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Sample records for lateral pedestrian-structure interaction

  1. Experimentally fitted biodynamic models for pedestrian-structure interaction in walking situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toso, Marcelo André; Gomes, Herbert Martins; da Silva, Felipe Tavares; Pimentel, Roberto Leal

    2016-05-01

    The interaction between moving humans and structures usually occurs in slender structures in which the level of vibration is potentially high. Furthermore, there is the addition of mass to the structural system due to the presence of people and an increase in damping due to the human body´s ability to absorb vibrational energy. In this paper, a test campaign is presented to obtain parameters for a single degree of freedom (SDOF) biodynamic model that represents the action of a walking pedestrian in the vertical direction. The parameters of this model are the mass (m), damping (c) and stiffness (k). The measurements were performed on a force platform, and the inputs were the spectral acceleration amplitudes of the first three harmonics at the waist level of the test subjects and the corresponding amplitudes of the first three harmonics of the vertical ground reaction force. This leads to a system of nonlinear equations that is solved using a gradient-based optimization algorithm. A set of individuals took part in the tests to ensure inter-subject variability, and, regression expressions and an artificial neural network (ANN) were used to relate the biodynamic parameters to the pacing rate and the body mass of the pedestrians. The results showed some scatter in damping and stiffness that could not be precisely correlated with the masses and pacing rates of the subjects. The use of the ANN resulted in significant improvements in the parameter expressions with a low uncertainty. Finally, the measured vertical accelerations on a prototype footbridge show the adequacy of the numerical model for the representation of the effects of walking pedestrians on a structure. The results are consistent for many crowd densities.

  2. Lateral interactions in the outer retina

    PubMed Central

    Thoreson, Wallace B.; Mangel, Stuart C.

    2012-01-01

    Lateral interactions in the outer retina, particularly negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones and direct feed-forward input from horizontal cells to bipolar cells, play a number of important roles in early visual processing, such as generating center-surround receptive fields that enhance spatial discrimination. These circuits may also contribute to post-receptoral light adaptation and the generation of color opponency. In this review, we examine the contributions of horizontal cell feedback and feed-forward pathways to early visual processing. We begin by reviewing the properties of bipolar cell receptive fields, especially with respect to modulation of the bipolar receptive field surround by the ambient light level and to the contribution of horizontal cells to the surround. We then review evidence for and against three proposed mechanisms for negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones: 1) GABA release by horizontal cells, 2) ephaptic modulation of the cone pedicle membrane potential generated by currents flowing through hemigap junctions in horizontal cell dendrites, and 3) modulation of cone calcium currents (ICa) by changes in synaptic cleft proton levels. We also consider evidence for the presence of direct horizontal cell feed-forward input to bipolar cells and discuss a possible role for GABA at this synapse. We summarize proposed functions of horizontal cell feedback and feed-forward pathways. Finally, we examine the mechanisms and functions of two other forms of lateral interaction in the outer retina: negative feedback from horizontal cells to rods and positive feedback from horizontal cells to cones. PMID:22580106

  3. Visual Laterality of Calf–Mother Interactions in Wild Whales

    PubMed Central

    Baranov, Vladimir; Osipova, Ludmila; Krasnova, Vera; Malashichev, Yegor

    2010-01-01

    Background Behavioral laterality is known for a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Laterality in social interactions has been described for a wide range of species including humans. Although evidence and theoretical predictions indicate that in social species the degree of population level laterality is greater than in solitary ones, the origin of these unilateral biases is not fully understood. It is especially poorly studied in the wild animals. Little is known about the role, which laterality in social interactions plays in natural populations. A number of brain characteristics make cetaceans most suitable for investigation of lateralization in social contacts. Methodology/Principal Findings Observations were made on wild beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in the greatest breeding aggregation in the White Sea. Here we show that young calves (in 29 individually identified and in over a hundred of individually not recognized mother-calf pairs) swim and rest significantly longer on a mother's right side. Further observations along with the data from other cetaceans indicate that found laterality is a result of the calves' preference to observe their mothers with the left eye, i.e., to analyze the information on a socially significant object in the right brain hemisphere. Conclusions/Significance Data from our and previous work on cetacean laterality suggest that basic brain lateralizations are expressed in the same way in cetaceans and other vertebrates. While the information on social partners and novel objects is analyzed in the right brain hemisphere, the control of feeding behavior is performed by the left brain hemisphere. Continuous unilateral visual contacts of calves to mothers with the left eye may influence social development of the young by activation of the contralateral (right) brain hemisphere, indicating a possible mechanism on how behavioral lateralization may influence species life and welfare. This hypothesis is supported by

  4. Interaction of Aircraft Wakes From Laterally Spaced Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.

    2009-01-01

    Large Eddy Simulations are used to examine wake interactions from aircraft on closely spaced parallel paths. Two sets of experiments are conducted, with the first set examining wake interactions out of ground effect (OGE) and the second set for in ground effect (IGE). The initial wake field for each aircraft represents a rolled-up wake vortex pair generated by a B-747. Parametric sets include wake interactions from aircraft pairs with lateral separations of 400, 500, 600, and 750 ft. The simulation of a wake from a single aircraft is used as baseline. The study shows that wake vortices from either a pair or a formation of B-747 s that fly with very close lateral spacing, last longer than those from an isolated B-747. For OGE, the inner vortices between the pair of aircraft, ascend, link and quickly dissipate, leaving the outer vortices to decay and descend slowly. For the IGE scenario, the inner vortices ascend and last longer, while the outer vortices decay from ground interaction at a rate similar to that expected from an isolated aircraft. Both OGE and IGE scenarios produce longer-lasting wakes for aircraft with separations less than 600 ft. The results are significant because concepts to increase airport capacity have been proposed that assume either aircraft formations and/or aircraft pairs landing on very closely spaced runways.

  5. Biogeomorphic interactions and patterns on Little Ice Age lateral moraines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichel, Jana; Schmidtlein, Sebastian; Dikau, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Glaciers and their forefields are strongly affected by climate change. This leads to increasing geomorphological and ecological dynamics in these environments. Glacier recession exposes high volumes of unconsolidated sediments, with lateral moraines being among the most important sediment storages. Their sediment is reworked by a variety of slope processes, e.g. sheet wash, debris flows or gullying. At the same time, these landforms are colonized by plants and other organisms, proceeding into vegetation succession. It is believed that this process ultimately leads to sediment stabilization which is an important factor for reservoir management in glacier forefields. Recent biogeomorphic research revealed a strong coupling of geomorphic and ecologic processes and complex feedbacks. Geomorphic processes disturb vegetation while at the same time, certain plant species, 'geomorphic-engineer species', can influence geomorphic properties and processes. The strength of these interactions changes during biogeomorphic succession. Corresponding patterns of vegetation and geomorphic forms and processes arise at the mesoscale. The resulting spatial heterogeneity can be mapped as patches. In our study, we investigate patterns of vegetation and geomorphic forms and processes on Little Ice Age lateral moraines in the Turtmann glacier forefield, Switzerland. Despite higher terrain age, these landforms show strongly heterogeneous vegetation as well as geomorphic activity patterns, indicating that sediment stabilization has not yet been accomplished. This could result from varying strengths of biogeomorphic interactions. To assess this influence, vegetation and geomorphic properties of 50 vegetation plots were sampled and statistically analyzed. Results showed that vegetation composition does not relate to terrain age, rather, geomorphic disturbances seem to be a dominant influencing factors, producing patch dynamics. Certain species compositions can be related to specific geomorphic

  6. The lateral extent of volcanic interactions during unrest and eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, Juliet; Robertson, Elspeth; Cashman, Katharine

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions often occur simultaneously or tap multiple magma reservoirs. Such lateral interactions between magmatic systems are attributed to stress changes or hydraulic connections but the precise conditions under which coupled eruptions occur have yet to be quantified. Here we use interferometric synthetic aperture radar satellite data to analyse the surface deformation generated by volcanic unrest in the Kenyan Rift. We identify several magma sources located at depths of 2-5 km importantly, sources that are spaced less than about 10 km apart interact, whereas those spaced more than about 25 km apart do not. However, volcanoes up to 25 km apart have interacted in the geologic past. Thus, volcanic coupling is not simply controlled by the distance between the magma reservoirs. We then consider different tectonic settings globally, including intraplate volcanoes such as Hawaii and Yellowstone, arc volcanism in Alaska and Chile, and other rift settings, such as New Zealand, Iceland and Afar. We find that the most closely spaced magmatic interactions are controlled by the extent of a shallow crystal mush layer, stress changes can couple large eruptions over distances of about 20-40 km, and only large dyke intrusions or subduction earthquakes could generate coupled eruptions over distances of about 50-100 km.

  7. Lateral interactions and non-equilibrium in surface kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Dietrich

    2016-08-01

    Work modelling reactions between surface species frequently use Langmuir kinetics, assuming that the layer is in internal equilibrium, and that the chemical potential of adsorbates corresponds to that of an ideal gas. Coverage dependences of reacting species and of site blocking are usually treated with simple power law coverage dependences (linear in the simplest case), neglecting that lateral interactions are strong in adsorbate and co-adsorbate layers which may influence kinetics considerably. My research group has in the past investigated many co-adsorbate systems and simple reactions in them. We have collected a number of examples where strong deviations from simple coverage dependences exist, in blocking, promoting, and selecting reactions. Interactions can range from those between next neighbors to larger distances, and can be quite complex. In addition, internal equilibrium in the layer as well as equilibrium distributions over product degrees of freedom can be violated. The latter effect leads to non-equipartition of energy over molecular degrees of freedom (for products) or non-equal response to those of reactants. While such behavior can usually be described by dynamic or kinetic models, the deeper reasons require detailed theoretical analysis. Here, a selection of such cases is reviewed to exemplify these points.

  8. Gene regulatory interactions at lateral organ boundaries in maize.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Michael W; Bolduc, Nathalie; Hake, Kayley; Htike, Yadanar; Hay, Angela; Candela, Héctor; Hake, Sarah

    2014-12-01

    Maize leaves have distinct tissues that serve specific purposes. The blade tilts back to photosynthesize and the sheath wraps around the stem to provide structural support and protect young leaves. At the junction between blade and sheath are the ligule and auricles, both of which are absent in the recessive liguleless1 (lg1) mutant. Using an antibody against LG1, we reveal LG1 accumulation at the site of ligule formation and in the axil of developing tassel branches. The dominant mutant Wavy auricle in blade1 (Wab1-R) produces ectopic auricle tissue in the blade and increases the domain of LG1 accumulation. We determined that wab1 encodes a TCP transcription factor by positional cloning and revertant analysis. Tassel branches are few and upright in the wab1 revertant tassel and have an increased branch angle in the dominant mutant. wab1 mRNA is expressed at the base of branches in the inflorescence and is necessary for LG1 expression. wab1 is not expressed in leaves, except in the dominant mutant. The domain of wab1 expression in the Wab1-R leaf closely mirrors the accumulation of LG1. Although wab1 is not needed to induce lg1 expression in the leaf, LG1 is needed to counteract the severe phenotype of the dominant Wab1-R mutant. The regulatory interaction of LG1 and WAB1 reveals a link between leaf shape and tassel architecture, and suggests the ligule is a boundary similar to that at the base of lateral organs. PMID:25359728

  9. Interaction of lateral baroclinic forcing and turbulence in an estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lacy, J.R.; Stacey, M.T.; Burau, J.R.; Monismith, Stephen G.

    2003-01-01

    Observations of density and velocity in a channel in northern San Francisco Bay show that the onset of vertical density stratification during flood tides is controlled by the balance between the cross-channel baroclinic pressure gradient and vertical mixing due to turbulence. Profiles of velocity, salinity, temperature, and suspended sediment concentration were measured in transects across Suisun Cutoff, in northern San Francisco Bay, on two days over the 12.5-hour tidal cycle. During flood tides an axial density front developed between fresher water flowing from the shallows of Grizzly Bay into the northern side of Suisun Cutoff and saltier water flowing up the channel. North of the front, transverse currents were driven by the lateral salinity gradient, with a top-to-bottom velocity difference greater than 30 cm/s. South of the front, the secondary circulation was weak, and along-channel velocities were greater than to the north. The gradient Richardson number shows that stratification was stable north of the front, while the water column was turbulently mixed south of the front. Time-series measurements of velocity and salinity demonstrate that the front develops during each tidal cycle. In estuaries, longitudinal dynamics predict less stratification during flood than ebb tides. These data show that stratification can develop during flood tides due to a lateral baroclinic pressure gradient in estuaries with complex bathymetry.

  10. Hydrodynamic interactions between laterally-spaced undulating ``fish''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jeany L.; Eldredge, Jeff D.

    2008-11-01

    It is generally accepted that fish achieve hydrodynamic benefits by swimming in schools, though the mechanisms used to achieve these benefits are not completely understood. In particular, the influence of lateral separation between fish has not been well characterized. In this work, it is shown that substantial increases in thrust can be obtained by fish swimming in parallel with no streamwise separation. The target of study is a two-dimensional fish-shaped profile generated about an undulating backbone. The fluid dynamics of single and multiple fish, tethered in a free-stream flow, are simulated with the viscous vortex particle method. The Reynolds number is maintained relatively low at 100. The Strouhal number of a single fish is varied to determine the value at which mean net force on the fish is zero. Then, with Strouhal number fixed, the relative distance and phase of two fish are systematically varied. It is found that the largest increase in overall thrust occurs when the fish undulate with mirror symmetry. With mirror symmetry maintained, the overall thrust decreases monotonically, but in a complex manner, as distance is increased. Systems with three fish are also studied. Finally, some preliminary results of free-swimming fish are examined.

  11. Early and Later Maternal-Infant Interactions in Adolescent Mothers: A Comparison Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penny, Judith M.; And Others

    This study examined differences between the positive mother-infant interactions of adolescents and those of young adult mothers, both before and after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES) and educational level. The study also investigated factors related to adolescents' early and later maternal-infant interaction patterns. Subjects were 100…

  12. Probing fibronectin–antibody interactions using AFM force spectroscopy and lateral force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kulik, Andrzej J; Lee, Kyumin; Pyka-Fościak, Grazyna; Nowak, Wieslaw

    2015-01-01

    Summary The first experiment showing the effects of specific interaction forces using lateral force microscopy (LFM) was demonstrated for lectin–carbohydrate interactions some years ago. Such measurements are possible under the assumption that specific forces strongly dominate over the non-specific ones. However, obtaining quantitative results requires the complex and tedious calibration of a torsional force. Here, a new and relatively simple method for the calibration of the torsional force is presented. The proposed calibration method is validated through the measurement of the interaction forces between human fibronectin and its monoclonal antibody. The results obtained using LFM and AFM-based classical force spectroscopies showed similar unbinding forces recorded at similar loading rates. Our studies verify that the proposed lateral force calibration method can be applied to study single molecule interactions. PMID:26114080

  13. Brassinosteroids Interact with Auxin to Promote Lateral Root Development in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Fang; Shen, Junjiang; Brady, Shari R.; Muday, Gloria K.; Asami, Tadao; Yang, Zhenbiao

    2004-01-01

    Plant hormone brassinosteroids (BRs) and auxin exert some similar physiological effects likely through their functional interaction, but the mechanism for this interaction is unknown. In this study, we show that BRs are required for lateral root development in Arabidopsis and that BRs act synergistically with auxin to promte lateral root formation. BR perception is required for the transgenic expression of the β-glucuronidase gene fused to a synthetic auxin-inducible promoter (DR5::GUS) in root tips, while exogenous BR promotes DR5::GUS expression in the root tips and the stele region proximal to the root tip. BR induction of both lateral root formation and DR5::GUS expression is suppressed by the auxin transport inhibitor N-(1-naphthyl) phthalamic acid. Importantly, BRs promote acropetal auxin transport (from the base to the tip) in the root. Our observations indicate that BRs regulate auxin transport, providing a novel mechanism for hormonal interactions in plants and supporting the hypothesis that BRs promote lateral root development by increasing acropetal auxin transport. PMID:15047895

  14. Brassinosteroids interact with auxin to promote lateral root development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Bao, Fang; Shen, Junjiang; Brady, Shari R; Muday, Gloria K; Asami, Tadao; Yang, Zhenbiao

    2004-04-01

    Plant hormone brassinosteroids (BRs) and auxin exert some similar physiological effects likely through their functional interaction, but the mechanism for this interaction is unknown. In this study, we show that BRs are required for lateral root development in Arabidopsis and that BRs act synergistically with auxin to promte lateral root formation. BR perception is required for the transgenic expression of the beta-glucuronidase gene fused to a synthetic auxin-inducible promoter (DR5::GUS) in root tips, while exogenous BR promotes DR5::GUS expression in the root tips and the stele region proximal to the root tip. BR induction of both lateral root formation and DR5::GUS expression is suppressed by the auxin transport inhibitor N-(1-naphthyl) phthalamic acid. Importantly, BRs promote acropetal auxin transport (from the base to the tip) in the root. Our observations indicate that BRs regulate auxin transport, providing a novel mechanism for hormonal interactions in plants and supporting the hypothesis that BRs promote lateral root development by increasing acropetal auxin transport. PMID:15047895

  15. Lateral and Medial Ventral Occipitotemporal Regions Interact During the Recognition of Images Revealed from Noise

    PubMed Central

    Nordhjem, Barbara; Ćurčić-Blake, Branislava; Meppelink, Anne Marthe; Renken, Remco J.; de Jong, Bauke M.; Leenders, Klaus L.; van Laar, Teus; Cornelissen, Frans W.

    2016-01-01

    Several studies suggest different functional roles for the medial and the lateral sections of the ventral visual cortex in object recognition. Texture and surface information is processed in medial sections, while shape information is processed in lateral sections. This begs the question whether and how these functionally specialized sections interact with each other and with early visual cortex to facilitate object recognition. In the current research, we set out to answer this question. In an fMRI study, 13 subjects viewed and recognized images of objects and animals that were gradually revealed from noise while their brains were being scanned. We applied dynamic causal modeling (DCM)—a method to characterize network interactions—to determine the modulatory effect of object recognition on a network comprising the primary visual cortex (V1), the lingual gyrus (LG) in medial ventral cortex and the lateral occipital cortex (LO). We found that object recognition modulated the bilateral connectivity between LG and LO. Moreover, the feed-forward connectivity from V1 to LG and LO was modulated, while there was no evidence for feedback from these regions to V1 during object recognition. In particular, the interaction between medial and lateral areas supports a framework in which visual recognition of objects is achieved by networked regions that integrate information on image statistics, scene content and shape—rather than by a single categorically specialized region—within the ventral visual cortex. PMID:26778997

  16. Potential of lateral interactions of CO on Pt (111) fitted to recent STM images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myshlyavtsev, Alexander V.; Stishenko, Pavel V.

    2015-12-01

    Monolayers of carbon monoxide (CO) on Pt(111) surfaces are one of the most studied adsorption systems. However, molecular models of this system still do not take into account the reliable potential of lateral interactions between adsorbed CO molecules. Recent advances in experimental technique have brought high-resolution real-space images of CO/Pt(111) monolayers. For example, Yang et al. (J. Phys. Chem. C 117 (2013) 16429-16437) found island structures for coverages from 0.11 to 0.25 ML. In this study we have shown that these island structures can be explained with long-range oscillating lateral interactions. Parameters of the proposed potential were fitted to experimental scanning tunneling microscopy images with a series of Monte Carlo simulations.

  17. The Mechanosensory Lateral Line System Mediates Activation of Socially-Relevant Brain Regions during Territorial Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Julie M.; Maruska, Karen P.

    2016-01-01

    Animals use multiple senses during social interactions and must integrate this information in the brain to make context-dependent behavioral decisions. For fishes, the largest group of vertebrates, the mechanosensory lateral line system provides crucial hydrodynamic information for survival behaviors, but little is known about its function in social communication. Our previous work using the African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, provided the first empirical evidence that fish use their lateral line system to detect water movements from conspecifics for mutual assessment and behavioral choices. It is unknown, however, where this socially-relevant mechanosensory information is processed in the brain to elicit adaptive behavioral responses. To examine for the first time in any fish species which brain regions receive contextual mechanosensory information, we quantified expression of the immediate early gene cfos as a proxy for neural activation in sensory and socially-relevant brain nuclei from lateral line-intact and -ablated fish following territorial interactions. Our in situ hybridization results indicate that in addition to known lateral line processing regions, socially-relevant mechanosensory information is processed in the ATn (ventromedial hypothalamus homolog), Dl (putative hippocampus homolog), and Vs (putative medial extended amygdala homolog). In addition, we identified a functional network within the conserved social decision-making network (SDMN) whose co-activity corresponds with mutual assessment and behavioral choice. Lateral line-intact and –ablated fight winners had different patterns of co-activity of these function networks and group identity could be determined solely by activation patterns, indicating the importance of mechanoreception to co-activity of the SDMN. These data show for the first time that the mechanosensory lateral line system provides relevant information to conserved decision-making centers of the brain during

  18. The Mechanosensory Lateral Line System Mediates Activation of Socially-Relevant Brain Regions during Territorial Interactions.

    PubMed

    Butler, Julie M; Maruska, Karen P

    2016-01-01

    Animals use multiple senses during social interactions and must integrate this information in the brain to make context-dependent behavioral decisions. For fishes, the largest group of vertebrates, the mechanosensory lateral line system provides crucial hydrodynamic information for survival behaviors, but little is known about its function in social communication. Our previous work using the African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, provided the first empirical evidence that fish use their lateral line system to detect water movements from conspecifics for mutual assessment and behavioral choices. It is unknown, however, where this socially-relevant mechanosensory information is processed in the brain to elicit adaptive behavioral responses. To examine for the first time in any fish species which brain regions receive contextual mechanosensory information, we quantified expression of the immediate early gene cfos as a proxy for neural activation in sensory and socially-relevant brain nuclei from lateral line-intact and -ablated fish following territorial interactions. Our in situ hybridization results indicate that in addition to known lateral line processing regions, socially-relevant mechanosensory information is processed in the ATn (ventromedial hypothalamus homolog), Dl (putative hippocampus homolog), and Vs (putative medial extended amygdala homolog). In addition, we identified a functional network within the conserved social decision-making network (SDMN) whose co-activity corresponds with mutual assessment and behavioral choice. Lateral line-intact and -ablated fight winners had different patterns of co-activity of these function networks and group identity could be determined solely by activation patterns, indicating the importance of mechanoreception to co-activity of the SDMN. These data show for the first time that the mechanosensory lateral line system provides relevant information to conserved decision-making centers of the brain during territorial

  19. Lateral interactions among membrane proteins. Implications for the organization of gap junctions.

    PubMed Central

    Abney, J R; Braun, J; Owicki, J C

    1987-01-01

    We have studied the relationship between interprotein forces and the lateral distribution of proteins in disordered mouse liver gap junctions. Data on protein positions are obtained from freeze-fracture electron micrographs. Short-ranged correlations in observed positions are characteristic of interacting particles in a fluid state. An analysis derived from statistical mechanics allows the determination of the magnitude and functional form of interprotein forces. We find that jap junction proteins are mutually repulsive, in a manner consistent with electrostatics and excluded volume. This dictates that long-ranged protein aggregation into jap junction plaques cannot arise solely from interparticle interactions. An alternative is the balance of lateral pressures between the junction and the surrounding glycocalyx. This idea is quantified into a model. Junctional pressure arises from protein-protein interactions and is computed from a pressure equation based on the force and a radial distribution function describing order. The pressure from the glycocalyx is assumed to arise from mixing, electrostatic, and elastic interactions of sugar residues, and is described with terms from Flory-Krigbaum and McMillan-Mayer theories. The results of this modeling are in reasonable agreement with available experimental data. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:3651562

  20. Microprobe PIXE study of Ni-Ge interactions in lateral diffusion couples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilukusha, D.; Pineda-Vargas, C. A.; Nemutudi, R.; Habanyama, A.; Comrie, C. M.

    2015-11-01

    Rutherford backscattering spectrometry on the nuclear microprobe (μRBS) is often used in studies of lateral diffusion couples. RBS requires that the positions of the interacting species on the periodic table are not too close in terms of atomic number and therefore do not produce excessive RBS peak overlap. In order to satisfactorily characterize systems that have atomic numbers which are close, it is necessary to find techniques which can complement μRBS. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) could be applied in the lateral diffusion couple study of a system with relatively close atomic numbers. This was with a view that it may eventually be adopted to study systems where the atomic numbers are too close for RBS analysis. The system studied here was the Ni-Ge binary system. Since RBS is an established technique for studying lateral diffusion couples, we used it as a standard for comparison. The PIXE results showed a maximum error of 12% with reference to the RBS standard. In order to achieve the most effective use of PIXE in lateral diffusion couple studies we recommend the use of the technique in such a way as to obtain depth information and the use of relatively thick sample layers.

  1. Mutations in SOD1 associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cause novel protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Kunst, C B; Mezey, E; Brownstein, M J; Patterson, D

    1997-01-01

    A subset of familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS-a fatal disorder characterised by progressive motor neuron degeneration) cases are due to mutations in the gene encoding Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Two mutations which have been successfully used to generate transgenic mice that develop an ALS-like syndrome are glycine 85 to arginine (G85R) and glycine 93 to alanine (G93A) with the mutant SOD1 allele overexpressed in a normal mouse genetic background. No ALS-like phenotype is observed in mice overexpressing wild-type SOD1 or mice without any SOD1 activity. These dominant mutations, which do not necessarily decrease SOD1 activity, may confer a gain of function that is selectively lethal to motor neurons. The yeast interaction trap system allowed us to determine whether these mutations in SOD1 caused novel protein interactions not observed with wild-type SOD1 and which might participate in the generation of the ALS phenotype. Two proteins, lysyl-tRNA synthetase and translocon-associated protein delta, interact with mutant forms of SOD1 but not with wild-type SOD1. The specificity of the interactions was confirmed by the coimmunoprecipitation of mutant SOD1 and the expressed proteins. These proteins are expressed in ventral cord, lending support to the relevance of this interaction to motor neuron disease. PMID:8988176

  2. Biomechanically inspired modelling of pedestrian-induced forces on laterally oscillating structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocian, M.; Macdonald, J. H. G.; Burn, J. F.

    2012-07-01

    Despite considerable interest among engineers and scientists, bi-directional interaction between walking pedestrians and lively bridges has still not been well understood. In an attempt to bridge this gap a biomechanically inspired model of the human response to lateral bridge motion is presented and explored. The simple inverted pendulum model captures the key features of pedestrian lateral balance and the resulting forces on the structure. The forces include self-excited components that can be effectively modelled as frequency-dependent added damping and mass to the structure. The results of numerical simulations are in reasonable agreement with recent experimental measurements of humans walking on a laterally oscillating treadmill, and in very good agreement with measurements on full-scale bridges. In contrast to many other models of lateral pedestrian loading, synchronisation with the bridge motion is not involved. A parametric study of the model is conducted, revealing that as pedestrians slow down as a crowd becomes more dense, their resulting lower pacing rates generate larger self-excited forces. For typical pedestrian parameters, the potential to generate negative damping arises for any lateral bridge vibration frequency above 0.43 Hz, depending on the walking frequency. Stability boundaries of the combined pedestrian-structure system are presented in terms of the structural damping ratio and pedestrian-to-bridge mass ratio, revealing complex relations between damping demand and bridge and pedestrian frequencies, due to the added mass effect. Finally it is demonstrated that the model can produce simultaneous self-excited forces on multiple structural modes, and a realistic full simulation of a large number of pedestrians, walking randomly and interacting with a bridge, produces structural behaviour in very good agreement with site observations.

  3. Do Parentese Prosody and Fathers' Involvement in Interacting Facilitate Social Interaction in Infants Who Later Develop Autism?

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, David; Cassel, Raquel S.; Saint-Georges, Catherine; Mahdhaoui, Ammar; Laznik, Marie-Christine; Apicella, Fabio; Muratori, Pietro; Maestro, Sandra; Muratori, Filippo; Chetouani, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Background Whether development of autism impacts the interactive process between an infant and his/her parents remains an unexplored issue. Methodology and Principal Findings Using computational analysis taking into account synchronic behaviors and emotional prosody (parentese), we assessed the course of infants' responses to parents' type of speech in home movies from typically developing (TD) infants and infants who will subsequently develop autism aged less than 18 months. Our findings indicate: that parentese was significantly associated with infant responses to parental vocalizations involving orientation towards other people and with infant receptive behaviours; that parents of infants developing autism displayed more intense solicitations that were rich in parentese; that fathers of infants developing autism spoke to their infants more than fathers of TD infants; and that fathers' vocalizations were significantly associated with intersubjective responses and active behaviours in infants who subsequently developed autism. Conclusion The parents of infants who will later develop autism change their interactive pattern of behaviour by both increasing parentese and father's involvement in interacting with infants; both are significantly associated with infant's social responses. We stress the possible therapeutic implications of these findings and its implication for Dean Falk's theory regarding pre-linguistic evolution in early hominins. PMID:23650498

  4. Parallel kinetic Monte Carlo simulation framework incorporating accurate models of adsorbate lateral interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Jens; D’Avezac, Mayeul; Hetherington, James; Stamatakis, Michail

    2013-12-14

    Ab initio kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations have been successfully applied for over two decades to elucidate the underlying physico-chemical phenomena on the surfaces of heterogeneous catalysts. These simulations necessitate detailed knowledge of the kinetics of elementary reactions constituting the reaction mechanism, and the energetics of the species participating in the chemistry. The information about the energetics is encoded in the formation energies of gas and surface-bound species, and the lateral interactions between adsorbates on the catalytic surface, which can be modeled at different levels of detail. The majority of previous works accounted for only pairwise-additive first nearest-neighbor interactions. More recently, cluster-expansion Hamiltonians incorporating long-range interactions and many-body terms have been used for detailed estimations of catalytic rate [C. Wu, D. J. Schmidt, C. Wolverton, and W. F. Schneider, J. Catal. 286, 88 (2012)]. In view of the increasing interest in accurate predictions of catalytic performance, there is a need for general-purpose KMC approaches incorporating detailed cluster expansion models for the adlayer energetics. We have addressed this need by building on the previously introduced graph-theoretical KMC framework, and we have developed Zacros, a FORTRAN2003 KMC package for simulating catalytic chemistries. To tackle the high computational cost in the presence of long-range interactions we introduce parallelization with OpenMP. We further benchmark our framework by simulating a KMC analogue of the NO oxidation system established by Schneider and co-workers [J. Catal. 286, 88 (2012)]. We show that taking into account only first nearest-neighbor interactions may lead to large errors in the prediction of the catalytic rate, whereas for accurate estimates thereof, one needs to include long-range terms in the cluster expansion.

  5. Worming forward: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis toxicity mechanisms and genetic interactions in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Therrien, Martine; Parker, J. Alex

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases share pathogenic mechanisms at the cellular level including protein misfolding, excitotoxicity and altered RNA homeostasis among others. Recent advances have shown that the genetic causes underlying these pathologies overlap, hinting at the existence of a genetic network for neurodegeneration. This is perhaps best illustrated by the recent discoveries of causative mutations for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal degeneration (FTD). Once thought to be distinct entities, it is now recognized that these diseases exist along a genetic spectrum. With this wealth of discoveries comes the need to develop new genetic models of ALS and FTD to investigate not only pathogenic mechanisms linked to causative mutations, but to uncover potential genetic interactions that may point to new therapeutic targets. Given the conservation of many disease genes across evolution, Caenorhabditis elegans is an ideal system to investigate genetic interactions amongst these genes. Here we review the use of C. elegans to model ALS and investigate a putative genetic network for ALS/FTD that may extend to other neurological disorders. PMID:24860590

  6. Valence-Specific Laterality Effects in Vocal Emotion: Interactions with Stimulus Type, Blocking and Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schepman, Astrid; Rodway, Paul; Geddes, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    Valence-specific laterality effects have been frequently obtained in facial emotion perception but not in vocal emotion perception. We report a dichotic listening study further examining whether valence-specific laterality effects generalise to vocal emotions. Based on previous literature, we tested whether valence-specific laterality effects were…

  7. The interaction of family background and personal education on depressive symptoms in later life.

    PubMed

    Schaan, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    This study assesses the interaction between personal education and family background during childhood on depressive symptoms in later life by applying Ross & Mirowsky's resource substitution and structural amplification theory of health and education. OLS regression models are estimated using data from the "Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe" (SHARE), which covers information on current social and health status as well as retrospective life histories from 20,716 respondents aged 50 or older from thirteen European countries. Higher education helps to overcome the negative consequences of a poor family background. Since people from poor families are less likely to attain higher educational levels, they lack exactly the resource they need in order to overcome the negative consequences their non-prosperous background has on depressive symptoms. Thus, low family background and low personal education amplify each other. Examining the processes described by theory of resource substitution and structural amplification over different age groups from midlife to old-age suggests that the moderating effect of education remains constant over age among people coming from a poor family background. However, there is some evidence for a decrease with age in the buffering effect of a well-off family background on depressive symptoms among the low educated group. Furthermore, the educational gap in depression diverges with age among individuals originating from a well-off family background. Taken together the results cautiously allude to the conclusion that three processes - cumulative (dis-)advantage, age-as-leveler, and persistent inequalities - might take place. PMID:24565146

  8. Atomic Force Tomography of a Nonplanar Molecule: Role of Lateral and Chemical Sample-Tip Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xianghua; Ji, Wei; Physics department, McGill Team; Physics department, Renmin University of China Team

    Atomically identification of the molecular geometric structures is an important prerequisite to understand their chemical and electrical properties. TiOPc, a steric structure, gives rise to two adsorption configurations of TiOPc on Cu(111), namely O-dn and O-up. The roles of chemical specific interactions of different intramolecular atoms with the AFM tips were discussed at the submolecular level. For O-up, the molecular backbone of TiOPc is only visible out of a certain range from the center of the molecule, accompanied with significant dissipation signal. Theoretical calculation identifies such dissipation signal as the chemical attraction between the out-of-plane O in TiOPc and the Cu atoms behind the CO of a tip at a certain range of lateral distance between them. When they approach closer, the sample O repulses another O in the CO tip making it tilting strongly, which softens the tip and thus leads to even stronger O (sample) - Cu (tip) attraction. A direct demonstration of sample-tip electronic hybridization was manifested in the simpler O-dn case where an explicit wavefunction overlap between the tip O atom and the sample Ti atom. Given these results presented here, we anticipate that this method might be developed further generally useful in single-molecule chemistry and physics. X.K. thanks the Chinese Scholarship Council for support.

  9. FUS and TARDBP but Not SOD1 Interact in Genetic Models of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kabashi, Edor; Bercier, Valérie; Lissouba, Alexandra; Liao, Meijiang; Brustein, Edna; Rouleau, Guy A.; Drapeau, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the SOD1 and TARDBP genes have been commonly identified in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Recently, mutations in the Fused in sarcoma gene (FUS) were identified in familial (FALS) ALS cases and sporadic (SALS) patients. Similarly to TDP-43 (coded by TARDBP gene), FUS is an RNA binding protein. Using the zebrafish (Danio rerio), we examined the consequences of expressing human wild-type (WT) FUS and three ALS–related mutations, as well as their interactions with TARDBP and SOD1. Knockdown of zebrafish Fus yielded a motor phenotype that could be rescued upon co-expression of wild-type human FUS. In contrast, the two most frequent ALS–related FUS mutations, R521H and R521C, unlike S57Δ, failed to rescue the knockdown phenotype, indicating loss of function. The R521H mutation caused a toxic gain of function when expressed alone, similar to the phenotype observed upon knockdown of zebrafish Fus. This phenotype was not aggravated by co-expression of both mutant human TARDBP (G348C) and FUS (R521H) or by knockdown of both zebrafish Tardbp and Fus, consistent with a common pathogenic mechanism. We also observed that WT FUS rescued the Tardbp knockdown phenotype, but not vice versa, suggesting that TARDBP acts upstream of FUS in this pathway. In addition we observed that WT SOD1 failed to rescue the phenotype observed upon overexpression of mutant TARDBP or FUS or upon knockdown of Tardbp or Fus; similarly, WT TARDBP or FUS also failed to rescue the phenotype induced by mutant SOD1 (G93A). Finally, overexpression of mutant SOD1 exacerbated the motor phenotype caused by overexpression of mutant FUS. Together our results indicate that TARDBP and FUS act in a pathogenic pathway that is independent of SOD1. PMID:21829392

  10. FUS and TARDBP but not SOD1 interact in genetic models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kabashi, Edor; Bercier, Valérie; Lissouba, Alexandra; Liao, Meijiang; Brustein, Edna; Rouleau, Guy A; Drapeau, Pierre

    2011-08-01

    Mutations in the SOD1 and TARDBP genes have been commonly identified in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Recently, mutations in the Fused in sarcoma gene (FUS) were identified in familial (FALS) ALS cases and sporadic (SALS) patients. Similarly to TDP-43 (coded by TARDBP gene), FUS is an RNA binding protein. Using the zebrafish (Danio rerio), we examined the consequences of expressing human wild-type (WT) FUS and three ALS-related mutations, as well as their interactions with TARDBP and SOD1. Knockdown of zebrafish Fus yielded a motor phenotype that could be rescued upon co-expression of wild-type human FUS. In contrast, the two most frequent ALS-related FUS mutations, R521H and R521C, unlike S57Δ, failed to rescue the knockdown phenotype, indicating loss of function. The R521H mutation caused a toxic gain of function when expressed alone, similar to the phenotype observed upon knockdown of zebrafish Fus. This phenotype was not aggravated by co-expression of both mutant human TARDBP (G348C) and FUS (R521H) or by knockdown of both zebrafish Tardbp and Fus, consistent with a common pathogenic mechanism. We also observed that WT FUS rescued the Tardbp knockdown phenotype, but not vice versa, suggesting that TARDBP acts upstream of FUS in this pathway. In addition we observed that WT SOD1 failed to rescue the phenotype observed upon overexpression of mutant TARDBP or FUS or upon knockdown of Tardbp or Fus; similarly, WT TARDBP or FUS also failed to rescue the phenotype induced by mutant SOD1 (G93A). Finally, overexpression of mutant SOD1 exacerbated the motor phenotype caused by overexpression of mutant FUS. Together our results indicate that TARDBP and FUS act in a pathogenic pathway that is independent of SOD1. PMID:21829392

  11. Visual Field x Response Hand Interactions and Level Priming in the Processing of Laterally Presented Hierarchical Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendt, Mike; Vietze, Ina; Kluwe, Rainer H.

    2007-01-01

    Hemisphere-specific processing of laterally presented global and local stimulus levels was investigated by (a) examining interactions between the visual field of stimulus presentation and the response hand and (b) comparing intra- with inter-hemispheric effects of level priming (i.e. faster and more accurate performance when the target level…

  12. Lateralization and Binaural Interaction of Middle-Latency and Late-Brainstem Components of the Auditory Evoked Response.

    PubMed

    Dykstra, Andrew R; Burchard, Daniel; Starzynski, Christian; Riedel, Helmut; Rupp, Andre; Gutschalk, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    We used magnetoencephalography to examine lateralization and binaural interaction of the middle-latency and late-brainstem components of the auditory evoked response (the MLR and SN10, respectively). Click stimuli were presented either monaurally, or binaurally with left- or right-leading interaural time differences (ITDs). While early MLR components, including the N19 and P30, were larger for monaural stimuli presented contralaterally (by approximately 30 and 36 % in the left and right hemispheres, respectively), later components, including the N40 and P50, were larger ipsilaterally. In contrast, MLRs elicited by binaural clicks with left- or right-leading ITDs did not differ. Depending on filter settings, weak binaural interaction could be observed as early as the P13 but was clearly much larger for later components, beginning at the P30, indicating some degree of binaural linearity up to early stages of cortical processing. The SN10, an obscure late-brainstem component, was observed consistently in individuals and showed linear binaural additivity. The results indicate that while the MLR is lateralized in response to monaural stimuli-and not ITDs-this lateralization reverses from primarily contralateral to primarily ipsilateral as early as 40 ms post stimulus and is never as large as that seen with fMRI. PMID:27197812

  13. Vocal and visual stimulation, congruence and lateralization affect brain oscillations in interspecies emotional positive and negative interactions.

    PubMed

    Balconi, Michela; Vanutelli, Maria Elide

    2016-06-01

    The present research explored the effect of cross-modal integration of emotional cues (auditory and visual (AV)) compared with only visual (V) emotional cues in observing interspecies interactions. The brain activity was monitored when subjects processed AV and V situations, which represented an emotional (positive or negative), interspecies (human-animal) interaction. Congruence (emotionally congruous or incongruous visual and auditory patterns) was also modulated. electroencephalography brain oscillations (from delta to beta) were analyzed and the cortical source localization (by standardized Low Resolution Brain Electromagnetic Tomography) was applied to the data. Frequency band (mainly low-frequency delta and theta) showed a significant brain activity increasing in response to negative compared to positive interactions within the right hemisphere. Moreover, differences were found based on stimulation type, with an increased effect for AV compared with V. Finally, delta band supported a lateralized right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity in response to negative and incongruous interspecies interactions, mainly for AV. The contribution of cross-modality, congruence (incongruous patterns), and lateralization (right DLPFC) in response to interspecies emotional interactions was discussed at light of a "negative lateralized effect." PMID:26256040

  14. Adsorption isotherm predicted from a lattice gas with general lateral interactions in a single-phase regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medved', I.; Trník, A.; Černý, Robert

    2014-12-01

    We investigate which isotherm equation arises when a lattice gas with rather general lateral interactions is used to model an adsorption of particles on a solid surface at subcritical temperatures. For simplicity, an energetically homogeneous surface is considered, and only a single phase is assumed to be stable in the system. We show that, up to a constant, the result is a sum of terms that have the same form as the Hill isotherm or, less accurately, as the Freundlich isotherm. Each of these terms contains three types of microscopic parameters whose relation to the details of the considered lattice gas, such as its lateral interactions, is provided. We also provide a formula for the heat of adsorption and discuss the phenomenon of adsorption compression. We illustrate the results for a simple lattice gas on a triangular lattice with pair and triple interactions. Possible extensions to inhomogeneous surfaces, multi-component adsorption, and phase coexistence regions are pointed out.

  15. Normal and lateral Casimir interactions between semi-infinite conductors in the presence of a dispersive medium

    SciTech Connect

    Soltani, Morteza; Sarabadani, Jalal; Kheirandish, Fardin; Rabbani, Hasan

    2010-10-15

    Path-integral formalism is employed to study normal and lateral Casimir interactions in a system composed of a dispersive medium surrounded by two semi-infinite ideal conductors. The dispersive medium is modeled by a continuum of harmonic oscillators, and it is shown that for smooth conductors, the normal force at small distances in the presence of a dispersive medium coincides with the original Casimir force, while at large distances, it tends to the original form with a renormalized coefficient. The correction to the normal force because of the roughness on one of the conductors is calculated. When the inner surfaces of both conductors have roughness, the lateral Casimir interaction occurs because of translational symmetry breaking, which is studied. It is shown that both normal and lateral Casimir forces in the presence of a dispersive medium are weaker in comparison with the original one and are proportional to the roughness amplitude squared. The dependence of the normal and lateral interactions on the memory and strength of the dispersive medium is considered.

  16. Classroom Demonstration and Interactive Model of Sea-Level Control on Lateral and Vertical Facies Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C.; Pound, K. S.; Jones, M. H.; Schmitt, L.; Campbell, K.

    2005-12-01

    Students often have difficulty understanding and visualizing the role that relative sea-level change plays in controlling vertical and lateral facies changes; they also struggle with explanations of regional facies patterns and changes as sea-level dependant. This interactive, dynamic, in-class model has been developed to build their understanding both of this topic, and of the nature of predictive scientific models. The model can be used as a follow-up to field observations, or to pre-teach concepts. The model assumes a land-ocean transect that is divided into 5 sedimentary settings. Each setting in the land-ocean transect is associated with sediment grain size that decreases basinward; the most basinward component is carbonate. In the model, seven 10-cm diameter see-through tubes are set up to represent `cores' spread along the land-ocean transect. Brightly-colored plastic beads are used to represent sediment deposited in each of the sedimentary settings. At the start, the position of the shoreline (sea level) is fixed between the fluvial (tube 2) and beach (tube 3) sediments. Students then deposit beads that represent their sediment type in the each tube. Other students control the sea-level marker, which can be raised or lowered, and students with the sediment (beads) move shoreward or basinward accordingly, and deposit their sediments (beads) in the appropriate tube. This produces a simple visual record (tubes with layers of distinctly colored beads) that show the idealized sedimentary consequences of relative sea-level change. After large-scale patterns in facies changes have been demonstrated and discussed, students can manipulate variables such as supply and rate. Students can fill a basin using a sequence of events they determine, and other student groups can interpret their cores. The learning and approach of this model can be extended to include real sediment (gravel, sand, silt, mud) deposited in cardboard tubes that are then opened and treated as cores

  17. Multiple coherent states semiclassical initial value representation spectra calculations of lateral interactions for CO on Cu(100).

    PubMed

    Ceotto, Michele; Dell'Angelo, David; Tantardini, Gian Franco

    2010-08-01

    Lateral interactions between carbon monoxide molecules adsorbed on a copper Cu(100) surface are investigated via semiclassical initial value representation (SC-IVR) molecular dynamics. A previous analytical potential is extended to include long-range dipole interactions between coadsorbed molecules and preliminary classical simulations were performed to tune the potential parameters. Then, the spectra for several coadsorbed molecules are calculated using the multiple coherent states approximation of the time-averaging representation of the SC-IVR propagator. Results show strong resonances between coadsorbed molecules as observed by past experiments. Resonances turn into dephasing when isotopical substitutions are performed. PMID:20707543

  18. Neonatal face-to-face interactions promote later social behaviour in infant rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Dettmer, Amanda M.; Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Paukner, Annika; Sclafani, Valentina; Byers, Kristen L.; Murphy, Ashley M.; Miller, Michelle; Marquez, Neal; Miller, Grace M.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Ferrari, Pier F.

    2016-01-01

    In primates, including humans, mothers engage in face-to-face interactions with their infants, with frequencies varying both within and across species. However, the impact of this variation in face-to-face interactions on infant social development is unclear. Here we report that infant monkeys (Macaca mulatta) who engaged in more neonatal face-to-face interactions with mothers have increased social interactions at 2 and 5 months. In a controlled experiment, we show that this effect is not due to physical contact alone: monkeys randomly assigned to receive additional neonatal face-to-face interactions (mutual gaze and intermittent lip-smacking) with human caregivers display increased social interest at 2 months, compared with monkeys who received only additional handling. These studies suggest that face-to-face interactions from birth promote young primate social interest and competency. PMID:27300086

  19. Neonatal face-to-face interactions promote later social behaviour in infant rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Kaburu, Stefano S K; Simpson, Elizabeth A; Paukner, Annika; Sclafani, Valentina; Byers, Kristen L; Murphy, Ashley M; Miller, Michelle; Marquez, Neal; Miller, Grace M; Suomi, Stephen J; Ferrari, Pier F

    2016-01-01

    In primates, including humans, mothers engage in face-to-face interactions with their infants, with frequencies varying both within and across species. However, the impact of this variation in face-to-face interactions on infant social development is unclear. Here we report that infant monkeys (Macaca mulatta) who engaged in more neonatal face-to-face interactions with mothers have increased social interactions at 2 and 5 months. In a controlled experiment, we show that this effect is not due to physical contact alone: monkeys randomly assigned to receive additional neonatal face-to-face interactions (mutual gaze and intermittent lip-smacking) with human caregivers display increased social interest at 2 months, compared with monkeys who received only additional handling. These studies suggest that face-to-face interactions from birth promote young primate social interest and competency. PMID:27300086

  20. Interaction of feel system and flight control system dynamics on lateral flying qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Powers, Bruce G.; Shafer, Mary F.

    1988-01-01

    An investigation of feel system and flight control system dynamics on lateral flying qualities was conducted using the variable stability USAF NT-33 aircraft. Experimental variations in feel system natural frequency, force-deflection gradient, control system command architecture type, flight control system filter frequency, and control system delay were made. The experiment data include pilot ratings using the Cooper-Harper (1969) rating scale, pilot comments, and tracking performance statistic. Three test pilots served as evaluators. The data indicate that as the feel system natural frequency is reduced lateral flying qualities degrade. At the slowest feel system frequency, the closed-loop response becomes nonlinear with a 'bobweight' effect apparent in the feel system. Feel system influences were essentially independent of the control system architecture. The flying qualities influence due to the feel system was different than when the identical dynamic systenm was used as a flight control system element.

  1. Experimental identification of the lateral human-structure interaction mechanism and assessment of the inverted-pendulum biomechanical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, S. P.; Owen, J. S.; Hussein, M. F. M.

    2014-10-01

    Within the context of crowd-induced lateral bridge vibration, human-structure interaction (HSI) is a widely studied phenomenon. Central to this study is the self-excited component of the ground reaction force (GRF). This force harmonic, induced by a walking pedestrian, resonates with lateral deck motion, irrespective of the pedestrian's pacing frequency. Its presence can lead to positive feedback between pedestrian GRFs and structural motion. Characterisation of the self-excited force as equivalent structural mass and damping has greatly improved the understanding of HSI and its role in developing lateral dynamic instability. However, despite this evolving understanding, a key question has remained unanswered; what are the features of a pedestrian's balance response to base motion that gives rise to the self-excited force? The majority of the literature has focussed on the effects of HSI with the underlying mechanism receiving comparatively little attention. This paper presents data from experimental testing in which 10 subjects walked individually on a laterally oscillating treadmill. Lateral deck motion as well as the GRFs imposed by the subject was recorded. Three-dimensional motion capture equipment was used to track the position of visual markers mounted on the subject. Thus whole body response to base motion was captured in addition to the GRFs generated. The data presented herein supports the authors' previous findings that the self-excited force is a frequency sideband harmonic resulting from amplitude modulation of the lateral GRF. The gait behaviour responsible for this amplitude modulation is a periodic modulation of stride width in response to a sinusoidally varying inertia force induced by deck motion. In a separate analysis the validity of the passive inverted pendulum model, stabilised by active control of support placement was confirmed. This was established through comparison of simulated and observed frontal plane CoM motion. Despite the relative

  2. Interaction of feel system and flight control system dynamics on lateral flying qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, R. E.; Knotts, L. H.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the influence of lateral feel system characteristics on fighter aircraft roll flying qualities was conducted using the variable stability USAF NT-33. Forty-two evaluation flights were flown by three engineering test pilots. The investigation utilized the power approach, visual landing task and up-and-away tasks including formation, gun tracking, and computer-generated compensatory attitude tracking tasks displayed on the Head-Up Display. Experimental variations included the feel system frequency, force-deflection gradient, control system command type (force or position input command), aircraft roll mode time constant, control system prefilter frequency, and control system time delay. The primary data were task performance records and evaluation pilot comments and ratings using the Cooper-Harper scale. The data highlight the unique and powerful effect of the feel system of flying qualities. The data show that the feel system is not 'equivalent' in flying qualities influence to analogous control system elements. A lower limit of allowable feel system frequency appears warranted to ensure good lateral flying qualities. Flying qualities criteria should most properly treat the feel system dynamic influence separately from the control system, since the input and output of this dynamic element is apparent to the pilot and thus, does not produce a 'hidden' effect.

  3. Lateral interactions among membrane proteins. Valid estimates based on freeze-fracture electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Braun, J; Abney, J R; Owicki, J C

    1987-01-01

    We consider the lateral distribution of intrinsic membrane proteins from the viewpoint of the statistical-mechanical theory of liquids. We connect the information in freeze-fracture electron micrographs--positions of proteins but not lipids or aqueous species--to a well developed theory of liquid mixtures. An algorithm, based on the Born-Green-Yvon integral equation, is presented for deducing forces between proteins from correlations among protein positions that are observed in micrographs. The algorithm is tested on simulated micrographs, obtained by Monte-Carlo methods, where forces between proteins are known analytically. We conclude that valid estimates of such forces, both attractions and repulsions, can be obtained from the positions of a few thousand proteins. PMID:3651561

  4. Interaction between Glucose and Brassinosteroid during the Regulation of Lateral Root Development in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Laxmi, Ashverya

    2015-01-01

    Glucose (Glc) plays a fundamental role in regulating lateral root (LR) development as well as LR emergence. In this study, we show that brassinosteroid (BR) signaling works downstream of Glc in controlling LR production/emergence in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings. Glc and BR can promote LR emergence at lower concentrations, while at higher concentrations, both have an inhibitory effect. The BR biosynthesis and perception mutants showed highly reduced numbers of emerged LRs at all the Glc concentrations tested. BR signaling works downstream of Glc signaling in regulating LR production, as in the glucose insensitive2-1brassinosteroid insensitive1 double mutant, Glc-induced LR production/emergence was severely reduced. Differential auxin distribution via the influx carriers AUXIN RESISTANT1/LIKE AUXIN RESISTANT1-3 and the efflux carrier PIN-FORMED2 plays a central role in controlling LR production in response to Glc and BR. Auxin signaling components AUXIN RESISTANT2,3 and SOLITARY ROOT act downstream of Glc and BR. AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR7/19 work farther downstream and control LR production by regulating the expression of LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES-DOMAIN29 and EXPANSIN17 genes. Increasing light flux could also mimic the Glc effect on LR production/emergence. However, increased light flux could not affect LR production in those BR and auxin signaling mutants that were defective for Glc-induced LR production. Altogether, our study suggests that, under natural environmental conditions, modulation of endogenous sugar levels can manipulate root architecture for optimized development by altering its nutrient/water uptake as well as its anchorage capacity. PMID:25810094

  5. Face-to-Face Interaction with Pedagogical Agents, Twenty Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, W. Lewis; Lester, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Johnson et al. ("International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education," 11, 47-78, 2000) introduced and surveyed a new paradigm for interactive learning environments: animated pedagogical agents. The article argued for combining animated interface agent technologies with intelligent learning environments, yielding intelligent…

  6. RBM45 Modulates the Antioxidant Response in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis through Interactions with KEAP1

    PubMed Central

    Bakkar, Nadine; Kousari, Arianna; Kovalik, Tina; Li, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the selective loss of motor neurons. Various factors contribute to the disease, including RNA binding protein dysregulation and oxidative stress, but their exact role in pathogenic mechanisms remains unclear. We have recently linked another RNA binding protein, RBM45, to ALS via increased levels of protein in the cerebrospinal fluid of ALS patients and its localization to cytoplasmic inclusions in ALS motor neurons. Here we show RBM45 nuclear exit in ALS spinal cord motor neurons compared to controls, a phenotype recapitulated in vitro in motor neurons treated with oxidative stressors. We find that RBM45 binds and stabilizes KEAP1, the inhibitor of the antioxidant response transcription factor NRF2. ALS lumbar spinal cord lysates similarly show increased cytoplasmic binding of KEAP1 and RBM45. Binding of RBM45 to KEAP1 impedes the protective antioxidant response, thus contributing to oxidative stress-induced cellular toxicity. Our findings thus describe a novel link between a mislocalized RNA binding protein implicated in ALS (RBM45) and dysregulation of the neuroprotective antioxidant response seen in the disease. PMID:25939382

  7. The analysis of temperature programmed desorption experiments of systems with lateral interactions; implications of the compensation effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieskens, D. L. S.; van Bavel, A. P.; Niemantsverdriet, J. W.

    2003-12-01

    In this paper we have investigated problems that arise when analyzing TPD spectra of desorption processes in which lateral interactions between adsorbed species are present. Dynamic Monte Carlo (DMC) simulations are used to simulate the effect of adsorbate interactions on TPD spectra and we applied the most common methods to derive the activation energy and the pre-exponential factor. The extraction of the kinetic parameters in the zero-coverage limit works well for all methods. The extraction of the coverage dependent values on the other hand is quite difficult since a 'forced' compensation effect can occur, leading to false values for the pre-exponential factor as well as false values for the activation energy. Finally, we suggest a new approach that can be used to estimate the activation energy over the entire coverage range.

  8. Full-scale Testing and Numerical Modeling oF Axial and Lateral Soil Pipe Interaction in Deepwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarraf Joshaghani, M.; M Raheem, A.

    2014-12-01

    A thorough understanding of the behavior of deep sea pipes is crucial for off-shore oil & gas industry. During the service life, network of oil and gas pipelines that connect the floating platforms to the subsea wells in deepwater undergo significant changes in temperature and pressure resulting in high shears, strains and movement. These pipelines laid on the very soft seabed become susceptible to large movement and lateral buckling resulting in global instability of the entire system. Hence, it is of paramount importance to address the aforementioned issues through combined numerical modeling and experimental study of various conditions in the field. Modeling this behavior needs to take into account the complex interactions between pipe, water, and soil (which, in this case, will be a saturated porous media). Physical experiments can be challenging as the undrained shear strength is very low of the order of 0.01 kPa. In this research, we have performed large-scale experiments as well as numerical modeling. Several full-scale models have been designed and constructed to investigate the behavior of various types of pipes (steel, plastic) on the simulated clayey sea bed (undrained shear strength ranged from 0.01 kPa to 0.11 kPa). Axial and lateral pipe soil interactions have been characterized, and appropriate mitigation solutions for axial walking and lateral buckling have been proposed. On the numerical modeling front, the pipe-soil behavior is simulated using the Coupled Eulerian Lagrangian (CEL) and Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulations.

  9. Lateral hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, and ventral pallidum roles in eating and hunger: interactions between homeostatic and reward circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Daniel C.; Cole, Shannon L.; Berridge, Kent C.

    2015-01-01

    The study of the neural bases of eating behavior, hunger, and reward has consistently implicated the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and its interactions with mesocorticolimbic circuitry, such as mesolimbic dopamine projections to nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral pallidum (VP), in controlling motivation to eat. The NAc and VP play special roles in mediating the hedonic impact (“liking”) and motivational incentive salience (“wanting”) of food rewards, and their interactions with LH help permit regulatory hunger/satiety modulation of food motivation and reward. Here, we review some progress that has been made regarding this circuitry and its functions: the identification of localized anatomical hedonic hotspots within NAc and VP for enhancing hedonic impact; interactions of NAc/VP hedonic hotspots with specific LH signals such as orexin; an anterior-posterior gradient of sites in NAc shell for producing intense appetitive eating vs. intense fearful reactions; and anatomically distributed appetitive functions of dopamine and mu opioid signals in NAc shell and related structures. Such findings help improve our understanding of NAc, VP, and LH interactions in mediating affective and motivation functions, including “liking” and “wanting” for food rewards. PMID:26124708

  10. Bio-inspired carbon nanotube-polymer composite yarns with hydrogen bond-mediated lateral interactions.

    PubMed

    Beese, Allison M; Sarkar, Sourangsu; Nair, Arun; Naraghi, Mohammad; An, Zhi; Moravsky, Alexander; Loutfy, Raouf O; Buehler, Markus J; Nguyen, SonBinh T; Espinosa, Horacio D

    2013-04-23

    Polymer composite yarns containing a high loading of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) have been developed in which the inherent acrylate-based organic coating on the surface of the DWNT bundles interacts strongly with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) through an extensive hydrogen-bond network. This design takes advantage of a toughening mechanism seen in spider silk and collagen, which contain an abundance of hydrogen bonds that can break and reform, allowing for large deformation while maintaining structural stability. Similar to that observed in natural materials, unfolding of the polymeric matrix at large deformations increases ductility without sacrificing stiffness. As the PVA content in the composite increases, the stiffness and energy to failure of the composite also increases up to an optimal point, beyond which mechanical performance in tension decreases. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations confirm this trend, showing the dominance of nonproductive hydrogen bonding between PVA molecules at high PVA contents, which lubricates the interface between DWNTs. PMID:23548065

  11. GABAergic lateral interactions tune the early stages of visual processing in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Freifeld, Limor; Clark, Damon A; Schnitzer, Mark J; Horowitz, Mark A; Clandinin, Thomas R

    2013-06-19

    Early stages of visual processing must capture complex, dynamic inputs. While peripheral neurons often implement efficient encoding by exploiting natural stimulus statistics, downstream neurons are specialized to extract behaviorally relevant features. How do these specializations arise? We use two-photon imaging in Drosophila to characterize a first-order interneuron, L2, that provides input to a pathway specialized for detecting moving dark edges. GABAergic interactions, mediated in part presynaptically, create an antagonistic and anisotropic center-surround receptive field. This receptive field is spatiotemporally coupled, applying differential temporal processing to large and small dark objects, achieving significant specialization. GABAergic circuits also mediate OFF responses and balance these with responses to ON stimuli. Remarkably, the functional properties of L2 are strikingly similar to those of bipolar cells, yet emerge through different molecular and circuit mechanisms. Thus, evolution appears to have converged on a common strategy for processing visual information at the first synapse. PMID:23791198

  12. Epidermal growth factor-like repeats mediate lateral and reciprocal interactions of Ep-CAM molecules in homophilic adhesions.

    PubMed

    Balzar, M; Briaire-de Bruijn, I H; Rees-Bakker, H A; Prins, F A; Helfrich, W; de Leij, L; Riethmüller, G; Alberti, S; Warnaar, S O; Fleuren, G J; Litvinov, S V

    2001-04-01

    Ep-CAM is a new type of cell adhesion molecule (CAM) which does not structurally resemble the members of the four major families (cadherins, integrins, selectins, and CAMs of the immunoglobulin superfamily) and mediates Ca(2+)-independent, homophilic adhesions. The extracellular domain of Ep-CAM consists of a cysteine-rich region, containing two type II epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats, followed by a cysteine-poor region. We generated mutated Ep-CAM forms with various deletions in the extracellular domain. These deletion mutants, together with monoclonal antibodies recognizing different epitopes in the extracellular domain, were used to investigate the role of the EGF-like repeats in the formation of intercellular contacts mediated by Ep-CAM molecules. We established that both EGF-like repeats are required for the formation of Ep-CAM-mediated homophilic adhesions, including the accumulation of Ep-CAM molecules at the cell-cell boundaries, and the anchorage of the Ep-CAM adhesion complex to F-actin via alpha-actinin. Deletion of either EGF-like repeat was sufficient to inhibit the adhesion properties of the molecule. The first EGF-like repeat of Ep-CAM is required for reciprocal interactions between Ep-CAM molecules on adjacent cells, as was demonstrated with blocking antibodies. The second EGF-like repeat was mainly required for lateral interactions between Ep-CAM molecules. Lateral interactions between Ep-CAM molecules result in the formation of tetramers, which might be the first and necessary step in the formation of Ep-CAM-mediated intercellular contacts. PMID:11259604

  13. Epidermal Growth Factor-Like Repeats Mediate Lateral and Reciprocal Interactions of Ep-CAM Molecules in Homophilic Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Balzar, M.; Briaire-de Bruijn, I. H.; Rees-Bakker, H. A. M.; Prins, F. A.; Helfrich, W.; de Leij, L.; Riethmüller, G.; Alberti, S.; Warnaar, S. O.; Fleuren, G. J.; Litvinov, S. V.

    2001-01-01

    Ep-CAM is a new type of cell adhesion molecule (CAM) which does not structurally resemble the members of the four major families (cadherins, integrins, selectins, and CAMs of the immunoglobulin superfamily) and mediates Ca2+-independent, homophilic adhesions. The extracellular domain of Ep-CAM consists of a cysteine-rich region, containing two type II epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats, followed by a cysteine-poor region. We generated mutated Ep-CAM forms with various deletions in the extracellular domain. These deletion mutants, together with monoclonal antibodies recognizing different epitopes in the extracellular domain, were used to investigate the role of the EGF-like repeats in the formation of intercellular contacts mediated by Ep-CAM molecules. We established that both EGF-like repeats are required for the formation of Ep-CAM-mediated homophilic adhesions, including the accumulation of Ep-CAM molecules at the cell-cell boundaries, and the anchorage of the Ep-CAM adhesion complex to F-actin via α-actinin. Deletion of either EGF-like repeat was sufficient to inhibit the adhesion properties of the molecule. The first EGF-like repeat of Ep-CAM is required for reciprocal interactions between Ep-CAM molecules on adjacent cells, as was demonstrated with blocking antibodies. The second EGF-like repeat was mainly required for lateral interactions between Ep-CAM molecules. Lateral interactions between Ep-CAM molecules result in the formation of tetramers, which might be the first and necessary step in the formation of Ep-CAM-mediated intercellular contacts. PMID:11259604

  14. The relevance of task-irrelevant sounds: hemispheric lateralization and interactions with task-relevant streams

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, Ana A.; Langers, Dave R. M.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of unattended task-irrelevant auditory stimuli in the context of an auditory task is not well understood. Using human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we compared blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal changes resulting from monotic task-irrelevant stimulation, monotic task-relevant stimulation and dichotic stimulation with an attended task-relevant stream to one ear and an unattended task-irrelevant stream to the other ear simultaneously. We found strong bilateral BOLD signal changes in the auditory cortex (AC) resulting from monotic stimulation in a passive listening condition. Consistent with previous work, these responses were largest on the side contralateral to stimulation. AC responses to the unattended (task-irrelevant) sounds were preferentially contralateral and strongest for the most difficult condition. Stronger bilateral AC responses occurred during monotic passive-listening than to an unattended stream presented in a dichotic condition, with attention focused on one ear. Additionally, the visual cortex showed negative responses compared to the baseline in all stimulus conditions including passive listening. Our results suggest that during dichotic listening, with attention focused on one ear, (1) the contralateral and the ipsilateral auditory pathways are suppressively interacting; and (2) cross-modal inhibition occurs during purely acoustic stimulation. These findings support the existence of response suppressions within and between modalities in the presence of competing interfering stimuli. PMID:24409115

  15. Interaction with gravitropism, reversibility and lateral movements of phototropically stimulated potato shoots.

    PubMed

    Vinterhalter, D; Savić, J; Stanišić, M; Jovanović, Ž; Vinterhalter, B

    2016-07-01

    Phototropic (PT) and gravitropic (GT) bending are the two major tropic movements that determine the spatial position of potato shoots. We studied PT bending of potato plantlets grown under long-day photoperiods in several prearranged position setups providing different interactions with the GT response. Starting with the standard PT stimulation setup composed of unilateral irradiation of vertically positioned shoots, experiments were also done in antagonistic and synergistic setups and in treatments with horizontal displacement of the light source. In the standard setup, PT bending suppressed the GT bending, which could occur only if the PT stimulation was cancelled. The antagonistic position, with phototropism and gravitropism attempting to bend shoots in opposite directions, showed phototropism and gravitropism as independent bending events with the outcome varying throughout the day reflecting diurnal changes in the competence of individual tropic components. Whilst gravitropism was constant, phototropism had a marked daily fluctuation of its magnitude with a prominent morning maximum starting an hour after the dawn in the growth room and lasting for the next 6 h. When phototropism and gravitropism were aligned in a synergistic position, stimulating shoot bending in the same direction, there was little quantitative addition of their individual effects. The long period of morning PT bending maximum enabled multiple PT bending events to be conducted in succession, each one preceded by a separate lag phase. Studies of secondary PT events showed that potato plantlets can follow and adjust their shoot position in response to both vertical and horizontal movements of a light source. PT bending was reversible, since the 180° horizontal change of a blue light (BL) source position resulted in reversal of bending direction after a 20-min-long lag phase. PMID:27033355

  16. Impact of spatio-temporal heterogeneities and lateral stirring and mixing on mid-water biotic interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, E.; Richards, K. J.

    2010-08-01

    We study the impact of spatial and temporal inhomogeneities in the flux of particles on particle-biology interactions in the mesopelagic zone using a flux-prey-predator model. The mid-water biology is found to affect significantly the carbon flux associated with the sinking particles. Although the annual mean export flux at the bottom of the zone (taken to be at 1000 m depth) is changed at most 25% in the experiments reported here, the timing and amplitude of pulses of the bottom flux are very dependent on the way the flux at the top of the zone (taken to be 100 m depth) is packaged in time and space. The apparent sinking speed, based on the arrival of pulses of the export flux at the bottom of the zone (1000 m), can vary from 5 m day - 1 to 30 m day - 1 . Lateral stirring and mixing also impact the temporal and spatial distributions of the particle flux. A useful metric in determining the impact of stirring and mixing is the "mix-down depth" which combines the effects of the initial patch size, strength of stirring, diffusion and sinking rate. When the mix-down depth is small compared to the depth to which biological interactions are important, then the impact of stirring and mixing is large, producing significant changes to the temporal behavior of the export flux and reducing spatial inhomogeneities. The results have implications for the sampling of the carbon flux associated with sinking particles and the representativeness of point measurements.

  17. Host Transcriptional Profiling at Early and Later Stages of the Compatible Interaction Between Phaseolus vulgaris and Meloidogyne incognita.

    PubMed

    Santini, Luciane; Munhoz, Carla de Freitas; Bonfim, Mauro Ferreira; Brandão, Marcelo Mendes; Inomoto, Mário Massayuki; Vieira, Maria Lucia Carneiro

    2016-03-01

    The root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) is one of most devastating pathogens that attack the common bean crop. Although there is evidence that some cultivars have race-specific resistance against M. incognita, these resistance sources have not proved effective, and nematodes are able to circumvent the host's defense system. We constructed RNA-seq based libraries and used a high-throughput sequencing platform to analyze the plant responses to M. incognita. Assessments were performed at 4 and 10 days after inoculation corresponding to the stages of nematode penetration and giant cell development, respectively. Large-scale transcript mapping to the common bean reference genome (G19833) resulted in the identification of 27,195 unigenes. Of these, 797 host genes were found to be differentially expressed. The functional annotation results confirm the complex interplay between abiotic and biotic stress signaling pathways. High expression levels of the wounding-responsive genes were observed over the interaction. At early response, an overexpression of the N gene, a TIR-NBS-LRR resistance gene, was understood as a host attempt to overcome the pathogen attack. However, the repression of heat shock proteins resulted in a lack of reactive oxygen species accumulation and absence of a hypersensitive response. Furthermore, the host basal response was broken by the repression of the ethylene/jasmonate pathway later in the response, resulting in a continuous compatible process with consequent plant susceptibility. PMID:26551451

  18. Lateral Protein-Protein Interactions at Hydrophobic and Charged Surfaces as a Function of pH and Salt Concentration.

    PubMed

    Hladílková, Jana; Callisen, Thomas H; Lund, Mikael

    2016-04-01

    Surface adsorption of Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TLL)-a widely used industrial biocatalyst-is studied experimentally and theoretically at different pH and salt concentrations. The maximum achievable surface coverage on a hydrophobic surface occurs around the protein isoelectric point and adsorption is reduced when either increasing or decreasing pH, indicating that electrostatic protein-protein interactions in the adsorbed layer play an important role. Using Metropolis Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, where proteins are coarse grained to the amino acid level, we estimate the protein isoelectric point in the vicinity of charged surfaces as well as the lateral osmotic pressure in the adsorbed monolayer. Good agreement with available experimental data is achieved and we further make predictions of the protein orientation at hydrophobic and charged surfaces. Finally, we present a perturbation theory for predicting shifts in the protein isoelectric point due to close proximity to charged surfaces. Although this approximate model requires only single protein properties (mean charge and its variance), excellent agreement is found with MC simulations. PMID:26815664

  19. Enhancing the ecological validity of tests of lateralization and hemispheric interaction: Evidence from fixated displays of letters or symbols of varying complexity.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Andrew J; Upshaw, Jennifer N; Macaulay, Georgia M; Rutherford, Barbara J

    2016-07-01

    Two experiments expand upon behavioural evidence of interactions among lateralization, hemispheric interaction, and task complexity with findings from an ecologically valid procedure. Target displays of letters or symbols were presented at fixation in go/no-go matching tasks of physical or categorical identity. Simultaneously with the target, a distractor appeared in the left visual field or right visual field to weight processing of the target to the hemisphere ipsilateral to the distractor, or the distractor did not appear at all. Comparison of the respective distractor-present trials with distractor-absent trials measures the relative costs or benefits of hemispheric interaction. Both experiments found that 3-item displays were processed faster and more accurately than displays of 5 items, suggesting they are relatively simple. Accuracy to the simple tasks showed left-hemisphere lateralization in the lexical task, right-hemisphere lateralization in the spatial task, a cost of hemispheric interaction compared to the advantaged hemisphere, and a benefit of hemispheric interaction compared to the less-advantaged hemisphere, suggesting that the contributions of the less-advantaged hemisphere interfere with processing, and that the advantaged hemisphere controls the lion's share. In contrast, 5-item displays for physical match in both experiments showed a significant benefit to accuracy of hemispheric interaction compared to the left hemisphere, an insignificant benefit compared to the right hemisphere, no lateralization, no cost of hemispheric interaction, and a consequence to performance that was more costly to the hemisphere that had been advantaged in simple tasks, suggesting that the advantaged hemisphere relinquishes control as tasks become more complex and complementary processing results from both increased collaboration and decreased lateralization between the hemispheres. The findings expand upon behavioural evidence, converge with imaging evidence, and

  20. Interactive effects of early and later nutritional conditions on the adult antioxidant defence system in zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Noguera, José C; Monaghan, Pat; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2015-07-01

    In vertebrates, antioxidant defences comprise a mixture of endogenously produced components and exogenously obtained antioxidants that are derived mostly from the diet. It has been suggested that early-life micronutritional conditions might influence the way in which the antioxidant defence system operates, which could enable individuals to adjust the activity of the endogenous and exogenous components in line with their expected intake of dietary antioxidants if the future environment resembles the past. We investigated this possibility by experimentally manipulating the micronutrient content of the diet during different periods of postnatal development in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). Birds that had a low micronutrient diet during the growth phase initially had a lower total antioxidant capacity (TAC) than those reared under a high micronutrient diet, but then showed a compensatory response, so that by the end of the growth phase, the TAC of the two groups was the same. Interestingly, we found an interactive effect of micronutrient intake early and late in development: only those birds that continued with the same dietary treatment (low or high) throughout development showed a significant increase in their TAC during the period of sexual maturation. A similar effect was also found in the level of enzymatic antioxidant defences (glutathione peroxidase; GPx). No significant effects were found in the level of oxidative damage in lipids [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels]. These findings demonstrate the importance of early and late developmental conditions in shaping multiple aspects of the antioxidant system. Furthermore, they suggest that young birds may adjust their antioxidant defences to enable them to 'thrive' on diets rich or poor in micronutrients later in life. PMID:25987737

  1. Interactive effects of apolipoprotein e4 and diabetes risk on later myelinating white matter regions in neurologically healthy older aged adults

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Jessica M.; Salat, David H.; Stricker, Nikki H.; Zink, Tyler A.; Grande, Laura J.; McGlinchey, Regina E.; Milberg, William P.; Leritz, Elizabeth C.

    2014-01-01

    Possession of the apolipoprotein e4 (APOE4) allele and diabetes risk are independently related to reduced white matter (WM) integrity that may contribute to the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The purpose of this study is to examine the interactive effects of APOE4 and diabetes risk on later myelinating WM regions among healthy elderly at risk for AD. A sample of 107 healthy elderly (80 APOE4−/27 APOE4+) underwent structural MRI/ DTI data were prepared using TBSS and a-priori ROIs were extracted from T1-based WM parcellations. ROIs included later myelinating frontal/temporal/parietal WM regions and control regions, measured by fractional anisotropy (FA). There were no APOE group differences on DTI for any ROI. Within the APOE4 group, we found negative relationships between HAIC/fasting glucose and APOE4 on FA for all later myelinating WM regions, but not for early/middle myelinating control regions. Results also showed APOE4/diabetes risk interactions for WM underlying supramarginal, superior temporal, precuneus, superior parietal, and superior frontal regions. Results suggest interactive effects of APOE4 and diabetes risk on later myelinating WM regions, which supports preclinical detection of AD among this particularly susceptible subgroup. PMID:24381137

  2. The Structure of Herpesvirus Fusion Glycoprotein B-Bilayer Complex Reveals the Protein-Membrane and Lateral Protein-Protein Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Ulrike E.; Zeev-Ben-Mordehai, Tzviya; Pandurangan, Arun Prasad; Cairns, Tina M.; Hannah, Brian P.; Whitbeck, J. Charles; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Cohen, Gary H.; Topf, Maya; Huiskonen, Juha T.; Grünewald, Kay

    2013-01-01

    Summary Glycoprotein B (gB) is a key component of the complex herpesvirus fusion machinery. We studied membrane interaction of two gB ectodomain forms and present an electron cryotomography structure of the gB-bilayer complex. The two forms differed in presence or absence of the membrane proximal region (MPR) but showed an overall similar trimeric shape. The presence of the MPR impeded interaction with liposomes. In contrast, the MPR-lacking form interacted efficiently with liposomes. Lateral interaction resulted in coat formation on the membranes. The structure revealed that interaction of gB with membranes was mediated by the fusion loops and limited to the outer membrane leaflet. The observed intrinsic propensity of gB to cluster on membranes indicates an additional role of gB in driving the fusion process forward beyond the transient fusion pore opening and subsequently leading to fusion pore expansion. PMID:23850455

  3. Early Exposure to People with Physical and Sensory Disabilities and Later Attitudes toward Social Interactions and Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Emily M.; Seekins, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between exposure to classmates with visible impairments in primary and secondary schools with later attitudes toward people with disabilities. Fifty college students (mean age = 20.28 years; 76% female) completed measures assessing the extent and quality of recalled exposure to classmates with disabilities in…

  4. Investigation of shock-shock interaction and Mach reflection in laterally colliding laser-blow-off plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Bhupesh; Singh, R. K.; Sengupta, Sudip; Kaw, P. K.; Kumar, Ajai

    2015-06-15

    Interactions of two Li plasma plumes and shock waves are investigated at various pressures (∼10{sup −5} to 3 mbar) in the argon gas ambient. Fast imaging and optical emission spectroscopy are used to study the plume dynamics and characteristic emission of plasmas. The plasma plumes are created in laser-blow-off geometry. The expansion of plasma plumes in the ambient gas leads to the formation of an interaction zone. The formation of interaction zone is dependent on the ambient pressure and below a certain pressure, no significant change is observed in the shape and size of the interaction plasma. In the higher pressure, formation of interaction zone and its shape are dependent on ambient pressure. Dynamics of seed plasmas and interaction zone are also affected by the shock-shock interactions. The shock-shock interaction depends on the angle of incidence (α) between two shock waves at the initial time of interaction but as the plumes expand, the shock-shock interaction does not follow α dependence.

  5. Calculation of lateral-directional stability derivatives for wing-body combinations with and without jet-interaction effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical method is presented for predicting the lateral-directional stability derivatives of wing-body combinations with or without the blowing jet effect. The fuselage effect is accounted for by the axial distribution of vortex multiplets. Comparison of the predicted results with experiments and other theoretical methods show good agreement for configurations without the blowing jet. More applicable experimental data with blowing jets are needed to establish the accuracy of the theory.

  6. Stimulatory effect of cytokinins and interaction with IAA on the release of lateral buds of pea plants from apical dominance.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunjian; Bangerth, Fritz

    2003-09-01

    Lateral buds of pea plants can be released from apical dominance and even be transformed into dominant shoots when repeatedly treated with synthetic exogenous cytokinins (CKs). The mechanism of the effect of CKs, however, is not clear. The results in this work showed that the stimulatory effects of CKs on the growth of lateral buds and the increase in their fresh weights in pea plants depended on the structure and concentration of the CKs used. The effect of N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N'-phenylurea (CPPU) was stronger than that of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA). Indoleacetic acid (IAA) concentration in shoot, IAA export out of the treated apex and basipetal transport in stems were markedly increased after the application of CPPU or 6-BA to the apex or the second node of pea plant. This increase was positively correlated with the increased concentration of the applied CKs. These results suggest that the increased IAA synthesis and export induced by CKs application might be responsible for the growth of lateral shoots in intact pea plants. PMID:14593807

  7. Effect of charged amino acid side chain length on lateral cross-strand interactions between carboxylate- and guanidinium-containing residues in a β-hairpin.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hsiou-Ting; Liu, Shing-Lung; Chiu, Wen-Chieh; Fang, Chun-Jen; Chang, Hsien-Chen; Wang, Wei-Ren; Yang, Po-An; Li, Jhe-Hao; Huang, Shing-Jong; Huang, Shou-Ling; Cheng, Richard P

    2015-05-01

    β-Sheet is one of the major protein secondary structures. Oppositely charged residues are frequently observed across neighboring strands in antiparallel sheets, suggesting the importance of cross-strand ion pairing interactions. The charged amino acids Asp, Glu, Arg, and Lys have different numbers of hydrophobic methylenes linking the charged functionality to the backbone. To investigate the effect of side chain length of guanidinium- and carboxylate-containing residues on lateral cross-strand ion pairing interactions at non-hydrogen-bonded positions, β-hairpin peptides containing Zbb-Agx (Zbb = Asp, Glu, Aad in increasing length; Agx = Agh, Arg, Agb, Agp in decreasing length) sequence patterns were studied by NMR methods. The fraction folded population and folding energy were derived from the chemical shift deviation data. Peptides with high fraction folded populations involved charged residue side chain lengths that supported high strand propensity. Double mutant cycle analysis was used to determine the interaction energy for the potential lateral ion pairs. Minimal interaction was observed between residues with short side chains, most likely due to the diffused positive charge on the guanidinium group, which weakened cross-strand electrostatic interactions with the carboxylate side chain. Only the Aad-Arg/Agh interactions with long side chains clearly exhibited stabilizing energetics, possibly relying on hydrophobics. A survey of a non-redundant protein structure database revealed that the statistical sheet pair propensity followed the trend Asp-Arg < Glu-Arg, implying the need for matching long side chains. This suggested the need for long side chains on both guanidinium-bearing and carboxylate-bearing residues to stabilize the β-hairpin motif. PMID:25646959

  8. The interfacial properties of the peptide Polybia-MP1 and its interaction with DPPC are modulated by lateral electrostatic attractions.

    PubMed

    Alvares, Dayane S; Fanani, Maria Laura; Ruggiero Neto, João; Wilke, Natalia

    2016-02-01

    Polybia-MP1 (IDWKKLLDAAKQIL-NH2), extracted from the Brazilian wasp Polybia paulista, exhibits a broad-spectrum bactericidal activity without being hemolytic and cytotoxic. In the present study, we analyzed the surface properties of the peptide and its interaction with DPPC in Langmuir monolayers. Polybia-MP1 formed stable monolayers, with lateral areas and surface potential values suggesting a mostly α-helical structure oriented near perpendicular to the membrane plane. In DPPC-peptide mixed monolayers, MP1 co-crystallized with the lipid forming branched domains only when the subphase was pure water. On subphases with high salt concentrations or at acidic or basic conditions, the peptide formed less densely packed films and was excluded from the domains, indicating the presence of attractive electrostatic interactions between peptides, which allow them to get closer to each other and to interact with DPPC probably as a consequence of a particular peptide arrangement. The residues responsible of the peptide-peptide attraction are suggested to be the anionic aspartic acids and the cationic lysines, which form a salt bridge, leading to oriented interactions in the crystal and thereby to branched domains. For this peptide, the balance between total attractive and repulsive interactions may be finely tuned by the aqueous ionic strength and pH, and since this effect is related with lysines and aspartic acids, similar effects may also occur in other peptides containing these residues in their sequences. PMID:26673092

  9. Interaction of RNA with a C-terminal fragment of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-associated TDP43 reduces cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Akira; Nakayama, Yusaku; Shibasaki, Ai; Taki, Ayami; Yuno, Sachiko; Takeda, Kayo; Yahara, Masao; Tanabe, Naoki; Kinjo, Masataka

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a devastating neurodegenerative disease, is formation of inclusion bodies (IBs) from misfolded proteins in neuronal cells. TAR RNA/DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP43) is an ALS-causative protein forming IBs in ALS patients. The relation between localization of the IBs and neurotoxicity remains largely unknown. We characterized aggregation of fluorescently tagged TDP43 and its carboxyl-terminal fragments (CTFs) by analytical fluorescence imaging techniques. Quantitative time-lapse analysis in individual live cells showed that fluorescent-protein-tagged TDP43 was cleaved and a 35 kDa TDP43 CTF (TDP35) formed ubiquitin (Ub)-negative cytoplasmic IBs. Although TDP35 formed mildly toxic Ub-negative IBs in the cytoplasm, TDP25, another type of a TDP43 CTF, efficiently formed sufficiently toxic Ub-positive IBs. One- or two-color fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS/FCCS) revealed that coaggregation of TDP25 with TDP43 was initiated by depletion of the RNA that binds to TDP25. Moreover, nuclear localization tagging TDP25 reduced the rate of neuronal cell death. These observations point to the need to elucidate the novel sequestration mechanism and details of the toxicity of the misfolded and aggregation-prone TDP43 CTFs (as well as the RNA binding and nuclear retention) in order to identify possible preventive interventions against ALS. PMID:26757674

  10. The impact of the lateral geniculate nucleus and corticogeniculate interactions on efficient coding and higher-order visual object processing.

    PubMed

    Zabbah, Sajjad; Rajaei, Karim; Mirzaei, Amin; Ebrahimpour, Reza; Khaligh-Razavi, Seyed-Mahdi

    2014-08-01

    Principles of efficient coding suggest that the peripheral units of any sensory processing system are designed for efficient coding. The function of the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) as an early stage in the visual system is not well understood. Some findings indicate that similar to the retina that decorrelates input signals spatially, the LGN tends to perform a temporal decorrelation. There is evidence suggesting that corticogeniculate connections may account for this decorrelation in the LGN. In this study, we propose a computational model based on biological evidence reported by Wang et al. (2006), who demonstrated that the influence pattern of V1 feedback is phase-reversed. The output of our model shows how corticogeniculate connections decorrelate LGN responses and make an efficient representation. We evaluated our model using criteria that have previously been tested on LGN neurons through cell recording experiments, including sparseness, entropy, power spectra, and information transfer. We also considered the role of the LGN in higher-order visual object processing, comparing the categorization performance of human subjects with a cortical object recognition model in the presence and absence of our LGN input-stage model. Our results show that the new model that considers the role of the LGN, more closely follows the categorization performance of human subjects. PMID:24911515

  11. Pubertal status, pre-meal drink composition, and later meal timing interact in determining children's appetite and food intake.

    PubMed

    Patel, Barkha P; Hamilton, Jill K; Vien, Shirley; Thomas, Scott G; Anderson, G Harvey

    2016-09-01

    Puberty is a period of development that alters energy intake patterns. However, few studies have examined appetite and food intake (FI) regulation during development of puberty in children and adolescents. Therefore, the objective was to measure the effect of pubertal status on FI and subjective appetite after pre-meal glucose and whey protein drinks in 9- to 14-year-old boys and girls. In a within-subject, randomized, repeated-measures design, children (21 pre-early pubertal, 15 mid-late pubertal) received equally sweetened drinks containing Sucralose (control), glucose, or whey protein (0.75 g/kg body weight) in 250 mL of water 2 h after a standardized breakfast on 6 separate mornings. Ad libitum FI was measured either 30 or 60 min later and appetite was measured over time. In pre-early and mid-late pubertal boys and girls there was no effect of sex on total FI (kcal). Glucose and whey protein drinks reduced calorie intake similarly at 30 min. But at 60 min, whey protein reduced FI (p < 0.001) compared with control and glucose in pre-early pubertal children, but not in mid-late pubertal children. However, sex was a factor (p = 0.041) when FI was expressed per kilogram body weight. Pubertal status did not affect FI/kilogram body weight in boys, but it was 32% lower in mid-late pubertal girls than at pre-early puberty (p = 0.010). Appetite was associated with FI in mid-late pubertal children only. In conclusion, pubertal development affects appetite and FI regulation in children. PMID:27507005

  12. Relationship of Maternal Psychological Distress Classes to Later Mother-Infant Interaction, Home Environment, and Infant Development in Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Santos, Hudson; Yang, Qing; Docherty, Sharron L; White-Traut, Rosemary; Holditch-Davis, Diane

    2016-06-01

    Latent class analyses can be used early in the postpartum period to identify mothers of preterm infants experiencing similar patterns of psychological distress symptoms, but whether these classes of mothers also differ in parental responses to their infants or in their infants' development is largely unknown. In this longitudinal multisite-repeated measures study, we evaluated the usefulness of three psychological distress classes (low distress, high depressive and anxiety symptoms, and extreme distress) in predicting mother-infant interactions, quality of home environment, and infant development in 229 mother-preterm infant pairs. Mothers completed psychological distress questionnaires at study entry; parent-infant interaction was recorded at 2 and 6 months of age corrected for prematurity; and infant developmental data were collected 12 months corrected age. Mothers in the extreme distress class engaged in more developmental stimulation at 2 months (β = .99, p < 0.01) and at 6 months (β = 1.38, p < .01) than mothers in the other classes and had better quality of home environment at 2 months (β = 2.52, p = .03). When not controlling for neurological insult, infants of mothers in the extreme distress class had poorer cognitive (β = -10.28, p = .01) and motor (β = -15.12, p < .01) development scores at 12 months corrected age than infants of mothers in the other distress classes, but after controlling for infant neurological insult, there were no differences in cognitive, motor, and language development based on maternal psychological distress class. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27059608

  13. Controls on small-scale biogeomorphic interactions on lateral moraine slopes and their linkage to large-scale geomorphic and vegetation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichel, Jana; Meyer, Nele; Draebing, Daniel; Schmidtlein, Sebastian; Dikau, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Glacier forelands are characterized by simultaneous and coupled geomorphic and vegetation development following glacier retreat. For lateral moraine slopes, it has been shown that once geomorphic activity decreases sufficiently, ecosystem engineer species (e.g., Dryas octopetala) can establish and a 'biogeomorphic feedback window' is entered, in which the engineer (e.g., through high cover) amplifies the decrease in geomorphic activity and changes the dominant process from erosional (e.g., slope wash) to bound solifluction processes, until it is suppressed by later successional species (Eichel et al., 2015). This temporal sequence is termed 'biogeomorphic succession' and has been found in a glacier foreland (Eichel et al., 2013). However, it remains unclear (1) if and how further factors, e.g., soil properties and thermal and snow conditions, influence small-scale biogeomorphic feedbacks and (2) how biogeomorphic succession dynamics relate to geomorphic and vegetation patterns in space. Consequently, the objectives of this study are (1) to evaluate controlling factors for small-scale biogeomorphic interactions, (2) to identify geomorphic and vegetation patterns in space and (3) to link small-scale interactions with large-scale vegetation and geomorphic patterns and dynamics. A biogeomorphic approach was carried out on Little Ice Age lateral moraine slopes in the Turtmann glacier foreland (Switzerland), consisting of (1) a permanent plot survey (2x2 m) to assess geomorphic and vegetation properties, combined with soil sampling and iButton temperature loggers for thermal and snow properties, and (2) a detailed (1:1000) geomorphic and vegetation mapping. Plot data was analysed using multivariate statistics and compared to geomorphic and vegetation maps. Combined results of multivariate statistics and mapping show a strong relationship between geomorphic properties and species composition. These are independent from terrain age, but controlled by a toposequence

  14. Breakfast consumption and exercise interact to affect cognitive performance and mood later in the day. A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Veasey, R C; Gonzalez, J T; Kennedy, D O; Haskell, C F; Stevenson, E J

    2013-09-01

    The current study assessed the interactive effect of breakfast and exercise on cognition and mood. Twelve active males completed four trials; no breakfast-rest, breakfast-rest, no breakfast-exercise or breakfast-exercise in a randomized, cross-over design. The trials consisted of; breakfast or fast, a 2h rest, exercise (treadmill run) or equivalent rest, a chocolate milk drink, a 90 min rest and an ad libitum lunch. Cognitive performance and mood were recorded frequently throughout each trial. Data was analysed as pre-exercise/rest, during and immediately post exercise/rest and post-drink. No effects were found prior to consumption of the drink. Post-drink, fasting before exercise increased mental fatigue compared to consuming breakfast before exercise and fasting before rest. Tension increased when breakfast was consumed at rest and when exercise was undertaken fasted compared to omitting breakfast before rest. Breakfast before rest decreased rapid visual information processing task speed and impaired Stroop performance. Breakfast omission improved Four Choice Reaction Time performance. To conclude, breakfast before exercise appeared beneficial for post-exercise mood even when a post-exercise snack was consumed. Exercise reversed post-breakfast cognitive impairment in active males. PMID:23608698

  15. Lateral root stimulation in the early interaction between Arabidopsis thaliana and the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor: is fungal auxin the trigger?

    PubMed

    Felten, Judith; Legué, Valérie; Ditengou, Franck Anicet

    2010-07-01

    Lateral root (LR) stimulation during early signal exchange between plant roots and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi has recently been shown to be achieved by modulation of auxin gradients. We suggested that this modulation could occur through altered polar auxin transport (PAT) and through activation of auxin signalling pathways in the root. However, it remains unclear, which fungal molecules alter auxin pathways inside the plant partner. It has been suggested in previous studies that auxin released by the fungus could trigger observed plant responses during early signal exchange and later on during root colonization. Here we focus on the early interaction and we provide evidence for an alternative mechanism. Indeed, LR stimulation by the fungus in A. thaliana followed a totally different timing than with exogenously applied auxin. Furthermore, experimental conditions that excluded the exchange of soluble molecules while allowing exchange of volatile(s) between the plant and the fungus were sufficient for LR induction, therefore questioning the role of secreted fungal auxin. These data suggest that volatiles released by the fungus and sensed by the plant may act upstream of altered auxin signalling in the plant. PMID:20448463

  16. Toxicity of heavy metals: 1. Correlation of metal toxicity with in vitro calmodulin inhibition. 2. Interactions of inorganic mercury with red blood cells: Control vs. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Henson, J.L.C.

    1989-01-01

    The toxic effects of metals are examined in two separate in vitro systems. In the first system, the correlation between published mouse LD{sub 50} values and experimentally derived values for calmodulin inhibition was determined. Calmodulin activity was defined as stimulated phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity. The basal PDE activity was determined with each cation and was unaffected by any of the concentrations utilized. The IC{sub 50} was determined from a plot of the log of the cation concentration vs. stimulated PDE activity for each cation. A very strong correlation was obtained when the IC{sub 50} vs. mouse LD{sub 50} curve was examined (p < 0.001). Calmodulin regulates many enzyme systems and processes that affect or are affected by calcium. This study was examined in light of the possible role of calcium in cell damage and death. In the second study, the interactions of erythrocytes (RBCs) and inorganic mercury (Hg) were examined. A broad range of Hg concentrations were utilized to explore the nature of the interactions. Two different mechanisms of RBC Hg accumulation and retention were evident. At lower Hg concentrations (0.001-0.1 {mu}M), the RBC accumulation/retention of Hg was constant (52% of available Hg), reversible, and temperature sensitive. At higher concentrations (1-100 {mu}M), the accumulation increased with Hg concentration, was not reversible, and was not temperature sensitive. A relationship between Hg and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is suggested by several reports in the literature. The accumulation/ retention of Hg by RBCs from control and ALS patients were compared. The RBCs from ALS patients released far more Hg during a two hr incubation 37C at 10 and 100 {mu}M Hg compared to controls.

  17. Lateral orientation (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A lateral orientation is a position away from the midline of the body. For instance, the arms are lateral to the ... ears are lateral to the head. A medial orientation is a position toward the midline of the ...

  18. Proposing interactions between maternal phospholipids and the one carbon cycle: A novel mechanism influencing the risk for cardiovascular diseases in the offspring in later life.

    PubMed

    Khot, Vinita; Chavan-Gautam, Preeti; Joshi, Sadhana

    2015-05-15

    Studies have adequately demonstrated the importance of maternal nutrition, particularly, micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) in determining pregnancy outcome. Reports indicate that children born preterm or to mothers with preeclampsia are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in later life although mechanisms are unclear. Our earlier studies have established that micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) and LCPUFAs are interlinked in the one carbon cycle and influence methylation reactions. Here, we propose a novel hypothesis that altered phospholipid metabolism and dysregulation in the one carbon cycle will result in altered epigenetic programming of placental genes leading to an adverse pregnancy outcome with increased risk of adult diseases in the offspring. Folic acid and vitamin B12 are involved in S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) synthesis, the major methyl donor for most methyl acceptors. Inadequacy of LCPUFA containing phospholipids, one of the major methyl group acceptors in the one carbon metabolic pathway, may cause diversion of methyl groups toward deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) eventually resulting in aberrant DNA methylation patterns. These modified DNA methylation patterns lead to alterations in the expression of vital genes e.g. angiogenic factor genes thereby contributing to the dysregulation of angiogenesis/vasculogenesis further affecting placental development. This consequently would adversely "program" the fetus for increased risk of CVD in later life. PMID:25283080

  19. Creativity in later life.

    PubMed

    Price, K A; Tinker, A M

    2014-08-01

    The ageing population presents significant challenges for the provision of social and health services. Strategies are needed to enable older people to cope within a society ill prepared for the impacts of these demographic changes. The ability to be creative may be one such strategy. This review outlines the relevant literature and examines current public health policy related to creativity in old age with the aim of highlighting some important issues. As well as looking at the benefits and negative aspects of creative activity in later life they are considered in the context of the theory of "successful ageing". Creative activity plays an important role in the lives of older people promoting social interaction, providing cognitive stimulation and giving a sense of self-worth. Furthermore, it is shown to be useful as a tool in the multi-disciplinary treatment of health problems common in later life such as depression and dementia. There are a number of initiatives to encourage older people to participate in creative activities such as arts-based projects which may range from visual arts to dance to music to intergenerational initiatives. However, participation shows geographical variation and often the responsibility of provision falls to voluntary organisations. Overall, the literature presented suggests that creative activity could be a useful tool for individuals and society. However, further research is needed to establish the key factors which contribute to patterns of improved health and well-being, as well as to explore ways to improve access to services. PMID:24974278

  20. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000688.htm Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or ALS, is a disease of the nerve ...

  1. Accessory lateral discoid meniscus.

    PubMed

    Saygi, Baransel; Yildirim, Yakup; Senturk, Salih; Sezgin Ramadan, Saime; Gundes, Hakan

    2006-12-01

    The lateral meniscus tends to have more developmental variation than the medial counterpart. This is a report of an accessory discoid layer of lateral meniscus. All arthroscopic, magnetic resonance imaging and histopathological views are presented. PMID:16710729

  2. Lateral flow strip assay

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, Robin R.; Benett, William J.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Pearson, Francesca S.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  3. Lateral canthal surgery.

    PubMed

    Chong, Kelvin Kam-Lung; Goldberg, Robert A

    2010-08-01

    The lateral canthus is a delicate and complicated three-dimensional structure with function relevant to the health of the ocular surface. Dysfunction of the lateral canthus, due to aging changes or iatrogenic trauma, results in ocular morbidity ranging from chronic irritation to tearing to recalcitrant keratopathy. From an aesthetic standpoint, symmetric, normally positioned lateral canthi are cornerstones of youthful periorbital appearance, disruption of which leads to cosmetically significant deformity or asymmetry. Reconstruction of the lateral canthus is important in the rehabilitation of the aging eyelid and an unfortunate necessity after failed lateral canthal surgery. The common methods for improving or maintaining position, tone, and shape of the lower eyelid and lateral canthus use tightening or shortening the lower eyelid horizontally, keeping the canthal angle in an appropriate vertical level, and hugging the ocular surface. Many techniques have been described for the reconstruction of the lateral canthus in functional conditions or for aesthetic purposes. These methods have met with varying success. In this article, we begin with a discussion of the anatomy and physiology of the lateral canthus, followed by clinical examples of lateral canthal abnormalities and underlying pathophysiologies. A review of surgical options for the lateral canthus is presented with concluding remarks on postoperative complications. PMID:20524167

  4. Experiments and analysis of lateral piezoresistance gauges

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, M.K.W.

    1993-07-01

    The response of lateral piezoresistance gauges to shock wave uniaxial strain loading has been examined in a combined experimental and calculational effort. Plate impact experiments provided lateral gauge data which were analyzed using quasi-static and dynamic inclusion analyses. Experimental data showed that the response of the lateral gauge output depended upon the matrix material and gauge emplacement method. The calculations indicated that these differences were due to complex gauge-matrix interactions. These interactions were influenced by the stress and strain distributions in and around the gauge, plasticity effects, properties of the gauge and matrix materials, and emplacement conditions.

  5. Discoid lateral meniscus.

    PubMed

    Fritschy, D; Gonseth, D

    1991-01-01

    Discoid meniscus is uncommon and usually affects the lateral meniscus. We present 16 patients (8 male and 6 female) with tears of a discoid lateral meniscus occurring in 1800 arthroscopies. We carried out an arthroscopic partial meniscectomy leaving an intact peripheral rim. This is biomechanically satisfactory and the early results are encouraging. PMID:1917190

  6. [Semidiscoid lateral meniscus].

    PubMed

    Araki, Y; Ishida, T; Ootani, M; Yamamoto, H; Yamamoto, T; Nakamura, H; Tsukaguchi, I

    1992-12-25

    We propose a new entity known as "semidiscoid lateral meniscus" of the knee. The diagnostic criteria for semidiscoid lateral meniscus is the appearance on a thin-sliced axial 3-D image of a crescent-shaped meniscus whose transverse width is within 11.6 mm to 14.3 mm on the coronal image. These numerical values were calculated by discriminant analysis. A retrospective review of MR examinations of the knees revealed 15 patients (15 knees) with this entity. These patients were our subjects. Of these 15 patients, complicated lateral meniscal tears were seen in only three cases. Nine knees were free from complications, and five were asymptomatic. Six patients were examined with MR on the contralateral side, and discoid lateral menisci were revealed in all cases. Thus semidiscoid lateral meniscus shows a cross-relationship with discoid menisci. PMID:1488290

  7. Preserving Dignity in Later Life.

    PubMed

    São José, José Manuel

    2016-09-01

    This article examines how elders who receive social care in the community experience loss of dignity and how they preserve their dignity. Qualitative research revealed that loss of dignity is a major concern for these elders and that they preserve their dignity differently, ranging from actively engaging with life to detaching themselves from life. We conclude that, in later life, preserving dignity while receiving social care differs from preserving dignity in the context of health care, especially health care provided in institutional settings. Furthermore, preserving dignity in later life, while receiving social care, is a complex process, depending not only on performing activities and individual action and responsibility, but also on other actions, some of them involving a certain inactivity/passivity, and interactions with others, especially caregivers. This article offers some insights to developing better policies and care practices for promoting dignity in the context of community-based social care. PMID:27456751

  8. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a nervous system disease that attacks nerve cells called neurons in your ... people with ALS die from respiratory failure. The disease usually strikes between age 40 and 60. More ...

  9. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a nervous system disease that attacks nerve cells called neurons in your brain and spinal cord. These neurons ... breathing machine can help, but most people with ALS die from respiratory failure. The disease usually strikes ...

  10. Primary Lateral Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... synthesizers, and wheelchairs ma help some people retain independence.. Speech therapy may be useful for those with ... prevent, and ultimately cure these devastating diseases. NIH Patient Recruitment for Primary Lateral Sclerosis Clinical Trials At ...

  11. Pathways of lateral spreading.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, U; Schanzer, S; Weigmann, H-J; Patzelt, A; Vergou, T; Sterry, W; Lademann, J

    2011-01-01

    In the case of topically applied substances, usually both lateral spreading and competitive penetration into the skin occur in parallel. In the present study, the pathways of lateral spreading were studied quantitatively and visually. The local distribution and lateral spreading of the UV filter substance butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane applied in an o/w emulsion was studied on the forearm and the back. The tape stripping procedure was used to determine the recovery rates inside and outside the area of application. The skin characteristics of transepidermal water loss, pH value, hydration of the stratum corneum and sebum rate were determined at both anatomic sites. Photography and laser scanning microscopy were used to visually investigate the lateral spreading of topically applied dyes. On the back, a preferred direction of lateral spreading parallel to the body axis was observed. This result was caused by differences in the network of furrows. The furrows functioned as a pathway for lateral spreading, whereas the follicles formed a reservoir for the topically applied substance. PMID:21455016

  12. Experiments and analysis of lateral piezoresistance gauges

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, M.K.W. )

    1994-07-10

    The response of lateral piezoresistance gauges to shock wave uniaxial strain loading has been examined in a combined experimental and calculational effort. Plate impact experiments provided lateral gauge data which were analyzed using quasi-static and dynamic inclusion analyses. Experimental data showed that the response of the lateral gauge output depended upon the matrix material and gauge emplacement method. The calculations indicated that these differences were due to complex gauge-matrix interactions. These were influenced by the stress and strain distributions in and around the gauge, plasticity effects, material properties, and emplacement conditions. [copyright]American Institute of Physics

  13. Laterally bendable belt conveyor

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, William J.

    1985-01-01

    An endless, laterally flexible and bendable belt conveyor particularly adapted for coal mining applications in facilitating the transport of the extracted coal up- or downslope and around corners in a continuous manner is disclosed. The conveying means includes a flat rubber belt reinforced along the middle portion thereof along which the major portion of the belt tension is directed so as to cause rotation of the tubular shaped belt when trammed around lateral turns thus preventing excessive belt bulging distortion between adjacent belt supports which would inhibit belt transport. Pretension induced into the fabric reinforced flat rubber belt by conventional belt take-up means supports the load conveyed when the belt conveyor is making lateral turns. The carrying and return portions of the belt are supported and formed into a tubular shape by a plurality of shapers positioned along its length. Each shaper is supported from above by a monorail and includes clusters of idler rollers which support the belt. Additional cluster rollers in each shaper permit the belt supporting roller clusters to rotate in response to the belt's operating tension imposed upon the cluster rollers by induced lateral belt friction forces. The freely rotating roller clusters thus permit the belt to twist on lateral curves without damage to itself while precluding escape of the conveyed material by effectively enclosing it in the tube-shaped, inner belt transport length.

  14. Laterally closed lattice homomorphisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toumi, Mohamed Ali; Toumi, Nedra

    2006-12-01

    Let A and B be two Archimedean vector lattices and let be a lattice homomorphism. We call that T is laterally closed if T(D) is a maximal orthogonal system in the band generated by T(A) in B, for each maximal orthogonal system D of A. In this paper we prove that any laterally closed lattice homomorphism T of an Archimedean vector lattice A with universal completion Au into a universally complete vector lattice B can be extended to a lattice homomorphism of Au into B, which is an improvement of a result of M. Duhoux and M. Meyer [M. Duhoux and M. Meyer, Extended orthomorphisms and lateral completion of Archimedean Riesz spaces, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles 98 (1984) 3-18], who established it for the order continuous lattice homomorphism case. Moreover, if in addition Au and B are with point separating order duals (Au)' and B' respectively, then the laterally closedness property becomes a necessary and sufficient condition for any lattice homomorphism to have a similar extension to the whole Au. As an application, we give a new representation theorem for laterally closed d-algebras from which we infer the existence of d-algebra multiplications on the universal completions of d-algebras.

  15. Infrared lateral shearing interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, O.

    1980-04-01

    Recently IR interferometry has received much attention for its special capabilities of testing IR materials, diamond-turned metal mirrors, deep aspherics, unpolished rough surface optics, and other unconventional optics. A CW CO2 laser is used as a coherent light source at 10.6 microns, and germanium and zinc selenide optics are used for lenses and beam splitters. A pyroelectric vidicon (PEV) detects the modulated interference pattern through a TV monitor and video recorder-player. This paper presents three methods of IR lateral shear interferometry using (1) a germanium plane-parallel plate, (2) a Ronchi ruling, and (3) a double-grating lateral shear interferometer.

  16. Lateral Thinking of Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Xavier, S. Amaladoss

    2013-01-01

    Edward de Bono who invented the term "lateral thinking" in 1967 is the pioneer of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is concerned with the generation of new ideas. Liberation from old ideas and the stimulation of new ones are twin aspects of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is a creative skills from which all people can benefit…

  17. [Adult lateral meniscus].

    PubMed

    Beaufils, P; Hardy, P; Chambat, P; Clavert, P; Djian, P; Frank, A; Hulet, C; Potel, J-F; Verdonk, R

    2006-09-01

    Meniscal lesion does not mean meniscectomy and this is particularly true for the lateral meniscus. The reputation of mildness of the meniscectomy is usurped. The rate of joint space narrowing after lateral meniscectomy is of 40% at a follow-up of 13 years compared to 28% for the medial meniscus (symposium SFA 1996). Several arguments explain those results: biomechanical: the lateral meniscus contributes to the congruence; particularly the lateral meniscus is the zone where antero-posterior translational during knee flexion is 12 mm. The pejorative effects of lateral meniscectomy have conducted, more though to the medial meniscus, to the concept of meniscal economy. Lateral meniscectomy must be as partial as possible. Particularly, a discoid meniscus presenting a complete tear should be treated by a meniscoplasty in order to shape the meniscus in a more anatomic form than a total meniscectomy. Lateral meniscectomy is indicated in complex or horizontal cleavage, symptomatic, on stable knees. A particular case is the cyst of the lateral meniscus. It is a cystic subcutaneous formation, usual consequence of a horizontal cleaved meniscus of which the particularity is that it opens besides the articulation. The strategy must not consist in the isolated treatment of the cyst. This pathology should be addressed by an arthroscopic meniscectomy reaching the meniscosynovial junction at the level of the cyst. Meniscal repair must be proposed every time if possible. Criteria of reparability are better studied on MRI. Preoperatively MRI is the first choice radiological exam. Two essential indications can be held back: the vertical peripheral longitudinal lesion is on the non-vascularized area, and the horizontal cleaving of the junior athlete (if the cleaving remains purely intra meniscal). Meniscal repair is highly performed when the meniscal tear is associated to a rupture of the ACL (simultaneous reconstruction of the LCA). Postoperative outcome is different of that of a

  18. Lateral flow assays

    PubMed Central

    Koczula, Katarzyna M.

    2016-01-01

    Lateral flow assays (LFAs) are the technology behind low-cost, simple, rapid and portable detection devices popular in biomedicine, agriculture, food and environmental sciences. This review presents an overview of the principle of the method and the critical components of the assay, focusing on lateral flow immunoassays. This type of assay has recently attracted considerable interest because of its potential to provide instantaneous diagnosis directly to patients. The range and interpretation of results and parameters used for evaluation of the assay will also be discussed. The main advantages and disadvantages of LFAs will be summarized and relevant future improvements to testing devices and strategies will be proposed. Finally, the major recent advances and future diagnostic applications in the LFA field will be explored. PMID:27365041

  19. Conjugal amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Dewitt, John D.; Kwon, Julia; Burton, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disease characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the motor cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord. The incidence of sporadic ALS is 1.5 to 2.7 in 100,000, and the prevalence is 5.2 to 6.0 in 100,000. Conjugal ALS is even rarer than sporadic ALS. We report a case of conjugal ALS encountered in our outpatient neurology clinic. PMID:22275781

  20. Hemispheric lateralization in reasoning.

    PubMed

    Turner, Benjamin O; Marinsek, Nicole; Ryhal, Emily; Miller, Michael B

    2015-11-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that reasoning in humans relies on a number of related processes whose neural loci are largely lateralized to one hemisphere or the other. A recent review of this evidence concluded that the patterns of lateralization observed are organized according to two complementary tendencies. The left hemisphere attempts to reduce uncertainty by drawing inferences or creating explanations, even at the cost of ignoring conflicting evidence or generating implausible explanations. Conversely, the right hemisphere aims to reduce conflict by rejecting or refining explanations that are no longer tenable in the face of new evidence. In healthy adults, the hemispheres work together to achieve a balance between certainty and consistency, and a wealth of neuropsychological research supports the notion that upsetting this balance results in various failures in reasoning, including delusions. However, support for this model from the neuroimaging literature is mixed. Here, we examine the evidence for this framework from multiple research domains, including an activation likelihood estimation analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of reasoning. Our results suggest a need to either revise this model as it applies to healthy adults or to develop better tools for assessing lateralization in these individuals. PMID:26426534

  1. Lateralization of aggression in fish.

    PubMed

    Bisazza, Angelo; de Santi, Andrea

    2003-05-15

    Recent research has suggested that lateralization of aggressive behaviors could follow an homogeneous pattern among all vertebrates. A left eye/right hemisphere dominance in eliciting aggressive responses has been demonstrated for all groups of tetrapods but teleost fish for which data is lacking. Here we studied differential eye use during aggressive interactions in three species of teleosts: Gambusia holbrooki, Xenotoca eiseni and Betta splendens. In the first experiment we checked for lateralization in the use of the eyes while the subject was attacking its own mirror image. In order to confirm the results, other tests were performed on two species and eye preference was scored during attacks or displays directed toward a live rival. All three species showed a marked preference for using the right eye when attacking a mirror image or a live rival. Thus, the direction of asymmetry in fish appears the opposite to that shown by all the other groups of vertebrates. Hypotheses on the origin of the difference are discussed. PMID:12742249

  2. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Alexander; Girardi, Federico; Sama, Andrew; Lebl, Darren; Cammisa, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a relatively new technique that allows the surgeon to access the intervertebral space from a direct lateral approach either anterior to or through the psoas muscle. This approach provides an alternative to anterior lumbar interbody fusion with instrumentation, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for anterior column support. LLIF is minimally invasive, safe, better structural support from the apophyseal ring, potential for coronal plane deformity correction, and indirect decompression, which have has made this technique popular. LLIF is currently being utilized for a variety of pathologies including but not limited to adult de novo lumbar scoliosis, central and foraminal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and adjacent segment degeneration. Although early clinical outcomes have been good, the potential for significant neurological and vascular vertebral endplate complications exists. Nevertheless, LLIF is a promising technique with the potential to more effectively treat complex adult de novo scoliosis and achieve predictable fusion while avoiding the complications of traditional anterior surgery and posterior interbody techniques. PMID:26713134

  3. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Abhijit; Hughes, Alexander; Girardi, Federico; Sama, Andrew; Lebl, Darren; Cammisa, Frank

    2015-12-01

    The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a relatively new technique that allows the surgeon to access the intervertebral space from a direct lateral approach either anterior to or through the psoas muscle. This approach provides an alternative to anterior lumbar interbody fusion with instrumentation, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for anterior column support. LLIF is minimally invasive, safe, better structural support from the apophyseal ring, potential for coronal plane deformity correction, and indirect decompression, which have has made this technique popular. LLIF is currently being utilized for a variety of pathologies including but not limited to adult de novo lumbar scoliosis, central and foraminal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and adjacent segment degeneration. Although early clinical outcomes have been good, the potential for significant neurological and vascular vertebral endplate complications exists. Nevertheless, LLIF is a promising technique with the potential to more effectively treat complex adult de novo scoliosis and achieve predictable fusion while avoiding the complications of traditional anterior surgery and posterior interbody techniques. PMID:26713134

  4. 8. UPPER INSIDE CHORD, VERTICAL, LATERAL STRUT, UPPER LATERAL & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. UPPER INSIDE CHORD, VERTICAL, LATERAL STRUT, UPPER LATERAL & GUSSET PLATE, ONE DIAGONAL BRACE - Enterprise Parker Truss Bridge, Spanning Smoky Hill River on K-43 Highway, Enterprise, Dickinson County, KS

  5. 7. UPPER INSIDE CHORD, VERTICAL, LATERAL STRUT, UPPER LATERAL & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. UPPER INSIDE CHORD, VERTICAL, LATERAL STRUT, UPPER LATERAL & GUSSET PLATE, TWO DIAGONAL BRACES - Enterprise Parker Truss Bridge, Spanning Smoky Hill River on K-43 Highway, Enterprise, Dickinson County, KS

  6. Laterality and language experience.

    PubMed

    Hull, Rachel; Vaid, Jyotsna

    2006-09-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted on studies that examined hemispheric functional asymmetry for language in brain-intact monolingual and bilingual adults. Data from 23 laterality studies that directly compared bilingual and monolingual speakers on the same language were analysed (n = 1234). Variables examined were language experience (monolingual, bilingual), experimental paradigm (dichotic listening, visual hemifield presentation, and dual task) and, among bilinguals, the influence of second language proficiency (proficient vs nonproficient) and onset of bilingualism (early, or before age 6; and late, or after age 6). Overall, monolinguals and late bilinguals showed reliable left hemisphere dominance, while early bilinguals showed reliable bilateral hemispheric involvement. Within bilinguals, there was no reliable effect of language proficiency when age of L2 acquisition was controlled. The findings indicate that early learning of one vs. two languages predicts divergent patterns of cerebral language lateralisation in adulthood. PMID:16882556

  7. Lateral Flow Immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Ching, Kathryn H

    2015-01-01

    Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) are a staple in the field of rapid diagnostics. These small handheld devices require no specialized training or equipment to operate, and generate a result within minutes of sample application. They are an ideal format for many types of home test kits, for emergency responders and for food manufacturers and producers looking for a quick evaluation of a given sample. LFIAs rely on high quality monoclonal antibodies that recognize the analyte of interest. As monoclonal antibody technology becomes more accessible to smaller laboratories, there has been increased interest in developing LFIA prototypes for potential commercial manufacture. In this chapter, the basics of designing and building an LFIA prototype are described. PMID:26160571

  8. Lateral conduction infrared photodetector

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jin K.; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2011-09-20

    A photodetector for detecting infrared light in a wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m is disclosed. The photodetector has a mesa structure formed from semiconductor layers which include a type-II superlattice formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. Impurity doped regions are formed on sidewalls of the mesa structure to provide for a lateral conduction of photo-generated carriers which can provide an increased carrier mobility and a reduced surface recombination. An optional bias electrode can be used in the photodetector to control and vary a cut-off wavelength or a depletion width therein. The photodetector can be formed as a single-color or multi-color device, and can also be used to form a focal plane array which is compatible with conventional read-out integrated circuits.

  9. Attractive membrane domains control lateral diffusion.

    PubMed

    Forstner, Martin B; Martin, Douglas S; Rückerl, Florian; Käs, Josef A; Selle, Carsten

    2008-05-01

    Lipid membranes play a fundamental role in vital cellular functions such as signal transduction. Many of these processes rely on lateral diffusion within the membrane, generally a complex fluid containing ordered microdomains. However, little attention has been paid to the alterations in transport dynamics of a diffusing species caused by long-range interactions with membrane domains. In this paper, we address the effect of such interactions on diffusive transport by studying lateral diffusion in a phase-separated Langmuir phospholipid monolayer via single-particle tracking. We find that attractive dipole-dipole interactions between condensed phase domains and diffusing probe beads lead to transient confinement at the phase boundaries, causing a transition from two- to one-dimensional diffusion. Using Brownian dynamics simulations, the long-term diffusion constant for such a system is found to have a sensitive, Boltzmann-like, dependence on the interaction strength. In addition, this interaction strength is shown to be a strong function of the ratio of domain to particle size. As similar interactions are expected in biological membranes, the modulation of diffusive transport dynamics by varying interaction strength and/or domain size may offer cells selective spatial and temporal control over signaling processes. PMID:18643101

  10. Laterally oscillating nitinol engine

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, R.

    1987-09-08

    This patent describes a laterally oscillating nitinol engine comprising: a first L-shaped drive member journalled for pivoting horizontal oscillation about the juncture of the legs of the L-shaped member, a second drive member journalled for pivoting about a point proximate the outboard end of the shorter leg of the L-shaped member at a distance from the pivot journal of the L-shaped member, a bearing block secured to the end of longer leg of the L-shaped and having a guide hole. The second member extending through the guide hole and arranged to reciprocate therein, a shape memory alloy power element disposed in flexure secured at its ends to the bearing block and to the second member intermediate the sliding connection with the bearing block and the pivotal connection of the second member, means for disposing different temperature baths below the element whereby as the drive members oscillate about their journals the element alternately dips into one bath and then the other, and means for absorbing a portion of the energy developed by the engine and moving the power element from the cold bath to the hot bath.

  11. Lateralization of cognitive processes in the brain.

    PubMed

    Hugdahl, K

    2000-12-01

    The lateralization of cognitive processes in the brain is discussed. The traditional view of a language-visuo/spatial dichotomy of function between the hemispheres has been replaced by more subtle distinctions. The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study brain morphology has resulted in a renewed focus on the relationship between structural and functional asymmetry. Focus has been on the role played by the planum temporale area in the posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus for language asymmetry, and the possible significance of the larger left planum. The dichotic listening technique is used to illustrate the difference between bottom-up, or stimulus-driven laterality versus top-down, or instruction-driven laterality. It is suggested that the hemispheric dominance observed at any time is the sum result of the dynamic interaction between bottom-up and top-down processing tendencies. Stimulus-driven laterality dominance is always monitored and modulated through top-down cognitive processes, like shifting of attention and changes in arousal. A model of top-down modulation of bottom-up laterality is presented with special reference to the understanding of psychiatric disorders. PMID:11194413

  12. Diamond heteroepitaxial lateral overgrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yung-Hsiu

    This dissertation describes improvements in the growth of single crystal diamond by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Heteroepitaxial (001) diamond was grown on 1 cm. 2 a-plane sapphiresubstrates using an epitaxial (001) Ir thin-film as a buffer layer. Low-energy ion bombardment of the Ir layer, a process known as bias-enhanced nucleation, is a key step in achieving a high density of diamond nuclei. Bias conditions were optimized to form uniformly-high nucleation densities across the substrates, which led to well-coalesced diamond thin films after short growth times. Epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) was used as a means of decreasing diamond internal stress by impeding the propagation of threading dislocations into the growing material. Its use in diamond growth requires adaptation to the aggressive chemical and thermal environment of the hydrogen plasma in a CVD reactor. Three ELO variants were developed. The most successful utilized a gold (Au) mask prepared by vacuum evaporation onto the surface of a thin heteroepitaxial diamond layer. The Au mask pattern, a series of parallel stripes on the micrometer scale, was produced by standard lift-off photolithography. When diamond overgrows the mask, dislocations are largely confined to the substrate. Differing degrees of confinement were studied by varying the stripe geometry and orientation. Significant improvement in diamond quality was found in the overgrown regions, as evidenced by reduction of the Raman scattering linewidth. The Au layer was found to remain intact during diamond overgrowth and did not chemically bond with the diamond surface. Besides impeding the propagation of threading dislocations, it was discovered that the thermally-induced stress in the CVD diamond was significantly reduced as a result of the ductile Au layer. Cracking and delamination of the diamond from the substrate was mostly eliminated. When diamond was grown to thicknesses above 0.1 mm it was found that

  13. Thinking laterally about genomes.

    PubMed

    Ragan, Mark A

    2009-10-01

    Perhaps the most-surprising discovery of the genome era has been the extent to which prokaryotic and many eukaryotic genomes incorporate genetic material from sources other than their parent(s). Lateral genetic transfer (LGT) among bacteria was first observed about 100 years ago, and is now accepted to underlie important phenomena including the spread of antibiotic resistance and ability to degrade xenobiotics. LGT is invoked, perhaps too readily, to explain a breadth of awkward data including compositional heterogeneity of genomes, disagreement among gene-sequence trees, and mismatch between physiology and systematics. At the same time many details of LGT remain unknown or controversial, and some key questions have scarcely been asked. Here I critically review what we think we know about the existence, extent, mechanism and impact of LGT; identify important open questions; and point to research directions that hold particular promise for elucidating the role of LGT in genome evolution. Evidence for LGT in nature is not only inferential but also direct, and potential vectors are ubiquitous. Genetic material can pass between diverse habitats and be significantly altered during residency in viruses, complicating the inference of donors, In prokaryotes about twice as many genes are interrupted by LGT as are transferred intact, and about 5Short protein domains can be privileged units of transfer. Unresolved phylogenetic issues include the correct null hypothesis, and genes as units of analysis. Themes are beginning to emerge regarding the effect of LGT on cellular networks, but I show why generalization is premature. LGT can associate with radical changes in physiology and ecological niche. Better quantitative models of genome evolution are needed, and theoretical frameworks remain to be developed for some observations including chromosome assembly by LGT. PMID:20180279

  14. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Preserving the Lateral Canthal Angle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Jun; Lee, Kyu Ho; Choi, Hong Lim; Jeong, Eui Cheol

    2016-07-01

    Cosmetic lateral canthoplasty, in which the size of the eye is increased by extending the palpebral fissure and decreasing the degree of the eye slant, has become a prevalent procedure for East Asians. However, it is not uncommon for there to be complications or unfavorable results after the surgery. With this in mind, the authors have designed a surgical method to reduce complications in cosmetic lateral canthoplasty by preserving the lateral canthal angle. We discuss here the anatomy required for surgery, the surgical methods, and methods for reducing complications during cosmetic lateral canthoplasty. PMID:27462563

  15. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Preserving the Lateral Canthal Angle

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu Ho; Choi, Hong Lim; Jeong, Eui Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetic lateral canthoplasty, in which the size of the eye is increased by extending the palpebral fissure and decreasing the degree of the eye slant, has become a prevalent procedure for East Asians. However, it is not uncommon for there to be complications or unfavorable results after the surgery. With this in mind, the authors have designed a surgical method to reduce complications in cosmetic lateral canthoplasty by preserving the lateral canthal angle. We discuss here the anatomy required for surgery, the surgical methods, and methods for reducing complications during cosmetic lateral canthoplasty. PMID:27462563

  16. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Wijesekera, Lokesh C; Leigh, P Nigel

    2009-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by progressive muscular paralysis reflecting degeneration of motor neurones in the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, brainstem and spinal cord. Incidence (average 1.89 per 100,000/year) and prevalence (average 5.2 per100,000) are relatively uniform in Western countries, although foci of higher frequency occur in the Western Pacific. The mean age of onset for sporadic ALS is about 60 years. Overall, there is a slight male prevalence (M:F ratio~1.5:1). Approximately two thirds of patients with typical ALS have a spinal form of the disease (limb onset) and present with symptoms related to focal muscle weakness and wasting, where the symptoms may start either distally or proximally in the upper and lower limbs. Gradually, spasticity may develop in the weakened atrophic limbs, affecting manual dexterity and gait. Patients with bulbar onset ALS usually present with dysarthria and dysphagia for solid or liquids, and limbs symptoms can develop almost simultaneously with bulbar symptoms, and in the vast majority of cases will occur within 1–2 years. Paralysis is progressive and leads to death due to respiratory failure within 2–3 years for bulbar onset cases and 3–5 years for limb onset ALS cases. Most ALS cases are sporadic but 5–10% of cases are familial, and of these 20% have a mutation of the SOD1 gene and about 2–5% have mutations of the TARDBP (TDP-43) gene. Two percent of apparently sporadic patients have SOD1 mutations, and TARDBP mutations also occur in sporadic cases. The diagnosis is based on clinical history, examination, electromyography, and exclusion of 'ALS-mimics' (e.g. cervical spondylotic myelopathies, multifocal motor neuropathy, Kennedy's disease) by appropriate investigations. The pathological hallmarks comprise loss of motor neurones with intraneuronal ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions in upper motor neurones and TDP-43 immunoreactive inclusions in

  17. Secretin, 100 years later.

    PubMed

    Chey, William Y; Chang, Ta-Min

    2003-01-01

    One hundred years have elapsed since the discovery of secretin by Bayliss and Starling in 1902. In the past century, the research of secretin has gone by many milestones including isolation, purification and structural determination, chemical synthesis, establishment of its hormonal status by radioimmunoassay and immunoneutralization, identification of the specific receptor, cloning of secretin and its receptor, and identification of a secretin-releasing peptide. It has become clear that secretin is a hormone-regulating pancreatic exocrine secretion of fluid and bicarbonate, gastric acid secretion, and gastric motility. The release and actions of secretin is regulated by hormone-hormonal and neurohormonal interactions. The vagus nerve, particularly its afferent pathway, plays an essential role in the physiological actions of secretin. Substantial information about the property of the secretin receptor has been accumulated, but a potent secretin receptor-specific antagonist remains to be formulated. The neural regulatory mechanisms of the release and action of secretin await further elucidation. The physiological role of secretin in intestinal secretions and motility and extragastrointestinal organs remains to be defined. The presence of secretin and its receptor in the central nervous system is well documented, but its function as a neuropeptide has been recognized gradually and requires extensive study in the future. PMID:14673718

  18. Two distinct forms of functional lateralization in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Gotts, Stephen J.; Jo, Hang Joon; Wallace, Gregory L.; Saad, Ziad S.; Cox, Robert W.; Martin, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The hemispheric lateralization of certain faculties in the human brain has long been held to be beneficial for functioning. However, quantitative relationships between the degree of lateralization in particular brain regions and the level of functioning have yet to be established. Here we demonstrate that two distinct forms of functional lateralization are present in the left vs. the right cerebral hemisphere, with the left hemisphere showing a preference to interact more exclusively with itself, particularly for cortical regions involved in language and fine motor coordination. In contrast, right-hemisphere cortical regions involved in visuospatial and attentional processing interact in a more integrative fashion with both hemispheres. The degree of lateralization present in these distinct systems selectively predicted behavioral measures of verbal and visuospatial ability, providing direct evidence that lateralization is associated with enhanced cognitive ability. PMID:23959883

  19. Strictly homogeneous laterally complete modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilin, V. I.; Karimov, J. A.

    2016-03-01

    Let A be a laterally complete commutative regular algebra and X be a laterally complete A-module. In this paper we introduce a notion of homogeneous and strictly homogeneous A-modules. It is proved that any homogeneous A-module is strictly homogeneous A-module, if the Boolean algebra of all idempotents in A is multi-σ-finite.

  20. Cerebral Laterality Effects in the Dual Processing of Prose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Raymond S.

    1984-01-01

    The degree to which concreteness of prose material presented in an auditory fashion would interact with learners' lateral preference under different right hemispheric presentation conditions was investigated with 96 adults. Subjects recalled a greater number of ideas when the passage was concrete. Abstractness interacted with cerebral dominance.…

  1. Aerodynamic interactions from reaction controls for lateral control of the M2-F2 lifting-body entry configuration at transonic and supersonic and supersonic Mach numbers. [wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, R. O.; Brownson, J. J.

    1979-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the Ames 6 by 6 foot wind tunnel to determine the interaction of reaction jets for roll control on the M2-F2 lifting-body entry vehicle. Moment interactions are presented for a Mach number range of 0.6 to 1.7, a Reynolds number range of 1.2 x 10 to the 6th power to 1.6 x 10 to the 6th power (based on model reference length), an angle-of-attack range of -9 deg to 20 deg, and an angle-of-sideslip range of -6 deg to 6 deg at an angle of attack of 6 deg. The reaction jets produce roll control with small adverse yawing moment, which can be offset by horizontal thrust component of canted jets.

  2. Intraspecific competition and coordination in the evolution of lateralization

    PubMed Central

    Ghirlanda, Stefano; Frasnelli, Elisa; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed a variety of left–right asymmetries among vertebrates and invertebrates. In many species, left- and right-lateralized individuals coexist, but in unequal numbers (‘population-level’ lateralization). It has been argued that brain lateralization increases individual efficiency (e.g. avoiding unnecessary duplication of neural circuitry and reducing interference between functions), thus counteracting the ecological disadvantages of lateral biases in behaviour (making individual behaviour more predictable to other organisms). However, individual efficiency does not require a definite proportion of left- and right-lateralized individuals. Thus, such arguments do not explain population-level lateralization. We have previously shown that, in the context of prey–predator interactions, population-level lateralization can arise as an evolutionarily stable strategy when individually asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behaviour with that of other asymmetrical organisms. Here, we extend our model showing that populations consisting of left- and right-lateralized individuals in unequal numbers can be evolutionarily stable, based solely on strategic factors arising from the balance between antagonistic (competitive) and synergistic (cooperative) interactions. PMID:19064359

  3. Cerebral Laterality and Verbal Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Jay L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Research suggests that we process information by way of two distinct and functionally separate coding systems. Their location, somewhat dependent on cerebral laterality, varies in right- and left-handed persons. Tests this dual coding model. (Editor/RK)

  4. Lateral Dominance and Reading Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Albert J.

    1979-01-01

    Theory and research on the relation of lateral dominance to the causation of reading disability are reviewed. Both direct and indirect measures of cerebral hemisphere functioning are considered. (SBH)

  5. Lateral regulation of synaptic transmission by astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Covelo, A; Araque, A

    2016-05-26

    Fifteen years ago the concept of the "tripartite synapse" was proposed to conceptualize the functional view that astrocytes are integral elements of synapses. The signaling exchange between astrocytes and neurons within the tripartite synapse results in the synaptic regulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity through an autocrine form of communication. However, recent evidence indicates that the astrocyte synaptic regulation is not restricted to the active tripartite synapse but can be manifested through astrocyte signaling at synapses relatively distant from active synapses, a process termed lateral astrocyte synaptic regulation. This phenomenon resembles the classical heterosynaptic modulation but is mechanistically different because it involves astrocytes and its properties critically depend on the morphological and functional features of astrocytes. Therefore, the functional concept of the tripartite synapse as a fundamental unit must be expanded to include the interaction between tripartite synapses. Through lateral synaptic regulation, astrocytes serve as an active processing bridge for synaptic interaction and crosstalk between synapses with no direct neuronal connectivity, supporting the idea that neural network function results from the coordinated activity of astrocytes and neurons. PMID:25732135

  6. Borehole optical lateral displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, R.E.

    1998-10-20

    There is provided by this invention an optical displacement sensor that utilizes a reflective target connected to a surface to be monitored to reflect light from a light source such that the reflected light is received by a photoelectric transducer. The electric signal from the photoelectric transducer is then imputed into electronic circuitry to generate an electronic image of the target. The target`s image is monitored to determine the quantity and direction of any lateral displacement in the target`s image which represents lateral displacement in the surface being monitored. 4 figs.

  7. Ring-shaped lateral meniscus.

    PubMed

    Monllau, J C; León, A; Cugat, R; Ballester, J

    1998-01-01

    The existence of abnormal-shaped menisci has been long recognized. The presence of discoid menisci in the human knee is considered to be a congenital malformation with a very low rate of incidence except in Asian populations. Since the publication of Watanabe's Atlas, three types of lateral meniscal abnormalities are generally accepted: the complete and incomplete discoid, as well as the Wrisberg-ligament type meniscus. The present case is the second description of a ring-shaped meniscus on the lateral side of the knee and we propose that this variant be included as a fourth variant in a future classification. PMID:9681543

  8. Lateral Diffusion in an Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Saxton, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    Lateral diffusion of molecules in lipid bilayer membranes can be hindered by the presence of impermeable domains of gel-phase lipid or of proteins. Effective-medium theory and percolation theory are used to evaluate the effective lateral diffusion constant as a function of the area fraction of fluid-phase lipid and the permeability of the obstructions to the diffusing species. Applications include the estimation of the minimum fraction of fluid lipid needed for bacterial growth, and the enhancement of diffusion-controlled reactions by the channeling effect of solid patches of lipid. PMID:7052153

  9. Tidal variability of lateral advection in a coastal plain estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basdurak, N. B.; Valle-Levinson, A.

    2013-07-01

    Tidal variability of lateral advection of momentum (vuy, where u and v are along-estuary and lateral flows, respectively, and the subindex indicates differentiation with respect to the cross-estuary direction) was investigated in a coastal plain estuary with observations at Hampton Roads, which is the transition between the James River and Chesapeake Bay. Towed current velocity profiles and hydrographic profiles were captured during 9 expeditions in 2004 and 2005, to determine the intratidal and spatial changes in lateral advection of momentum and its contribution to along-channel flow. Curvature effects and lateral density gradients were important in driving lateral circulation and in modifying intratidal lateral advection of momentum. Lateral advection had the same order of magnitude as the baroclinic pressure gradient. Its contribution to the along-channel momentum balance was greatest during or just after peak flood and weakest at the end of ebb. During peak flood and peak ebb, the spatial distribution of vuy was seaward at the southern (left) side near surface and at the northern side (right) near bed (looking up-estuary), and landward in the rest of the channel. During slack periods the vuy structures were mostly landward. Observations were in good agreement with analytical model results during peak ebb and flood, but inconsistent during slack periods. The discrepancies between model results and field measurements can be attributed to bathymetry-density gradient interactions, which enhanced ebb-to-flood asymmetries in the along-channel and lateral flow.

  10. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mimic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) misdiagnosis has many broad implications for the patient and the neurologist. Potentially curative treatments exist for certain ALS mimic syndromes, but delay in starting these therapies may have an unfavorable effect on outcome. Hence, it is important to exclude similar conditions. In this review, we discuss some of the important mimics of ALS. PMID:27326363

  11. Diagnosing and treating lateral epicondylitis.

    PubMed Central

    Geoffroy, P.; Yaffe, M. J.; Rohan, I.

    1994-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is often encountered in primary care. Although its diagnosis can be fairly straightforward, its treatment is often difficult. This review examines the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation of tennis elbow. Management options are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8312757

  12. Symptoms of discoid lateral menisci

    PubMed Central

    Mutlu, Serhat; Mutlu, Harun; Mutlu, Burcu; Guler, Olcay; Duymus, Tahir Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to determine the symptoms of the patients with discoid lateral meniscus. Methods We prospectively collected cases of the knees with discoid lateral meniscus. Twenty patients (7 female, 13 male) admitted between January 2012 and February 2014 were enrolled in this study. The mean age of the patients was 34 years (range 28–40). Results The identified symptoms of a discoid lateral meniscus were “pain, stiffness, popping of the knee, feeling that the knee is “giving way”, inability to fully extend (straighten) the knee”. Thirteen patients (65%) had pain, 11 (55%) had popping of the knee, 4 (20%) had stiffness, 2 (10%) had “giving way” feeling, and 1 (5%) had inability to fully extend the knee. These symptoms did not prevent any patient's daily activities. No patients required surgical treatment. Conclusions Pain and popping of the knee were the most common symptoms in patients with a discoid lateral meniscus. The other symptoms were stiffness, feeling that the knee is “giving way”, and inability to fully extend the knee, respectively. No symptoms had been required surgical treatment. PMID:25561753

  13. School Readiness and Later Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Dowsett, Chantelle J.; Claessens, Amy; Magnuson, Katherine; Huston, Aletha C.; Klebanov, Pamela; Pagani, Linda S.; Feinstein, Leon; Engel, Mimi; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Sexton, Holly; Duckworth, Kathryn; Japel, Crista

    2007-01-01

    Using 6 longitudinal data sets, the authors estimate links between three key elements of school readiness--school-entry academic, attention, and socioemotional skills--and later school reading and math achievement. In an effort to isolate the effects of these school-entry skills, the authors ensured that most of their regression models control for…

  14. Functional Lateralization of the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Raymond S.

    1984-01-01

    Research concerning lateralization of human brain functions is examined in light of the recent publication of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. Following a review of research methodologies and functions ascribed to the hemispheres of the brain, differences are portrayed as complementary and coexisting modes of cognitive processing.…

  15. A partially duplicated discoid lateral meniscus.

    PubMed

    Kim, S J; Lee, Y T; Choi, C H; Kim, D W

    1998-01-01

    Partially duplicated discoid lateral meniscus has not been previously reported. We present a case of a partially duplicated discoid lateral meniscus with a peripheral tear of the meniscus and a concomitant cartilage lesion of the lateral femoral condyle. PMID:9681547

  16. Lateral gene transfer in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Andersson, J O

    2005-06-01

    Lateral gene transfer -- the transfer of genetic material between species -- has been acknowledged as a major mechanism in prokaryotic genome evolution for some time. Recently accumulating data indicate that the process also occurs in the evolution of eukaryotic genomes. However, there are large rate variations between groups of eukaryotes; animals and fungi seem to be largely unaffected, with a few exceptions, while lateral gene transfer frequently occurs in protists with phagotrophic lifestyles, possibly with rates comparable to prokaryotic organisms. Gene transfers often facilitate the acquisition of functions encoded in prokaryotic genomes by eukaryotic organisms, which may enable them to colonize new environments. Transfers between eukaryotes also occur, mainly into larger phagotrophic eukaryotes that ingest eukaryotic cells, but also between plant lineages. These findings have implications for eukaryotic genomic research in general, and studies of the origin and phylogeny of eukaryotes in particular. PMID:15761667

  17. Lateral dampers for thrust bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibner, D. H.; Szafir, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of lateral damping schemes for thrust bearings was examined, ranking their applicability to various engine classes, selecting the best concept for each engine class and performing an in-depth evaluation. Five major engine classes were considered: large transport, military, small general aviation, turboshaft, and non-manrated. Damper concepts developed for evaluation were: curved beam, constrained and unconstrained elastomer, hybrid boost bearing, hydraulic thrust piston, conical squeeze film, and rolling element thrust face.

  18. Cerebral lateralization in simultaneous interpretation.

    PubMed

    Fabbro, F; Gran, L; Basso, G; Bava, A

    1990-07-01

    Cerebral asymmetries for L1 (Italian), L2 (English), and L3 (French, German, Spanish, or Russian) were studied, by using a verbal-manual interference paradigm, in a group of Italian right-handed polyglot female students at the Scuola Superiore di Lingue Moderne per Interpreti e Traduttori (SSLM-School for Interpreters and Translators) of the University of Trieste and in a control group of right-handed monolingual female students at the Medical School of the University of Trieste. In an automatic speech production task no significant cerebral lateralization was found for the mother tongue (L1) either in the interpreting students or in the control group; the interpreting students were not significantly lateralized for the third language (L3), while weak left hemispheric lateralization was shown for L2. A significantly higher degree of verbal-manual interference was found for L1 than for L2 and L3. A significantly higher disruption rate occurred in the meaning-based mode of simultaneous interpretation (from L2 into L1 and vice versa) than in the word-for-word mode (from L2 into L1 and vice versa). No significant overall or hemispheric differences were found during simultaneous interpretation from L1 into L2 or from L2 into L1. PMID:2207622

  19. Social Learning Modulates the Lateralization of Emotional Valence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G.; Lavidor, Michal; Aharon-Peretz, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Although neuropsychological studies of lateralization of emotion have emphasized valence (positive vs. negative) or type (basic vs. complex) dimensions, the interaction between the two dimensions has yet to be elucidated. The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that recognition of basic emotions is processed preferentially by…

  20. 49 CFR 229.63 - Lateral motion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lateral motion. 229.63 Section 229.63....63 Lateral motion. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b), the total uncontrolled lateral motion... powered axles. (b) The total uncontrolled lateral motion may not exceed 11/4 inches on the center axle...

  1. Exchange coupling between laterally adjacent nanomagnets.

    PubMed

    Dey, H; Csaba, G; Bernstein, G H; Porod, W

    2016-09-30

    We experimentally demonstrate exchange-coupling between laterally adjacent nanomagnets. Our results show that two neighboring nanomagnets that are each antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled to a common ferromagnetic bottom layer can be brought into strong ferromagnetic interaction. Simulations show that interlayer exchange coupling effectively promotes ferromagnetic alignment between the two nanomagnets, as opposed to antiferromagnetic alignment due to dipole-coupling. In order to experimentally demonstrate the proposed scheme, we fabricated arrays of pairs of elongated, single-domain nanomagnets. Magnetic force microscopy measurements show that most of the pairs are ferromagnetically ordered. The results are in agreement with micromagnetic simulations. The presented scheme can achieve coupling strengths that are significantly stronger than dipole coupling, potentially enabling far-reaching applications in Nanomagnet Logic, spin-wave devices and three-dimensional storage and computing. PMID:27535227

  2. Manual lateralization in macaques: handedness, target laterality and task complexity.

    PubMed

    Regaiolli, Barbara; Spiezio, Caterina; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates represent models to understand the evolution of handedness in humans. Despite several researches have been investigating non-human primates handedness, few studies examined the relationship between target position, hand preference and task complexity. This study aimed at investigating macaque handedness in relation to target laterality and tastiness, as well as task complexity. Seven pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) were involved in three different "two alternative choice" tests: one low-level task and two high-level tasks (HLTs). During the first and the third tests macaques could select a preferred food and a non-preferred food, whereas by modifying the design of the second test, macaques were presented with no-difference alternative per trial. Furthermore, a simple-reaching test was administered to assess hand preference in a social context. Macaques showed hand preference at individual level both in simple and complex tasks, but not in the simple-reaching test. Moreover, target position seemed to affect hand preference in retrieving an object in the low-level task, but not in the HLT. Additionally, individual hand preference seemed to be affected from the tastiness of the item to be retrieved. The results suggest that both target laterality and individual motivation might influence hand preference of macaques, especially in simple tasks. PMID:26292019

  3. Gene regularity interactions at lateral organ buondaries in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize leaves have distinct tissues that serve specific purposes. The blade tilts back to photosynthesize and the sheath wraps around the stem to provide structural support and protect young leaves. At the junction between blade and sheath are the ligule and auricles, both of which are absent in the ...

  4. Vision assisted aircraft lateral navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohideen, Mohamed Ibrahim; Ramegowda, Dinesh; Seiler, Peter

    2013-05-01

    Surface operation is currently one of the least technologically equipped phases of aircraft operation. The increased air traffic congestion necessitates more aircraft operations in degraded weather and at night. The traditional surface procedures worked well in most cases as airport surfaces have not been congested and airport layouts were less complex. Despite the best efforts of FAA and other safety agencies, runway incursions continue to occur frequently due to incorrect surface operation. Several studies conducted by FAA suggest that pilot induced error contributes significantly to runway incursions. Further, the report attributes pilot's lack of situational awareness - local (e.g., minimizing lateral deviation), global (e.g., traffic in the vicinity) and route (e.g., distance to next turn) - to the problem. An Enhanced Vision System (EVS) is one concept that is being considered to resolve these issues. These systems use on-board sensors to provide situational awareness under poor visibility conditions. In this paper, we propose the use of an Image processing based system to estimate the aircraft position and orientation relative to taxiway markings to use as lateral guidance aid. We estimate aircraft yaw angle and lateral offset from slope of the taxiway centerline and horizontal position of vanishing line. Unlike automotive applications, several cues such as aircraft maneuvers along assigned route with minimal deviations, clear ground markings, even taxiway surface, limited aircraft speed are available and enable us to implement significant algorithm optimizations. We present experimental results to show high precision navigation accuracy with sensitivity analysis with respect to camera mount, optics, and image processing error.

  5. Direct lateral maneuvers in hawkmoths.

    PubMed

    Greeter, Jeremy S M; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2016-01-01

    We used videography to investigate direct lateral maneuvers, i.e. 'sideslips', of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. M. sexta sideslip by rolling their entire body and wings to reorient their net force vector. During sideslip they increase net aerodynamic force by flapping with greater amplitude, (in both wing elevation and sweep), allowing them to continue to support body weight while rolled. To execute the roll maneuver we observed in sideslips, they use an asymmetric wing stroke; increasing the pitch of the roll-contralateral wing pair, while decreasing that of the roll-ipsilateral pair. They also increase the wing sweep amplitude of, and decrease the elevation amplitude of, the contralateral wing pair relative to the ipsilateral pair. The roll maneuver unfolds in a stairstep manner, with orientation changing more during downstroke than upstroke. This is due to smaller upstroke wing pitch angle asymmetries as well as increased upstroke flapping counter-torque from left-right differences in global reference frame wing velocity about the moth's roll axis. Rolls are also opposed by stabilizing aerodynamic moments from lateral motion, such that rightward roll velocity will be opposed by rightward motion. Computational modeling using blade-element approaches confirm the plausibility of a causal linkage between the previously mentioned wing kinematics and roll/sideslip. Model results also predict high degrees of axial and lateral damping. On the time scale of whole and half wing strokes, left-right wing pair asymmetries directly relate to the first, but not second, derivative of roll. Collectively, these results strongly support a roll-based sideslip with a high degree of roll damping in M. sexta. PMID:26740573

  6. Direct lateral maneuvers in hawkmoths

    PubMed Central

    Greeter, Jeremy S. M.; Hedrick, Tyson L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We used videography to investigate direct lateral maneuvers, i.e. ‘sideslips’, of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. M. sexta sideslip by rolling their entire body and wings to reorient their net force vector. During sideslip they increase net aerodynamic force by flapping with greater amplitude, (in both wing elevation and sweep), allowing them to continue to support body weight while rolled. To execute the roll maneuver we observed in sideslips, they use an asymmetric wing stroke; increasing the pitch of the roll-contralateral wing pair, while decreasing that of the roll-ipsilateral pair. They also increase the wing sweep amplitude of, and decrease the elevation amplitude of, the contralateral wing pair relative to the ipsilateral pair. The roll maneuver unfolds in a stairstep manner, with orientation changing more during downstroke than upstroke. This is due to smaller upstroke wing pitch angle asymmetries as well as increased upstroke flapping counter-torque from left-right differences in global reference frame wing velocity about the moth's roll axis. Rolls are also opposed by stabilizing aerodynamic moments from lateral motion, such that rightward roll velocity will be opposed by rightward motion. Computational modeling using blade-element approaches confirm the plausibility of a causal linkage between the previously mentioned wing kinematics and roll/sideslip. Model results also predict high degrees of axial and lateral damping. On the time scale of whole and half wing strokes, left-right wing pair asymmetries directly relate to the first, but not second, derivative of roll. Collectively, these results strongly support a roll-based sideslip with a high degree of roll damping in M. sexta. PMID:26740573

  7. Relativism in Feyerabend's later writings.

    PubMed

    Kusch, Martin

    2016-06-01

    This paper reconstructs, and distinguishes between, Feyerabend's different forms of relativism in his later writings. Science in a Free Society remains close to familiar forms of relativism, while, at the same time, developing an original but under-argued form of political relativism, and rejecting "conversion" models of cultural exchange. Farewell to Reason moves away from common renderings of relativism, and develops a range of different new forms. Central here are links between relativism, skepticism and infallibilism. In the last six years of his life, Feyerabend often criticizes a peculiar radical form of relativism that arguably no-one has ever proposed or defended. In the same context, Feyerabend sketches an "ontological" form of relativism. It combines "Kantian humility", metaphysical pluralism and constructivism. PMID:27269269

  8. CYSTS OF THE LATERAL MENISCUS

    PubMed Central

    Westrick, Richard B.; Fogarty, Brian T.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis and management of knee pain with or without mechanical symptoms challenges the physical therapist's clinical reasoning skills. Meniscal cysts are one relatively rare disorder of the knee that can cause both pain and mechanical symptoms and are frequently associated with a meniscal tear. In patients with suspected meniscal cysts, systematic differential diagnosis and sound clinical reasoning encourages appropriate integration of the clinical examination with diagnostic imaging. These case reports describe two different presentations of lateral parameniscal cysts where integration of the clinical examination with appropriate imaging allowed the physical therapist to provide a timely and appropriate intervention. In both cases, the diagnostic process is described along with the subsequent interventions that lead to positive outcomes. Level of Evidence: 5 (Case Report) PMID:23772349

  9. LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS OF THE ELBOW

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Marcio; da Rocha Motta Filho, Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is a common condition that is estimated to affect 1% to 3% of the population. The word epicondylitis suggests inflammation, although histological analysis on the tissue fails to show any inflammatory process. The structure most commonly affected is the origin of the tendon of the extensor carpi radialis brevis and the mechanism of injury is associated with overloading. Nonsurgical treatment is the preferred method, and this includes rest, physiotherapy, cortisone infiltration, platelet-rich plasma injections and use of specific immobilization. Surgical treatment is recommended when functional disability and pain persist. Both the open and the arthroscopic surgical technique with resection of the degenerated tendon tissue present good results in the literature. PMID:27047843

  10. Teen Obesity May Mean Liver Disease Later

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159416.html Teen Obesity May Mean Liver Disease Later Study found risk increased as weight went ... obese could be at increased risk for severe liver disease later in life, a new study suggests. The ...

  11. Lateral Quantum Dots for Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    House, Matthew Gregory

    The possibility of building a computer that takes advantage of the most subtle nature of quantum physics has been driving a lot of research in atomic and solid state physics for some time. It is still not clear what physical system or systems can be used for this purpose. One possibility that has been attracting significant attention from researchers is to use the spin state of an electron confined in a semiconductor quantum dot. The electron spin is magnetic in nature, so it naturally is well isolated from electrical fluctuations that can a loss of quantum coherence. It can also be manipulated electrically, by taking advantage of the exchange interaction. In this work we describe several experiments we have done to study the electron spin properties of lateral quantum dots. We have developed lateral quantum dot devices based on the silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor, and studied the physics of electrons confined in these quantum dots. We measured the electron spin excited state lifetime, which was found to be as long as 30 ms at the lowest magnetic fields that we could measure. We fabricated and characterized a silicon double quantum dot. Using this double quantum dot design, we fabricated devices which combined a silicon double quantum dot with a superconducting microwave resonator. The microwave resonator was found to be sensitive to two-dimensional electrons in the transistor channel, which we measured and characterized. We developed a new method for extracting information from random telegraph signals, which are produced when we observe thermal fluctuations of electrons in quantum dots. The new statistical method, based on the hidden Markov model, allows us to detect spin-dependent effects in such fluctuations even though we are not able to directly observe the electron spin. We use this analysis technique on data from two experiments involving gallium arsenide quantum dots and use it to measure spin-dependent tunneling rates. Our results advance the

  12. Hemispheric Laterality in Music and Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szirony, Gary Michael; Burgin, John S.; Pearson, L. Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Hemispheric laterality may be a useful concept in teaching, learning, training, and in understanding more about human development. To address this issue, a measure of hemispheric laterality was compared to musical and mathematical ability. The Human Information Processing Survey (HIPS) instrument, designed to measure hemispheric laterality, was…

  13. Signaling Delays Preclude Defects in Lateral Inhibition Patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, David S.; Jin, Xiaofan; Riedel-Kruse, Ingmar H.

    2016-03-01

    Lateral inhibition represents a well-studied example of biology's ability to self-organize multicellular spatial patterns with single-cell precision. Despite established biochemical mechanisms for lateral inhibition (e.g., Delta-Notch), it remains unclear how cell-cell signaling delays inherent to these mechanisms affect patterning outcomes. We investigate a compact model of lateral inhibition highlighting these delays and find, remarkably, that long delays can ensure defect-free patterning. This effect is underscored by an interplay with synchronous oscillations, cis interactions, and signaling strength. Our results suggest that signaling delays, though previously posited as a source of developmental defects, may in fact be a general regulatory knob for tuning developmental robustness.

  14. Landing adaptations following isolated lateral meniscectomy in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Minning, Stephen J.; Myer, Gregory D.; Mangine, Robert E.; Colosimo, Angelo J.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Objective functional outcomes following isolated radial lateral meniscus tears in the athlete between the ages of 14–25 are not clearly defined. The objective of this study was to determine whether patients following lateral meniscectomy demonstrate lower extremity asymmetries relative to control athletes 3 months after surgery. We hypothesized that following lateral meniscectomy, athletes aged 14–25 years old would demonstrate altered landing biomechanics compared to sex, age, height, weight, and sport-matched controls. Methods A total of 18 subjects were included in this study. Nine patients (7 men and 2 women, 20.1 ± 2.8 years) who had undergone first-time isolated radial lateral meniscus tears were tested 3 months following partial lateral meniscectomies and compared to nine sex, age, height, weight, and sport-matched controls (7 men and 2 women, 19.7 ± 3.1 years). A ten-camera motion analysis system and two force platforms were used to collect three trials of bilateral drop landings. A 2X2 ANOVA was used to test the interaction between side (involved vs. uninvolved) and group (patient vs. control). Results The patient group landed with a decreased internal knee extensor moment compared to the uninvolved side and controls (interaction P < 0.05). The involved limb quadriceps isokinetic torque was not decreased compared to the contralateral or control (n.s.). Decreased knee extensor moments were significantly associated with reduced measures of function (IKDC scores: r = 0.69; P < 0.05). Conclusions Athletes who return to sport at approximately 3 months following a partial lateral meniscectomy may employ compensation strategies during landing as evidenced by reduced quadriceps recruitment and functional outcome scores. Clinicians should focus on improving quadriceps function during landing on the involved leg in an attempt to decrease residual limb asymmetries. Level of evidence Case–control study, Level III. PMID:21468616

  15. The multifunctional lateral geniculate nucleus.

    PubMed

    Weyand, Theodore G

    2016-02-01

    Providing the critical link between the retina and visual cortex, the well-studied lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) has stood out as a structure in search of a function exceeding the mundane 'relay'. For many mammals, it is structurally impressive: Exquisite lamination, sophisticated microcircuits, and blending of multiple inputs suggest some fundamental transform. This impression is bolstered by the fact that numerically, the retina accounts for a small fraction of its input. Despite such promise, the extent to which an LGN neuron separates itself from its retinal brethren has proven difficult to appreciate. Here, I argue that whereas retinogeniculate coupling is strong, what occurs in the LGN is judicious pruning of a retinal drive by nonretinal inputs. These nonretinal inputs reshape a receptive field that under the right conditions departs significantly from its retinal drive, even if transiently. I first review design features of the LGN and follow with evidence for 10 putative functions. Only two of these tend to surface in textbooks: parsing retinal axons by eye and functional group and gating by state. Among the remaining putative functions, implementation of the principle of graceful degradation and temporal decorrelation are at least as interesting but much less promoted. The retina solves formidable problems imposed by physics to yield multiple efficient and sensitive representations of the world. The LGN applies context, increasing content, and gates several of these representations. Even if the basic concentric receptive field remains, information transmitted for each LGN spike relative to each retinal spike is measurably increased. PMID:26479339

  16. Gunshot residue, ten years later.

    PubMed

    Wilber, C G; Lantz, R K; Sulik, P L

    1991-09-01

    Gunshot residues may be central to a competent reconstruction of a shooting incident. When a young boy was shot in the neck by a playmate using a .22-caliber single-action revolver, permanent paralysis from mid-thorax downward ensued. Ten years later the victim sued the importer, the vendor, the German manufacturer, and the shooter's family. Investigative reports indicated "horseplay" and questionable emergency medical team care. Depositions were contradictory. The entry wound, removed at surgery, was fixed and processed for slides. The histopathologist referred to "black pigment granules" in the wound track. The 10-year-old slides and block were retrieved. The coverslip was removed from a representative slide that was examined under the scanning, x-ray dispersive microscope. The black granules contained amounts of lead, barium, and antimony far beyond any normal range. The firing range had to have been no greater than 6-12 in (15.24-30.48 cm). The case was promptly settled out of court. PMID:1750390

  17. CEP5 and XIP1/CEPR1 regulate lateral root initiation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Ianto; Smith, Stephanie; Stes, Elisabeth; De Rybel, Bert; Staes, An; van de Cotte, Brigitte; Njo, Maria Fransiska; Dedeyne, Lise; Demol, Hans; Lavenus, Julien; Audenaert, Dominique; Gevaert, Kris; Beeckman, Tom; De Smet, Ive

    2016-08-01

    Roots explore the soil for water and nutrients through the continuous production of lateral roots. Lateral roots are formed at regular distances in a steadily elongating organ, but how future sites for lateral root formation become established is not yet understood. Here, we identified C-TERMINALLY ENCODED PEPTIDE 5 (CEP5) as a novel, auxin-repressed and phloem pole-expressed signal assisting in the formation of lateral roots. In addition, based on genetic and expression data, we found evidence for the involvement of its proposed receptor, XYLEM INTERMIXED WITH PHLOEM 1 (XIP1)/CEP RECEPTOR 1 (CEPR1), during the process of lateral root initiation. In conclusion, we report here on the existence of a peptide ligand-receptor kinase interaction that impacts lateral root initiation. Our results represent an important step towards the understanding of the cellular communication implicated in the early phases of lateral root formation. PMID:27296247

  18. CEP5 and XIP1/CEPR1 regulate lateral root initiation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Ianto; Smith, Stephanie; Stes, Elisabeth; De Rybel, Bert; Staes, An; van de Cotte, Brigitte; Njo, Maria Fransiska; Dedeyne, Lise; Demol, Hans; Lavenus, Julien; Audenaert, Dominique; Gevaert, Kris; Beeckman, Tom; De Smet, Ive

    2016-01-01

    Roots explore the soil for water and nutrients through the continuous production of lateral roots. Lateral roots are formed at regular distances in a steadily elongating organ, but how future sites for lateral root formation become established is not yet understood. Here, we identified C-TERMINALLY ENCODED PEPTIDE 5 (CEP5) as a novel, auxin-repressed and phloem pole-expressed signal assisting in the formation of lateral roots. In addition, based on genetic and expression data, we found evidence for the involvement of its proposed receptor, XYLEM INTERMIXED WITH PHLOEM 1 (XIP1)/CEP RECEPTOR 1 (CEPR1), during the process of lateral root initiation. In conclusion, we report here on the existence of a peptide ligand−receptor kinase interaction that impacts lateral root initiation. Our results represent an important step towards the understanding of the cellular communication implicated in the early phases of lateral root formation. PMID:27296247

  19. A Lateralization of Function Approach to Sex Differences in Spatial Ability: A Reexamination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rilea, Stacy L.

    2008-01-01

    The current study assessed the lateralization of function hypothesis (Rilea, S. L., Roskos-Ewoldsen, B., & Boles, D. (2004). "Sex differences in spatial ability: A lateralization of function approach." "Brain and Cognition," 56, 332-343) which suggested that it was the interaction of brain organization and the type of spatial task that led to sex…

  20. Lateral-Medial Dissociation in Orbitofrontal Cortex-Hypothalamus Connectivity.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Satoshi; Osada, Takahiro; Ogawa, Akitoshi; Tanaka, Masaki; Wada, Hiroyuki; Yoshizawa, Yasunori; Imai, Yoshio; Machida, Toru; Akahane, Masaaki; Shirouzu, Ichiro; Konishi, Seiki

    2016-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is involved in cognitive functions, and is also closely related to autonomic functions. The OFC is densely connected with the hypothalamus, a heterogeneous structure controlling autonomic functions that can be divided into two major parts: the lateral and the medial. Resting-state functional connectivity has allowed us to parcellate the cerebral cortex into putative functional areas based on the changes in the spatial pattern of connectivity in the cerebral cortex when a seed point is moved from one voxel to another. In the present high spatial-resolution fMRI study, we investigate the connectivity-based organization of the OFC with reference to the hypothalamus. The OFC was parcellated using resting-state functional connectivity in an individual subject approach, and then the functional connectivity was examined between the parcellated areas in the OFC and the lateral/medial hypothalamus. We found a functional double dissociation in the OFC: the lateral OFC (the lateral orbital gyrus) was more likely connected with the lateral hypothalamus, whereas the medial OFC (the medial orbital and rectal gyri) was more likely connected with the medial hypothalamus. These results demonstrate the fundamental heterogeneity of the OFC, and suggest a potential neural basis of the OFC-hypothalamic functional interaction. PMID:27303281

  1. Effects of lateral osteotomy on surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, T F M; Pereira-Filho, V A; Gabrielli, M A C; Gonçales, E S; Santos-Pinto, A

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the potential effects of two different osteotomy designs of the maxillary lateral wall on dental and skeletal changes after surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME). Thirty adult patients were divided into two groups according to the lateral osteotomy design: group 1 (n=16) underwent lateral osteotomy performed in a horizontal straight fashion, and group 2 (n=14) underwent lateral osteotomy performed in parallel to the occlusal plane with a step at the zygomatic buttress. Cone beam computed tomography scans were obtained preoperatively (T1), immediately after expansion (T2), and 6 months after expansion (T3). Mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for the statistical analysis. The results showed no significant interaction effect between groups and time points. Therefore, maxillary expansion was effective in both groups. Statistically significant increases in all dental and skeletal measurements were observed immediately after expansion (P<0.001). Relapse of the nasal floor width, tipping of the supporting teeth, and an increase in root distance in molars occurred at T3 (P<0.05). In summary, the maxillary lateral osteotomy design did not influence the results of SARME, which occurred mainly through the inclination of maxillary segments. PMID:26688294

  2. Retroviruses and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Alfahad, Tariq; Nath, Avindra

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, invariably fatal neurologic disorder resulting from upper and lower motor neuron degeneration, which typically develops during the sixth or seventh decade of life, and is diagnosed based on standard clinical criteria. Its underlying cause remains undetermined. The disease may occur with increased frequency within certain families, often in association with specific genomic mutations, while some sporadic cases have been linked to environmental toxins or trauma. Another possibility, first proposed in the 1970s, is that retroviruses play a role in pathogenesis. In this paper, we review the published literature for evidence that ALS is associated either with infection by an exogenous retrovirus or with the expression of human endogenous retroviral (HERV) sequences in cells of the central nervous system. A small percentage of persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) or human T cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) develop ALS-like syndromes. While HTLV-1 associated ALS-like syndrome has several features that may distinguish it from classical ALS, HIV-infected patients may develop neurological manifestations that resemble classical ALS although it occurs at a younger age and they may show a dramatic improvement following the initiation of antiretroviral therapy. However, most patients with probable or definite ALS show no evidence of HIV-1 or HTLV-1 infection. In contrast, recent reports have shown a stronger association with HERV, as analysis of serum samples, and postmortem brain tissue from a number of patients with a classical ALS has revealed significantly increased expression of HERV-K, compared to controls. These findings suggest that endogenous retroviral elements are involved in the pathophysiology of ALS, but there is no evidence that they are the primary cause of the syndrome. PMID:23707220

  3. Lateral excitonic switching in vertically stacked quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarzynka, Jarosław R.; McDonald, Peter G.; Shumway, John; Galbraith, Ian

    2016-06-01

    We show that the application of a vertical electric field to the Coulomb interacting system in stacked quantum dots leads to a 90° in-plane switching of charge probability distribution in contrast to a single dot, where no such switching exists. Results are obtained using path integral quantum Monte Carlo with realistic dot geometry, alloy composition, and piezo-electric potential profiles. The origin of the switching lies in the strain interactions between the stacked dots hence the need for more than one layer of dots. The lateral polarization and electric field dependence of the radiative lifetimes of the excitonic switch are also discussed.

  4. Can Population-Level Laterality Stem from Social Pressures? Evidence from Cheek Kissing in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Chapelain, Amandine; Pimbert, Pauline; Aube, Lydiane; Perrocheau, Océane; Debunne, Gilles; Bellido, Alain; Blois-Heulin, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Despite extensive research, the origins and functions of behavioural laterality remain largely unclear. One of the most striking unresolved issues is the fact that laterality generally occurs at the population-level. Why would the majority of the individuals of a population exhibit the same laterality, while individual-level laterality would yet provide the advantages in terms of improving behavioural efficiency? Are social pressures the key factor? Can social pressures induce alignment of laterality between the individuals of a population? Can the effect of social pressures overpass the effect of other possible determining factors (e.g. genes)? We tested this important new hypothesis in humans, for the first time. We asked whether population-level laterality could stem from social pressures. Namely, we assessed social pressures on laterality in an interactive social behaviour: kissing on the cheek as a greeting. We performed observations in 10 cities of France. The observations took place in spots where people of the city meet and greet each other. We showed that: a) there is a population-level laterality for cheek kissing, with the majority of individuals being aligned in each city, and b) there is a variation between populations, with a laterality that depends on the city. These results were confirmed by our complementary data from questionnaires and internet surveys. These findings show that social pressures are involved in determining laterality. They demonstrate that population-level laterality can stem from social pressures. PMID:26270648

  5. Incomplete discoid lateral meniscus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Murlimanju, B V; Nair, N; Ganesan, S; Krishnamurthy, A

    2013-01-01

    The variations of lateral meniscus include pathologic entities which vary in size, shape and attachment. In this manuscript, we report a case of discoid lateral meniscus which was observed in an embalmed fetal cadaver. It was an incomplete variety of the discoid meniscus and observed on the right side knee. The clinical implication of this discoid meniscus has been emphasized along with the review of literature. The morphological and embryologic details of the discoid lateral menisci are discussed. PMID:24045517

  6. Human olfactory lateralization requires trigeminal activation.

    PubMed

    Croy, Ilona; Schulz, Max; Blumrich, Anna; Hummel, Cornelia; Gerber, Johannes; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Rats are able to lateralize odors. This ability involves specialized neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex which are able to process the left, right and bilateral presentation of stimuli. However, it is not clear whether this function is preserved in humans. Humans are in general not able to differentiate whether a selective olfactory stimulant has been applied to the left or right nostril; however exceptions have been reported. Following a screening of 152 individuals with an olfactory lateralization test, we identified 19 who could lateralize odors above chance level. 15 of these "lateralizers" underwent olfactory fMRI scanning in a block design and were compared to 15 controls matched for age and sex distribution. As a result, both groups showed comparable activation of olfactory eloquent brain areas. However, subjects with lateralization ability had a significantly enhanced activation of cerebral trigeminal processing areas (somatosensory cortex, intraparietal sulcus). In contrast to controls, lateralizers furthermore exhibited no suppression in the area of the trigeminal principal sensory nucleus. An exploratory study with an olfactory change detection paradigm furthermore showed that lateralizers oriented faster towards changes in the olfactory environment. Taken together, our study suggests that the trigeminal system is activated to a higher degree by the odorous stimuli in the group of "lateralizers". We conclude that humans are not able to lateralize odors based on the olfactory input alone, but vary in the degree to which the trigeminal system is recruited. PMID:24825502

  7. Vannevar Bush: Fifty Years Later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    It is ironic that the 50th anniversary year of Vannevar Bush's Report to President Truman entitled "Science the Endless Frontier", which put into motion the eminently successful current system of education of scientists in this country occurs at a time when serious questions are being asked about the usefulness of that very system. Bush viewed his proposal to establish a national research foundation (later to be called the National Science Foundation) as a "social compact." Judgment of scientific merit would be delegated to expert peers in return for scientific progress, which would ultimately benefit the nation in terms of scientific needs--military security, economic productivity, and enhanced quality of life. Bush wanted the funding of basic research intertwined with training, and preferred to use universities for this purpose rather than industrial or national labs. Bush viewed college and university scientists as teachers and investigators. He believed university-based research would uniquely encourage and engage the next generation of scientists as no other institutional arrangement could. Bush did not trust industry's commitment to basic research, an instinct that proved prophetic. The academic reserve of scientists (PhD's in training and postdoctoral students) that existed before World War II, and upon which the United States could draw for its needs, which were primarily associated with defense efforts, was probably one of the defining factors in Bush's suggested strategy. Currently, that reserve of talent has gotten so large that it is the obvious throttle in the pipeline slowing the continued development of the university research enterprise. Since 1977, the rate at which we have trained new scientists exceeds an average of 4% annually. Since 1987, the "science work force"--PhD's--has grown at three times the rate of the general labor supply. Temporary positions for postdoctoral scientists have grown even faster (over 5% per year since 1989). To compound

  8. Vannevar Bush: Fifty Years Later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    It is ironic that the 50th anniversary year of Vannevar Bush's Report to President Truman entitled "Science the Endless Frontier", which put into motion the eminently successful current system of education of scientists in this country occurs at a time when serious questions are being asked about the usefulness of that very system. Bush viewed his proposal to establish a national research foundation (later to be called the National Science Foundation) as a "social compact." Judgment of scientific merit would be delegated to expert peers in return for scientific progress, which would ultimately benefit the nation in terms of scientific needs--military security, economic productivity, and enhanced quality of life. Bush wanted the funding of basic research intertwined with training, and preferred to use universities for this purpose rather than industrial or national labs. Bush viewed college and university scientists as teachers and investigators. He believed university-based research would uniquely encourage and engage the next generation of scientists as no other institutional arrangement could. Bush did not trust industry's commitment to basic research, an instinct that proved prophetic. The academic reserve of scientists (PhD's in training and postdoctoral students) that existed before World War II, and upon which the United States could draw for its needs, which were primarily associated with defense efforts, was probably one of the defining factors in Bush's suggested strategy. Currently, that reserve of talent has gotten so large that it is the obvious throttle in the pipeline slowing the continued development of the university research enterprise. Since 1977, the rate at which we have trained new scientists exceeds an average of 4% annually. Since 1987, the "science work force"--PhD's--has grown at three times the rate of the general labor supply. Temporary positions for postdoctoral scientists have grown even faster (over 5% per year since 1989). To compound

  9. Unusual external resorption of a maxillary lateral.

    PubMed

    Giunta, J L; Kaplan, M A

    1994-01-01

    This article defines an unusual previously unreported entity afflicting a maxillary lateral incisor. Labial idiopathic external root resorption just apical to the cemento-enamel presented as a gingival (periodontal) problem and was misinterpreted as cervical dental caries. This report defines a new possibility for a radicular defect in a maxillary lateral incisor that may cause periodontal problems. PMID:8054293

  10. Toward Optimizing Cognitive Competence In Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labouvie-Vief, Gisela

    1976-01-01

    Reviews evidence showing the view of pervasive decrement in later life is being challenged. Evidence is accumulated that the intellectual performance of the older adult responds favorably to a variety of ecological, training, and motivational conditions, and that intellectual development in later life is characterized by plasticity not universal…

  11. Laterality and Reading Proficiency in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Che Kan

    1980-01-01

    Discusses some current concepts of the laterality/reading relationship. An overview of Samuel T. Orton's hypotheses of cerebral dominance and "strephosymbolia" is provided, and both visual half-field and dichotic listening studies as direct, empirical tests of laterality are discussed. (MKM)

  12. Laterality and Dyslexia: A Critical View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiscock, Merrill; Kinsbourne, Marcel

    1982-01-01

    Research is reviewed concerning the current state of knowledge about normal hemispheric specialization; distinctions among such terms as dominance, laterality, and lateralization; and models of abnormal cerebral organization in dyslexic children. The question of dyslexic subtypes is undertaken along such dimensions as handedness, eyedness, and…

  13. Arthroscopic Centralization of an Extruded Lateral Meniscus

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Hideyuki; Muneta, Takeshi; Yagishita, Kazuyoshi; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Mochizuki, Tomoyuki; Horie, Masafumi; Nakamura, Tomomasa; Okawa, Atsushi; Sekiya, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Extrusion of the lateral meniscus has been reported after posterior root tear or radial tear, partial meniscectomy, and meniscoplasty of discoid meniscus. It has also been shown to be associated with the development of osteoarthritis. This technical note describes a new arthroscopic technique to centralize and stabilize the mid body of the lateral meniscus to restore and maintain the lateral meniscus function by repairing/preventing extrusion of the meniscus. A JuggerKnot Soft Anchor (Biomet, Warsaw, IN), loaded with a MaxBraid suture (Biomet), was placed on the lateral edge of the lateral tibial plateau, just anterior to the popliteal hiatus, through a midlateral portal. A Micro Suture Lasso Small Curve with Nitinol Wire Loop (Arthrex, Naples, FL) was used to pass 2 limbs of the MaxBraid suture through the meniscus at the margin between the meniscus and the capsule. Another anchor was inserted on the lateral edge of the lateral tibial plateau, 1 cm anterior to the first anchor, and the same procedure was repeated. The sutures were then tied by use of a self-locking sliding knot, achieving centralization and secure stabilization of the lateral meniscus. PMID:23766997

  14. Arthroscopic centralization of an extruded lateral meniscus.

    PubMed

    Koga, Hideyuki; Muneta, Takeshi; Yagishita, Kazuyoshi; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Mochizuki, Tomoyuki; Horie, Masafumi; Nakamura, Tomomasa; Okawa, Atsushi; Sekiya, Ichiro

    2012-12-01

    Extrusion of the lateral meniscus has been reported after posterior root tear or radial tear, partial meniscectomy, and meniscoplasty of discoid meniscus. It has also been shown to be associated with the development of osteoarthritis. This technical note describes a new arthroscopic technique to centralize and stabilize the mid body of the lateral meniscus to restore and maintain the lateral meniscus function by repairing/preventing extrusion of the meniscus. A JuggerKnot Soft Anchor (Biomet, Warsaw, IN), loaded with a MaxBraid suture (Biomet), was placed on the lateral edge of the lateral tibial plateau, just anterior to the popliteal hiatus, through a midlateral portal. A Micro Suture Lasso Small Curve with Nitinol Wire Loop (Arthrex, Naples, FL) was used to pass 2 limbs of the MaxBraid suture through the meniscus at the margin between the meniscus and the capsule. Another anchor was inserted on the lateral edge of the lateral tibial plateau, 1 cm anterior to the first anchor, and the same procedure was repeated. The sutures were then tied by use of a self-locking sliding knot, achieving centralization and secure stabilization of the lateral meniscus. PMID:23766997

  15. Aeromonas hydrophila Lateral Flagellar Gene Transcriptional Hierarchy

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelms, Markus; Gonzalez, Victor; Merino, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3 lateral flagella are not assembled when bacteria grow in liquid media; however, lateral flagellar genes are transcribed. Our results indicate that A. hydrophila lateral flagellar genes are transcribed at three levels (class I to III genes) and share some similarities with, but have many important differences from, genes of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A. hydrophila lateral flagellum class I gene transcription is σ70 dependent, which is consistent with the fact that lateral flagellum is constitutively transcribed, in contrast to the characteristics of V. parahaemolyticus. The fact that multiple genes are included in class I highlights that lateral flagellar genes are less hierarchically transcribed than polar flagellum genes. The A. hydrophila lafK-fliEJL gene cluster (where the subscript L distinguishes genes for lateral flagella from those for polar flagella) is exclusively from class I and is in V. parahaemolyticus class I and II. Furthermore, the A. hydrophila flgAMNL cluster is not transcribed from the σ54/LafK-dependent promoter and does not contain class II genes. Here, we propose a gene transcriptional hierarchy for the A. hydrophila lateral flagella. PMID:23335410

  16. Lateral displacement and rotational displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Duden, Thomas

    2014-04-22

    A position measuring sensor formed from opposing sets of capacitor plates measures both rotational displacement and lateral displacement from the changes in capacitances as overlapping areas of capacitors change. Capacitances are measured by a measuring circuit. The measured capacitances are provided to a calculating circuit that performs calculations to obtain angular and lateral displacement from the capacitances measured by the measuring circuit.

  17. Orbital Fracture: Significance of lateral wall

    PubMed Central

    Alsuhaibani, Adel H.

    2010-01-01

    The lateral orbital wall is the strongest among other orbital walls. However, it is commonly fractured in the setting of severe facial trauma. The fracture usually occurs at the sphenozygomatic suture line. In general, patients with lateral wall fractures are commonly young male who may present with mid facial swelling and some degree of deformity. In some cases, lateral orbital wall fracture may be associated with visual loss or change in mental status due to associated intracranial injury. Imaging studies with computed tomography is important in the proper diagnosis and planning of the surgical intervention. Management of intracranial or eye injuries should be undertaken on emergent basis. Thereafter, significantly displaced lateral wall fractures need to be repaired on timely basis. Proper realignment of the plane of the lateral orbital wall at the sphenozygomatic suture along with the other complex articulations of the zygomatic bone is necessary for proper functional and aesthetic outcome. PMID:23960875

  18. Modulation of Membrane Protein Lateral Mobility by Polyphosphates and Polyamines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Melvin; Koppel, Dennis E.; Sheetz, Michael P.

    1980-03-01

    The lateral mobility of fluorescein-labeled membrane glycoproteins was measured in whole unlysed erythrocytes and erythrocyte ghosts by the technique of ``fluorescence redistribution after fusion.'' Measurements were made on polyethylene glycol-fused cell pairs in which only one member of the couplet was initially fluorescently labeled. Diffusion coefficients were estimated from the rate of fluorescence redistribution determined from successive scans with a focused laser beam across individual fused pairs. This technique allows for the analysis of diffusion within cell membranes without the possible damaging photochemical events caused by photobleaching. It was found that lateral mobility of erythrocyte proteins can be increased by the addition of polyphosphates (i.e., ATP and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate) and decreased by the addition of organic polyamines (i.e., neomycin and spermine). This control is exerted by these molecules only when they contact the cytoplasmic side of the membrane and is not dependent upon high-energy phosphates. Microviscosity experiments employing diphenylhexatriene demonstrated no changes in membrane lipid state as a function of these reagents. Our results, in conjunction with data on the physical interactions of cytoskeletal proteins, suggest that the diffusion effector molecules alter the lateral mobility of erythrocyte membrane proteins through modifications of interactions in the shell, which is composed of spectrin, actin, and component 4.1.

  19. Lateral manipulation of atomic vacancies in ultrathin insulating films.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhe; Chen, Hsin-Yi Tiffany; Schouteden, Koen; Lauwaet, Koen; Janssens, Ewald; Van Haesendonck, Chris; Pacchioni, Gianfranco; Lievens, Peter

    2015-05-26

    During the last 20 years, using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy, scientists have successfully achieved vertical and lateral repositioning of individual atoms on and in different types of surfaces. Such atom manipulation allows the bottom-up assembly of novel nanostructures that can otherwise not be fabricated. It is therefore surprising that controlled repositioning of virtual atoms, i.e., atomic vacancies, across atomic lattices has not yet been achieved experimentally. Here we use STM at liquid helium temperature (4.5 K) to create individual Cl vacancies and subsequently to laterally manipulate them across the surface of ultrathin sodium chloride films. This allows monitoring the interactions between two neighboring vacancies with different separations. Our findings are corroborated by density functional theory calculations and STM image simulations. The lateral manipulation of atomic vacancies opens up a new playground for the investigation of fundamental physical properties of vacancy nanostructures of any size and shape and their coupling with the supporting substrate, and of the interaction of various deposits with charged vacancies. PMID:25769024

  20. Lateral circulation driven by axial winds in an idealized, partially mixed estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.; Sanford, L. P.; Ralston, D. K.

    2008-12-01

    A 3D hydrodynamic model (ROMS) is used to investigate lateral circulation driven by axial wind events in a partially mixed estuary. The channel is straight with a triangular cross-section. The model results suggest that driving mechanisms for lateral circulation during axial wind events are different between stratified and unstratified conditions. When the water column is stratified, the lateral flow and salinity structures below the halocline closely resemble those driven by boundary mixing, and rotational effects are important. When the water column mixes vertically, rotational effects do not drive significant lateral circulation. Instead, differential advection of the axial salinity gradient by wind-driven axial flow is responsible for controlling lateral salinity gradients that in turn drive bottom-divergent lateral circulation during down-estuary wind and bottom- convergent lateral circulation during up-estuary winds. The wind-induced and tidally-induced lateral shear interacts to drive the variability of lateral flow. A Hansen-Rattray-like scaling is applied and shows good predictive skills for lateral flows under unstratified conditions. Supporting observations from the Hudson River estuary is provided.

  1. AtMYB93 is a novel negative regulator of lateral root development in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Daniel J; Voß, Ute; Harding, Susan A; Fannon, Jessica; Moody, Laura A; Yamada, Erika; Swarup, Kamal; Nibau, Candida; Bassel, George W; Choudhary, Anushree; Lavenus, Julien; Bradshaw, Susan J; Stekel, Dov J; Bennett, Malcolm J; Coates, Juliet C

    2014-01-01

    Plant root system plasticity is critical for survival in changing environmental conditions. One important aspect of root architecture is lateral root development, a complex process regulated by hormone, environmental and protein signalling pathways. Here we show, using molecular genetic approaches, that the MYB transcription factor AtMYB93 is a novel negative regulator of lateral root development in Arabidopsis. We identify AtMYB93 as an interaction partner of the lateral-root-promoting ARABIDILLO proteins. Atmyb93 mutants have faster lateral root developmental progression and enhanced lateral root densities, while AtMYB93-overexpressing lines display the opposite phenotype. AtMYB93 is expressed strongly, specifically and transiently in the endodermal cells overlying early lateral root primordia and is additionally induced by auxin in the basal meristem of the primary root. Furthermore, Atmyb93 mutant lateral root development is insensitive to auxin, indicating that AtMYB93 is required for normal auxin responses during lateral root development. We propose that AtMYB93 is part of a novel auxin-induced negative feedback loop stimulated in a select few endodermal cells early during lateral root development, ensuring that lateral roots only develop when absolutely required. Putative AtMYB93 homologues are detected throughout flowering plants and represent promising targets for manipulating root systems in diverse crop species. PMID:24902892

  2. Lateral acetabular labral length is inversely related to acetabular coverage as measured by lateral center edge angle of Wiberg

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Brian D.; Wolf, Bryan; Lambert, Jeffrey R.; Clayton, Carolyn W.; Glueck, Deborah H.; Jesse, Mary Kristen; Mei-Dan, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip often have compensatory labral hypertrophy, which presumably lends stability to an unstable joint. Conversely, patients with acetabular overcoverage may have small or ossified labra. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction of labral length with the degree of acetabular hip coverage. A retrospective cohort of patients with hip pain presenting to a hip preservation center, who had undergone hip magnetic resonance imaging and AP pelvis radiographs were studied. General linear multivariate models were used to assess the association between three measures of labral length (lateral, anterior and anterior inferior locations along the acetabular rim) and the X-ray derived lateral center edge angle (LCEA) of Wiberg. Of the three acetabular labral locations measured, only the lateral labrum was associated with LCEA Wiberg (P = 0.0008). Lateral labral length increases as LCEA of Wiberg decreases. The anterior and anterior inferior labral locations did not show a predictable increase in labral length as LCEA Wiberg decreased. PMID:27583157

  3. Lateral acetabular labral length is inversely related to acetabular coverage as measured by lateral center edge angle of Wiberg.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Brian D; Wolf, Bryan; Lambert, Jeffrey R; Clayton, Carolyn W; Glueck, Deborah H; Jesse, Mary Kristen; Mei-Dan, Omer

    2016-08-01

    Patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip often have compensatory labral hypertrophy, which presumably lends stability to an unstable joint. Conversely, patients with acetabular overcoverage may have small or ossified labra. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction of labral length with the degree of acetabular hip coverage. A retrospective cohort of patients with hip pain presenting to a hip preservation center, who had undergone hip magnetic resonance imaging and AP pelvis radiographs were studied. General linear multivariate models were used to assess the association between three measures of labral length (lateral, anterior and anterior inferior locations along the acetabular rim) and the X-ray derived lateral center edge angle (LCEA) of Wiberg. Of the three acetabular labral locations measured, only the lateral labrum was associated with LCEA Wiberg (P = 0.0008). Lateral labral length increases as LCEA of Wiberg decreases. The anterior and anterior inferior labral locations did not show a predictable increase in labral length as LCEA Wiberg decreased. PMID:27583157

  4. Model to Design Drip Hose Lateral Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Rafael; Cury Saad, João Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Introduction The design criterion for non-pressure compensating drip hose is normally to have 10% of flow variation (Δq) in the lateral line, corresponding to 20% of head pressure variation (ΔH). Longer lateral lines in drip irrigation systems using conventional drippers provide cost reduction, but it is necessary to obtain to the uniformity of irrigation [1]. The use of Δq higher levels can provide longer lateral lines. [4] proposes the use of a 30% Δq and he found that this value resulted in distribution uniformity over 80%. [1] considered it is possible to extend the lateral line length using two emitters spacing in different section. He assumed that the spacing changing point would be at 40% of the total length, because this is approximately the location of the average flow according with [2]. [3] found that, for practical purposes, the average pressure is located at 40% of the length of the lateral line and that until this point it has already consumed 75% of total pressure head loss (hf ). In this case, the challenge for designers is getting longer lateral lines with high values of uniformity. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a model to design longer lateral lines using non-pressure compensating drip hose. Using the developed model, the hypotheses to be evaluated were: a) the use of two different spacing between emitters in the same lateral line allows longer length; b) it is possible to get longer lateral lines using high values of pressure variation in the lateral lines since the distribution uniformity stays below allowable limits. Methodology A computer program was developed in Delphi® based on the model developed and it is able to design lateral lines in level using non-pressure compensating drip hose. The input data are: desired distribution uniformity (DU); initial and final pressure in the lateral line; coefficients of relationship between emitter discharge and pressure head; hose internal diameter; pipe cross-sectional area

  5. A lateral electrophoretic flow diagnostic assay

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Robert; Skandarajah, Arunan; Gerver, Rachel E.; Neira, Hector D.; Fletcher, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Immunochromatographic assays are a cornerstone tool in disease screening. To complement existing lateral flow assays (based on wicking flow) we introduce a lateral flow format that employs directed electrophoretic transport. The format is termed a “lateral e-flow assay” and is designed to support multiplexed detection using immobilized reaction volumes of capture antigen. To fabricate the lateral e-flow device, we employ mask-based UV photopatterning to selectively immobilize unmodified capture antigen along the microchannel in a barcode-like pattern. The channel-filling polyacrylamide hydrogel incorporates a photoactive moiety (benzophenone) to immobilize capture antigen to the hydrogel without a priori antigen modification. We report a heterogeneous sandwich assay using low-power electrophoresis to drive biospecimen through the capture antigen barcode. Fluorescence barcode readout is collected via a low-resource appropriate imaging system (CellScope). We characterize lateral e-flow assay performance and demonstrate a serum assay for antibodies to the hepatitis C virus (HCV). In a pilot study, the lateral e-flow assay positively identifies HCV+ human sera in 60 min. The lateral e-flow assay provides a flexible format for conducting multiplexed immunoassays relevant to confirmatory diagnosis in near-patient settings. PMID:25608872

  6. Lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia: an anatomical insight.

    PubMed

    Dias Filho, L C; Valença, M M; Guimarães Filho, F A V; Medeiros, R C; Silva, R A M; Morais, M G V; Valente, F P; França, S M L

    2003-07-01

    A detailed anatomic study was carried out on the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve to better understand the etiology and treatment of lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia. As it passed from the pelvis into the thigh, the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve ran through an "aponeuroticofascial tunnel," beginning at the iliopubic tract and ending at the inguinal ligament; as it passed through the tunnel, an enlargement in its side-to-side diameter was observed, suggesting that the fascial structures proximal to the inguinal ligament may be implicated in the genesis of lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia. The finding of pseudoneuromas at this location, distant from the inguinal ligament, supports this hypothesis. The anterior superior iliac spine is located approximately 0.7 cm from the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve and serves as the bony landmark for nerve localization. Within the first 3 cm of leaving the pelvis, the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve was observed deep to the fascia lata; therefore, surgical dissection within the subcutaneous fascia may be conducted with relative impunity near the anterior superior iliac spine just inferior to the inguinal ligament. In 36% of cases there was no posterior branch of the nerve, which is correlated to lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia symptoms often being limited to the anterior branch region. An accessory nerve was found in 30% of cases. PMID:12794914

  7. Lateral-deflection-controlled friction force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuzawa, Kenji; Hamaoka, Satoshi; Shikida, Mitsuhiro; Itoh, Shintaro; Zhang, Hedong

    2014-08-01

    Lateral-deflection-controlled dual-axis friction force microscopy (FFM) is presented. In this method, an electrostatic force generated with a probe-incorporated micro-actuator compensates for friction force in real time during probe scanning using feedback control. This equivalently large rigidity can eliminate apparent boundary width and lateral snap-in, which are caused by lateral probe deflection. The method can evolve FFM as a method for quantifying local frictional properties on the micro/nanometer-scale by overcoming essential problems to dual-axis FFM.

  8. The lateral canthus in cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Michael L; Hornblass, Albert

    2002-02-01

    Normally contoured eyelid fissures will enhance the appearance of patients who undergo cosmetic eyelid surgery. The shape and integrity of the lateral canthal structures frequently affect the configuration of the eyelid fissure. Undetected canthal abnormalities may lead to untoward postoperative functional and cosmetic results. An understanding of the etiology and detection of lateral canthal pathology and the treatment of the lateral can thus as a functional unit in cosmetic surgery will enable the plastic surgeon to avoid these complications and enhance surgical results. PMID:15062327

  9. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Lateral Canthoplasty to Lengthen the Lateral Canthal Angle and Correct the Outer Tail of the Eye

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Byung Min

    2016-01-01

    There are many women who want larger and brighter eyes that will give a favorable impression. Surgical methods that make the eye larger and brighter include double eyelidplasty, epicanthoplasty, as well as lateral canthoplasty. Double eyelidplasty produces changes in the vertical dimension of the eyes, whereas epicanthoplasty and lateral canthoplasty create changes in the horizontal dimension of the eyes. Epicanthoplasty, a surgical procedure which enlarges the eye horizontally, is performed at the inner corner of the eye, whereas lateral canthoplasty enlarges the outer edge of the eye. In particular, if the slant of the palpebral fissure is raised and the horizontal dimension of the palpebral fissure is short, adjusting the slant of the palpebral fissure through lateral canthoplasty can achieve an enlargement of eye width and smoother features. Depending on the patient's condition, even better results can be achieved if this procedure is performed in conjunction with other procedures, such as double eyelidplasty, epicanthoplasty, eye roll formation surgery, fat graft, and facial bone contouring surgery. In this paper, the authors will introduce in detail their surgical method for a cosmetic lateral canthoplasty that lengthens the lateral canthal angle and corrects the outer tail of the eyes, in order to ease the unfavorable impression. PMID:27462564

  10. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Lateral Canthoplasty to Lengthen the Lateral Canthal Angle and Correct the Outer Tail of the Eye.

    PubMed

    Chae, Soo Wook; Yun, Byung Min

    2016-07-01

    There are many women who want larger and brighter eyes that will give a favorable impression. Surgical methods that make the eye larger and brighter include double eyelidplasty, epicanthoplasty, as well as lateral canthoplasty. Double eyelidplasty produces changes in the vertical dimension of the eyes, whereas epicanthoplasty and lateral canthoplasty create changes in the horizontal dimension of the eyes. Epicanthoplasty, a surgical procedure which enlarges the eye horizontally, is performed at the inner corner of the eye, whereas lateral canthoplasty enlarges the outer edge of the eye. In particular, if the slant of the palpebral fissure is raised and the horizontal dimension of the palpebral fissure is short, adjusting the slant of the palpebral fissure through lateral canthoplasty can achieve an enlargement of eye width and smoother features. Depending on the patient's condition, even better results can be achieved if this procedure is performed in conjunction with other procedures, such as double eyelidplasty, epicanthoplasty, eye roll formation surgery, fat graft, and facial bone contouring surgery. In this paper, the authors will introduce in detail their surgical method for a cosmetic lateral canthoplasty that lengthens the lateral canthal angle and corrects the outer tail of the eyes, in order to ease the unfavorable impression. PMID:27462564

  11. Whole-body response to pure lateral impact.

    PubMed

    Lessley, David; Shaw, Greg; Parent, Daniel; Arregui-Dalmases, Carlos; Kindig, Matthew; Riley, Patrick; Purtsezov, Sergey; Sochor, Mark; Gochenour, Thomas; Bolton, James; Subit, Damien; Crandall, Jeff; Takayama, Shinichi; Ono, Koshiro; Kamiji, Koichi; Yasuki, Tsuyoshi

    2010-11-01

    The objective of the current study was to provide a comprehensive characterization of human biomechanical response to whole-body, lateral impact. Three approximately 50th-percentile adult male PMHS were subjected to right-side pure lateral impacts at 4.3 ± 0.1 m/s using a rigid wall mounted to a rail-mounted sled. Each subject was positioned on a rigid seat and held stationary by a system of tethers until immediately prior to being impacted by the moving wall with 100 mm pelvic offset. Displacement data were obtained using an optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric system that was used to track the 3D motions of the impacting wall sled; seat sled, and reflective targets secured to the head, spine, extremities, ribcage, and shoulder complex of each subject. Kinematic data were also recorded using 3-axis accelerometer cubes secured to the head, pelvis, and spine at the levels of T1, T6, T11, and L3. Chest deformation in the transverse plane was recorded using a single chestband. Following the impact the subject was captured in an energy-absorbing net that provided a controlled non-injurious deceleration. The wall maintained nearly constant velocity throughout the impact event. One of the tested subjects sustained 16 rib fractures as well as injury to the struck shoulder while the other two tested subjects sustained no injuries. The collected response data suggest that the shoulder injury may have contributed to the rib fractures in the injured subject. The results suggest that the shoulder presents a substantial load path and may play an important role in transmitting lateral forces to the spine, shielding and protecting the ribcage. This characterization of whole-body, lateral impact response provides quantified subject responses and boundary condition interactions that are currently unavailable for whole-body, lateral impacts at impact speeds less than 6.7 m/s. PMID:21512913

  12. Lateralized courtship in a parasitic wasp.

    PubMed

    Romano, Donato; Donati, Elisa; Canale, Angelo; Messing, Russell H; Benelli, Giovanni; Stefanini, Cesare

    2016-05-01

    Lateralization (i.e. left-right asymmetries in the brain and behaviour) of courtship displays has been examined in a growing number vertebrate species, while evidence for invertebrates is limited. In this study, we investigated lateralization of courtship and mating displays in the parasitic wasp Leptomastidea abnormis. Results showed a population-level lateralization of male courtship displays. Male antennal tapping on the female's head was right-biased. However, right-biased male courtship acts were not characterized by higher male antennal tapping frequencies, nor success in mating although antennal tapping frequency was higher in males with mating success with respect to unsuccessful males. Overall, our results add basic knowledge to the behavioural ecology of insect parasitoids. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of behavioural lateralization in parasitic Hymenoptera. PMID:26932864

  13. Cooling Therapy Helps Newborns Years Later

    MedlinePlus

    ... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Cooling Therapy Helps Newborns Years Later A cooling treatment for infants who lack oxygen at birth brings benefits that last for years, a new study shows. Blood loss and other ...

  14. Order Lunch Early, Lose Weight Later?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160190.html Order Lunch Early, Lose Weight Later? Study found those ... a new study suggests. Researchers examined the lunch orders of 690 employees using a corporate cafeteria and ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... amytrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia, regulates endosomal trafficking. Hum Mol Genet. 2014 Jul 1;23(13): ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of ...

  16. Teen Obesity May Mean Liver Disease Later

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159416.html Teen Obesity May Mean Liver Disease Later Study found risk ... Overweight is defined as a BMI above 25. Obesity is defined as a BMI above 30, according ...

  17. Lateral dynamics of C4 missile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, F. H.

    1981-05-01

    A planar model of the C4 missile involving nonlinear force deflection characteristics for the seals and pads was developed. Rigid body equations of motion based on small angle motion were solved to calculate the lateral motion of the missile during launch. After metching the calculated results to a PS-80 test record, variations in seal characteristics, pad characteristics, missile travel time, and initial conditions were studied to determine the sensitivity of the lateral dynamic calculations.

  18. Brain and behavioral lateralization in invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Frasnelli, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioral asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left–right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which has asymmetric odor sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behavior with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with a specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test the

  19. Brain and behavioral lateralization in invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Frasnelli, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioral asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which has asymmetric odor sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behavior with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with a specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test the evolutionary

  20. Lateral sacral imaging in the morbidly obese.

    PubMed

    Miller, Anna N; Krieg, James C; Chip Routt, Milton L

    2013-05-01

    Obesity can complicate surgical procedures by both adding to difficulty intraoperatively and increasing postoperative complications. Intraoperative imaging can be difficult on morbidly obese patients. We have noted specifically that in morbidly obese patients where the lateral sacrum cannot be visualized on the pre-operative scout computed tomography image, the lateral sacrum will not be able to be seen on intraoperative fluoroscopy. This is an important component of preoperative planning in morbidly obese patients with pelvic ring injuries. PMID:22648043

  1. Lateral Thinking About Leptin: A Review of Leptin Action via the Lateral Hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Leinninger, Gina M.

    2011-01-01

    The lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) was initially described as a “feeding center” but we are now beginning to understand that the LHA contributes to other aspects of physiology as well. Indeed, the best-characterized neuronal populations of the LHA (which contain melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) or the hypocretins/orexins (OX) are not strictly orexigenic, but also have roles in regulation of the autonomic and sympathetic nervous systems as well as in modulating motivated behavior. Leptin is an anorectic hormone that regulates energy homeostasis and the mesolimbic DA system (which transduces the wanting of food, drugs of abuse and sex) in part, via actions at the LHA. At least three populations of LHA neurons are regulated by leptin: those containing MCH, OX or the long form of the leptin receptor, LepRb. The emerging picture of leptin interaction with these LHA populations suggests that the LHA is not merely regulating feeding, but is a crucial integrator of energy balance and motivated behavior. PMID:21550356

  2. Field verification of lateral-torsional coupling effects on rotor instabilities in centrifugal compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wachel, J. C.; Szenasi, F. R.

    1980-01-01

    Lateral and torsional vibration data obtained on a centrifugal compressor train which had shaft instabilities and gear failures is examined. The field data verifies that the stability of centrifugal compressors can be adversely affected by coincidence of torsional natural frequencies with lateral instability frequencies. The data also indicates that excitation energy from gear boxes can reduce stability margins if energy is transmitted either laterally or torsionally to the compressors. The lateral and torsional coupling mechanisms of shaft systems is discussed. The coupling mechanisms in a large industrial compressor train are documented and the potential effect on rotor stability is demonstrated. Guidelines are set forth to eliminate these potential problems by minimizing the interaction of torsional and lateral responses and their effect on rotor stability.

  3. Simultaneous Characterization of Lateral Lipid and Prothrombin Diffusion Coefficients by Z-Scan Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Štefl, Martin; Kułakowska, Anna; Hof, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A new (to our knowledge) robust approach for the determination of lateral diffusion coefficients of weakly bound proteins is applied for the phosphatidylserine specific membrane interaction of bovine prothrombin. It is shown that z-scan fluorescence correlation spectroscopy in combination with pulsed interleaved dual excitation allows simultaneous monitoring of the lateral diffusion of labeled protein and phospholipids. Moreover, from the dependencies of the particle numbers on the axial sample positions at different protein concentrations phosphatidylserine-dependent equilibrium dissociation constants are derived confirming literature values. Increasing the amount of membrane-bound prothrombin retards the lateral protein and lipid diffusion, indicating coupling of both processes. The lateral diffusion coefficients of labeled lipids are considerably larger than the simultaneously determined lateral diffusion coefficients of prothrombin, which contradicts findings reported for the isolated N-terminus of prothrombin. PMID:19651025

  4. Effect of the active damper coil system on the lateral displacement of the magnetically levitated bogie

    SciTech Connect

    Ohashi, S.; Ohsaki, H.; Masada, E.

    1999-09-01

    Numerical simulation of the superconducting magnetically levitated bogie (JR Maglev) has been studied. The active damper coil system is introduced. In this levitation system, the interaction between levitation and guidance is strong. This active damper coil system is designed for reducing the vertical vibration of the bogie. Using the numerical simulation, its effect on the lateral displacement of the bogie is assessed. The active damper coil system for the vertical vibration is shown to works as a passive damper for the lateral vibration.

  5. Lateralization of social cognition in the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Daisley, Jonathan Niall; Mascalzoni, Elena; Rosa-Salva, Orsola; Rugani, Rosa; Regolin, Lucia

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the ongoing work in our laboratories on the effect of lateralization produced by light exposure in the egg on social cognition in the domestic chick (Gallus gallus). The domestic chick possesses a lateralized visual system. This has effects on the chick's perception towards and interaction with its environment. This includes its ability to live successfully within a social group. We show that there is a tendency for right brain hemisphere dominance when performing social cognitive actions. As such, chicks show a left hemispatial bias for approaching a signalled target object, tend to perceive gaze and faces of human-like masks more effectively when using their left eye, are able to inhibit a pecking response more effectively when viewing a neighbour tasting a bitter substance with their left eye, and are better able to perform a transitive inference task when exposed to light in the egg and when forced to use their left eye only compared to dark-hatched or right eye chicks. Some of these effects were sex specific, with male chicks tending to show an increased effect of lateralization on their behaviours. These data are discussed in terms of overall social cognition in group living. PMID:19064355

  6. Capillary based patterning of cellular communities in laterally open channels.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Hoon; Heinz, Austen James; Shin, Sunghwan; Jung, Yong-Gyun; Choi, Sung-Eun; Park, Wook; Roe, Jung-Hye; Kwon, Sunghoon

    2010-04-01

    In order to offer an easier way to study interactions between multiple cellular populations, we have developed a novel method to precisely place cells in a variety of nonoverlapping patterns using surface tension in laterally open microchannels. Our design is fundamentally different from previous strategies such as compartmentalization, stamping, stenciling, or mechanical approaches. It relies on capillary action or the propensity for liquid to move more readily through narrow spaces as a result of surface tension. Until now, capillary based patterning has been limited to coating chemically isolated areas. Here, we demonstrate, through use of surface tension and controlled flooding, that it is possible to pattern multiple cells and proteins using laterally open channels in a variety of designs. We demonstrate the relevance of the concept by coculturing different mammalian cell types and evaluating the behavior of engineered quorum sensing circuits in E. coli. In the future, we believe the laterally open channel designs shown here can be useful for rapidly creating and studying cellular ecologies using simple pipetting. PMID:20210331

  7. Lateral organization of complex lipid mixtures from multiscale modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumaneng, Paul W.; Pandit, Sagar A.; Zhao, Guijun; Scott, H. L.

    2010-02-01

    The organizational properties of complex lipid mixtures can give rise to functionally important structures in cell membranes. In model membranes, ternary lipid-cholesterol (CHOL) mixtures are often used as representative systems to investigate the formation and stabilization of localized structural domains ("rafts"). In this work, we describe a self-consistent mean-field model that builds on molecular dynamics simulations to incorporate multiple lipid components and to investigate the lateral organization of such mixtures. The model predictions reveal regions of bimodal order on ternary plots that are in good agreement with experiment. Specifically, we have applied the model to ternary mixtures composed of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine:18:0 sphingomyelin:CHOL. This work provides insight into the specific intermolecular interactions that drive the formation of localized domains in these mixtures. The model makes use of molecular dynamics simulations to extract interaction parameters and to provide chain configuration order parameter libraries.

  8. Laterally displaced pipelines: Finite element analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Altaee, A.; Boivin, R.

    1995-12-31

    The rate effect of lateral soil movement against buried pipes in clay soils is investigated in finite element analyzes using two different computer programs, AGAC and CRISP. Rapid and slow ground movements are considered in ideal undrained and ideal drained analysis, respectively, which represent the two extreme boundaries with respect to rate of loading (rate of ground movement). The analyses address a typical full-scale buried pipe as described by Rizkalla et al. (1992). The pipe considered for the analysis has a diameter of 0.914 m and is placed in a backfilled 2.0 m wide and 1.8 m deep excavation. Results from both AGAC and CRISP analyzes are similar in terms of total lateral force versus lateral pipe movement. For example, both programs indicate the same clear difference in the resulting pipe movement for cases of rapid and slow ground movement, especially at large movement. When the ground movement is rapid, the pipe moves both laterally and upward. One the other hand, when the ground movement is slow, the pipe experiences only lateral movement and no noticeable vertical movement. The total force acting on the pipe (and stresses and strains within the pipe) is larger for the slow rate of loading. The results of analyzes presented herein agree with results of tests on a 5.5 m beam centrifuge performed by the Center for Cold Oceans Resources Engineering.

  9. Language Lateralization Shifts with Learning by Adults

    PubMed Central

    Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K.; Vance, Christopher J.; Asbjørnsen, Arve E.

    2014-01-01

    For the majority of the population, language is a left hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short-term within a learning context, independent of maturation. PMID:25285756

  10. Lateral restraint assembly for reactor core

    DOEpatents

    Gorholt, Wilhelm; Luci, Raymond K.

    1986-01-01

    A restraint assembly for use in restraining lateral movement of a reactor core relative to a reactor vessel wherein a plurality of restraint assemblies are interposed between the reactor core and the reactor vessel in circumferentially spaced relation about the core. Each lateral restraint assembly includes a face plate urged against the outer periphery of the core by a plurality of compression springs which enable radial preloading of outer reflector blocks about the core and resist low-level lateral motion of the core. A fixed radial key member cooperates with each face plate in a manner enabling vertical movement of the face plate relative to the key member but restraining movement of the face plate transverse to the key member in a plane transverse to the center axis of the core. In this manner, the key members which have their axes transverse to or subtending acute angles with the direction of a high energy force tending to move the core laterally relative to the reactor vessel restrain such lateral movement.

  11. Lateral pharyngeal fat pad pressure during breathing.

    PubMed

    Winter, W C; Gampper, T; Gay, S B; Suratt, P M

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether pressure in tissue lateral to the upper airway, the lateral pharyngeal fat pad, differs from atmospheric and pharyngeal pressure and whether it changes with breathing. We studied five male pigs by inserting a transducer-tipped catheter into their fat pad space using computed tomography (CT) scan guidance. We measured airflow with a pneumotachograph attached to a face mask and pharyngeal pressure with a balloon catheter. Fat pad pressure correlated positively with airflow and with pharyngeal pressure, decreasing during inspiration and increasing during expiration. Pressure in the fat pad differed from atmospheric pressure, generally exceeding it, and from pharyngeal pressure. We conclude that lateral pharyngeal fat pad pressure differs from atmospheric and pharyngeal pressure and that it changes with breathing. PMID:9085504

  12. Stress and laterality - The comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Korte, S Mechiel; Peterburs, Jutta; Wolf, Oliver T; Güntürkün, Onur

    2016-10-01

    Functional hemispheric asymmetries can vary over time and steroid hormones have been shown to be one of the factors that can modulate them. Research into this matter has mainly focused on sex steroid hormones (androgens, estrogens and progestogens), although there is increasing evidence that glucocorticoids which are related to the body's response to stress (e.g. cortisol or corticosterone) might also modulate functional hemispheric asymmetries. Here, we review studies in humans and non-human model species investigating the relation of stress and laterality. Results indicate a dual relationship of the two parameters. Both acute and chronic stress can affect different forms of lateralization in the human brain, often (but not always) resulting in greater involvement of the right hemisphere. Moreover, lateralization as a form of functional brain architecture can also represent a protective factor against adverse effects of stress. PMID:27321757

  13. Recovery of Dysphagia in Lateral Medullary Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Hitesh; Banerjee, Alakananda

    2014-01-01

    Lateral medullary stroke is typically associated with increased likelihood of occurrence of dysphagia and exhibits the most severe and persistent form. Worldwide little research exists on dysphagia in brainstem stroke. An estimated 15% of all patients admitted to stroke rehabilitation units experience a brainstem stroke out of which about 47% suffer from dysphagia. In India, a study showed that 22.3% of posterior circulation stroke patients develop dysphagia. Dearth of literature on dysphagia and its outcome in brainstem stroke particularly lateral medullary stroke motivated the author to present an actual case study of a patient who had dysphagia following a lateral medullary infarct. This paper documents the severity and management approach of dysphagia in brainstem stroke, with traditional dysphagia therapy and VitalStim therapy. Despite being diagnosed with a severe form of dysphagia followed by late treatment intervention, the patient had complete recovery of the swallowing function. PMID:25045555

  14. The Lateral Instability of Deep Rectangular Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumont, C; Hill, H N

    1937-01-01

    Experimental and analytical studies were made of solid and hollow deep rectangular beams to study their lateral instability under various conditions of loading and restraint. The tests were made on bars and tubes of 17ST aluminum alloy. Failure by lateral buckling occurred only in tests on the solid beams. It was found that, within the elastic range, the test results were in agreement with the classical theory for the lateral buckling of deep beams as given by Prandtl, Mitchell, and Timoshenko. The tests were extended to the inelastic range, where it was found that the substitution for Young's modulus of an average modulus of elasticity derived from the stress-strain curve made it possible to predict instability at high stresses.

  15. Lateral Membrane Diffusion Modulated by a Minimal Actin Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Fabian; Vogel, Sven K.; Schwille, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion of lipids and proteins within the cell membrane is essential for numerous membrane-dependent processes including signaling and molecular interactions. It is assumed that the membrane-associated cytoskeleton modulates lateral diffusion. Here, we use a minimal actin cortex to directly study proposed effects of an actin meshwork on the diffusion in a well-defined system. The lateral diffusion of a lipid and a protein probe at varying densities of membrane-bound actin was characterized by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). A clear correlation of actin density and reduction in mobility was observed for both the lipid and the protein probe. At high actin densities, the effect on the protein probe was ∼3.5-fold stronger compared to the lipid. Moreover, addition of myosin filaments, which contract the actin mesh, allowed switching between fast and slow diffusion in the minimal system. Spot variation FCS was in accordance with a model of fast microscopic diffusion and slower macroscopic diffusion. Complementing Monte Carlo simulations support the analysis of the experimental FCS data. Our results suggest a stronger interaction of the actin mesh with the larger protein probe compared to the lipid. This might point toward a mechanism where cortical actin controls membrane diffusion in a strong size-dependent manner. PMID:23561523

  16. Normal and lateral Casimir forces between deformed plates

    SciTech Connect

    Emig, Thorsten; Hanke, Andreas; Golestanian, Ramin; Kardar, Mehran

    2003-02-01

    The Casimir force between macroscopic bodies depends strongly on their shape and orientation. To study this geometry dependence in the case of two deformed metal plates, we use a path-integral quantization of the electromagnetic field which properly treats the many-body nature of the interaction, going beyond the commonly used pairwise summation (PWS) of van der Waals forces. For arbitrary deformations we provide an analytical result for the deformation induced change in the Casimir energy, which is exact to second order in the deformation amplitude. For the specific case of sinusoidally corrugated plates, we calculate both the normal and the lateral Casimir forces. The deformation induced change in the Casimir interaction of a flat and a corrugated plate shows an interesting crossover as a function of the ratio of the mean plate distance H to the corrugation length {lambda}: For {lambda}<>H. The amplitude of the lateral force between two corrugated plates which are out of registry is shown to have a maximum at an optimal wavelength of {lambda}{approx_equal}2.5 H. With increasing H/{lambda} > or approx. 0.3 the PWS approach becomes a progressively worse description of the lateral force due to many-body effects. These results may be of relevance for the design and operation of novel microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and other nanoscale devices.

  17. Demonstration of the lateral casimir force.

    PubMed

    Chen, F; Mohideen, U; Klimchitskaya, G L; Mostepanenko, V M

    2002-03-11

    The lateral Casimir force between a sinusoidally corrugated gold coated plate and large sphere was measured for surface separations between 0.2 to 0.3 microm using an atomic force microscope. The measured force shows the required periodicity corresponding to the corrugations. It also exhibits the necessary inverse fourth power distance dependence. The obtained results are shown to be in good agreement with a complete theory taking into account the imperfectness of the boundary metal. This demonstration opens new opportunities for the use of the Casimir effect for lateral translation in microelectromechanical systems. PMID:11909341

  18. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Historical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Katz, Jonathan S; Dimachkie, Mazen M; Barohn, Richard J

    2015-11-01

    This article looks back in time to see where the foundational basis for the understanding of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis originated. This foundation was created primarily in France by Jean-Martin Charcot and his fellow countrymen and disciples, along with key contributions from early clinicians in England and Germany. The early work on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis provides a useful foundation for today's clinicians with respect to tying together genetic and biologic aspects of the disorder that have been discovered over the past few decades. PMID:26515617

  19. Lateral jet injection into swirling combustor flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilley, David G.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental program has been conducted to ascertain the effects of the number of lateral jets, the jet velocity ratio, and the crossflow swirl strength, on the isothermal flowfield patterns in jets injected normally to a round-section crossflow. Attention has been given to the trajectory, penetration, and mixing efficiency of the lateral injection, using flow visualization, pitot-probe and hot-wire methods. In addition, such predictive techniques as a simple, explicit, fully three-dimensional turbulent computer code have been employed.

  20. Maintenance of electrostatic stabilization in altered tubulin lateral contacts may facilitate formation of helical filaments in foraminifera.

    PubMed

    Bassen, David M; Hou, Yubo; Bowser, Samuel S; Banavali, Nilesh K

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules in foraminiferan protists (forams) can convert into helical filament structures, in which longitudinal intraprotofilament interactions between tubulin heterodimers are thought to be lost, while lateral contacts across protofilaments are still maintained. The coarse geometric features of helical filaments are known through low-resolution negative stain electron microscopy (EM). In this study, geometric restraints derived from these experimental data were used to generate an average atomic-scale helical filament model, which anticipated a modest reorientation in the lateral tubulin heterodimer interface. Restrained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the nearest neighbor interactions combined with a Genalized Born implicit solvent model were used to assess the lateral, longitudinal, and seam contacts in 13-3 microtubules and the reoriented lateral contacts in the helical filament model. This electrostatic analysis suggests that the change in the lateral interface in the helical filament does not greatly diminish the lateral electrostatic interaction. After longitudinal dissociation, the 13-3 seam interaction is much weaker than the reoriented lateral interface in the helical filament model, providing a plausible atomic-detail explanation for seam-to-lateral contact transition that enables the transition to a helical filament structure. PMID:27539392

  1. Maintenance of electrostatic stabilization in altered tubulin lateral contacts may facilitate formation of helical filaments in foraminifera

    PubMed Central

    Bassen, David M.; Hou, Yubo; Bowser, Samuel S.; Banavali, Nilesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules in foraminiferan protists (forams) can convert into helical filament structures, in which longitudinal intraprotofilament interactions between tubulin heterodimers are thought to be lost, while lateral contacts across protofilaments are still maintained. The coarse geometric features of helical filaments are known through low-resolution negative stain electron microscopy (EM). In this study, geometric restraints derived from these experimental data were used to generate an average atomic-scale helical filament model, which anticipated a modest reorientation in the lateral tubulin heterodimer interface. Restrained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the nearest neighbor interactions combined with a Genalized Born implicit solvent model were used to assess the lateral, longitudinal, and seam contacts in 13-3 microtubules and the reoriented lateral contacts in the helical filament model. This electrostatic analysis suggests that the change in the lateral interface in the helical filament does not greatly diminish the lateral electrostatic interaction. After longitudinal dissociation, the 13-3 seam interaction is much weaker than the reoriented lateral interface in the helical filament model, providing a plausible atomic-detail explanation for seam-to-lateral contact transition that enables the transition to a helical filament structure. PMID:27539392

  2. Lateral flagella are required for increased cell adherence, invasion and biofilm formation by Aeromonas spp.

    PubMed

    Gavín, Rosalina; Merino, Susana; Altarriba, Maria; Canals, Rocío; Shaw, Jonathan G; Tomás, Juan M

    2003-07-15

    Two types of flagella are responsible for motility in mesophilic Aeromonas strains. A polar unsheathed flagellum is expressed constitutively that allows the bacterium to swim in liquid environments and, in media where the polar flagellum is unable to propel the cell, Aeromonas express peritrichous lateral flagella. Recently, Southern blot analysis using a DNA probe based on the Aeromonas caviae Sch3N lateral flagellin gene sequence showed a good correlation between strains positive for the DNA probe, swarming motility and the presence of lateral flagella by microscopy. Here, we conclude that the easiest method for the detection of the lateral flagellin gene(s) is by PCR (polymerase chain reaction); this showed good correlation with swarming motility and the presence of lateral flagella. This was despite the high degree of DNA heterogeneity found in Aeromonas gene sequences. Furthermore, by reintroducing the laf (lateral flagella) genes into several mesophilic lateral-flagella-negative Aeromonas wild-type strains, we demonstrate that this surface structure enhances the adhesion to and invasion of HEp-2 cells and the capacity for biofilm formation in vitro. These results, together with previous data obtained using Laf- mutants, demonstrate that lateral flagella production is a pathogenic feature due to its enhancement of the interaction with eukaryotic cell surfaces. PMID:12855171

  3. Levitation and lateral forces between a point magnetic dipole and a superconducting sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H, M. Al-Khateeb; M, K. Alqadi; F, Y. Alzoubi; B, Albiss; M, K. Hasan (Qaseer; N, Y. Ayoub

    2016-05-01

    The dipole–dipole interaction model is employed to investigate the angular dependence of the levitation and lateral forces acting on a small magnet in an anti-symmetric magnet/superconducting sphere system. Breaking the symmetry of the system enables us to study the lateral force which is important in the stability of the magnet above a superconducting sphere in the Meissner state. Under the assumption that the lateral displacement of the magnet is small compared to the physical dimensions of our proposed system, analytical expressions are obtained for the levitation and lateral forces as a function of the geometrical parameters of the superconductor as well as the height, the lateral displacement, and the orientation of the magnetic moment of the magnet. The dependence of the levitation force on the height of the levitating magnet is similar to that in the symmetric magnet/superconducting sphere system within the range of proposed lateral displacements. It is found that the levitation force is linearly dependent on the lateral displacement whereas the lateral force is independent of this displacement. A sinusoidal variation of both forces as a function of the polar and azimuthal angles specifying the orientation of the magnetic moment is observed. The relationship between the stability and the orientation of the magnetic moment is discussed for different orientations.

  4. Mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum crosstalk in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, Giovanni; Kawamata, Hibiki

    2016-06-01

    Physical and functional interactions between mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are crucial for cell life. These two organelles are intimately connected and collaborate to essential processes, such as calcium homeostasis and phospholipid biosynthesis. The connections between mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum occur through structures named mitochondria associated membranes (MAMs), which contain lipid rafts and a large number of proteins, many of which serve multiple functions at different cellular sites. Growing evidence strongly suggests that alterations of ER-mitochondria interactions are involved in neurodegenerative disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a devastating and rapidly fatal motor neuron disease. Mutations in proteins that participate in ER-mitochondria interactions and MAM functions are increasingly being associated with genetic forms of ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases. This evidence strongly suggests that, rather than considering the two organelles separately, a better understanding of the disease process can derive from studying the alterations in their crosstalk. In this review we discuss normal and pathological ER-mitochondria interactions and the evidence that link them to ALS. PMID:26282323

  5. Lateral Hip Pain in an Athletic Population

    PubMed Central

    Grumet, Robert C.; Frank, Rachel M.; Slabaugh, Mark A.; Virkus, Walter W.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Nho, Shane J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Historically, the term greater trochanteric pain syndrome has been used to describe a spectrum of conditions that cause lateral-sided hip pain, including greater trochanteric bursitis, snapping iliotibial band, and/or strains or tendinopathy of the abductor mechanism. Diagnosis of these conditions may be difficult because clinical presentations are variable and sometimes inconclusive. Especially difficult is differentiating intrinsic pain from pain referred to the greater trochanteric region. The purposes of this article are to review the relevant anatomy and pathophysiology of the lateral hip. Evidence Acquisition: Data were collected through a thorough review of the literature conducted through a MEDLINE search of all relevant papers between 1980 and January 2010. Results: Recent advances in imaging and an improved understanding of pathomechanics have helped to guide the evaluation, diagnosis, and appropriate treatment for patients presenting with lateral hip pain. Conclusion: Various diagnostic tools and treatment modalities can be used to effectively manage the athletic patient presenting with lateral hip pain. PMID:23015937

  6. Profiling 1366 Technologies: One Year Later

    SciTech Connect

    Van Mierlo, Frank; Sachs, Ely

    2011-01-01

    Last January, we took a look at how ARPA-E performer, 1366 Technologies is working to dramatically reduce the cost of solar energy. A year later, we revisited their headquarters in Lexington, MA to see the progress they've made.

  7. Cerebral Lateralization and Its Effect on Drawing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Yvonne A.; Thomas, Stephen B.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the importance of both sides of the brain for the development of drawing skills but notes that the left brain can inhibit the action of the right brain. Provides a discussion of cerebral lateralization and child development. Suggests five drawing exercises to help develop hemispheric cooperation. (SB)

  8. Control augmentation for lateral control wheel steering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foulkes, R. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Flight control system design for lateral control wheel steering is discussed. Two alternate designs are presented. The first design is a roll-rate command, bank-angle hold system with a wings-level track-hold submode. The second is a curved-track-hold system. Design details and real-time flight simulator results are included.

  9. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    PubMed

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum. PMID:1659854

  10. Preparing Future Faculty: Ten Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Sean P.; Aiossa, Elizabeth; Winter, Mary Mugica

    2010-01-01

    When Sean Murphy designed the Graduate Student Internship Program at the College of Lake County (CLC), his 2001 TETYC article about the then two-year-old program detailed his programmatic response to the job market. Ten years later, the CLC-DePaul University partnership remains the strongest of the original dozen cross-sector relationships CLC…

  11. Anterolateral Meniscofemoral Ligament of the Lateral Meniscus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Mo; Yeon, Kyu-Woong; Lee, Ki-Young

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical variations of the meniscus are a common anomaly that knee surgeons frequently encounter. However, anomalies of the anterior horn of the lateral meniscus (AHLM) are extremely rare. In this report, we present a newly discovered anomaly of the AHML: an anterolateral meniscofemoral ligament is described with clinical features and radiographic and arthroscopic findings. PMID:27595080

  12. Religious Attendance and Loneliness in Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rote, Sunshine; Hill, Terrence D.; Ellison, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Studies show that loneliness is a major risk factor for health issues in later life. Although research suggests that religious involvement can protect against loneliness, explanations for this general pattern are underdeveloped and undertested. In this paper, we propose and test a theoretical model, which suggests that social…

  13. Profiling 1366 Technologies: One Year Later

    ScienceCinema

    Van Mierlo, Frank; Sachs, Ely;

    2013-05-29

    Last January, we took a look at how ARPA-E performer, 1366 Technologies is working to dramatically reduce the cost of solar energy. A year later, we revisited their headquarters in Lexington, MA to see the progress they've made.

  14. [Sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Diagnostic criteria].

    PubMed

    Godoy, J M; de Oliveira, M A; de Moraes Neto, J B; Balassiano, S L; Montagna, N; Pinto, J R; Skacel, M

    1993-06-01

    The authors report two cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) misdiagnosis (a craniocervical junction disorder, and a cervical spinal cord ependymoma). They review some causes of ALS-like syndrome and propose a protocol to be adopted for the study of all patients who present clinical abnormalities suggesting ALS. PMID:8274087

  15. Lateral canthal repositioning in syndromic, antimongoloid slant

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: To report a single center's experience in correcting antimongoloid slant in Asian eyes using a minimally invasive approach. Methods: Retrospective analysis of patients undergoing correction for antimongoloid slant at author's center, from 2007 to 2013 formed the study group. Concomitant surgical procedures were recorded. Pre- and post-operative photographs at the longest follow-up visit were analyzed and graded for functional and cosmetic outcomes. Results: A total of 38 patients (76 eyelids) underwent successful correction to correct eyelid malposition. All patients’ eyelids underwent exclusive lateral canthoplasty through a small incision in the upper eyelid crease and re-suspension technique, and 6 of them underwent bilateral slant correction simultaneously with additional cosmetic or corrective surgeries including hemifacial microsomia and Crouzon's syndrome. Of the 38 patients, 25 were females and 13 were males. The age of the population ranged from 7 to 48 years with a mean age of 27 years. Few instances of transient postoperative chemosis lasting up to 2 weeks and minor infections were reported. All cases showed improvement in eyelid position (as assessed clinically and on photographs), 2 pediatric cases required reoperation in the following 2 years for the recurrent lower eyelid malposition and/or lateral canthal deformity owing to deviated basal bone growth. Discussion: Lateral canthoplasty with resuspension technique can effectively address antimongoloid slant for an esthetically desirable lateral canthus.

  16. Parameter Estimation of Lateral Spacecraft Fuel Slosh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sudermann, James E.; Schlee, Keith L.

    2008-01-01

    Predicting the effect of fuel slosh on the attitude control system of a spacecraft or launch vehicle is a very important and challenging task. Whether the spacecraft is spinning or moving laterally, the dynamic effect of the fuel slosh helps determine whether the spacecraft will remain on its intended trajectory. Three categories of slosh can be caused by launch vehicle or spacecraft maneuvers when the fuel is in the presence of an acceleration field. These are bulk-fluid motion, subsurface wave motion (currents), and free-surface slosh. Each of these slosh types has a periodic component defined by either a spinning or a lateral motion. For spinning spacecraft, all three types of slosh can greatly affect stability. Bulk-fluid motion and free-surface slosh can affect the lateral-slosh characteristics. For either condition, an unpredicted coupled resonance between the spacecraft and its onboard fuel could threaten a mission. This ongoing research effort seeks to improve the accuracy and efficiency of modeling techniques used to predict these types of fluid motions for lateral motion. Particular efforts focus on analyzing the effects of viscoelastic diaphragms on slosh dynamics.

  17. Laterality and Directional Preferences in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Lesley E.

    1982-01-01

    Directional preference for horizontal hand movements was investigated in 49 right- and 49 left-handed four-year-olds using three drawing tests. Directionality for more complex perceptual-motor tasks has a different basis than directionality for simple tasks; such directionality is established at a later age but only for the right hand. (Author/CM)

  18. One hand clapping: lateralization of motor control

    PubMed Central

    Welniarz, Quentin; Dusart, Isabelle; Gallea, Cécile; Roze, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Lateralization of motor control refers to the ability to produce pure unilateral or asymmetric movements. It is required for a variety of coordinated activities, including skilled bimanual tasks and locomotion. Here we discuss the neuroanatomical substrates and pathophysiological underpinnings of lateralized motor outputs. Significant breakthroughs have been made in the past few years by studying the two known conditions characterized by the inability to properly produce unilateral or asymmetric movements, namely human patients with congenital “mirror movements” and model rodents with a “hopping gait”. Whereas mirror movements are associated with altered interhemispheric connectivity and abnormal corticospinal projections, abnormal spinal cord interneurons trajectory is responsible for the “hopping gait”. Proper commissural axon guidance is a critical requirement for these mechanisms. Interestingly, the analysis of these two conditions reveals that the production of asymmetric movements involves similar anatomical and functional requirements but in two different structures: (i) lateralized activation of the brain or spinal cord through contralateral silencing by cross-midline inhibition; and (ii) unilateral transmission of this activation, resulting in lateralized motor output. PMID:26082690

  19. Double cortical stimulation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, T; Yoshino, A; Inaba, A; Saito, Y

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Transcranial double magnetic stimulation on the motor cortex was used to investigate central motor tract function in 16 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, five with spinal muscular atrophy, and 16 age matched normal controls. METHODS: Surface EMG responses were recorded from the relaxed abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscle. RESULTS: Responses to test stimuli were markedly attenuated by a subthreshold conditioning stimulus given at a condition-test (C-T) interval of 1-4 ms in normal controls and patients with spinal muscular atrophy, but attenuation was mild in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In the normal controls this suppression was caused by activation of the intracortical inhibitory mechanism because responses to electrical test stimuli and the H wave were not suppressed by the same magnetic subthreshold conditioning stimulus. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis the effect of the conditioning cortical stimulus on the H wave was also in the normal range. CONCLUSION: The intracortical inhibitory mechanism may be impaired in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:8971106

  20. Active Children: Healthy Now And Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Linley; Musumeci, Josephine

    2005-01-01

    Current research is revealing that physical activity can protect against a range of lifestyle diseases and illnesses. Consequently, early childhood practitioners and parents need to adopt guidelines and practices which encourage children of all ages to be physically active. In "Active children: Healthy Now and Later," authors Linley Campbell and…

  1. Lateral drug diffusion in human nails.

    PubMed

    Palliyil, Biji B; Li, Cong; Owaisat, Suzan; Lebo, David B

    2014-12-01

    The main objective of the current work is to demonstrate the process of passive lateral diffusion in the human nail plate and its effect on the passive transungual permeation of antifungal drug ciclopirox olamine (CPO). A water soluble dye, methyl red sodium salt (MR) was used to visualize the process of lateral diffusion using a novel suspended nail experiment. The decline in concentration of CPO correlates with that of concentration of MR from the proximal to the distal end of the nail in suspended nail study. Three toenails each were trimmed to 5 mm × 5 mm (25 mm(2)), 7 mm × 7 mm (49 mm(2)), and 9 mm × 9 mm (81 mm(2)) to study the extent and effect of lateral diffusion of the CPO on its in vitro transungual permeation. The permeation flux of CPO decreased as the surface area of the toenail increased. There was a positive correlation between the concentrations of CPO and MR in the area of application and in the peripheral area of the toenails of the three surface areas, confirming the findings in the suspended nail experiment. Profound lateral diffusion of CPO was demonstrated and shown to reduce the in vitro passive transungual drug permeation and prolong the lag-time in human toenails. The study data implies that during passive in vitro transungual permeation experiments, the peripheral nail around the area of drug application has to be kept to a minimum, in order to get reliable data which mimics the in vivo situation. PMID:24970585

  2. The Columbine Tragedy Ten Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Some tragedies are so emblazoned in people's minds that years later they can recall where they were when they first heard the news. The assassinations of John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr., the Challenger explosion, and the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks are among these events. So also is the Columbine High School tragedy of April 20, 1999.…

  3. New lateral stabilizing device for airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantin, Louis

    1923-01-01

    The proposed device tends to render the lateral stabilization of airplanes easier and more efficacious. The proposed solution is to mount the ailerons independently, in such a manner that they can turn freely, under the action of the relative wind, about an axis located in front of the extreme position of the center of the lift.

  4. Lateral ankle sprains and instability problems.

    PubMed

    Liu, S H; Jason, W J

    1994-10-01

    The lateral ankle complex is the most frequently injured single structure in athletes, consisting of 38% to 45% of all injuries. One-sixth of all sports injury loss time is from ankle sprains. In North America, ankle inversion sprains are considered "de rigeur" for basketball participation. PMID:7805107

  5. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Lateral marks define the port and starboard sides of a route to be followed. They may be either beacons or.... Beacons have green square daymarks, while buoys are green can or pillar buoys. (2) Starboard hand marks indicate the right side of channels when proceeding in the Conventional Direction of Buoyage. Beacons...

  6. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Lateral marks define the port and starboard sides of a route to be followed. They may be either beacons or.... Beacons have green square daymarks, while buoys are green can or pillar buoys. (2) Starboard hand marks indicate the right side of channels when proceeding in the Conventional Direction of Buoyage. Beacons...

  7. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Lateral marks define the port and starboard sides of a route to be followed. They may be either beacons or.... Beacons have green square daymarks, while buoys are green can or pillar buoys. (2) Starboard hand marks indicate the right side of channels when proceeding in the Conventional Direction of Buoyage. Beacons...

  8. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Lateral marks define the port and starboard sides of a route to be followed. They may be either beacons or.... Beacons have green square daymarks, while buoys are green can or pillar buoys. (2) Starboard hand marks indicate the right side of channels when proceeding in the Conventional Direction of Buoyage. Beacons...

  9. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Lateral marks define the port and starboard sides of a route to be followed. They may be either beacons or.... Beacons have green square daymarks, while buoys are green can or pillar buoys. (2) Starboard hand marks indicate the right side of channels when proceeding in the Conventional Direction of Buoyage. Beacons...

  10. Depression in Later Life: Recognition and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmall, Vicki L.; And Others

    This guide is designed to help readers understand depression and factors related to its onset in later life; recognize signs of depression and potential suicide; and know actions they can take if they suspect an older family member or friend may be depressed or contemplating suicide. Following a brief introduction, a chapter on depression…