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Sample records for laterally mobile functionalized

  1. Repeated mobility testing for later artificial visual function evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikay-Parel, M.; Ivastinovic, D.; Koch, M.; Hornig, R.; Dagnelie, G.; Richard, G.; Langmann, A.

    2007-03-01

    The study investigates the utility of a newly designed mobility test for repeated testing of visual function in patients with severe visual impairment and future application in evaluating functional progress in patients with artificial vision. Ten subjects divided into three groups based on visual acuity (VA) ranging from light perception to 20/200 and reduced visual field (VF) were included in the study. The mobility test consisted of using a set of four different but structurally similar and relatively short mazes having a constant number of obstacles of various sizes. The subjects, divided into three groups by acuity, passed through each course several times. In general, the patients with better VA had a larger extent of VF. Average speed and number of contacts were recorded as measures of performance. The average passing times of the groups through the courses were significantly different (p = 0.03), which was influenced by VA and VF. There was no significant difference in average number of contacts between the groups (p = 0.15). The mobility test proved to be appropriate for gaining statistically relevant results in repeated individual testing of patients with severe vision impairment. Results show promise for use this mobility test as a tool for assessing visual function of patients undergoing implantation of a visual prosthesis for artificial vision.

  2. It is not just muscle mass: a review of muscle quality, composition and metabolism during ageing as determinants of muscle function and mobility in later life.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Robin A; Cameron-Smith, David; Poppitt, Sally D

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide estimates predict 2 billion people will be aged over 65 years by 2050. A major current challenge is maintaining mobility and quality of life into old age. Impaired mobility is often a precursor of functional decline, disability and loss of independence. Sarcopenia which represents the age-related decline in muscle mass is a well-established factor associated with mobility limitations in older adults. However, there is now evidence that not only changes in muscle mass but other factors underpinning muscle quality including composition, metabolism, aerobic capacity, insulin resistance, fat infiltration, fibrosis and neural activation may also play a role in the decline in muscle function and impaired mobility associated with ageing. Importantly, changes in muscle quality may precede loss of muscle mass and therefore provide new opportunities for the assessment of muscle quality particularly in middle-aged adults who could benefit from interventions to improve muscle function. This review will discuss the accumulating evidence that in addition to muscle mass, factors underpinning muscle quality influence muscle function and mobility with age. Further development of tools to assess muscle quality in community settings is needed. Preventative diet, exercise or treatment interventions particularly in middle-aged adults at the low end of the spectrum of muscle function may help preserve mobility in later years and improve healthspan. PMID:25520782

  3. Quick lateral movements of the trunk in a seated position reflect mobility and activities of daily living (ADL) function in frail elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Akira; Higuchi, Yumi; Kimura, Daisuke; Okamoto, Kensuke; Arai, Shin; Iwata, Hiroshi; Fuchioka, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    A novel and safe performance test for measuring mobility is described. The test, which we have named the Seated Side Tapping test (Side Tapping test), requires the subjects to move their bodies laterally to the left and right in turn as quickly as possible whilst remaining in a seated position. We examined the associations between the results of the new test and those of other mobility tests, ADL, and the use of walking aids. The participants were 75 frail elderly people who were receiving rehabilitation services. Gait speed and the timed up and go (TUG) test were employed as mobility tests, and the participants' use of walking aids was recorded. The ADL score was assessed using the Barthel Index. Significant correlations were found between the side tapping test and gait speed (r=-0.59, p<0.01), and TUG (r=0.63, p<0.01). This test also revealed significant relationships with the ADL scores and the use of walking aids. These results indicate that an ability to perform quick lateral trunk movements in a seated position reflects their mobility during standing. Thus, we concluded that since the side tapping test is simple and safe, it is useful for detecting mobility impairments, ADL levels, and the need for walking aids, especially in frail elderly individuals. PMID:23270712

  4. MOTIVES FOR RESIDENTIAL MOBILITY IN LATER LIFE

    PubMed Central

    SERGEANT, JULIE F.; EKERDT, DAVID J.

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study delineates motives for residential mobility, describes dynamics between the elder and family members during the move decision process, and locates the move decision within ecological layers of the aging context. Interviews were conducted with 30 individuals and couples (ages 60-87) who experienced a community-based move within the past year, and with 14 extended family members. Reasons for moving (from perspectives of both elders who moved and their family members) were grouped into four themes and eleven issues that influenced the move decision. These themes parallel the ecological context of individual health and functioning, beliefs and attitudes, physical environment, and social pressures. Late-life mobility is a significant life transition that is the outcome of an ongoing appraisal and reappraisal of housing fit with individual functioning, needs, and aspirations. Family members are an integral part of these decision and residential mobility processes. Well, she moved because my sister and I decided she was going to move. But she wanted to move. It wouldn’t have happened if we hadn’t decided that she was gonna move. It was a little complicated . . . - Linda Brierton’s daughter, Karen PMID:18453180

  5. Functional Lateralization of the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Raymond S.

    1984-01-01

    Research concerning lateralization of human brain functions is examined in light of the recent publication of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. Following a review of research methodologies and functions ascribed to the hemispheres of the brain, differences are portrayed as complementary and coexisting modes of cognitive processing.…

  6. Modulation of Membrane Protein Lateral Mobility by Polyphosphates and Polyamines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Melvin; Koppel, Dennis E.; Sheetz, Michael P.

    1980-03-01

    The lateral mobility of fluorescein-labeled membrane glycoproteins was measured in whole unlysed erythrocytes and erythrocyte ghosts by the technique of ``fluorescence redistribution after fusion.'' Measurements were made on polyethylene glycol-fused cell pairs in which only one member of the couplet was initially fluorescently labeled. Diffusion coefficients were estimated from the rate of fluorescence redistribution determined from successive scans with a focused laser beam across individual fused pairs. This technique allows for the analysis of diffusion within cell membranes without the possible damaging photochemical events caused by photobleaching. It was found that lateral mobility of erythrocyte proteins can be increased by the addition of polyphosphates (i.e., ATP and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate) and decreased by the addition of organic polyamines (i.e., neomycin and spermine). This control is exerted by these molecules only when they contact the cytoplasmic side of the membrane and is not dependent upon high-energy phosphates. Microviscosity experiments employing diphenylhexatriene demonstrated no changes in membrane lipid state as a function of these reagents. Our results, in conjunction with data on the physical interactions of cytoskeletal proteins, suggest that the diffusion effector molecules alter the lateral mobility of erythrocyte membrane proteins through modifications of interactions in the shell, which is composed of spectrin, actin, and component 4.1.

  7. Lateral Mobility of E-cadherin Enhances Rac1 Response in Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, J.; Kam, L.C.

    2010-01-01

    The fluidity of cellular membranes imparts lateral mobility of proteins across the cell surface. To understand the impact of lateral mobility on cell-cell communication, a protein consisting of the extracellular recognition domains of E-cadherin was associated with the surface of silica beads by either tethering to a bead-supported lipid bilayer or direct adsorption, resulting in laterally mobile and immobile presentations of this protein. These beads were then seeded onto the upper surface of MDCK cells. Functional engagement of these beads was compared by measurement of Rac1 recruitment around the bead. Lateral mobility enhanced recognition of E-cadherin, promoting cell response to the beads at lower per-area concentrations than their immobilized counterparts. A more complete understanding of how lateral mobility of membrane-associated proteins influences molecular recognition, and potentially other downstream responses, could provide new strategies for the design of materials and devices intended to capture the architecture of natural tissues. PMID:20368760

  8. Macroscopic lateral heterogeneity observed in a laterally mobile immiscible mixed polyelectrolyte-neutral polymer brush.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hoyoung; Tsouris, Vasilios; Lim, Yunho; Mustafa, Rafid; Choi, Je; Choi, Yun Hwa; Park, Hae-Woong; Meron, Mati; Lin, Binhua; Won, You-Yeon

    2014-06-01

    We studied mixed poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) brushes. The question we attempted to answer was: when the chain grafting points are laterally mobile, how will this lateral mobility influence the structure and phase behavior of the mixed brush? Three different model mixed PEO/PDMAEMA brush systems were prepared: (1) a laterally mobile mixed brush by spreading onto the air-water interface a mixture of poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PEO-PnBA) and poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)-poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PDMAEMA-PnBA) diblock copolymers (the specific diblock copolymers used will be denoted as PEO113-PnBA100 and PDMAEMA118-PnBA100, where the subscripts refer to the number-average degrees of polymerization of the individual blocks), (2) a mobility-restricted (inseparable) version of the above mixed brush prepared using a PEO-PnBA-PDMAEMA triblock copolymer (denoted as PEO113-PnBA89-PDMAEMA120) having respective brush molecular weights matched with those of the diblock copolymers, and (3) a different laterally mobile mixed PEO and PDMAEMA brush prepared from a PEO113-PnBA100 and PDMAEMA200-PnBA103 diblock copolymer combination, which represents a further more height-mismatched mixed brush situation than described in (1). These three mixed brush systems were investigated by surface pressure-area isotherm and X-ray (XR) reflectivity measurements. These experimental data were analyzed within the theoretical framework of a continuum self-consistent field (SCF) polymer brush model. The combined experimental and theoretical results suggest that the mobile mixed brush derived using the PEO113-PnBA100 and PDMAEMA118-PnBA100 combination (i.e., mixed brush System #1) undergoes a lateral macroscopic phase separation at high chain grafting densities, whereas the more height-mismatched system (System #3) is only microscopically phase separated under comparable brush density conditions even though the lateral

  9. Macroscopic lateral heterogeneity observed in a laterally mobile immiscible mixed polyelectrolyte-neutral polymer brush

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hoyoung; Tsouris, Vasilios; Lim, Yunho; Mustafa, Rafid; Choi, Je; Choi, Yun Hwa; Park, Hae-Woong; Meron, Mati; Lin, Binhua; Won, You-Yeon

    2014-07-11

    We studied mixed poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) brushes. The question we attempted to answer was: when the chain grafting points are laterally mobile, how will this lateral mobility influence the structure and phase behavior of the mixed brush? Three different model mixed PEO/PDMAEMA brush systems were prepared: (1) a laterally mobile mixed brush by spreading onto the air–water interface a mixture of poly(ethylene oxide)–poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PEO–PnBA) and poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)–poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PDMAEMA–PnBA) diblock copolymers (the specific diblock copolymers used will be denoted as PEO113–PnBA100 and PDMAEMA118–PnBA100, where the subscripts refer to the number-average degrees of polymerization of the individual blocks), (2) a mobility-restricted (inseparable) version of the above mixed brush prepared using a PEO–PnBA–PDMAEMA triblock copolymer (denoted as PEO113–PnBA89–PDMAEMA120) having respective brush molecular weights matched with those of the diblock copolymers, and (3) a different laterally mobile mixed PEO and PDMAEMA brush prepared from a PEO113–PnBA100 and PDMAEMA200–PnBA103 diblock copolymer combination, which represents a further more height-mismatched mixed brush situation than described in (1). These three mixed brush systems were investigated by surface pressure–area isotherm and X-ray (XR) reflectivity measurements. These experimental data were analyzed within the theoretical framework of a continuum self-consistent field (SCF) polymer brush model. The combined experimental and theoretical results suggest that the mobile mixed brush derived using the PEO113–PnBA100 and PDMAEMA118–PnBA100 combination (i.e., mixed brush System #1) undergoes a lateral macroscopic phase separation

  10. Imaging P2X4 Receptor Lateral Mobility in Microglia

    PubMed Central

    Toulme, Estelle; Khakh, Baljit S.

    2012-01-01

    ATP-gated ionotropic P2X4 receptors are up-regulated in activated microglia and are critical for the development of neuropathic pain, a microglia-associated disorder. However, the nature of how plasma membrane P2X4 receptors are regulated in microglia is not fully understood. We used single-molecule imaging to track quantum dot-labeled P2X4 receptors to explore P2X4 receptor mobility in the processes of resting and activated microglia. We find that plasma membrane P2X4 receptor lateral mobility in resting microglial processes is largely random, consisting of mobile and slowly mobile receptors. Moreover, lateral mobility is P2X subunit- and cell-specific, increased in an ATP activation and calcium-dependent manner, and enhanced in activated microglia by the p38 MAPK pathway that selectively regulates slowly mobile receptors. Thus, our data indicate that P2X4 receptors are dynamically regulated mobile ATP sensors, sampling more of the plasma membrane in response to ATP and during the activated state of microglia that is associated with nervous system dysfunction. PMID:22393055

  11. Lateral mobility of proteins in liquid membranes revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambin, Y.; Lopez-Esparza, R.; Reffay, M.; Sierecki, E.; Gov, N. S.; Genest, M.; Hodges, R. S.; Urbach, W.

    2006-02-01

    The biological function of transmembrane proteins is closely related to their insertion, which has most often been studied through their lateral mobility. For >30 years, it has been thought that hardly any information on the size of the diffusing object can be extracted from such experiments. Indeed, the hydrodynamic model developed by Saffman and Delbrück predicts a weak, logarithmic dependence of the diffusion coefficient D with the radius R of the protein. Despite widespread use, its validity has never been thoroughly investigated. To check this model, we measured the diffusion coefficients of various peptides and transmembrane proteins, incorporated into giant unilamellar vesicles of 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (SOPC) or in model bilayers of tunable thickness. We show in this work that, for several integral proteins spanning a large range of sizes, the diffusion coefficient is strongly linked to the protein dimensions. A heuristic model results in a Stokes-like expression for D, (D 1/R), which fits literature data as well as ours. Diffusion measurement is then a fast and fruitful method; it allows determining the oligomerization degree of proteins or studying lipid-protein and protein-protein interactions within bilayers. bilayers | transmembrane proteins | diffusion | peptides | sponge phase


  12. Early mobilization versus immobilization in the treatment of lateral ankle sprains.

    PubMed

    Eiff, M P; Smith, A T; Smith, G E

    1994-01-01

    We conducted a prospective trial at a military medical center to determine which treatment for first-time ankle sprains, early mobilization or immobilization, is more effective. Eighty-two patients with a lateral ankle sprain were randomly selected for one of two treatment groups. The Early Mobilization Group received an elastic wrap for 2 days followed by functional bracing for 8 days. Two days after injury, this group began weight-bearing and an ankle rehabilitation program. Patients in the Immobilization Group were placed in a nonweight-bearing plaster splint for 10 days followed by weight-bearing and the same rehabilitation program. Patients in the Early Mobilization Group had less pain at 3 weeks (57% versus 87%, P = 0.02); otherwise, there were no significant differences between groups in the frequency of residual symptoms. Only one patient in each group had residual symptoms 1 year after injury. Three patients (8%) in each group resprained their ankles. Ten days after injury, patients in the Early Mobilization Group were more likely to be back to full work (54% versus 13%, P < 0.001). We conclude that in first-time lateral ankle sprains, although both immobilization and early mobilization prevent late residual symptoms and ankle instability, early mobilization allows earlier return to work and may be more comfortable for patients. PMID:8129116

  13. Lateralization of auditory-cortex functions.

    PubMed

    Tervaniemi, Mari; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2003-12-01

    In the present review, we summarize the most recent findings and current views about the structural and functional basis of human brain lateralization in the auditory modality. Main emphasis is given to hemodynamic and electromagnetic data of healthy adult participants with regard to music- vs. speech-sound encoding. Moreover, a selective set of behavioral dichotic-listening (DL) results and clinical findings (e.g., schizophrenia, dyslexia) are included. It is shown that human brain has a strong predisposition to process speech sounds in the left and music sounds in the right auditory cortex in the temporal lobe. Up to great extent, an auditory area located at the posterior end of the temporal lobe (called planum temporale [PT]) underlies this functional asymmetry. However, the predisposition is not bound to informational sound content but to rapid temporal information more common in speech than in music sounds. Finally, we obtain evidence for the vulnerability of the functional specialization of sound processing. These altered forms of lateralization may be caused by top-down and bottom-up effects inter- and intraindividually In other words, relatively small changes in acoustic sound features or in their familiarity may modify the degree in which the left vs. right auditory areas contribute to sound encoding. PMID:14629926

  14. Lateral Scapular Slide Test and Scapular Mobility in Volleyball Players

    PubMed Central

    Ozunlu, Nihan; Tekeli, Hatice; Baltaci, Gul

    2011-01-01

    Context: The stability of the scapula in relation to the entire moving upper extremity is the key in the throwing sequence. The importance of scapular positioning in volleyball players has been well documented in the literature, but no one has compared scapular positioning between volleyball players and sedentary people. Objective: To compare measurements of scapular mobility obtained using the lateral scapular slide test between volleyball players and sedentary participants without shoulder impairments and to compare changes in scapular mobility in players according to the number of years of sport participation. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: University research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 121 people at a single university volunteered. Of these, 67 were sedentary (age = 24.3 ± 2.34 years, height = 1.69 ± 0.09 m, mass = 65.1 ± 11.91 kg); 54 were volleyball players from 4 professional teams and were separated into 2 groups according to their years of sport participation. The first group was named young players (n = 31; age = 17.7 ± 2.58 years, height = 1.83 ± 0.10 m, mass = 68.3 ± 12.21 kg, sport participation ≤ 9 years), and the second group was named old players (n = 23; age = 26.9 ± 3.39 years, height = 1.95 ± 4.38 m, mass = 90.7 ± 5.75 kg, sport participation ≥ 10 years). Main Outcome Measure(s): Study participants completed a rating scale for pain and a questionnaire about demographic and shoulder problems. One assessor performed the lateral scapular slide test and additional flexibility measurements around the shoulder girdle. Flexibility (external rotation, internal rotation) and scapular position (1, 2, 3) were compared among groups (young players, old players, sedentary people) and between sides (dominant, nondominant). Results: In sedentary participants, we found differences for position 1 (t66 = 3.327, P = .002), position 2 (t66 = 2.491, P = .004), position 3 (t66 = 2.512, P = .006), and internal rotation

  15. Effect of integral membrane proteins on the lateral mobility of plastoquinone in phosphatidylcholine proteoliposomes

    PubMed Central

    Blackwell, Mary F.; Whitmarsh, John

    1990-01-01

    Pyrene fluorescence quenching by plastoquinone was used to estimate the rate of plastoquinone lateral diffusion in soybean phosphatidylcholine proteoliposomes containing the following integral membrane proteins: gramicidin D, spinach cytochrome bf complex, spinach cytochrome f, reaction centers from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, beef heart mitochondrial cytochrome bc1, and beef heart mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The measured plastoquinone lateral diffusion coefficient varied between 1 and 3 · 10-7 cm2 s-1 in control liposomes that lacked protein. When proteins were added, these values decreased: a 10-fold decrease was observed when 16-26% of the membrane surface area was occupied by protein for all the proteins but gramicidin. The larger protein complexes (cytochrome bf, Rhodobacter sphaeroides reaction centers, cytochrome bc1, and cytochrome oxidase), whose hydrophobic volumes were 15-20 times as large as that of cytochrome f and the gramicidin transmembrane dimer, were 15-20 times as effective in decreasing the lateral-diffusion coefficient over the range of concentrations studied. These proteins had a much stronger effect than that observed for bacteriorhodopsin in fluorescence photobleaching recovery measurements. The effect of high-protein concentrations in gramicidin proteoliposomes was in close agreement with fluorescence photobleaching measurements. The results are compared with the predictions of several theoretical models of lateral mobility as a function of integral membrane concentration. PMID:19431774

  16. Electric field-induced lateral mobility of photosystem I in the photosynthetic membrane

    PubMed Central

    Brumfeld, Vlad; Miller, Israel R.; Korenstein, Rafi

    1989-01-01

    Electrophoretic movement of photosystem I (PS I) along the photosynthetic membrane of hypotonically swollen thylakoid vesicles was studied by analyzing the electric field-stimulated delayed luminescence (electrophotoluminescence) emitted from PS I. The electrophoretic mobility was inferred from the differences in electrophotoluminescence (EPL) of the photosynthetic vesicles in presence and absence of trains of low amplitude (<80 V/cm) prepulses of 1 ms duration at 4 ms spacing. The average apparent electric mobility, determined from the time course of EPL increase on one hemisphere or its decrease on the other one, as function of prepulse length and intensity was of the order of 3 · 10-5 cm2V-1s-1. The assymetric distribution of the PS I reached a steady state when the diffusional, electrostatic, and elastic forces balanced the electrophoretic driving force. A lateral diffusion coefficient of ∼5 · 10-9 cm2s-1 was found for the PS I complex from the diffusional relaxation after cessation of the electric field pulse train. Experimental conditions such as concentration, temperature, and viscosity of the aqueous solution were not critical for the effect. Between 23 and 150 electron charges per moving particle were estimated from the measured electrophoretic mobility. PMID:19431746

  17. Promoting Function, Independence, and Mobility

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptom management, the use of mobility aids, automobile adaptations and the use of assistance animals. Increasing Accessibility often requires the adaptation of tools and devices at one’s home or ...

  18. Influence of receptor lateral mobility on adhesion strengthening between membranes containing LFA-3 and CD2.

    PubMed

    Chan, P Y; Lawrence, M B; Dustin, M L; Ferguson, L M; Golan, D E; Springer, T A

    1991-10-01

    We have used an in vitro model system of glass-supported planar membranes to study the effects of lateral mobility of membrane-bound receptors on cell adhesion. Egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayers were reconstituted with two anchorage isoforms of the adhesion molecule lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3 (LFA-3). The diffusion coefficient of glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored LFA-3 approached that of phospholipids in the bilayers, whereas the transmembrane (TM)-anchored isoform of LFA-3 was immobile. Both static and laminar flow assays were used to quantify the strength of adherence to the lipid bilayers of the T lymphoma cell line Jurkat that expresses the counter-receptor CD2. Cell adhesion was dependent on LFA-3 density and was more efficient on membranes containing the GPI isoform than the TM isoform. Kinetic measurements demonstrated an influence of contact time on the strength of adhesion to the GPI isoform at lower site densities (25-50 sites/microns2), showing that the mobility of LFA-3 is important in adhesion strengthening. At higher site densities (1,500 sites/microns2) and longer contact times (20 min), Jurkat cell binding to the TM and GPI isoforms of LFA-3 showed equivalent adhesion strengths, although adhesion strength of the GPI isoform developed twofold more rapidly than the TM isoform. Reduction of CD2 mobility on Jurkat cells at 5 degrees C greatly decreased the rate of adhesion strengthening with the TM isoform of LFA-3, resulting in a 30-fold difference between the two LFA-3 isoforms. Our results demonstrate that the ability of a membrane receptor and its membrane-bound counter-receptor to diffuse laterally enhances cell adhesion both by allowing accumulation of ligands in the cell contact area and by increasing the rate of receptor-ligand bond formation. PMID:1717480

  19. Brain Function Lateralization and Language Acquisition: the Evidence from Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanches, Mary

    1979-01-01

    Presents evidence of differences in brain function lateralization between Japanese-speakers and speakers of Indo-European languages, and suggests that current conceptualizations of brain function specialization are not adequate. (AM)

  20. Two distinct forms of functional lateralization in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Gotts, Stephen J.; Jo, Hang Joon; Wallace, Gregory L.; Saad, Ziad S.; Cox, Robert W.; Martin, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The hemispheric lateralization of certain faculties in the human brain has long been held to be beneficial for functioning. However, quantitative relationships between the degree of lateralization in particular brain regions and the level of functioning have yet to be established. Here we demonstrate that two distinct forms of functional lateralization are present in the left vs. the right cerebral hemisphere, with the left hemisphere showing a preference to interact more exclusively with itself, particularly for cortical regions involved in language and fine motor coordination. In contrast, right-hemisphere cortical regions involved in visuospatial and attentional processing interact in a more integrative fashion with both hemispheres. The degree of lateralization present in these distinct systems selectively predicted behavioral measures of verbal and visuospatial ability, providing direct evidence that lateralization is associated with enhanced cognitive ability. PMID:23959883

  1. Functional calcium imaging in zebrafish lateral-line hair cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q X; He, X J; Wong, H C; Kindt, K S

    2016-01-01

    Sensory hair-cell development, function, and regeneration are fundamental processes that are challenging to study in mammalian systems. Zebrafish are an excellent alternative model to study hair cells because they have an external auxiliary organ called the lateral line. The hair cells of the lateral line are easily accessible, which makes them suitable for live, function-based fluorescence imaging. In this chapter, we describe methods to perform functional calcium imaging in zebrafish lateral-line hair cells. We compare genetically encoded calcium indicators that have been used previously to measure calcium in lateral-line hair cells. We also outline equipment required for calcium imaging and compare different imaging systems. Lastly, we discuss how to set up optimal imaging parameters and how to process and visualize calcium signals. Overall, using these methods, in vivo calcium imaging is a powerful tool to examine sensory hair-cell function in an intact organism. PMID:27263415

  2. The Effects of Enriched Neonatal Experiences Upon Later Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachs, Theodore D.; Cucinotta, Pattiann

    1971-01-01

    The data reported in this small study confirm previous research indicating that early stimulation, though initially affecting human behavior, has little permanent effect upon later functioning. (Author/WY)

  3. Lateral Dispersal and Foraging Behavior of Entomopathogenic Nematodes in the Absence and Presence of Mobile and Non-Mobile Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Bal, Harit K.; Grewal, Parwinder S.

    2015-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes have been classified into cruisers (active searchers) and ambushers (sit and wait foragers). However, little is known about their dispersal and foraging behavior at population level in soil. We studied lateral dispersal of the ambush foraging Steinernema carpocapsae (ALL strain) and cruise foraging Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (GPS11 strain) from infected host cadavers in microcosms (0.05 m2) containing Wooster silt-loam soil (Oxyaquic fragiudalf) and vegetation in the presence or absence of non-mobile and mobile hosts. Results showed that the presence of a non-mobile host (Galleria mellonella larva in a wire mesh cage) enhanced H. bacteriophora dispersal for up to 24 hr compared with no-host treatment, but had no impact on S. carpocapsae dispersal. In contrast, presence of a mobile host (G. mellonella larvae) increased dispersal of S. carpocapsae compared with no host treatment, but had no effect on H. bacteriophora dispersal. Also H. bacteriophora was better at infecting non-mobile than mobile hosts released into the microcosms and S. carpocapsae was better at infecting mobile than non-mobile hosts, thus affirming the established cruiser-ambusher theory. However, results also revealed that a large proportion of infective juveniles (IJs) of both species stayed near (≤ 3.8 cm) the source cadaver (88-96% S. carpocapsae; 67–79% H. bacteriophora), and the proportion of IJs reaching the farthest distance (11.4 cm) was significantly higher for S. carpocapsae (1.4%) than H. bacteriophora (0.4%) in the presence of mobile hosts. S. carpocapsae also had higher average population displacement than H. bacteriophora in the presence of both the non-mobile (5.07 vs. 3.6 cm/day) and mobile (8.06 vs. 5.3 cm/day) hosts. We conclude that the two species differ in their dispersal and foraging behavior at the population level and this behavior is affected by both the presence and absence of hosts and by their mobility. PMID:26079715

  4. Language Lateralization in Children Using Functional Transcranial Doppler Sonography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haag, Anja; Moeller, Nicola; Knake, Susanne; Hermsen, Anke; Oertel, Wolfgang H.; Rosenow, Felix; Hamer, Hajo M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Language lateralization with functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) and lexical word generation has been shown to have high concordance with the Wada test and functional magnetic resonance imaging in adults. We evaluated a nonlexical paradigm to determine language dominance in children. Method: In 23 right-handed children (12…

  5. High hole mobility GeSn on insulator formed by self-organized seeding lateral growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhi; Wen, Juanjuan; Zhang, Xu; Li, Chuanbo; Xue, Chunlai; Zuo, Yuhua; Cheng, Buwen; Wang, Qiming

    2014-11-01

    Tensile strained single-crystal GeSn on insulator (GSOI) was obtained using self-organized seeding lateral growth. Segregation of Sn atoms and Sn distribution occurred during the lateral growth of the GeSn stripe. At both edges of the GSOI, Sn concentration distribution was found in good agreement with calculation based on the Scheil equation. P-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors were fabricated using the GSOI materials. Good transistor performance with the low field peak hole mobility of 383 cm2 V-1 s-1 was obtained, which indicated the high quality of this GSOI structure.

  6. Early ankle mobilization, Part II: A one-year follow-up of acute, lateral ankle sprains (a randomized clinical trial).

    PubMed

    Dettori, J R; Basmania, C J

    1994-01-01

    A 1-year follow-up of military members who received either early ankle mobilization or cast immobilization following a moderate or severe lateral ankle sprain was conducted to determine the long-term effects between these two forms of conservative treatment. Functional job- and sports-related disabilities together with subjective complaints were assessed. A significantly large proportion (44%) of all subjects were symptomatic at follow-up. Those receiving early ankle mobilization had slightly more residual subjective complaints compared with those receiving cast immobilization. There was, however, little effect on functional job- or sports-related disability, the early mobilization group having slightly fewer functional problems. There was no difference in subjective complaints or functional limitations by the degree of injury for moderate or severe lateral ankle sprains. PMID:8164861

  7. Vertical and lateral mobilities in n-(Ga, Mn)N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jihyun; Ren, F.; Thaler, G. T.; Frazier, R.; Abernathy, C. R.; Pearton, S. J.; Zavada, J. M.; Wilson, R. G.

    2003-03-01

    Lateral electron mobilities in 0.2-μm-thick n-(Ga, Mn)N films were obtained from Hall measurements, producing values of 116˜102 cm2/V s in the temperature range from 298 to 373 K. These values are comparable to, but slightly lower than, electron mobilities in n-GaN of the same electron concentration. By sharp contrast, analysis of the reverse saturation current in mesa Schottky diodes fabricated in the n-(Ga, Mn)N show vertical electron mobilities of 840˜336 cm2/V s in the temperature range from 298 to 373 K. This is consistent with a reduction in electron scattering by charged dislocations for vertical transport geometries [M. Misra, A. V. Sampath, and T. D. Moustakas, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1045 (2000)].

  8. High-mobility capacitively-induced two-dimensional electrons in a lateral superlattice potential

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lu, Tzu -Ming; Laroche, Dominique; Huang, S. -H.; Chuang, Y.; Li, J. -Y.; Liu, C. W.

    2016-01-01

    In the presence of a lateral periodic potential modulation, two-dimensional electrons may exhibit interesting phenomena, such as a graphene-like energy-momentum dispersion, Bloch oscillations, or the Hofstadter butterfly band structure. To create a sufficiently strong potential modulation using conventional semiconductor heterostructures, aggressive device processing is often required, unfortunately resulting in strong disorder that masks the sought-after effects. Here, we report a novel fabrication process flow for imposing a strong lateral potential modulation onto a capacitively induced two-dimensional electron system, while preserving the host material quality. Using this process flow, the electron density in a patterned Si/SiGe heterostructure can be tuned overmore » a wide range, from 4.4 × 1010 cm–2 to 1.8 × 1011 cm–2, with a peak mobility of 6.4 × 105 cm2/V·s. The wide density tunability and high electron mobility allow us to observe sequential emergence of commensurability oscillations as the density, the mobility, and in turn the mean free path, increase. Magnetic-field-periodic quantum oscillations associated with various closed orbits also emerge sequentially with increasing density. We show that, from the density dependence of the quantum oscillations, one can directly extract the steepness of the imposed superlattice potential. Lastly, this result is then compared to a conventional lateral superlattice model potential.« less

  9. High-mobility capacitively-induced two-dimensional electrons in a lateral superlattice potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, T. M.; Laroche, D.; Huang, S.-H.; Chuang, Y.; Li, J.-Y.; Liu, C. W.

    2016-02-01

    In the presence of a lateral periodic potential modulation, two-dimensional electrons may exhibit interesting phenomena, such as a graphene-like energy-momentum dispersion, Bloch oscillations, or the Hofstadter butterfly band structure. To create a sufficiently strong potential modulation using conventional semiconductor heterostructures, aggressive device processing is often required, unfortunately resulting in strong disorder that masks the sought-after effects. Here, we report a novel fabrication process flow for imposing a strong lateral potential modulation onto a capacitively induced two-dimensional electron system, while preserving the host material quality. Using this process flow, the electron density in a patterned Si/SiGe heterostructure can be tuned over a wide range, from 4.4 × 1010 cm-2 to 1.8 × 1011 cm-2, with a peak mobility of 6.4 × 105 cm2/V·s. The wide density tunability and high electron mobility allow us to observe sequential emergence of commensurability oscillations as the density, the mobility, and in turn the mean free path, increase. Magnetic-field-periodic quantum oscillations associated with various closed orbits also emerge sequentially with increasing density. We show that, from the density dependence of the quantum oscillations, one can directly extract the steepness of the imposed superlattice potential. This result is then compared to a conventional lateral superlattice model potential.

  10. High-mobility capacitively-induced two-dimensional electrons in a lateral superlattice potential

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Tzu -Ming; Laroche, Dominique; Huang, S. -H.; Chuang, Y.; Li, J. -Y.; Liu, C. W.

    2016-01-01

    In the presence of a lateral periodic potential modulation, two-dimensional electrons may exhibit interesting phenomena, such as a graphene-like energy-momentum dispersion, Bloch oscillations, or the Hofstadter butterfly band structure. To create a sufficiently strong potential modulation using conventional semiconductor heterostructures, aggressive device processing is often required, unfortunately resulting in strong disorder that masks the sought-after effects. Here, we report a novel fabrication process flow for imposing a strong lateral potential modulation onto a capacitively induced two-dimensional electron system, while preserving the host material quality. Using this process flow, the electron density in a patterned Si/SiGe heterostructure can be tuned over a wide range, from 4.4 × 1010 cm–2 to 1.8 × 1011 cm–2, with a peak mobility of 6.4 × 105 cm2/V·s. The wide density tunability and high electron mobility allow us to observe sequential emergence of commensurability oscillations as the density, the mobility, and in turn the mean free path, increase. Magnetic-field-periodic quantum oscillations associated with various closed orbits also emerge sequentially with increasing density. We show that, from the density dependence of the quantum oscillations, one can directly extract the steepness of the imposed superlattice potential. Lastly, this result is then compared to a conventional lateral superlattice model potential.

  11. High-mobility capacitively-induced two-dimensional electrons in a lateral superlattice potential

    PubMed Central

    Lu, T. M.; Laroche, D.; Huang, S.-H.; Chuang, Y.; Li, J.-Y.; Liu, C. W.

    2016-01-01

    In the presence of a lateral periodic potential modulation, two-dimensional electrons may exhibit interesting phenomena, such as a graphene-like energy-momentum dispersion, Bloch oscillations, or the Hofstadter butterfly band structure. To create a sufficiently strong potential modulation using conventional semiconductor heterostructures, aggressive device processing is often required, unfortunately resulting in strong disorder that masks the sought-after effects. Here, we report a novel fabrication process flow for imposing a strong lateral potential modulation onto a capacitively induced two-dimensional electron system, while preserving the host material quality. Using this process flow, the electron density in a patterned Si/SiGe heterostructure can be tuned over a wide range, from 4.4 × 1010 cm−2 to 1.8 × 1011 cm−2, with a peak mobility of 6.4 × 105 cm2/V·s. The wide density tunability and high electron mobility allow us to observe sequential emergence of commensurability oscillations as the density, the mobility, and in turn the mean free path, increase. Magnetic-field-periodic quantum oscillations associated with various closed orbits also emerge sequentially with increasing density. We show that, from the density dependence of the quantum oscillations, one can directly extract the steepness of the imposed superlattice potential. This result is then compared to a conventional lateral superlattice model potential. PMID:26865160

  12. A review of lateralization of spatial functioning in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Oleksiak, Anna; Postma, Albert; van der Ham, Ineke J M; Klink, P Christiaan; van Wezel, Richard J A

    2011-06-24

    The majority of research on functional cerebral lateralization in primates revolves around vocal abilities, addressing the evolutionary origin of the human language faculty and its predominance in the left hemisphere of the brain. Right hemisphere specialization in spatial cognition is commonly reported in humans. This functional asymmetry is especially evident in the context of the unilateral neglect, a deficit in attention to and awareness of one side of space, that more frequently occurs after right-side rather than left-side brain damage. Since most of the research efforts are concentrated on vocalization in primates, much less is known about the presence or absence of spatial functions lateralization. Obtaining this knowledge can provide insight into the evolutionary aspect of the functionally lateralized brain of Homo sapiens and deliver refinement and validation of the nonhuman primate unilateral neglect model. This paper reviews the literature on functional brain asymmetries in processing spatial information, limiting the search to nonhuman primates, and concludes there is no clear evidence that monkeys process spatial information with different efficiency in the two hemispheres. We suggest that lateralization of spatial cognition in humans represents a relatively new feature on the evolutionary time scale, possibly developed as a by-product of the left hemisphere intrusion of language competence. Further, we argue that the monkey model of hemispatial neglect requires reconsideration. PMID:21059373

  13. Functional analysis on the treatment of torn discoid lateral meniscus.

    PubMed

    Wong, To; Wang, Ching-Jen

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the functional outcome on the treatment of torn discoid lateral meniscus. Thirty-two torn discoid lateral meniscuses in 29 patients were retrospectively reviewed. There were 13 males and 16 females with a mean age of 31.3±17.0. The age distribution were 24% in pediatric age (< 11 years old), 38%in young adult under 25 years and 38% in 25 years and older. Subjective symptoms included pain in 63%, popping and snapping in 56%, locking in 41%, givingway in 17%; and objective signs included decreased knee motion in 16%. Partial lateral menisectomy and saucerization were performed in 18 knees (56%), meniscus repairs were done in eight knee (25% ) and subtotal lateral menisectomy in six knees (19%). At an average follow up of 52.5±25.9 months (24-96 months). The results showed 84% good to excellent, 16% fair, and none poor. No significant difference was noted on the outcomes of different treatment methods. The age of symptom onset and the time of operation correlated with the IKDC and Tenger score. (p<0.001). Our data showed symptomatic torn discoid lateral meniscus may manifest at any age from childhood to adult. The first manifestation of symptom before age 11 year old was observed in only 24%. Therefore, discoid lateral meniscus should not be considered a childhood disease. PMID:20692839

  14. Lateral patellofemoral ligament reconstruction to restore functional capacity in patients previously undergoing lateral retinacular release

    PubMed Central

    Beckert, Mitch; Crebs, Dylan; Nieto, Michael; Gao, Yubo; Albright, John

    2016-01-01

    AIM To study patient outcomes after surgical correction for iatrogenic patellar instability. METHODS This retrospective study looked at 17 patients (19 knees) suffering from disabling medial patellar instability following lateral release surgery. All patients underwent lateral patellofemoral ligament (LPFL) reconstruction by a single surgeon. Assessments in all 19 cases included functional outcome scores, range of motion, and assessment for the presence of apprehension sign of the patella to determine if LPFL reconstruction surgery was successful at restoring patellofemoral stability. RESULTS No patients reported any residual postoperative symptoms of patellar instability. Also no patients demonstrated medial patellar apprehension or examiner induced subluxation with the medial instability test described earlier following LPFL reconstruction. Furthermore, all patients recovered normal range of motion compared to the contralateral limb. For patients with pre and postoperative outcome scores, the mean overall knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score increased significantly, from 34.39 preoperatively (range: 7.7-70.12) to 69.54 postoperatively (range: 26.82-91.46) at final follow-up (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION This novel technique for LPFL reconstruction is effective at restoring lateral restraint of the patellofemoral joint and improving joint functionality. PMID:27574606

  15. Orientation and lateral mobility of cytochrome c on the surface of ultrathin lipid multilayer films.

    PubMed Central

    Pachence, J M; Amador, S; Maniara, G; Vanderkooi, J; Dutton, P L; Blasie, J K

    1990-01-01

    . Furthermore, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) was used to characterize the lateral mobility of the electrostatically bound cytochrome c over the monolayer plane. The optical linear dichroism and these initial FRAP studies have indicated that cytochrome c electrostatically bound to a lipid surface maintains a well-defined orientation relative to the membrane surface while exhibiting measurable, but highly restricted, lateral motion in the plane of the surface. PMID:2169915

  16. Surface plasmon resonance as detection tool for lipids lateral mobility in biomimetic membranes

    PubMed Central

    Margheri, Giancarlo; D’Agostino, Riccardo; Becucci, Lucia; Guidelli, Rolando; Tiribilli, Bruno; Del Rosso, Mario

    2012-01-01

    A procedure based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is proposed to monitor the lateral mobility of lipid molecules in solid-supported bilayer lipid membranes (ssBLMs), an essential prerequisite for the formation of important microdomains called lipid rafts (LRs). The procedure relies on the marked tendency of the ganglioside GM1 to be recruited by LRs and to act as a specific receptor of the beta-subunit of the cholera toxin (ChTB). In the presence of both GM1 and ChTB, spontaneous formation of lipid rafts domains in mobile ssBLMs is accompanied by an appreciable increase in the amount of adsorbed ChTB, as monitored by SPR. PMID:23243563

  17. Functional MRI of Language Lateralization During Development in Children

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Scott K.; Vannest, Jennifer; Mecoli, Marc; Jacola, Lisa M.; Tillema, Jan-Mendelt; Karunanayaka, Prasanna R.; Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Yuan, Weihong; Plante, Elena; Byars, Anna W.

    2009-01-01

    Changes in the distribution of language function in the brain have been documented from infancy through adulthood. Even macroscopic measures of language lateralization reflect a dynamic process of language development. In this review, we summarize a series of functional MRI studies of language skills in children ages of 5 to 18 years, both typically-developing children and children with brain injuries or neurological disorders that occur at different developmental stages, with different degrees of severity. These studies used a battery of fMRI-compatible language tasks designed to tap sentential and lexical language skills that develop early and later in childhood. In typically-developing children, lateralization changes with age are associated with language skills that have a protracted period of development, reflecting the developmental process of skill acquisition rather than general maturation of the brain. Normative data, across the developmental period, acts as a reference for disentangling developmental patterns in brain activation from changes due to developmental or acquired abnormalities. This review emphasizes the importance of considering age and child development in neuroimaging studies of language. PMID:17828669

  18. Reduction in lateral lipid mobility of lipid bilayer membrane by atmospheric pressure plasma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suda, Yoshiyuki; Tero, Ryugo; Yamashita, Ryuma; Yusa, Kota; Takikawa, Hirofumi

    2016-03-01

    Plasma medicine is an emerging research field in which various applications of electrical discharge, especially in the form of nonequilibrium plasma at atmospheric pressure, are examined, for example, the application of plasma to biological targets for various purposes such as selective killing of tumor cells and blood stanching. We have focused on the behavior of an artificial cell membrane system at the solid-liquid interface. To evaluate the lateral lipid mobility, we measured the diffusion coefficient of the supported lipid bilayer (SLB) composed of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching by confocal laser scanning microscopy. It was found that the diffusion coefficient was decreased by plasma irradiation and that the diffusion coefficient decreasing rate proceeded with increasing plasma power. We investigated the effects of stimulation with an equilibrium chemical, H2O2, on the SLB and confirmed that the diffusion coefficient did not change at least up to a H2O2 concentration of 5 mM. These results indicate that transient active species generated by plasma play critical roles in the reduction in SLB fluidity. The effects of the two generated major oxidized lipid species, hydroxyl- or hydroperoxy-phosphatidylcholine (PC) and acyl-chain-truncated PCs terminated with aldehyde or carboxyl group, on lateral lipid mobility are discussed.

  19. Electric field-induced lateral mobility of photosystem I in the photosynthetic membrane: A study by electrophotoluminescence.

    PubMed

    Brumfeld, V; Miller, I R; Korenstein, R

    1989-09-01

    Electrophoretic movement of photosystem I (PS I) along the photosynthetic membrane of hypotonically swollen thylakoid vesicles was studied by analyzing the electric field-stimulated delayed luminescence (electrophotoluminescence) emitted from PS I. The electrophoretic mobility was inferred from the differences in electrophotoluminescence (EPL) of the photosynthetic vesicles in presence and absence of trains of low amplitude (<80 V/cm) prepulses of 1 ms duration at 4 ms spacing. The average apparent electric mobility, determined from the time course of EPL increase on one hemisphere or its decrease on the other one, as function of prepulse length and intensity was of the order of 3 . 10(-5) cm(2)V(-1)s(-1). The assymetric distribution of the PS I reached a steady state when the diffusional, electrostatic, and elastic forces balanced the electrophoretic driving force. A lateral diffusion coefficient of approximately 5 . 10(-9) cm(2)s(-1) was found for the PS I complex from the diffusional relaxation after cessation of the electric field pulse train. Experimental conditions such as concentration, temperature, and viscosity of the aqueous solution were not critical for the effect. Between 23 and 150 electron charges per moving particle were estimated from the measured electrophoretic mobility. PMID:19431746

  20. Determination of lateral-stability derivatives and transfer-function coefficients from frequency-response data for lateral motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donegan, James J; Robinson, Samuel W , Jr; Gates, Ordway, B , jr

    1955-01-01

    A method is presented for determining the lateral-stability derivatives, transfer-function coefficients, and the modes for lateral motion from frequency-response data for a rigid aircraft. The method is based on the application of the vector technique to the equations of lateral motion, so that the three equations of lateral motion can be separated into six equations. The method of least squares is then applied to the data for each of these equations to yield the coefficients of the equations of lateral motion from which the lateral-stability derivatives and lateral transfer-function coefficients are computed. Two numerical examples are given to demonstrate the use of the method.

  1. Outer Hair Cell Lateral Wall Structure Constrains the Mobility of Plasma Membrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Tetsuji; Hakizimana, Pierre; Wu, Siva; Hassan, Ahmed; Jacob, Stefan; Temirov, Jamshid; Fang, Jie; Mellado-Lagarde, Marcia; Gursky, Richard; Horner, Linda; Leibiger, Barbara; Leijon, Sara; Centonze, Victoria E; Berggren, Per-Olof; Frase, Sharon; Auer, Manfred; Brownell, William E; Fridberger, Anders; Zuo, Jian

    2015-09-01

    Nature's fastest motors are the cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs). These sensory cells use a membrane protein, Slc26a5 (prestin), to generate mechanical force at high frequencies, which is essential for explaining the exquisite hearing sensitivity of mammalian ears. Previous studies suggest that Slc26a5 continuously diffuses within the membrane, but how can a freely moving motor protein effectively convey forces critical for hearing? To provide direct evidence in OHCs for freely moving Slc26a5 molecules, we created a knockin mouse where Slc26a5 is fused with YFP. These mice and four other strains expressing fluorescently labeled membrane proteins were used to examine their lateral diffusion in the OHC lateral wall. All five proteins showed minimal diffusion, but did move after pharmacological disruption of membrane-associated structures with a cholesterol-depleting agent and salicylate. Thus, our results demonstrate that OHC lateral wall structure constrains the mobility of plasma membrane proteins and that the integrity of such membrane-associated structures are critical for Slc26a5's active and structural roles. The structural constraint of membrane proteins may exemplify convergent evolution of cellular motors across species. Our findings also suggest a possible mechanism for disorders of cholesterol metabolism with hearing loss such as Niemann-Pick Type C diseases. PMID:26352669

  2. Outer Hair Cell Lateral Wall Structure Constrains the Mobility of Plasma Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Tetsuji; Hakizimana, Pierre; Wu, Siva; Hassan, Ahmed; Jacob, Stefan; Temirov, Jamshid; Fang, Jie; Mellado-Lagarde, Marcia; Gursky, Richard; Horner, Linda; Leibiger, Barbara; Leijon, Sara; Centonze, Victoria E.; Berggren, Per-Olof; Frase, Sharon; Auer, Manfred; Brownell, William E.; Fridberger, Anders; Zuo, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Nature’s fastest motors are the cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs). These sensory cells use a membrane protein, Slc26a5 (prestin), to generate mechanical force at high frequencies, which is essential for explaining the exquisite hearing sensitivity of mammalian ears. Previous studies suggest that Slc26a5 continuously diffuses within the membrane, but how can a freely moving motor protein effectively convey forces critical for hearing? To provide direct evidence in OHCs for freely moving Slc26a5 molecules, we created a knockin mouse where Slc26a5 is fused with YFP. These mice and four other strains expressing fluorescently labeled membrane proteins were used to examine their lateral diffusion in the OHC lateral wall. All five proteins showed minimal diffusion, but did move after pharmacological disruption of membrane-associated structures with a cholesterol-depleting agent and salicylate. Thus, our results demonstrate that OHC lateral wall structure constrains the mobility of plasma membrane proteins and that the integrity of such membrane-associated structures are critical for Slc26a5’s active and structural roles. The structural constraint of membrane proteins may exemplify convergent evolution of cellular motors across species. Our findings also suggest a possible mechanism for disorders of cholesterol metabolism with hearing loss such as Niemann-Pick Type C diseases. PMID:26352669

  3. FUNCTIONALIZED LATERAL SURFACE COATED LASERS FOR CHEM-BIO DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard, L L; Bond, T C; Cole, G D; Behymer, E M

    2007-07-05

    We present a class of compact, monolithic, photonic sensors consisting of multiple section edge emitting lasers with functionalized lateral surface coatings for low level detection of chemical or biological agents. Specifically, we discuss 8 {micro}m x 250 {micro}m Pd-coated H{sub 2} sensors and configurations to reduce the minimum detection limit from 138ppm for passive sensors to 1ppm for active sensors. Compared with conventional optical H{sub 2} sensors that use fiber gratings, surface plasmon resonances, or surface reflectance, our sensors offer the advantages of smaller size, wider dynamic range, monolithic integration of laser source and detector, and 2-D scalability to arrays of sensors that are functionalized to detect different agents.

  4. Leisure Engagement: Medical Conditions, Mobility Difficulties, and Activity Limitations—A Later Life Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Ingeborg; Nyqvist, Fredrica; Gustafson, Yngve; Nygård, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study aims to investigate the impact of medical conditions, mobility difficulties, and activity limitations on older people's engagement in leisure activities. Methods. The analyses are based on a cross regional survey carried out in 2010 in the Bothnia region (Northern Sweden and Western Finland). A posted questionnaire, which included questions on different aspects of leisure engagement, medical history, and health, was sent out to older persons in the region. The final sample consisted of 5435 persons aged 65, 70, 75, and 80 years. The data was analyzed by using ordinary least squares (OLS) multivariate regression. Results. The most important predictor of leisure engagement abstention among older people is the prevalence of activity limitations, whereas mobility difficulties and medical conditions play less important roles. The strong negative association between activity limitations and leisure engagement remains significant even after we control for individual, sociodemographic characteristics, and country. Discussion. This study provides a window into leisure engagement in later life and factors influencing the magnitude of engagement in leisure activities. PMID:26346706

  5. Lateral Mobility of Presynaptic L-Type Calcium Channels at Photoreceptor Ribbon Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Aaron J.; Chen, Minghui; Thoreson, Wallace B.

    2011-01-01

    At most synapses, presynaptic Ca2+ channels are positioned near vesicle release sites, and increasing this distance reduces synaptic strength. We examined the lateral membrane mobility of presynaptic L-type Ca2+ channels at photoreceptor ribbon synapses of the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) retina. Movements of individual Ca2+ channels were tracked by coupling quantum dots to an antibody against the extracellular α2δ4 Ca2+ channel subunit. α2δ4 antibodies labeled photoreceptor terminals and co-localized with antibodies to synaptic vesicle protein SV2 and Ca2+ channel CaV1.4 α1 subunits. The results show that Ca2+ channels are dynamic and move within a confined region beneath the synaptic ribbon. The size of this confinement area is regulated by actin and membrane cholesterol. Fusion of nearby synaptic vesicles caused jumps in Ca2+ channel position, propelling them towards the outer edge of the confinement domain. Channels rebounded rapidly towards the center. Thus, although CaV channels are mobile, molecular scaffolds confine them beneath the ribbon to maintain neurotransmission even at high release rates. PMID:21430141

  6. Intramuscular Adipose Tissue, Sarcopenia, and Mobility Function in Older Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Robin L.; Addison, Odessa; Dibble, Leland E.; Foreman, K. Bo; Morrell, Glen; LaStayo, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) and sarcopenia may adversely impact mobility function and physical activity. This study determined the association of locomotor muscle structure and function with mobility function in older adults. Method. 109 older adults with a variety of comorbid disease conditions were examined for thigh muscle composition via MRI, knee extensor strength via isometric dynamometry, and mobility function. The contribution of strength, quadriceps lean tissue, and IMAT to explaining the variability in mobility function was examined using multivariate linear regression models. Results. The predictors as a group contributed 27–45% of the variance in all outcome measures; however, IMAT contributed between 8–15% of the variance in all four mobility variables, while lean explained only 5% variance in only one mobility measure. Conclusions. Thigh IMAT, a newly identified muscle impairment appears to be a potent muscle variable related to the ability of older adults to move about in their community. PMID:22500231

  7. Laterality of hand function in naturalistically housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Alison W; Weghorst, Jennifer A

    2005-05-01

    Studies of laterality of hand function in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have the potential to tell us about the origins of handedness in Homo sapiens. However, the data are confusing, with discrepancies present between studies done in the field and the laboratory: the former show wild chimpanzees to be unlateralised at the population level, while the latter show captive chimpanzees as lateralised at the population level. This study of 26 semi-free ranging chimpanzees of Chester Zoo, UK, aimed to investigate a situation between the wild and captivity and provided ethological data for 43 categories of spontaneous manual use and 14 categories of tool use. Other variables recorded were subordinate hand activity, whether the subject was arboreal or terrestrial, and the identity of the subject. Using switching focal subject sampling, 23,978 bouts of hand use and 1,090 bouts of tool use were recorded. No population-level handedness was present for manual non-tool use activities in the naturalistically housed chimpanzees of Chester Zoo in a similar way to studies of wild chimpanzees. However, about half of the individuals were lateralised to one side or the other for the foraging behaviours of pick up, eat, and pluck. Using a modified version of McGrew and Marchant's (1997) Laterality Framework, these results are comparable to some wild and captive populations for similar foraging tasks. Bimanuality was rare and thus prevented comparison with captive experimental studies that have reported population right handedness. Behaviour involving contact with water elicited stronger lateralisation. Chester chimpanzees were more likely to exhibit hand preferences for manual tasks with increasing age but there were no effects of sex or rearing history on hand specialisations in adult individuals. Lateralisation was biased in tool use, which evoked significant left hand preferences in half the individuals, with no effect of age. Results are discussed comparatively with reference to

  8. Metabolic Assessment of Suited Mobility Using Functional Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, J. R.; McFarland, S. M.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Existing methods for evaluating extravehicular activity (EVA) suit mobility have typically focused on isolated joint range of motion or torque, but these techniques have little to do with how well a crewmember functionally performs in an EVA suit. To evaluate suited mobility at the system level through measuring metabolic cost (MC) of functional tasks.

  9. Childbirth and Female Sexual Function Later in Life

    PubMed Central

    Fehniger, Julia E.; Brown, Jeanette S.; Creasman, Jennifer M.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Thom, David H.; Subak, Leslee L.; Huang, Alison J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine relationships between parity, mode of delivery, and other parturition-related factors with women's sexual function later in life. Methods Self-administered questionnaires examined sexual desire, activity, satisfaction, and problems in a multiethnic cohort of women aged 40 years and older with at least one past childbirth event. Trained abstractors obtained information on parity, mode of delivery, and other parturition-related factors from archived records. Multivariable regression models examined associations with sexual function, controlling for age, race or ethnicity, partner status, diabetes, and general health. Results Among 1,094 participants, mean (±SD) age was 56.3 (±8.7) years, 568 (43%) were racial or ethnic minorities (214 Black, 171 Asian, and 183 Latina), and 963 (88%) were multiparous. Fifty-six percent (n=601) reported low sexual desire ; 53% (n=577) reported less than monthly sexual activity, and 43% (n=399) reported low overall sexual satisfaction. Greater parity was not associated with increased risk of reporting low sexual desire (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.08, CI=0.96-1.21 per each birth), less than monthly sexual activity (AOR=1.05, CI=0.93-1.20 per each birth), or low sexual satisfaction (AOR=0.96, CI=0.85-1.09 per each birth). Compared to vaginal delivery alone, women with a history of cesarean delivery were not significantly more likely to report low desire (AOR=0.71, CI=0.34-1.47), less than monthly sexual activity (AOR=1.03, CI=0.46-2.32), or low sexual satisfaction (AOR=0.57, CI=0.26-1.22). Women with a history of operative-assisted delivery were more likely to report low desire (AOR=1.38, CI=1.04-1.83). Conclusions Among women with at least one childbirth event, parity and mode of delivery are not major determinants of sexual desire, activity, or satisfaction later in life. PMID:24104776

  10. Electrophysiological assessment of corticorespiratory pathway function in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Toshio; Komori, Tetsuo; Kugio, Yumiko; Fujimaki, Yumi; Oyanagi, Kiyomitsu; Hayashi, Hideaki

    2010-01-01

    Respiratory muscle paralysis is inevitable in the clinical course of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Our objective was to electrophysiologically assess the function of the phrenic nerve and diaphragm motor cortex in ALS. Phrenic nerve M waves, diaphragm motor evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation, and their clinical correlations were analyzed in 29 ALS patients. The M wave amplitude was significantly lower in patients than in healthy control subjects (p<0.001). The MEP amplitudes both in the expiratory and inspiratory phases were significantly decreased in patients (p<0.01). In particular, 15 patients showed no MEPs in the expiratory phase, six of whom also showed no MEPs in the inspiratory phase. Five of them had no respiratory complaints. There was a weak, non-significant correlation between the inspiratory MEP amplitude and forced vital capacity (p=0.052). We conclude that the loss of MEP might reflect the subclinical involvement of the voluntary respiratory drive from the diaphragm motor cortex, potentially leading to further respiratory deterioration. PMID:19707909

  11. IQ, Fetal Testosterone and Individual Variability in Children's Functional Lateralization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercure, Evelyne; Ashwin, Emma; Dick, Frederic; Halit, Hanife; Auyeung, Bonnie; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Johnson, Mark H.

    2009-01-01

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies have revealed that faces and words show a robust difference in the lateralization of their N170. The present study investigated the development of this differential lateralization in school-age boys. We assessed the potential role of fetal testosterone (FT) level as a factor biasing the prenatal…

  12. Correlation between mobility assessed by the Modified Rivermead Mobility Index and physical function in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gi-Tae; Kim, Mihyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between mobility assessed by the Modified Rivermead Mobility Index and variables associated with physical function in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred stroke patients (35 males and 65 females; age 58.60 ± 13.91 years) participated in this study. Modified Rivermead Mobility Index, muscle strength (manual muscle test), muscle tone (Modified Ashworth Scale), range of motion of lower extremity, sensory function (light touch and proprioception tests), and coordination (heel to shin and lower-extremity motor coordination tests) were assessed. [Results] The Modified Rivermead Mobility Index was correlated with all the physical function variables assessed, except the degree of knee extension. In addition, stepwise linear regression analysis revealed that coordination (heel to shin test) was the explanatory variable closely associated with mobility in stroke patients. [Conclusion] The Modified Rivermead Mobility Index score was significantly correlated with all the physical function variables. Coordination (heel to shin test) was closely related to mobility function. These results may be useful in developing rehabilitation programs for stroke patients.

  13. Fundamental analysis and algorithms for development of a mobile fast-scan lateral migration radiography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Zhong

    Lateral migration radiography (LMR) is a unique x-ray Compton backscatter imaging (CBI) technique to image surface and subsurface, or internal structure of an object. An x-ray pencil beam scans the interrogated area and the backscattered photons are registered by detectors which have varying degrees of collimation. In early LMR applications, either the LMR systems or the imaged objects are moved on a rectangular grid, and at each node, the systems register backscattered photon energy deposition as pixel intensity in acquired images. The mechanical movement of the system or objects from pixel to pixel causes prolonged image scan time with a high percentage of system dead time. To avoid this drawback, a particular x-ray beam formation technique is proposed and analyzed. A corresponding mobile, fast-scan LMR system is designed, fabricated and tested. The results show a two orders-of-magnitude reduction in image scan time compared with those of previous systems. The x-ray beam formation technique, based on a rotating collimator in the LMR system, implements surface line scan by sampling an x-ray fan beam. This rotating collimator yields unique imaging effects compared to those for an x-ray beam with fixed collimation and perpendicular incidence: (1) the speed of the x-ray beam spot on the scanned surface is not uniform; (2) constant movement of the x-ray beam spot changes the resolution in the image raster direction; (3) x-ray beam spot size changes with location on the scanned surface; (4) the object image shows a squeezed effect in the raster scan direction; (5) under a uniform background, the Compton scatter angular distribution causes the x-ray backscatter field to be stronger, when the x-ray beam has greater incidence angle; and (6) the x-ray illumination spot trace on the scanned surface is skewed. The physics generating these effects is analyzed with Monte Carlo computer simulations and/or measurements. Image acquisition and image processing algorithms are

  14. Lateral mobility of integrin alpha IIb beta 3 (glycoprotein IIb/IIIa) in the plasma membrane of a human megakaryocyte.

    PubMed

    Schootemeijer, A; van Willigen, G; van der Vuurst, H; Tertoolen, L G; De Laat, S W; Akkerman, J W

    1997-01-01

    The migration of integrins to sites of cell-cell and cell-matrix contact is thought to be important for adhesion strengthening. We studied the lateral diffusion of integrin alpha IIb beta 3 (glycoprotein IIb/IIIa) in the plasma membrane of a cultured human megakaryocyte by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching of FITC-labelled monovalent Fab fragments directed against the beta 3 subunit. The diffusion of beta 3 on the unstimulated megakaryocyte showed a lateral diffusion coefficient (D) of 0.37 x 10(-9) cm2/s and a mobile fraction of about 50%. Stimulation with ADP (20 microM) or alpha-thrombin (10 U/ml) at 22 degrees C induced transient decreases in both parameters reducing D to 0.21 x 10(-9) cm2/s and the mobile fraction to about 25%. The fall in D was observed within 1 min after stimulation but the fall in mobile fraction showed a lag phase of 5 min. The lag phase was absent in the presence of Calpain I inhibitor, where-as cytochalasin D completely abolished the decreased in mobile fraction. The data are compatible with the concept that cell activation induces anchorage of 50% of the mobile alpha IIb beta 3 (25% of the whole population of receptor) to the cytoplasmic actin filaments, although, as discussed, other rationals are not ruled out. PMID:9031465

  15. Aqueous-filled polymer microcavity arrays: versatile & stable lipid bilayer platforms offering high lateral mobility to incorporated membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Basit, Hajra; Gaul, Vinnie; Maher, Sean; Forster, Robert J; Keyes, Tia E

    2015-05-01

    A key prerequisite in an ideal supported lipid bilayer based cell membrane model is that the mobility of both the lipid matrix and its components are unhindered by the underlying support. This is not trivial and with the exception of liposomes, many of even the most advanced approaches, although accomplishing lipid mobility, fail to achieve complete mobility of incorporated membrane proteins. This is addressed in a novel platform comprising lipid bilayers assembled over buffer-filled, arrays of spherical cap microcavities formed from microsphere template polydimethoxysilane. Prior to bilayer assembly the PDMS is rendered hydrophilic by plasma treatment and the lipid bilayer prepared using Langmuir Blodgett assembly followed by liposome/proteoliposome fusion. Fluorescence Lifetime Correlation Spectroscopy confirmed the pore suspended lipid bilayer exhibits diffusion coefficients comparable to free-standing vesicles in solution. The bilayer modified arrays are highly reproducible and stable over days. As the bilayers are suspended over deep aqueous reservoirs, reconstituted membrane proteins experience an aqueous interface at both membrane interfaces and attain full lateral mobility. Their utility as membrane protein platforms was exemplified in two case studies with proteins of different dimensions in their extracellular and cytoplasmic domains reconstituted into DOPC lipid bilayers; Glycophorin A, and Integrin αIIbβ3. In both cases, the proteins exhibited 100% mobility with high lateral diffusion coefficients. PMID:25798456

  16. The comparison of anterior knee pain in severe and non severe arthritis of the lateral facet of the patella following a mobile bearing unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Pongcharoen, Boonchana; Reutiwarangkoon, Chaivet

    2016-01-01

    In the past, medial osteoarthritis (OA) knee with symptomatic patellofemoral (PF) arthritis has not been recommended for a unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). However, recent studies have reported that UKA has shown good results in patients with medial OA of the knee, including those with PF arthritis. The purpose of this study is to compare the results between patients with medial OA knees; those with severe arthritis of the lateral facet of the patella and patients without severe arthritis of the lateral facet of the patella following mobile bearing UKA. We have prospectively evaluated 104 patients (114 knees) who had undergone an Oxford mobile bearing UKA. The mean follow-up was 19.05 months (range 12.30-29.70 months). The patients were divided into two groups: group I consisted of eighty patients (88 knees) who did not have severe arthritis of the lateral facet (Outerbridge grade 0-2) and group II had twenty-four patients (26 knees) who had severe arthritis of the lateral facet (Outerbridge grade 3, 4). We recorded the incidence of anterior knee pain, knee scores, pain scores, and functional scores in comparison of the two groups. The visual analog scale (VAS) and incidence of post-operative anterior knee pain had not shown any significant differences. The VAS for post-operative anterior knee pain was 0.11 (SD 0.56, range 0-3 point) versus 0.12 (SD 0.59, range 0-3 point) for group I and group II patients, respectively (P = 0.98). The incidence of post-operative anterior knee pain was 4.5 versus 3.8 % for group I and group II patients, respectively (P = 0.88). The pain scores and functional scores had not exhibited any differences. However, the knee scores of patients with severe arthritis of the lateral facet of the patella was worse than those seen in patients without severe arthritis of the lateral facet of the patella with a statistical significance. It was scored as 96.78 (SD 4.56, range 85-100) versus 94.43 (SD 4.50, range 81-100) for group I

  17. Music reduces pain and increases functional mobility in fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Wilson, Andrew D.; Vase, Lene; Brattico, Elvira; Barrios, Fernando A.; Jensen, Troels S.; Romero-Romo, Juan I.; Vuust, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The pain in Fibromyalgia (FM) is difficult to treat and functional mobility seems to be an important comorbidity in these patients that could evolve into a disability. In this study we wanted to investigate the analgesic effects of music in FM pain. Twenty-two FM patients were passively exposed to (1) self-chosen, relaxing, pleasant music, and to (2) a control auditory condition (pink noise). They rated pain and performed the “timed-up & go task (TUG)” to measure functional mobility after each auditory condition. Listening to relaxing, pleasant, self-chosen music reduced pain and increased functional mobility significantly in our FM patients. The music-induced analgesia was significantly correlated with the TUG scores; thereby suggesting that the reduction in pain unpleasantness increased functional mobility. Notably, this mobility improvement was obtained with music played prior to the motor task (not during), therefore the effect cannot be explained merely by motor entrainment to a fast rhythm. Cognitive and emotional mechanisms seem to be central to music-induced analgesia. Our findings encourage the use of music as a treatment adjuvant to reduce chronic pain in FM and increase functional mobility thereby reducing the risk of disability. PMID:24575066

  18. Music reduces pain and increases functional mobility in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A; Wilson, Andrew D; Vase, Lene; Brattico, Elvira; Barrios, Fernando A; Jensen, Troels S; Romero-Romo, Juan I; Vuust, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The pain in Fibromyalgia (FM) is difficult to treat and functional mobility seems to be an important comorbidity in these patients that could evolve into a disability. In this study we wanted to investigate the analgesic effects of music in FM pain. Twenty-two FM patients were passively exposed to (1) self-chosen, relaxing, pleasant music, and to (2) a control auditory condition (pink noise). They rated pain and performed the "timed-up & go task (TUG)" to measure functional mobility after each auditory condition. Listening to relaxing, pleasant, self-chosen music reduced pain and increased functional mobility significantly in our FM patients. The music-induced analgesia was significantly correlated with the TUG scores; thereby suggesting that the reduction in pain unpleasantness increased functional mobility. Notably, this mobility improvement was obtained with music played prior to the motor task (not during), therefore the effect cannot be explained merely by motor entrainment to a fast rhythm. Cognitive and emotional mechanisms seem to be central to music-induced analgesia. Our findings encourage the use of music as a treatment adjuvant to reduce chronic pain in FM and increase functional mobility thereby reducing the risk of disability. PMID:24575066

  19. Manatee vibrissae: evidence for a "lateral line" function.

    PubMed

    Reep, Roger L; Gaspard, Joseph C; Sarko, Diana; Rice, Frank L; Mann, David A; Bauer, Gordon B

    2011-04-01

    Aquatic mammals use vibrissae to detect hydrodynamic stimuli over a range from 5 to 150 Hz, similar to the range detected by lateral line systems in fishes and amphibians. Manatees possess ∼5,300 vibrissae distributed over the body, innervated by ∼209,000 axons. This extensive innervation devoted to vibrissae follicles is reflected in enlarged, elaborate somatosensory regions of the gracile, cuneate, and Bischoff's brain-stem nuclei, ventrobasal thalamus, and presumptive somatosensory cortex. Our preliminary psychophysical testing indicates that in Florida and Antillean manatees the Weber fraction for detection thresholds for grating textures ranges from 0.025 to 0.14. At the lower end of this range, sensitivity is comparable to human index finger thresholds. For hydrodynamic stimuli of 5-150 Hz, detection threshold levels for manatees using facial or postfacial vibrissae were substantially lower than those reported for harbor seals and similar to reports of sensitivity for the lateral line systems of some fish. Our findings suggest that the facial and postfacial vibrissae are used to detect hydrodynamic stimuli, whereas only the facial vibrissae are used for direct contact investigation. PMID:21534997

  20. A Lateralization of Function Approach to Sex Differences in Spatial Ability: A Reexamination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rilea, Stacy L.

    2008-01-01

    The current study assessed the lateralization of function hypothesis (Rilea, S. L., Roskos-Ewoldsen, B., & Boles, D. (2004). "Sex differences in spatial ability: A lateralization of function approach." "Brain and Cognition," 56, 332-343) which suggested that it was the interaction of brain organization and the type of spatial task that led to sex…

  1. Formation and function of Vibrio parahaemolyticus lateral flagella.

    PubMed Central

    Shinoda, S; Okamoto, K

    1977-01-01

    Formation of the lateral flagella (L-flagella) of Vibrio parahaemolyticus was studied immunologically, using specific antiserum against L-flagella. On solid medium, L-flagella were formed at both high (37 degrees C) and low (25 degrees C) temperatures, although at high temperatures they became dissociated from the cells and decomposed in the medium. L-flagella were not formed in liquid or soft-agar medium. Formation of L-flagella was decreased by lowering the pH of the medium and repressed by transferring the cells from solid medium to liquid medium. Mutants possessing L-flagella but not a polar monotrichous flagellum (M-flagellum) swarmed on solid medium, whereas mutants were grown on solid medium and then transfered to liquid medium, the cells oscillated until they lost L-flagella. It is postulated that L-flagella are locomotive organelles on solid medium and in some cases also in liquid medium, whereas M-flagella are locomotive organelles only in liquid medium. PMID:845115

  2. Socioeconomic factors from midlife predict mobility limitation and depressed mood three decades later; Findings from the AGES-Reykjavik Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Taking into account our rapidly ageing population, older people are of particular interest in studying health inequalities. Most studies of older persons only include measures of current socioeconomic status (SES) and do not take into account data from earlier stages of life. In addition, only classic SES measures are used, while alternative measures, such as car ownership and house ownership, might equally well predict health. The present study aims to examine the effect of midlife socioeconomic factors on mobility limitation and depressed mood three decades later. Methods Data were from 4,809 men and women aged 33–65 years who participated in the Reykjavik Study (1967–1992) and who were re-examined in old age in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES) -Reykjavik Study (2002–2006). Results Education and occupation predicted mobility limitation and depressed mood. Independently, home and car ownership and the availability of housing features predicted mobility limitation. Shortages of food in childhood and lack of a car in midlife predicted depressed mood. Conclusion Socioeconomic factors from midlife and from childhood affect mobility limitation and depressed mood in old age. Prevention of health problems in old age should begin as early as midlife. PMID:23379351

  3. Moving the Nest: The Impact of Coresidential Children on Mobility in Later Midlife

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bures, Regina M.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the 1992-2000 waves of the Health and Retirement Study, this article examines the relationship between the presence and age of children in the home and parental mobility in midlife. Although a substantial literature evaluates the factors affecting the timing of children leaving (and returning) home, less attention has been paid to…

  4. Hypothermic lung preservation functions, six or more years later.

    PubMed Central

    Garzon, A A; Goldstein, S; Okadigwe, C I; Paley, N B; Minkowitz, S

    1977-01-01

    The functions of each lung were measured 41 and 79 months following hypothermic twenty-four four lung preservation and autotransplantation in six and four dogs respectively. Functional results were compared with long-term autotransplanted canine lungs. Compliance, total lung capacity, functional reserve capacity and ventilation of preserved lungs were similar to autotransplanted lungs, and only slightly decreased as compared with normal animals. There was no statistically significant difference between the pulmonary diffusion capacity and oxygen uptake of the preserved and autotransplanted lungs group and autotransplants alone. However, in both groups, diffusion capacity and oxygen uptake were decreased as compared with intact animals. Pulmonary hypertension was found on occlusion of the contralateral lung's artery: it was due to increased pulmonary vascular resistance. No gross narrowing of the pulmonary artery or venous anastomosis was found that could explain the increased resistance. Diffuse emphysema of various degrees was observed in all animals. This study seems to indicate that hypothermic preservation of the lung does not affect significantly the long-term functional ability of the organ, and probably will have practical value in future clinical lung transplantation. Images Fig. 1. PMID:341822

  5. Lateral and Rotational Mobilities of Lipids in Specific Cellular Membranes of Eucalyptus gunnii Cultivars Exhibiting Different Freezing Tolerance 1

    PubMed Central

    Leborgne, Nathalie; Dupou-Cézanne, Laurence; Teulières, Chantal; Canut, Hervé; Tocanne, Jean-François; Boudet, Alain M.

    1992-01-01

    Two cell lines of Eucalyptus gunnii have been shown to keep their differential frost tolerance at the cellular level after long-term culture. They have been used to investigate the fluidity of specific cell membranes in relation with frost tolerance. Protoplasts and isolated vacuoles were obtained from both cell lines. In addition, purified plasma membrane and tonoplast (the vacuolar membrane) were separated from a crude microsomal fraction through free-flow electrophoresis. The lateral and rotational mobilities of lipids in these different membranes were studied by two biophysical techniques: fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and fluorescence polarization. After labeling the vacuoles isolated from the frost-sensitive cells with 1-oleoyl-2-(7-nitro-2,1,3-benz-oxadiazol-4-yl)aminocaproyl phosphatidylcholine, a single mobile component was observed with a diffusion coefficient of 2.4 × 10−9 cm2 s−1 and a mobile fraction close to 100% at a temperature of 23°C. When using isolated vacuoles from the frost tolerant line, a higher lateral diffusion of tonoplast lipids was found with a diffusion coefficient of 3.2 × 10−9 cm2 s−1, still with a mobile fraction close to 100%. No convincing data were obtained when performing fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments on protoplasts. Fluorescence polarization experiments confirmed the differential behavior of the two cell lines for tonoplast and also for plasma membrane. In addition, they showed that intrinsically tonoplast exhibited a higher fluidity than plasma membrane. Our results provide the first information on the fluidity of tonoplast and on the compared properties of two important plant membranes—tonoplast and plasma membrane—through the use of two complementary biophysical approaches. In addition, they suggest there is a correlation between membrane fluidity and cold tolerance. The potential interest of plant vacuole as a natural model system in membrane studies is emphasized

  6. Network structure of functional hippocampal lateralization in birds.

    PubMed

    Jonckers, Elisabeth; Güntürkün, Onur; De Groof, Geert; Van der Linden, Annemie; Bingman, Verner P

    2015-11-01

    Functional hemispheric asymmetry is a common feature of vertebrate brain organization, yet little is known about how hemispheric dominance is implemented at the neural level. One notable example of hemispheric dominance in birds is the leading role of the left hippocampal formation in controlling navigational processes that support homing in pigeons. Relying on resting state fMRI analyses (where Functional connectivity (FC) can be determined by placing a reference 'seed' for connectivity in one hemisphere), we show that following seeding in either an anterior or posterior region of the hippocampal formation of homing pigeons and starlings, the emergent FC maps are consistently larger following seeding of the left hippocampus. Left seedings are also more likely to result in FC maps that extend to the contralateral hippocampus and outside the boundaries of the hippocampus. The data support the hypothesis that broader FC is one neural-organizational property that confers, with respect to navigation, functional dominance to the left hippocampus of birds. PMID:25821141

  7. Impaired proteasome function in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kabashi, Edor; Agar, Jeffrey N; Strong, Michael J; Durham, Heather D

    2012-06-01

    Abstract The ubiquitin-proteasome system, important for maintaining protein quality control, is compromised in experimental models of familial ALS. The objective of this study was to determine if proteasome function is impaired in sporadic ALS. Proteasomal activities and subunit composition were evaluated in homogenates of spinal cord samples obtained at autopsy from sporadic ALS and non-neurological control cases, compared to cerebellum as a clinically spared tissue. The level of 20S α structural proteasome subunits was assessed in motor neurons by immunohistochemistry. Catalysis of peptide substrates of the three major proteasomal activities was substantially reduced in ALS thoracic spinal cord, but not in cerebellum, accompanied by alterations in the constitutive proteasome machinery. Chymotrypsin-like activity was decreased to 60% and 65% of control in ventral and dorsal spinal cord, respectively, concomitant with reduction in the β5 subunit with this catalytic activity. Caspase- and trypsin-like activities were reduced to a similar extent (46% - 68% of control). Proteasome levels, although generally maintained, appeared reduced specifically in motor neurons by immunolabelling. In conclusion, there are commonalities of findings in sporadic ALS patients and presymptomatic SOD1-G93A transgenic mice and these implicate inadequate proteasome function in the pathogenesis of both familial and sporadic ALS. PMID:22632443

  8. Ovarian function, reproduction, and later operations following adnexal surgery.

    PubMed

    Ranney, B; Chastain, D

    1978-05-01

    Among 3102 patients who had major gynecologic operations, only 223 (7.18%) needed adnexal operations during which reproductive potential was preserved. Operations involved ovaries (156), tubes (55), and embryologic cysts (32). After recovery 53.69% of these patients had viable babies (64.46% of patients under age 30). Patients were examined up to 28 years after operations, an average 11.32 years. When last examined. most patients still retained physiologic evidence of ovarian hormonal function; 20 patients had passed through spontaneous menopause, at an average age of 49.4 years. Fifty-two patients needed subsequent pelvic operations, but only 7 for possibly related conditions (4 repeat tubal pregnancies and 3 cyst-adenomas). All but one twisted adnexal mass, with gangrene, originated as a paramesonephric duct cyst. Seventeen adnexal operations were associated with pregnancy: 15 mothers had healthy babies, and 2 aborted. Details concerning numbers and characteristics of specific lesions are included in the paper. PMID:652198

  9. Study of the influence of the laterality of mobile phone use on the SAR induced in two head models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanmi, Amal; Varsier, Nadège; Hadjem, Abdelhamid; Conil, Emmanuelle; Picon, Odile; Wiart, Joe

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate and to analyse the influence of the laterality of mobile phone use on the exposure of the brain to radio-frequencies (RF) and electromagnetic fields (EMF) from different mobile phone models using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The study focuses on the comparison of the specific absorption rate (SAR) induced on the right and left sides of two numerical adult and child head models. The heads are exposed by both phone models operating in GSM frequency bands for both ipsilateral and contralateral configurations. A slight SAR difference between the two sides of the heads is noted. The results show that the variation between the left and the right sides is more important at 1800 MHz for an ipsilateral use. Indeed, at this frequency, the variation can even reach 20% for the SAR10g and the SAR1g induced in the head and in the brain, respectively. Moreover, the average SAR induced by the mobile phone in the half hemisphere of the brain in ipsilateral exposure is higher than in contralateral exposure. Owing to the superficial character of energy deposition at 1800 MHz, this difference in the SAR induced for the ipsilateral and contralateral usages is more significant at 1800 MHz than at 900 MHz. The results have shown that depending on the phantom head models, the SAR distribution in the brain can vary because of differences in anatomical proportions and in the geometry of the head models. The induced SAR in child head and in sub-regions of the brain is significantly higher (up to 30%) compared to the adult head. This paper confirms also that the shape/design of the mobile and the location of the antenna can have a large influence at high frequency on the exposure of the brain, particularly on the SAR distribution and on the distinguished brain regions.

  10. Abnormal Functional Lateralization and Activity of Language Brain Areas in Typical Specific Language Impairment (Developmental Dysphasia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guibert, Clement; Maumet, Camille; Jannin, Pierre; Ferre, Jean-Christophe; Treguier, Catherine; Barillot, Christian; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Allaire, Catherine; Biraben, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Atypical functional lateralization and specialization for language have been proposed to account for developmental language disorders, yet results from functional neuroimaging studies are sparse and inconsistent. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared children with a specific subtype of specific language impairment affecting…

  11. EEG and functional ultrasound imaging in mobile rats

    PubMed Central

    Sieu, Lim-Anna; Bergel, Antoine; Tiran, Elodie; Deffieux, Thomas; Pernot, Mathieu; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickaël; Cohen, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    We developed an integrated experimental framework which extends the brain exploration capabilities of functional ultrasound imaging to awake/mobile animals. In addition to hemodynamic data, this method further allows parallel access to EEG recordings of neuronal activity. This approach is illustrated with two proofs of concept: first, a behavioral study, concerning theta rhythm activation in a maze running task and, second, a disease-related study concerning spontaneous epileptic seizures. PMID:26237228

  12. Herbivorous fishes, ecosystem function and mobile links on coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, J. Q.; Bellwood, D. R.

    2014-06-01

    Understanding large-scale movement of ecologically important taxa is key to both species and ecosystem management. Those species responsible for maintaining functional connectivity between habitats are often called mobile links and are regarded as essential elements of resilience. By providing connectivity, they support resilience across spatial scales. Most marine organisms, including fishes, have long-term, biogeographic-scale connectivity through larval movement. Although most reef species are highly site attached after larval settlement, some taxa may also be able to provide rapid, reef-scale connectivity as adults. On coral reefs, the identity of such taxa and the extent of their mobility are not yet known. We use acoustic telemetry to monitor the movements of Kyphosus vaigiensis, one of the few reef fishes that feeds on adult brown macroalgae. Unlike other benthic herbivorous fish species, it also exhibits large-scale (>2 km) movements. Individual K. vaigiensis cover, on average, a 2.5 km length of reef (11 km maximum) each day. These large-scale movements suggest that this species may act as a mobile link, providing functional connectivity, should the need arise, and helping to support functional processes across habitats and spatial scales. An analysis of published studies of home ranges in reef fishes found a consistent relationship between home range size and body length. K. vaigiensis is the sole herbivore to depart significantly from the expected home range-body size relationship, with home range sizes more comparable to exceptionally mobile large pelagic predators rather than other reef herbivores. While the large-scale movements of K. vaigiensis reveal its potential capacity to enhance resilience over large areas, it also emphasizes the potential limitations of small marine reserves to protect some herbivore populations.

  13. Functional dissociation between lateral and medial entorhinal cortex in memory processes in mice.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, M; Destrade, C; Soumireu-Mourat, B

    1983-07-01

    The effects of lesions of the medial or the lateral entorhinal cortex in mice were examined on acquisition, retention and extinction of an operant-conditioning task in a Skinner box. Compared with the control animals, lesions in the medial entorhinal had no behavioral effects whereas lesions in the lateral entorhinal enhanced retention and increased resistance to extinction but did not change acquisition of this task. These results suggest a functional dissociation between the two parts of the entorhinal cortex. PMID:6882517

  14. Extraction of the lateral incisors to treat maxillary protrusion: quantitative evaluation of the stomatognathic functions.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Yoshihito; Kuroda, Shingo; Sumiyoshi, Kumi; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Yamashiro, Takashi

    2013-03-01

    To treat morphological abnormalities, impaction, and severe malposition of the teeth, the lateral incisors are sometimes extracted, followed by orthodontic space closure. This procedure often requires special consideration, not only with regard to esthetics but also for functional issues. However, thus far, few reports that have performed a functional evaluation in such cases. The purpose of this article is to report the successful treatment of an adult patient with a Class II division 1 malocclusion who was treated with extraction of the upper lateral incisors. The female patient, aged 23 years and 6 months, had a chief complaint of maxillary incisal protrusion and crooked teeth. In this patient, the upper lateral incisors were extracted to fulfill the patient's strong request, followed by orthodontic treatment using edgewise appliances. A high-pull J-hook headgear on the lower dental arch was used to prevent further labial inclination of the lower incisors. The total active treatment period was 37 months. The resulting occlusion and a satisfactory facial profile were maintained during a 4-year retention period. Additionally, this treatment did not affect the stomatognathic functions as assessed by the following criteria: range of the incisal path or condylar motion during maximal open-close movement, protrusive excursion, lateral excursion, and the chewing test. In conclusion, extraction of the upper lateral incisors can be an effective treatment choice when the upper lateral incisors are dwarfed, are nonvital, or demonstrate severe malposition. PMID:22908948

  15. Excimer fluorescence compared to depolarization in the flow cytometric characterization of lateral membrane mobility in platelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothe, Gregor; Schaefer, Buerk; Wimmer, Martin S.; Schmitz, Gerd

    1998-04-01

    An altered cellular membrane fluidity secondary to changes of cholesterol metabolism is a potentially important mechanism in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Especially in blood platelets an increased sensitivity for stimulation dependent aggregation which is a risk factor for thrombosis has been experimentally linked to disorders of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. The goal of this study was the development of a flow cytometric assay for the direct analysis of cellular membrane microviscosity in correlation to activation associated phenotypic changes of platelets in vitro. The analysis of fluorescence polarization following the staining of hydrophobic lipid regions of cell membranes with the fluorescent dye 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) is a well established method for the analysis of membrane fluidity. The extent of fluorescence anisotropy dependent on the rotational mobility of this fluorochrome is indirectly proportional to the microviscosity of the stained membrane subcompartment. In this study, an alternative and more simple method based on the diffusion dependent excimer formation of pyrenedecanoic acid (PDA) (J. Immunol. Methods 96:225-31, 1987) was characterized in comparison to the DPH method as a reference. Human platelets showed a rapid uptake of both DPH and PDA resulting in the staining primarily of the plasma membrane after up to 30 min of incubation. Staining analyzed at 351 nm excitation resulted in a saturation of the depolarization coefficient of DPH at 20 (mu) M but an increase of the excimer to monomer ratio of PDA with increasing dye concentration. A 'membrane fluidity coefficient' which saturated at 5 (mu) M PDA was calculated as the excimer fluorescence divided through the square of monomer fluorescence thereby correcting for the influence of dye concentration on excimer formation. The temperature dependent changes of membrane viscosity were further used as a model for the comparison of both methods. Cells analyzed at temperatures

  16. Mobile phone emission modulates interhemispheric functional coupling of EEG alpha rhythms.

    PubMed

    Vecchio, Fabrizio; Babiloni, Claudio; Ferreri, Florinda; Curcio, Giuseppe; Fini, Rita; Del Percio, Claudio; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2007-03-01

    We tested the working hypothesis that electromagnetic fields from mobile phones (EMFs) affect interhemispheric synchronization of cerebral rhythms, an important physiological feature of information transfer into the brain. Ten subjects underwent two electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings, separated by 1 week, following a crossover double-blind paradigm in which they were exposed to a mobile phone signal (global system for mobile communications; GSM). The mobile phone was held on the left side of the subject head by a modified helmet, and orientated in the normal position for use over the ear. The microphone was orientated towards the corner of the mouth, and the antenna was near the head in the parietotemporal area. In addition, we positioned another similar phone (but without battery) on the right side of the helmet, to balance the weight and to prevent the subject localizing the side of GSM stimulation (and consequently lateralizing attention). In one session the exposure was real (GSM) while in the other it was Sham; both sessions lasted 45 min. Functional interhemispheric connectivity was modelled using the analysis of EEG spectral coherence between frontal, central and parietal electrode pairs. Individual EEG rhythms of interest were delta (about 2-4 Hz), theta (about 4-6 Hz), alpha 1 (about 6-8 Hz), alpha 2 (about 8-10 Hz) and alpha 3 (about 10-12 Hz). Results showed that, compared to Sham stimulation, GSM stimulation modulated the interhemispheric frontal and temporal coherence at alpha 2 and alpha 3 bands. The present results suggest that prolonged mobile phone emission affects not only the cortical activity but also the spread of neural synchronization conveyed by interhemispherical functional coupling of EEG rhythms. PMID:17432975

  17. 47 CFR 22.575 - Use of mobile channel for remote control of station functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of mobile channel for remote control of...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Paging and Radiotelephone Service One-Way Or Two-Way Mobile Operation § 22.575 Use of mobile channel for remote control of station functions. Carriers...

  18. 47 CFR 22.575 - Use of mobile channel for remote control of station functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of mobile channel for remote control of...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Paging and Radiotelephone Service One-Way Or Two-Way Mobile Operation § 22.575 Use of mobile channel for remote control of station functions. Carriers...

  19. Form and Function of the Nasal Tip: Reorienting and Reshaping the Lateral Crus.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Grant S

    2016-02-01

    Dysfunction of the external nasal valve affects both the form and function of the nose. Successful treatment of these problems is dependent on proper analysis and diagnosis of the aberrant anatomy. Cephalic malpositioning of the lateral crura has been described for nearly 30 years. Repositioning of the lateral crura in a more caudal orientation with lateral crural strut grafts will correct aesthetic abnormalities and reinforce the external nasal valve. Sagittal malpositioning has been more recently described and also has deleterious effects on both the shape of the nasal tip and breathing. Reorienting the short axis of the lateral crus is another powerful tool for the rhinoplasty surgeon to correct the weak and narrow external nasal valve. PMID:26862964

  20. Visual hierarchical processing and lateralization of cognitive functions through domestic chicks' eyes.

    PubMed

    Chiandetti, Cinzia; Pecchia, Tommaso; Patt, Francesco; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Hierarchical stimuli have proven effective for investigating principles of visual organization in humans. A large body of evidence suggests that the analysis of the global forms precedes the analysis of the local forms in our species. Studies on lateralization also indicate that analytic and holistic encoding strategies are separated between the two hemispheres of the brain. This raises the question of whether precedence effects may reflect the activation of lateralized functions within the brain. Non-human animals have perceptual organization and functional lateralization that are comparable to that of humans. Here we trained the domestic chick in a concurrent discrimination task involving hierarchical stimuli. Then, we evaluated the animals for analytic and holistic encoding strategies in a series of transformational tests by relying on a monocular occlusion technique. A local precedence emerged in both the left and the right hemisphere, adding further evidence in favour of analytic processing in non-human animals. PMID:24404163

  1. Visual Hierarchical Processing and Lateralization of Cognitive Functions through Domestic Chicks' Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Chiandetti, Cinzia; Pecchia, Tommaso; Patt, Francesco; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Hierarchical stimuli have proven effective for investigating principles of visual organization in humans. A large body of evidence suggests that the analysis of the global forms precedes the analysis of the local forms in our species. Studies on lateralization also indicate that analytic and holistic encoding strategies are separated between the two hemispheres of the brain. This raises the question of whether precedence effects may reflect the activation of lateralized functions within the brain. Non-human animals have perceptual organization and functional lateralization that are comparable to that of humans. Here we trained the domestic chick in a concurrent discrimination task involving hierarchical stimuli. Then, we evaluated the animals for analytic and holistic encoding strategies in a series of transformational tests by relying on a monocular occlusion technique. A local precedence emerged in both the left and the right hemisphere, adding further evidence in favour of analytic processing in non-human animals. PMID:24404163

  2. The Effect of the Modified Lateral Suprascapular Block on Shoulder Function in Patients With Chronic Shoulder Pain

    PubMed Central

    Dorn, Christian; Rumpold-Seitlinger, Gudrun; Farzi, Sylvia; Auer, Johann; Bornemann-Cimenti, Helmar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Suprascapular nerve block (SSNB) is commonly used in pain therapy for patients with chronic shoulder pain. The effect of SSNB on shoulder function has, however, not been investigated so far. If in shoulder function, i.e. the range of motion is increased after application of the nerve block, it can be expected that subsequent physiotherapy, besides being less painful, is also more effective in terms of restoring shoulder mobility. Objectives: Our aim was to evaluate the effect of SSNB on shoulder function, in patients with chronic shoulder pain. Patients and Methods: Patients were evaluated using the Constant-Murley Score (CMS) and number rating scale values for pain. The SSN was blocked using the Feigl approach, with 5 ml ropivacaine 0.5%. Shoulder function and pain were assessed 60 minutes and 24 hours after the block. Results: Totally, 20 patients completed the study. The CMS and pain scores significantly improved after the block. Conclusions: The use of the modified lateral SSNB of Feigl significantly reduces pain and increases shoulder function, in chronic shoulder pain. PMID:26705528

  3. Perception and Lateralization of Spoken Emotion by Youths with High-Functioning Forms of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Kimberly F.; Montgomery, Allen A.; Abramson, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    The perception and the cerebral lateralization of spoken emotions were investigated in children and adolescents with high-functioning forms of autism (HFFA), and age-matched typically developing controls (TDC). A dichotic listening task using nonsense passages was used to investigate the recognition of four emotions: happiness, sadness, anger, and…

  4. Schizotypal Personality Traits and Atypical Lateralization in Motor and Language Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asai, Tomohisa; Sugimori, Eriko; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-01

    Atypical cerebral lateralization in motor and language functions in regard to schizotypal personality traits in healthy populations, as well as among schizophrenic patients, has attracted attention because these traits may represent a risk factor for schizophrenia. Although the relationship between handedness and schizotypal personality has been…

  5. Effects of structural characterizations on fragility functions of bridges subject to seismic shaking and lateral spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian; Huo, Yili; Brandenberg, Scott J.; Kashighandi, Pirooz

    2008-12-01

    This paper evaluates the seismic vulnerability of different classes of typical bridges in California when subjected to seismic shaking or liquefaction-induced lateral spreading. The detailed structural configurations in terms of superstructure type, connection, continuity at support and foundation type, etc. render different damage resistant capability. Six classes of bridges are established based on their anticipated failure mechanisms under earthquake shaking. The numerical models that are capable of simulating the complex soil-structure interaction effects, nonlinear behavior of columns and connections are developed for each bridge class. The dynamic responses are obtained using nonlinear time history analyses for a suite of 250 earthquake motions with increasing intensity. An equivalent static analysis procedure is also implemented to evaluate the vulnerability of the bridges when subjected to liquefaction-induced lateral spreading. Fragility functions for each bridge class are derived and compared for both seismic shaking (based on nonlinear dynamic analyses) and lateral spreading (based on equivalent static analyses) for different performance states. The study finds that the fragility functions due to either ground shaking or lateral spreading show significant correlation with the structural characterizations, but differences emerge for ground shaking and lateral spreading conditions. Structural properties that will mostly affect the bridges’ damage resistant capacity are also identified.

  6. Development and field testing of a mobile backscatter x-ray lateral migration radiography land mine detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugan, Edward T.; Jacobs, Alan M.; Su, Zhong; Houssay, Laurent; Ekdahl, Dan; Brygoo, Stephanie

    2002-08-01

    Lateral migration radiography (LMR), a new form of Compton backscatter x-ray imaging, is applied to the detection and identification of buried land mines. A mobile LMR land mine detection system was developed and field tested. Weight for this initial system was about 175 kg; weight for a prototype should be about 100 kg. X-ray generator power level was 750 watts; the power level requirement for a prototype should be about 300 watts. An innovative rotating collimator for the x-ray source beam was developed to provide rapid side-to-side scanning of the beam without having to move the x-ray generator in this direction. Acquisition of images of a 40 cm by 40 cm area takes from 30 to 60 seconds, depending on the desired resolution. The imaging capabilities of LMR make it well suited for use as a land mine detection confirmation sensor. This system was employed on the vehicular test lanes at Fort A.P. Hill in October, 2001. High quality images were obtained for a variety of buried land mines. The system was also used to scan 30 locations on one of the test lanes where GPR consistently yielded false alarms. In only two cases did the LMR image sets yield a signature that could be considered to possibly indicate a mine.

  7. p53 genes function to restrain mobile elements

    PubMed Central

    Wylie, Annika; Jones, Amanda E.; D'Brot, Alejandro; Lu, Wan-Jin; Kurtz, Paula; Moran, John V.; Rakheja, Dinesh; Chen, Kenneth S.; Hammer, Robert E.; Comerford, Sarah A.; Amatruda, James F.; Abrams, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the animal kingdom, p53 genes govern stress response networks by specifying adaptive transcriptional responses. The human member of this gene family is mutated in most cancers, but precisely how p53 functions to mediate tumor suppression is not well understood. Using Drosophila and zebrafish models, we show that p53 restricts retrotransposon activity and genetically interacts with components of the piRNA (piwi-interacting RNA) pathway. Furthermore, transposon eruptions occurring in the p53− germline were incited by meiotic recombination, and transcripts produced from these mobile elements accumulated in the germ plasm. In gene complementation studies, normal human p53 alleles suppressed transposons, but mutant p53 alleles from cancer patients could not. Consistent with these observations, we also found patterns of unrestrained retrotransposons in p53-driven mouse and human cancers. Furthermore, p53 status correlated with repressive chromatin marks in the 5′ sequence of a synthetic LINE-1 element. Together, these observations indicate that ancestral functions of p53 operate through conserved mechanisms to contain retrotransposons. Since human p53 mutants are disabled for this activity, our findings raise the possibility that p53 mitigates oncogenic disease in part by restricting transposon mobility. PMID:26701264

  8. p53 genes function to restrain mobile elements.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Annika; Jones, Amanda E; D'Brot, Alejandro; Lu, Wan-Jin; Kurtz, Paula; Moran, John V; Rakheja, Dinesh; Chen, Kenneth S; Hammer, Robert E; Comerford, Sarah A; Amatruda, James F; Abrams, John M

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the animal kingdom, p53 genes govern stress response networks by specifying adaptive transcriptional responses. The human member of this gene family is mutated in most cancers, but precisely how p53 functions to mediate tumor suppression is not well understood. Using Drosophila and zebrafish models, we show that p53 restricts retrotransposon activity and genetically interacts with components of the piRNA (piwi-interacting RNA) pathway. Furthermore, transposon eruptions occurring in the p53(-) germline were incited by meiotic recombination, and transcripts produced from these mobile elements accumulated in the germ plasm. In gene complementation studies, normal human p53 alleles suppressed transposons, but mutant p53 alleles from cancer patients could not. Consistent with these observations, we also found patterns of unrestrained retrotransposons in p53-driven mouse and human cancers. Furthermore, p53 status correlated with repressive chromatin marks in the 5' sequence of a synthetic LINE-1 element. Together, these observations indicate that ancestral functions of p53 operate through conserved mechanisms to contain retrotransposons. Since human p53 mutants are disabled for this activity, our findings raise the possibility that p53 mitigates oncogenic disease in part by restricting transposon mobility. PMID:26701264

  9. Brain activation to negative stimuli mediates a relationship between adolescent marijuana use and later emotional functioning.

    PubMed

    Heitzeg, Mary M; Cope, Lora M; Martz, Meghan E; Hardee, Jillian E; Zucker, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    This work investigated the impact of heavy marijuana use during adolescence on emotional functioning, as well as the brain functional mediators of this effect. Participants (n=40) were recruited from the Michigan Longitudinal Study (MLS). Data on marijuana use were collected prospectively beginning in childhood as part of the MLS. Participants were classified as heavy marijuana users (n=20) or controls with minimal marijuana use. Two facets of emotional functioning-negative emotionality and resiliency (a self-regulatory mechanism)-were assessed as part of the MLS at three time points: mean age 13.4, mean age 19.6, and mean age 23.1. Functional neuroimaging data during an emotion-arousal word task were collected at mean age 20.2. Negative emotionality decreased and resiliency increased across the three time points in controls but not heavy marijuana users. Compared with controls, heavy marijuana users had less activation to negative words in temporal, prefrontal, and occipital cortices, insula, and amygdala. Activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to negative words mediated an association between marijuana group and later negative emotionality. Activation of the cuneus/lingual gyrus mediated an association between marijuana group and later resiliency. Results support growing evidence that heavy marijuana use during adolescence affects later emotional outcomes. PMID:26403581

  10. Left hemispheric dominance of vestibular processing indicates lateralization of cortical functions in rats.

    PubMed

    Best, Christoph; Lange, Elena; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Reuss, Stefan; Dieterich, Marianne

    2014-11-01

    Lateralization of cortical functions such as speech dominance, handedness and processing of vestibular information are present not only in humans but also in ontogenetic older species, e.g. rats. In human functional imaging studies, the processing of vestibular information was found to be correlated with the hemispherical dominance as determined by the handedness. It is located mainly within the right hemisphere in right handers and within the left hemisphere in left handers. Since dominance of vestibular processing is unknown in animals, our aim was to study the lateralization of cortical processing in a functional imaging study applying small-animal positron emission tomography (microPET) and galvanic vestibular stimulation in an in vivo rat model. The cortical and subcortical network processing vestibular information could be demonstrated and correlated with data from other animal studies. By calculating a lateralization index as well as flipped region of interest analyses, we found that the vestibular processing in rats follows a strong left hemispheric dominance independent from the "handedness" of the animals. These findings support the idea of an early hemispheric specialization of vestibular cortical functions in ontogenetic older species. PMID:23979449

  11. Reduced laterality as a trait marker of schizophrenia--evidence from structural and functional neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Oertel, Viola; Knöchel, Christian; Rotarska-Jagiela, Anna; Schönmeyer, Ralf; Lindner, Michael; van de Ven, Vincent; Haenschel, Corinna; Uhlhaas, Peter; Maurer, Konrad; Linden, David E J

    2010-02-10

    Laterality is a characteristic principle of the organization of the brain systems for language, and reduced hemispheric asymmetry has been considered a risk factor for schizophrenia. Here we sought support for the risk factor hypothesis by investigating whether reduced asymmetry of temporal lobe structure and function is also present in unaffected relatives. Sixteen schizophrenia patients, 16 age-matched first-degree relatives, and 15 healthy controls underwent high-resolution three-dimensional anatomical imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging during auditory stimulation. Both the overall auditory cortex and planum temporale volumes and the lateralization to the left hemisphere were markedly reduced in patients. The decrease of lateralization correlated with increased severity of symptoms. In addition, both the overall functional activation in response to auditory stimulation and its asymmetry were reduced in the patients. Relatives had intermediate values between patients and controls on both structural and functional measures. This study provides added support for the idea that reduced hemispheric asymmetry is a biological risk factor for schizophrenia. PMID:20147555

  12. Measurements of water uptake of maize roots: the key function of lateral roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M. A.; Zarebanadkouki, M.; Kroener, E.; Kaestner, A.; Carminati, A.

    2014-12-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important crop worldwide. Despite its importance, there is limited information on the function of different root segments and root types of maize in extracting water from soils. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate locations of root water uptake in maize. We used neutron radiography to: 1) image the spatial distribution of maize roots in soil and 2) trace the transport of injected deuterated water (D2O) in soil and roots. Maizes were grown in aluminum containers (40×38×1 cm) filled with a sandy soil. When the plants were 16 days old, we injected D2O into selected soil regions containing primary, seminal and lateral roots. The experiments were performed during the day (transpiring plants) and night (not transpiring plants). The transport of D2O into roots was simulated using a new convection-diffusion numerical model of D2O transport into roots. By fitting the observed D2O transport we quantified the diffusional permeability and the water uptake of the different root segments. The maize root architecture consisted of a primary root, 4-5 seminal roots and many lateral roots connected to the primary and seminal roots. Laterals emerged from the proximal 15 cm of the primary and seminal roots. Water uptake occurred primarily in lateral roots. Lateral roots had the highest diffusional permeability (9.4×10-7), which was around six times higher that the diffusional permeability of the old seminal segments (1.4×10-7), and two times higher than the diffusional permeability of the young seminal segments (4.7×10-7). The radial flow of D2O into the lateral (6.7×10-5 ) was much higher than in the young seminal roots (1.1×10-12). The radial flow of D2O into the old seminal was negligible. We concluded that the function of the primary and seminal roots was to collect water from the lateral roots and transport it to the shoot. A maize root system with lateral roots branching from deep primary and seminal roots would be

  13. Functional mechanotransduction is required for cisplatin-induced hair cell death in the zebrafish lateral line.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andrew J; Hailey, Dale W; Stawicki, Tamara M; Wu, Patricia; Coffin, Allison B; Rubel, Edwin W; Raible, David W; Simon, Julian A; Ou, Henry C

    2013-03-01

    Cisplatin, one of the most commonly used anticancer drugs, is known to cause inner ear hair cell damage and hearing loss. Despite much investigation into mechanisms of cisplatin-induced hair cell death, little is known about the mechanism whereby cisplatin is selectively toxic to hair cells. Using hair cells of the zebrafish lateral line, we found that chemical inhibition of mechanotransduction with quinine and EGTA protected against cisplatin-induced hair cell death. Furthermore, we found that the zebrafish mutants mariner (myo7aa) and sputnik (cad23) that lack functional mechanotransduction were resistant to cisplatin-induced hair cell death. Using a fluorescent analog of cisplatin, we found that chemical or genetic inhibition of mechanotransduction prevented its uptake. These findings demonstrate that cisplatin-induced hair cell death is dependent on functional mechanotransduction in the zebrafish lateral line. PMID:23467357

  14. Functional mechanotransduction is required for cisplatin-induced hair cell death in the zebrafish lateral line

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Andrew J.; Hailey, Dale W.; Stawicki, Tamara M.; Wu, Patricia; Coffin, Allison B.; Rubel, Edwin W.; Raible, David W.; Simon, Julian A.; Ou, Henry C.

    2013-01-01

    Cisplatin, one of the most commonly used anti-cancer drugs, is known to cause inner ear hair cell damage and hearing loss. Despite much investigation into mechanisms of cisplatin-induced hair cell death, little is known about the mechanism whereby cisplatin is selectively toxic to hair cells. Using hair cells of the zebrafish lateral line, we found that chemical inhibition of mechanotransduction with quinine and EGTA protected against cisplatin-induced hair cell death. Furthermore, we found that the zebrafish mutants mariner (myo7aa) and sputnik (cad23) that lack functional mechanotransduction were resistant to cisplatin-induced hair cell death. Using a fluorescent analogue of cisplatin, we found that chemical or genetic inhibition of mechanotransduction prevented its uptake. These findings demonstrate that cisplatin-induced hair cell death is dependent on functional mechanotransduction in the zebrafish lateral line. PMID:23467357

  15. Habitual Physical Activity Levels are Associated with Performance in Measures of Physical Function and Mobility in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Morie, Marina; Reid, Kieran F.; Miciek, Renee; Lajevardi, Newsha; Choong, Karen; Krasnoff, Joanne B.; Storer, Thomas W.; Fielding, Roger A.; Bhasin, Shalender; LeBrasseur, Nathan K.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether objectively measured physical activity levels are associated with physical function and mobility in older men. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Academic research center. Participants Eighty-two community-dwelling men ≥ 65 years of age with self-reported mobility limitations were divided into a low activity and a high activity group based on the median average daily physical activity counts of the whole sample. Measurements Physical activity by triaxial accelerometers; physical function and mobility by the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), gait speed, stair climb time, and a lift and lower task; aerobic capacity by maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max); and leg press and chest press maximal strength and peak power. Results Older men with higher compared to lower physical activity levels demonstrated a > 1.4 point higher mean SPPB score and a 0.35 m/s faster walking speed. They also climbed a standard flight of stairs 1.85 sec faster and completed 60% more shelves in a lift and lower task (all p < 0.01). Muscle strength and power measures, however, were not significantly different between the low and high activity group. Correlation analyses and multiple linear regression models showed that physical activity is positively associated with all physical function and mobility measures, leg press strength, and VO2max. Conclusion Older men with higher physical activity levels demonstrate better physical function and mobility than less active peers. Moreover, in older men physical activity levels are predictive of performance in measures of physical function and mobility. Future work is needed to determine whether modifications in physical activity levels can improve or preserve physical performance in later-life. PMID:20738436

  16. Cognitive Functioning Predicts Driver Safety On Road-Tests 1 and 2 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Aksan, Nazan; Anderson, Steven W.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Johnson, Amy M.; Uc, Ergun Y.; Rizzo, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Our ability to predict aging related declines in driving performance from off-road assessments have clinical practice and social policy implications. OBJECTIVES 1) To describe longitudinal changes in mean-level and evaluate rank-order stability in potential predictors of driving safety (visual sensory, motor, visual attention, and cognitive functioning) and safety errors during an 18-mile on-road-drive-test among older adults. 2) To evaluate the relative predictive power of earlier visual sensory, motor, visual attention, and cognitive functioning on future safety errors controlling for earlier driving capacity. DESIGN A three-year longitudinal observational study; SETTING A large teaching hospital in the Mid-West; PARTICIPANTS 111 neurologically normal older adults (60 to 89 years at baseline); MEASUREMENTS Safety errors based on video review of a standard 18-mile on-road driving test served as the outcome measure. Comprehensive battery of tests on the predictor side included visual sensory functioning, motor functioning, cognitive functioning, and a measure of Useful Field of View. RESULTS Longitudinal changes in mean-levels of safety errors and cognitive functioning were small from year-to-year. Relative rank-order stability between consecutive assessments was moderate in overall safety errors, it was moderate to strong in visual attention and cognitive functioning. While prospective bivariate correlations ranged from fair to moderate between safety errors and predictors, only functioning in the cognitive domain predicted future driver performance one and two-years later in multivariate analyses. CONCLUSION Normative aging related declines in driver performance as assessed by on-road tests emerge slowly. The findings clearly demonstrated that even in the presence conservative controls, such as previous driving ability, age, visual sensory and motor functioning, cognitive functioning predicted future driving performance on-road one and two-years later

  17. Variations in subject pool as a function of earlier or later participation.

    PubMed

    Bernard, L

    2000-04-01

    Data were obtained from 113 participants in a university subject pool during a 16-wk. semester. Without knowing the purpose of the study, participants self-selected to participate earlier (Weeks 3 and 4: n = 63) or later (Weeks 15 or 16) n = 50). Variations in scores on the NEO Personality Inventory--Revised, the Crowne-Marlowe Social Desirability Scale, the General Expectancy of Success Scale, the Shipley Institute of Living Scale, self-reported SATs and GPAs, and a measure of academic self-efficacy as a function of earlier or later participation were examined. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that early participants differed significantly from later participants but not in predicted ways. Earlier participants scored higher on NEO PI-R Neuroticism; specifically men (n = 15) and women (n = 48) scored higher on Hostility, and women scored higher on Depression and Self-consciousness. An additional significant difference occurred for self-reported SAT Verbal scores for men, which were significantly higher for later participants. These temporal variations may represent confounds in research using university subject pools. PMID:10840925

  18. Integral functions of electron lateral distribution and their fluctuations in electron-photon cascades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanenko, I. P.; Kanevsky, B. L.; Kirillov, A. A.; Linde, I. A.; Lyutov, Y. G.

    1985-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulated lateral distribution functions for electrons of EPC developing in lead, at superhigh energies (.1-1 PeV) for depths t or = 60 c.u. delta t=1t. c.u. are presented. The higher moment characteristics, i.e., variation, asymmetry, excess, are presented along with analytical solutions for the same characteristics at fixed observation level calculated to theory approximations A and B by using numerical inversion of the Laplace transformation. The conclusion is made of a complex, usually non-Gaussian shape of the function of the particle number distribution within a circle of given radius at fixed depth.

  19. [Predominant occlusal function during lateral mandibular movements in the black African patient].

    PubMed

    Djeredou, K B; Kamagate, F S; Thiam, A; Pesson, D M; Bamba, I

    2002-12-01

    The research of the predominant occlusal function during mandibular movements of laterality at the topic African melanoderme, drove authors of this survey to: select 52 healthy topics (11 women and 41 men), aged of 22 to 33 years old observe and note at every topic the presence and the nature of contacts or their possible absence of the working side during the movement of deduction. Observations done as well directly in mouth, that on models put in semi-adaptable articulators, permitted to note that the function of posterior group is more the recovered so much at women that at men, at the young adults and at adults. PMID:12680132

  20. Tools and talk: an evolutionary perspective on the functional deficits associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Andrew; Turner, Martin R; Lemon, Roger

    2014-04-01

    We propose that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and frontotemporal dementia may be viewed as a failure of interlinked functional complexes having their origins in key evolutionary adaptations. We discuss how hand-arm function, locomotion, brainstem function (involving vocalization/speech, swallowing and breathing), and cognitive impairment share complex, interdependent evolutionary adaptations that can be traced back several million years. Fine movements of the hand facilitated tool-making and use enhanced by development of bipedalism. Development of the larynx and integration of respiratory control were central to vocalization, which when combined with gesture are intermediary to human language. These adaptations were accompanied by progressive encephalization, with development of Theory of Mind to facilitate socialization. The varied clinical phenotypes of ALS can thus be understood in the context of inter-related functional complexes that subserve "Tools and Talk"; they have a long evolutionary history and are related to specific developmental neural and gene networks. PMID:24273101

  1. Lateral Chain Length in Polyalkyl Acrylates Determines the Mobility of Fibronectin at the Cell/Material Interface

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cells, by interacting with surfaces indirectly through a layer of extracellular matrix proteins, can respond to a variety of physical properties, such as topography or stiffness. Polymer surface mobility is another physical property that is less well understood but has been indicated to hold the potential to modulate cell behavior. Polymer mobility is related to the glass-transition temperature (Tg) of the system, the point at which a polymer transitions from an amorphous solid to a more liquid-like state. This work shows that changes in polymer mobility translate to interfacial mobility of extracellular matrix proteins adsorbed on the material surface. This study has utilized a family of polyalkyl acrylates with similar chemistry but different degrees of mobility, obtained through increasing length of the side chain. These materials are used, in conjunction with fluorescent fibronectin, to determine the mobility of this interfacial layer of protein that constitutes the initial cell–material interface. Furthermore, the extent of fibronectin domain availability (III9, III10, - the integrin binding site), cell-mediated reorganization, and cell differentiation was also determined. A nonmonotonic dependence of fibronectin mobility on polymer surface mobility was observed, with a similar trend noted in cell-mediated reorganization of the protein layer by L929 fibroblasts. The availability of the integrin-binding site was higher on the more mobile surfaces, where a similar organization of the protein into networks at the material interface was observed. Finally, differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts was seen to be highly sensitive to surface mobility upon inhibition of cell contractility. Altogether, these findings show that polymer mobility is a subtle influence that translates to the cell/material interface through the protein layer to alter the biological activity of the surface. PMID:26715432

  2. Correlation between ambulatory function and clinical factors in hemiplegic patients with intact single lateral corticospinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ji Seong; Kim, Jong Moon; Kim, Hyoung Seop

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To define the relationship between the complete destruction of 1 lateral corticospinal tract (CST), as demonstrated by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography, and ambulatory function 6 months following stroke. Twenty-six adults (17 male, 9 female) with poststroke hemiplegia who were transferred to the physical medicine and rehabilitation department. Participants underwent DTI tractography, which showed that 1 lateral CST had been clearly destroyed. Functional ambulation classification (FAC) scores at admission, discharge, and 6 months after discharge were used to evaluate the patients’ ability to walk. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and the Korean version of the modified Barthel index (K-MBI) at admission, discharge, and 6 months after discharge were used to evaluate the degree of functional recovery. Of the 26 patients, 18 were nonambulatory (FAC level 1–3), and 8 were able to walk without support (FAC level 4–6). The type of stroke (infarction or hemorrhage), site of the lesion, spasticity of lower extremities, cranioplasty, and the time taken from onset to MRI were not statistically significantly correlated with the ability to walk. However, statistically significant correlations were found in relation to age, K-MBI scores, and initial NIHSS scores. Despite the complete damage to the lesion site and the preservation of 1 unilateral CST, as shown by DTI, good outcomes can be predicted on the basis of younger age, low NIHSS scores, and high MBI scores at onset. PMID:27495041

  3. Effects of Functional Mobility Skills Training for Adults with Severe Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whinnery, Stacie B.; Whinnery, Keith W.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a functional mobility program on the functional standing and walking skills of five adults with developmental disabilities. The Mobility Opportunities Via Education (MOVE) Curriculum was implemented using a multiple-baseline across subjects design. Repeated measures were taken during baseline, intervention…

  4. Effect of thoracic and cervical joint mobilization on pulmonary function in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sang-Hun; Bang, Hyun-Soo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to conduct thoracic and cervical mobilization in stroke patients and determine its effects on respiratory function. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-one stroke patients were studied. Subjects were divided into a control group (control group, n=11) who did not undergo thoracic and cervical joint mobilization, and an experimental group (thoracic and cervical mobilization group, n=10) who underwent thoracic and cervical joint mobilization. Forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in the first second, well-known indicators of respiratory capabilities, were measured. Peak cough flow was measured as an indicator of cough capability. [Results] After the exercise, respiratory function in the thoracic and cervical mobilization group showed statistically significant improvements demonstrated by increases in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in the first second, and peak cough flow. [Conclusion] The findings indicate that thoracic and cervical mobilization can improve the thoracic movements of stroke patients resulting in improved pulmonary function. PMID:26957769

  5. Thalamic functional connectivity predicts seizure laterality in individual TLE patients: Application of a biomarker development strategy

    PubMed Central

    Barron, Daniel S.; Fox, Peter T.; Pardoe, Heath; Lancaster, Jack; Price, Larry R.; Blackmon, Karen; Berry, Kristen; Cavazos, Jose E.; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Noninvasive markers of brain function could yield biomarkers in many neurological disorders. Disease models constrained by coordinate-based meta-analysis are likely to increase this yield. Here, we evaluate a thalamic model of temporal lobe epilepsy that we proposed in a coordinate-based meta-analysis and extended in a diffusion tractography study of an independent patient population. Specifically, we evaluated whether thalamic functional connectivity (resting-state fMRI-BOLD) with temporal lobe areas can predict seizure onset laterality, as established with intracranial EEG. Twenty-four lesional and non-lesional temporal lobe epilepsy patients were studied. No significant differences in functional connection strength in patient and control groups were observed with Mann-Whitney Tests (corrected for multiple comparisons). Notwithstanding the lack of group differences, individual patient difference scores (from control mean connection strength) successfully predicted seizure onset zone as shown in ROC curves: discriminant analysis (two-dimensional) predicted seizure onset zone with 85% sensitivity and 91% specificity; logistic regression (four-dimensional) achieved 86% sensitivity and 100% specificity. The strongest markers in both analyses were left thalamo-hippocampal and right thalamo-entorhinal cortex functional connection strength. Thus, this study shows that thalamic functional connections are sensitive and specific markers of seizure onset laterality in individual temporal lobe epilepsy patients. This study also advances an overall strategy for the programmatic development of neuroimaging biomarkers in clinical and genetic populations: a disease model informed by coordinate-based meta-analysis was used to anatomically constrain individual patient analyses. PMID:25610790

  6. Functional neuroimaging findings in patients with lateral and mesio-lateral temporal lobe epilepsy; FDG-PET and ictal SPECT studies.

    PubMed

    Joo, Eun Yeon; Seo, Dae Won; Hong, Seung-Chyul; Hong, Seung Bong

    2015-05-01

    The differentiation of combined mesial and lateral temporal onset of seizures (mesio-lateral TLE, MLTLE) from lateral TLE (LTLE) is critical to achieve good surgical outcomes. However, the functional neuroimaging features in LTLE patients based on the ictal onset zone utilizing intracranial EEG (iEEG) in a large series have not been investigated. We enrolled patients diagnosed with MLTLE (n = 35) and LTLE (n = 53) based on the site of ictal onset zone from iEEG monitoring. MLTLE is defined when ictal discharges originate from the mesial and lateral temporal cortices independently, whereas seizures of LTLE arise exclusively from the lateral temporal cortex. Compared to patients with LTLE, patients with MLTLE were more likely to have 18F- fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) hypometabolism and hyperperfusion on ictal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) restricted to the temporal areas. MLTLE patients had more frequent aura or secondarily generalized seizures than LTLE patients. No significant differences were found in scalp EEG, MRI, and Wada asymmetry between groups. The overall seizure-free rate was good (73.8%, mean follow-up = 9.7 years), which was not different (Engel class I, 74.3% in MLTLE vs. 73.6% in LTLE). Postsurgical memory function was spared in LTLE patients, while visual memory was impaired in MLTLE patients when their mesial temporal structures were sufficiently resected. It suggests that functional neuroimaging (interictal PET and ictal and interictal SPECT) may play a crucial role to differentiate between MLTLE and LTLE. PMID:25794857

  7. Mislocated FUS is sufficient for gain-of-toxic-function amyotrophic lateral sclerosis phenotypes in mice.

    PubMed

    Shiihashi, Gen; Ito, Daisuke; Yagi, Takuya; Nihei, Yoshihiro; Ebine, Taeko; Suzuki, Norihiro

    2016-09-01

    Mutations in RNA-binding proteins, including fused in sarcoma (FUS) and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43, encoded by TARDBP), are associated with sporadic and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A major question is whether neuronal loss is caused by toxic gain-of-function cytoplasmic aggregates or loss of nuclear RNA-binding protein function. We generated a transgenic mouse overexpressing exogenous FUS without a nuclear localization signal (ΔNLS-FUS), which developed progressive spastic motor deficits and neuronal loss in the motor cortex. The ΔNLS-FUS protein was restricted to the cytoplasm and formed ubiquitin/p62-positive aggregates. Endogenous FUS expression, nuclear localization, and splicing activity were not altered, indicating that mislocated FUS is sufficient for proteinopathy. Crossing ΔNLS-FUS with wild-type human TDP-43 transgenic mice exacerbated pathological and behavioural phenotypes, suggesting that both proteins are involved in a common cascade. RNA-sequence analysis revealed specific transcriptome alterations, including genes regulating dynein-associated molecules and endoplasmic reticulum stress. ΔNLS-FUS mice are promising tools for understanding amyotrophic lateral sclerosis pathogenesis and testing new therapeutic approaches. PMID:27368346

  8. Study of Cherenkov Light Lateral Distribution Function Around the Knee Region in Extensive Air Showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Rubaiee, A.; Hashim, U.; Marwah, M.; Al-Douri, Y.

    2015-06-01

    The Cherenkov light lateral distribution function (LDF) was simulated with the CORSIKA code in the energy range (10^{13} - 10^{16}) eV. This simulation was performed for conditions and configurations of the Tunka EAS Cherenkov array for the two primary particles (p and Fe). Basing on the simulated results, many approximated functions are structured for two primary particles and different zenith angles. This allowed us to reconstruct the EAS events, which is, to determine the type and energy of the primary particles that produced showers from signal amplitudes of Cherenkov radiation measured by the Tunka Cherenkov array experiment. Comparison of the calculated LDF of Cherenkov radiation with that measured at the Tunka EAS array shows the ability to identify the primary particle that initiated the EAS cascades by determining its primary energy around the knee region of the cosmic ray spectrum.

  9. Aspects of Radiation Budget, Subsurface Lateral Moisture Exchange, and Vegetation Function in Areas of Complex Topography.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. Y.; Bras, R. L.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Vivoni, E. R.

    2004-12-01

    There is evidence that topography strongly affects the state, function, and distribution of vegetation by controlling incoming solar radiation and lateral redistribution of soil moisture. However, numerical experiments studying the effects that a topography can have on vegetation have oversimplified the treatment of topography and/or the representation of vegetation. We investigate the control of topography on vegetation state and stress via detailed modeling of radiation and soil moisture budgets across the varied terrain of a watershed. A detailed vegetation-hydrology model parameterizes the processes of canopy radiative transfer and rainfall interception and couples the processes of infiltration and evapotranspiration to photosynthesis via moisture uptake through a root systems with varied profiles. The model is applied on a continuous basis to synthetic watersheds of topography dominated by either convex or concave hillslopes. The numerical analysis is carried out for several plant functional types and soils. Inferences from the spatially-distributed dynamics are used to examine topographic niches favorable to vegetation.

  10. Optimizing mobility in later life: the role of the urban built environment for older adults aging in place.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Philippa; Gallagher, Nancy Ambrose

    2013-12-01

    Hazards in the urban built environment can create barriers to mobility among older adults aging in place. We investigated the relationship between urban built environment characteristics and 15-month trajectories of mobility disability in a sample of 1,188 older adults living in Detroit, MI, a city that has undergone rapid economic and structural decline. Data come from the Michigan Minimum Data Set for Home Care (2001-2008), an enumerative database of older adults in Michigan who qualify for federal or state-funded home and community-based long-term care through a Medicaid waiver program. Standardized assessments are made at intake and every 90 days by case managers. Built environments were assessed with a virtual audit using the "Street View" feature of Google Earth. A summary accessibility score was created for each block based on a count of the number of accessible features (e.g., continuous barrier-free sidewalks and proximity of public transportation). Using growth mixture models, two latent trajectories of outdoor mobility were identified: one capturing occasional outdoor mobility (representing 83 % of the sample) and one capturing almost no mobility outside the home. Controlling for sociodemographic and health risk factors, individuals living in more accessible environments had a 18 % higher odds of being in the more mobile group (OR = 1.18, 95 % CI = 1.01, 1.41). These findings emphasize the importance of the built environment for mobility among urban-dwelling older adults. PMID:23592019

  11. Band 3 and glycophorin are progressively aggregated in density-fractionated sickle and normal red blood cells. Evidence from rotational and lateral mobility studies.

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, J D; Golan, D E

    1993-01-01

    Band 3 aggregation in the plane of the red blood cell (RBC) membrane is postulated to be important in the pathophysiology of hemolysis of dense sickle and normal RBCs. We used the fluorescence photobleaching recovery and polarized fluorescence depletion techniques to measure the lateral and rotational mobility of band 3, glycophorins, and phospholipid analogues in membranes of density-separated intact RBCs from seven patients with sickle cell disease and eight normal controls. The fractions of laterally mobile band 3 and glycophorin decreased progressively as sickle RBC density increased. Normal RBCs also showed a progressive decrease in band 3 fractional mobility with increasing buoyant density. Rapidly rotating, slowly rotating, and rotationally immobile forms of band 3 were observed in both sickle and normal RBC membranes. The fraction of rapidly rotating band 3 progressively decreased and the fraction of rotationally immobile band 3 progressively increased with increasing sickle RBC density. Changes in the fraction of rotationally immobile band 3 were not reversible upon hypotonic swelling of dense sickle RBCs, and normal RBCs osmotically shrunken in sucrose buffers failed to manifest band 3 immobilization at median cell hemoglobin concentration values characteristic of dense sickle RBCs. We conclude that dense sickle and normal RBCs acquire irreversible membrane abnormalities that cause transmembrane protein immobilization and band 3 aggregation. Band 3 aggregates could serve as cell surface sites of autologous antibody binding and thereby lead to removal of dense sickle and normal (senescent) RBCs from the circulation. PMID:8423219

  12. Investigating the contribution of VAPB/ALS8 loss of function in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kabashi, Edor; El Oussini, Hajer; Bercier, Valérie; Gros-Louis, François; Valdmanis, Paul N; McDearmid, Jonathan; Mejier, Inge A; Dion, Patrick A; Dupre, Nicolas; Hollinger, David; Sinniger, Jérome; Dirrig-Grosch, Sylvie; Camu, William; Meininger, Vincent; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe; René, Frédérique; Drapeau, Pierre; Rouleau, Guy A; Dupuis, Luc

    2013-06-15

    The mutations P56S and T46I in the gene encoding vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein B/C (VAPB) cause ALS8, a familial form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Overexpression of mutant forms of VAPB leads to cytosolic aggregates, suggesting a gain of function of the mutant protein. However, recent work suggested that the loss of VAPB function could be the major mechanism leading to ALS8. Here, we used multiple genetic and experimental approaches to study whether VAPB loss of function might be sufficient to trigger motor neuron degeneration. In order to identify additional ALS-associated VAPB mutations, we screened the entire VAPB gene in a cohort of ALS patients and detected two mutations (A145V and S160Δ). To directly address the contribution of VAPB loss of function in ALS, we generated zebrafish and mouse models with either a decreased or a complete loss of Vapb expression. Vapb knockdown in zebrafish led to swimming deficits. Mice knocked-out for Vapb showed mild motor deficits after 18 months of age yet had innervated neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). Importantly, overexpression of VAPB mutations were unable to rescue the motor deficit caused by Vapb knockdown in zebrafish and failed to cause a toxic gain-of-function defect on their own. Thus, Vapb loss of function weakens the motor system of vertebrate animal models but is on its own unable to lead to a complete ALS phenotype. Our findings are consistent with the notion that VAPB mutations constitute a risk factor for motor neuron disease through a loss of VAPB function. PMID:23446633

  13. Youth in group home care: youth characteristics and predictors of later functioning.

    PubMed

    Chow, Wai-Ying; Mettrick, Jennifer E; Stephan, Sharon H; Von Waldner, Christina A

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents the findings of an exploratory research study of foster care youth residing in group homes in a mid-Atlantic state in the USA. The aims of the present study were to (1) describe youth characteristics, (2) explore whether baseline functioning differed by gender or ethnicity, (3) explore predictors of cross-time differences in psychosocial functioning, and (4) explore predictors of later functioning, specifically age, gender, and length of stay. Psychosocial functioning at two time points (i.e., T1 = admission into group home; T2 = current or discharge) in 180 charts from 29 randomly selected group homes were reviewed. Youth were on average 14.86 years of age, predominantly male (71%; n = 128), and predominantly African American (79%). Findings suggest that group home placement may benefit some youth but not others, particularly girls and younger children with lower initial level of need. Findings underscore the potential complexity of intervention impact in the context of unique youth, family, and environment factors. PMID:22529035

  14. Functional studies of the parotid and pancreas glands in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Charchaflie, R. J.; Fernandez, L. Bustos; Perec, C. J.; Gonzalez, E.; Marzi, A.

    1974-01-01

    Functional studies of the pancreas and parotid glands are reported in 17 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The exocrine function of the pancreas was studied by measuring amylase concentration after stimulation with the endogenous secretin-pancreozymine test (ESP). Under these conditions, the pancreatic amylase concentration in ALS patients was found to be markedly decreased by about 45% when compared with those of healthy control subjects. Different conclusions in the literature about a possible impairment of the exocrine pancreas in ALS patients induced us to study the function of the parotid gland, which has close structural, functional, and physiopathological relationship with the pancreas. Flow rate and bicarbonate concentration of parotid saliva were measured after indirect stimulation (intraoral citric acid) and direct stimulation (pilocarpine). After indirect stimulation, both parotid flow rate and bicarbonate concentration from ALS patients were found to be decreased by about 66% and 70% respectively, when compared with controls. On the other hand, direct stimulation with pilocarpine in ALS patients elicited normal responses in both flow rate and bicarbonate concentration of saliva. It is concluded that the pancreatic and parotid deficiencies observed in ALS patients do not indicate primary disease of these exocrine glands. This interpretation is further emphasized by the results obtained by a sweat test, plasma osmolarity, and sialographic studies. The possibility that the gland impairments observed might be due to modifications of the neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating their secretory activity is suggested. PMID:4852110

  15. Oral motor functions, speech and communication before a definitive diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Makkonen, Tanja; Korpijaakko-Huuhka, Anna-Maija; Ruottinen, Hanna; Puhto, Riitta; Hollo, Kirsi; Ylinen, Aarne; Palmio, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the cranial nerve symptoms, speech disorders and communicative effectiveness of Finnish patients with diagnosed or possible amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) at their first assessment by a speech-language pathologist. The group studied consisted of 30 participants who had clinical signs of bulbar deterioration at the beginning of the study. They underwent a thorough clinical speech and communication examination. The cranial nerve symptoms and ability to communicate were compared in 14 participants with probable or definitive ALS and in 16 participants with suspected or possible ALS. The initial type of ALS was also assessed. More deterioration in soft palate function was found in participants with possible ALS than with diagnosed ALS. Likewise, a slower speech rate combined with more severe dysarthria was observed in possible ALS. In both groups, there was some deterioration in communicative effectiveness. In the possible ALS group the diagnostic delay was longer and speech therapy intervention actualized later. The participants with ALS showed multidimensional decline in communication at their first visit to the speech-language pathologist, but impairments and activity limitations were more severe in suspected or possible ALS. The majority of persons with bulbar-onset ALS in this study were in the latter diagnostic group. This suggests that they are more susceptible to delayed diagnosis and delayed speech therapy assessment. It is important to start speech therapy intervention during the diagnostic processes particularly if the person already shows bulbar symptoms. PMID:27110704

  16. Seven Years Later: Effects of a Neighborhood Mobility Program on Poor Black and Latino Adults' Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fauth, Rebecca C.; Leventhal, Tama; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2008-01-01

    This study explored program effects on adults' well-being seven years following the implementation of a court-ordered neighborhood mobility program. Low-income black and Latino adults residing in poor, segregated neighborhoods in Yonkers, New York were randomly selected to relocate to publicly funded town-houses in middle-class neighborhoods…

  17. Functional Mobility Testing: A Novel Method to Create Suit Design Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, Scott A.; Benson, Elizabeth A.; Rajulu, Sudhakar L.

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to aide in the creation of design requirements for the next generation of space suits that more accurately describe the level of mobility necessary for a suited crewmember through the use of an innovative methodology utilizing functional mobility. A novel method was utilized involving the collection of kinematic data while 20 subjects (10 male, 10 female) performed pertinent functional tasks that will be required of a suited crewmember during various phases of a lunar mission. These tasks were selected based on relevance and criticality from a larger list of tasks that may be carried out by the crew. Kinematic data was processed through Vicon BodyBuilder software to calculate joint angles for the ankle, knee, hip, torso, shoulder, elbow, and wrist. Maximum functional mobility was consistently lower than maximum isolated mobility. This study suggests that conventional methods for establishing design requirements for human-systems interfaces based on maximal isolated joint capabilities may overestimate the required mobility. Additionally, this method provides a valuable means of evaluating systems created from these requirements by comparing the mobility available in a new spacesuit, or the mobility required to use a new piece of hardware, to this newly established database of functional mobility.

  18. Macular sub-layer thinning and association with pulmonary function tests in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Simonett, Joseph M; Huang, Russell; Siddique, Nailah; Farsiu, Sina; Siddique, Teepu; Volpe, Nicholas J; Fawzi, Amani A

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder that may have anterior visual pathway involvement. In this study, we compare the macular structure of patients with ALS to healthy controls, and examine correlations between macular sub-layer thickness measurements and pulmonary function tests and disease duration. ALS patients underwent optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to obtain macular cube scans of the right eye. Macular cube OCT data from age-matched healthy subjects were provided by the OCT reading center. Semi-automated retinal segmentation software was used to quantify macular sub-layers. Pulmonary function tests and time since symptom onset were collected retrospectively from the electronic medical records of ALS patients. Macular retinal nerve fiber layer was significantly thinner in ALS patients compared to healthy controls (P < 0.05). Total macular and other sub-layer thicknesses were not reduced in the ALS cohort. Macular retinal nerve fiber layer thickness positively correlated with forced vital capacity % predicted and forced expiratory volume in 1 second % predicted (P < 0.05). In conclusion, analysis of OCT measurements supports the involvement of the anterior visual pathway in ALS. Subtle structural thinning in the macular retinal nerve fiber layer correlates with pulmonary function tests. PMID:27383525

  19. Time away from work predicts later cognitive function: Differences by activity during leave

    PubMed Central

    Leist, Anja K.; Glymour, M Maria; Mackenbach, Johan P; van Lenthe, Frank J; Avendano, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine how different activities performed during employment gaps are associated with later cognitive function and change. Method Five cognitive measures were used to indicate cognitive impairment of 18,259 respondents to the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (age 50-73) in 2004/5 or 2006/7. Using complete employment histories, employment gaps of six months or more between ages 25 and 65 were identified. Results Controlling for early-life socioeconomic status, school performance, and education, higher risk of cognitive impairment was associated with employment gaps described as unemployment (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.18, 95 % Confidence Interval [CI] 1.04, 1.35) and sickness (OR = 1.78, 95 % CI 1.52, 2.09). In contrast, lower risk of cognitive impairment was associated with employment gaps described as training (OR = 0.73, 95 % CI 0.52, 1.01) or maternity (OR = 0.65, 95 % CI 0.57, 0.79). In longitudinal mixed effects models, training and maternity spells were associated with lower two-year aging-related cognitive decline. Discussion Periods away from work described as unemployment or sickness are associated with lower cognitive function, whereas maternity and training spells are associated with better late-life cognitive function. Both causation and selection mechanisms may explain these findings. PMID:23889855

  20. Oral health conditions and cognitive functioning in middle and later adulthood

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of oral health conditions on cognitive functioning on basis of data samples from several European countries. Methods Secondary analyses were conducted of data from wave 2 of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) which includes 14 European countries and is intended to be representative of each country’s middle and later adulthood population. Information on word recall, verbal fluency, and numeracy as well as information on chewing ability and denture wearing status was available for a total of 28,693 persons aged 50+. Multivariate regression analysis was used to detect influences of oral health parameters on cognitive functioning (p < 0.05). Results Persons with good chewing ability or without dentures had significantly better word recall, verbal fluency, and numeracy skills than persons with chewing impairment or with dentures. The observed patterns of parameter estimates imply differential oral health impacts on numeracy compared to word recall and verbal fluency. Conclusions The present study provides novel large-scale epidemiological evidence supportive of an association between oral health and cognitive functioning. Future research should intend to verify the precise causal links between oral health conditions, various cognitive dimensions, and their neural correlates. PMID:24923362

  1. Macular sub-layer thinning and association with pulmonary function tests in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Simonett, Joseph M.; Huang, Russell; Siddique, Nailah; Farsiu, Sina; Siddique, Teepu; Volpe, Nicholas J.; Fawzi, Amani A.

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder that may have anterior visual pathway involvement. In this study, we compare the macular structure of patients with ALS to healthy controls, and examine correlations between macular sub-layer thickness measurements and pulmonary function tests and disease duration. ALS patients underwent optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to obtain macular cube scans of the right eye. Macular cube OCT data from age-matched healthy subjects were provided by the OCT reading center. Semi-automated retinal segmentation software was used to quantify macular sub-layers. Pulmonary function tests and time since symptom onset were collected retrospectively from the electronic medical records of ALS patients. Macular retinal nerve fiber layer was significantly thinner in ALS patients compared to healthy controls (P < 0.05). Total macular and other sub-layer thicknesses were not reduced in the ALS cohort. Macular retinal nerve fiber layer thickness positively correlated with forced vital capacity % predicted and forced expiratory volume in 1 second % predicted (P < 0.05). In conclusion, analysis of OCT measurements supports the involvement of the anterior visual pathway in ALS. Subtle structural thinning in the macular retinal nerve fiber layer correlates with pulmonary function tests. PMID:27383525

  2. Language Laterality in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typical Controls: A Functional, Volumetric, and Diffusion Tensor MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Knaus, Tracey A.; Silver, Andrew M.; Kennedy, Meaghan; Lindgren, Kristen A.; Dominick, Kelli C.; Siegel, Jeremy; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Language and communication deficits are among the core features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reduced or reversed asymmetry of language has been found in a number of disorders, including ASD. Studies of healthy adults have found an association between language laterality and anatomical measures but this has not been systematically investigated in ASD. The goal of this study was to examine differences in gray matter volume of perisylvian language regions, connections between language regions, and language abilities in individuals with typical left lateralized language compared to those with atypical (bilateral or right) asymmetry of language functions. 14 adolescent boys with ASD and 20 typically developing adolescent boys participated, including equal numbers of left- and right-handed individuals in each group. Participants with typical left lateralized language activation had smaller frontal language region volume and higher fractional anisotropy of the arcuate fasciculus compared to the group with atypical language laterality, across both ASD and control participants. The group with typical language asymmetry included the most right-handed controls and fewest left-handers with ASD. Atypical language laterality was more prevalent in the ASD than control group. These findings support an association between laterality of language function and language region anatomy. They also suggest anatomical differences may be more associated with variation in language laterality than specifically with ASD. Language laterality therefore may provide a novel way of subdividing samples, resulting in more homogenous groups for research into genetic and neurocognitive foundations of developmental disorders. PMID:20031197

  3. Effect of Mulligan’s mobilization with movement technique on gait function in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Lim; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] We examined the effectiveness of Mulligan’s mobilization with movement (MWM) technique on spatiotemporal variables of gait in individuals who had a stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups: Mulligan’s mobilization with movement group (n=12) and “weight-bearing with placebo” mobilization with movement group (n=12). The subjects in the mobilization with movement group performed 5 sets of 10 glides a day, 5 times a week for 4 weeks. The mobilization with movement technique comprised grade III movements that involved gliding and resting. The control group subjects performed lunges in the same conditions as those of the experimental group. Gait function was measured in terms of spatiotemporal parameters to determine the effect of mobilization with movement. [Results] The mobilization with movement group showed significant improvements in velocity, cadence, stride length, single-support time, and step length of the affected side, and step length and stride length of the non-affected side. Overall, the mobilization with movement group showed significantly greater improvements than the control group in terms of velocity, cadence, and single-support time of the affected side. [Conclusion] Mobilization with movement can be used to improve the gait function of patients recovering from stroke.

  4. Frontal lobe function and behavioral changes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a study from Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Wei, QianQian; Chen, XuePing; Zheng, ZhenZhen; Huang, Rui; Guo, XiaoYan; Cao, Bei; Zhao, Bi; Shang, Hui-Fang

    2014-12-01

    Despite growing interest, the frequency and characteristics of frontal lobe functional and behavioral deficits in Chinese people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), as well as their impact on the survival of ALS patients, remain unknown. The Chinese version of the frontal assessment battery (FAB) and frontal behavioral inventory (FBI) were used to evaluate 126 sporadic ALS patients and 50 healthy controls. The prevalence of frontal lobe dysfunction was 32.5%. The most notable impairment domain of the FAB was lexical fluency (30.7%). The binary logistic regression model revealed that an onset age older than 45 years (OR 5.976, P = 0.002) and a lower educational level (OR 0.858, P = 0.002) were potential determinants of an abnormal FAB. Based on the FBI score, 46.0% of patients showed varied degrees of frontal behavioral changes. The most common impaired neurobehavioral domains were irritability (25.4%), logopenia (20.6%) and apathy (19.0%). The binary logistic regression model revealed that the ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised scale score (OR 0.127, P = 0.001) was a potential determinant of an abnormal FBI. Frontal functional impairment and the severity of frontal behavioral changes were not associated with the survival status or the progression of ALS by the cox proportional hazard model and multivariate regression analyses, respectively. Frontal lobe dysfunction and frontal behavioral changes are common in Chinese ALS patients. Frontal lobe dysfunction may be related to the onset age and educational level. The severity of frontal behavioral changes may be associated with the ALSFRS-R. However, the frontal functional impairment and the frontal behavioral changes do not worsen the progression or survival of ALS. PMID:25249295

  5. The effect of oppositional parietal transcranial direct current stimulation on lateralized brain functions.

    PubMed

    Li, Lucia M; Leech, Rob; Scott, Gregory; Malhotra, Paresh; Seemungal, Barry; Sharp, David J

    2015-12-01

    Cognitive functions such as numerical processing and spatial attention show varying degrees of lateralization. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can be used to investigate how modulating cortical excitability affects performance of these tasks. This study investigated the effect of bi-parietal tDCS on numerical processing, spatial and sustained attention. It was hypothesized that tDCS would have distinct effects on these tasks because of varying lateralization (numerical processing left, spatial attention right) and that these effects are partly mediated by modulation of sustained attention. A single-blinded, crossover, sham-controlled study was performed. Eighteen healthy right-handed participants performed cognitive tasks during three sessions of oppositional parietal tDCS stimulation: sham; right anodal with left cathodal (RA/LC); and right cathodal with left anodal (RC/LA). Participants performed a number comparison task, a modified Posner task, a choice reaction task (CRT) and the rapid visual processing task (RVP). RA/LC tDCS impaired number comparison performance compared with sham, with slower responses to numerically close numbers pairs. RA/LC and RC/LA tDCS had distinct effects on CRT performance, specifically affecting vigilance level during the final block of the task. No effect of stimulation on the Posner task or RVP was found. It was demonstrated that oppositional parietal tDCS affected both numerical performance and vigilance level in a polarity-dependent manner. The effect of tDCS on numerical processing may partly be due to attentional effects. The behavioural effects of tDCS were specifically observed under high task demands, demonstrating the consequences of an interaction between stimulation type and cognitive load. PMID:26414683

  6. Lateral flow biosensor for multiplex detection of nitrofuran metabolites based on functionalized magnetic beads.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xuewen; Liang, Xiaoling; Dong, Jianghong; Fang, Zhiyuan; Zeng, Lingwen

    2016-09-01

    The use of potential mutagenic nitrofuran antibiotic in food animal production has been banned world-wide. Common methods for nitrofuran detection involve complex extraction procedures. In the present study, magnetic beads functionalized with antibody against nitrofuran derivative were used as both the extraction and color developing media in lateral flow biosensor. Derivatization reagent carboxybenzaldehyde is firstly modified with ractopamine. After reaction with nitrofuran metabolites, the resultant molecule has two functional groups: the metabolite moiety and the ractopamine moiety. Metabolite moiety is captured by the antibody that is coated on magnetic beads. This duplex is then loaded onto biosensor and ractopamine moiety is further captured by the antibody immobilized on the test zone of nitrocellulose membrane. Without tedious organic reagent-based extraction procedure, this biosensor was capable of visually detecting four metabolites simultaneously with a detection limit of 0.1 μg/L. No cross-reactivity was observed in the presence of 50 μg/L interferential components. Graphical abstract Derivatization of nitrofuran metabolites (AHD, AOZ, SEM, or AMOZ) and LFA detection of the derivative products. PMID:27438720

  7. Correlation between permanent tooth eruption pattern and the predominance of the motor function laterality

    PubMed Central

    Veloso-Durán, Ana; Vazquez-Salceda, Carmen M.; López-Jiménez, Julian; Veloso-Durán, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To asses whether dental eruption order can play a role in the early diagnosis of crossed laterality. Study Design: Dental eruption pattern along with eye, ear, hand and foot lateralism were examined on 131 children between 6 to 8 years old from public schools from a multietnic population area of Barcelona city. Statistic methods (Statgraphics Plus 5.1 program) were used to evaluate data recollected. Results: Only foot and dentition lateralities behave as independent variables regarding hand laterality. So dental eruption laterality (along with the foot one) would be one of the parameters more related to hand laterality given that dentition variable relationship is greater that the foot one. This suggests that tooth eruption could be more clinically relevant. Crossed laterality hand-foot is significantly more predominant in men (13%) than in women (1,6%). Meanwhile, the relationship between hand and dentition didn’t show any influence of sex. Conclusions: Dental eruption order, can be used as a good parameter in the determination of the patient’s laterality. Key words:Dentition, dental eruption, motor laterality, crossed laterality. PMID:24608220

  8. Neurocognitive and Functional Correlates of Mobile Phone Use in Middle-Aged and Older Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Depp, Colin A; Harmell, Alexandrea L; Vahia, Ipsit V; Mausbach, Brent T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Our objective was to examine the association of mobile phone use and ownership with psychopathology, cognitive functioning and functional outcome in 196 outpatients aged 40 and older who were diagnosed with schizophrenia. Methods Participants reported their past and current mobile phone use on a standardized self-report scale and they were administered tests of global cognition, functional capacity and informant-rated functional outcome. Results The great majority of subjects had used a mobile phone (78%) but few currently owned one (27%). After adjusting for age (mean age 51), any past mobile phone use was associated with less severe negative symptoms, and higher global cognitive performance, functional capacity, and functional outcome. A total of 60% of participants reported being comfortable with mobile phones, but comfort was not associated with any cognitive or functional outcomes. Conclusions Most older patients with schizophrenia have used mobile phones and lifetime mobile phone use is a positive indicator of cognitive and functional status. PMID:25768842

  9. Early Language Milestones Predict Later Language, but not Autism Symptoms in Higher Functioning Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenworthy, Lauren; Wallace, Gregory L.; Powell, Kelly; Anselmo, Cheryl; Martin, Alex; Black, David O.

    2012-01-01

    Language ability is a known predictor of outcome in children with autism but plays a more controversial role for higher functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We studied the relationship between early language milestones and later structural language, adaptive functioning and autism symptoms in a sample of 76 children (mean age…

  10. Structural and functional evaluation of cortical motor areas in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Cosottini, Mirco; Pesaresi, Ilaria; Piazza, Selina; Diciotti, Stefano; Cecchi, Paolo; Fabbri, Serena; Carlesi, Cecilia; Mascalchi, Mario; Siciliano, Gabriele

    2012-03-01

    The structural and functional data gathered with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques about the brain cortical motor damage in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) are controversial. In fact some structural MRI studies showed foci of gray matter (GM) atrophy in the precentral gyrus, even in the early stage, while others did not. Most functional MRI (fMRI) studies in ALS reported hyperactivation of extra-primary motor cortices, while contradictory results were obtained on the activation of the primary motor cortex. We aimed to investigate the cortical motor circuitries in ALS patients by a combined structural and functional approach. Twenty patients with definite ALS and 16 healthy subjects underwent a structural examination with acquisition of a 3D T1-weighted sequence and fMRI examination during a maximal force handgrip task executed with the right-hand, the left-hand and with both hands simultaneously. The T1-weighted images were analyzed with Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM) that showed several clusters of reduced cortical GM in ALS patients compared to controls including the pre and postcentral gyri, the superior, middle and inferior frontal gyri, the supplementary motor area, the superior and inferior parietal cortices and the temporal lobe, bilaterally but more extensive on the right side. In ALS patients a significant hypoactivation of the primary sensory motor cortex and frontal dorsal premotor areas as compared to controls was observed. The hypoactivated areas matched with foci of cortical atrophy demonstrated by VBM. The fMRI analysis also showed an enhanced activation in the ventral premotor frontal areas and in the parietal cortex pertaining to the fronto-parietal motor circuit which paralleled with disease progression rate and matched with cortical regions of atrophy. The hyperactivation of the fronto-parietal circuit was asymmetric and prevalent in the left hemisphere. VBM and fMRI identified structural and functional markers of an extended

  11. Dissociating the semantic function of two neighbouring subregions in the left lateral anterior temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Sanjuán, Ana; Hope, Thomas M H; Jones, 'Ōiwi Parker; Prejawa, Susan; Oberhuber, Marion; Guerin, Julie; Seghier, Mohamed L; Green, David W; Price, Cathy J

    2015-09-01

    We used fMRI in 35 healthy participants to investigate how two neighbouring subregions in the lateral anterior temporal lobe (LATL) contribute to semantic matching and object naming. Four different levels of processing were considered: (A) recognition of the object concepts; (B) search for semantic associations related to object stimuli; (C) retrieval of semantic concepts of interest; and (D) retrieval of stimulus specific concepts as required for naming. During semantic association matching on picture stimuli or heard object names, we found that activation in both subregions was higher when the objects were semantically related (mug-kettle) than unrelated (car-teapot). This is consistent with both LATL subregions playing a role in (C), the successful retrieval of amodal semantic concepts. In addition, one subregion was more activated for object naming than matching semantically related objects, consistent with (D), the retrieval of a specific concept for naming. We discuss the implications of these novel findings for cognitive models of semantic processing and left anterior temporal lobe function. PMID:25496810

  12. Refined lateral energy correction functions for the KASCADE-Grande experiment based on Geant4 simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Apel, W. D.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Bekk, K.; Bertaina, M.; Blümer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I. M.; Cantoni, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cossavella, F.; Daumiller, K.; de Souza, V.; Di Pierro, F.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Engler, J.; Fuchs, B.; Fuhrmann, D.; Gils, H. J.; Glasstetter, R.; Grupen, C.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hörandel, J. R.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kang, D.; Klages, H. O.; Link, K.; Łuczak, P.; Mathes, H. J.; Mayer, H. J.; Milke, J.; Mitrica, B.; Morello, C.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ostapchenko, S.; Palmieri, N.; Petcu, M.; Pierog, T.; Rebel, H.; Roth, M.; Schieler, H.; Schoo, S.; Schröder, F. G.; Sima, O.; Toma, G.; Trinchero, G. C.; Ulrich, H.; Weindl, A.; Wochele, J.; Zabierowski, J.

    2015-02-01

    In previous studies of KASCADE-Grande data, a Monte Carlo simulation code based on the GEANT3 program has been developed to describe the energy deposited by EAS particles in the detector stations. In an attempt to decrease the simulation time and ensure compatibility with the geometry description in standard KASCADE-Grande analysis software, several structural elements have been neglected in the implementation of the Grande station geometry. To improve the agreement between experimental and simulated data, a more accurate simulation of the response of the KASCADE-Grande detector is necessary. A new simulation code has been developed based on the GEANT4 program, including a realistic geometry of the detector station with structural elements that have not been considered in previous studies. The new code is used to study the influence of a realistic detector geometry on the energy deposited in the Grande detector stations by particles from EAS events simulated by CORSIKA. Lateral Energy Correction Functions are determined and compared with previous results based on GEANT3.

  13. Functional Contribution of the Transcription Factor ATF4 to the Pathogenesis of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Matus, Soledad; Lopez, Estefanía; Valenzuela, Vicente; Nassif, Melissa; Hetz, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress represents an early pathological event in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). ATF4 is a key ER stress transcription factor that plays a role in both adaptation to stress and the activation of apoptosis. Here we investigated the contribution of ATF4 to ALS. ATF4 deficiency reduced the rate of birth of SOD1G86R transgenic mice. The fraction of ATF4−/−-SOD1G85R transgenic mice that were born are more resistant to develop ALS, leading to delayed disease onset and prolonged life span. ATF4 deficiency completely attenuated the induction of pro-apoptotic genes, including BIM and CHOP, and also led to quantitative changes in the ER protein homeostasis network. Unexpectedly, ATF4 deficiency enhanced mutant SOD1 aggregation at the end stage of the disease. Studies in the motoneuron cell line NSC34 demonstrated that knocking down ATF4 enhances mutant SOD1 aggregation possibly due to alteration in the redox status of the cell. Our results support a functional role of ATF4 in ALS, offering a novel target for disease intervention. PMID:23874395

  14. Temporal weighting functions for interaural time and level differences. III. Temporal weighting for lateral position judgments

    PubMed Central

    Stecker, G. Christopher; Ostreicher, Jennifer D.; Brown, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    Temporal variation in listeners' sensitivity to interaural time and level differences (ITD and ILD) was assessed using the temporal weighting function (TWF) paradigm [Stecker and Hafter (2002). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 1046–1057] in the context of sound-source lateralization. Brief Gabor click trains were presented over headphones with overall ITD and/or ILD ranging ±500 μs ITD and/or ±5 dB ILD across trials; values for individual clicks within each train varied by an additional ±100 μs or ±2 dB to allow TWF calculation by multiple regression. In separate conditions, TWFs were measured for (i) ITD alone, (ii) ILD alone, (iii) ITD and ILD covarying (“in agreement”), and (iv) ITD and ILD varying independently across clicks. Consistent with past studies that measured TWF for binaural discrimination, TWFs demonstrated high weight on the first click for stimuli with short interclick interval (ICI = 2 ms), but flatter weighting for longer ICI (5–10 ms). Some conditions additionally demonstrated greater weight for clicks near the offset than near the middle of the train [Stecker and Hafter (2009). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125, 3914–3924]. The latter result was observed only when stimuli carried ILD, and appeared more reliably for 5 ms than for 2 or 10 ms ICI. PMID:23927122

  15. Dissociating the semantic function of two neighbouring subregions in the left lateral anterior temporal lobe

    PubMed Central

    Sanjuán, Ana; Hope, Thomas M.H.; Parker Jones, 'Ōiwi; Prejawa, Susan; Oberhuber, Marion; Guerin, Julie; Seghier, Mohamed L.; Green, David W.; Price, Cathy J.

    2015-01-01

    We used fMRI in 35 healthy participants to investigate how two neighbouring subregions in the lateral anterior temporal lobe (LATL) contribute to semantic matching and object naming. Four different levels of processing were considered: (A) recognition of the object concepts; (B) search for semantic associations related to object stimuli; (C) retrieval of semantic concepts of interest; and (D) retrieval of stimulus specific concepts as required for naming. During semantic association matching on picture stimuli or heard object names, we found that activation in both subregions was higher when the objects were semantically related (mug–kettle) than unrelated (car–teapot). This is consistent with both LATL subregions playing a role in (C), the successful retrieval of amodal semantic concepts. In addition, one subregion was more activated for object naming than matching semantically related objects, consistent with (D), the retrieval of a specific concept for naming. We discuss the implications of these novel findings for cognitive models of semantic processing and left anterior temporal lobe function. PMID:25496810

  16. Material specific lateralization of medial temporal lobe function: An fMRI investigation.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Marshall A; Hornberger, Michael; Piguet, Olivier

    2016-03-01

    The theory of material specific lateralization of memory function posits that left and right MTL regions are asymmetrically involved in mnemonic processing of verbal and nonverbal material respectively. Lesion and functional imaging (fMRI) studies provide robust evidence for a left MTL asymmetry in the verbal memory domain. Evidence for a right MTL/nonverbal asymmetry is not as robust. A handful of fMRI studies have investigated this issue but have generally utilised nonverbal stimuli which are amenable to semantic elaboration. This fMRI study aimed to investigate the neural correlates of recognition memory processing in 20 healthy young adults (mean age = 26 years) for verbal stimuli and nonverbal stimuli that were specifically designed to minimize verbalisation. Analyses revealed that the neural correlates of recognition memory processing for verbal and nonverbal stimuli were differentiable and asymmetrically recruited the left and right MTL respectively. The right perirhinal cortex and hippocampus were preferentially involved in successful recognition memory of items devoid of semantic information. In contrast, the left anterior hippocampus was preferentially involved in successful recognition memory of stimuli which contained semantic meaning. These results suggest that the left MTL is preferentially involved in mnemonic processing of verbal/semantic information. In contrast, the right MTL is preferentially involved in visual/non-semantic mnemonic processing. We propose that during development, the left MTL becomes specialised for verbal mnemonic processing due to its proximity with left lateralised cortical language processing areas while visual/non-semantic mnemonic processing gets 'crowded out' to become predominantly, but not completely, the domain of the right MTL. PMID:26700110

  17. The integration of lateral gastrocnemius muscle function and kinematics in running turkeys

    PubMed Central

    Higham, Timothy E.; Nelson, Frank E.

    2008-01-01

    Animals commonly move over a range of speeds, and encounter considerable variation in habitat structure, such as inclines. Hindlimb kinematics and muscle function in diverse groups of vertebrates are affected by these changes in behavior and habitat structure, providing a fruitful source of variation for studying the integration of kinematics and muscle function. While it has been observed in a variety of vertebrates that muscle length change can be minimal during locomotion, it is unclear how, and to what degree, in vivo muscle length change patterns are integrated with kinematics. We tested the hypothesis that the length of the turkey lateral gastrocnemius (LG), a biarticular muscle that has moments at the ankle and knee, is not solely affected by changes in joint kinematics. We recorded in vivo muscle length changes (using sonomicrometry) and hindlimb movements (using high-speed video) of wild turkeys running on various inclines, and at different speeds. We quantified the relationship between joint angle (knee and ankle separately) and muscle length in freshly euthanized specimens, and then applied an empirically derived correction for changes in pennation angle and tendon strain during locomotion to improve the accuracy of our predicted lengths. We estimated muscle length at four points during each stride and then compared these values with those measured directly. Other than during swing, the predicted changes in muscle length calculated from the changes in joint kinematics did not correspond with our measured values of LG length. Therefore, the lengths at which the LG operates inturkeys are not determined entirely by kinematics. In addition to strain in series elastic components, we hypothesize that heterogeneous strain within muscles, interactions between muscles and muscle pennation angle all contribute to the non-linear relationship between muscle length changes and kinematics. PMID:18657958

  18. The first discovered water channel protein, later called aquaporin 1: molecular characteristics, functions and medical implications.

    PubMed

    Benga, Gheorghe

    2012-01-01

    After a decade of work on the water permeability of red blood cells (RBC) Benga group in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, discovered in 1985 the first water channel protein in the RBC membrane. The discovery was reported in publications in 1986 and reviewed in subsequent years. The same protein was purified by chance by Agre group in Baltimore, USA, in 1988, who called in 1991 the protein CHIP28 (CHannel forming Integral membrane Protein of 28 kDa), suggesting that it may play a role in linkage of the membrane skeleton to the lipid bilayer. In 1992 the Agre group identified CHIP28's water transport property. One year later CHIP28 was named aquaporin 1, abbreviated as AQP1. In this review the molecular structure-function relationships of AQP1 are presented. In the natural or model membranes AQP1 is in the form of a homotetramer, however, each monomer has an independent water channel (pore). The three-dimensional structure of AQP1 is described, with a detailed description of the channel (pore), the molecular mechanisms of permeation through the channel of water molecules and exclusion of protons. The permeability of the pore to gases (CO(2), NH(3), NO, O(2)) and ions is also mentioned. I have also reviewed the functional roles and medical implications of AQP1 expressed in various organs and cells (microvascular endothelial cells, kidney, central nervous system, eye, lacrimal and salivary glands, respiratory apparatus, gastrointestinal tract, hepatobiliary compartments, female and male reproductive system, inner ear, skin). The role of AQP1 in cell migration and angiogenesis in relation with cancer, the genetics of AQP1 and mutations in human subjects are also mentioned. The role of AQP1 in red blood cells is discussed based on our comparative studies of water permeability in over 30 species. PMID:22705445

  19. Symptoms and Cognitive Functions in Adolescents in Relation to Mobile Phone Use during Night

    PubMed Central

    Schoeni, Anna; Roser, Katharina; Röösli, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Many adolescents tend to leave their mobile phones turned on during night, accepting that they may be awakened by an incoming text message or call. Using self-reported and objective operator recorded mobile phone use data, we thus aimed to analyze how being awakened during night by mobile phone affects adolescents’ perceived health and cognitive functions. In this cross-sectional study, 439 adolescents completed questionnaires about their mobile phone use during night, health related quality of life and possible confounding factors. Standardized computerized cognitive tests were performed to assess memory and concentration capacity. Objective operator recorded mobile phone use data was further collected for 233 study participants. Data were analyzed by multivariable regression models adjusted for relevant confounders including amount of mobile phone use. For adolescents reporting to be awakened by a mobile phone during night at least once a month the odds ratio for daytime tiredness and rapid exhaustibility were 1.86 (95% CI: 1.02–3.39) and 2.28 (95% CI: 0.97–5.34), respectively. Similar results were found when analyzing objective operator recorded mobile phone use data (tiredness: 1.63, 95% CI: 0.94–2.82 and rapid exhaustibility: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.01–5.36). The cognitive tests on memory and concentration capacity were not related to mobile phone use during night. Overall, being awakened during night by mobile phone was associated with an increase in health symptom reports such as tiredness, rapid exhaustibility, headache and physical ill-being, but not with memory and concentration capacity. Prevention strategies should focus on helping adolescents set limits for their accessibility by mobile phone, especially during night. PMID:26222312

  20. Symptoms and Cognitive Functions in Adolescents in Relation to Mobile Phone Use during Night.

    PubMed

    Schoeni, Anna; Roser, Katharina; Röösli, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Many adolescents tend to leave their mobile phones turned on during night, accepting that they may be awakened by an incoming text message or call. Using self-reported and objective operator recorded mobile phone use data, we thus aimed to analyze how being awakened during night by mobile phone affects adolescents' perceived health and cognitive functions. In this cross-sectional study, 439 adolescents completed questionnaires about their mobile phone use during night, health related quality of life and possible confounding factors. Standardized computerized cognitive tests were performed to assess memory and concentration capacity. Objective operator recorded mobile phone use data was further collected for 233 study participants. Data were analyzed by multivariable regression models adjusted for relevant confounders including amount of mobile phone use. For adolescents reporting to be awakened by a mobile phone during night at least once a month the odds ratio for daytime tiredness and rapid exhaustibility were 1.86 (95% CI: 1.02-3.39) and 2.28 (95% CI: 0.97-5.34), respectively. Similar results were found when analyzing objective operator recorded mobile phone use data (tiredness: 1.63, 95% CI: 0.94-2.82 and rapid exhaustibility: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.01-5.36). The cognitive tests on memory and concentration capacity were not related to mobile phone use during night. Overall, being awakened during night by mobile phone was associated with an increase in health symptom reports such as tiredness, rapid exhaustibility, headache and physical ill-being, but not with memory and concentration capacity. Prevention strategies should focus on helping adolescents set limits for their accessibility by mobile phone, especially during night. PMID:26222312

  1. Intravenous Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improve Survival and Motor Function in Experimental Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Uccelli, Antonio; Milanese, Marco; Principato, Maria Cristina; Morando, Sara; Bonifacino, Tiziana; Vergani, Laura; Giunti, Debora; Voci, Adriana; Carminati, Enrico; Giribaldi, Francesco; Caponnetto, Claudia; Bonanno, Giambattista

    2012-01-01

    Despite some advances in the understanding of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis, significant achievements in treating this disease are still lacking. Mesenchymal stromal (stem) cells (MSCs) have been shown to be effective in several models of neurological disease. To determine the effects of the intravenous injection of MSCs in an ALS mouse model during the symptomatic stage of disease, MSCs (1 × 106) were intravenously injected in mice expressing human superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) carrying the G93A mutation (SOD1/G93A) presenting with experimental ALS. Survival, motor abilities, histology, oxidative stress markers and [3H]d-aspartate release in the spinal cord were investigated. MSC injection in SOD1/G93A mice improved survival and motor functions compared with saline-injected controls. Injected MSCs scantly home to the central nervous system and poorly engraft. We observed a reduced accumulation of ubiquitin agglomerates and of activated astrocytes and microglia in the spinal cord of MSC-treated SOD1/G93A mice, with no changes in the number of choline acetyltransferase– and glutamate transporter type 1–positive cells. MSC administration turned around the upregulation of metallothionein mRNA expression and of the activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione S-transferase, both associated with disease progression. Last, we observed that MSCs reverted both spontaneous and stimulus-evoked neuronal release of [3H]d-aspartate, a marker of endogenous glutamate, which is upregulated in SOD1/G93A mice. These findings suggest that intravenous administration of MSCs significantly improves the clinical outcome and pathological scores of mutant SOD1/G93A mice, thus providing the rationale for their exploitation for the treatment of ALS. PMID:22481270

  2. Dissociable functions of reward inference in the lateral prefrontal cortex and the striatum.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shingo; Pan, Xiaochuan; Oguchi, Mineki; Taylor, Jessica E; Sakagami, Masamichi

    2015-01-01

    In a complex and uncertain world, how do we select appropriate behavior? One possibility is that we choose actions that are highly reinforced by their probabilistic consequences (model-free processing). However, we may instead plan actions prior to their actual execution by predicting their consequences (model-based processing). It has been suggested that the brain contains multiple yet distinct systems involved in reward prediction. Several studies have tried to allocate model-free and model-based systems to the striatum and the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), respectively. Although there is much support for this hypothesis, recent research has revealed discrepancies. To understand the nature of the reward prediction systems in the LPFC and the striatum, a series of single-unit recording experiments were conducted. LPFC neurons were found to infer the reward associated with the stimuli even when the monkeys had not yet learned the stimulus-reward (SR) associations directly. Striatal neurons seemed to predict the reward for each stimulus only after directly experiencing the SR contingency. However, the one exception was "Exclusive Or" situations in which striatal neurons could predict the reward without direct experience. Previous single-unit studies in monkeys have reported that neurons in the LPFC encode category information, and represent reward information specific to a group of stimuli. Here, as an extension of these, we review recent evidence that a group of LPFC neurons can predict reward specific to a category of visual stimuli defined by relevant behavioral responses. We suggest that the functional difference in reward prediction between the LPFC and the striatum is that while LPFC neurons can utilize abstract code, striatal neurons can code individual associations between stimuli and reward but cannot utilize abstract code. PMID:26236266

  3. Dissociable functions of reward inference in the lateral prefrontal cortex and the striatum

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Shingo; Pan, Xiaochuan; Oguchi, Mineki; Taylor, Jessica E.; Sakagami, Masamichi

    2015-01-01

    In a complex and uncertain world, how do we select appropriate behavior? One possibility is that we choose actions that are highly reinforced by their probabilistic consequences (model-free processing). However, we may instead plan actions prior to their actual execution by predicting their consequences (model-based processing). It has been suggested that the brain contains multiple yet distinct systems involved in reward prediction. Several studies have tried to allocate model-free and model-based systems to the striatum and the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), respectively. Although there is much support for this hypothesis, recent research has revealed discrepancies. To understand the nature of the reward prediction systems in the LPFC and the striatum, a series of single-unit recording experiments were conducted. LPFC neurons were found to infer the reward associated with the stimuli even when the monkeys had not yet learned the stimulus-reward (SR) associations directly. Striatal neurons seemed to predict the reward for each stimulus only after directly experiencing the SR contingency. However, the one exception was “Exclusive Or” situations in which striatal neurons could predict the reward without direct experience. Previous single-unit studies in monkeys have reported that neurons in the LPFC encode category information, and represent reward information specific to a group of stimuli. Here, as an extension of these, we review recent evidence that a group of LPFC neurons can predict reward specific to a category of visual stimuli defined by relevant behavioral responses. We suggest that the functional difference in reward prediction between the LPFC and the striatum is that while LPFC neurons can utilize abstract code, striatal neurons can code individual associations between stimuli and reward but cannot utilize abstract code. PMID:26236266

  4. Functional Connectivity Changes in Resting-State EEG as Potential Biomarker for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Parameswaran Mahadeva; Egan, Catriona; Pinto-Grau, Marta; Burke, Tom; Elamin, Marwa; Nasseroleslami, Bahman; Pender, Niall; Lalor, Edmund C.; Hardiman, Orla

    2015-01-01

    Background Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is heterogeneous and overlaps with frontotemporal dementia. Spectral EEG can predict damage in structural and functional networks in frontotemporal dementia but has never been applied to ALS. Methods 18 incident ALS patients with normal cognition and 17 age matched controls underwent 128 channel EEG and neuropsychology assessment. The EEG data was analyzed using FieldTrip software in MATLAB to calculate simple connectivity measures and scalp network measures. sLORETA was used in nodal analysis for source localization and same methods were applied as above to calculate nodal network measures. Graph theory measures were used to assess network integrity. Results Cross spectral density in alpha band was higher in patients. In ALS patients, increased degree values of the network nodes was noted in the central and frontal regions in the theta band across seven of the different connectivity maps (p<0.0005). Among patients, clustering coefficient in alpha and gamma bands was increased in all regions of the scalp and connectivity were significantly increased (p=0.02). Nodal network showed increased assortativity in alpha band in the patients group. The Clustering Coefficient in Partial Directed Connectivity (PDC) showed significantly higher values for patients in alpha, beta, gamma, theta and delta frequencies (p=0.05). Discussion There is increased connectivity in the fronto-central regions of the scalp and areas corresponding to Salience and Default Mode network in ALS, suggesting a pathologic disruption of neuronal networking in early disease states. Spectral EEG has potential utility as a biomarker in ALS. PMID:26091258

  5. Structural neural correlates of impaired mobility and subsequent decline in executive functions: A 12-month prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chun Liang; Best, John R.; Chiu, Bryan K.; Nagamatsu, Lindsay S; Voss, Michelle W.; Handy, Todd C.; Bolandzadeh, Niousha; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Impaired mobility, such as falls, may be an early biomarker of subsequent cognitive decline and is associated with subclinical alterations in both brain structure and function. In this 12-month prospective study, we examined whether there are volumetric differences in gray matter and subcortical regions, as well as cerebral white matter, between older fallers and non-fallers. In addition, we assessed whether these baseline volumetric differences are associated with changes in cognitive function over 12 months. A total of 66 community-dwelling older adults were recruited and categorized by their falls status. Magnetic resonance imaging occurred at baseline and participants’ physical and cognitive performances were assessed at baseline and 12-months. At baseline, fallers showed significantly lower volumes in gray matter, subcortical regions, and cerebral white matter compared with non-fallers. Notably, fallers had significantly lower left lateral orbitofrontal white matter volume. Moreover, lower left lateral orbitofrontal white matter volume at baseline was associated with greater decline in set-shifting performance over 12 months. Our data suggest that falls may indicate subclinical alterations in regional brain volume that are associated with subsequent decline in executive functions. PMID:27079333

  6. Structural neural correlates of impaired mobility and subsequent decline in executive functions: a 12-month prospective study.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chun Liang; Best, John R; Chiu, Bryan K; Nagamatsu, Lindsay S; Voss, Michelle W; Handy, Todd C; Bolandzadeh, Niousha; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2016-07-01

    Impaired mobility, such as falls, may be an early biomarker of subsequent cognitive decline and is associated with subclinical alterations in both brain structure and function. In this 12-month prospective study, we examined whether there are volumetric differences in gray matter and subcortical regions, as well as cerebral white matter, between older fallers and non-fallers. In addition, we assessed whether these baseline volumetric differences are associated with changes in cognitive function over 12months. A total of 66 community-dwelling older adults were recruited and categorized by their falls status. Magnetic resonance imaging occurred at baseline and participants' physical and cognitive performances were assessed at baseline and 12-months. At baseline, fallers showed significantly lower volumes in gray matter, subcortical regions, and cerebral white matter compared with non-fallers. Notably, fallers had significantly lower left lateral orbitofrontal white matter volume. Moreover, lower left lateral orbitofrontal white matter volume at baseline was associated with greater decline in set-shifting performance over 12months. Our data suggest that falls may indicate subclinical alterations in regional brain volume that are associated with subsequent decline in executive functions. PMID:27079333

  7. Assessment on self-care, mobility and social function of children with spina bifida in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Sirzai, Hulya; Dogu, Beril; Demir, Selamet; Yilmaz, Figen; Kuran, Banu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the functional performance in children with spina bifida, using the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) to look into capacity of twenty-eight children with spina bifida with lesions at different levels in different dimensions of self-care, mobility and social function. Mean age of the patients was 3.5 ± 2.3 (1–10) years. In the muscle test carried out, 13 patients (44.8%) had no movements including pelvic elevation in lower extremity muscles and they were at level 5. Sixteen patients (54%) were non-ambulatory according to the Hoofer ambulation classification. Raw and scale scores in the self-care, mobility and social function domains both in the functional skill scale and in the caregiver scale were found to be lower compared to the data of the normal population. A statistically significant correlation was observed in the self-care values of the Functional Skills Scales and the Caregiver Assistance Scale measurements, which was positive for age and negative for Functional Ambulation Scale and muscle test (P < 0.05). A positive relation was found between the Functional Skills Scales-mobility area and age while a negative relation was observed between Functional Ambulation Scale and muscle test (P < 0.005). A negative relation was also found between Caregiver Assistance Scale-mobility and Functional Ambulation Scale and muscle test (P < 0.005). In our study, the functional performance of the children was found to be low. Low-level lesions, encouraging muscular strength and independence in mobility are all very important factors for functional independence. PMID:25206788

  8. Treatment of complete rupture of the lateral ligaments of the ankle: a randomized clinical trial comparing cast immobilization with functional treatment.

    PubMed

    Ardèvol, Jordi; Bolíbar, Ignasi; Belda, Víctor; Argilaga, Sílvia

    2002-11-01

    This study compared the therapeutic efficacy between cast immobilization and functional treatment of grade III ruptures of the lateral ankle ligaments. Subjects ( n=121) had closed physeal cartilage, age under 35 years, grade III rupture without previous or associated injuries, and practiced regular sports. Patients were randomized into an immobilization group (21 days plaster cast) or a functional one (15 days strapping plus early controlled mobilization). Symptoms (pain, swelling, stiffness, subjective instability), joint laxity, return to preinjury activity (time and level) and rate of reinjury were assessed 3, 6, and 12 months after sprain. Objective joint laxity was related to constitutional laxity, creating a new variable [talar tilt at injury - talar tilt at control]/contralateral talar tilt. The functional group showed significantly earlier and better return to physical activity, fewer symptoms at 3 and 6 months but no intergroup difference at 12 months. Functional treatment also showed better decrease in joint laxity. No intergroup differences were found in the reinjury rate. We conclude that functional treatment is safe, associated with a more rapid recovery, and particularly suitable in athletic populations. PMID:12444517

  9. Asymmetric projections of the arcuate fasciculus to the temporal cortex underlie lateralized language function in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Takaya, Shigetoshi; Kuperberg, Gina R.; Liu, Hesheng; Greve, Douglas N.; Makris, Nikos; Stufflebeam, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    The arcuate fasciculus (AF) in the human brain has asymmetric structural properties. However, the topographic organization of the asymmetric AF projections to the cortex and its relevance to cortical function remain unclear. Here we mapped the posterior projections of the human AF in the inferior parietal and lateral temporal cortices using surface-based structural connectivity analysis based on diffusion MRI and investigated their hemispheric differences. We then performed the cross-modal comparison with functional connectivity based on resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) and task-related cortical activation based on fMRI using a semantic classification task of single words. Structural connectivity analysis showed that the left AF connecting to Broca's area predominantly projected in the lateral temporal cortex extending from the posterior superior temporal gyrus to the mid part of the superior temporal sulcus and the middle temporal gyrus, whereas the right AF connecting to the right homolog of Broca's area predominantly projected to the inferior parietal cortex extending from the mid part of the supramarginal gyrus to the anterior part of the angular gyrus. The left-lateralized projection regions of the AF in the left temporal cortex had asymmetric functional connectivity with Broca's area, indicating structure-function concordance through the AF. During the language task, left-lateralized cortical activation was observed. Among them, the brain responses in the temporal cortex and Broca's area that were connected through the left-lateralized AF pathway were specifically correlated across subjects. These results suggest that the human left AF, which structurally and functionally connects the mid temporal cortex and Broca's area in asymmetrical fashion, coordinates the cortical activity in these remote cortices during a semantic decision task. The unique feature of the left AF is discussed in the context of the human capacity for language. PMID:26441551

  10. Functional and Esthetic Treatment of Lateral Incisor Agenesis with a Mini-Implant in a Young Patient: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Moacir Guilherme; Melgaço, Camilo Aquino; Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Marques, Leandro Silva

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the treatment of lateral incisor agenesis in a young patient. Treatment was performed with a mini-implant and a temporary crown. Radiographic and clinical follow up for one year demonstrated a very satisfactory restoration with regard to function and esthetics as well as the stability of the mini-implant. PMID:26349292

  11. Stimulus-Dominance Effects and Lateral Asymmetries for Language in Normal Subjects and in Patients with a Single Functional Hemisphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Stefano, Marirosa; Marano, Elena; Viti, Marzia

    2004-01-01

    The assessment of language laterality by the dichotic fused-words test may be impaired by interference effects revealed by the dominant report of one member of the stimuli-pair. Stimulus-dominance and ear asymmetry were evaluated in normal population (48 subjects of both sex and handedness) and in 2 patients with a single functional hemisphere.…

  12. Effects of the Nerve Mobilization Technique on Lower Limb Function in Patients with Poststroke Hemiparesis

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Hyun-Kyu; Cho, Hyuk-Shin; Choi, Jong-Duk

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of a sciatic nerve mobilization technique on improvement of lower limb function in patient with poststroke hemiparesis. [Subjects] Twenty- two stroke patients participated in this study. [Methods] They were randomly selected based on selection criteria and divided into two groups. In the subject group (n=10), sciatic nerve mobilization with conventional physical therapy was applied to patients. In the control group (n=10), only conventional physical therapy was applied to stroke patients. [Results] There were significant differences between the two groups in pressure, sway, total pressure, angle of the knee joint, and functional reaching test results in the intervention at two weeks and at four weeks. [Conclusion] The present study showed that sciatic nerve mobilization with conventional physical therapy was more effective for lower limb function than conventional physical therapy alone in patient with poststroke hemiparesis. PMID:25140078

  13. The role of attachment in the relationship between child maltreatment and later emotional and behavioral functioning.

    PubMed

    Lowell, Amanda; Renk, Kimberly; Adgate, Amanda Havill

    2014-09-01

    The experience of childhood maltreatment is an important predictor of unfavorable emotional and behavioral outcomes. Because little research examined explanatory variables in the relationship between childhood maltreatment experiences and later outcomes, this study examined the role that attachment serves in this relationship. Four hundred twenty-four participants completed questionnaires assessing the variables of interest for this study. Results indicated that both childhood maltreatment experiences (particularly emotional abuse) and attachment (particularly to mothers and peers) are significant predictors of later emotional and behavioral outcomes. Further, attachment contributed unique and significant variance to the relationship between childhood maltreatment experiences and later outcomes. Such findings suggested that secure attachment may serve as a protective factor against maladaptive emotional and behavioral outcomes as children reach emerging adulthood, even in the context of childhood maltreatment experiences. The importance of studying the relationships among these variables is discussed. PMID:24631414

  14. Self Perceived Emotional Functioning of Spanish Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Jesús S.; Salas, Teresa; Fajardo, María L.; Iváñez, Lourdes; Rodríguez-Santos, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Background: ALS is a neurodegenerative disease of the entire motor system that most frequently ends with respiratory arrest in few years. Its diagnosis and the rapid progression of the motor dysfunctions produce a continued emotional impact. Studies on this impact are helpful to plan adequate psychotherapeutic strategies. Objective: To assess and analyze: First: How the patients with ALS perceive their emotional health. Second: The emotional impact of their physical disabilities. Third: The physical disabilities with highest emotional impact. Fourth: The feelings with highest emotional impact. Methods: Up to 110 Spanish patients with ALS were assessed less than 1 year from diagnosis, then twice more at 6 month intervals, using the ALS Quality of Life Assessment Questionnaire (ALSAQ-40) validated for use in Spanish. Descriptive analysis and correlation between variables were obtained. Results: Worries about the future, of lack of freedom, and of being a burden were prevalent feelings. On average depression was felt only “sometimes.” Only 25% of the variations in the emotional state were explained by changes in the physical state at first evaluation, and 16% at the last one. Emotional functioning correlated significantly with the physical disabilities at first and second evaluation, less so at third. Communication disabilities always had the highest impact. Depression at first evaluation and hopelessness at the next two evaluations had the highest emotional impact. Hopelessness did not correlate with any physical disability at the third evaluation. On the whole, emotional dysfunction was self perceived as intermediate (between none and worst), and remained stable at 1 year follow up, in both bulbar and spinal onset patients. Conclusions: Physical dysfunctions per se have a limited role in patients´ emotional distress. Communication disabilities, as well as feelings of depression at early stages of illness, and of hopelessness later on, had the most impact

  15. Heterochrony, modularity, and the functional evolution of the mechanosensory lateral line canal system of fishes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The canals of the mechanosensory lateral line system are components of the dermatocranium, and demonstrate phenotypic variation in bony fishes. Widened lateral line canals evolved convergently in a limited number of families of teleost fishes and it had been hypothesized that they evolved from narrow canals via heterochrony and explore modularity in the lateral line system. Two species of cichlids with different canal phenotypes were used to test a hypothesis of heterochrony. Histological material prepared from ontogenetic series of Aulonocara stuartgranti (widened canals) and Tramitichromis sp. (narrow canals) was analyzed using ANCOVA to determine rates of increase in canal diameter and neuromast size (length, width) and to compare the timing of onset of critical stages in canal morphogenesis (enclosure, ossification). Results A faster rate of increase in canal diameter and neuromast width (but not length), and a delay in onset of canal morphogenesis were found in Aulonocara relative to Tramitichromis. However, rates of increase in canal diameter and neuromast size among canals, among canal portions and among canals segments reveal similar trends within both species. Conclusion The evolution of widened lateral line canals is the result of dissociated heterochrony - acceleration in the rate of increase of both canal diameter and neuromast size, and delay in the onset of canal morphogenesis, in Aulonocara (widened canals) relative to Tramitichromis (narrow canals). Common rates of increase in canal diameter and neuromast size among canal portions in different dermatocranial bones and among canal segments reflect the absence of local heterochronies, and suggest modular integration among canals in each species. Thus, canal and neuromast morphology are more strongly influenced by their identities as features of the lateral line system than by the attributes of the dermatocranial bones in which the canals are found. Rate heterochrony manifested during the

  16. Graph Theory Analysis of Functional Brain Networks and Mobility Disability in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Burdette, Jonathan H.; Morgan, Ashley R.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Laurienti, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The brain’s structural integrity is associated with mobility function in older adults. Changes in function may be evident earlier than changes in structure and may be more directly related to mobility. Therefore, we assessed whether functional brain networks varied with mobility function in older adults. Methods. Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging were collected on 24 young (mean age = 26.4±5.1) and 48 older (mean age = 72.04±5.1) participants. Older participants were divided into three groups by SPPB score: Low SPPB (score = 7–9), Mid SPPB (score = 10), High SPPB (score = 11–12).Graph theory–based methods were used to characterize and compare brain network organization. Results. Connectivity in the somatomotor cortex distinguished between groups based on SPPB score. The community structure of the somatomotor cortex was significantly less consistent in the Low SPPB group (mean = 0.097±0.05) compared with Young (mean = 0.163±0.09, p = .03) SPPB group. Striking differences were evident in second-order connections between somatomotor cortex and superior temporal gyrus and insula that reached statistical significance. The Low SPPB group (mean = 140.87±109.30) had a significantly higher number of connections than Young (mean = 45.05±33.79, p = .0003) or High (mean = 49.61±35.31, p = .002) SPPB group. Conclusions. Older adults with poorer mobility function exhibited reduced consistency of somatomotor community structure and a greater number of secondary connections with vestibular and multisensory regions of the brain. Further study is needed to fully interpret these effects, but analysis of functional brain networks adds new insights to the contribution of the brain to mobility. PMID:24717331

  17. Electron and thermal neutron lateral distribution functions in EAS at high altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchegolev, O. B.; Alekseenko, V. V.; Cai, Z. Y.; Cao, Z.; Cui, S. W.; Gromushkin, D. M.; Guo, X. W.; He, H. H.; Liu, Y.; Ma, X.; Stenkin, Yu V.; Stepanov, V. I.; Zhao, J.

    2016-05-01

    EAS array of novel type have been constructed on the base of ARGO-YBJ experiment (Tibet, China). It consists of the four specially designed scintillator en-detectors capable to measure two main EAS components: hadrons through thermal neutrons (n) and electrons (e). The results of simulation for these arrays using CORSIKA and GEANT4 codes are presented. Simulated thermal neutron and electron lateral distributions are compared with experimental data. Obtained distributions are compared with those obtained by other arrays.

  18. EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF CONTAMINANT METAL MOBILITY AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE, TIME, AND SOLUTION CHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We propose to determine the geochemical processes that control the mobility of Sr in the presence of clays (kaolinite, montmorillonite) and iron hydroxides (goethite) as a function of temperature, pH, and time. The objective of this work is to determine the fundamental data neede...

  19. Reliability of the Functional Mobility Scale for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Adrienne R.; Morris, Meg E.; Graham, H. Kerr; Wolfe, Rory; Baker, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This study examined inter-rater reliability of the Functional Mobility Scale (FMS) for children with cerebral palsy (CP) and the presence of rater bias. A consecutive sample of 118 children with CP, 2-18 years old (mean 10.3 years, SD 3.6), was recruited from a hospital setting. Children were classified using the gross motor function…

  20. Does quadriceps neuromuscular activation capability explain mobility function among older men and women?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age-related impairment of neuromuscular activation has been shown to contribute to weakness in older adults. However, it is unclear to what extent impaired neuromuscular activation independently accounts for decline of mobility function. The hypothesis of this study is that capability to produce rap...

  1. Temperature dependent carrier mobility in graphene: Effect of Pd nanoparticle functionalization and hydrogenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Bochen; Uddin, Md Ahsan; Singh, Amol; Webb, Richard; Koley, Goutam

    2016-02-01

    The two dimensional nature of graphene, with charge carriers confined within one atomic layer thickness, causes its electrical, optical, and sensing properties to be strongly influenced by the surrounding media and functionalization layers. In this study, the effect of catalytically active Pd nanoparticle (NP) functionalization and subsequent hydrogenation on the hall mobility and carrier density of chemical vapor deposition synthesized graphene has been investigated as a function of temperature. Prior to functionalization, the mobility decreased monotonically as the temperature was reduced from 298 to 10 K, indicating coulomb scattering as the dominant scattering mechanism as expected for bilayer graphene. Similar decreasing trend with temperature was also observed after 2 nm Pd deposition, however, hydrogenation of the Pd NP led to significant enhancement in mobility from ˜2250 to 3840 cm2/V s at room temperature, which further monotonically increased to 5280 cm2/V s at 10 K. We attribute this contrasting trend in temperature dependent mobility to a switch in the dominant scattering mechanism from coulomb to surface optical (SO) phonon scattering due to higher dielectric constant and polar nature of PdHx formed upon hydrogenation of the Pd NPs.

  2. Does neuromuscular activation capability explain mobility function among older men and women?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age-related impairment of neuromuscular activation has been shown to contribute to weakness in older adults. However, it is unclear to what extent impaired neuromuscular activation independently accounts for decline of mobility function. The hypothesis of this study is that capability to produce rap...

  3. Functional lateralization in cingulate cortex predicts motor recovery after basal ganglia stroke.

    PubMed

    Li, Yao; Chen, Zengai; Su, Xin; Zhang, Xiaoliu; Wang, Ping; Zhu, Yajing; Xu, Qun; Xu, Jianrong; Tong, Shanbao

    2016-02-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) is involved in higher order motor control such as movement planning and execution of complex motor synergies. Neuroimaging study on stroke patients specifically with BG lesions would help to clarify the consequence of BG damage on motor control. In this paper, we performed a longitudinal study in the stroke patients with lesions in BG regions across three motor recovery stages, i.e., less than 2week (Session 1), 1-3m (Session 2) and more than 3m (Session 3). The patients showed an activation shift from bilateral hemispheres during early sessions (<3m) to the ipsilesional cortex in late session (>3m), suggesting a compensation effect from the contralesional hemisphere during motor recovery. We found that the lateralization of cerebellum(CB) for affected hand task correlated with patients' concurrent Fugl-Meyer index (FMI) in Session 2. Moreover, the cingulate cortex lateralization index in Session 2 was shown to significantly correlate with subsequent FMI change between Session 3 and Session 2, which serves as a prognostic marker for motor recovery. Our findings consolidated the close interactions between BG and CB during the motor recovery after stroke. The dominance of activation in contralateral cingulate cortex was associated with a better motor recovery, suggesting the important role of ipsilesional attention modulation in the early stage after BG stroke. PMID:26742641

  4. A concept of an automated function control for ambient aerosol measurements using mobility particle size spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastian, S.; Löschau, G.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2014-04-01

    An automated function control unit was developed to regularly check the ambient particle number concentration derived from a mobility particle size spectrometer as well as its zero-point behaviour. The function control allows unattended quality assurance experiments at remote air quality monitoring or research stations under field conditions. The automated function control also has the advantage of being able to get a faster system stability response than the recommended on-site comparisons with reference instruments. The method is based on a comparison of the total particle number concentration measured by a mobility particle size spectrometer and a condensation particle counter while removing diffusive particles smaller than 20 nm in diameter. In practice, the small particles are removed by a set of diffusion screens, as traditionally used in a diffusion battery. Another feature of the automated function control is to check the zero-point behaviour of the ambient aerosol passing through a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. The performance of the function control is illustrated with the aid of a 1-year data set recorded at Annaberg-Buchholz, a station in the Saxon air quality monitoring network. During the period of concern, the total particle number concentration derived from the mobility particle size spectrometer slightly overestimated the particle number concentration recorded by the condensation particle counter by 2 % (grand average). Based on our first year of experience with the function control, we developed tolerance criteria that allow a performance evaluation of a tested mobility particle size spectrometer with respect to the total particle number concentration. We conclude that the automated function control enhances the quality and reliability of unattended long-term particle number size distribution measurements. This will have beneficial effects for intercomparison studies involving different measurement sites, and help provide a higher

  5. A concept of an automated function control for ambient aerosol measurements using mobility particle size spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schladitz, A.; Merkel, M.; Bastian, S.; Birmili, W.; Weinhold, K.; Löschau, G.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2013-12-01

    An automated function control unit was developed to regularly check the ambient particle number concentration derived from a mobility particle size spectrometer as well as its zero-point behaviour. The aim of the new feature is to conduct unattended quality control experiments under field conditions at remote air quality monitoring or research stations. The automated function control also has the advantage of being able to get a faster system stability response than the recommended on-site comparisons with reference instruments. The method is based on a comparison of the total particle number concentration measured by a mobility particle size spectrometer and a condensation particle counter removing the diffusive particles approximately smaller than 25 nm in diameter. In practice, the small particles are removed by a set of diffusion screens, as traditionally used in a diffusion battery. The other feature of the automated function control is to check the zero-point behaviour of the ambient aerosol passing through a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. An exemplary one-year data set is presented for the measurement site Annaberg-Buchholz as part of the Saxon air quality monitoring network. The total particle number concentration derived from the mobility particle size spectrometer overestimates the particle number concentration by only 2% (grand average offset). Furthermore, tolerance criteria are presented to judge the performance of the mobility particle size spectrometer with respect to the particle number concentration. An upgrade of a mobility particle size spectrometer with an automated function control enhances the quality of long-term particle number size distribution measurements. Quality assured measurements are a precondition for intercomparison studies of different sites. Comparable measurements will improve cohort health and also climate-relevant research studies.

  6. Widespread Structural and Functional Connectivity Changes in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Insights from Advanced Neuroimaging Research

    PubMed Central

    Trojsi, Francesca; Monsurrò, Maria Rosaria; Esposito, Fabrizio; Tedeschi, Gioacchino

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe neurodegenerative disease principally affecting motor neurons. Besides motor symptoms, a subset of patients develop cognitive disturbances or even frontotemporal dementia (FTD), indicating that ALS may also involve extramotor brain regions. Both neuropathological and neuroimaging findings have provided further insight on the widespread effect of the neurodegeneration on brain connectivity and the underlying neurobiology of motor neurons degeneration. However, associated effects on motor and extramotor brain networks are largely unknown. Particularly, neuropathological findings suggest that ALS not only affects the frontotemporal network but rather is part of a wide clinicopathological spectrum of brain disorders known as TAR-DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) proteinopathies. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge concerning the neuropsychological and neuropathological sequelae of TDP-43 proteinopathies, with special focus on the neuroimaging findings associated with cognitive change in ALS. PMID:22720174

  7. Effects of blueberry supplementation on measures of functional mobility in older adults.

    PubMed

    Schrager, Matthew A; Hilton, James; Gould, Richard; Kelly, Valerie E

    2015-06-01

    Limited functional mobility in older adults has been associated with declines in tests of motor, psychomotor, and executive function. Animal studies have demonstrated reversals in indices of motor and psychomotor function via supplementation with polyphenolic-rich foods such as blueberries. The purpose of this study was to examine whether 6 weeks of daily consumption of 2 cups of frozen blueberries affects functional mobility in older adults. Pre- and post-intervention assessments of grip strength, simple reaction time, adaptive gait, and executive function were completed for older adults (age >60 years) partially randomly assigned to a blueberry (BB) supplementation or a carrot juice drink control (CAR) group. Paired t tests were used to assess within-group effects for outcome variables in each supplementation group, and a mixed-model analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to determine group (CAR vs. BB) differences. Mixed-model analysis indicated that the BB group demonstrated significant improvements relative to the CAR group in performance (i.e., number of step errors) of a challenging dual-task adaptive gait test that were independent of differences in gait speed. Within only the BB group, significant improvements were also seen in 3 other measures (i.e., usual gait speed; number of step errors during single-task adaptive gait; and gait speed during dual-task adaptive gait). These preliminary findings support the hypothesis that blueberry supplementation may provide an effective countermeasure to age-related declines in functional mobility and serve as justification for an expansion to larger trials to more fully assess this nonpharmacologic approach to maintaining optimal mobility and independence. PMID:25909473

  8. Conserved Functions of the MATE Transporter BIG EMBRYO1 in Regulation of Lateral Organ Size and Initiation Rate.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masaharu; Sato, Yutaka; Wu, Shan; Kang, Byung-Ho; McCarty, Donald R

    2015-08-01

    Genetic networks that determine rates of organ initiation and organ size are key regulators of plant architecture. Whereas several genes that influence the timing of lateral organ initiation have been identified, the regulatory pathways in which these genes operate are poorly understood. Here, we identify a class of genes implicated in regulation of the lateral organ initiation rate. Loss-of-function mutations in the MATE transporter encoded by maize (Zea mays) Big embryo 1 (Bige1) cause accelerated leaf and root initiation as well as enlargement of the embryo scutellum. BIGE1 is localized to trans-Golgi, indicating a possible role in secretion of a signaling molecule. Interestingly, phenotypes of bige1 bear striking similarity to cyp78a mutants identified in diverse plant species. We show that a CYP78A gene is upregulated in bige1 mutant embryos, suggesting a role for BIGE1 in feedback regulation of a CYP78A pathway. We demonstrate that accelerated leaf formation and early flowering phenotypes conditioned by mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana BIGE1 orthologs are complemented by maize Bige1, showing that the BIGE1 transporter has a conserved function in regulation of lateral organ initiation in plants. We propose that BIGE1 is required for transport of an intermediate or product associated with the CYP78A pathway. PMID:26276834

  9. Conserved Functions of the MATE Transporter BIG EMBRYO1 in Regulation of Lateral Organ Size and Initiation Rate

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masaharu; Sato, Yutaka; Wu, Shan; Kang, Byung-Ho; McCarty, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic networks that determine rates of organ initiation and organ size are key regulators of plant architecture. Whereas several genes that influence the timing of lateral organ initiation have been identified, the regulatory pathways in which these genes operate are poorly understood. Here, we identify a class of genes implicated in regulation of the lateral organ initiation rate. Loss-of-function mutations in the MATE transporter encoded by maize (Zea mays) Big embryo 1 (Bige1) cause accelerated leaf and root initiation as well as enlargement of the embryo scutellum. BIGE1 is localized to trans-Golgi, indicating a possible role in secretion of a signaling molecule. Interestingly, phenotypes of bige1 bear striking similarity to cyp78a mutants identified in diverse plant species. We show that a CYP78A gene is upregulated in bige1 mutant embryos, suggesting a role for BIGE1 in feedback regulation of a CYP78A pathway. We demonstrate that accelerated leaf formation and early flowering phenotypes conditioned by mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana BIGE1 orthologs are complemented by maize Bige1, showing that the BIGE1 transporter has a conserved function in regulation of lateral organ initiation in plants. We propose that BIGE1 is required for transport of an intermediate or product associated with the CYP78A pathway. PMID:26276834

  10. Association between perinatal methylation of the neuronal differentiation regulator HES1 and later childhood neurocognitive function and behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Lillycrop, Karen A; Costello, Paula M; Teh, Ai Ling; Murray, Robert J; Clarke-Harris, Rebecca; Barton, Sheila J; Garratt, Emma S; Ngo, Sherry; Sheppard, Allan M; Wong, Johnny; Dogra, Shaillay; Burdge, Graham C; Cooper, Cyrus; Inskip, Hazel M; Gale, Catharine R; Gluckman, Peter D; Harvey, Nicholas C; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Meaney, Michael J; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Holbrook, Joanna D; Godfrey, Keith M

    2015-01-01

    Background Early life environments induce long-term changes in neurocognitive development and behaviour. In animal models, early environmental cues affect neuropsychological phenotypes via epigenetic processes but, as yet, there is little direct evidence for such mechanisms in humans. Method We examined the relation between DNA methylation at birth and child neuropsychological outcomes in two culturally diverse populations using a genome-wide methylation analysis and validation by pyrosequencing. Results Within the UK Southampton Women’s Survey (SWS) we first identified 41 differentially methylated regions of interest (DMROI) at birth associated with child’s full-scale IQ at age 4 years. Associations between HES1 DMROI methylation and later cognitive function were confirmed by pyrosequencing in 175 SWS children. Consistent with these findings, higher HES1 methylation was associated with higher executive memory function in a second independent group of 200 SWS 7-year-olds. Finally, we examined a pathway for this relationship within a Singaporean cohort (n = 108). Here, HES1 DMROI methylation predicted differences in early infant behaviour, known to be associated with academic success. In vitro, methylation of HES1 inhibited ETS transcription factor binding, suggesting a functional role of this site. Conclusions Thus, our findings suggest that perinatal epigenetic processes mark later neurocognitive function and behaviour, providing support for a role of epigenetic processes in mediating the long-term consequences of early life environment on cognitive development. PMID:25906782

  11. Effects of a low-volume, vigorous intensity step exercise program on functional mobility in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Doheny, Emer P; McGrath, Denise; Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Mair, Jacqueline L; Greene, Barry R; Caulfield, Brian; De Vito, Giuseppe; Lowery, Madeleine M

    2013-08-01

    Aging-related decline in functional mobility is associated with loss of independence. This decline may be mitigated through programs of physical activity. Despite reports of aging-related mobility impairment in middle-aged adults, this age group has been largely overlooked in terms of exercise programs that target functional mobility and the preservation of independence in older age. A method to quantitatively assess changes in functional mobility could direct rehabilitation in a proactive rather than reactive manner. Thirty-three healthy but sedentary middle-aged adults participated in a four week low-volume, vigorous intensity stepping exercise program. Two baseline testing sessions and one post-training testing session were conducted. Functional mobility was assessed using the timed up and go (TUG) test, with its constituent sit-to-walk and walk-to-sit phases examined using a novel inertial sensor-based method. Additionally, semi-tandem balance and knee extensor muscle isometric torque were assessed. Trunk acceleration during walk-to-sit reduced significantly post-training, suggesting altered movement control due to the exercise program. No significant training-induced changes in sit-to-walk acceleration, TUG time, balance or torque were observed. The novel method of functional mobility assessment presented provides a reliable means to quantify subtle changes in mobility during postural transitions. Over time, this exercise program may improve functional mobility. PMID:23568151

  12. Fifty Years Later: The Sequence, Structure and Function of Lacewing Cross-beta Silk

    SciTech Connect

    Weisman, Sarah; Okada, Shoko; Mudie, Stephen T.; Huson, Mickey G.; Trueman, Holly E.; Sriskantha, Alagacone; Haritos, Victoria S.; Sutherland, Tara D.

    2009-12-01

    Classic studies of protein structure in the 1950s and 1960s demonstrated that green lacewing egg stalk silk possesses a rare native cross-beta sheet conformation. We have identified and sequenced the silk genes expressed by adult females of a green lacewing species. The two encoded silk proteins are 109 and 67 kDa in size and rich in serine, glycine and alanine. Over 70% of each protein sequence consists of highly repetitive regions with 16-residue periodicity. The repetitive sequences can be fitted to an elegant cross-beta sheet structural model with protein chains folded into regular 8-residue long beta strands. This model is supported by wide-angle X-ray scattering data and tensile testing from both our work and the original papers. We suggest that the silk proteins assemble into stacked beta sheet crystallites bound together by a network of cystine cross-links. This hierarchical structure gives the lacewing silk high lateral stiffness nearly threefold that of silkworm silk, enabling the egg stalks to effectively suspend eggs and protect them from predators.

  13. Propositional Density and Cognitive Function in Later Life: Findings From the Precursors Study

    PubMed Central

    Agree, Emily M.; Meoni, Lucy A.; Klag, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We used longitudinal data from the Johns Hopkins Precursors Study to test the hypothesis that written propositional density measured early in life is lower for people who develop dementia categorized as Alzheimer's disease (AD). This association was reported in 1996 for the Nun Study, and the Precursors Study offered an unprecedented chance to reexamine it among respondents with different gender, education, and occupation profiles. Methods. Eighteen individuals classified as AD patients (average age at diagnosis: 74) were assigned 2 sex-and-age matched controls, and propositional density in medical school admission essays (average age at writing: 22) was assessed via Computerized Propositional Idea Density Rater 3 linguistic analysis software. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for the matched case-control study were calculated using conditional (fixed-effects) logistic regression. Results. Mean propositional density is lower for cases than for controls (4.70 vs. 4.99 propositions per 10 words, 1-sided p = .01). Higher propositional density substantially lowers the odds of AD (OR = 0.16, 95% confidence interval = 0.03-0.90, 1-sided p = .02). Discussion. Propositional density scores in writing samples from early adulthood appear to predict AD in later life for men as well as women. Studies of cognition across the life course might beneficially incorporate propositional density as a potential marker of cognitive reserve. PMID:20837676

  14. Sleep disorders and diaphragmatic function in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Arnulf, I; Similowski, T; Salachas, F; Garma, L; Mehiri, S; Attali, V; Behin-Bellhesen, V; Meininger, V; Derenne, J P

    2000-03-01

    In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the progressive loss of upper and lower motor neurons leads to respiratory failure, often with predominant diaphragm dysfunction, and death. Because the diaphragm is the only active inspiratory muscle during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, there is a high theoretical risk of respiratory disorders during REM sleep in patients with ALS. To assess this hypothesis, we studied sleep characteristics (polysomnography) in 21 patients with ALS, stratified according to the presence or absence of diaphragmatic dysfunction. Diaphragmatic dysfunction was defined as an absent or delayed diaphragm response to cervical or cortical magnetic stimulation, abdominal paradox, or respiratory pulse (Group 1, 13 patients). These patients did not differ in age, clinical course, or form (bulbar or spinal) from the eight others, who did not have diaphragmatic dysfunction (Group 2). REM sleep was reduced in Group 1 (7 +/- 7% of total sleep time; mean +/- SD) and normal in Group 2 (18 +/- 6%, p = 0.004). Apneas or hypopneas were rare in both groups. In Group 1, REM sleep was absent or minimal (less than 3 min) in five patients. An unusual and remarkable preservation of phasic inspiratory sternomastoid activation during REM was associated with longer REM sleep duration in six of the other patients with diaphragmatic dysfunction. Median survival time was dramatically shorter (217 d) in Group 1 than in Group 2 (619 d, p = 0.015). PMID:10712332

  15. Skeletal Muscle Remodelling as a Function of Disease Progression in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Jensen, L; Jørgensen, L H; Bech, R D; Frandsen, U; Schrøder, H D

    2016-01-01

    Muscle weakness is considered the pivotal sign of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Knowledge about the skeletal muscle degeneration/regeneration process and the myogenic potential is limited in ALS patients. Therefore, we investigate these processes in a time course perspective by analysing skeletal muscle biopsies from ALS patients collected before and after a 12-week period of normal daily activities and compare these with healthy age-matched control tissue. We do this by evaluating mRNA and protein (immunohistochemical) markers of regeneration, neurodegeneration, myogenesis, cell cycle regulation, and inflammation. Our results show morphological changes indicative of active denervation and reinnervation and an increase in small atrophic fibres. We demonstrate differences between ALS and controls in pathways controlling skeletal muscle homeostasis, cytoskeletal and regenerative markers, neurodegenerative factors, myogenic factors, cell cycle determinants, and inflammatory markers. Our results on Pax7 and MyoD protein expression suggest that proliferation and differentiation of skeletal muscle stem cells are affected in ALS patients, and the myogenic processes cannot overcome the denervation-induced wasting. PMID:27195289

  16. Skeletal Muscle Remodelling as a Function of Disease Progression in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, L.; Jørgensen, L. H.; Bech, R. D.; Frandsen, U.; Schrøder, H. D.

    2016-01-01

    Muscle weakness is considered the pivotal sign of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Knowledge about the skeletal muscle degeneration/regeneration process and the myogenic potential is limited in ALS patients. Therefore, we investigate these processes in a time course perspective by analysing skeletal muscle biopsies from ALS patients collected before and after a 12-week period of normal daily activities and compare these with healthy age-matched control tissue. We do this by evaluating mRNA and protein (immunohistochemical) markers of regeneration, neurodegeneration, myogenesis, cell cycle regulation, and inflammation. Our results show morphological changes indicative of active denervation and reinnervation and an increase in small atrophic fibres. We demonstrate differences between ALS and controls in pathways controlling skeletal muscle homeostasis, cytoskeletal and regenerative markers, neurodegenerative factors, myogenic factors, cell cycle determinants, and inflammatory markers. Our results on Pax7 and MyoD protein expression suggest that proliferation and differentiation of skeletal muscle stem cells are affected in ALS patients, and the myogenic processes cannot overcome the denervation-induced wasting. PMID:27195289

  17. B lymphocytes trigger monocyte mobilization and impair heart function after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Zouggari, Yasmine; Ait-Oufella, Hafid; Bonnin, Philippe; Simon, Tabassome; Sage, Andrew P; Guérin, Coralie; Vilar, José; Caligiuri, Giuseppina; Tsiantoulas, Dimitrios; Laurans, Ludivine; Dumeau, Edouard; Kotti, Salma; Bruneval, Patrick; Charo, Israel F; Binder, Christoph J; Danchin, Nicolas; Tedgui, Alain; Tedder, Thomas F; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien; Mallat, Ziad

    2013-10-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is a severe ischemic disease responsible for heart failure and sudden death. Here, we show that after acute myocardial infarction in mice, mature B lymphocytes selectively produce Ccl7 and induce Ly6C(hi) monocyte mobilization and recruitment to the heart, leading to enhanced tissue injury and deterioration of myocardial function. Genetic (Baff receptor deficiency) or antibody-mediated (CD20- or Baff-specific antibody) depletion of mature B lymphocytes impeded Ccl7 production and monocyte mobilization, limited myocardial injury and improved heart function. These effects were recapitulated in mice with B cell-selective Ccl7 deficiency. We also show that high circulating concentrations of CCL7 and BAFF in patients with acute myocardial infarction predict increased risk of death or recurrent myocardial infarction. This work identifies a crucial interaction between mature B lymphocytes and monocytes after acute myocardial ischemia and identifies new therapeutic targets for acute myocardial infarction. PMID:24037091

  18. Functional and pathological relevance of HERC family proteins: a decade later.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Tena, Susana; Cubillos-Rojas, Monica; Schneider, Taiane; Rosa, Jose Luis

    2016-05-01

    The HERC gene family encodes proteins with two characteristic domains in their sequence: the HECT domain and the RCC1-like domain (RLD). In humans, the HERC family comprises six members that can be divided into two groups based on their molecular mass and domain structure. Whereas large HERCs (HERC1 and HERC2) contain one HECT and more than one RLD, small HERCs (HERC3-6) possess single HECT and RLD domains. Accumulating evidence shows the HERC family proteins to be key components of a wide range of cellular functions, including neurodevelopment, DNA damage repair, cell growth and immune response. Considering the significant recent advances made regarding HERC functionality, an updated review summarizing the progress is greatly needed at 10 years since the last HERC review. We provide an integrated view of HERC function and go into detail about its implications for several human diseases such as cancer and neurological disorders. PMID:26801221

  19. Investigating the Cherenkov light lateral distribution function for primary proton and iron nuclei in extensive air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Rubaiee, A. A.; Hashim, U.; Al-Douri, Y.

    2015-11-01

    The lateral distribution function (LDF) of Cherenkov radiation in extensive air showers (EAS) was simulated by CORSIKA program for the conditions of Yakutsk Cherenkov array at the high energy range (1013-1016) eV for two primary particles (p and Fe) for different zenith angles. By depending on Breit-Wigner function for analyzing of Cherenkov light LDF, a parameterization of Cherenkov light LDF was reconstructed by depending on CORSIKA simulation as a function of primary energy. The comparison between the estimated Cherenkov light LDF with the LDF that measured on the Yakutsk EAS array gives the ability of particle identification that initiated the shower and determination of particle's energy around the knee region. The extrapolation of approximated Cherenkov light LDF for energies 20 and 30 PeV was obtained for primary particles (p and Fe).

  20. Immune responses at brain barriers and implications for brain development and neurological function in later life

    PubMed Central

    Stolp, Helen B.; Liddelow, Shane A.; Sá-Pereira, Inês; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M.; Saunders, Norman R.

    2013-01-01

    For a long time the brain has been considered an immune-privileged site due to a muted inflammatory response and the presence of protective brain barriers. It is now recognized that neuroinflammation may play an important role in almost all neurological disorders and that the brain barriers may be contributing through either normal immune signaling or disruption of their basic physiological mechanisms. The distinction between normal function and dysfunction at the barriers is difficult to dissect, partly due to a lack of understanding of normal barrier function and partly because of physiological changes that occur as part of normal development and ageing. Brain barriers consist of a number of interacting structural and physiological elements including tight junctions between adjacent barrier cells and an array of influx and efflux transporters. Despite these protective mechanisms, the capacity for immune-surveillance of the brain is maintained, and there is evidence of inflammatory signaling at the brain barriers that may be an important part of the body's response to damage or infection. This signaling system appears to change both with normal ageing, and during disease. Changes may affect diapedesis of immune cells and active molecular transfer, or cause rearrangement of the tight junctions and an increase in passive permeability across barrier interfaces. Here we review the many elements that contribute to brain barrier functions and how they respond to inflammation, particularly during development and aging. The implications of inflammation–induced barrier dysfunction for brain development and subsequent neurological function are also discussed. PMID:23986663

  1. Primary Cortical Folding in the Human Newborn: An Early Marker of Later Functional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubois, J.; Benders, M.; Borradori-Tolsa, C.; Cachia, A.; Lazeyras, F.; Leuchter, R. Ha-Vinh; Sizonenko, S. V.; Warfield, S. K.; Mangin, J. F.; Huppi, P. S.

    2008-01-01

    In the human brain, the morphology of cortical gyri and sulci is complex and variable among individuals, and it may reflect pathological functioning with specific abnormalities observed in certain developmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Since cortical folding occurs early during brain development, these structural abnormalities might be…

  2. Do Executive Function Deficits Predict Later Substance Use Disorders among Adolescents and Young Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilens, Timothy E.; Martelon, MaryKate; Fried, Ronna; Petty, Carter; Bateman, Clancey; Biederman, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Objective: There is increasing interest regarding the risk and overlap of executive function deficits (EFDs) in stable cigarette smoking and substance use disorders (SUD). Therefore, we examined whether earlier EFD was a risk factor for subsequent cigarette smoking and SUD and further explored the relationship between EFD and SUD. Method: We…

  3. Electromyographic assessment of forearm muscle function in tennis players with and without Lateral Epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Alizadehkhaiyat, Omid; Frostick, Simon P

    2015-12-01

    There is no consensus about the main aetiology of Lateral Epicondylitis (LE) or Tennis Elbow. While electromyographic assessment of alterations in neuromuscular control and activation patterns of forearm muscles has received increasing interest as potential intrinsic factors in non-tennis players, there has been insufficient attention in tennis players. The purpose of present review was to search the literature for the electromyographic studies of forearm muscles in tennis players in order to (1) identify related implications for LE, (2) highlight key technical and methodological shortcomings, and (3) suggest potential pathways for future research. An electronic search of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholars (1980 to October 2014) was conducted. Titles, abstracts, and full-text articles were screened to identify "peer-reviewed" studies specifically looking into "electromyographic assessment of forearm muscles" in "tennis players". After screening 104 articles, 13 original articles were considered in the main review involving a total of 216 participants (78% male, 22% female). There were indications of increased wrist extensor activity in all tennis strokes and less experienced single-handed players, however with insufficient evidence to support their relationship with the development of LE. Studies varied widely in study population, sample size, gender, level of tennis skills, electrode type, forearm muscles studied, EMG recording protocol, EMG normalisation method, and reported parameters. As a result, it was not possible to present combined results of existing studies and draw concrete conclusions in terms of clinical implications of findings. There is a need for establishment of specific guidelines and recommendations for EMG assessment of forearm musculature particularly in terms of electrode and muscle selection. Further studies of both healthy controls and tennis players suffering from LE with adequate sample sizes and well-defined demographics

  4. Clinical and electrophysiological assessment of inferior alveolar nerve function after lateral nerve transposition.

    PubMed

    Nocini, P F; De Santis, D; Fracasso, E; Zanette, G

    1999-04-01

    Inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) transposition surgery may cause some degree of sensory impairment. Accurate and reproducible tests are mandatory to assess IAN conduction capacity following nerve transposition. In this study subjective (heat, pain and tactile-discriminative tests) and objective (electrophysiological) assessments were performed in 10 patients receiving IAN transposition (bilaterally in 8 cases) in order to evaluate any impairment of the involved nerves one year post-operatively. All patients reported a tingling, well-tolerated sensation in the areas supplied by the mental nerve with no anaesthesia or burning paresthesia. Tactile discrimination was affected the most (all but 1 patient). No action potential was recorded in 4 patients' sides (23.5%); 12 sides showed a decreased nerve conduction velocity (NCV) (70.5%) and 1 side normal NCV values (6%). There was no significant difference in NCV decrease between partial and total transposition sides, if examined separately. Nerve conduction findings were related 2-point discrimination scores, but not to changes in pain and heat sensitivity. These findings show that lateral nerve transposition, though resulting in a high percentage of minor IAN injuries, as determined by electrophysiological testing, provides a viable surgical procedure to allow implant placement in the posterior mandible without causing severe sensory complaints. Considering ethical and forensic implications, patients should be fully informed that a certain degree of nerve injury might be expected to occur from the procedure. Electrophysiological evaluation is a reliable way to assess the degree of IAN dysfunction, especially if combined with a clinical examination. Intraoperative monitoring of IAN conduction might help identify the pathogenetic mechanisms of nerve injury and the surgical steps that are most likely to harm nerve integrity. PMID:10219131

  5. Electrical stimulation as a treatment intervention to improve function, edema or pain following acute lateral ankle sprains: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Feger, Mark A; Goetschius, John; Love, Hailey; Saliba, Sue A; Hertel, Jay

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to assess whether electrical stimulation (ES), when used in conjunction with a standard treatment, can reduce levels of functional impairment, edema, and pain compared to a standard treatment alone, in patients following a lateral ankle sprain. We searched PubMed, CINAHL, SportDiscus, and Medline (OVID) databases through June 2014 using the terms "ankle sprain or ankle sprains or ligament injury or ligamentous injury," and "electric stimulation or electric stimulation or electrotherapy." Our search identified four randomized control trials, of which, neuromuscular ES and high-voltage pulsed stimulation were the only two ES modalities utilized. Effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cohen's d for comparison between treatment groups. Three of four effect sizes for function had 95% CI that crossed zero. Twenty-four of the thirty-two effect sizes for edema had 95% CI that crossed zero. All effect sizes for pain had 95% CI that crossed zero. Therefore, the use of ES is not recommended as a means to improve function, reduce edema, or decrease pain in the treatment of acute lateral ankle sprains. PMID:25791198

  6. Issues in localization of brain function: The case of lateralized frontal cortex in cognition, emotion, and psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Gregory A.; Crocker, Laura D.; Spielberg, Jeffrey M.; Infantolino, Zachary P.; Heller, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    The appeal of simple, sweeping portraits of large-scale brain mechanisms relevant to psychological phenomena competes with a rich, complex research base. As a prominent example, two views of frontal brain organization have emphasized dichotomous lateralization as a function of either emotional valence (positive/negative) or approach/avoidance motivation. Compelling findings support each. The literature has struggled to choose between them for three decades, without success. Both views are proving untenable as comprehensive models. Evidence of other frontal lateralizations, involving distinctions among dimensions of depression and anxiety, make a dichotomous view even more problematic. Recent evidence indicates that positive valence and approach motivation are associated with different areas in the left-hemisphere. Findings that appear contradictory at the level of frontal lobes as the units of analysis can be accommodated because hemodynamic and electromagnetic neuroimaging studies suggest considerable functional differentiation, in specialization and activation, of subregions of frontal cortex, including their connectivity to each other and to other regions. Such findings contribute to a more nuanced understanding of functional localization that accommodates aspects of multiple theoretical perspectives. PMID:23386814

  7. Correlation between ambulatory function and clinical factors in hemiplegic patients with intact single lateral corticospinal tract: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ji Seong; Kim, Jong Moon; Kim, Hyoung Seop

    2016-08-01

    To define the relationship between the complete destruction of 1 lateral corticospinal tract (CST), as demonstrated by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography, and ambulatory function 6 months following stroke.Twenty-six adults (17 male, 9 female) with poststroke hemiplegia who were transferred to the physical medicine and rehabilitation department. Participants underwent DTI tractography, which showed that 1 lateral CST had been clearly destroyed.Functional ambulation classification (FAC) scores at admission, discharge, and 6 months after discharge were used to evaluate the patients' ability to walk. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and the Korean version of the modified Barthel index (K-MBI) at admission, discharge, and 6 months after discharge were used to evaluate the degree of functional recovery.Of the 26 patients, 18 were nonambulatory (FAC level 1-3), and 8 were able to walk without support (FAC level 4-6). The type of stroke (infarction or hemorrhage), site of the lesion, spasticity of lower extremities, cranioplasty, and the time taken from onset to MRI were not statistically significantly correlated with the ability to walk. However, statistically significant correlations were found in relation to age, K-MBI scores, and initial NIHSS scores.Despite the complete damage to the lesion site and the preservation of 1 unilateral CST, as shown by DTI, good outcomes can be predicted on the basis of younger age, low NIHSS scores, and high MBI scores at onset. PMID:27495041

  8. Lateralized Resting-State Functional Brain Network Organization Changes in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Park, Bumhee; Roy, Bhaswati; Woo, Mary A.; Palomares, Jose A.; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Harper, Ronald M.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) patients show brain injury in autonomic, affective, and cognitive sites, which can change resting-state functional connectivity (FC), potentially altering overall functional brain network organization. However, the status of such connectivity or functional organization is unknown in HF. Determination of that status was the aim here, and we examined region-to-region FC and brain network topological properties across the whole-brain in 27 HF patients compared to 53 controls with resting-state functional MRI procedures. Decreased FC in HF appeared between the caudate and cerebellar regions, olfactory and cerebellar sites, vermis and medial frontal regions, and precentral gyri and cerebellar areas. However, increased FC emerged between the middle frontal gyrus and sensorimotor areas, superior parietal gyrus and orbito/medial frontal regions, inferior temporal gyrus and lingual gyrus/cerebellar lobe/pallidum, fusiform gyrus and superior orbitofrontal gyrus and cerebellar sites, and within vermis and cerebellar areas; these connections were largely in the right hemisphere (p<0.005; 10,000 permutations). The topology of functional integration and specialized characteristics in HF are significantly changed in regions showing altered FC, an outcome which would interfere with brain network organization (p<0.05; 10,000 permutations). Brain dysfunction in HF extends to resting conditions, and autonomic, cognitive, and affective deficits may stem from altered FC and brain network organization that may contribute to higher morbidity and mortality in the condition. Our findings likely result from the prominent axonal and nuclear structural changes reported earlier in HF; protecting neural tissue may improve FC integrity, and thus, increase quality of life and reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:27203600

  9. DIABETES IMPAIRS HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL MOBILIZATION THROUGH ALTERATION OF NICHE FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Francesca; Lymperi, Stefania; Méndez-Ferrer, Simón; Saez, Borja; Spencer, Joel A; Yeap, Beow Y; Masselli, Elena; Graiani, Gallia; Prezioso, Lucia; Rizzini, Elisa Lodi; Mangoni, Marcellina; Rizzoli, Vittorio; Sykes, Stephen M; Lin, Charles P.; Frenette, Paul S.; Quaini, Federico; Scadden, David T.

    2013-01-01

    Autologous hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) transplantation success depends upon adequate cell collection after G-CSF-administration that a substantial fraction of patients fails to achieve. Retrospective analysis of patient records demonstrated that diabetes correlated with lower CD34+ cell mobilization. Using mouse models, we found impaired HSPC egress from the bone marrow in either streptozotocin-induced or db/db diabetic animals. HSPC aberrantly localized within the marrow microenvironment of diabetic animals in association with abnormalities in sympathetic neuron number and function. Markedly increased sympathetic neuron density was accompanied by abnormal response to β-adrenergic stimulation and a failure to generate the G-CSF-induced CXCL12 gradient in nestin-expressing mesenchymal cells associated with HSPC mobilization. Alternative mobilization by direct pharmacologic inhibition of CXCL12-CXCR4 interaction rescued the defect. These data reveal diabetes-induced changes in bone marrow physiology and microanatomy and point to a pathophysiologically based approach to overcome HSPC mobilization defects in diabetic patients. PMID:21998408

  10. Association between mid-life marital status and cognitive function in later life: population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Håkansson, Krister; Rovio, Suvi; Helkala, Eeva-Liisa; Vilska, Anna-Riitta; Winblad, Bengt; Soininen, Hilkka; Nissinen, Aulikki; Mohammed, Abdul H

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate whether mid-life marital status is related to cognitive function in later life. Design Prospective population based study with an average follow-up of 21 years. Setting Kuopio and Joensuu regions in eastern Finland. Participants Participants were derived from random, population based samples previously investigated in 1972, 1977, 1982, or 1987; 1449 individuals (73%), aged 65-79, underwent re-examination in 1998. Main outcome measures Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment. Results People cohabiting with a partner in mid-life (mean age 50.4) were less likely than all other categories (single, separated, or widowed) to show cognitive impairment later in life at ages 65-79. Those widowed or divorced in mid-life and still so at follow-up had three times the risk compared with married or cohabiting people. Those widowed both at mid-life and later life had an odds ratio of 7.67 (1.6 to 40.0) for Alzheimer’s disease compared with married or cohabiting people. The highest increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease was in carriers of the apolipoprotein E e4 allele who lost their partner before mid-life and were still widowed or divorced at follow-up. The progressive entering of several adjustment variables from mid-life did not alter these associations. Conclusions Living in a relationship with a partner might imply cognitive and social challenges that have a protective effect against cognitive impairment later in life, consistent with the brain reserve hypothesis. The specific increased risk for widowed and divorced people compared with single people indicates that other factors are needed to explain parts of the results. A sociogenetic disease model might explain the dramatic increase in risk of Alzheimer’s disease for widowed apolipoprotein E e4 carriers. PMID:19574312

  11. Identification and characterization of RP1 Tra1 cistrons involved in pilus function and plasmid mobilization.

    PubMed Central

    Fong, S T; Stanisich, V A

    1993-01-01

    Transfer-defective mutants of the Tra1 region of RP1 were isolated. Complementation studies involving stable heterozygotes combined with the mapping of Tn5 insertion mutations revealed two pilus cistrons, pilA and pilB, at positions 46.9 to 48.2 kb and 46.0 to 46.4 kb, respectively. All pilB mutants were Dps- (i.e., resistant to donor-specific phages PR4 and PRR1), whereas pilA mutants were Dps- (promoter-proximal mutations), Dps+/- (sensitive only to PR4 [more centrally located mutations]), or Dps+ (sensitive to both phages [promoter-distal mutations]). The correlation between the site mutated and the Dps phenotype, together with the finding that certain Dps+ pilA mutants continued to mobilize nonconjugative plasmids, suggested that pilA is bifunctional, contributing both to pilus function (at the promoter-proximal end) and to RP1 mobilization. It was also shown that the 43.5- to 49.5-kb region that includes pilA and pilB encodes all of the Tra1 pilus functions required for propagation of donor-specific phages and hence, probably, for pili that are active in conjugation. Finally, three cistrons that specifically affect RP1 mobilization were identified. Two of these, mobA and mobB, occur immediately anticlockwise to oriT and probably correspond to the traJ and traI genes characterized by other workers. The third cistron, mobC, occurs clockwise to oriT and may be a new mobilization gene, since its function can be substituted by IncP beta plasmids, a feature different from that of the traK mobilization gene which occurs in the same region but is RP1 specific. None of the mob cistrons was required for mobilization of nonconjugative plasmids, except for mobB, which was required by pVS99. PMID:8093446

  12. The Lateral Trigger Probability function for the ultra-high energy cosmic ray showers detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E.J.; Albuquerque, I.F.M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /Nijmegen U., IMAPP

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of Lateral Trigger Probability (LTP) function, i.e., the probability for an Extensive Air Shower (EAS) to trigger an individual detector of a ground based array as a function of distance to the shower axis, taking into account energy, mass and direction of the primary cosmic ray. We apply this concept to the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory consisting of a 1.5 km spaced grid of about 1600 water Cherenkov stations. Using Monte Carlo simulations of ultra-high energy showers the LTP functions are derived for energies in the range between 10{sup 17} and 10{sup 19} eV and zenith angles up to 65{sup o}. A parametrization combining a step function with an exponential is found to reproduce them very well in the considered range of energies and zenith angles. The LTP functions can also be obtained from data using events simultaneously observed by the fluorescence and the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory (hybrid events). We validate the Monte Carlo results showing how LTP functions from data are in good agreement with simulations.

  13. Total and specific polyphenol intakes in midlife are associated with cognitive function measured 13 years later.

    PubMed

    Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Fezeu, Léopold; Andreeva, Valentina A; Touvier, Mathilde; Scalbert, Augustin; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    Polyphenols, and in particular flavonoids, are omnipresent plant-food components displaying biochemical properties possibly beneficial to brain health. We sought to evaluate the long-term association between total and class-specific polyphenol intake and cognitive performance. Polyphenol intake was estimated using the Phenol-Explorer database applied to at least six 24-h dietary records collected in 1994-1996 as part of the SU.VI.MAX (Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants) study. The cognitive performance of 2574 middle-aged adults participating in the cohort was assessed in 2007-2009 using the following four neuropsychological tests: phonemic and semantic fluency, the RI-48 Cued Recall test, the Trail Making test, and Forward and Backward Digit Span. Inter-correlations among the test scores were estimated with principal component analysis. Associations between polyphenol intake and cognition were assessed by multivariate linear regression and ANCOVA. In multivariate models, high total polyphenol intake was associated with better language and verbal memory (P = 0.01) but not with executive functioning (P = 0.09). More specifically, intake of catechins (P = 0.001), theaflavins (P = 0.002), flavonols (P = 0.01), and hydroxybenzoic acids (P = 0.0004) was positively associated with language and verbal memory, especially with episodic memory assessed by the RI-48 test. In contrast, negative associations between scores on executive functioning and intake of dihydrochalcones (P = 0.01), catechins (P = 0.01), proanthocyanidins (P = 0.01), and flavonols (P = 0.01) were detected. High intake of specific polyphenols, including flavonoids and phenolic acids, may help to preserve verbal memory, which is a salient vulnerable domain in pathological brain aging. Further investigations are needed to clarify the observed negative associations regarding executive functioning. PMID:22090468

  14. Vibrotactile perceived intensity for mobile devices as a function of direction, amplitude, and frequency.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Inwook; Seo, Jongman; Kim, Myongchan; Choi, Seungmoon

    2013-01-01

    Vibrotactile rendering is an emerging interaction method for information transmission in mobile devices, replacing or supplementing visual and auditory displays. To design effective vibrotactile actuators or display algorithms, an understanding of the perceived intensity (strength) of their vibrations is essential. This paper aims to build a robust model for the perceived intensities of mobile device vibrations, which can be immediately used by engineers and application designers. To this end, we carried out two psychophysical experiments using absolute magnitude estimation procedures. In Experiment I, we investigated the effects of vibration direction and device weight on the perceived intensity of mobile device vibrations. The vibration directions tested (height, width, and depth), and the device weights (90-130 g) were determined considering those of contemporary mobile devices. Only the vibration direction was found to be a statistically significant factor, showing the highest perceived intensities along the height direction of a mobile device. In Experiment II, we measured the perceived intensities of vibrations with various amplitudes and frequencies along the three vibration directions. Then, for each direction, a psychophysical magnitude function and equal sensation contours were constructed based on Stevens' power law, which clearly visualize the consequences of vibration parameter changes on the resulting perceptual strength. In addition, we found a monotonic relationship between the physical power of vibration absorbed by the hand and the resulting perceived intensity. This suggests that the former, which is greatly easier to acquire in practice, is a reliable predictor of the latter. We expect that the results of this study can provide immediate knowledge about the perceptual strength of vibrations that engineers and applications developers will find useful. PMID:24808331

  15. Laterality effects of human pudendal nerve stimulation on corticoanal pathways: evidence for functional asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Hamdy, S; Enck, P; Aziz, Q; Uengoergil, S; Hobson, A; Thompson, D

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Although motor and sensory pathways to the human external anal sphincter are bilateral, a unilateral pudendal neuropathy may still disrupt anal continence. Anal continence can, however, be preserved despite unilateral pudendal damage, and so to explain those differing observations, we postulated that pudendal innervation might be asymmetric.
AIMS—To explore the individual effects of right and left pudendal nerve stimulation on the corticofugal pathways to the human external anal sphincter and thus assess evidence for functional asymmetric pelvic innervation.
METHODS—In eight healthy subjects, anal sphincter electromyographic responses, evoked to transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex, were recorded 5-500 msec after digital transrectal electrical conditioning stimuli applied to each pudendal nerve.
RESULTS—Right or left pudendal nerve stimulation evoked anal responses of similar latencies but asymmetric amplitudes in six subjects: dominant responses (>50% contralateral side) from the right pudendal in four subjects and from the left in two. Cortical stimulation also evoked anal responses with amplitude 448 (121) µV and latency 20.9 (1.1) msec. When cortical stimulation was preceded by pudendal nerve stimulation, the cortical responses were facilitated at interstimulus intervals of 5-20 msec. Dominant pudendal nerve stimulation induced greater facilitation of the cortically evoked responses than the non-dominant nerve.
CONCLUSIONS—Cortical pathways to the external anal sphincter are facilitated by pudendal nerve conditioning, in an asymmetric manner. This functional asymmetry may explain the presence and absence of anal incontinence after unilateral pudendal nerve injury.


Keywords: cerebral cortex; continence; electromyography; external anal sphincter; incontinence; magnetic stimulation PMID:10369705

  16. Prenatal Exposure to Benzo(a)pyrene Impairs Later-Life Cortical Neuronal Function

    PubMed Central

    McCallister, Monique M.; Maguire, Mark; Ramesh, Aramandla; Aimin, Qiao; Liu, Sheng; Khoshbouei, Habibeh; Aschner, Michael; Ebner, Ford F.; Hood, Darryl B.

    2009-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to environmental contaminants, such as Benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] has been shown to impair brain development. The overarching hypothesis of our work is that glutamate receptor subunit expression is crucial for cortical evoked responses and that prenatal B(a)P exposure modulates the temporal developmental expression of glutamatergic receptor subunits in the somatosensory cortex. To characterize prenatal B(a)P exposure on the development of cortical function, pregnant Long Evans rats were exposed to low-level B(a)P (300μg/kg BW) by oral gavage on gestational days 14 to 17. At this exposure dose, there was no significant effect of B(a)P on 1) the number of pups born per litter, 2) the pre-weaning growth curves and 3) initial and final brain to body weight ratios. Control and B(a)P-exposed offspring were profiled for B(a)P metabolites in plasma and whole brain during the pre-weaning period. No detectable levels of metabolites were found in the control offspring. However, a time-dependent decrease in total metabolite concentration was observed in B(a)P-exposed offspring. On PND100-120, cerebrocortical mRNA expression was determined for the glutamatergic NMDA receptor subunit (NR2B) in control and B(a)P-exposed offspring. Neural activity was also recorded from neurons in primary somatic sensory (barrel) cortex. Semiquantitative PCR from B(a)P-exposed offspring revealed a significant 50% reduction in NR2B mRNA expression in B(a)P-exposed offspring relative to controls. Recordings from B(a)P-exposed offspring revealed that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor -dependent neuronal activity in barrel cortex evoked by whisker stimulation was also significantly reduced (70%) as compared to controls. Analysis showed that the greatest deficit in cortical neuronal responses occurred in the shorter latency epochs from 5-20ms post-stimulus. The results suggest that in utero exposure to benzo(a)pyrene results in diminished mRNA expression of the NMDA NR2B receptor

  17. Lateralization of the frontal lobe functions elicited by a cognitive bias task is a fundamental process. Lesion study.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Kakurou; Aihara, Masao; Goldberg, Elkhonon; Nakazawa, Shinpei

    2005-09-01

    function elicited by mCBT is fundamental and independent of language lateralization, rather than secondary to it. Furthermore, these findings also indicate that the timetable for the development of lateralized frontal lobe functions depends upon biologic factors. PMID:16122629

  18. Benzodiazepine (BZD) use in community-dwelling older adults: Longitudinal associations with mobility, functioning, and pain.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Megan E; Sawyer, Patricia; Kennedy, Richard; Bradley, Laurence A; Allman, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prospective association between baseline BZD use and mobility, functioning, and pain among urban and rural African-American and non-Hispanic white community-dwelling older adults. From 1999 to 2001, a cohort of 1000 community-dwelling adults, aged ≥ 65 years, representing a random sample of Medicare beneficiaries, stratified by ethnicity, sex, and urban/rural residence were recruited. BZD use was assessed at an in-home visit. Every six months thereafter, study outcomes were assessed via telephone for 8.5-years. Mobility was assessed with the Life-Space Assessment (LSA). Functioning was quantified with level of difficulty in five basic activities of daily living (ADL: bathing, dressing, transferring, toileting, eating), and six instrumental activities of daily living (IADL: shopping, managing money, preparing meals, light and heavy housework, telephone use). Pain was measured by frequency per week and the magnitude of interference with daily tasks. All analytic models were adjusted for relevant covariates and mental health symptoms. After multivariable adjustment, baseline BZD use was significantly associated with greater difficulty with basic ADL (Estimate=0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04-0.74), and more frequent pain (Estimate=0.41, 95%CI: 0.09-0.74) in the total sample and declines in mobility among rural residents (Estimate=-0.67, t(5,902)=-1.98, p=0.048), over 8.5 years. BZD use was prospectively associated with greater risk for basic ADL difficulties and frequent pain among African-American and non-Hispanic white community-dwelling older adults, and life-space mobility declines among rural-dwellers, independently of relevant covariates. These findings highlight the potential long-term negative impact of BZD use among community-dwelling older adults. PMID:24880195

  19. Sex differences and handedness in hemispheric lateralization of tactile-spatial functions.

    PubMed

    Genetta-Wadley, A; Swirsky-Sacchetti, T

    1990-04-01

    Sex differences in spatial processing and handedness were studied with a tactile-spatial task in 27 male and 29 female right-handed undergraduate students in psychology. Subjects were asked to identify amorphous shapes to investigate possible male right-hemisphere specialization for spatial functions and bilateral representation among the women. The Annett handedness questionnaire estimated extent of right-handedness. Subjects were classified by major, and women by phase of menstrual cycle. Analysis shows significantly more right-handedness in women and ambidexterity in men. Over-all, men do not perform significantly better than women, although men outperform women with their left hands when handedness is covaried. Within sex, no difference is seen between left and right hand scores for men, but women perform significantly better with right than left hands. Further analyses suggest men appear right-hemisphere dominant for this task whereas women show left-hemisphere dominance. Analyses of hormonal data support recent research, in that for women on the pill there is a trend to perform worse than all other groups. Engineering students perform significantly better than all other majors. PMID:2342860

  20. The Axon Initial Segment, 50Years Later: A Nexus for Neuronal Organization and Function.

    PubMed

    Leterrier, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The axon initial segment is a highly specialized neuronal compartment, identified almost 50years ago by the pioneers of electron microscopy. Located in the first 50μm of the axon, it contains unique cytoskeletal features and concentrates a repertoire of specific scaffold and membrane proteins that assembles just after axon determination. The axon initial segment (AIS) supports two crucial physiological functions of the mature neuron: first, it generates and shapes the action potential. Second, it separates the cell body from the axon, preserving the molecular identity of each compartment. In addition to a diffusion barrier restricting membrane proteins and lipids exchange, an intracellular filter has been proposed that could selectively exclude somatodendritic vesicles and recruit axonal cargoes. Finally, the AIS scaffold is capable of morphological plasticity during development or in response to network activity. These changes directly impact the neuron excitability, allowing an adaptive and homeostatic response. These plastic electrogenic properties, as well as the regulation of protein transport to and from the axon, may have important implications in several neuropathological contexts where the AIS structure is altered. Fifty years after its first characterization, the AIS thus emerges as a nexus for both neuronal organization and physiology. PMID:26781833

  1. Return of functional mobility after an open tibial fracture: a sensor-based longitudinal cohort study using the Hamlyn Mobility Score.

    PubMed

    Kwasnicki, R M; Hettiaratchy, S; Okogbaa, J; Lo, B; Yang, G-Z; Darzi, A

    2015-08-01

    In this study we quantified and characterised the return of functional mobility following open tibial fracture using the Hamlyn Mobility Score. A total of 20 patients who had undergone reconstruction following this fracture were reviewed at three-month intervals for one year. An ear-worn movement sensor was used to assess their mobility and gait. The Hamlyn Mobility Score and its constituent kinematic features were calculated longitudinally, allowing analysis of mobility during recovery and between patients with varying grades of fracture. The mean score improved throughout the study period. Patients with more severe fractures recovered at a slower rate; those with a grade I Gustilo-Anderson fracture completing most of their recovery within three months, those with a grade II fracture within six months and those with a grade III fracture within nine months. Analysis of gait showed that the quality of walking continued to improve up to 12 months post-operatively, whereas the capacity to walk, as measured by the six-minute walking test, plateaued after six months. Late complications occurred in two patients, in whom the trajectory of recovery deviated by > 0.5 standard deviations below that of the remaining patients. This is the first objective, longitudinal assessment of functional recovery in patients with an open tibial fracture, providing some clarification of the differences in prognosis and recovery associated with different grades of fracture. PMID:26224831

  2. Anxiety in high-functioning autism: A pilot study of experience sampling using a mobile platform.

    PubMed

    Hare, Dougal Julian; Gracey, Carolyn; Wood, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    Anxiety and stress are everyday issues for many people with high-functioning autism, and while cognitive-behavioural therapy is the treatment of choice for the management of anxiety, there are challenges in using it with people with high-functioning autism. This study used modified experience sampling techniques to examine everyday anxiety and stress in adults with high-functioning autism and to explore the feasibility of delivering real-time stress management techniques using a mobile platform. High levels of anxiety were found to be characterised by worry, confusing thoughts and being alone but was not associated with internal focus, imagery or rumination. Participants reported improved mood and less worry and anxious thinking in the active phase of the study. These results support previous studies indicating that people with high-functioning autism differ in their experience of anxiety and provided preliminary data on the feasibility of real-time stress management. The limitations of this approach are discussed together with considerations for future work in the area of developing clinical interventions on mobile platforms. PMID:26514793

  3. Aromatic Lateral Substituents Influence the Excitation Energies of Hexaaza Lanthanide Macrocyclic Complexes: A Wave Function Theory and Density Functional Study.

    PubMed

    Rabanal-León, Walter A; Murillo-López, Juliana A; Páez-Hernández, Dayán; Arratia-Pérez, Ramiro

    2015-09-24

    The high interest in lanthanide chemistry, and particularly in their luminescence, has been encouraged by the need of understanding the lanthanide chemical coordination and how the design of new luminescent materials can be affected by this. This work is focused on the understanding of the electronic structure, bonding nature, and optical properties of a set of lanthanide hexaaza macrocyclic complexes, which can lead to potential optical applications. Here we found that the DFT ground state of the open-shell complexes are mainly characterized by the manifold of low lying f states, having small HOMO-LUMO energy gaps. The results obtained from the wave function theory calculations (SO-RASSI) put on evidence the multiconfigurational character of their ground state and it is observed that the large spin-orbit coupling and the weak crystal field produce a strong mix of the ground and the excited states. The electron localization function (ELF) and the energy decomposition analysis (EDA) support the idea of a dative interaction between the macrocyclic ligand and the lanthanide center for all the studied systems; noting that, this interaction has a covalent character, where the d-orbital participation is evidenced from NBO analysis, leaving the f shell completely noninteracting in the chemical bonding. From the optical part we observed in all cases the characteristic intraligand (IL) (π-π*) and ligand to metal charge-transfer (LMCT) bands that are present in the ultraviolet and visible regions, and for the open-shell complexes we found the inherent f-f electronic transitions on the visible and near-infrared region. PMID:26325624

  4. Shared Brain Lateralization Patterns in Language and Acheulean Stone Tool Production: A Functional Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound Study

    PubMed Central

    Uomini, Natalie Thaïs; Meyer, Georg Friedrich

    2013-01-01

    Background The popular theory that complex tool-making and language co-evolved in the human lineage rests on the hypothesis that both skills share underlying brain processes and systems. However, language and stone tool-making have so far only been studied separately using a range of neuroimaging techniques and diverse paradigms. Methodology/Principal Findings We present the first-ever study of brain activation that directly compares active Acheulean tool-making and language. Using functional transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (fTCD), we measured brain blood flow lateralization patterns (hemodynamics) in subjects who performed two tasks designed to isolate the planning component of Acheulean stone tool-making and cued word generation as a language task. We show highly correlated hemodynamics in the initial 10 seconds of task execution. Conclusions/Significance Stone tool-making and cued word generation cause common cerebral blood flow lateralization signatures in our participants. This is consistent with a shared neural substrate for prehistoric stone tool-making and language, and is compatible with language evolution theories that posit a co-evolution of language and manual praxis. In turn, our results support the hypothesis that aspects of language might have emerged as early as 1.75 million years ago, with the start of Acheulean technology. PMID:24023634

  5. Interference of lateralized distractors on arithmetic problem solving: a functional role for attention shifts in mental calculation.

    PubMed

    Masson, Nicolas; Pesenti, Mauro

    2016-07-01

    Solving arithmetic problems has been shown to induce shifts of spatial attention in simple probe-detection tasks, subtractions orienting attention to the left side and additions to the right side of space. Whether these attentional shifts constitute epiphenomena or are critically linked to the calculation process is still unknown. In the present study, we investigate participants' performance on addition and subtraction solving while they have to detect central or lateralized targets. The results show that lateralized distractors presented in the hemifield congruent to the operation to be solved interfere with arithmetical solving: participants are slower to solve subtractions or additions when distractors are located on the left or on the right, respectively. These results converge with previous data to show that attentional shifts underlie not only number processing but also mental arithmetic. They extend them as they reveal the reverse effect of the one previously reported by showing that inducing attention shifts interferes with the solving of arithmetic problems. They also demonstrate that spatial attentional shifts are part of the calculation procedure of solving mentally arithmetic problems. Their functional role is to access, from the first operand, the representation of the result in a direction congruent to the operation. PMID:25991551

  6. Understanding the lateral dose response functions of high-resolution photon detectors by reverse Monte Carlo and deconvolution analysis.

    PubMed

    Looe, Hui Khee; Harder, Dietrich; Poppe, Björn

    2015-08-21

    The purpose of the present study is to understand the mechanism underlying the perturbation of the field of the secondary electrons, which occurs in the presence of a detector in water as the surrounding medium. By means of 'reverse' Monte Carlo simulation, the points of origin of the secondary electrons contributing to the detector's signal are identified and associated with the detector's mass density, electron density and atomic composition. The spatial pattern of the origin of these secondary electrons, in addition to the formation of the detector signal by components from all parts of its sensitive volume, determines the shape of the lateral dose response function, i.e. of the convolution kernel K(x,y) linking the lateral profile of the absorbed dose in the undisturbed surrounding medium with the associated profile of the detector's signal. The shape of the convolution kernel is shown to vary essentially with the electron density of the detector's material, and to be attributable to the relative contribution by the signal-generating secondary electrons originating within the detector's volume to the total detector signal. Finally, the representation of the over- or underresponse of a photon detector by this density-dependent convolution kernel will be applied to provide a new analytical expression for the associated volume effect correction factor. PMID:26267311

  7. Mobile telephone use effects on peripheral audiovestibular function: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bamiou, Doris-Eva; Ceranic, Borka; Cox, Robin; Watt, Hilary; Chadwick, Philip; Luxon, Linda M

    2008-02-01

    Low level radio-frequency (RF) signals may produce disorientation, headache and nausea. This double blind study tested nine case-subjects, who complained of various symptoms after prolonged mobile telephone use and 21 control subjects. Each subject underwent a series of trials, in which a dummy mobile telephone exposure system was held to each ear for 30 min in (a) pulsed, (b) continuous RF emission or, (c) no emission test modes. In the active pulsed and continuous modes the same mean power as the output of a typical handset was delivered at a carrier frequency of 882 MHz and at a maximum specific absorption rate (SAR) value of 1.3 W kg(-1) (+/- 30%). In Experiment I (auditory), transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE), which assess the outer hair cells in the inner ear, were conducted. In Experiment II (vestibular) the vestibulo-ocular reflex was recorded by video-oculography (VOG), at baseline and immediately post exposure. There were no significant TEOAE changes from baseline to post-exposure recording for any of the exposures and no significant differences in the TEOAEs' change from baseline to post exposure between cases and controls. The VOG did not identify any effect of the exposure on the vestibular end organ in either cases or controls. In conclusion, 30 min exposure to mobile phone RF did not show any immediate effects on vestibulocochlear function as measured by TEOAE and the VOR. PMID:17929266

  8. Embedded transmissibility function analysis for damage detection in a mobile sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xiaohua; Zhu, Dapeng; Wang, Yang; Guo, Jiajie; Lee, Kok-Meng

    2010-04-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) and damage detection have attracted great interest in recent decades, in meeting the challenges of assessing the safety condition of large-scale civil structures. By wiring remote sensors directly to a centralized data acquisition system, traditional structural health monitoring systems are usually costly and the installation is time-consuming. Recent advances in wireless sensing technology have made it feasible for structural health monitoring; furthermore, the computational core in a wireless sensing unit offers onboard data interrogation. In addition to wireless sensing, the authors have recently developed a mobile sensing system for providing high spatial resolution and flexible sensor deployment in structural health monitoring. In this study, transmissibility function analysis is embedded in the mobile sensing node to perform onboard and in-network structural damage detection. The system implementation is validated using a laboratory 2D steel portal frame. Simulated damage is applied to the frame structure, and the damage is successfully identified by two mobile sensing nodes that autonomously navigate through the structure.

  9. Submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics, functional mobility, and physical activity in older adults with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    Hummel, Scott L; Herald, John; Alpert, Craig; Gretebeck, Kimberlee A; Champoux, Wendy S; Dengel, Donald R; Vaitkevicius, Peter V; Alexander, Neil B

    2016-01-01

    Background Submaximal oxygen uptake measures are more feasible and may better predict clinical cardiac outcomes than maximal tests in older adults with heart failure (HF). We examined relationships between maximal oxygen uptake, submaximal oxygen kinetics, functional mobility, and physical activity in older adults with HF and reduced ejection fraction. Methods Older adults with HF and reduced ejection fraction (n = 25, age 75 ± 7 years) were compared to 25 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. Assessments included a maximal treadmill test for peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), oxygen uptake kinetics at onset of and on recovery from a submaximal treadmill test, functional mobility testing [Get Up and Go (GUG), Comfortable Gait Speed (CGS), Unipedal Stance (US)], and self-reported physical activity (PA). Results Compared to controls, HF had worse performance on GUG, CGS, and US, greater delays in submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics, and lower PA. In controls, VO2peak was more strongly associated with functional mobility and PA than submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics. In HF patients, submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics were similarly associated with GUG and CGS as VO2peak, but weakly associated with PA. Conclusions Based on their mobility performance, older HF patients with reduced ejection fraction are at risk for adverse functional outcomes. In this population, submaximal oxygen uptake measures may be equivalent to VO2 peak in predicting functional mobility, and in addition to being more feasible, may provide better insight into how aerobic function relates to mobility in older adults with HF. PMID:27594875

  10. Association of cigarette smoking with Chinese ankylosing spondylitis patients in Taiwan: a poor disease outcome in systemic inflammation, functional ability, and physical mobility.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Hsiung; Chen, Hung-An; Lu, Chin-Li; Liao, Hsien-Tzung; Liu, Chin-Hsiu; Tsai, Chang-Youh; Chou, Chung-Tei

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the association between smoking and the disease activity, functional ability, physical mobility, and systemic inflammation in Chinese ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients. Seventy five male Chinese AS patients in Taiwan were enrolled in the cross-sectional study. These patients fulfilled the 1984 modified New York criteria. Patients completed the questionnaires, containing the demographic data, disease activity, functional ability (BASFI), and patient's global assessment. Meanwhile, physical examinations were performed to determine the patient's physical mobility. Acute-phase reactants, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein levels were also measured in the AS patients. Smoking habits with smoking duration and smoking intensity (pack-years of smoking) were recorded. Among these physical mobility parameters, modified Schober's index (p < 0.001), cervical rotation (p = 0.034), later lumbar flexion (p = 0.002), chest expansion (p = 0.016), and occiput-to-wall distances (p = 0.003) were significantly impaired in smoking AS patients (n = 35) as compared to non-smoking (n = 40). Systemic inflammation parameter, ESR was significantly higher in smoking AS patients than non-smoking (p = 0.03). The odds ratio of advanced modified Schober's index, lateral lumbar flexion, fingertip-to-floor distance, chest expansion, and occiput-to-wall were significantly elevated in smoking AS patients as compared to non-smoking. Moreover, the smoking intensity correlated significantly with BASFI (r = 0.481, p = 0.005), cervical rotation (r = -0.401, p = 0.031), fingertip-to-floor distance (r = 0.485, p = 0.004), and occiput-to-wall distance (r = 0.473, p = 0.005) in the 35 smoking AS patients. The cigarette smokers in the Chinese AS patients have increased systemic inflammation and poor physical mobility. In addition, the higher smoking intensity in the AS smokers is associated with poor disease outcome, including functional ability and physical mobility

  11. Effects on auditory function of chronic exposure to electromagnetic fields from mobile phones.

    PubMed

    Bhagat, Sanjeev; Varshney, Saurabh; Bist, Sampan Singh; Goel, Deepak; Mishra, Sarita; Jha, Vivek Kumar

    2016-08-01

    The widespread use of mobile phones has given rise to apprehension regarding the possible hazardous health effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on auditory function. We conducted a study to investigate the effects of long-term (>4 yr) exposure to EMFs emitted by mobile phones on auditory function. Our study population was made up of 40 healthy medical students-31 men and 9 women, aged 20 to 30 years (mean 22.7). Of this group, 31 subjects typically held their phone to the right ear and 9 to the left ear; the non-phone-using ear served as each subject's control ear. The phone-using subjects were also split into two groups of 20 based on the duration of their daily phone use (≤60 min vs. >60 min). All subjects underwent pure-tone audiometry, speech audiometry, impedance audiometry, and brainstem evoked response audiometry (BERA), and comparisons were made between the phone-using ear and the control ear and between the shorter and longer duration of daily use. We found no statistically significant differences in high-frequency pure-tone average between the phone-using ears and the control ears (p = 0.69) or between the shorter- and longer-duration phone-using ears (p = 0.85). Moreover, statistical analysis of BERA findings revealed no significant differences between the phone-using ears and the control ears in terms of wave I-III, III-V, and I-V interpeak latencies (p = 0.59, 0.74 and 0.44, respectively). None of the subjects reported any subjective symptoms, such as headache, tinnitus, or sensations of burning or warmth behind, around, or on the phone-using ear. We conclude that the long-term exposure to EMFs from mobile phones does not affect auditory function. PMID:27551848

  12. Negative Symptoms and Functioning During the First Year after a Recent Onset of Schizophrenia and Eight Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Joseph; Subotnik, Kenneth L.; Gitlin, Michael J.; Gretchen-Doorly, Denise; Ered, Arielle; Villa, Kathleen F.; Hellemann, Gerhard S.; Nuechterlein, Keith H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding the longitudinal course of negative symptoms, especially in relationship to functioning, in the early phase of schizophrenia is crucial to developing intervention approaches. The course of negative symptoms and daily functioning was examined over a one-year period following a recent onset of schizophrenia and at an 8-year follow-up point. Methods The study included 149 recent-onset schizophrenia patients who had a mean age of 23.7 (SD=4.4) years and mean education of 12.9 (SD=2.2) years. Negative symptom (BPRS and SANS) and functional outcome (SCORS) assessments were conducted frequently by trained raters. Results After antipsychotic medication stabilization, negative symptoms during the first outpatient year were moderately stable (BPRS ICC=0.64 and SANS ICC=0.66). Despite this overall moderate stability, 24% of patients experienced at least one period of negative symptoms exacerbation. Furthermore, entry level of negative symptoms was significantly associated with poor social functioning (r =−.34, p < .01) and work/school functioning (r =−.25, p < .05) at 12 months, and with negative symptoms at the 8-year follow-up (r =.29, p <.05). Discussion Early negative symptoms are fairly stable during the first outpatient year, are predictors of daily functioning at 12 months, and predict negative symptoms 8 years later. Despite the high levels of stability, negative symptoms did fluctuate in a subsample of patients. These findings suggest that negative symptoms may be an important early course target for intervention aimed at promoting recovery. PMID:25499044

  13. SU-E-T-232: Micro Diamonds - Determination of Their Lateral Response Function Via Gap-Beam Dose Profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Poppinga, D; Looe, H; Chofor, N; Schoenfeld, A; Fischer, J; Meyners, J; Delfs, B; Stelljes, T; Poppe, B; Verona, C; Verona-Rinati, G; Marinelli, M; Harder, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is the measurement of the lateral response function of microDiamonds by comparison with radiochromic film dose measurement. In this study a TM60019 microDiamond (PTW Freiburg, Germany) and a prototype synthetic diamond detector with smaller sensitive volume were investigated. Methods: Two lead blocks were positioned below the gantry head of an Elekta Synergy accelerator using a gantry mount. Between the blocks two sheets of paper were fixed. The water phantom was positioned below the gantry mount, so that the block to water distance was 20 cm. The gap beam profile was measured at 5 cm water depth by radiochromic EBT3 film and diamond detectors. The film was fixed on a RW3 plate, moved by the step motor system of the phantom and digitized by an Epson 10000XL scanner using the red color channel. Results: The lateral response of the prototype diamond detector is comparable to that of film measurements, i.e. has negligible width. This corresponds to the small detector volume of the prototype detector. In contrast to this the FWHM values of the gap-beam dose profiles measured with the TM60019 detector are somewhat larger, which corresponds to the larger sensitive detector volume. Conclusion: This study has illustrated the high spatial resolution of the diamond detectors. In comparison with filmmeasured narrow-beam dose profiles, the TM60019 has a spatial resolution function of about 2 mm FWHM, whereas the FWHM for the prototype is practically negligible. However due to the low signal caused by the small sensitive volume, measurements with the prototype in clinical routine are a challenge. On the other hand the TM60019 is a good compromise between detector volume and signal output and thus a well suited detector for most clinically relevant small field situations.

  14. Functional Restoration of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patient-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Through Inhibition of DNA Methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Oh, Youn Seo; Kim, Seung Hyun; Cho, Goang-Won

    2016-05-01

    Alteration of DNA methylation is highly associated with aging and neurodegenerative disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Remedying these aberrant methylation patterns may serve to improve these diseases. Previously, we reported that human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from ALS patients (ALS-MSCs) have functionally decreased stem cell potency, and excessively express DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). In this study, we examined the correlation between excessive DNMT expression and functional decline in ALS-MSCs. The DNMT inhibitor RG108 was used for this. RG108-treated ALS-MSCs exhibit increased expression of the anti-senescence genes TERT, VEGF, and ANG, and decreased expression of the senescence-related genes ATM and p21. The activity of SA-β-galactosidase and the expression of senescence proteins p53 and p16 were reduced in RG108-treated ALS-MSCs. The abilities of cell migration and protection against oxidative damage were improved in the treated ALS-MSCs. In neuronal differentiation experiments, the treated MSCs more effectively differentiated into neuron-like cells. These results suggest that ALS-MSC function can be restored by inhibiting excessively expressed DNMTs, an approach that may ultimately provide better efficacy in stem cell therapy. PMID:26210997

  15. Dissociation of Structural and Functional Integrities of the Motor System in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Behavioral-Variant Frontotemporal Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jong Seok; Ferguson, Michele; Tan, Rachel; Mioshi, Eneida; Simon, Neil; Burrell, James; Vucic, Steve; Hodges, John R.; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose This study investigated the structural and functional changes in the motor system in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; n=25) and behavioral-variant fronto-temporal dementia (bvFTD; n=17) relative to healthy controls (n=37). Methods Structural changes were examined using a region-of-interest approach, applying voxel-based morphometry for gray-matter changes and diffusion tensor imaging for white-matter changes. Functional changes in the motor system were elucidated using threshold-tracking transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) measurements of upper motor-neuron excitability. Results The structural analyses showed that in ALS there were more white-matter changes in the corticospinal and motor-cortex regions and more gray-matter changes in the cerebellum in comparison to controls. bvFTD showed substantial gray- and white-matter changes across virtually all motor-system regions compared to controls, although the brainstem was affected less than the other regions. Direct comparisons across patient groups showed that the gray- and white-matter motor-system changes inclusive of the motor cortex were greater in bvFTD than in ALS. By contrast, the functional integrity of the motor system was more adversely affected in ALS than in bvFTD, with both patient groups showing increased excitability of upper motor neurons compared to controls. Conclusions Cross-correlation of structural and functional data further revealed a neural dissociation of different motor-system regions and tracts covarying with the TMS excitability across both patient groups. The structural and functional motor-system integrities appear to be dissociated between ALS and bvFTD, which represents useful information for the diagnosis of motor-system changes in these two disorders. PMID:26932257

  16. Pair mobility functions for rigid spheres in concentrated colloidal dispersions: Force, torque, translation, and rotation.

    PubMed

    Zia, Roseanna N; Swan, James W; Su, Yu

    2015-12-14

    The formulation of detailed models for the dynamics of condensed soft matter including colloidal suspensions and other complex fluids requires accurate description of the physical forces between microstructural constituents. In dilute suspensions, pair-level interactions are sufficient to capture hydrodynamic, interparticle, and thermodynamic forces. In dense suspensions, many-body interactions must be considered. Prior analytical approaches to capturing such interactions such as mean-field approaches replace detailed interactions with averaged approximations. However, long-range coupling and effects of concentration on local structure, which may play an important role in, e.g., phase transitions, are smeared out in such approaches. An alternative to such approximations is the detailed modeling of hydrodynamic interactions utilizing precise couplings between moments of the hydrodynamic traction on a suspended particle and the motion of that or other suspended particles. For two isolated spheres, a set of these functions was calculated by Jeffrey and Onishi [J. Fluid Mech. 139, 261-290 (1984)] and Jeffrey [J. Phys. Fluids 4, 16-29 (1992)]. Along with pioneering work by Batchelor, these are the touchstone for low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamic interactions and have been applied directly in the solution of many important problems related to the dynamics of dilute colloidal dispersions [G. K. Batchelor and J. T. Green, J. Fluid Mech. 56, 375-400 (1972) and G. K. Batchelor, J. Fluid Mech. 74, 1-29 (1976)]. Toward extension of these functions to concentrated systems, here we present a new stochastic sampling technique to rapidly calculate an analogous set of mobility functions describing the hydrodynamic interactions between two hard spheres immersed in a suspension of arbitrary concentration, utilizing accelerated Stokesian dynamics simulations. These mobility functions provide precise, radially dependent couplings of hydrodynamic force and torque to particle translation

  17. Pair mobility functions for rigid spheres in concentrated colloidal dispersions: Force, torque, translation, and rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Zia, Roseanna N. Su, Yu; Swan, James W.

    2015-12-14

    The formulation of detailed models for the dynamics of condensed soft matter including colloidal suspensions and other complex fluids requires accurate description of the physical forces between microstructural constituents. In dilute suspensions, pair-level interactions are sufficient to capture hydrodynamic, interparticle, and thermodynamic forces. In dense suspensions, many-body interactions must be considered. Prior analytical approaches to capturing such interactions such as mean-field approaches replace detailed interactions with averaged approximations. However, long-range coupling and effects of concentration on local structure, which may play an important role in, e.g., phase transitions, are smeared out in such approaches. An alternative to such approximations is the detailed modeling of hydrodynamic interactions utilizing precise couplings between moments of the hydrodynamic traction on a suspended particle and the motion of that or other suspended particles. For two isolated spheres, a set of these functions was calculated by Jeffrey and Onishi [J. Fluid Mech. 139, 261–290 (1984)] and Jeffrey [J. Phys. Fluids 4, 16–29 (1992)]. Along with pioneering work by Batchelor, these are the touchstone for low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamic interactions and have been applied directly in the solution of many important problems related to the dynamics of dilute colloidal dispersions [G. K. Batchelor and J. T. Green, J. Fluid Mech. 56, 375–400 (1972) and G. K. Batchelor, J. Fluid Mech. 74, 1–29 (1976)]. Toward extension of these functions to concentrated systems, here we present a new stochastic sampling technique to rapidly calculate an analogous set of mobility functions describing the hydrodynamic interactions between two hard spheres immersed in a suspension of arbitrary concentration, utilizing accelerated Stokesian dynamics simulations. These mobility functions provide precise, radially dependent couplings of hydrodynamic force and torque to particle

  18. Pair mobility functions for rigid spheres in concentrated colloidal dispersions: Force, torque, translation, and rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zia, Roseanna N.; Swan, James W.; Su, Yu

    2015-12-01

    The formulation of detailed models for the dynamics of condensed soft matter including colloidal suspensions and other complex fluids requires accurate description of the physical forces between microstructural constituents. In dilute suspensions, pair-level interactions are sufficient to capture hydrodynamic, interparticle, and thermodynamic forces. In dense suspensions, many-body interactions must be considered. Prior analytical approaches to capturing such interactions such as mean-field approaches replace detailed interactions with averaged approximations. However, long-range coupling and effects of concentration on local structure, which may play an important role in, e.g., phase transitions, are smeared out in such approaches. An alternative to such approximations is the detailed modeling of hydrodynamic interactions utilizing precise couplings between moments of the hydrodynamic traction on a suspended particle and the motion of that or other suspended particles. For two isolated spheres, a set of these functions was calculated by Jeffrey and Onishi [J. Fluid Mech. 139, 261-290 (1984)] and Jeffrey [J. Phys. Fluids 4, 16-29 (1992)]. Along with pioneering work by Batchelor, these are the touchstone for low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamic interactions and have been applied directly in the solution of many important problems related to the dynamics of dilute colloidal dispersions [G. K. Batchelor and J. T. Green, J. Fluid Mech. 56, 375-400 (1972) and G. K. Batchelor, J. Fluid Mech. 74, 1-29 (1976)]. Toward extension of these functions to concentrated systems, here we present a new stochastic sampling technique to rapidly calculate an analogous set of mobility functions describing the hydrodynamic interactions between two hard spheres immersed in a suspension of arbitrary concentration, utilizing accelerated Stokesian dynamics simulations. These mobility functions provide precise, radially dependent couplings of hydrodynamic force and torque to particle translation

  19. Mobility-Related Consequences of Reduced Lower-Extremity Peripheral Nerve Function with Age: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Rachel E.; Caserotti, Paolo; Cauley, Jane A.; Boudreau, Robert M.; Goodpaster, Bret H.; Vinik, Aaron I.; Newman, Anne B.; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to systematically review the relationship between lower-extremity peripheral nerve function and mobility in older adults. The National Library of Medicine (PubMed) was searched on March 23, 2015 with no limits on publication dates. One reviewer selected original research studies of older adults (≥65 years) that assessed the relationship between lower-extremity peripheral nerve function and mobility-related outcomes. Participants, study design and methods of assessing peripheral nerve impairment were evaluated and results were reported and synthesized. Eight articles were identified, including 6 cross-sectional and 2 longitudinal studies. These articles investigated 6 elderly cohorts (4 from the U.S. and 2 from Italy): 3 community-dwelling (including 1 with only disabled women and 1 without mobility limitations at baseline), 1 with both community-dwelling and institutionalized residents, 1 from a range of residential locations, and 1 of patients with peripheral arterial disease. Mean ages ranged from 71-82 years. Nerve function was assessed by vibration threshold (n=2); sensory measures and clinical signs and symptoms of neuropathy (n=2); motor nerve conduction (n=1); and a combination of both sensory measures and motor nerve conduction (n=3). Each study found that worse peripheral nerve function was related to poor mobility, although relationships varied based on the nerve function measure and mobility domain assessed. Six studies found that the association between nerve function and mobility persisted despite adjustment for diabetes. Evidence suggests that peripheral nerve function impairment at various levels of severity is related to poor mobility independent of diabetes. Relationships varied depending on peripheral nerve measure, which may be particularly important when investigating specific biological mechanisms. Future research needs to identify risk factors for peripheral nerve decline beyond diabetes, especially those

  20. Mobility-Related Consequences of Reduced Lower-Extremity Peripheral Nerve Function with Age: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ward, Rachel E; Caserotti, Paolo; Cauley, Jane A; Boudreau, Robert M; Goodpaster, Bret H; Vinik, Aaron I; Newman, Anne B; Strotmeyer, Elsa S

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study is to systematically review the relationship between lower-extremity peripheral nerve function and mobility in older adults. The National Library of Medicine (PubMed) was searched on March 23, 2015 with no limits on publication dates. One reviewer selected original research studies of older adults (≥65 years) that assessed the relationship between lower-extremity peripheral nerve function and mobility-related outcomes. Participants, study design and methods of assessing peripheral nerve impairment were evaluated and results were reported and synthesized. Eight articles were identified, including 6 cross-sectional and 2 longitudinal studies. These articles investigated 6 elderly cohorts (4 from the U.S. and 2 from Italy): 3 community-dwelling (including 1 with only disabled women and 1 without mobility limitations at baseline), 1 with both community-dwelling and institutionalized residents, 1 from a range of residential locations, and 1 of patients with peripheral arterial disease. Mean ages ranged from 71-82 years. Nerve function was assessed by vibration threshold (n=2); sensory measures and clinical signs and symptoms of neuropathy (n=2); motor nerve conduction (n=1); and a combination of both sensory measures and motor nerve conduction (n=3). Each study found that worse peripheral nerve function was related to poor mobility, although relationships varied based on the nerve function measure and mobility domain assessed. Six studies found that the association between nerve function and mobility persisted despite adjustment for diabetes. Evidence suggests that peripheral nerve function impairment at various levels of severity is related to poor mobility independent of diabetes. Relationships varied depending on peripheral nerve measure, which may be particularly important when investigating specific biological mechanisms. Future research needs to identify risk factors for peripheral nerve decline beyond diabetes, especially those

  1. Native mass spectrometry and ion mobility characterize the orange carotenoid protein functional domains.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Liu, Haijun; Lu, Yue; Wolf, Nathan R; Gross, Michael L; Blankenship, Robert E

    2016-06-01

    Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP) plays a unique role in protecting many cyanobacteria from light-induced damage. The active form of OCP is directly involved in energy dissipation by binding to the phycobilisome (PBS), the major light-harvesting complex in cyanobacteria. There are two structural modules in OCP, an N-terminal domain (NTD), and a C-terminal domain (CTD), which play different functional roles during the OCP-PBS quenching cycle. Because of the quasi-stable nature of active OCP, structural analysis of active OCP has been lacking compared to its inactive form. In this report, partial proteolysis was used to generate two structural domains, NTD and CTD, from active OCP. We used multiple native mass spectrometry (MS) based approaches to interrogate the structural features of the NTD and the CTD. Collisional activation and ion mobility analysis indicated that the NTD releases its bound carotenoid without forming any intermediates and the CTD is resistant to unfolding upon collisional energy ramping. The unfolding intermediates observed in inactive intact OCP suggest that it is the N-terminal extension and the NTD-CTD loop that lead to the observed unfolding intermediates. These combined approaches extend the knowledge of OCP photo-activation and structural features of OCP functional domains. Combining native MS, ion mobility, and collisional activation promises to be a sensitive new approach for studies of photosynthetic protein-pigment complexes. PMID:26921809

  2. Functional specializations in lateral prefrontal cortex associated with the integration and segregation of information in working memory.

    PubMed

    De Pisapia, Nicola; Slomski, Jessica A; Braver, Todd S

    2007-05-01

    Control processes are thought to play an important role in working memory (WM), by enabling the coordination, transformation, and integration of stored information. Yet little is known about the neural mechanisms that subserve such control processes. This study examined whether integration operations within WM involve the activation of distinct neural mechanisms within lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to monitor brain activity while participants performed a mental arithmetic task. In the integration (IN) condition, a WM preload item had to be mentally inserted into the last step of the math problem. This contrasted with the segregation (SG) condition, which also required maintenance of the WM preload while performing mental arithmetic but had no integration requirement. Two additional control conditions involved either ignoring the preload (math only condition) or ignoring the math problem (recall only condition). Left anterior PFC (Brodmann's Area [BA] 46/10) was selectively engaged by integration demands, with activation increasing prior to, as well as during the integration period. A homologous right anterior PFC region showed selectively increased activity in the SG condition during the period in which the math problem and preload digit were reported. Left middorsolateral PFC regions (BA 9/46) showed increased, but equivalent, activity in both the SG and IN conditions relative to both control conditions. These results provide support for the selective role of lateral PFC in cognitive control over WM and suggest more specific hypotheses regarding dissociable PFC mechanisms involved during the integration and segregation of stored WM items. PMID:16769743

  3. On the mobility, membrane location and functionality of mechanosensitive channels in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Jonas; Galbiati, Heloisa; Rasmussen, Akiko; Miller, Samantha; Poolman, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial mechanosensitive channels protect cells from structural damage during hypoosmotic shock. MscS, MscL and MscK are the most abundant channels in E. coli and arguably the most important ones in osmoprotection. By combining physiological assays with quantitative photo-activated localization microscopy (qPALM), we find an almost linear relationship between channel abundance and cell survival. A minimum of 100 MscL (or MscS) channels is needed for protection when a single type of channel is expressed. Under native-like conditions MscL, MscS as well as MscK distribute homogeneously over the cytoplasmic membrane and the lateral diffusion of the channels is in accordance with their relative protein mass. However, we observe cluster formation and a reduced mobility of MscL when the majority of the subunits of the pentameric channel contain the fluorescent mEos3.2 protein. These data provide new insights into the quantitative biology of mechanosensitive channels and emphasizes the need for care in analysing protein complexes even when the fluorescent tag has been optimized for monomeric behaviour. PMID:27596282

  4. On the mobility, membrane location and functionality of mechanosensitive channels in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Jonas; Galbiati, Heloisa; Rasmussen, Akiko; Miller, Samantha; Poolman, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial mechanosensitive channels protect cells from structural damage during hypoosmotic shock. MscS, MscL and MscK are the most abundant channels in E. coli and arguably the most important ones in osmoprotection. By combining physiological assays with quantitative photo-activated localization microscopy (qPALM), we find an almost linear relationship between channel abundance and cell survival. A minimum of 100 MscL (or MscS) channels is needed for protection when a single type of channel is expressed. Under native-like conditions MscL, MscS as well as MscK distribute homogeneously over the cytoplasmic membrane and the lateral diffusion of the channels is in accordance with their relative protein mass. However, we observe cluster formation and a reduced mobility of MscL when the majority of the subunits of the pentameric channel contain the fluorescent mEos3.2 protein. These data provide new insights into the quantitative biology of mechanosensitive channels and emphasizes the need for care in analysing protein complexes even when the fluorescent tag has been optimized for monomeric behaviour. PMID:27596282

  5. Language lateralization of hearing native signers: A functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) study of speech and sign production

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Sigut, Eva; Daws, Richard; Payne, Heather; Blott, Jonathan; Marshall, Chloë; MacSweeney, Mairéad

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies suggest greater involvement of the left parietal lobe in sign language compared to speech production. This stronger activation might be linked to the specific demands of sign encoding and proprioceptive monitoring. In Experiment 1 we investigate hemispheric lateralization during sign and speech generation in hearing native users of English and British Sign Language (BSL). Participants exhibited stronger lateralization during BSL than English production. In Experiment 2 we investigated whether this increased lateralization index could be due exclusively to the higher motoric demands of sign production. Sign naïve participants performed a phonological fluency task in English and a non-sign repetition task. Participants were left lateralized in the phonological fluency task but there was no consistent pattern of lateralization for the non-sign repetition in these hearing non-signers. The current data demonstrate stronger left hemisphere lateralization for producing signs than speech, which was not primarily driven by motoric articulatory demands. PMID:26605960

  6. Language lateralization of hearing native signers: A functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) study of speech and sign production.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Sigut, Eva; Daws, Richard; Payne, Heather; Blott, Jonathan; Marshall, Chloë; MacSweeney, Mairéad

    2015-12-01

    Neuroimaging studies suggest greater involvement of the left parietal lobe in sign language compared to speech production. This stronger activation might be linked to the specific demands of sign encoding and proprioceptive monitoring. In Experiment 1 we investigate hemispheric lateralization during sign and speech generation in hearing native users of English and British Sign Language (BSL). Participants exhibited stronger lateralization during BSL than English production. In Experiment 2 we investigated whether this increased lateralization index could be due exclusively to the higher motoric demands of sign production. Sign naïve participants performed a phonological fluency task in English and a non-sign repetition task. Participants were left lateralized in the phonological fluency task but there was no consistent pattern of lateralization for the non-sign repetition in these hearing non-signers. The current data demonstrate stronger left hemisphere lateralization for producing signs than speech, which was not primarily driven by motoric articulatory demands. PMID:26605960

  7. Health and Quality of Life Perception in Older Adults: The Joint Role of Cognitive Efficiency and Functional Mobility.

    PubMed

    Forte, Roberta; Boreham, Colin A G; De Vito, Giuseppe; Pesce, Caterina

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive and mobility functions are involved in health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The present cross-sectional study aimed at investigating what facets of efficient cognition and functional mobility interactively contribute to mental and physical HRQoL. Fifty-six healthy older individuals (aged 65-75 years) were evaluated for mental and physical HRQoL, core cognitive executive functions (inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility), and functional mobility (walking) under single and dual task conditions. Multiple regression analyses were run to verify which core executive functions predicted mental and physical HRQoL and whether the ability to perform complex (dual) walking tasks moderated such association. Inhibitory efficiency and the ability to perform physical-mental dual tasks interactively predicted mental HRQoL, whereas cognitive flexibility and the ability to perform physical dual tasks interactively predicted physical HRQoL. Different core executive functions seem relevant for mental and physical HRQoL. Executive function efficiency seems to translate into HRQoL perception when coupled with tangible experience of the ability to walk under dual task conditions that mirror everyday life demands. Implications of these results for supporting the perception of mental and physical quality of life at advanced age are discussed, suggesting the usefulness of multicomponent interventions and environments conducive to walking that jointly aid successful cognitive aging and functional mobility. PMID:26378556

  8. Health and Quality of Life Perception in Older Adults: The Joint Role of Cognitive Efficiency and Functional Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Forte, Roberta; Boreham, Colin A.G.; De Vito, Giuseppe; Pesce, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive and mobility functions are involved in health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The present cross-sectional study aimed at investigating what facets of efficient cognition and functional mobility interactively contribute to mental and physical HRQoL. Fifty-six healthy older individuals (aged 65–75 years) were evaluated for mental and physical HRQoL, core cognitive executive functions (inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility), and functional mobility (walking) under single and dual task conditions. Multiple regression analyses were run to verify which core executive functions predicted mental and physical HRQoL and whether the ability to perform complex (dual) walking tasks moderated such association. Inhibitory efficiency and the ability to perform physical-mental dual tasks interactively predicted mental HRQoL, whereas cognitive flexibility and the ability to perform physical dual tasks interactively predicted physical HRQoL. Different core executive functions seem relevant for mental and physical HRQoL. Executive function efficiency seems to translate into HRQoL perception when coupled with tangible experience of the ability to walk under dual task conditions that mirror everyday life demands. Implications of these results for supporting the perception of mental and physical quality of life at advanced age are discussed, suggesting the usefulness of multicomponent interventions and environments conducive to walking that jointly aid successful cognitive aging and functional mobility. PMID:26378556

  9. Classification of ion mobility spectra by functional groups using neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, S.; Nazarov, E.; Wang, Y. F.; Eiceman, G. A.

    1999-01-01

    Neural networks were trained using whole ion mobility spectra from a standardized database of 3137 spectra for 204 chemicals at various concentrations. Performance of the network was measured by the success of classification into ten chemical classes. Eleven stages for evaluation of spectra and of spectral pre-processing were employed and minimums established for response thresholds and spectral purity. After optimization of the database, network, and pre-processing routines, the fraction of successful classifications by functional group was 0.91 throughout a range of concentrations. Network classification relied on a combination of features, including drift times, number of peaks, relative intensities, and other factors apparently including peak shape. The network was opportunistic, exploiting different features within different chemical classes. Application of neural networks in a two-tier design where chemicals were first identified by class and then individually eliminated all but one false positive out of 161 test spectra. These findings establish that ion mobility spectra, even with low resolution instrumentation, contain sufficient detail to permit the development of automated identification systems.

  10. Development of an Objective Space Suit Mobility Performance Metric Using Metabolic Cost and Functional Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFarland, Shane M.; Norcross, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Existing methods for evaluating EVA suit performance and mobility have historically concentrated on isolated joint range of motion and torque. However, these techniques do little to evaluate how well a suited crewmember can actually perform during an EVA. An alternative method of characterizing suited mobility through measurement of metabolic cost to the wearer has been evaluated at Johnson Space Center over the past several years. The most recent study involved six test subjects completing multiple trials of various functional tasks in each of three different space suits; the results indicated it was often possible to discern between different suit designs on the basis of metabolic cost alone. However, other variables may have an effect on real-world suited performance; namely, completion time of the task, the gravity field in which the task is completed, etc. While previous results have analyzed completion time, metabolic cost, and metabolic cost normalized to system mass individually, it is desirable to develop a single metric comprising these (and potentially other) performance metrics. This paper outlines the background upon which this single-score metric is determined to be feasible, and initial efforts to develop such a metric. Forward work includes variable coefficient determination and verification of the metric through repeated testing.

  11. High mobility group protein 2 functionally interacts with the POU domains of octamer transcription factors.

    PubMed Central

    Zwilling, S; König, H; Wirth, T

    1995-01-01

    The octamer transcription factors Oct1 and Oct2 are involved in the transcriptional regulation of both lymphoid-specific and ubiquitously expressed genes. Their activity depends critically on their interaction with distinct cellular cofactors. Therefore, we have isolated cDNAs encoding proteins that physically interact with Oct2. Here we describe the analysis of one such clone, representing the murine homologue of high mobility group (HMG) protein 2. We have mapped the interaction domains for both proteins and have shown that HMG2 and Oct2 interact via their HMG domains and POU homeodomains, respectively. This interaction is not restricted to Oct2, as other members of the octamer transcription factor family like Oct1 and Oct6 also interact with HMG2. The interaction with HMG2 results in a marked increase in the sequence-specific DNA binding activity of the Oct proteins. Interestingly, the HMG2 protein is not present in the protein-DNA complex detected by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The Oct and HMG2 proteins also interact in vivo. A chimeric protein, in which the strong transactivation domain of VP16 was fused directly to the HMG domains of HMG2, stimulated the activity of an octamer-dependent reporter construct upon cotransfection. Furthermore, the expression of antisense RNA for HMG2 specifically reduces octamer-dependent transcription. These results suggest that one of the functions of HMG2 is to support the octamer transcription factors in their role as transcriptional activators. Images PMID:7720710

  12. Deficits in a lateralized associative learning task in dopamine-depleted rats with functional recovery by dopamine-rich transplants.

    PubMed

    Dowd, Eilís; Dunnett, Stephen B

    2004-10-01

    Experimental therapies for Parkinson's disease (PD) are commonly validated in unilateral animal models using simple tests of motor asymmetry such as rotation, stepping and cylinder tests. However, the human disorder is considerably more complex than this, and alternative tests that permit a more complete evaluation of the efficacy and mechanism of action of novel treatments are needed. In this study, an operant task that assesses the selection, initiation and execution of lateralized movements was used to investigate the effects of embryonic dopamine cell transplants in the unilateral medial forebrain bundle (MFB) lesion model of PD. Lesioned Lister Hooded rats had a pronounced contralateral selection and initiation deficit, as well as an impairment in execution of movements bilaterally. They also attempted fewer trials and made more procedural errors than unlesioned rats. Transplantation of fetal dopaminergic neurons to the striatum led to a marked improvement in specific parameters and a more modest improvement in others. The graft improved the contralateral selection deficit and the execution of movements bilaterally, but had no effect on the initiation of contralateral movements. Transplanted rats also attempted more trials and made fewer errors. In contrast, the more commonly used stepping and cylinder tests revealed no functional effect of the graft. This data suggests that this operant task may be a powerful tool for validating and elucidating the mechanism of action of experimental brain repair therapies prior to entering the clinic. PMID:15380018

  13. Lateralization of cervical spinal cord activity during an isometric upper extremity motor task with functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Weber, Kenneth A; Chen, Yufen; Wang, Xue; Kahnt, Thorsten; Parrish, Todd B

    2016-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to use an isometric upper extremity motor task to detect activity induced blood oxygen level dependent signal changes in the cervical spinal cord with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Eleven healthy volunteers performed six 5minute runs of an alternating left- and right-sided isometric wrist flexion task, during which images of the cervical spinal cord were acquired with a reduced field-of-view T2*-weighted gradient-echo echo-planar-imaging sequence. Spatial normalization to a standard spinal cord template was performed, and group average activation maps were generated in a mixed-effects analysis. The task activity significantly exceeded that of the control analyses. The activity was lateralized to the hemicord ipsilateral to the task and reliable across the runs at the group and subject level. Finally, a multi-voxel pattern analysis was able to successfully decode the left and right tasks at the C6 and C7 vertebral levels. PMID:26488256

  14. Management of Grade III Mobile Anterior Tooth in Function Using Endostabilizer – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Swapnil N

    2014-01-01

    Impact of implant dentistry is such that today very few dentists think about saving grade III mobile anterior teeth. A patient with grade III mobility of central incisor due to apical root resorption was treated by using 80 no.stainless steel ‘H’ file as endostabiliser and one year follow up was done. Endostabiliser reduced the mobility of grade III mobile teeth drastically, immediately after its placement. Tooth was absolutely asymptomatic throughout one year follow up. PMID:25654043

  15. Assessment of pulmonary function in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: when can polygraphy help evaluate the need for non-invasive ventilation?

    PubMed Central

    Prell, Tino; Ringer, Thomas M; Wullenkord, Kara; Garrison, Philipp; Gunkel, Anne; Stubendorff, Beatrice; Witte, Otto W; Grosskreutz, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV) is an established, effective, long-term treatment for patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but the correct indicators for the establishment of NPPV have not been defined. Methods In this retrospective study, records (spirometry, nocturnal polygraphy, nocturnal blood gases) of 131 patients with ALS were reviewed in order to evaluate the role of polygraphy for prediction of respiratory failure in ALS. Results The patient group reporting with versus without dyspnoea had significantly lower values on the revised ALS-Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R), vital capacity (VC), forced VC (FVC), arterial oxygen saturation and arterial oxygen tension readings, including a higher apnoea–hypopnoea index. 23 patients, who did not report about dyspnoea, had an FVC of <75%. Nocturnal hypoventilation was observed in 67% of the patients with ALS independent of their ALSFRS-R. The patient group with nocturnal hypoventilation was characterised by a significantly lower VC, FVC and maximal static inspiratory pressure compared with the group without nocturnal hypoventilation. However, also in the absence of nocturnal hypoventilation, 8 patients had a VC <50% as predicted. Discussion Our study shows that in patients not reporting dyspnoea and having an FVC of >75%, nocturnal hypoventilation was observed in nearly every second patient. Therefore, for the question of whether NPPV should be initiated, polygraphy does not provide useful additional information if the FVC is already <75% as predicted. However, in patients with more or less normal lung function parameters or where lung spirometry cannot perform adequately (eg, bulbar ALS), it can provide sufficient evidence for the need of NPPV. PMID:27010615

  16. Stability of early identified aggressive victim status in elementary school and associations with later mental health problems and functional impairments.

    PubMed

    Burk, Linnea R; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Park, Jong-Hyo; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Klein, Marjorie H; Essex, Marilyn J

    2011-02-01

    Aggressive victims-children who are both perpetrators and victims of peer aggression-experience greater concurrent mental health problems and impairments than children who are only aggressive or only victimized. The stability of early identified aggressive victim status has not been evaluated due to the fact that most studies of aggressor/victim subgroups have focused on preadolescents and/or adolescents. Further, whether children who exhibit early and persistent patterns of aggression and victimization continue to experience greater mental health problems and functional impairments through the transition to adolescence is not known. This study followed 344 children (180 girls) previously identified as socially adjusted, victims, aggressors, or aggressive victims at Grade 1 (Burk et al. 2008) to investigate their involvement in peer bullying through Grade 5. The children, their mothers, and teachers reported on children's involvement in peer aggression and victimization at Grades 1, 3, and 5; and reported on internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, inattention and impulsivity, as well as academic functioning, physical health, and service use at Grades 5, 7, and 9. Most children categorized as aggressive victims in Grade 1 continued to be significantly involved in peer bullying across elementary school. Children with recurrent aggressive victim status exhibited higher levels of some mental health problems and greater school impairments across the adolescent transition when compared to other longitudinal peer status groups. This study suggests screening for aggressive victim status at Grade 1 is potentially beneficial. Further early interventions may need to be carefully tailored to prevent and/or attenuate later psychological, academic, and physical health problems. PMID:20811772

  17. A structural equation model relating physical function, pain, impaired mobility (IM), and falls in older adults.

    PubMed

    Dai, Boyi; Ware, William B; Giuliani, Carol A

    2012-01-01

    The current study used a structural equation model to investigate the interrelationships among physical function, pain, IM, and falls in 511 American older adults. The model included 11 measurement variables (tandem stance, single leg stance, 360° turn, chair stand, arm curl, sit and reach, back scratch, normative score of 6-min walk or 2-min step, timed up and go, pain, and fall) and four latent variables (balance, strength, flexibility, and IM). The final model with the combined sample demonstrated good fit with the participant data (χ(2)(31)=30.0, N=499, p=0.52; Goodness of Fit Index (GFI)=0.99). Balance had a significant and the largest effect on IM (standardized regression weights=-1.05, p<0.001). Strength, endurance, flexibility, and pain had small effects on IM (standardized regression weights<0.2). The findings suggest that balance and mobility testing should be a priority in fall screening and prevention programs. PMID:22766209

  18. Method for determining hydrogen mobility as a function of temperature in superconducting niobium cavities

    DOEpatents

    May, Robert

    2008-03-11

    A method for determining the mobility of hydrogen as a function of temperature in superconducting niobium cavities comprising: 1) heating a cavity under test to remove free hydrogen; 2) introducing hydrogen-3 gas into the cavity; 3) cooling the cavity to allow absorption of hydrogen-3; and 4) measuring the amount of hydrogen-3 by: a) cooling the cavity to about 4.degree. K while flowing a known and regulated amount of inert carrier gas such as argon or helium into the cavity; b) allowing the cavity to warm at a stable rate from 4.degree. K to room temperature as it leaves the chamber; and c) directing the exit gas to an ion chamber radiation detector.

  19. Outcome and patients' satisfaction after functional treatment of acute lateral ankle injuries at emergency departments versus family doctor offices

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, Patrik R; Benneker, Lorin M; Eggli, Stefan; Zimmermann, Heinz; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K

    2008-01-01

    Background In some Western countries, more and more patients seek initial treatment even for minor injuries at emergency units of hospitals. The initial evaluation and treatment as well as aftercare of these patients require large amounts of personnel and logistical resources, which are limited and costly, especially if compared to treatment by a general practitioner. In this study, we investigated whether outsourcing from our level 1 trauma center to a general practitioner has an influence on patient satisfaction and compliance. Methods This prospective, randomized study, included n = 100 patients who suffered from a lateral ankle ligament injury grade I-II (16, 17). After radiological exclusion of osseous lesions, the patients received early functional treatment and were shown physical therapy exercises to be done at home, without immobilization or the use of stabilizing ortheses. The patients were randomly assigned into two groups of 50 patients each: Group A (ER): Follow-up and final examination in the hospital's emergency unit. Group B (GP): Follow-up by general practitioner, final examination at hospital's emergency unit. The patients were surveyed regarding their satisfaction with the treatment and outcome of the treatment. Results Female and male patients were equally represented in both groups. The age of the patients ranged from 16 – 64 years, with a mean age of 34 years (ER) and 35 years (GP). 98% (n = 98) of all patients were satisfied with their treatment, and 93% (n = 93) were satisfied with the outcome. For these parameters no significant difference between the two groups could be noted (p = 0.7406 and 0.7631 respectively). 39% of all patients acquired stabilizing ortheses like ankle braces (Aircast, Malleoloc etc.) on their own initiative. There was a not significant tendency for more self-acquired ortheses in the group treated by general practicioners (p = 0,2669). Conclusion Patients who first present at the ER with a lateral ankle ligament

  20. Zoledronate Inhibits Ischemia-Induced Neovascularization by Impairing the Mobilization and Function of Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Shih-Hung; Huang, Po-Hsun; Chang, Wei-Chou; Tsai, Hsiao-Ya; Lin, Chih-Pei; Leu, Hsin-Bang; Wu, Tao-Cheng; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Lin, Shing-Jong

    2012-01-01

    Background Bisphosphonates are a class of pharmacologic compounds that are commonly used to treat postmenopausal osteoporosis and malignant osteolytic processes. Studies have shown that bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play a significant role in postnatal neovascularization. Whether the nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate zoledronate inhibits ischemia-induced neovascularization by modulating EPC functions remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings Unilateral hindlimb ischemia was surgically induced in wild-type mice after 2 weeks of treatment with vehicle or zoledronate (low-dose: 30 μg/kg; high-dose: 100 μg/kg). Doppler perfusion imaging demonstrated that the ischemic limb/normal side blood perfusion ratio was significantly lower in wild-type mice treated with low-dose zoledronate and in mice treated with high-dose zoledronate than in controls 4 weeks after ischemic surgery (control vs. low-dose vs. high-dose: 87±7% vs. *61±18% vs. **49±17%, *p<0.01, **p<0.005 compared to control). Capillary densities were also significantly lower in mice treated with low-dose zoledronate and in mice treated with high-dose zoledronate than in control mice. Flow cytometry analysis showed impaired mobilization of EPC-like cells (Sca-1+/Flk-1+) after surgical induction of ischemia in mice treated with zoledronate but normal levels of mobilization in mice treated with vehicle. In addition, ischemic tissue from mice that received zoledronate treatment exhibited significantly lower levels of the active form of MMP-9, lower levels of VEGF, and lower levels of phosphorylated eNOS and phosphorylated Akt than ischemic tissue from mice that received vehicle. Results of the in vitro studies showed that incubation with zoledronate inhibited the viability, migration, and tube-forming capacities of EPC. Conclusions/Significance Zoledronate inhibited ischemia-induced neovascularization by impairing EPC mobilization and angiogenic functions. These findings suggest

  1. The expression of CG9940 affects the adaptation of cardiac function, mobility, and lifespan to exercise in aging Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wen, Deng-Tai; Zheng, Lan; Ni, Liu; Wang, Hui; Feng, Yue; Zhang, Min

    2016-10-01

    The CG9940 gene, which encodes the NAD(+) synthase protein in Drosophila, is conserved in human, zebra fish, and mosquito. NAD(+) synthase is a homodimer, which catalyzes the final step in de novo nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) biosynthesis, an amide transfer from either ammonia or glutamine to nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide (NaAD). Both the CG9940 and exercise are closely relative to NAD(+) level, and NAD(+) plays important roles not only in energy metabolism and mitochondrial functions but also in aging. In our study, the expression of CG9940 was changed by UAS/GAL4 system in Drosophila. Flies were trained by a training device. Cardiac function was analyzed by M-mode traces, climbing index was measured through negative geotaxis assay, and lifespan was measured via lifespan assays. The important new findings from our present study included the following: (1) the expression of the CG9940 could affect cardiac function, mobility, and lifespan in Drosophila. Over-expression of the CG9940 gene had positive effects on Drosophila, such as enhanced aging cardiac output, reduced heart failure, delayed age-related mobility decline, and prolonged lifespan, but lower-expression of the CG9940 had negative effects on them. (2) Different expressions of the CG9940 resulted in different influences on the adaptation of cardiac function, mobility, and lifespan to exercise in aging Drosophila. Both normal-expression and over-expression of the CG9940 resulted in positive influences on the adaptation of cardiac functions, mobility, and lifespan to exercise in aging Drosophila such as exercise slowed age-related decline of cardiac function, mobility and extent of lifespan in these flies, while lower-expression of the CG9940 led to negative impacts on the adaptation of mobility and lifespan to exercise in Drosophila. PMID:27448710

  2. Behavioral Functionality of Mobile Apps in Health Interventions: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lister, Cameron; West, Joshua H; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2015-01-01

    Background Several thousand mobile phone apps are available to download to mobile phones for health and fitness. Mobile phones may provide a unique means of administering health interventions to populations. Objective The purpose of this systematic review was to systematically search and describe the literature on mobile apps used in health behavior interventions, describe the behavioral features and focus of health apps, and to evaluate the potential of apps to disseminate health behavior interventions. Methods We conducted a review of the literature in September 2014 using key search terms in several relevant scientific journal databases. Only English articles pertaining to health interventions using mobile phone apps were included in the final sample. Results The 24 studies identified for this review were primarily feasibility and pilot studies of mobile apps with small sample sizes. All studies were informed by behavioral theories or strategies, with self-monitoring as the most common construct. Acceptability of mobile phone apps was high among mobile phone users. Conclusions The lack of large sample studies using mobile phone apps may signal a need for additional studies on the potential use of mobile apps to assist individuals in changing their health behaviors. Of these studies, there is early evidence that apps are well received by users. Based on available research, mobile apps may be considered a feasible and acceptable means of administering health interventions, but a greater number of studies and more rigorous research and evaluations are needed to determine efficacy and establish evidence for best practices. PMID:25803705

  3. Functional Mobility Performance and Balance Confidence in Older Adults after Sensorimotor Adaptation Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buccello-Stout, Regina R.; Cromwell, Ronita L.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Weaver, G. D.

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates a main contributor of injury in older adults is from falling. The decline in sensory systems limits information needed to successfully maneuver through the environment. The objective of this study was to determine if prolonged exposure to the realignment of perceptual-motor systems increases adaptability of balance, and if balance confidence improves after training. A total of 16 older adults between ages 65-85 were randomized to a control group (walking on a treadmill while viewing a static visual scene) and an experimental group (walking on a treadmill while viewing a rotating visual scene). Prior to visual exposure, participants completed six trials of walking through a soft foamed obstacle course. Participants came in twice a week for 4 weeks to complete training of walking on a treadmill and viewing the visual scene for 20 minutes each session. Participants completed the obstacle course after training and four weeks later. Average time, penalty, and Activity Balance Confidence Scale scores were computed for both groups across testing times. The older adults who trained, significantly improved their time through the obstacle course F (2, 28) = 9.41, p < 0.05, as well as reduced their penalty scores F (2, 28) = 21.03, p < 0.05, compared to those who did not train. There was no difference in balance confidence scores between groups across testing times F (2, 28) = 0.503, p > 0.05. Although the training group improved mobility through the obstacle course, there were no differences between the groups in balance confidence.

  4. Community environment, cognitive impairment and dementia in later life: results from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Prina, A. Matthew; Jones, Andrew P.; Barnes, Linda E.; Matthews, Fiona E.; Brayne, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Background: few studies have investigated the impact of the community environment, as distinct from area deprivation, on cognition in later life. This study explores cross-sectional associations between cognitive impairment and dementia and environmental features at the community level in older people. Method: the postcodes of the 2,424 participants in the year-10 interview of the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study in England were mapped into small area level geographical units (Lower-layer Super Output Areas) and linked to environmental data in government statistics. Multilevel logistic regression was conducted to investigate associations between cognitive impairment (defined as MMSE ≤ 25), dementia (organicity level ≥3 in GMS-AGECAT) and community level measurements including area deprivation, natural environment, land use mix and crime. Sensitivity analyses tested the impact of people moving residence within the last two years. Results: higher levels of area deprivation and crime were not significantly associated with cognitive impairment and dementia after accounting for individual level factors. Living in areas with high land use mix was significantly associated with a nearly 60% reduced odds of dementia (OR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.8) after adjusting for individual level factors and area deprivation, but there was no linear trend for cognitive impairment. Increased odds of dementia (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.2, 4.2) and cognitive impairment (OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.0) were found in the highest quartile of natural environment availability. Findings were robust to exclusion of the recently relocated. Conclusion: features of land use have complex associations with cognitive impairment and dementia. Further investigations should focus on environmental influences on cognition to inform health and social policies. PMID:26464419

  5. Lateral asymmetry as a function of motor practice type of complex upper- and lower-limb movement in young children.

    PubMed

    Marinsek, Miha

    2016-05-01

    The influence of different motor practice types on lateral asymmetry of performance was investigated in 40 preschool children. Lateral preference was measured prior the experiment. For the purpose of present study dribbling a ball with a hand and foot was used to assess lateral asymmetry of performance before and after three different motor practice types. Motor practice with the non-dominant, dominant, and both (contralateral) limbs took place in the indoor facility 4 times/week for 6 weeks. Each session lasted 30-40 min. Our results showed that unilateral practice of dribbling is more beneficial for diminishing lateral asymmetry of performance in comparison to bilateral practice. Moreover, participants who practiced with their dominant limb diminished lateral asymmetry of performance the most and made the largest overall improvement. We did not find important differences between acquisitions of dribbling with upper- and lower-extremity. In this sense, the results support the notion of lateral asymmetry of performance to be task-specific. PMID:26754104

  6. Functional mobility in a divided attention task in older adults with cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Borges, Sheila de Melo; Radanovic, Márcia; Forlenza, Orestes Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Motor disorders may occur in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and at early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), particularly under divided attention conditions. We examined functional mobility in 104 older adults (42 with MCI, 26 with mild AD, and 36 cognitively healthy) using the Timed Up and Go test (TUG) under 4 experimental conditions: TUG single task, TUG plus a cognitive task, TUG plus a manual task, and TUG plus a cognitive and a manual task. Statistically significant differences in mean time of execution were found in all four experimental conditions when comparing MCI and controls (p < .001), and when comparing MCI and AD patients (p < .05). Receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses showed that all four testing conditions could differentiate the three groups (area under the curve > .8, p < .001 for MCI vs. controls; area under the curve > .7, p < .001 for MCI vs. AD). The authors conclude that functional motor deficits occurring in MCI can be assessed by the TUG test, in single or dual task modality. PMID:25610990

  7. Design and function of an electron mobility spectrometer with a thick gas electron multiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchard, Gloria M.; Puddu, Silvia; Waker, Anthony J.

    2016-04-01

    The design and function of an electron mobility spectrometer (EMS) including a thick gas electron multiplier (THGEM) is presented. The THGEM was designed to easily be incorporated in an existing EMS to investigate the ability to detect tritium in air using a micropattern gas detector. The THGEM and a collection plate (anode) were installed and the appropriate circuitry was designed and connected to supply the required voltages to the THGEM-EMS. An alpha source (241Am) was used to generate electron-ion pairs within the gas-filled sensitive volume of the EMS. The electrons were used to investigate the THGEM-EMS response as a function of applied voltage to the THGEM and anode. The relative gas-gain and system resolution of the THGEM-EMS were measured at various applied voltage settings. It was observed a potential difference across the THGEM of +420 V and potential difference across the induction region of +150 V for this EMS setup resulted in the minimum voltage requirements to operate with a stable gain and system resolution. Furthermore, as expected, the gain is strongly affected not only by the potential difference across the THGEM, but also by the applied voltage to the anode and resulting potential difference between the THGEM and anode.

  8. Driving Performance during Word Generation--Testing the Function of Human Brain Lateralization Using fTCD in an Ecologically Relevant Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lust, J. M.; Geuze, R. H.; Groothuis, A. G. G.; van der Zwan, J. E.; Brouwer, W. H.; van Wolffelaar, P. C.; Bouma, A.

    2011-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that cerebral lateralization of function enhances cognitive performance. Evidence was found in birds and fish. However, recent research in humans did not support this hypothesis. We aimed to replicate and extend these findings for single- and dual-task performance in an ecologically relevant task. We combined a word…

  9. A Combined fMRI and DTI Examination of Functional Language Lateralization and Arcuate Fasciculus Structure: Effects of Degree versus Direction of Hand Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Propper, Ruthe E.; O'Donnell, Lauren J.; Whalen, Stephen; Tie, Yanmei; Norton, Isaiah H.; Suarez, Ralph O.; Zollei, Lilla; Radmanesh, Alireza; Golby, Alexandra J.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between hand preference degree and direction, functional language lateralization in Broca's and Wernicke's areas, and structural measures of the arcuate fasciculus. Results revealed an effect of degree of hand preference on arcuate fasciculus structure, such that consistently-handed individuals,…

  10. Habitual physical activity levels are associated with performance in measures of physical function and mobility in older men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity according to triaxial accelerometers; physical function and mobility according to the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), gait speed, stair climb time, and a lift-and-lower task; aerobic capacity according to maximum oxygen consumption (VO(2) max); and leg press and chest pr...

  11. Lateral canthal surgery.

    PubMed

    Chong, Kelvin Kam-Lung; Goldberg, Robert A

    2010-08-01

    The lateral canthus is a delicate and complicated three-dimensional structure with function relevant to the health of the ocular surface. Dysfunction of the lateral canthus, due to aging changes or iatrogenic trauma, results in ocular morbidity ranging from chronic irritation to tearing to recalcitrant keratopathy. From an aesthetic standpoint, symmetric, normally positioned lateral canthi are cornerstones of youthful periorbital appearance, disruption of which leads to cosmetically significant deformity or asymmetry. Reconstruction of the lateral canthus is important in the rehabilitation of the aging eyelid and an unfortunate necessity after failed lateral canthal surgery. The common methods for improving or maintaining position, tone, and shape of the lower eyelid and lateral canthus use tightening or shortening the lower eyelid horizontally, keeping the canthal angle in an appropriate vertical level, and hugging the ocular surface. Many techniques have been described for the reconstruction of the lateral canthus in functional conditions or for aesthetic purposes. These methods have met with varying success. In this article, we begin with a discussion of the anatomy and physiology of the lateral canthus, followed by clinical examples of lateral canthal abnormalities and underlying pathophysiologies. A review of surgical options for the lateral canthus is presented with concluding remarks on postoperative complications. PMID:20524167

  12. Isolated Photosystem I Reaction Centers on a Functionalized Gated High Electron Mobility Transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Eliza, Sazia A.; Lee, Ida; Tulip, Fahmida S; Islam, Syed K; Mostafa, Salwa; Greenbaum, Elias; Ericson, Milton Nance

    2011-01-01

    In oxygenic plants, photons are captured with high quantum efficiency by two specialized reaction centers (RC) called Photosystem I (PS I) and Photosystem II (PS II). The captured photon triggers rapid charge separation and the photon energy is converted into an electrostatic potential across the nanometer-scale nm reaction centers. The exogenous photovoltages from a single PS I RC have been previously measured using the technique of Kelvin force probe microscopy (KFM). However, biomolecular photovoltaic applications require two-terminal devices. This paper presents for the first time, a micro-device for detection and characterization of isolated PS I RCs. The device is based on an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structure. AlGaN/GaN HEMTs show high current throughputs and greater sensitivity to surface charges compared to other field-effect devices. PS I complexes immobilized on the floating gate of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs resulted in significant changes in the device characteristics under illumination. An analytical model has been developed to estimate the RCs of a major orientation on the functionalized gate surface of the HEMTs.

  13. Fall risk-relevant functional mobility outcomes in dementia following dyadic tai chi exercise.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lan; Giordani, Bruno J; Algase, Donna L; You, Mei; Alexander, Neil B

    2013-03-01

    Whether persons with dementia benefit from fall prevention exercise is unclear. Applying the Positive Emotion-Motivated Tai Chi protocol, preliminary findings concerning adherence and effects of a dyadic Tai Chi exercise program on persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are reported. Using pre/posttest design, 22 community-dwelling AD-caregiver dyads participated in the program. Fall-risk-relevant functional mobility was measured using Unipedal Stance Time (UST) and Timed Up and Go (TUG) tests. Results showed that 19/22 (86.4%) AD patients completed the 16-week program and final assessment; 16/19 dyads (84.2%) completed the prescribed home program as reported by caregivers. UST adjusted mean improved from 4.0 to 5.1 (Week 4, p < .05) and 5.6 (Week 16, p < .05); TUG improved from 13.2 to 11.6 (Week 4, p < .05) and 11.6 (Week 16, p > .05) post intervention. Retaining dementia patients in an exercise intervention remains challenging. The dyadic Tai Chi approach appears to succeed in keeping AD-caregiver dyads exercising and safe. PMID:22517441

  14. Isolated photosystem I reaction centers on a functionalized gated high electron mobility transistor.

    PubMed

    Eliza, Sazia A; Lee, Ida; Tulip, Fahmida S; Mostafa, Salwa; Greenbaum, Elias; Ericson, M Nance; Islam, Syed K

    2011-09-01

    In oxygenic plants, photons are captured with high quantum efficiency by two specialized reaction centers (RC) called Photosystem I (PS I) and Photosystem II (PS II). The captured photon triggers rapid charge separation and the photon energy is converted into an electrostatic potential across the nanometer-scale (~6 nm) reaction centers. The exogenous photovoltages from a single PS I RC have been previously measured using the technique of Kelvin force probe microscopy (KFM). However, biomolecular photovoltaic applications require two-terminal devices. This paper presents for the first time, a micro-device for detection and characterization of isolated PS I RCs. The device is based on an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structure. AlGaN/GaN HEMTs show high current throughputs and greater sensitivity to surface charges compared to other field-effect devices. PS I complexes immobilized on the floating gate of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs resulted in significant changes in the device characteristics under illumination. An analytical model has been developed to estimate the RCs of a major orientation on the functionalized gate surface of the HEMTs. PMID:21926029

  15. The Effect of Thoracic Joint Mobilization and Self-stretching Exercise on Pulmonary Functions of Patients with Chronic Neck Pain.

    PubMed

    Hwangbo, Pil-Neo; Hwangbo, Gak; Park, Jungseo; Lee, Sangyong

    2014-11-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to determine the effect of thoracic joint mobilization and self-stretching exercise on the pulmonary functions of patients with chronic neck pain. [Subjects] The present study was performed with 34 patients with chronic neck pain featuring thoracic kyphosis; we divided them into a thoracic joint mobilization group (TJMG, n = 11), self-stretching exercise group (SSEG, n = 11), and thoracic joint mobilization and self-stretching exercise group (TJMSSEG, n = 12). [Methods] Treatments and exercise were conducted three times a week for six weeks in TJMG, SSEG, and TJMSSEG; the subjects' pulmonary functions in terms of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were measured using CardioTouch equipment. [Results] Comparisons of the individuals within each of the TJMG, SSEG, and TJMSSEG showed that all of FVC, FEV1, and PEF increased significantly; Comparisons within each of the showed that FVC, FEV1, and PEF increased significantly. Among the study groups, FVC was significantly higher in TJMSSEG than in TJMG after six weeks; FEV1 was significantly higher in TJMSSEG than in TJMG and SSEG after four and six weeks; and PEF was significantly higher in TJMSSEG than in TJMG and SSEG after six weeks. [Conclusion] The study results indicate that thoracic joint mobilization and self-stretching exercise are effective interventions for increasing FVC, FEV1, and PEF among pulmonary functions. PMID:25435700

  16. Language Laterality in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typical Controls: A Functional, Volumetric, and Diffusion Tensor MRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaus, Tracey A.; Silver, Andrew M.; Kennedy, Meaghan; Lindgren, Kristen A.; Dominick, Kelli C.; Siegel, Jeremy; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Language and communication deficits are among the core features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reduced or reversed asymmetry of language has been found in a number of disorders, including ASD. Studies of healthy adults have found an association between language laterality and anatomical measures but this has not been systematically…

  17. Sex-Related Hemispheric Lateralization of Amygdala Function in Emotionally Influenced Memory: An fMRI Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Larry; Uncapher, Melina; Kilpatrick, Lisa; Alkire, Mike T.; Turner, Jessica

    2004-01-01

    The amygdala appears necessary for enhanced long-term memory associated with emotionally arousing events. Recent brain imaging investigations support this view and indicate a sex-related hemispheric lateralization exists in the amygdala relationship to memory for emotional material. This study confirms and further explores this finding. Healthy…

  18. Radial mobility and cytotoxic function of retroviral replicating vector transduced, non-adherent alloresponsive T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Kate L; Hickey, Michelle J; Kato, Yuki; Malone, Colin C; Owens, Geoffrey C; Prins, Robert M; Liau, Linda M; Kasahara, Noriyuki; Kruse, Carol A

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel adaptation of the Radial Monolayer Cell Migration assay, first reported to measure the radial migration of adherent tumor cells on extracellular matrix proteins, for measuring the motility of fluorescently-labeled, non-adherent human or murine effector immune cells. This technique employs a stainless steel manifold and 10-well Teflon slide to focally deposit non-adherent T cells into wells prepared with either confluent tumor cell monolayers or extracellular matrix proteins. Light and/or multi-channel fluorescence microscopy is used to track the movement and behavior of the effector cells over time. Fluorescent dyes and/or viral vectors that code for fluorescent transgenes are used to differentially label the cell types for imaging. This method is distinct from similar-type in vitro assays that track horizontal or vertical migration/invasion utilizing slide chambers, agar or transwell plates. The assay allows detailed imaging data to be collected with different cell types distinguished by specific fluorescent markers; even specific subpopulations of cells (i.e., transduced/nontransduced) can be monitored. Surface intensity fluorescence plots are generated using specific fluorescence channels that correspond to the migrating cell type. This allows for better visualization of the non-adherent immune cell mobility at specific times. It is possible to gather evidence of other effector cell functions, such as cytotoxicity or transfer of viral vectors from effector to target cells, as well. Thus, the method allows researchers to microscopically document cell-to-cell interactions of differentially-labeled, non-adherent with adherent cells of various types. Such information may be especially relevant in the assessment of biologically-manipulated or activated immune cell types, where visual proof of functionality is desired with tumor target cells before their use for cancer therapy. PMID:25741775

  19. ScaMo: Realisation of an OO-functional DSL for cross platform mobile applications development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macos, Dragan; Solymosi, Andreas

    2013-10-01

    The software market is dynamically changing: the Internet is going mobile, the software applications are shifting from the desktop hardware onto the mobile devices. The largest markets are the mobile applications for iOS, Android and Windows Phone and for the purpose the typical programming languages include Objective-C, Java and C ♯. The realization of the native applications implies the integration of the developed software into the environments of mentioned mobile operating systems to enable the access to different hardware components of the devices: GPS module, display, GSM module, etc. This paper deals with the definition and possible implementation of an environment for the automatic application generation for multiple mobile platforms. It is based on a DSL for mobile application development, which includes the programming language Scala and a DSL defined in Scala. As part of a multi-stage cross-compiling algorithm, this language is translated into the language of the affected mobile platform. The advantage of our method lies in the expressiveness of the defined language and the transparent source code translation between different languages, which implies, for example, the advantages of debugging and development of the generated code.

  20. Formation of the insect head involves lateral contribution of the intercalary segment, which depends on Tc-labial function.

    PubMed

    Posnien, Nico; Bucher, Gregor

    2010-02-01

    The insect head is composed of several segments. During embryonic development, the segments fuse to form a rigid head capsule where obvious segmental boundaries are lacking. Hence, the assignment of regions of the insect head to specific segments is hampered, especially with respect to dorsal (vertex) and lateral (gena) parts. We show that upon Tribolium labial (Tc-lab) knock down, the intercalary segment is deleted but not transformed. Furthermore, we find that the intercalary segment contributes to lateral parts of the head cuticle in Tribolium. Based on several additional mutant and RNAi phenotypes that interfere with gnathal segment development, we show that these segments do not contribute to the dorsal head capsule apart from the dorsal ridge. Opposing the classical view but in line with findings in the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster and the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, we propose a "bend and zipper" model for insect head capsule formation. PMID:19913530

  1. Frontally placed eyes versus laterally placed eyes: computational comparison of their functions for ego-motion estimation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhi; Wang, Pengfei; Zhai, Ruifang; Tang, Yazhe

    2016-04-01

    Both frontally placed eyes and laterally placed eyes are popular in nature, and although which one is better could be one of the most intuitive questions to ask, it could also be the hardest question to answer. Their most obvious difference is that, at least as supposed in the computer vision community, stereopsis plays the central role in the visual system composed of frontally placed eyes (or cameras); however, it is not available in the lateral configuration due to the lack of overlap between the visual fields. As a result, researchers have adopted completely different approaches to model the two configurations and developed computational mimics of them to address various vision problems. Recently, the advent of novel quasi-parallax conception unifies the ego-motion estimation procedure of these two eye configurations into the same framework and makes systematic comparison feasible. In this paper, we intend to establish the computational superiority of eye topography from the perspective of ego-motion estimation. Specifically, quasi-parallax is applied to fuse motion cues from individual cameras at an early stage, at the pixel level, and to recover the translation and rotation separately with high accuracy and efficiency without the need of feature matching. Furthermore, its applicability on the extended sideways arrangements is studied successfully to make our comparison more general and insightful. Extensive experiments on both synthetic and real data have been done, and the computational superiority of the lateral configuration is verified. PMID:27140756

  2. Physisorption of functionalized gold nanoparticles on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors for sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Makowski, M S; Kim, S; Gaillard, M; Janes, D; Manfra, M J; Bryan, I; Sitar, Z; Arellano, C; Xie, J; Collazo, R; Ivanisevic, A

    2013-02-18

    AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were used to measure electrical characteristics of physisorbed gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) functionalized with alkanethiols with a terminal methyl, amine, or carboxyl functional group. Additional alkanethiol was physisorbed onto the NP treated devices to distinguish between the effects of the Au NPs and alkanethiols on HEMT operation. Scanning Kelvin probe microscopy and electrical measurements were used to characterize the treatment effects. The HEMTs were operated near threshold voltage due to the greatest sensitivity in this region. The Au NP/HEMT system electrically detected functional group differences on adsorbed NPs which is pertinent to biosensor applications. PMID:23509411

  3. Physisorption of functionalized gold nanoparticles on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors for sensing applications

    PubMed Central

    Makowski, M. S.; Kim, S.; Gaillard, M.; Janes, D.; Manfra, M. J.; Bryan, I.; Sitar, Z.; Arellano, C.; Xie, J.; Collazo, R.; Ivanisevic, A.

    2013-01-01

    AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were used to measure electrical characteristics of physisorbed gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) functionalized with alkanethiols with a terminal methyl, amine, or carboxyl functional group. Additional alkanethiol was physisorbed onto the NP treated devices to distinguish between the effects of the Au NPs and alkanethiols on HEMT operation. Scanning Kelvin probe microscopy and electrical measurements were used to characterize the treatment effects. The HEMTs were operated near threshold voltage due to the greatest sensitivity in this region. The Au NP/HEMT system electrically detected functional group differences on adsorbed NPs which is pertinent to biosensor applications. PMID:23509411

  4. Physisorption of functionalized gold nanoparticles on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makowski, M. S.; Kim, S.; Gaillard, M.; Janes, D.; Manfra, M. J.; Bryan, I.; Sitar, Z.; Arellano, C.; Xie, J.; Collazo, R.; Ivanisevic, A.

    2013-02-01

    AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were used to measure electrical characteristics of physisorbed gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) functionalized with alkanethiols with a terminal methyl, amine, or carboxyl functional group. Additional alkanethiol was physisorbed onto the NP treated devices to distinguish between the effects of the Au NPs and alkanethiols on HEMT operation. Scanning Kelvin probe microscopy and electrical measurements were used to characterize the treatment effects. The HEMTs were operated near threshold voltage due to the greatest sensitivity in this region. The Au NP/HEMT system electrically detected functional group differences on adsorbed NPs which is pertinent to biosensor applications.

  5. Assessment of Postflight Locomotor Performance Utilizing a Test of Functional Mobility: Strategic and Adaptive Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, L. E.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Cohen, H. S.; Richards, J. T.; Miller, C. A.; Brady, R.; Ruttley, T. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    Space flight induces adaptive modification in sensorimotor function, allowing crewmembers to operate in the unique microgravity environment. This adaptive state, however, is inappropriate for a terrestrial environment. During a re-adaptation period upon their return to Earth, crewmembers experience alterations in sensorimotor function, causing various disturbances in perception, spatial orientation, posture, gait, and eye-head coordination. Following long duration space flight, sensorimotor dysfunction would prevent or extend the time required to make an emergency egress from the vehicle; compromising crew safety and mission objectives. We are investigating two types of motor learning that may interact with each other and influence a crewmember's ability to re-adapt to Earth's gravity environment. In strategic learning, crewmembers make rapid modifications in their motor control strategy emphasizing error reduction. This type of learning may be critical during the first minutes and hours after landing. In adaptive learning, long-term plastic transformations occur, involving morphological changes and synaptic modification. In recent literature these two behavioral components have been associated with separate brain structures that control the execution of motor strategies: the strategic component was linked to the posterior parietal cortex and the adaptive component was linked to the cerebellum (Pisella, et al. 2004). The goal of this paper was to demonstrate the relative contributions of the strategic and adaptive components to the re-adaptation process in locomotor control after long duration space flight missions on the International Space Station (ISS). The Functional Mobility Test (FMT) was developed to assess crewmember s ability to ambulate postflight from an operational and functional perspective. Sixteen crewmembers were tested preflight (3 sessions) and postflight (days 1, 2, 4, 7, 25) following a long duration space flight (approx 6 months) on the ISS. We

  6. Challenges with Deploying and Integrating Environmental Control and Life Support Functions in a Lunar Architecture with High Degrees of Mobility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagdigian, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    Visions of lunar outposts often depict a collection of fixed elements such as pressurized habitats, in and around which human inhabitants spend the large majority of their surface stay time. In such an outpost, an efficient deployment of environmental control and life support equipment can be achieved by centralizing certain functions within one or a minimum number of habitable elements and relying on the exchange of gases and liquids between elements via atmosphere ventilation and plumbed interfaces. However, a rigidly fixed outpost can constrain the degree to which the total lunar landscape can be explored. The capability to enable widespread access across the landscape makes a lunar architecture with a high degree of surface mobility attractive. Such mobility presents unique challenges to the efficient deployment of environmental control and life support functions in multiple elements that may for long periods of time be operated independently. This paper describes some of those anticipated challenges.

  7. Chronic electrical stimulation of the contralesional lateral cerebellar nucleus enhances recovery of motor function after cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Machado, Andre G; Baker, Kenneth B; Schuster, Daniel; Butler, Robert S; Rezai, Ali

    2009-07-14

    Novel neurorehabilitative strategies are needed to improve motor outcomes following stroke. Based on the disynaptic excitatory projections of the dentatothalamocortical pathway to the motor cortex as well as to anterior and posterior cortical areas, we hypothesize that chronic electrical stimulation of the contralesional dentate (lateral cerebellar) nucleus output can enhance motor recovery after ischemia via augmentation of perilesional cortical excitability. Seventy-five Wistar rats were pre-trained in the Montoya staircase task and subsequently underwent left cerebral ischemia with the 3-vessel occlusion model. All survivors underwent stereotactic right lateral cerebellar nucleus (LCN) implantation of bipolar electrodes. Rats were then randomized to 4 groups: LCN stimulation at 10 pps, 20 pps, 50 pps or sham stimulation, which was delivered for a period of 6 weeks. Performance on the Montoya staircase task was re-assessed over the last 4 weeks of the stimulation period. On the right (contralesional) side, motor performance of the groups undergoing sham, 10 pps, 20 pps and 50 pps stimulation was, respectively, 2.5+/-2.7; 2.1+/-2.5; 6.0+/-3.9 (p<0.01) and 4.5+/-3.5 pellets. There was no difference on the left (ipsilesional) side motor performance among the sham or stimulation groups, varying from 15.9+/-6.7 to 17.2+/-2.1 pellets. We conclude that contralesional chronic electrical stimulation of the lateral cerebellar nucleus at 20 pps but not at 10 or 50 pps improves motor recovery in rats following ischemic strokes. This effect is likely to be mediated by increased perilesional cortical excitability via chronic activation of the dentatothalamocortical pathway. PMID:19445910

  8. Ankle proprioceptive acuity is associated with objective as well as self-report measures of balance, mobility, and physical function.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Nandini; Simonsick, Eleanor; Metter, E Jeffrey; Ko, Seunguk; Ferrucci, Luigi; Studenski, Stephanie

    2016-06-01

    Ankle proprioceptive information is integrated by the central nervous system to generate and modulate muscle contractions for maintaining standing balance. This study evaluated the association of ankle joint proprioception with objective and self-report measures of balance, mobility, and physical function across the adult life span. Seven hundred and ninety participants (age range 24-97 years, 362 women) who completed ankle proprioception assessment between 2010 and 2014 were included in the present study from the population-based cohort of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), USA. Outcome measures included ankle joint proprioception measured as threshold for perception of passive movement (TPPM); single leg stance time; perceived difficulty for standing balance; usual, fastest, and narrow-path gait speed; walking index; short physical performance battery score; and self-reported activity restriction due to fear of falling. Descriptive variables included age, sex, body mass index, education, strength, and cognition. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) in general linear model (GLM) or multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed, as appropriate, to test the hypothesis that balance, mobility, and physical function were significantly different according to TPPM quintiles even after adjusting for relevant covariates. Those with TPPM >2.2° consistently demonstrated poor balance, mobility, and physical function. However, with increase in challenge (single leg stance, fastest walking speed, and SPPB), TPPM >1.4° was associated with significantly worse performance. In conclusion, ankle proprioceptive acuity has an overall graded relationship with objective and self-report measures of balance, mobility, and physical function. However, the cutoff proprioceptive acuity associated with substantial decline or inability to perform could depend on the challenge induced. PMID:27146830

  9. Element mobilization from Bakken shales as a function of water chemistry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Burns, Scott; Giammar, Daniel E; Fortner, John D

    2016-04-01

    Waters that return to the surface after injection of a hydraulic fracturing fluid for gas and oil production contain elements, including regulated metals and metalloids, which are mobilized through interactions between the fracturing fluid and the shale formation. The rate and extent of mobilization depends on the geochemistry of the formation and the chemical characteristics of the fracturing fluid. In this work, laboratory scale experiments investigated the influence of water chemistry on element mobilization from core samples taken from the Bakken formation, one of the most productive shale oil plays in the US. Fluid properties were systematically varied and evaluated with regard to pH, oxidant level, solid:water ratio, temperature, and chemical additives. Element mobilization strongly depended on solution pH and redox conditions and to a lesser extent on the temperature and solid:water ratio. The presence of oxygen and addition of hydrogen peroxide or ammonium persulfate led to pyrite oxidation, resulting in elevated sulfate concentrations. Further, depending on the mineral carbonates available to buffer the system pH, pyrite oxidation could lower the system pH and enhance the mobility of several metals and metalloids. PMID:26866966

  10. Effect of electromagnetic radiations from mobile phone base stations on general health and salivary function

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kushpal; Nagaraj, Anup; Yousuf, Asif; Ganta, Shravani; Pareek, Sonia; Vishnani, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cell phones use electromagnetic, nonionizing radiations in the microwave range, which some believe may be harmful to human health. The present study aimed to determine the effect of electromagnetic radiations (EMRs) on unstimulated/stimulated salivary flow rate and other health-related problems between the general populations residing in proximity to and far away from mobile phone base stations. Materials and Methods: A total of four mobile base stations were randomly selected from four zones of Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. Twenty individuals who were residing in proximity to the selected mobile phone towers were taken as the case group and the other 20 individuals (control group) who were living nearly 1 km away in the periphery were selected for salivary analysis. Questions related to sleep disturbances were measured using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and other health problems were included in the questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Results: It was unveiled that a majority of the subjects who were residing near the mobile base station complained of sleep disturbances, headache, dizziness, irritability, concentration difficulties, and hypertension. A majority of the study subjects had significantly lesser stimulated salivary secretion (P < 0.01) as compared to the control subjects. Conclusions: The effects of prolonged exposure to EMRs from mobile phone base stations on the health and well-being of the general population cannot be ruled out. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the effect of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on general health and more specifically on oral health. PMID:27011934

  11. Asymmetrical Deterministic Lateral Displacement Gaps for Dual Functions of Enhanced Separation and Throughput of Red Blood Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeming, Kerwin Kwek; Salafi, Thoriq; Chen, Chia-Hung; Zhang, Yong

    2016-03-01

    Deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) method for particle separation in microfluidic devices has been extensively used for particle separation in recent years due to its high resolution and robust separation. DLD has shown versatility for a wide spectrum of applications for sorting of micro particles such as parasites, blood cells to bacteria and DNA. DLD model is designed for spherical particles and efficient separation of blood cells is challenging due to non-uniform shape and size. Moreover, separation in sub-micron regime requires the gap size of DLD systems to be reduced which exponentially increases the device resistance, resulting in greatly reduced throughput. This paper shows how simple application of asymmetrical DLD gap-size by changing the ratio of lateral-gap (GL) to downstream-gap (GD) enables efficient separation of RBCs without greatly restricting throughput. This method reduces the need for challenging fabrication of DLD pillars and provides new insight to the current DLD model. The separation shows an increase in DLD critical diameter resolution (separate smaller particles) and increase selectivity for non-spherical RBCs. The RBCs separate better as compared to standard DLD model with symmetrical gap sizes. This method can be applied to separate non-spherical bacteria or sub-micron particles to enhance throughput and DLD resolution.

  12. Asymmetrical Deterministic Lateral Displacement Gaps for Dual Functions of Enhanced Separation and Throughput of Red Blood Cells.

    PubMed

    Zeming, Kerwin Kwek; Salafi, Thoriq; Chen, Chia-Hung; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) method for particle separation in microfluidic devices has been extensively used for particle separation in recent years due to its high resolution and robust separation. DLD has shown versatility for a wide spectrum of applications for sorting of micro particles such as parasites, blood cells to bacteria and DNA. DLD model is designed for spherical particles and efficient separation of blood cells is challenging due to non-uniform shape and size. Moreover, separation in sub-micron regime requires the gap size of DLD systems to be reduced which exponentially increases the device resistance, resulting in greatly reduced throughput. This paper shows how simple application of asymmetrical DLD gap-size by changing the ratio of lateral-gap (GL) to downstream-gap (GD) enables efficient separation of RBCs without greatly restricting throughput. This method reduces the need for challenging fabrication of DLD pillars and provides new insight to the current DLD model. The separation shows an increase in DLD critical diameter resolution (separate smaller particles) and increase selectivity for non-spherical RBCs. The RBCs separate better as compared to standard DLD model with symmetrical gap sizes. This method can be applied to separate non-spherical bacteria or sub-micron particles to enhance throughput and DLD resolution. PMID:26961061

  13. Asymmetrical Deterministic Lateral Displacement Gaps for Dual Functions of Enhanced Separation and Throughput of Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zeming, Kerwin Kwek; Salafi, Thoriq; Chen, Chia-Hung; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) method for particle separation in microfluidic devices has been extensively used for particle separation in recent years due to its high resolution and robust separation. DLD has shown versatility for a wide spectrum of applications for sorting of micro particles such as parasites, blood cells to bacteria and DNA. DLD model is designed for spherical particles and efficient separation of blood cells is challenging due to non-uniform shape and size. Moreover, separation in sub-micron regime requires the gap size of DLD systems to be reduced which exponentially increases the device resistance, resulting in greatly reduced throughput. This paper shows how simple application of asymmetrical DLD gap-size by changing the ratio of lateral-gap (GL) to downstream-gap (GD) enables efficient separation of RBCs without greatly restricting throughput. This method reduces the need for challenging fabrication of DLD pillars and provides new insight to the current DLD model. The separation shows an increase in DLD critical diameter resolution (separate smaller particles) and increase selectivity for non-spherical RBCs. The RBCs separate better as compared to standard DLD model with symmetrical gap sizes. This method can be applied to separate non-spherical bacteria or sub-micron particles to enhance throughput and DLD resolution. PMID:26961061

  14. Sensorimotor and cognitive functions in a SOD1(G37R) transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Filali, Mohammed; Lalonde, Robert; Rivest, Serge

    2011-11-20

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurological disorder involving degeneration of motor neurons in brain and spinal cord, leading to progressive atrophy of skeletal muscles and, ultimately, paralysis and death. Copper-mediated oxidative damage is proposed to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) - linked hereditary amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. To understand more clearly the pathogenesis of sensorimotor dysfunction and to find the most appropriate methods for early detection of symptoms and for monitoring them across time, a murine model was assessed at three time points (5, 8, and 11 months). Transgenic mice with the G37R mutation of human SOD1 exhibited earliest signs of dysfunction at 8 months in terms of a pathological hindpaw clasping reflex, as well as slowed movement time on a suspended bar, anomalies in footprint patterns, weaker grip strength, raised somatosensory thresholds, and deficits in passive avoidance learning, yielding a margin of 3-4 months before death to test experimental therapies. PMID:21816178

  15. Effects of high heeled shoes wearing experience and heel height on human standing balance and functional mobility.

    PubMed

    Hapsari, Vaniessa Dewi; Xiong, Shuping

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of high heeled shoes (HHS) wearing experience and heel height on human standing balance and functional mobility. Thirty young and healthy females (ten experienced and twenty inexperienced HHS wearers) participated in a series of balance tests when they wore shoes of four different heel heights: 1 cm (flat), 4 cm (low), 7 cm (medium) and 10 cm (high). Experimental results show that regardless of the wearing experience, the heel elevation induces more effort from lower limb muscles (particularly calf muscles) and results in worse functional mobility starting at 7 cm heel height. While the heel height increased to 10 cm, the standing balance also becomes worse. Experienced HHS wearers do not show significantly better overall performance on standing balance and functional mobility than inexperienced controls, even though they have better directional control (76.8% vs. 74.4%) and larger maximum excursion (93.3% vs. 89.7%). To maintain standing balance, experienced wearers exert less effort on tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis and erector spinae muscles at the cost of more intensive effort from gastrocnemius medialis muscle. PMID:26155823

  16. Speech-induced striatal dopamine release is left lateralized and coupled to functional striatal circuits in healthy humans: A combined PET, fMRI and DTI study

    PubMed Central

    Simonyan, Kristina; Herscovitch, Peter; Horwitz, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Considerable progress has been recently made in understanding the brain mechanisms underlying speech and language control. However, the neurochemical underpinnings of normal speech production remain largely unknown. We investigated the extent of striatal endogenous dopamine release and its influences on the organization of functional striatal speech networks during production of meaningful English sentences using a combination of positron emission tomography (PET) with the dopamine D2/D3 receptor radioligand [11C]raclopride and functional MRI (fMRI). In addition, we used diffusion tensor tractography (DTI) to examine the extent of dopaminergic modulatory influences on striatal structural network organization. We found that, during sentence production, endogenous dopamine was released in the ventromedial portion of the dorsal striatum, in its both associative and sensorimotor functional divisions. In the associative striatum, speech-induced dopamine release established a significant relationship with neural activity and influenced the left-hemispheric lateralization of striatal functional networks. In contrast, there were no significant effects of endogenous dopamine release on the lateralization of striatal structural networks. Our data provide the first evidence for endogenous dopamine release in the dorsal striatum during normal speaking and point to the possible mechanisms behind the modulatory influences of dopamine on the organization of functional brain circuits controlling normal human speech. PMID:23277111

  17. Mobile genetic elements in Clostridium difficile and their role in genome function

    PubMed Central

    Mullany, Peter; Allan, Elaine; Roberts, Adam P.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 11% the Clostridium difficile genome is made up of mobile genetic elements which have a profound effect on the biology of the organism. This includes transfer of antibiotic resistance and other factors that allow the organism to survive challenging environments, modulation of toxin gene expression, transfer of the toxin genes themselves and the conversion of non-toxigenic strains to toxin producers. Mobile genetic elements have also been adapted by investigators to probe the biology of the organism and the various ways in which these have been used are reviewed. PMID:25576774

  18. Functional lateralization of the medial prefrontal cortex in the modulation of anxiety in mice: Left or right?

    PubMed

    Costa, N S; Vicente, M A; Cipriano, A C; Miguel, T T; Nunes-de-Souza, R L

    2016-09-01

    It has been suggested that the left medial prefrontal cortex (LmPFC) has an inhibitory role in controlling the right mPFC (RmPFC), thereby reducing the deleterious effects of stressors on emotional states. Here, we investigated the effects on anxiety of bilateral or unilateral injections of NOC-9 [a nitric oxide (NO) donor] and cobalt chloride (CoCl2; a synaptic inhibitor) into the mPFC of mice exposed to the elevated plus-maze (Experiments 1 and 2). The effects of restraint or social defeat on anxiety in undrugged mice were recorded at 5 min or 24 h after exposure to the stress (Experiment 3). Experiment 4 investigated the effects of LmPFC injection of CoCl2 combined with restraint or social defeat on anxiety, which was recorded 24 h later. Although intra-RmPFC NOC-9 produced anxiogenesis, its injection into the LmPFC, or bilaterally, did not change anxiety. Intra-RmPFC or -LmPFC injection of CoCl2 produced anxiolytic- and anxiogenic-like effects, respectively. Both restraint and social defeat produced anxiogenesis at 5 min, but defeated mice did not display anxiety 24 h after the stress. Although intra-LmPFC CoCl2 did not change anxiety, which was recorded 24 h later in non-stressed mice, this synaptic inhibitor produced a clear, anxiogenic-like effect in defeated (but not restrained) mice. These results suggest that (i) nitrergic activation of the RmPFC increases anxiety, which in turn is inhibited by NO production within the LmPFC; (ii) neuronal inhibition of the RmPFC or LmPFC elicits anxiolysis and anxiogenesis, respectively; and (iii) inactivation of the LmPFC results in recrudescence of anxiety induced by social defeat stress. PMID:27079841

  19. Felt Obligation to Help Others as a Protective Factor Against Losses in Psychological Well-being Following Functional Decline in Middle and Later Life

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This study examined felt obligation to help others in two domains (close others and society) as protective factors against losses in psychological well-being following functional decline. Lagged-dependent regression models were estimated using data from 849 respondents aged 35–74 years and without any functional limitations at baseline in the 1995–2005 National Survey of Midlife in the United States. Greater felt obligation to help close others protected against declining self-acceptance in the face of more severe functional decline, and greater felt obligation to help society protected against declining personal growth and self-acceptance. Greater felt obligation to help close others and society protected against increasing depressive symptoms at younger ages in adulthood. Findings suggest the importance for additional research on how aspects of altruism can promote psychological adaptation to declining functional health in middle and later life. PMID:19825942

  20. Assessment of Postflight Locomotor Performance Utilizing a Test of Functional Mobility: Strategic and Adaptive Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, L. E.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Cohen, H. S.; Richards, J. T.; Miller, C. A.; Brady, R.; Ruttley, T. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    Space flight induces adaptive modification in sensorimotor function, allowing crewmembers to operate in the unique microgravity environment. This adaptive state, however, is inappropriate for a terrestrial environment. During a re-adaptation period upon their return to Earth, crewmembers experience alterations in sensorimotor function, causing various disturbances in perception, spatial orientation, posture, gait, and eye-head coordination. Following long duration space flight, sensorimotor dysfunction would prevent or extend the time required to make an emergency egress from the vehicle; compromising crew safety and mission objectives. We are investigating two types of motor learning that may interact with each other and influence a crewmember's ability to re-adapt to Earth's gravity environment. In strategic learning, crewmembers make rapid modifications in their motor control strategy emphasizing error reduction. This type of learning may be critical during the first minutes and hours after landing. In adaptive learning, long-term plastic transformations occur, involving morphological changes and synaptic modification. In recent literature these two behavioral components have been associated with separate brain structures that control the execution of motor strategies: the strategic component was linked to the posterior parietal cortex and the adaptive component was linked to the cerebellum (Pisella, et al. 2004). The goal of this paper was to demonstrate the relative contributions of the strategic and adaptive components to the re-adaptation process in locomotor control after long duration space flight missions on the International Space Station (ISS). The Functional Mobility Test (FMT) was developed to assess crewmember s ability to ambulate postflight from an operational and functional perspective. Sixteen crewmembers were tested preflight (3 sessions) and postflight (days 1, 2, 4, 7, 25) following a long duration space flight (approx 6 months) on the ISS. We

  1. Arsenic mobility in soils contaminated with metallurgical wastes as a function of variable chemical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Payne, D. G.; Villalobos, M.; Ceniceros, A.; Lopez, J. L.; Gutierrez, M.

    2008-12-01

    Arsenic is a pervasive contaminant of natural aqueous systems, such as groundwater and soils, its sources being both natural and anthropogenic. The present investigation was performed on soils contaminated with residues from ore processing activities and revealed the presence of arsenate [As(V)] species with a very low mobility, through natural attenuation processes. The stability of this attenuation was investigated by varying two specific equilibrium chemical conditions: pH and presence of bicarbonate ions. One-unit changes in equilibrium pH generally caused small increases in As mobility, whereas the presence of bicarbonate ions considerably increased this mobility. The results were compared to thermodinamic simulations of equilibrium conditions using the total elemental composition of each individual soil, but excluding sorption reactions. Close matches between experimental data and simulations revealed the predominance of solubility-controlled As mobility via heavy-metal arsenate solid formation. Bicarbonate ions were found to be highly unsuitable for extraction of sorbed arsenate fractions due to indirect As release from solid arsenates, via heavy-metal carbonate precipitation processes.

  2. Lower Extremity Muscle Mass Predicts Functional Performance in Mobility-Limited Elders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives This study examined the influence of lower extremity body composition and muscle strength on the severity of mobility-disability in community-dwelling older adults. Methods Fifty-seven older males and females (age 74.2 +/- 7 yrs; BMI 28.9 +/- 6 kg/m2) underwent an objective assessment ...

  3. Toward a Wireless Open Source Instrument: Functional Near-infrared Spectroscopy in Mobile Neuroergonomics and BCI Applications.

    PubMed

    von Lühmann, Alexander; Herff, Christian; Heger, Dominic; Schultz, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) and neuroergonomics research have high requirements regarding robustness and mobility. Additionally, fast applicability and customization are desired. Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an increasingly established technology with a potential to satisfy these conditions. EEG acquisition technology, currently one of the main modalities used for mobile brain activity assessment, is widely spread and open for access and thus easily customizable. fNIRS technology on the other hand has either to be bought as a predefined commercial solution or developed from scratch using published literature. To help reducing time and effort of future custom designs for research purposes, we present our approach toward an open source multichannel stand-alone fNIRS instrument for mobile NIRS-based neuroimaging, neuroergonomics and BCI/BMI applications. The instrument is low-cost, miniaturized, wireless and modular and openly documented on www.opennirs.org. It provides features such as scalable channel number, configurable regulated light intensities, programmable gain and lock-in amplification. In this paper, the system concept, hardware, software and mechanical implementation of the lightweight stand-alone instrument are presented and the evaluation and verification results of the instrument's hardware and physiological fNIRS functionality are described. Its capability to measure brain activity is demonstrated by qualitative signal assessments and a quantitative mental arithmetic based BCI study with 12 subjects. PMID:26617510

  4. Toward a Wireless Open Source Instrument: Functional Near-infrared Spectroscopy in Mobile Neuroergonomics and BCI Applications

    PubMed Central

    von Lühmann, Alexander; Herff, Christian; Heger, Dominic; Schultz, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) and neuroergonomics research have high requirements regarding robustness and mobility. Additionally, fast applicability and customization are desired. Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an increasingly established technology with a potential to satisfy these conditions. EEG acquisition technology, currently one of the main modalities used for mobile brain activity assessment, is widely spread and open for access and thus easily customizable. fNIRS technology on the other hand has either to be bought as a predefined commercial solution or developed from scratch using published literature. To help reducing time and effort of future custom designs for research purposes, we present our approach toward an open source multichannel stand-alone fNIRS instrument for mobile NIRS-based neuroimaging, neuroergonomics and BCI/BMI applications. The instrument is low-cost, miniaturized, wireless and modular and openly documented on www.opennirs.org. It provides features such as scalable channel number, configurable regulated light intensities, programmable gain and lock-in amplification. In this paper, the system concept, hardware, software and mechanical implementation of the lightweight stand-alone instrument are presented and the evaluation and verification results of the instrument's hardware and physiological fNIRS functionality are described. Its capability to measure brain activity is demonstrated by qualitative signal assessments and a quantitative mental arithmetic based BCI study with 12 subjects. PMID:26617510

  5. Gender Roles and Physical Function in Older Adults: Cross-Sectional Analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS)

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Tamer; Vafaei, Afshin; Auais, Mohammad; Guralnik, Jack; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationships between physical function and gender-stereotyped traits and whether these relationships are modified by sex or social context. Methods A total of 1995 community-dwelling older adults from the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS) aged 65 to 74 years were recruited in Natal (Brazil), Manizales (Colombia), Tirana (Albania), Kingston (Ontario, Canada), and Saint-Hyacinthe (Quebec, Canada). We performed a cross-sectional analysis. Study outcomes were mobility disability, defined as having difficulty in walking 400 meters without assistance or climbing a flight of stairs without resting, and low physical performance, defined as a score < 8 on the Short Physical Performance Battery. The 12-item Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) was used to classify participants into four gender roles (Masculine, Feminine, Androgynous, and Undifferentiated) using site-specific medians of femininity and masculinity as cut-off points. Poisson regression models were used to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRR) of mobility disability and poor physical performance according to gender roles. Results In models adjusted for sex, marital status, education, income, and research site, when comparing to the androgynous role, we found higher prevalence of mobility disability and poor physical performance among participants endorsing the feminine role (PRR = 1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03–1.39 and PRR = 1.37, CI 1.01–1.88, respectively) or the undifferentiated role (PRR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.07–1.42 and PRR = 1.58, CI 1.18–2.12, respectively). Participants classified as masculine did not differ from androgynous participants in prevalence rates of mobility disability or low physical performance. None of the multiplicative interactions by sex and research site were significant. Conclusion Feminine and undifferentiated gender roles are independent risk factors for mobility disability and low physical performance in older adults. Longitudinal

  6. Lateral Protein-Protein Interactions at Hydrophobic and Charged Surfaces as a Function of pH and Salt Concentration.

    PubMed

    Hladílková, Jana; Callisen, Thomas H; Lund, Mikael

    2016-04-01

    Surface adsorption of Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TLL)-a widely used industrial biocatalyst-is studied experimentally and theoretically at different pH and salt concentrations. The maximum achievable surface coverage on a hydrophobic surface occurs around the protein isoelectric point and adsorption is reduced when either increasing or decreasing pH, indicating that electrostatic protein-protein interactions in the adsorbed layer play an important role. Using Metropolis Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, where proteins are coarse grained to the amino acid level, we estimate the protein isoelectric point in the vicinity of charged surfaces as well as the lateral osmotic pressure in the adsorbed monolayer. Good agreement with available experimental data is achieved and we further make predictions of the protein orientation at hydrophobic and charged surfaces. Finally, we present a perturbation theory for predicting shifts in the protein isoelectric point due to close proximity to charged surfaces. Although this approximate model requires only single protein properties (mean charge and its variance), excellent agreement is found with MC simulations. PMID:26815664

  7. Lower extremity function during gait in participants with first time acute lateral ankle sprain compared to controls.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Cailbhe; Bleakley, Chris; Hertel, Jay; Caulfield, Brian; Ryan, John; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-02-01

    Laboratory analyses of chronic ankle instability populations during gait have elucidated a number of anomalous movement patterns. No current research exists analysing these movement patterns in a group in the acute phase of lateral ankle sprain (LAS) injury. It is possible that participants with an acute LAS display movement patterns continuous with their chronically impaired counterparts. Sixty eight participants with acute LAS and nineteen non-injured participants completed five gait trials. 3D lower extremity temporal kinematic and kinetic data were collected from 200 ms pre- to 200 ms post-heel strike (period 1) and from 200 ms pre- to 200 ms post-toe off (period 2). During period 1, the LAS group displayed increased knee flexion with increased net extensor pattern at the knee joint, increased ankle inversion with a greater inversion moment, and reduced ankle plantar flexion, compared to the non-injured control group. During period 2, the LAS group displayed decreased hip extension with a decrease in the flexor moment at the hip, and decreased ankle plantar flexion with a decrease in the net plantar flexion moment, compared to the non-injured control group. These results indicate that participants with acute LAS display coordination strategies which may play a role in the onset of chronicity or recovery. PMID:25443172

  8. New Markov Model Approaches to Deciphering Microbial Genome Function and Evolution: Comparative Genomics of Laterally Transferred Genes

    SciTech Connect

    Borodovsky, M.

    2013-04-11

    Algorithmic methods for gene prediction have been developed and successfully applied to many different prokaryotic genome sequences. As the set of genes in a particular genome is not homogeneous with respect to DNA sequence composition features, the GeneMark.hmm program utilizes two Markov models representing distinct classes of protein coding genes denoted "typical" and "atypical". Atypical genes are those whose DNA features deviate significantly from those classified as typical and they represent approximately 10% of any given genome. In addition to the inherent interest of more accurately predicting genes, the atypical status of these genes may also reflect their separate evolutionary ancestry from other genes in that genome. We hypothesize that atypical genes are largely comprised of those genes that have been relatively recently acquired through lateral gene transfer (LGT). If so, what fraction of atypical genes are such bona fide LGTs? We have made atypical gene predictions for all fully completed prokaryotic genomes; we have been able to compare these results to other "surrogate" methods of LGT prediction.

  9. Prognostic Factors Predicting Early Recovery of Pre-fracture Functional Mobility in Elderly Patients With Hip Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daegu; Jo, Jae Yong; Jung, Ji Sun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prognostic factors predicting the recovery of pre-fracture functional mobility, we evaluated this by the use of ambulatory assistive devices in short-term follow-up. Methods Five hundred and fifty-three elderly patients who had undergone hip fracture operations from January 2006 to June 2013 were enrolled in this retrospective study. Clinical characteristics and predicted factors affecting functional recovery, such as the delay of rehabilitation after the operation, were reviewed. The functional status of the gait was classified as either a bedridden state, wheelchair-bound state, walker gait, single cane gait, and self-gait without any ambulatory assistance device. When this functional grade in patients who recovered after the surgery was compared to before the surgery, this state was considered 'functional recovery'. Results One hundred and ninety-two patients (34.7%) showed recovery of preoperative mobility in the first month after their operation. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified that the following four factors were significantly associated with a deterioration of functional recovery: old age (odds ratio [OR], 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92-0.97), delays in rehabilitation after operation (OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.89-0.98), the presence of cognitive dysfunction (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.18-0.71), and trochanteric fracturing (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.36-0.94). Conclusion We found that old age, cognitive dysfunction, trochanteric fracture type, and delay of rehabilitation were associated with the deterioration of functional recovery after a hip fracture operation in the short-term. Therefore, early rehabilitation was required to acquire functional recovery after a hip fracture operation in the short-term. PMID:25566483

  10. Restricted mobility of specific functional groups reduces anti-cancer drug activity in healthy cells

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Martins, Murillo L.; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Eckert, Juergen; Watts, Benjamin; Kaneno, Ramon; Zambuzzi, Willian F.; Daemen, Luke; Saeki, Margarida J.; Bordallo, Heloisa N.

    2016-03-02

    Here, the most common cancer treatments currently available are radio- and chemo-therapy. These therapies have, however, drawbacks, such as, the reduction in quality of life and the low efficiency of radiotherapy in cases of multiple metastases. To lessen these effects, we have encapsulated an anti-cancer drug into a biocompatible matrix. In-vitro assays indicate that this bio-nanocomposite is able to interact and cause morphological changes in cancer cells. Meanwhile, no alterations were observed in monocytes and fibroblasts, indicating that this system might carry the drug in living organisms with reduced clearance rate and toxicity. X-rays and neutrons were used to investigatemore » the carrier structure, as well as to assess the drug mobility within the bio-nanocomposite. In conclusion, from these unique data we show that partial mobility restriction of active groups of the drug molecule suggests why this carrier design is potentially safer to healthy cells.« less

  11. Restricted mobility of specific functional groups reduces anti-cancer drug activity in healthy cells

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Murillo L.; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Eckert, Juergen; Watts, Benjamin; Kaneno, Ramon; Zambuzzi, Willian F.; Daemen, Luke; Saeki, Margarida J.; Bordallo, Heloisa N.

    2016-01-01

    The most common cancer treatments currently available are radio- and chemo-therapy. These therapies have, however, drawbacks, such as, the reduction in quality of life and the low efficiency of radiotherapy in cases of multiple metastases. To lessen these effects, we have encapsulated an anti-cancer drug into a biocompatible matrix. In-vitro assays indicate that this bio-nanocomposite is able to interact and cause morphological changes in cancer cells. Meanwhile, no alterations were observed in monocytes and fibroblasts, indicating that this system might carry the drug in living organisms with reduced clearance rate and toxicity. X-rays and neutrons were used to investigate the carrier structure, as well as to assess the drug mobility within the bio-nanocomposite. From these unique data we show that partial mobility restriction of active groups of the drug molecule suggests why this carrier design is potentially safer to healthy cells. PMID:26932808

  12. Restricted mobility of specific functional groups reduces anti-cancer drug activity in healthy cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Murillo L.; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Eckert, Juergen; Watts, Benjamin; Kaneno, Ramon; Zambuzzi, Willian F.; Daemen, Luke; Saeki, Margarida J.; Bordallo, Heloisa N.

    2016-03-01

    The most common cancer treatments currently available are radio- and chemo-therapy. These therapies have, however, drawbacks, such as, the reduction in quality of life and the low efficiency of radiotherapy in cases of multiple metastases. To lessen these effects, we have encapsulated an anti-cancer drug into a biocompatible matrix. In-vitro assays indicate that this bio-nanocomposite is able to interact and cause morphological changes in cancer cells. Meanwhile, no alterations were observed in monocytes and fibroblasts, indicating that this system might carry the drug in living organisms with reduced clearance rate and toxicity. X-rays and neutrons were used to investigate the carrier structure, as well as to assess the drug mobility within the bio-nanocomposite. From these unique data we show that partial mobility restriction of active groups of the drug molecule suggests why this carrier design is potentially safer to healthy cells.

  13. Restricted mobility of specific functional groups reduces anti-cancer drug activity in healthy cells.

    PubMed

    Martins, Murillo L; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Eckert, Juergen; Watts, Benjamin; Kaneno, Ramon; Zambuzzi, Willian F; Daemen, Luke; Saeki, Margarida J; Bordallo, Heloisa N

    2016-01-01

    The most common cancer treatments currently available are radio- and chemo-therapy. These therapies have, however, drawbacks, such as, the reduction in quality of life and the low efficiency of radiotherapy in cases of multiple metastases. To lessen these effects, we have encapsulated an anti-cancer drug into a biocompatible matrix. In-vitro assays indicate that this bio-nanocomposite is able to interact and cause morphological changes in cancer cells. Meanwhile, no alterations were observed in monocytes and fibroblasts, indicating that this system might carry the drug in living organisms with reduced clearance rate and toxicity. X-rays and neutrons were used to investigate the carrier structure, as well as to assess the drug mobility within the bio-nanocomposite. From these unique data we show that partial mobility restriction of active groups of the drug molecule suggests why this carrier design is potentially safer to healthy cells. PMID:26932808

  14. Laterality in Metaphor Processing: Lack of Evidence from Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the Right Hemisphere Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Alexander M.; Leube, Dirk T.; Erb, Michael; Grodd, Wolfgang; Kircher, Tilo T. J.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated processing of metaphoric sentences using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Seventeen healthy subjects (6 female, 11 male) read 60 novel short German sentence pairs with either metaphoric or literal meaning and performed two different tasks: judging the metaphoric content and judging whether the sentence…

  15. Developmental Trajectories in Toddlers' Self-Restraint Predict Individual Differences in Executive Functions 14 Years Later: A Behavioral Genetic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Naomi P.; Miyake, Akira; Robinson, JoAnn L.; Hewitt, John K.

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether self-restraint in early childhood predicted individual differences in 3 executive functions (EFs; inhibiting prepotent responses, updating working memory, and shifting task sets) in late adolescence in a sample of approximately 950 twins. At ages 14, 20, 24, and 36 months, the children were shown an attractive toy and told not…

  16. Experimental determination of the lateral dose response functions of detectors to be applied in the measurement of narrow photon-beam dose profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppinga, D.; Meyners, J.; Delfs, B.; Muru, A.; Harder, D.; Poppe, B.; Looe, HK

    2015-12-01

    This study aims at the experimental determination of the detector-specific 1D lateral dose response function K(x) and of its associated rotational symmetric counterpart K(r) for a set of high-resolution detectors presently used in narrow-beam photon dosimetry. A combination of slit-beam, radiochromic film, and deconvolution techniques served to accomplish this task for four detectors with diameters of their sensitive volumes ranging from 1 to 2.2 mm. The particular aim of the experiment was to examine the existence of significant negative portions of some of these response functions predicted by a recent Monte-Carlo-simulation (Looe et al 2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 6585-607). In a 6 MV photon slit beam formed by the Siemens Artiste collimation system and a 0.5 mm wide slit between 10 cm thick lead blocks serving as the tertiary collimator, the true cross-beam dose profile D(x) at 3 cm depth in a large water phantom was measured with radiochromic film EBT3, and the detector-affected cross-beam signal profiles M(x) were recorded with a silicon diode, a synthetic diamond detector, a miniaturized scintillation detector, and a small ionization chamber. For each detector, the deconvolution of the convolution integral M(x)  =  K(x)  ∗  D(x) served to obtain its specific 1D lateral dose response function K(x), and K(r) was calculated from it. Fourier transformations and back transformations were performed using function approximations by weighted sums of Gaussian functions and their analytical transformation. The 1D lateral dose response functions K(x) of the four types of detectors and their associated rotational symmetric counterparts K(r) were obtained. Significant negative curve portions of K(x) and K(r) were observed in the case of the silicon diode and the diamond detector, confirming the Monte-Carlo-based prediction (Looe et al 2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 6585-607). They are typical for the perturbation of the secondary electron field by a detector with

  17. Experimental determination of the lateral dose response functions of detectors to be applied in the measurement of narrow photon-beam dose profiles.

    PubMed

    Poppinga, D; Meyners, J; Delfs, B; Muru, A; Harder, D; Poppe, B; Looe, H K

    2015-12-21

    This study aims at the experimental determination of the detector-specific 1D lateral dose response function K(x) and of its associated rotational symmetric counterpart K(r) for a set of high-resolution detectors presently used in narrow-beam photon dosimetry. A combination of slit-beam, radiochromic film, and deconvolution techniques served to accomplish this task for four detectors with diameters of their sensitive volumes ranging from 1 to 2.2 mm. The particular aim of the experiment was to examine the existence of significant negative portions of some of these response functions predicted by a recent Monte-Carlo-simulation (Looe et al 2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 6585-607). In a 6 MV photon slit beam formed by the Siemens Artiste collimation system and a 0.5 mm wide slit between 10 cm thick lead blocks serving as the tertiary collimator, the true cross-beam dose profile D(x) at 3 cm depth in a large water phantom was measured with radiochromic film EBT3, and the detector-affected cross-beam signal profiles M(x) were recorded with a silicon diode, a synthetic diamond detector, a miniaturized scintillation detector, and a small ionization chamber. For each detector, the deconvolution of the convolution integral M(x)  =  K(x)  ∗  D(x) served to obtain its specific 1D lateral dose response function K(x), and K(r) was calculated from it. Fourier transformations and back transformations were performed using function approximations by weighted sums of Gaussian functions and their analytical transformation. The 1D lateral dose response functions K(x) of the four types of detectors and their associated rotational symmetric counterparts K(r) were obtained. Significant negative curve portions of K(x) and K(r) were observed in the case of the silicon diode and the diamond detector, confirming the Monte-Carlo-based prediction (Looe et al 2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 6585-607). They are typical for the perturbation of the secondary electron field by a detector with

  18. Evaluating Diabetes Mobile Applications for Health Literate Designs and Functionality, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Graff, Kaitlin; Harris, Jenine K.; McQueen, Amy; Smith, Madeleine; Fairchild, Maggie; Kreuter, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The expansion of mobile health technologies, particularly for diabetes-related applications (apps), grew exponentially in the past decade. This study sought to examine the extent to which current mobile apps for diabetes have health literate features recommended by participants in an Institute of Medicine Roundtable and compare the health literate features by app cost (free or not). Methods We used diabetes-related keywords to identify diabetes-related apps for iOS devices. A random sample of 110 apps (24% of total number of apps identified) was selected for coding. The coding scheme was adapted from the discussion paper produced by participants in the Institute of Medicine Roundtable. Results Most diabetes apps in this sample addressed diabetes management and therapeutics, and paid apps were more likely than free apps to use plain language strategies, to label links clearly, and to have at least 1 feature (a “back” button) that helps with the organization. Conclusion Paid apps were more likely than free apps to use strategies that should be more useful and engaging for people with low health literacy. Future work can investigate ways to make free diabetes mobile apps more user-friendly and accessible. PMID:25950568

  19. Functional Mobility Testing: A Novel Method to Establish Human System Interface Design Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, Scott A.; Benson, Elizabeth A.; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2008-01-01

    Across all fields of human-system interface design it is vital to posses a sound methodology dictating the constraints on the system based on the capabilities of the human user. These limitations may be based on strength, mobility, dexterity, cognitive ability, etc. and combinations thereof. Data collected in an isolated environment to determine, for example, maximal strength or maximal range of motion would indeed be adequate for establishing not-to-exceed type design limitations, however these restraints on the system may be excessive over what is basally needed. Resources may potentially be saved by having a technique to determine the minimum measurements a system must accommodate. This paper specifically deals with the creation of a novel methodology for establishing mobility requirements for a new generation of space suit design concepts. Historically, the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station vehicle and space hardware design requirements documents such as the Man-Systems Integration Standards and International Space Station Flight Crew Integration Standard explicitly stated that the designers should strive to provide the maximum joint range of motion capabilities exhibited by a minimally clothed human subject. In the course of developing the Human-Systems Integration Requirements (HSIR) for the new space exploration initiative (Constellation), an effort was made to redefine the mobility requirements in the interest of safety and cost. Systems designed for manned space exploration can receive compounded gains from simplified designs that are both initially less expensive to produce and lighter, thereby, cheaper to launch.

  20. Roles for Ca2+ mobilization and its regulation in mast cell functions: recent progress.

    PubMed

    Holowka, David; Wilkes, Marcus; Stefan, Christopher; Baird, Barbara

    2016-04-15

    Ca(2+)mobilization in response to cross-linking of IgE bound to its high affinity receptor, FcεRI, on mast cells is central to immune allergic responses. Stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation caused by this cross-linking activates store-operated Ca(2+)entry that results in sustained Ca(2+)oscillations dependent on Rho family GTPases and phosphoinositide synthesis. Coupling of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+)sensor, stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), to the Ca(2+)-selective channel, Orai1, is regulated by these elements and depends on membrane organization, both at the plasma membrane and at the ER. Mitochondria also contribute to the regulation of Ca(2+)mobilization, and we describe recent evidence that the ER membrane protein vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein (VAP) plays a significant role in the coupling between ER and mitochondria in this process. In addition to granule exocytosis, Ca(2+)mobilization in these cells also contributes to stimulated outward trafficking of recycling endosomes and to antigen-stimulated chemotaxis, and it is pathologically regulated by protozoan parasitic invasion. PMID:27068962

  1. Cerebral Hemispheric Lateralization Associated with Hippocampal Sclerosis May Affect Interictal Cardiovascular Autonomic Functions in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Ghchime, Rokia; Benjelloun, Halima; Kiai, Hajar; Belaidi, Halima; Lahjouji, Fatiha; Ouazzani, Reda

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that the temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is linked to the autonomic nervous system dysfunctions. Seizures alter the function of different systems such as the respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and urogenital systems. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possible factors which may be involved in interictal cardiovascular autonomic function in temporal lobe epilepsy with complex partial seizures, and with particular attention to hippocampal sclerosis. The study was conducted in 30 patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (19 with left hippocampal sclerosis, 11 with right hippocampal sclerosis). All subjects underwent four tests of cardiac autonomic function: heart rate changes in response to deep breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure variations throughout resting activity and during hand grip, mental stress, and orthostatic tests. Our results show that the right cerebral hemisphere predominantly modulates sympathetic activity, while the left cerebral hemisphere mainly modulates parasympathetic activity, which mediated tachycardia and excessive bradycardia counterregulation, both of which might be involved as a mechanism of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy patients (SUDEP). PMID:27006827

  2. High-intensity interval training on an aquatic treadmill in adults with osteoarthritis: effect on pain, balance, function, and mobility.

    PubMed

    Bressel, Eadric; Wing, Jessica E; Miller, Andrew I; Dolny, Dennis G

    2014-08-01

    Although aquatic exercise is considered a potentially effective treatment intervention for people with osteoarthritis (OA), previous research has focused primarily on calisthenics in a shallow pool with the inherent limitations on regulating exercise intensity. The purpose of this study was to quantify the efficacy of a 6-week aquatic treadmill exercise program on measures of pain, balance, function, and mobility. Eighteen participants (age = 64.5 ± 10.2 years) with knee OA completed a non-exercise control period followed by a 6-week exercise period. Outcome measures included visual analog scales for pain, posturography for balance, sit-to-stand test for function, and a 10-m walk test for mobility. The exercise protocol included balance training and high-intensity interval training (HIT) in an aquatic treadmill using water jets to destabilize while standing and achieve high ratings of perceived exertion (14-19) while walking. In comparison with pretests, participants displayed reduced joint pain (pre = 50.3 ± 24.8 mm vs. post = 15.8 ± 10.6 mm), improved balance (equilibrium pre = 66.6 ± 11.0 vs. post = 73.5 ± 7.1), function (rising index pre = 0.49 ± 0.19% vs. post = 0.33 ± 0.11%), and mobility (walk pre = 8.6 ± 1.4 s vs. post = 7.8 ± 1.1 s) after participating in the exercise protocol (p = 0.03-0.001). The same benefits were not observed after the non-exercise control period. Adherence to the exercise protocol was exceptional and no participants reported adverse effects, suggesting that aquatic treadmill exercise that incorporates balance and HIT training was well tolerated by patients with OA and may be effective at managing symptoms of OA. PMID:25057845

  3. Altered Structural and Functional Connectivity in Late Preterm Preadolescence: An Anatomic Seed-Based Study of Resting State Networks Related to the Posteromedial and Lateral Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Degnan, Andrew J.; Wisnowski, Jessica L.; Choi, SoYoung; Ceschin, Rafael; Bhushan, Chitresh; Leahy, Richard M.; Corby, Patricia; Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Objective Late preterm birth confers increased risk of developmental delay, academic difficulties and social deficits. The late third trimester may represent a critical period of development of neural networks including the default mode network (DMN), which is essential to normal cognition. Our objective is to identify functional and structural connectivity differences in the posteromedial cortex related to late preterm birth. Methods Thirty-eight preadolescents (ages 9–13; 19 born in the late preterm period (≥32 weeks gestational age) and 19 at term) without access to advanced neonatal care were recruited from a low socioeconomic status community in Brazil. Participants underwent neurocognitive testing, 3-dimensional T1-weighted imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and resting state functional MRI (RS-fMRI). Seed-based probabilistic diffusion tractography and RS-fMRI analyses were performed using unilateral seeds within the posterior DMN (posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus) and lateral parietal DMN (superior marginal and angular gyri). Results Late preterm children demonstrated increased functional connectivity within the posterior default mode networks and increased anti-correlation with the central-executive network when seeded from the posteromedial cortex (PMC). Key differences were demonstrated between PMC components with increased anti-correlation with the salience network seen only with posterior cingulate cortex seeding but not with precuneus seeding. Probabilistic tractography showed increased streamlines within the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus within late preterm children while decreased intrahemispheric streamlines were also observed. No significant differences in neurocognitive testing were demonstrated between groups. Conclusion Late preterm preadolescence is associated with altered functional connectivity from the PMC and lateral parietal cortex to known distributed functional cortical networks

  4. Advancing paternal age at birth is associated with poorer social functioning earlier and later in life of schizophrenia patients in a founder population.

    PubMed

    Liebenberg, Rudolf; van Heerden, Brigitte; Ehlers, René; Du Plessis, Anna M E; Roos, J Louw

    2016-09-30

    Consistent associations have been found between advanced paternal age and an increased risk of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, in their offspring. This increase appears to be linear as paternal age increases. The present study investigates the relationship between early deviant behaviour in the first 10 years of life of patients as well as longer term functional outcome and paternal age in sporadic Afrikaner founder population cases of schizophrenia. This might improve our understanding of Paternal Age-Related Schizophrenia (PARS). Follow-up psychiatric diagnoses were confirmed by the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies (DIGS). An early deviant childhood behaviour semi-structured questionnaire and the Specific Level of Functioning Assessment (SLOF) were completed. From the logistic regression models fitted, a significant negative relationship was found between paternal age at birth and social dysfunction as early deviant behaviour. Additionally, regression analysis revealed a significant negative relationship between paternal age at birth and the SLOF for interpersonal relationships later in life. Early social dysfunction may represent a phenotypic trait for PARS. Further research is required to understand the relationship between early social dysfunction and deficits in interpersonal relationships later in life. PMID:27416538

  5. Congenitally Missing Maxillary Lateral Incisors: Update on the Functional and Esthetic Parameters of Patients Treated with Implants or Space Closure and Teeth Recontouring

    PubMed Central

    Pini, Núbia Inocencya Pavesi; Marchi, Luciana Manzotti De; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa

    2015-01-01

    Maxillary lateral incisor agenesis (MLIA) is a condition that affects both dental esthetics and function in young patients, and represents an important challenge for clinicians. Although several treatment options are available, the mesial repositioning of the canines followed by teeth recontouring into lateral incisors; or space opening/maintenance followed by implant placement have recently emerged as two important treatment approaches. In this article, the current and latest literature has been reviewed in order to summarize the functional and esthetic outcomes obtained with these two forms of treatment of MLIA patients in recent years. Indications, clinical limitations and the most important parameters to achieve the best possible results with each treatment modality are also discussed. Within the limitations of this review, it is not possible to assert at this point in time that one treatment approach is more advantageous than the other. Long-term followup studies comparing the existing treatment options are still lacking in the literature, and they are necessary to shed some light on the issue. It is possible, however, to state that adequate multidisciplinary diagnosis and planning are imperative to define the treatment option that will provide the best individual results for patients with MLIA. PMID:25646137

  6. Congenitally Missing Maxillary Lateral Incisors: Functional and Periodontal Aspects in Patients Treated with Implants or Space Closure and Tooth Re-Contouring

    PubMed Central

    Marchi, Luciana Manzotti De; Pini, Núbia Inocencya Pavesi; Hayacibara, Roberto Massayuki; Silva, Rafael Santos; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate functional and periodontal aspects in patients with unilateral or bilateral congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors, treated with either implants or space closure and tooth re-contouring. The sample consisted of 68 volunteers, divided into 3 groups: SCR - space closure and tooth re-contouring with composite resin (n = 26); SOI – implants placed in the area of agenesis (n = 20); and CG - control group (n = 22). A modified Helkimo questionnaire and the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders were used by a single, previously calibrated evaluator to assess signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorder. The periodontal assessment involved the following aspects: plaque index, bleeding upon probing, pocket depth greater than 3 mm, gingival recession, abfraction, periodontal biotype and papilla index. The data were analyzed using Fisher's exact test and the nonparametric Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests (α=.05). No differences in periodontal status were found between treatments. None of the groups were associated with signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorder. Both treatment alternatives for patients with congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors were satisfactory and achieved functional and periodontal results similar to those of the control group. PMID:23346262

  7. Negative functional coupling between the right fronto-parietal and limbic resting state networks predicts increased self-control and later substance use onset in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae-Ho; Telzer, Eva H

    2016-08-01

    Recent developmental brain imaging studies have demonstrated that negatively coupled prefrontal-limbic circuitry implicates the maturation of brain development in adolescents. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and independent component analysis (ICA), the present study examined functional network coupling between prefrontal and limbic systems and links to self-control and substance use onset in adolescents. Results suggest that negative network coupling (anti-correlated temporal dynamics) between the right fronto-parietal and limbic resting state networks is associated with greater self-control and later substance use onset in adolescents. These findings increase our understanding of the developmental importance of prefrontal-limbic circuitry for adolescent substance use at the resting-state network level. PMID:27344035

  8. To what extent do joint attention, imitation, and object play behaviors in infancy predict later communication and intellectual functioning in ASD?

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Kenneth K.; Watson, Linda R.; Baranek, Grace T.; Poe, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which early social communication behaviors predict later communication and intellectual outcomes was investigated via retrospective video analysis. Joint attention, imitation, and complex object play behaviors were coded from edited home videos featuring scenes of 29 children with ASD at 9–12 and/or 15–18 months. A quantitative interval recording of behavior and a qualitative rating of the developmental level were applied. Social communication behaviors increased between 9–12 and 15–18 months. Their mean level during infancy, but not the rate of change, predicted both Vineland Communication scores and intellectual functioning at 3–7 years. The two methods of measurement yielded similar results. Thus, early social communicative behaviors may play pivotal roles in the development of subsequent communication and intellectual functioning. PMID:21858585

  9. Land use mix and five-year mortality in later life: Results from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Prina, A. Matthew; Jones, Andy; Barnes, Linda E.; Matthews, Fiona E.; Brayne, Carol; MRC CFAS

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the potential modifying effect of age and mediation effect of co-morbidity on the association between land use mix, a measure of neighbourhood walkability, and five-year mortality among the 2424 individuals participating in the year-10 follow-up of the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study in England. Postcodes of participants were mapped onto Lower-layer Super Output Areas, a small area level geographical unit in the UK, and linked to Generalised Land Use data. Cox regression models were fitted to investigate the association. For the younger older age group (75–79 years), the effect of high land use mix on an elevated risk of mortality was mediated by co-morbidity. For older old age groups (80–84, 85+ years), a higher land use mix was directly associated with a 10% lower risk of five-year mortality. The findings suggest differential impacts of land use mix on the health of the younger and older old. PMID:26798962

  10. Developmental Trajectories in Toddlers’ Self-restraint Predict Individual Differences in Executive Functions 14 Years Later: A Behavioral Genetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Naomi P.; Miyake, Akira; Robinson, JoAnn L.; Hewitt, John K.

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether self-restraint in early childhood predicted individual differences in three executive functions (EFs; inhibiting prepotent responses, updating working memory, and shifting task sets) in late adolescence in a sample of ~950 twins. At ages 14, 20, 24, and 36 months, the children were shown an attractive toy and told not to touch it for 30 seconds. Latency to touch the toy increased with age, and latent class growth modeling distinguished two groups of children that differed in their latencies to touch the toy at all 4 time points. Using confirmatory factor analysis, the three EFs (measured with latent variables at age 17 years) were decomposed into a Common EF factor (isomorphic to response inhibition ability) and two factors specific to updating and shifting, respectively. Less restrained children had significantly lower scores on the Common EF factor, equivalent scores on the Updating-specific factor, and higher scores on the Shifting-specific factor than the more restrained children. The less restrained group also had lower IQ scores, but this effect was entirely mediated by the EF components. Twin models indicated that the associations were primarily genetic in origin for the Common EF variable but split between genetics and nonshared environment for the Shifting-specific variable. These results suggest a biological relation between individual differences in self-restraint and EFs, one that begins early in life and persists into late adolescence. PMID:21668099

  11. Pathways of lateral spreading.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, U; Schanzer, S; Weigmann, H-J; Patzelt, A; Vergou, T; Sterry, W; Lademann, J

    2011-01-01

    In the case of topically applied substances, usually both lateral spreading and competitive penetration into the skin occur in parallel. In the present study, the pathways of lateral spreading were studied quantitatively and visually. The local distribution and lateral spreading of the UV filter substance butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane applied in an o/w emulsion was studied on the forearm and the back. The tape stripping procedure was used to determine the recovery rates inside and outside the area of application. The skin characteristics of transepidermal water loss, pH value, hydration of the stratum corneum and sebum rate were determined at both anatomic sites. Photography and laser scanning microscopy were used to visually investigate the lateral spreading of topically applied dyes. On the back, a preferred direction of lateral spreading parallel to the body axis was observed. This result was caused by differences in the network of furrows. The furrows functioned as a pathway for lateral spreading, whereas the follicles formed a reservoir for the topically applied substance. PMID:21455016

  12. Reduced graphene oxide-functionalized high electron mobility transistors for novel recognition pattern label-free DNA sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Yue; Liao, Qingliang; Song, Yu; Ma, Siwei

    2013-12-01

    We designed and constructed reduced graphene oxide (rGO) functionalized high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) for rapid and ultra-sensitive detection of label-free DNA in real time. The micrometer sized rGO sheets with structural defects helped absorb DNA molecules providing a facile and robust approach to functionalization. DNA was immobilized onto the surface of HEMT gate through rGO functionalization, and changed the conductivity of HEMT. The real time monitor and detection of DNA hybridization by rGO functionalized HEMT presented interesting current responses: a "two steps" signal enhancement in the presence of target DNA; and a "one step" signaling with random DNA. These two different recognition patterns made the HEMT capable of specifically detecting target DNA sequence. The working principle of the rGO functionalized HEMT can be demonstrated as the variation of the ambience charge distribution. Furthermore, the as constructed DNA sensors showed excellent sensitivity of detect limit at 0.07 fM with linear detect range from 0.1 fM to 0.1 pM. The results indicated that the HEMT functionalized with rGO paves a new avenue to design novel electronic devices for high sensitive and specific genetic material assays in biomedical applications. PMID:23828864

  13. The effect of whole body vibration exposure on balance and functional mobility in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Orr, Rhonda

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate the effect of WBV exposure alone on balance and functional mobility in older adults. A literature search of randomized controlled trials (RCT) reporting the effects of WBV on balance or functional mobility outcomes in older adults, was conducted using multiple databases. WBV-plus-exercise was only included if the control group performed the same exercises as the WBV group, but without vibration. The methodological quality of studies was assessed using the PEDro scale. Meta-analysis was performed if three or more studies measured the same outcome. Twenty RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Eight RCTs compared WBV-only with control and eight RCTs compared WBV-plus-exercise with the same-exercise only group. Meta-analysis indicated that WBV improved single-leg stance (p=0.05) and timed up and go (p=0.004) measures compared with controls. WBV improved other balance and mobility outcomes with inconsistent results. Although balance and mobility appeared to be responsive to WBV-plus-exercise, particularly in lower-functioning patients, compared with WBV-only, caution is required when interpreting the findings. Although there is some evidence for an overall effect of WBV on selected balance and mobility measures, its impact remains inconclusive. Robust RCTs examining WBV-only exposure on balance and functional mobility in older adults are warranted. PMID:25631348

  14. Service Dogs for People with Spinal Cord Injury: Outcomes Regarding Functional Mobility and Important Occupations.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Claude; Gagnon, Dany H; Routhier, François; Dumont, Frédéric; Poissant, Lise; Corriveau, Hélène; Tousignant, Michel

    2015-01-01

    No research using standardized tests based on direct observations along with longitudinal studies have shown the effects of service dogs on persons with mobility impairment. Our research objectives were to document the consequences of the use of the service dog on wheelchair propelling, grasping objects, shoulder pain, occupational performance, reintegration into normal living and psychosocial impacts for people with spinal cord injury (SCI). A cross sectional study was conducted with 45 males and 21 females with SCI (average age = 41.2). They were assessed in their homes and their communities, two to five years after they received their service dogs. Observations were based on four testing methods. An ongoing longitudinal study is reported, based on 9 months (n = 8 to 16) of data from four standardised questionnaires. Results demonstrate that services dogs are an efficient assistive technology for persons with SCI. PMID:26294573

  15. Reinforcement function design and bias for efficient learning in mobile robots

    SciTech Connect

    Touzet, C.; Santos, J.M.

    1998-06-01

    The main paradigm in sub-symbolic learning robot domain is the reinforcement learning method. Various techniques have been developed to deal with the memorization/generalization problem, demonstrating the superior ability of artificial neural network implementations. In this paper, the authors address the issue of designing the reinforcement so as to optimize the exploration part of the learning. They also present and summarize works relative to the use of bias intended to achieve the effective synthesis of the desired behavior. Demonstrative experiments involving a self-organizing map implementation of the Q-learning and real mobile robots (Nomad 200 and Khepera) in a task of obstacle avoidance behavior synthesis are described. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Gait and Functional Mobility Deficits in Fragile X-Associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Joan A; Robertson-Dick, Erin E; Hall, Deborah A; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth

    2016-08-01

    Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) results from a "premutation" (PM) size CGG repeat expansion in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. Cerebellar gait ataxia is the primary feature in some FXTAS patients causing progressive disability. However, no studies have quantitatively characterized gait and mobility deficits in FXTAS. We performed quantitative gait and mobility analysis in seven FMR1 PM carriers with FXTAS and ataxia, six PM carriers without FXTAS, and 18 age-matched controls. We studied four independent gait domains, trunk range of motion (ROM), and movement transitions using an instrumented Timed Up and Go (i-TUG). We correlated these outcome measures with FMR1 molecular variables and clinical severity scales. PM carriers with FXTAS were globally impaired in every gait performance domain except trunk ROM compared to controls. These included total i-TUG duration, stride velocity, gait cycle time, cadence, double-limb support and swing phase times, turn duration, step time before turn, and turn-to-sit duration, and increased gait variability on several measures. Carriers without FXTAS did not differ from controls on any parameters, but double-limb support time was close to significance. Balance and disability scales correlated with multiple gait and movement transition parameters, while the FXTAS Rating Scale did not. This is the first study to quantitatively examine gait and movement transitions in FXTAS patients. Gait characteristics were consistent with those from previous cohorts with cerebellar ataxia. Sensitive measures like the i-TUG may help determine efficacy of interventions, characterize disease progression, and provide early markers of disease in FXTAS. PMID:26298472

  17. Mobility Modification Alleviates Environmental Influence on Incident Mobility Difficulty among Community-Dwelling Older People: A Two-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Portegijs, Erja; Viljanen, Anne; Iwarsson, Susanne; Rantanen, Taina

    2016-01-01

    Background Environmental barriers increase risk for mobility difficulties in old age. Mobility difficulty is preceded by a phase where people try to postpone a difficulty through mobility modification. We studied whether perceived environmental mobility barriers outdoors correlate with mobility modification and mobility difficulty, predict development of mobility difficulty over a two-year follow-up, and whether mobility modification alleviates the risk for difficulty. Methods At baseline, 848 people aged 75–90 were interviewed face-to-face. Telephone follow-up interviews were conducted one (n = 816) and two years (n = 761) later. Environmental barriers to mobility were self-reported using a15-item structured questionnaire at baseline, summed and divided into tertiles (0, 1 and 2 or more barriers). Mobility difficulty was assessed as self-reported ability to walk 2 km at all assessment points and categorized into ‘no difficulty’, ‘no difficulty but mobility modifications’ (reducing frequency, stopping walking, using an aid, slowing down or resting during the performance) and ‘difficulty’. Results At baseline, 212 participants reported mobility modifications and 356 mobility difficulties. Those reporting one or multiple environmental barriers had twice the odds for mobility modifications and up to five times the odds for mobility difficulty compared to those reporting no environmental barriers. After multiple adjustments for health and functioning, reporting multiple environmental barriers outdoors continued to predict the development of incident mobility difficulty over the two-year follow-up. Mobility modifications attenuated the association. Conclusion For older people who successfully modify their performance, environmental influence on incident mobility difficulty can be diminished. Older people use mobility modification to alleviate environmental press on mobility. PMID:27104750

  18. Item response theory analysis of the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised in the Pooled Resource Open-Access ALS Clinical Trials Database.

    PubMed

    Bacci, Elizabeth D; Staniewska, Dorota; Coyne, Karin S; Boyer, Stacey; White, Leigh Ann; Zach, Neta; Cedarbaum, Jesse M

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to examine dimensionality and item-level performance of the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) across time using classical and modern test theory approaches. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Item Response Theory (IRT) analyses were conducted using data from patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) Pooled Resources Open-Access ALS Clinical Trials (PRO-ACT) database with complete ALSFRS-R data (n = 888) at three time-points (Time 0, Time 1 (6-months), Time 2 (1-year)). Results demonstrated that in this population of 888 patients, mean age was 54.6 years, 64.4% were male, and 93.7% were Caucasian. The CFA supported a 4* individual-domain structure (bulbar, gross motor, fine motor, and respiratory domains). IRT analysis within each domain revealed misfitting items and overlapping item response category thresholds at all time-points, particularly in the gross motor and respiratory domain items. Results indicate that many of the items of the ALSFRS-R may sub-optimally distinguish among varying levels of disability assessed by each domain, particularly in patients with less severe disability. Measure performance improved across time as patient disability severity increased. In conclusion, modifications to select ALSFRS-R items may improve the instrument's specificity to disability level and sensitivity to treatment effects. PMID:26473473

  19. Anxiety in High-Functioning Autism: A Pilot Study of Experience Sampling Using a Mobile Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Dougal Julian; Gracey, Carolyn; Wood, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and stress are everyday issues for many people with high-functioning autism, and while cognitive-behavioural therapy is the treatment of choice for the management of anxiety, there are challenges in using it with people with high-functioning autism. This study used modified experience sampling techniques to examine everyday anxiety and…

  20. Mobile Innovations, Executive Functions, and Educational Developments in Conflict Zones: A Case Study from Palestine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckner, Elizabeth; Kim, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Prior research suggests that exposure to conflict can negatively impact the development of executive functioning, which in turn can affect academic performance. Recognizing the need to better understand the potentially widespread executive function deficiencies among Palestinian students and to help develop educational resources targeted to youth…

  1. Comparison of Pulmonary Functions at Onset of Ventilatory Insufficiency in Patients With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, and Myotonic Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Han Eol; Lee, Jang Woo; Kang, Seong Woong; Choi, Won Ah; Oh, Hyeonjun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate pulmonary functions of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), and myotonic muscular dystrophy (MMD) at the onset of ventilatory insufficiency. Methods This retrospective study included ALS, DMD, and MMD patients with regular outpatient clinic follow-up in the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine at Gangnam Severance Hospital before the application of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV). The patients were enrolled from August 2001 to March 2014. If patients experienced ventilatory insufficiency, they were treated with NIPPV, and their pulmonary functions were subsequently measured. Results Ninety-four DMD patients, 41 ALS patients, and 21 MMD patients were included in the study. The mean SpO2 was lower in the MMD group than in the other two groups. The mean forced vital capacity (FVC) in the supine position was approximately low to mid 20% on average in DMD and ALS patients, whereas it was 10% higher in MMD patients. ALS patients showed a significantly lower FVC in the supine position than in the sitting position. Maximal insufflation capacity, unassisted peak cough flow, maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), and maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) were significantly higher in MMD group than in the other groups. MEP was significantly the lowest in DMD patients, followed by in ALS, and MMD patients, in order. Conclusion Disease-specific values of pulmonary function, including FVC, MEP, and MIP, can be accurately used to assess the onset of ventilatory insufficiency in patients with ALS, DMD, and MMD. PMID:26949672

  2. Mobilization functions of the bacteriocinogenic plasmid pRJ6 of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Varella Coelho, Marcus Livio; Ceotto, Hilana; Madureira, Danielle Jannuzzi; Nes, Ingolf F; Bastos, Maria do Carmo de Freire

    2009-06-01

    Plasmid pRJ6 is the first known bacteriocinogenic mobilizable (Mob) plasmid of Staphylococcus aureus. Its Mob region is composed of four mob genes (mobCDAB) arranged as an operon, a genetic organization uncommon among S. aureus Mob plasmids. oriT (pRJ6) was detected in a region of 431 bp, positioned immediately upstream of mobC. This region, when cloned into pCN37, was able to confer mobilization to the re-combinant plasmid only in the presence of pRJ6. The entire Mob region, including oriT (pRJ6), is much more similar to Mob regions from several coagulase-negative staphylococci plasmids, although some remarkable similarities with S. aureus Mob plasmids can also be noted. These similarities include the presence within oriT (pRJ6) of the three mcb (MobC binding sites), firstly described in pC221 and pC223, an identical nick site also found in these same plasmids, and a nearly identical sra(pC223) site (sequence recognized by MobA). pRJ6 was successfully transferred to S. epidermidis by conjugation in the presence of the conjugative plasmid pGOl. Altogether these findings suggest that pRJ6 might have been originally a coagulase-negative staphylococci plasmid that had been transferred successfully to S. aureus. PMID:19557350

  3. Lateral conduction infrared photodetector

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jin K.; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2011-09-20

    A photodetector for detecting infrared light in a wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m is disclosed. The photodetector has a mesa structure formed from semiconductor layers which include a type-II superlattice formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. Impurity doped regions are formed on sidewalls of the mesa structure to provide for a lateral conduction of photo-generated carriers which can provide an increased carrier mobility and a reduced surface recombination. An optional bias electrode can be used in the photodetector to control and vary a cut-off wavelength or a depletion width therein. The photodetector can be formed as a single-color or multi-color device, and can also be used to form a focal plane array which is compatible with conventional read-out integrated circuits.

  4. Functional disability and compromised mobility among older women with urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Erekson, Elisabeth A.; Ciarleglio, Maria M.; Hanissian, Paul D.; Strohbehn, Kris; Bynum, Julie P.W.; Fried, Terri R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to determine the prevalence of functional disability among older women with urinary incontinence (UI). Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of the 2005-06 National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (NSHAP). Daily UI was defined as answering “daily” to the question, “How frequently...have you had difficulty controlling your bladder, including leaking small amounts of urine, leaking when you cough or sneeze, or not being able to make it to the bathroom on time?” We then explored functional status. Women were asked about seven basic activities of daily living (ADLs). Statistical analyses with percentage estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were performed. Logistic regression was performed to assess the association between functional status and daily UI. Results In total, 1,412 women were included in our analysis. Daily UI was reported by 177 (12.5%) women. Functional dependence or disability with any ADLs was reported in 62.1% (95% CI 54.2%, 70.1%) of women with daily UI. Among women with daily UI, 23.6% (95% CI 16.8%, 30.5%) reported specific difficulty or dependence with using the toilet signifying functional limitations which may contribute to urine leakage. After adjusting for age category, race/ethnicity, education level, and parity, women with daily UI had 3.31 increased odds of functional difficulty or dependence compared with continent older women. Conclusion Over 60% of older women with daily UI reported functional difficulty or dependence and 1/4 of women with daily UI specifically reported difficulty or dependence with using the toilet. PMID:25185600

  5. Long term determinants of functional decline of mobility: an 11-year follow-up of 5464 adults of late middle aged and elderly.

    PubMed

    Lêng, Chhian Hūi; Wang, Jung-Der

    2013-01-01

    This confirmatory study aims at investigating the long term determinants of mobility limitation among late middle aged and elderly in a physically less active population. Five thousand four hundred and sixty-four participants aged 50-97 in 1996 enrolled the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging (TLSA) for four waves of interview during 11 years. Social and health-related determinants were collected in each interview. Mobility limitation was enquired level of difficulty in eight movement tasks, including lifting 11kg weight, squatting, running 20-30m, standing for 15min, walking 200-300m, climbing up two to three floors, raising arms up and grasping with fingers. According to the mixed models with repeated measurements, more frequent gardening and longer time for each exercise predicted subsequent better mobility function in Taiwanese elderly while controlling demographics and current comorbidities. The protective effect of gardening was robust in all models. Frequent alcohol consumption was harmful to future mobility function, but less as harmful when participants aged. Besides, the depression-related somatic complaints were predictive to future mobility limitation among those without limitation at baseline. It shall be worthy to explore the dosage as well as the mechanism of these protective factors, especially the most significant but the least explored factor, gardening. Additionally, efforts should be made to understand the relationship between depression-related somatic complaints and mobility decline and so as the relevant interventions. PMID:23608344

  6. Genetic influence on exercise-induced changes in physical function among mobility-limited older adults.

    PubMed

    Buford, Thomas W; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Brinkley, Tina E; Carter, Christy S; Church, Timothy S; Dodson, John A; Goodpaster, Bret H; McDermott, Mary M; Nicklas, Barbara J; Yank, Veronica; Johnson, Julie A; Pahor, Marco

    2014-03-01

    To date, physical exercise is the only intervention consistently demonstrated to attenuate age-related declines in physical function. However, variability exists in seniors' responsiveness to training. One potential source of variability is the insertion (I allele) or deletion (D allele) of a 287 bp fragment in intron 16 of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene. This polymorphism is known to influence a variety of physiological adaptions to exercise. However, evidence is inconclusive regarding the influence of this polymorphism on older adults' functional responses to exercise. This study aimed to evaluate the association of ACE I/D genotypes with changes in physical function among Caucasian older adults (n = 283) following 12 mo of either structured, multimodal physical activity or health education. Measures of physical function included usual-paced gait speed and performance on the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). After checking Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, we used using linear regression to evaluate the genotype*treatment interaction for each outcome. Covariates included clinic site, body mass index, age, sex, baseline score, comorbidity, and use of angiotensin receptor blockers or ACE inhibitors. Genotype frequencies [II (19.4%), ID (42.4%), DD (38.2%)] were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05). The genotype*treatment interaction was statistically significant for both gait speed (P = 0.002) and SPPB (P = 0.020). Exercise improved gait speed by 0.06 ± 0.01 m/sec and SPPB score by 0.72 ± 0.16 points among those with at least one D allele (ID/DD carriers), but function was not improved among II carriers. Thus, ACE I/D genotype appears to play a role in modulating functional responses to exercise training in seniors. PMID:24423970

  7. Effects of time required for reperfusion (thrombolysis or angioplasty, or both) and location of acute myocardial infarction on left ventricular functional reserve capacity several months later

    SciTech Connect

    Little, T.; Crenshaw, M.; Liberman, H.A.; Battey, L.L.; Warner, R.; Churchwell, A.L.; Eisner, R.L.; Morris, D.C.; Patterson, R.E. )

    1991-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether reperfusion of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, or both, would improve left ventricular (LV) function when it is measured several months later at rest or maximal bicycle exercise, or both. Radionuclide angiography was performed in 44 patients 5 months (range 6 weeks to 9 months) after AMI to assess function, and tomographic myocardial thallium-201 imaging was performed at maximal exercise and delayed rest to determine whether there was any evidence of myocardial ischemia. As expected, no patient had chest pain or redistribution of a thallium defect during the exercise test, because patients had undergone angioplasty (n = 28) or coronary bypass graft surgery (n = 5) where clinically indicated for revascularization. The LV ejection fraction was plotted as a function of the time elapsed between the onset of chest pain and the time when coronary angiography confirmed patency of the infarct-related artery (achieved in 91% of 44 patients by rt-PA (n = 31) or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (n = 9) ). Functional responses differed markedly between patients with anterior (n = 20) versus inferior (n = 24) wall AMI. LV ejection fraction during exercise correlated with time to reperfusion in patients with an anterior wall AMI (r = -0.58; standard error of the estimate = 11.9%; p less than 0.02) but not in patients with an inferior AMI (r = 0.10; standard error of the estimate = 13.1%); difference not significant.

  8. Vitamin D3 Deficiency Differentially Affects Functional and Disease Outcomes in the G93A Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Jesse A.; Gianforcaro, Alexandro; Hamadeh, Mazen J.

    2011-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neuromuscular disease characterized by motor neuron death in the central nervous system. Vitamin D supplementation increases antioxidant activity, reduces inflammation and improves motor neuron survival. We have previously demonstrated that vitamin D3 supplementation at 10× the adequate intake improves functional outcomes in a mouse model of ALS. Objective To determine whether vitamin D deficiency influences functional and disease outcomes in a mouse model of ALS. Methods At age 25 d, 102 G93A mice (56 M, 46 F) were divided into two vitamin D3 groups: 1) adequate (AI; 1 IU D3/g feed) and 2) deficient (DEF; 0.025 IU D3/g feed). At age 113 d, tibialis anterior (TA), quadriceps (quads) and brain were harvested from 42 mice (22 M and 20 F), whereas the remaining 60 mice (34 M and 26 F) were followed to endpoint. Results During disease progression, DEF mice had 25% (P = 0.022) lower paw grip endurance AUC and 19% (P = 0.017) lower motor performance AUC vs. AI mice. Prior to disease onset (CS 2), DEF mice had 36% (P = 0.016) lower clinical score (CS) vs. AI mice. DEF mice reached CS 2 six days later vs. AI mice (P = 0.004), confirmed by a logrank test which revealed that DEF mice reached CS 2 at a 43% slower rate vs. AI mice (HR = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.38, 1.74; P = 0.002). Body weight-adjusted TA (AI: r = 0.662, P = 0.001; DEF: r = 0.622, P = 0.006) and quads (AI: r = 0.661, P = 0.001; DEF: r = 0.768; P<0.001) weights were strongly correlated with age at CS 2. Conclusion Vitamin D3 deficiency improves early disease severity and delays disease onset, but reduces performance in functional outcomes following disease onset, in the high-copy G93A mouse. PMID:22216257

  9. Extending the Belgian eID Technology with Mobile Security Functionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapon, Jorn; Verdegem, Bram; Verhaeghe, Pieter; Naessens, Vincent; de Decker, Bart

    The Belgian Electronic Identity Card was introduced in 2002. The card enables Belgian citizens to prove their identity digitally and to sign electronic documents. Today, only a limited number of citizens really use the card in electronic applications. A major reason is the lack of killer functionality and killer applications.

  10. Interplay between group function of kinesin based transport and lipid bilayer mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Joseph; Hirst, Linda; Xu, Jing

    2015-03-01

    Motor proteins, discovered in recent decades, are important building blocks to life. These molecular machines transport cargo and although indispensable to cell function, are not well understood at present. Single kinesin transport properties have been documented, but their group function remains unknown. In this project, the properties of kinesin-based transport by multiple motors are investigated in-vitro to establish a link between travel distance and lipid diffusion in the vesicle membrane. In the experiments, silica beads coated in a supported lipid membrane and giant lipid vesicles are transported along a microtubule by embedded kinesin motors. In an alternate geometry, this system can be inverted, whereby motors are bound to a surface of a lipid bilayer and microtubules are deposited. We have characterized motor function with respect to the fluidity of the membrane. To measure the diffusion properties of different membranes, planar lipid bilayers are prepared on silica slides and supported by bovine serum albumin protein. To establish a diffusion constant at room temperature for the lipid membrane we use the FRAP technique (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching). Using this method we can investigate if there is any interplay between group travel function and membrane fluidity.

  11. Mobile Phone-Based Joint Angle Measurement for Functional Assessment and Rehabilitation of Proprioception

    PubMed Central

    Mourcou, Quentin; Fleury, Anthony; Diot, Bruno; Franco, Céline; Vuillerme, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of joint functional and proprioceptive abilities is essential for balance, posture, and motor control rehabilitation. Joint functional ability refers to the capacity of movement of the joint. It may be evaluated thereby measuring the joint range of motion (ROM). Proprioception can be defined as the perception of the position and of the movement of various body parts in space. Its role is essential in sensorimotor control for movement acuity, joint stability, coordination, and balance. Its clinical evaluation is commonly based on the assessment of the joint position sense (JPS). Both ROM and JPS measurements require estimating angles through goniometer, scoliometer, laser-pointer, and bubble or digital inclinometer. With the arrival of Smartphones, these costly clinical tools tend to be replaced. Beyond evaluation, maintaining and/or improving joint functional and proprioceptive abilities by training with physical therapy is important for long-term management. This review aims to report Smartphone applications used for measuring and improving functional and proprioceptive abilities. It identifies that Smartphone applications are reliable for clinical measurements and are mainly used to assess ROM and JPS. However, there is lack of studies on Smartphone applications which can be used in an autonomous way to provide physical therapy exercises at home. PMID:26583101

  12. Mobile Phone-Based Joint Angle Measurement for Functional Assessment and Rehabilitation of Proprioception.

    PubMed

    Mourcou, Quentin; Fleury, Anthony; Diot, Bruno; Franco, Céline; Vuillerme, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of joint functional and proprioceptive abilities is essential for balance, posture, and motor control rehabilitation. Joint functional ability refers to the capacity of movement of the joint. It may be evaluated thereby measuring the joint range of motion (ROM). Proprioception can be defined as the perception of the position and of the movement of various body parts in space. Its role is essential in sensorimotor control for movement acuity, joint stability, coordination, and balance. Its clinical evaluation is commonly based on the assessment of the joint position sense (JPS). Both ROM and JPS measurements require estimating angles through goniometer, scoliometer, laser-pointer, and bubble or digital inclinometer. With the arrival of Smartphones, these costly clinical tools tend to be replaced. Beyond evaluation, maintaining and/or improving joint functional and proprioceptive abilities by training with physical therapy is important for long-term management. This review aims to report Smartphone applications used for measuring and improving functional and proprioceptive abilities. It identifies that Smartphone applications are reliable for clinical measurements and are mainly used to assess ROM and JPS. However, there is lack of studies on Smartphone applications which can be used in an autonomous way to provide physical therapy exercises at home. PMID:26583101

  13. A Mobile Computing Solution for Collecting Functional Analysis Data on a Pocket PC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, James; Dixon, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper provides a task analysis for creating a computerized data system using a Pocket PC and Microsoft Visual Basic. With Visual Basic software and any handheld device running the Windows MOBLE operating system, this task analysis will allow behavior analysts to program and customize their own functional analysis data-collection…

  14. Function of high-mobility group A proteins in the DNA damage signaling for the induction of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Fujikane, Ryosuke; Komori, Kayoko; Sekiguchi, Mutsuo; Hidaka, Masumi

    2016-01-01

    O(6)-Methylguanine produced in DNA can pair with thymine during DNA replication, thus leading to a G-to-A transition mutation. To prevent such outcomes, cells harboring O(6)-methylguanine-containing mispair undergo apoptosis that requires the function of mismatch repair (MMR) protein complex. To identify the genes involved in the induction of apoptosis, we performed gene-trap mutagenesis and isolated a clone of mouse cells exhibiting an increased resistance to the killing effect of an alkylating agent, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU). The mutant carries an insertion in the Hmga2 gene, which belongs to a gene family encoding the high-mobility group A non-histone chromatin proteins. To elucidate the function of HMGA proteins in the apoptosis pathway, we introduced siRNAs for HMGA1 and/or HMGA2 into human HeLa MR cells defective in O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase. HMGA1- and HMGA2-single knockdown cells showed an increased resistance to MNU, and HMGA1/HMGA2-double knockdown cells exhibited further increased tolerance compared to the control. The phosphorylation of ATR and CHK1, the appearance of a sub-G1 population, and caspase-9 activation were suppressed in the knockdown cells, although the formation of mismatch recognition complex was unaffected. These results suggest that HMGA family proteins function at the step following the damage recognition in the process of apoptosis triggered by O(6)-methylguanine. PMID:27538817

  15. Function of high-mobility group A proteins in the DNA damage signaling for the induction of apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Fujikane, Ryosuke; Komori, Kayoko; Sekiguchi, Mutsuo; Hidaka, Masumi

    2016-01-01

    O6-Methylguanine produced in DNA can pair with thymine during DNA replication, thus leading to a G-to-A transition mutation. To prevent such outcomes, cells harboring O6-methylguanine-containing mispair undergo apoptosis that requires the function of mismatch repair (MMR) protein complex. To identify the genes involved in the induction of apoptosis, we performed gene-trap mutagenesis and isolated a clone of mouse cells exhibiting an increased resistance to the killing effect of an alkylating agent, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU). The mutant carries an insertion in the Hmga2 gene, which belongs to a gene family encoding the high-mobility group A non-histone chromatin proteins. To elucidate the function of HMGA proteins in the apoptosis pathway, we introduced siRNAs for HMGA1 and/or HMGA2 into human HeLa MR cells defective in O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase. HMGA1- and HMGA2-single knockdown cells showed an increased resistance to MNU, and HMGA1/HMGA2-double knockdown cells exhibited further increased tolerance compared to the control. The phosphorylation of ATR and CHK1, the appearance of a sub-G1 population, and caspase-9 activation were suppressed in the knockdown cells, although the formation of mismatch recognition complex was unaffected. These results suggest that HMGA family proteins function at the step following the damage recognition in the process of apoptosis triggered by O6-methylguanine. PMID:27538817

  16. Evolutionary and functional insights into Leishmania META1: evidence for lateral gene transfer and a role for META1 in secretion

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Leishmania META1 has for long been a candidate molecule for involvement in virulence: META1 transcript and protein are up-regulated in metacyclic Leishmania. Yet, how META1 contributes to virulence remains unclear. We sought insights into the possible functions of META1 by studying its evolutionary origins. Results Using multiple criteria including sequence similarity, nucleotide composition, phylogenetic analysis and selection pressure on gene sequence, we present evidence that META1 originated in trypanosomatids as a result of a lateral gene transfer of a bacterial heat-inducible protein, HslJ. Furthermore, within the Leishmania genome, META1 sequence is under negative selection pressure against change/substitution. Using homology modeling of Leishmania META1 based on solved NMR structure of HslJ, we show that META1 and HslJ share a similar structural fold. The best hit for other proteins with similar fold is MxiM, a protein involved in the type III secretion system in Shigella. The striking structural similarity shared by META1, HslJ and MxiM suggests a possibility of shared functions. Upon structural superposition with MxiM, we have observed a putative hydrophobic cavity in META1. Mutagenesis of select hydrophobic residues in this cavity affects the secretion of the secreted acid phosphatase (SAP), indicating META1's involvement in secretory processes in Leishmania. Conclusions Overall, this work uses an evolutionary biology approach, 3D-modeling and site-directed mutagenesis to arrive at new insights into functions of Leishmania META1. PMID:22093578

  17. Staging of mobility, transfer and walking functions of elderly persons based on the codes of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) was introduced by the World Health Organization as a common taxonomy to describe the burden of health conditions. This study focuses on the development of a scale for staging basic mobility and walking functions based on the ICF. Methods Thirty-three ICF codes were selected to test their fit to the Rasch model and their location. Of these ICF items, four were used to develop a Guttman- type scale of “basic mobility” and another four to develop a“walking” scale to stage functional performance in the elderly. The content validity and differential item functioning of the scales were assessed. The participants, chosen at random, were Japanese over 65 years old using the services of public long-term care insurance, and whose functional assessments were used for scale development and scale validation. Results There were 1164 elderly persons who were eligible for scale development. To stage the functional performance of elderly persons, two Guttman-type scales of “basic mobility” and “walking” were constructed. The order of item difficulty was validated using 3260 elderly persons. There is no differential item functioning about study location, sex and age-group in the newly developed scales. These results suggested the newly developed scales have content validity. Conclusions These scales divided functional performance into five stages according to four ICF codes, making the measurements simple and less time-consuming and enable clear descriptions of elderly functioning level. This was achieved by hierarchically rearranging the ICF items and constructing Guttman-type scales according to item difficulty using the Rasch model. In addition, each functional level might require similar resources and therefore enable standardization of care and rehabilitation. Illustrations facilitate the sharing of patient images among health care providers. By using the ICF as a common

  18. Ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 3 in the ventral and lateral hypothalamic area of female rats: morphological characterization and functional implications

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, David S; Zsarnovszky, Attila; Horvath, Krisztina; Gyorffy, Andrea; Bartha, Tibor; Hazai, Diana; Sotonyi, Peter; Somogyi, Virag; Frenyo, Laszlo V; Diano, Sabrina

    2009-01-01

    Background Based on its distribution in the brain, ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 3 (NTPDase3) may play a role in the hypothalamic regulation of homeostatic systems, including feeding, sleep-wake behavior and reproduction. To further characterize the morphological attributes of NTPDase3-immunoreactive (IR) hypothalamic structures in the rat brain, here we investigated: 1.) The cellular and subcellular localization of NTPDase3; 2.) The effects of 17β-estradiol on the expression level of hypothalamic NTPDase3; and 3.) The effects of NTPDase inhibition in hypothalamic synaptosomal preparations. Methods Combined light- and electron microscopic analyses were carried out to characterize the cellular and subcellular localization of NTPDase3-immunoreactivity. The effects of estrogen on hypothalamic NTPDase3 expression was studied by western blot technique. Finally, the effects of NTPDase inhibition on mitochondrial respiration were investigated using a Clark-type oxygen electrode. Results Combined light- and electron microscopic analysis of immunostained hypothalamic slices revealed that NTPDase3-IR is linked to ribosomes and mitochondria, is predominantly present in excitatory axon terminals and in distinct segments of the perikaryal plasma membrane. Immunohistochemical labeling of NTPDase3 and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) indicated that γ-amino-butyric-acid- (GABA) ergic hypothalamic neurons do not express NTPDase3, further suggesting that in the hypothalamus, NTPDase3 is predominantly present in excitatory neurons. We also investigated whether estrogen influences the expression level of NTPDase3 in the ventrobasal and lateral hypothalamus. A single subcutaneous injection of estrogen differentially increased NTPDase3 expression in the medial and lateral parts of the hypothalamus, indicating that this enzyme likely plays region-specific roles in estrogen-dependent hypothalamic regulatory mechanisms. Determination of mitochondrial respiration rates

  19. A Mobile Computing Solution for Collecting Functional Analysis Data on a Pocket PC

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, James; Dixon, Mark R

    2007-01-01

    The present paper provides a task analysis for creating a computerized data system using a Pocket PC and Microsoft Visual Basic. With Visual Basic software and any handheld device running the Windows Moble operating system, this task analysis will allow behavior analysts to program and customize their own functional analysis data-collection system. The program will allow the user to select the type of behavior to be recorded, choose between interval and frequency data collection, and summarize data for graphing and analysis. We also provide suggestions for customizing the data-collection system for idiosyncratic research and clinical needs. PMID:17624078

  20. A mobile computing solution for collecting functional analysis data on a Pocket PC.

    PubMed

    Jackson, James; Dixon, Mark R

    2007-01-01

    The present paper provides a task analysis for creating a computerized data system using a Pocket PC and Microsoft Visual Basic. With Visual Basic software and any handheld device running the Windows Moble operating system, this task analysis will allow behavior analysts to program and customize their own functional analysis data-collection system. The program will allow the user to select the type of behavior to be recorded, choose between interval and frequency data collection, and summarize data for graphing and analysis. We also provide suggestions for customizing the data-collection system for idiosyncratic research and clinical needs. PMID:17624078

  1. Offspring pay sooner, parents pay later: experimental manipulation of body mass reveals trade-offs between immune function, reproduction and survival

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Life-history theory predicts that organisms trade off survival against reproduction. However, the time scales on which various consequences become evident and the physiology mediating the cost of reproduction remain poorly understood. Yet, explaining not only which mechanisms mediate this trade-off, but also how fast or slow the mechanisms act, is crucial for an improved understanding of life-history evolution. We investigated three time scales on which an experimental increase in body mass could affect this trade-off: within broods, within season and between years. We handicapped adult skylarks (Alauda arvensis) by attaching extra weight during first broods to both adults of a pair. We measured body mass, immune function and return rates in these birds. We also measured nest success, feeding rates, diet composition, nestling size, nestling immune function and recruitment rates. Results When nestlings of first broods fledged, parent body condition had not changed, but experimental birds experienced higher nest failure. Depending on the year, immune parameters of nestlings from experimental parents were either higher or lower than of control nestlings. Later, when parents were feeding their second brood, the balance between self-maintenance and nest success had shifted. Control and experimental adults differed in immune function, while mass and immune function of their nestlings did not differ. Although weights were removed after breeding, immune measurements during the second brood had the capacity to predict return rates to the next breeding season. Among birds that returned the next year, body condition and reproductive performance a year after the experiment did not differ between treatment groups. Conclusions We conclude that the balance between current reproduction and survival shifts from affecting nestlings to affecting parents as the reproductive season progresses. Furthermore, immune function is apparently one physiological mechanism involved

  2. Effects of aerobic exercise therapy and cognitive behavioural therapy on functioning and quality of life in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: protocol of the FACTS-2-ALS trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting motor neurons in the spinal cord, brainstem and motor cortex, leading to muscle weakness. Muscle weakness may result in the avoidance of physical activity, which exacerbates disuse weakness and cardiovascular deconditioning. The impact of the grave prognosis may result in depressive symptoms and hopelessness. Since there is no cure for ALS, optimal treatment is based on symptom management and preservation of quality of life (QoL), provided in a multidisciplinary setting. Two distinctly different therapeutic interventions may be effective to improve or preserve daily functioning and QoL at the highest achievable level: aerobic exercise therapy (AET) to maintain or enhance functional capacity and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) to improve coping style and cognitions in patients with ALS. However, evidence to support either approach is still insufficient, and the underlying mechanisms of the approaches remain poorly understood. The primary aim of the FACTS-2-ALS trial is to study the effects of AET and CBT, in addition to usual care, compared to usual care alone, on functioning and QoL in patients with ALS. Methods / Design A multicentre, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial with a postponed information model will be conducted. A sample of 120 patients with ALS (1 month post diagnosis) will be recruited from 3 university hospitals and 1 rehabilitation centre. Patients will be randomized to one of three groups i.e. (1) AET + usual care, (2) CBT + usual care, (3) Usual care. AET consists of a 16-week aerobic exercise programme, on 3 days a week. CBT consists of individual psychological support of patients in 5 to 10 sessions over a 16-week period. QoL, functioning and secondary outcome measures will be assessed at baseline, immediately post intervention and at 3- and 6-months follow-up. Discussion The FACTS-2-ALS study is the first theory

  3. Cerebral Laterality and Verbal Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Jay L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Research suggests that we process information by way of two distinct and functionally separate coding systems. Their location, somewhat dependent on cerebral laterality, varies in right- and left-handed persons. Tests this dual coding model. (Editor/RK)

  4. Lateral Dominance and Reading Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Albert J.

    1979-01-01

    Theory and research on the relation of lateral dominance to the causation of reading disability are reviewed. Both direct and indirect measures of cerebral hemisphere functioning are considered. (SBH)

  5. Rescue of GABAB and GIRK function in the lateral habenula by protein phosphatase 2A inhibition ameliorates depression-like phenotypes in mice.

    PubMed

    Lecca, Salvatore; Pelosi, Assunta; Tchenio, Anna; Moutkine, Imane; Lujan, Rafael; Hervé, Denis; Mameli, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) encodes aversive signals, and its aberrant activity contributes to depression-like symptoms. However, a limited understanding of the cellular mechanisms underlying LHb hyperactivity has precluded the development of pharmacological strategies to ameliorate depression-like phenotypes. Here we report that an aversive experience in mice, such as foot-shock exposure (FsE), induces LHb neuronal hyperactivity and depression-like symptoms. This occurs along with increased protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity, a known regulator of GABAB receptor (GABABR) and G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channel surface expression. Accordingly, FsE triggers GABAB1 and GIRK2 internalization, leading to rapid and persistent weakening of GABAB-activated GIRK-mediated (GABAB-GIRK) currents. Pharmacological inhibition of PP2A restores both GABAB-GIRK function and neuronal excitability. As a consequence, PP2A inhibition ameliorates depression-like symptoms after FsE and in a learned-helplessness model of depression. Thus, GABAB-GIRK plasticity in the LHb represents a cellular substrate for aversive experience. Furthermore, its reversal by PP2A inhibition may provide a novel therapeutic approach to alleviate symptoms of depression in disorders that are characterized by LHb hyperactivity. PMID:26808347

  6. Opposing effects of traumatic brain injury on excitatory synaptic function in the lateral amygdala in the absence and presence of preinjury stress.

    PubMed

    Klein, Rebecca C; Acheson, Shawn K; Qadri, Laura H; Dawson, Alina A; Rodriguiz, Ramona M; Wetsel, William C; Moore, Scott D; Laskowitz, Daniel T; Dawson, Hana N

    2016-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability among young adults and is highly prevalent among recently deployed military personnel. Survivors of TBI often experience cognitive and emotional deficits, suggesting that long-term effects of injury may disrupt neuronal function in critical brain regions, including the amygdala, which is involved in emotion and fear memory. Amygdala hyperexcitability has been reported in both TBI and posttraumatic stress disorder patients, yet little is known regarding the effects of combined stress and TBI on amygdala structure and function at the neuronal level. The present study seeks to determine how the long-term effects of preinjury foot-shock stress and TBI interact to influence synaptic plasticity in the lateral amygdala (LA) of adult male C57BL/6J mice by using whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology 2-3 months postinjury. In the absence of stress, TBI resulted in a significant increase in membrane excitability and spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) in LA pyramidal-like neurons. Foot-shock stress in the absence of TBI also resulted in increased sEPSC activity. In contrast, when preinjury stress and TBI occurred in combination, sEPSC activity was significantly decreased compared with either condition alone. There were no significant differences in inhibitory activity or total dendritic length among any of the treatment groups. These results demonstrate that stress and TBI may be contributing to amygdala hyperexcitability via different mechanisms and that these pathways may counterbalance each other with respect to long-term pathophysiology in the LA. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26707710

  7. Low birth weight, later renal function, and the roles of adulthood blood pressure, diabetes, and obesity in a British birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Silverwood, Richard J; Pierce, Mary; Hardy, Rebecca; Sattar, Naveed; Whincup, Peter; Ferro, Charles; Savage, Caroline; Kuh, Diana; Nitsch, Dorothea

    2013-01-01

    Low birth weight has been shown to be associated with later renal function, but it is unclear to what extent this is explained by other established kidney disease risk factors. Here we investigate the roles of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity using data from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, a socially stratified sample of 5362 children born in March 1946 in England, Scotland, and Wales, and followed since. The birth weight of 2192 study members with complete data was related to three markers of renal function at age 60–64 (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) calculated using cystatin C (eGFRcys), eGFR calculated using creatinine and cystatin C (eGFRcr-cys), and the urine albumin–creatinine ratio) using linear regression. Each 1 kg lower birth weight was associated with a 2.25 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (95% confidence interval 0.80–3.71) lower eGFRcys and a 2.13 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (0.69–3.58) lower eGFRcr-cys. There was no evidence of an association with urine albumin–creatinine ratio. These associations with eGFR were not confounded by socioeconomic position and were not explained by diabetes or hypertension, but there was some evidence that they were stronger in study members who were overweight in adulthood. Thus, our findings highlight the role of lower birth weight in renal disease and suggest that in those born with lower birth weight particular emphasis should be placed on avoiding becoming overweight. PMID:23760284

  8. Functional correlates of fiber architecture of the lateral caudal musculature in prehensile and nonprehensile tails of the platyrrhini (primates) and procyonidae (carnivora).

    PubMed

    Organ, Jason M; Teaford, Mark F; Taylor, Andrea B

    2009-06-01

    Prehensile-tailed platyrrhines (atelines and Cebus) and procyonids (Potos) display bony tail features that have been functionally and adaptively linked to their prehensile behaviors, particularly the need to resist relatively greater bending and torsional stresses associated with supporting their body weight during suspensory postures. We compared fiber architecture of the mm. intertransversarii caudae (ITC), the prime tail lateral flexors/rotators, in 40 individuals distributed across 8 platyrrhine and 2 procyonid genera, divided into one of two groups: prehensile or nonprehensile. We tested the hypothesis that prehensile-tailed taxa exhibit relatively greater physiologic cross-sectional areas (PCSAs) to maintain tail suspensory postures for extended periods. As an architectural trade-off of maximizing force, we also predicted prehensile-tailed taxa would exhibit relatively shorter, more pinnate fibers, and a lower mass to tetanic tension ratio (Mass/P(O)). Prehensile-tailed taxa have relatively higher PCSAs in all tail regions, indicating their capacity to generate relatively greater maximum muscle forces compared to nonprehensile-tailed taxa. Contrary to our predictions, there are no group differences in pinnation angles, fiber lengths or M/P(O) ratios. Therefore, the relatively greater prehensile PCSAs are driven largely by relative increase in muscle mass. These findings suggest that relatively greater ITC PCSAs can be functionally linked to the need for prehensile-tailed taxa to suspend and support their body weight during arboreal behaviors. Moreover, maximizing ITC force production may not come at the expense of muscle excursion/contraction velocity. One advantage of this architectural configuration is it facilitates suspension of the body while simultaneously maximizing tail contact with the substrate. PMID:19402068

  9. A Genome-Wide Analysis of the LBD (LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES Domain) Gene Family in Malus domestica with a Functional Characterization of MdLBD11

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ling; Liu, Xin; Hao, Yujin

    2013-01-01

    The plant-specific LBD (LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES domain) genes belong to a major family of transcription factor that encode a zinc finger-like domain. It has been shown that LBD genes play crucial roles in the growth and development of Arabidopsis and other plant species. However, no detailed information concerning this family is available for apple. In the present study, we analyzed the apple (Malus domestica) genome and identified 58 LBD genes. This gene family was tested for its phylogenetic relationships with homologous genes in the Arabidopsis genome, as well as its location in the genome, structure and expression. We also transformed one MdLBD gene into Arabidopsis to evaluate its function. Like Arabidopsis, apple LBD genes also have a conserved CX2CX6CX3C zinc finger-like domain in the N terminus and can be divided into two classes. The expression profile indicated that apple LBD genes exhibited a variety of expression patterns, suggesting that they have diverse functions. At the same time, the expression analysis implied that members of this apple gene family were responsive to hormones and stress and that they may participate in hormone-mediated plant organogenesis, which was demonstrated with the overexpression of the apple LBD gene MdLBD11, resulting in an abnormal phenotype. This phenotype included upward curling leaves, delayed flowering, downward-pointing flowers, siliques and other abnormal traits. Based on these data, we concluded that the MdLBD genes may play an important role in apple growth and development as in Arabidopsis and other species. PMID:23468909

  10. Maintaining Functional Independence in Elderly Adults: The Roles of Health Status and Financial Resources in Predicting Home Modifications and Use of Mobility Equipment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieson, Kathleen M.; Kronenfeld, Jennie Jacobs; Keith, Verna M.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated whether health status (i.e., need characteristics) and financial resources (i.e., enabling characteristics) were important predictors of two types of functional adaptations among elderly adults: home modifications such as putting nonslip tape on rugs or installing more telephones and use of equipment for mobility or…

  11. The Effects of Long Duration Bed Rest on Functional Mobility and Balance: Relationship to Resting State Motor Cortex Connectivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdeniz, B.; Koppelmans, V.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Kofman, I. S.; DeDios, Y. E.; Riascos-Castaneda, R. F.; Wood, S. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Seidler, R. D.

    2014-01-01

    NASA offers researchers from a variety of backgrounds the opportunity to study bed rest as an experimental analog for space flight. Extended exposure to a head-down tilt position during long duration bed rest can resemble many of the effects of a low-gravity environment such as reduced sensory inputs, body unloading and increased cephalic fluid distribution. The aim of our study is to a) identify changes in brain function that occur with prolonged bed rest and characterize their recovery time course; b) assess whether and how these changes impact behavioral and neurocognitive performance. Thus far, we completed data collection from six participants that include task based and resting state fMRI. The data have been acquired through the bed rest facility located at the University of Texas Medical Branch (Galveston, TX). Subjects remained in bed with their heads tilted down 6 degrees below their feet for 70 consecutive days. Behavioral measures and neuroimaging assessments were obtained at seven time points: a) 7 and 12 days before bed rest; b) 7, 30, and 65 days during bed rest; and c) 7 and 12 days after bed rest. Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (FcMRI) analysis was performed to assess the connectivity of motor cortex in and out of bed rest. We found a decrease in motor cortex connectivity with vestibular cortex and the cerebellum from pre bed rest to in bed rest. We also used a battery of behavioral measures including the functional mobility test and computerized dynamic posturography collected before and after bed rest. We will report the preliminary results of analyses relating brain and behavior changes. Furthermore, we will also report the preliminary results of a spatial working memory task and vestibular stimulation during in and out of bed rest.

  12. Safety, Pharmacokinetic, and Functional Effects of the Nogo-A Monoclonal Antibody in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Randomized, First-In-Human Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Meininger, Vincent; Pradat, Pierre-François; Corse, Andrea; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Rix Brooks, Benjamin; Caress, James B.; Cudkowicz, Merit; Kolb, Stephen J.; Lange, Dale; Leigh, P. Nigel; Meyer, Thomas; Milleri, Stefano; Morrison, Karen E.; Orrell, Richard W.; Peters, Gary; Rothstein, Jeffrey D.; Shefner, Jeremy; Lavrov, Arseniy; Williams, Nicola; Overend, Phil; Price, Jeffrey; Bates, Stewart; Bullman, Jonathan; Krull, David; Berges, Alienor; Abila, Bams; Meno-Tetang, Guy; Wurthner, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The neurite outgrowth inhibitor, Nogo-A, has been shown to be overexpressed in skeletal muscle in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); it is both a potential biomarker and therapeutic target. We performed a double-blind, two-part, dose-escalation study, in subjects with ALS, assessing safety, pharmacokinetics (PK) and functional effects of ozanezumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against Nogo-A. In Part 1, 40 subjects were randomized (3∶1) to receive single dose intravenous ozanezumab (0.01, 0.1, 1, 5, or 15 mg/kg) or placebo. In Part 2, 36 subjects were randomized (3∶1) to receive two repeat doses of intravenous ozanezumab (0.5, 2.5, or 15 mg/kg) or placebo, approximately 4 weeks apart. The primary endpoints were safety and tolerability (adverse events [AEs], vital signs, electrocardiogram (ECG), and clinical laboratory tests). Secondary endpoints included PK, immunogenicity, functional endpoints (clinical and electrophysiological), and biomarker parameters. Overall, ozanezumab treatment (0.01–15 mg/kg) was well tolerated. The overall incidence of AEs in the repeat dose 2.5 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg ozanezumab groups was higher than in the repeat dose placebo group and repeat dose 0.5 mg/kg ozanezumab group. The majority were considered not related to study drug by the investigators. Six serious AEs were reported in three subjects receiving ozanezumab; none were considered related to study drug. No study drug-related patterns were identified for ECG, laboratory, or vital signs parameters. One subject (repeat dose 15 mg/kg ozanezumab) showed a weak, positive anti-ozanezumab-antibody result. PK results were generally consistent with monoclonal antibody treatments. No apparent treatment effects were observed for functional endpoints or muscle biomarkers. Immunohistochemical staining showed dose-dependent co-localization of ozanezumab with Nogo-A in skeletal muscle. In conclusion, single and repeat dose ozanezumab treatment was well tolerated and demonstrated co

  13. The effects of self-mobilization techniques for the sciatic nerves on physical functions and health of low back pain patients with lower limb radiating pain

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Ui-Cheol; Kim, Cheol-Yong; Park, Young-Han; Hwang-Bo, Gak; Nam, Chan-Woo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of self-mobilization techniques for the sciatic nerves on the quality of life in patients with chronic low back pain in the lower limbs accompanied by radiating pain. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were divided into two groups: a group receiving of lumbar segmental stabilization exercise training including sciatic nerve mobilization techniques, which included 8 males and 7 females, and a group receiving lumbar segmental stabilization exercise training, which included 8 males and 7 females. [Results] There were statistically significant differences in comparison of measurement results between the groups before and after the intervention. [Conclusion] Application of mobilization techniques for the sciatic nerves may promote healing of the soft tissues by stimulating the functions of the nervous system to improve nervous system adaptability and decrease sensitivity, helping to alleviate the symptoms. PMID:26957726

  14. Life-Space Assessment in Urogynecology and Gynecologic Oncology Surgery Patients: A Measure of Perioperative Mobility and Function

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Chere’ M.L.; Wheeler, Thomas L.; Markland, Alayne D.; Straughn, J. Michael; Richter, Holly E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of gynecologic surgery on mobility and functional status in women ≥ 60 years of age using Life-Space Assessment (LSA). Design Observational prospective cohort study Setting Academic outpatient urogynecology and gynecologic oncology clinics Participants Women presenting for urogynecology (N=51) and gynecologic oncology (N=51) surgery. Measurements LSA scores six weeks, six months and one year after surgery. Participant demographics, preoperative diagnoses, surgical approach, and medical comorbidities were collected. Analyses utilized repeated measures. Results Mean age was 71 + 7 years. Urogynecology participants started and maintained a higher LSA (p-value=0.03) than oncology participants at all study intervals. At six weeks post-surgery, urogynecology and oncology participants’ mean decline was 13-points (95% CI 4, 21 p-value=.004) and 23-points (95% CI 13, 33 p-value < .001), respectively. At six months, the urogynecology and oncology participants’ scores increased by a mean of 9-points (95% CI 1, 17 p-value=.033), and 13-points (95% CI 5, 20 p-value=.001) points, respectively. No significant difference was found at one year from baseline within each group or between groups in LSA scores. Income, depression, Body Mass Index (BMI) and having an operative complication predicted a larger decline in life-space over time in both groups. Conclusion Gynecologic surgical interventions in older women limit physical and functional ability at six weeks postoperatively. Both the urogynecology and gynecologic oncology cohorts returned to baseline levels by six months which was sustained to one year. PMID:19874406

  15. NMDA currents modulate the synaptic input-output functions of neurons in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Porres, Christian P; Meyer, Elisabeth M M; Grothe, Benedikt; Felmy, Felix

    2011-03-23

    Neurons in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) receive excitatory and inhibitory inputs from the superior olivary complex (SOC) and convey GABAergic inhibition to the contralateral DNLL and the inferior colliculi. Unlike the fast glycinergic inhibition in the SOC, this GABAergic inhibition outlasts auditory stimulation by tens of milliseconds. Two mechanisms have been postulated to explain this persistent inhibition. One, an "integration-based" mechanism, suggests that postsynaptic excitatory integration in DNLL neurons generates prolonged activity, and the other favors the synaptic time course of the DNLL output itself. The feasibility of the integration-based mechanism was tested in vitro in DNLL neurons of Mongolian gerbils by quantifying the cellular excitability and synaptic input-output functions (IO-Fs). All neurons were sustained firing and generated a near monotonic IO-F on current injections. From synaptic stimulations, we estimate that activation of approximately five fibers, each on average liberating ∼18 vesicles, is sufficient to trigger a single postsynaptic action potential. A strong single pulse of afferent fiber stimulation triggered multiple postsynaptic action potentials. The steepness of the synaptic IO-F was dependent on the synaptic NMDA component. The synaptic NMDA receptor current defines the slope of the synaptic IO-F by enhancing the temporal and spatial EPSP summation. Blocking this NMDA-dependent amplification during postsynaptic integration of train stimulations resulted into a ∼20% reduction of the decay time course of the GABAergic inhibition. Thus, our data show that the NMDA-dependent amplification of the postsynaptic activity contributes to the GABAergic persistent inhibition generated by DNLL neurons. PMID:21430152

  16. Hemispheric lateralization in reasoning.

    PubMed

    Turner, Benjamin O; Marinsek, Nicole; Ryhal, Emily; Miller, Michael B

    2015-11-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that reasoning in humans relies on a number of related processes whose neural loci are largely lateralized to one hemisphere or the other. A recent review of this evidence concluded that the patterns of lateralization observed are organized according to two complementary tendencies. The left hemisphere attempts to reduce uncertainty by drawing inferences or creating explanations, even at the cost of ignoring conflicting evidence or generating implausible explanations. Conversely, the right hemisphere aims to reduce conflict by rejecting or refining explanations that are no longer tenable in the face of new evidence. In healthy adults, the hemispheres work together to achieve a balance between certainty and consistency, and a wealth of neuropsychological research supports the notion that upsetting this balance results in various failures in reasoning, including delusions. However, support for this model from the neuroimaging literature is mixed. Here, we examine the evidence for this framework from multiple research domains, including an activation likelihood estimation analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of reasoning. Our results suggest a need to either revise this model as it applies to healthy adults or to develop better tools for assessing lateralization in these individuals. PMID:26426534

  17. Lateral orientation (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A lateral orientation is a position away from the midline of the body. For instance, the arms are lateral to the ... ears are lateral to the head. A medial orientation is a position toward the midline of the ...

  18. Functional analysis of genes implicated in Down syndrome: 2. Laterality and corpus callosum size in mice transpolygenic for Down syndrome chromosomal region -1 (DCR-1).

    PubMed

    Roubertoux, Pierre L; Bichler, Zoë; Pinoteau, Walter; Seregaza, Zohra; Fortes, Sylvia; Jamon, Marc; Smith, Desmond J; Rubin, Edward; Migliore-Samour, Danièle; Carlier, Michèle

    2005-05-01

    The association between atypical laterality and mental retardation has been reported several times, particularly in Down syndrome (DS). We investigated common genetic correlates of these components of the syndrome, examining direction (number of right paw entries in the Collins test) and degree (absolute difference between the number of right paw entries and the number of left paw entries) in mice that had incorporated extra-contiguous HSA21 fragments covering DCR-1 (Down Chromosomal Region-1). As corpus callosum size is substantially reduced in DS, and as the structure has been suspected of playing a role in atypical laterality, we also measured the corpus callosum in these mice. Extra copies of two regions (F7 and E6) have been associated with an atypical degree of laterality (strongly reduced degree). Extra copies of E8, G6 and E6 are also linked to the reduced size of the corpus callosum, indicating that the abnormal number of fibers linking the two hemispheres is not associated with atypical laterality in DS. Together, these results indicate that some of the genes involved in atypical laterality and in the reduced size of the corpus callosum in DS are present on DCR-1. An extra copy of F7 and, to a lesser extent, an extra copy of E6, are also associated with cognitive impairment. These results support the hypothesis of common genetic correlates in atypical laterality and mental retardation in DS. PMID:15864448

  19. Mobile Launcher Moves for Testing

    NASA Video Gallery

    In anticipation of launching NASA’s Space Launch System heavy-lift rocket later in this decade, engineers wanted to check the mobile launcher, or ML, to see how it would behave moving atop a craw...

  20. Lehr's fields of campaniform sensilla in beetles (Coleoptera): functional morphology. III. Modification of elytral mobility or shape in flying beetles.

    PubMed

    Frantsevich, Leonid; Gorb, Stanislav; Radchenko, Vladimir; Gladun, Dmytro

    2015-03-01

    Some flying beetles have peculiar functional properties of their elytra, if compared with the vast majority of beetles. A "typical" beetle covers its pterothorax and the abdomen from above with closed elytra and links closed elytra together along the sutural edges. In the open state during flight, the sutural edges diverge much more than by 90°. Several beetles of unrelated taxa spread wings through lateral incisions on the elytra and turn the elytron during opening about 10-12° (Cetoniini, Scarabaeus, Gymnopleurus) or elevate their elytra without partition (Sisyphus, Tragocerus). The number of campaniform sensilla in their elytral sensory field is diminished in comparison with beetles of closely related taxa lacking that incision. Elytra are very short in rove beetles and in long-horn beetles Necydalini. The abundance of sensilla in brachyelytrous long-horn beetles Necydalini does not decrease in comparison with macroelytrous Cerambycinae. Strong reduction of the sensory field was found in brachyelytrous Staphylinidae. Lastly, there are beetles lacking the linkage of the elytra down the sutural edge (stenoelytry). Effects of stenoelytry were also not uniform: Oedemera and flying Meloidae have the normal amount of sensilla with respect to their body size, whereas the sensory field in the stenoelytrous Eulosia bombyliformis is 5-6 times less than in chafers of the same size but with normally linking broad elytra. PMID:25499796

  1. [Adult lateral meniscus].

    PubMed

    Beaufils, P; Hardy, P; Chambat, P; Clavert, P; Djian, P; Frank, A; Hulet, C; Potel, J-F; Verdonk, R

    2006-09-01

    "simple" arthroscopic meniscectomy. The healing process being slow, it suits to protect the suture by a splint in the first month, and with an exclusion of sports with knee torsion during 6 months. Functional results (absence of secondary meniscectomy) and anatomical results (reality of the cicatrisation) are good in 77% of cases (symposium of the French Society of Arthroscopy 2003) at a follow-up of 55 months. Survivorship analysis indicates that majority of the failures occur within two years: this testifies a default of primary cicatrisation. At the studied follow-up, meniscal repair was efficient to protect the cartilage. Lateral meniscus results are better that medial meniscus one. Those data support indications: All suspicion of meniscal lesion must have an MRI preoperatively to confirm the lesion, to localize her and to search criteria of reparability; All vertical longitudinal peripheral lesions can and must be repaired especially in young patients and children; All horizontal cleaving of the junior athletes should be treated by open repair; surgical abstention must be proposed when the lesion is non symptomatic, or when lesion is limited and associated to an ACL tear (in that case isolated ACL reconstruction is proposed), or when clinical symptoms are minimal; Meniscectomy, always arthroscopic, is proposed for a symptomatic lesion in the avascular zone or for a deep horizontal cleavage or a complex tear; Tear of the discoid meniscus should be treated by meniscoplasty. A painful knee after lateral meniscectomy might be due to a too limited initial meniscectomy: an iterative meniscectomy may be indicated or lateral femorotibial arthritis, especially after subtotal or total meniscectomy. In this last case and after failure of usual medical treatment such as viscosupplementation surgery may be indicated. Osteotomy in order to unload the lateral femorotibial compartment gives a partial response as the shearing forces remain. This osteotomy is indicated only if the

  2. Short-term exposure to mobile phone base station signals does not affect cognitive functioning or physiological measures in individuals who report sensitivity to electromagnetic fields and controls.

    PubMed

    Eltiti, Stacy; Wallace, Denise; Ridgewell, Anna; Zougkou, Konstantina; Russo, Riccardo; Sepulveda, Francisco; Fox, Elaine

    2009-10-01

    Individuals who report sensitivity to electromagnetic fields often report cognitive impairments that they believe are due to exposure to mobile phone technology. Previous research in this area has revealed mixed results, however, with the majority of research only testing control individuals. Two studies using control and self-reported sensitive participants found inconsistent effects of mobile phone base stations on cognitive functioning. The aim of the present study was to clarify whether short-term (50 min) exposure at 10 mW/m(2) to typical Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) base station signals affects attention, memory, and physiological endpoints in sensitive and control participants. Data from 44 sensitive and 44 matched-control participants who performed the digit symbol substitution task (DSST), digit span task (DS), and a mental arithmetic task (MA), while being exposed to GSM, UMTS, and sham signals under double-blind conditions were analyzed. Overall, cognitive functioning was not affected by short-term exposure to either GSM or UMTS signals in the current study. Nor did exposure affect the physiological measurements of blood volume pulse (BVP), heart rate (HR), and skin conductance (SC) that were taken while participants performed the cognitive tasks. PMID:19475647

  3. Application of positive airway pressure in restoring pulmonary function and thoracic mobility in the postoperative period of bariatric surgery: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Brigatto, Patrícia; Carbinatto, Jéssica C.; Costa, Carolina M.; Montebelo, Maria I. L.; Rasera-Júnior, Irineu; Pazzianotto-Forti, Eli M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether the application of bilevel positive airway pressure in the postoperative period of bariatric surgery might be more effective in restoring lung volume and capacity and thoracic mobility than the separate application of expiratory and inspiratory positive pressure. Method: Sixty morbidly obese adult subjects who were hospitalized for bariatric surgery and met the predefined inclusion criteria were evaluated. The pulmonary function and thoracic mobility were preoperatively assessed by spirometry and cirtometry and reevaluated on the 1st postoperative day. After preoperative evaluation, the subjects were randomized and allocated into groups: EPAP Group (n=20), IPPB Group (n=20) and BIPAP Group (n=20), then received the corresponding intervention: positive expiratory pressure (EPAP), inspiratory positive pressure breathing (IPPB) or bilevel inspiratory positive airway pressure (BIPAP), in 6 sets of 15 breaths or 30 minutes twice a day in the immediate postoperative period and on the 1st postoperative day, in addition to conventional physical therapy. Results: There was a significant postoperative reduction in spirometric variables (p<0.05), regardless of the technique used, with no significant difference among the techniques (p>0.05). Thoracic mobility was preserved only in group BIPAP (p>0.05), but no significant difference was found in the comparison among groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: The application of positive pressure does not seem to be effective in restoring lung function after bariatric surgery, but the use of bilevel positive pressure can preserve thoracic mobility, although this technique was not superior to the other techniques. PMID:25590448

  4. Treatment of lateral collateral ligament sprains of the ankle: a critical appraisal of the literature.

    PubMed

    Shrier, I

    1995-07-01

    Although sprains of the lateral collateral ligaments of the ankle are extremely common, controversy still exists over the proper treatment. Some authors recommend early mobilization of the ankle, others recommend cast immobilization for 1-6 weeks, and others insist that sprains should be treated with primary surgical repair. A critical appraisal of the literature supports the concepts of early mobilization with a proper rehabilitation program. The review of treatment is followed by a discussion of the potential causes of persistent pain and functional instability. PMID:7670975

  5. The Sociability of Mobile TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geerts, David

    Both mobile phones and television are known for the social practices they enable. Television has been a social medium since its introduction in households all over the world. Although its main aim is entertaining and informing its viewers, people often watch television together with close relatives or good friends, talk about what is going on while watching television or even structure their social activities around a television show (e.g., eating dinner while watching the news) (Lull 1980). But television programs are also part of social interactions away from the television set, when discussing favorite television programs around the water cooler at work, or recommending shows to watch to good friends. The main function of mobile phones on the other hand has always been social from the start: communicating with other people, when and wherever you want, first using voice communication and later also with text messages and video communication. So what happens when these two social media are combined? It is clear that mobile TV cannot be successful without taking social practices when watching TV on a mobile device into account. Although one approach could be to let the users appropriate the device in their social environment, as happened with text messaging, the risk that it does not match their current practices is too big. A better approach is to design mobile TV applications that take direct advantage of the social aspects of each medium, which means adding interactive features that will enable and support social interaction between users on different levels. In order to get an idea of the possibilities, it is interesting to look at recent research in the closely related domain of interactive television.

  6. Measuring localization and diffusion coefficients of basolateral proteins in lateral versus basal membranes using functionalized substrates and kICS analysis.

    PubMed

    Marlar, Saw; Arnspang, Eva C; Pedersen, Gitte A; Koffman, Jennifer S; Nejsum, Lene N

    2014-10-01

    Micropatterning enabled semiquantitation of basolateral proteins in lateral and basal membranes of the same cell. Lateral diffusion coefficients of basolateral aquaporin-3 (AQP3-EGFP) and EGFP-AQP4 were extracted from "lateral" and "basal" membranes using identical live-cell imaging and k-space Image Correlation Spectroscopy (kICS). To simultaneously image proteins in "lateral" and "basal" membranes, micropatterning with the extracellular domain of E-cadherin and collagen, to mimic cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion, respectively, was used. In kidney collecting duct principal cells AQP3 localizes lateral and basal whereas AQP4 localizes mainly basal. On alternating stripes of E-cadherin and collagen, AQP3-EGFP was predominantly localized to "lateral" compared to "basal" membranes, whereas Orange-AQP4 was evenly distributed. Average diffusion coefficients were extracted via kICS analysis of rapid time-lapse sequences of AQP3-EGFP and EGFP-AQP4 on uniform substrates of either E-cadherin or collagen. AQP3-EGFP was measured to 0.022±0.010μm(2)/s on E-cadherin and 0.019±0.004μm(2)/s on collagen, whereas EGFP-AQP4 was measured to 0.044±0.009μm(2)/s on E-cadherin and 0.037±0.009μm(2)/s on collagen, thus, diffusion did not differ between substrates. Cholesterol depletion by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MBCD) reduced the AQP3-EGFP diffusion coefficient by 43% from 0.024±0.007μm(2)/s (water) to 0.014±0.003μm(2)/s (MBCD) (p<0.05) on collagen surfaces, and by 41% from 0.023±0.011μm(2)/s (water) to 0.014±0.005μm(2)/s (MBCD) (p<0.05) on E-cadherin surfaces. Thus, protein patterning enables the semiquantitation of protein distribution between the "lateral" and "basal" membranes as well as measurements of lateral diffusion coefficients. PMID:24950246

  7. Mobile Learning Using Mobile Phones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicente, Paula

    2013-01-01

    The participation in mobile learning programs is conditioned by having/using mobile communication technology. Those who do not have or use such technology cannot participate in mobile learning programs. This study evaluates who are the most likely participants of mobile learning programs by examining the demographic profile and mobile phone usage…

  8. To What Extent Do Joint Attention, Imitation, and Object Play Behaviors in Infancy Predict Later Communication and Intellectual Functioning in ASD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Kenneth K.; Watson, Linda R.; Baranek, Grace T.; Poe, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which early social communication behaviors predict later communication and intellectual outcomes was investigated via retrospective video analysis. Joint attention, imitation, and complex object play behaviors were coded from edited home videos featuring scenes of 29 children with ASD at 9-12 and/or 15-18 months. A quantitative…

  9. Age-Related Change in Mobility: Perspectives From Life Course Epidemiology and Geroscience.

    PubMed

    Ferrucci, Luigi; Cooper, Rachel; Shardell, Michelle; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Schrack, Jennifer A; Kuh, Diana

    2016-09-01

    Mobility is the most studied and most relevant physical ability affecting quality of life with strong prognostic value for disability and survival. Natural selection has built the "engine" of mobility with great robustness, redundancy, and functional reserve. Efficient patterns of mobility can be acquired during development even by children affected by severe impairments. Analogously, age-associated impairments in mobility-related physiological systems are compensated and overt limitations of mobility only occur when the severity can no longer be compensated. Mobility loss in older persons usually results from multiple impairments in the central nervous system, muscles, joints, and energetic and sensory physiological systems. Early preclinical changes in these physiological systems that precede mobility loss have been poorly studied. Peak performance, rate of decline, compensatory behaviors, or subclinical deterioration of physiological resources may cumulatively influence both timing of mobility loss and chances of recovery, but their role as risk factors has not been adequately characterized. Understanding the natural history of these early changes and intervening on them would likely be the most effective strategy to reduce the burden of disability in the population. For example, young women with low bone peak mass could be counseled to start strength resistance exercise to reduce their high risk of developing osteoporosis and fracture later in life. Expanding this approach to other physiological domains requires collecting and interpreting data from life course epidemiological studies, establishing normative measures of mobility, physical function, and physical activity, and connecting them with life course trajectories of the mobility-relevant physiological domains. PMID:26975983

  10. High-mobility group box 1 impairs airway epithelial barrier function through the activation of the RAGE/ERK pathway

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, WUFENG; ZHAO, HAIJIN; DONG, HANGMING; WU, YUE; YAO, LIHONG; ZOU, FEI; CAI, SHAOXI

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma. However, whether the activation of the HMGB1/RAGE axis mediates airway epithelial barrier dysfunction remains unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of HMGB1 and its synergistic action with interleukin (IL)-1β on airway epithelial barrier properties. We evaluated the effects of recombinant human HMGB1 alone or in combination with IL-1β on ionic and macromolecular barrier permeability, by culturing air-liquid interface 16HBE cells with HMGB1 to mimic the differentiated epithelium. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining were utilized to examine the level and structure of major junction proteins, namely E-cadherin, β-catenin, occludin and claudin-1. Furthermore, we examined the effects of RAGE neutralizing antibodies and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors on epithelial barrier properties in order to elucidate the mechanisms involved. HMGB1 increased FITC-dextran permeability, but suppressed epithelial resistance in a dose-and time-dependent manner. HMGB1-mediated barrier hyperpermeability was accompanied by a disruption of cell-cell contacts, the selective downregulation of occludin and claudin-1, and the redistribution of E-cadherin and β-catenin. HMGB1 in synergy with IL-1β induced a similar, but greater barrier hyperpermeability and induced the disruption of junction proteins. Furthermore, HMGB1 elicited the activation of the RAGE/extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)1/2 signaling pathway, which correlated with barrier dysfunction in the 16HBE cells. Anti-RAGE antibody and the ERK1/2 inhibitor, U0126, attenuated the HMGB1-mediated changes in barrier permeability, restored the expression levels of occludin and claudin-1 and pevented the redistribution of E-cadherin and β-catenin. Taken together, the findings of our study

  11. High-mobility group box 1 impairs airway epithelial barrier function through the activation of the RAGE/ERK pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wufeng; Zhao, Haijin; Dong, Hangming; Wu, Yue; Yao, Lihong; Zou, Fei; Cai, Shaoxi

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies have indicated that high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma. However, whether the activation of the HMGB1/RAGE axis mediates airway epithelial barrier dysfunction remains unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of HMGB1 and its synergistic action with interleukin (IL)-1β on airway epithelial barrier properties. We evaluated the effects of recombinant human HMGB1 alone or in combination with IL-1β on ionic and macromolecular barrier permeability, by culturing air-liquid interface 16HBE cells with HMGB1 to mimic the differentiated epithelium. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining were utilized to examine the level and structure of major junction proteins, namely E-cadherin, β-catenin, occludin and claudin-1. Furthermore, we examined the effects of RAGE neutralizing antibodies and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors on epithelial barrier properties in order to elucidate the mechanisms involved. HMGB1 increased FITC-dextran permeability, but suppressed epithelial resistance in a dose- and time-dependent manner. HMGB1-mediated barrier hyperpermeability was accompanied by a disruption of cell-cell contacts, the selective downregulation of occludin and claudin-1, and the redistribution of E-cadherin and β-catenin. HMGB1 in synergy with IL-1β induced a similar, but greater barrier hyperpermeability and induced the disruption of junction proteins. Furthermore, HMGB1 elicited the activation of the RAGE/extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)1/2 signaling pathway, which correlated with barrier dysfunction in the 16HBE cells. Anti-RAGE antibody and the ERK1/2 inhibitor, U0126, attenuated the HMGB1-mediated changes in barrier permeability, restored the expression levels of occludin and claudin-1 and pevented the redistribution of E-cadherin and β-catenin. Taken together, the findings of our study

  12. Laterality and language experience.

    PubMed

    Hull, Rachel; Vaid, Jyotsna

    2006-09-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted on studies that examined hemispheric functional asymmetry for language in brain-intact monolingual and bilingual adults. Data from 23 laterality studies that directly compared bilingual and monolingual speakers on the same language were analysed (n = 1234). Variables examined were language experience (monolingual, bilingual), experimental paradigm (dichotic listening, visual hemifield presentation, and dual task) and, among bilinguals, the influence of second language proficiency (proficient vs nonproficient) and onset of bilingualism (early, or before age 6; and late, or after age 6). Overall, monolinguals and late bilinguals showed reliable left hemisphere dominance, while early bilinguals showed reliable bilateral hemispheric involvement. Within bilinguals, there was no reliable effect of language proficiency when age of L2 acquisition was controlled. The findings indicate that early learning of one vs. two languages predicts divergent patterns of cerebral language lateralisation in adulthood. PMID:16882556

  13. Analysis of carbon functional groups in mobile humic acid and recalcitrant calcium humate extracted from eight US soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solid state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a common tool to study the structure of soil humic fractions; however, knowledge regarding carbon structural relationships in humic fractions is limited. In this study, mobile humic acid (MHA) and recalcitrant calcium humate (CaHA) fr...

  14. Academic Performance of High School Students as a Function of Mental Capacity, Cognitive Style, Mobility-Fixity Dimension, and Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor; De Nunez, Grecia Saud; De Pineda, Isangela Ruiz

    2000-01-01

    Students at a Venezuela high school were tested to determine creativity, cognitive variables, and academic performance. Multiple regression analyses showed that the mobility-fixity dimension was the most consistent predictor of academic performance with creativity scores also explaining variance between subject areas. Results suggest the…

  15. Modeling of surface roughness scattering in nanowires based on atomistic wave function: Application to hole mobility in rectangular germanium nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hajime; Suda, Jun; Kimoto, Tsunenobu

    2016-04-01

    The authors present a calculation model of surface roughness scattering (SRS) in nanowires (NWs) based on atomistic description of electronic states by an s p3d5s* tight-binding scheme, and then this model is applied to hole transport in rectangular cross-sectional germanium (Ge) NWs. In this SRS model, the change of electronic band structures due to width or height reduction is first computed, and then it is expressed using an equivalent potential near the surface. The perturbation corresponding to a surface roughness is calculated from this equivalent potential. Using the aforementioned SRS model, hole mobility in Ge NWs was computed taking into account phonon scattering and SRS. The impacts of SRS on hole mobility in Ge NWs were analyzed, focusing on the valence band structure and hole states of NWs. The main results are as follows. At low hole density, the impacts of SRS are strongly dependent on NW geometry, and Ge NWs with high phonon-limited hole mobility, such as rectangular cross-sectional [110]-oriented NWs with large height along the [001] direction and square cross-sectional [111]-oriented NWs, tend to be less affected by SRS. At high hole density, however, the geometry dependence of hole mobility becomes weaker. These are understood from the nature of hole states and the valence band structure.

  16. Effects of Functional Limb Overloading on Symmetrical Weight Bearing, Walking Speed, Perceived Mobility, and Community Participation among Patients with Chronic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Alabdulwahab, Sami S.; Ahmad, Fuzail; Singh, Harpreet

    2015-01-01

    Background. Stroke is a leading cause for long-term disability that often compromises the sensorimotor and gait function accompanied by spasticity. Gait abnormalities persist through the chronic stages of the condition and only a small percentage of these persons are able to walk functionally in the community. Material and Method. Patients with chronic stroke were recruited from outpatient rehabilitation unit at Department of Neurology & Neurosurgery, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, having a history of first stroke at least six months before recruitment, with unilateral motor deficits affecting gait. The patients were randomly assigned to either the functional limb overloading (FLO) or Limb Overloading Resistance Training (LORT) group and provided four weeks of training. Result. We found that there was an improvement in gait performance, weight bearing on affected limb, and perceived mobility and community participation. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that has evaluated the effects of functional limb overloading training on symmetric weight bearing, walking ability, and perceived mobility and participation in chronic hemiplegic population. The study demonstrated a beneficial effect of training on all the outcomes, suggesting that the functional limb overloading training can be a useful tool in the management of gait problems in chronic stroke patients. PMID:26600952

  17. Accessory lateral discoid meniscus.

    PubMed

    Saygi, Baransel; Yildirim, Yakup; Senturk, Salih; Sezgin Ramadan, Saime; Gundes, Hakan

    2006-12-01

    The lateral meniscus tends to have more developmental variation than the medial counterpart. This is a report of an accessory discoid layer of lateral meniscus. All arthroscopic, magnetic resonance imaging and histopathological views are presented. PMID:16710729

  18. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000688.htm Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or ALS, is a disease of the nerve ...

  19. [Mobile ISCR elements: structure, functions, and role in the emergence, increasing and spreading of blocks of bacterial genes of multiple antibiotic resistance].

    PubMed

    Il'ina, T S

    2012-01-01

    The recently discovered method of horizontal distribution of bacterial genes with atypical ISCR sequences is reviewed using an example of drug resistance genes. The adjacent DNA segment mobilization is provided by the transposition of such elements, including rolling circle replication, formation of autonomous nonreplicable circular structures, and homological recombination. The gene distribution capacity with the ISCR elements is more significant than the capacity of transposons and integrons, thereby providing formation of groups of mobile genes, including antibiotic-resistance genes of pathogenic bacteria. The structure and functions of the ISCR elements were discussed together with their similarity and dissimilarity with the group of IS91-similar elements and their role in the emergence of blocks of bacterial genes encoding of multiple antibiotic resistance and their contribution to evolution of bacterial and plasmid genes. PMID:23248846

  20. New functions developed for ICU/CCU remote monitoring system using a 3G mobile phone and evaluations of the system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pu; Kumabe, Akinoubu; Kogure, Yuichi; Akutagawa, Masatake; Kinouchi, Yohsuke; Zhang, Qinyu

    2008-01-01

    As a combination of medical information and Telecommunication technologies, telemedicine plays a more and more important role in supporting doctors to diagnose and taking care of people's daily health. It is also an appropriate means to solve the conflict between aging of population and inadequacy of doctors, which are the actual condition and inevitable developing trend of the society not only in developed countries. In this paper, some new functions are developed for a ICU/CCU Remote Monitoring System using a 3G mobile phone. Furthermore, some evaluations of the system have been implied on several different mobile phones. The system is anticipated to be adopted by hospitals for its accuracy and real-time performance to supporting telediagnosis for patients in ICU/CCU. PMID:19163924

  1. Lateral flow strip assay

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, Robin R.; Benett, William J.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Pearson, Francesca S.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  2. Structure and function of airway surface layer of the human lungs & mobility of probe particles in complex fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Liheng

    Numerous infectious particles such as bacteria and pathogens are deposited on the airway surface of the human lungs during our daily breathing. To avoid infection the lung has evolved to develop a smart and powerful defense system called mucociliary clearance. The airway surface layer is a critical component of this mucus clearance system, which consists of two parts: (1) a mucus layer, that traps inhaled particles and transports them out of the lung by cilia-generated flow; and (2) a periciliary layer, that provides a favorable environment for ciliary beating and cell surface lubrication. For 75 years, it has been dogma that a single gel-like mucus layer, which is composed of secreted mucin glycoproteins, is transported over a "watery" periciliary layer. This one-gel model, however, does not explain fundamental features of the normal system, e.g. formation of a distinct mucus layer, nor accurately predict how the mucus clearance system fails in disease. In the first part of this thesis we propose a novel "Gel-on-Brush" model with a mucus layer (the "gel") and a "brush-like" periciliary layer, composed of mucins tethered to the luminal of airway surface, and supporting data accurately describes both the biophysical and cell biological bases for normal mucus clearance and its failure in disease. Our "Gel-on-Brush" model describes for the first time how and why mucus is efficiently cleared in health and unifies the pathogenesis of major human diseases, including cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It is expected that this "Gel-on-Brush" model of airway surface layer opens new directions for treatments of airway diseases. A dilemma regarding the function of mucus is that, although mucus traps any inhaled harmful particulates, it also poses a long-time problem for drug delivery: mobility of cargos carrying pharmaceutical agents is slowed down in mucus. The second part of this thesis aims to answer the question: can we theoretically understand the

  3. Analysis of Handoff Mechanisms in Mobile IP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaraj, Maria Nadine Simonel; Issac, Biju; Haldar, Manas Kumar

    2011-06-01

    One of the most important challenges in mobile Internet Protocol (IP) is to provide service for a mobile node to maintain its connectivity to network when it moves from one domain to another. IP is responsible for routing packets across network. The first major version of IP is the Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4). It is one of the dominant protocols relevant to wireless network. Later a newer version of IP called the IPv6 was proposed. Mobile IPv6 is mainly introduced for the purpose of mobility. Mobility management enables network to locate roaming nodes in order to deliver packets and maintain connections with them when moving into new domains. Handoff occurs when a mobile node moves from one network to another. It is a key factor of mobility because a mobile node can trigger several handoffs during a session. This paper briefly explains on mobile IP and its handoff issues, along with the drawbacks of mobile IP.

  4. Lateral Diffusion in an Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Saxton, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    Lateral diffusion of molecules in lipid bilayer membranes can be hindered by the presence of impermeable domains of gel-phase lipid or of proteins. Effective-medium theory and percolation theory are used to evaluate the effective lateral diffusion constant as a function of the area fraction of fluid-phase lipid and the permeability of the obstructions to the diffusing species. Applications include the estimation of the minimum fraction of fluid lipid needed for bacterial growth, and the enhancement of diffusion-controlled reactions by the channeling effect of solid patches of lipid. PMID:7052153

  5. Mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells with highest self-renewal by G-CSF precedes clonogenic cell mobilization peak.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Ingrid G; Wiercinska, Eliza; Barbier, Valerie; Nowlan, Bianca; Bonig, Halvard; Levesque, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Harvest of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) begins at day 5 of G-CSF administration, when most donors have achieved maximal mobilization. This is based on surrogate markers for HSC mobilization, such as CD34(+) cells and colony-forming activity in blood. However, CD34(+) cells or colony-forming units in culture (CFU-C) are heterogeneous cell populations with hugely divergent long-term repopulation potential on transplantation. HSC behavior is influenced by the vascular bed in the vicinity of which they reside. We hypothesized that G-CSF may mobilize sequentially cells proximal and more distal to bone marrow venous sinuses where HSCs enter the blood. We addressed this question with functional serial transplantation assays using blood and bone marrow after specific time points of G-CSF treatment in mice. We found that in mice, blood collected after only 48 hours of G-CSF administration was as enriched in serially reconstituting HSCs as blood collected at 5 days of G-CSF treatment. Similarly, mobilized Lin(-)CD34(+) cells were relatively enriched in more primitive Lin(-)CD34(+)CD38(-) cells at day 2 of G-CSF treatment compared with later points in half of human donors tested (n = 6). This suggests that in both humans and mice, hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells do not mobilize uniformly according to their maturation stage, with most potent HSCs mobilizing as early as day 2 of G-CSF. PMID:26827874

  6. Determination of electrophoretic mobilities and hydrodynamic radii of three humic substances as a function of pH and ionic strength.

    PubMed

    Hosse, M; Wilkinson, K J

    2001-11-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) were employed to determine electrophoretic mobilities and hydrodynamic sizes of three humic substances (IHSS aquatic fulvic acid (FA), IHSS aquatic humic acid (HA), and IHSS peat humic acid (PHA)) as a function of pH and ionic strength. A slight aggregation corresponding to the formation of dimers and trimers was observed at low pH using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). For example, for the peat humic acid, diffusion coefficients decreased from 2.1 x 10(-10) m2 s(-1) at pH 4 to 2.4 x 10(-10) m2 s(-1) at pH 11. For all three humic substances, electrophoretic mobilities were also shown to decrease significantly below pH 6. Calculated zeta potentials observed at high pH of -69 mV (FA), -62 mV (HA), and -63 mV (PHA) decreased to -39, -50, and -47 mV, respectively, under slightly acidic pH (4.5-4.8) conditions. No evidence of ionic strength induced aggregation was found using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS); diffusion coefficients increased slightly (<25%) with increasing ionic strength (up to 1 M). Negative electrophoretic mobilities decreased to a maximum measured ionic strength of 0.18 M. Above this ionic strength, no peaks were observed due to an increased HS adsorption to the capillary wall and an important decrease in electroosmotic flow. Interpretation of electrophoretic mobilities determined by CE is complicated by the fact that under certain conditions, HS appeared to be complexed by CE buffer systems, including MES, BES, and AMPSO. PMID:11718346

  7. Perceived Effort of Walking: Relationship With Gait, Physical Function and Activity, Fear of Falling, and Confidence in Walking in Older Adults With Mobility Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Julius, Leslie M.; Brach, Jennifer S.; Wert, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although clinicians have a number of measures to use to describe walking performance, few, if any, of the measures capture a person's perceived effort in walking. Perceived effort of walking may be a factor in what a person does versus what he or she is able to do. Objective The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of perceived effort of walking with gait, function, activity, fear of falling, and confidence in walking in older adults with mobility limitations. Design This investigation was a cross-sectional, descriptive, relational study. Methods The study took place at a clinical research training center. The participants were 50 older adults (mean age=76.8 years, SD=5.5) with mobility limitations. The measurements used were the Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) for walking; gait speed; the Modified Gait Abnormality Rating Scale; energy cost of walking; Late Life Function and Disability Instrument (LLFDI) for total, basic, and advanced lower-extremity function and for disability limitations; activity and restriction subscales of the Survey of Activities and Fear of Falling in the Elderly (SAFFE); activity counts; SAFFE fear subscale; and Gait Efficacy Scale (GES). The relationship of the RPE of walking with gait, function, activity, fear, and confidence was determined by using Spearman rank order coefficients and an analysis of variance (adjusted for age and sex) for mean differences between groups defined by no exertion during walking and some exertion during walking. Results The RPE was related to confidence in walking (GES, R=−.326, P=.021) and activity (activity counts, R=.295, P=.044). The RPE groups (no exertion versus some exertion) differed in LLFDI scores for total (57.9 versus 53.2), basic (68.6 versus 61.4), and advanced (49.1 versus 42.6) lower-extremity function; LLFDI scores for disability limitations (74.9 versus 67.5); SAFFE fear subscale scores (0.346 versus 0.643); and GES scores (80.1 versus 67.8) (all P<.05

  8. Charge carrier mobility and concentration as a function of composition in AgPO3-AgI glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Ana Candida Martins; Nascimento, Marcio Luis Ferreira; Bragatto, Caio Barca; Souquet, Jean-Louis

    2011-12-01

    Conductivity data of the xAgI(1 - x)AgPO3 system (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) were collected in the liquid and glassy states. The difference in the dependence of ionic conductivity on temperature below and above their glass transition temperatures (Tg) is interpreted by a discontinuity in the charge carrier's mobility mechanisms. Charge carrier displacement occurs through an activated mechanism below Tg and through a Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann-Hesse mechanism above this temperature. Fitting conductivity data with the proposed model allows one to determine separately the enthalpies of charge carrier formation and migration. For the five investigated compositions, the enthalpy of charge carrier formation is found to decrease, with x, from 0.86 to 0.2 eV, while the migration enthalpy remains constant at ≈0.14 eV. Based on these values, the charge carrier mobility and concentration in the glassy state can then be calculated. Mobility values at room temperature (≈10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1) do not vary significantly with the AgI content and are in good agreement with those previously measured by the Hall-effect technique. The observed increase in ionic conductivity with x would thus only be due to an increase in the effective charge carrier concentration. Considering AgI as a weak electrolyte, the change in the effective charge carrier concentration is justified and is correlated to the partial free energy of silver iodide forming a regular solution with AgPO3.

  9. 'Canalization' of the frontal sinus: a functional approach for the management of post-traumatic sinusitis with lateral bony septa. Report of two cases and long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Foy, J-P; Khonsari, R H; Bertolus, C; Espitalier, F; Ferron, C; Corre, P; Faure, A

    2016-07-01

    The patency of the naso-frontal duct is a key issue in the surgical management of chronic frontal sinusitis. Most of the current operative techniques only provide access to the paramedian portions of the frontal sinus. A canalization approach that allows a functional frontal sinus to be maintained while providing good access to the most lateral areas of the sinus is described herein. Two cases of severe post-traumatic frontal sinusitis, operated on successfully by canalization method based on the conservation of the frontal sinus and the maintenance of the patency of the naso-frontal duct, using both open and endonasal approaches, are reported. One patient was followed-up for 8 years and the other for 7 months. Canalization requires validation in a larger series. This approach provides an alternative to both cranialization and strictly endoscopic methods in lateralized frontal sinus retentions and allows mucocele to be avoided. PMID:26922495

  10. The effect of idebenone on the lateral mobility of proteins in hepatocyte plasma membrane of old rats as revealed by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) technique using an endogenous label.

    PubMed

    Zs -Nagy, I; Ohta, M; Kitani, K

    1990-01-01

    The average lateral diffusion constant of proteins (D) in the cell membrane of hepatocytes has been measured in liver smears by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) based on the so-called peroxide-induced autofluorescence (PIAF) deriving from the oxidation of riboflavin bound to membrane proteins. It has been shown before that D displays a significant negative linear age-correlation. The in vivo effect of idebenone was tested on this parameter. Old (23.7 months at killing) male Fischer 344 rats received 50 mg of the drug per kg body weight per os through gastric tube, suspended in 5% gum arabic solution (Verum I group) or the same dose and form of idebenone completed by 80 mg centrophenoxine per kg body weight (Verum II group) for 35 days. D was measured on a double blind basis in hepatocyte plasma membrane of the Verum or Placebo (5% gum arabic, only) groups. A significant increase of D (29.6%) was induced by idebenone in the Verum I group; nevertheless, even the Placebo group displayed a moderate, but statistically significant increase of D (10.7%). The Verum II group showed a total of 39.6% increase in the value of D. The loss of body weight being characteristic for these animals at the age of around 2 years was between 0.87 and 1.06 g/day, whereas in other experiments higher values (1.77 g/day) were observed in the controls. PMID:15374472

  11. Functional correction of neurological and somatic disorders at later stages of disease in MPS IIIA mice by systemic scAAV9-hSGSH gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Haiyan; Cataldi, Marcela P; Ware, Tierra A; Zaraspe, Kimberly; Meadows, Aaron S; Murrey, Darren A; McCarty, Douglas M

    2016-01-01

    The reversibility of neuropathic lysosomal storage diseases, including MPS IIIA, is a major goal in therapeutic development, due to typically late diagnoses and a large population of untreated patients. We used self-complementary adeno-associated virus (scAAV) serotype 9 vector expressing human N-sulfoglucosamine sulfohydrolase (SGSH) to test the efficacy of treatment at later stages of the disease. We treated MPS IIIA mice at 1, 2, 3, 6, and 9 months of age with an intravenous injection of scAAV9-U1a-hSGSH vector, leading to restoration of SGSH activity and reduction of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and somatic tissues at a dose of 5E12 vg/kg. Treatment up to 3 months age improved learning ability in the Morris water maze at 7.5 months, and lifespan was normalized. In mice treated at 6 months age, behavioral performance was impaired at 7.5 months, but did not decline further when retested at 12 months, and lifespan was increased, but not normalized. Treatment at 9 months did not increase life-span, though the GAG storage pathology in the CNS was improved. The study suggests that there is potential for gene therapy intervention in MPS IIIA at intermediate stages of the disease, and extends the clinical relevance of our systemic scAAV9-hSGSH gene delivery approach. PMID:27331076

  12. Functional correction of neurological and somatic disorders at later stages of disease in MPS IIIA mice by systemic scAAV9-hSGSH gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Fu, Haiyan; Cataldi, Marcela P; Ware, Tierra A; Zaraspe, Kimberly; Meadows, Aaron S; Murrey, Darren A; McCarty, Douglas M

    2016-01-01

    The reversibility of neuropathic lysosomal storage diseases, including MPS IIIA, is a major goal in therapeutic development, due to typically late diagnoses and a large population of untreated patients. We used self-complementary adeno-associated virus (scAAV) serotype 9 vector expressing human N-sulfoglucosamine sulfohydrolase (SGSH) to test the efficacy of treatment at later stages of the disease. We treated MPS IIIA mice at 1, 2, 3, 6, and 9 months of age with an intravenous injection of scAAV9-U1a-hSGSH vector, leading to restoration of SGSH activity and reduction of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and somatic tissues at a dose of 5E12 vg/kg. Treatment up to 3 months age improved learning ability in the Morris water maze at 7.5 months, and lifespan was normalized. In mice treated at 6 months age, behavioral performance was impaired at 7.5 months, but did not decline further when retested at 12 months, and lifespan was increased, but not normalized. Treatment at 9 months did not increase life-span, though the GAG storage pathology in the CNS was improved. The study suggests that there is potential for gene therapy intervention in MPS IIIA at intermediate stages of the disease, and extends the clinical relevance of our systemic scAAV9-hSGSH gene delivery approach. PMID:27331076

  13. Discoid lateral meniscus.

    PubMed

    Fritschy, D; Gonseth, D

    1991-01-01

    Discoid meniscus is uncommon and usually affects the lateral meniscus. We present 16 patients (8 male and 6 female) with tears of a discoid lateral meniscus occurring in 1800 arthroscopies. We carried out an arthroscopic partial meniscectomy leaving an intact peripheral rim. This is biomechanically satisfactory and the early results are encouraging. PMID:1917190

  14. Inversion of Pn travel times for lateral variations of moho geometry beneath the central Andes and comparison with the receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumont, David; Paul, Anne; Zandt, George; Beck, Susan L.

    We inverted the Pn travel times to characterize the geometry of the Moho along a profile across the Central Andes (20°S) where previous workers have estimated the crustal thickness using receiver functions. Contrary to receiver functions, this technique is not sensitive to the crustal Vs. Therefore, the comparison of the two approaches provides valuable complementary information. Overall, our results are in good agreement with those based on receiver functions. However, some important discrepancies are observed beneath the Western Cordillera and the Subandes, where we find crusts 10-km thinner than in previous models. We confirm that the central part of the orogen appears to be isostatically compensated by the presence of a thick crust. However, at both edges, the topography probably requires additional support, low-density mantle beneath the Western Cordillera and a strong flexural support of the Brazilian shield beneath the Subandes.

  15. Nutrition as a part of healthy aging and reducing cardiovascular risk: improving functionality in later life using quality protein, with optimized timing and distribution.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Beryl M; Axford, Samantha

    2014-09-01

    Aging is associated with many physiological changes, which may in time lead to numerous pathophysiological outcomes, including adverse vascular events. For example, senescence of the immune system and cellular senescence both contribute to rising inflammation with age, potentially induced by the overall burden of comorbid illness, adipose tissue mass, diet, socioeconomic status, and physical activity. In turn, this chronic inflammation decreases physical and cognitive performance, and promotes sarcopenia and the syndrome of frailty. These events and others decrease the functionality of life as we age and include an increased risk of thrombosis and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. In this review, we aim to overview the aging process primarily as related to functional impairment, and provide evidence for the role of protein, and specifically differential quality protein, in particular whey protein, and timing and distribution of intake, to help reduce some of the morbid effects of aging, including reducing obesity, improving glycemic control, and improving vascular function. PMID:25151523

  16. Experimental determination of contaminant metal mobility as a function of temperature, time and solution chemistry. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, S.; Bruton, C.; O'Day, P.; Sahai, N.

    1997-01-01

    'Strontium is significantly more mobile than other hazardous radioactive metals. Its partitioning between aqueous and solid phases is controlled by reactions that occur at the interface between natural waters and minerals. At a groundwater site in Hanford (200-BP-5), the aerial extent of the {sup 90}Sr plume is 100 times larger than the aerial extent of the {sup 137}Cs and the {sup 239}Pu plumes. Similarly, contaminated, perched watertables at INEL have much higher aqueous concentrations of {sup 90}Sr than {sup 137}Cs, presumably because Cs is preferentially sorbed to solids (Duncan 1995). Under high physical flow conditions, such as those in the highly fractured rock at Hanford and INEL, {sup 90}Sr present in plumes may spread off-site and cause contamination of aquifers or other water sources. Geochemical factors that may contribute to the overall mobility of Sr in natural waters are the solubilities of phases such as strontianite (SrCO{sub 3}) and formation of strong complexes with sulfate and nitrate. Although {sup 90}Sr is mobilized in natural waters in these examples, significant concentrations may also be present in solid phases. Sorption experiments using a wide variety of substrates at room temperature have shown that Sr is removed from solution under certain conditions. Additionally, strontianite (SrCO{sub 3}) may precipitate at low Sr concentrations in the pH range of waters in contact with basaltic rocks, which varies between pH 8 and 10. Waters contain variable amounts of carbonate owing to atmospheric interactions; the partial pressure of CO{sub 2} is about 10 x 3.5 atm in air and commonly as high as 10 x 2.5 atm in soils. The objective of this work is to determine the fundamental data needed to predict the behavior of strontium at temperature and time scales appropriate to thermal remediation. The authors approach combines macroscopic sorption/precipitation and desorption/dissolution kinetic experiments, which track changes in solution composition

  17. [Semidiscoid lateral meniscus].

    PubMed

    Araki, Y; Ishida, T; Ootani, M; Yamamoto, H; Yamamoto, T; Nakamura, H; Tsukaguchi, I

    1992-12-25

    We propose a new entity known as "semidiscoid lateral meniscus" of the knee. The diagnostic criteria for semidiscoid lateral meniscus is the appearance on a thin-sliced axial 3-D image of a crescent-shaped meniscus whose transverse width is within 11.6 mm to 14.3 mm on the coronal image. These numerical values were calculated by discriminant analysis. A retrospective review of MR examinations of the knees revealed 15 patients (15 knees) with this entity. These patients were our subjects. Of these 15 patients, complicated lateral meniscal tears were seen in only three cases. Nine knees were free from complications, and five were asymptomatic. Six patients were examined with MR on the contralateral side, and discoid lateral menisci were revealed in all cases. Thus semidiscoid lateral meniscus shows a cross-relationship with discoid menisci. PMID:1488290

  18. The use of functional and traditional mobilization interventions in a patient with chronic thoracic pain: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Aiken, David L; Vaughn, Dan

    2013-01-01

    There is little information in the literature regarding the efficacy of spinal manual therapy (SMT) interventions for patients with chronic thoracic spinal pain. In addition, information regarding the clinical decision-making associated with the application of SMT for this patient population is deficient. The purpose of this case report is to present the rationale for and results of applying specific SMT interventions on a patient with chronic spinal pain. A 51-year-old female with 9 months of significant thoracic, chest, sternal, and left shoulder pain was managed with both mobilization with movement and spinal manipulative procedures. The report offers insight into the decisions that guided the selection of these SMT techniques in this case. The outcome provides preliminary support for using these specific SMT procedures in patients with chronic thoracic spinal pain. PMID:24421624

  19. Reduced Activation in Lateral Prefrontal Cortex and Anterior Cingulate during Attention and Cognitive Control Functions in Medication-Naive Adolescents with Depression Compared to Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halari, Rozmin; Simic, Mima; Pariante, Carmine M.; Papadopoulos, Andrew; Cleare, Anthony; Brammer, Michael; Fombonne, Eric; Rubia, Katya

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is increasing recognition of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescence. In adult MDD, abnormalities of fronto-striatal and fronto-cingulate circuitries mediating cognitive control functions have been implicated in the pathogenesis and been related to problems with controlling negative thoughts. No neuroimaging studies of…

  20. Downregulation of genes with a function in axon outgrowth and synapse formation in motor neurones of the VEGFδ/δ mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an endothelial cell mitogen that stimulates vasculogenesis. It has also been shown to act as a neurotrophic factor in vitro and in vivo. Deletion of the hypoxia response element of the promoter region of the gene encoding VEGF in mice causes a reduction in neural VEGF expression, and results in adult-onset motor neurone degeneration that resembles amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Investigating the molecular pathways to neurodegeneration in the VEGFδ/δ mouse model of ALS may improve understanding of the mechanisms of motor neurone death in the human disease. Results Microarray analysis was used to determine the transcriptional profile of laser captured spinal motor neurones of transgenic and wild-type littermates at 3 time points of disease. 324 genes were significantly differentially expressed in motor neurones of presymptomatic VEGFδ/δ mice, 382 at disease onset, and 689 at late stage disease. Massive transcriptional downregulation occurred with disease progression, associated with downregulation of genes involved in RNA processing at late stage disease. VEGFδ/δ mice showed reduction in expression, from symptom onset, of the cholesterol synthesis pathway, and genes involved in nervous system development, including axonogenesis, synapse formation, growth factor signalling pathways, cell adhesion and microtubule-based processes. These changes may reflect a reduced capacity of VEGFδ/δ mice for maintenance and remodelling of neuronal processes in the face of demands of neural plasticity. The findings are supported by the demonstration that in primary motor neurone cultures from VEGFδ/δ mice, axon outgrowth is significantly reduced compared to wild-type littermates. Conclusions Downregulation of these genes involved in axon outgrowth and synapse formation in adult mice suggests a hitherto unrecognized role of VEGF in the maintenance of neuronal circuitry. Dysregulation of VEGF may lead to

  1. Type I Vs. Type II Cytokine Levels as a Function of SOD1 G93A Mouse Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Jeyachandran, Amilia; Mertens, Benjamin; McKissick, Eric A.; Mitchell, Cassie S.

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal motoneuron disease that is characterized by the degradation of neurons throughout the central nervous system. Inflammation have been cited a key contributor to ALS neurodegeneration, but the timeline of cytokine upregulation remains unresolved. The goal of this study was to temporally examine the correlation between the varying levels of pro-inflammatory type I cytokines (IL-1β, IL-1α, IL-12, TNF-α, and GFAP) and anti-inflammatory type II cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, IL-10) throughout the progression of ALS in the SOD1 G93A mouse model. Cytokine level data from high copy SOD1 G93A transgenic mice was collected from 66 peer-reviewed studies. For each corresponding experimental time point, the ratio of transgenic to wild type (TG/WT) cytokine was calculated. One-way ANOVA and t-tests with Bonferonni correction were used to analyze the data. Meta-analysis was performed for four discrete stages: early, pre-onset, post-onset, and end stage. A significant increase in TG cytokine levels was found when compared to WT cytokine levels across the entire SOD1 G93A lifespan for majority of the cytokines. The rates of change of the individual cytokines, and type I and type II were not significantly different; however, the mean fold change of type I was expressed at significantly higher levels than type II levels across all stages with the difference between the means becoming more pronounced at the end stage. An overexpression of cytokines occurred both before and after the onset of ALS symptoms. The trend between pro-inflammatory type I and type II cytokine mean levels indicate a progressive instability of the dynamic balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines as anti-inflammatory cytokines fail to mediate the pronounced increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines. Very early immunoregulatory treatment is necessary to successfully interrupt ALS-induced neuroinflammation. PMID:26648846

  2. Interaction with the Redox Cofactor MYW and Functional Role of a Mobile Arginine in Eukaryotic Catalase-Peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Gasselhuber, Bernhard; Graf, Michael M H; Jakopitsch, Christa; Zamocky, Marcel; Nicolussi, Andrea; Furtmüller, Paul G; Oostenbrink, Chris; Carpena, Xavi; Obinger, Christian

    2016-06-28

    Catalase-peroxidases (KatGs) are unique bifunctional heme peroxidases with an additional posttranslationally formed redox-active Met-Tyr-Trp cofactor that is essential for catalase activity. On the basis of studies of bacterial KatGs, controversial mechanisms of hydrogen peroxide oxidation were proposed. The recent discovery of eukaryotic KatGs with differing pH optima of catalase activity now allows us to scrutinize those postulated reaction mechanisms. In our study, secreted KatG from the fungus Magnaporthe grisea (MagKatG2) was used to analyze the role of a remote KatG-typical mobile arginine that was shown to interact with the Met-Tyr-Trp adduct in a pH-dependent manner in bacterial KatGs. Here we present crystal structures of MagKatG2 at pH 3.0, 5.5, and 7.0 and investigate the mobility of Arg461 by molecular dynamics simulation. Data suggest that at pH ≥4.5 Arg461 mostly interacts with the deprotonated adduct Tyr. Elimination of Arg461 by mutation to Ala slightly increases the thermal stability but does not alter the active site architecture or the kinetics of cyanide binding. However, the variant Arg461Ala lost the wild-type-typical optimum of catalase activity at pH 5.25 (kcat = 6450 s(-1)) but exhibits a broad plateau between pH 4.5 and 7.5 (kcat = 270 s(-1) at pH 5.5). Moreover, significant differences in the kinetics of interconversion of redox intermediates of wild-type and mutant protein mixed with either peroxyacetic acid or hydrogen peroxide are observed. These findings together with published data from bacterial KatGs allow us to propose a role of Arg461 in the H2O2 oxidation reaction of KatG. PMID:27293030

  3. Mobilization without immune depletion fails to restore immunological tolerance or preserve beta cell function in recent onset type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Haller, M J; Atkinson, M A; Wasserfall, C H; Brusko, T M; Mathews, C E; Hulme, M; Cintron, M; Shuster, J; McGrail, K; Posgai, A; Schatz, D

    2016-03-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been used to restore immune competence following chemoablative cancer therapy and to promote immunological tolerance in certain settings of autoimmunity. Therefore, we tested the potential of G-CSF to impact type 1 diabetes (T1D) progression in patients with recent-onset disease [n = 14; n = 7 (placebo)] and assessed safety, efficacy and mechanistic effects on the immune system. We hypothesized that pegylated G-CSF (6 mg administered subcutaneously every 2 weeks for 12 weeks) would promote regulatory T cell (Treg) mobilization to a degree capable of restoring immunological tolerance, thus preventing further decline in C-peptide production. Although treatment was well tolerated, G-CSF monotherapy did not affect C-peptide production, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) or insulin dose. Mechanistically, G-CSF treatment increased circulating neutrophils during the 12-week course of therapy (P < 0·01) but did not alter Treg frequencies. No effects were observed for CD4(+) : CD8(+) T cell ratio or the ratio of naive : memory (CD45RA(+)/CD45RO(+)) CD4(+) T cells. As expected, manageable bone pain was common in subjects receiving G-CSF, but notably, no severe adverse events such as splenomegaly occurred. This study supports the continued exploration of G-CSF and other mobilizing agents in subjects with T1D, but only when combined with immunodepleting agents where synergistic mechanisms of action have previously demonstrated efficacy towards the preservation of C-peptide. PMID:26462724

  4. Interaction with the Redox Cofactor MYW and Functional Role of a Mobile Arginine in Eukaryotic Catalase-Peroxidase

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Catalase-peroxidases (KatGs) are unique bifunctional heme peroxidases with an additional posttranslationally formed redox-active Met-Tyr-Trp cofactor that is essential for catalase activity. On the basis of studies of bacterial KatGs, controversial mechanisms of hydrogen peroxide oxidation were proposed. The recent discovery of eukaryotic KatGs with differing pH optima of catalase activity now allows us to scrutinize those postulated reaction mechanisms. In our study, secreted KatG from the fungus Magnaporthe grisea (MagKatG2) was used to analyze the role of a remote KatG-typical mobile arginine that was shown to interact with the Met-Tyr-Trp adduct in a pH-dependent manner in bacterial KatGs. Here we present crystal structures of MagKatG2 at pH 3.0, 5.5, and 7.0 and investigate the mobility of Arg461 by molecular dynamics simulation. Data suggest that at pH ≥4.5 Arg461 mostly interacts with the deprotonated adduct Tyr. Elimination of Arg461 by mutation to Ala slightly increases the thermal stability but does not alter the active site architecture or the kinetics of cyanide binding. However, the variant Arg461Ala lost the wild-type-typical optimum of catalase activity at pH 5.25 (kcat = 6450 s–1) but exhibits a broad plateau between pH 4.5 and 7.5 (kcat = 270 s–1 at pH 5.5). Moreover, significant differences in the kinetics of interconversion of redox intermediates of wild-type and mutant protein mixed with either peroxyacetic acid or hydrogen peroxide are observed. These findings together with published data from bacterial KatGs allow us to propose a role of Arg461 in the H2O2 oxidation reaction of KatG. PMID:27293030

  5. Intramolecular mobility of η(5)-ligands in chiral zirconocene complexes and the enantioselectivity of alkene functionalization by organoaluminum compounds.

    PubMed

    Parfenova, Lyudmila V; Zakirova, Irina V; Kovyazin, Pavel V; Karchevsky, Stanislav G; Istomina, Galina P; Khalilov, Leonard M; Dzhemilev, Usein M

    2016-08-01

    The effect of solvent nature (CD2Cl2, d8-toluene, d8-THF) on the conformational behavior of neomenthyl-substituted zirconocenes CpInd*ZrCl2 (Cp = η(5)-C5H5, Ind* = η(5)-neomenthylindenyl), CpCp'ZrCl2 (Cp = η(5)-C5H5, Cp' = η(5)-neomenthyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydroindenyl), and Ind*2ZrCl2 (Ind* = η(5)-neomenthylindenyl) was shown by means of dynamic NMR spectroscopy, and the constants and thermodynamic parameters of conformer exchange were determined. The experimental conformational composition of the complexes was compared with structures obtained by quantum chemical modeling using the DFT methods PBE/3ζ and M06-2X/cc-pVDZ(H, C, Cl)/cc-pVDZ-PP(Zr), which predicted three rotamers in the case of both CpInd*ZrCl2 and CpCp'ZrCl2, and seven rotational isomers for Ind*2ZrCl2, three of these being C2-symmetric and the others being asymmetric. The enantioselectivity of the conformationally mobile complex Ind*2ZrCl2 in the reactions of terminal alkenes with AlR3 (R = Me, Et) was compared with that of rigid ansa-complexes, rac-p-S, p-S-[Y(η(5)-C9H10)2]ZrX2 (Y = SiMe2, C2H4; X = S-binaphtholate). Faster exchange between the conformers of Ind*2ZrCl2 in a chlorinated solvent gives the structural isomer of catalytically active sites, which affords higher substrate conversion and reaction enantioselectivity. Binding of the ligands to ansa-zirconocenes prevents the rotational isomerism of the complexes, providing the same configuration of the β-stereogenic center in the methyl- and ethylalumination products (unlike the conformationally mobile complex Ind*2ZrCl2) with an enantiomeric purity of 50-65%. PMID:27468433

  6. Mobility in geometrically confined membranes.

    PubMed

    Domanov, Yegor A; Aimon, Sophie; Toombes, Gilman E S; Renner, Marianne; Quemeneur, François; Triller, Antoine; Turner, Matthew S; Bassereau, Patricia

    2011-08-01

    Lipid and protein lateral mobility is essential for biological function. Our theoretical understanding of this mobility can be traced to the seminal work of Saffman and Delbrück, who predicted a logarithmic dependence of the protein diffusion coefficient (i) on the inverse of the size of the protein and (ii) on the "membrane size" for membranes of finite size [Saffman P, Delbrück M (1975) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 72:3111-3113]. Although the experimental proof of the first prediction is a matter of debate, the second has not previously been thought to be experimentally accessible. Here, we construct just such a geometrically confined membrane by forming lipid bilayer nanotubes of controlled radii connected to giant liposomes. We followed the diffusion of individual molecules in the tubular membrane using single particle tracking of quantum dots coupled to lipids or voltage-gated potassium channels KvAP, while changing the membrane tube radius from approximately 250 to 10 nm. We found that both lipid and protein diffusion was slower in tubular membranes with smaller radii. The protein diffusion coefficient decreased as much as 5-fold compared to diffusion on the effectively flat membrane of the giant liposomes. Both lipid and protein diffusion data are consistent with the predictions of a hydrodynamic theory that extends the work of Saffman and Delbrück to cylindrical geometries. This study therefore provides strong experimental support for the ubiquitous Saffman-Delbrück theory and elucidates the role of membrane geometry and size in regulating lateral diffusion. PMID:21768336

  7. Effects of flow volume and grain size on mobility of dry granular flows of angular rock fragments: A functional relationship of scaling parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagnoli, B.; Romano, G. P.

    2012-02-01

    Flows of angular rock fragments are released down a concave upward chute in the laboratory to study their mobility. This mobility is measured as the reciprocal of the apparent coefficient of friction that is equal to the vertical drop of the center of mass of the granular material divided by its horizontal distance of travel. Our experiments show that the finer the grain size (with all the other features the same), the larger the mobility of the center of mass. We believe this to be due to the fact that in finer grain size flows there are less agitated particles per unit of flow mass, so that these flows dissipate less energy per unit of travel distance. Our experiments show also that the larger the volume (with all the other features the same), the larger the apparent coefficient of friction. We believe this to be so because the frontal portion of a flow reaches the less steep part of a curved slope and stops before the rear portion, preventing the rear portion and the center of mass from traveling farther downhill. This phenomenon (which is more prominent in larger-volume flows, whose rear and frontal ends are more distant) counteracts the decrease of energy dissipation per unit of flow mass because of the decrease of particle agitation per unit of flow mass that is expected when the volume of a flow increases (with all the other features the same). Our analysis generates a functional relationship between the dimensionless apparent coefficient of friction and a scaling parameter whose numerator is equal to the mean grain size multiplied by the cube root of the deposit volume and whose denominator is the square of the channel width. The purpose of our experiments is to understand the dynamics of rock avalanches and dense pyroclastic flows.

  8. a New Dynamic Finite Element (dfe) Formulation for Lateral Free Vibrations of EULER-BERNOULLI Spinning Beams Using Trigonometric Shape Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, S. M.; Richard, M. J.; Dhatt, G.

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents a new Dynamic Finite Element (DFE) formulation for the vibrational analysis of spinning beams. A non-dimensional formulation is adopted, and the frequency dependent trigonometric shape functions are used to find a simple frequency dependent element stiffness matrix which has both mass and stiffness properties. An appropriate bisection method, based on a Sturm sequence root counting technique, is used and the flexural natural frequencies of cantilevered beams, for a variety of configurations, are studied. The results are compared to those found by the Dynamic Stiffness Matrix and the classical Finite Elements Method, using “Hermite” beam elements. Much better convergency rates are found using the proposed DFE method.

  9. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a nervous system disease that attacks nerve cells called neurons in your ... people with ALS die from respiratory failure. The disease usually strikes between age 40 and 60. More ...

  10. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a nervous system disease that attacks nerve cells called neurons in your brain and spinal cord. These neurons ... breathing machine can help, but most people with ALS die from respiratory failure. The disease usually strikes ...

  11. Primary Lateral Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... synthesizers, and wheelchairs ma help some people retain independence.. Speech therapy may be useful for those with ... prevent, and ultimately cure these devastating diseases. NIH Patient Recruitment for Primary Lateral Sclerosis Clinical Trials At ...

  12. Mutations in the MicroRNA Complementarity Site of the INCURVATA4 Gene Perturb Meristem Function and Adaxialize Lateral Organs in Arabidopsis1[W

    PubMed Central

    Ochando, Isabel; Jover-Gil, Sara; Ripoll, Juan José; Candela, Héctor; Vera, Antonio; Ponce, María Rosa; Martínez-Laborda, Antonio; Micol, José Luis

    2006-01-01

    Here, we describe how the semidominant, gain-of-function icu4-1 and icu4-2 alleles of the INCURVATA4 (ICU4) gene alter leaf phyllotaxis and cell organization in the root apical meristem, reduce root length, and cause xylem overgrowth in the stem. The ICU4 gene was positionally cloned and found to encode the ATHB15 transcription factor, a class III homeodomain/leucine zipper family member, recently named CORONA. The icu4-1 and icu4-2 alleles bear the same point mutation that affects the microRNA complementarity site of ICU4 and is identical to those of several semidominant alleles of the class III homeodomain/leucine zipper family members PHABULOSA and PHAVOLUTA. The icu4-1 and icu4-2 mutations significantly increase leaf transcript levels of the ICU4 gene. The null hst-1 allele of the HASTY gene, which encodes a nucleocytoplasmic transporter, synergistically interacts with icu4-1, the double mutant displaying partial adaxialization of rosette leaves and carpels. Our results suggest that the ICU4 gene has an adaxializing function and that it is down-regulated by microRNAs that require the HASTY protein for their biogenesis. PMID:16617092

  13. Control of Ventricular Ciliary Beating by the Melanin Concentrating Hormone-Expressing Neurons of the Lateral Hypothalamus: A Functional Imaging Survey

    PubMed Central

    Conductier, Grégory; Martin, Agnès O.; Risold, Pierre-Yves; Jego, Sonia; Lavoie, Raphaël; Lafont, Chrystel; Mollard, Patrice; Adamantidis, Antoine; Nahon, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    The cyclic peptide Melanin Concentrating Hormone (MCH) is known to control a large number of brain functions in mammals such as food intake and metabolism, stress response, anxiety, sleep/wake cycle, memory, and reward. Based on neuro-anatomical and electrophysiological studies these functions were attributed to neuronal circuits expressing MCHR1, the single MCH receptor in rodents. In complement to our recently published work (1) we provided here new data regarding the action of MCH on ependymocytes in the mouse brain. First, we establish that MCHR1 mRNA is expressed in the ependymal cells of the third ventricle epithelium. Second, we demonstrated a tonic control of MCH-expressing neurons on ependymal cilia beat frequency using in vitro optogenics. Finally, we performed in vivo measurements of CSF flow using fluorescent micro-beads in wild-type and MCHR1-knockout mice. Collectively, our results demonstrated that MCH-expressing neurons modulate ciliary beating of ependymal cells at the third ventricle and could contribute to maintain cerebro-spinal fluid homeostasis. PMID:24324458

  14. Selenium reduces mobile phone (900 MHz)-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial function, and apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kahya, Mehmet Cemal; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Çiğ, Bilal

    2014-08-01

    Exposure to mobile phone-induced electromagnetic radiation (EMR) may affect biological systems by increasing free oxygen radicals, apoptosis, and mitochondrial depolarization levels although selenium may modulate the values in cancer. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of 900 MHz radiation on the antioxidant redox system, apoptosis, and mitochondrial depolarization levels in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. Cultures of the cancer cells were divided into four main groups as controls, selenium, EMR, and EMR + selenium. In EMR groups, the cells were exposed to 900 MHz EMR for 1 h (SAR value of the EMR was 0.36 ± 0.02 W/kg). In selenium groups, the cells were also incubated with sodium selenite for 1 h before EMR exposure. Then, the following values were analyzed: (a) cell viability, (b) intracellular ROS production, (c) mitochondrial membrane depolarization, (d) cell apoptosis, and (e) caspase-3 and caspase-9 values. Selenium suppressed EMR-induced oxidative cell damage and cell viability (MTT) through a reduction of oxidative stress and restoring mitochondrial membrane potential. Additionally, selenium indicated anti-apoptotic effects, as demonstrated by plate reader analyses of apoptosis levels and caspase-3 and caspase-9 values. In conclusion, 900 MHz EMR appears to induce apoptosis effects through oxidative stress and mitochondrial depolarization although incubation of selenium seems to counteract the effects on apoptosis and oxidative stress. PMID:24965080

  15. [THE LIPOLYSIS IN PHYLOGENETICALLY EARLY LIPOPROTEINS OF LOW DENSITY AND MORE LATER LIPOPROTEINS OF VERY LOW DENSITY: FUNCTION AND DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF APOE AND APOC-III].

    PubMed

    Rozhkova, T A; Titov, V N; Amelyushkina, V A; Kaba, S I; Kukhartchuk, V V

    2015-12-01

    According to phylogenetic theory of general pathology, the function of low density lipoproteins (LDL) and hydrolysis of triglycerides (TG) in them under the effect of hepatic glycerol hydrolase apoC-III (HGH) developed at much earlier stages of phylogenesis than functioning of insulin-dependent phylogenetically late very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). For millions ofyears, lipolysis and HGH+apoC-III have activated transfer of polyenic fatty acids (FA) in the form of cholesteryl polyesters (CLE) from high density lipoproteins (HDL) to linoleic and linolenic LDL under the effect of cholesteryl ester transfer protein. It is reasonable to suggest that hepatocytes physiologically secrete oleic and palmitic VLDL and linoleic and linolenic LDL. Cells uptake ligand oleic and palmitic VLVL by apoE/B-100 receptor-mediated endocytosis. Physiologically, VLDL are not converted to LDL. If hepatocytes secrete palmitic VLDL in greater amounts than oleic VLDL upon slow hydrolysis ofpalmitic TG and under the effect of postheparinic lipoprotein lipase+apoC-II, only some proportion of palmitic TG is uptaken by cells as VLDL, and the rest is converted in ligand-free palmitic LDL These LDL increase plasma contents of TG and LDL-cholesterol and form small dense palmitic LDL. Expression of HGH+apoC-III synthesis compensates TG hydrolysis in nonphysiological palmitic LDL. In vivo, apoC-III is neither physiological no pathological inhibitor of lipolysis. Increase in plasma apoC-III content is an indicator of accumulation of non-physiological palmitic LDL and atherosclerosis-atheromatosis risk factor ApoE content ofpalmitic LDL increases together with apoC-III, i.e., apoE in ligand VLDL is not internalized via apoE/B-100 endocytosis. An increase in apoC-III and apoE contents are reliable in vivo tests for the rise inpalmitic FA, palmitic TG and excessive secretion of palmitic VLDL by hepatocytes. ApoC-III and apoE contents in LDL are additional tests to evaluate the efficiency of

  16. The contribution of theory of mind, counterfactual reasoning, and executive function to pre-readers' language comprehension and later reading awareness and comprehension in elementary school.

    PubMed

    Guajardo, Nicole R; Cartwright, Kelly B

    2016-04-01

    The current longitudinal study examined the roles of theory of mind, counterfactual reasoning, and executive function in children's pre-reading skills, reading awareness, and reading comprehension. It is the first to examine this set of variables with preschool and school-aged children. A sample of 31 children completed language comprehension, working memory, cognitive flexibility, first-order false belief, and counterfactual reasoning measures when they were 3 to 5 years of age and completed second-order false belief, cognitive flexibility, reading comprehension, and reading awareness measures at 6 to 9 years of age. Results indicated that false belief understanding contributed to phrase and sentence comprehension and reading awareness, whereas cognitive flexibility and counterfactual reasoning accounted for unique variance in reading comprehension. Implications of the results for the development of reading skill are discussed. PMID:26689129

  17. Ultrasensitive detection of Hg{sup 2+} using oligonucleotide-functionalized AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Junjie; Li, Jiadong; Miao, Bin; Wu, Dongmin; Wang, Jine; Pei, Renjun; Wu, Zhengyan

    2014-08-25

    An oligonucleotide-functionalized ion sensitive AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) was fabricated to detect trace amounts of Hg{sup 2+}. The advantages of ion sensitive AlGaN/GaN HEMT and highly specific binding interaction between Hg{sup 2+} and thymines were combined. The current response of this Hg{sup 2+} ultrasensitive transistor was characterized. The current increased due to the accumulation of Hg{sup 2+} ions on the surface by the highly specific thymine-Hg{sup 2+}-thymine recognition. The dynamic linear range for Hg{sup 2+} detection has been determined in the concentrations from 10{sup −14} to 10{sup −8} M and a detection limit below 10{sup −14} M level was estimated, which is the best result of AlGaN/GaN HEMT biosensors for Hg{sup 2+} detection till now.

  18. Intra-individual lap time variation of the 400-m walk, an early mobility indicator of executive function decline in high-functioning older adults?

    PubMed

    Tian, Qu; Resnick, Susan M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Studenski, Stephanie A

    2015-12-01

    Higher intra-individual lap time variation (LTV) of the 400-m walk is cross-sectionally associated with poorer attention in older adults. Whether higher LTV predicts decline in executive function and whether the relationship is accounted for by slower walking remain unanswered. The main objective of this study was to examine the relationship between baseline LTV and longitudinal change in executive function. We used data from 347 participants aged 60 years and older (50.7% female) from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Longitudinal assessments of executive function were conducted between 2007 and 2013, including attention (Trails A, Digit Span Forward Test), cognitive flexibility and set shifting (Trails B, Delta TMT: Trials B minus Trials A), visuoperceptual speed (Digit Symbol Substitution Test), and working memory (Digit Span Backward Test). LTV and mean lap time (MLT) were obtained from the 400-m walk test concurrent with the baseline executive function assessment. LTV was computed as variability of lap time across ten 40-m laps based on individual trajectories. A linear mixed-effects model was used to examine LTV in relation to changes in executive function, adjusted for age, sex, education, and MLT. Higher LTV was associated with greater decline in performance on Trails B (β = 4.322, p < 0.001) and delta TMT (β = 4.230, p < 0.001), independent of covariates. Findings remained largely unchanged after further adjustment for MLT. LTV was not associated with changes in other executive function measures (all p > 0.05). In high-functioning older adults, higher LTV in the 400-m walk predicts executive function decline involving cognitive flexibility and set shifting over a long period of time. High LTV may be an early indicator of executive function decline independent of MLT. PMID:26561401

  19. The lateral canthus in cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Michael L; Hornblass, Albert

    2002-02-01

    Normally contoured eyelid fissures will enhance the appearance of patients who undergo cosmetic eyelid surgery. The shape and integrity of the lateral canthal structures frequently affect the configuration of the eyelid fissure. Undetected canthal abnormalities may lead to untoward postoperative functional and cosmetic results. An understanding of the etiology and detection of lateral canthal pathology and the treatment of the lateral can thus as a functional unit in cosmetic surgery will enable the plastic surgeon to avoid these complications and enhance surgical results. PMID:15062327

  20. Impact of a mobile phone and web program on symptom and functional outcomes for people with mild-to-moderate depression, anxiety and stress: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mobile phone-based psychological interventions enable real time self-monitoring and self-management, and large-scale dissemination. However, few studies have focussed on mild-to-moderate symptoms where public health need is greatest, and none have targeted work and social functioning. This study reports outcomes of a CONSORT-compliant randomised controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the efficacy of myCompass, a self-guided psychological treatment delivered via mobile phone and computer, designed to reduce mild-to-moderate depression, anxiety and stress, and improve work and social functioning. Method Community-based volunteers with mild-to-moderate depression, anxiety and/or stress (N = 720) were randomly assigned to the myCompass program, an attention control intervention, or to a waitlist condition for seven weeks. The interventions were fully automated, without any human input or guidance. Participants’ symptoms and functioning were assessed at baseline, post-intervention and 3-month follow-up, using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. Results Retention rates at post-intervention and follow-up for the study sample were 72.1% (n = 449) and 48.6% (n = 350) respectively. The myCompass group showed significantly greater improvement in symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress and in work and social functioning relative to both control conditions at the end of the 7-week intervention phase (between-group effect sizes ranged from d = .22 to d = .55 based on the observed means). Symptom scores remained at near normal levels at 3-month follow-up. Participants in the attention control condition showed gradual symptom improvement during the post-intervention phase and their scores did not differ from the myCompass group at 3-month follow-up. Conclusions The myCompass program is an effective public health program, facilitating rapid improvements in symptoms and in work and social functioning for

  1. Can You Ride a Bicycle? The Ability to Ride a Bicycle Prevents Reduced Social Function in Older Adults With Mobility Limitation

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Ryota; Kawai, Hisashi; Yoshida, Hideyo; Fukaya, Taro; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Kim, Hunkyung; Hirano, Hirohiko; Ihara, Kazushige; Obuchi, Shuichi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Background The health benefits of bicycling in older adults with mobility limitation (ML) are unclear. We investigated ML and functional capacity of older cyclists by evaluating their instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), intellectual activity, and social function. Methods On the basis of interviews, 614 community-dwelling older adults (after excluding 63 participants who never cycled) were classified as cyclists with ML, cyclists without ML, non-cyclists with ML (who ceased bicycling due to physical difficulties), or non-cyclists without ML (who ceased bicycling for other reasons). A cyclist was defined as a person who cycled at least a few times per month, and ML was defined as difficulty walking 1 km or climbing stairs without using a handrail. Functional capacity and physical ability were evaluated by standardized tests. Results Regular cycling was documented in 399 participants, and 74 of them (18.5%) had ML; among non-cyclists, 49 had ML, and 166 did not. Logistic regression analysis for evaluating the relationship between bicycling and functional capacity revealed that non-cyclists with ML were more likely to have reduced IADL and social function compared to cyclists with ML. However, logistic regression analysis also revealed that the risk of bicycle-related falls was significantly associated with ML among older cyclists. Conclusions The ability and opportunity to bicycle may prevent reduced IADL and social function in older adults with ML, although older adults with ML have a higher risk of falls during bicycling. It is important to develop a safe environment for bicycling for older adults. PMID:26902165

  2. Lateral gene transfer in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Andersson, J O

    2005-06-01

    Lateral gene transfer -- the transfer of genetic material between species -- has been acknowledged as a major mechanism in prokaryotic genome evolution for some time. Recently accumulating data indicate that the process also occurs in the evolution of eukaryotic genomes. However, there are large rate variations between groups of eukaryotes; animals and fungi seem to be largely unaffected, with a few exceptions, while lateral gene transfer frequently occurs in protists with phagotrophic lifestyles, possibly with rates comparable to prokaryotic organisms. Gene transfers often facilitate the acquisition of functions encoded in prokaryotic genomes by eukaryotic organisms, which may enable them to colonize new environments. Transfers between eukaryotes also occur, mainly into larger phagotrophic eukaryotes that ingest eukaryotic cells, but also between plant lineages. These findings have implications for eukaryotic genomic research in general, and studies of the origin and phylogeny of eukaryotes in particular. PMID:15761667

  3. Branched Lateral Tail Fiber Organization in T5-Like Bacteriophages DT57C and DT571/2 is Revealed by Genetic and Functional Analysis.

    PubMed

    Golomidova, Alla K; Kulikov, Eugene E; Prokhorov, Nikolai S; Guerrero-Ferreira, Ricardo С; Knirel, Yuriy A; Kostryukova, Elena S; Tarasyan, Karina K; Letarov, Andrey V

    2016-01-01

    The T5-like siphoviruses DT57C and DT571/2, isolated from horse feces, are very closely related to each other, and most of their structural proteins are also nearly identical to T5 phage. Their LTFs (L-shaped tail fibers), however, are composed of two proteins, LtfA and LtfB, instead of the single Ltf of bacteriophage T5. In silico and mutant analysis suggests a possible branched structure of DT57C and DT571/2 LTFs, where the LtfB protein is connected to the phage tail via the LtfA protein and with both proteins carrying receptor recognition domains. Such adhesin arrangement has not been previously recognized in siphoviruses. The LtfA proteins of our phages are found to recognize different host O-antigen types: E. coli O22-like for DT57C phage and E. coli O87 for DT571/2. LtfB proteins are identical in both phages and recognize another host receptor, most probably lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of E. coli O81 type. In these two bacteriophages, LTF function is essential to penetrate the shield of the host's O-antigens. We also demonstrate that LTF-mediated adsorption becomes superfluous when the non-specific cell protection by O-antigen is missing, allowing the phages to bind directly to their common secondary receptor, the outer membrane protein BtuB. The LTF independent adsorption was also demonstrated on an O22-like host mutant missing O-antigen O-acetylation, thus showing the biological value of this O-antigen modification for cell protection against phages. PMID:26805872

  4. Branched Lateral Tail Fiber Organization in T5-Like Bacteriophages DT57C and DT571/2 is Revealed by Genetic and Functional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Golomidova, Alla K.; Kulikov, Eugene E.; Prokhorov, Nikolai S.; Guerrero-Ferreira, Ricardo С.; Knirel, Yuriy A.; Kostryukova, Elena S.; Tarasyan, Karina K.; Letarov, Andrey V.

    2016-01-01

    The T5-like siphoviruses DT57C and DT571/2, isolated from horse feces, are very closely related to each other, and most of their structural proteins are also nearly identical to T5 phage. Their LTFs (L-shaped tail fibers), however, are composed of two proteins, LtfA and LtfB, instead of the single Ltf of bacteriophage T5. In silico and mutant analysis suggests a possible branched structure of DT57C and DT571/2 LTFs, where the LtfB protein is connected to the phage tail via the LtfA protein and with both proteins carrying receptor recognition domains. Such adhesin arrangement has not been previously recognized in siphoviruses. The LtfA proteins of our phages are found to recognize different host O-antigen types: E. coli O22-like for DT57C phage and E. coli O87 for DT571/2. LtfB proteins are identical in both phages and recognize another host receptor, most probably lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of E. coli O81 type. In these two bacteriophages, LTF function is essential to penetrate the shield of the host’s O-antigens. We also demonstrate that LTF-mediated adsorption becomes superfluous when the non-specific cell protection by O-antigen is missing, allowing the phages to bind directly to their common secondary receptor, the outer membrane protein BtuB. The LTF independent adsorption was also demonstrated on an O22-like host mutant missing O-antigen O-acetylation, thus showing the biological value of this O-antigen modification for cell protection against phages. PMID:26805872

  5. Laterally closed lattice homomorphisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toumi, Mohamed Ali; Toumi, Nedra

    2006-12-01

    Let A and B be two Archimedean vector lattices and let be a lattice homomorphism. We call that T is laterally closed if T(D) is a maximal orthogonal system in the band generated by T(A) in B, for each maximal orthogonal system D of A. In this paper we prove that any laterally closed lattice homomorphism T of an Archimedean vector lattice A with universal completion Au into a universally complete vector lattice B can be extended to a lattice homomorphism of Au into B, which is an improvement of a result of M. Duhoux and M. Meyer [M. Duhoux and M. Meyer, Extended orthomorphisms and lateral completion of Archimedean Riesz spaces, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles 98 (1984) 3-18], who established it for the order continuous lattice homomorphism case. Moreover, if in addition Au and B are with point separating order duals (Au)' and B' respectively, then the laterally closedness property becomes a necessary and sufficient condition for any lattice homomorphism to have a similar extension to the whole Au. As an application, we give a new representation theorem for laterally closed d-algebras from which we infer the existence of d-algebra multiplications on the universal completions of d-algebras.

  6. Laterally bendable belt conveyor

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, William J.

    1985-01-01

    An endless, laterally flexible and bendable belt conveyor particularly adapted for coal mining applications in facilitating the transport of the extracted coal up- or downslope and around corners in a continuous manner is disclosed. The conveying means includes a flat rubber belt reinforced along the middle portion thereof along which the major portion of the belt tension is directed so as to cause rotation of the tubular shaped belt when trammed around lateral turns thus preventing excessive belt bulging distortion between adjacent belt supports which would inhibit belt transport. Pretension induced into the fabric reinforced flat rubber belt by conventional belt take-up means supports the load conveyed when the belt conveyor is making lateral turns. The carrying and return portions of the belt are supported and formed into a tubular shape by a plurality of shapers positioned along its length. Each shaper is supported from above by a monorail and includes clusters of idler rollers which support the belt. Additional cluster rollers in each shaper permit the belt supporting roller clusters to rotate in response to the belt's operating tension imposed upon the cluster rollers by induced lateral belt friction forces. The freely rotating roller clusters thus permit the belt to twist on lateral curves without damage to itself while precluding escape of the conveyed material by effectively enclosing it in the tube-shaped, inner belt transport length.

  7. FINAL REPORT. EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF CONTAMINANT METAL MOBILITY AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE, TIME, AND SOLUTION CHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the FY96-FY99 funding cycle we examined the uptake of aqueous strontium onto goethite, kaolinite, and amorphous silica surfaces as a function of pH,total strontium, and temperature. Our overall goal was to produce a mechanistic sorption model that can be used in reaction-t...

  8. Screening for Functional Non-coding Genetic Variants Using Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) and DNA-affinity Precipitation Assay (DAPA).

    PubMed

    Miller, Daniel E; Patel, Zubin H; Lu, Xiaoming; Lynch, Arthur T; Weirauch, Matthew T; Kottyan, Leah C

    2016-01-01

    Population and family-based genetic studies typically result in the identification of genetic variants that are statistically associated with a clinical disease or phenotype. For many diseases and traits, most variants are non-coding, and are thus likely to act by impacting subtle, comparatively hard to predict mechanisms controlling gene expression. Here, we describe a general strategic approach to prioritize non-coding variants, and screen them for their function. This approach involves computational prioritization using functional genomic databases followed by experimental analysis of differential binding of transcription factors (TFs) to risk and non-risk alleles. For both electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and DNA affinity precipitation assay (DAPA) analysis of genetic variants, a synthetic DNA oligonucleotide (oligo) is used to identify factors in the nuclear lysate of disease or phenotype-relevant cells. For EMSA, the oligonucleotides with or without bound nuclear factors (often TFs) are analyzed by non-denaturing electrophoresis on a tris-borate-EDTA (TBE) polyacrylamide gel. For DAPA, the oligonucleotides are bound to a magnetic column and the nuclear factors that specifically bind the DNA sequence are eluted and analyzed through mass spectrometry or with a reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) followed by Western blot analysis. This general approach can be widely used to study the function of non-coding genetic variants associated with any disease, trait, or phenotype. PMID:27585267

  9. Are You Ready for Mobile Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbeil, Joseph Rene; Valdes-Corbeil, Maria Elena

    2007-01-01

    Mobile learning is defined as the intersection of mobile computing (the application of small, portable, and wireless computing and communication devices) and e-learning (learning facilitated and supported through the use of information and communications technology). Consequently, it comes as no surprise that sooner or later people would begin to…

  10. Human olfactory lateralization requires trigeminal activation.

    PubMed

    Croy, Ilona; Schulz, Max; Blumrich, Anna; Hummel, Cornelia; Gerber, Johannes; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Rats are able to lateralize odors. This ability involves specialized neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex which are able to process the left, right and bilateral presentation of stimuli. However, it is not clear whether this function is preserved in humans. Humans are in general not able to differentiate whether a selective olfactory stimulant has been applied to the left or right nostril; however exceptions have been reported. Following a screening of 152 individuals with an olfactory lateralization test, we identified 19 who could lateralize odors above chance level. 15 of these "lateralizers" underwent olfactory fMRI scanning in a block design and were compared to 15 controls matched for age and sex distribution. As a result, both groups showed comparable activation of olfactory eloquent brain areas. However, subjects with lateralization ability had a significantly enhanced activation of cerebral trigeminal processing areas (somatosensory cortex, intraparietal sulcus). In contrast to controls, lateralizers furthermore exhibited no suppression in the area of the trigeminal principal sensory nucleus. An exploratory study with an olfactory change detection paradigm furthermore showed that lateralizers oriented faster towards changes in the olfactory environment. Taken together, our study suggests that the trigeminal system is activated to a higher degree by the odorous stimuli in the group of "lateralizers". We conclude that humans are not able to lateralize odors based on the olfactory input alone, but vary in the degree to which the trigeminal system is recruited. PMID:24825502

  11. Infrared lateral shearing interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, O.

    1980-04-01

    Recently IR interferometry has received much attention for its special capabilities of testing IR materials, diamond-turned metal mirrors, deep aspherics, unpolished rough surface optics, and other unconventional optics. A CW CO2 laser is used as a coherent light source at 10.6 microns, and germanium and zinc selenide optics are used for lenses and beam splitters. A pyroelectric vidicon (PEV) detects the modulated interference pattern through a TV monitor and video recorder-player. This paper presents three methods of IR lateral shear interferometry using (1) a germanium plane-parallel plate, (2) a Ronchi ruling, and (3) a double-grating lateral shear interferometer.

  12. Lateral Diffusion of Membrane Proteins: Consequences of Hydrophobic Mismatch and Lipid Composition

    PubMed Central

    Ramadurai, Sivaramakrishnan; Duurkens, Ria; Krasnikov, Victor V.; Poolman, Bert

    2010-01-01

    Biological membranes are composed of a large number lipid species differing in hydrophobic length, degree of saturation, and charge and size of the headgroup. We now present data on the effect of hydrocarbon chain length of the lipids and headgroup composition on the lateral mobility of the proteins in model membranes. The trimeric glutamate transporter (GltT) and the monomeric lactose transporter (LacY) were reconstituted in giant unilamellar vesicles composed of unsaturated phosphocholine lipids of varying acyl chain length (14–22 carbon atoms) and various ratios of DOPE/DOPG/DOPC lipids. The lateral mobility of the proteins and of a fluorescent lipid analog was determined as a function of the hydrophobic thickness of the bilayer (h) and lipid composition, using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The diffusion coefficient of LacY decreased with increasing thickness of the bilayer, in accordance with the continuum hydrodynamic model of Saffman-Delbrück. For GltT, the mobility had its maximum at diC18:1 PC, which is close to the hydrophobic thickness of the bilayer in vivo. The lateral mobility decreased linearly with the concentration of DOPE but was not affected by the fraction of anionic lipids from DOPG. The addition of DOPG and DOPE did not affect the activity of GltT. We conclude that the hydrophobic thickness of the bilayer is a major determinant of molecule diffusion in membranes, but protein-specific properties may lead to deviations from the Saffman-Delbrück model. PMID:20816060

  13. Playskin Lift: Development and Initial Testing of an Exoskeletal Garment to Assist Upper Extremity Mobility and Function

    PubMed Central

    Koshy, John; Hall, Martha L.; Erol, Ozan; Cao, Huantian; Buckley, Jenner M.; Galloway, James C.; Higginson, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Background A person's ability to move his or her arms against gravity is important for independent performance of critical activities of daily living and for exploration that facilitates early cognitive, language, social, and perceptual-motor development. Children with a variety of diagnoses have difficulty moving their arms against gravity. Objective The purpose of this technical report is to detail the design process and initial testing of a novel exoskeletal garment, the Playskin Lift, that assists and encourages children to lift their arms against gravity. Design This report details the design theory and process, the device, and the results of field testing with a toddler with impaired upper extremity function due to arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. Results The Playskin Lift is an inexpensive (<$30 material costs), easy to use (5/5 rating), comfortable (5/5 rating), and attractive (4/5 rating) device. While wearing the device, the child was able to contact objects more often throughout an increased play space, to look at toys more while contacting them, and to perform more complex interactions with toys. Limitations This report details initial testing with one child. Future testing with more participants is recommended. Conclusions These results suggest that by considering the broad needs of users, including cost, accessibility, comfort, aesthetics, and function, we can design inexpensive devices that families and clinicians can potentially fabricate in their own communities to improve function, participation, exploration, and learning for children with disabilities. PMID:26316534

  14. Effects of resistance training with and without caloric restriction on physical function and mobility in overweight and obese older adults: a randomized controlled trial1234

    PubMed Central

    Nicklas, Barbara J; Chmelo, Elizabeth; Delbono, Osvaldo; Carr, J Jeffrey; Lyles, Mary F; Marsh, Anthony P

    2015-01-01

    Background: Resistance training (RT) improves muscle strength and overall physical function in older adults. RT may be particularly important in the obese elderly who have compromised muscle function. Whether caloric restriction (CR) acts synergistically with RT to enhance function is unknown. Objective: As the primary goal of the Improving Muscle for Functional Independence Trial (I’M FIT), we determined the effects of adding CR for weight loss on muscle and physical function responses to RT in older overweight and obese adults. Design: I’M FIT was a 5-mo trial in 126 older (65–79 y) overweight and obese men and women who were randomly assigned to a progressive, 3-d/wk, moderate-intensity RT intervention with a weight-loss intervention (RT+CR) or without a weight-loss intervention (RT). The primary outcome was maximal knee extensor strength; secondary outcomes were muscle power and quality, overall physical function, and total body and thigh compositions. Results: Body mass decreased in the RT+CR group but not in the RT group. Fat mass, percentage of fat, and all thigh fat volumes decreased in both groups, but only the RT+CR group lost lean mass. Adjusted postintervention body- and thigh-composition measures were all lower with RT+CR except intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT). Knee strength, power, and quality and the 4-m gait speed increased similarly in both groups. Adjusted postintervention means for a 400-m walk time and self-reported disability were better with RT+CR with no group differences in other functional measures, including knee strength. Participants with a lower percentage of fat and IMAT at baseline exhibited a greater improvement in the 400-m walk and knee strength and power. Conclusions: RT improved body composition (including reducing IMAT) and muscle strength and physical function in obese elderly, but those with higher initial adiposity experienced less improvement. The addition of CR during RT improves mobility and does not compromise

  15. Lateral Thinking of Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Xavier, S. Amaladoss

    2013-01-01

    Edward de Bono who invented the term "lateral thinking" in 1967 is the pioneer of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is concerned with the generation of new ideas. Liberation from old ideas and the stimulation of new ones are twin aspects of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is a creative skills from which all people can benefit…

  16. Computation of inverse functions in a model of cerebellar and reflex pathways allows to control a mobile mechanical segment.

    PubMed

    Ebadzadeh, M; Tondu, B; Darlot, C

    2005-01-01

    The command and control of limb movements by the cerebellar and reflex pathways are modeled by means of a circuit whose structure is deduced from functional constraints. One constraint is that fast limb movements must be accurate although they cannot be continuously controlled in closed loop by use of sensory signals. Thus, the pathways which process the motor orders must contain approximate inverse functions of the bio-mechanical functions of the limb and of the muscles. This can be achieved by means of parallel feedback loops, whose pattern turns out to be comparable to the anatomy of the cerebellar pathways. They contain neural networks able to anticipate the motor consequences of the motor orders, modeled by artificial neural networks whose connectivity is similar to that of the cerebellar cortex. These networks learn the direct biomechanical functions of the limbs and muscles by means of a supervised learning process. Teaching signals calculated from motor errors are sent to the learning sites, as, in the cerebellum, complex spikes issued from the inferior olive are conveyed to the Purkinje cells by climbing fibers. Learning rules are deduced by a differential calculation, as classical gradient rules, and they account for the long term depression which takes place in the dendritic arborizations of the Purkinje cells. Another constraint is that reflexes must not impede voluntary movements while remaining at any instant ready to oppose perturbations. Therefore, efferent copies of the motor orders are sent to the interneurones of the reflexes, where they cancel the sensory-motor consequences of the voluntary movements. After learning, the model is able to drive accurately, both in velocity and position, angular movements of a rod actuated by two pneumatic McKibben muscles. Reflexes comparable to the myotatic and tendinous reflexes, and stabilizing reactions comparable to the cerebellar sensory-motor reactions, reduce efficiently the effects of perturbing torques

  17. Enabling Web-Based GIS Tools for Internet and Mobile Devices To Improve and Expand NASA Data Accessibility and Analysis Functionality for the Renewable Energy and Agricultural Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, A.; Stackhouse, P. W.; Tisdale, B.; Tisdale, M.; Chandler, W.; Hoell, J. M., Jr.; Kusterer, J.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center Science Directorate and Atmospheric Science Data Center have initiated a pilot program to utilize Geographic Information System (GIS) tools that enable, generate and store climatological averages using spatial queries and calculations in a spatial database resulting in greater accessibility of data for government agencies, industry and private sector individuals. The major objectives of this effort include the 1) Processing and reformulation of current data to be consistent with ESRI and openGIS tools, 2) Develop functions to improve capability and analysis that produce "on-the-fly" data products, extending these past the single location to regional and global scales. 3) Update the current web sites to enable both web-based and mobile application displays for optimization on mobile platforms, 4) Interact with user communities in government and industry to test formats and usage of optimization, and 5) develop a series of metrics that allow for monitoring of progressive performance. Significant project results will include the the development of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) compliant web services (WMS, WCS, WFS, WPS) that serve renewable energy and agricultural application products to users using GIS software and tools. Each data product and OGC service will be registered within ECHO, the Common Metadata Repository, the Geospatial Platform, and Data.gov to ensure the data are easily discoverable and provide data users with enhanced access to SSE data, parameters, services, and applications. This effort supports cross agency, cross organization, and interoperability of SSE data products and services by collaborating with DOI, NRCan, NREL, NCAR, and HOMER for requirements vetting and test bed users before making available to the wider public.

  18. Research unit INTERNANO: Mobility, aging and functioning of engineered inorganic nanoparticles at the aquatic-terrestrial interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaumann, Gabriele Ellen; Metreveli, George; Baumann, Thomas; Klitzke, Sondra; Lang, Friederike; Manz, Werner; Nießner, Reinhard; Schulz, Ralf; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2013-04-01

    Engineered inorganic nanoparticles (EINP) are expected to pass the wastewater-river-topsoil-groundwater pathway. Despite their increasing release, the processes governing the EINP aging and the changes in functionality in the environment are up to now largely unknown. The objective of the interdisciplinary research unit INTERNANO funded by the DFG is to identify the processes relevant for the fate of EINP and EINP-associated pollutants in the interfacial zone between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The research unit consists of six subprojects and combines knowledge from aquatic and terrestrial sciences as well as from microbiology, ecotoxicology, physicochemistry, soil chemistry and soil physics. For the identification of key processes we will consider compartment specific flow conditions, physicochemistry and biological activity. Situations representative for a floodplain system are simulated using micromodels (μm scale) as well as incubation, soil column and joint laboratory stream microcosm experiments. These results will be transferred to a joint aquatic-terrestrial model system on EINP aging, transport and functioning across the aquatic-terrestrial transition zone. EINP isolation and characterization will be carried out via a combination of chromatographic, light scattering and microscopic methods including dynamic light scattering, elemental analysis, hydrodynamic radius chromatography, field flow fractionation as well as atomic force microscopy, Raman microscopy and electron microscopy. INTERNANO generates fundamental aquatic-terrestrial process knowledge, which will help to evaluate the environmental significance of the EINP at aquatic-terrestrial interfaces. Thus, INTERNANO provides a scientific basis to assess and predict the environmental impact of EINP release into the environment.

  19. Orbital Fracture: Significance of lateral wall

    PubMed Central

    Alsuhaibani, Adel H.

    2010-01-01

    The lateral orbital wall is the strongest among other orbital walls. However, it is commonly fractured in the setting of severe facial trauma. The fracture usually occurs at the sphenozygomatic suture line. In general, patients with lateral wall fractures are commonly young male who may present with mid facial swelling and some degree of deformity. In some cases, lateral orbital wall fracture may be associated with visual loss or change in mental status due to associated intracranial injury. Imaging studies with computed tomography is important in the proper diagnosis and planning of the surgical intervention. Management of intracranial or eye injuries should be undertaken on emergent basis. Thereafter, significantly displaced lateral wall fractures need to be repaired on timely basis. Proper realignment of the plane of the lateral orbital wall at the sphenozygomatic suture along with the other complex articulations of the zygomatic bone is necessary for proper functional and aesthetic outcome. PMID:23960875

  20. Research unit INTERNANO: Mobility, aging and functioning of engineered inorganic nanoparticles at the aquatic-terrestrial interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaumann, G. E.; Baumann, T.; Duester, L.; Klitzke, S.; Lang, F.; Manz, W.; Nießner, R.; Schulz, R.; Vogel, H.-J.

    2012-04-01

    Engineered inorganic nanoparticles (EINP) are expected to pass the wastewater-river-topsoil-groundwater pathway. Despite their increasing release, the processes governing the EINP aging and the changes in functionality in the environment are up to now largely unknown. The objective of the interdisciplinary research unit INTERNANO funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) is to identify the processes relevant for the fate of EINP and EINP-associated pollutants in the interfacial zone between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The research unit consists of six subprojects and combines knowledge from aquatic and terrestrial sciences as well as from microbiology, ecotoxicology, physicochemistry, soil chemistry and soil physics. For the identification of key processes we will consider compartment specific flow conditions, physicochemistry and biological activity. Situations representative for a floodplain system are simulated using micromodels (μm scale) as well as incubation, soil column and joint laboratory stream microcosm experiments. These results will be transferred to a joint aquatic-terrestrial model system on EINP aging, transport and functioning across the aquatic-terrestrial transition zone. EINP isolation and characterization will be carried out via a combination of chromatographic, light scattering and microscopic methods including dynamic light scattering, elemental analysis, hydrodynamic radius chromatography, field flow fractionation as well as atomic force microscopy, Raman microscopy, dynamic light scattering methods and electron microscopy. INTERNANO generates fundamental aquatic-terrestrial process knowledge, which will help to evaluate the environmental significance of the EINP at aquatic-terrestrial interfaces. Therefore, INTERNANO serves as a qualitative basis to predict the environmental impact of EINP contamination.

  1. Design of a multimedia gateway for mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hens, Raf; Goeminne, Nico; Van Hoecke, Sofie; Verdickt, Tom; Bouve, Thomas; Gielen, Frank; Demeester, Piet

    2005-03-01

    Although mobile users are currently offered a lot more capabilities on their mobile devices, they still experience some limitations. They can surf the Internet, read their e-mail and receive MMS messages, but they have limited processing power, storage capacity and bandwidth and are limited in their access to peripherals (e.g. printers). We have designed and implemented a multimedia gateway for mobile devices that reduces these limitations. It gives the mobile devices transparent access to high capacity devices connected to the gateway, which is built around a central, modularly extensible server that can run on any PC or home gateway. It manages two sets of modules: one set offering the actual services and another set handling the IP-based wireless interaction with the client applications on the mobile devices. These modules can be added and removed dynamically, offering new services on the fly. Currently services for storage, printing, domotics and playing music are provided. Others can easily be added later on. This paper discusses the architecture and development, the management of modules, the actual services and their benefits. Besides a proprietary implementation, it also looks into OSGi and how both platforms compare to each other, concerning design, architecture, ease of development, functionality, ...

  2. Wisdom and Psychosocial Functioning in Later Life.

    PubMed

    Wink, Paul; Staudinger, Ursula M

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the connection between wisdom-related performance, personality, and generativity to further the understanding of how they are interrelated. Our sample consisted of 163 men and women 68-77 years of age, mostly White, and predominantly middle class. Wisdom was assessed with the performance-based Berlin Wisdom Paradigm, with the remaining measures being mostly self-report. As hypothesized, on the zero-order level, wisdom-related performance (WRP) was positively associated with (a) growth, a personality component indexed by Openness to Experience, psychological mindedness, and a sense of well-being derived from growth, purpose in life, and autonomy; (b) adjustment, a personality component associated with life satisfaction, high levels of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, low Neuroticism, a sense of well-being derived from positive relations with others, self-acceptance, and environmental mastery; and (c) a generative concern for the welfare of others. Latent path analysis indicated that the bivariate associations between adjustment and wisdom and between generativity and wisdom were mediated by growth. Wise individuals are characterized by their ability to balance different personal strengths and interests, an integration that occurs, however, within the context of a dominant personality style marked by the pursuit of maturity through personal growth. PMID:25546500

  3. Gene transfer as a strategy to achieve permanent cardioprotection I: rAAV-mediated gene therapy with inducible nitric oxide synthase limits infarct size 1 year later without adverse functional consequences

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qianhong; Guo, Yiru; Wu, Wen-Jian; Ou, Qinghui; Zhu, Xiaoping; Tan, Wei; Yuan, Fangping; Chen, Ning; Dawn, Buddhadeb; Luo, Li; O’Brien, Erin

    2013-01-01

    The ultimate goal of prophylactic gene therapy is to confer permanent protection against ischemia. Although gene therapy with inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is known to protect against myocardial infarction at 3 days and up to 2 months, the long-term effects on myocardial ischemic injury and function are unknown. To address this issue, we created a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector carrying the iNOS gene (rAAV/iNOS), which enables long-lasting transgene expression. The ability of rAAV/iNOS to direct the expression of functional iNOS protein was confirmed in COS-7 cells before in vivo gene transfer. Mice received injections in the anterior LV wall of rAAV/LacZ or rAAV/iNOS; 1 year later, they underwent a 30-min coronary occlusion (O) and 4 h of reperfusion (R). iNOS gene transfer resulted in elevated iNOS protein expression (+3-fold vs. the LacZ group, n = 6; P < 0.05) and iNOS activity (+4.4-fold vs. the LacZ group, n = 6; P < 0.05) 1 year later. Infarct size (% of risk region) was dramatically reduced at 1 year after iNOS gene transfer (13.5 ± 2.2%, n = 12, vs. 41.7 ± 2.9%, n = 10, in the LacZ group; P < 0.05). The infarct-sparing effect of iNOS gene therapy at 1 year was as powerful as that observed 24 h after ischemic preconditioning (six 4-min O/4-min R cycles) (19.3 ± 2.3%, n = 11; P < 0.05). Importantly, compared with the LacZ group (n = 11), iNOS gene transfer (n = 10) had no effect on LV dimensions or function for up to 1 year (at 1 year: FS 34.5 ± 2.0 vs. 34.6 ± 2.6%, EF 57.0 ± 2.0 vs. 59.7 ± 2.9%, LVEDD 4.3 ± 0.1 vs. 4.2 ± 0.2 mm, LVESD 2.8 ± 0.1 vs. 2.9 ± 0.2 mm) (echocardiography). These data demonstrate, for the first time, that rAAV-mediated iNOS gene transfer affords long-term, probably permanent (1 year), cardioprotection without adverse functional consequences, providing a strong rationale for further preclinical testing of prophylactic gene therapy. PMID:21779912

  4. Arthroscopic Centralization of an Extruded Lateral Meniscus

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Hideyuki; Muneta, Takeshi; Yagishita, Kazuyoshi; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Mochizuki, Tomoyuki; Horie, Masafumi; Nakamura, Tomomasa; Okawa, Atsushi; Sekiya, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Extrusion of the lateral meniscus has been reported after posterior root tear or radial tear, partial meniscectomy, and meniscoplasty of discoid meniscus. It has also been shown to be associated with the development of osteoarthritis. This technical note describes a new arthroscopic technique to centralize and stabilize the mid body of the lateral meniscus to restore and maintain the lateral meniscus function by repairing/preventing extrusion of the meniscus. A JuggerKnot Soft Anchor (Biomet, Warsaw, IN), loaded with a MaxBraid suture (Biomet), was placed on the lateral edge of the lateral tibial plateau, just anterior to the popliteal hiatus, through a midlateral portal. A Micro Suture Lasso Small Curve with Nitinol Wire Loop (Arthrex, Naples, FL) was used to pass 2 limbs of the MaxBraid suture through the meniscus at the margin between the meniscus and the capsule. Another anchor was inserted on the lateral edge of the lateral tibial plateau, 1 cm anterior to the first anchor, and the same procedure was repeated. The sutures were then tied by use of a self-locking sliding knot, achieving centralization and secure stabilization of the lateral meniscus. PMID:23766997

  5. Arthroscopic centralization of an extruded lateral meniscus.

    PubMed

    Koga, Hideyuki; Muneta, Takeshi; Yagishita, Kazuyoshi; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Mochizuki, Tomoyuki; Horie, Masafumi; Nakamura, Tomomasa; Okawa, Atsushi; Sekiya, Ichiro

    2012-12-01

    Extrusion of the lateral meniscus has been reported after posterior root tear or radial tear, partial meniscectomy, and meniscoplasty of discoid meniscus. It has also been shown to be associated with the development of osteoarthritis. This technical note describes a new arthroscopic technique to centralize and stabilize the mid body of the lateral meniscus to restore and maintain the lateral meniscus function by repairing/preventing extrusion of the meniscus. A JuggerKnot Soft Anchor (Biomet, Warsaw, IN), loaded with a MaxBraid suture (Biomet), was placed on the lateral edge of the lateral tibial plateau, just anterior to the popliteal hiatus, through a midlateral portal. A Micro Suture Lasso Small Curve with Nitinol Wire Loop (Arthrex, Naples, FL) was used to pass 2 limbs of the MaxBraid suture through the meniscus at the margin between the meniscus and the capsule. Another anchor was inserted on the lateral edge of the lateral tibial plateau, 1 cm anterior to the first anchor, and the same procedure was repeated. The sutures were then tied by use of a self-locking sliding knot, achieving centralization and secure stabilization of the lateral meniscus. PMID:23766997

  6. 2′-O-ribose methylation of cap2 in human: function and evolution in a horizontally mobile family

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Maria; Purta, Elżbieta; Kaminska, Katarzyna H.; Cymerman, Iwona A.; Campbell, David A.; Mittra, Bidyottam; Zamudio, Jesse R.; Sturm, Nancy R.; Jaworski, Jacek; Bujnicki, Janusz M.

    2011-01-01

    The 5′ cap of human messenger RNA consists of an inverted 7-methylguanosine linked to the first transcribed nucleotide by a unique 5′–5′ triphosphate bond followed by 2′-O-ribose methylation of the first and often the second transcribed nucleotides, likely serving to modify efficiency of transcript processing, translation and stability. We report the validation of a human enzyme that methylates the ribose of the second transcribed nucleotide encoded by FTSJD1, henceforth renamed HMTR2 to reflect function. Purified recombinant hMTr2 protein transfers a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to the 2′-O-ribose of the second nucleotide of messenger RNA and small nuclear RNA. Neither N7 methylation of the guanosine cap nor 2′-O-ribose methylation of the first transcribed nucleotide are required for hMTr2, but the presence of cap1 methylation increases hMTr2 activity. The hMTr2 protein is distributed throughout the nucleus and cytosol, in contrast to the nuclear hMTr1. The details of how and why specific transcripts undergo modification with these ribose methylations remains to be elucidated. The 2′-O-ribose RNA cap methyltransferases are present in varying combinations in most eukaryotic and many viral genomes. With the capping enzymes in hand their biological purpose can be ascertained. PMID:21310715

  7. Lateral flow assays

    PubMed Central

    Koczula, Katarzyna M.

    2016-01-01

    Lateral flow assays (LFAs) are the technology behind low-cost, simple, rapid and portable detection devices popular in biomedicine, agriculture, food and environmental sciences. This review presents an overview of the principle of the method and the critical components of the assay, focusing on lateral flow immunoassays. This type of assay has recently attracted considerable interest because of its potential to provide instantaneous diagnosis directly to patients. The range and interpretation of results and parameters used for evaluation of the assay will also be discussed. The main advantages and disadvantages of LFAs will be summarized and relevant future improvements to testing devices and strategies will be proposed. Finally, the major recent advances and future diagnostic applications in the LFA field will be explored. PMID:27365041

  8. Conjugal amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Dewitt, John D.; Kwon, Julia; Burton, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disease characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the motor cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord. The incidence of sporadic ALS is 1.5 to 2.7 in 100,000, and the prevalence is 5.2 to 6.0 in 100,000. Conjugal ALS is even rarer than sporadic ALS. We report a case of conjugal ALS encountered in our outpatient neurology clinic. PMID:22275781

  9. Deaf mobile application accessibility requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathan, Shelena Soosay; Hussain, Azham; Hashim, Nor Laily

    2016-08-01

    Requirement for deaf mobile applications need to be analysed to ensure the disabilities need are instilled into the mobile applications developed for them. Universal design is understandable to comply every user needs, however specific disability is argued by the authors to have different need and requirements. These differences are among the reasons for these applications being developed to target for a specific group of people, however they are less usable and later abandoned. This study focuses on deriving requirements that are needed by the deaf in their mobile applications that are meant specifically for them. Studies on previous literature was conducted it can be concluded that graphic, text, multimedia and sign language interpreter are among mostly required features to be included in their mobile application to ensure the applications are usable for this community.

  10. Social Mobility and Educational Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Zefang; Wang, Yanbin; Chen, Wenjiao

    2009-01-01

    There is a close interactive relationship between social mobility and educational selection. On one side, the character, direction, speed, level, methods and trends of social mobility affect the aims, goals, functions, scope, strategy, content and methods of choice in education. On the other side, the goals, basis and means of choosing education…

  11. Education & Mobility. CEE DP 100

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machin, Stephen; Pelkonen, Panu; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2008-01-01

    Regional labour mobility has long been viewed as a crucial component in the functioning of the labour markets of different countries. Indeed, the study of regional labour mobility has moved towards the top of the research agenda, especially in Europe, where regional unemployment differentials have been persistently larger than in the United…

  12. Mobile medical image retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duc, Samuel; Depeursinge, Adrien; Eggel, Ivan; Müller, Henning

    2011-03-01

    Images are an integral part of medical practice for diagnosis, treatment planning and teaching. Image retrieval has gained in importance mainly as a research domain over the past 20 years. Both textual and visual retrieval of images are essential. In the process of mobile devices becoming reliable and having a functionality equaling that of formerly desktop clients, mobile computing has gained ground and many applications have been explored. This creates a new field of mobile information search & access and in this context images can play an important role as they often allow understanding complex scenarios much quicker and easier than free text. Mobile information retrieval in general has skyrocketed over the past year with many new applications and tools being developed and all sorts of interfaces being adapted to mobile clients. This article describes constraints of an information retrieval system including visual and textual information retrieval from the medical literature of BioMedCentral and of the RSNA journals Radiology and Radiographics. Solutions for mobile data access with an example on an iPhone in a web-based environment are presented as iPhones are frequently used and the operating system is bound to become the most frequent smartphone operating system in 2011. A web-based scenario was chosen to allow for a use by other smart phone platforms such as Android as well. Constraints of small screens and navigation with touch screens are taken into account in the development of the application. A hybrid choice had to be taken to allow for taking pictures with the cell phone camera and upload them for visual similarity search as most producers of smart phones block this functionality to web applications. Mobile information access and in particular access to images can be surprisingly efficient and effective on smaller screens. Images can be read on screen much faster and relevance of documents can be identified quickly through the use of images contained in

  13. ORION mobile unit design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brunn, D. L.; Wu, S. C.; Thom, E. H.; Mclaughlin, F. D.; Sweetser, B. M.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of the design of the ORION mobile system is presented. System capability and performance characteristics are outlined. Functional requirements and key performance parameters are stated for each of the nine subsystems. A master design and implementation schedule is given.

  14. Ubiquitous Mobility with Mobile Phones: A Cultural Ecology for Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, John; Pachler, Norbert; Bachmair, Ben

    2011-01-01

    This article argues that mobile phones should be viewed as new cultural resources that operate within an individualized, mobile and convergent mass communication; such a recognition facilitates the options for a cultural ecology. A particular challenge here is to find adequate curricular functions in school where the inclusion of these new…

  15. Effects of cervical mobilization and exercise on pain, movement and function in subjects with temporomandibular disorders: a single group pre-post test

    PubMed Central

    CALIXTRE, Letícia Bojikian; GRÜNINGER, Bruno Leonardo da Silva; HAIK, Melina Nevoeiro; ALBURQUERQUE-SENDÍN, Francisco; OLIVEIRA, Ana Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the effect of a rehabilitation program based on cervical mobilization and exercise on clinical signs and mandibular function in subjects with temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Material and Methods: Single-group pre-post test, with baseline comparison. Subjects Twelve women (22.08±2.23 years) with myofascial pain and mixed TMD according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders. Outcome measures Subjects were evaluated three times: twice before (baseline phase) and once after intervention. Self-reported pain, jaw function [according to the Mandibular Functional Impairment Questionnaire (MFIQ)], pain-free maximum mouth opening (MMO), and pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) of both masseter and temporalis muscles were obtained. Baseline and post-intervention differences were investigated, and effect size was estimated through Cohen’s d coefficient. Results Jaw function improved 7 points on the scale after the intervention (P=0.019), and self-reported pain was significantly reduced (P=0.009). Pain-free MMO varied from 32.3±8.8 mm to 38±8.8 mm and showed significant improvement (P=0.017) with moderate effect size when compared to the baseline phase. PPT also increased with moderate effect size, and subjects had the baseline values changed from 1.23±0.2 kg/cm2 to 1.4±0.2 kg/cm2 in the left masseter (P=0.03), from 1.31±0.28 kg/cm2 to 1.51±0.2 kg/cm2 in the right masseter (P>0.05), from 1.32±0.2 kg/cm2 to 1.46±0.2 kg/cm2 in the left temporalis (P=0.047), and from 1.4±0.2 kg/cm2 to 1.67±0.3 kg/cm2 in the right temporalis (P=0.06). Conclusions The protocol caused significant changes in pain-free MMO, self-reported pain, and functionality of the stomatognathic system in subjects with myofascial TMD, regardless of joint involvement. Even though these differences are statistically significant, their clinical relevance is still questionable. PMID:27383698

  16. Cilostazol Enhances Mobilization of Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Improves Endothelium-Dependent Function in Patients at High Risk of Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Chao, Ting-Hsing; Chen, I-Chih; Lee, Cheng-Han; Chen, Ju-Yi; Tsai, Wei-Chuan; Li, Yi-Heng; Tseng, Shih-Ya; Tsai, Liang-Miin; Tseng, Wei-Kung

    2016-08-01

    This is the first study to investigate the vasculoangiogenic effects of cilostazol on endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This double-blind, placebo-controlled study included 71 patients (37 received 200 mg/d cilostazol and 34 received placebo for 12 weeks). Use of cilostazol, but not placebo, significantly increased circulating EPC (kinase insert domain receptor(+)CD34(+)) counts (percentage changes: 149.0% [67.9%-497.8%] vs 71.9% [-31.8% to 236.5%], P = .024) and improved triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P = .002 and P = .003, respectively). Plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A165 and FMD significantly increased (72.5% [32.9%-120.4%] vs -5.8% [-46.0% to 57.6%], P = .001; 232.8% ± 83.1% vs -46.9% ± 21.5%, P = .003, respectively) in cilostazol-treated patients. Changes in the plasma triglyceride levels significantly inversely correlated with the changes in the VEGF-A165 levels and FMD. Cilostazol significantly enhanced the mobilization of EPCs and improved endothelium-dependent function by modifying some metabolic and angiogenic markers in patients at high risk of CVD. PMID:27401788

  17. Sex Differences in Cerebral Laterality of Language and Visuospatial Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, A. M.; Rimrodt, S. L.; Abel, J. R.; Blankner, J. G.; Mostofsky, S. H.; Pekar, J. J.; Denckla, M. B.; Cutting, L. E.

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences on language and visuospatial tasks are of great interest, with differences in hemispheric laterality hypothesized to exist between males and females. Some functional imaging studies examining sex differences have shown that males are more left lateralized on language tasks and females are more right lateralized on visuospatial…

  18. Impact of a Weekly Dance Class on the Functional Mobility and on the Quality of Life of Individuals with Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Heiberger, Lisa; Maurer, Christoph; Amtage, Florian; Mendez-Balbuena, Ignacio; Schulte-Mönting, Jürgen; Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Kristeva, Rumyana

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) mainly suffer from motor impairments which increase the risk of falls and lead to a decline of quality of life. Several studies investigated the long-term effect of dance for people with PD. The aims of the present study were to investigate (i) the short-term effects of dance (i.e., the effect immediately after the dance class) on motor control in individuals with PD and (ii) the long-term effects of 8 months of participation in the weekly dance class on the quality of life of the PD patients and their caregivers. The dance lessons took place in a ballet studio and were led by a professional dancer. Eleven people with moderate to severe PD (58–85 years old) were subjected to a motor and quality of life assessments. With respect to the motor assessments the unified Parkinson disease rating scale III (UPDRS III), the timed up and go test (TUG), and the Semitandem test (SeTa) before and after the dance class were used. With respect to the quality of life and well-being we applied quality of life scale (QOLS) as well as the Westheimer questionnaire. Additionally, we asked the caregivers to fill out the Questionnaire for caregivers. We found a significant beneficial short-term effect for the total score of the UPDRS motor score. The strongest improvements were in rigidity scores followed by significant improvements in hand movements, finger taps, and facial expression. No significant changes were found for TUG and for SeTa. The results of the questionnaires showed positive effects of the dance class on social life, health, body-feeling and mobility, and on everyday life competences of the PD patients. Beneficial effect was also found for the caregivers. The findings demonstrate that dance has beneficial effect on the functional mobility of individuals with PD. Further, dance improves the quality of life of the patients and their caregivers. Dance may lead to better therapeutic strategies as it is engaging and enjoyable

  19. Stress and laterality - The comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Korte, S Mechiel; Peterburs, Jutta; Wolf, Oliver T; Güntürkün, Onur

    2016-10-01

    Functional hemispheric asymmetries can vary over time and steroid hormones have been shown to be one of the factors that can modulate them. Research into this matter has mainly focused on sex steroid hormones (androgens, estrogens and progestogens), although there is increasing evidence that glucocorticoids which are related to the body's response to stress (e.g. cortisol or corticosterone) might also modulate functional hemispheric asymmetries. Here, we review studies in humans and non-human model species investigating the relation of stress and laterality. Results indicate a dual relationship of the two parameters. Both acute and chronic stress can affect different forms of lateralization in the human brain, often (but not always) resulting in greater involvement of the right hemisphere. Moreover, lateralization as a form of functional brain architecture can also represent a protective factor against adverse effects of stress. PMID:27321757

  20. The PAX3 paired domain and homeodomain function as a single binding module in vivo to regulate subnuclear localization and mobility by a mechanism that requires base-specific recognition.

    PubMed

    Corry, Gareth N; Raghuram, Nikhil; Missiaen, Kristal K; Hu, Ninghe; Hendzel, Michael J; Underhill, D Alan

    2010-09-10

    The transcription factor PAX3 is essential for myogenesis and neural crest development, and is one of several genes mutated in human Waardenburg syndrome. Analysis of disease-causing missense mutations in PAX3 has established the interdependence of its two DNA-binding domains, the paired domain (PD) and the homeodomain (HD), as well as defects in localization and mobility. Paradoxically, mutants that retained DNA binding activity exhibited the greatest defects in localization and mobility, regardless of the domain in which they reside. In the present study, structure-function analyses were used to determine the mechanistic basis of this effect. In the context of the isolated DNA-binding domains, HD mutants adopted an increase in mobility proportional to their loss in DNA binding, while PD mutants continued to display the inverse relationship observed in the full-length protein. At the structural level, this reflected an unexpected dependence on base-specific contacts in the PD, whereas HD mobility was more severely affected by loss of backbone contacts, as has been observed with other DNA-binding proteins. This requires that the HD switch to a base-specific mode in the full-length protein. Moreover, both domains underwent substantial reduction in mobility and altered localization when in a contiguous polypeptide with the endogenous linker segment. Notably, although the HD conferred localization to heterochromatin, this activity was masked when linked to the PD, despite the absence of determinants for subnuclear compartmentalization in the PD or linker. Last, the propensity for PAX3 heterochromatin localization was modulated by sequences at the amino and carboxy termini, supporting a model in which alternate conformations lead to unmasking of the HD. These data indicate that the PD and the HD functionally interact in vivo and behave as a single binding module whose mobility and localization are dependent on sequence-specific contacts. PMID:20643146

  1. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Alexander; Girardi, Federico; Sama, Andrew; Lebl, Darren; Cammisa, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a relatively new technique that allows the surgeon to access the intervertebral space from a direct lateral approach either anterior to or through the psoas muscle. This approach provides an alternative to anterior lumbar interbody fusion with instrumentation, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for anterior column support. LLIF is minimally invasive, safe, better structural support from the apophyseal ring, potential for coronal plane deformity correction, and indirect decompression, which have has made this technique popular. LLIF is currently being utilized for a variety of pathologies including but not limited to adult de novo lumbar scoliosis, central and foraminal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and adjacent segment degeneration. Although early clinical outcomes have been good, the potential for significant neurological and vascular vertebral endplate complications exists. Nevertheless, LLIF is a promising technique with the potential to more effectively treat complex adult de novo scoliosis and achieve predictable fusion while avoiding the complications of traditional anterior surgery and posterior interbody techniques. PMID:26713134

  2. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Abhijit; Hughes, Alexander; Girardi, Federico; Sama, Andrew; Lebl, Darren; Cammisa, Frank

    2015-12-01

    The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a relatively new technique that allows the surgeon to access the intervertebral space from a direct lateral approach either anterior to or through the psoas muscle. This approach provides an alternative to anterior lumbar interbody fusion with instrumentation, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for anterior column support. LLIF is minimally invasive, safe, better structural support from the apophyseal ring, potential for coronal plane deformity correction, and indirect decompression, which have has made this technique popular. LLIF is currently being utilized for a variety of pathologies including but not limited to adult de novo lumbar scoliosis, central and foraminal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and adjacent segment degeneration. Although early clinical outcomes have been good, the potential for significant neurological and vascular vertebral endplate complications exists. Nevertheless, LLIF is a promising technique with the potential to more effectively treat complex adult de novo scoliosis and achieve predictable fusion while avoiding the complications of traditional anterior surgery and posterior interbody techniques. PMID:26713134

  3. Creativity in later life.

    PubMed

    Price, K A; Tinker, A M

    2014-08-01

    The ageing population presents significant challenges for the provision of social and health services. Strategies are needed to enable older people to cope within a society ill prepared for the impacts of these demographic changes. The ability to be creative may be one such strategy. This review outlines the relevant literature and examines current public health policy related to creativity in old age with the aim of highlighting some important issues. As well as looking at the benefits and negative aspects of creative activity in later life they are considered in the context of the theory of "successful ageing". Creative activity plays an important role in the lives of older people promoting social interaction, providing cognitive stimulation and giving a sense of self-worth. Furthermore, it is shown to be useful as a tool in the multi-disciplinary treatment of health problems common in later life such as depression and dementia. There are a number of initiatives to encourage older people to participate in creative activities such as arts-based projects which may range from visual arts to dance to music to intergenerational initiatives. However, participation shows geographical variation and often the responsibility of provision falls to voluntary organisations. Overall, the literature presented suggests that creative activity could be a useful tool for individuals and society. However, further research is needed to establish the key factors which contribute to patterns of improved health and well-being, as well as to explore ways to improve access to services. PMID:24974278

  4. The multifunctional lateral geniculate nucleus.

    PubMed

    Weyand, Theodore G

    2016-02-01

    Providing the critical link between the retina and visual cortex, the well-studied lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) has stood out as a structure in search of a function exceeding the mundane 'relay'. For many mammals, it is structurally impressive: Exquisite lamination, sophisticated microcircuits, and blending of multiple inputs suggest some fundamental transform. This impression is bolstered by the fact that numerically, the retina accounts for a small fraction of its input. Despite such promise, the extent to which an LGN neuron separates itself from its retinal brethren has proven difficult to appreciate. Here, I argue that whereas retinogeniculate coupling is strong, what occurs in the LGN is judicious pruning of a retinal drive by nonretinal inputs. These nonretinal inputs reshape a receptive field that under the right conditions departs significantly from its retinal drive, even if transiently. I first review design features of the LGN and follow with evidence for 10 putative functions. Only two of these tend to surface in textbooks: parsing retinal axons by eye and functional group and gating by state. Among the remaining putative functions, implementation of the principle of graceful degradation and temporal decorrelation are at least as interesting but much less promoted. The retina solves formidable problems imposed by physics to yield multiple efficient and sensitive representations of the world. The LGN applies context, increasing content, and gates several of these representations. Even if the basic concentric receptive field remains, information transmitted for each LGN spike relative to each retinal spike is measurably increased. PMID:26479339

  5. Lipid mobility in supported lipid bilayers by single molecule tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohram, Maryam; Shi, Xiaojun; Smith, Adam

    2015-03-01

    Phospholipid bilayers are the main component of cell membranes and their interaction with biomolecules in their immediate environment is critical for cellular functions. These interactions include the binding of polycationic polymers to lipid bilayers which affects many cell membrane events. As an alternative method of studying live cell membranes, we assemble a supported lipid bilayer and investigate its binding with polycationic polymers in vitro by fluorescently labeling the molecules of the supported lipid bilayer and tracking their mobility. In this work, we use single molecule tracking total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRF) to study phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) lipids with and without an adsorbed polycationic polymer, quaternized polyvinylpyridine (QPVP). Individual molecular trajectories are obtained from the experiment, and a Brownian diffusion model is used to determine diffusion coefficients through mean square displacements. Our results indicate a smaller diffusion coefficient for the supported lipid bilayers in the presence of QPVP in comparison to its absence, revealing that their binding causes a decrease in lateral mobility.

  6. Social Mobility and Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, S. M.

    Social mobility is generally studied in three different ways: stratum mobility, intergenerational social mobility, and intragenerational or career mobility. This paper deals with the first two types of mobility and more with intergenerational mobility than with stratum mobility. The working hypothesis of both discussions is that, in general, a…

  7. Accessibility: Maximum Mobility and Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyser, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Describes how to design school and university labs to comply with Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) standards, focusing on counter height for students in wheelchairs; appropriate knee space and sink height in sink areas; ADA-compliant fume hoods; accessible laboratory doors and entryways; and safety concerns (e.g., emergency eyewash stations…

  8. Mobile systems capability plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This plan was prepared to initiate contracting for and deployment of these mobile system services. 102,000 cubic meters of retrievable, contact-handled TRU waste are stored at many sites around the country. Also, an estimated 38,000 cubic meters of TRU waste will be generated in the course of waste inventory workoff and continuing DOE operations. All the defense TRU waste is destined for disposal in WIPP near Carlsbad NM. To ship TRU waste there, sites must first certify that the waste meets WIPP waste acceptance criteria. The waste must be characterized, and if not acceptable, subjected to additional processing, including repackaging. Most sites plan to use existing fixed facilities or open new ones between FY1997-2006 to perform these functions; small-quantity sites lack this capability. An alternative to fixed facilities is the use of mobile systems mounted in trailers or skids, and transported to sites. Mobile systems will be used for all characterization and certification at small sites; large sites can also use them. The Carlsbad Area Office plans to pursue a strategy of privatization of mobile system services, since this offers a number of advantages. To indicate the possible magnitude of the costs of deploying mobile systems, preliminary estimates of equipment, maintenance, and operating costs over a 10-year period were prepared and options for purchase, lease, and privatization through fixed-price contracts considered.

  9. 8. UPPER INSIDE CHORD, VERTICAL, LATERAL STRUT, UPPER LATERAL & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. UPPER INSIDE CHORD, VERTICAL, LATERAL STRUT, UPPER LATERAL & GUSSET PLATE, ONE DIAGONAL BRACE - Enterprise Parker Truss Bridge, Spanning Smoky Hill River on K-43 Highway, Enterprise, Dickinson County, KS

  10. 7. UPPER INSIDE CHORD, VERTICAL, LATERAL STRUT, UPPER LATERAL & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. UPPER INSIDE CHORD, VERTICAL, LATERAL STRUT, UPPER LATERAL & GUSSET PLATE, TWO DIAGONAL BRACES - Enterprise Parker Truss Bridge, Spanning Smoky Hill River on K-43 Highway, Enterprise, Dickinson County, KS

  11. The effects of mobilization with movement on dorsiflexion range of motion, dynamic balance, and self-reported function in individuals with chronic ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Gilbreath, Julie P; Gaven, Stacey L; Van Lunen, L; Hoch, Matthew C

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have examined the effectiveness of a manual therapy intervention known as Mobilization with Movement (MWM) to increase dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) in individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI). While a single talocrural MWM treatment has increased dorsiflexion ROM in these individuals, examining the effects of multiple treatments on dorsiflexion ROM, dynamic balance, and self-reported function would enhance the clinical application of this intervention. This study sought to determine if three treatment sessions of talocrural MWM would improve dorsiflexion ROM, Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) reach distances, and self-reported function using the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) in individuals with CAI. Eleven participants with CAI (5 Males, 6 Females, age: 21.5 ± 2.2 years, weight: 83.9 ± 15.6 kg, height: 177.7 ± 10.9 cm, Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool: 17.5 ± 4.2) volunteered in this repeated-measures study. Subjects received three MWM treatments over one week. Weight-bearing dorsiflexion ROM (cm), normalized SEBT reach distances (%), and self-reported function (%) were assessed one week before the intervention (baseline), prior to the first MWM treatment (pre-intervention), and 24–48 h following the final treatment (post-intervention). No significant changes were identified in dorsiflexion ROM, SEBT reach distances, or the FAAM-Activities of Daily Living scale (p > 0.05). Significant changes were identified on the FAAM-Sport (p = 0.01). FAAM-Sport scores were significantly greater post-intervention (86.82 ± 9.18%) compared to baseline (77.27 ± 11.09%; p = 0.01) and pre-intervention (79.82 ± 13.45%; p = 0.04). These results indicate the MWM intervention did not improve dorsiflexion ROM, dynamic balance, or patient-centered measures of activities of daily living. However, MWM did improve patient-centered measures of sport-related activities in individuals with CAI. PMID:24834500

  12. Lateral Flow Immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Ching, Kathryn H

    2015-01-01

    Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) are a staple in the field of rapid diagnostics. These small handheld devices require no specialized training or equipment to operate, and generate a result within minutes of sample application. They are an ideal format for many types of home test kits, for emergency responders and for food manufacturers and producers looking for a quick evaluation of a given sample. LFIAs rely on high quality monoclonal antibodies that recognize the analyte of interest. As monoclonal antibody technology becomes more accessible to smaller laboratories, there has been increased interest in developing LFIA prototypes for potential commercial manufacture. In this chapter, the basics of designing and building an LFIA prototype are described. PMID:26160571

  13. LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS OF THE ELBOW

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Marcio; da Rocha Motta Filho, Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is a common condition that is estimated to affect 1% to 3% of the population. The word epicondylitis suggests inflammation, although histological analysis on the tissue fails to show any inflammatory process. The structure most commonly affected is the origin of the tendon of the extensor carpi radialis brevis and the mechanism of injury is associated with overloading. Nonsurgical treatment is the preferred method, and this includes rest, physiotherapy, cortisone infiltration, platelet-rich plasma injections and use of specific immobilization. Surgical treatment is recommended when functional disability and pain persist. Both the open and the arthroscopic surgical technique with resection of the degenerated tendon tissue present good results in the literature. PMID:27047843

  14. Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 1–Sirtuin 1 Functional Interplay Regulates LPS-Mediated High Mobility Group Box 1 Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Walko, Thomas D; Di Caro, Valentina; Piganelli, Jon; Billiar, Timothy R; Clark, Robert SB; Aneja, Rajesh K

    2014-01-01

    Pathophysiological conditions that lead to the release of the prototypic damage-associated molecular pattern molecule high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) also result in activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1; now known as ADP-ribosyl transferase 1 [ARTD1]). Persistent activation of PARP1 promotes energy failure and cell death. The role of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in HMGB1 release has been explored previously; however, PARP1 is a versatile enzyme and performs several other functions including cross-talk with another nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide- (NAD+) dependent member of the Class III histone deacetylases (HDACs), sirtuin-1 (SIRT1). Previously, it has been shown that the hyperacetylation of HMGB1 is a seminal event prior to its secretion, a process that also is dependent on HDACs. Therefore, in this study, we seek to determine if PARP1 inhibition alters LPS-mediated HMGB1 hyperacetylation and subsequent secretion due to its effect on SIRT1. We demonstrate in an in vitro model that LPS treatment leads to hyperacetylated HMGB1 with concomitant reduction in nuclear HDAC activity. Treatment with PARP1 inhibitors mitigates the LPS-mediated reduction in nuclear HDAC activity and decreases HMGB1 acetylation. By utilizing an NAD+-based mechanism, PARP1 inhibition increases the activity of SIRT1. Consequently, there is an increased nuclear retention and decreased extracellular secretion of HMGB1. We also demonstrate that PARP1 physically interacts with SIRT1. Further confirmation of this data was obtained in a murine model of sepsis, that is, administration of PJ-34, a specific PARP1 inhibitor, led to decreased serum HMGB1 concentrations in mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) as compared with untreated mice. In conclusion, our study provides new insights in understanding the molecular mechanisms of HMGB1 secretion in sepsis. PMID:25517228

  15. Prokaryotic homologs of Argonaute proteins are predicted to function as key components of a novel system of defense against mobile genetic elements

    PubMed Central

    Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; van der Oost, John; Koonin, Eugene V

    2009-01-01

    pAgo genes, and their common, statistically significant over-representation in genomic neighborhoods enriched in genes encoding proteins involved in the defense against phages and/or plasmids, we hypothesize that pAgos are key components of a novel class of defense systems. The PAZ-domain containing pAgos are predicted to directly destroy virus or plasmid nucleic acids via their nuclease activity, whereas the apparently inactivated, PAZ-lacking pAgos could be structural subunits of protein complexes that contain, as active moieties, the putative nucleases that we predict to be co-expressed with these pAgos. All these nucleases are predicted to be DNA endonucleases, so it seems most probable that the putative novel phage/plasmid-defense system targets phage DNA rather than mRNAs. Given that in eukaryotic RNAi systems, the PAZ domain binds a guide RNA and positions it on the complementary region of the target, we further speculate that pAgos function on a similar principle (the guide being either DNA or RNA), and that the uncharacterized domain found in putative operons with the short forms of pAgos is a functional substitute for the PAZ domain. Conclusion The hypothesis that pAgos are key components of a novel prokaryotic immune system that employs guide RNA or DNA molecules to degrade nucleic acids of invading mobile elements implies a functional analogy with the prokaryotic CASS and a direct evolutionary connection with eukaryotic RNAi. The predictions of the hypothesis including both the activities of pAgos and those of the associated endonucleases are readily amenable to experimental tests. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Daniel Haft, Martijn Huynen, and Chris Ponting. PMID:19706170

  16. Mobile Customer Relationship Management and Mobile Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanayei, Ali; Mirzaei, Abas

    The purpose of this study is twofold. First, in order to guarantee a coherent discussion about mobile customer relationship management (mCRM), this paper presents a conceptualization of mCRM delineating its unique characteristics because of Among the variety of mobile services, considerable attention has been devoted to mobile marketing and in particular to mobile customer relationship management services. Second, the authors discusses the security risks in mobile computing in different level(user, mobile device, wireless network,...) and finally we focus on enterprise mobile security and it's subgroups with a series of suggestion and solution for improve mobile computing security.

  17. Lateral root development in the maize (Zea mays) lateral rootless1 mutant

    PubMed Central

    Husakova, Eva; Hochholdinger, Frank; Soukup, Ales

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The maize lrt1 (lateral rootless1) mutant is impaired in its development of lateral roots during early post-embryonic development. The aim of this study was to characterize, in detail, the influences that the mutation exerts on lateral root initiation and the subsequent developments, as well as to describe the behaviour of the entire plant under variable environmental conditions. Methods Mutant lrt1 plants were cultivated under different conditions of hydroponics, and in between sheets of moist paper. Cleared whole mounts and anatomical sections were used in combination with both selected staining procedures and histochemical tests to follow root development. Root surface permeability tests and the biochemical quantification of lignin were performed to complement the structural data. Key Results The data presented suggest a redefinition of lrt1 function in lateral roots as a promoter of later development; however, neither the complete absence of lateral roots nor the frequency of their initiation is linked to lrt1 function. The developmental effects of lrt1 are under strong environmental influences. Mutant primordia are affected in structure, growth and emergence; and the majority of primordia terminate their growth during this last step, or shortly thereafter. The lateral roots are impaired in the maintenance of the root apical meristem. The primary root shows disturbances in the organization of both epidermal and subepidermal layers. The lrt1-related cell-wall modifications include: lignification in peripheral layers, the deposition of polyphenolic substances and a higher activity of peroxidase. Conclusions The present study provides novel insights into the function of the lrt1 gene in root system development. The lrt1 gene participates in the spatial distribution of initiation, but not in its frequency. Later, the development of lateral roots is strongly affected. The effect of the lrt1 mutation is not as obvious in the primary root, with no

  18. Confessions of a Schoolman--On Dyslexia and Laterality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Che Kan

    1984-01-01

    The paper relates early work of Samuel Orton on cerebral dominance to current neuropsychological concepts of laterality as reciprocal functions of the two cerebral hemispheres. The genetic-cultural perspectives of laterality and functional asymmetry in relation to learning disorders are discussed. (Author/CL)

  19. Laterally oscillating nitinol engine

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, R.

    1987-09-08

    This patent describes a laterally oscillating nitinol engine comprising: a first L-shaped drive member journalled for pivoting horizontal oscillation about the juncture of the legs of the L-shaped member, a second drive member journalled for pivoting about a point proximate the outboard end of the shorter leg of the L-shaped member at a distance from the pivot journal of the L-shaped member, a bearing block secured to the end of longer leg of the L-shaped and having a guide hole. The second member extending through the guide hole and arranged to reciprocate therein, a shape memory alloy power element disposed in flexure secured at its ends to the bearing block and to the second member intermediate the sliding connection with the bearing block and the pivotal connection of the second member, means for disposing different temperature baths below the element whereby as the drive members oscillate about their journals the element alternately dips into one bath and then the other, and means for absorbing a portion of the energy developed by the engine and moving the power element from the cold bath to the hot bath.

  20. Lateralization of cognitive processes in the brain.

    PubMed

    Hugdahl, K

    2000-12-01

    The lateralization of cognitive processes in the brain is discussed. The traditional view of a language-visuo/spatial dichotomy of function between the hemispheres has been replaced by more subtle distinctions. The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study brain morphology has resulted in a renewed focus on the relationship between structural and functional asymmetry. Focus has been on the role played by the planum temporale area in the posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus for language asymmetry, and the possible significance of the larger left planum. The dichotic listening technique is used to illustrate the difference between bottom-up, or stimulus-driven laterality versus top-down, or instruction-driven laterality. It is suggested that the hemispheric dominance observed at any time is the sum result of the dynamic interaction between bottom-up and top-down processing tendencies. Stimulus-driven laterality dominance is always monitored and modulated through top-down cognitive processes, like shifting of attention and changes in arousal. A model of top-down modulation of bottom-up laterality is presented with special reference to the understanding of psychiatric disorders. PMID:11194413

  1. Doping dependence and anisotropy of minority electron mobility in molecular beam epitaxy-grown p type GaInP

    SciTech Connect

    Haegel, N. M.; Christian, T.; Norman, A. G.; Mascarenhas, A.; Scandrett, C.; Misra, Pranob; Liu, Ting; Sukiasyan, Arsen; Pickett, Evan; Yuen, Homan

    2014-11-17

    Direct imaging of minority electron transport via the spatially resolved recombination luminescence signature has been used to determine carrier diffusion lengths in GaInP as a function of doping. Minority electron mobility values are determined by performing time resolved photoluminescence measurements of carrier lifetime on the same samples. Values at 300 K vary from ∼2000 to 400 cm{sup 2}/V s and decrease with increasing doping. Anisotropic diffusion lengths and strongly polarized photoluminescence are observed, resulting from lateral composition modulation along the [110] direction. We report anisotropic mobility values associated with carrier transport parallel and perpendicular to the modulation direction.

  2. ALFF Value in Right Parahippocampal Gyrus Acts as a Potential Marker Monitoring Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Progression: a Neuropsychological, Voxel-Based Morphometry, and Resting-State Functional MRI Study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenjia; Fu, Xiaoling; Cui, Fang; Yang, Fei; Ren, Yuting; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Xiaolan; Chen, Zhaohui; Ling, Li; Huang, Xusheng

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze cognitive impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Forty-four participants matched for age, sex, and educational background were enrolled as the sporadic ALS group (n = 22) and the control group (n = 22). All participants completed comprehensive neuropsychological tests, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), the Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (SCWT), the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and the Frontal Assessment Battery. The participants underwent a series of 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Resting-state functional MRI (Rs-fMRI) using the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) was performed. Three-dimensional T1-weighted anatomical images obtained by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) were used to conduct correlation analyses and group comparisons with the demographic and neuropsychological characteristics. The results indicated that the decreased gray matter (GM) volume in the bilateral precentral gyri and increased ALFF values in the right parahippocampal gyrus, left inferior temporal gyrus, left anterior cingulate gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus, and left middle occipital gyrus were identified in the sporadic ALS group. The increased ALFF value in the right parahippocampal gyrus was positively correlated with ALS progression rate. The ALS patients exhibited poor performances on cognitive and executive tests, which were significantly or marginally significantly correlated with the ALFF values in the anterior cingulate gyrus and the frontal, temporal, and parahippocampal cortices. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence of an extramotor involvement and suggest that the ALFF value in the right parahippocampal gyrus could represent a potential marker to monitor disease progression. PMID:26041566

  3. Diamond heteroepitaxial lateral overgrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yung-Hsiu

    This dissertation describes improvements in the growth of single crystal diamond by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Heteroepitaxial (001) diamond was grown on 1 cm. 2 a-plane sapphiresubstrates using an epitaxial (001) Ir thin-film as a buffer layer. Low-energy ion bombardment of the Ir layer, a process known as bias-enhanced nucleation, is a key step in achieving a high density of diamond nuclei. Bias conditions were optimized to form uniformly-high nucleation densities across the substrates, which led to well-coalesced diamond thin films after short growth times. Epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) was used as a means of decreasing diamond internal stress by impeding the propagation of threading dislocations into the growing material. Its use in diamond growth requires adaptation to the aggressive chemical and thermal environment of the hydrogen plasma in a CVD reactor. Three ELO variants were developed. The most successful utilized a gold (Au) mask prepared by vacuum evaporation onto the surface of a thin heteroepitaxial diamond layer. The Au mask pattern, a series of parallel stripes on the micrometer scale, was produced by standard lift-off photolithography. When diamond overgrows the mask, dislocations are largely confined to the substrate. Differing degrees of confinement were studied by varying the stripe geometry and orientation. Significant improvement in diamond quality was found in the overgrown regions, as evidenced by reduction of the Raman scattering linewidth. The Au layer was found to remain intact during diamond overgrowth and did not chemically bond with the diamond surface. Besides impeding the propagation of threading dislocations, it was discovered that the thermally-induced stress in the CVD diamond was significantly reduced as a result of the ductile Au layer. Cracking and delamination of the diamond from the substrate was mostly eliminated. When diamond was grown to thicknesses above 0.1 mm it was found that

  4. Thinking laterally about genomes.

    PubMed

    Ragan, Mark A

    2009-10-01

    Perhaps the most-surprising discovery of the genome era has been the extent to which prokaryotic and many eukaryotic genomes incorporate genetic material from sources other than their parent(s). Lateral genetic transfer (LGT) among bacteria was first observed about 100 years ago, and is now accepted to underlie important phenomena including the spread of antibiotic resistance and ability to degrade xenobiotics. LGT is invoked, perhaps too readily, to explain a breadth of awkward data including compositional heterogeneity of genomes, disagreement among gene-sequence trees, and mismatch between physiology and systematics. At the same time many details of LGT remain unknown or controversial, and some key questions have scarcely been asked. Here I critically review what we think we know about the existence, extent, mechanism and impact of LGT; identify important open questions; and point to research directions that hold particular promise for elucidating the role of LGT in genome evolution. Evidence for LGT in nature is not only inferential but also direct, and potential vectors are ubiquitous. Genetic material can pass between diverse habitats and be significantly altered during residency in viruses, complicating the inference of donors, In prokaryotes about twice as many genes are interrupted by LGT as are transferred intact, and about 5Short protein domains can be privileged units of transfer. Unresolved phylogenetic issues include the correct null hypothesis, and genes as units of analysis. Themes are beginning to emerge regarding the effect of LGT on cellular networks, but I show why generalization is premature. LGT can associate with radical changes in physiology and ecological niche. Better quantitative models of genome evolution are needed, and theoretical frameworks remain to be developed for some observations including chromosome assembly by LGT. PMID:20180279

  5. Laterally-stacked, solution-processed organic microcrystal with ambipolar charge transport behavior.

    PubMed

    Shim, Hyunseok; Kumar, Amit; Cho, Hyejin; Yang, Dongmyung; Palai, Akshaya K; Pyo, Seungmoon

    2014-10-22

    We report the formation of laterally stacked ambipolar crystal wire for high-mobility organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), along with a simple logic circuit through a solution process. A soluble pentacene derivative, 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (Tips-pentacene), and N,N'-dioctyl-3,4,9,10-perylenedicarboximide (PTCDI-C8) were used as p-type and n-type organic semiconductors, respectively. The laterally stacked ambipolar crystal wire is made up of Tips-pentacene and PTCDI-C8 crystals in a structure of Tips-pentacene/PTCDI-C8/Tips-pentacene (TPT). The inner part of the crystal is made up of PTCDI-C8, and Tips-pentacene is present on both sides. These TPT crystals exhibit typical ambipolar charge transport behavior in organic electronic devices, which show very balanced hole and electron mobility as high as 0.23 cm(2)/V·s and 0.13 cm(2)/V·s, respectively. Static and dynamic operational stability of the device is investigated by measuring the device performance as a function of storage time and applying voltage pulse, respectively, and it shows good air stability. In addition, a simple logic circuit based on the TPT crystal wire has been fabricated, and the static and dynamic performance has been evaluated. The results indicate that the TPT crystals are potentially useful for miniaturized organic electronic devices. PMID:25244525

  6. Gene transfer as a strategy to achieve permanent cardioprotection II: rAAV-mediated gene therapy with heme oxygenase-1 limits infarct size 1 year later without adverse functional consequences

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qianhong; Guo, Yiru; Ou, Qinghui; Wu, Wen-Jian; Chen, Ning; Zhu, Xiaoping; Tan, Wei; Yuan, Fangping; Dawn, Buddhadeb; Luo, Li; Hunt, Gregory N.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) exerts potent cytoprotective effects in response to stress. Previous studies have shown that gene therapy with HO-1 protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury for up to 8 weeks after gene transfer. However, the long-term effects of HO-1 gene therapy on myocardial ischemic injury and function are unknown. To address this issue, we created a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector carrying the HO-1 gene (rAAV/HO-1) that enables long-lasting transgene expression. Mice received injections in the anterior LV wall of rAAV/LacZ (LacZ group) or rAAV/HO-1 (HO-1 group); 1 year later, they were subjected to a 30-min coronary occlusion (O) and 4 h of reperfusion (R). Cardiac HO-1 gene expression was confirmed at 1 month and 1 year after gene transfer by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry analyses. In the HO-1 group, infarct size (% of risk region) was dramatically reduced at 1 year after gene transfer (11.2 ± 2.1%, n = 12, vs. 44.7 ± 3.6%, n = 8, in the LacZ group; P < 0.05). The infarct-sparing effects of HO-1 gene therapy at 1 year were as powerful as those observed 24 h after ischemic PC (six 4-min O/4-min R cycles) (15.0 ± 1.7%, n = 10). There were no appreciable changes in LV fractional shortening, LV ejection fraction, or LV end-diastolic or end-systolic diameter at 1 year after HO-1 gene transfer as compared to the age-matched controls or with the LacZ group. Histology showed no inflammation in the myocardium 1 year after rAAV/