingly used over the last few decades to provide information on neural decision processes: it is a direct reflection of decision time. Saccades provide an excellent paradigm for this because many of them can be made in a very short time and the underlying neural pathways are relatively well-known. LATER (linear approach to threshold with ergodic rate) is a model originally devised to explain reaction time distributions in simple decision tasks. Recently, however it is being extended to increasingly more advanced tasks, including those with decision errors and those requiring voluntary control such as the antisaccade task and those where sequential decisions are required. The strength of this modeling approach lies in its detailed, quantitative predictions of behavior, yet LATER models still retain their conceptual simplicity that made LATER initially successful in explaining reaction times in simple decision tasks. PMID:25202242

  14. DSMC numerical simulation of lateral jet interaction with rarefied atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jie; Li, Zhihui; Li, Xuguo; Fang, Ming

    2014-12-01

    Hybrid Cartesian grids and surface unstructured triangular cells are used in the DSMC method to simulate lateral jet interaction flow with rarefied atmosphere in transitional regime. The self-adaption of uniform Cartesian grid is conducted according to the local density gradient. The parallel DSMC code is used to compute the lateral jet interaction of a three-dimensional flat plate model on low density wind tunnel test conditions. The results of complex flow field structures, surface flow characteristics and separation lengths agree well with experimental data. The supersonic and hypersonic lateral jet interactions with hypersonic rarefied incoming flow on a slender blunt double-cone are investigated. The effects of flight altitudes, free stream velocities and angles of attack on plume-atmosphere interaction flow fields are numerically analyzed. The influences of parameter distributions with uniform /non-uniform nozzle exit on the separation distance and vortex structure near the jet are simulated in detail.

  15. Dynamics and stability of lateral plane locomotion on inclines.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, J; Bonnono, S

    2009-12-21

    An actuated, lateral leg spring model is developed to investigate lateral plane locomotion dynamics and stability on inclines. A single actuation input, the force-free leg length, is varied in a feedforward fashion to explicitly and implicitly match prescribed lateral and fore-aft force profiles, respectively. Forward dynamic simulations incorporating the prescribed leg actuation are employed to identify periodic orbits for gaits in which the leg acts to either push the body away from or pull the body towards the foot placement point. Gait stability and robustness to external perturbation are found to vary significantly as a function of slope and velocity for each type of leg function. Results of these analyses suggest that the switch in leg function from pushing to pulling is governed by gait robustness, and occurs at increasing inclines for increasing velocities. PMID:19703469

  16. Vehicle Lateral State Estimation Based on Measured Tyre Forces

    PubMed Central

    Tuononen, Ari J.

    2009-01-01

    Future active safety systems need more accurate information about the state of vehicles. This article proposes a method to evaluate the lateral state of a vehicle based on measured tyre forces. The tyre forces of two tyres are estimated from optically measured tyre carcass deflections and transmitted wirelessly to the vehicle body. The two remaining tyres are so-called virtual tyre sensors, the forces of which are calculated from the real tyre sensor estimates. The Kalman filter estimator for lateral vehicle state based on measured tyre forces is presented, together with a simple method to define adaptive measurement error covariance depending on the driving condition of the vehicle. The estimated yaw rate and lateral velocity are compared with the validation sensor measurements. PMID:22291535

  17. Issues Related to Lateral Stress Measurements in Alumina Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, J. E.; Tsembelis, K.; Brar, N. S.; Proud, W. G.; Dandekar, D. P.; Rosenberg, Z.

    2004-07-01

    Failure fronts or "waves" in brittle materials have been the subject of extensive research. This is a phenomenon where a damage front propagates behind the main shock wave and reduces the strength. It is reported to be observed by means of embedded lateral gauges where it manifests itself as a two-step structure. Such profiles were obtained when impacts were performed using copper flyers. Later, it was shown that this second rise in lateral stress was not evident in ceramic targets when either a ceramic projectile plate was employed or a thin ceramic cover plate was mounted on the front of the target. We now extend the use of different projectile materials such as heat treated 4340 steel and tungsten. We find that the second step is not evident and may instead be an effect of the experimental parameters and not related to the failure front.

  18. Nucleation-mediated lateral growth on foreign substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, Da-Jun; Wang, Mu; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Zhenyu; Peng, Ru-Wen; Zhang, Rong; Ming, Nai-Ben

    2007-01-01

    A model is developed to deal with lateral growth of a crystalline layer on a foreign substrate, which is mediated by successive nucleation at the concave corner defined by the meeting of a crystal facet and the substrate. It is demonstrated that due to an imbalance of surface/interface tensions at the concave corner, once the embryo of a nucleus is formed, the crystallographic orientation of the nucleus is spontaneously twisted. By successive nucleation at the concave corner, the crystalline layer develops laterally on the substrate, with its crystallographic orientation continuously rotated. In this way, a regular spatial pattern with well-defined long-range order is eventually achieved. Our model provides a criterion to predict when such an effect becomes observable in the nucleation-mediated lateral growth. The theoretical expectations are consistent with the experimental observations.

  19. Laparoscopic repair of recurrent lateral enterocele and rectocele.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Ellen R; Muffly, Tyler M; Hull, Tracy; Paraiso, Marie Fidela R

    2015-01-01

    It is difficult to determine what types of procedures should be attempted in patients who have recurrent prolapse. We present a case of recurrent lateral enterocele and rectocele after the patient had undergone multiple surgeries for pelvic organ prolapse (POP), including a vaginal hysterectomy, bladder-neck suspension, anterior colporrhaphy, site-specific rectocele repair, apical mesh implant, iliococcygeus vault suspension, and transobturator suburethral sling procedure. With recurrence, the patient underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic sacral colpopexy, tension-free vaginal tape transobturator sling insertion, rectocele repair, and perineorrhaphy with cystoscopy. She then presented with defecatory outlet obstruction and constipation and subsequently was treated with a stapled transanal rectal resection. The patient returned with continued defecatory dysfunction and a recurrent lateral enterocele and rectocele. The recurrence was treated laparoscopically using a lightweight polypropylene mesh. The postoperative period was uneventful. Two years later, the patient reported decreased defecatory symptoms and no further symptomatic prolapse. PMID:25224146

  20. Lateral vibration effects in atomic-scale friction

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, R.; Fajardo, O. Y.; Mazo, J. J.; Meyer, E.; Gnecco, E.

    2014-02-24

    The influence of lateral vibrations on the stick-slip motion of a nanotip elastically pulled on a flat crystal surface is studied by atomic force microscopy measurements on a NaCl(001) surface in ultra-high vacuum. The slippage of the nanotip across the crystal lattice is anticipated at increasing driving amplitude, similarly to what is observed in presence of normal vibrations. This lowers the average friction force, as explained by the Prandtl-Tomlinson model with lateral vibrations superimposed at finite temperature. Nevertheless, the peak values of the lateral force, and the total energy losses, are expected to increase with the excitation amplitude, which may limit the practical relevance of this effect.

  1. Lateralized Difference in Tympanic Membrane Temperature: Emotion and Hemispheric Activity

    PubMed Central

    Propper, Ruth E.; Brunyé, Tad T.

    2013-01-01

    We review literature examining relationships between tympanic membrane temperature (TMT), affective/motivational orientation, and hemispheric activity. Lateralized differences in TMT might enable real-time monitoring of hemispheric activity in real-world conditions, and could serve as a corroborating marker of mental illnesses associated with specific affective dysregulation. We support the proposal that TMT holds potential for broadly indexing lateralized brain physiology during tasks demanding the processing and representation of emotional and/or motivational states, and for predicting trait-related affective/motivational orientations. The precise nature of the relationship between TMT and brain physiology, however, remains elusive. Indeed the limited extant research has sampled different participant populations and employed largely different procedures and measures, making for seemingly discrepant findings and implications. We propose, however, that many of these discrepancies can be resolved by considering how emotional states map onto motivational systems, and further examining how validated methods for inducing lateralized brain activity might affect TMT. PMID:23459831

  2. Lateralization of magnetic compass orientation in a migratory bird

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Traudt, Joachim; Güntürkün, Onur; Prior, Helmut; Wiltschko, Roswitha

    2002-10-01

    Lateralization of brain functions, once believed to be a human characteristic, has now been found to be widespread among vertebrates. In birds, asymmetries of visual functions are well studied, with each hemisphere being specialized for different tasks. Here we report lateralized functions of the birds' visual system associated with magnetoperception, resulting in an extreme asymmetry of sensing the direction of the magnetic field. We found that captive migrants tested in cages with the magnetic field as the only available orientation cue were well oriented in their appropriate migratory direction when using their right eye only, but failed to show a significant directional preference when using their left eye. This implies that magnetoreception for compass orientation, assumed to take place in the eyes alongside the visual processes, is strongly lateralized, with a marked dominance of the right eye/left brain hemisphere.

  3. Minimally invasive unilateral arytenoid lateralization in dogs: A cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Shipov, A; Israeli, I; Weiser, M; Kelmer, E; Klainbart, S; Milgram, J

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a minimally invasive thyroarytenoid lateralization technique (MITAL). Eleven unilateral MITAL procedures were performed on 11 canine cadavers. Two hypodermic needles were passed through the skin into the lumen of the larynx, penetrating the thyroid and arytenoid cartilages. Suture material was passed through the needles to lateralize the arytenoid cartilage. A rigid endoscope was used to visualize needle insertion and suture material placement. A key-hole approach to the larynx was performed and the suture material was knotted on the lateral aspect of the thyroid cartilage. The change in the rima glottidis area was recorded as were the duration of the procedure and complications encountered. The landmarks for needle insertion were easily palpated, and a significant increase in the area of the rima glottidis was documented after performing unilateral MITAL. In conclusion, unilateral MITAL is a quick, minimally invasive procedure which increases the area of the rima glottidis in cadaveric dogs. PMID:26412529

  4. The effects of torsional-lateral coupling on the dynamics of a gear coupled rotor 

    E-print Network

    Emery, Michael Aaron

    2007-04-25

    This thesis focuses on the torsional-lateral interactions seen in gear coupled rotors. Of particular interest are cases where the torsional stiffness parameters affect the lateral critical speeds and where lateral stiffness and damping parameters...

  5. 76 FR 78823 - Schedule for Rating Disabilities; Evaluation of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ...criterion for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in the VA Schedule...from the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Association. The comments...the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Association strongly...proposed rule would ``rate multiple disabilities as a...

  6. 38 CFR 3.318 - Presumptive service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. 3.318 Section...service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (a) Except as provided...section, the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis manifested at any...

  7. 38 CFR 3.318 - Presumptive service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. 3.318 Section...service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (a) Except as provided...section, the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis manifested at any...

  8. 38 CFR 3.318 - Presumptive service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. 3.318 Section...service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (a) Except as provided...section, the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis manifested at any...

  9. 38 CFR 3.318 - Presumptive service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. 3.318 Section...service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (a) Except as provided...section, the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis manifested at any...

  10. 38 CFR 3.318 - Presumptive service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. 3.318 Section...service connection for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (a) Except as provided...section, the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis manifested at any...

  11. Characterization of Motor Unit Behavior in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    E-print Network

    Clancy, Ted

    Characterization of Motor Unit Behavior in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Abstract neuron dominant forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). EMG recordings were gathered during sclerosis; motor units; motor unit firing rate; motor unit decomposition I. INTRODUCTION Amyotrophic lateral

  12. 78 FR 72573 - Specially Adapted Housing Eligibility for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Beneficiaries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... veterans and active servicemembers with service- connected amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) rated... Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Beneficiaries.'' Copies of comments received will be available for public... occasional locomotion by other methods may be possible. (d) Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. VA considers...

  13. Defense Health Program Department of Defense Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Research Program

    E-print Network

    Charette, André

    Defense Health Program Department of Defense Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis to the Fiscal Year 2014 (FY14) Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Research Program (ALSRP of therapeutics for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Appropriations for the ALSRP from

  14. Proteasome Activation is a Mechanism for Pyrazolone Small Molecules Displaying Therapeutic Potential in Amyotrophic Lateral

    E-print Network

    Morimoto, Richard

    Potential in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Paul C. Trippier,, Kevin Tianmeng Zhao, Susan G. Fox, Isaac T. KEYWORDS: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Target identification, Pyrazolone, Proteasome activator, Neurodegeneration; Drug Discovery Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig's disease

  15. The role of lateral pharyngoplasty in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chi, Jessie Chao-Yun; Chiang, Rayleigh Ping-Ying; Chou, Tse-Yu; Shu, Chih-Hung; Shiao, An-Suey; Lin, Chia-Mo

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that lateral pharyngoplasty is an effective procedure to correct obstructive sleep apnea. The objective of the paper was to evaluate factors contributing to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and identify the different severity categories of obstructive sleep apnea that could benefit from lateral pharyngoplasty. We included 60 patients undergoing uvulopalatopharyngoplasty with or without lateral pharyngoplasty from December 1, 2008 to May 31, 2012. Six who did not complete the post-operative survey were excluded. 54 participants were assigned alternatively to either uvulopalatopharyngoplasty alone (control group, n = 29) or to uvulopalatopharyngoplasty with lateral pharyngoplasty (intervention group, n = 25). The reduction of apnea-hypoxia index in the intervention group (49.3%) was higher than it was in the control group (30.4%), but the average value was not statistically significant (p = 0.088). Only patients with moderate obstructive sleep apnea in the intervention group achieved a significant reduction of apnea-hypoxia index (30.7 vs. 10.8%; p = 0.020). Factors such as body mass index, nadir/mean SpO2, snoring index, Epworth sleepiness scale and periodic limb movement index did not change significantly following lateral pharyngoplasty. To evaluate patients' upper airway anatomy, we employed cephalometry, and found that the retroglossal space played a critical role in severe obstructive sleep apnea. Our study showed that only patients in the moderate category can be benefited from adding lateral pharyngoplasty to uvulopalatopharyngoplasty; however, patients in the mild or severe category did not benefit from adding this procedure. This information is vital when considering surgery for patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Level of evidence Prospective cohort study, Level II. PMID:25214171

  16. Postburn Neck Lateral Contracture Anatomy and Treatment: A New Approach.

    PubMed

    Grishkevich, Viktor M; Grishkevich, Max

    2015-01-01

    Lateral contracture of the neck is a rare and insufficiently researched burn consequent. Contracture restricts head motion, can cause a secondary face deformity, presents severe cosmetic defects, and, therefore, requires surgical reconstruction. Literature does not sufficiently address the issue; therefore, anatomy not researched and treatment techniques not developed. The anatomy of postburn lateral cervical flexion contracture was studied in 21 operated patients. Using obtained data, new approaches were investigated, which were directed toward maximal efficacy of the local tissues use. Follow-up results were observed from 6 months to 9 years. Lateral cervical contractures were divided into two types based on their anatomy: edge and medial. Edge contractures were caused by burns and scars located on the posterior neck surface and were characterized by the presence of the fold in central lateral zone. In the fold, only one (posterior) sheet is scars that cause the contracture. Medial contractures were caused by scars located on the lateral cervical surface and were characterized by the presence of the fold in which both sheets were scars. In both types, contracture was caused by scar sheet surface deficiency in length, which has a trapezoid form (contracture cause). In all cases, there was surface surplus in the fold's sheets allowed contracture release with local tissue. The technique that allows the maximum local tissue use and ensures full contracture elimination is the trapeze-flap plasty. Two anatomic types of lateral cervical scar contractures were identified: edge and medial. An anatomically justified efficacy reconstructive technique for both types is trapeze-flap plasty. PMID:25501780

  17. Lateral Epicondylitis and Tobacco Use: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Michienzi, Avery E.; Anderson, Christopher P.; Vang, Sandy; Ward, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although lateral epicondylitis (LE) is a very common tendinopathy, we understand little about the etiology of the disease. Tobacco use has been associated with other tendinopathies, and the purpose of this study is to determine if there is an association between the incidence of lateral epicondylitis and tobacco use. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of adult patients diagnosed with lateral epicondylitis. Patients from a single orthopaedic surgeon's practice with LE were matched to control patients with other common upper extremity conditions based on age, gender, and occupation. A total of 65 case patients and 217 control patients were included in the study. The incidence of smoking in patients with lateral epicondylitis was compared to the incidence of smoking in the control group. Results Of the LE patients, 30/65 (46.2%) were non-smokers, 23/65 (35.4%) were former smokers, and 12/65 (18.5%) were current smokers. Of the control patients, 121/217 (55.8%) were non-smokers, 45/217 (20.7%) were former smokers, and 51/217 (23.5%) were current smokers. The odds of LE patients being former or current smokers compared to control patients were 1.45 times higher, but this was not statistically significant. Among people who did not smoke at the time of presentation, the odds of being a former smoker were 2.28 times higher in LE patients than in controls, which was statistically significant Conclusions The odds of being a former smoker were significantly higher in patients with lateral epicondylitis compared to patients with other upper extremity conditions. Although it did not reach statistical significance, the odds of being former or current smokers were also higher in the LE group. These results suggest a relationship between smoking history and incidence of lateral epicondylitis, though more research is needed to determine the exact nature of the relationship. Level of Evidence Prognostic, Level III PMID:26361452

  18. Isolated Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome of the Lateral Lower Leg

    PubMed Central

    van Zantvoort, Aniek P.M.; de Bruijn, Johan A.; Winkes, Michiel B.; Dielemans, Jeanne P.; van der Cruijsen-Raaijmakers, Marike; Hoogeveen, Adwin R.; Scheltinga, Marc R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exercise-induced lower leg pain may be caused by chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS). The anterior (ant-CECS) or deep posterior compartment (dp-CECS) is usually affected. Knowledge regarding CECS of the lateral compartment (lat-CECS) is limited. Purpose: To describe demographic characteristics and symptoms in a consecutive series of patients with isolated CECS of the lateral compartment of the leg. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Since 2001, patients undergoing dynamic intracompartmental pressure (ICP) measurements for suspected CECS in a single institution were prospectively monitored. Individuals with a history possibly associated with lat-CECS and elevated ICP measurements (Pedowitz criteria) were identified. Exclusion criteria were concomitant ipsilateral ant-CECS/dp-CECS, acute compartment syndrome, recent significant trauma, peroneal nerve entrapment, or vascular claudication. Results: During an 11-year time period, a total of 26 patients with isolated lat-CECS fulfilled study criteria (15 females; median age, 21 years; range, 14-48 years). Frequently identified provocative sports were running (n = 4), walking (n = 4), field hockey (n = 3), soccer (n = 3), and volleyball (n = 2). Exercise-induced lateral lower leg pain (92%) and tightness (42%) were often reported. The syndrome was bilateral in almost two-thirds (62%, n = 16). Delay in diagnosis averaged 24 months (range, 2 months to 10 years). Conclusion: Young patients with exercise-induced pain in the lateral portions of the lower leg may suffer from isolated CECS of the lateral compartment. ICP measurements in the lateral compartment in these patients are recommended.

  19. Landing adaptations following isolated lateral meniscectomy in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Minning, Stephen J.; Myer, Gregory D.; Mangine, Robert E.; Colosimo, Angelo J.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Objective functional outcomes following isolated radial lateral meniscus tears in the athlete between the ages of 14–25 are not clearly defined. The objective of this study was to determine whether patients following lateral meniscectomy demonstrate lower extremity asymmetries relative to control athletes 3 months after surgery. We hypothesized that following lateral meniscectomy, athletes aged 14–25 years old would demonstrate altered landing biomechanics compared to sex, age, height, weight, and sport-matched controls. Methods A total of 18 subjects were included in this study. Nine patients (7 men and 2 women, 20.1 ± 2.8 years) who had undergone first-time isolated radial lateral meniscus tears were tested 3 months following partial lateral meniscectomies and compared to nine sex, age, height, weight, and sport-matched controls (7 men and 2 women, 19.7 ± 3.1 years). A ten-camera motion analysis system and two force platforms were used to collect three trials of bilateral drop landings. A 2X2 ANOVA was used to test the interaction between side (involved vs. uninvolved) and group (patient vs. control). Results The patient group landed with a decreased internal knee extensor moment compared to the uninvolved side and controls (interaction P < 0.05). The involved limb quadriceps isokinetic torque was not decreased compared to the contralateral or control (n.s.). Decreased knee extensor moments were significantly associated with reduced measures of function (IKDC scores: r = 0.69; P < 0.05). Conclusions Athletes who return to sport at approximately 3 months following a partial lateral meniscectomy may employ compensation strategies during landing as evidenced by reduced quadriceps recruitment and functional outcome scores. Clinicians should focus on improving quadriceps function during landing on the involved leg in an attempt to decrease residual limb asymmetries. Level of evidence Case–control study, Level III. PMID:21468616

  20. An Improved Method of Manufacturing Corrugated Boxes: Lateral Corrugator

    SciTech Connect

    Frank C. Murray Ph.D.; , Roman Popil Ph.D.; Michael Shaepe

    2008-12-18

    Paper physicists have known that a corrugated box constructed from outer liner sheets having a predominant fiber orientation aligned with the corrugating flute direction would have higher stiffness and crush resistance (per unit of fiber weight) than the conventional box construction. Such increased performance per unit of fiber weight could result in fiber reduction and energy savings for boxes having equivalent performance specifications. The goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a commercially viable lateral corrugating process. This included designing and building a pilot lateral corrugator, testing and evaluating pilot machine made boxes, and developing a strategy for commercialization.

  1. A Position-Sensitive MOS Device Using Lateral Photovoltaic Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Hirohiko; Aoki, Chihiro; Matsuda, Tetsuro; Takai, Munezo; Maeda, Muneo

    1987-01-01

    A position-sensitive device (PSD) of MOS is presented which uses for the first time the dependence of the phase of lateral photovoltage on the position of light incident upon the device. The MOS-type PSD presented here has the following advantages over the previously-presented lateral photodiodes: (1) Its sensitivity can be changed electrically by the gate-voltage. (2) No compensation is required for the change in irradiation intensity. A resolution of 1 ?m has been demonstrated for an AN-SiO2-Si PSD to measure the position of light incidence, and better than submicrons should be possible by improving the phase-measurement.

  2. Tool Measures Diameters Of Posts With Limited Lateral Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Snyder, Gary L.

    1995-01-01

    Simple tool used in conjunction with conventional vernier caliper to measure outside diameter of round post or tube to which lateral access limited. Chuck-like jaws closed gently onto end of post or tube. Tool slipped off without changing jaw setting, and distance between jaws measured with vernier caliper. In original application, posts are liquid-oxygen-injector posts surrounded by forest of many such posts on rocket engine. Used in other applications in which desire to measure diameters despite limited lateral access, provided there is longitudinal access.

  3. LATERAL GENE TRANSFER AND THE HISTORY OF BACTERIAL GENOMES

    SciTech Connect

    Howard Ochman

    2006-02-22

    The aims of this research were to elucidate the role and extent of lateral transfer in the differentiation of bacterial strains and species, and to assess the impact of gene transfer on the evolution of bacterial genomes. The ultimate goal of the project is to examine the dynamics of a core set of protein-coding genes (i.e., those that are distributed universally among Bacteria) by developing conserved primers that would allow their amplification and sequencing in any bacterial taxa. In addition, we adopted a bioinformatic approach to elucidate the extent of lateral gene transfer in sequenced genome.

  4. Resume and analysis of NACA lateral control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weick, Fred E; Jones, Robert T

    1937-01-01

    An analysis of the principal results of recent NACA lateral control research is made by utilizing the experience and progress gained during the course of the investigation. Two things are considered of primary importance in judging the effectiveness of different control devices: the (calculated) banking and yawing motion of a typical small airplane caused by a deflection of the control, and the stick force required to produce this deflection. The report includes a table in which a number of different lateral control devices are compared on these bases.

  5. Lateral metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors based on amorphous selenium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai; Chen, Feng; Belev, George; Kasap, Safa; Karim, Karim S.

    2009-07-01

    We report a lateral metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetector (PD) based on an amorphous selenium (a-Se). The PD exhibits a dark current below 200 fA under electric fields ranging from 6 to 12 V/?m, a responsivity of up to 0.45 A/W, a photogain of 1.2 near short wavelengths of 468 nm, and a high-speed photoresponse with a rise time of 50 ?s, fall time of 60 ?s, and time constant of 30 ?s, respectively. The lateral MSM PD based on a-Se has great potential for use in digital x-ray imaging applications.

  6. Specific biomembrane adhesion -Indirect lateral interactions between bound receptor molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, C. W.; Behrisch, A.; Kloboucek, A.; Simson, D. A.; Merkel, R.

    We studied biomembrane adhesion using the micropipet aspiration technique. Adhesion was caused by contact site A, a laterally mobile and highly specific cell adhesion molecule from Dictyostelium discoideum, reconstituted in lipid vesicles of DOPC (L-?-dioleoylphosphatidylcholine) with an addition of 5 mol % DOPE-PEG{2000} (1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine-N-[poly(ethyleneglycol) 2000]). The "fuzzy" membrane mimics the cellular plasma membrane including the glycocalyx. We found adhesion and subsequent receptor migration into the contact zone. Using membrane tension jumps to probe the equation of state of the two-dimensional "gas" of bound receptor pairs within the contact zone, we found strong, attractive lateral interactions.

  7. Lateral groundwater inflows into alluvial aquifers of main alpine valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    In alpine regions the topography is mainly characterised by deep incised valleys, mountain slopes and ridges. Usually the main valleys contain aquifers in alluvial soft rock. Lateral these aquifers are confined by mountainous hard rock slopes covered by heterogeneous sediments with different thickness. The slopes can be incised by lateral valleys. Numerical models for the main alluvial aquifers ask for lateral hydrogeological boundaries. Usually no flow boundaries or Constant head Boundaries are used, even if the lateral inflows to the main aquifers are rarely known. In this example a data set for a detailed investigated and monitored area is studied to give an answer on the location and the quantification of these lateral subsurface inflows. The study area is a typical main alpine valley with a thick alluvial aquifer (appr. 120m thick), lateral confined by granite, covered at the base of the steep slopes by quaternary sediments (Burger at al. 2012). The study consists of several steps 1.) Analytical calculation of the inflows on the base of investigated and monitored 2d profiles along fault zones (Perello et al 2013) which pinch out in the main valley 2.) Analytical models along typical W-dipping slopes with monitored slope springs 3.) Evaluating temperature and electrical conductivity profiles measured in approx. 30 groundwater wells in the alluvial aquifers and along the slopes to locate main lateral subsurface inflows 4.) Output of a regional model used for the hydrogeological back analyses of the excavation of a tunnel (Baietto et al. 2014) 5.) Output of a local numerical model calibrated with a monitoring dataset and results of a pumping test of big scale (450l/s for 10days) Results of these analyses are shown to locate and quantify the lateral groundwater inflows in the main alluvial aquifer. References Baietto A., Burger U., Perello P. (2014): Hydrogeological modelling applications in tunnel excavations: examples from tunnel excavations in granitic rocks; congress of IAEG, Engineering Geology for Society and Territory, Torino Burger U., San Nicoló L. Bösel D. und Perello P. (2012): Hydrogeologische Modelle - Hilfsmittel für die Planung am Beispiel des Brenner Basistunnel, Beiträge zur Beiträge zur COGeo 2011, Salzburg COGEO Perello P., Baietto A., Burger U., Skuk S. (2013): Excavation of the Aica-Mules pilot tunnel for the Brenner base tunnel: information gained on water inflows in tunnels in granitic massifs, Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, DOI 10.1007/s00603-013-0480-x

  8. Management of palato radicular groove in a maxillary lateral incisor

    PubMed Central

    Kishan, K. V.; Hegde, Vani; Ponnappa, K. C.; Girish, T. N.; Ponappa, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    This study is to report the rare localization of a radicular groove on the palatal aspect of the maxillary lateral incisor and to discuss the pathology and management of the concomitant endo-periodontal defect. Unilateral palato-radicular groove was located on the Maxillary right lateral incisor of an 18-year-old female patient. The groove was associated with deep local periodontal pocket resulting in pulp necrosis and the formation of a large periapical lesion. A collaborative management was carried out using a combination of endodontic therapy, surgical enucleation, odontoplasty, and periodontal regenerative procedure resulting the successful healing of the periapical lesion. PMID:24678222

  9. Mechanical response of carbon nanotubes turfs under lateral strains

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    Mechanical response of carbon nanotubes turfs under lateral strains Melinda C. Lopez, David F. Bahr of carbon nanotubes, or "turfs", and their response under different strains. In this experiment the mechanical response of carbon nanotube (CNT) turfs are examined by nanoindentation under different strains

  10. Styling in a Language Learned Later in Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampton, Ben

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses the styles of English produced by an adult migrant who started to speak the language later in life, and it approaches them from the perspective of quantitative style-shifting and discursive stylization. After defining style and the procedures needed to justify the term "L2," the study describes the focal…

  11. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, August 1951 LATERAL VIEW, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, August 1951 LATERAL VIEW, EAST FRONT, OLD PHOTOGRAPH c. 1850 Restricted: Permission for use must be obtained in writing from Art Library, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. - Skinner-Trowbridge House, 46 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  12. 17. Photocopy of drawing, Erection Plan of Top Lateral Bracing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of drawing, Erection Plan of Top Lateral Bracing of Bridge at South Norwalk for the N.Y., N.H. and H.R.R., dated June 12, 1895. Original on file with Metro North Commuter Railroad. - South Norwalk Railroad Bridge, South Main & Washington Streets, Norwalk, Fairfield County, CT

  13. Modeling, Simulation, and Parameter Estimation of Lateral Spacecraft Fuel Slosh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatman, Yadira; Gangadharan, Sathya; Marsell, Brandon; Schlee, Keith; Sudermann, James; Walker, Charles; Ristow, James

    2008-01-01

    Predicting the effect of fuel slosh on a spacecraft and/or launch vehicle attitude control system is a very important and a challenging task. Whether the spacecraft is under spinning or lateral moving conditions, the dynamic effect of the fuel slosh will help determine whether the spacecraft will remain on its chosen trajectory. There are three categories of slosh that can be caused by launch vehicle and/or spacecraft maneuvers when the fuel is in the presence of an acceleration field. These include bulk fluid motion, subsurface wave motion, and free surface slosh. Each of these slosh types have a periodic component that is defined by either a spinning or lateral motion. For spinning spacecraft, all three types of slosh can play a major role in determining stability. Bulk fluid motion and free surface slosh can affect the lateral slosh characteristics. For either condition, the possibility for an unpredicted coupled resonance between the spacecraft and its on board fuel can have mission threatening affects. This on-going research effort aims at improving the accuracy and efficiency of modeling techniques used to predict these types of lateral fluid motions. In particular, efforts will focus on analyzing the effects of viscoelastic diaphragms on slosh dynamics.

  14. Lateral and Anterior Thalamic Lesions Impair Independent Memory Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Anna S.; Dalrymple-Alford, John C.

    2006-01-01

    Damage to the medial region of the thalamus, both in clinical cases (e.g., patients with infarcts or the Korsakoff's syndrome) and animal lesion models, is associated with variable amnesic deficits. Some studies suggest that many of these memory deficits rely on the presence of lateral thalamic lesions (LT) that include the intralaminar nuclei,…

  15. Patterned Arrays of Lateral Heterojunctions within Monolayer 2D Semiconductors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Lin, Ming-Wei; Wang, Kai; Lupini, Andrew R; Lee, Jaekwang; Basile Carrasco, Leonardo A; Rouleau, Christopher M; Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Puretzky, Alexander A; Ivanov, Ilia N; et al

    2015-01-01

    The formation of semiconductor heterojunctions and their high density integration are foundations of modern electronics and optoelectronics. To enable two-dimensional (2D) crystalline semiconductors as building blocks in next generation electronics, developing methods to deterministically form lateral heterojunctions is crucial. Here we demonstrate a process strategy for the formation of lithographically-patterned lateral semiconducting heterojunctions within a single 2D crystal. E-beam lithography is used to pattern MoSe2 monolayer crystals with SiO2, and the exposed locations are selectively and totally converted to MoS2 using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of sulfur in order to form MoSe2/MoS2 heterojunctions in predefined patterns. The junctions and conversionmore »process are characterized by atomically resolved scanning transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy. This demonstration of lateral semiconductor heterojunction arrays within a single 2D crystal is an essential step for the lateral integration of 2D semiconductor building blocks with different electronic and optoelectronic properties for high-density, ultrathin circuitry.« less

  16. Lateralized frontal activity for Japanese phonological processing during child development

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Takaaki; Kita, Yosuke; Suzuki, Kota; Koike, Toshihide; Inagaki, Masumi

    2015-01-01

    Phonological awareness is essential for reading, and is common to all language systems, including alphabetic languages and Japanese. This cognitive factor develops during childhood, and is thought to be associated with shifts in brain activity. However, the nature of this neurobiological developmental shift is unclear for speakers of Japanese, which is not an alphabetical language. The present study aimed to reveal a shift in brain functions for processing phonological information in native-born Japanese children. We conducted a phonological awareness task and examined hemodynamic activity in 103 children aged 7–12 years. While younger children made mistakes and needed more time to sort phonological information in reverse order, older children completed the task quickly and accurately. Additionally, younger children exhibited increased activity in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which may be evidence of immature phonological processing skills. Older children exhibited dominant activity in the left compared with the right DLPFC, suggesting that they had already acquired phonological processing skills. We also found significant effects of age and lateralized activity on behavioral performance. During earlier stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a smaller effect on behavioral performance. Conversely, in later stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a stronger influence on behavioral performance. These initial findings regarding a neurobiological developmental shift in Japanese speakers suggest that common brain regions play a critical role in the development of phonological processing skills among different languages systems, such as Japanese and alphabetical languages. PMID:26236223

  17. The Chinese Calendar of The Later Han Period

    E-print Network

    Aslaksen, Helmer

    The Chinese Calendar of The Later Han Period Undergraduate Research Opportunities Programme would like to learn some basic knowledge in the Chinese calendar, which is an important part of the Chinese culture and Chinese history. However, by the time we decided to take this project, the deadline

  18. Patterned Arrays of Lateral Heterojunctions within Monolayer 2D Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Lin, Ming-Wei; Wang, Kai; Lupini, Andrew R; Lee, Jaekwang; Basile Carrasco, Leonardo A; Rouleau, Christopher M; Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Puretzky, Alexander A; Ivanov, Ilia N; Xiao, Kai; Yoon, Mina; Geohegan, David B

    2015-01-01

    The formation of semiconductor heterojunctions and their high density integration are foundations of modern electronics and optoelectronics. To enable two-dimensional (2D) crystalline semiconductors as building blocks in next generation electronics, developing methods to deterministically form lateral heterojunctions is crucial. Here we demonstrate a process strategy for the formation of lithographically-patterned lateral semiconducting heterojunctions within a single 2D crystal. E-beam lithography is used to pattern MoSe2 monolayer crystals with SiO2, and the exposed locations are selectively and totally converted to MoS2 using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of sulfur in order to form MoSe2/MoS2 heterojunctions in predefined patterns. The junctions and conversion process are characterized by atomically resolved scanning transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy. This demonstration of lateral semiconductor heterojunction arrays within a single 2D crystal is an essential step for the lateral integration of 2D semiconductor building blocks with different electronic and optoelectronic properties for high-density, ultrathin circuitry.

  19. Transitions into and out of Cohabitation in Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Susan L.; Bulanda, Jennifer Roebuck; Lee, Gary R.

    2012-01-01

    Cohabitation among adults over age 50 is rising rapidly, more than doubling from 1.2 million in 2000 to 2.75 million in 2010. A small literature provides a descriptive portrait of older cohabitors, but no study has investigated transitions into and out of cohabitation during later life. Drawing on demographic and life course perspectives, the…

  20. Language Lateralization in Children Using Functional Transcranial Doppler Sonography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haag, Anja; Moeller, Nicola; Knake, Susanne; Hermsen, Anke; Oertel, Wolfgang H.; Rosenow, Felix; Hamer, Hajo M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Language lateralization with functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) and lexical word generation has been shown to have high concordance with the Wada test and functional magnetic resonance imaging in adults. We evaluated a nonlexical paradigm to determine language dominance in children. Method: In 23 right-handed children (12…