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1

Medial humeral condyle fractures in adolescents: treatment and complications.  

PubMed

The very rare isolated medial humeral condyle fractures in children and adolescents pose significant problems to orthopedic surgeons such as ulnar nerve injury, trochlear irregularities, fishtail deformity and motion loss. Six adolescent boys with displaced medial humeral condyle fractures with an average age of 14.8 (range 12-17) were included in this study. Patients were followed-up with a mean of 39.8 months (range 21-72). In three patients, there were clinical signs of ulnar nerve dysfunction at initial presentation. Of these, two had only mild hypoesthesia on the ulnar side. The other patient had sensory and motor loss of ulnar nerve at initial presentation complicated by hypothenar atrophy and anhydrosis during follow-up. Complete recovery was seen in this patient only at 2 years. One patient without a neurologic compliant at initial presentation developed mild hypoesthesia on the ulnarly innervated areas postoperatively with complete resolution. Medial skin incision was used for open reduction and internal fixation. No signs of gross morphologic damage were seen on the nerve. The symptoms resolved postoperatively in 3 months time in three of the patients, but in the remaining one, it took 2 years for complete resolution of the symptoms. Also, trochlear irregularity and fishtail deformity were seen on radiographs of two different patients. In all but one patients, motion loss ranging from 10° to 20° was evident on physical examination. The most important finding of this study revealed that transient ulnar nerve dysfunction was seen two-thirds of the patients in this series than any other series reported previously. In three series, only one case of ulnar nerve injury was reported from a total of 19 patients. A possible explanation for such a difference may be the older age in this series. PMID:23934502

Sa?lam, Necdet; Saka, Gürsel; Kurtulmu?, Tuhan; Cem Co?kun, Avc?; Türker, Mehmet

2014-10-01

2

Quantifying lateral femoral condyle ellipticalness in chimpanzees, gorillas, and humans.  

PubMed

Articular surfaces of limb bones provide information for understanding animal locomotion because their size and shape are a reflection of habitual postures and movements. Here we present a novel method for quantifying the ellipticalness (i.e., departure from perfectly circular) of the lateral femoral condyle (LFC), applying this technique to hominid femora. Three-dimensional surface models were created for 49 Homo sapiens, 34 Pan troglodytes and 25 Gorilla gorilla femora. Software was developed that fit separate cylinders to each of the femoral condyles. These cylinders were constrained to have a single axis, but could have different radii. The cylinder fit to the LFC was allowed to assume an elliptical cross-section, while the cylinder fit to the medial condyle was constrained to remain circular. The shape of the elliptical cylinder (ratio of the major and minor axes of the ellipse) was recorded, and the orientation of the elliptical cylinder quantified as angles between the major axis of the ellipse and the anatomical and mechanical axes of the femur. Species were compared using analysis of variance and post hoc multiple comparisons tests. Confirming qualitative descriptions, human LFCs are more elliptical than those of chimpanzees and gorillas. Human femora exhibit a narrow range for the angle between the major axis of the elliptical cylinder and femoral axes. Conversely, the chimpanzee sample is bimodal for these angles, exhibiting two ellipse orientations, while Gorilla shows no preferred angle. Our results suggest that like modern human femora, chimpanzee femoral condyles have preferentially used regions. PMID:23042636

Sylvester, Adam D; Pfisterer, Theresa

2012-11-01

3

Sex determination using discriminant analysis of the medial and lateral condyles of the femur in Koreans.  

PubMed

The proximal and distal parts of the femur show the differences between the sexes. Head diameter and the breadth of the epicondyle of the femur are known to distinguish males from females. The proximal end of the femur is studied to determine sex using discriminant analysis but; its distal end is not done. This study aims to develop an equation specific to Koreans by using the medial and lateral condyles of the femur, and to demonstrate the usefulness of equations for specific population groups. We used three-dimensional images from 202 Korean femurs. Twelve variables were measured with a computer program after the femurs were in alignment. Eleven variables showed a statistically significant difference between the sexes (P<0.01). The most accurate equation used width of the medial and lateral condyles (WDC), with of the medial condyle (WMC), depth of the lateral condyle (DLC), and depth of the intercondylar notch (DIN) (94.1%), and is as follows: D = 0.336 × WDC + (-0.097) × WMC + (-0.153) × DLC + 0.372 × DIN - 20.912. The second highest accuracy was 90.1% for the width dimensional group and WDC. This study shows that the medial and lateral condyles of the femur should be helpful for sex determination in situations where the skull and pelvis are missing and part of the femur is available. The study also demonstrates the need for different equations for different population groups. PMID:24314510

Kim, Deog-Im; Kwak, Dai-Soon; Han, Seung-Ho

2013-12-10

4

Selective lateral muscle activation in moderate medial knee osteoarthritis subjects does not unload medial knee condyle  

E-print Network

Selective lateral muscle activation in moderate medial knee osteoarthritis subjects does not unload medial knee condyle Scott C.E. Brandon a,n , Ross H. Miller a , Darryl G. Thelen b , Kevin J. Deluzio Model Knee Contact a b s t r a c t There is some debate in the literature regarding the role

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

5

Quantitative proteomics reveals regulatory differences in the chondrocyte secretome from human medial and lateral femoral condyles in osteoarthritic patients  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is a destructive joint disease and there are no known biomarkers available for an early diagnosis. To identify potential disease biomarkers and gain further insight into the disease mechanisms of OA we applied quantitative proteomics with SILAC technology on the secretomes from chondrocytes of OA knees, designated as high Mankin (HM) scored secretome. A quantitative comparison was made between the secretomes of the medial and lateral femur condyle chondrocytes in the same knee since the medial femur condyle is usually more affected in OA than the lateral condyle, which was confirmed by Mankin scoring. The medial/lateral comparison was also made on the secretomes from chondrocytes taken from one individual with no clinically apparent joint-disease, designated as low Mankin (LM) scored secretome. Results We identified 825 proteins in the HM secretome and 69 of these showed differential expression when comparing the medial and lateral femoral compartment. The LM scored femoral condyle showed early signs of OA in the medial compartment as assessed by Mankin score. We here report the identification and relative quantification of several proteins of interest for the OA disease mechanism e.g. CYTL1, DMD and STAB1 together with putative early disease markers e.g. TIMP1, PPP2CA and B2M. Conclusions The present study reveals differences in protein abundance between medial/lateral femur condyles in OA patients. These regulatory differences expand the knowledge regarding OA disease markers and mechanisms. PMID:24090399

2013-01-01

6

The prevalence and causation of tennis elbow (lateral humeral epicondylitis) in a population of workers in an engineering industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateral humeral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) is often considered to be work related but the incidence and prevalence among industrial workers has not previously been studiedIn this study the prevalence of this condition and its relationship to some work factors was investigated in 540 workers in a modern engineering industryThe prevalence was 7-4% (40\\/540). Work was found to be the probable

LENNART DIMBERG

1987-01-01

7

Humeral Lateral Epicondylitis Complicated by Hydroxyapatite Dihydrite Deposition Disease: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this case report is to differentiate the recovery timeline expected for patients with simple lateral epicondylitis from an abnormal recovery period, in which case an underlying condition should be suspected. Clinical features A 49-year-old woman presented to a chiropractic clinic with posterolateral right elbow pain. The history included chronic recurrent lateral elbow pain, followed by a traumatic event leading to sustained pain and disability. Intervention and outcomes Following a trial of conservative therapy including activity restrictions, soft tissue therapy, joint mobilizations, and therapeutic ultrasonography that led to no significant improvement, the patient was referred for diagnostic imaging that revealed hydroxyapatite dihydrite deposition disease. Conclusion This report describes a case for which lateral epicondylitis symptoms failed to resolve because of an underlying condition (hydroxyapatite dihydrite deposition disease). This case emphasizes that primary care practitioners treating lateral epicondylitis should consider referral for further investigations when positive results are not achieved. PMID:24711788

Marchand, Andree-Anne; O'Shaughnessy, Julie; Descarreaux, Martin

2014-01-01

8

Decreased scapular notching with lateralization and inferior baseplate placement in reverse shoulder arthroplasty with high humeral inclination  

PubMed Central

Background: Scapular notching is a radiographic finding of unknown clinical significance following reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA). The purpose of this study was to determine how baseplate position affects the incidence of scapular notching and measure the clinical outcomes. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that low base plate position on the glenoid and new prosthesis design with a higher humeral inclination angle would decrease the incidence of notching at 2 years follow-up. Materials and methods: A total of 54 patients with an average follow-up of 30 months met inclusion criteria and underwent radiographic analysis of scapular notching and radiographic measures to determine glenoid component placement. Clinical measures including visual analog score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores, and range of motion (ROM) were prospectively collected. Results: Thirty-nine of the 54 patients had no notching. 7 had Grade 1 notching, 7 had Grade 2 notching, one had Grade 3, and one had Grade 4 notching. Notching was associated with higher placement of the glenoid component as measured by peg-glenoid rim distance and base plate distance. All patients with no evidence of notching at 1-year, continued to have no notching after multi-year follow-up. Clinical outcome measures including ASES scores, ROM, and visual analog pain scores were improved at follow-up. Conclusion: We concluded that lower neck-shaft angle and low baseplate positioning led to a low incidence of significant scapular notching as only 6 out of 57 (16%) patients had notching Grade 2 and above. At short-term follow-up, this RTSA results in excellent clinical outcomes and a significantly lower scapular notching rate than traditional techniques. PMID:25258496

Feeley, Brian T.; Zhang, Alan L.; Barry, Jeffery J.; Shin, Edward; Ho, Julianne; Tabaraee, Ehsan; Ma, C. Benjamin

2014-01-01

9

Bone peg fixation of a large chondral fragment in the weight-bearing portion of the lateral femoral condyle in an adolescent: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Chondral fracture of the knee is relatively rare and the optimal treatment option for this injury is still controversial. In this report, we present the case of a patient with this injury who was treated surgically using the bone peg fixation procedure. There has been no literature reporting the use of this technique for fixation of a detached chondral fragment. Case presentation The patient was a 14-year-old Japanese boy who sustained a knee injury while kicking a soccer ball. Although routine radiographs showed no abnormality, magnetic resonance imaging showed a large full-thickness chondral defect in the weight-bearing portion of his lateral femoral condyle and a detached chondral fragment in the anterior region. The size of the defect (fragment) was 2cm by 1.5cm. At surgery, the chondral fragment was fixed with eight cortical bone pegs that were harvested from the anteromedial aspect of his tibia. Conclusions The postoperative magnetic resonance imaging at 4 months and the second-look arthroscopy at 12 months revealed apparent healing of the fragment. In the final follow-up examination at 26 months, a physical examination showed no swelling with recovery of full range of motion, and he could play soccer at the pre-injury level with no complaint. Based on the clinical course of this patient, it is thought that bone peg fixation can be a valuable option for fixation of a large chondral fracture of the knee. PMID:25248689

2014-01-01

10

Results of treatment of displaced supracondylar humeral fractures in children by percutaneous lateral cross-wiring technique  

PubMed Central

Seventy children with displaced type II and III supracondylar fractures of the humerus were managed with percutaneous lateral cross-wiring technique from January 2006 to January 2007. There were 54 boys and 16 girls with a mean age of 6.1 ± 3.07 years. All patients were operated within 24 h after trauma using the Dorgans percutaneous lateral cross-wiring technique. Patients were followed up for a mean period of 6.1 ± 2.6 months and assessed both radiologically for union; and functionally and cosmetically according to Flynn’s criteria. All patients achieved solid union. Functionally, all patients achieved satisfactory results, while cosmetically, 91.4% of patients had satisfactory results and 8.6% had unsatisfactory results. The most frequently occurring complications were minor pin tract infection in six patients, deep infection in two patients, and 32 patients suffered excessive granulation tissue formation mostly around the proximal pin. There was no iatrogenic neurological injury either for the ulnar or for the radial nerves. The obtained results and minor complications reported signify this technique as a viable treatment method for displaced type II and III supracondylar fractures in children. PMID:18427917

El-Adl, Wael A.; El-Said, Mohammed A.; Ali, Al-Sayed M.

2008-01-01

11

Hypoplastic occipital condyle and third occipital condyle: review of their dysembryology.  

PubMed

Disruption or embryologic derailment of the normal bony architecture of the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) may result in symptoms. As studies of the embryology and pathology of hypoplasia of the occipital condyles and third occipital condyles are lacking in the literature, the present review was performed. Standard search engines were accessed and queried for publications regarding hypoplastic occipital condyles and third occipital condyles. The literature supports the notion that occipital condyle hypoplasia and a third occipital condyle are due to malformation or persistence of the proatlas, respectively. The Pax-1 gene is most likely involved in this process. Clinically, condylar hypoplasia may narrow the foramen magnum and lead to lateral medullary compression. Additionally, this maldevelopment can result in transient vertebral artery compression secondary to posterior subluxation of the occiput. Third occipital condyles have been associated with cervical canal stenosis, hypoplasia of the dens, transverse ligament laxity, and atlanto-axial instability causing acute and chronic spinal cord compression. Treatment goals are focused on craniovertebral stability. A better understanding of the embryology and pathology related to CVJ anomalies is useful to the clinician treating patients presenting with these entities. PMID:23338989

Tubbs, R Shane; Lingo, Patrick Ryan; Mortazavi, Martin M; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

2013-11-01

12

Occipital condyle syndrome: self diagnosed  

PubMed Central

We present the case of a 71-year-old man who presented to us with unilateral lower motor neuron hypoglossal palsy along with the characteristic occipital headache. He himself forwarded a paper on occipital condyle syndrome to the clinician who initially reviewed him. Later the patient underwent a series of investigations that confirmed the diagnosis of underlying prostatic carcinoma with widespread metastasis to bones including the base of the skull. Seven months after the diagnosis he is doing well, his headache is much better and the tongue deviation is stable. He was initially treated with tapering doses of dexamethasone and is currently receiving the depo gonadorelin analogue leuprorelin. PMID:21686711

Saraswat, Manoj Kumar; Perera, Ranjit W; Renwick, Ian; Zuromskis, Tadas; Singh, Vijay; Jones, Edward

2009-01-01

13

Central chondrosarcoma of a pediatric mandibular condyle: A case report and review  

PubMed Central

Chondrosarcoma of mandibular condyle is an extremely rare clinical entity with only 18 cases reported till date. We report a rare case of central myxoid chondrosarcoma in a 7 year old male child with a complaint of slow growing bony hard swelling of left mandibular condyle. Panoramic radiography and CT scan revealed a 5×3cm osteosclerotic and osteolytic lesion with cortical perforation on the medial side of the left mandibular condyle with a cortical expansion of lateral side. Segmental mandibulectomy with disarticulation of the left condyle was done. To the best of our knowledge it is the first case of chondrosarcoma of the paediatric mandibular condyle to be reported. The etiopathogenesis, clinical, radiological diagnosis and various treatment modalities of chondrosarcoma are discussed PMID:24987606

Kumar Reddy, D. Sathya; Kishore Kumar, R. V.; Gali, Rajasekhar; Kannubaddy, Sridhar Reddy; Rao, Mallikarjuna; Akheel, Mohammad

2014-01-01

14

Posterior minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis for humeral shaft fractures.  

PubMed

Fractures of the humeral shaft are common. Most of them can be successfully treated without surgery. In some cases, an operative intervention may offer faster and better functional results. One of the major problems with the open plating osteosynthesis is the extensive soft tissue stripping and disruption of periosteal circulation, caused by extensive surgical exposure, resulting in a relatively high rate of nonunion. Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) techniques were developed to achieve a biologic fixation, although minimizing the complications of an open reduction. The incisions are small and remote from the fracture site to avoid direct fracture exposure. Thereby, MIPO technique obtains, theoretically, higher rates of union, lower infection risk, and decreases the need for bone graft. In the last years, MIPO has gained popularity with satisfactory clinical outcomes in the treatment of long bone fractures, especially in lower extremity. MIPO for humeral shaft fractures, however, could be a surgically dangerous procedure because of the risk of radial nerve injury. It was described by anterior and lateral approach. Humeral middle shaft fractures are possible to treat with a MIPO technique through an anterior, lateral, or a posterior approach. However, when the fracture is near the olecranon fossa, anterior approach is not possible as there is not enough space in the distal fragment to insert the amount of screws required to achieve stability. In this case, the posterior approach may be a good option for treatment. This article describes the MIPO technique through a posterior approach for the treatment of humeral shaft fractures. PMID:24458002

Gallucci, Gerardo; Boretto, Jorge; Vujovich, Andrea; Alfie, Verónica; Donndorff, Agustín; De Carli, Pablo

2014-03-01

15

The patella and tibial condyle position after combined and after closing wedge high tibial osteotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

High tibial osteotomy changes the patella and tibial condyle position, which makes the subsequent total knee replacement technically\\u000a demanding. From 1 January 1993 to 31 December 2000, combined osteotomy [After the first osteotomy made 2 cm distally to the\\u000a joint line, a bone wedge is removed based laterally. Its tip ends at the center of the tibial condyle (half bone wedge).

Miklós Papp; Zoltán Csernátony; Sándor Kazai; Zoltán Károlyi; László Róde

2007-01-01

16

21 CFR 872.3960 - Mandibular condyle prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Mandibular condyle prosthesis. 872.3960 Section 872.3960... § 872.3960 Mandibular condyle prosthesis. (a) Identification. A mandibular condyle prosthesis is a device that is intended to...

2010-04-01

17

Extra Corporeal Fixation of Fractured Mandibular Condyle  

PubMed Central

Condylar fracture is the second most common site in the mandibular fractures. Motor vehicle accident and fall are the major causes of such fractures. Because of the anatomical weakness of the condyle and the shape of the condylar head the antero-medial dislocation of the condyle is common. Open reduction and closed reduction is always debatable. The open reduction will bring back the normal function much earlier than closed reduction. Medially dislocated condylar fracture fragments are always managed with open method. In superior or high condylar fractures,exact reduction with conventional open reduction can be difficult due to the limited surgical and visual fields. In such cases extracorporeal fixation of condyle using vertical ramus osteotomy may be better choice to achieve perfect alignment and absolute maintaince of vertical height of the ramus and facial symmetry. We here present a case of extracorporeal fixation of unilateral left high condylar fracture. PMID:25386546

Shenoy K, Vandana; Kengagsubbiah, Srivatsa; V, Sathyabhama; Priya, Vishnu

2014-01-01

18

Arterial blood supply of the proximal humeral epiphysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The arterial blood supply of the proximal humeral epiphysis is known to derive mainly from the anterior humeral circumflex a. (ACA), but this description may minimize the role of the posterior circumflex humeral a. (PCA). The studies of Laing [9] and Gerber [3] emphasized the role of the ACA and of its branches, the ascending anterolateral artery and arcuate artery

F. Duparc; J.-M. Muller; P. Frçger

2001-01-01

19

Revision of humeral components in shoulder arthroplasty.  

PubMed

Revision of a shoulder arthroplasty often requires removal of a well fixed humeral component. Revision of this component can be quite easy in the case of a non-infected platform stem or be very difficult when removal of a well cemented or on-growth stem with distal texturing is required. The purpose of this paper is to provide a series of techniques designed for revision of the humeral component in shoulder arthroplasty. Revision of the stem can be easy with a non-infected platform stem only requiring exchange of the epiphyseal component. Some stems, usually uncemented, can readily be removed from a proximal only approach. Stems with excellent cement mantles may require a longitudinal only split in the humerus done with minimal stripping of the brachialis. If complete cement removal is needed for infection or there is distal stem on growth, then a vascularized door technique is indicated. These techniques are explained in detail in this manuscript. PMID:24328586

Wright, Thomas W

2013-01-01

20

Craniocervical junction trauma with occipital condyle fracture; case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Authors present the case of a unilateral occipital condyle fracture diagnosed with computed tomography (CT) in a motor vehicle\\u000a accident victim. Patient had unilateral occipital condyle fracture with inferomedially displaced bone fragment, a type 3 fracture\\u000a according to the Anderson and Montesano classification of occipital condyle fractures, bilaterally widened occipitoatlantal\\u000a joint space, and head mowed forward in relation to the

Ivan Žokalj; Hussein Saghir; Jasminka Igrec; Zlatko Pav?ec

2010-01-01

21

Comminuted periprosthetic humeral fracture after reverse shoulder prosthesis.  

PubMed

Periprosthetic fractures represent a severe complication after joint replacement. A case of comminuted displaced humeral fracture around the stem of a SMR reverse shoulder prosthesis is reported. The patient was a 81-year-old lady who had had a total shoulder replacement 28 months previously. The surgical solution consisted of a partial revision of the modular implant with conservation not only of the glenoid component but also of the prosthetic humeral body, which was well fixed in the humeral metaphysis. The humeral stem was removed and a long uncemented revision stem was implanted providing fracture stabilisation and allowing early mobilisation. PMID:19711175

Sommacal, Renato; Bloch, Hans Rudolph; Ghidelli, Adriana; Bettelli, Graziano; Dalla Pria, Paolo

2009-04-01

22

Humeral head translation after a suprascapular nerve block.  

PubMed

Subacromial impingement syndrome is the most common shoulder disorder. Abnormal superior translation of the humeral head is believed to be a major cause of this pathology. The first purpose of the study was to examine the effects of suprascapular nerve block on superior translation of the humeral head and scapular upward rotation during dynamic shoulder elevation. The secondary purpose was to assess muscle activation patterns during these motions. Twenty healthy subjects participated in the study. Using fluoroscopy and electromyography, humeral head translation and muscle activation were measured before and after a suprascapular nerve block. The humeral head was superiorly located at 60 degrees of humeral elevation, and the scapula was more upwardly rotated from 30 to 90 degrees of humeral elevation after the block. The differences were observed during midrange of motion. In addition, the deltoid muscle group demonstrated increased muscle activation after the nerve block. The study's results showed a compensatory increase in humeral head translation, scapular upward rotation, and deltoid muscle activation due to the nerve block. These outcomes suggest that increasing muscular strength and endurance of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles could prevent any increased superior humeral head translation. This may be beneficial in reducing shoulder impingement or rotator cuff tears over time. PMID:22927503

San Juan, Jun G; Kosek, Peter; Karduna, Andrew R

2013-08-01

23

Scapular kinematics during humeral elevation in adults and children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Appropriate motion of the scapula is important for dynamic positioning of the glenoid during humeral elevation. A number of studies have described the typical scapular kinematics during humeral elevation in adults. However, children and adults may have differences in scapulothoracic musculature and scapular osteology. To our knowledge, no study has been performed examining scapular kinematics in children with either

Sudarshan Dayanidhi; Margo Orlin; Scott Kozin; Susan Duff; Andrew Karduna

2005-01-01

24

Aplasia of the mandibular condyle associated with some orthopaedic abnormalities.  

PubMed

A rare case of aplasia of mandibular condyle associated with some other orthopaedic problems is presented. A 5-year-old boy attended our clinic with a chief complaint of facial asymmetry and chewing difficulty. The mandible was deviated to the left. The occlusion also showed a deflection to the left of the mandibular midline. He also had walking difficulty owing to a hip abnormality. Panoramic radiographic examination of the patient revealed that the left mandibular condyl was totally absent. The right condyle was unremarkable. His history revealed neither trauma nor any significant disease. Aplasia is a rare anomaly and means the insufficient development of the mandibular condyle. True agnesis of the mandibular condyle is extremely rare. Association of the manifestations of the patient with some orthopaedic problems makes this case interesting. PMID:22116127

Canger, E M; Celenk, P

2012-03-01

25

Bilateral bifid mandibular condyles diagnosed with three-dimensional reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Bifid mandibular condyles (BMCs) are rare anomalies. The overwhelming majority of prior reports described their predominantly unilateral occurrence diagnosed by panoramic radiography. We present an even rarer case of bilateral BMC initially identified by panoramic radiography and confirmed with colour-enhanced three-dimensional CT. These images substantiate the theory that the secondary condyles arise from the neck of the mandible (Lopez-Lopez et al. Bifid condyle: review of the literature of the last 10 years and report of two cases. Cianio 2010; 28: 136–140). PMID:22241877

Tanner, JM; Friedlander, AH; Chang, TI

2012-01-01

26

The operative treatment of diaphyseal humeral shaft fractures.  

PubMed

Fractures of the humeral shaft comprise 1% to 3% of all fractures. Incidence rates reveal a bimodal distribution in which there is one small peak during adolescence, followed by a larger spike during the fifth and sixth decades of life. Most humeral diaphysis fractures are simple patterns of the mid-diaphysis. This article emphasizes surgical approaches to humeral fractures, providing a review of the surgical spectrum of treatment inclusive of intramedullary nailing and plating, but also includes a brief discussion of the conservative approach. PMID:18054671

Cole, Peter A; Wijdicks, Coen A

2007-11-01

27

TMJ in facial class III deformity. Condyle/fossa relations  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to ascertain the joint space present in the TMJ of subjects diagnosed with Class III dentofacial deformity with an indication for orthognathic surgery. Fourteen subjects were recruited from the Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at the Universidad de La Frontera, Chile. All subjects were admitted to the study after signing an informed consent and undergoing cephalometric analyses to define the severity of the deformity. Then, the joint space was analyzed, studying a cone beam CT image of the TMJ, which was evaluated in the coronal and sagittal views, defining the most anterior, median and posterior joint space (sagittal view), as well as the lateral, median and medial joint space (coronal view). The data were recorded in millimeters by an observer and data were analyzed after measuring the same parameter at three different times. A student’s t-test was used for the analyses. Differences observed in both joints were not greater than 0.2 mm with spaces between 2 mm and 1.5 mm, thereby establishing the homogeneity of the sample, which presented no significant differences between the two joint spaces (right and left). It can be concluded that the joint space is symmetrical in both condyles and that no important changes are present compared to the results indicated in the international literature.

Munoz, Gonzalo; Olate, Sergio; Cantin, Mario; Vasquez, Belgica; del Sol, Mariano; Farina, Rodrigo

2014-01-01

28

21 CFR 872.4770 - Temporary mandibular condyle reconstruction plate.  

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL...that is intended to stabilize mandibular bone and provide for temporary reconstruction...of the mandibular condyle and mandibular bone. This device is not intended for...

2014-04-01

29

Osteochondroma of condyle: case discussion and review of treatment modalities.  

PubMed

Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) forms a synovial articulation between the condyle and the cranium. It is a complex joint and shows hinge and gliding movements. Unlike other articulating heads, condyle grows with intramembranous ossification. TMJ is subjected to excessive loads throughout life as it supports essential functions such as mastication, deglutition, speech and respiration. Traumatic, neoplastic or non-neoplastic pathologies sometimes necessitate joint replacement therapy. Osteochondroma is one such benign tumour originating from condyle which requires surgical replacement of condyle with prosthesis. Various replacement methods have been designed in the past. Alloplastic grafts have been successfully used in joint replacement surgeries like hip joint, knee joint, etc. This case discussion supports the use of titanium-made condylar prosthesis for long-term functional stability of TMJ. PMID:24496065

Arora, Piyush; Deora, Shakti Singh; Kiran, Shital; Bargale, Seema Dinesh

2014-01-01

30

Humeral torsion and passive shoulder range in elite volleyball players  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo evaluate variations in humeral torsion in elite male volleyball players and determine whether these changes are related to training history, retrospective injury history and volleyball performance.

Laura M. Schwab; Peter Blanch

2009-01-01

31

Myositis ossificans of the humeral insertion of pectoralis major  

PubMed Central

We report on a rare case of myositis ossificans of the humeral insertion of pectoralis major muscle following a single episode of trauma which, to our knowledge, has not previously been documented. PMID:25114419

Mogere, Viga; Thyagarajan, David S. K.; Fairbairn, K. Julia; Wallace, Angus

2014-01-01

32

Myositis ossificans of the humeral insertion of pectoralis major.  

PubMed

We report on a rare case of myositis ossificans of the humeral insertion of pectoralis major muscle following a single episode of trauma which, to our knowledge, has not previously been documented. PMID:25114419

Mogere, Viga; Thyagarajan, David S K; Fairbairn, K Julia; Wallace, Angus

2014-04-01

33

CT scan method accurately assesses humeral head retroversion.  

PubMed

Humeral head retroversion is not well described with the literature controversial regarding accuracy of measurement methods and ranges of normal values. We therefore determined normal humeral head retroversion and assessed the measurement methods. We measured retroversion in 65 cadaveric humeri, including 52 paired specimens, using four methods: radiographic, computed tomography (CT) scan, computer-assisted, and direct methods. We also assessed the distance between the humeral head central axis and the bicipital groove. CT scan methods accurately measure humeral head retroversion, while radiographic methods do not. The retroversion with respect to the transepicondylar axis was 17.9 degrees and 21.5 degrees with respect to the trochlear tangent axis. The difference between the right and left humeri was 8.9 degrees. The distance between the central axis of the humeral head and the bicipital groove was 7.0 mm and was consistent between right and left humeri. Humeral head retroversion may be most accurately obtained using the patient's own anatomic landmarks or, if not, identifiable retroversion as measured by those landmarks on contralateral side or the bicipital groove. PMID:18264854

Boileau, P; Bicknell, R T; Mazzoleni, N; Walch, G; Urien, J P

2008-03-01

34

CT Scan Method Accurately Assesses Humeral Head Retroversion  

PubMed Central

Humeral head retroversion is not well described with the literature controversial regarding accuracy of measurement methods and ranges of normal values. We therefore determined normal humeral head retroversion and assessed the measurement methods. We measured retroversion in 65 cadaveric humeri, including 52 paired specimens, using four methods: radiographic, computed tomography (CT) scan, computer-assisted, and direct methods. We also assessed the distance between the humeral head central axis and the bicipital groove. CT scan methods accurately measure humeral head retroversion, while radiographic methods do not. The retroversion with respect to the transepicondylar axis was 17.9° and 21.5° with respect to the trochlear tangent axis. The difference between the right and left humeri was 8.9°. The distance between the central axis of the humeral head and the bicipital groove was 7.0 mm and was consistent between right and left humeri. Humeral head retroversion may be most accurately obtained using the patient’s own anatomic landmarks or, if not, identifiable retroversion as measured by those landmarks on contralateral side or the bicipital groove. PMID:18264854

Boileau, P.; Mazzoleni, N.; Walch, G.; Urien, J. P.

2008-01-01

35

Scapular-Positioning Patterns During Humeral Elevation in Unimpaired Shoulders  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess scapular-positioning patterns using a static measurement technique. Design and Setting: We used a 4–within-factor design to compare scapular upward rotation among subjects. The within factors included side (dominant, nondominant), plane of motion (scapular, sagittal), direction of motion (ascending, descending), and level of humeral rotation (rest, 30°, 60°, 90°, 120°). Subjects: Twenty-seven subjects with unimpaired shoulders. Measurements: We measured scapular position and glenohumeral range of motion using a digital inclinometer and goniometer, respectively. All measurements were performed bilaterally. Results: Between-session repeatability was poor to excellent depending on humeral-elevation angle. The scapular plane demonstrated significantly more scapular upward rotation than did the sagittal plane at 120° of humeral elevation. Conclusions: The scapula demonstrated a consistent pattern of downward rotation initially from rest to 30° of humeral elevation, followed by an upward rotation after 30° of humeral elevation to the highest level (120°). Scapular upward rotation is greater in the scapular plane than in the sagittal plane. Therefore, overhead rehabilitation exercises should be performed in the scapular plane, especially in subjects with rotator cuff tendinopathy. PMID:12937466

Timmons, Mark K.; Sauers, Eric L.

2003-01-01

36

Orthopaedic Approaches to Proximal Humeral Fractures Following Trauma  

PubMed Central

Proximal humeral fractures have been a topic of discussion in medical literature dating back as far as 3rd century BC. Today, these fractures are the most common type of humeral fractures and account for about 5-6% of all fractures in adults with the incidence rising rapidly with age. In broad terms the management of proximal humeral fractures can be divided into two categories: conservative versus surgical intervention. The aim of treatment is to stabilize the fracture, aid better union and reduce pain during the healing process. Failure to achieve this can result in impairment of function, and significantly weaken the muscles inserting onto the proximal humerus. With the rising incidence of proximal humeral fractures, especially among the elderly, the short and long term burden for patients as well as the wider society is increasing. Furthermore, there is a lack of consistency in the definitive treatment and management of displaced fractures. This systematic review of literature compares the surgical treatment of proximal humeral fractures with their conservative management, by evaluating the available randomised controlled trials on this topic. PMID:25408786

Mafi, Reza; Khan, Wasim; Mafi, Pouya; Hindocha, Sandip

2014-01-01

37

Conservative orthodontic treatment of mandibular bilateral condyle fracture.  

PubMed

Maxillofacial trauma is rare in children younger than the age of 5 years (range 0.6%-1.2%), and they can require different clinical treatment strategies compared with fractures in the adult population because of concerns regarding mandibular growth and development of dentition. A 5-year-old girl with a history of falling from a bicycle 7 hours earlier was referred to the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery. Multislice computed tomographic examination demonstrated a bilateral fracture of the mandibular condyle neck associated with minimal fracture of the alveolar ridge of the maxilla. The multislice computed tomographic scan also demonstrated dislocation on the right condyle neck and, on the left side, a medial inclination of approximately 45 degrees associated with greenstick fracture of the right parasymphysis region. In this particular case, orthodontic rubber elastics in combination with fixed orthodontic brackets provided good results in the treatment of bilateral condyle neck fractures associated with greenstick fracture of parasymphysis. PMID:25098573

Gašpar, Goran; Brakus, Ivan; Kova?i?, Ivan

2014-09-01

38

Dislocation of the mandibular condyle into the middle cranial fossa.  

PubMed

Dislocation of the mandibular condyle into the middle cranial fossa is an uncommon event. A case report is presented based on a patient (32-year-old female) who sustained a traumatic left condyle fracture with superior dislocation into the middle cranial fossa due to a high-speed car accident. The diagnosis was done four months after trauma. Via a preauricular approach, left condylectomy and transposition of temporal muscle flap was performed. Postoperatively, the patient stayed for two weeks with intermaxillary fixation and four months of physical therapy. PMID:16770205

Clauser, Luigi; Tieghi, Riccardo; Polito, Jessica; Galiè, Manlio

2006-05-01

39

Pinning technique for shoulder fractures in adolescents: computer modelling of percutaneous pinning of proximal humeral fractures  

PubMed Central

Background In the technique of percuatenous pinning of proximal humerus fractures, the appropriate entry site and trajectory of pins is unknown, especially in the adolescent population. We sought to determine the ideal entry site and trajectory of pins. Methods We used magnetic resonance images of nonfractured shoulders in conjunction with radiographs of shoulder fractures that were treated with closed reduction and pinning to construct 3-dimensional computer-generated models. We used engineering software to determine the ideal location of pins. We also conducted a literature review. Results The nonfractured adolescent shoulder has an articular surface diameter of 41.3 mm, articular surface thickness of 17.4 mm and neck shaft angle of 36°. Although adolescents and adults have relatively similar shoulder skeletal anatomy, they suffer different types of fractures. In our study, 14 of 16 adolescents suffered Salter–Harris type II fractures. The ideal location for the lateral 2 pins in an anatomically reduced shoulder fracture is 4.4 cm and 8.0 cm from the proximal part of the humeral head directed at 21.2° in the coronal plane relative to the humeral shaft. Conclusion Operative management of proximal humerus fractures in adolescents requires knowledge distinct from that required for adult patients. This is the first study to examine the anatomy of the nonfractured proximal humerus in adolescents. This is also the first study to attempt to model the positioning of percutaneous proximal humerus pins. PMID:20011155

Mehin, Ramin; Mehin, Afshin; Wickham, David; Letts, Merv

2009-01-01

40

A simple technique for double plating of extraarticular distal humeral shaft fractures.  

PubMed

Plate fixation of extraarticular distal humeral shaft fracture is often difficult. Traditional techniques do not allow for stable fixation. A single DCP plate may have inadequate purchase in the distal fragment. The use of large plates extending distally over the lateral supracondylar ridge is often associated with pain and sometimes interferes with elbow range of motion. In this study, 22 patients with extra articular distal humeral fractures were managed with dual plating using a paratricipital approach. The first plate--a narrow DCP--was fixed on the dorsal surface of the humerus. The second plate--a small 3.5 reconstruction plate--was fixed on the dorsolateral surface. Elbow motion was started immediately after surgery. The average follow-up duration was 25 months. The mean elbow flexion/extension are was 4 degrees to 138 degrees. Infection was reported in two cases and was managed successfully with conservative measures. Postoperative radial nerve contusion was reported in one case with complete resolution within 3 months. PMID:23409564

Sharaby, Mohamed; Elhawary, Ahmed

2012-12-01

41

Humeral lengthening by distraction osteogenesis: a safe procedure?  

PubMed

This study was conducted to assess the safety of humeral lengthening using an Ilizarov frame. We retrospectively reviewed 26 humeral segments in 17 patients that were lengthened at our department between 1993 and 2011. There were varying aetiologies including achondroplasia, epiphyseal dysplasia, Oilier disease, trauma or infection of the proximal humeral growth-plate, unicameral bone cyst and brachial plexus injury. Mean age at start of surgery was 17.05 years (range : 5-40). The mean lengthening achieved was 8.85 (3-13) cm. Mean lengthening percentage was 353% (range : 10-48). Average healing index was 30.56 days/cm (range : 17.46-4232). There was a significant difference in healing index between achondroplasia patients (28.79 days/cm) compared to others (33.41 days/cm). Minor problems included pin tract infection (14 segments). More important obstacles were temporary elbow flexion contracture (7 segments), premature consolidation (6 segments), radial nerve dysaesthesia (6 segments) and loosening of a Schanz screw (1 segment). Complications included one fracture and one progressive bowing after frame removal. One planned lengthening was not completely achieved. Despite a lot of obstacles, humeral lengthening using an Ilizarov frame provided a reliable method to treat the functional or cosmetic problems of upper limb shortening. PMID:24563967

Ruette, Peter; Lammens, Johan

2013-12-01

42

Internal fixation of proximal humeral fractures with locking proximal humeral plate (LPHP) in elderly patients with osteoporosis  

PubMed Central

Background Different operative techniques used for treating displaced proximal humeral fractures could result in malunion, non-union, osteonecrosis of humeral head, loosening of screw and loss of reduction particularly in comminuted and osteoporotic fractures. Locking compression plate (LPHP) has been proposed for open reduction and internal fixation of these fractures and is associated with less complication rate. Materials and methods We prospectively assessed the functional outcome and the complications after an average follow-up of 24.9 months in 25 patients of proximal humeral fractures with osteoporosis. Mean age was 62 years. Using AO classification, 48% were type A and 52% type B. Results Mean constant score was 80 points. According to constant score, 28% had excellent outcome, 64% had good functional outcome, and 8% had moderate outcome. When the results were related to grades of osteoporosis, grade IV osteoporotic fractures had highest average Constant–Murley score (83 points, range 78–88 points), followed by grade III osteoporotic fractures (80 points, range 71–92 points), followed by grade II osteoporotic fractures (78 points, range 66–88 points). Varus malalignment and subacromial impingement were observed in 8% patients. Loosening of implant and loss of reduction were observed in 4% patients. Superficial infection was observed in 4% patients. Conclusions Locking compression plate (LPHP) is an advantageous implant in proximal humeral fractures due to angular stability, particularly in comminuted fractures and in osteoporotic bones in elderly patients, thus allowing early mobilization. PMID:19384611

Singh, Roop; Rohilla, Rajesh Kumar; Kadian, Virender Singh; Sangwan, Sukhbir Singh; Dhanda, Manjeet

2008-01-01

43

Assessing the mobility of the mandibular condyle by sonography  

PubMed Central

Purpose Traditionally, the measurement of the maximal mouth opening was regarded as the mobility of the temporomandibular joint. The information, however, was not reliable. Sonography was often used to diagnose disc displacement in the temporomandibular joint and its validity was well established. The tool was also appropriate for measuring the outcome of temporomandibular disorders management. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to examine completely the reliability and error for evaluating the mobility of the mandibular condyle by sonography. In addition, the existing methods were modified to improve the repeatability. Patients and methods The reliability examinations included between-image and within-image explorations to represent the reliabilities of the image capturing and the mobility measuring, respectively. Sixty-two subjects were recruited to receive ultrasonic examination for condylar mobility. The images of the condyle in mouth closing and opening were captured and the horizontal displacement of the condyles was measured as the anterior translation of the condyle. To confirm that the probe did not move during mouth opening, a marker was placed between the skin and the ultrasonic probe as the landmark. Results The results demonstrated that the intrarater and interrater reliabilities in the within-image test were 0.986 and 0.970 and the reliabilities in the between-image test were 0.904 and 0.857, respectively. The standard errors of measurement in the within-image and between-image tests were 0.04 cm and 0.09 cm, respectively. Conclusion Sonography is a reliable tool to assess condylar mobility and can be used to measure the treatment outcome for temporomandibular disorders. PMID:25342888

Chen, Han-Yu; Wu, Shyi-Kuen; Lu, Chuan-Chin; You, Jia-Yuan; Lai, Chung-Liang

2014-01-01

44

Megaprosthesis versus Condyle-sparing Intercalary Allograft: Distal Femoral Sarcoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although functionally appealing in preserving the native knee, the condyle-sparing intercalary allograft of the distal femur\\u000a may be associated with a higher risk of tumor recurrence and endoprosthetic replacement for malignant distal femoral bone\\u000a tumors. We therefore compared the risk of local tumor recurrence between patients in these two types of reconstruction groups.\\u000a We retrospectively reviewed 85 patients (mean age,

Melissa N. Zimel; Amy M. Cizik; Timothy B. Rapp; Jason S. Weisstein; Ernest U. Conrad III

2009-01-01

45

Management of Humeral and Glenoid Bone Loss in Recurrent Glenohumeral Instability  

PubMed Central

Recurrent shoulder instability and resultant glenoid and humeral head bone loss are not infrequently encountered in the population today, specifically in young, athletic patients. This review on the management of bone loss in recurrent glenohumeral instability discusses the relevant shoulder anatomy that provides stability to the shoulder joint, relevant history and physical examination findings pertinent to recurrent shoulder instability, and the proper radiological imaging choices in its workup. Operative treatments that can be used to treat both glenoid and humeral head bone loss are outlined. These include coracoid transfer procedures and allograft/autograft reconstruction at the glenoid, as well as humeral head disimpaction/humeroplasty, remplissage, humeral osseous allograft reconstruction, rotational osteotomy, partial humeral head arthroplasty, and hemiarthroplasty on the humeral side. Clinical outcomes studies reporting general results of these techniques are highlighted. PMID:25136461

Rusen, Jamie; Leiter, Jeff; Chahal, Jaskarndip; MacDonald, Peter

2014-01-01

46

Humeral Retrotorsion in Collegiate Baseball Pitchers With Throwing-Related Upper Extremity Injury History  

PubMed Central

Background: Collegiate baseball pitchers, as well as position players, exhibit increased humeral retrotorsion compared with individuals with no history of overhead sport participation. Whether the humeral retrotorsion plays a role in the development of throwing-related injuries that are prevalent in collegiate baseball pitchers is unknown. Hypotheses: Humeral retrotorsion will be significantly different in collegiate pitchers with throwing-related shoulder or elbow injury history compared with pitchers with no injury history. Humeral retrotorsion can also discriminate participants with and without shoulder or elbow injury. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Comparisons of ultrasonographically-obtained humeral retrotorsion were made between 40 collegiate pitchers with and without history of throwing-related shoulder or elbow injury. The ability of humeral retrotorsion to discriminate injury history was determined from the receiver operating characteristic area under the curve. Results: Participants with an elbow injury history demonstrated a greater humeral retrotorsion limb difference (mean difference = 7.2°, P = 0.027) than participants with no history of upper extremity injury. Participants with shoulder injury history showed no differences in humeral torsion compared with participants with no history of injury. Humeral retrotorsion limb difference exhibited a fair ability (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve = 0.74) to discriminate elbow injury history. Conclusions: Collegiate pitchers with a history of elbow injury exhibited a greater limb difference in humeral retrotorsion compared with pitchers with no history of injury. No differences in humeral retrotorsion variables were present in participants with and without shoulder injury history. Clinical Relevance: Baseball players with a history of elbow injury demonstrated increased humeral retrotorsion, suggesting that the amount of retrotorsion and the development of elbow injury may be associated. PMID:23016031

Myers, Joseph B.; Oyama, Sakiko; Rucinski, Terri Jo; Creighton, R. Alexander

2011-01-01

47

Autograft Transfer from the Ipsilateral Femoral Condyle in Depressed Tibial Plateau Fractures  

PubMed Central

Introduction : The rationale for operative treatment of depressed tibial plateau fractures is anatomic reduction, stable fixation and grafting. Grafting options include autogenous bone graft or bone substitutes. Methods : The autograft group included 18 patients with depressed tibial plateau fractures treated with autogenous bone grafting from the ipsilateral femoral condyle following open reduction and internal fixation. According to Schatzker classification, there were 9 type II, 4 type III, 2 type IV and 3 type V lesions. The average time to union and the hospital charges were compared with the bone substitute group. The latter included 17 patients who had an excellent outcome following treatment of split and/or depressed lateral plateau fractures, using a similar surgical technique but grafting with bone substitutes (allografts). Results : Excellent clinical and radiological results were detected in the autograft group after an average follow-up of 28 months (range 12-37). The average time to union in the autograft group was 14 weeks (range 12-16), while in the bone substitute group it was 18 weeks (range 16-20). The mean total cost was 1276 Euros for the autograft group and 2978 Euros for the bone substitute group. Discussion : The use of autogenous graft from the ipsilateral femoral condyle following open reduction and internal fixation of depressed tibial plateau fractures provided enough bone to maintain the height of the tibial plateau and was not associated with any donor site morbidity. Using this method, the surgical time was not significantly elongated and the rehabilitation was not affected. It also exhibited faster fracture healing without postoperative loss of reduction and it was less expensive than the use of bone substitutes.

Sferopoulos, N.K

2014-01-01

48

Anatomic study of the occipital condyle and its surgical implications in transcondylar approach  

PubMed Central

Background: Craniovertebral surgeries require the anatomical knowledge of craniovertebral junction. The human occipital condyle (OC) is unique bony structure connecting the cranium and the vertebral column. A lateral approach like transcondylar approach (TA) requires understanding of the relationships between the OC, jugular tubercle, and hypoglossal canal. Hence, the aim of the present study was to analyze the morphological variations in OCs of dry adult human skull. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 142 OC of 71 adult human dry skulls (55 males and 16 females). Morphometric parameters such as length, width, thickness, intercondylar distances, and the distances from the OC to the foramen magnum, hypoglossal canal and jugular foramen were measured. In addition, the different locations of the hypoglossal canal orifices in relation to the OC and different shapes of the OC were also noted. Results: The average length, width and height of the OC were found to be 2.2, 1.1 and 0.9 cm. The anterior and posterior intercondylar distances were 2.1 and 3.9 cm, respectively. Maximum and minimum bicondylar distances were 4.5 and 2.6 cm, respectively. The intra-cranial orifice of the hypoglossal canal was found to be present in middle 1/3rd in all skulls (100%), and extra-cranial orifice of the hypoglossal canal was found to be in anterior 1/3rd (98%) in relation to OC. The oval shaped OC (22.5%) was the most predominant type of OC observed in these skulls. Conclusion: Occipital condyle is likely to have variations with respect to shape, length, width and its orientation. Therefore, knowledge of the variations in OC along with careful radiological analysis may help in safe TAs during skull base surgery.

Kalthur, Sneha Guruprasad; Padmashali, Supriya; Gupta, Chandni; Dsouza, Antony S.

2014-01-01

49

The application of the Risdon approach for mandibular condyle fractures  

PubMed Central

Background Many novel approaches to mandibular condyle fracture have been reported, but there is a relative lack of reports on the Risdon approach. In this study, the feasibility of the Risdon approach for condylar neck and subcondylar fractures of the mandible is demonstrated. Methods A review of patients with mandibular condylar neck and subcondylar fractures was performed from March 2008 to June 2012. A total of 25 patients, 19 males and 6 females, had 14 condylar neck fractures and 11 subcondylar fractures. Results All of the cases were reduced using the Risdon approach. For subcondylar fractures, reduction and fixation with plates was done under direct vision. For condylar neck fractures, reduction and fixation was done with the aid of a trochar in adults and a percutaneous threaded Kirschner wire in children. There were no malunions or nonunions revealed in follow-up care. Mild transient neuropraxia of the marginal mandibular nerve was seen in 4 patients, which was resolved within 1–2 months. Conclusions The Risdon approach is a technique for reducing the condylar neck and subcondylar fractures that is easy to perform and easy to learn. Its value in the reduction of mandibular condyle fractures should be emphasized. PMID:23829537

2013-01-01

50

Radial nerve lesions associated with fractures of the humeral shaft.  

PubMed

Radial nerve palsy associated with a fracture of the shaft of the humerus is a relatively common injury. Out of 91 radial nerve injuries, operated upon in the Neurosurgical University Clinic in Belgrade from 1979 to 1988, 37 were associated with fractures of the humeral shaft or their surgical treatment. These fractures were previously treated in other medical units. In all cases a microsurgical reconstruction of the radial nerve was done: an interfascicular neurolysis in 24 cases and interfascicular grafting in 13 cases. A useful functional recovery was obtained in 91.9 per cent of the cases. Timing of nerve exploration and repair, as a main problem, is discussed. PMID:2228192

Samardzi?, M; Grujici?, D; Milinkovi?, Z B

1990-07-01

51

Humeral chondrosarcoma in a Hokkaido brown bear (Ursus arctos yesoensis).  

PubMed

Humeral chondrosarcoma was found in an 18-year-old male Hokkaido brown bear (Ursus arctos yesoensis). Necropsy revealed a large firm mass under the left superficial pectoral muscle at the axillary region. The mass involved the left shoulder joint and peripheral muscles, and connected to the head of the humerus with osteolysis. Histopathologically, the mass was composed of irregularly shaped myxomatous to cartilaginous tumor lobules. The tumor cell showed moderate nuclear atypia with a relatively high mitotic index, especially in the edges of the myxomatous lobules. The tumor cells were positively immunostained with vimentin and S-100 protein. Based on these findings, the tumors were diagnosed as chondrosarcoma. Metastases were found in the left axillary lymph node, lungs, liver and kidney. PMID:22571896

Murakami, Tomoaki; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Chiba, Shiori; Kurauchi, Yuki; Sakamoto, Hideyuki; Sasaki, Motoki; Matsui, Takane

2012-09-01

52

Reverse geometry shoulder replacement for proximal humeral metastases.  

PubMed

The management of skeletal metastases can be challenging for the orthopaedic surgeon. They represent a significant source of pain and disability for cancer patients, adding to the morbidity of their condition. Treatment is directed at the alleviation of symptoms and the restoration of function. Metastatic involvement of the proximal humerus can be especially debilitating, having the potential to cause severe pain and loss of function. We present a report of three such cases where reverse geometry proximal shoulder replacement was used to provide a pain free functional range of movement in patients with concomitant rotator cuff disease. In all cases, significant symptomatic relief was achieved postoperatively with preservation of upper limb function. No surgical complications were noted. It is our belief that this novel surgical strategy provides a valuable and effective option for the management of proximal humeral metastatic disease in the rotator cuff deficient patient. PMID:25245723

Kapur, R A; McCann, P A; Sarangi, P P

2014-10-01

53

Mosaic arthroplasty of the medial femoral condyle in horses - An experimental study.  

PubMed

One Arabian and 5 Hungarian half-bred horses were used to study the macroscopic and microscopic survival of autologous osteochondral grafts in the weight-bearing surface of the medial femoral condyle (MFC). Grafts were harvested from the cranial surface of the medial femoral trochlea (MFT) under arthroscopic control. Three of them were transplanted into the weight-bearing surface of the contralateral MFC using an arthrotomy approach. Three months later this transplantation procedure was repeated on the opposite stifle joints in the same animals, but at that time transplantation was performed arthroscopically. Follow-up arthroscopy was carried out 12 months after the first operations, and biopsies were taken from both the recipient and the donor sites for histological examination. During follow-up arthroscopy, the transplanted areas looked congruent and smooth. Microscopically, the characteristics of hyaline cartilage were present in 5 out of the 10 biopsies examined; however, in the other half of biopsies glycosaminoglycan (GAG) loss and change in the architecture of the transplanted cartilage was observed. In a 16-year-old horse, all grafts broke during harvesting, and thus transplantation was not performed. No radiological signs of osteoarthritic changes were detected 9 to 12 months after the operations in the donor and recipient joints. Clinically, no lameness or effusion was present three months after the transplantations. PMID:24334083

Bodó, Gábor; Vásárhelyi, Gábor; Hangody, László; Módis, László

2014-06-01

54

Lessons learned from a case of proximal humeral locked plating gone awry.  

PubMed

A 59-year-old woman underwent plate fixation of her 2-part anatomic neck proximal humerus fracture through an open anterolateral approach. The fixation subsequently failed, and the operation resulted in a dense axillary nerve palsy. Six weeks after her initial procedure, she was returned to the operating room. Exploration of the nerve revealed that it was compressed beneath the plate and irreparably damaged. Sural nerve cable grafting was required in an attempt to salvage deltoid function. The recent introduction of proximal humeral locking plates provides an opportunity for surgeons to reevaluate their methods of managing proximal humerus fractures. Indications for operative fixation have broadened, and a renewed interest in the anterolateral surgical approach has been reported. This case is the first description of an axillary nerve injury occurring in association with the open anterolateral approach when used for the treatment of a proximal humerus fracture and serves as a reminder that surgeons considering the use of a lateral approach must have a thorough understanding of axillary nerve anatomy. An additional review of the case provides a forum for discussion of the anterolateral approach to the proximal humerus and an opportunity to highlight the methods that can be used to optimize fixation when locked plates are employed. It must be emphasized that our enthusiasm for advances in technique and technology should not distract from basic surgical principles when treating these fractures. PMID:19704279

Nicandri, Gregg T; Trumble, Thomas E; Warme, Winston J

2009-09-01

55

Elucidating the scapulo-humeral rhythm calculation: 3D joint contribution method.  

PubMed

The scapulo-humeral rhythm quantifies shoulder joint coordination during arm elevation. The common method calculates a ratio of gleno-humeral (GH) elevation to scapulo-thoracic upward rotation angles. However the other rotations also contribute to arm elevation. The objective is to propose a 3D dynamic scapulo-humeral rhythm calculation method including all rotations of the shoulder joints and compare with the common method. Twenty-nine skin markers were placed on the trunk and dominant arm of 14 healthy males to measure shoulder kinematics. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs were applied to compare the two methods of calculation of joint contributions and scapulo-humeral rhythm during arm elevation. Significant main effects (p < 0.05) were observed between methods in joint contribution angles and scapulo-humeral rhythms. A systematic overestimation of the GH contribution was observed when only using the GH elevation angle because the scapula is moved outside a vertical plane. Hence, the proposed 3D method to calculate the scapulo-humeral rhythm allows an improved functional shoulder evaluation. PMID:23654344

Robert-Lachaine, Xavier; Marion, Patrick; Godbout, Véronique; Bleau, Jacinte; Begon, Mickael

2015-02-01

56

Occipital Condyle Fracture With Isolated Unilateral Hypoglossal Nerve Palsy  

PubMed Central

Occipital condyle fractures (OCFs) with selective involvement of the hypoglossal canal are rare. OCFs usually occur after major trauma and combine multiple fractures. We describe a 38-year-old man who presented with neck pain and a tongue deviation to the right side after a traffic accident. Severe limitations were detected during active and passive range of neck motion in all directions. A physical examination revealed a normal gag reflex and normal mobility of the palate, larynx, and shoulder girdle. He had normal taste and general sensation in his tongue. However, he presented with a tongue deviation to the right side on protrusion. A videofluoroscopic swallowing study revealed piecemeal deglutition due to decreased tongue mobility but no aspiration of food. Plain X-ray film findings were negative, but a computed tomography study with coronal reconstruction demonstrated a right OCF involving the hypoglossal canal. An electrodiagnostic study revealed evidence of right hypoglossal nerve palsy. We report a rare case of isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy caused by an OCF. PMID:25379499

Yoon, Jin Won; Lim, Oh Kyung; Park, Ki Deok

2014-01-01

57

Injectable Biocomposites for Bone Healing in Rabbit Femoral Condyle Defects  

PubMed Central

A novel biomimetic bone scaffold was successfully prepared in this study, which was composed of calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH), collagen and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAC). CSH/nHAC was prepared and observed with scanning electron microscope and rhBMP-2 was introduced into CSH/nHAC. The released protein content from the scaffold was detected using high performance liquid chromatography at predetermined time interval. In vivo bone formation capacity was investigated by means of implanting the scaffolds with rhBMP-2 or without rhBMP-2 respectively into a critical size defect model in the femoral condyle of rabbit. The releasing character of rhBMP-2 was that an initial burst release (37.5%) was observed in the first day, followed by a sustained release and reached 100% at the end of day 20. The CSH/nHAC showed a gradual decrease in degradation with the content of nHAC increase. The results of X-rays, Micro CT and histological observation indicated that more new bone was formed in rhBMP-2 group. The results implied that this new injectable bone scaffold should be very promising for bone repair and has a great potential in bone tissue engineering. PMID:24146770

Liu, Zhengsheng; Wang, Xiumei; Cui, Fuzhai; Guo, Wenguang; Mao, Keya; Yang, Shuying

2013-01-01

58

Injectable biocomposites for bone healing in rabbit femoral condyle defects.  

PubMed

A novel biomimetic bone scaffold was successfully prepared in this study, which was composed of calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH), collagen and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAC). CSH/nHAC was prepared and observed with scanning electron microscope and rhBMP-2 was introduced into CSH/nHAC. The released protein content from the scaffold was detected using high performance liquid chromatography at predetermined time interval. In vivo bone formation capacity was investigated by means of implanting the scaffolds with rhBMP-2 or without rhBMP-2 respectively into a critical size defect model in the femoral condyle of rabbit. The releasing character of rhBMP-2 was that an initial burst release (37.5%) was observed in the first day, followed by a sustained release and reached 100% at the end of day 20. The CSH/nHAC showed a gradual decrease in degradation with the content of nHAC increase. The results of X-rays, Micro CT and histological observation indicated that more new bone was formed in rhBMP-2 group. The results implied that this new injectable bone scaffold should be very promising for bone repair and has a great potential in bone tissue engineering. PMID:24146770

Liu, Jianheng; Mao, Kezheng; Liu, Zhengsheng; Wang, Xiumei; Cui, Fuzhai; Guo, Wenguang; Mao, Keya; Yang, Shuying

2013-01-01

59

Occipital condyle fracture with isolated unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy.  

PubMed

Occipital condyle fractures (OCFs) with selective involvement of the hypoglossal canal are rare. OCFs usually occur after major trauma and combine multiple fractures. We describe a 38-year-old man who presented with neck pain and a tongue deviation to the right side after a traffic accident. Severe limitations were detected during active and passive range of neck motion in all directions. A physical examination revealed a normal gag reflex and normal mobility of the palate, larynx, and shoulder girdle. He had normal taste and general sensation in his tongue. However, he presented with a tongue deviation to the right side on protrusion. A videofluoroscopic swallowing study revealed piecemeal deglutition due to decreased tongue mobility but no aspiration of food. Plain X-ray film findings were negative, but a computed tomography study with coronal reconstruction demonstrated a right OCF involving the hypoglossal canal. An electrodiagnostic study revealed evidence of right hypoglossal nerve palsy. We report a rare case of isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy caused by an OCF. PMID:25379499

Yoon, Jin Won; Lim, Oh Kyung; Park, Ki Deok; Lee, Ju Kang

2014-10-01

60

Outcomes of Nails vs. Plates For Humeral Shaft Fractures: A Medicare Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study was performed to determine 1) the incidence of humeral shaft fractures within the Medicare non-cancer population, 2) the trends in utilization of humeral shaft fixation techniques by plate-and-screw devices and intramedullary nails, 3) differences in procedure times, and 4) the outcomes of individuals as measured by rate of secondary operations and one-year mortality. Design/Setting Retrospective comparative cohort analysis. A cancer-free Medicare Part B claims sample derived from a 5% sample from the years 1993-2007 was analyzed. Patients/Intervention Our cohorts were generated by diagnostic and procedural codes for humeral shaft fractures. Main Outcome Measurement The incidence of humeral shaft fracture and trend in operative fixation was evaluated for all years of data. Surgical times were assessed by anesthesia CPT codes. Outcomes and complications were assessed by CPT codes. The proportion of individuals experiencing complications and one-year mortality were compared by proportion hazards. Results We identified 1,385 claims for humeral shaft fractures over 15 years, with an adjusted rate of between 12.0 and 23.4 fractures per 100,000 beneficiaries. We identified 511 individuals who received surgical treatment for humeral shaft fractures, 451 of whom had complete one-year follow-up data. Nail fixation was more prevalent than plate fixation most years, and had shorter anesthesia time by 27.1 minutes (P<0.0001). There were no significant differences in the complication rates between the two groups as measured by incidence of secondary operations and one-year mortality. Conclusions Intramedullary nails are used for the majority of operative humeral shaft fractures among Medicare beneficiaries. Nailing has a shorter mean operative time. The two surgical techniques had no significant differences in terms of risk of secondary procedures and one-year mortality. PMID:23343827

Chen, Foster; Wang, Zhong; Bhattacharyya, Timothy

2012-01-01

61

Lateral unicompartmental replacement: a road less traveled.  

PubMed

Lateral unicompartmental replacement is performed less frequently than medial replacement and is technically more difficult. The ratio of medial to lateral arthroplasties is approximately 10:1. Differences in technique include the following: The patella is more vulnerable to impingement on the leading edge of the femoral component and must be carefully recessed. Because the wear pattern in lateral disease is more posterior than in medial disease, there often is residual cartilage on the distal femoral condyle. This is also the case when UKA is performed for the sequella of a lateral plateau fracture. To avoid this impingement, residual cartilage should probably be removed from the distal condyle before its resection and the femoral component should be undersized anteriorly. Initial tibial resection should be very conservative to avoid the need for very thick tibial components to restore alignment and stability. Err toward shifting the femoral component laterally and the tibial component medially to maximize mediolateral congruency. Consider a medial parapatellar approach (avoiding the anterior horn of the medial meniscus) to facilitate visibility and component alignment. Avoid excessive posterior tibial slope. PMID:16190078

Scott, Richard D

2005-09-01

62

Humeral Shaft Fracture Treatment in the Elite Throwing Athlete: A Unique Application of Flexible Intramedullary Nailing  

PubMed Central

Humeral shaft stress fractures are being increasingly recognized as injuries that can significantly impact throwing mechanics if residual malalignment exists. While minimally displaced and angulated injuries are treated nonoperatively in a fracture brace, the management of significantly displaced humeral shaft fractures in the throwing athlete is less clear. Currently described techniques such as open reduction and internal fixation with plate osteosynthesis and rigid antegrade/retrograde locked intramedullary nailing have significant morbidity due to soft tissue dissection and damage. We present a case report of a high-level baseball pitcher whose significantly displaced humeral shaft stress fracture failed to be nonoperatively managed and was subsequently treated successfully with unlocked, retrograde flexible intramedullary nailing. The athlete was able to return to pitching baseball in one year and is currently pitching in Major League Baseball. We were able to recently collect 10-year follow-up data. PMID:24369515

Lee, Christopher S.; Davis, Shane M.; Fronek, Jan

2013-01-01

63

Bone marrow edema of the mandibular condyle related to internal derangement, osteoarthrosis, and joint effusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate whether common magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) variables such as temporomandibular joint (TMJ) internal derangement, osteoarthrosis, and effusion may predict the diagnostic group of bone marrow edema of the mandibular condyle. Materials and Methods: The relationship between bone marrow edema and TMJ disc displacement, osteoarthrosis, and effusion was analyzed in MRIs

Iris Brandlmaier; Christoph Schmid; Stefan Bertram; Ansgar Rudisch

2003-01-01

64

Use of conservative condylectomy for treatment of osteochondroma of the mandibular condyle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to present a conservative condylectomy technique (condylectomy performed below the condylar head but high in the condylar neck) and articular disc repositioning as the surgical treatment approach for management of osteochondroma of the head of the mandibular condyle. Patients and Methods: Six patients (4 females and 2 males) with an average age

Larry M. Wolford; Pushkar Mehra; Pedro Franco

2002-01-01

65

Regional Structural and Viscoelastic Properties of Fibrocartilage upon Dynamic Nanoindentation of the Articular Condyle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibrocartilage,a tissue with macromaterial properties between dense fibrous tissue and hyaline cartilage, is not well understood in its ultrastructure and regional viscoelastic properties. Here nanoindentation with atomic force microscopy was performed on fresh fibrocartilage samples of rabbit jaw joint condyles. Each sample was divided into anteromedial, anterolateral, posteromedial, and posterolateral regions for probing and topographic imaging in 2 × 2

Kai Hu; Priya Radhakrishnan; Rupal V Patel; Jeremy J Mao

2001-01-01

66

Spring 2011 Rube Goldberg's humerous cartoons have inspired students world-wide to have fun  

E-print Network

to, but not exceeding, two minutes. A Rube Goldberg machine is like the game Mouse Trap--a really, the undergraduates built their Rube Goldberg machine at the Learning Factory in the spring. Apart from the lumberSpring 2011 Rube Goldberg's humerous cartoons have inspired students world-wide to have fun

Demirel, Melik C.

67

Mechanical Quantification of Local Bone Quality in the Humeral Head: A Feasibility Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Surgical treatment of proximal humerus fractures can be challenging due to osteoporosis. The weak bone stock makes stable implant anchorage difficult, which can result in low primary stability. Accordingly, significant failure rates, even with modern locking plates, are reported in the literature. Intraoperative knowledge of local bone quality could be helpful in improving results. This study evaluates the feasibility of local bone quality quantification using breakaway torque measurements. Materials and Methods: A torque measurement tool (DensiProbe™) was developed to determine local resistance to breakaway offered by the cancellous bone in the humeral head to quantify local bone quality. The tool was adapted to a standard locking plate (PHILOS, Synthes), allowing measurement in the positions of the six humeral head screws, as provided by the aiming device of the plate. Two hundred and seventy measurements were performed in 44 fresh cadaveric human humeri. Results: Handling of the tool was straight forward and provided reproducible results for the six different positions. The method allows discrimination between the respective positions with statistical significance, and thus provides reliable information on the local distribution of bone quality within the humeral head. Discussion: This study introduces a new method using breakaway torque to determine local bone quality within the humeral head in real time. Because DensiProbe is adapted to a standard locking plate, there is the potential for intraoperative application. The information provided could enable the surgeon to improve fixation of osteoporotic proximal humerus fractures. PMID:23730382

Scola, Alexander; Gebhard, Florian; Weckbach, Sebastian; Dehner, Christoph; Schwyn, Ronald; Fliri, Ladina; Röderer, Götz

2013-01-01

68

Short communication Measuring humeral head translation using fluoroscopy: A validation study  

E-print Network

, 1450 Alta Vista St., Dubuque, IA 52001, USA b University of Oregon, Department of Human Physiology, 1240 University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Accepted 16 in measuring superior translation of the humeral head. Eight pairs of cadaver scapulae and humerii bones were

Karduna, Andrew

69

21 CFR 888.3690 - Shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis.  

...shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis is a device made of alloys, such as cobalt-chromium-molybdenum. It has an intramedullary stem and is intended to be implanted to replace the articular surface of the proximal end of...

2014-04-01

70

Effects of biceps tension and superior humeral head translation on the glenoid labrum.  

PubMed

We sought to understand the effects of superior humeral head translation and load of the long head of biceps on the pathomechanics of the superior glenoid labrum by predicting labral strain. Using micro-CT cadaver images, a finite element model of the glenohumeral joint was generated, consisting of humerus, glenoid bone, cartilages, labrum, and biceps tendon. A glenohumeral compression of 50?N and biceps tensions of 0, 22, 55, and 88?N were applied. The humeral head was superiorly translated from 0 to 5?mm in 1-mm increments. The highest labral strain occurred at the interface with the glenoid cartilage and bone beneath the origin of the biceps tendon. The maximum strain was lower than the reported failure strain. The humeral head motion had relatively greater effect than biceps tension on the increasing labral strain. This supports the mechanistic hypothesis that superior labral lesions result mainly from superior migration of the humeral head, but also from biceps tension. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 32:1424-1429, 2014. PMID:25070392

Hwang, Eunjoo; Carpenter, James E; Hughes, Richard E; Palmer, Mark L

2014-11-01

71

The effect of humeral torsion on rotational range of motion in the shoulder and throwing performance  

E-print Network

METHODS The effect of humeral torsion on rotational range of motion in the shoulder and throwing of Orthopaedic Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 3 Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 4 of external rotation at the shoulder than non-athletes. How these two parameters are related is debated

Lieberman, Daniel E.

72

Anatomical determination of a safe entry point for occipital condyle screw using three-dimensional landmarks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occipital condyle (OC) is an important area in craniovertebral surgery, but neither its anatomical features nor the procedures\\u000a concerning the OC have been detailed yet. The morphological analysis of the structures were made in totally 704 sides of the\\u000a occipital bones of adult skulls by 3D-Doctor Demo version. The length and width of the OC were found to be

Mehmet Asim Ozer; Servet Celik; Figen Govsa; Mahmut Oguz Ulusoy

73

Curvature scaling in the medial tibial condyle of large bodied hominoids.  

PubMed

The shape of joint articular surfaces can provide important information about the locomotor habits of animals. Understanding sources of shape variation in these surfaces is critical to correctly inferring the link between form and function. This study tests the hypothesis that increases in body size within a species result in flatter joint contours of the joint articular surface. Joint flattening is expected to regulate the magnitude and direction of transarticular stresses passing through the joint. Three-dimensional laser scans of polyvinylsiloxane molds of the medial tibial condyle of gorillas (n = 40), common chimpanzees (n = 40), and modern humans (n = 40) were evaluated for differences in articular surface topography, with all measures of joint curvature examined in relation to femoral head superoinferior diameter (as a surrogate for body size). Analyses did not detect an allometric shape change in the curvature of the medial tibial condyle with increasing body size within any of the three taxa examined here. Medial tibial condyle curvature appears to be largely independent of body size as estimated by femoral head diameter. These results do not provide direct support for the hypothesis that joints become flatter in response to increased transarticular loading. PMID:20235323

Sylvester, Adam D; Organ, Jason M

2010-04-01

74

Articular Eminence Inclination, Height, and Condyle Morphology on Cone Beam Computed Tomography  

PubMed Central

Aim. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between articular eminence inclination, height, and thickness of the roof of the glenoid fossa (RGF) according to age and gender and to assess condyle morphology including incidental findings of osseous characteristics associated with osteoarthritis (OA) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods. CBCT images of 105 patients were evaluated retrospectively. For articular eminence inclination and height, axial views on which the condylar processes were seen with their widest mediolateral extent being used as a reference view for secondary reconstruction. Condyle morphology was categorized both in the sagittal and coronal plane. Results. The mean values of eminence inclination and height of males were higher than those of females (P < 0.05). There were significant differences in the RGF thickness in relation to sagittal condyle morphology. Among the group of OA, the mean value of the RGF thickness for “OA-osteophyte” group was the highest (1.59?mm), whereas the lowest RGF values were seen in the “OA-flattening.” Conclusion. The sagittal osteoarthritic changes may have an effect on RGF thickness by mechanical stimulation and changed stress distribution. Gender has a significant effect on eminence height (Eh) and inclination. PMID:24696193

Ilguy, Dilhan; Ilguy, Mehmet; Fisekcioglu, Erdogan; Dolekoglu, Semanur; Ersan, Nilufer

2014-01-01

75

Central giant cell granuloma of the mandibular condyle: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) is a benign intraosseous lesion. The true nature of this lesion is controversial and remains unknown; the three competing theories are that it could be a reactive lesion, a developmental anomaly or a benign neoplasm. Furthermore, the actual aetiology of CGCG is still unclear, although inflammation, haemorrhage and local trauma have all been suggested; it has also been hypothesized that CGCG may have a genetic aetiology. Lesions central to the mandibular condylar head are very rare, with only three documented cases in the English language literature, none of which elaborates on the CT features. In this case report, a 31-year-old male patient complaining of a left pre-auricular mass underwent radiographic investigation. CT images revealed a lesion central to the mandibular condyle and demonstrated features that were highly suggestive of CGCG. The patient underwent surgical curettage, and the subsequent histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of CGCG. 3 years after the procedure the patient presented with a recurrence and underwent complete resection of the mandibular condyle with immediate reconstruction. This report presents CT characteristics of a rare occurrence of CGCG of the mandibular condyle, compares it with other published cases and poses the question of the role of radiology in predicting the degree of aggressive behaviour of these lesions before surgery. PMID:21159917

Jadu, F M; Pharoah, M J; Lee, L; Baker, G I; Allidina, A

2011-01-01

76

Throwing in the Middle and Upper Paleolithic: inferences from an analysis of humeral retroversion.  

PubMed

When in evolutionary history did long-range projectile weapons become an important component of hunting toolkits? The archeological evidence for the development of projectile weaponry is complex and generally indirect, and has led to different conclusions about the origin and spread of this technology. Lithic evidence from the Middle Stone Age (MSA) has led some researchers to suggest that true long- range projectile weaponry developed in Africa perhaps as early as 80,000 years ago, and was part of the subsistence toolkit carried by modern humans who expanded out of Africa after 50,000 years ago. Alternatively, temporal patterns in the morphology of pointed lithics has led others to posit an independent, convergent origin of projectile weaponry in Africa, the Near East, and Europe during the interval between 50,000-40,000 years ago. By either scenario, projectile weapons would not have been a component of the hunting arsenal of Neandertals, but may have been in use by European early modern humans and thus, projectile technology may have entered into the competitive dynamics that existed between these two groups. The origins of projectile weapons can be addressed, in part, through analyses of the skeletal remains of the prehistoric humans who made and used them. Habitual behavior patterns--including those related to the production and use of technology--can be imprinted on the skeleton through both genetic and epigenetic pathways. Recent studies in the field of sports medicine indicate that individuals who engage in habitual throwing have increased humeral retroversion angles in their throwing arms and a greater degree of bilateral asymmetry in retroversion angles than do non-throwers. This contribution investigates humeral torsion through analysis of the retroversion angle in samples of Eurasian Neandertals, European early modern humans of the middle and late Upper Paleolithic, and comparative samples of recent humans. This analysis was conducted under the assumption that if throwing-based projectile weaponry was used by early modern Europeans but not Neandertals, Upper Paleolithic samples should be similar to recent human groups engaged in habitual throwing in the degree of humeral retroversion in the dominant limb and in bilateral asymmetry in this feature. Neandertals on the other hand, would not be expected to show marked asymmetry in humeral retroversion. Consistent with other studies, Neandertals exhibit increased retroversion angles (decreased humeral torsion or a more posteriorly oriented humeral head) relative to most modern human samples, although this appears more likely related to body form and overall activity levels than to habitual throwing. Although Neandertals with bilaterally preserved humeri sufficient for measurement are rare (consisting of only two males and one female), levels of bilateral asymmetry in humeral retroversion are low, suggesting a lack of regular throwing. While patterning across fossil and comparative samples in levels of humeral retroversion was not clear cut, males of both the middle and late Upper Paleolithic demonstrate a high level of bilateral asymmetry, comparable to or in excess of that seen in samples of throwing athletes. This may indicate habitual use of throwing-based projectile weaponry by middle Upper Paleolithic times. Small sample sizes and relatively great variance in the fossil samples makes these results, however, suggestive rather than conclusive. PMID:19004469

Rhodes, Jill A; Churchill, Steven E

2009-01-01

77

Review of Literature of Radial Nerve Injuries Associated with Humeral Fractures—An Integrated Management Strategy  

PubMed Central

Background Radial nerve palsy associated with fractures of the shaft of the humerus is the most common nerve lesion complicating fractures of long bones. However, the management of radial nerve injuries associated with humeral fractures is debatable. There was no consensus between observation and early exploration. Methods and Findings The PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Google Scholar, CINAHL, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, and Social Sciences Citation Index were searched. Two authors independently searched for relevant studies in any language from 1966 to Jan 2013. Thirty studies with 2952 humeral fractures participants were identified. Thirteen studies favored conservative strategy. No significant difference between early exploration and no exploration groups (OR, 1.03, 95% CI 0.61, 1.72; I2?=?0.0%, p?=?0.918 n.s.). Three studies recommend early radial nerve exploration in patients with open fractures of humerus with radial nerve injury. Five studies proposed early exploration was performed in high-energy humeral shaft fractures with radial nerve injury. Conclusions The conservative strategy was a good choice for patients with low-energy closed fractures of humerus with radial nerve injury. We recommend early radial nerve exploration (within the first 2 weeks) in patients with open fractures or high-energy closed fractures of humerus with radial nerve injury. PMID:24250799

Wu, Qiang; Wu, QiuLi; Li, Yan; Feng, ShiQing

2013-01-01

78

Humeral epiphyseal shape in the felidae: the influence of phylogeny, allometry, and locomotion.  

PubMed

Bone morphology of the cats (Mammalia: Felidae) is influenced by many factors, including locomotor mode, body size, hunting methods, prey size and phylogeny. Here, we investigate the shape of the proximal and distal humeral epiphyses in extant species of the felids, based on two-dimensional landmark configurations. Geometric morphometric techniques were used to describe shape differences in the context of phylogeny, allometry and locomotion. The influence of these factors on epiphyseal shape was assessed using Principal Component Analysis, Linear Discriminant functions and multivariate regression. Phylogenetic Generalised Least Squares was used to examine the association between size or locomotion and humeral epiphyseal shape, after taking a phylogenetic error term into account. Results show marked differences in epiphyseal shape between felid lineages, with a relatively large phylogenetic influence. Additionally, the adaptive influences of size and locomotion are demonstrated, and their influence is independent of phylogeny in most, but not all, cases. Several features of epiphyseal shape are common to the largest terrestrial felids, including a relative reduction in the surface area of the humeral head and increased robusticity of structures that provide attachment for joint-stabilising muscles, including the medial epicondyle and the greater and lesser tubercles. This increased robusticity is a functional response to the increased loading forces placed on the joints due to large body mass. PMID:23065662

Walmsley, Anthony; Elton, Sarah; Louys, Julien; Bishop, Laura C; Meloro, Carlo

2012-12-01

79

Subbrachial approach to humeral shaft fractures: new surgical technique and retrospective case series study  

PubMed Central

Background There are few surgical approaches for treating humeral shaft fractures. Here we present our results using a subbrachial approach. Methods We conducted a retrospective case series involving patients who had surgery for a humeral shaft fracture between January 1994 and January 2008. We divided patients into 4 groups based on the surgical approach (anterior, anterolateral, posterior, subbrachial). In all patients, an AO 4.5 mm dynamic compression plate was used. Results During our study period, 280 patients aged 30–36 years underwent surgery for a humeral shaft fracture. The average duration of surgery was shortest using the subbrachial approach (40 min). The average loss of muscle strength was 40% for the anterolateral, 48% for the posterior, 42% for the anterior and 20% for the subbrachial approaches. The average loss of tension in the brachialis muscle after 4 months was 61% for the anterolateral, 48% for the anterior and 11% for the subbrachial approaches. Sixteen patients in the anterolateral and anterior groups and 6 patients in the posterior group experienced intraoperative lesions of the radial nerve. No postoperative complications were observed in the subbrachial group. Conclusion The subbrachial approach is practical and effective. The average duration of the surgery is shortened by half, loss of the muscle strength is minimal, and patients can resume everyday activities within 4 months. No patients in the sub-brachial group experienced injuries to the radial or musculocutaneous nerves. PMID:23187037

Boschi, Vladimir; Pogorelic, Zenon; Gulan, Gordan; Vilovic, Katarina; Stalekar, Hrvoje; Bilan, Kanito; Grandic, Leo

2013-01-01

80

Pullulan/dextran/nHA Macroporous Composite Beads for Bone Repair in a Femoral Condyle Defect in Rats.  

PubMed

The repair of bone defects is of particular interest for orthopedic, oral, maxillofacial, and dental surgery. Bone loss requiring reconstruction is conventionally addressed through bone grafting. Depending on the size and the location of the defect, this method has limits and risks. Biomaterials can offer an alternative and have features supporting bone repair. Here, we propose to evaluate the cellular penetration and bone formation of new macroporous beads based on pullulan/dextran that has been supplemented with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite in a rat model. Cross-linked beads of 300-500 µm diameters were used in a lateral femoral condyle defect and analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging, micro-computed tomography, and histology in comparison to the empty defects 15, 30, and 70 days after implantation. Inflammation was absent for both conditions. For empty defects, cellularisation and mineralization started from the periphery of the defect. For the defects containing beads, cellular structures filling out the spaces between the scaffolds with increasing interconnectivity and trabecular-like organization were observed over time. The analysis of calcified sections showed increased mineralization over time for both conditions, but was more pronounced for the samples containing beads. Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content were both significantly higher at day 70 for the beads in comparison to empty defects as well as compared with earlier time points. Analysis of newly formed tissue around the beads showed an increase of osteoid tissue, measured as percentage of the defect surface. This study suggests that the use of beads for the repair of small size defects in bone may be expanded on to meet the clinical need for a ready-to-use fill-up material that can favor bone formation and mineralization, as well as promote vessel ingrowth into the defect site. PMID:25330002

Schlaubitz, Silke; Derkaoui, Sidi Mohammed; Marosa, Lydia; Miraux, Sylvain; Renard, Martine; Catros, Sylvain; Le Visage, Catherine; Letourneur, Didier; Amédée, Joëlle; Fricain, Jean-Christophe

2014-01-01

81

Pullulan/dextran/nHA Macroporous Composite Beads for Bone Repair in a Femoral Condyle Defect in Rats  

PubMed Central

The repair of bone defects is of particular interest for orthopedic, oral, maxillofacial, and dental surgery. Bone loss requiring reconstruction is conventionally addressed through bone grafting. Depending on the size and the location of the defect, this method has limits and risks. Biomaterials can offer an alternative and have features supporting bone repair. Here, we propose to evaluate the cellular penetration and bone formation of new macroporous beads based on pullulan/dextran that has been supplemented with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite in a rat model. Cross-linked beads of 300–500 µm diameters were used in a lateral femoral condyle defect and analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging, micro-computed tomography, and histology in comparison to the empty defects 15, 30, and 70 days after implantation. Inflammation was absent for both conditions. For empty defects, cellularisation and mineralization started from the periphery of the defect. For the defects containing beads, cellular structures filling out the spaces between the scaffolds with increasing interconnectivity and trabecular-like organization were observed over time. The analysis of calcified sections showed increased mineralization over time for both conditions, but was more pronounced for the samples containing beads. Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content were both significantly higher at day 70 for the beads in comparison to empty defects as well as compared with earlier time points. Analysis of newly formed tissue around the beads showed an increase of osteoid tissue, measured as percentage of the defect surface. This study suggests that the use of beads for the repair of small size defects in bone may be expanded on to meet the clinical need for a ready-to-use fill-up material that can favor bone formation and mineralization, as well as promote vessel ingrowth into the defect site. PMID:25330002

Schlaubitz, Silke; Derkaoui, Sidi Mohammed; Marosa, Lydia; Miraux, Sylvain; Renard, Martine; Catros, Sylvain; Le Visage, Catherine; Letourneur, Didier; Amedee, Joelle; Fricain, Jean-Christophe

2014-01-01

82

Surgical correction of unsuccessful derotational humeral osteotomy in obstetric brachial plexus palsy: Evidence of the significance of scapular deformity in the pathophysiology of the medial rotation contracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The current method of treatment for persistent internal rotation due to the medial rotation contracture in patients with obstetric brachial plexus injury is humeral derotational osteotomy. While this procedure places the arm in a more functional position, it does not attend to the abnormal glenohumeral joint. Poor positioning of the humeral head secondary to elevation and rotation of the

Rahul K Nath; Sonya E Melcher; Melia Paizi

2006-01-01

83

The effect of humeral torsion on rotational range of motion in the shoulder and throwing performance  

PubMed Central

Several recent studies have found that throwing athletes typically have lower humeral torsion (retroversion) and a greater range of external rotation at the shoulder than non-athletes. How these two parameters are related is debated. This study uses data from a sample of both throwers and non-throwers to test a new model that predicts torsion values from a range of motion data. The model proposes a series of predicted regressions which can help provide new insight into the factors affecting rotational range of motion at the shoulder. Humeral torsion angles were measured from computed tomography scans collected from 25 male subjects. These values are compared to predicted torsion values for the same subjects calculated from both kinematic and goniometric range-of-motion data. Results show that humeral torsion is negatively correlated (goniometric: r = ?0.409, P = 0.047; kinematic: r = ?0.442, P = 0.035) with external rotational range of motion and positively correlated (goniometric: r = 0.741, P < 0.001; kinematic: r = 0.559, P = 0.006) with internal rotational range of motion. The predicted torsion values are highly correlated (goniometric: r = 0.815, P < 0.001; kinematic: r = 0.617, P = 0.006) with actual torsion values. Deviations in the data away from predicted equations highlight significant differences between high torsion and low torsion individuals that may have significant functional consequences. The method described here may be useful for non-invasively assessing the degree of torsion in studies of the evolution and biomechanics of the shoulder and arm, and for testing hypotheses about the etiology of repetitive stress injuries among athletes and others who throw frequently. PMID:22257273

Roach, Neil Thomas; Lieberman, Daniel E; Gill, Thomas J; Palmer, William E; Gill, Thomas J

2012-01-01

84

Use of a proximal humeral plate for a paediatric peri-prosthetic femoral fracture  

PubMed Central

In this case an 18-year-old female with cerebral palsy sustained a peri-prosthetic femoral fracture adjacent to a blade plate previously inserted for a femoral varus osteotomy. The injury was treated using a long proximal humeral locking plate. The existing blade plate was removed. The fracture was reduced and held, and a 10-hole PHILOS™ plate applied with near anatomical reduction. There were no post-operative complications. Radiographic union was confirmed at 11 months. To our knowledge, this is the first reported use of a PHILOS™ plate in the management of a femoral peri-prosthetic fracture and successfully demonstrated a straightforward method for revision fixation. PMID:24986984

Shaw, C.R.; Badhesha, J.; Ayana, G.; Abu-Rajab, R.

2014-01-01

85

Effect of calcium triphosphate cement on proximal humeral fracture osteosynthesis: a finite element analysis.  

PubMed

PURPOSE. To measure the effect of void-filling calcium triphosphate cement on the loads at the implant-bone interface of a proximal humeral fracture osteosynthesis using a finite element analysis. METHODS. Finite element models of a 3-part proximal humeral fracture fixed with a plate with and without calcium triphosphate cement augmentation were generated from a quantitative computed tomography dataset of an intact proximal humerus. Material properties were assigned to bone fragments using published expressions relating Young's modulus to local Hounsfield number. Boundary conditions were then applied to the model to replicate the physiological loads. The effect of void-filling calcium triphosphate cement was analysed. RESULTS. When the void was filled with calcium triphosphate cement, the pressure gradient of the bone surrounding the screws in the medial fracture fragment decreased 97% from up to 21.41 to 0.66 MPa. Peak pressure of the fracture planes decreased 95% from 6.10 to 0.30 MPa and occurred along the medial aspect. The mean stress in the screw locking mechanisms decreased 78% from 71.23 to 15.92 MPa. The angled proximal metaphyseal screw had the highest stress. CONCLUSION. Augmentation with calcium triphosphate cement improves initial stability and reduces stress on the implant-bone interface. PMID:24014777

Kennedy, Jim; Feerick, Emer; McGarry, Patrick; FitzPatrick, David; Mullett, Hannan

2013-08-01

86

Epicondylitis: lateral.  

PubMed

Lateral epicondylitis is the most common cause of lateral elbow pain in adults. Although it is typically a self-limiting process, there are many nonsurgical and surgical treatment options available if lateral epicondylitis becomes chronic and continues to cause pain. Its common name, tennis elbow, is somewhat of a misnomer because the condition is often work-related and occurs in athletes and nonathletes alike. Acute onset of symptoms occurs more often in young athletes; chronic, recalcitrant symptoms typically occur in older patients. In this review, we describe the pathogenesis and clinical presentation and the nonsurgical and surgical treatment options currently available. PMID:25077751

Brummel, Jared; Baker, Champ L; Hopkins, Rob; Baker, Champ L

2014-09-01

87

Effect of Food Size on the Movement of the Mandibular First Molars and Condyles during Deliberate Unilateral Mastication in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, the effect of food size on the movement of the mandibular first molars and condyles during chewing has not been fully examined due to methodological problems. The purpose of the present study was to examine the previously unknown effect of food size on masticatory jaw movement. Using a face bow, light-emitting diodes, and optical cameras, we recorded, in

S. Miyawaki; N. Ohkochi; T. Kawakami; M. Sugimura

2000-01-01

88

Functional and fixed orthodontics-induced growth of an aplastic condyle in a young patient: a case report.  

PubMed

Condylar aplasia is a condition characterized by the complete lack of a condyle. It is a rare disease, most often associated with more complex syndromes such as Hemifacial Microsomia, Treacher-Collins and Goldenhar. In this article, we present the case of a young female patient (4.3 years) with an aplastic left condyle. She received early two-phase treatment: first, a functional appliance to stimulate condylar growth and, second, fixed multibracket therapy and Class II elastics to improve the occlusal relationship. Functional therapy lasted many years due to non-compliance. Intermediate radiographic controls (at 8.6 years and at 10.4 years) showed no improvement in the growth of the aplastic condyle. The growing process started during fixed orthodontic therapy (beginning at 10.6 years). At the end of treatment, when the patient was 14, the size of the left condyle was similar to that of the controlateral. Below, we describe and discuss the treatment. PMID:21269897

Manni, Antonio; Cozzani, Mauro; De Rinaldis, Claudio; Menini, Anna

2011-03-01

89

Minimally invasive surgery of humeral metastasis using flexible nails and cement in high-risk patients with advanced cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to evaluate the preliminary outcome of palliative minimally invasive surgery for humeral metastasis in patients who have multiple advanced cancers with short life expectancy. Percutaneous Ender nailing and direct transcortical intramedullary cementing were performed on a total of 15 patients with metastatic disease of the humerus. The origins of the cancers were the lung (n=9), breast

June Hyuk Kim; Hyun Guy Kang; Jung Ryul Kim; Patrick P. Lin; Han Soo Kim

2011-01-01

90

A new species of Kalophrynus with a unique male humeral spine from Peninsular Malaysia (Amphibia, Anura, Microhylidae).  

PubMed

A new microhylid, Kalophrynus yongi, Is described from the Cameron Highlands of Peninsular Malaysia. Morphologically, the new species differs from all known congeners by having a very stout forelimb with a humeral spine in males. Acoustically, it resembles K. baluensis and K. heterochirus and sharply differs from K. interlineatus, K. pleurostigma, K. palmatissimus, and K. nubicola. PMID:19719411

Matsui, Masafumi

2009-08-01

91

Treatment of Mandibular Condyle Fractures Using a Modified Transparotid Approach via the Parotid Mini-Incision: Experience with 31 Cases  

PubMed Central

Surgery for mandibular condyle fractures must allow direct vision of the fracture, reduce surgical trauma and achieve reduction and fixation while avoiding facial nerve injury. This prospective study was conducted to introduce a new surgical approach for open reduction and internal fixation of mandibular condyle fractures using a modified transparotid approach via the parotid mini-incision, and surgical outcomes were evaluated. The modified transparotid approach via the parotid mini-incision was applied and rigid internal fixation using a small titanium plate was carried out for 36 mandibular condyle fractures in 31 cases. Postoperative follow-up of patients ranged from 3 to 26 months; in the first 3 months after surgery, outcomes for all patients were analyzed by evaluating the degree of mouth opening, occlusal relationship, facial nerve function and results of imaging studies. The occlusal relationships were excellent in all patients and none had symptoms of intraoperative ipsilateral facial nerve injury. The mean degree of mouth opening was 4.0 (maximum 4.8 cm, minimum 3.0 cm). No mandibular deviations were noted in any patient during mouth opening. CT showed complete anatomical reduction of the mandibular condyle fracture in all patients. The modified transparotid approach via the smaller, easily concealed parotid mini-incision is minimally invasive and achieves anatomical reduction and rigid internal fixation with a simplified procedure that directly exposes the fracture site. Study results showed that this procedure is safe and feasible for treating mandibular condyle fracture, and offers a short operative path, protection of the facial nerve and satisfactory aesthetic outcomes. PMID:24386221

Shi, Jun; Yuan, Hao; Xu, Bing

2013-01-01

92

Little League Shoulder--Osteochondrosis of the Proximal Humeral Epiphysis in Boy Baseball Pitchers  

PubMed Central

Roentgenographic changes consistent with osteochondrosis of the proximal humeral epiphysis were observed in five young baseball pitchers complaining of shoulder pain in the throwing arm. The symptoms and findings were quite similar to the previously reported involvement of the medial epicondylar epiphysis or “Little Leaguer's elbow.” The act of throwing a baseball hard is an abnormal whip-like action which places a forceful repetitious traction strain on the shoulder joint. Shoulder pain in youngsters engaged in organized competitive swimming programs can also be explained in this way. Since these entities became evident with the establishment of organized baseball programs for boys in this age group, better medical supervision and rule changes to limit the amount of pitching until the epiphyses close, are urgently needed. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:5946993

Adams, Joel E.

1966-01-01

93

Little league shoulder: osteochondrosis of the proximal humeral epiphysis in boy baseball pitchers.  

PubMed

Roentgenographic changes consistent with osteochondrosis of the proximal humeral epiphysis were observed in five young baseball pitchers complaining of shoulder pain in the throwing arm. The symptoms and findings were quite similar to the previously reported involvement of the medial epicondylar epiphysis or "Little Leaguer's elbow."The act of throwing a baseball hard is an abnormal whip-like action which places a forceful repetitious traction strain on the shoulder joint. Shoulder pain in youngsters engaged in organized competitive swimming programs can also be explained in this way. Since these entities became evident with the establishment of organized baseball programs for boys in this age group, better medical supervision and rule changes to limit the amount of pitching until the epiphyses close, are urgently needed. PMID:5946993

Adams, J E

1966-07-01

94

Intermittent Pre-Excitation-Syndrome in Facio-Scapulo-Humeral Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Pre-excitation-syndrome has not been reported as a phenotypic feature of facio-scapulo-humeral muscular dystrophy (FSH-MD). In a 39-year-old male with FSH-MD due to a reduced tandem repeat size in the D4Z4-locus on chromosome 4q35, cardiac involvement, manifesting as an incomplete right bundle-branch-block, tall T-waves in V 3-5, ST-elevation in V 2-4, and mild thickening of the left ventricular myocardium, was first recognised 10 years earlier. Follow-up at age 39 years revealed mild myocardial thickening, two intra-ventricular aberrant bands, and, surprisingly, intermittent pre-excitation on a routine electrocardiography. Cardiac involvement in FSH-MD may manifest as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or various arrhythmias, of which one may be pre-excitation-syndrome.

Stollberger, Claudia; Gatterer, Edmund; Jakubiczka, Sibylle

2014-01-01

95

Humeral cortical thickness in female Bantu - its relationship to the incidence of femoral neck fracture  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of the humeral cortical thickness demonstrate that generalised osteoporosis in female Bantu commences in the fifth decade and gradually increases until, in the ninth decade, all subjects are osteoporotic. The combined cortical thickness (CCT) of the humerus in young adults is very similar to that found previously in a white London population and the loss of cortex with age is very similar. It is concluded that the known low incidence of femoral neck fracture in Bantu is not due to a lower incidence of generalised osteoporosis but to environmental factors. The chief environmental factor postulated is the greater amount of physical work performed by the Bantu. A more careful mode of walking is suggested as a subsidiary cause.

Bloom, R.A.; Pogrund, H.

1982-03-01

96

Growth of the mandible following replacement of the mandibular condyle with the sternal end of the clavicle: an experimental investigation in Macaca mulatta.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the long-term effects of transplanted clavicles to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in juvenile monkeys. Sixteen juvenile female monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were used in this experiment. Eight animals were used as controls and were allowed to grow undisturbed for an 18-month period (group control). Eight animals were divided into two groups and underwent bilateral condylar excision via extraoral vertical ramus osteotomies. Four of these animals had their condylar segments removed and immediately replaced to serve as surgical controls (group condyle). The other four underwent condylar replacement with the sternal end of their clavicles (group SCJ). Standardized lateral cephalometric radiographs with the aid of tantalum bone markers were used to evaluate maxillary and mandibular growth. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the significance of differences between groups. All animals showed good mandibular function and a class I molar relationship following an 18-month evaluation period. Statistical analysis showed there was no significant difference in maxillary or mandibular growth between any of the three groups. The results of this investigation show that the sternal end of the clavicle may be a viable option in mandibular condylar transplant surgery. PMID:1403276

Henning, T B; Ellis, E; Carlson, D S

1992-11-01

97

Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Platelet Gel Improve Bone Deposition within CAD-CAM Custom-Made Ceramic HA Scaffolds for Condyle Substitution  

PubMed Central

Purpose. This study evaluated the efficacy of a regenerative approach using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and CAD-CAM customized pure and porous hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds to replace the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condyle. Methods. Pure HA scaffolds with a 70% total porosity volume were prototyped using CAD-CAM technology to replace the two temporomandibular condyles (left and right) of the same animal. MSCs were derived from the aspirated iliac crest bone marrow, and platelets were obtained from the venous blood of the sheep. Custom-made surgical guides were created by direct metal laser sintering and were used to export the virtual planning of the bone cut lines into the surgical environment. Sheep were sacrificed 4 months postoperatively. The HA scaffolds were explanted, histological specimens were prepared, and histomorphometric analysis was performed. Results. Analysis of the porosity reduction for apposition of newly formed bone showed a statistically significant difference in bone formation between condyles loaded with MSC and condyles without (P < 0.05). The bone ingrowth (BI) relative values of split-mouth comparison (right versus left side) showed a significant difference between condyles with and without MSCs (P < 0.05). Analysis of the test and control sides in the same animal using a split-mouth study design was performed; the condyle with MSCs showed greater bone formation. Conclusion. The split-mouth design confirmed an increment of bone regeneration into the HA scaffold of up to 797% upon application of MSCs. PMID:24073409

Ciocca, L.; Donati, D.; Ragazzini, S.; Dozza, B.; Rossi, F.; Fantini, M.; Spadari, A.; Romagnoli, N.; Landi, E.; Tampieri, A.; Piattelli, A.; Iezzi, G.; Scotti, R.

2013-01-01

98

The incidence of hip, forearm, humeral, ankle, and vertebral fragility fractures in Italy: results from a 3-year multicenter study  

PubMed Central

Introduction We aimed to assess the incidence and hospitalization rate of hip and "minor" fragility fractures in the Italian population. Methods We carried out a 3-year survey at 10 major Italian emergency departments to evaluate the hospitalization rate of hip, forearm, humeral, ankle, and vertebral fragility fractures in people 45 years or older between 2004 and 2006, both men and women. These data were compared with those recorded in the national hospitalizations database (SDO) to assess the overall incidence of fragility fractures occurring at hip and other sites, including also those events not resulting in hospital admissions. Results We observed 29,017 fractures across 3 years, with hospitalization rates of 93.0% for hip fractures, 36.3% for humeral fractures, 31.3% for ankle fractures, 22.6% for forearm/wrist fractures, and 27.6% for clinical vertebral fractures. According to the analyses performed with the Italian hospitalization database in year 2006, we estimated an annual incidence of 87,000 hip, 48,000 humeral, 36,000 ankle, 85,000 wrist, and 155,000 vertebral fragility fractures in people aged 45 years or older (thus resulting in almost 410,000 new fractures per year). Clinical vertebral fractures were recorded in 47,000 events per year. Conclusions The burden of fragility fractures in the Italian population is very high and calls for effective preventive strategies. PMID:21190571

2010-01-01

99

Tissue Formation and Vascularization in Anatomically Shaped Human Joint Condyle Ectopically in Vivo  

PubMed Central

Scale-up of bioengineered grafts toward clinical applications is a challenge in regenerative medicine. Here, we report tissue formation and vascularization of anatomically shaped human tibial condyles ectopically with a dimension of 20?×?15?×?15?mm3. A composite of poly-?-caprolactone and hydroxyapatite was fabricated using layer deposition of three-dimensional interlaid strands with interconnecting microchannels (400??m) and seeded with human bone marrow stem cells (hMSCs) with or without osteogenic differentiation. An overlaying layer (1?mm deep) of poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogel encapsulating hMSCs or hMSC-derived chondrocytes was molded into anatomic shape and anchored into microchannels by gel infusion. After 6 weeks of subcutaneous implantation in athymic rats, hMSCs generated not only significantly more blood vessels, but also significantly larger-diameter vessels than hMSC-derived osteoblasts, although hMSC-derived osteoblasts yielded mineralized tissue in microchannels. Chondrocytes in safranin-O-positive glycosaminoglycan matrix were present in the cartilage layer seeded with hMSC-derived chondrogenic cells, although significantly more cells were present in the cartilage layer seeded with hMSCs than hMSC-derived chondrocytes. Together, MSCs elaborate substantially more angiogenesis, whereas their progenies yield corresponding differentiated tissue phenotypes. Scale up is probable by incorporating a combination of stem cells and their progenies in repeating modules of internal microchannels. PMID:19563263

Lee, Chang H.; Marion, Nicholas W.; Hollister, Scott

2009-01-01

100

OSTEOCHONDRAL INTERFACE REGENERATION OF THE RABBIT MANDIBULAR CONDYLE WITH BIOACTIVE SIGNAL GRADIENTS  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Tissue engineering solutions focused on the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) have expanded in number and variety over the past decade to address the treatment of TMJ disorders. The existing literature on approaches for healing small defects in the TMJ condylar cartilage and subchondral bone, however, is sparse. The purpose of this study was thus to evaluate the performance of a novel gradient-based scaffolding approach to regenerate osteochondral defects in the rabbit mandibular condyle. MATERIALS AND METHODS Miniature bioactive plugs for regeneration of small mandibular condylar defects in New Zealand White rabbits were fabricated. The plugs were constructed from poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres with a gradient transition between cartilage-promoting and bone-promoting growth factors. RESULTS At six weeks of healing, results suggested that the implants provided support for the neo-synthesized tissue as evidenced by histology and 9.4T magnetic resonance imaging. CONCLUSION The inclusion of bioactive factors in a gradient-based scaffolding design is a promising new treatment strategy for focal defect repair in the TMJ. PMID:21470747

Dormer, Nathan H.; Busaidy, Kamal; Berkland, Cory J.; Detamore, Michael S.

2011-01-01

101

Treatment of the humeral shaft fractures - minimally invasive osteosynthesis with bridge plate versus conservative treatment with functional brace: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Humeral shaft fractures account for 1 to 3% of all fractures in adults and for 20% of all humeral fractures. Non-operative treatment is still the standard treatment of isolated humeral shaft fractures, although this method can present unsatisfactory results. Surgical treatment is reserved for specific conditions. Modern concepts of internal fixation of long bone shaft fractures advocate relative stabilisation techniques with no harm to fracture zone. Recently described, minimally invasive bridge plate osteosynthesis has been shown to be a secure technique with good results for treating humeral shaft fractures. There is no good quality evidence advocating which method is more effective. This randomised controlled trial will be performed to investigate the effectiveness of surgical treatment of humeral shaft fractures with bridge plating in comparison with conservative treatment with functional brace. Methods/Design This randomised clinical trial aims to include 110 patients with humeral shaft fractures who will be allocated after randomisation to one of the two groups: bridge plate or functional brace. Surgical treatment will be performed according to technique described by Livani and Belangero using a narrow DCP plate. Non-operative management will consist of a functional brace for 6 weeks or until fracture consolidation. All patients will be included in the same rehabilitation program and will be followed up for 1 year after intervention. The primary outcome will be the DASH score after 6 months of intervention. As secondary outcomes, we will assess SF-36 questionnaire, treatment complications, Constant score, pain (Visual Analogue Scale) and radiographs. Discussion According to current evidence shown in a recent systematic review, this study is one of the first randomised controlled trials designed to compare two methods to treat humeral shaft fractures (functional brace and bridge plate surgery). Trial registration Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN24835397 PMID:23924198

2013-01-01

102

Treatment of distal humeral fractures using conventional implants. Biomechanical evaluation of a new implant configuration  

PubMed Central

Background In the face of costly fixation hardware with varying performance for treatment of distal humeral fractures, a novel technique (U-Frame) is proposed using conventional implants in a 180° plate arrangement. In this in-vitro study the biomechanical stability of this method was compared with the established technique which utilizes angular stable locking compression plates (LCP) in a 90° configuration. Methods An unstable distal 3-part fracture (AO 13-C2.3) was created in eight pairs of human cadaveric humeri. All bone pairs were operated with either the "Frame" technique, where two parallel plates are distally interconnected, or with the LCP technique. The specimens were cyclically loaded in simulated flexion and extension of the arm until failure of the construct occurred. Motion of all fragments was tracked by means of optical motion capturing. Construct stiffness and cycles to failure were identified for all specimens. Results Compared to the LCP constructs, the "Frame" technique revealed significant higher construct stiffness in extension of the arm (P = 0.01). The stiffness in flexion was not significantly different (P = 0.16). Number of cycles to failure was found significantly larger for the "Frame" technique (P = 0.01). Conclusions In an in-vitro context the proposed method offers enhanced biomechanical stability and at the same time significantly reduces implant costs. PMID:20684752

2010-01-01

103

Minimal invasive ostheosintesis for treatment of diaphiseal transverse humeral shaft fractures  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate patients with transverse fractures of the shaft of the humerus treated with indirect reduction and internal fixation with plate and screws through minimally invasive technique. METHODS: Inclusion criteria were adult patients with transverse diaphyseal fractures of the humerus closed, isolated or not occurring within 15 days of the initial trauma. Exclusion criteria were patients with compound fractures. RESULTS: In two patients, proximal screw loosening occurred, however, the fractures consolidated in the same mean time as the rest of the series. Consolidation with up to 5 degrees of varus occurred in five cases and extension deficit was observed in the patient with olecranon fracture treated with tension band, which was not considered as a complication. There was no recurrence of infection or iatrogenic radial nerve injury. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that minimally invasive osteosynthesis with bridge plate can be considered a safe and effective option for the treatment of transverse fractures of the humeral shaft. Level of Evidence III, Therapeutic Study. PMID:24868188

Zogaib, Rodrigo Kallas; Morgan, Steven; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Fernandes, Helio Jorge Alvachian; Belangero, William Dias; Livani, Bruno

2014-01-01

104

In vivo gleno-humeral joint loads during forward flexion and abduction.  

PubMed

To improve design and preclinical test scenarios of shoulder joint implants as well as computer-based musculoskeletal models, a precise knowledge of realistic loads acting in vivo is necessary. Such data are also helpful to optimize physiotherapy after joint replacement and fractures. This is the first study that presents forces and moments measured in vivo in the gleno-humeral joint of 6 patients during forward flexion and abduction of the straight arm. The peak forces and, even more, the maximum moments varied inter-individually to a considerable extent. Forces of up to 238%BW (percent of body weight) and moments up to 1.74%BWm were determined. For elevation angles of less than 90° the forces agreed with many previous model-based calculations. At higher elevation angles, however, the measured loads still rose in contrast to the analytical results. When the exercises were performed at a higher speed, the peak forces decreased. The force directions relative to the humerus remained quite constant throughout the whole motion. Large moments in the joint indicate that friction in shoulder implants is high if the glenoid is not replaced. A friction coefficient of 0.1-0.2 seems to be realistic in these cases. PMID:21481879

Bergmann, G; Graichen, F; Bender, A; Rohlmann, A; Halder, A; Beier, A; Westerhoff, P

2011-05-17

105

HUMeral Shaft Fractures: MEasuring Recovery after Operative versus Non-operative Treatment (HUMMER): a multicenter comparative observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Fractures of the humeral shaft are associated with a profound temporary (and in the elderly sometimes even permanent) impairment of independence and quality of life. These fractures can be treated operatively or non-operatively, but the optimal tailored treatment is an unresolved problem. As no high-quality comparative randomized or observational studies are available, a recent Cochrane review concluded there is no evidence of sufficient scientific quality available to inform the decision to operate or not. Since randomized controlled trials for this injury have shown feasibility issues, this study is designed to provide the best achievable evidence to answer this unresolved problem. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate functional recovery after operative versus non-operative treatment in adult patients who sustained a humeral shaft fracture. Secondary aims include the effect of treatment on pain, complications, generic health-related quality of life, time to resumption of activities of daily living and work, and cost-effectiveness. The main hypothesis is that operative treatment will result in faster recovery. Methods/design The design of the study will be a multicenter prospective observational study of 400 patients who have sustained a humeral shaft fracture, AO type 12A or 12B. Treatment decision (i.e., operative or non-operative) will be left to the discretion of the treating surgeon. Critical elements of treatment will be registered and outcome will be monitored at regular intervals over the subsequent 12 months. The primary outcome measure is the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score. Secondary outcome measures are the Constant score, pain level at both sides, range of motion of the elbow and shoulder joint at both sides, radiographic healing, rate of complications and (secondary) interventions, health-related quality of life (Short-Form 36 and EuroQol-5D), time to resumption of ADL/work, and cost-effectiveness. Data will be analyzed using univariate and multivariable analyses (including mixed effects regression analysis). The cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed from a societal perspective. Discussion Successful completion of this trial will provide evidence on the effectiveness of operative versus non-operative treatment of patients with a humeral shaft fracture. Trial registration The trial is registered at the Netherlands Trial Register (NTR3617). PMID:24517194

2014-01-01

106

CASE REPORT AND LITERATURE REVIEW ANTERIOR SHOULDER DISLOCATION WITH THREE-PART PROXIMAL HUMERUS FRACTURE AND HUMERAL SHAFT FRACTURE  

PubMed Central

Dislocation of the shoulder and proximal humerus fracture with coexistent humeral shaft fracture is a rare injury reported in literature. There have been a total of 20 cases reported in the literature since 19401-13 (see Table 1). These injuries often occur as a result of high velocity trauma and most have been treated, at least partially, with invasive or operative management. We present the case of a woman with an anterior dislocation, three-part proximal humerus fracture and concomitant humerus shaft fracture and discuss her non-invasive treatment. PMID:19742096

Flint, John H.; Carlyle, Laura M.; Christiansen, Cory C.; Nepola, James V.

2009-01-01

107

Objective assessments of medial osteoarthritic knee severity by MRI: new computer software to evaluate femoral condyle contours  

PubMed Central

An irregular contour of the medial femoral condyle (MFC) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appears to indicate the severity of medial-type knee osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of this study was to establish a system to enable objective assessments of OA knee severity using newly developed software that semi-automatically measures irregularity of the MFC. (1) We evaluated 48 patients aged 50–83 years with 55 knees of medial-type OA. The following scores were recorded: Lysholm score, visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure (JKOM). MFC irregularity was automatically calculated by newly programmed computer software. Four parameters for condyle irregularity were calculated: (a) the average thickness of the contour (ATC), (b) the ratio of the upper surface length to the lower surface length of the contour (RUL), (c) average squared thickness of the contour (ASTC) and (d) standard deviation of the contour thickness (SDC). (2) Nine knees that underwent total knee arthroplasty were further analysed histopathologically and compared with irregularity score. Statistically, the RUL and SDC were significantly correlated with the Lysholm score, VAS and JKOM, with good reliability. Histological examinations showed that an irregular contour reflected the density of cystic lesions formed in subchondral bone. An irregularity of MFC on MRI is correlated with OA disease severity clinically and histopathologically. The new computer software is useful to objectively assess OA disease severity. PMID:19763568

Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Tahara, Masamichi; Watanabe, Atsuya; Matsuki, Kei; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Miyake, Yoichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Wada, Yuichi; Moriya, Hideshige

2009-01-01

108

Reliability of a set of protractors for direct anatomical measurements around the glenoid and humeral head rims  

PubMed Central

Functional biomechanics studies of the glenohumeral (GH) soft tissues require an understanding of their sites of bony attachment. Anatomical positions of GH capsular structures have often been quantified relative to the rims of the glenoid and humeral head (HH). The aim of this study was twofold: (1) to quantify the reliability of a set of protractors that directly fit on to the glenoid and HH rims and (2) to use this to determine direct angular position referencing of landmarks and soft tissue attachment points. Three assessors independently used the protractors to assess nine prescribed landmarks on 30 dry bone specimens (15 glenoids and 15 HHs) recording the angular positions of the structures relative to the glenoid and HH. The collected data showed high levels of validity as indicated by the protractor’s intra- and inter-assessor reliabilities: 98.2 and 98.7% for the glenoid component, and 96.2 and 96.5% for the humeral component, respectively. The device could be useful in anatomical studies, description of defects and pathologies on glenohumeral articulation, and planning of scapular reconstructive surgery. PMID:22404237

Amadi, Hippolite O; Fogg, Quentin A; Ugbolue, Ukadike C; Emery, Roger J H; Bull, Anthony M J

2012-01-01

109

Anconeus pedicle olecranon flip osteotomy: an approach for the fixation of complex intra-articular distal humeral fractures.  

PubMed

In order to achieve satisfactory reduction of complex distal humeral fractures, adequate exposure of the fracture fragments and the joint surface is required. Several surgical exposures have been described for distal humeral fractures. We report our experience using the anconeus pedicle olecranon flip osteotomy approach. This involves detachment of the triceps along with a sliver of olecranon, which retains the anconeus pedicle. We report the use of this approach in ten patients (six male, four female) with a mean age of 38.4 years (28 to 51). The mean follow-up was 15 months (12 to 18) with no loss to follow-up. Elbow function was graded using the Mayo Score. The results were excellent in four patients, good in five and fair in one patient. The mean time to both fracture and osteotomy union was 10.6 weeks (8 to 12) and 7.1 weeks (6 to 8), respectively. We found this approach gave reliably good exposure for these difficult fractures enabling anatomical reduction and bicondylar plating without complications. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:1252-7. PMID:25183599

Habib, M; Tanwar, Y S; Jaiswal, A; Singh, S P; Sinha, S; Lal, H

2014-09-01

110

A comparative study of linear measurements on facial skeleton with frontal and lateral cephalogram  

PubMed Central

Objective: To compare the accuracy of linear measurements on lateral and frontal cephalograms with gold standard skull measurements. Materials and Methods: Based on the specific criteria including reliable occlusion and condyles fitting in glenoid fossa, 15 dry human skulls were selected from a larger collection. Lateral and frontal cephalograms were taken of each skull by standardized methods. Steel ball bearings were used to identify the anatomic landmarks. Linear measurements in midsagittal plane were made on all three records. Intraclass correlation coefficients, Pearson's correlation coefficient and regression constant were calculated to assess the records simultaneously. Results: The frontal cephalometric measurements showed high correlation to the direct skull measurements (Pearson's coefficient 0.943lateral cephalometric record are greater than the corresponding frontal cephalometric images. The overall findings of the present study showed that the frontal cephalometric measurements are closely related to the direct skull measures. PMID:22919218

Gandikota, Chandra Sekhar; Rayapudi, Naveen; Challa, Padma Latha; Juvvadi, Shubhaker Rao; Yudhister, P. V.; Rao, Gutti Hariprasad

2012-01-01

111

Internal Fixation Versus Nonoperative Treatment for Displaced 3-Part or 4-Part Proximal Humeral Fractures in Elderly Patients: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials  

PubMed Central

Background A few studies focused on open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) or nonoperative treatment of displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients have been published, all of whom had a low number of patients. In this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), we aimed to assess the effect of ORIF or nonoperative treatment of displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients on the clinical outcomes and re-evaluate of the potential benefits of conservative treatment. Methods We searched PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases for randomized controlled trials comparing ORIF and nonoperative treatment of displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients. Our outcome measures were the Constant scores. Results: Three randomized controlled trials with a total of 130 patients were identified and analyzed. The overall results based on fixed-effect model did not support the treatment of open reduction and internal fixation to improve the functional outcome when compared with nonoperative treatment for treating elderly patients with displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures (WMD ?0.51, 95% CI: ?7.25 to 6.22, P?=?0.88, I2?=?0%). Conclusions Although our meta-analysis did not support the treatment of open reduction and internal fixation to improve the functional outcome when compared with nonoperative treatment for treating elderly patients with displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures, this result must be considered in the context of variable patient demographics. Only a limited recommendation can be made based on current data. Considering the limitations of included studies, a large, well designed trial that incorporates the evaluation of clinically relevant outcomes in participants with different underlying risks of shoulder function is required to more adequately assess the role for ORIF or nonoperative treatment. PMID:24066182

Li, Jing; Chen, Aimin

2013-01-01

112

Three-dimensional analyses of proximal humeral fractures using computed tomography with multiplanar reconstruction: early stability of fixation after osteosynthesis in relation to preoperative bone quality.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the bone quality of the humeral head measured by CT multiplanar reconstruction images (MPR) and the stability of nail or plate fixation and to compare the clinical outcomes of these procedures in patients with proximal humeral fractures. Thirty-six consecutive patients (nail group: n = 18, plate group: n = 18) were investigated. In nail group, 14 cases were classified as two-part fractures, three cases were classified as three-part fractures and one case was classified as four-part fractures. In plate group, three cases were classified as two-part fractures, nine cases were classified as three-part fractures and six cases were classified as four-part fractures. Both clinical and radiological outcomes were assessed. In addition, the percentage of trabecular bone volume of the humeral head was calculated using preoperative CT-MPR images. Three patients in the nail group underwent reoperation. In contrast, no patients in the plate group underwent reoperation. In nail group, six of 18 (33 %) patients demonstrated poor results (three underwent reoperation, and three had varus displacements >10º) and had bone volume percentages (axial image) that were significantly lower than those observed in the patients with good results. The cutoff point of trabecular bone volume required to obtain satisfactory results after surgical treatment using intramedullary nail was 78 %. The results of this study suggest that the bone volume of the humeral head calculated using CT-MPR images provides useful information, in addition to the type of fracture, when selecting fixation devices for osteosynthesis of proximal humeral fracture. PMID:24043369

Ueda, Koki; Ikemura, Satoshi; Yamashita, Akihisa; Harada, Takashi; Watanabe, Tetsuya; Shirasawa, Kenzo

2014-12-01

113

Complication rates and outcomes stratified by treatment modalities in proximal humeral fractures: a systematic literature review from 1970-2009  

PubMed Central

Background The optimal treatment of complex, displaced proximal humeral fractures is controversial. A systematic literature review of the time period from 1970 to 2009 was conducted. The purpose was to evaluate the clinical success and complications of the available treatment modalities to determine specific treatment recommendations for the different fracture patterns. Methods The databases (PubMed/EMBASE) were searched for the time period (01/1970–09/2009). Study quality, treatment modalities, classification, outcome scores and complications of 200 publications including 9377 patients were analyzed. Interventions were compared by analysis of variance with subsequent Tukey’s-test. Complication rates among methods were compared by using Pearson’s-chi-square-test and pairwise comparisons using Fisher’s-two-tailed-exact-test. Results Hemiarthroplasty, angle-stable plate and non-operative treatment were used for 63% of the follow-up-patients. For 3- and 4-part fractures, patients with hemiarthroplasty [3-Part: 56.4 (lower/upper 95% confidence interval (CI): 43.3-68.7); 4-Part: 49.4 (CI: 42.2-56.7)] received a lower score than different surgical head-preserving methods such as ORIF [3-Part: 82.4 (CI: 76.6-86.9); 4-Part: 83.0 (CI:78.7-86.6)], intramedullary nailing [3-Part: 79.1 (CI:74.0-83.4)] or angle-stable plates [4-Part: 66.4 (CI: 59.7-72.4)]. The overall complication rate was 56%. The most common complications were fracture-displacement, malunion, humeral head necrosis and malreduction. The highest complication rates were documented for conventional plate and hemiarthroplasty and for AO-C, AO-A, for 3- and 4-part fractures. Only 25% of the data were reported with detailed classification results and the corresponding outcome scores. Discussion Despite the large amount of patients included, it is difficult to determine adequate recommendations for the treatment of proximal humeral fractures because a relevant lack of follow-up data impaired subsequent analysis. For displaced 3- and 4-part fractures head-preserving therapy received better outcome scores than hemiarthroplasty. However, a higher number of complications occurred in more complex fractures and when hemiarthroplasty or conventional plate osteosynthesis was performed. Thus, when informing the patient for consent, both the clinical results and the possibly expected complications with a chosen treatment modality should be addressed. PMID:24268107

2013-01-01

114

Reconstruction with vascularized medial femoral condyle flaps in hindfoot and ankle defects: a report of two cases.  

PubMed

In this article, we report using free vascularized medial femoral condyle (MFC) flaps for reconstruction of bone defects and nonunion of the hindfoot and ankle in two patients. One patient had an open calcaneal fracture and hindfoot bone defect with impaired gait due to Achilles tendon functional loss. The second patient had nonunion with a chondral defect of the talus after a fall. Following uneventful recoveries, good objective and subjective results were achieved in terms of pain reduction and improved gait in both patients. No further operative intervention was needed during a 3-year follow-up period. The versatility of the corticoperiosteal graft from the MFC makes it an important reconstructive tool for addressing several major surgical problems of bony nonunion in the extremities, including posttraumatic reconstruction of hindfoot and ankle disorders. PMID:24942331

Mattiassich, Georg; Marcovici, Lucian Lior; Dorninger, Leopold; Kerschhagl, Martina; Buerger, Heinz; Kroepfl, Albert; Larcher, Lorenz

2014-10-01

115

Using conservative condylectomy for management of a large osteochondroma of the mandibular condyle with 6-year follow-up.  

PubMed

Osteochondroma is a hamartomatous proliferation of cartilaginous tissue, which is the most common benign tumor of the long bones, but is relatively rare in the maxillofacial region. Most cases of mandibular condylar osteochondroma manifest with facial asymmetry or malocclusion with limited temporomandibular joint movements. Several approaches for management of this lesion have been proposed, as conservative condylectomy technique. This procedure has been suggested a valid approach to minimize facial asymmetry, contributing to the recovery of occlusion associated with no local tumor recurrence, and without condylar reconstruction procedure. Therefore, this article aims to describe a clinical report of a true osteochondroma of the mandibular condyle in a 35-year-old patient who was successfully treated using conservative condylectomy procedure. PMID:24469370

Santos, George Soares; Gomes, Julio Bisinotto; de Sousa Maia, Sergio; Bermejo, Patricia Rota; Shinohara, Elio Hitoshi; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; de Melo, Willian Morais

2014-03-01

116

Arthroscopy and microfracture technique in the treatment of osteochondritis dissecans of the humeral capitellum: report of three adolescent gymnasts.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to report on three cases of symptomatic osteochondritis dissecans of the humeral capitellum in adolescent gymnasts, two females and one male. In all the cases arthroscopic surgery was performed. During arthroscopy, loose osteochondral fragments were removed, the defect was debrided and microfractures were performed. All the three patients regained the full range of motion of the affected elbow, and returned to the high-level gymnastics within a period of 5 months. At 12 months follow-up, all the three patients remained symptomless and were participating in high-level gymnastics. A combination of arthroscopy and the microfracture technique is a reliable method with excellent short-term results in the treatment of the osteochondritis dissecans of the elbow. PMID:16217674

Bojani?, Ivan; Ivkovi?, Alan; Bori?, Igor

2006-05-01

117

Reconstruction of the glenohumeral joint using a lateral meniscal allograft to the glenoid and osteoarticular humeral head allograft after bipolar chondrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chondrolysis of the glenohumeral joint has been re- ported to occur after the use of thermal energy, bioab- sorbable intraarticular implants, intraarticular infusion of bupivacaine, and intraarticular injection of gentian vio- let dye, as well as after otherwise uncomplicated cases of shoulder arthroscopy during which no such etiologic factors can be identified.2,7,11,14,18,22 Chondrolysis can result in devastating loss of cartilage,

L. Pearce McCarty; Brian J. Cole

118

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

MedlinePLUS

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or ALS, is a disease of the nerve cells in the brain and spinal ... Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2012:chap 74. Shaw PJ. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other motor neuron diseases. In: ...

119

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Introduction Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, or ALS, is a serious neurological disease that affects the ability to ... com nr180104 Last reviewed: 03/20/2013 1 ALS ALS attacks the neurons that control muscles, the ...

120

Lateral Neck Injury Assessments in Side Impact Using Post Mortem Human Subject Tests  

PubMed Central

Current neck injury criteria are based on matching upper cervical spine injuries from piglet tests to airbag deployment loads and pairing kinematics from child dummies. These “child-based” scaled data together with adult human cadaver tolerances in axial loading are used to specify neck injury thresholds in axial compression and tension, and flexion and extension moment about the occipital condyles; no thresholds are specified for any other force or moment including lateral bending. The objective of this study was to develop a testing methodology and to determine the lateral bending moment injury threshold under coronal loading. Post mortem human subjects (PMHS) were used. Specimens consisted of whole body and isolated head-neck complexes with intact musculature. Intact specimen positioning included: sitting PMHS upright on a rigid seat, supporting the torso by a plate, maintaining Frankfurt plane horizontal. Isolated head-neck complexes were fixed at T1 with the occiput connected via a custom apparatus to a testing device to induce lateral bending motion. Head angular and linear accelerations and angular velocities were computed using a pyramid nine accelerometer package on the head; specimen-specific physical properties including center of gravity and moments of inertia in the three-dimensions; and equations of equilibrium. These data were used to determine neck loads at the occipital condyles. No specimens sustained injuries, identified by palpation, x-rays, CT, and autopsy. Results from 24 tests indicated that PMHS head-neck complexes can tolerate 75 Nm of coronal moment at low axial load without failure, and this level may be used as an initial estimate of the injury reference value under lateral loading to the human head-neck complex. PMID:22105394

Yoganandan, Narayan; Humm, John; Pintar, Frank A.; Wolfla, Christopher E.; Maiman, Dennis J.

2011-01-01

121

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Information Page Clinical Trials Natural History and Biomarkers of C9ORF72 ALS and FTD The ... Trials Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)? Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), sometimes ...

122

Expression of matrix metalloproteinases-8 and -9 and their tissue inhibitor in the condyles of diabetic rats with mandibular advancement  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of type 1 diabetes mellitus on the condylar response during treatment with a functional appliance. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups, normal (NG), diabetes (DG) and diabetes with insulin-treatment (TG). Bite-jumping appliances were fitted to the rats in the experimental groups. At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days following fitting, animals were sacrificed and condyles were excised and processed using routine histological techniques. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8, MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) was detected using immunohistochemical analysis. Mandibular advancement increased the expression levels of MMP-8 (peaked on day 28), MMP-9 (peaked on day 21), TIMP-1 (peaked on days 21 and 28) and the ratio of MMP-8 to TIMP-1 and MMP-9 to TIMP-1. In the DG, diabetes decreased the expression levels of MMP-8 and MMP-9 induced by mandibular advancement and increased the expression levels of TIMP-1 compared with that of the NG. The ratio of MMP-8 to TIMP-1 and MMP-9 to TIMP-1 also showed a significant decrease in the DG compared with that of the NG. A recovery of these parameters was observed in the TG. Diabetes significantly altered the condylar response, which was triggered by mandibular advancement, and weakened subsequent bone deposition. The results from the TG were not significantly different from that of the NG. PMID:25289023

ZHONG, XIAOHUAN; WANG, HUIXIN; JIAN, XINCHUN

2014-01-01

123

Shockwave therapy in the management of complex regional pain syndrome in medial femoral condyle of the knee.  

PubMed

The aim of this prospective study was to assess the efficacy of shockwave (SW) therapy in the management of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). In this study, 30 patients (pts) who were affected by CRPS of the medial femoral condyle and unresponsive to previous standard physiotherapeutic and pharmacological treatment underwent 3 SW sessions at 72-h intervals, each consisting of 4000 shocks emitted by a MiniLith SL1 Storz electromagnetic generator. An energy flux density (EFD) of 0.035 or 0.09 mJ/mm(2) was used, depending on how well the patient endured the pain during the treatment. Satisfactory results were observed in 76.7% of the cases (23 pts) at the 2-month follow-up (FU) visit, and in 80% (24 pts) at the 6-month FU visit. The therapeutic effects of SW were caused by decreasing pain. The significant improvements we obtained bear witness to the potential value of SW therapy in the management of CRPS. PMID:20447749

Notarnicola, Angela; Moretti, Lorenzo; Tafuri, Silvio; Panella, Antonio; Filipponi, Marco; Casalino, Alessio; Panella, Michele; Moretti, Biagio

2010-06-01

124

Lateral flow strip assay  

DOEpatents

A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

Miles, Robin R. (Danville, CA); Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA); Coleman, Matthew A. (Oakland, CA); Pearson, Francesca S. (Livermore, CA); Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L. (Livermore, CA)

2011-03-08

125

Lateral canthal anatomy: a review.  

PubMed

The anatomy of the lateral canthus is analogous to that of the medial canthus, but with a less defined structure. Although the lateral canthal tendon occupies the major part of the lateral canthal anatomy, the lateral rectus capsulopalpebral fascia and other structures also play a significant role. Appropriate comprehension and consideration of the lateral canthal anatomy enable safe and effective performance in the lateral canthal surgeries. In this review, we present the lateral canthal anatomy along with updated topics. We discuss the lateral canthal tendon, lateral orbital thickening, lateral palpebral raphe, lateral canthal muscle, lateral rectus capsulopalpebral fascia, lateral check ligament, lateral retinaculum, and orbitomalar ligament. PMID:22690873

Kang, Hyera; Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Ichinose, Akihiro; Nakano, Takashi; Asamoto, Ken; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Iwaki, Masayoshi; Kakizaki, Hirohiko

2012-08-01

126

CD146 as a new marker for an increased chondroprogenitor cell sub-population in the later stages of osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Cartilage-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been isolated with different methods. In this study lateral and medial femoral condyles were respectively collected from patients with late-stage osteoarthritis during the total knee arthroplasty. After digestion of the cartilage tissues with type II collagenase and analysis by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) with CD146, a chondroprogenitor cell sub-population were isolated and purified. The expression of other MSC-associated markers in the CD146(+) chondroprogenitors was analyzed by flow cytometry. Multi-lineage differentiation capacity of CD146(+) chondroprogenitors was compared with that of unsorted chondrocytes and adipose-derived MSCs (ADMSCs). Higher percentage of CD146(+) chondroprogenitors isolated from the medial femoral condyles was observed than that from the lateral. CD146(+) chondroprogenitors expressed high levels of MSC-specific surface antigens, and showed higher chondrogenesis capacity than ADMSCs and unsorted chondrocytes in a 3D cell pellet culture model. Thus CD146 might be a new cell surface marker for cartilage progenitor cell population in the late-stage osteoarthritis. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 33:84-91, 2015. PMID:25266708

Su, Xinlin; Zuo, Wei; Wu, Zhihong; Chen, Jun; Wu, Nan; Ma, Pei; Xia, Zenan; Jiang, Chao; Ye, Zixing; Liu, Sen; Liu, Jiaqi; Zhou, Guangqian; Wan, Chao; Qiu, Guixing

2015-01-01

127

Cerebral Lateralization and Aggression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A resurgence of interest in the relationship between cerebral lateralization (the functional asymmetry of the cerebral cortex) and aggression has occurred. Most recent studies have found that individuals with abnormal patterns of lateralization are overrepresented among violent individuals. Intervening variables (such as drug and alcohol abuse)…

Hillbrand, Marc; And Others

1994-01-01

128

Open reduction and internal fixation of extracapsular mandibular condyle fractures: a long-term clinical and radiological follow-up of 25 patients  

PubMed Central

Background During the last 2 decades, many studies on the treatment of mandibular condyle fracture have been published. The incidence of mandibular condyle fractures is variable, ranging from 17.5% to 52% of all mandibular fractures. This retrospective study evaluated the long-term clinical and radiological outcomes after surgical treatment of 25 patients with a total of 26 extracapsular condyle fractures. Methods We used 2 types of surgical approaches, the retromandibular retroparotid or preauricular approach. Three kinds of rigid internal fixation plates were used—single plate, double plate, and trapezoidal plate. The following post-operative clinical parameters were evaluated: dental occlusion, facial nerve functionality, skin scarring, and temporomandibular joint functionality. All patients underwent post-operative orthopanoramic radiography and computed tomography. The patients were also monitored for complications such as Frey’s syndrome, infection, salivary fistula, plate fracture, and permanent paralysis of the facial nerve; the patient’s satisfaction was also recorded. Results Of the 25 patients, 80% showed occlusion recovery, 88% had no facial nerve injury, and 88% presented good surgical skin scarring. The patients showed early complete recovery of temporomandibular joint functionality and 72% of them were found to be asymptomatic. The postoperative radiographs of all patients indicated good recovery of the anatomical condylar region, and 80% of them had no postoperative complications. The average degree of patient satisfaction was 8.32 out of 10. Our results confirm that the technique of open reduction and internal fixation in association with postoperative functional rehabilitation therapy should be considered for treating patients with extracapsular condylar fractures. Conclusion The topic of condylar injury has generated more discussion and controversy than any other topic in the field of maxillofacial trauma. We confirm that open reduction and internal fixation is the treatment of choice for patients with neck and sub-condylar mandibular fractures. PMID:25196114

2014-01-01

129

Robotic-assisted unicompartmental knee arthroplasty in a patient with combined medial compartment arthritis and subchondral defect of the medial femoral condyle.  

PubMed

Subchondral defects, or severe osteoarthritic changes, of the medial compartment may complicate component positioning and require proper planning and exact placement to ensure adequate and stable fixation and proper postoperative kinematics. This is a case report on our experience with a CT-based robotic tactile guidance system for unicompartmental knee replacement in a patient with combined medial compartment degenerative joint disease and subchondral defect of the medial femoral condyle. Using the TGS in this case, an exact burring process of the femoral cavity adjacent to the subchondral defect resulted in accurate burring of the cavity depth and width, while preservation of the surrounding supporting bony boundary was possible. PMID:22264715

Suero, Eduardo M; Citak, Mustafa; Kraneburg, Ursula M; Pearle, Andrew D; Kendoff, Daniel O

2012-10-01

130

Influence of prosthetic humeral head size and medial offset on the mechanics of the shoulder with cuff tear arthropathy: a numerical study.  

PubMed

This numerical study assesses the influence of an oversized humeral hemiprosthesis with a larger medial offset on the mechanics of the shoulder with cuff tear arthropathy (CTA). Shoulder elevation in the scapular plane is performed, and a Seebauer Type IIa CTA is simulated: a massive rotator cuff tear, a proximal and static migration of the humeral head, and two contacts with friction (glenohumeral and acromiohumeral). The CTA model without a prosthesis (friction coefficient 0.3) is evaluated first as a reference model. Then, three humeral head prosthetic geometries (friction coefficient 0.15) are evaluated: anatomical head, oversized head, and oversized head with a large medial offset. The function of the middle deltoid (i.e. moment arm, applied force, and strength), the contact forces, and the range of motion are studied. The anatomical head, which reduces friction by half, decreases the middle deltoid force (25%) and the contact forces (glenoid 7%; acromion 25%), and increases the range of motion from 41 to 54°. The oversized head increases the moment arm (15%) and the middle deltoid strength (13%), which further decreases the deltoid force (7%) and the contact forces (glenoid 7%; acromion 17%), and increases the range of motion from 54° to 69°. The oversized head with a large medial offset enhances these effects: the moment arm increases by another 3.1%, the deltoid force decreases by another 5% and the acromiohumeral contact force by another 12%, and the range of motion increases from 69° to 84°. These results suggest that increasing the medial offset and oversizing the hemiprosthetic head improve the function of the deltoid, reduce acromial solicitation, and restore elevation to almost 90°. PMID:23219280

Lemieux, P O; Tétreault, P; Hagemeister, N; Nuño, N

2013-02-22

131

Ultrasound-guided interscalene-supraclavicular block for an intramedullary nailing of a pathologic humeral fracture: practical application of ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia.  

PubMed

Fractures of the proximal upper extremity present a challenge to the anesthesia provider when administering a regional anesthetic because the dermatomal distribution of the upper extremity requires more local anesthetic coverage than any single brachial plexus nerve block can provide. A 60-year-old woman underwent intramedullary nailing of a pathologic humeral fracture using a combination of regional and general anesthesia. This case study shows how ultrasound guidance permitted the performance of both an interscalene and supraclavicular nerve block for a single procedure without the increased volume of local anesthetic that would normally be required, while still providing complete coverage of the entire upper extremity. PMID:25109160

Falyar, Christian R; Grossman, Eric C

2014-06-01

132

Stable fixation of the IBP humeral component implanted without cement in total elbow replacement: a radiostereometric analysis study of 16 elbows at two-year follow-up.  

PubMed

We determined the short-term clinical outcome and migration within the bone of the humeral cementless component of the Instrumented Bone Preserving (IBP) total elbow replacement in a series of 16 patients. There were four men and 12 women with a mean age at operation of 63 years (40 to 81). Migration was calculated using radiostereometric analysis. There were no intra-operative complications and no revisions. At two-year follow-up, all patients showed a significant reduction in pain and functional improvement of the elbow (both p < 0.001). Although ten components (63%) showed movement or micromovement during the first six weeks, 14 (88%) were stable at one year post-operatively. Translation was primarily found in the proximal direction (median 0.3 mm (interquartile range (IQR) -0.09 to 0.8); the major rotational movement was an anterior tilt (median 0.7° (IQR 0.4° to 1.6°)). One malaligned component continued to migrate during the second year, and one component could not be followed beyond three months because migration had caused the markers to break off the prosthesis. This study shows promising early results for the cementless humeral component of the IBP total elbow replacement. All patients had a good clinical outcome, and most components stabilised within six months of the operation. PMID:24493189

deVos, M J; Verdonschot, N; Luites, J W H; Anderson, P G; Eygendaal, D

2014-02-01

133

Laterally bendable belt conveyor  

DOEpatents

An endless, laterally flexible and bendable belt conveyor particularly adapted for coal mining applications in facilitating the transport of the extracted coal up- or downslope and around corners in a continuous manner is disclosed. The conveying means includes a flat rubber belt reinforced along the middle portion thereof along which the major portion of the belt tension is directed so as to cause rotation of the tubular shaped belt when trammed around lateral turns thus preventing excessive belt bulging distortion between adjacent belt supports which would inhibit belt transport. Pretension induced into the fabric reinforced flat rubber belt by conventional belt take-up means supports the load conveyed when the belt conveyor is making lateral turns. The carrying and return portions of the belt are supported and formed into a tubular shape by a plurality of shapers positioned along its length. Each shaper is supported from above by a monorail and includes clusters of idler rollers which support the belt. Additional cluster rollers in each shaper permit the belt supporting roller clusters to rotate in response to the belt's operating tension imposed upon the cluster rollers by induced lateral belt friction forces. The freely rotating roller clusters thus permit the belt to twist on lateral curves without damage to itself while precluding escape of the conveyed material by effectively enclosing it in the tube-shaped, inner belt transport length.

Peterson, William J. (Coraopolis, PA)

1985-01-01

134

Lateral Thinking of Prospective Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Edward de Bono who invented the term "lateral thinking" in 1967 is the pioneer of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is concerned with the generation of new ideas. Liberation from old ideas and the stimulation of new ones are twin aspects of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is a creative skills from which all people can benefit…

Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Xavier, S. Amaladoss

2013-01-01

135

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Association  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), most commonly known as Lou Gehrig's disease, is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that attacks nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord resulting in muscle weakness and atrophy. The ALS Association's national Web site provides comprehensive information on a wide variety of topics pertinent to ALS patients, caregivers, family members, and health care professionals. This well-organized,

Julie M. Smith

2008-01-01

136

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

In this case study, we describe the symptoms, neurological examination, and pathology of a woman with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). ALS is a rare disorder leading to degeneration of the voluntary motor system and death in, on average, 3 to 4 years. The loss of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord causes the progressive symptoms of muscular weakness, atrophy, fasciculation (muscle twitching), spasticity, and hyperreflexia. Signs of disease in both upper and lower motor neurons are required for a definitive clinical diagnosis. Pathology shows degeneration of the lateral corticospinal tracts, loss of motor neurons and astrogliosis in the brain and brain stem, and neuronal inclusions. This case was marked by the onset of weakness and muscle atrophy in the hand, which spread to involve contiguous muscle segments. Cognition, the extraocular muscles, and the urinary sphincters were spared. Respiratory muscle weakness was a late manifestation. PMID:12954882

Gordon, Paul H; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Hays, Arthur P

2003-09-01

137

Giant distal humeral geode.  

PubMed

We describe the imaging features of a giant geode of the distal humerus in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis, which presented initially as a pathological fracture. The value of magnetic resonance imaging in establishing this diagnosis is emphasized. PMID:10794554

Maher, M M; Kennedy, J; Hynes, D; Murray, J G; O'Connell, D

2000-03-01

138

Laterality and Human Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of whether there is a fundamental discontinuity between humans and other primates is discussed in relation to the predominantly human pattern of right-handedness and the left-cerebral representation of language. Both phenomena may go back at least to Homo habilis, 2–3 million years ago. However, a distinctively human mode of cognitive representation may not have emerged until later, beginning

Michael C. Corballis

1989-01-01

139

[Lateral subcutaneous internal sphincterotomy].  

PubMed

An original technique of the lateral subcutaneous internal sphincterotomy was used for the treatment of 134 patients with acute and chronic anal fissures, cryptitis, papillitis, aggravation of chronic recurrent paraproctitis and structures of the anus. Recovery was noted in 79 of 80 patients with anal fissures examined repeatedly. No disorders of the obturative function of the anal constrictor were observed after the operation. PMID:6649317

Ektov, V N; Nalivkin, A I; Vdovin, K P; Khriashkov, A A; Mukhopadova, G V

1983-09-01

140

Lateral patellar retinacular release  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-one lateral knee retinacular releases were per formed in 33 patients over a 27-month period. This group represented 6.9% of patients seen during that time with symptomatic patellalgia. A retrospective analysis was done on 24 patients from that group who returned for follow-up examination 8 to 16 months after surgery. Thirty-three knees in these patients were operated upon by one

Lyle J. Micheli; Carl L. Stanitski

1981-01-01

141

Start School Later  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last month, Pediatrics, the official journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), issued a formal policy statement concerning School Start Times for Adolescents (http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2014/08/19/peds.2014-1697.abstract?sid=3f739b0e-a552-4a4a-bd0a-907809e20255). In essence, the AAP called for schools to start later, citing sleep deprivation among teenagers as âÂÂan important public health issue.â This site from Start School Later, a group advocating for âÂÂhealth, safety and equity in education,â provides good, if somewhat one-sided, information on the topic. If youâÂÂre unfamiliar, start with Research & Info, which provides links to a number of informative sites about adolescent sleep needs and the impact of early school start times. Success Stories takes readers to schools around the country that have experimented with, and benefited from, later start times. If you're inspired, you can also Get Involved. Whatever your position on the issue, this is an informative and interesting site.

142

Cardiac involvement in facio-scapulo-humeral muscular dystrophy: a family study using Thallium-201 single-photon-emission-computed tomography.  

PubMed

Fifteen persons from two consecutive generations of one family affected with facio-scapulo-humeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) were clinically and neurophysiologically examined. Diagnostic muscle biopsies were obtained from two members. Linkage analysis showed that all four affected members of the family inherit the same 4q35 haplotype giving a lod score of z = +1.44. Six family members were examined by ECG at rest and under stress, by two-dimensional echocardiography, and by cardiac Thallium-201 single-photon-emission computed tomography (Tl-201-SPECT) under dobutamine stress and at rest. Abnormal reduced Tl-201 uptake in cardiac SPECT was only found in the affected members of the family. Therefore we suggest that cardiac Tl-201-SPECT abnormalities in FSHD reflect cardiomyogenic changes in this type of muscular disease. PMID:8994104

Faustmann, P M; Farahati, J; Rupilius, B; Dux, R; Koch, M C; Reiners, C

1996-12-01

143

Lateral cervical meningocele.  

PubMed

Lateral cervical meningocele is an extremely rare developmental anomaly. We could find only one such case protruding from an enlarged C2-3 intervertebral foramen. It may be confused with an extradural cyst or cystic hygroma. Direct needling may introduce infection and thereby pyogenic meningitis and so should be avoided. Similarly, incision and drainage may transform it into cerebrospinal fluid fistula. A computed tomography scan is the most fruitful form of investigation for confirmation and localization of the disease. A lumboperitoneal shunt or water tight closure of the dural sac at the neck is the recommended procedure of choice. PMID:1524732

Sharma, V; Newton, G

1992-06-01

144

Growth in the lateral part of the human skull during the second trimester.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to report dimensional changes in the lateral part of the prenatal human skull during the second trimester. The sample comprised 37 fetuses obtained in connection with requested autopsy. Gestational ages (GA) were available for 27 fetuses, ranging from 13 to 24 weeks. Crown-rump lengths (CRL) of 23 fetuses ranged from 78 to 228 mm. For 21 fetuses both CRL and GA were available. After excision of the midsagittal segment of the skulls by two paramedian sections from the frontal bone to the foramen magnum through the optic foramina, an incision was made through the middle of the occipital squama, bisecting the skull. The present study was based on the skull components of the resulting 74 lateral cranial tissue blocks. The tissue blocks were radiographed with a Hewlett Packard Faxitron unit. Seven reference points were digitized from each film and eight linear dimensions were calculated. Method errors ranged from 0.12 mm to 0.52 mm. The dimensions were related to crown-rump length (CRL) and lateral segment developmental stages (LSS). The increases in the linear dimensions of the anterior part of the lateral skull segments were similar to those found previously for the median skull segment. The dimensions of the anterior part of the lateral skull segments were found to increase by 150% during the second trimester, while those of the posterior part increased by 100% during the same period. Between maturity stages LSS 4 and 5 the dimensions increased by 30-50%, whereas less increase was observed between stages 5, 6, 7, and 8. This reduction was attributed to the progressive ossification of the cranial base. The almost horizontal distance from the mandibular condyle (condylion) to the anterior tympanic ring did not change significantly during the second trimester. Comparison of the bilateral skull segments showed no systematic asymmetry, but a significant individual biological variability in symmetry with standard deviations of 0.7-1.8 mm was found. PMID:8719349

Bach-Petersen, S; Solow, B; Fischer-Hansen, B; Kjaer, I

1995-01-01

145

Laterally oscillating nitinol engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a laterally oscillating nitinol engine comprising: a first L-shaped drive member journalled for pivoting horizontal oscillation about the juncture of the legs of the L-shaped member, a second drive member journalled for pivoting about a point proximate the outboard end of the shorter leg of the L-shaped member at a distance from the pivot journal of the L-shaped member, a bearing block secured to the end of longer leg of the L-shaped and having a guide hole. The second member extending through the guide hole and arranged to reciprocate therein, a shape memory alloy power element disposed in flexure secured at its ends to the bearing block and to the second member intermediate the sliding connection with the bearing block and the pivotal connection of the second member, means for disposing different temperature baths below the element whereby as the drive members oscillate about their journals the element alternately dips into one bath and then the other, and means for absorbing a portion of the energy developed by the engine and moving the power element from the cold bath to the hot bath.

Banks, R.

1987-09-08

146

Effect of a ?-TCP collagen composite bone substitute on healing of drilled bone voids in the distal femoral condyle of rabbits.  

PubMed

In this study, we tested the performance and biocompatibility of a composite of ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) to collagen as a bone void filler (Cerasorb(®) Ortho Foam) in a rabbit distal femoral condyle model. ?-TCP is a completely resorbable synthetic calcium phosphate and the addition of a collagen matrix couples the osteoconductive effects of the two components. Furthermore, the malleable properties of the implant material during surgical applications for shape control will be enhanced. A critical size defect of 6 mm in diameter and 10 mm in depth was drilled into each distal femur of the rabbits. One hole was filled with the test substance and the other was left empty for control. After 1, 3, and 6 months the animals were killed and the degree of bone healing analyzed. In total, 18 animals were investigated. When the ?-TCP composite was used, histological, histomorphometric, and biomechanical evaluations revealed significantly better bone healing in terms of quantity and quality of the newly formed bone. Moreover, no signs of inflammation were observed in the animals and no allergic or foreign body reaction was noted. This suggests high biocompatibility and osteoconductivity of the investigated material to a bone void in an immune responsive species. PMID:24039106

Zheng, Hellen; Bai, Yajun; Shih, Mei-Shu; Hoffmann, Christiane; Peters, Fabian; Waldner, Christoph; Hübner, Wolf-Dietrich

2014-02-01

147

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by progressive muscular paralysis reflecting degeneration of motor neurones in the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, brainstem and spinal cord. Incidence (average 1.89 per 100,000/year) and prevalence (average 5.2 per100,000) are relatively uniform in Western countries, although foci of higher frequency occur in the Western Pacific. The mean age of onset for sporadic ALS is about 60 years. Overall, there is a slight male prevalence (M:F ratio~1.5:1). Approximately two thirds of patients with typical ALS have a spinal form of the disease (limb onset) and present with symptoms related to focal muscle weakness and wasting, where the symptoms may start either distally or proximally in the upper and lower limbs. Gradually, spasticity may develop in the weakened atrophic limbs, affecting manual dexterity and gait. Patients with bulbar onset ALS usually present with dysarthria and dysphagia for solid or liquids, and limbs symptoms can develop almost simultaneously with bulbar symptoms, and in the vast majority of cases will occur within 1–2 years. Paralysis is progressive and leads to death due to respiratory failure within 2–3 years for bulbar onset cases and 3–5 years for limb onset ALS cases. Most ALS cases are sporadic but 5–10% of cases are familial, and of these 20% have a mutation of the SOD1 gene and about 2–5% have mutations of the TARDBP (TDP-43) gene. Two percent of apparently sporadic patients have SOD1 mutations, and TARDBP mutations also occur in sporadic cases. The diagnosis is based on clinical history, examination, electromyography, and exclusion of 'ALS-mimics' (e.g. cervical spondylotic myelopathies, multifocal motor neuropathy, Kennedy's disease) by appropriate investigations. The pathological hallmarks comprise loss of motor neurones with intraneuronal ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions in upper motor neurones and TDP-43 immunoreactive inclusions in degenerating lower motor neurones. Signs of upper motor neurone and lower motor neurone damage not explained by any other disease process are suggestive of ALS. The management of ALS is supportive, palliative, and multidisciplinary. Non-invasive ventilation prolongs survival and improves quality of life. Riluzole is the only drug that has been shown to extend survival. PMID:19192301

Wijesekera, Lokesh C; Leigh, P Nigel

2009-01-01

148

Management of temporomandibular joint ankylosis type III: lateral arthroplasty as a treatment of choice.  

PubMed

Many surgical techniques for the management of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis have been described in the literature. The purpose of this study was to report our experience using a lateral arthroplasty technique in the management of type III ankylosis. The records of 15 patients treated for TMJ ankylosis at our institution between 2007 and 2011 were reviewed. Pre- and postoperative information collected included age, gender, aetiology, ankylosis type/classification, existing facial asymmetry, maximum pre- and postoperative mouth opening, complications, and recurrence of ankylosis. The mean maximum inter-incisal opening in the preoperative period was 12.9 mm and in the postoperative period was 36.2mm. No major complication was observed in any patient. No recurrence was noted in any patient. Our working hypothesis was that for patients with ankylosis type III, the medially displaced condyle and disc can fulfil their role in mandibular function and growth after extirpation of the ankylozed mass. Although they are located in an awkward medial position, they should function exactly as they would after a properly treated, displaced condylar fracture. PMID:24100155

Singh, V; Bhagol, A; Dhingra, R; Kumar, P; Sharma, N; Singhal, R

2014-04-01

149

Thymectomy through lateralized partial sternotomy  

PubMed Central

A young woman with nonthymomic myasthenia gravis with failure of medical treatment was offered thymectomy through partial sternotomy. Shifting of vertical arm of “L” incision laterally avoids fracture of opposite sternal flange and provides better sternal stability postoperatively. PMID:22022149

Mohite, Prashant N.; Rana, Sandip Singh; Sadasivan, Prasanth; Deshpande, Swapnil

2011-01-01

150

"Secondary signs of lateralization" in apogeotropic lateral canalolithiasis.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of lateral canalolithiasis is based on the typical finding of the horizontal paroxysmal positional nystagmus induced by the Pagnini-Mc Clure manoeuvre. This technique usually identifies also the affected side, namely, the side where the paroxysmal nystagmus is more intense in geotropic forms and the side where the paroxysmal nystagmus is less intense in apogeotropic forms. However, this method is not always applicable since, especially in apogeotropic forms, the intensity of the nystagmus is not so distinctly different between the two sides. Further useful signs to identify the affected side have been described in the Literature: Pseudo-spontaneous nystagmus in the sitting position; Leaning and Bowing nystagmus; Null-point in the vertical plane; Sitting to supine positioning nystagmus; Null-point in the horizontal plane. They are fully explained at pathophysiological level by the mechanism of canalolithiasis, as they are caused by otoliths moving in the ampullopetal direction in the non-ampullary segment (geotropic canalolithiasis) of the lateral canal or in ampullofugal direction in the ampullary segment (apogeotropic canalolithiasis) of the lateral canal. In other words, the movement of otoliths determines excitatory or inhibitory endolymphatic flow that generates specific nystagmic eye-movements. Authors analyse the characteristics of these signs, that they define as "Secondary signs of lateralization", in 64 cases of apogeotropic lateral canalolithiasis. A decisive contribution of the "Secondary signs of lateralization" to diagnose the pathological side has been verified in 13 out of 64 cases, whereas, in all other cases, Pagnini-Mc Clure diagnostic manoeuvre proved successful in correctly identifying the affected side by itself. Among the "Secondary signs of lateralization", the Pseudo-spontaneous nystagmus in the sitting position and the Sitting to the supine positioning nystagmus were particularly useful, due to both their frequency and their easy detection, as they do not require additional manoeuvres besides those usually performed during health examination of a patient affected by lateral canalolithiasis. In conclusion, the Authors propose a decision-making algorithm to diagnose and treat lateral canalolithiasis based on the attempt to obtain as much information as possible for a correct diagnosis, with the least trouble and inconvenience for patients. PMID:20559477

Califano, L; Melillo, M G; Mazzone, S; Vassallo, A

2010-04-01

151

[Osteotomy for approaches to the knee joint. Tibial tubercle, lateral epicondyle of the femur and head of the fibula].  

PubMed

The present article summarizes the different osteotomy techniques for an extension of standard surgical approaches to the knee joint in selected patients. The aim is to achieve satisfactory exposure and reduce potential postoperative complications compared to alternative techniques, such as the V-Y plasty or the quadriceps snip procedures. Osteotomy of the tibial tubercle is a reasonable extension of the anteromedial or the anterolateral surgical approach in selected patients undergoing revision total knee replacement. This osteotomy will provide excellent surgical exposure of the knee without the risk of avulsion of the patellar tendon and will preserve the blood supply of the patella and the surrounding soft tissue. Moreover, functional clinical outcome will be improved by minimizing damage to the extensor mechanism. Osteotomy of the lateral femoral condyle gives excellent exposure of the posterolateral aspect of the knee joint which might be necessary in some patients with fractures of the posterolateral tibial plateau as well as patients undergoing open allograft transplantation of the lateral meniscus. An alternative option for an extended exposure to the posterolateral knee joint is accomplished by osteotomy or partial resection of the fibular head which is also described as having good clinical results and a low complication rate. PMID:23632649

Lorbach, O; Anagnostakos, K; Kohn, D

2013-05-01

152

Borehole optical lateral displacement sensor  

DOEpatents

There is provided by this invention an optical displacement sensor that utilizes a reflective target connected to a surface to be monitored to reflect light from a light source such that the reflected light is received by a photoelectric transducer. The electric signal from the photoelectric transducer is then imputed into electronic circuitry to generate an electronic image of the target. The target`s image is monitored to determine the quantity and direction of any lateral displacement in the target`s image which represents lateral displacement in the surface being monitored. 4 figs.

Lewis, R.E.

1998-10-20

153

Sleep Strategies Later in Life  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

Sleep Strategies Later in Life (4:22) Sleep problems are not inevitable as we age, though individuals need to pay attention to healthy sleep habits. choose settings to watch video: Windows Media Player - high | low QuickTime - high | low

154

Diagnosing and treating lateral epicondylitis.  

PubMed Central

Lateral epicondylitis is often encountered in primary care. Although its diagnosis can be fairly straightforward, its treatment is often difficult. This review examines the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation of tennis elbow. Management options are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8312757

Geoffroy, P.; Yaffe, M. J.; Rohan, I.

1994-01-01

155

Color Realism and Hemispheric Laterality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the interaction between cognitive lateral functions and pictorial recognition memory for pictures presented in three different color modes. The stimulus materials used were slides selected from a pool of travel and general geographic scenery slides taken in various parts of North America. One third of the slides were…

Waltz, Esther; Berry, Louis H.

156

Laterality in Visual Speech Perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lateralization of visual speech perception was examined in 3 experiments. Participants were presented with a realistic computer-animated face articulating 1 of 4 consonant–vowel syllables without sound. The face appeared at 1 of 5 locations in the visual field. The participants' task was to identify each test syllable. To prevent eye movement during the presentation of the face, participants had

Paula M. T. Smeele; Dominic W. Massaro; Michael M. Cohen; Anne C. Sittig

1998-01-01

157

Later-Life Family Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the important role that family members often play in the lives of older adults, formal assessment methods tailored to later-life families remain rare. In this article, we first provide a rationale for family assessment at this stage of life. We then describe a range of issues for researchers and clinicians to consider when assessing older families. Finally, we briefly

Elizabeth A. Mulligan; Brian D. Carpenter

2010-01-01

158

Observation of lateral vehicle dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

By observation of lateral vehicle dynamics the detection of critical driving situations is made possible, as well as the estimation of adhesion characteristics during cornering. This paper presents a comparison of a linear and a nonlinear observer for the vehicle and tyre side-slip angles. The modelling, especially the model reduction and simplification, is shown.

U. Kiencke; A. Daiß

1997-01-01

159

Multiple Resources and Brain Laterality.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two studies were completed to test the multiple resources model of information processing using tachistoscopic lateralized-input techniques. In Exp. 1 37 normal, dextral subjects, 18 men aged 18-21yr. and 19 women 18-21yr. responded manually to a visuo-sp...

E. H. Galluscio

1984-01-01

160

Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth of Semiconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The state of the art and recent developments of lateral overgrowth of compound semiconductors are reviewed. First we focus on the mechanism of epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) from the liquid phase, highlighting the phenomena that are crucial for growing high-quality layers with large aspect ratio. Epitaxy from the liquid phase has been chosen since the equilibrium growth techniques such as liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) are the most suitable for lateral overgrowth. We then present numerous examples for which the defect filtration in the ELO procedure is very efficient and leads to significant progress in the development of high-performance semiconductor devices made of lattice-mismatched structures. Structural perfection of seams that appear when layers grown from neighboring seeds merge is also discussed. Next, we concentrate on strain commonly found in various ELO structures and arising due to the interaction of ELO layers with the mask. Its origin, and possible ways of its control, are presented. Then we show that the thermal strain in lattice-mismatched ELO structures can be relaxed by additional tilting of ELO wings while still preserving their high quality. Finally, recent progresses in the lateral overgrowth of semiconductors, including new mask materials and liquid-phase electroepitaxial growth on substrates coated by electrically conductive masks, are presented. New versions of the ELO technique from solution and from the vapor (growth from ridges and pendeo-epitaxy) are described and compared with standard ELO. A wide range of semiconductors, including III-V compounds grown from solution and vapor-grown GaN, are used to illustrate phenomena discussed. Very often, the similar behavior of various ELO structures reveals that the phenomena presented are not related to a specific group of compounds or their growth techniques, but have a much more general nature.

Zytkiewicz, Zbigniew R.

161

Neuroimaging in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a motor neuron disease characterized by progressive degeneration of upper motor neurons\\u000a (UMN) and lower motor neurons (LMN). While LMN dysfunction can be confirmed by electromyography (EMG) and muscle biopsy, UMN\\u000a involvement is more difficult to detect, particularly in the early phase. Objective and sensitive measures of UMN dysfunction\\u000a are needed for early diagnosis and

Sumei Wang; Elias R. Melhem; Harish Poptani; John H. Woo

2011-01-01

162

Lateral dampers for thrust bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of lateral damping schemes for thrust bearings was examined, ranking their applicability to various engine classes, selecting the best concept for each engine class and performing an in-depth evaluation. Five major engine classes were considered: large transport, military, small general aviation, turboshaft, and non-manrated. Damper concepts developed for evaluation were: curved beam, constrained and unconstrained elastomer, hybrid boost bearing, hydraulic thrust piston, conical squeeze film, and rolling element thrust face.

Hibner, D. H.; Szafir, D. R.

1985-01-01

163

Vision assisted aircraft lateral navigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface operation is currently one of the least technologically equipped phases of aircraft operation. The increased air traffic congestion necessitates more aircraft operations in degraded weather and at night. The traditional surface procedures worked well in most cases as airport surfaces have not been congested and airport layouts were less complex. Despite the best efforts of FAA and other safety agencies, runway incursions continue to occur frequently due to incorrect surface operation. Several studies conducted by FAA suggest that pilot induced error contributes significantly to runway incursions. Further, the report attributes pilot's lack of situational awareness - local (e.g., minimizing lateral deviation), global (e.g., traffic in the vicinity) and route (e.g., distance to next turn) - to the problem. An Enhanced Vision System (EVS) is one concept that is being considered to resolve these issues. These systems use on-board sensors to provide situational awareness under poor visibility conditions. In this paper, we propose the use of an Image processing based system to estimate the aircraft position and orientation relative to taxiway markings to use as lateral guidance aid. We estimate aircraft yaw angle and lateral offset from slope of the taxiway centerline and horizontal position of vanishing line. Unlike automotive applications, several cues such as aircraft maneuvers along assigned route with minimal deviations, clear ground markings, even taxiway surface, limited aircraft speed are available and enable us to implement significant algorithm optimizations. We present experimental results to show high precision navigation accuracy with sensitivity analysis with respect to camera mount, optics, and image processing error.

Mohideen, Mohamed Ibrahim; Ramegowda, Dinesh; Seiler, Peter

2013-05-01

164

Diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

This review of the differential diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis focuses on two themes. The first is practical, how to establish the diagnosis based primarily on clinical findings buttressed by electrodiagnosis. The main considerations are multifocal motor neuropathy and cervical spondylotic myelopathy. The second theme is the relationship of motor neuron disease to other conditions, including benign fasciculation (Denny-Brown, Foley syndrome), paraneoplastic syndromes, lymphoproliferative disease, radiation damage, monomelic amyotrophy (Hirayama syndrome), as well as an association with parkinsonism, dementia and multisystem disorders of the central nervous system. PMID:9851643

Rowland, L P

1998-10-01

165

Lateralization of aggression in fish.  

PubMed

Recent research has suggested that lateralization of aggressive behaviors could follow an homogeneous pattern among all vertebrates. A left eye/right hemisphere dominance in eliciting aggressive responses has been demonstrated for all groups of tetrapods but teleost fish for which data is lacking. Here we studied differential eye use during aggressive interactions in three species of teleosts: Gambusia holbrooki, Xenotoca eiseni and Betta splendens. In the first experiment we checked for lateralization in the use of the eyes while the subject was attacking its own mirror image. In order to confirm the results, other tests were performed on two species and eye preference was scored during attacks or displays directed toward a live rival. All three species showed a marked preference for using the right eye when attacking a mirror image or a live rival. Thus, the direction of asymmetry in fish appears the opposite to that shown by all the other groups of vertebrates. Hypotheses on the origin of the difference are discussed. PMID:12742249

Bisazza, Angelo; de Santi, Andrea

2003-05-15

166

CYSTS OF THE LATERAL MENISCUS  

PubMed Central

Accurate diagnosis and management of knee pain with or without mechanical symptoms challenges the physical therapist's clinical reasoning skills. Meniscal cysts are one relatively rare disorder of the knee that can cause both pain and mechanical symptoms and are frequently associated with a meniscal tear. In patients with suspected meniscal cysts, systematic differential diagnosis and sound clinical reasoning encourages appropriate integration of the clinical examination with diagnostic imaging. These case reports describe two different presentations of lateral parameniscal cysts where integration of the clinical examination with appropriate imaging allowed the physical therapist to provide a timely and appropriate intervention. In both cases, the diagnostic process is described along with the subsequent interventions that lead to positive outcomes. Level of Evidence: 5 (Case Report) PMID:23772349

Westrick, Richard B.; Fogarty, Brian T.

2013-01-01

167

Imaging lesions of the lateral hip.  

PubMed

The lateral aspect of the hip is composed of a complex array of osseous and soft tissue structures. Both common and uncommon clinical entities are encountered in the lateral hip. This article briefly introduces fundamental imaging anatomy and the functional roles of different osseous and soft tissue structures in the lateral aspect of the hip, followed by a discussion of relevant imaging findings of lateral hip pathology. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is frequently encountered in patients with lateral hip pain and encompasses a spectrum of soft tissue abnormalities including trochanteric and subgluteal bursitis, and tendinopathy or tears of the gluteal tendons. In addition, different types of injuries to the gluteal myotendinous unit and injuries to the indirect head of the rectus femoris, proximal iliotibial band, and the lateral joint capsular ligaments can present with lateral hip pain. Some of the less common soft tissue abnormalities of the lateral hip include Morel-Lavallée lesion and meralgia paresthetica. PMID:23787984

Pan, Judong; Bredella, Miriam A

2013-07-01

168

LATERAL LANDFILL GAS MIGRATION: CHARACTERIZATION AND  

E-print Network

LATERAL LANDFILL GAS MIGRATION: CHARACTERIZATION AND PRELIMINARY MODELING RESULTS O.BOUR*, E,UniversitéLaval, Sainte-Foy, Canada SUMMARY: Lateral landfill gas migration occurs in the surroundings of a MSW landfill complementary physical measures were used to build a conceptual model of lateral landfill gas migration

Boyer, Edmond

169

Hemispheric Laterality in Music and Math  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hemispheric laterality may be a useful concept in teaching, learning, training, and in understanding more about human development. To address this issue, a measure of hemispheric laterality was compared to musical and mathematical ability. The Human Information Processing Survey (HIPS) instrument, designed to measure hemispheric laterality, was…

Szirony, Gary Michael; Burgin, John S.; Pearson, L. Carolyn

2008-01-01

170

Kepler: 400 years later Jonas Karlsson  

E-print Network

Kepler: 400 years later #12;Outline Kepler's laws Proof that closed orbits are ellipses The hydrogen atom Geodesic ow and the Kepler manifold Jonas Karlsson Kepler: 400 years later #12;Kepler's laws Johannes): the orbits of planets are ellipses with the sun at one of the foci. Jonas Karlsson Kepler: 400 years later

Weinberger, Hans

171

Exercise and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disease in which much burden is geared towards end-of-life care. Particularly in the earlier stages of ALS, many people have found both physiological and psychological boosts from various types of physical exercise for disused muscles. Proper exercise is important for preventing atrophy of muscles from disuse-a key for remaining mobile for as long as possible-and as long as it is possible to exercise comfortably and safely, for preserving cardiovascular fitness. However, the typical neuromuscular patient features a great physical inactivity and disuse weakness, and for that reason many controversial authors have contested exercise in these patients during years, especially in ALS which is rapidly progressive. There is an urgent need for dissecting in detail the real risks or benefits of exercise in controlled clinical trials to demystify this ancient paradigm. Yet, recent research studies document significant benefits in terms of survival and quality of life in ALS, poor cooperation, small sample size, uncontrolled and short-duration trials, remain the main handicaps. Sedentary barriers such as early fatigue and inherent muscle misuse should be overcome, for instance with body-weight supporting systems or non-invasive ventilation, and exercise should be faced as a potential non-monotonous way for contributing to better health-related quality of life. PMID:22228269

de Almeida, J P Lopes; Silvestre, R; Pinto, A C; de Carvalho, M

2012-02-01

172

Excitotoxicity and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Since its description by Charcot more than 130 years ago, the pathogenesis of selective motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) remains unsolved. Over the years, many pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed. Amongst others these include: oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, aggregate formation, inflammation, growth factor deficiency and neurofilament disorganization. This multitude of contributing factors indicates that ALS is a complex disease and also suggests that ALS is a multifactorial disorder. Excitotoxicity is not the newest and most spectacular hypothesis in the ALS field, but it is undoubtedly one of the most robust pathogenic mechanisms supported by an impressive amount of evidence. Moreover, the therapeutic efficacy of riluzole, the only drug proven to slow disease progression in ALS, is most likely related to its anti-excitotoxic properties. In this review, we will give an overview of the arguments in favor of the involvement of excitotoxicity in ALS and of the possible mechanisms leading to motor neuron death. We will also summarize the intrinsic properties of motor neurons that render these cells particularly vulnerable to excitotoxicity and could explain the selective vulnerability of motor neurons in ALS. All this information could help to develop new and better therapeutic strategies that could protect motor neurons from excitotoxicity. PMID:16909020

Van Damme, P; Dewil, M; Robberecht, W; Van Den Bosch, L

2005-01-01

173

Improving the lateral resolution in confocal fluorescence microscopy using laterally interfering excitation beams  

E-print Network

illumination [3] and STED microscopy [4] has permitted to further improve the resolution. Structured1 Improving the lateral resolution in confocal fluorescence microscopy using laterally interfering the illumination, combined with a laterally offset detection. A 90 nm lateral resolution is obtained for properly

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

174

Inner Core 50 Years Later  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1952, Francis Birch predicted that the inner core should be solid with shear velocity of 3.4 km/s and the Poisson ratio of 0.45. Almost 20 years later, observations of normal modes with sensitivity to inner-core properties confirmed the solidity of the inner core (Dziewo?ski and Gilbert, 1971). Although Birch's prediction was based upon an incorrect assumption that the bulk modulus and the density do not change between the outer and inner core, the best estimates of the shear velocity (3.53 km/s) and Poisson ratio (0.44) are extremely close to Birch's values. Inner-core anisotropy in the form of transverse isotropy introduced a new level of complexity; it is required to explain both travel-time (Morelli et al., 1986) and normal-mode (Woodhouse et al., 1986) data. Such complexity imposes heavier demand on the spatial distribution of raypaths, and these are difficult to meet because of the non-uniform distribution of sources and receivers. The additional assumptions, to make up for the missing data, have led to highly divergent estimates of the strength and radial dependence of anisotropy. We now believe that most of the travel-time and normal-mode observations can be explained by a relatively simple model of anisotropy (Ishii et al., 2002a), a model that does not vary with radius and is characterized by 2 ? term (where ? is the angle between the raypath and the axis of symmetry of transverse isotropy) with the slow direction in the equatorial plane. Inferences of complexities such as an isotropic layer near the inner-outer core boundary (Song and Helmberger, 1998) or a longitudinal variations at hemispheric scales (Tanaka and Hamaguchi, 1997) are either not necessary or not robust (Ishii et al., 2002b). However, travel-time data from nearly antipodal distances (173o--180o) indicate that the anisotropy changes substantially at about 300 km radius: it is dominated by the 4 ? term with the slowest direction ~ 45o from the equatorial plane (Ishii and Dziewo?ski, 2002; also this meeting). We call this distinct new region of the Earth the ``inner-most inner core''.

Dziewo?ski, A. M.; Ishii, M.

2002-12-01

175

CT recognition of lateral lumbar disk herniation  

SciTech Connect

Although computed tomography (CT) has been shown to be useful in diagnosing posterolateral and central lumbar disk herniations, its effectiveness in demonstrating lateral herniated disks has not been emphasized. The myelographic recognition of those herniations may be difficult because root sheaths or dural sacs may not be deformed. A total of 274 CT scans interpreted as showing lumbar disk herniation was reviewed. Fourteen (5%) showed a lateral disk herniation. The CT features of a lateral herniated disk included: (1) focal protrusion of the disk margin within or lateral to the intervertebral foramen: (2) displacement of epidural fat within the intervertebral foramen; (3) absence of dural sac deformity; and (4) soft-tissue mass within or lateral to the intervertebral foramen. Because it can image the disk margin and free disk fragments irrespective of dural sac or root sheath deformity, CT may be more effective than myelography for demonstrating the presence and extent of lateral disk herniation.

Williams, A.L.; Haughton, V.M.; Daniels, D.L.; Thornton, R.S.

1982-08-01

176

Lateral unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateral unicondylar knee arthroplasty (UKA) has been utilized as a treatment for isolated lateral tibiofemoral osteoarthritis\\u000a (OA) since the first description of UKA in the 1970s. To date, there remains some controversy on UKA procedures. As indications\\u000a for lateral UKA are usually rare, surgeon experience seems to be the key factor for a successful intervention. Better understanding\\u000a of biomechanics of

Thomas J. HeyseCarsten; Carsten O. Tibesku

2010-01-01

177

Non-traumatic lateral abdominal wall hernia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rare lateral abdominal wall hernia is described in an adult patient. This was diagnosed in a patient with a prominent right\\u000a lateral abdominal wall deformity. The patient had been experiencing pain that increased progressively in severity over time.\\u000a A computerized tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen revealed the location of the lateral abdominal wall defect. The hernia\\u000a defect was

M. Castillo-Sang; B. Gociman; B. Almaroof; J. Fath; F. Cason

2009-01-01

178

Artificial lateral line canal for hydrodynamic detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fish use their lateral line system to detect minute water motions. The lateral line consists of superficial neuromasts and canal neuromasts. The response properties of canal neuromasts differ from those of superficial ones. Here, we report the design, fabrication, and characterization of an artificial lateral line canal system. The characterization was done under various fluid conditions, including dipolar excitation and turbulent flow. The experimental results with dipole excitation match well with a mathematical model. Canal sensors also demonstrate significantly better noise immunity compared with superficial ones. Canal-type artificial lateral lines may become important for underwater flow sensing.

Yang, Yingchen; Klein, Adrian; Bleckmann, Horst; Liu, Chang

2011-07-01

179

Human olfactory lateralization requires trigeminal activation.  

PubMed

Rats are able to lateralize odors. This ability involves specialized neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex which are able to process the left, right and bilateral presentation of stimuli. However, it is not clear whether this function is preserved in humans. Humans are in general not able to differentiate whether a selective olfactory stimulant has been applied to the left or right nostril; however exceptions have been reported. Following a screening of 152 individuals with an olfactory lateralization test, we identified 19 who could lateralize odors above chance level. 15 of these "lateralizers" underwent olfactory fMRI scanning in a block design and were compared to 15 controls matched for age and sex distribution. As a result, both groups showed comparable activation of olfactory eloquent brain areas. However, subjects with lateralization ability had a significantly enhanced activation of cerebral trigeminal processing areas (somatosensory cortex, intraparietal sulcus). In contrast to controls, lateralizers furthermore exhibited no suppression in the area of the trigeminal principal sensory nucleus. An exploratory study with an olfactory change detection paradigm furthermore showed that lateralizers oriented faster towards changes in the olfactory environment. Taken together, our study suggests that the trigeminal system is activated to a higher degree by the odorous stimuli in the group of "lateralizers". We conclude that humans are not able to lateralize odors based on the olfactory input alone, but vary in the degree to which the trigeminal system is recruited. PMID:24825502

Croy, Ilona; Schulz, Max; Blumrich, Anna; Hummel, Cornelia; Gerber, Johannes; Hummel, Thomas

2014-09-01

180

Lateral patellar retinaculum reconstruction for medial patellar instability following lateral retinacular release: a case report.  

PubMed

Lateral retinacular release is still being performed in patients with recurrent patellar dislocation as an additional procedure with distal realignment or medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction. However, consensus remains lacking regarding suitable indications for lateral retinacular release. A 20-year-old woman presented with patellar instability in both medial and lateral directions after undergoing lateral retinacular release with MPFL reconstruction. She displayed inherent systemic joint laxity meeting all seven Carter-Wilkinson criteria. Simultaneous MPFL revision and lateral retinaculum reconstruction successfully improved patellar instability in both directions. This case provides an example of iatrogenic medial patellar instability after failed lateral retinacular release. PMID:23688523

Udagawa, Kazuhiko; Niki, Yasuo; Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Hideo; Enomoto, Hiroyuki; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Suda, Yasunori

2014-01-01

181

Vehicle Lateral Control for Highway Automation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of lateral control for highway automation are to let vehicles track the center of a lane with small error and to maintain good ride quality under different vehicle speeds, loads, wind gust disturbances, and road conditions. In this paper, the lateral feedback and feedforward controllers are designed to satisfy these objectives by utilizing the frequency-shaped linear quadratic (FSLQ)

Huei Peng; Masayoshi Tomizuka

1990-01-01

182

Laparoscopic versus open left lateral segmentectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic liver surgery is becoming increasingly common. This cohort study was designed to directly compare perioperative outcomes of the left lateral segmentectomy via laparoscopic and open approach. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2006 43 left lateral segmentectomies were performed at King's College Hospital. Those excluded from analysis included previous liver resections, polycystic liver disease, liver cirrhosis and synchronous operations. Of

Kirstin A Carswell; Filippos G Sagias; Beth Murgatroyd; Mohamed Rela; Nigel Heaton; Ameet G Patel

2009-01-01

183

Lateral Interception II: Predicting Hand Movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

D. M. Jacobs and C. F. Michaels (2006) concluded that aspects of hand movements in lateral catching were predicted by the ratio of lateral optical velocity to expansion velocity. Their conclusions were based partly on a modified version of the required velocity model of catching (C. E. Peper, R. J. Bootsma, D. R. Mestre, & F. C. Bakker, 1994). The

Claire F. Michaels; David M. Jacobs; Raoul M. Bongers

2006-01-01

184

Lateral Asymmetries in Infant Melody Perception.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments investigated lateral asymmetries in eight-month-olds' perception of contour-altered and contour-preserved melody changes. Found that infants who heard a contour-altered change showed a left-ear advantage, whereas infants who heard a contour-preserved change showed a right-ear advantage. The pattern of lateralization for melody…

Balaban, Marie T.; Anderson, Linda M.; Wisniewski, Amy B.

1998-01-01

185

Gender and Marital Happiness in Later Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors examine the effect of gender ideology on marital happiness in later life. Studies of marital satisfaction in later life have tended to neglect such attitudes, although they have received increasing attention in the literature on younger marriages. The authors use data from married individuals who range in age from 51 to…

Kaufman, Gayle; Taniguchi, Hiromi

2006-01-01

186

Robust lateral control of highway vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle lateral dynamics are affected by vehicle mass, longitudinal velocity, vehicle inertia, and the cornering stiffness of the tires. All of these parameters are subject to variation, even over the course of a single trip. Therefore, a practical lateral control system must guarantee stability, and hopefully ride comfort, over a wide range of parameter changes. This paper describes a robust

Raymond H. Byrne; Chaouki Abdallah

1994-01-01

187

PROCEEDINGS Open Access Lateral gene transfer, rearrangement,  

E-print Network

, and lateral transfer. DeCoLT optimizes in polynomial time on the number of rearrangements, computedPROCEEDINGS Open Access Lateral gene transfer, rearrangement, reconciliation Murray Patterson1 Molecular Biology (RECOMB) Satellite Workshop on Comparative Genomics Lyon, France. 17-19 October 2013

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

188

Dynamic extensor brace for lateral epicondylitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) is a common, often disabling ailment. Based on the failure of current therapies, a new dynamic extensor brace has been developed. In this study, the effects of application of this brace for 3 months on the most important and disabling symptoms of patients with lateral epicondylitis were assessed. After prestratification for the duration of complaints (ie,

Miriam Faes; Bertinel van den Akker; Jan A. de Lint; Jan G. M. Kooloos; Maria T. E. Hopman

2006-01-01

189

Autosomal dominant transmission of familial laterality defects.  

PubMed

Heterotaxy results from failure to establish normal left-right asymmetry during embryonic development. Most familial cases are thought to be autosomal recessive. We have identified a family in which 4 individuals from 3 generations manifest laterality defects. Twenty-five family members have been examined. Two have complete reversal of normal laterality (situs inversus) while 2 others have asplenia, midline liver, and complex cardiac malformations (situs ambiguus). Two additional obligate gene carriers are anatomically normal (situs solitus). Male-to-male transmission confirms autosomal inheritance. Identification of this family establishes an autosomal dominant form of laterality defect, suggesting that a portion of sporadic cases may be new-mutation dominant or unrecognized familial cases. The finding of all forms of laterality (solitus, ambiguus, and inversus) among obligate disease gene carriers within a single family may be relevant to genetic evaluation and counseling in apparently isolated patients with laterality disturbance. PMID:8834043

Casey, B; Cuneo, B F; Vitali, C; van Hecke, H; Barrish, J; Hicks, J; Ballabio, A; Hoo, J J

1996-02-01

190

Successful implementation of policies addressing lateral violence.  

PubMed

Lateral violence is a problem in nursing despite policies addressing the issue, which suggests that implementation of these policies may be ineffective. We used an evidence-based approach to locate and appraise evidence about effectively implementing lateral violence policies. Our search strategy emphasized preappraised evidence, and we found 12 sources that met our inclusion criteria. Most evidence was from low-level sources, which is not surprising due to the subjective and sensitive nature of this topic. The evidence did not indicate that there is consistent, effective implementation of lateral violence policies. The appraised evidence suggests the importance of collaboratively prepared implementation strategies. Administrator involvement and relationships with staff members and the presence of a commitment to positive behavior change before lateral violence incidents occur are factors that can lead to successful implementation of lateral violence policies. PMID:23265652

Coursey, Joy H; Rodriguez, Ricardo E; Dieckmann, Loraine S; Austin, Paul N

2013-01-01

191

Lateralized suckling in domestic horses (Equus caballus).  

PubMed

Brain lateralization enables preferential processing of certain stimuli and more effective utilization of these stimuli in either the left or the right cerebral hemisphere. Horses show both motor and sensory lateralization patterns. Our aim was to determine whether a lateralized response could be detected in foals during the naturally side-biased behaviour, suckling. The foals' preferred suckling side could be the effect of either visual or motor lateralization. In the case of a visual lateralized response, foals are expected to suck more often from the mother's right side, so potential danger can be detected by the better adapted right hemisphere (i.e. left eye). Motor lateralization can be identified when a foal will suck predominantly from one side, either left or right. We found no population trend in the preferred suckling side, but we detected significant differences amongst individual foals. One-third (35.4 %) of 79 foals showed a strong, either right or left side preference which increased with age. The mothers did not influence the foals' suckling side preferences either by side-biased rejection or termination of suckling. According to our findings, a general pattern of sucking with the left eye open for better danger detection and recognition is unlikely in foals up to 7 months old. Foals of this age are probably young or fully focused on suckling and rely on their mothers' vigilance. Individual side preferences amongst foals are suggested to be based on motor lateralization. PMID:23117229

Komárková, Martina; Bartošová, Jitka

2013-05-01

192

Current clinical trials in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is caused by selective degeneration of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. There are still no other effective therapies 10 years after the approval of riluzole for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, but advances in drug development and screening are substantially increasing the number of potential therapeutic agents. This review provides an overview of clinical trial methodology in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis followed by a systematic evaluation of drugs that are presently in Phase I, II and III clinical trials. There is an emphasis on the scientific evidence supporting the selection of each drug being tested, as well as on trial design. PMID:17685869

Bhatt, Jaydeep M; Gordon, Paul H

2007-08-01

193

[Slowly progressive dysarthria in primary lateral sclerosis].  

PubMed

Slowly progressive dysarthria over many years may be the only sign of primary lateral sclerosis (PLS). Clinically it presents as pseudobulbar palsy which can be differentiated from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by the longer disease duration (> or =4 years), central pathological magnetic-evoked potentials to the tongue and lack of denervation in EMG. In contrast, hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is characterized by a primary spasticity of the lower limbs, mostly later onset, the fact that other family members are affected and in isolated cases by positive genetic testing for mutations. PMID:20532474

Urban, P P; Wellach, I; Pohlmann, C

2010-08-01

194

Individualized optimal surgical extent of the lateral neck in papillary thyroid cancer with lateral cervical metastasis.  

PubMed

Despite an excellent prognosis, cervical lymph node (LN) metastases are common in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). The presence of metastasis is associated with an increased risk of locoregional recurrence, which significantly impairs quality of life and may decrease survival. Therefore, it has been an important determinant of the extent of lateral LN dissection in the initial treatment of PTC patients with lateral cervical metastasis. However, the optimal extent of therapeutic lateral neck dissection (ND) remains controversial. Optimizing the surgical extent of LN dissection is fundamental for balancing the surgical morbidity and oncological benefits of ND in PTC patients with lateral neck metastasis. We reviewed the currently available literature regarding the optimal extent of lateral LN dissection in PTC patients with lateral neck metastasis. Even in cases with suspicion of metastatic LN at the single lateral level or isolated metastatic lateral LN, the application of ND including all sublevels from IIa and IIb to Va and Vb may be overtreatment, due to the surgical morbidity. When there is no suspicion of LN metastasis at levels II and V, or when multilevel aggressive neck metastasis is not found, sublevel IIb and Va dissection may not be necessary in PTC patients with lateral neck metastasis. Thus consideration of the individualized optimal surgical extent of lateral ND is important when treating PTC patients with lateral cervical metastasis. PMID:23857026

Park, Jae-Yong; Koo, Bon Seok

2014-06-01

195

Towards reproducible, scalable lateral molecular electronic devices  

E-print Network

An approach to reproducibly fabricate molecular electronic devices is presented. Lateral nanometer-scale gaps with high yield are formed in Au/Pd nanowires by a combination of electromigration and Joule-heating-induced thermomechanical stress...

Durkan, Colm; Zhang, Qian

2014-08-26

196

Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life  

MedlinePLUS

... previous page Related Topics Diabetes Related Documents PDF Living with Diabetes Download PDF Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources Managing Complications ...

197

Genetics Home Reference: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

MedlinePLUS

... affected individuals to interact with others in a socially appropriate manner. People with FTD increasingly require help ... Where can I find information about diagnosis or management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis? These resources address the ...

198

Alcohol Problems in lAter life  

E-print Network

Alcohol Problems in lAter life A Pacific Northwest Extension Publication Oregon State University When alcohol use becomes a problem ................. 4 How an alcohol problem develops ....................... 6 Recognizing an alcohol problem .......................... 8 Guidelines for family and friends

Tullos, Desiree

199

Metrics for cortical map organization and lateralization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral lateralization refers to the poorly understood fact that some functions are better controlled by one side of the\\u000a brain than the other (e.g. handedness, language). Of particular concern here are the asymmetries apparent in cortical topographic\\u000a maps that can be demonstrated electrophysiologically in mirror-image locations of the cerebral cortex. In spite of great interest\\u000a in issues surrounding cerebral lateralization,

Sergio A. Alvarez; Svetlana Levitan; James A. Reggia

1998-01-01

200

Numerical Simulations of Lateral Stress Profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of numerical simulations have been conducted to provide insight into the observed lateral stress profiles in shocked silicon carbide reported in [1]. Utilizing a coupled eulerian-lagrangian simulation approach, the thin epoxy layer has been included in the model. When utilizing the Johnson-Holmquist ceramic model with the constants published in [2], the two-step structure of the lateral stress measurement

Bryan Cheeseman; Dattatraya Dandekar

2009-01-01

201

Brain and behavioral lateralization in invertebrates  

PubMed Central

Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioral asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left–right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which has asymmetric odor sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behavior with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with a specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test the evolutionary hypothesis. PMID:24376433

Frasnelli, Elisa

2013-01-01

202

Asymmetrical lateral ventricular enlargement in Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Background A recent case report suggested the presence of asymmetrical lateral ventricular enlargement associated with motor asymmetry in Parkinson’s disease (PD). The current study explored these associations further. Methods Magnetic resonance imaging (3T) scans were obtained on 17 PD and 15 healthy Control subjects at baseline and 12–30 months later. Baseline and longitudinal lateral ventricular volumetric changes were compared between contralateral and ipsilateral ventricles in PD subjects relative to symptom onset side and in Controls relative to their dominant hand. Correlations between changes in ventricular volume and United Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale motor scores (UPDRS-III) while on medication were determined. Results The lateral ventricle contralateral to symptom onset side displayed a faster rate of enlargement compared to the ipsilateral (p=0.004) in PD subjects, with no such asymmetry detected (p=0.312) in Controls. There was a positive correlation between ventricular enlargement and worsening motor function assessed by UPDRS-III scores (r=0.96, p<0.001). Discussion There is asymmetrical lateral ventricular enlargement that is associated with PD motor asymmetry and progression. Further studies are warranted to investigate the underlying mechanism(s), as well as the potential of using volumetric measurements as a marker for PD progression. PMID:19187264

Lewis, Mechelle M.; Smith, Andrew B.; Styner, Martin; Gu, Hongbin; Poole, Roxanne; Zhu, Hongtu.; Li, Yimei; Barbero, Xavier; Gouttard, Sylvain; McKeown, Martin J.; Mailman, Richard B.; Huang, Xuemei

2010-01-01

203

Lateral restraint assembly for reactor core  

DOEpatents

A restraint assembly for use in restraining lateral movement of a reactor core relative to a reactor vessel wherein a plurality of restraint assemblies are interposed between the reactor core and the reactor vessel in circumferentially spaced relation about the core. Each lateral restraint assembly includes a face plate urged against the outer periphery of the core by a plurality of compression springs which enable radial preloading of outer reflector blocks about the core and resist low-level lateral motion of the core. A fixed radial key member cooperates with each face plate in a manner enabling vertical movement of the face plate relative to the key member but restraining movement of the face plate transverse to the key member in a plane transverse to the center axis of the core. In this manner, the key members which have their axes transverse to or subtending acute angles with the direction of a high energy force tending to move the core laterally relative to the reactor vessel restrain such lateral movement.

Gorholt, Wilhelm (San Diego, CA); Luci, Raymond K. (Del Mar, CA)

1986-01-01

204

Lateral flow immunoassay using magnetoresistive sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic particles have been adapted for use as labels in biochemical lateral flow strip tests. Standard gold particle lateral flow assays are generally qualitative; however, with magnetic particles, quantitative results can be obtained by using electronic detection systems with giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors. As described here, these small integrated sensor chips can detect the presence of magnetic labels in capture spots whose volume is approximately 150 ?m×150 ?m×150 ?m. The range of linear detection is better than two orders of magnitude; the total range is up to four orders of magnitude. The system was demonstrated with both indirect and sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for protein detection of rabbit IgG and interferon-?, respectively, achieving detection of 12 pg/ml protein. Ultimately, the goal is for the detector to be fully integrated into the lateral flow strip backing to form a single consumable item that is interrogated by a handheld electronic reader.

Taton, Kristin; Johnson, Diane; Guire, Patrick; Lange, Erik; Tondra, Mark

2009-05-01

205

Numerical Simulations of Lateral Stress Profiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of numerical simulations have been conducted to provide insight into the observed lateral stress profiles in shocked silicon carbide reported in [1]. Utilizing a coupled eulerian-lagrangian simulation approach, the thin epoxy layer has been included in the model. When utilizing the Johnson-Holmquist ceramic model with the constants published in [2], the two-step structure of the lateral stress measurement has been successfully reproduced. The influence of the epoxy layer on the development of the stress profile will be discussed. Additional simulations of specimens having buffer plates will be performed to simulate the lateral stress profile. [4pt] [1] Millett, J.C.F., Bourne, N.K. and Dandekar, D.P. 2005. ``Delayed failure in shock-loaded silicon carbide,'' J. Appl. Phys. 97, 113513. [0pt] [2] Holmquist, T.J. and Johnson, G.R., 2002. ``Response of silicon carbide to high velocity impact,'' J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5858-5866..

Cheeseman, Bryan; Dandekar, Dattatraya

2009-06-01

206

Lateral mobility of polyelectrolyte chains in multilayers.  

PubMed

In this work, the lateral mobility of polyelectrolyte multilayers was investigated by means of the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) technique, with special attention to the effect of relevant parameters during and after preparation. Different polyelectrolytes with respect to charge density, stiffness, and hydrophilicity were compared. From the experimental results emerged that the density of charged sites along the polymer is the most important parameter controlling the formation of polymer complexes. At higher charge density, more complexes are formed, and the diffusion coefficient decreases. It was observed that the intrinsic backbone stiffness reduces the interpenetration of polyelectrolyte layers and the formation of complexes promoting the lateral mobility. In addition, the lateral mobility increases with increasing ionic strength and with decreasing hydration shell of the added anion in the polyelectrolyte solution. The effect of heating or annealing in electrolyte solution after preparation was also investigated along with the embedding of the probing layer at controlled distances to the multilayer surface. PMID:17461569

Nazaran, P; Bosio, V; Jaeger, W; Anghel, D F; Klitzing, R V

2007-07-26

207

Psychotherapists and the clergy: Fifty years later  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jung's two powerful articles on psychotherapy and the clergy, written in 1928 and 1932. are looked at from the vantage point of fifty years later and the author's experience in conducting analysis with many people from both vocations. He notes that relatively few people achieve the kind of integration of the ego that Jung writes about-an essentially religious experience-wherein the

J. Marvin Spiegelman

1984-01-01

208

Risk factors for suicide in later life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suicide rates are higher in later life than in any other age group. The design of effective suicide prevention strategies hinges on the identification of specific, quantifiable risk factors. Methodological challenges include the lack of systematically applied terminology in suicide and risk factor research, the low base rate of suicide, and its complex, multidetermined nature.Although variables in mental, physical, and

Yeates Conwell; Paul R. Duberstein; Eric D. Caine

2002-01-01

209

Active Children: Healthy Now And Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current research is revealing that physical activity can protect against a range of lifestyle diseases and illnesses. Consequently, early childhood practitioners and parents need to adopt guidelines and practices which encourage children of all ages to be physically active. In "Active children: Healthy Now and Later," authors Linley Campbell and…

Campbell, Linley; Musumeci, Josephine

2005-01-01

210

Costa Rica's Chain of laterally collapsed volcanoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the NW extreme to the SW end of Costa Rica's volcanic backbone, a number of laterally collapsed volcanoes can be observed. Due to several factors, attention has been given to active volcanoes disregarding the importance of collapsed features in terms of assessing volcanic hazards for future generations around inhabited volcanoes. In several cases the typical horseshoe shape amphitheater-like depression

E. Duarte; E. Fernandez

2007-01-01

211

Lateralization of Norepinephrine in Human Thalamus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Norepinephrine has a strongly lateralized distribution in the human thalamus. In the pulvinar region the left hemisphere is rich in norepinephrine, whereas in the somatosensory input area the right hemisphere has a higher concentration of this catecholamine. Such naturally occurring left-right differences in concentration of a neurotransmitter represent a new aspect of hemispheric specialization.

Arvin Oke; Richard Keller; Ivan Mefford; Ralph N. Adams

1978-01-01

212

Preparing Future Faculty: Ten Years Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When Sean Murphy designed the Graduate Student Internship Program at the College of Lake County (CLC), his 2001 TETYC article about the then two-year-old program detailed his programmatic response to the job market. Ten years later, the CLC-DePaul University partnership remains the strongest of the original dozen cross-sector relationships CLC…

Murphy, Sean P.; Aiossa, Elizabeth; Winter, Mary Mugica

2010-01-01

213

Profiling 1366 Technologies: One Year Later  

SciTech Connect

Last January, we took a look at how ARPA-E performer, 1366 Technologies is working to dramatically reduce the cost of solar energy. A year later, we revisited their headquarters in Lexington, MA to see the progress they've made.

Van Mierlo, Frank; Sachs, Ely

2011-01-01

214

POLICE OFFICER ENTRY LEVEL & LATERAL Position Information  

E-print Network

POLICE OFFICER ­ ENTRY LEVEL & LATERAL Position Information Multiple full-time permanent Officer Cadet) $4,135 - $5,699 mo. (Police Officer) Responsibilities POLICE OFFICER CADET: Attend police academy upon graduation, become Police Officer with responsibilities listed below. POLICE OFFICER

Ponce, V. Miguel

215

Biphasic cell responses on laterally mobile films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The engineering of polymer surfaces or matrices that are capable of controlling cell adhesion has been widely explored. In nearly all of these works, the polymer chains (and ligands) are chemically attached to the underlying substrate, and therefore these systems are inherently static. By contrast, cellular environments such as the extracellular matrix (ECM) are dynamic and remodeled by biochemical reactions and biophysical forces. Borrowing this concept from Nature, we created polymer films by an interfacial self-assembly process, whereby individual chains can exhibit lateral mobility (in-plane diffusive motion). NIH 3T3 fibroblasts seeded on such RGD-presenting polymer films show biphasic responses in spreading and adhesion strength to lateral mobility, with a minimal response for intermediate mobility values. Futhermore, preliminary immuno-staining experiments reveal that the total area of focal adhesions demonstrates a similar biphasic trend to the cellular-scale behaviors. In contrast, actin filaments or stress fibers appear to be unaffected by the substrate lateral mobility. These results show that lateral mobility is an important, although not fully explored aspect of mechano-sensing by cells, and can potentially give new perspectives on cell-ECM interactions.

Kourouklis, Andreas; Lerum, Ronald; Bermudez, Harry

2013-03-01

216

Lateral epicondylalgia: a musculoskeletal physiotherapy perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tennis elbow or lateral epicondylalgia (LE) is a challenging musculoskeletal condition to treat. This is largely due to the lack of research-based evidence of the clinical efficacy of the myriad of treatment approaches espoused in the literature. In view of this, successful rehabilitation of LE is based on choosing treatments that address the physical impairments found during clinical examination. The

B. Vicenzino

2003-01-01

217

Lateral junction dynamics lead the way out.  

PubMed

Epithelial cell layers need to be tightly regulated to maintain their integrity and correct function. Cell integration into epithelial sheets is now shown to depend on the N-WASP-regulated stabilization of cortical F-actin, which generates distinct patterns of apical-lateral contractility at E-cadherin-based cell-cell junctions. PMID:24481041

Behrndt, Martin; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp

2014-02-01

218

Laparoscopic versus open left lateral segmentectomy  

PubMed Central

Background Laparoscopic liver surgery is becoming increasingly common. This cohort study was designed to directly compare perioperative outcomes of the left lateral segmentectomy via laparoscopic and open approach. Methods Between 2002 and 2006 43 left lateral segmentectomies were performed at King's College Hospital. Those excluded from analysis included previous liver resections, polycystic liver disease, liver cirrhosis and synchronous operations. Of 20 patients analysed, laparoscopic (n = 10) were compared with open left lateral segmentectomy (n = 10). Both groups had similar patient characteristics. Results Morbidity rates were similar with no wound or chest infection in either group. The conversion rate was 10% (1/10). There was no difference in operating time between the groups (median time 220 minutes versus 179 minutes, p = 0.315). Surgical margins for all lesions were clear. Less postoperative opiate analgesics were required in the laparoscopic group (median 2 days versus 5 days, p = 0.005). The median postoperative in-hospital stay was less in the laparoscopic group (6 days vs 9 days, p = 0.005). There was no mortality. Conclusion Laparoscopic left lateral segmentectomy is safe and feasible. Laparoscopic patients may benefit from requiring less postoperative opiate analgesia and a shorter post-operative in-hospital stay. PMID:19735573

Carswell, Kirstin A; Sagias, Filippos G; Murgatroyd, Beth; Rela, Mohamed; Heaton, Nigel; Patel, Ameet G

2009-01-01

219

Idiosyncratic motor laterality in the horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idiosyncratic motor behaviour was investigated during four experimental procedures in 40 horses (males=20, females=20) to establish if horses revealed evidence of significant right or left laterality. The experimental procedures included (1) detection of the preferred foreleg to initiate movement (walk or trot), (2) obstacle avoidance within a passageway (right or left), (3) obstacle avoidance when ridden and (4) idiosyncratic motor

J. Murphy; A. Sutherland; S. Arkins

2005-01-01

220

Brain Lateralization Research: Educational and Psychometric Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this report is to distill curricular and testing implications of brain research. The report will focus on three topics. One topic is the possibility that brain lateralization--that is, the degree to which the two brain hemispheres specialize in different types of information processing--is an individual differences variable that…

Bejar, Isaac I.

221

Non-traumatic lateral abdominal wall hernia.  

PubMed

A rare lateral abdominal wall hernia is described in an adult patient. This was diagnosed in a patient with a prominent right lateral abdominal wall deformity. The patient had been experiencing pain that increased progressively in severity over time. A computerized tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen revealed the location of the lateral abdominal wall defect. The hernia defect was through the transversus abdominis and the internal oblique, with the inferior aspect of the 11th rib forming part of the superior border of the defect. A 4-cm bony spur from the inferior aspect of the rib formed part of the lateral margin of the defect. The hernia sac was contained within a space underneath the external oblique muscle. The association of the hernia defect with a bony spur was highly suggestive of a congenital etiology. The hernia was successfully repaired laparoscopically with Parietex mesh (Sofradim, Lyons, France), and the patient had resolution of the symptoms on discharge and follow-up visits. PMID:18949442

Castillo-Sang, M; Gociman, B; Almaroof, B; Fath, J; Cason, F

2009-06-01

222

Religious Attendance and Loneliness in Later Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose of the Study: Studies show that loneliness is a major risk factor for health issues in later life. Although research suggests that religious involvement can protect against loneliness, explanations for this general pattern are underdeveloped and undertested. In this paper, we propose and test a theoretical model, which suggests that social…

Rote, Sunshine; Hill, Terrence D.; Ellison, Christopher G.

2013-01-01

223

Pain sensitivity, cerebral laterality, and negative affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The right hemisphere is assumed to play a unique role for pain sensitivity and negative affect. Pressure pain thresholds were assessed daily in eight right-handed participants over a 6-week period in order to obtain reliable measures of pain sensitivity unaffected by situational influences. In an additional session, cerebral laterality was assessed with behavioral and an EEG measures. Psychometric measures were

Paul Pauli; Georg Wiedemann; Matthias Nickola

1999-01-01

224

Lateralized temporal order judgement in dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporal and spatial attentional deficits in dyslexia were investigated using a lateralized visual temporal order judgment (TOJ) paradigm that allowed both sensitivity to temporal order and spatial attentional bias to be measured. Findings indicate that adult participants with a positive screen for dyslexia were significantly less sensitive to the temporal order of the stimuli than control participants, but did not

Elizabeth B. Liddle; Georgina M. Jackson; Chris Rorden; Stephen R. Jackson

2009-01-01

225

Convergent models of handedness and brain lateralization  

PubMed Central

The pervasive nature of handedness across human history and cultures is a salient consequence of brain lateralization. This paper presents evidence that provides a structure for understanding the motor control processes that give rise to handedness. According to the Dynamic Dominance Model, the left hemisphere (in right handers) is proficient for processes that predict the effects of body and environmental dynamics, while the right hemisphere is proficient at impedance control processes that can minimize potential errors when faced with unexpected mechanical conditions, and can achieve accurate steady-state positions. This model can be viewed as a motor component for the paradigm of brain lateralization that has been proposed by Rogers et al. (MacNeilage et al., 2009) that is based upon evidence from a wide range of behaviors across many vertebrate species. Rogers proposed a left-hemisphere specialization for well-established patterns of behavior performed in familiar environmental conditions, and a right hemisphere specialization for responding to unforeseen environmental events. The dynamic dominance hypothesis provides a framework for understanding the biology of motor lateralization that is consistent with Roger's paradigm of brain lateralization. PMID:25339923

Sainburg, Robert L.

2014-01-01

226

Salvage Surgery for Lateral Tennis Elbow  

Microsoft Academic Search

We undertook a retrospective analysis of 34 patients (35 elbows) who had prior failed surgical intervention for lateral tennis elbow. Revision surgeries were per formed between 1979 and 1994. Each patient's non operative and operative history was recorded before our salvage revision surgery. At revision surgery, find ings included residual tendinosis of the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon in 34

Scott W. Organ; Robert P. Nirschl; Barry S. Kraushaar; Eric J. Guidi

1997-01-01

227

Establishment of polarity in angiosperm lateral organs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In seed plants, lateral organs such as leaves and floral organs are formed from the flanks of apical meristems. Therefore, they have an inherent positional relationship: organ primordia have an adaxial side next to the meristem, and an abaxial one away from the meristem. Surgical and genetic studies suggest that a morphogenetic gradient, which originates in the meristem, converts the

John L. Bowman; Yuval Eshed; Stuart F. Baum

2002-01-01

228

Combined Lateral Vertical RESURF (CLAVER) LDMOS structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a unique Combined Lateral Vertical RESURF (CLAVER) LDMOS structure is proposed for breakthrough performance. The structure uses a secondary RESURF design to terminate in the vertical direction to yield a much improved performance trade-off. The proposed device uses standard process steps available in integrated technology platforms to give a breakdown as high as 150 V with ground-breaking

T. Khan; V. Khemka; Ronghua Zhu; Weixiao Huang; Xu Cheng; P. Hui; Muh-ling Ger; B. Grote; P. Rodriquez

2009-01-01

229

Control augmentation for lateral control wheel steering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight control system design for lateral control wheel steering is discussed. Two alternate designs are presented. The first design is a roll-rate command, bank-angle hold system with a wings-level track-hold submode. The second is a curved-track-hold system. Design details and real-time flight simulator results are included.

Foulkes, R. H., Jr.

1981-01-01

230

Lateral organic photodetectors for imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic semiconductor detectors have always been in active research interest of researchers due to its low fabrication cost. Vertical organic detectors have been studied in the past but not much of the works have been done on lateral organic detectors. The lateral design has an advantage over the vertical design that it is easy to fabricate and can be easily integrated with the backplane TFT imager circuit. Integrating an organic photodetectors with TFT imager can improve the over all sensitivity of the imager. However the lateral design limits the fill-factor. Here in our work we propose a new bilayered lateral organic photodetectors with Copper-Phthalocyanine (CUPC) as top and Perylene- Tetracarboxylic Bis- Benzimidazole (PTCBI) as the bottom layer organic material. The bottom organic semiconductor layer work as both, charge transport layer and photon absorption layer. The top and bottom layer provides and heterojunction a potential gradient enough to separate the photo generated excitons in to electrons and holes. The incident photons are absorbed in the two layers active layers giving an exciton. These excitons see a potential barrier at the CUPC-PTCBI heterojunction and separated into holes and electrons. The separated electrons are directed by the external applied electric field and thus give a increase in photocurrent. Lateral organic photodetectors are simple to design and have low dark current. The photo-response of these photo detectors is observed approximately three orders higher in magnitude compare able to its dark response. The dual layer has an advantage of tuning the devices for different absorption wavelengths and were observed more stable comparable to vertical devices.

Shafique, Umar; Karim, Karim S.

2011-03-01

231

Genetics of ALS: Identification of Genes With Roles in Familial and Sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) With Frontotemporal Dementia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis With Frontotemporal Dementia; Lou Gehrig's Disease; Motor Neuron Disease; Primary Lateral Sclerosis

2014-04-01

232

Lateral root development in the maize (Zea mays) lateral rootless1 mutant  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The maize lrt1 (lateral rootless1) mutant is impaired in its development of lateral roots during early post-embryonic development. The aim of this study was to characterize, in detail, the influences that the mutation exerts on lateral root initiation and the subsequent developments, as well as to describe the behaviour of the entire plant under variable environmental conditions. Methods Mutant lrt1 plants were cultivated under different conditions of hydroponics, and in between sheets of moist paper. Cleared whole mounts and anatomical sections were used in combination with both selected staining procedures and histochemical tests to follow root development. Root surface permeability tests and the biochemical quantification of lignin were performed to complement the structural data. Key Results The data presented suggest a redefinition of lrt1 function in lateral roots as a promoter of later development; however, neither the complete absence of lateral roots nor the frequency of their initiation is linked to lrt1 function. The developmental effects of lrt1 are under strong environmental influences. Mutant primordia are affected in structure, growth and emergence; and the majority of primordia terminate their growth during this last step, or shortly thereafter. The lateral roots are impaired in the maintenance of the root apical meristem. The primary root shows disturbances in the organization of both epidermal and subepidermal layers. The lrt1-related cell-wall modifications include: lignification in peripheral layers, the deposition of polyphenolic substances and a higher activity of peroxidase. Conclusions The present study provides novel insights into the function of the lrt1 gene in root system development. The lrt1 gene participates in the spatial distribution of initiation, but not in its frequency. Later, the development of lateral roots is strongly affected. The effect of the lrt1 mutation is not as obvious in the primary root, with no influences observed on the root apical meristem structure and maintenance; however, development of the epidermis and cortex are impaired. PMID:23456690

Husakova, Eva; Hochholdinger, Frank; Soukup, Ales

2013-01-01

233

White matter alterations differ in primary lateral sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Primary lateral sclerosis is a sporadic disorder characterized by slowly progressive corticospinal dysfunction. Primary lateral sclerosis differs from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis by its lack of lower motor neuron signs and long survival. Few pathological studies have been carried out on patients with primary lateral sclerosis, and the relationship between primary lateral sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis remains uncertain. To detect in vivo structural differences between the two disorders, diffusion tensor imaging of white matter tracts was carried out in 19 patients with primary lateral sclerosis, 18 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 19 age-matched controls. Fibre tracking was used to reconstruct the intracranial portion of the corticospinal tract and three regions of the corpus callosum: the genu, splenium and callosal fibres connecting the motor cortices. Both patient groups had reduced fractional anisotropy, a measure associated with axonal organization, and increased mean diffusivity of the reconstructed corticospinal and callosal motor fibres compared with controls, without changes in the genu or splenium. Voxelwise comparison of the whole brain white matter using tract-based spatial statistics confirmed the differences between patients and controls in the diffusion properties of the corticospinal tracts and motor fibres of the callosum. This analysis further revealed differences in the regional distribution of white matter alterations between the patient groups. In patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the greatest reduction in fractional anisotropy occurred in the distal portions of the intracranial corticospinal tract, consistent with a distal axonal degeneration. In patients with primary lateral sclerosis, the greatest loss of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity occurred in the subcortical white matter underlying the motor cortex, with reduced volume, suggesting tissue loss. Clinical measures of upper motor neuron dysfunction correlated with reductions in fractional anisotropy in the corticospinal tract in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and increased mean diffusivity and volume loss of the corticospinal tract in patients with primary lateral sclerosis. Changes in the diffusion properties of the motor fibres of the corpus callosum were strongly correlated with changes in corticospinal fibres in patients, but not in controls. These findings indicate that degeneration is not selective for corticospinal neurons, but affects callosal neurons within the motor cortex in motor neuron disorders. PMID:21798965

Iwata, Nobue K.; Kwan, Justin Y.; Danielian, Laura E.; Butman, John A.; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Bayat, Elham

2011-01-01

234

Electroclinical characteristics of posterior lateral temporal epilepsy.  

PubMed

The current study aimed to investigate the electroclinical differences between mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and posterior lateral temporal lobe epilepsy (PLTLE). All patients had Engel class I outcomes after surgery for at least one year. In MTLE patients, the epileptogenic zone was inside the boundary of a standard temporal lobectomy, whereas in PLTLE, the epileptogenic zone was behind the boundary of a standard temporal lobectomy. Febrile convulsion, history of psychic aura, oroalimentary automatism, and diffuse interictal epileptiform discharges were more frequent in MTLE. Theta wave and increasing heart rate were more evident at the seizure onset in MTLE, whereas an ictal onset fast rhythm was more evident in PLTLE. Tonic head turning was more frequent in PLTLE. Distinguishing between MTLE and PLTLE was easier than distinguishing MTLE from lateral TLE (LTLE), which may be helpful in planning epilepsy surgery. Combinations of these manifestations and signs can provide vital clues to distinguish between MTLE and PLTLE. PMID:23200534

Wang, Fang; Liu, Xingzhou; Pan, Sipei; Wang, Mengyang; Chen, Shuhua

2013-01-01

235

Thrust vectoring for lateral-directional stability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advantages and disadvantages of using thrust vectoring for lateral-directional control and the effects of reducing the tail size of a single-engine aircraft were investigated. The aerodynamic characteristics of the F-16 aircraft were generated by using the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System II panel code. The resulting lateral-directional linear perturbation analysis of a modified F-16 aircraft with various tail sizes and yaw vectoring was performed at several speeds and altitudes to determine the stability and control trends for the aircraft compared to these trends for a baseline aircraft. A study of the paddle-type turning vane thrust vectoring control system as used on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle is also presented.

Peron, Lee R.; Carpenter, Thomas

1992-01-01

236

Lateral prefrontal cortex contributes to maladaptive decisions  

PubMed Central

Humans consistently make suboptimal decisions involving random events, yet the underlying neural mechanisms remain elusive. Using functional MRI and a matching pennies game that captured subjects’ increasing tendency to predict the break of a streak as it continued [i.e., the “gambler's fallacy” (GF)], we found that a strong blood oxygen level-dependent response in the left lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) to the current outcome preceded the use of the GF strategy 10 s later. Furthermore, anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the left LPFC, which enhances neuronal firing rates and cerebral excitability, increased the use of the GF strategy, and made the decisions more “sticky.” These results reveal a causal role of the LPFC in implementing suboptimal decision strategy guided by false world models, especially when such strategy requires great resources for cognitive control. PMID:22393013

Xue, Gui; Juan, Chi-Hung; Chang, Chi-Fu; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Dong, Qi

2012-01-01

237

Robust lateral control of highway vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Vehicle lateral dynamics are affected by vehicle mass, longitudinal velocity, vehicle inertia, and the cornering stiffness of the tires. All of these parameters are subject to variation, even over the course of a single trip. Therefore, a practical lateral control system must guarantee stability, and hopefully ride comfort, over a wide range of parameter changes. This paper describes a robust controller which theoretically guarantees stability over a wide range of parameter changes. The robust controller is designed using a frequency domain transfer function approach. An uncertainty band in the frequency domain is determined using simulations over the range of expected parameter variations. Based on this bound, a robust controller is designed by solving the Nevanlinna-Pick interpolation problem. The performance of the robust controller is then evaluated over the range of parameter variations through simulations.

Byrne, R.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abdallah, C. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). EECE Dept.

1994-08-01

238

High performance silicon lateral PIN photodiode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Start Photodetectors with high responsivity in Si-related processes are required for high speed optoelectronic applications such as fiber optic data communication systems. In this paper, the performance of a virtual lateral PIN photodiode with intensity response in the 200-1000 nm wavelength range was demonstrated. The results obtained for responsivity, total quantum efficiency and frequency response were 0.62 A/W and 13.1 GHz respectively for design parameters of intrinsic region length of 6 ?m, photoabsorption layer thickness of 50 ?m, incident optical power of 1 mW/cm2 and bias voltage of 3 V. As a conclusion, the decrease in device size enabled the realization of a high performance lateral p-i-n photodiode.

Kalthom Tasirin, S.; Susthitha Menon, P.; Ahmad, Ibrahim; Fazlili Abdullah, S.

2013-06-01

239

Glutamate, excitotoxicity and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “glutamate hypothesis” is one of three major pathophysiological mechanisms of motor neurone injury towards which current\\u000a research effort into amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is directed. There is great structural and functional diversity in\\u000a the glutamate receptor family which results from combinations of 14 known gene products and their splice variants, with or\\u000a without additional RNA editing. It is possible

P. J. Shaw; P. G. Ince

1997-01-01

240

Palliative care in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The poor prognosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) makes palliative care a challenge for the neurologist. Most disabilities\\u000a associated with progressive disease can be ameliorated by symptomatic treatment. Prognosis and treatment options should be\\u000a openly discussed with the patient and his\\/her relatives. Nutritional deficiency due to pronounced dysphagia can be efficiently\\u000a relieved by a percutaneous enterogastrostomy. Respiratory insufficiency can be

Gian Domenico Borasio; Raymond Voltz

1997-01-01

241

Lateral Interactions in Monolayer Thick Mercury Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of lateral adatom-adatom interactions is often an important part of understanding electronic structure and adsorption energetics in monolayer thick films. In this dissertation I use angle-resolved photoemission and thermal desorption spectroscopies to explore the relationship between the adatom-adatom interaction and other characteristics of the adlayer, such as electronic structure, defects, or coexistent structural phases in the adlayer. Since

Yolanda Jan Kime

1991-01-01

242

Laterality effects with visual perception of  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the paradigm denoting a contralateral relationship between visual field and brain hemisphere, laterality effects with\\u000a music notation and dots were investigated. Two groups of readers of advanced piano music were selected, one good, one poor.\\u000a Each group participated in two visual half-field experiments, one using random dot patterns and the other using musical chords.\\u000a Significant opposite field effects were

Doris L. Salis

1980-01-01

243

Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay Test Strips  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As easy to read as a home pregnancy test, three Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay (QLFA) strips used to test water for E. coli show different results. The brightly glowing control line on the far right of each strip indicates that all three tests ran successfully. But the glowing test line on the middle left and bottom strips reveal their samples were contaminated with E. coli bacteria at two different concentrations. The color intensity correlates with concentration of contamination.

2003-01-01

244

Lateral jet injection into typical combustor flowfields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experimental problem of lateral jet injection into typical flow fields in the absence of combustion was studied. All flow fields being investigated have no expansion of the crossflow (the test section to swirler diameter ratio D/d = 1), after its passage through an optional swirler (with swirl vane angle phi = 0 (swirler removed), 45, and 70 degree). The lateral jet(s) is(are) located one test-section diameter downstream of the test-section inlet (x/D = 1). The lateral jets have round-sectioned nozzles, each of which has an area of 1/100th of the cross sectional area of the crossflow (A sub j/A sub c = 1/100). Jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios of R = v sub j/u sub o = 2, 4, and 6 were investigated. Helium-bubble low visualization, five-hole pitot probe time-mean velocity measurements, and single-wire time-mean velocity and normal and shear stress turbulence data were obtained in the research program.

Lilley, D. G.

1986-01-01

245

Intramedullary screw fixation of lateral malleolus fractures.  

PubMed

A biomechanical evaluation of intramedullary versus buttress plate and lag screw fixation of lateral malleolus fractures is combined with a clinical evaluation of 44 patients with lateral malleolus fractures who underwent intramedullary screw fixation. The biomechanical study was performed in experimentally produced, Weber B, supination-eversion ankle fractures. The fractures were fixed with one of the two above fixation methods and then placed under a torsional load to failure. Sixteen cadaver ankles were tested as compared with native bone. The intramedullary screw provided 66.5% the resistance of torsion, and the buttress plate and lag screw provided 61.5% the resistance to torsion. There was no statistical difference between these two groups. The 44 fractures treated with an intramedullary screw were reviewed retrospectively. There was one failure of fixation, and one prominent hardware problem. Time to full weightbearing averaged 7.2 weeks. These results suggest that intramedullary screw fixation of noncomminuted lateral malleolus fractures provides stable fixation with good clinical results. This technique has the advantages of providing dynamic intramedullary fixation with limited surgical dissection and no subcutaneous hardware. PMID:7849975

Bankston, A B; Anderson, L D; Nimityongskul, P

1994-11-01

246

General Amphibian characteristics: 1) Two occipital condyles  

E-print Network

a biphasic life cycle In some species, embryos pass through a gilled stage and lose the gills at the time) Biphasic life cycle l Larvae (tadpole) & adult stage tadpoles l Anuran larvae are the most deviant from) #12;5 Cloaca phallodeum Frogs - Order Anura (Salientia) l 6,375 known species, 422 genera, 54 families

Dever, Jennifer A.

247

Genetic factors and breast cancer laterality  

PubMed Central

Background Women are more likely to develop cancer in the left breast than the right. Such laterality may influence subsequent management, especially in elderly patients with heart disease who may require radiation therapy. The purpose of this study was to explore possible factors for such cancer laterality. Methods In this work, clinical data for consecutive patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer were reviewed, with emphasis on clinical presentation and family history. Results Between 2005 and 2012, 687 patients with breast cancer were seen. Two women with incomplete data and eleven men were excluded. In total, 343 (50.9%) patients presented with left breast cancer, 311 (46.1%) with right breast cancer, and 20 (3.0%) with simultaneous bilateral malignancy. There were no significant differences between the three groups, especially in regards to clinical presentation and tumor characteristics. A total of 622 (92.3%) patients had unilateral primary, 20 (3.0%) had simultaneous bilateral, and 32 (4.7%) had metachronous primary breast cancer with subsequent contralateral breast cancer after 7.5–236 months. The worst 10-year survival was for bilateral simultaneous (18%) compared with unilateral (28%) and metachronous primaries (90%). There were no differences in survival in relation to breast cancer laterality, handedness, and presence or absence of a family history of cancer. There were significant similarities between patients and first-degree relatives in regards to breast cancer laterality, namely same breast (30/66, 45.5%), opposite breast (9/66, 13.6%), and bilateral cancer (27/66, 40.9, P=0.01163). This was more evident among patients and their sisters (17/32, 53.1%) or mothers (11/27, 40.7%, P=0.0689). There were also close similarities in relation to age at initial diagnosis of cancer for patients and their first-degree relatives for age differences of ?5 years (48/166, 28.9%), 6–10 years (34/166, 20.5%), and >11 years (84/166, 50.6%, P=0.12065). Conclusion High similarities between patients and their first-degree relatives in regards to cancer laterality and possibly age at initial diagnosis of cancer may suggest an underlying inherited genetic predisposition. PMID:24790468

Amer, Magid H

2014-01-01

248

Efferent pathways of the mouse lateral habenula.  

PubMed

The lateral habenula (LHb) is part of the habenula complex of the dorsal thalamus. Recent studies of the LHb have focused on its projections to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), which contain ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons that mediate reward prediction error via inhibition of dopaminergic activity. However, older studies in the rat have also identified LHb outputs to the lateral and posterior hypothalamus, median raphe, dorsal raphe, and dorsal tegmentum. Although these studies have shown that the medial and lateral divisions of the LHb have somewhat distinct projections, the topographic specificity of LHb efferents is not completely understood, and the relative extent of these projections to brainstem targets is unknown. Here we have used anterograde tracing with adeno-associated virus-mediated expression of green fluorescent protein, combined with serial two-photon tomography, to map the efferents of the LHb on a standard coordinate system for the entire mouse brain, and reconstruct the efferent pathways of the LHb in three dimensions. Using automated quantitation of fiber density, we show that in addition to the RMTg, the median raphe, caudal dorsal raphe, and pontine central gray are major recipients of LHb efferents. By using retrograde tract tracing with cholera toxin subunit B, we show that LHb neurons projecting to the hypothalamus, VTA, median raphe, caudal dorsal raphe, and pontine central gray reside in characteristic, but sometimes overlapping regions of the LHb. Together these results provide the anatomical basis for systematic studies of LHb function in neural circuits and behavior in mice. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:32-60, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25099741

Quina, Lely A; Tempest, Lynne; Ng, Lydia; Harris, Julie A; Ferguson, Susan; Jhou, Thomas C; Turner, Eric E

2015-01-01

249

Psychotherapists and the clergy: Fifty years later.  

PubMed

Jung's two powerful articles on psychotherapy and the clergy, written in 1928 and 1932. are looked at from the vantage point of fifty years later and the author's experience in conducting analysis with many people from both vocations. He notes that relatively few people achieve the kind of integration of the ego that Jung writes about-an essentially religious experience-wherein the center of their existence now gravitates about the Self. Yet Jung's work and views have had a profound effect on spiritually inclined people of all ages. The predictions of Jung's articles, regarding therapy, the dissemination of pyschology to the masses, and other issues are examined. PMID:24306937

Spiegelman, J M

1984-03-01

250

Quantifying disease progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) exhibits characteristic variability of onset and rate of disease progression, with inherent clinical heterogeneity making disease quantitation difficult. Recent advances in understanding pathogenic mechanisms linked to the development of ALS impose an increasing need to develop strategies to predict and more objectively measure disease progression. This review explores phenotypic and genetic determinants of disease progression in ALS, and examines established and evolving biomarkers that may contribute to robust measurement in longitudinal clinical studies. With targeted neuroprotective strategies on the horizon, developing efficiencies in clinical trial design may facilitate timely entry of novel treatments into the clinic. Ann Neurol 2014;76:643-657. PMID:25223628

Simon, Neil G; Turner, Martin R; Vucic, Steve; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Shefner, Jeremy; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine; Kiernan, Matthew C

2014-11-01

251

Lateral stress evolution in Chromium Sulfide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the shock response of CrS, a cermet of potential interest as a matrix material for ballistic applications, has been investigated. Compacts with a Chromium: Sulfur ratio of 1.15:1 were investigated via the plate-impact technique. These experiments allowed the material to be loaded under a one-dimensional state of strain. Embedded manganin stress gauges were employed to monitor the temporal evolution of longitudinal and lateral components of stress. Comparison of these two components has allowed assessment of the variation of material shear strength both with impact pressure/strain-rate and time.

Petel, O. E.; Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Hameed, A.; Capozzi, A.; Goroshin, S.; Frost, D. L.; Hazell, P. J.

2014-05-01

252

Towards reproducible, scalable lateral molecular electronic devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An approach to reproducibly fabricate molecular electronic devices is presented. Lateral nanometer-scale gaps with high yield are formed in Au/Pd nanowires by a combination of electromigration and Joule-heating-induced thermomechanical stress. The resulting nanogap devices are used to measure the electrical properties of small numbers of two different molecular species with different end-groups, namely 1,4-butane dithiol and 1,5-diamino-2-methylpentane. Fluctuations in the current reveal that in the case of the dithiol molecule devices, individual molecules conduct intermittently, with the fluctuations becoming more pronounced at larger biases.

Durkan, Colm; Zhang, Qian

2014-08-01

253

AXR1 Acts after Lateral Bud Formation to Inhibit Lateral Bud Growth in Arabidopsis1  

PubMed Central

The AXR1 gene of Arabidopsis is required for many auxin responses. The highly branched shoot phenotype of mature axr1 mutant plants has been taken as genetic evidence for a role of auxin in the control of shoot branching. We compared the development of lateral shoots in wild-type Columbia and axr1-12 plants. In the wild type, the pattern of lateral shoot development depends on the developmental stage of the plant. During prolonged vegetative growth, axillary shoots arise and develop in a basal-apical sequence. After floral transition, axillary shoots arise rapidly along the primary shoot axis and grow out to form lateral inflorescences in an apical-basal sequence. For both patterns, the axr1 mutation does not affect the timing of axillary meristem formation; however, subsequent lateral shoot development proceeds more rapidly in axr1 plants. The outgrowth of lateral inflorescences from excised cauline nodes of wild-type plants is inhibited by apical auxin. axr1-12 nodes are resistant to this inhibition. These results provide evidence for common control of axillary growth in both patterns, and suggest a role for auxin during the late stages of axillary shoot development following the formation of the axillary bud and several axillary leaf primordia. PMID:10557232

Stirnberg, Petra; Chatfield, Steven P.; Leyser, H.M. Ottoline

1999-01-01

254

Haemodynamic effects of the lateral decubitus position and the kidney rest lateral decubitus position during anaesthesia.  

PubMed

We measured the haemodynamic effects of changing from the supine position to the lateral decubitus (lateral) position, and then to the kidney rest lateral decubitus (kidney) position in 12 patients undergoing nephrectomy under isoflurane anaesthesia. Eight control patients undergoing pulmonary surgery remained in the lateral position. The lateral position produced no significant changes. In the kidney position, however, significant reductions occurred in the mean arterial (P < 0.01), right atrial (P < 0.05) and pulmonary artery wedge pressures (P < 0.01). There were also significant reductions in cardiac index (from 3.04 (SD 0.21) to 2.44 (0.26) litre min-1 m-2, P < 0.01) and stroke volume index (from 40 (5) to 31 (5) ml beat-1 m-2, P < 0.01). The systemic vascular resistance index increased significantly (P < 0.05). Cardiac output was probably reduced by a decrease in venous return and an increase in systemic vascular resistance. PMID:10895751

Yokoyama, M; Ueda, W; Hirakawa, M

2000-06-01

255

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: one or multiple causes?  

PubMed Central

The Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common form of motor neuron disease in the adulthood, and it is characterized by rapid and progressive compromise of the upper and lower motor neurons. The majority of the cases of ALS are classified as sporadic and, until now, a specific cause for these cases still is unknown. To present the different hypotheses on the etiology of ALS. It was carried out a search in the databases: Bireme, Scielo and Pubmed, in the period of 1987 to 2011, using the following keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, motor neuron disease, etiology, causes and epidemiology and its similar in Portuguese and Spanish. It did not have consensus as regards the etiology of ALS. Researches demonstrates evidences as regards intoxication by heavy metals, environmental and occupational causes, genetic mutations (superoxide dismutase 1), certain viral infections and the accomplishment of vigorous physical activity for the development of the disease. There is still no consensus regarding the involved factors in the etiology of ALS. In this way, new research about these etiologies are necessary, for a better approach of the patients, promoting preventive programs for the disease and improving the quality of life of the patients. PMID:21785676

Bastos, Aline Furtado; Orsini, Marco; Machado, Dionis; Mello, Mariana Pimentel; Nader, Sergio; Silva, Julio Guilherme; da Silva Catharino, Antonio M.; de Freitas, Marcos R.G.; Pereira, Alessandra; Pessoa, Luciane Lacerda; Sztajnbok, Flavio R.; Leite, Marco Araujo; Nascimento, Osvaldo J.M.; Bastos, Victor Hugo

2011-01-01

256

Lateral vision in horses: a behavioral investigation.  

PubMed

This study investigated lateral vision in horses (Equus caballus) for the first time from a behavioral point of view. Three horses were tested using a novel experimental design to determine the range of their lateral and caudolateral vision with respect to stimulus detection and discrimination. Real-life stimuli were presented along a curvilinear wall in one of four different positions (A, B, C, D) and one of two height locations (Top, Bottom) on both sides of the horse. To test for stimulus detection, the correct stimulus was paired against a control; for stimulus discrimination, the correct stimulus was paired against another object. To indicate that the correct stimulus was detected or discriminated, the horses pushed one of two paddles. All horses scored significantly above chance on stimulus detection trials regardless of stimulus position or location. They also accurately discriminated between stimuli when objects appeared in positions A, B, and C for the top or bottom locations; however, they failed to discriminate these stimuli at position D. This study supports physiological descriptions of the equine eye and provides new behavioral data showing that horses can detect the appearance of objects within an almost fully encompassing circle and are able to identify objects within most but not all of their panoramic field of view. PMID:22698758

Hanggi, Evelyn B; Ingersoll, Jerry F

2012-09-01

257

Religious Attendance and Loneliness in Later Life  

PubMed Central

Purpose of the Study: ?Studies show that loneliness is a major risk factor for health issues in later life. Although research suggests that religious involvement can protect against loneliness, explanations for this general pattern are underdeveloped and undertested. In this paper, we propose and test a theoretical model, which suggests that social integration and social support are key mechanisms that link religious attendance and loneliness. Design and Methods: ?To formally test our theoretical model, we use data from the National Social Life Health and Aging Project (2005/2006), a large national probability sample of older adults aged 57–85 years. Results: ?We find that religious attendance is associated with higher levels of social integration and social support and that social integration and social support are associated with lower levels of loneliness. A series of mediation tests confirm our theoretical model. Implications: ?Taken together, our results suggest that involvement in religious institutions may protect against loneliness in later life by integrating older adults into larger and more supportive social networks. Future research should test whether these processes are valid across theoretically relevant subgroups. PMID:22555887

Rote, Sunshine; Hill, Terrence D.; Ellison, Christopher G.

2013-01-01

258

Lateral Distribution Functions of Extensive Air Showers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy is among the characteristics of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (E>5 x 1019 eV) which could be estimated experimentally. The following paper attempts to estimate the energy of an UHECR proton by applying a Monte Carlo simulation code. A number of extensive air showers, vertical and inclined, is simulated to derive the Lateral Distribution Functions of the shower muons. The scenario of simulations is adopted to the Cerenkov surface detector of the P. AUGER Observatory. Due to the fact that the Lateral Distribution Functions show minimal fluctuations of the muon density at a distance larger than 800 m from the core of the showers, and due to the fact that at a distance of 900 m the distribution functions for inclined showers coincide (which means that it does not change with the zenith angle of the showers), we select the muon density at 900 m to derive the energy of the primary protons. (The project is co-funded by the European Social Fund and National Resources (EPEAEK II) PYTHAGORAS II.)

Geranios, A.; Fokitis, E.; Maltezos, S.; et al.

259

Confronting the Material Convoy in Later Life  

PubMed Central

We adapt a metaphor from life course studies to designate the whole of one’s possessions, across time, as a convoy of material support. This dynamic collection of things supports daily life and the self, but it can also present difficulty in later life. To alleviate the purported burdens of the material convoy, a discourse has arisen that urges elders and their family members to reduce the volume of possessions. An analysis of 11 such possession management texts shows authors addressing two distinct audiences about elders’ need to downsize: family members and elders themselves. Authors who speak to family members do so with an urgent, unsentimental tone that echoes mainstream clutter-control advice about disorderly, overfull households. In texts for elders, the standard critique about consumption and unruly lives is gentler, more sensitive to the meaning of things, and underplays the emotions of divestment. There is stress on the responsibility to spare the next generation and control one’s legacy. These latter texts seem to respect that downsizing in later life symbolizes a narrowing of the life world. PMID:21822336

Smith, Gabriella V.; Ekerdt, David J.

2011-01-01

260

Dendroarchitecture and lateral inhibition in thalamic barreloids.  

PubMed

Thalamic cells that relay vibrissa information to barrel cortex are clustered within whisker-related modules termed barreloids. Each barreloid receives input from one principal whisker and inhibitory inputs from reticular thalamic neurons with receptive fields that correspond to that same whisker. Although the proximal dendrites of relay cells are confined to their home barreloid, distal dendrites often extend into surrounding barreloids representing adjacent whiskers on the mystacial pad. It was proposed that this arrangement provides a substrate for a mechanism of lateral inhibition that operates remotely on extrabarreloid dendrites. In the present study, we identified adjacent whiskers that suppressed activity below background levels in barreloid cells, and we used a double-labeling protocol to relate the efficacy of inhibition to the dendroarchitecture of the cells. Significant suppression of background discharges was produced by 92% of adjacent whiskers within rows, by 48% of adjacent whiskers within arcs, but was never observed after deflection of nonadjacent whiskers. The magnitude of lateral inhibition increases linearly as the cumulated length of dendrites increases in the barreloid representing an adjacent whisker (R2 = 0.86; p < 0.0001). As distance between cell bodies and the border of an adjacent barreloid increases, dendritic length in that adjacent barreloid diminishes and so does inhibition. Considering time differences between the arrival of principal and adjacent whisker inputs in barreloids, our data suggest that inhibition operating distally on dendrites acts as a spatial filter that primarily suppresses adjacent whisker inputs and so contributes to enhance edge detection. PMID:15240801

Lavallée, Philippe; Deschênes, Martin

2004-07-01

261

FacioScapuloHumeral Muscular Dystrophy Society  

MedlinePLUS

... supported by the FSH Society. The inducible DUX4 animal model will be important - even though the phenotype is much more severe than FSHD in humans, the fact that it shows numerous pathologies means it could be used for testing therapeutics in vivo. See UMN Press Release Read ...

262

Humeral diaphyseal osteochondroma causing median nerve injury.  

PubMed

Osteochondromas are the most common benign tumours of the bone. They are solitary or multiple, pedunculated or sessile exophytic outgrowths from the bone surface that are composed of cortical and medullary component with an overlying hyaline cartilage cap. Marrow and cortical continuity with the underlying parent bone is the characteristic of the lesion; they mostly arise from the metaphysis of the bone. Osteochondromas arising from the diaphysis are rare; and nerve palsy arising in the setting of a diaphyseal osteochondroma is even rarer. This is a report of solitary osteochondroma arising from diaphysis of left humerus in a 10 years old boy, which resulted in median nerve palsy. Surgical excision relieved the symptoms completely. The aim of this case report was to draw attention to an unusual etiology of median nerve palsy caused by an osteochondroma arising from the diaphysis of humerus which is a rare site, and to emphasize its importance. PMID:24718003

Mohindra, Mukul; Tiwari, Anurag; Gogna, Paritosh; Thora, Ankit

2014-03-01

263

Inertia and scaling in deterministic lateral displacement  

E-print Network

The ability to separate and analyze chemical species with high resolution, sensitivity, and throughput is central to the development of microfluidics systems. Deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) is a continuous separation method based on the transport of species through an array of obstacles. In the case of force-driven DLD (f-DLD), size-based separation can be modelled effectively using a simple particle-obstacle collision model. We use a macroscopic model to study f-DLD and demonstrate, via a simple scaling, that the method is indeed predominantly a size-based phenomenon at low Reynolds numbers. More importantly, we demonstrate that inertia effects provide the additional capability to separate same size particles but of different densities and could enhance separation at high throughput conditions. We also show that a direct conversion of macroscopic results to microfluidic settings is possible with a simple scaling based on the size of the obstacles that results in a universal curve.

Drazer, Timothy J Bowman German

2014-01-01

264

Motoneuron firing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is an inexorably progressive neurodegenerative disorder involving the classical motor system and the frontal effector brain, causing muscular weakness and atrophy, with variable upper motor neuron signs and often an associated fronto-temporal dementia. The physiological disturbance consequent on the motor system degeneration is beginning to be well understood. In this review we describe aspects of the motor cortical, neuronal, and lower motor neuron dysfunction. We show how studies of the changes in the pattern of motor unit firing help delineate the underlying pathophysiological disturbance as the disease progresses. Such studies are beginning to illuminate the underlying disordered pathophysiological processes in the disease, and are important in designing new approaches to therapy and especially for clinical trials. PMID:25294995

de Carvalho, Mamede; Eisen, Andrew; Krieger, Charles; Swash, Michael

2014-01-01

265

Therapeutic neuroprotective agents for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal chronic neurodegenerative disease whose hallmark is proteinaceous, ubiquitinated, cytoplasmic inclusions in motor neurons and surrounding cells. Multiple mechanisms proposed as responsible for ALS pathogenesis include dysfunction of protein degradation, glutamate excitotoxicity, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. It is therefore essential to gain a better understanding of the underlying disease etiology and search for neuroprotective agents that might delay disease onset, slow progression, prolong survival, and ultimately reduce the burden of disease. Because riluzole, the only Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatment, prolongs the ALS patient’s life by only 3 months, new therapeutic agents are urgently needed. In this review, we focus on studies of various small pharmacological compounds targeting the proposed pathogenic mechanisms of ALS and discuss their impact on disease progression. PMID:23864030

Pandya, Rachna S.; Zhu, Haining; Li, Wei; Bowser, Robert; Friedlander, Robert M.

2014-01-01

266

[Lateral clavicular fractures in children and adolescents].  

PubMed

From 1996 to 1999, 572 fractures of the clavicle were treated in our department, 26 of which were located at the lateral end of the clavicle. Two children were operated: in one a closed reduction of the fracture under general anesthesia was performed, and in the other the fracture required open reduction with internal fixation. All other fractures were treated conservatively with a figure-of-eight clavicle strap for 3 weeks. A follow-up study was performed in autumn 2000. Sixteen patients came to our outpatient department for clinical and radiological control, and three patients informed us by phone. All patients including the two treated under general anesthesia were fully recovered and had no problems doing their job and engaging in different sports. The radiological controls showed a good ossification without visible deformity of the clavicle. PMID:12219645

Wilfinger, C; Höllwarth, M

2002-07-01

267

Analysis of flexible structures under lateral impact  

SciTech Connect

Three methods for analysis of flexible structures under lateral impact are presented. The first proposed method (Method A) consists of: (1) modifying an available deceleration on a rigid target with conservation principles to account for structural flexibility; and (2) transient nonlinear analysis of the structure with the corrected forcing function. The second proposed method (Method B) is similar to Method A in obtaining the forcing function but it solves the equations of motion of an idealized two-degree-of-freedom system instead of directly using conservation principles. The last method simply provides the maximum force in the structure using the conservation of energy and linear momentum. A coupled simulation is also performed in LS-DYNA and compared against the proposed methods. A case study is presented to illustrate the applicability of all three methods and the LS-DYNA simulation. (authors)

Ramirez, D. F. [Paul C. Kizzo and Associates Inc., Seismic Structural Group, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States); Razavi, H. [AREVA Inc., Civil Seismic Group, San Jose, CA 95119 (United States)

2012-07-01

268

[Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis--diagnosis and treatment].  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) represents the most common motoneuron disorder in adulthood. It is characterized by selective degeneration of the motoneurons. About 10% of patients have a genetically determined ALS. Clinically, ALS is characterized by coexistence of signs of the first motoneuron, such as spasticity and hyperreflexia, as well as the second motoneuron, such as muscular atrophy and fasciculations. If such signs are present in at least three regions and if other possible causes have been excluded, a definite diagnosis of ALS can be made based on the revised El-Escorial criteria. Initial manifestations are often focalized and generalization develops during the course. The glutamate antagonist riluzole is worldwide the only approved ALS treatment. However, symptomatic treatments to ameliorate spasticity, drooling, speech and swallowing problems, and assisted ventilation to treat respiratory failure are essential. PMID:22763933

Jung, H H; Neumann, M; Bloch, K E

2012-07-01

269

Costa Rica's Chain of laterally collapsed volcanoes.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the NW extreme to the SW end of Costa Rica's volcanic backbone, a number of laterally collapsed volcanoes can be observed. Due to several factors, attention has been given to active volcanoes disregarding the importance of collapsed features in terms of assessing volcanic hazards for future generations around inhabited volcanoes. In several cases the typical horseshoe shape amphitheater-like depression can be easily observed. In other cases due to erosion, vegetation, topography, seismic activity or drastic weather such characteristics are not easily recognized. In the order mentioned above appear: Orosi-Cacao, Miravalles, Platanar, Congo, Von Frantzius, Cacho Negro and Turrialba volcanoes. Due to limited studies on these structures it is unknown if sector collapse occurred in one or several phases. Furthermore, in the few studied cases no evidence has been found to relate collapses to actual eruptive episodes. Detailed studies on the deposits and materials composing dome-like shapes will shed light on unsolved questions about petrological and chemical composition. Volume, form and distance traveled by deposits are part of the questions surrounding most of these collapsed volcanoes. Although most of these mentioned structures are extinct, at least Irazú volcano (active volcano) has faced partial lateral collapses recently. It did presented strombolian activity in the early 60s. Collapse scars show on the NW flank show important mass removal in historic and prehistoric times. Moreover, in 1994 a minor hydrothermal explosion provoked the weakening of a deeply altered wall that holds a crater lake (150m diameter, 2.6x106 ). A poster will depict images of the collapsed volcanoes named above with mayor descriptive characteristics. It will also focus on the importance of deeper studies to assess the collapse potential of Irazú volcano with related consequences. Finally, this initiative will invite researchers interested in such topic to join future studies in these Costarrican volcanoes.

Duarte, E.; Fernandez, E.

2007-05-01

270

Lateral interactions in the outer retina  

PubMed Central

Lateral interactions in the outer retina, particularly negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones and direct feed-forward input from horizontal cells to bipolar cells, play a number of important roles in early visual processing, such as generating center-surround receptive fields that enhance spatial discrimination. These circuits may also contribute to post-receptoral light adaptation and the generation of color opponency. In this review, we examine the contributions of horizontal cell feedback and feed-forward pathways to early visual processing. We begin by reviewing the properties of bipolar cell receptive fields, especially with respect to modulation of the bipolar receptive field surround by the ambient light level and to the contribution of horizontal cells to the surround. We then review evidence for and against three proposed mechanisms for negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones: 1) GABA release by horizontal cells, 2) ephaptic modulation of the cone pedicle membrane potential generated by currents flowing through hemigap junctions in horizontal cell dendrites, and 3) modulation of cone calcium currents (ICa) by changes in synaptic cleft proton levels. We also consider evidence for the presence of direct horizontal cell feed-forward input to bipolar cells and discuss a possible role for GABA at this synapse. We summarize proposed functions of horizontal cell feedback and feed-forward pathways. Finally, we examine the mechanisms and functions of two other forms of lateral interaction in the outer retina: negative feedback from horizontal cells to rods and positive feedback from horizontal cells to cones. PMID:22580106

Thoreson, Wallace B.; Mangel, Stuart C.

2012-01-01

271

Laterality and emotions: Visual laterality in the domestic horse ( Equus caballus) differs with objects' emotional value  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateralization of emotions has received great attention in the last decades, both in humans and animals, but little interest has been given to side bias in perceptual processing. Here, we investigated the influence of the emotional valence of stimuli on visual and olfactory explorations by horses, a large mammalian species with two large monocular visual fields and almost complete decussation

Alice De Boyer Des Roches; Marie-Annick Richard-Yris; Séverine Henry; Mohammed Ezzaouïa; Martine Hausberger

2008-01-01

272

Side of limb-onset predicts laterality of gray matter loss in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Conflicting findings have been reported regarding the lateralized brain abnormality in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this study, we aimed to investigate the probable lateralization of gray matter (GM) atrophy in ALS patients. We focused on the relationship between the asymmetry in decreased GM volume and the side of disease onset in patients with limb-onset. Structural imaging evaluation of normalized atrophy (SIENAX) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) were used to assess differences in global and local brain regions in patients with heterogeneous body onset and subgroups with different side of limb-onset. We found global brain atrophy and GM losses in the frontal and parietal areas in each patient group as well as left predominant GM losses in the total cohort. The intriguing findings in subgroup analyses demonstrated that the motor cortex in the contralateral hemisphere of the initially involved limb was most affected. We also found that regional brain atrophy was related to disease progression rate. Our observations suggested that side of limb-onset can predict laterality of GM loss in ALS patients and disease progression correlates with the extent of cortical abnormality. PMID:25093168

Zhang, Qiuli; Mao, Cuiping; Jin, Jiaoting; Niu, Chen; Bai, Lijun; Dang, Jingxia; Zhang, Ming

2014-01-01

273

Side of Limb-Onset Predicts Laterality of Gray Matter Loss in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Conflicting findings have been reported regarding the lateralized brain abnormality in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this study, we aimed to investigate the probable lateralization of gray matter (GM) atrophy in ALS patients. We focused on the relationship between the asymmetry in decreased GM volume and the side of disease onset in patients with limb-onset. Structural imaging evaluation of normalized atrophy (SIENAX) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) were used to assess differences in global and local brain regions in patients with heterogeneous body onset and subgroups with different side of limb-onset. We found global brain atrophy and GM losses in the frontal and parietal areas in each patient group as well as left predominant GM losses in the total cohort. The intriguing findings in subgroup analyses demonstrated that the motor cortex in the contralateral hemisphere of the initially involved limb was most affected. We also found that regional brain atrophy was related to disease progression rate. Our observations suggested that side of limb-onset can predict laterality of GM loss in ALS patients and disease progression correlates with the extent of cortical abnormality. PMID:25093168

Mao, Cuiping; Jin, Jiaoting; Niu, Chen; Dang, Jingxia

2014-01-01

274

Study Builds Case for Later High School Starting Time  

MedlinePLUS

... Study Builds Case for Later High School Starting Time Researchers followed kids, teens as they grew up ... a study that lends support to later start times in high schools. Researchers followed 94 children and ...

275

14 CFR 25.177 - Static lateral-directional stability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Static lateral-directional stability. 25.177 Section 25...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 25.177 Static lateral-directional stability. (a)-(b)...

2011-01-01

276

Motor Unit Firing Characteristics in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

E-print Network

Motor Unit Firing Characteristics in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patrick K. Kasi" 2 neuron dominant forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). EMG recordings were gathered during ALS patients with LMN- and UMN-dominant forms of ALS. Keywords- Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; motor

Clancy, Ted

277

Dynamic markers of altered gait rhythm in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

E-print Network

Dynamic markers of altered gait rhythm in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis JEFFREY M. HAUSDORFF,1 of altered gait rhythm in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Appl Physiol 88: 2045­ 2053, 2000.--Amyotrophic dynamics AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS (ALS) is a disorder primarily affecting the motoneurons

278

Platelet Serotonin Level Predicts Survival in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

E-print Network

Platelet Serotonin Level Predicts Survival in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Luc Dupuis1,2 *, Odile Abstract Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a life-threatening neurodegenerative disease) Platelet Serotonin Level Predicts Survival in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. PLoS ONE 5(10): e13346. doi:10

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

279

Lateralized eye use in Octopus vulgaris shows antisymmetrical distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioural lateralization has been demonstrated in many species of vertebrates, but there has been scarce evidence for it in invertebrates. We have previously documented lateral asymmetry of eye use in individual octopuses. In the present study we investigated lateralization at the population level. Octopus eyes are on the sides of the head, and these animals prefer monocular to binocular vision.

Ruth A. Byrne; Michael J. Kuba; Daniela V. Meisel

2004-01-01

280

Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

281

Spatially distributed lateral nitrate transport at the catchment scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

In river catchments, nitrogen transformation and storage processes during lateral transport are important in controlling nitrogen loads of surface waters. There is a lack of approaches which capture lateral flows and associated nitrogen transformation in a spatially distributed way. The aim of this paper is to develop a new conceptual nitrogen transport and transformation model which simulates the lateral nitrate

M. Rode; Uwe Franko; F. Hesser

2010-01-01

282

Differential bilingual laterality: mythical monster found in Wales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paradis (1992) likens studies of bilingual laterality to reported sightings of the Loch Ness Monster, in that although some studies claim differential laterality much conflicting research evidence does not—and like the mythical Scottish monster, what reason have we to suspect that any such phenomenon might exist? This study reexamines differential bilingual laterality using four groups of English–Welsh bilinguals which differ

Judith Evans; Lance Workman; Peter Mayer; Kevin Crowley

2002-01-01

283

Lateral Crack in Abrasive Wear of Brittle Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical model for lateral cracks occurring in abrasive wear of brittle materials was developed. The stress field around the lateral crack and the stress intensity factor at the crack tip were analytically modeled. The abrasive wear by abrasive particles was experimentally studied by sliding indentation. In soda-lime glass, it was observed that chipping by the lateral crack occurred and

Yoomin Ahn; Nahm-Gyoo Cho; Seoung-Hwan Lee; Dohyung Lee

2003-01-01

284

IQ, fetal testosterone and individual variability in children's functional lateralization.  

PubMed

Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies have revealed that faces and words show a robust difference in the lateralization of their N170. The present study investigated the development of this differential lateralization in school-age boys. We assessed the potential role of fetal testosterone (FT) level as a factor biasing the prenatal development of lateralization, and the role of reading skill and Verbal IQ as factors predicting left lateralization for words in childhood. The adult pattern of differential N170 lateralization for faces and words was not present in a group of 26 school-age boys. This suggests that N170 lateralization only appears with years of experience with these stimulus categories or with late childhood maturation. FT level measured by amniocentesis did not account for a significant part of the individual variability in lateralization. Verbal IQ correlated with the degree of left lateralization of the N170 to words, but this effect was not specific to language abilities and language lateralization. A strong correlation was observed between the degree of left lateralization for words and the degree of left lateralization for faces, and both lateralization scores correlated with Verbal and Performance IQ. Possible explanations for these results are discussed along with ERP correlates of words and faces in school-age boys. PMID:19422841

Mercure, Evelyne; Ashwin, Emma; Dick, Frederic; Halit, Hanife; Auyeung, Bonnie; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Johnson, Mark H

2009-10-01

285

Norepinephrine: Reversal of Anorexia in Rats with Lateral Hypothalamic Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injection of norepinephrine in the lateral ventricles of rats recovering from lateral hypothalamic anorexia caused immediate feeding and, frequently, overeating. Intraventricular administration of the alpha -noradrenergic blocker, phentolamine, suppressed feeding in both normal rats and rats that had recovered from lateral hypothalamic lesions. Feeding is reinforced by ascending medial forebrain bundle fibers that form alpha -noradrenergic synapses in the hypothalamus

Barry D. Berger; C. David Wise; Larry Stein

1971-01-01

286

Sex Differences in Cerebral Laterality of Language and Visuospatial Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sex differences on language and visuospatial tasks are of great interest, with differences in hemispheric laterality hypothesized to exist between males and females. Some functional imaging studies examining sex differences have shown that males are more left lateralized on language tasks and females are more right lateralized on visuospatial…

Clements, A. M.; Rimrodt, S. L.; Abel, J. R.; Blankner, J. G.; Mostofsky, S. H.; Pekar, J. J.; Denckla, M. B.; Cutting, L. E.

2006-01-01

287

Epidemiologic correlates of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

SciTech Connect

The authors evaluated 74 selected patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and 201 matched controls for risk factors for ALS by a case-control design and a sequential questionnaire/interview technique to quantitate biographic data. They analyzed occupational and recreational data only for 47 male patients and 47 corresponding patient controls; data for women were insufficient. They used nonparametric analyses to evaluate five primary comparisons of ALS patients with controls: (1) more hard physical labor, p not significant (NS); (2) greater frequency of neurodegenerative disease in family members, p NS; (3) greater exposure to lead, p less than 0.05; (4) more years lived in a rural community, p NS; and (5) more trauma or major surgery, p NS. Men with ALS had worked more frequently at blue-collar jobs (although not a statistically significant difference, p = 0.10) and at welding or soldering (p less than 0.01). These results suggest that there may be an association between ALS in men and exposure to lead vapor. The limited nature of the association favors a multifactorial etiologic mechanism of ALS.

Armon, C.; Kurland, L.T.; Daube, J.R.; O'Brien, P.C. (Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (USA))

1991-07-01

288

Early word recognition and later language skills.  

PubMed

Recent behavioral and electrophysiological evidence has highlighted the long-term importance for language skills of an early ability to recognize words in continuous speech. We here present further tests of this long-term link in the form of follow-up studies conducted with two (separate) groups of infants who had earlier participated in speech segmentation tasks. Each study extends prior follow-up tests: Study 1 by using a novel follow-up measure that taps into online processing, Study 2 by assessing language performance relationships over a longer time span than previously tested. Results of Study 1 show that brain correlates of speech segmentation ability at 10 months are positively related to 16-month-olds' target fixations in a looking-while-listening task. Results of Study 2 show that infant speech segmentation ability no longer directly predicts language profiles at the age of five. However, a meta-analysis across our results and those of similar studies (Study 3) reveals that age at follow-up does not moderate effect size. Together, the results suggest that infants' ability to recognize words in speech certainly benefits early vocabulary development; further observed relationships of later language skills to early word recognition may be consequent upon this vocabulary size effect. PMID:25347057

Junge, Caroline; Cutler, Anne

2014-01-01

289

"Neighborhoods and Disability in Later Life"  

PubMed Central

This paper uses the US Health and Retirement Study to explore linkages between neighborhood conditions and stages of the disablement process among adults ages 55 and older in the United States. We consider multiple dimensions of the neighborhood including the built environment as well as social and economic conditions. In doing so, we use factor analysis to reduce indicators into eight neighborhood scales, which we incorporate into two-level logistic regression models along with controls for individual-level factors. We find evidence that economic conditions and the built environment, but not social conditions, matter. Neighborhood economic advantage is associated with a reduced risk of lower body limitations for both men and women. We also find for men that neighborhood economic disadvantage is linked to increased chances of reporting personal care limitations, particularly for those ages 55–64, and that high connectivity of the built environment is associated with reduced risk of limitations in instrumental activities. Our findings highlight the distinctive benefits of neighborhood economic advantage early in the disablement process. In addition, findings underscore the need for attention in the design and evaluation of disability-prevention efforts to the benefits that accrue from more physically connected communities and to the potential harm that may arise in later life from living in economically disadvantaged areas. PMID:18329148

Freedman, Vicki A.; Grafova, Irina B; Schoeni, Robert F; Rogowski, Jeannette

2008-01-01

290

Aeroservoelastic tailoring for lateral control enhancement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for effective aileron power for aircraft lateral control and turning maneuvers dates back to the Wright Brothers and their wing warping concept for active stabilization of their aircraft. Early researchers in Great Britain, Japan, Germany and the United States explored ways to increase the effectiveness of control aileron to generate a roll moment. The basic problem of aileron effectiveness and the interrelationship between structural distortion and the loads applied by the control surface is illustrated. A rigid wing/aileron surface will develop the capability to generate increased roll rates as airspeed increases. A flexible surface will become less effective as airspeed increases because of the twisting distortion created by the aft-mounted control surface. This tendency is further worsened by bending distortion of an aft swept wing. This study focuses its attention on the ability of a combined effort between structural redesign of a wing and sizing and placement of a control surface to create specified roll performance with a minimum hinge moment. This design optimization problem indicates the advantages of simultaneous consideration of structural design and control design.

Weisshaar, Terrence A.; Changho, Nam

1989-01-01

291

Lateral occipitotemporal cortex and action representation.  

PubMed

Representation of body and body movements is essential for identifying others intentions or actions or for learning from them. Over the last 10 years, a large collection of research has demonstrated that body representations are distributed across a widely distributed brain network. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we focus on lateral occipitotemporal cortex (LOTC), a recently identified brain region that could represent the body in a multisensory and dynamic manner. We addressed the question of LOTC involvement in visual processing of others? actions through a factorial analysis that manipulated the meaning of an observed action, completed by a psychophysiological interaction analysis. The results show that only left LOTC was significantly activated in relation to others? actions meaning. In addition, only left LOTC was activated during both action observation and action production but it was more dorsal than the activation related to the meaning of observed actions. Furthermore, the psychophysiological interaction analysis showed that when watching meaningless actions, the more dorsal part of the LOTC (the area active during both action production and action observation) had higher functional connectivity with primary visual areas while the more ventral part (that responded to action meaning) had higher correlation with anterior cingulate and medioprefrontal cortices. Taken together these results plead in favour of a strong implication of left LOTC in action observation and understanding, with a possible functional specialisation between the more ventral and the more dorsal parts of LOTC. PMID:24467888

Romaiguère, Patricia; Nazarian, Bruno; Roth, Muriel; Anton, Jean-Luc; Felician, Olivier

2014-04-01

292

CSF markers in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, 'Lou Gehrig disease') is the most common, progressive, neurodegenerative, motor neuron disease, causing damage to upper and lower motor neurons, leading to paralysis and death within 3-5 years. Majority of ALS cases are sporadic ALS (SALS) and only 5-10 % of cases are familial ALS (FALS). Pathogenesis of ALS is complicated and still unclear, including genetic, glutamate excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, neurofilament accumulation, impaired trophic support, altered glial function, viral infection, immune imbalance and impairment of the blood-brain, blood-spinal cord and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers (BBB/BSCB/BCSFB). The CSF analysis is still one of the basic laboratory tools and might reflect pathophysiological alterations in the course of the disease and could provide an insight into disease pathomechanisms. The most important aim of its analysis is evaluation of blood-CSF barrier, which is altered in 46 % of ALS patients. The CSF biomarkers may give insight into ALS pathophysiology and may be useful for early, presymptomatic diagnosis, therapeutic monitoring and the development of new therapeutic strategies. This review summarizes the general concepts of biomarkers in CSF of ALS patients and their potential usefulness in further research. PMID:22555610

Tarasiuk, Joanna; Ku?akowska, Alina; Drozdowski, Wies?aw; Kornhuber, Johannes; Lewczuk, Piotr

2012-07-01

293

Nutrition management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurological disease with high risk of malnutrition. Symptoms of dysphagia, depression, cognitive impairment, difficulty with self-feeding and meal preparation, hypermetabolism, anxiety, respiratory insufficiency, and fatigue with meals increase the risk of malnutrition. Malnutrition negatively affects prognosis and quality of life, making early and frequent nutrition assessment and intervention essential. Implementation of an adequate calorie diet, dietary texture modification, use of adaptive eating utensils, and placement of a feeding tube aid in preventing malnutrition. When nutrition status is compromised by dysphagia and weight loss (5%-10% of usual body weight) or body mass index <20 kg/m(2) without weight loss and when forced vital capacity is >50%, a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy placement is indicated. When forced vital capacity is <50%, a radiologically inserted gastrostomy is the preferred means of enteral placement due to lessened aspiration and respiratory risk. Parenteral nutrition (PN) is indicated only when enteral nutrition (EN) is contraindicated or impossible. This article reviews the background of ALS, nutrition implications and risk of malnutrition, treatment strategies to prevent malnutrition, the role of EN and PN, and feeding tube placement methods according to disease stage. PMID:23466470

Greenwood, Daniel I

2013-06-01

294

Post-transplant adjustment - The later years.  

PubMed

As survival rates for pediatric solid organ transplantation have continued to improve, researchers and healthcare providers have increasingly focused on understanding and enhancing the HRQOL and psychosocial functioning of their patients. This manuscript reviews the psychosocial functioning of pediatric transplant recipients during the "later years," defined as more than three yr post-transplant, and focuses on the day-to-day impact of living with a transplant after the immediate period of adjustment and early years after surgery. Key topics reviewed include HRQOL, cognitive functioning, impact on the family, regimen adherence, and transition of responsibility for self-management tasks. Overall, pediatric transplant recipients evidence impairment in HRQOL, neuropsychological outcomes, and family functioning as compared to non-transplant recipients. However, the degree of impairment is influenced by a variety of factors including, disease severity, age, solid organ type, and study methodologies. Studies are limited by small samples, cross-sectional design, and the lack of universal assessment battery to allow for comparisons across solid organ populations. Areas for future research are discussed. PMID:25220845

Fredericks, Emily M; Zelikovsky, Nataliya; Aujoulat, Isabelle; Hames, Anna; Wray, Jo

2014-11-01

295

Bioenergetic markers in skin fibroblasts of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and progressive lateral sclerosis patients.  

PubMed

Energy metabolism could influence amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and progressive lateral sclerosis (PLS) pathogenesis and the response to therapy. We developed a novel assay to simultaneously assess mitochondrial content and membrane potential in patients' skin fibroblasts. In ALS and PLS fibroblasts, membrane potential was increased and mitochondrial content decreased, relative to healthy controls. In ALS higher mitochondrial membrane potential correlated with age at diagnosis, and in PLS it correlated with disease severity. These unprecedented findings in ALS and PLS fibroblasts could shed new light onto disease pathogenesis and help in developing biomarkers to predict disease evolution and the individual response to therapy in motor neuron diseases. Ann Neurol 2014;76:620-624. PMID:25090982

Kirk, Kathryne; Gennings, Chris; Hupf, Jonathan C; Tadesse, Saba; D'Aurelio, Marilena; Kawamata, Hibiki; Valsecchi, Federica; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Manfredi, Giovanni

2014-10-01

296

Laterality influences cognitive performance in rainbowfish Melanotaenia duboulayi.  

PubMed

Cerebral lateralization has been suggested to convey a selective advantage to individuals by enhancing their cognitive abilities. Few, however, have explicitly compared the cognitive ability of animals with strongly contrasting laterality. Here, we examined the influence of laterality on learning performance in the crimson spotted rainbowfish, Melanotaenia duboulayi, using a classical conditioning paradigm. We also compared the learning ability of wild caught and captive-reared fish to examine the influence of rearing environment on cognitive performance. Laterality was established by observing which eye fish preferred to use while viewing their mirror image. Subjects were then conditioned to associate the appearance of a red light with a food reward over 7 days. Our results revealed that left-lateralized fish learned the conditioning task faster than right-lateralized. These results provide further evidence that cerebral lateralization can play important roles in cognitive function which likely have diverse fitness consequences for animals in their natural environments. PMID:24531906

Bibost, Anne-Laurence; Brown, Culum

2014-09-01

297

Differential lateralization for words and faces: category or psychophysics?  

PubMed

This set of three experiments assessed the influence of different psychophysical factors on the lateralization of the N170 event-related potential (ERP) component to words and faces. In all experiments, words elicited a left-lateralized N170, whereas faces elicited a right-lateralized or nonlateralized N170 depending on presentation conditions. Experiment 1 showed that lateralization for words (but not for faces) was influenced by spatial frequency. Experiment 2 showed that stimulus presentation time influenced N170 lateralization independently of spatial frequency composition. Finally, Experiment 3 showed that stimulus size and resolution did not influence N170 lateralization, but did influence N170 amplitude, albeit differentially for words and faces. These findings suggest that differential lateralization for words and faces, at least as measured by the N170, is influenced by spatial frequency (words), stimulus presentation time, and category. PMID:18416685

Mercure, Evelyne; Dick, Frederic; Halit, Hanife; Kaufman, Jordy; Johnson, Mark H

2008-11-01

298

Measurement repeatability of late lateral energy level and lateral energy fraction.  

PubMed

Late lateral energy level (GLL) and lateral energy fraction (LF) are two room acoustics measures that have been shown to correlate with certain aspects of spatial impression in concert halls. The purpose of this study was to investigate the repeatability of GLL and LF measurements. A custom microphone stand was built that can be adjusted in each spatial dimension separately to allow for accurate and precise microphone placement. Room impulse responses (IRs) were measured at six receiver locations in a 2500-seat auditorium using two different methods to obtain the lateral energy IR: the beamformed dipole response from a spherical microphone array, and a studio-grade figure-of-eight microphone. Three sets of IR measurements were taken at each receiver location. In between sets, the microphone stand was removed and the various adjustment points were randomly repositioned. The stand was then replaced in the same position to re-measure the IRs. The variability between the measurements at each receiver location was found to be relatively low for GLL (the standard deviation ranged between 0.22 and 0.73 JNDs for the 125-1000 Hz sum), and higher for LF (the standard deviation ranged between 0.49 and 2.80 JNDs for the average over the 125-1000 Hz octave bands). [Work supported by NSF Grant 1302741.]. PMID:25235370

Dick, David A; Vigeant, Michelle C

2014-04-01

299

Functional heterogeneity of macaque lateral intraparietal neurons.  

PubMed

The macaque lateral intraparietal area (LIP) has been implicated in many cognitive processes, ranging from saccade planning and spatial attention to timing and categorization. Importantly, different research groups have used different criteria for including LIP neurons in their studies. While some research groups have selected LIP neurons based on the presence of memory-delay activity, other research groups have used other criteria such as visual, presaccadic, and/or memory activity. We recorded from LIP neurons that were selected based on spatially selective saccadic activity but regardless of memory-delay activity in macaque monkeys. To test anticipatory climbing activity, we used a delayed visually guided saccade task with a unimodal schedule of go-times, for which the conditional probability that the go-signal will occur rises monotonically as a function of time. A subpopulation of LIP neurons showed anticipatory activity that mimicked the subjective hazard rate of the go-signal when the animal was planning a saccade toward the receptive field. A large subgroup of LIP neurons, however, did not modulate their firing rates according to the subjective hazard function. These non-anticipatory neurons were strongly influenced by salient visual stimuli appearing in their receptive field, but less so by the direction of the impending saccade. Thus, LIP contains a heterogeneous population of neurons related to saccade planning or visual salience, and these neurons are spatially intermixed. Our results suggest that between-study differences in neuronal selection may have contributed significantly to the findings of different research groups with respect to the functional role of area LIP. PMID:21865473

Premereur, Elsie; Vanduffel, Wim; Janssen, Peter

2011-08-24

300

Lateral Shock of the R Aquarii Jet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The R Aqr jet was observed with the VLA B-configuration at two epochs separated by approximately 13.2 yr. Comparison of the resulting 6 cm continuum images show that the radio jet has undergone a lateral counterclockwise rotation of approximately 6 deg-12 deg on the plane of the sky. The model of jet parcels on independent trajectories is difficult to reconcile with these observations and leads us to consider a path-oriented jet (i.e., younger parcels follow the same path as older parcels). Comparison of the most recent radio image with a nearly contemporaneous HST/FOC ultraviolet image at approximately 2330 Angstroms suggests that the ultraviolet emission lies along the leading side of the rotating radio jet. In conjunction with a proper motion analysis of the jet material that yields empirical space-velocity and resulting acceleration-magnitude relationships as a function of distance from the central source, we evaluate the observational results in terms of a schematic model in which the jet emission consists of plane-parallel isothermal shocks along the leading edge of rotation. In such a radiating shock, the ultraviolet-emitting region is consistent with the adiabatic region in the form of a high-temperature, low-density sheath that surrounds the cooled postshock radio-emitting region. Within the context of the schematic model, we obtain the temperatures, densities, and pressures within the preshock, adiabatic, and postshock regions as a function of distance from the central source; the physical parameters so derived compare favorably to previously published estimates. We obtain a total jet mass of 3.1 x 10(exp -5) solar mass and an age of approximately 115 yr. We evaluate the model in the context of its density-boundary condition, its applicability to an episodic or quasi-continuous jet, and angular momentum considerations.

Hollis, J. M.; Pedelty, J. A.; Kafatos, M.

1997-01-01

301

Landing adaptations following isolated lateral meniscectomy in athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Objective functional outcomes following isolated radial lateral meniscus tears in the athlete between the ages of 14–25 are\\u000a not clearly defined. The objective of this study was to determine whether patients following lateral meniscectomy demonstrate\\u000a lower extremity asymmetries relative to control athletes 3 months after surgery. We hypothesized that following lateral meniscectomy,\\u000a athletes aged 14–25 years old would demonstrate altered landing biomechanics

Kevin R. FordStephen; Stephen J. Minning; Gregory D. Myer; Robert E. Mangine; Angelo J. Colosimo; Timothy E. Hewett

302

Modified obtuse-angled lateral exposure of the calcaneum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this study is to compare the incidence of post-operative skin healing problems between the classic extensile lateral calcaneal approach and a modified obtuse-angle lateral exposure during the period 1994–2003.Methods: The classic extensile lateral calcaneal approach as described in the literature was (used in 55 cases of calcaneal fractures), while the obtuse-angled approach (used in other 39

Tarek Hussain; Husain Al-Mutairi; Sabrine Al-Zamel; Waleed Al-Tunaib

2004-01-01

303

2. COURSE OF THE LATERAL THROUGH DEL NORTHWEST MAR PARK. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. COURSE OF THE LATERAL THROUGH DEL NORTHWEST MAR PARK. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

304

Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Former Addison County Railroad (later, Rutland Railroad, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Former Addison County Railroad (later, Rutland Railroad, Addison Branch), spanning Lemon Fair River above Richville Pond, west of East Shoreham Road, Shoreham, Addison County, VT

305

Neuromuscular Ultrasound for the Evaluation of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.  

E-print Network

??Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that causes progressive loss of motor neurons, which results in weakness, respiratory compromise, and typically death within… (more)

Cartwright, Michael Stephen

2012-01-01

306

Lateral Crack in Abrasive Wear of Brittle Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytical model for lateral cracks occurring in abrasive wear of brittle materials was developed. The stress field around the lateral crack and the stress intensity factor at the crack tip were analytically modeled. The abrasive wear by abrasive particles was experimentally studied by sliding indentation. In soda-lime glass, it was observed that chipping by the lateral crack occurred and produced the greatest material removal when the normal load applied by the sliding indenter was about 1.5-2.0N. Prediction of length of the lateral crack from the model was compared with the experimentally measured length in the soda-lime glass.

Ahn, Yoomin; Cho, Nahm-Gyoo; Lee, Seoung-Hwan; Lee, Dohyung

307

Anterior lateral meniscofemoral ligament with congenital absence of the ACL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To describe agenesis of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) with an anterior lateral meniscofemoral ligament.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and results  Case report of a 13-year-old girl with an absent ACL and with an anterior lateral meniscofemoral ligament instead, as well\\u000a as absence of the anterior insertion of the lateral meniscus in the tibia and a discoid ring-like lateral meniscus, with hypoplasia\\u000a of the

Alcindo SilvaRicardo Sampaio; Ricardo Sampaio

2011-01-01

308

Gene for a protein capable of enhancing lateral root formation.  

PubMed

Analysis of genes preferentially expressed in hairy roots caused by infection with Agrobacterium rhizogenes has provided insights into the regulation of lateral root formation. A hairy root preferential cDNA, HR7, has been cloned from hairy roots of Hyoscyamus niger. HR7 encodes a novel protein partially homologous to a metallocarboxypeptidase inhibitor and is expressed exclusively in the primordium and base of lateral roots in hairy roots. Overexpression of HR7 in transgenic roots of H. niger dramatically enhances the frequency of lateral root formation. The results of this study indicate that expression of HR7 plays a critical role in initiating lateral root formation. PMID:10356981

Mikami, Y; Horiike, G; Kuroyanagi, M; Noguchi, H; Shimizu, M; Niwa, Y; Kobayashi, H

1999-05-14

309

FILM OPTION CURRICULUM (FOR STUDENTS ENTERING FALL, 2011 OR LATER)  

E-print Network

FILM OPTION CURRICULUM (FOR STUDENTS ENTERING FALL, 2011 OR LATER) NOTE ON REVERSE. GATE REQUIREMENTS FOR FILM OPTION: FILM 100IH ­ Introduction to Film & Photography ...................................................................... 3

Lawrence, Rick L.

310

Lateral Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction Using a Quadriceps Tendon Graft  

PubMed Central

Medial patellar subluxation (MPS) is normally described after a lateral retinacular release. However, isolated MPS in the absence of a previous lateral release does occur. This type of patellar instability is often overlooked, and a high index of suspicion is needed for appropriate diagnosis and treatment. This report describes a technique developed in response to episodes of isolated MPS. The technique uses a partial-thickness graft from the quadriceps tendon to reconstruct the lateral patellofemoral ligament and provide stability to the lateral side of the patella.

Saper, Michael G.; Shneider, David A.

2014-01-01

311

Lateral pedicle control during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: Refined technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo report a technique of lateral pedicle control during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy that completely eliminates any form of electrocautery, ultrasonic thermal energy, clips, or bioadhesives.

Inderbir S. Gill; Osamu Ukimura; Mauricio Rubinstein; Antonio Finelli; Alireza Moinzadeh; Dinesh Singh; Jihad Kaouk; Tsuneharu Miki; Mihir Desai

2005-01-01

312

Laterality of a second player position affects lateral deviation of basketball shooting.  

PubMed

Asymmetrically placed visual distractors are known to cause a lateral bias in the execution of a movement directed toward a target. The aim of the present experiment was to verify if the trajectory of the ball and the trajectory of the jump for a basket-shot can be affected by the sole position of a second player, who stays in front of the shooting player in one of three possible positions (centre, left or right) but too far to physically interfere with the shot. Young basketball players were asked to perform 60 shots at 6.25 m from a regular basket, with or without a second player staying in front of them in, alternately, a centre, left or right position. A computerised system measured the angular deviation of the jump direction from the vertical direction and the lateral deviation of the ball trajectory from the midline. The results showed that both the jump direction and the entry position of the ball deviated toward the opposite side from the second player's side; however, these effects were too small to significantly affect the mean goal percentage. This result confirms that some placements of the players can have an effect as visual distractors. Further studies are necessary to find what game conditions can make such distractors harmful for the athletic performance. PMID:23876006

Viggiano, Andrea; Chieffi, Sergio; Tafuri, Domenico; Messina, Giovanni; Monda, Marcellino; De Luca, Bruno

2014-01-01

313

Structural imaging differences and longitudinal changes in primary lateral sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance imaging measures have been proposed as objective markers to study upper motor neuron loss in motor neuron disorders. Cross-sectional studies have identified imaging differences between groups of healthy controls and patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) that correlate with disease severity, but it is not known whether imaging measures change as disease progresses. Additionally, whether imaging measures change in a similar fashion with disease progression in PLS and ALS is unclear. To address these questions, clinical and imaging evaluations were first carried out in a prospective cross-sectional study of 23 ALS and 22 PLS patients with similar motor impairment and 19 age-matched healthy controls. Clinical evaluations consisted of a neurological examination, the ALS Functional rating scale-revised, and measures of finger tapping, gait, and timed speech. Age and ALSFRS score were not different, but PLS patients had longer duration of symptoms. Imaging measures examined were cortical thickness, regional brain volumes, and diffusion tensor imaging of the corticospinal tract and callosum. Imaging measures that differed from controls in a cross-sectional vertex-wise analysis were used as regions of interest for longitudinal analysis, which was carried out in 9 of the ALS patients (interval 1.26 ± 0.72 years) and 12 PLS patients (interval 2.08 ± 0.93 years). In the cross-sectional study both groups had areas of cortical thinning, which was more extensive in motor regions in PLS patients. At follow-up, clinical measures declined more in ALS than PLS patients. Cortical thinning and grey matter volume loss of the precentral gyri progressed over the follow-up interval. Fractional anisotropy of the corticospinal tracts remained stable, but the cross-sectional area declined in ALS patients. Changes in clinical measures correlated with changes in precentral cortical thickness and grey matter volume. The rate of cortical thinning was greater in ALS patients with shorter disease durations, suggesting that thickness decreases in a non-linear fashion. Thus, cortical thickness changes are a potential imaging marker for disease progression in individual patients, but the magnitude of change likely depends on disease duration and progression rate. Differences between PLS and ALS patients in the magnitude of thinning in cross-sectional studies are likely to reflect longer disease duration. We conclude that there is an evolution of structural imaging changes with disease progression in motor neuron disorders. Some changes, such as diffusion properties of the corticospinal tract, occur early while cortical thinning and volume loss occur later. PMID:24179768

Kwan, Justin Y.; Meoded, Avner; Danielian, Laura E.; Wu, Tianxia; Floeter, Mary Kay

2012-01-01

314

Lateralization of magnetic compass orientation in a migratory bird  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateralization of brain functions, once believed to be a human characteristic, has now been found to be widespread among vertebrates. In birds, asymmetries of visual functions are well studied, with each hemisphere being specialized for different tasks. Here we report lateralized functions of the birds' visual system associated with magnetoperception, resulting in an extreme asymmetry of sensing the direction of

Wolfgang Wiltschko; Joachim Traudt; Onur Güntürkün; Helmut Prior; Roswitha Wiltschko

2002-01-01

315

High Performance Lateral Schottky Collector Bipolar Transistors on SOI  

E-print Network

High Performance Lateral Schottky Collector Bipolar Transistors on SOI for VLSI Applications that the thesis entitled "High Performance Lateral Schottky Collector Bipolar Transistors on SOI for VLSI bipolar transistors play a vital role in RF/Microwave applications. But they need to satisfy stringent

Kumar, M. Jagadesh

316

Semiconductor Lateral Surface Superlattice Devices Fabricated by Electron Beam Lithography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of nanofabrication technology has led to the fabrication of ultra-small semiconductor devices and structures with lateral dimensions down to tens of nanometers. In this dissertation research, experimental studies on a more complicated nanostructure, the semiconductor lateral surface superlattice (LSSL), in which novel quantum interference effects are observable due to the small feature sizes of the device, have been

Jun Ma

1990-01-01

317

GaAs MESFET with lateral non-uniform doping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical model of the GaAs MESFET with arbitrary non-uniform doping is presented. Numerical results for linear lateral doping profile are given as a special case. Theoretical considerations predict that better device linearity and improved F(T) can be obtained by using linear lateral doping when doping density increases from source to drain.

Wang, Y. C.; Bahrami, M.

1983-01-01

318

Non-spatially lateralized mechanisms in hemispatial neglect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemispatial neglect is a common, disabling disorder that results from brain damage, most frequently stroke. Research on patients with neglect has provided important insights into normal brain mechanisms involved in directing attention, representing space and controlling movement. Although much work has focused on the lateralized components of neglect, recent investigations have also revealed deficits that are not spatially lateralized, consistent

Masud Husain; Chris Rorden

2003-01-01

319

CEE 812 Structural Engineering Seminar Series Approximate Lateral Analysis  

E-print Network

of analysis and design of steel moment frame structures under lateral load and defining a quick analysisCEE 812 ­ Structural Engineering Seminar Series Approximate Lateral Analysis of Steel Moment analysis also will be compared with results from a RISA model of a moment frame system. BIO: John Mc

Kamat, Vineet R.

320

Lateral asymmetry of eye use in Octopus vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lateralization of sensory and motor functions has been recently demonstrated in various groups of vertebrates. We examined lateral asymmetry of eye use in Octopus vulgaris by behavioural methods. Octopus vulgaris uses monocular vision almost exclusively and can move its eyes independently. The amount of binocular vision is small because the eyes are on the sides of the head. We

Ruth A. Byrne; Michael Kuba; Ulrike Griebel

2002-01-01

321

Sensory systems in sawfishes. 2. The lateral line.  

PubMed

The lateral line system allows elasmobranchs to detect hydrodynamic movements in their close surroundings. We examined the distribution of pit organs and lateral line canals in 4 species of sawfish (Anoxypristis cuspidata, Pristis microdon, P. clavata and P. zijsron). Pit organs could only be located in A. cuspidata, which possesses elongated pits that are lined by dermal denticles. In all 4 pristid species, the lateral line canals are well developed and were separated into regions of pored and non-pored canals. In all species the tubules that extend from pored canals form extensive networks. In A. cuspidata, P. microdon and P. clavata, the lateral line canals on both the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the rostrum possess extensively branched and pored tubules. Based on this morphological observation, we hypothesized that these 3 species do not use their rostrum to search in the substrate for prey as previously assumed. Other batoids that possess lateral line canals adapted to perceive stimuli produced by infaunal prey possess non-pored lateral line canals, which also prevent the intrusion of substrate particles. However, this hypothesis remains to be tested behaviourally in pristids. Lateral line canals located between the mouth and the nostrils are non-pored in all 4 species of sawfish. Thus this region is hypothesized to perceive stimuli caused by direct contact with prey before ingestion. Lateral line canals that contain neuromasts are longest in P. microdon, but canals containing neuromasts along the rostrum are longest in A. cuspidata. PMID:21829005

Wueringer, B E; Peverell, S C; Seymour, J; Squire, L; Collin, S P

2011-01-01

322

1 INTRODUCTION Lateral spreading of sloping liquefiable deposits has  

E-print Network

to settlement, e.g. deformation of dams or embankments. - Damage due to lateral movement of soil past foundations or pipelines. In this paper, the second mechanism of damage will be discussed with specific reference to lateral spreading past pile foundations. To illustrate the damage that may be caused to pile

Haigh, Stuart

323

Geschwind's Theory of Cerebral Lateralization: Developing a Formal, Causal Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geschwind and Galaburda (1987) have proposed a complex and influential model of cerebral lateralization that is based on the argument that increased fetal testosterone levels modify neural development, immune development, and neural crest development. The theory can explain many aspects of cerebral lateralization and its relation to learning disorders, giftedness, and immune deficits. This article clarifies the structure of the

I. C. McManus; M. P. Bryden

1991-01-01

324

Modelling vertical and lateral seed bank movements during mouldboard ploughing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vertical distribution of weed seeds in the soil is of fundamental importance because seedling emergence depends on seed depth. The lateral displacement of the earth during mouldboard ploughing contributes to the dispersal of the weeds inside the tilled field. In order to model vertical and lateral seed displacements during ploughing, an existing model describing soil particle movements for different

Nathalie Colbach; Jean Roger-Estrade; Bruno Chauvel; Jacques Caneill

2000-01-01

325

Development of lateral flow membranes for immunoassay separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lateral flow nitrocellulose membrane is one of the commonly used separation media for bacteria detection in drinking water treatment facilities. In order to enhance its performance, control of the membrane surface and cross-section morphology is primarily important. The challenge of this study is to combine various formulations and casting variables to obtain lateral flow nitrocellulose membranes with the desired

A. L. Ahmad; S. C. Low; S. R. Abd Shukor; A. Ismail; A. R. Sunarti

2009-01-01

326

Race and Gender Differences in Cognitive Laterality: Implications for Leadership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Replicating research completed in 1986, a study determined the relationship among cognitive laterality, gender, and reading comprehension for African-American students, as well as gender differences in cognitive laterality and in reading comprehension. Subjects, 40 African-American males, 41 African-American females, 12 White males, and 17 White…

Wesson, Linda Hampton; Holman, David

327

Lateral crystallization of silicon films using Joule heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report lateral crystalline grain growth of silicon thin films by a combination of the crystallization by the electrical current induced Joule heating method with rapid substrate heating. A Cr strip was heated by electrical current induced joule heating. Due to heat diffusion from the Cr heater, a temperature gradient was formed in the lateral direction of the silicon films.

Nobuyuki Andoh; Toshiyuki Sameshima

2003-01-01

328

SHORT COMMUNICATION Adaptive eukaryote-to-eukaryote lateral gene transfer  

E-print Network

: endosymbiotic gene transfer (EGT) and lateral or horizontal gene transfer (LGT or HGT). The transfer of genesSHORT COMMUNICATION Adaptive eukaryote-to-eukaryote lateral gene transfer: stress-related genes, gene duplication and recombination, the transfer of genetic material between unrelated species is now

Nedelcu, Aurora M.

329

The Criminal Histories and Later Offending of Child Pornography Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The likelihood that child pornography offenders will later commit a contact sexual offense is unknown. In the present study, we identified a sample of 201 adult male child pornography offenders using police databases and examined their charges or convictions after the index child pornography offense(s). We also examined their criminal records to identify potential predictors of later offenses: 56% of

Michael C. Seto; Angela W. Eke

2005-01-01

330

ARTIFICIAL LATERAL LINE SYSTEMS FOR FEEDBACK CONTROL OF UNDERWATER ROBOTS  

E-print Network

and vehicles by exploiting the inherent sensing capability of ionic polymermetal composites (IPMCs). Analogous to its biological counterpart, the IPMC-based lateral line processes #12;the sensor signals through algorithms with an artificial lateral line prototype made of millimeter-scale IPMC sensors, with sensor

Tan, Xiaobo

331

Orienting asymmetries and lateralized processing of sounds in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Lateralized processing of speech is a well studied phenomenon in humans. Both anatomical and neurophysiological studies support the view that nonhuman primates and other animal species also reveal hemispheric differences in areas involved in sound processing. In recent years, an increasing number of studies on a range of taxa have employed an orienting paradigm to investigate lateralized acoustic processing.

Julia Fischer; Christoph Teufel; Matthis Drolet; Annika Patzelt; Rudolf Rübsamen; D Yves von Cramon; Ricarda I Schubotz

2009-01-01

332

Otitis Media in Early Childhood and Later Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between early otitis media with effusion (OME) and later language development was examined in a prospective cohort of 30 children from middle class families and 33 children from low income families. Findings suggested no reliable relationship between early OME experience and later language development. (Author/DB)

Roberts, Joanne E.; And Others

1991-01-01

333

IQ, Fetal Testosterone and Individual Variability in Children's Functional Lateralization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies have revealed that faces and words show a robust difference in the lateralization of their N170. The present study investigated the development of this differential lateralization in school-age boys. We assessed the potential role of fetal testosterone (FT) level as a factor biasing the prenatal…

Mercure, Evelyne; Ashwin, Emma; Dick, Frederic; Halit, Hanife; Auyeung, Bonnie; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Johnson, Mark H.

2009-01-01

334

The development of lateral line placodes: taking a broader view.  

PubMed

The lateral line system of anamniote vertebrates enables the detection of local water movement and weak bioelectric fields. Ancestrally, it comprises neuromasts - small sense organs containing mechanosensory hair cells - distributed in characteristic lines over the head and trunk, flanked on the head by fields of electroreceptive ampullary organs, innervated by afferent neurons projecting respectively to the medial and dorsal octavolateral nuclei in the hindbrain. Given the independent loss of the electrosensory system in multiple lineages, the development and evolution of the mechanosensory and electrosensory components of the lateral line must be dissociable. Nevertheless, the entire system arises from a series of cranial lateral line placodes, which exhibit two modes of sensory organ formation: elongation to form sensory ridges that fragment (with neuromasts differentiating in the center of the ridge, and ampullary organs on the flanks), or migration as collectives of cells, depositing sense organs in their wake. Intensive study of the migrating posterior lateral line placode in zebrafish has yielded a wealth of information concerning the molecular control of migration and neuromast formation in this migrating placode, in this cypriniform teleost species. However, our mechanistic understanding of neuromast and ampullary organ formation by elongating lateral line placodes, and even of other zebrafish lateral line placodes, is sparse or non-existent. Here, we attempt to highlight the diversity of lateral line development and the limits of the current research focus on the zebrafish posterior lateral line placode. We hope this will stimulate a broader approach to this fascinating sensory system. PMID:24582732

Piotrowski, Tatjana; Baker, Clare V H

2014-05-01

335

Early teaching of Chinese literacy skills and later literacy outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study followed 88 children in Beijing and Hong Kong for three years to investigate the relationships between the early teaching of literacy skills and later literacy outcomes. The children were administered the Preschool and Primary Chinese Literacy Scale at the age of five years, and three years later. Their parents and teachers reported on their involvement in literacy teaching,

Hui Li; Loraine F. Corrie; Betty Kit Mei Wong

2008-01-01

336

Left-Handedness and Language Lateralization in Children  

PubMed Central

This fMRI study investigated the development of language lateralization in left- and right-handed children between 5 and 18 years of age. Twenty-seven left-handed children (17 boys, 10 girls) and 54 age- and gender-matched right-handed children were included. We used functional MRI at 3T and a verb generation task to measure hemispheric language dominance based on either frontal or temporo-parietal regions of interest (ROIs) defined for the entire group and applied on an individual basis. Based on the frontal ROI, in the left-handed group, 23 participants (85%) demonstrated left-hemispheric language lateralization, 3 (11%) demonstrated symmetric activation, and 1 (4%) demonstrated right-hemispheric lateralization. In contrast, 50 (93%) of the right-handed children showed left-hemisphere lateralization and 3 (6%) demonstrated a symmetric activation pattern, while one (2%) demonstrated a right- hemisphere lateralization. The corresponding values for the temporo-parietal ROI for the left-handed children were 18 (67%) left-dominant, 6 (22%) symmetric, 3 (11%) right-dominant and for the right-handed children 49 (91%), 4 (7%), 1 (2%). Left-hemispheric language lateralization increased with age in both groups but somewhat different lateralization trajectories were observed in girls when compared to boys. The incidence of atypical language lateralization in left-handed children in this study was similar to that reported in adults. We also found similar rates of increase in left-hemispheric language lateralization with age between groups (i.e., independent of handedness) indicating the presence of similar mechanisms for language lateralization in left- and right-handed children. PMID:22177775

Szaflarski, Jerzy P.; Rajagopal, Akila; Altaye, Mekibib; Byars, Anna W.; Jacola, Lisa; Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Schapiro, Mark B.; Plante, Elena; Holland, Scott K.

2011-01-01

337

Lateralized agonistic responses and hindlimb use in toads.  

PubMed

The recent discovery of forepaw preferences (handedness) in toad species has provided some insight into the evolution of brain lateralization. We tested the prediction that, as in higher vertebrates, visual lateralization and other motor preferences (footedness) also exists in toad species. During feeding periods, South American cane toads, Bufo marinus, showed a population bias to strike with the tongue at other toads occupying their left visual field. This is the first demonstration of lateralized visual behaviour in an amphibian species. Tongue striking at an individual's eyes or head may sometimes delay its approach to prey already seen by the attacker, or may dislodge prey from its mouth. In addition, we report hindlimb preferences (footedness) for contact righting in three species of toad (B. marinus, the European green toad, B. viridis, and the European common toad, B. bufo). After being fully overturned on to their back on a horizontal surface, toads initiated and completed righting using the hindlimbs and with only perfunctory use of the forepaws. Together, the findings of visual lateralization and footedness demonstrate that in toads, as in higher vertebrates, behavioural lateralization is not restricted to handedness. The hypothesis that lateralized brain functions in birds and mammals might have arisen from a common lateralized ancestor is therefore supported. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9790698

Robins; Lippolis; Bisazza; Vallortigara; Rogers

1998-10-01

338

Lateral confinement in quantum nanostructures: Self-consistent screening potentials  

SciTech Connect

Self-consistent lateral confining potentials and carrier density functions are computed for quantum nanostructures utilizing a finite-temperature Thomas--Fermi approximation for the conduction electrons and the assumption of a uniform background of donor charges. The formation of the confining potential is the result of a nonlinear, electrostatic screening process which is determined by the Fermi level pinning properties of the lateral surfaces, the doping level, and the lateral dimensions. We find that the ability to populate nanostructures with carriers depends sensitively upon the details of the system.

Luscombe, J.H. (Central Research Laboratories, Texas Instruments, Inc., Dallas, Texas 75265 (USA)); Luban, M. (Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA (USA) Department of Physics, Iowa State University, Ames, IA (USA))

1990-07-02

339

Lateral confinement in quantum nanostructures: Self-consistent screening potentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-consistent lateral confining potentials and carrier density functions are computed for quantum nanostructures utilizing a finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi approximation for the conduction electrons and the assumption of a uniform background of donor charges. The formation of the confining potential is the result of a nonlinear, electrostatic screening process which is determined by the Fermi level pinning properties of the lateral surfaces, the doping level, and the lateral dimensions. We find that the ability to populate nanostructures with carriers depends sensitively upon the details of the system.

Luscombe, James H.; Luban, Marshall

1990-07-01

340

Building the posterior lateral line system in zebrafish  

PubMed Central

The posterior lateral line in zebrafish has emerged as an excellent system to study how a sensory organ system develops. Here we review recent studies that illustrate how interactions between multiple signaling pathways coordinate cell fate, morphogenesis and collective migration of cells in the posterior lateral line primordium. These studies also illustrate how the posterior lateral line system is contributing much more broadly to our understanding of mechanisms operating during the growth, regeneration and self-organization of other organ systems during development and disease. PMID:21818862

Chitnis, Ajay B; Nogare, Damian Dalle; Matsuda, Miho

2012-01-01

341

Lateral thinkers are not so laterally minded: hemispheric asymmetry, interaction, and creativity.  

PubMed

The biological basis of creativity remains a topic of contention. A long-held view suggests that whereas the left hemisphere is intelligent and analytic, the right hemisphere is the source of all creativity. Consequently, activating the right hemisphere should enhance creative thinking, prompting a plethora of popular books hawking a right hemisphere solution to topics ranging from drawing, to money management, to sex. More recently, an alternate proposal has suggested that creativity is not a lateralised function; instead, creativity is argued to stem from the interaction and integration of information across both the left and right hemispheres. According to this view, individuals with greater interhemispheric communication and/or less-lateralised brains will evidence enhanced creative ability. This paper reviews the neural basis of creativity to determine whether creativity stems from activation of the right hemisphere, or from the interaction of both hemispheres. The relationship between creativity and psychopathology is also examined, evaluating the evidence for a causal link between disorders such as schizophrenia, hemispheric activation, and enhanced creativity. Although the research reviewed indicates greater right hemisphere activity during creative tasks, the interaction between many varied, often distant, cortical regions across both the left and right hemispheres is also a crucial component of creativity. This interaction facilitates the integration of a variety of separate cognitive abilities, fostering creative thinking. As such, creativity is better conceptualised as a distributed, rather than a purely lateralised, function; more lateral thinkers have less lateralised brains. PMID:21140315

Lindell, Annukka K

2011-07-01

342

45 CFR 602.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS After-the-Grant Requirements § 602.51 Later...

2011-10-01

343

45 CFR 602.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS After-the-Grant Requirements § 602.51 Later...

2010-10-01

344

45 CFR 602.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS After-the-Grant Requirements § 602.51 Later...

2013-10-01

345

45 CFR 602.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS After-the-Grant Requirements § 602.51 Later...

2012-10-01

346

11. VIEW OF SOUTH BRIDGE PIER, BOTTOM LATERAL BRACING, LOWER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. VIEW OF SOUTH BRIDGE PIER, BOTTOM LATERAL BRACING, LOWER CHORD, STRINGERS, END POST AND BEARING SEAT; FACING SOUTHEAST. - Walker Bridge, Spanning Klamath River and connecting Highway 96 and Walker Road, Klamath River, Siskiyou County, CA

347

Decades Later, Chernobyl Accident Yields Clues to Leukemia Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... Report Decades Later, Chernobyl Accident Yields Clues to Leukemia Risk Studies of cleanup workers from the Chernobyl ... a link between ionizing radiation and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (Photo courtesy of Dr. Victor Kryuchkov, Burnazyan Federal ...

348

Performance analysis for lateral-line-inspired sensor arrays  

E-print Network

The lateral line is a critical component of the fish sensory system, found to affect numerous aspects of behavior including maneuvering in complex fluid environments, schooling, prey tracking, and environment mapping. This ...

Fernandez, Vicente I

2011-01-01

349

Being surveyed can change later behavior and related parameter estimates  

E-print Network

Does completing a household survey change the later behavior of those surveyed? In three field studies of health and two of microlending, we randomly assigned subjects to be surveyed about health and/or household finances ...

Zwane, Alix Peterson

350

Itch Is Required for Lateral Line Development in Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

The zebrafish posterior lateral line is formed during early development by the deposition of neuromasts from a migrating primordium. The molecular mechanisms regulating the regional organization and migration of the primordium involve interactions between Fgf and Wnt/-catenin signaling and the establishment of specific cxcr4b and cxcr7b cytokine receptor expression domains. Itch has been identified as a regulator in several different signaling pathways, including Wnt and Cxcr4 signaling. We identified two homologous itch genes in zebrafish, itcha and itchb, with generalized expression patterns. By reducing itchb expression in particular upon morpholino knockdown, we demonstrated the importance of Itch in regulating lateral line development by perturbing the patterns of cxcr4b and cxcr7b expression. Itch knockdown results in a failure to down-regulate Wnt signaling and overexpression of cxcr4b in the primordium, slowing migration of the posterior lateral line primordium and resulting in abnormal development of the lateral line. PMID:25369329

Angers, Annie; Drapeau, Pierre

2014-01-01

351

6. VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING TOP LATERAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING TOP LATERAL BRACING, MAIN TIE AND COUNTERS, SWAY STRUTS AND BRACING, AND INTERMEDIATE POSTS - Hart County Bridge, State Route 181, spanning Savannah River, Hartwell, Hart County, GA

352

Lateral-Pressure Profiles in Cholesterol-DPPC Bilayers  

E-print Network

By means of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, we study cholesterol-DPPC (dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine) bilayers of different composition, from pure DPPC bilayers to a 1:1 mixture of DPPC and cholesterol. The lateral-pressure profiles through the bilayers are computed and separated into contributions from the different components. We find that the pressure inside the bilayer changes qualitatively for cholesterol concentrations of about 20% or higher. The pressure profile then turns from a rather flat shape into an alternating sequence of regions with large positive and negative lateral pressure. The changes in the lateral-pressure profile are so characteristic that specific interaction between cholesterol and molecules such as membrane proteins mediated solely via the lateral-pressure profile might become possible.

Michael Patra

2005-04-05

353

Brain Function Lateralization and Language Acquisition: the Evidence from Japanese.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents evidence of differences in brain function lateralization between Japanese-speakers and speakers of Indo-European languages, and suggests that current conceptualizations of brain function specialization are not adequate. (AM)

Sanches, Mary

1979-01-01

354

Behavioural laterality as a factor in emotional regulation.  

PubMed

Individuals who perform a variety of tasks using one side of their bodies (i.e., high-dominance people) are thought to differ from individuals who perform a variety of tasks with both sides of their body (i.e., low-dominance people) in several neurological and cognitive characteristics. We examined whether behavioural laterality predicted the efficacy of different emotional regulation strategies. Specifically, we thought that behavioural laterality would influence verbal strategies (associated with left hemisphere activation) when regulating anxiety (associated with right hemisphere activation). In three studies participants presented in front of small audiences. Behavioural laterality (as measured by a modified handedness inventory) positively correlated with presentation anxiety, such that "low-dominance" participants reported less anxiety than "high-dominance" participants, but only when using cognitive reappraisal (a verbal strategy), not attention deployment or response modulation (behavioural strategies). These results provide preliminary evidence that individual differences in behavioural laterality mediate the efficacy of certain emotional regulation strategies. PMID:23678889

Rempala, Daniel M

2014-01-01

355

18. LOWER LATERAL SUPPORT DETAIL, HAND RAIL DETAILS, CAST STEEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. LOWER LATERAL SUPPORT DETAIL, HAND RAIL DETAILS, CAST STEEL SHOE CONNECTIONS, AND HALF SECTIONS OF CONCRETE APPROACH SPANS - Jensen Bridge, Spanning Green River at Town of Jensen, Jensen, Uintah County, UT

356

Electron tunneling and spin relaxation in a lateral quantum dot  

E-print Network

We report measurements that use real-time charge sensing to probe a single-electron lateral quantum dot. The charge sensor is a quantum point contact (QPC) adjacent to the dot and the sensitivity is comparable to other ...

Amasha, Sami

2008-01-01

357

Development of novel diagnostics and therapeutics for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

E-print Network

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease with diagnostics and treatments that are ineffective at stopping the progression. This thesis examines new ways of both diagnosing and treating ALS, including ...

Townsend, Seth A. (Seth Alan)

2008-01-01

358

Distant touch hydrodynamic imaging with an artificial lateral line  

PubMed Central

Nearly all underwater vehicles and surface ships today use sonar and vision for imaging and navigation. However, sonar and vision systems face various limitations, e.g., sonar blind zones, dark or murky environments, etc. Evolved over millions of years, fish use the lateral line, a distributed linear array of flow sensing organs, for underwater hydrodynamic imaging and information extraction. We demonstrate here a proof-of-concept artificial lateral line system. It enables a distant touch hydrodynamic imaging capability to critically augment sonar and vision systems. We show that the artificial lateral line can successfully perform dipole source localization and hydrodynamic wake detection. The development of the artificial lateral line is aimed at fundamentally enhancing human ability to detect, navigate, and survive in the underwater environment. PMID:17132735

Yang, Yingchen; Chen, Jack; Engel, Jonathan; Pandya, Saunvit; Chen, Nannan; Tucker, Craig; Coombs, Sheryl; Jones, Douglas L.; Liu, Chang

2006-01-01

359

Lateral incorporation of vacancies in Czochralski silicon crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon crystals grown by the Czochralski process typically contain many structural imperfections termed microdefects. The formation of microdefects requires an abundance of one of the intrinsic point defect species of silicon, vacancies or self-interstitials. The distribution of microdefects in a growing Czochralski crystal is influenced by its temperature field and the boundary conditions defined by its surfaces. This paper addresses the effects of the lateral surface on the defect dynamics in a growing crystal in which both the intrinsic point defect species are in comparable and low concentrations, away from the lateral surface, at higher temperatures near the melt/crystal interface. Under such conditions, a moderate vacancy supersaturation develops in the vicinity of the lateral surface leading to the formation of oxygen clusters and small voids, at lower temperatures. The vacancy incorporation near the lateral surface is driven by an interplay among the Frenkel reaction, the diffusion of the intrinsic point defects, and their convection.

Kulkarni, Milind S.

2008-06-01

360

9. VIEW OF LATERAL GATE ON CANAL NEAR DAM, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF LATERAL GATE ON CANAL NEAR DAM, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Twin Pots Dam, Ashley National Forest, 10.1 miles North of Mountain Home, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

361

Astronomy & Astrophysics manuscript no. (will be inserted by hand later)  

E-print Network

Astronomy & Astrophysics manuscript no. (will be inserted by hand later) The chemistry of multiply abundances of gas-phase NH 3 , CH 3 OH, H 2 CO and H 2 S (among others) are observed in warmer regions around

Millar, Tom

362

Directional sensitivity of velocity sense in lateral trunk flexion  

E-print Network

motion were examined during paraspinal muscle vibration. Seventeen healthy subjects performed lateral trunk flexion movements while lying prone with pelvis fixed. A 44.5 Hz vibratory stimulus was applied to the paraspinal muscles at the L3 level...

Soltys, Joseph S.; Wilson, Sara E.

2008-01-04

363

Lateral Casimir force between deeply corrugated dielectric and metallic plates  

E-print Network

We study the lateral Casimir force between corrugated dielectric plates. We use the dielectric contrast perturbation theory [R. Golestanian, {\\it Phys. Rev. Lett.} {\\bf 95}, 230601, (2005)], which allows us to consider arbitrary deformations with large amplitudes. We consider sinusoidal, rectangular, and sawtooth corrugations, for samples made of silicon and gold. We use the plasma and Drude-Lorentz models for the permittivity of gold and silicon, respectively. For these geometries and materials, the lateral Casimir force is {\\it not} a sinusoidal function of the relative lateral displacement of plates when the gap between the plates in comparable with the depth of the corrugations. Our results facilitate the design of miniaturized devices based on lateral Casimir forces.

Arash Azari; MirFaez Miri

2014-09-16

364

13. DETAIL, LATERAL BRACING FOR INTERIOR OVERHEAD CRANE Delaware, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. DETAIL, LATERAL BRACING FOR INTERIOR OVERHEAD CRANE - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

365

Lateral confinement in quantum nanostructures: Self-consistent screening potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-consistent lateral confining potentials and carrier density functions are computed for quantum nanostructures utilizing a finite-temperature Thomas–Fermi approximation for the conduction electrons and the assumption of a uniform background of donor charges. The formation of the confining potential is the result of a nonlinear, electrostatic screening process which is determined by the Fermi level pinning properties of the lateral surfaces,

James H. Luscombe; Marshall Luban

1990-01-01

366

Lateral approach to laparoscopic repair of left diaphragmatic ruptures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video-assisted repairs of traumatic diaphragmatic ruptures have been described where thoracoscopy or laparoscopy in the supine\\u000a position were used. This study aims to validate a new lateral laparoscopic approach for left diaphragmatic repairs. Six consecutive\\u000a patients were operated on for left diaphragmatic rupture using a lateral approach (Gagner’s position). A series of 362 consecutive\\u000a patients presenting with abdominal or thoracic

Pierre Goudet; Nicolas Cheynel; Loïc Ferrand; Frédérique Peschaud; Jean-Philippe Steinmetz; Bernard Letourneau; Jean-Paul Isnardon; Marie-Thérèse Noirot; Laurencia Poli; Marc Freysz; Patrick Cougard

2001-01-01

367

Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children: Five Years Later  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children (SET-C) is a comprehensive behavioral treatment combining social skills training, peer generalization experiences, and individualized in vivo exposure for the treatment of social phobia in youth. SET-C results in positive treatment outcome and its effects are maintained at least 3 years later. In this investigation, maintenance of treatment gains 3, 4, and 5 years later was examined

Deborah C. Beidel; Samuel M. Turner; Brennan J. Young

2006-01-01

368

Socially dependent auditory laterality in domestic horses ( Equus caballus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laterality is now known to be an ubiquitous phenomenon among the vertebrates. Particularly, laterality of auditory processing\\u000a has been demonstrated in a variety of species, especially songbirds and primates. Such a hemispheric specialization has been\\u000a shown to depend on factors such as sound structure, species specificity and types of stimuli. Much less is known on the possible\\u000a influence of social

Muriel Basile; Sarah Boivin; Anaïs Boutin; Catherine Blois-Heulin; Martine Hausberger; Alban Lemasson

2009-01-01

369

Electron Transport Through Laterally Coupled Double Quantum Dots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study electron transport through laterally coupled double quantum dots. We introduce the coupling parameter ?, which characterizes the strength of the coupling via the reservoirs between quantum dots. We find that the visibility decreases as |?| increases. We also examine the pseudo-spin Kondo effect in the laterally coupled double quantum dots. The differential conductance shows the additional structure in the spilt peak by the inter-dot tunnel coupling due to the asymmetry of the spectral density of states.

Kubo, T.; Tokura, Y.; Hatano, T.; Tarucha, S.

2008-10-01

370

Released micromachined beams utilizing laterally uniform porosity porous silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suspended micromachined porous silicon beams with laterally uniform porosity are reported, which have been fabricated using standard photolithography processes designed for compatibility with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) processes. Anodization, annealing, reactive ion etching, repeated photolithography, lift off and electropolishing processes were used to release patterned porous silicon microbeams on a Si substrate. This is the first time that micromachined, suspended PS microbeams have been demonstrated with laterally uniform porosity, well-defined anchors and flat surfaces.

Sun, Xiao; Keating, Adrian; Parish, Giacinta

2014-08-01

371

Endoscopic Repair of Lateral Sphenoid Recess Cerebrospinal Fluid Leaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endoscopic repair of anterior cranial base has been widely reported. However there is still no uniformity in the technique\\u000a of endoscopic repair of lateral sphenoid cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks. To highlight the management of CSF leak or encephalocele\\u000a in the lateral sphenoid recess and relate our experiences. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all our patients\\u000a who underwent an

Milind V. Kirtane; Abhineet Lall; Kashmira Chavan; Dhruv Satwalekar

372

Optical modeling of laterally-corrugated ridge-waveguide gratings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents some model improvements for the optical simulation of laterally-corrugated ridge-waveguide distributed\\u000a feedback lasers. Simulation results are discussed and design principles for achieving single-longitudinal-mode operation are\\u000a outlined. The effects of the laterally-corrugated ridge geometry both on the coupling coefficient and on the Bragg wavelength\\u000a of different transverse modes are presented. The improved modeling has been used to design

Antti Laakso; Mihail Dumitrescu; Jukka Viheriälä; Jukka Karinen; Mikko Suominen; Markus Pessa

2008-01-01

373

Numerical analysis of pile lateral behavior of pile supported embankment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A finite difference numerical method was adopted to evaluate the pile lateral behavior of pile supported embankment. A published\\u000a case history was used to verify the proposed methodology. By simulating the case history, the determination of parameters\\u000a needed were verified. Then three embankments constructed on different ground conditions with different soil-pile relative\\u000a stiffnesses were analyzed to study pile lateral behaviors

Zhi-dong Jing; Li Liu; Gang Zheng; Yan Jiang

2008-01-01

374

Functional Anatomy, Pathomechanics, and Pathophysiology of Lateral Ankle Instability  

PubMed Central

Objective: To describe the functional anatomy of the ankle complex as it relates to lateral ankle instability and to describe the pathomechanics and pathophysiology of acute lateral ankle sprains and chronic ankle instability. Data Sources: I searched MEDLINE (1985–2001) and CINAHL (1982–2001) using the key words ankle sprain and ankle instability. Data Synthesis: Lateral ankle sprains are among the most common injuries incurred during sports participation. The ankle functions as a complex with contributions from the talocrural, subtalar, and inferior tibiofibular joints. Each of these joints must be considered in the pathomechanics and pathophysiology of lateral ankle sprains and chronic ankle instability. Lateral ankle sprains typically occur when the rearfoot undergoes excessive supination on an externally rotated lower leg. Recurrent ankle sprain is extremely common; in fact, the most common predisposition to suffering a sprain is the history of having suffered a previous ankle sprain. Chronic ankle instability may be due to mechanical instability, functional instability, or most likely, a combination of these 2 phenomena. Mechanical instability may be due to specific insufficiencies such as pathologic laxity, arthrokinematic changes, synovial irritation, or degenerative changes. Functional instability is caused by insufficiencies in proprioception and neuromuscular control. Conclusions/Recommendations: Lateral ankle sprains are often inadequately treated, resulting in frequent recurrence of ankle sprains. Appreciation of the complex anatomy and mechanics of the ankle joint and the pathomechanics and pathophysiology related to acute and chronic ankle instability is integral to the process of effectively evaluating and treating ankle injuries. PMID:12937557

Hertel, Jay

2002-01-01

375

Extra-articular Mimickers of Lateral Meniscal Tears  

PubMed Central

Context: Lateral meniscus tears are a common entity seen in sports medicine. Although lateral-side knee pain is often the result of a meniscus injury, several extra-articular pathologies share signs and symptoms with a meniscus tear. It is critical for the clinician to be able to identify and understand extra-articular pathologies that can present similar to a lateral meniscus tear. Evidence Acquisition: Data were collected through a thorough review of the literature conducted through a MEDLINE search for all relevant articles between 1980 and February 2010. Study Type: Clinical review. Results: Common extra-articular pathologies that can mimic lateral meniscal tears include iliotibial band syndrome, proximal tibiofibular joint instability, snapping biceps femoris or popliteus tendons, and peroneal nerve compression syndrome or neuritis. The patient history, physical examination features, and radiographic findings can be used to separate these entities from the more common intra-articular knee pathologies. Conclusions: In treating patients who present with lateral-sided knee pain, clinicians should be able to recognize and treat extra-articular pathologies that can present in a similar fashion as lateral meniscus tears. PMID:23015995

Barker, Joseph U.; Strauss, Eric J.; Lodha, Sameer; Bach, Bernard R.

2011-01-01

376

Lateral line diversity among ecologically divergent threespine stickleback populations  

PubMed Central

The lateral line is a mechanoreceptive sensory system that allows fish to sense objects and motion in their local environment. Variation in lateral line morphology may allow fish in different habitats to differentially sense and respond to salient cues. Threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) occupy a diverse range of aquatic habitats; we therefore hypothesized that populations within the G. aculeatus species complex might show variation in the morphology of the lateral line sensory system. We sampled 16 threespine stickleback populations from marine, stream and lake (including benthic and limnetic) habitats and examined the distribution, type and number of neuromasts on different regions of the body. We found that the threespine stickleback has a reduced lateral line canal system, completely lacking canal neuromasts. Although the arrangement of lines of superficial neuromasts on the body was largely the same in all populations, the number of neuromasts within these lines varied across individuals, populations and habitats. In pairwise comparisons between threespine sticklebacks adapted to divergent habitats, we found significant differences in neuromast number. Stream residents had more neuromasts than marine sticklebacks living downstream in the same watershed. In two independent lakes, benthic sticklebacks had more trunk neuromasts than sympatric limnetic sticklebacks, providing evidence for parallel evolution of the lateral line system. Our data provide the first demonstration that the lateral line sensory system can vary significantly between individuals and among populations within a single species, and suggest that this sensory system may experience different selection regimes in alternative habitats. PMID:20008367

Wark, A. R.; Peichel, C. L.

2010-01-01

377

Licensing stop place before laterals : a study of acoustic cues relevant to the perception of stop-lateral sequences  

E-print Network

In phonological analyses of both adult and child language, a *dl constraint has frequently been used as a shorthand to indicate that coronal stops are dispreferred before laterals (Dinnsen et al. 2001). This dispreference ...

Michaels, Jennifer M. (Jennifer Marie)

2011-01-01

378

Hemispheric lateralization of verbal and spatial working memory during adolescence  

PubMed Central

Adult functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature suggests that a left-right hemispheric dissociation may exist between verbal and spatial working memory (WM), respectively. However, investigation of this type has been obscured by incomparable verbal and spatial WM tasks and/or visual inspection at arbitrary thresholds as means to assess lateralization. Furthermore, it is unclear whether this hemispheric lateralization is present during adolescence, a time in which WM skills are improving, and whether there is a developmental association with laterality of brain functioning. This study used comparable verbal and spatial WM n-back tasks during fMRI and a bootstrap analysis approach to calculate lateralization indices (LI) across several thresholds to examine the potential of a left-right WM hemispheric dissociation in healthy adolescents. We found significant left hemispheric lateralization for verbal WM, most notably in the frontal and parietal lobes, as well as right hemisphere lateralization for spatial WM, seen in frontal and temporal cortices. Although no significant relationships were observed between LI and age or LI and performance, significant age-related patterns of brain activity were demonstrated during both verbal and spatial WM. Specifically, increased adolescent age was associated with less activity in the default mode brain network during verbal WM. In contrast, increased adolescent age was associated with greater activity in task-positive posterior parietal cortex during spatial working memory. Our findings highlight the importance of utilizing non-biased statistical methods and comparable tasks for determining patterns of functional lateralization. Our findings also suggest that, while a left-right hemispheric dissociation of verbal and spatial WM is apparent by early adolescence, age-related changes in functional activation during WM are also present. PMID:23511846

Nagel, Bonnie J.; Herting, Megan M.; Maxwell, Emily C.; Bruno, Richard; Fair, Damien

2013-01-01

379

Lateral Periodontal Cyst: a Case Report and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background The lateral periodontal cyst is considered a developmental odontogenic cyst with unusual occurrence. In most cases it is preliminary diagnosed as a radiographic finding, presenting as well circumscribed or as a round or teardrop-shaped radiolucent area. Due to its location it can easily be misdiagnosed as a lesion of endodontic origin. Final diagnosis should be based on histopatological examination. The purpose of this paper is to report a classic case of lateral periodontal cyst located in the anterior region of mandible and to review the relevant literature which describes the clinical, radiological and histopathological features of lateral periodontal cysts. Methods A 50 years female patient complained of an asymptomatic gingival swelling in the region between the left mandibular lateral incisor and canine. Radiographic examination revealed a well circumscribed radiolucency with approximately 0.5 cm diameter with a radiopaque margin between the roots of the left mandibular lateral incisor and canine. The adjacent teeth had vital pulp. Results A total enucleation of the lesion was performed, and intraoperative examination showed a single lesion with no communication between the cyst's cavity and the oral environment. Histological examination revealed that the lesion was "lateral periodontal cyst of developmental origin". There was no recurrence or complications for 24 months follow-up. Conclusions The lateral periodontal cyst can be considered in the differential diagnosis when a radioloucent lesion appears adjacent to the roots of vital teeth. The treatment of choice is surgical removal and subsequent histological evaluation to confirm the diagnosis. Relapses are infrequent. PMID:24421982

de Carvalho, Luis Felipe das Chagas e Silva; Lima, Celina Faig; Cabral, Luiz Antonio Guimaraes; Brandao, Adriana Aigotti Haberbeck

2010-01-01

380

Dogs show left facial lateralization upon reunion with their owners.  

PubMed

Domestic dogs demonstrate behavioral laterality in response to emotional stimuli; those responses include tail wagging and head turning. The dog is the species with the closest relationship to humans; dogs can express strong social emotions (e.g., attachment and separation anxiety) to specific persons, such as their owners. In this study, we examined whether dogs demonstrate more facial laterality when reunited with their owners than when they encounter an unfamiliar person in an unfamiliar situation. We also examined whether the observed laterality was specific to positive social stimuli (i.e., the owner) or a general response to nonsocial positive stimuli (i.e., toys). The dogs' facial expressions were recorded by a high-speed video camera during the presentation of emotional stimuli and the acceleration rates of parts of their faces were analyzed. The results showed that the left eyebrow moved more when the owner was present than at baseline. No bias in terms of eyebrow movement was observed when the dogs saw attractive toys. These results suggest that dogs show facial laterality in response to emotional stimuli. This laterality was specific to social stimuli, probably reflecting the dog's attachment to the owner. PMID:23727034

Nagasawa, Miho; Kawai, Emi; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

2013-09-01

381

The lateral line receptor array of cyprinids from different habitats.  

PubMed

The lateral line system of teleost fishes consists of an array of superficial and canal neuromasts (CN). Number and distribution of neuromasts and the morphology of the lateral line canals vary across species. We investigated the morphology of the lateral line system in four diurnal European cyprinids, the limnophilic bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus), the indifferent gudgeon (Gobio gobio), and ide (Leuciscus idus), and the rheophilic minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus). All fish had lateral line canals on head and trunk. The total number of both, CN and superficial neuromasts (SN), was comparable in minnow and ide but was greater than in gudgeon and bitterling. The ratio of SNs to CNs for the head was comparable in minnow and bitterling but was greater in gudgeon and ide. The SN-to-CN ratio for the trunk was greatest in bitterling. Polarization of hair cells in CNs was in the direction of the canal. Polarization of hair cells in SNs depended on body area. In cephalic SNs, hair cell polarization was dorso-ventral or rostro-caudal. In trunk SNs, it was rostro-caudal on lateral line scales and dorso-ventral on other trunk scales. On the caudal fin, hair cell polarization was rostro-caudal. The data show that, in the four species studied here, number, distribution, and orientation of CNs and SNs cannot be unequivocally related to habitat. PMID:24142903

Schmitz, Anke; Bleckmann, Horst; Mogdans, Joachim

2014-04-01

382

Stabilization control of a hovering model insect: lateral motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our previous study shows that the lateral disturbance motion of a model drone fly does not have inherent stability (passive stability), because of the existence of an unstable divergence mode. But drone flies are observed to fly stably. Constantly active control must be applied to stabilize the flight. In this study, we investigate the lateral stabilization control of the model drone fly. The method of computational fluid dynamics is used to compute the lateral control derivatives and the techniques of eigenvalue and eigenvector analysis and modal decomposition are used for solving the equations of motion. Controllability analysis shows that although inherently unstable, the lateral disturbance motion is controllable. By feeding back the state variables (i.e. lateral translation velocity, yaw rate, roll rate and roll angle, which can be measured by the sensory system of the insect) to produce anti-symmetrical changes in stroke amplitude and/or in angle of attack between the left and right wings, the motion can be stabilized, explaining why the drone flies can fly stably even if the flight is passively unstable.

Zhang, Yan-Lai; Sun, Mao

2011-10-01

383

Analysis of quantitative trait loci for behavioral laterality in mice.  

PubMed Central

Laterality is believed to have genetic components, as has been deduced from family studies in humans and responses to artificial selection in mice, but these genetic components are unknown and the underlying physiological mechanisms are still a subject of dispute. We measured direction of laterality (preferential use of left or right paws) and degree of laterality (absolute difference between the use of left and right paws) in C57BL/6ByJ (B) and NZB/BlNJ (N) mice and in their F(1) and F(2) intercrosses. Measurements were taken of both forepaws and hind paws. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) did not emerge for direction but did for degree of laterality. One QTL for forepaw (LOD score = 5.6) and the second QTL for hind paw (LOD score = 7.2) were both located on chromosome 4 and their peaks were within the same confidence interval. A QTL for plasma luteinizing hormone concentration was also found in the confidence interval of these two QTL. These results suggest that the physiological mechanisms underlying degree of laterality react to gonadal steroids. PMID:12663540

Roubertoux, Pierre L; Le Roy, Isabelle; Tordjman, Sylvie; Cherfou, Ameziane; Migliore-Samour, Daniele

2003-01-01

384

Comparison of manual, digital and lateral CBCT cephalometric analyses  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the reliability of three different methods of cephalometric analysis. Material and Methods: Conventional pretreatment lateral cephalograms and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans from 50 subjects from a radiological clinic were selected in order to test the three methods: manual tracings (MT), digitized lateral cephalograms (DLC), and lateral cephalograms from CBCT (LC-CBCT). The lateral cephalograms were manually analyzed through the Dolphin Imaging 11.0(tm) software. Twenty measurements were performed under the same conditions, and retraced after a 30-day period. Paired t tests and the Dahlberg formula were used to evaluate the intra-examiner errors. The Pearson's correlation coefficient and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were used to compare the differences between the methods. Results: Intra-examiner reliability occurred for all methods for most of the measurements. Only six measurements were different between the methods and an agreement was observed in the analyses among the 3 methods. Conclusions: The results demonstrated that all evaluated methodologies are reliable and valid for scientific research, however, the method used in the lateral cephalograms from the CBCT proved the most reliable. PMID:23739848

NAVARRO, Ricardo de Lima; OLTRAMARI-NAVARRO, Paula Vanessa Pedron; FERNANDES, Thais Maria Freire; de OLIVEIRA, Giovani Fidelis; CONTI, Ana Claudia de Castro Ferreira; de ALMEIDA, Marcio Rodrigues; de ALMEIDA, Renato Rodrigues

2013-01-01

385

Development of automobile tyre lateral runout measurement sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automobile tyre lateral runout is one of the important indexes to measure the quality of the tyre, it will affect the safety of the automobile in moving. This paper introduces a sensor for automobile tyre lateral runout measurement. The variation of the automobile tyre lateral runout causes the change of guide rod probe displacement and deforms of the cantilever beam which connects with the guide bar. The deformation of the cantilever beam leads to the change of the resistance value of strain gauge which is pasted on the cantilever beam. Through measuring circuit, the resistance value of the strain gauge is converted into output voltage that has a certain relationship with automobile tyre lateral runout. Then, the voltage signal is transformed by A/D convertor and send to SCM to process and display the value of runout. Meanwhile, SCM output control signal to control the actuator and adjust the equipment running status in real time so as to ensure the tyre lateral runout is within the allowed range.

Ma, Xie; Ye, Lingjian; Yao, Guanghui; Wang, Di; Zhi, Xiongfei

2013-10-01

386

Pericycle Cell Proliferation and Lateral Root Initiation in Arabidopsis1  

PubMed Central

In contrast with other cells generated by the root apical meristem in Arabidopsis, pericycle cells adjacent to the protoxylem poles of the vascular cylinder continue to cycle without interruption during passage through the elongation and differentiation zones. However, only some of the dividing pericycle cells are committed to the asymmetric, formative divisions that give rise to lateral root primordia (LRPs). This was demonstrated by direct observation and mapping of mitotic figures, cell-length measurements, and the histochemical analysis of a cyclin-GUS fusion protein in pericycle cells. The estimated duration of a pericycle cell cycle in the root apical meristem was similar to the interval between cell displacement from the meristem and the initiation of LRP formation. Developmentally controlled LRP initiation occurs early, 3 to 8 mm from the root tip. Thus the first growth control point in lateral root formation is defined by the initiation of primordia in stochastic patterns by cells passing through the elongation and young differentiation zones, up to where lateral roots begin to emerge from the primary root. Therefore, the first growth control point is not restricted to a narrow developmental window. We propose that late LRP initiation is developmentally unrelated to the root apical meristem and is operated by a second growth control point that can be activated by environmental cues. The observation that pericycle cells divide and lateral root primordia form without intervening mitotic quiescence suggests that lateral organ formation in roots and shoots might not be as fundamentally different as previously thought. PMID:11115882

Dubrovsky, Joseph G.; Doerner, Peter W.; Colon-Carmona, Adan; Rost, Thomas L.

2000-01-01

387

Pericycle cell proliferation and lateral root initiation in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

In contrast with other cells generated by the root apical meristem in Arabidopsis, pericycle cells adjacent to the protoxylem poles of the vascular cylinder continue to cycle without interruption during passage through the elongation and differentiation zones. However, only some of the dividing pericycle cells are committed to the asymmetric, formative divisions that give rise to lateral root primordia (LRPs). This was demonstrated by direct observation and mapping of mitotic figures, cell-length measurements, and the histochemical analysis of a cyclin-GUS fusion protein in pericycle cells. The estimated duration of a pericycle cell cycle in the root apical meristem was similar to the interval between cell displacement from the meristem and the initiation of LRP formation. Developmentally controlled LRP initiation occurs early, 3 to 8 mm from the root tip. Thus the first growth control point in lateral root formation is defined by the initiation of primordia in stochastic patterns by cells passing through the elongation and young differentiation zones, up to where lateral roots begin to emerge from the primary root. Therefore, the first growth control point is not restricted to a narrow developmental window. We propose that late LRP initiation is developmentally unrelated to the root apical meristem and is operated by a second growth control point that can be activated by environmental cues. The observation that pericycle cells divide and lateral root primordia form without intervening mitotic quiescence suggests that lateral organ formation in roots and shoots might not be as fundamentally different as previously thought. PMID:11115882

Dubrovsky, J G; Doerner, P W; Colón-Carmona, A; Rost, T L

2000-12-01

388

Embryonic exposure to predator odour modulates visual lateralization in cuttlefish.  

PubMed

Predation pressure acts on the behaviour and morphology of prey species. In fish, the degree of lateralization varies between high- and low-predation populations. While lateralization appears to be widespread in invertebrates, we do not know whether heredity and early experience interact during development as in vertebrates. Here we show, for the first time, that an exposure to predator odour prior to hatching modulates visual lateralization in newly hatched cuttlefish. Only cuttlefish that have been exposed to predator odour display a left-turning bias when tested with blank seawater in a T-shaped apparatus. Exposure to predator odour all the incubation long could appear as an acute predictor of a high-predation surrounding environment. In addition, cuttlefish of all groups display a left-turning preference when tested with predator odour in the apparatus. This suggests the ability of cuttlefish to innately recognize predator odour. To our knowledge, this is the first clear demonstration that lateralization is vulnerable to ecological challenges encountered during embryonic life, and that environmental stimulation of the embryo through the olfactory system could influence the development of subsequent visual lateralization. PMID:23235708

Jozet-Alves, Christelle; Hébert, Marie

2013-02-01

389

Lateralized Difference in Tympanic Membrane Temperature: Emotion and Hemispheric Activity  

PubMed Central

We review literature examining relationships between tympanic membrane temperature (TMT), affective/motivational orientation, and hemispheric activity. Lateralized differences in TMT might enable real-time monitoring of hemispheric activity in real-world conditions, and could serve as a corroborating marker of mental illnesses associated with specific affective dysregulation. We support the proposal that TMT holds potential for broadly indexing lateralized brain physiology during tasks demanding the processing and representation of emotional and/or motivational states, and for predicting trait-related affective/motivational orientations. The precise nature of the relationship between TMT and brain physiology, however, remains elusive. Indeed the limited extant research has sampled different participant populations and employed largely different procedures and measures, making for seemingly discrepant findings and implications. We propose, however, that many of these discrepancies can be resolved by considering how emotional states map onto motivational systems, and further examining how validated methods for inducing lateralized brain activity might affect TMT. PMID:23459831

Propper, Ruth E.; Brunye, Tad T.

2013-01-01

390

Experimental and computational investigation of lateral gauge response in polycarbonate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shock behaviour of polycarbonate is of interest due to its extensive use in defence applications. Interestingly, embedded lateral manganin stress gauges in polycarbonate have shown gradients behind incident shocks, suggestive of increasing shear strength. However, such gauges are commonly embedded in a central epoxy interlayer. This is an inherently invasive approach. Recently, research has suggested that in such systems interlayer/target impedance may contribute to observed gradients in lateral stress. Here, experimental T-gauge (Vishay Micro-Measurements® type J2M-SS-580SF-025) traces from polycarbonate targets are compared to computational simulations. The effects of gauge environment are investigated by looking at the response of lateral gauges with both standard "glued-joint" and a "dry joint" encapsulation, where no encapsulating medium is employed.

Eliot, Jim; Harris, Ernest Joseph; Hazell, Paul; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth James; Winter, Ron; Wood, David Christopher

2012-03-01

391

Top lateral refraction and reflection of polarized light in lenses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When linearly polarized light impinging on a lens, it will reflect and refract along the lines curves resulting from the interception of a plane (plane of polarization) with a sphere (lens surface) maintaining the orientation of refraction and reflection within the plane of polarization. This effect is significant only looking at the lens laterally. Therefore, a lens acts as a lateral analyzer when the polarization plane of polarized light incident on the lens is rotated. Following this principle that in the spherical surface of a lens fit n circles of radius r, where n is inversely proportional to r, and each circle is a lens itself. Then if a beam of light is shined in one of these areas, the phenomenon is expressed lateral side and diametrically opposite to where the incident linearly polarized light, the lens acting as a waveguide for the light beam polarized.

Miranda Díaz, Lázaro J.

2014-08-01

392

LATER models of neural decision behavior in choice tasks.  

PubMed

REACTION TIME HAS BEEN INCREASINGLY USED OVER THE LAST FEW DECADES TO PROVIDE INFORMATION ON NEURAL DECISION PROCESSES: it is a direct reflection of decision time. Saccades provide an excellent paradigm for this because many of them can be made in a very short time and the underlying neural pathways are relatively well-known. LATER (linear approach to threshold with ergodic rate) is a model originally devised to explain reaction time distributions in simple decision tasks. Recently, however it is being extended to increasingly more advanced tasks, including those with decision errors and those requiring voluntary control such as the antisaccade task and those where sequential decisions are required. The strength of this modeling approach lies in its detailed, quantitative predictions of behavior, yet LATER models still retain their conceptual simplicity that made LATER initially successful in explaining reaction times in simple decision tasks. PMID:25202242

Noorani, Imran

2014-01-01

393

A Rare Association of Compound Odontome with Missing Lateral Incisor  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Odontomas are a common type of odontogenic tumor, usually asymptomatic and mostly detected on routine radiographic examination. An 11-years-old male child with the chief complaint of mobility of deciduous dentition in the upper front region was diagnosed with an odontome with an impacted central incisor, missing lateral incisor and retained deciduous incisors following radiographic analysis. Histopathology revealed a compound odontoma following a conservative enucleation. Odontomas associated with primary dentition, impacted teeth and erupting into oral cavity have been described, but the association with a missing lateral incisor makes this an interesting case report. How to cite this article: Nammalwar RB, Moses J. A Rare Association of Compound Odontome with Missing Lateral Incisor. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(1):50-53.

Moses, Joyson

2014-01-01

394

A theory for lateral wing-tip blowing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of lateral blowing consists in utilizing thin jets of air, which are ejected in the spanwise direction from slots at the tips of straight and swept wings, or along the leading edges of delta wings, to generate aerodynamic forces without the assistance of deflecting solid surfaces. For weak intensities of blowing the so-generated forces could be used for roll and lateral control of aircraft. In this work a theory for this concept as applied to straight wings is presented, revealing the analytical relationship between blowing and aerodynamic forces. The approach is based on perturbing the span of an elliptically loaded wing. Scaling laws involving blowing intensity, aspect ratio, and angle of attack are derived and compared with experiments. It is concluded that this concept has potential as a novel roll and lateral control device.

Tavella, D.; Roberts, L.

1985-01-01

395

Validation of a grading system for lateral nasal wall insufficiency.  

PubMed

This study was designed to validate a grading scheme for lateral nasal wall insufficiency with interrater and intrarater reliability measures. Representative endoscopic videos depicting varied degrees of lateral nasal wall insufficiency were collated into a 30-clip video (15 clips in duplicate). This was rated by five reviewers for a total of 150 observations. Interrater and intrarater reliability were determined using Fleiss kappa and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) statistics, respectively. Good agreement was established between reviewers (interrater reliability), with a Fleiss kappa of 0.7733 (p < 0.01). Analysis of intrarater variability with the ICC revealed a very strong agreement (ICC = 0.88; p < 0.01). The proposed grading system is shown to have good interrater and intrarater reliability. It provides a reliable instrument for assessing lateral wall insufficiency. PMID:24124639

Tsao, Gabriel J; Fijalkowski, Natalia; Most, Sam P

2013-01-01

396

A biologically inspired spiking neural network for sound source lateralization.  

PubMed

In this paper, a binaural sound source lateralization spiking neural network (NN) will be presented which is inspired by most recent neurophysiological studies on the role of certain nuclei in the superior olivary complex (SOC) and the inferior colliculus (IC). The binaural sound source lateralization neural network (BiSoLaNN) is a spiking NN based on neural mechanisms, utilizing complex neural models, and attempting to simulate certain parts of nuclei of the auditory system in detail. The BiSoLaNN utilizes both excitatory and inhibitory ipsilateral and contralateral influences arrayed in only one delay line originating in the contralateral side to achieve a sharp azimuthal localization. It will be shown that the proposed model can be used both for purposes of understanding the mechanisms of an NN of the auditory system and for sound source lateralization tasks in technical applications, e.g., its use with the Darmstadt robotic head (DRH). PMID:18051193

Voutsas, Kyriakos; Adamy, Jürgen

2007-11-01

397

Extradural Dermoid Cyst Located in the Lateral Sphenoid Ridge  

PubMed Central

Dermoid cysts are rare congenital tumors that occur primarily at the midline at a characteristic intradural location. However, dermoid cysts located at extradural and lateral regions have been rarely reported until now. In the present study, the authors demonstrate the unusual instance of an intracranial extradural dermoid cyst at the lateral sphenoid ridge. A 53-year-old woman admitted because of progressive headache and dizziness. The patient had no neurologic deficits, and magnetic resonance imaging with no contrast enhancement revealed a mass at the right sphenoid ridge. The mass was accompanied with sphenoid bone erosion visible on computed tomography. The patient underwent right pterional craniotomy, and the tumor including the capsule was totally resected. Presence of a dermoid cyst was confirmed with histopathological examination. The patient had no complications during the postoperative period. This study suggests that dermoid cyst should be considered for differential diagnosis of extradural and lateral intracranial masses. PMID:24926471

Ko, Seok-Jin; Park, Kyung-Jae; Park, Dong-Hyuk

2014-01-01

398

[Chemical constituents of lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx].  

PubMed

In order to find the cardiotonic constituents of lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx., the investigation was carried out. Silica gel column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20, medium-pressure MCI and reverse phase ODS column chromatography were used to separate the 90% EtOH extract of the lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx. The structures of the isolated compounds have been identified by chemical properties and spectroscopic analyses. Ten compounds were isolated and their structures were elucidated as benzoic acid-5-hydroxy-2-benzoyl-amino methyl ester (1), honokiol (2), pinoresinol (3), salicylic acid (4), p-hydroxy-cinnamic acid (5), songorine (6), karakoline (7), mesaconitine (8), hypaconitine (9) and 14-benzoylhypaconitine (10), separetely. Compound 1 is a new compound and its structure has been established by NMR, HR-ESI-MS, UV, IR and X-Ray. Compound 2-5 are isolated from the lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx. for the first time. PMID:25322557

Zhang, Jing; Sun, Gui-Bo; Lei, Qi-Fang; Li, Guang-Zhi; Wang, Jun-Chi; Si, Jian-Yong

2014-08-01

399

Strategies of Healthy Adults Walking on a Laterally Oscillating Treadmill  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We mounted a treadmill on top of a six degree-of-freedom motion base platform to investigate locomotor responses produced by healthy adults introduced to a dynamic walking surface. The experiment examined self-selected strategies employed by participants when exposed to continuous, sinusoidal lateral motion of the support surface while walking. Torso translation and step width were used to classify responses used to stabilize gait in a novel, dynamic environment. Two response categories emerged. Participants tended to either fix themselves in space (FIS), allowing the treadbelt to move laterally beneath them, or they fixed themselves to the base (FTB), moving laterally as the motion base oscillated. The degree of fixation in both extremes varied across participants. This finding suggests that normal adults have innate and varied preferences for reacquiring gait stability, some depending more heavily on vision (FIS group) and others on proprioception (FTB group). Keywords: Human locomotion, Unstable surface, Treadmill, Adaptation, Stability

Brady, Rachel A.; Peters, Brian T.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

2008-01-01

400

Lateral vibration effects in atomic-scale friction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of lateral vibrations on the stick-slip motion of a nanotip elastically pulled on a flat crystal surface is studied by atomic force microscopy measurements on a NaCl(001) surface in ultra-high vacuum. The slippage of the nanotip across the crystal lattice is anticipated at increasing driving amplitude, similarly to what is observed in presence of normal vibrations. This lowers the average friction force, as explained by the Prandtl-Tomlinson model with lateral vibrations superimposed at finite temperature. Nevertheless, the peak values of the lateral force, and the total energy losses, are expected to increase with the excitation amplitude, which may limit the practical relevance of this effect.

Roth, R.; Fajardo, O. Y.; Mazo, J. J.; Meyer, E.; Gnecco, E.

2014-02-01

401

Lateral ventricle morphology analysis via mean latitude axis.  

PubMed

Statistical shape analysis has emerged as an insightful method for evaluating brain structures in neuroimaging studies, however most shape frameworks are surface based and thus directly depend on the quality of surface alignment. In contrast, medial descriptions employ thickness information as alignment-independent shape metric. We propose a joint framework that computes local medial thickness information via a mean latitude axis from the well-known spherical harmonic (SPHARM-PDM) shape framework. In this work, we applied SPHARM derived medial representations to the morphological analysis of lateral ventricles in neonates. Mild ventriculomegaly (MVM) subjects are compared to healthy controls to highlight the potential of the methodology. Lateral ventricles were obtained from MRI scans of neonates (9-144 days of age) from 30 MVM subjects as well as age- and sex-matched normal controls (60 total). SPHARM-PDM shape analysis was extended to compute a mean latitude axis directly from the spherical parameterization. Local thickness and area was straightforwardly determined. MVM and healthy controls were compared using local MANOVA and compared with the traditional SPHARM-PDM analysis. Both surface and mean latitude axis findings differentiate successfully MVM and healthy lateral ventricle morphology. Lateral ventricles in MVM neonates show enlarged shapes in tail and head. Mean latitude axis is able to find significant differences all along the lateral ventricle shape, demonstrating that local thickness analysis provides significant insight over traditional SPHARM-PDM. This study is the first to precisely quantify 3D lateral ventricle morphology in MVM neonates using shape analysis. PMID:23606800

Paniagua, Beatriz; Lyall, Amanda; Berger, Jean-Baptiste; Vachet, Clement; Hamer, Robert M; Woolson, Sandra; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John; Styner, Martin

2013-03-29

402

Patterns of prokaryotic lateral gene transfers affecting parasitic microbial eukaryotes  

PubMed Central

Background The influence of lateral gene transfer on gene origins and biology in eukaryotes is poorly understood compared with those of prokaryotes. A number of independent investigations focusing on specific genes, individual genomes, or specific functional categories from various eukaryotes have indicated that lateral gene transfer does indeed affect eukaryotic genomes. However, the lack of common methodology and criteria in these studies makes it difficult to assess the general importance and influence of lateral gene transfer on eukaryotic genome evolution. Results We used a phylogenomic approach to systematically investigate lateral gene transfer affecting the proteomes of thirteen, mainly parasitic, microbial eukaryotes, representing four of the six eukaryotic super-groups. All of the genomes investigated have been significantly affected by prokaryote-to-eukaryote lateral gene transfers, dramatically affecting the enzymes of core pathways, particularly amino acid and sugar metabolism, but also providing new genes of potential adaptive significance in the life of parasites. A broad range of prokaryotic donors is involved in such transfers, but there is clear and significant enrichment for bacterial groups that share the same habitats, including the human microbiota, as the parasites investigated. Conclusions Our data show that ecology and lifestyle strongly influence gene origins and opportunities for gene transfer and reveal that, although the outlines of the core eukaryotic metabolism are conserved among lineages, the genes making up those pathways can have very different origins in different eukaryotes. Thus, from the perspective of the effects of lateral gene transfer on individual gene ancestries in different lineages, eukaryotic metabolism appears to be chimeric. PMID:23442822

2013-01-01

403

The lateralizing and localizing value of adversion in epileptic seizures.  

PubMed

We studied 24 patients who had adversion as the first clinical manifestation of seizures. Seizures were recorded with depth electrodes as part of the evaluation for possible surgery for epilepsy. Head rotation did not help to lateralize the epileptic focus clinically, because deviations occurred ipsilaterally to the EEG focus in some patients, and because some patients had head rotation in either direction despite a unifocal epileptogenic abnormality. Furthermore, no cortical localization was consistently linked to either direction or degree of adversion. Adversion has no consistent lateralizing or localizing value. PMID:6684265

Robillard, A; Saint-Hilaire, J M; Mercier, M; Bouvier, G

1983-09-01

404

Lateral flow biosensors for the detection of nucleic acid.  

PubMed

The detection of nucleic acid is of central importance for the diagnosis of genetic diseases, infectious agents, and biowarfare agents. Traditional strategies and technologies for nucleic acid detection are time-consuming and labor-intensive. Recently, isothermal strand-displacement reaction-based lateral flow biosensors have attracted a great deal of research interest because they are sensitive, simple, fast, and easy to use. Here, we describe a lateral flow biosensor based on isothermal strand-displacement polymerase reaction and gold nanoparticles for the visual detection of nucleic acid. PMID:24026695

Zeng, Lingwen; Lie, Puchang; Fang, Zhiyuan; Xiao, Zhuo

2013-01-01

405

Minimally invasive lateral approach to the thoracolumbar junction for corpectomy.  

PubMed

Diseases that affect the thoracolumbar junction present a unique challenge to the spine surgeon. Various techniques have been described to treat this clinical entity from the anterior, lateral, or posterior direction. These can be associated with significant morbidity due to extensive tissue dissection, blood loss, and postoperative pain leading to a lengthy recovery. The use of a tubular retractor allows the surgeon to minimize tissue dissection and potentially reduce approach-related morbidity while obviating the need for an approach surgeon for exposure. The surgical technique of a minimally invasive lateral approach to the thoracolumbar junction for corpectomy is described in detail and two illustrative patients are presented. PMID:23830585

Adkins, Dana E; Sandhu, Faheem A; Voyadzis, Jean-Marc

2013-09-01

406

Acute lateral ankle ligament injuries: a literature review.  

PubMed

The average general orthopaedic surgeon examines and treats a considerable number of acute lateral ankle ligament sprains in a busy office practice. A cursory review of recent articles published on this subject will present a confusing picture regarding diagnosis and treatment of Grade III injuries. An air of controversy surrounds the interpretation of diagnostic x-rays, and the management of these common ankle problems. This review article is presented to summarize current thoughts on the anatomy, biomechanics, diagnosis, and treatment of acute lateral ankle ligament sprains. PMID:2125020

Boruta, P M; Bishop, J O; Braly, W G; Tullos, H S

1990-10-01

407

EEG preprocessing for synchronization estimation and epilepsy lateralization.  

PubMed

The global framework of this paper is the synchronization analysis in EEG recordings. Two main objectives are pursued: the evaluation of the synchronization estimation for lateralization purposes in epileptic EEGs and the evaluation of the effect of the preprocessing (artifact and noise cancelling by blind source separation, wavelet denoising and classification) on the synchronization analysis. We propose a new global synchronization index, based on the classical cross power spectrum, estimated for each cerebral hemisphere. After preprocessing, the proposed index is able to correctly lateralize the epileptic zone in over 90% of the cases. PMID:22255468

Vélez-Pérez, H; Romo-Vázquez, R; Ranta, R; Louis-Dorr, V; Maillard, L

2011-01-01

408

Shoulder arthroscopy positioning: lateral decubitus versus beach chair.  

PubMed

Since the introduction of the beach chair position for shoulder arthroscopy, orthopaedic surgeons have debated whether the beach chair or lateral decubitus is superior. Most surgeons use the same patient position to perform all of their arthroscopic shoulder procedures, regardless of the pathology. Each position has its advantages and disadvantages. The evidence regarding the efficiency, efficacy, and risks of the lateral decubitus and the beach chair positions for shoulder arthroscopy does not show one position to be superior. This review presents a comparison of these positions with regard to setup, surgical visualization, access, and patient risk. PMID:19664509

Peruto, Christina M; Ciccotti, Michael G; Cohen, Steven B

2009-08-01

409

Reconstruction of the corneal topography from lateral-shearing interferograms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents an approach for measurements of the corneal topography by use of lateral-shearing interferometry. In shearing interferometry the wavefront reflected from the object is split in two wavefronts. The introduction of lateral shift and superposition of the wavefronts produces interference pattern. We used phase shifting algorithm to obtain the phase differences of the wavefront reflected from the cornea. The measurements of the phase differences are carried out in two orthogonal directions. The phase of the wavefront is reconstructed by use of algorithm for the large grid based on the discrete integration. The computer-generated interferograms are used to test the procedure and to estimate its accuracy.

Licznerski, Tomasz J.; Kasprzak, Henryk T.

1999-07-01

410

An Improved Method of Manufacturing Corrugated Boxes: Lateral Corrugator  

SciTech Connect

Paper physicists have known that a corrugated box constructed from outer liner sheets having a predominant fiber orientation aligned with the corrugating flute direction would have higher stiffness and crush resistance (per unit of fiber weight) than the conventional box construction. Such increased performance per unit of fiber weight could result in fiber reduction and energy savings for boxes having equivalent performance specifications. The goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a commercially viable lateral corrugating process. This included designing and building a pilot lateral corrugator, testing and evaluating pilot machine made boxes, and developing a strategy for commercialization.

Frank C. Murray Ph.D.; , Roman Popil Ph.D.; Michael Shaepe (formerly with IPST, now at Cargill. Inc)

2008-12-18

411

Coherency of Spin Precession in Metallic Lateral Spin Valves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusive pure spin currents in lateral spin valves lose phase coherency in precession while undergoing scattering events, leading to a broad distribution of the dwell time in a transport channel from the injector to the detector. Here we demonstrate the lateral spin-valves with dual injectors enable us to detect a genuine precession signal from the Hanle effect, demonstrating that the phase coherency in precession is improved with an increase of the channel length. The coherency in the spin precession shows a universal behavior as a function of the normalized separation between the injector and the detector in material-independent fashion for metals and semiconductors including graphene.

Otani, Yoshichika; Idzuchi, Hiroshi; Fukuma, Yasuhiro

2014-01-01

412

Non-uniform lateral current distribution in quantum cascade lasers.  

PubMed

Non-uniform lateral current distribution in quantum cascade (QC) lasers is investigated, as a result of stimulated-optical-emission-assisted electron transport, the rate of which depends on the local photon density and is comparable to the longitudinal optical (LO) phonon scattering rate. A microscopic model based on rate equations is built to study the self-consistent process of interaction between local electrons and photons in QC lasers. The non-uniform distribution of lateral current and the corresponding spatial hole burning are simulated from this model. Moreover, multi-transverse-mode operation in QC lasers is also investigated. PMID:24663949

Huang, Xue; Dikmelik, Yamac; Gmachl, Claire

2014-03-10

413

Released micromachined beams utilizing laterally uniform porosity porous silicon  

PubMed Central

Suspended micromachined porous silicon beams with laterally uniform porosity are reported, which have been fabricated using standard photolithography processes designed for compatibility with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) processes. Anodization, annealing, reactive ion etching, repeated photolithography, lift off and electropolishing processes were used to release patterned porous silicon microbeams on a Si substrate. This is the first time that micromachined, suspended PS microbeams have been demonstrated with laterally uniform porosity, well-defined anchors and flat surfaces. PACS 81.16.-c; 81.16.Nd; 81.16.Rf

2014-01-01

414

Intubating laryngeal mask airway as an independent ventilatory and intubation device. A comparison between supine, right lateral and left lateral  

PubMed Central

Background Sudden loss of airway in patients in the lateral position has always been proven to be difficult to manage with conventional laryngoscopy. We performed a randomized controlled trial to prove the success rate of ventilation and intubation in the lateral position via intubating laryngeal mask airway (ILMA). Methods Ninety patients were divided into three groups of 30 patients each, positioned supine, right lateral, and left lateral randomly. Each group comprised of both sexes of American Society of Anesthesiologists grade I and II, aged between 18-55 years with normal airway posted for surgery under general anesthesia. Patients were pre-medicated with fentanyl followed by induction with propofol and neuromuscular blockade with rocuronium. ILMA was inserted and blind tracheal intubation via ILMA was done. The success rate, time taken and the number of adjusting maneuvers used for both procedures were recorded. The data was tabulated and analyzed using ANOVA (analysis of variance), multiple 't' test and chi square. Results The success rate of intubation (96%) and time taken in insertion and intubation was found to be quite similar in all the three groups. Conclusions We conclude that the ILMA has an important role to play in the emergency management of airways in patients in the lateral position in terms of ease, success rate and time taken. PMID:24228142

Bharadwaj, Avnish; Chauhan, Gaurav; Kalita, Drubajyoti

2013-01-01

415

Safety and the anatomy of the retroperitoneal lateral corridor with respect to the minimally invasive lateral lumbar intervertebral fusion approach.  

PubMed

Safe and reproducible outcomes of the lateral lumbar intervertebral fusion (LLIF) procedure rely on meticulous care and understanding of the anatomy of the lateral corridor. This review aims to describe the different important anatomic considerations when performing LLIF and offer technical notes that may help increase the safety of this procedure. The LLIF procedure is divided into 5 stages: patient positioning, abdominal wall dissection, retroperitoneal space dissection, deployment of the surgical retractors, and diskectomy. Each stage is preformed in a distinct anatomic compartment that may cause different typical complications. PMID:24703441

Regev, Gilad J; Kim, Choll W

2014-04-01

416

Scientific Support for Early Prevention of Delinquency and Later Offending  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing body of high-quality scientific evidence on the effectiveness of early intervention programs designed to tackle the most important early risk factors for crime. At the individual level, preschool intellectual enrichment and child skills training are effective in preventing delinquency and later offending. At the family level, parent education (in the context of home visiting and parent

Brandon C. Welsh; David P. Farrington

2007-01-01

417

Effect of a Stress Management Class: One Year Later.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Graduate and undergraduate students showed a reduction in anxiety during a 16-week course designed to include information on the causes and effects of stress as well as practical techniques for stress management. A follow-up study showed that the students were still successfully using the stress management techniques a year later. (RM)

Somerville, Addison W.; And Others

1984-01-01

418

Preview Control for Vehicle Lateral Guidance in Highway Automation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous deterministic preview control is applied to the vehicle lateral contol problem. It is shown that the preview control consists of a feedback term and two feedforward terms. If the preview control algorithm is applied on the FSLQ augmented system, the feedback term will be exactly the same as the FSLQ feedback control law. Therefore, the advantages of the FSLQ

Huei Peng; Masayoshi Tomizuka

1991-01-01

419

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: An Introduction to Psychosocial and Behavioral Adaptations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) as motor-neuron disease that is terminal. Discusses symptoms associated with ALS and identifies treatment options. Reviews psychological and behavioral adaptations in regard to ALS clients, their families, and professionals who work with them. Discusses support groups as method of reducing stress for ALS…

Hoffman, R. Leigh; Decker, Thomas W.

1993-01-01

420

Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and enteral nutrition in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bulbar involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is often related to a worse prognosis on account of the higher risk of pulmonary aspiration and undernutrition due to dysphagia. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of enteral feeding by percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in a long-term follow-up of ALS patients. We report the results of PEG in

L. Mazzini; T. Corrà; M. Zaccala; G. Mora; M. Piano; M. Galante

1995-01-01

421

Molecular biology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: insights from genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a paralytic disorder caused by motor neuron degeneration. Mutations in more than 50 human genes cause diverse types of motor neuron pathology. Moreover, defects in five Mendelian genes lead to motor neuron disease, with two mutations reproducing the ALS phenotype. Analyses of these genetic effects have generated new insights into the diverse molecular pathways involved

Piera Pasinelli; Robert H. Brown

2006-01-01

422

Spatiotemporal Coupling of the Tongue in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The primary aim of the investigation was to identify deficits in spatiotemporal coupling between tongue regions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The relations between disease-related changes in tongue movement patterns and speech intelligibility were also determined. Methods: The authors recorded word productions from 11…

Kuruvilla, Mili S.; Green, Jordan R.; Yunusova, Yana; Hanford, Kathy

2012-01-01

423

TDP43 mutations in familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal motor neuron disorder characterized pathologically by ubiquitinated TAR DNA binding protein (TDP-43) inclusions. The function of TDP-43 in the nervous system is uncertain, and a mechanistic role in neurodegeneration remains speculative. We identified neighboring mutations in a highly conserved region of TARDBP in sporadic and familial ALS cases. TARDBPM337V segregated with disease within

Jemeen Sreedharan; Ian P. Blair; Vineeta B. Tripathi; Xun Hu; Caroline Vance; Boris Rogelj; Steven Ackerley; Jennifer C. Durnall; Kelly L. Williams; Emanuele Buratti; Francisco Baralle; Jacqueline de Belleroche; J. Douglas Mitchell; P. Nigel Leigh; Ammar Al-Chalabi; Christopher C. Miller; Garth Nicholson; Christopher E. Shaw

2008-01-01

424

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients' Perspectives on Use of Mechanical Ventilation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviewed 13 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. All believed that they alone should make decision regarding use of mechanical ventilation. Factors they considered important were quality of life, severity of disability, availability of ventilation by means of nasal mask, possible admission to long-term care facility, ability to discontinue…

Young, Jenny M.; And Others

1994-01-01

425

A Tutorial on Particle Filtering and Smoothing: Fifteen years later  

E-print Network

A Tutorial on Particle Filtering and Smoothing: Fifteen years later Arnaud Doucet The Institute vision, econometrics, robotics and navigation. The objective of this tutorial is to provide a complete described by this tutorial are a broad and popular class of Monte Carlo algorithms which have been developed

Johansen, Adam

426

A Tutorial on Particle Filtering and Smoothing: Fifteen years later  

E-print Network

A Tutorial on Particle Filtering and Smoothing: Fifteen years later Arnaud Doucet The Institute. The objective of this tutorial is to provide a complete, up-to-date survey of this field as of 2008. Basic of particularly simple cases. The "particle" methods described by this tutorial are a broad and popular class

Del Moral , Pierre

427

MMPI characteristics of college freshman males who later became alcoholics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared the MMPI scores of 32 college freshman males later hospitalized as alcoholics with scores of 148 control male classmates for clinical, content scale, and item differences. The prealcoholics were significantly higher on the Psychopathic Deviate, Hypomania and F scales. It is concluded that the college prealcoholic is more likely to be impulsive, nonconforming, and gregarious but is otherwise not

Rodney G. Loper; Mary L. Kammeier; Helmut Hoffmann

1973-01-01

428

Using Monomolecular Films to Characterize Lipid Lateral Interactions  

PubMed Central

Summary Membrane lipids are structurally diverse in ways that far exceed the role envisioned by Singer and Nicholson of simply providing a fluid bilayer matrix in which proteins reside. Current models of lipid organization in membranes postulate that lipid structural diversity enables nonrandom lipid mixing in each leaflet of the bilayer, resulting in regions with special physical and functional properties, i.e., microdomains. Central to understanding the tendencies of membrane lipids to mix nonrandomly in biomembranes is the identification and evaluation of structural features that control membrane lipid lateral mixing interactions in simple model membranes. The surface balance provides a means to evaluate the lateral interactions among different lipids at a most fundamental level—mixed in binary/ternary combinations that self-assemble at the air–water interface as monomolecular films, i.e., monolayers. Analysis of surface pressure and interfacial potential as a function of average cross-sectional molecular area provide insights into hydrocarbon chain ordering, lateral compressibility/elasticity, and dipole effects under various conditions including those that approximate one leaflet of a bilayer. Although elegantly simple in principle, effective use of the surface balance requires proper attention to various experimental parameters, which are described herein. Adequate attention to these experimental parameters ensures that meaningful insights are obtained into the lipid lateral interactions and enables lipid monolayers to serve as a basic platform for use with other investigative approaches. PMID:18214373

Brown, Rhoderick E.; Brockman, Howard L.

2008-01-01

429

Regulation of affect by the lateral septum: implications for neuropsychiatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantial evidence indicates that the lateral septum (LS) plays a critical role in regulating processes related to mood and motivation. This review presents findings from the basic neuroscience literature and from some clinically oriented research, drawing from behavioral, neuroanatomical, electrophysiological, and molecular studies in support of such a role, and articulates models and hypotheses intended to advance our understanding of

Teige P Sheehan; R. Andrew Chambers; David S Russell

2004-01-01

430

Planning in Middle Childhood: Early Predictors and Later Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from 1,364 children and families who participated in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were analyzed to track the early correlates and later academic outcomes of planning during middle childhood. Maternal education, through its effect on parenting quality when…

Friedman, Sarah L.; Scholnick, Ellin K.; Bender, Randall H.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Spieker, Susan; Pasek, Kathy Hirsh; Keating, Daniel P.; Park, Yoonjung

2014-01-01

431

Phytoplankton assemblages in lateral lagoons of a large tropical reservoir.  

PubMed

This study aimed to analyse the composition and ecological attributes of the phytoplankton assemblages in four lateral lagoons and in the main channel of Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, SE Brazil). Fieldwork was carried out in September and November/2004 and January, March, May and August/2005. A total of 283 taxa was identified. Zygnemaphyta was the most specious group, followed by Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta. Higher richness, abundance and biomass were observed in the lagoons when compared with the river-reservoir sampling point, especially during the rainy period. Cryptophyceae and Bacillariophyceae dominated numerically. Cryptomonas brasiliensis Castro, Bicudo and Bicudo was the main species of the phytoplankton in terms of abundance and frequency of occurrence. The dynamics of the most important taxa are discussed and the results showed that the phytoplankton assemblages are mainly influenced by meteorological factors and nutrient availability (the main driving forces). Correlation analyses indicated that the assemblage abundance was limited by nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus). The phytoplankton abundance influenced positively the zooplankton abundance, what indicates the prevalence of bottom-up control routes in the lateral lagoons system. The results validate the hypotheses that lateral lagoons have a prominent ecological role on the phytoplankton diversity, as already previously demonstrated for fish and zooplankton. Therefore, the incorporation of the lateral lagoons in environmental programmes should be a target strategy for the conservation of the regional aquatic biota, minimising the negative impact of the dam. PMID:23644798

Ferrareze, M; Nogueira, M G

2013-02-01

432

Whose children gain from starting school later? – evidence from Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

We look at the effect of school starting age on standardized test scores using data covering all Grade 4 and Grade 8 students in Hungary. Instrumental variables estimates of the local average treatment effect suggest that children generally gain from starting school 1 year later, and the effects are much stronger in the case of students coming from low-educated families.

Szilvia Altwicker-Hámori; János Köll?

2012-01-01

433

Motion Characterizations of Lateral Micromachined Sensor Based on Stroboscopic Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we illustrate the capabilities of the Planar Motion Analyzer (PMA) with a study of the dynamic behavior of a micromachined structure. Dynamic characterizations and measurement settings are also demonstrated. The optical measurement system uses the light-emitting diode (LED) based vibration measurement technique for imaging, and then measuring the lateral resonant frequency and sensor displacements, as well. The

Andojo Ongkodjojo Ong; Francis Eng Hock Tay

2007-01-01

434

Astronomy & Astrophysics manuscript no. (will be inserted by hand later)  

E-print Network

of the are area. The existence of a #12;tting model demonstrates that nano are heating of the corona is a viable for heating the solar corona (e.g. reviews in Ulmschneider, Rosner, & Priest, 1991). Most popular at presentAstronomy & Astrophysics manuscript no. (will be inserted by hand later) A nano are heating model

435

Evidence for Developmental Programming of Cerebral Laterality in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adverse fetal environments are associated with depression, reduced cognitive ability and increased stress responsiveness in later life, but underlying mechanisms are unknown. Environmental pressures on the fetus, resulting from variations in placental function and maternal nutrition, health and stress might alter neurodevelopment, promoting the development of some brain regions over others. As asymmetry of cerebral activity, with greater right hemisphere

Alexander Jones; Clive Osmond; Keith M. Godfrey; David I. W. Phillips; Andrew Whitehouse

2011-01-01

436

Impaired Structural Motor Connectome in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe neurodegenerative disease selectively affecting upper and lower motor neurons. Patients with ALS suffer from progressive paralysis and eventually die on average after three years. The underlying neurobiology of upper motor neuron degeneration and its effects on the complex network of the brain are, however, largely unknown. Here, we examined the effects of ALS

Esther Verstraete; Jan H. Veldink; Rene C. W. Mandl; Leonard H. van den Berg; Martijn P. van den Heuvel

2011-01-01

437

Cushioning and lateral stability functions of cloth sport shoes.  

PubMed

In this study, we evaluated the protective functions of cloth sport shoes, including cushioning and lateral stability. Twelve male students participated in the study (mean +/- s: age 12.7 +/- 0.4 years, mass 40.7 +/- 5.9kg, height 1.50 +/- 0.04m). Cloth sport shoes, running shoes, basketball shoes, crosstraining shoes, and barefoot conditions were investigated in random sequence. Human pendulum and cutting movement tests were used to assess cushioning performance and lateral stability, respectively. For cushioning, the running shoes (2.06 body weight, BW) performed the best, while the cross-training shoes (2.30 BW) and the basketball shoes (2.37 BW) both performed better than the cloth sport shoes (2.55 BW) and going barefoot (2.63 BW). For the lateral stability test, range of inversion--eversion was found to be from 3.6 to 4.9 degrees, which was far less than that for adult participants (> 20 degrees). No significant differences were found between conditions. All conditions showed prolonged durations from foot-strike to maximum inversion (66-95 ms), which was less vigorous than that for adult participants (< 40 ms) and was unlikely to evoke intrinsic stability failure. In conclusion, the cloth sport shoe showed inferior cushioning capability but the same lateral stability as the other sports shoes for children. PMID:17933201

Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui; Hong, Youlian; Li, Jing Xian

2007-09-01

438

Sputnik 50 years later: New evidence on its origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite many revelations on the origins of Sputnik in the 1990s, there still remained some important unanswered questions. For example, we know that chief designer Sergey Korolev first wrote to the Soviet government in May 1954 asking for approval to develop a satellite. Yet, Soviet leaders responded with a decree nearly 2 years later in January 1956. What happened during

Asif Siddiqi

2008-01-01

439

Styling in a Language Learned Later in Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyses the styles of English produced by an adult migrant who started to speak the language later in life, and it approaches them from the perspective of quantitative style-shifting and discursive stylization. After defining style and the procedures needed to justify the term "L2," the study describes the focal…

Rampton, Ben

2013-01-01

440

Trauma in Early Infancy and Later Personality Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The psychodynamic patterns of personality of children born with congenital ob- structions in the alimentary tract were compared with those of normal children in later childhood. The congenital anomalies had required surgery within the first 4 months of life. The psychodynamic patterns were elicited by 4 projective tech- niques. Information regarding the mothers' emotional stability and attitudes was gathered by

RALPH M. GIBSON

441

Relation between Laterality and Immune Response after Acute Cerebral Ischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: During the last 2 decades, right\\/left hemisphere dominance was supposed to affect the immune system differently. Experimental and clinical observations indicate that the left hemisphere plays a crucial role in the development of the immune system. The true relationship between immune response and acute ischemic stroke laterality remains to be elucidated. Methods: We studied acute right-handed stroke patients admitted

H. J. Koch; G. Uyanik; U. Bogdahn; G. W. Ickenstein

2006-01-01

442

New investigation of short wings with lateral jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lift of short wings by means of lateral fluid jets fired in the plane of the wing in the direction of the span is described. After some theoretical considerations, the experimental results obtained in a wind tunnel on a series of wings of various lengths are presented.

Carafoli, E.; Camarasescu, N.

1983-01-01

443

Astronomy & Astrophysics manuscript no. (will be inserted by hand later)  

E-print Network

Astronomy & Astrophysics manuscript no. (will be inserted by hand later) Catalogue of cataclysmic on this catalogue: 1. The online and current edition of A Catalog and Atlas of Cataclysmic Variables by Downes et al and Atlas of Galactic Novae by Duerbeck (1987), and is supplemented by or­ bital period information

Kolb, Ulrich

444

Lateral and Anterior Thalamic Lesions Impair Independent Memory Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Damage to the medial region of the thalamus, both in clinical cases (e.g., patients with infarcts or the Korsakoff's syndrome) and animal lesion models, is associated with variable amnesic deficits. Some studies suggest that many of these memory deficits rely on the presence of lateral thalamic lesions (LT) that include the intralaminar nuclei,…

Mitchell, Anna S.; Dalrymple-Alford, John C.

2006-01-01

445

9. VIEW SHOWING CHILDREN SWIMMING IN A LATERAL OF THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW SHOWING CHILDREN SWIMMING IN A LATERAL OF THE GRAND CANAL LOCATION UNKNOWN. THE HUGE COTTONWOOD TREES THAT ONCE-LINED MOST CANALS AND DITCHES WERE CUT DOWN WHEN IT WAS DISCOVERED THAT THEY CONSUMED HUNDREDS OF GALLONS OF WATER EACH DAY. Photographer unknown, no date - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

446

Vehicle Crash Severity Assessment in Lateral Pole Impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys some current technologies in reconstructing lateral narrow object impacts. This is accomplished through a multi-step process. First, staged crash test data is reviewed and presented in order to understand the observable vehicle structural deformation trends. A commonly used crush energy reconstruction algorithm (CRASH') is then applied to the test data and an analysis is made of the

Michael S. Varat; Stein E. Husher

1999-01-01

447

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in an Italian professional soccer player  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rare devastating neurodegenerative disease of unknown etiology. Two recent epidemiological studies showed a high risk for ALS among Italian male soccer players. We present the clinical and occupational history of an Italian professional soccer player affected by sporadic ALS. The early onset of ALS (45 years), the bulbar form, the playing position (midfielder) and

Nicola Vanacore; Alessandra Binazzi; Marco Bottazzi; Stefano Belli

2006-01-01

448

Network Type and Mortality Risk in Later Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of baseline network type and 7-year mortality risk in later life. Design and Methods: We executed secondary analysis of all-cause mortality in Israel using data from a 1997 national survey of adults aged 60 and older (N = 5,055) that was linked to records from the National Death…

Litwin, Howard; Shiovitz-Ezra, Sharon

2006-01-01

449

Block copolymer thin films with long-range lateral order  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated thin block copolymer films on silicon wafers as well as faceted surfaces of sapphire. Thin films were prepared by spin-coating block copolymer solutions on the corresponding substrates. Subsequent annealing in organic solvent vapors served as a means to induce lateral long-range order in the thin films. The resulting block copolymer structures were analyzed by AFM and GISAXS.

Gunkel, Ilja; Xu, Ting; Hexemer, Alexander; Russell, Thomas

2012-02-01

450

Rasch Measurement in the Assessment of Amytrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the sensitivity to change over time of the Amytrophic Lateral Sclerosis Assessment Questionnaire (ALSAQ-40; C. Jenkinson and others, 1999). Findings for 764 individuals show that the ALSAQ-40 is a valid and responsive disease-specific health-related quality of life instrument for studies of patients with motor neuron diseases. (SLD)

Norquist, Josephine M.; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Jenkinson, Crispin

2003-01-01

451

Controller design for improving lateral vehicle dynamic stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vehicle dynamics control system has been developed in this study for improving vehicle dynamic stability under critical lateral motions. The system consists of a feedforward controller, a state feedback controller, and an estimator for the body sideslip angle. The linear quadratic regulator theory has been exploited for the state feedback gain, and for estimation of the body sideslip angle,

Seung-Jin Heo; Inho Baek

2001-01-01

452

DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY 2006/07 AND LATER CATALOGS  

E-print Network

DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY 2006/07 AND LATER CATALOGS GRADUATION WORKSHEET FOR MAJORS AND MINORS: I. Prerequisites: Preparation for the Major: Anthropology 101 and 102; and either Economics 201________ year ___ year ______ __ __________ __ III . Upper Division Courses in Anthropology to be selected from

Ponce, V. Miguel

453

Department of Anthropology 2010/11 and later Catalogs  

E-print Network

Department of Anthropology 2010/11 and later Catalogs Graduation Worksheet for Majors and Minors: I. Prerequisites: Preparation for the Major: Anthropology 101 and 102; and either Economics 201 Courses (12 units): (One core course may be substituted with another upper division anthropology course

Ponce, V. Miguel

454

Transitions into and out of Cohabitation in Later Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cohabitation among adults over age 50 is rising rapidly, more than doubling from 1.2 million in 2000 to 2.75 million in 2010. A small literature provides a descriptive portrait of older cohabitors, but no study has investigated transitions into and out of cohabitation during later life. Drawing on demographic and life course perspectives, the…

Brown, Susan L.; Bulanda, Jennifer Roebuck; Lee, Gary R.

2012-01-01

455

Lateral Knee Braces in Football: Do They Prevent Injury?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of three recently presented clinical studies and a biomechanical study of the use of lateral knee braces to prevent knee injuries are reviewed. The results raise serious doubts about the efficacy of the preventive knee braces which are currently available. (Author/MT)

Paulos, Lonnie E.; And Others

1986-01-01

456

Radical Creativity in Later Life. Occasional Papers Series: No. 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The lives and work of many distinguished artists support the claim that, far from being a period of decline, later life can be the high point of creativity. Evidence from both the visual and written arts would appear to challenge the research of Harvey Lehman, whose 1953 study "Age and Achievement" claimed that artists produce their best paintings…

Macdonald, Murdo

457

30 years later--landscape ecology: directions and approaches  

E-print Network

in the 1940s into ecosystem anal- yses in the later 1960s. Watershed studies, such as timber harvesting 2013 / Published online: 21 February 2013 Ã? Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht (outside the USA established, with the human dimension firmly entrenched in a science that was largely descriptive, endowed

Fried, Jeremy S.

458

Acoustic Investigations into the Later Acquisition of Syllabic "-es" Plurals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Children acquire /-ez/ syllabic plurals (e.g., buses) later than /-s, -z/ segmental plurals (e.g., cats,dogs). In this study, the authors explored whether increased syllable number or segmental factors best explains poorer performance with syllabic plurals. Method: An elicited imitation experiment was conducted with 14 two-year-olds…

Mealings, Kiri T.; Cox. Felicity; Demuth, Katherine

2013-01-01

459

LATERALIZATION OF KIN RECOGNITION SIGNALS IN THE HUMAN FACE  

E-print Network

Italy Short title: Lateralization of kin recognition signals Keywords: kin recognition, face perception, their judgments of identity, gender, emotion, age and attractiveness depend more on one side of the face than and twenty four observers judged whether or not pairs of children were biological siblings by looking

Maloney, Laurence T.

460

Left lateralizing transcranial direct current stimulation improves reading efficiency  

PubMed Central

Background Poor reading efficiency is the most persistent problem for adults with developmental dyslexia. Previous research has demonstrated a relationship between left posterior temporal cortex (pTC) function and reading ability, regardless of dyslexia status. Objective/Hypothesis In this study, we tested whether enhancing left lateralization of pTC using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) improves reading efficiency in adults without dyslexia. Method Twenty-five right-handed adults with no history of learning disorder participated. Real and sham “Left lateralizing” tDCS were applied to the pTC in separate sessions. Standardized word and nonword reading tests were given immediately after stimulation. Results Modeling of the induced electrical field confirmed that tDCS was likely to increase left pTC excitability and reduce right pTC excitability as intended. Relative to sham, real tDCS induced improvements in word reading efficiency in below average readers. Conclusions Enhancing left lateralization of the pTC using tDCS improves word reading efficiency in below-average readers. This demonstrates that left lateralization of the pTC plays a role in reading ability, and provides stimulation parameters that could be used for a trial of tDCS in adults with developmental dyslexia. Such short-term gains could amplify the effect of appropriate reading interventions when performed in conjunction with them. PMID:22305346

Turkeltaub, Peter E.; Benson, Jennifer; Hamilton, Roy H.; Datta, Abhishek; Bikson, Marom; Coslett, H. Branch

2011-01-01