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Sample records for latin-america current situation

  1. Current situation of pests targeted by Bt crops in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Blanco, C A; Chiaravalle, W; Dalla-Rizza, M; Farias, J R; García-Degano, M F; Gastaminza, G; Mota-Sánchez, D; Murúa, M G; Omoto, C; Pieralisi, B K; Rodríguez, J; Rodríguez-Maciel, J C; Terán-Santofimio, H; Terán-Vargas, A P; Valencia, S J; Willink, E

    2016-06-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis- (Bt) insecticidal proteins (Bt crops) have provided useful pest management tools to growers for the past 20 years. Planting Bt crops has reduced the use of synthetic insecticides on cotton, maize and soybean fields in 11 countries throughout Latin America. One of the threats that could jeopardize the sustainability of Bt crops is the development of resistance by targeted pests. Governments of many countries require vigilance in measuring changes in Bt-susceptibility in order to proactively implement corrective measures before Bt-resistance is widespread, thus prolonging the usefulness of Bt crops. A pragmatic approach to obtain information on the effectiveness of Bt-crops is directly asking growers, crop consultants and academics about Bt-resistance problems in agricultural fields, first-hand information that not necessarily relies on susceptibility screens performed in laboratories. This type of information is presented in this report. Problematic pests of cotton and soybeans in five Latin American countries currently are effectively controlled by Bt crops. Growers that plant conventional (non-Bt) cotton or soybeans have to spray synthetic insecticides against multiple pests that otherwise are controlled by these Bt crops. A similar situation has been observed in six Latin American countries where Bt maize is planted. No synthetic insecticide applications are used to control corn pests because they are controlled by Bt maize, with the exception of Spodoptera frugiperda. While this insect in some countries is still effectively controlled by Bt maize, in others resistance has evolved and necessitates supplemental insecticide applications and/or the use of Bt maize cultivars that express multiple Bt proteins. Partial control of S. frugiperda in certain countries is due to its natural tolerance to the Bt bacterium. Of the 31 pests targeted and controlled by Bt crops in Latin America, only S. frugiperda has shown

  2. Epidemiology in Latin America and the Caribbean: current situation and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Sandhi M; Miranda, Jaime J; Figueroa, J Peter; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Munoz, Sergio; Kuri-Morales, P Pablo; Silva, Jarbas B

    2012-01-01

    Background This article analyses the epidemiological research developments in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). It integrates the series commissioned by the International Epidemiological Association to all WHO Regions to identify global opportunities to promote the development of epidemiology. Methods Health situations of the regions were analysed based on published data on selected mortality, morbidity and risk factors. Epidemiological publication output by country was estimated by Medline bibliometrics. Internet and literature searches and data provided by key informants were used to describe perspectives on epidemiological training, research and funding. Findings Despite important advances in recent decades, LAC remains the world's most unequal region. In 2010, 10% of the LAC's people still lived in conditions of multidimensional poverty, with huge variation among countries. The region has experienced fast and complex epidemiological changes in past decades, combining increasing rates of non-communicable diseases and injuries, and keeping uncontrolled many existing endemic and emerging diseases. Overall, epidemiological publications per year increased from 160 articles between 1961 and 1970 to 2492 between 2001 and 2010. The increase in papers per million inhabitants in the past three decades varied from 57% in Panama to 1339% in Paraguay. Universities are the main epidemiological training providers. There are at least 34 universities and other institutions in the region that offer postgraduate programmes at the master’s and doctoral levels in epidemiology or public health. Most LAC countries rely largely on external funding and donors to initiate and sustain long-term research efforts. Despite the limited resources, the critical mass of LAC researchers has produced significant scientific contributions. Future needs The health research panorama of the region shows enormous regional discrepancies, but great prospects. Improving research and human resources

  3. Voluntary reduction of trans-fatty acids in Latin America and the Caribbean: current situation.

    PubMed

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Jacoby, Enrique; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2011-02-01

    As part of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization Trans-Fat-Free Americas initiative, 12 representatives from food industries in Latin America and the Caribbean signed a declaration stating their intention to voluntarily eliminate industrially produced trans-fatty acids (TFA) from the Americas. A year later, in order to document the extent of the voluntary reduction, each declarant was asked to describe all reformulations and reductions in the TFA content of their products. After up to six requests for data, only three declarants provided such information in detail, and three others offered an overall summary of their reformulations. Additionally, three declarants reported the barriers that limit this process: availability of oil substitutes, cost, and consumers' sensory acceptance. The content of TFA and saturated fat in the food supply in the Americas should be regulated and strictly monitored in order to adequately evaluate a reduction of TFA in the region. PMID:21437370

  4. The current situation of meningococcal disease in Latin America and updated Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) recommendations.

    PubMed

    Sáfadi, Marco Aurélio P; O'Ryan, Miguel; Valenzuela Bravo, Maria Teresa; Brandileone, Maria Cristina C; Gorla, Maria Cecília O; de Lemos, Ana Paula S; Moreno, Gabriela; Vazquez, Julio A; López, Eduardo L; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Borrow, Ray

    2015-11-27

    The Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) was established in 2009 and comprises an international team of scientists, clinicians, and public health officials with expertise in meningococcal disease (MD). Its primary goal is to promote global prevention of MD through education, research, international cooperation, and developing recommendations that include decreasing the burden of severe disease. The group held its first roundtable meeting with experts from Latin American countries in 2011, and subsequently proposed several recommendations to reduce the regional burden of MD. A second roundtable meeting was convened with Latin American representatives in June 2013 to reassess MD epidemiology, vaccination strategies, and unmet needs in the region, as well as to update the earlier recommendations. Special emphasis was placed on the emergence and spread of serogroup W disease in Argentina and Chile, and the control measures put in place in Chile were a particular focus of discussions. The impact of routine meningococcal vaccination programs, notably in Brazil, was also evaluated. There have been considerable improvements in MD surveillance systems and diagnostic techniques in some countries (e.g., Brazil and Chile), but the lack of adequate infrastructure, trained personnel, and equipment/reagents remains a major barrier to progress in resource-poor countries. The Pan American Health Organization's Revolving Fund is likely to play an important role in improving access to meningococcal vaccines in Latin America. Additional innovative approaches are needed to redress the imbalance in expertise and resources between countries, and thereby improve the control of MD. In Latin America, the GMI recommends establishment of a detailed and comprehensive national/regional surveillance system, standardization of laboratory procedures, adoption of a uniform MD case definition, maintaining laboratory-based surveillance, replacement of polysaccharide vaccines with conjugate

  5. Current status of carbapenemases in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Maya, Juan J; Ruiz, Sory J; Blanco, Victor M; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Labarca, Jaime; Salles, Mauro; Quinn, John P; Villegas, Maria V

    2013-07-01

    Enterobacteriaceae and non fermenting Gram-negative bacilli have become a threat to public health, in part due to their resistance to multiple antibiotic classes, which ultimately have led to an increase in morbidity and mortality. β-lactams are currently the mainstay for combating infections caused by these microorganisms, and β-lactamases are the major mechanism of resistance to this class of antibiotics. Within the β-lactamases, carbapenemases pose one of the gravest threats, as they compromise one of our most potent lines of defense, the carbapenems. Carbapenemases are being continuously identified worldwide; and in Latin America, numerous members of these enzymes have been reported. In this region, the high incidence of reports implies that carbapenemases have become a menace and that they are an issue that must be carefully studied and analyzed. PMID:23879607

  6. Five Studies on the Situation of Women in Latin America. Estudios e Informes de la CEPAL. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Commission for Latin America (UN), Santiago (Chile).

    Five studies on the situation of women in Latin America focus on (1) the integration of women in development, (2) the family as the immediate social framework of children and women, (3) some types of poor women in Latin America, (4) the educational situation of women, and (5) women in development and housework. An introductory section outlining…

  7. Current trends in Latin America and the Argentine perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Laredo, V.G.

    1992-12-31

    The authors discusses the changes that are taking place in Argentina as well as in all of Latin America today -- privatization, deregulation, and the modernization of the economy, changes which will serve to strengthen the governments and provide a better quality of life for all of them. He gives an insight into the factors which helped bring about these changes, the support they are receiving, the problems which persist, and the measures that still must be taken so that these positive changes remain in place. He offers some useful information that will perhaps contribute to their understanding of the vast area which he refers to as Latin America, and more specifically, gives a thumbnail sketch of what is happening today in the Republic of Argentina. For many years now, Latin American leaders have travelled to other parts of the world and spoken about the plans and expectations for the region`s future. When these well-intentioned projects and plans never materialized, partners and supporters in the United States and other countries were frustrated and disappointed by the failure to make things work. The author`s intention here today is to describe things as they are, not as they might be, to tell about what is already happening in the sphere of business and growth of the economies in Latin America.

  8. [Latin America's general situation and its impact on maternal-child health].

    PubMed

    Quezada Aliff, T

    1989-01-01

    Latin America's current economic, social, and political situation is characterized by significantly deteriorating exchange rates, increasing inflation in most countries, and increases in unemployment and underemployment. The additional effects of the crushing external debt and its conditions of renegotiation cannot fail to effect the health of the most vulnerable population groups, women and children. The crisis is affecting middle income as well as low income groups. Latin America as a whole underwent impressive economic growth and modernization through the late 1970s. Most countries were transformed from agrarian to urban-industrial societies with growth in their secondary and tertiary sectors stimulating social mobility. But problems of unequal income distribution, increasing absolute numbers of poor including 51.3 million under 15, and insufficient demand for labor continue to plague the region. Substantial improvements were made in both health status and health care delivery through the late 1970s in most of the region, but the prolonged economic crisis of the 1980s has led among other things to decreasing governmental expenditures for social services, cuts in food subsidies, decreased social spending per capita, and deteriorating basic infrastructure and health and educational services. Declining quality and quantity of health services have been accompanied by a growing trend to private services as a way of decreasing government expenditures even further. It is possible that the health indicators currently in use do not adequately reflect the total consequences of the economic crisis. Health conditions do not depend on the situation of the moment but on a certain accumulated social capital. Moreover, massive vaccination programs and other campaigns sponsored by international and national organizations have continued despite the crisis. Limitations in the timeliness and quality of data may obscure the true gravity of the health situation. Studies in the region

  9. Situation and Prospects of Youth in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Economic and Social Council, New York, NY.

    The report examines the situation, prospects, and needs of Latin American youth in the context of changes which the region has undergone in recent decades and in the face of difficulties of the present and future. The report is divided into 11 sections, each containing 2 to 4 subtopics. The sections include: "Demographic Structure and Youth"; "The…

  10. Applicability of the current hypertension guidelines in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Alcocer, Luis; Meaney, Eduardo; Hernandez-Hernandez, Hector

    2015-08-01

    Recent research has focused on the development of evidence-based guidelines that are intended to regulate the conduct of physicians in the diagnosis and control of hypertension, with the goal of achieving greater effectiveness and equity at the lowest possible cost. In Latin America, guidelines are available for the management of hypertension at three levels: national, regional and international. The national and regional Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) guidelines are in fact adaptations of the international guidelines. The potential benefit of applying guidelines developed in other regions to local healthcare decision making is that it will enable decision makers to take advantage of existing analyses and transfer or adapt them to their local contexts. However, this adaptation precludes the assessment of their generalizability and potential transferability. In addition, this region is characterized by wide socioeconomic differences between its inhabitants, both among and within nations. Therefore, new guidelines for the LAC region must include recommendations that are common to all hypertensive patients in the region. Moreover, we advocate the inclusion of a specific section that makes comprehensive recommendations and provides strategies for implementation according to the socioeconomic conditions of particular groups. In addition to developing guidelines that are truly applicable to the LAC region, it seems sensible to consider information that is specific to this region. Furthermore, developing evidence-based guidelines is not enough to affect positively the burden of disease caused by hypertension. Therefore, professional programs are required for the implementation of such guidelines as well as the auditing of their results. Achieving these ambitious goals will require collaborative efforts by many groups including policymakers, international organizations, healthcare providers, universities and society. PMID:26088410

  11. TP53 mutations as biomarkers for cancer epidemiology in Latin America: current knowledge and perspectives.

    PubMed

    de Moura Gallo, Claudia Vitória; Azevedo E Silva Mendonça, Gulnar; de Moraes, Emanuela; Olivier, Magali; Hainaut, Pierre

    2005-05-01

    Due to particular social and economical development, and to the impact of globalization of lifestyles, Latin America shows a superposition of cancers that are frequent in low resource countries (gastric, oesophageal squamous cell and cervical cancers) and high resource countries (cancers of breast, colon and rectum, lung and prostate). Latin America thus offers opportunities for investigating the impact on changing lifestyle patterns on the occurrence of cancer. At the molecular level, mutations in the tumor suppressor gene TP53 are common in many cancers and their distribution can be informative of the nature of the mutagenic mechanisms, thus giving clues to cancer etiology and molecular pathogenesis. However most of the data available are derived from studies in industrialized countries. In this review, we discuss current trends on cancer occurrence in Latin American countries, and we review the literature available on TP53 mutations and polymorphisms in patients from Latin America. Overall, a total of 285 mutations have been described in 1213 patients in 20 publications, representing 1.5% of the total number of mutations reported world-wide. Except for hematological cancers, TP53 mutation frequencies are similar to those reported in other regions of the world. The only tumor site presenting significant differences in mutation pattern as compared to other parts of the world is colon and rectum. However, this difference is based on a single study with 35 patients. Recently, a characteristic TP53 mutation at codon 337 (R337H) has been identified in the germline of children with adrenocortical carcinoma in Southern Brazil. Further and better focused analyses of TP53 mutation patterns in the context of epidemiological studies, should help to improve our understanding of cancer etiology in order to develop appropriate health policies and public health programs in Latin America. PMID:15878142

  12. The current status of ethnobiological research in Latin America: gaps and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent reviews have demonstrated an increase in the number of papers on ethnobiology in Latin America. Among factors that have influenced this increase are the biological and cultural diversity of these countries and the general scientific situation in some countries. This study aims to assess the panorama of ethnobiological research in Latin America by analyzing its evolution, trends, and future prospects. Methods To conduct this study, we searched for papers in the Scopus (http://www.scopus.com) and Web of Science (http://www.isiknowledge.com) databases. The search was performed using combinations of keywords and the name of each Latin American country. The following countries were included in this study: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Venezuela, and Uruguay. Results and conclusions According to our inclusion criteria, 679 ethnobiological studies conducted in Latin America were found for the period between 1963 and 2012. Of these studies, 289 (41%) were conducted in Brazil, 153 in Mexico (22%), 61 in Peru (9%), 58 in Argentina (8%), 45 in Bolivia (6%), and 97 (14%) in other Latin American countries. The increased number of publications related to this area of knowledge in recent years demonstrates the remarkable growth of ethnobiology as a science. Ethnobiological research may be stimulated by an increase in the number of scientific events and journals for study dissemination and by the creation of undergraduate courses and graduate programs to train ethnoscientists who will produce high-quality studies, especially in certain countries. PMID:24131758

  13. Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soni, P. Sarita, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This serial issue features 6 members of the Indiana University System faculty who have focused their research on Latin America, past and present. The first article, "A Literature of Their Own," highlights Darlene Sadlier's research on Brazilian women's fiction and poetry that has led to an interest in the interplay of Brazilian and Portuguese…

  14. The current status of abortion laws in Latin America: prospects and strategies for change.

    PubMed

    Boland, Reed

    1993-01-01

    In order to explore ways of dealing with this phenomenon of illegal abortions and restrictive abortion laws in Latin America, several special sessions were held at last summer's international conference in Toronto, sponsored by the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics. The sessions brought together lawyers, health professionals, and reproductive rights advocates from a number of Latin American countries; their counterparts in the developed world; and representatives of non-governmental agencies concerned with this issue, including Catholics for a Free Choice. The goal of the sessions was to share information on the status of abortion in various countries and to try to devise strategies to make abortion law reform more palatable to Latin American governments and public opinion. One major component of the sessions was a series of papers prepared by some of the Latin American representatives describing and analyzing the situations in their countries. The papers illustrate some of the issues facing women in this part of the world. PMID:11652125

  15. Current challenges and future perspectives in the field of addiction psychiatry in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Attas, Javier Didia; de Pabón, Elvia Velázquez; Cueva, Rafael Navarro

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a brief review of the addictions field in Latin America. Epidemiology, legal aspects, dual pathology, treatment, prevention and future directions are discussed. This increasing disease is one of the major contributors for mental health problems in the region. Efforts have been made in treatment and prevention but results and budgets are scarce. Dual pathology, new modalities such as injected heroin in countries such as Colombia, low coverage of programmes, training resources, research and publications are important challenges. The tendency to liberalize legal terms of use would require more effort for prevention and education. Based on relevant literature and a long and current experience in the area, the authors summarize this important theme. PMID:20874064

  16. Current status and future perspectives for psychiatry/mental health research in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Carla; Tohen, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    Working towards mentally healthy societies is fundamental for Latin American countries, in order to keep the pace of development. Although awareness about the importance of mental health research is increasing in Latin America, the mismatch between needs and investment (the 10/90 gap) is still present. During recent years, many initiatives have been fostered to promote mental health research in the region. This paper summarizes the information collected through those efforts, in addition to presenting the current state of research in the field of psychiatry and mental health in Latin American countries. Future perspectives for the field in the region are discussed in terms of funding, research priorities and research resources, as well as the potential of Latin American countries to insert themselves within global psychiatry/mental health research efforts. PMID:20874069

  17. Focus: global currents in national histories of science: the "global turn" and the history of science in Latin America.

    PubMed

    McCook, Stuart

    2013-12-01

    The "global turn" in the history of science offers new ways to think about how to do national and regional histories of science, in this case the history of science in Latin America. For example, it questions structuralist and diffusionist models of the spread of science and shows the often active role that people in Latin America (and the rest of the Global South) played in the construction of "universal" scientific knowledge. It suggests that even national or regional histories of science must be situated in a global context; all too often, such histories have treated global processes as a distant backdrop. At the same time, historians need to pay constant attention to the role of power in the construction of scientific knowledge. Finally, this essay highlights a methodological tool for writing globally inflected histories of science: the method of "following". PMID:24783493

  18. [Progress in reperfusion after acute myocardial infarction. The situation in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Mele, Eduardo F

    2010-06-01

    Reperfusion therapy for acute myocardial infarction has dramatically reduced mortality. Coronary angioplasty and thrombolysis are the most effective reperfusion techniques. The controversy about which of the two methods is best has been superseded by a search for the most rapid and effective way of inducing reperfusion, given the overriding importance of time for saving myocardial tissue. Consequently, pharmaco-invasive strategies, prehospital thrombolysis and rapid patient transport systems have all been implemented. Typically, a certain percentage of patients do not undergo reperfusion for a range of reasons, one of the most important being treatment delay. Trends in Latin America are similar to those in other parts of the world: there is an increasing use of angioplasty instead of thrombolysis and a significant number of patients do not undergo reperfusion. Some patient registries indicate that hospital mortality tends to be higher than in Europe or the United States. There are numerous reasons for the difference, among which are a delay in presentation and a lack of access to properly equipped hospitals because of social inequality. Scientific societies have a key role to play in promoting awareness about the importance of early diagnosis and treatment throughout the health-care community, health authorities, and society in general. PMID:20540897

  19. An Insider's Look at the Development and Current State of Community Psychology in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montero, Maritza

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the rich history of community psychology in Latin America, describing how the field was systematically built during the second half of the 20th century. Discussed are social and political influences such as the critique of individualistic emphasis dominant at that moment, Paulo Freire's popular education, critical sociology…

  20. Current clinical advances and future perspectives in the psychiatry/mental health field of Latin America.

    PubMed

    Cía, Alfredo H; Rojas, Rodrigo Córdoba; Adad, Miguel Abib

    2010-01-01

    The history of Mental Health in Latin America is relatively young. It dates back to the mid nineteenth century and widely developed during the twentieth century, with formidable scientific, social, political, and ethical challenges. Latin American psychiatry has contributed in the fields of epidemiology, phenomenology, social psychiatry, psychiatric and epistemological research, and clinical genetics as well. More recent advances can also be seen in clinical psychotherapy and psychopharmacology. Now, there is a formal and informal recognition of various areas of expertise, such as children and adolescents, addictions, anxiety disorders, among others. However, we need to solve the health problems resulting from mental illnesses as well as the disorders related to the social, environmental, political, and economic factors of a continent marked by the precariousness of underdevelopment, which have a high impact on population health. Therefore, considering and trying to minimize the impact of those factors, contributing to the destigmatization of mental illnesses and their consequences, together with the growing number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), human rights defenders, public figures, etc., and collaborating in building a society that guarantees the right to mental health and adequate treatment and rehabilitation are part of our present challenges in Latin America. PMID:20874063

  1. The urgent need to change the current medical approach on tobacco cessation in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Ponciano-Rodríguez, Guadalupe

    2010-01-01

    Despite of the accumulation of scientific evidence confirming the health consequences of smoking and the new paradigm of smoking as a disease where nicotine is the drug that modifies the functional and morphological characteristics of the brain in dependent smokers, tobacco smoking continues as an important public health problem in many Latin American countries. In contrast with big advances in the tobacco control area, as an example the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control signed by 168 countries, the role of health professional in the fight against tobacco is still less than ideal. In many Latin American schools of medicine, deficiencies in medical education has led to insecure physicians when they have to motivate their patients to stop smoking or to prevent young people to begin tobacco consumption. If each general practitioner or specialist during their daily medical assistance could talk to their smoker patients about the big benefits of stop smoking and support them to get free of tobacco, we would be winning a battle against smoking. Also if we could achieve generations of young non smoking doctors, who could be a real example for patients, this could also impact the prevalence of smokers. In this article we analyze the neurobiological bases of nicotine addiction, which we think are missing in the medical curriculum and could help doctors to understand tobacco smoking as a disease rather than a risk factor, and discuss the main reasons supporting an urgent change in the medical approach of tobacco cessation in Latin America as well as the need to actualize the medical curriculum in order to give physicians the skills needed to intervene successfully with their smoker patients and to be themselves non smokers. PMID:21243210

  2. Current epidemiological trends for Chagas disease in Latin America and future challenges in epidemiology, surveillance and health policy.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Alvaro; Silveira, Antonio Carlos

    2009-07-01

    laboratories that carried out basic and applied research supporting the planning and evaluation of national Chagas disease control programmes. The present article reviews the current epidemiological trends for Chagas disease in Latin America and the future challenges in terms of epidemiology, surveillance and health policy. PMID:19753454

  3. Pinta: Latin America's Forgotten Disease?

    PubMed

    Stamm, Lola V

    2015-11-01

    Pinta is a neglected, chronic skin disease that was first described in the sixteenth century in Mexico. The World Health Organization lists 15 countries in Latin America where pinta was previously endemic. However, the current prevalence of pinta is unknown due to the lack of surveillance data. The etiological agent of pinta, Treponema carateum, cannot be distinguished morphologically or serologically from the not-yet-cultivable Treponema pallidum subspecies that cause venereal syphilis, yaws, and bejel. Although genomic sequencing has enabled the development of molecular techniques to differentiate the T. pallidum subspecies, comparable information is not available for T. carateum. Because of the influx of migrants and refugees from Latin America, U.S. physicians should consider pinta in the differential diagnosis of skin diseases in children and adolescents who come from areas where pinta was previously endemic and have a positive reaction in serological tests for syphilis. All stages of pinta are treatable with a single intramuscular injection of penicillin. PMID:26304920

  4. Latin America: population and internal unrest.

    PubMed

    Wiarda, J H; Siqueira Wiarda, I

    1985-09-01

    This discussion of population and internal unrest in Latin America covers the following: pressures on land and agriculture; economic frustrations; the youth and radicalism; rising social tensions; and political instability. At current growth rates, Latin America's population is projected to increases between 1981 2001 by 225 million people. This staggering population growth is likely to have serious political, economic, social, strategic, and other implications. The strong opposition to family planning which came principally from nationlists, the military, and the church during the 1960s has changed to general support for voluntary family planning programs in much of Latin America. Too rapid population growth now is viewed widely as aggravating the problems of development and putting severe strains on services and facilities. The wish to limit family size is particularly strong among women. Most of Latin America's untapped land is unusable, either so steeply mountainous, densely tropical, or barren of topsoil that it cannot support life at even the most meager level of subsistence. Food production in most of Latin America has not kept pace with population growth. Since most new agricultural production is oriented toward exports rather than home consumption, conditions for most rural populations are worsening. Economic dilemmas facing Latin America include widespread poverty, the world's highest per capita debt, unemployment and underemployment that may reach between 40-50% of the workforce, negative economic growth rates over the past 5 years, immense income inequalities, declining terms of trade, extensive capital flight, little new investment or foreign assistance, increased protectionism on the part of those countriews with whom Latin America must trade, rising prices for the goods Latin America must import, and (in some countries) devastation of the economic infrastrucutre by guerrilla forces. The unprecedent flow from the countryside has made Latin America the

  5. Science in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayala, Francisco J.

    1995-01-01

    A brief history of science and technology in Latin America that begins with the Mayan civilization and progresses through the colonial period to the present. Compares increased scientific productivity in the Latin American and Caribbean regions to productivity in the United States and European Union. (LZ)

  6. Teaching About Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    This publication is offered as a resource guide for teachers rather than as a prescriptive syllabus. No course of study is delineated and no course objectives are spelled out. Instead there are illustrative examples for applying discovery techniques to the study of Latin America, suggestions of various themes useful in organizing a course of study…

  7. Asthma in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Forno, Erick; Gogna, Mudita; Cepeda, Alfonso; Yañez, Anahi; Solé, Dirceu; Cooper, Philip; Avila, Lydiana; Soto-Quiros, Manuel; Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-09-01

    Consistent with the diversity of Latin America, there is profound variability in asthma burden among and within countries in this region. Regional variation in asthma prevalence is likely multifactorial and due to genetics, perinatal exposures, diet, obesity, tobacco use, indoor and outdoor pollutants, psychosocial stress and microbial or parasitic infections. Similarly, non-uniform progress in asthma management leads to regional variability in disease morbidity. Future studies of distinct asthma phenotypes should follow-up well-characterised Latin American subgroups and examine risk factors that are unique or common in Latin America (eg, stress and violence, parasitic infections and use of biomass fuels for cooking). Because most Latin American countries share the same barriers to asthma management, concerted and multifaceted public health and research efforts are needed, including approaches to curtail tobacco use, campaigns to improve asthma treatment, broadening access to care and clinical trials of non-pharmacological interventions (eg, replacing biomass fuels with gas or electric stoves). PMID:26103996

  8. Asthma in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Forno, Erick; Gogna, Mudita; Cepeda, Alfonso; Yañez, Anahi; Solé, Dirceu; Cooper, Philip; Avila, Lydiana; Soto-Quiros, Manuel; Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A.; Celedón, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Consistent with the diversity of Latin America, there is profound variability in asthma burden among and within countries in this region. Regional variation in asthma prevalence is likely multifactorial and due to genetics, perinatal exposures, diet, obesity, tobacco use, indoor and outdoor pollutants, psychosocial stress, and microbial or parasitic infections. Similarly, nonuniform progress in asthma management leads to regional variability in disease morbidity. Future studies of distinct asthma phenotypes should follow up well-characterized Latin American subgroups and examine risk factors that are unique or common in Latin America (e.g. stress and violence, parasitic infections and use of biomass fuels for cooking). Because most Latin American countries share the same barriers to asthma management, concerted and multifaceted public health and research efforts are needed, including approaches to curtail tobacco use, campaigns to improve asthma treatment, broadening access to care and clinical trials of non-pharmacologic interventions (e.g. replacing biomass fuels with gas or electric stoves). PMID:26103996

  9. Teaching physics in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Darío

    1995-08-01

    A review is made of current teaching practice in Latin America. The impact of research about teaching is assessed. It is argued that the usual role of teaching laboratories as a place just to measure physical constants is a sad waste of time and resources. Also the usual format of lectures is considered inefficient and a plea is made for the return to some kind of personalized instruction. Universities are compared to hospitals. This similitude suggest that the most important changes are related to administrative decisions. The conclusion is rather pessimistic, since the main educational defects arise from factors not easily dealt with.

  10. Hadron Therapy in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreiner, A. J.; Bergueiro, J.; Burlon, A. A.; Di Paolo, H.; Castell, W.; Thatar Vento, V.; Levinas, P.; Cartelli, D.; Kesque, J. M.; Valda, A. A.; Ilardo, J. C.; Baldo, M.; Erhardt, J.; Debray, M. E.; Somacal, H. R.; Minsky, D. M.; Estrada, L.; Hazarabedian, A.; Johann, F.; Suarez Sandin, J. C.; Igarzabal, M.; Huck, H.; Repetto, M.; Obligado, M.; Lell, J.; Padulo, J.; Herrera, M.; Gonzalez, S. R.; Capoulat, M. E.; Davidson, J.; Davidson, M.

    2010-08-01

    The use of proton and heavy ion beams for radiotherapy is a well established cancer treatment modality in the first world, which is becoming increasingly widespread, due to its clear advantages over conventional photon-based treatments. This strategy is suitable when the tumor is spatially well localized. Also the use of neutrons has tradition. Here Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) stands out, though on a much smaller scale, being a promising alternative for tumors which are diffuse and infiltrating. On this sector, so far only nuclear reactors have been used as neutron sources. In this paper we briefly describe the situation in Latin America and in particular we discuss the present status of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator for Accelerator-Based (AB)-Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams to perform BNCT for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. The machine being currently designed and constructed is a folded TESQ with a terminal at 0.6 MV as a smaller scale prototype. Since the concept is modular the same structure will be used for the 1.2 MV final accelerator.

  11. Hadron Therapy in Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Kreiner, A. J.; Minsky, D. M.; Bergueiro, J.; Castell, W.; Thatar Vento, V.; Cartelli, D.; Kesque, J. M.; Ilardo, J. C.; Baldo, M.; Erhardt, J.; Estrada, L.; Hazarabedian, A.; Johann, F.; Suarez Sandin, J. C.; Igarzabal, M.; Repetto, M.; Obligado, M.; Lell, J.; Padulo, J.; Herrera, M.

    2010-08-04

    The use of proton and heavy ion beams for radiotherapy is a well established cancer treatment modality in the first world, which is becoming increasingly widespread, due to its clear advantages over conventional photon-based treatments. This strategy is suitable when the tumor is spatially well localized. Also the use of neutrons has tradition. Here Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) stands out, though on a much smaller scale, being a promising alternative for tumors which are diffuse and infiltrating. On this sector, so far only nuclear reactors have been used as neutron sources. In this paper we briefly describe the situation in Latin America and in particular we discuss the present status of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator for Accelerator-Based (AB)-Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams to perform BNCT for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. The machine being currently designed and constructed is a folded TESQ with a terminal at 0.6 MV as a smaller scale prototype. Since the concept is modular the same structure will be used for the 1.2 MV final accelerator.

  12. Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV Coinfection in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Lindoso, José Angelo; Cota, Gláucia Fernandes; da Cruz, Alda Maria; Goto, Hiro; Maia-Elkhoury, Ana Nilce Silveira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; de Sousa-Gomes, Márcia Leite; Santos-Oliveira, Joanna Reis; Rabello, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an endemic zoonotic disease in Latin America caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, which is transmitted by sand flies from the genus Lutzomyia. VL occurs in 12 countries of Latin America, with 96% of cases reported in Brazil. Recently, an increase in VL, primarily affecting children and young adults, has been observed in urban areas of Latin America. The area in which this spread of VL is occurring overlaps regions with individuals living with HIV, the number of whom is estimated to be 1.4 million people by the World Health Organization. This overlap is suggested to be a leading cause of the increased number of reported VL-HIV coinfections. The clinical progression of HIV and L. infantum infections are both highly dependent on the specific immune response of an individual. Furthermore, the impact on the immune system caused by either pathogen and by VL-HIV coinfection can contribute to an accelerated progression of the diseases. Clinical presentation of VL in HIV positive patients is similar to patients without HIV, with symptoms characterized by fever, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly, but diarrhea appears to be more common in coinfected patients. In addition, VL relapses are higher in coinfected patients, affecting 10% to 56.5% of cases and with a lethality ranging from 8.7% to 23.5% in Latin America, depending on the study. With regards to the diagnosis of VL, parasitological tests of bone marrow aspirates have proven to be the most sensitive test in HIV-infected patients. Serologic tests have demonstrated a variable sensitivity according to the method and antigens used, with the standard tests used for diagnosing VL in Latin America displaying lower sensitivity. For this review, few articles were identified that related to VL-HIV coinfections and originated from Latin America, highlighting the need for improving research within the regions most greatly affected. We strongly support the formation of a Latin American network for

  13. Preparing Teachers for Inclusive Education in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaillant, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the current challenges facing inclusive education in Latin America and explores some possible solutions. The author suggests that teachers play a key role in providing education that is inclusive for all. In Latin America, today, however, inclusive education often does not respond to the needs of children and young people,…

  14. From upstream to downstream: Megatrends and latest developments in Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kang; Pezeshki, S.; McMahon, J.

    1995-08-01

    In recent years, Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector has been characterized by reorganization, revitalization, regional cooperation, environmental awakening, and steady expansion. The pattern of these changes, which appear to be the megatrends of the region`s hydrocarbons sector development, will continue during the rest of the 1990s. To further study the current situation and future prospects of Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector, we critically summarize in this short article the key issues in the region`s oil and gas development. These megatrends in Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector development will impact not only the future energy demand and supply in the region, but also global oil flows in the North American market and across the Pacific Ocean. Each country is individually discussed; pipelines to be constructed are discussed also.

  15. Re-Bordering Comparative Education in Latin America: Between Global Limits and Local Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acosta, Felicitas; Perez Centeno, Cristian G.

    2011-01-01

    Conceived for presentation at the XIV WCCES conference in Istanbul in 2010, the topic of which was "Bordering Comparative Education", this paper, within that framework, aims to present the current state of the discipline in Latin America in relation to a quick overview of its present-day situation at a global level. After providing an overview of…

  16. [Theoretical contributions to an interpretation of urbanization in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Quintero Cedeno, M A

    1993-04-01

    This work analyzes two essays by Anibal Quijano and Paul Singer on urbanization, dependency, social change, and marginality in Latin America and suggests some elements for a theoretical interpretation of urbanization in Latin America. The work is divided into three major sections, each of which examines a specific question. The first section explores whether urban phenomena in Latin America are or are not attributable to a situation of dependency or whether they are derived from capitalism. The second section discusses whether changes in urban society and in the urban profile are also derived from dependency or from capitalism. The third section discusses factors leading to urban concentration and suggests some policies that have not yet been developed for urbanization and development, to be analyzed in later articles. Throughout this work, the theoretical approaches of Quijano and Singer are contrasted, and additional commentary on the author's own views is supplied. It is suggested that a policy to add subsidiary or complementary activities to zones that are currently exclusively agricultural would help to retain some part of rural population growth and would have other desirable effects. PMID:12346306

  17. The Community College Experiment in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Lori

    1998-01-01

    Discusses preconditions for exporting community colleges to developing countries, the historical development of higher education in Latin America, and the current favorable political and economic climate for housing colleges. Suggests using Argentina as a testing-ground for the community college system. (11 citations) (VWC)

  18. Fermilab and Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Lederman, Leon M.

    2006-09-25

    As Director of Fermilab, starting in 1979, I began a series of meetings with scientists in Latin America. The motivation was to stir collaboration in the field of high energy particle physics, the central focus of Fermilab. In the next 13 years, these Pan American Symposia stirred much discussion of the use of modern physics, created several groups to do collaborative research at Fermilab, and often centralized facilities and, today, still provides the possibility for much more productive North-South collaboration in research and education. In 1992, I handed these activities over to the AAAS, as President. This would, I hoped, broaden areas of collaboration. Such collaboration is unfortunately very sensitive to political events. In a rational world, it would be the rewards, cultural and economic, of collaboration that would modulate political relations. We are not there yet.

  19. Fermilab and Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederman, Leon M.

    2006-09-01

    As Director of Fermilab, starting in 1979, I began a series of meetings with scientists in Latin America. The motivation was to stir collaboration in the field of high energy particle physics, the central focus of Fermilab. In the next 13 years, these Pan American Symposia stirred much discussion of the use of modern physics, created several groups to do collaborative research at Fermilab, and often centralized facilities and, today, still provides the possibility for much more productive North-South collaboration in research and education. In 1992, I handed these activities over to the AAAS, as President. This would, I hoped, broaden areas of collaboration. Such collaboration is unfortunately very sensitive to political events. In a rational world, it would be the rewards, cultural and economic, of collaboration that would modulate political relations. We are not there yet.

  20. Developing nanotechnology in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Shapira, Philip

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the development of nanotechnology in Latin America with a particular focus on Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay. Based on data for nanotechnology research publications and patents and suggesting a framework for analyzing the development of R&D networks, we identify three potential strategies of nanotechnology research collaboration. Then, we seek to identify the balance of emphasis upon each of the three strategies by mapping the current research profile of those four countries. In general, we find that they are implementing policies and programs to develop nanotechnologies but differ in their collaboration strategies, institutional involvement, and level of development. On the other hand, we find that they coincide in having a modest industry participation in research and a low level of commercialization of nanotechnologies. PMID:21170134

  1. Education, Culture, and Development: Co-ordinated Policies and Strategies. The Situation in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedesco, J. C.

    This document is a brief presentation of the relation among education, culture, and development in the Latin American and Caribbean countries that focuses on two major aspects: (1) the new development strategies currently being implemented in the region, and (2) the educational actions being undertaken as an answer to the new challenges posed by…

  2. Vocational Training in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallenborn, Manfred

    2001-01-01

    Explores historical development and weaknesses and change efforts in vocational training institutions in Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, and Peru. Identifies future directions for the training enterprise in Latin America. (SK)

  3. The Internet in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoso, Suely; Maldonado, Alberto Efendy

    This article addresses the diverse patterns of internet access, uses and appropriations by different populations in Latin America. The correlation between nequalities in access and economic disparities is not sufficient to define or explain the region's complexity. In an attempt to avoid economic and technological determinism while simultaneously visualizing the general picture of the internet in Latin America without disregarding its finer grain idiosyncrasies, the text is organized in three sections. First, a brief overall picture of the global position of Latin America with respect to the internet. Second, a discussion of three profiles of internet penetration and appropriation vis a vis similar local socioeconomic conditions. Third, qualitatively significant examples of the forms of use and appropriation of the internet in Latin America.

  4. Educational Building in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baza, Jadille; Vaz, Rita de Cassia Alves; Millan, Eduardo; Almeida, Rodolfo

    2002-01-01

    Presents articles describing recent developments in three Latin American countries (Chile, Brazil, and Venezuela) to expand public education facilities, along with a report on UNESCO's recent seminar in Latin America on architecture for an inclusive education. (EV)

  5. [Thinking about long-term care policies for Latin America].

    PubMed

    Matus-López, Mauricio

    2015-12-01

    Latin America is aging. The process is occurring quickly and in unhealthy conditions with low levels of income. The number of older people who can no longer perform their daily activities will dramatically increase in the coming decades. Developed countries have already been facing this phenomenon over the last three decades, but Latin America has neither the resources nor the social protection systems of these countries. Formulating and planning health policies associated with this phenomenon should be a priority of the governments of Latin America. This paper defines what these care policies are, the models of care rich countries have developed, and the cost of such models. The situation in Latin America is then analyzed and conclusions and a series of discussions to address in the near future are proposed. PMID:26676592

  6. Family planning in Latin America's barriadas.

    PubMed

    1993-05-01

    In Latin America, many rural people build dwellings in settlements on the cities' fringes without permission from the authorities. The authorities make several unsuccessful attempts to drive them away, but eventually ignore them. In the 1960s, family planning (FP) associations were concerned about how they can serve the shantytowns, which needed their services but had no social services at all, e.g., water supply and sanitation. In the early 1970s, PROFAMILIA Colombia began a new form of FP service delivery in rural areas by training someone from the community who believed in FP to distribution (CBD) programs provided more FP than all of PROFAMILIA's 60 clinics. In 1973, PROFAMILIA started its URBAN CBD program in the slums of Bogota and learned that the people wanted FP. The CBD movement spread throughout urban and rural Latin America. Brazil's BEMFAM developed the world's largest CBD program. By 1985, 10,365 distribution posts operated in Latin America and, by 1991, there were 26,423. In urban slums in the 1980s, Mexico's MEXFAM began using community doctors, who tend to be new medical graduates. Often the community and the doctors respect each other so much that many doctors remain in the shantytowns beyond their required time. The residents' acceptance of FP provided by people who understand the community shows how they want to plan their lives and better themselves. In addition, they have taken the chance to seek a better life by leaving hopeless situations in rural areas and by building dwellings for themselves, even though they had no money, land, or even basic necessities. In Peru, shantytown residents were moved to the desert and supplied with basic construction materials. They built a community, Villa El Salvador, now complete with tree-lined streets, shops, schools, and movies. Shantytown dwellers may have the solution to Latin America's problems. PMID:12179848

  7. [An overview of telehealth initiatives in Latin America].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Alaneir de Fátima; D'Agostino, Marcelo; Bouskela, Maurício Simon; Fernandéz, Andrés; Messina, Luiz Ary; Alves, Humberto José

    2014-01-01

    This article aimed to systematize the views on telehealth in Latin America and to present the experience of building an instrument for monitoring the development of telehealth initiatives based on the reality of this region. A group was structured to coordinate telehealth efforts in Latin America, with members appointed by the ministries of health of 16 countries. Five thematic groups were also set up. Based on international experiences and focusing on the reality of telehealth in the continent, an instrument was created to monitor the development of telehealth in Latin America. Several countries have national telehealth projects: Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama. Others are in the process of development and early deployment: Bolivia, Costa Rica, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Peru, Venezuela. The instrument described in the article, which is still being tested, proposes a characterization of countries according to their telehealth development stage: nonexistent, nascent, intermediate, advanced, and exemplary. Currently, important telehealth initiatives are already underway in Latin America. PMID:25211578

  8. Newborn screening for lysosomal diseases: current status and potential interface with population medical genetics in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Giugliani, Roberto

    2012-09-01

    The aim of newborn screening (NBS) programs is to detect a condition in a presymptomatic baby and provide management measures which could significantly improve the natural history of the disease. NBS programs for metabolic diseases were first introduced in North America and Europe and in the 1960s for phenylketonuria, expanded a few years later to include congenital hypothyroidism, and have been growing steadily in terms of number of conditions tested for and number of countries and births covered. Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are a group of around 50 genetic conditions in which a defect in a lysosomal function occurs. LSDs are progressive conditions, being usually asymptomatic at birth, but with clinical features becoming apparent in childhood, with severe manifestations in most instances, high morbidity and shortened life span. Although individually rare, the prevalence of LSDs is significant when the group is considered as a whole (around 1:4,000-1:9,000 live births). Several management techniques, including bone marrow transplantation, enzyme replacement therapy, substrate inhibition therapy, pharmacological chaperones and many other approaches are transforming the LSDs into treatable conditions. However, lack of awareness and lack of access to tests cause a significant delay between onset of symptoms and diagnosis. Several lines of evidence showing that the earlier introduction of therapy may provide a better outcome, are bringing support to the idea of including LSDs in NBS programs. Due to advances in technology, high-throughput multiplex methods are now available for mass screening of several LSDs. Pilot projects were already developed in many countries for some LSDs, with interesting results. Although some NBS in Latin America has been carried out since the 1970s, it has so far been incorporated as a public health program in only a few countries in the region. It will probably take many years before NBS is implemented in most Latin American countries

  9. Building ESD in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2007

    2007-01-01

    To encourage efforts for furthering the UN DESD agenda in Latin America, a meeting titled "Building Education for Sustainable Development" was held in Costa Rica from 31 October to 2 November 2006. Plenary sessions were interspersed with working groups to look at how ESD can be integrated in formal and non-formal education systems, and to make…

  10. Language Politics in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajagopalan, Kanavillil

    2005-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to take stock of the politics of language as it has been playing out in Latin America, ever since the countries in this region were colonized by European powers, mainly Spain and Portugal. Linguistic imperialism is by no means a new phenomenon in this part of the world. In more recent times, the relentless advance of…

  11. Internet Accessibility in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haymond, Ruel

    1998-01-01

    Addresses the problems that prohibit expanded Internet access and possible solutions to these problems, particularly with respect to the country of Chile. The three main problems that block Internet usage in Latin America are high demand and poor infrastructure; high costs for Internet access; and high preliminary costs for computers, modems, and…

  12. [Cigarette labeling policies: current situation in Latin America and the Caribbean].

    PubMed

    Sebrié, Ernesto M

    2012-06-01

    In 2002, Brazil became the first country in the region to implement pictorial health warning labels on cigarette packages. Since the adoption of the FCTC/WHO in 2005, nine more countries adopted pictorial labels and six passed legislation that is pending of implementation. The message content and the picture style vary across countries. Seventeen countries have banned brand descriptors and nine require a qualitative label with information on constituents and emissions. Since 2005, important progress has been achieved in the region. However, countries that have ratified the FCTC have not yet implemented all the recommendations of Article 11 Guidelines. PMID:22689168

  13. Smoking and smoking cessation in Latin America: a review of the current situation and available treatments

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Fernando; Wehbe, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a growing problem throughout Latin American countries, especially in underdeveloped countries where poverty and lack of education about the dangers of smoking may make people more susceptible to becoming smokers. Moreover, the economies of many Latin American countries have become dependent on the production of tobacco. Furthermore, because of the associated promotion of tobacco, smoking has integrated into many Latin American cultures. Nevertheless, the harmful health effects of tobacco use are well documented, including greatly increased risks of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, and many forms of cancer. The medical costs associated with treating these diseases far outweigh the economic benefits of producing and selling this deadly crop. To control the tobacco pandemic in Latin American countries, nicotine addiction must be recognized and treated as a disease. Governments, both national and local, need to be more involved in enacting anti-smoking policies such as higher tobacco taxation, control of illegal tobacco smuggling, and reimbursement of medical smoking cessation interventions. The training of health professions in the area of nicotine addiction must also be improved, so that they may better assist smokers in their quit attempts and advise patients on, and prescribe, effective smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. PMID:18686737

  14. Re-bordering comparative education in Latin America: Between global limits and local characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Felicitas; Perez Centeno, Cristian G.

    2011-08-01

    Conceived for presentation at the XIV WCCES conference in Istanbul in 2010, the topic of which was "Bordering Comparative Education", this paper, within that framework, aims to present the current state of the discipline in Latin America in relation to a quick overview of its present-day situation at a global level. After providing an overview of the current debates on comparative education, with special emphasis on what the authors refer to as motor nuclei (a series of milestones or episodes which have become transdiscursive as the discipline has evolved), as well as pinpointing current challenges in the field, this paper looks into the development of the discipline in Latin America and how it has contributed to the understanding of the region's educational systems. The paper also examines the unique relationship between comparative studies and the field of educational planning in Latin America. The authors then go on to provide a thematic analysis, categorising the papers presented at three conferences held by the Sociedad Argentina de Estudios Comparados en Educación (SAECE, the Argentine Society for Comparative Education Studies) in 2005, 2007 and 2009. The paper closes with several conclusions regarding the current debate on the discipline in the region and its possibilities for the future.

  15. Population and Family Planning in Latin America. Report Number 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrow, Phyllis T., Ed.

    Analysis of Latin America's demographic situation has led many to believe that the present rapid rates of population growth, the highest anywhere in the world, must be reduced in order to prevent catastrophe. Family planning associations, affiliated with the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), have been organized in 29 Latin…

  16. Children in the Streets: Latin America's Lost Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizzini, Irene; Lusk, Mark W.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of the situation of street children and youth in urban Latin America. Findings from numerous studies throughout the region are synthesized. Suggests that economic factors underlie the marginalization of vast numbers of Latin American children. The result is the exclusion of many of the region's children from meaningful…

  17. Midlife and Older Women in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    Part I of this publication contains a background paper, "The Health and Socioeconomic Situation of Midlife and Older Women in Latin America and the Caribbean" (Sennott-Miller). Part II includes and introduction and the following presentations: "Opening Statement" (Crooks); "Empowering Older Women: An Agenda for the '90s" (de Alvarez);…

  18. A snapshot of gene therapy in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Linden, Rafael; Matte, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Gene therapy attempts the insertion and expression of exogenous genetic material in cells for therapeutic purposes. Conceived in the 1960s, gene therapy reached its first clinical trial at the end of the 1980s and by December 2013 around 600 genuine open clinical trials of gene therapy were registered at NIH Clinical Trials Database. Here, we summarize the current efforts towards the development of gene therapy in Latin America. Our survey shows that the number of scientists involved in the development of gene therapy and DNA vaccines in Latin America is still very low. Higher levels of investment in this technology are necessary to boost the advancement of innovation and intellectual property in this field in a way that would ease both the social and financial burden of various medical conditions in Latin America. PMID:24764763

  19. A snapshot of gene therapy in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Linden, Rafael; Matte, Ursula

    2014-03-01

    Gene therapy attempts the insertion and expression of exogenous genetic material in cells for therapeutic purposes. Conceived in the 1960s, gene therapy reached its first clinical trial at the end of the 1980s and by December 2013 around 600 genuine open clinical trials of gene therapy were registered at NIH Clinical Trials Database. Here, we summarize the current efforts towards the development of gene therapy in Latin America. Our survey shows that the number of scientists involved in the development of gene therapy and DNA vaccines in Latin America is still very low. Higher levels of investment in this technology are necessary to boost the advancement of innovation and intellectual property in this field in a way that would ease both the social and financial burden of various medical conditions in Latin America. PMID:24764763

  20. Latin America's Emergence: Toward a U.S. Response. Headline Series 243.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Abraham F.; Fishlow, Albert

    In order to provide a basis for improving United States policies toward Latin America in the 1980s, the document examines past U.S. policy and relations, evaluates recent U.S. approaches, and offers a reassessment of current U.S. interests in Latin America. The book is divided into five chapters. Chapter I discusses social, economic, and political…

  1. Folate and vitamin B12 status in Latin America and the Caribbean: An update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The current magnitude of folate and vitamin B12 deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean is uncertain. Objective: To summarize data on plasma or serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations in Latin America and the Caribbean reported since 1990, a period that covers the era before an...

  2. Does Research on Education Fit the Development Needs of Latin America?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinn, Noel; Tatto, Maria Teresa

    Fitting educational research to Latin America's developmental needs is a political issue involving differences in perspectives of Latin American and United States researchers, Latin American governments, and agencies concerned with development outside Latin America. A comparison of ERIC's "Current Index to Journals in Education" with the Latin…

  3. Functional Patterns in International Organizations for University Cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Daniel A.; Lopez, Daniel C.; Andrade, Lorenzo I.; Lopez, Boris A.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the coverage, organizational patterns, problems and trends of international organizations for university cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean. More than 30 international organizations for cooperation currently operating in Latin America and the Caribbean were identified. Two groups of institutions with more than 60%…

  4. Nitrogen Cycling In Latin America and : Drivers, Impacts And Vulnerabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ometto, J. P.; Bustamante, M.; Forti, M. C.; Peres, T.; Stein, A. F.; Jaramillo, V.; Perez, C.; Pinho, P. F.; Ascarrunz, N.; Austin, A.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Latin America is at a crossroads where a balance should be found between production of the major agricultural commodities, reasonable and planned urbanization and conservation of its natural ecosystems and associated goods and services. Most of the natural biological fixation of the globe occurs in forests of Latin America. On the other hand, Latin America has one of the highest rate of deforestation in the world, and one of the highest increases in the use of nitrogen fertilizers. A better understanding of the responses of the N cycle to human impacts will allow better conservation of biodiversity and natural resources, with an improvement in food security and more effective land use choices in biofuel development. Latin America is a unique region in multiple aspects, and particularly relevant for this proposal are the broad climatic gradient and economic patterns that include a diverse range of natural ecosystems and socio-economic development pathways. Additionally, the region is impaired by the lack of information on actual impacts of human activity on N cycling across this diverse range of ecosystems. Finally, the large expanse of tropical ecosystems and reservoirs of biodiversity juxtaposed with an intense economic incentive for development make our understanding of human impacts in this context particularly important for global change research in the region. An evaluation of current and predicted changes in climate and land use on nitrogen stocks and fluxes in the region what is being develop by the Nnet network (Nitrogen Cycling In Latin America: Drivers, Impacts And Vulnerabilities ). This presentation will bring the latest results of this integrative initiative in Latin America, focusing on the nitrogen budget associated to provision of ecosystem services and climate change.

  5. Cardiac rehabilitation in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Anchique Santos, Claudia Victoria; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Benaim, Briseida; Burdiat, Gerard; Fernandez Coronado, Rosalia; Gonzalez, Graciela; Herdy, Arthur; Medina-Inojosa, Jose; Santibañez, Claudio; Uriona Villarroel, Juan E; Zeballos, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a description of the status of cardiovascular (CV) rehabilitation (CVR) in Latin America (LA) and the potential impact on CV disease in the region. We discuss the insufficient number of CVR programs in the region and describe the components of CVR that are more commonly available, like exercise interventions, medical assessment and patient education. Additionally, we discuss the heterogeneity in other components, like the evaluation of depression, sleep apnea, and smoking cessation programs. Lastly, we provide a brief review on the main characteristics of the health systems of each country regarding access to CVR programs and compare the average cost of CV procedures and treatments with CVR. PMID:25220257

  6. Education, democracy and development in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Candido

    1993-11-01

    The education first brought to America by Europeans was hardly more than ornamental culture, literacy was generally unimportant, and African slaves were not educated at all. Only in this century did industrialization cause some governments to provide economic and technological support through training and education. In the last decade, the debt crisis curtailed spending, while numbers of students and teachers continued to rise. A comparison between Latin America and South Korea illustrates the former's relative decline in investment. The advent of populist and corporatist democracies did not alleviate the situation, although there is now some evidence of concern for basic education for poorer children. With economic adjustment programmes, little else has been done for those who have suffered the heaviest burdens, and no obvious solutions to poverty and technological obsolescence are in prospect. A major reform of State institutions is called for, including a commitment to education, a change in the economic model, and a recognition of global interdependence.

  7. Gastroenterology training in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Henry; Saenz, Roque; de Almeida Troncon, Luiz E; Lizarzabal, Maribel; Olano, Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Latin America is characterized by ethnic, geographical, cultural, and economic diversity; therefore, training in gastroenterology in the region must be considered in this context. The continent’s medical education is characterized by a lack of standards and the volume of research continues to be relatively small. There is a multiplicity of events in general gastroenterology and in sub-disciplines, both at regional and local levels, which ensure that many colleagues have access to information. Medical education programs must be based on a clinical vision and be considered in close contact with the patients. The programs should be properly supervised, appropriately defined, and evaluated on a regular basis. The disparity between the patients’ needs, the scarce resources available, and the pressures exerted by the health systems on doctors are frequent cited by those complaining of poor professionalism. Teaching development can play a critical role in ensuring the quality of teaching and learning in universities. Continuing professional development programs activities must be planned on the basis of the doctors’ needs, with clearly defined objectives and using proper learning methodologies designed for adults. They must be evaluated and accredited by a competent body, so that they may become the basis of a professional regulatory system. The specialty has made progress in the last decades, offering doctors various possibilities for professional development. The world gastroenterology organization has contributed to the speciality through three distinctive, but closely inter-related, programs: Training Centers, Train-the-Trainers, and Global Guidelines, in which Latin America is deeply involved. PMID:21633594

  8. Gastroenterology training in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Henry; Saenz, Roque; de Almeida Troncon, Luiz E; Lizarzabal, Maribel; Olano, Carolina

    2011-05-14

    Latin America is characterized by ethnic, geographical, cultural, and economic diversity; therefore, training in gastroenterology in the region must be considered in this context. The continent's medical education is characterized by a lack of standards and the volume of research continues to be relatively small. There is a multiplicity of events in general gastroenterology and in sub-disciplines, both at regional and local levels, which ensure that many colleagues have access to information. Medical education programs must be based on a clinical vision and be considered in close contact with the patients. The programs should be properly supervised, appropriately defined, and evaluated on a regular basis. The disparity between the patients' needs, the scarce resources available, and the pressures exerted by the health systems on doctors are frequent cited by those complaining of poor professionalism. Teaching development can play a critical role in ensuring the quality of teaching and learning in universities. Continuing professional development programs activities must be planned on the basis of the doctors' needs, with clearly defined objectives and using proper learning methodologies designed for adults. They must be evaluated and accredited by a competent body, so that they may become the basis of a professional regulatory system. The specialty has made progress in the last decades, offering doctors various possibilities for professional development. The world gastroenterology organization has contributed to the speciality through three distinctive, but closely inter-related, programs: Training Centers, Train-the-Trainers, and Global Guidelines, in which Latin America is deeply involved. PMID:21633594

  9. The Growth of Communication Research in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez-Palacio, Carlos; Jara, J. Ruben

    This paper analyzes the origins, growth, and present state of communication research in Latin America. Based on empirical data, the paper identifies: (1) the factors that determined the kinds of studies that emerged in the region; (2) the major research topics; (3) the most influential scholars; and (4) the main currents of theoretical influence…

  10. Industrialization in Latin America: Successes and Failures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Werner

    1984-01-01

    Industrialization in Latin America and how it has influenced growth, employment, and income distribution are examined. The role played by multinational companies in industrialization is discussed. The future of Latin America's growth possibilities is evaluated in the light of the Asian export-industrialization models. (Author/RM)

  11. Cervical cancer control in Latin America: A call to action.

    PubMed

    Bychkovsky, Brittany L; Ferreyra, Mayra E; Strasser-Weippl, Kathrin; Herold, Christina I; de Lima Lopes, Gilberto; Dizon, Don S; Schmeler, Kathleen M; Del Carmen, Marcela; Randall, Tom C; Nogueira-Rodrigues, Angelica; de Carvalho Calabrich, Aknar Freire; St Louis, Jessica; Vail, Caroline M; Goss, Paul E

    2016-02-15

    Cervical cancer (CC) is second most common cause of cancer in Latin America and is a leading cause of cancer mortality among women. In 2015, an estimated 74,488 women will be diagnosed with CC in Latin America and 31,303 will die of the disease. CC mortality is projected to increase by 45% by 2030 despite human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and screening efforts. In this setting, the goal was of the current study was to examine CC control efforts in Latin America and identify deficiencies in these efforts that could be addressed to reduce CC incidence and mortality. The authors found that HPV vaccination has been introduced in the majority of Latin American countries, and there is now a need to monitor the success (or shortcomings) of these programs and to ensure that these programs are sustainable. This topic was also reviewed in light of emerging data demonstrating that visual inspection with acetic acid and HPV DNA testing without Papanicolaou tests have efficacy from a screening perspective and are good alternatives to cytology-based screening programs. Overall, there is a need to build capacity for CC control in Latin America and the best strategy will depend on the country/region and must be tailored to meet the needs of the population as well as available resources. PMID:26670695

  12. Mental health policy developments in Latin America.

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón, R. D.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S. A.

    2000-01-01

    New assessment guidelines for measuring the overall impact of mental health problems in Latin America have served as a catalyst for countries to review their mental health policies. Latin American countries have taken various steps to address long-standing problems such as structural difficulties, scarce financial and human resources, and social, political, and cultural obstacles in the implementation of mental health policies and legislation. These policy developments, however, have had uneven results. Policies must reflect the desire, determination, and commitment of policy-makers to take mental health seriously and look after people's mental health needs. This paper describes the development of mental health policies in Latin American countries, focusing on published data in peer-reviewed journals, and legislative change and its implementation. It presents a brief history of mental health policy developments, and analyzes the basis and practicalities of current practice. PMID:10885167

  13. Meetings of Experts on Book Development in Latin America (Bogota, 9-15 September 1969). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    The meeting of experts on book development in Latin America examined the present situation in the region and drew up a programme of action to promote book production and distribution. Experts from 23 Latin American countries participated. One of their major recommendations was that a Book Development Centre for Latin America be established at…

  14. Reproductive governance in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Lynn M; Roberts, Elizabeth F S

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops the concept of reproductive governance as an analytic tool for tracing the shifting political rationalities of population and reproduction. As advanced here, the concept of reproductive governance refers to the mechanisms through which different historical configurations of actors - such as state, religious, and international financial institutions, NGOs, and social movements - use legislative controls, economic inducements, moral injunctions, direct coercion, and ethical incitements to produce, monitor, and control reproductive behaviours and population practices. Examples are drawn from Latin America, where reproductive governance is undergoing a dramatic transformation as public policy conversations are coalescing around new moral regimes and rights-based actors through debates about abortion, emergency contraception, sterilisation, migration, and assisted reproductive technologies. Reproductive discourses are increasingly framed through morality and contestations over 'rights', where rights-bearing citizens are pitted against each other in claiming reproductive, sexual, indigenous, and natural rights, as well as the 'right to life' of the unborn. The concept of reproductive governance can be applied to other settings in order to understand shifting political rationalities within the domain of reproduction. PMID:22889430

  15. Updating Malthus in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Bilsborrow, R E

    1991-01-01

    Available arable land in Latin America is actually less than figures indicate, and it is being degraded at a rapid pace. Six Latin American countries are unable to meet their demand for fuelwood, and 10 more are depleting their forests at annual rates of up to 3.8% per year. Land extensification is a national policy in several countries as an alternative to land reform, or subdivision of large land holdings. Guatemala is a case in point. 48% of Guatemala's land is classified as arable, and 80% of this land was already enclosed as farms in the last agricultural census, in 1979. 60% of this land was actually being farmed. 60% of all farms encompass 3.7% of all the farm land, small holdings called minifundia. Between 1964 and 1979 farm numbers increased 45%, total area being farmed rose 13.5%, with an annual increase of 1.2%. Most new farms were settled in the northwestern highlands called the altiplano, where numbers of farms doubled and average size of smallholdings shrank from 0.7-0.45 ha between 1964-1979. The northern lowland tropical forest region, the Peten, is being cut for farmland at one of the fastest rates in the world. Flooding and erosion, as well as urbanization, are also causing irreplaceable loss of farmland. While environmental decline is being recognized in many Latin American countries, the causative role of population growth has not been mentioned in environmental declarations and action plans. PMID:12283998

  16. Educating cities in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Graciela; Valdés-Cotera, Raúl

    2013-09-01

    This article considers the development of educating cities from a political perspective, illustrating in detail the diversity of organisations and individuals involved and the challenges they are facing. Bearing in mind that educating cities were established from the 1990s onwards in Europe and spread to other continents from there, the purpose of this article is to demonstrate how this proposal was adopted in Latin America. After discussing the basic aims of educating cities, the paper focuses on the Latin American experience, giving examples of existing projects within the educating cities initiative. The authors are particularly interested in the contrast between the political intentions of educating cities on the one hand and the social, economic, political and cultural world on the other hand. They observe that in this context there is a danger of the individual being forgotten, which contradicts the actual intention of the educating city concept. They also discuss the problem of who should carry out the realisation of educating cities and how the various stakeholders might coordinate their actions. Contemplating new directions at the end of their paper, the authors sum up a number of guidelines and offer recommendations for action in developing educating cities.

  17. Secondary Education in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Challenge of Growth and Reform. Sustainable Development Department Technical Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Laurence; Castro, Claudio de Moura

    This paper synthesizes the issues, problems, research, and current best practice in secondary education in Latin America and the Caribbean. Overall, Latin America and the Caribbean enroll much lower percentages of school age children in secondary education than the region's chief competitors, and the region's secondary education is inadequate by…

  18. BAT-BORNE RABIES IN LATIN AMERICA

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Luis E.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Favi, Myriam; Yung, Verónica; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as “Least Concern”. According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats. PMID:25651328

  19. Bat-borne rabies in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Luis E; Peterson, A Townsend; Favi, Myriam; Yung, Verónica; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as "Least Concern". According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats. PMID:25651328

  20. The teaching of geophysics in Latin America: An updated assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencio, Daniel A.; Schneider, Otto

    The situation of geophysics in developing countries has been the subject of discussions and analysis by diverse international organizations. It was also discussed in some articles in Eos [e.g., Lomnitz, 1982; Urrutia Fucugauchi, 1982; Bolt, 1982]. We have been requested to contribute a current evaluation of the problem, with particular reference to geophysical education in Latin America.In the following report on specialized training of geophysicists in Latin American countries, we consider the “exact earth sciences” in the broader sense, i.e., the mathematical and physical (and, to a certain extent, chemical) aspects of the planet earth as a whole, including its fluid portions, as opposed to the more restricted concept of just solid earth geophysics. In other words, our inquiry follows the scope of both AGU and the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG), so geodesy, although not explicitly covered, will still be mentioned occasionally. We will also consider the applied branches, especially exploration geophysics, since these areas furnish powerful motivation for fostering our sciences, both in the governmental circles of developing countries and among the young people looking for a promising professional future.

  1. Geographical inequalities in mortality in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Curto de Casas, S I

    1993-05-01

    This paper is an attempt to synthesize several models of health and levels of affluence in Latin America. An analysis is accomplished wherein various countries and regions of Latin America are classified for health purposes as either products of a poverty model or a wealth model. Variables utilized include: mortality rates in preschool children and infants; elderly mortality; life expectancy; and overall causes of death. All three of the general models can be found in different parts of Latin America. More developed countries and regions tend to approximate the wealth model where chronic and degenerative diseases dominate. Still, while life expectations are shorter in countries and regions with lower levels of development, some elderly are afflicted by chronic and degenerative diseases. PMID:8511622

  2. Haematopoietic cell transplants in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Gale, R P; Seber, A; Bonfim, C; Pasquini, M

    2016-07-01

    Haematopoietic cell transplants are done by more than 1500 transplant centres in 75 countries, mostly for life-threatening haematological disorders. However, transplant technology and access are not uniformly distributed worldwide. Most transplants are done predominately in Europe, North America and some Asian countries. We review transplant activity in Latin America, a geographic region with a population of >600 million persons living in countries with diverse economic and social development levels. These data indicate a 20-40-fold lower frequency of transplants in Latin America compared with Europe and North America. We show that although economics, infrastructure and expertise are important limitations, other variables also operate. Changes in several of these variables may substantially increase transplant activity in Latin America. PMID:26999468

  3. Young Workers in Latin America: Protection or Self-Determination?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Maria Cristina

    1991-01-01

    Child labor in Latin America is discussed in terms of its history and social and economic conditions. Relationships between children and adults and new social policies that effect child labor in Latin America are considered. (BC)

  4. [The demographic transition in Latin America and Europe].

    PubMed

    Zavala De Cosio, M E

    1992-12-01

    This work describes and analyzes the "European model of demographic transition" and compares it to the fertility transition in Latin America, arguing that two different types of demographic transition coexist in Latin America. Chesnais has defined 3 principal postulates of the theory of demographic transition that he believes are universally valid: the precedence in time of mortality decline; the occurrence of reproductive transition in 2 phases, limitation of marriages followed by limitation of births; and the influence of economic growth on the initiation of the secular fertiilty decline. This work is largely limited to discussion of the first 2 postulates. In all the European transitions analyzed, mortality has declined before the occurrence of fertility changes. Exceptions cited in the literature have probably been caused by omissions or other problems in the data. The level of mortality at the beginning of the transition and the rate of decline differ, giving unique character to each transition. Imbalances resulting from mortality decline are at the root of modern fertility transitions. The French demographic transition was distinguished by early appearance of birth limitation by married couples, as part of the regulation of population growth. In the rest of Europe, during the pretransitional period, the traditional system of reproduction was regulated primarily by control of nuptiality. Only at a second stage was marital fertiity controlled, when limitation of marriage was no longer sufficient or had exceeded the limits of social acceptability. All countries of Northern and Western Europe recorded increased proportions definitively single as the demographic situation began to change, until the moment when couples began to limit births. The demographic transition in Latin America began at the end of the 19th century, with mortality decline. Fertility increased initially in Latin America as it had in Europe and for the same reasons, but the impact was greater

  5. HRD in Latin America. Symposium 5. [AHRD Conference, 2001].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This document contains three papers on human resource development (HRD) in Latin America. "Looking at the Literature on Workplace Democracy in Latin America: Factors in Favor and Against It" (Max U. Montesino) discusses selected issues related to workplace democracy in Latin America and identifies salient issues for further research, including the…

  6. ADULT BASIC EDUCATION IN LATIN AMERICA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CORTRIGHT, RICHARD W.

    THE AUTHOR BRIEFLY REVIEWS STUDIES AND REPORTS ON ADULT BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN LATIN AMERICA, WHERE IN MOST COUNTRIES AT LEAST 40 PERCENT OF THE ADULT POPULATION IS ILLITERATE. EDUCATION HAS BEEN RELATED TO NATIONAL ECONOMIES, HEALTH, AND SOCIAL AND POLITICAL PROBLEMS. NATIONAL BUDGETS FOR LITERACY PROGRAMS ARE GROWING AND IN SOME COUNTRIES…

  7. The Scientific Institutions of Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Ronald

    This book is a comprehensive survey of the scientific institutions and science information facilities of Latin America and the Caribbean. The organization of the book is by countries and by institutions within each country. The section on each country begins with a description of the country and its scientific organizations. A series of…

  8. Partnering for Sustainable Development in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinger, Beryl

    2002-01-01

    A study examined how government agencies, the private sector, nongovernmental organizations, and community organizations in Latin America cooperate in development activities. A model outlines each sector's functions in service delivery, human resource development and training, resource mobilization, research, and public education; the stages of…

  9. Challenges for Scientists in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Kalergis, Alexis M; Lacerda, Marcus; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Rosenstein, Yvonne

    2016-09-01

    Despite political turmoil and economical crisis, research in Latin America has considerably advanced over recent decades. The present 'Point of View' outlines our perspectives on the working conditions, successes, difficulties, limitations, and challenges of biomedical scientific communities in four Latin American countries: Argentina (G.A.R.), Brazil (M.L.), Chile (A.K.), and Mexico (Y.R.). PMID:27426044

  10. Latin America: The Revolution of Hope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salcedo, Jose Joaquin; And Others

    Latin America is a continent with a great deal of poverty, ignorance, and violence. This book describes the problems that plague the region and explains how and why they have gone unsolved. Change can come about only through real and effective participation by men and women in the political and economic activities of their nations. Organized into…

  11. Evaluating Multigrade School Reform in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes three multigrade school reforms in Latin America: (1) Colombia's "Escuela Nueva", (2) Guatemala's "Nueva Escuela Unitaria", and (3) Chile's MECE-Rural. Each reform endowed primary teachers and students with special training and instructional materials, and encouraged new kinds of instruction in rural classrooms, with the goal…

  12. Vocational Training in Latin America. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexim, Joao Carlos; And Others

    This monograph summarizes the main structural and operational components of the framework for the development of vocational training in Latin America. Part 1, "Economic Framework and Population" (Orlando Luebbert), is an overview of social and economic indicators: population, agriculture, industry and productivity, the informal sector, gainful…

  13. A World of Hurt: Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Rama

    2009-01-01

    Massive socioeconomic problems have left Latin American education in a dire condition, and decades behind the rest of the globe in integrating technology into teaching and learning. But a few spots in the region offer signs of hope. In this article, the author describes several efforts at tech-based educational reform in Latin America.

  14. Latin America: Intercultural Experiential Learning Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This learning aid is intended to help Americans become more effective in understanding and communicating with Latin Americans. The book consists of the following: (1) a map of Latin America, with area and population statistics for the various countries; (2) a brief description of the land, the people, the economy, diet, religion, government,…

  15. Instructional Technology Research in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, Clifton B.

    1986-01-01

    Description of research activities in the field of instructional technology in Latin America highlights distance education, microcomputers, educational radio, learning strategies and study habits, and instructional development models and design of textbooks. Problem areas discussed include students' role, cognitive styles, and effectiveness, and…

  16. Secondary School Libraries in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooney, Eugene M.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses problems (poverty, lack of national publishers, use of libraries as study halls, low professional status of librarians) affecting high school libraries in Latin America and suggests ways to improve library services, focusing on reference service (opening reference stacks, improved cataloging, library skills instruction), technical…

  17. Gender, Innovation and Education in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Ingrid, Ed.; King, Linda, Ed.

    This document contains 19 papers on gender, innovation, and education in Latin America. The following papers are included: "Introduction" (Ingrid Jung); "Reflections on the Gender Perspective in Experiences of Non-Formal Education with Women" (Lilian Celiberti); "Gender and Innovation" (Graciela Messina); "Towards a Pedagogy of Education…

  18. Endoscopic Ultrasound Practice Survey in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Drigo, Juliana Marques; Castillo, Cecilia; Wever, Wallia; Obaldía, José Ricardo Ruíz; Fillipi, Sheila; Ribeiro, Manoel C. S. A.; Rossini, Lucio G. B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has become an important imaging modality for the diagnosis, staging and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. However, no official data exists regarding clinical EUS practice in Latin America (LA). This study assessed current EUS practice and training. Patients and Methods: A direct mail survey questionnaire was sent to 268 Capítulo Latino Americano de Ultrasonido Endoscópico members between August 2012 and January 2013. The questionnaire was sent out in English, Spanish and Portuguese languages and was available through the following site: http://www.cleus-encuesta.com. Responses were requested only from physicians who perform EUS. Results: A total of 70 LA physicians answered the questionnaire until January 2013. Most of the participants were under 42 years of age (53%) and 80% were men. Most participants (45.7%) perform EUS in Brazil, 53% work in a private hospital. The majority (70%) also perform endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. A total 42% had performed EUS for 2 years or less and 22.7% for 11 years or more. Only 10% performed more than 5000 EUS. The most common indication was an evaluation of pancreatic-biliary-ampullary lesions. Regarding training, 48.6% had more than 6 months of dedicated hands-on EUS and 37% think that at least 6 months of formal training is necessary to acquire competence. Furthermore, 64% think that more than 50 procedures for pancreatic-biliary lesions are necessary. Conclusion: This survey provides insight into the status of EUS in LA. EUS is performed mostly by young endoscopists in LA. Diagnostic upper EUS is the most common EUS procedure. Most endosonographers believe that formal training is necessary to acquire competence. PMID:24949398

  19. [Peasant women and agrarian life in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Arizpe, L

    1985-01-01

    The great agrarian transformation in favor of capitalist agriculture that has occurred over the past few decades in the dependent countries of Latin America has modified the traditional production of foodstuffs, the mode of work, and the social reproduction of peasant women belonging to the social groups with the lowest levels of income. Policies of centralized industrialization which have excluded agricultural manpower have affected Latin American women, accounting for their greater tendency to migrate to cities. Migrant peasant women participate in 3 principal characteristics of the dependent development of Latin America: the rural exodus, the burgeoning of the tertiary sector, and marginality. The consequences of unequal capitalist agrarian development in the formation of a female rural proletariat have not been well studies, resulting in a tendency to disregard the heterogeneity of situations in which peasant women find themselves and to confuse 3 aspects of their condition as members of rural families, as workers, and as women. As family members, peasant women find family income declining, leading to increases in their unpaid labor time and declining standards of nutrition and health. The agrarian economies of Latin America and the Caribbean show a certain homogeneity in the sexual division of labor. Their historical development after their insertion as colonial regions in the world economy produced 3 well-defined forms of agricultural economy: haciendas, plantations, and peasant communities, each with its own forms of family and kinship relationships which reflected adjustments between sexual division of labor and production or manpower needs. Concerning the participation of women, there are curerntly 3 specific types of agricultural production characteristic of Latin America and the Caribbean: peasant family units usually belonging to communities in which women primarily perform the tasks of "reproduction", rural family units which rely on the external labor

  20. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Capote Negrin, Luis G

    2015-01-01

    The basic aspects of the descriptive epidemiology of cervical cancer in Latin America are presented. A decrease in the incidence and mortality rates has been observed in the period from 2000 to 2012 in all countries across the region, this has not occurred at the same proportions, and in many countries, observed figures of incidence and mortality are among the highest levels in the world. In Latin America, calculating a mean measure of the numbers from the GLOBOCAN data from 2000 to 2012, we can observe a difference of up to fivefold of the incidence (Puerto Rico 9,73 Vs Bolivia 50,73) and almost seven times for mortality (Puerto Rico 3,3 Vs Nicaragua 21,67). A report of the epidemiology, risk factors, and evaluation of screening procedures regarding the possible impact of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine I in the prevention of cervical cancer is presented. PMID:26557875

  1. The Regulation of Biosimilars in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Ricardo; Araujo, Denizar Vianna

    2016-03-01

    This article summarizes the regulatory scenario on biological medications in Latin America focusing on comparability studies, extrapolation of indications, interchangeability and pharmacovigilance issues. In the case of comparability studies, what is being discussed is the possibility of decreasing the clinical trials requirement, but that the molecule should be well characterized in the studies of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. With the worldwide-level approval of the first monoclonal antibody biosimilar, infliximab, extrapolation of indications are being discussed, since the behavior of the Latin America regulatory agencies has been different with regard to such issue. Another issue discussed by the regulatory agencies is the interchangeability between biological medications and their biosimilars, mainly due to the fact that there is a clear confusion on interchangeability and substitution concepts. Finally, the pharmacovigilance debate, according to what takes place globally, is related to the need for identifying and differentiating the reference biological medication and its biosimilars for traceability purposes. PMID:26951254

  2. Reading Comprehension in Latin America: Difficulties and Possible Interventions.

    PubMed

    Lions, Séverin; Peña, Marcela

    2016-06-01

    Reading comprehension (RC) is below the international standard in many countries of Latin America (LA). Here we review factors that might be associated with failure in RC of the first language in LA. Then we present interventions reporting beneficial impact on RC in typically developing students from English-speaking countries and discuss their possible applicability in LA. We conclude that research-based pedagogical interventions are currently available to promote RC at school and may be suitable to implement in LA in order to improve RC. PMID:27254828

  3. High magnetic field facilities in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, R.; Grössinger, R.; Bertorello, H.; Broto, J. M.; Davies, H. A.; Estevez-Rams, E.; Gonzalez, J.; Matutes, J.; Sinnecker, J. P.; Sagredo, V.

    2006-11-01

    The EC supported a network (under the Framework 5 ALFA Programme) designated HIFIELD (Project number II0147FI) and entitled: "Measurement methods involving high magnetic fields for advanced and novel materials". As a result, high field facilities were initiated, constructed or extended at the following laboratories in Latin America: University Cordoba (Argentina), CES, Merida (Venezuela), CIMAV, Chihuahua (Mexico), University Federal de Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

  4. Latin America's present and future challenges in toxicology education

    SciTech Connect

    Rojas, M. . E-mail: martini@telcel.net.ve

    2005-09-01

    Industrialization that Latin America has experienced during the past 50 years, the increase of population and the growth of chemical-related industries has generated a variety of environmental problems that must be addressed. After assessing these profound changes, greater emphasis should be placed on the study of environmental health and toxicology. Latin American countries face many problems that are common to other developing nations. Therefore, there is a demand for safety assessment and regulatory control of chemicals that create a need for increasing numbers of toxicologists. To meet this demand, educational programs in toxicology have to be designed. This paper utilizes a consultation questionnaire that includes toxicology-network members, scientists and educational institutions where toxicology is taught. An analysis of the information collected is made, with an emphasis on what we currently lack and on future challenges for toxicology professionals. Although the response from the study institutions was 65% (13 countries out of 20), the paper aims to assess the present situation of toxicology. The convenience for a certification/recognition for toxicologists is also evaluated. Action needs to be taken to promote scientific development based on regional specific needs that require increasing at the number of toxicology programs, and promoting of cooperation between academics and researchers. Among the limitations we have are the variability of curricula, objectives and priorities. The increasing globalization of markets and regulations requires the harmonization of graduate/postgraduate programs to ensure that risk assessment and management are dealt with uniformly. Cooperation among our countries and international assistance should play a more prominent role in the promotion of regional integration and the more efficient utilization of international experience in defining educational policies.

  5. Mineral Facilities of Latin America and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernstein, Rachel; Eros, Mike; Quintana-Velazquez, Meliany

    2006-01-01

    This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries of aluminum, cement, coal, copper, diamond, gold, iron and steel, nickel, platinum-group metals, salt, and silver, among others. Records include attributes such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity if applicable, and generalized coordinates. The data were compiled from multiple sources, including the 2003 and 2004 USGS Minerals Yearbooks (Latin America and Candada volume), data to be published in the 2005 Minerals Yearbook Latin America and Canada Volume, minerals statistics and information from the USGS minerals information Web site (minerals.usgs.gov/minerals), and data collected by USGS minerals information country specialists. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies,and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information and explanation is available from the country specialists.

  6. Where Does Human Plague Still Persist in Latin America?

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Maria Cristina; Najera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Galan, Deise I.; Bertherat, Eric; Ruiz, Alfonso; Dumit, Elsy; Gabastou, Jean Marc; Espinal, Marcos A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Plague is an epidemic-prone disease with a potential impact on public health, international trade, and tourism. It may emerge and re-emerge after decades of epidemiological silence. Today, in Latin America, human cases and foci are present in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru. Aims The objective of this study is to identify where cases of human plague still persist in Latin America and map areas that may be at risk for emergence or re-emergence. This analysis will provide evidence-based information for countries to prioritize areas for intervention. Methods Evidence of the presence of plague was demonstrated using existing official information from WHO, PAHO, and Ministries of Health. A geo-referenced database was created to map the historical presence of plague by country between the first registered case in 1899 and 2012. Areas where plague still persists were mapped at the second level of the political/administrative divisions (counties). Selected demographic, socioeconomic, and environmental variables were described. Results Plague was found to be present for one or more years in 14 out of 25 countries in Latin America (1899–2012). Foci persisted in six countries, two of which have no report of current cases. There is evidence that human cases of plague still persist in 18 counties. Demographic and poverty patterns were observed in 11/18 counties. Four types of biomes are most commonly found. 12/18 have an average altitude higher than 1,300 meters above sea level. Discussion Even though human plague cases are very localized, the risk is present, and unexpected outbreaks could occur. Countries need to make the final push to eliminate plague as a public health problem for the Americas. A further disaggregated risk evaluation is recommended, including identification of foci and possible interactions among areas where plague could emerge or re-emerge. A closer geographical approach and environmental characterization are suggested. PMID:24516682

  7. John Wheatley Award Talk: Building bridges instead of fences. Renewed Science cooperation with Latin America.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordonez, Carlos

    2009-05-01

    International collaborations are a hallmark of modern science. In the USA, most of this activity has been with other developed countries. Collaborations with Latin America have been of a limited scope. In light of the current challenges that demand international scientific collaborations, the establishment of closer links with Latin America will bring manifold benefits to the USA and its Latin partners. Expansion upon these statements and discussions of some examples -- Pan-American Association for Physics, World Laboratory, National Society of Hispanic Physicists, Monterrey Tech -- will be presented, as well as some suggestions for the future.

  8. Commentary: improving the health of neglected populations in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Jones, Danielle; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Santos-Preciado, José Ignacio

    2007-01-01

    Neglected diseases encompass a group of pathologies that disproportionally affect resource-constrained areas of the world. In tropical and subtropical areas in Latin America, the vicious cycle of poverty, disease and underdevelopment is widespread. The burden of disease associated to neglected diseases in this region is mainly expressed through diseases such as malaria, dengue, intestinal parasitic infections, Chagas' disease, and many others. These maladies have burdened Latin America throughout centuries and have directly influenced their ability to develop and become competitive societies in the current climate of globalization. Therefore, the need for a new paradigm that integrates various public health policies, programs, and a strategy with the collaboration of all responsible sectors is long overdue. In this regard, innovative approaches are required to ensure the availability of low-cost, simple, sustainable, and locally acceptable strategies to improve the health of neglected populations to prevent, control, and potentially eliminate neglected diseases. Improving the health of these forgotten populations will place them in an environment more conducive to development and will likely contribute significantly to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in this area of the globe. PMID:17244369

  9. Arsenic Exposure in Latin America: Biomarkers, Risk Assessments and Related Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    McClintock, Tyler R.; Chen, Yu; Bundschuh, Jochen; Oliver, John T.; Navoni, Julio; Olmos, Valentina; Lepori, Edda Villaamil; Ahsan, Habibul; Parvez, Faruque

    2013-01-01

    In Latin America, several regions have a long history of widespread arsenic (As) contamination from both natural and anthropological sources. Yet, relatively little is known about the extent of As exposure from drinking water and its related health consequences in these countries. It has been estimated that at least 4.5 million people in Latin America are chronically exposed to high levels of As (>50µg/L), some to as high as 2000 µg/L - 200 times higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) provisional standard for drinking water. We conducted a systematic review of 82 peer reviewed papers and reports to fully explore the current understanding of As exposure and its health effects, as well as the influence of genetic factors that modulate those effects in the populations of Latin America. Despite some methodological limitations, these studies suggested important links between high levels of chronic As exposure and elevated risks of numerous adverse health outcomes in Latin America - including internal and external cancers, reproductive outcomes, and childhood cognitive function. Several studies demonstrated genetic polymorphisms that influence susceptibility to these and other disease states through their modulation of As metabolism, with As methyltransferase (AS3MT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and genes of one-carbon metabolism being specifically implicated. While the full extent and nature of the health burden are yet to be known in Latin America, these studies have significantly enriched knowledge of As toxicity and led to subsequent research. Targeted future studies will not only yield a better understanding of the public health impact of As in Latin America populations, but also allow for effective and timely mitigation efforts. PMID:22119448

  10. Physical Activity Interventions in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Hoehner, Christine M.; Ribeiro, Isabela C.; Parra, Diana C.; Reis, Rodrigo S.; Azevedo, Mario R.; Hino, Adriano A.; Soares, Jesus; Hallal, Pedro C.; Simões, Eduardo J.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2013-01-01

    Context Systematic reviews of public health interventions are useful for identifying effective strategies for informing policy and practice. The goals of this review were to (1) update a previous systematic review of physical activity interventions in Latin America which found that only school-based physical education had sufficient evidence to recommend widespread adoption; (2) assess the reporting of external validity elements; and (3) develop and apply an evidence typology for classifying interventions. Evidence acquisition In 2010–2011, community-level, physical activity intervention studies from Latin America were identified, categorized, and screened based on the peer-reviewed literature or Brazilian theses published between 2006 and 2010. Articles meeting inclusion criteria were evaluated using U.S. Community Guide methods. External validity reporting was assessed among a subset of articles reviewed to date. An evidence rating typology was developed and applied to classify interventions along a continuum based on evidence about their effectiveness in the U.S. context, reach, adoption, implementation, institutionalization, and benefits and costs. Evidence synthesis Thirteen articles published between 2006 and 2010 met inclusion criteria and were abstracted systematically, yet when combined with evidence from articles from the previous systematic review, no additional interventions could be recommended for practice. Moreover, the reporting of external validity elements was low among a subset of 19 studies published to date (median=21% of elements reported). By applying the expanded evidence rating typology, one intervention was classified as evidence-based, seven as promising, and one as emerging. Conclusions Several physical activity interventions have been identified as promising for future research and implementation in Latin America. Enhanced reporting of external validity elements will inform the translation of research into practice. PMID:23415133

  11. The looming threat of AIDS and HIV in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Snell, J

    1999-10-01

    A conference, organized by the International HIV/AIDS Alliance and Glaxo Wellcome's Positive Action Program, was held in Ecuador to address the growing number of HIV cases in Latin America. It recognized the high prevalence rates of HIV infections in Brazil and Mexico, and the potential increase in HIV infections in Ecuador due to its changing demographics and lack of government action. Community workers from Ecuador were eager to listen to how Brazil and Mexico had dealt with the AIDS issue. The HIV/AIDS situation in Ecuador is further worsened by its economic crisis. Several speakers in the conference also asked for more HIV positive counselors that will work with other infected individuals and to complement the role of doctors and nurses. In addition, details of numerous projects, including that of an HIV program in a Quito young offenders' institution, were discussed. PMID:10513724

  12. Teaching Beyond the Borders: A Review of the Global Studies Latin America Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Julian

    The New York City Board of Education's unit on Latin America (Global Studies Grade 9) is a welcome and useful aid to teachers seeking to develop a social studies curriculum with a global perspective. Besides the contemporary relevance, the methodology of the curriculum closely adheres to current thinking on teaching social studies. The lessons and…

  13. The Major Project of Education in Latin America and the Caribbean. Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    This bulletin contains information about important educational strategies that have had an impact in South America. In "Current Trends in Educational Reforms," Juan Carlos Tedesco examines the major lessons that educational reforms have produced. "Education and Changes in the Latin America's Social Structure" (German Rama) starts out by…

  14. Early Child Development in Latin America and the Caribbean: List of Projects with World Bank Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC. Human Development Network.

    In recent years the World Bank, currently the largest single funding source for education and health programs in the world, has put new emphasis on reaching children in the years before they enter school. Despite the acknowledged benefits to be gained from investing in education, schooling in Latin America has failed to keep pace with the…

  15. Epidemiology and Treatment of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Rego, E.M.; Jácomo, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    Distinct epidemiological characteristics have been described in Acute Promielocytic Leukemia (APL). Populations from Latin America have a higher incidence of APL and in some geographic areas a distinct distribution of the PML-RARA isoforms is present. Here, we review the main differences in APL epidemilogy in Latin America as well as treatment outcomes. PMID:22110899

  16. Background Briefing for Student Teachers Going to Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banning, Bernadine

    A guide for student teachers planning to travel or work in Latin America contains general information about living in Latin America and profiles of Mexico and the Dominican Republic. The general information addresses these issues: travel, what to take along, culture shock, greetings, generalizations about Hispanic culture, values, given names and…

  17. Scientific Co-operation between Europe and Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uller, Angela

    1993-01-01

    The university's role in scientific research differs considerably in Europe and Latin America; the latter does not have the long academic tradition of the former. However, Latin America has much to offer in international scientific cooperation, which should be consolidated and expanded to benefit both communities. Tables detail cooperative…

  18. Community Colleges: A Viable Solution for Latin America?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Claudio de Moura; Bernasconi, Andres

    This paper analyzes the United States community college as a model for adaptation in Latin America. The author argues that there is a growing frustration with the lack of responsiveness of universities to the development needs of societies in Latin America. Higher education continues to be accessible only to the privileged segments of society…

  19. Abortion in Latin America is a matter of desperation.

    PubMed

    Martinez, D

    1990-01-01

    For North Americans, the abortion debate is one of rights: the fetus' right to be born versus the mother's right to control her body. But for Latin American women, debating rights is a luxury that has little to do with the brutal reality of becoming pregnant and knowing it will be impossible to feed yet another child, says Sylvia Marcos. A Mexican psychotherapist who has taught at Harvard University, Marcos works with women in squatters' camps throughout Mexico. "If you want to end abortion in Latin America, you will have to change the whole economic system," said Marcos in an interview. Unfortunately, Marcos said, abortion foes have failed to come up with answers to the poverty that drives Latin American women to have what she estimates are 12 million illegal abortions a year. Women in Latin America, most of them Catholic, are expected to marry young and have many children. Most women choose abortion only after having many children and deciding it would be impossible to feed another, Marcos said. The combination of Catholicism and culture--extolling the virtues of large families--and women's utter lack of means to provide is devastating psychologically and physically, she said. Furthermore, about 1/2 of all Latin American women are raising children alone. "It's so unjust," said Marcos. The 12 million abortions reflect desperation--not an anti-life orientation, she said. "When you are hungry, you do not debate the ethics of when life begins," said Marcos. "If we had enough to eat, then we could care." Women who have abortions continue to call themselves Catholic but often quit going to communion. "Not only do they have a hard time recovering physically from illegal abortions, but they are denied spiritual enjoyment," Marcos said. Trapped in desperate situations, women ignore church teachings about abortion--particularly if they are Indians who still identify strongly with traditions that uphold different ideas about when life begins. Both prochoice and prolife

  20. Review: Malaria Chemoprophylaxis for Travelers to Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Steinhardt, Laura C.; Magill, Alan J.; Arguin, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Because of recent declining malaria transmission in Latin America, some authorities have recommended against chemoprophylaxis for most travelers to this region. However, the predominant parasite species in Latin America, Plasmodium vivax, can form hypnozoites sequestered in the liver, causing malaria relapses. Additionally, new evidence shows the potential severity of vivax infections, warranting continued consideration of prophylaxis for travel to Latin America. Individualized travel risk assessments are recommended and should consider travel locations, type, length, and season, as well as probability of itinerary changes. Travel recommendations might include no precautions, mosquito avoidance only, or mosquito avoidance and chemoprophylaxis. There are a range of good options for chemoprophylaxis in Latin America, including atovaquone-proguanil, doxycycline, mefloquine, and—in selected areas—chloroquine. Primaquine should be strongly considered for nonpregnant, G6PD-nondeficient patients traveling to vivax-endemic areas of Latin America, and it has the added benefit of being the only drug to protect against malaria relapses. PMID:22144437

  1. Latin America's Decontamination and Decommissioning Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Bermudez, J.V.; Lagos, L.E.; Ebadian, M.A.; Mayerle, M.

    1998-10-20

    Throughout this project, the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology's (HCET) goal was to initiate a comprehensive research program on sustainable development, environmental protection, and the market for environmental technologies in Latin America and the Caribbean. The data resulting from the work associated with this project has been entered into an information system which supplies useful and accurate data knowledge to interested parties. When relevant information has been found to be insufficient and/or not readily available, HCET has investigated, conducted research, and subsequently made this information available to the public. During FY96, HCET completed numerous tasks to contribute to this body of knowledge. This initiative will continue throughout 1997. Highlights of FY96 are described.

  2. Public health nutrition in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Solomons, Noel W

    2003-01-01

    An inquiry into options for Masters-level training and into attitudes and perceptions among a convenience sample of nutrition students and professionals from 11 countries suggests that the term, "Public Health Nutrition", as such, is poorly represented and poorly understood in the Latin American region. At least six countries (Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, Puerto Rico) at seven sites have Masters programs to provide training for nutrition in a public health context or public health with an emphasis in nutrition. Exploring alliances from the Americas with the formal PHN discipline emerging in Europe should enrich the mutual perspective on curriculum design. However, the form and context of postgraduate training in Latin America must consider first and foremost its own job-markets, diverse public health needs, and resource allocations in building or transforming training programs. PMID:15806833

  3. Clandestine abortion in Latin America: provider perspectives.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, K; Strickler, J

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the results of in-depth interviews with ten clandestine abortion providers in urban Latin America. Three related issues are addressed: how abortion providers come to this line of work; their major difficulties; and their sources of job satisfaction. A variety of paths bring health professionals to the practice of abortion; common elements are a sense of calling, a desire to help women, personal experience with abortion, and a commitment to political change. Providers describe difficulties that include a lack of medical support, the need for secrecy, and threats of violence, extortion, and prosecution. In spite of difficulties, all providers report a great deal of fulfillment in their work, based on their satisfaction in saving women's lives, maintaining supportive relationships with colleagues, and empowering women. PMID:10374808

  4. National working conditions surveys in Latin America: comparison of methodological characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Merino-Salazar, Pamela; Artazcoz, Lucía; Campos-Serna, Javier; Gimeno, David; Benavides, Fernando G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: High-quality and comparable data to monitor working conditions and health in Latin America are not currently available. In 2007, multiple Latin American countries started implementing national working conditions surveys. However, little is known about their methodological characteristics. Objective: To identify commonalities and differences in the methodologies of working conditions surveys (WCSs) conducted in Latin America through 2013. Methods: The study critically examined WCSs in Latin America between 2007 and 2013. Sampling design, data collection, and questionnaire content were compared. Results: Two types of surveys were identified: (1) surveys covering the entire working population and administered at the respondent's home and (2) surveys administered at the workplace. There was considerable overlap in the topics covered by the dimensions of employment and working conditions measured, but less overlap in terms of health outcomes, prevention resources, and activities. Conclusions: Although WCSs from Latin America are similar, there was heterogeneity across surveyed populations and location of the interview. Reducing differences in surveys between countries will increase comparability and allow for a more comprehensive understanding of occupational health in the region. PMID:26079314

  5. Implementation of HPV testing in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Jeronimo, Jose; Holme, Francesca; Slavkovsky, Rose; Camel, Claudia

    2016-03-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading killers among women in Latin America, a region where most countries have not been successful in implementing population-level cytology-based screening programs. This disease is caused by persistent infection with oncogenic HPV; in recent years, more HPV tests have become available and prices have dropped significantly, making it possible for countries to adopt these technologies. Pilot programs that took place in Nicaragua, Mexico, and Argentina showed a high level of efficacy in detecting precancerous cervical lesions and good feasibility and acceptance of self-sampling. El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua are beginning to institutionalize HPV testing at the population level. The experience from the different countries has created rich information about the barriers and requirements for implementing HPV screening at large scale in these resource-constrained countries. There are several challenges for implementation, including a need to update screening guidelines, strengthen treatment capacity, and develop a comprehensive quality assurance plan for the HPV testing. At the same time, there are several opportunities in Latin America that make the process more feasible and faster than in other regions of the world: most Latin American countries already have screening programs funded by their national governments, several countries in the region are already implementing HPV testing, and there is a regional pooled procurement mechanism that could facilitate the purchase of HPV tests at an accessible price. We envision that most countries in the region will include HPV testing in their national program within the next three to five years. PMID:26699418

  6. Some thoughts about the IAU Strategic Plan in Latin America and the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Peimbert, Silvia

    2015-03-01

    The distribution of overall education and culture among the population in Latin America and the Caribbean has a very wide range; this is also the case for astronomical engagement. The route to follow in the strategic plan needs to address this situation, for the different levels of development. In particular, guidelines should be established for the regional node(s) where achievable goals should be set up and evaluated periodically. I present a set of ideas on this subject.

  7. Between the national and the universal: natural history networks in Latin America in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Regina Horta

    2013-12-01

    This essay examines contemporary Latin American historical writing about natural history from the nineteenth through the twentieth centuries. Natural history is a "network science," woven out of connections and communications between diverse people and centers of scholarship, all against a backdrop of complex political and economic changes. Latin American naturalists navigated a tension between promoting national science and participating in "universal" science. These tensions between the national and the universal have also been reflected in historical writing on Latin America. Since the 1980s, narratives that recognize Latin Americans' active role have become more notable within the renewal of the history of Latin American science. However, the nationalist slant of these approaches has kept Latin American historiography on the margins. The networked nature of natural history and Latin America's active role in it afford an opportunity to end the historiographic isolation of Latin America and situate it within world history. PMID:24783494

  8. Professions and Educational Counseling in Mexico and Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canales, Leticia; Blanco-Beledo, Ricardo

    1993-01-01

    In the past, educational counseling in Latin America has been used to limit economic and political participation and maintain unequal resource distribution. Modernization, the new free trade agreement, and other changes are changing the role of counseling. (SK)

  9. The Growth of Multinational Advertising Agencies in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fejes, Fred

    1980-01-01

    Sketches the history of the expansion of multinational advertising agencies. Then examines the growth, characteristics, and consequences of these agencies in an important region of the developing world, Latin America. (PD)

  10. Development of regional network for nuclear information in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebinuma, Yukio

    Among the recent INIS activities several interesting items are reported. In particular Latin America area where active movements have been seen recently is described in detail in terms of INIS information services. The author reports Latin America regional nuclear information project which has been implemented as 5-year project since 1985 supported by IAEA, and its progress, and describes information service system in Brazil which plays the core role in promoting this project.

  11. Abortion in Latin America: changes in practice, growing conflict, and recent policy developments.

    PubMed

    Kulczycki, Andrzej

    2011-09-01

    Latin America is undergoing profound social, economic, political, demographic, and epidemiologic change. Reproductive health indicators have generally improved over the past two decades, but most pregnancies are still unintended and more than 4 million are terminated annually. Clandestine abortions necessitated by restrictive legal and social structures cause more than 1,000 deaths and 500,000 hospitalizations per year, primarily among poor and marginalized women. Abortions are becoming safer and less frequent, however, as a consequence of increased modern contraceptive use, misoprostol adoption, emergency contraception availability, and postabortion care provision, notwithstanding many impediments to these changes. Advocacy and conflict over abortion have grown. The contested policy shifts include Mexico City's 2007 legalization of first-trimester abortion. Drawing on numerous sources of evidence, this article provides a regional analysis of the rapidly changing practice and context of abortion in Latin America, and examines emerging issues, legal and policy developments, and contrasting country situations. PMID:21972673

  12. Multiple sclerosis care in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Victor M; Medina, Marco Tulio; Duron, Reyna M; Macias, Miguel Angel

    2014-05-01

    Before the advent of diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis (MS), it was reported that the prevalence of MS in Mexico was "one of the lowest in the world" (1.6/100,000).(1) The notion that MS was a rare neurologic disease among those living in the tropics of the Americas and Southern latitudes was widely accepted. The geopolitical boundaries of the region identified as Latin America (LA) extend from the southern border of United States with Mexico (32° North latitude) to the Argentinian and Chilean Patagonia in South America (56° South latitude). The largest Spanish-speaking island countries in the Caribbean-Cuba, Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico-are also traditionally considered part of LA. The continental mass includes 17 countries with a population of more than 550 million. Due to centuries of racial intermixing, it is a heterogeneous and genetically complex population. The blended cultures of native Amerindians with white Caucasian Europeans and black Africans has resulted in the predominant ethnic Latin American Mestizo. The influence of African genetics is notable in many areas of the subcontinent and the Caribbean. A common observation across LA is the absence of identification of MS in non-mixed Amerindians(2); the reason for this phenomenon is unclear. PMID:24799516

  13. The World of Work between the Personal and the Collective: A Demand for Social Justice and Guidance for Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bello, Julio Gonzalez; Chacón, Omaira

    2015-01-01

    The struggle for justice has been permanent for a very long period of time. In this sense, it could be said that since Plato conceived it as one of the fundamental virtues, justice has constituted a goal to achieve for any society. In the case of justice, related to social aspects, the situation has been overwhelming in Latin America. Based on a…

  14. Child Labour and Basic Education in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Proposed UNICEF Initiative. Innocenti Essays No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himes, James R.; And Others

    Following background information on primary school completion rates in Latin America and the Caribbean, this report discusses: (1) the problems of child labor in these regions; (2) a proposed action program for UNICEF and its partners; (3) an analysis of the child labor situation, including research and evaluation; and (4) possible solution…

  15. Eastern Equine Encephalitis in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Carrera, Jean-Paul; Forrester, Naomi; Wang, Eryu; Vittor, Amy Y.; Haddow, Andrew D.; López-Vergès, Sandra; Abadía, Ivan; Castaño, Elizabeth; Sosa, Nestor; Báez, Carmen; Estripeaut, Dora; Díaz, Yamilka; Beltrán, Davis; Cisneros, Julio; Cedeño, Hector G.; da Rosa, Amelia P. Travassos; Hernandez, Humberto; Martínez-Torres, Alex O.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) and Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) viruses are pathogens that infect humans and horses in the Americas. Outbreaks of neurologic disease in humans and horses were reported in Panama from May through early August 2010. METHODS We performed antibody assays and tests to detect viral RNA and isolate the viruses in serum samples from hospitalized patients. Additional cases were identified with enhanced surveillance. RESULTS A total of 19 patients were hospitalized for encephalitis. Among them, 7 had confirmed EEE, 3 had VEE, and 1 was infected with both viruses; 3 patients died, 1 of whom had confirmed VEE. The clinical findings for patients with EEE included brain lesions, seizures that evolved to status epilepticus, and neurologic sequelae. An additional 99 suspected or probable cases of alphavirus infection were detected during active surveillance. In total, 13 cases were confirmed as EEE, along with 11 cases of VEE and 1 case of dual infection. A total of 50 cases in horses were confirmed as EEE and 8 as VEE; mixed etiologic factors were associated with 11 cases in horses. Phylogenetic analyses of isolates from 2 cases of equine infection with the EEE virus and 1 case of human infection with the VEE virus indicated that the viruses were of enzootic lineages previously identified in Panama rather than new introductions. CONCLUSIONS Cases of EEE in humans in Latin America may be the result of ecologic changes that increased human contact with enzootic transmission cycles, genetic changes in EEE viral strains that resulted in increased human virulence, or an altered host range. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Secretaría Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación, Panama.) PMID:23964935

  16. A Review of Breast Cancer Care and Outcomes in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Wilking, Nils; Jönsson, Bengt; Luciani, Silvana; Cazap, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This review presents an overview of breast cancer care, burden, and outcomes in Latin America, as well as the challenges and opportunities for improvement. Information was gleaned through a review of the literature, public databases, and conference presentations, in addition to a survey of clinical experts and patient organizations from the region. Breast cancer annual incidence (114,900 cases) and mortality (37,000 deaths) are the highest of all women's cancers in Latin America, and they are increasing. Twice as many breast cancer deaths are expected by 2030. In Peru, Mexico, Colombia, and Brazil, diagnosis and death at younger ages deprives society of numerous productive years, as does high disease occurrence in Argentina and Uruguay. Approximately 30%–40% of diagnoses are metastatic disease. High mortality-to-incidence ratios (MIRs) in Latin America indicate poor survival, partly because of the late stage at diagnosis and poorer access to treatment. Between 2002 and 2008, MIRs decreased in all countries, albeit unevenly. Costa Rica's change in MIR outpaced incidence growth, indicating impressive progress in breast cancer survival. The situation is similar, although to a lesser extent, in Colombia and Ecuador. The marginal drops of MIRs in Brazil and Mexico mainly reflect incidence growth rather than progress in outcomes. Panama's MIR is still high. Epidemiological data are scattered and of varying quality in Latin America. However, one could ascertain that the burden of breast cancer in the region is considerable and growing due to demographic changes, particularly the aging population, and socioeconomic development. Early diagnosis and population-wide access to evidence-based treatment remain unresolved problems, despite progress achieved by some countries. PMID:23442305

  17. Human rights and the right to abortion in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga-Fajuri, Alejandra

    2014-03-01

    The scope of this study is to question the fact that in some countries in Latin America (Chile, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras and the Dominican Republic) abortion is still forbidden in all situations. Even after all the debate on this thorny issue, the theory of human rights is not often used in the defense of abortion. This is clearly related to the pervasive, albeit unspoken belief that, due to their condition, pregnant women inherently lose their full human rights and should surrender and even give up their lives in favor of the unborn child. This article seeks to show that an adequate reading of the theory of human rights should include abortion rights through the first two trimesters of pregnancy, based on the fact that basic liberties can only be limited for the sake of liberty itself. It also seeks to respond to those who maintain that the abortion issue cannot be resolved since the exact point in the development of the embryo that distinguishes legitimate from illegitimate abortion cannot be determined. There are strong moral and scientific arguments for an approach capable of reducing uncertainty and establishing the basis for criminal law reforms that focus on the moral importance of trimester laws. PMID:24714897

  18. [The demographic consequences of austerity in Latin America: methodological aspects].

    PubMed

    Hakkert, R

    1991-01-01

    This work reviews evidence in the literature of possible demographic effects of the austerity programs imposed on Latin American countries in the 1980s. The work focuses on methodological problems involved in assessing demographic changes and ascertaining that they were indeed attributable to the economic crisis. An introductory section describes the recession of the 1980s in Latin America, the declines in employment and living standards, and the health and social consequences of the deepening poverty. But the author argues that evaluation of health conditions, levels of nutrition, and especially factors such as infant mortality, fertility, marriage patterns, and migration as indicators of the impact of the economic depression is full of pitfalls that are not always obvious. Few Latin American countries have civil registration systems capable of providing accurate and up-to-date mortality and fertility data. Indirect methods currently in use were intended to analyze longterm levels and trends and are of little use for short-term fluctuations. Data on internal migration are scarce even in developed countries. Even when recent data are available it is often difficult or impossible to obtain data for comparison. Infant mortality and malnutrition levels, for example, are serious problems in many parts of Latin America, but series of data capable of demonstrating that they are truly consequences of the economic crisis are lacking. Another challenge is to separate the demographic effects of the debt crisis from longterm structural processes. The possibility of time lags and of different time frames may increase confusion. Almost a year must pass before effects on birth rates can be expected, for example. Neutralizing mechanisms may obscure the effects sought. Thus, the most impoverished urban sectors may return to the countryside to seek refuge in subsistence agriculture; their departure would in some measure diminish the consequences of recession in the urban economy

  19. Report on the First PANLAR Rheumatology Review Course Rheumatoid Arthritis: Challenges and Solutions in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Pineda, Carlos; Caballero-Uribe, Carlo V; Gutiérrez, Marwin; Cazenave, Tomás; Cardiel, Mario H; Levy, Roger; Espada, Graciela; Rose, Carlos; Santos-Moreno, Pedro; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A; Muñoz-Louis, Roberto; Soriano, Enrique R; Reveille, John D

    2015-12-01

    The First PANLAR Rheumatology Review Course was held in Barranquilla, Colombia, in April 2015. Researchers, rheumatologists, epidemiologists, and a variety of allied professionals and patients attended the meeting. The scientific program included plenary sessions and symposia delivered by renowned experts in the field, followed by an interactive forum of discussion during 2 days.A broad spectrum of topics was discussed, reflecting the current challenges and opportunities for diagnosis and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Latin America. The scientific program included not only traditional disease aspects, but also social implications, research projects, and educational characteristics, patient perspectives, and novel care models, emphasizing the need for training human resources and proposing unique approaches to RA health care in Latin America, therefore helping us to increase and improve the knowledge and understanding of the characteristics of this health condition in the region, thus promoting and encouraging equity, quality, and efficiency of RA health care. PMID:26513305

  20. [Economic adjustment and its demographic consequences in Latin America: an overview].

    PubMed

    Bajraj, R F; Bravo, J H

    1994-06-01

    This work reviews the available literature on short and medium term demographic responses to the economic adjustment processes occurring in Latin America during the 1980s. The first section describes the immediate causes and scope of the economic crisis of the 1980s in Latin America and the measures taken to correct imbalances. An external crisis rendered the current accounts deficit of the early 1980s no longer sustainable, interest rates and commercial conditions deteriorated, and a recessive adjustment of enormous magnitude occurred. The term "adjustment" covers a wide and varied array of economic changes, fiscal and social policy reforms, and changes in international commerce. The structural adjustment measures caused deterioration in investment and in equity. Real purchasing power declined more than per capita product in most Latin American countries between 1980 and 1990. Primary income distribution underwent regressive changes. In most cases the deterioration was not compensated by social spending. As a result of the fiscal adjustment and reduced public sector spending, per capita investment in health and education was less in 1990 than in 1980 in almost all countries. The demographic consequences of the adjustment processes are difficult to gauge precisely because the experiences of individual countries were heterogeneous and because no single definition of adjustment exists that would serve as a point of reference for comparison of situations without adjustment or with different types of adjustment. Nevertheless, some studies have attempted to specify terms of comparison. Some have compared conditions before the crisis or adjustments with conditions later, and others have analyzed short term fluctuations in demographic variables from their medium or long term trends. Such works suggest that nuptiality is the variable responding most intensely, systematically, and immediately to short term economic fluctuations. Fertility also appears to have responded

  1. Clostridium difficile: a problem of concern in developed countries and still a mystery in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Balassiano, I T; Yates, E A; Domingues, R M C P; Ferreira, E O

    2012-02-01

    Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) is caused by a spore-forming bacterium and can result in highly variable disease, ranging from mild diarrhoea to severe clinical manifestations. Infections are most commonly seen in hospital settings and are often associated with on-going antibiotic therapy. Incidences of CDAD have shown a sustained increase worldwide over the last ten years and a hypervirulent C. difficile strain, PCR ribotype 027/REA type BI/North American pulsed-field (NAP) type 1 (027/BI/NAP-1), has caused outbreaks in North America and Europe. In contrast, only a few reports of cases in Latin America have been published and the hypervirulent strain 027/BI/NAP-1 has, so far, only been reported in Costa Rica. The potential worldwide spread of this infection calls for epidemiological studies to characterize currently circulating strains and also highlights the need for increased awareness and vigilance among healthcare professionals in currently unaffected areas, such as Latin America. This review attempts to summarize reports of C. difficile infection worldwide, especially in Latin America, and aims to provide an introduction to the problems associated with this pathogen for those countries that might face outbreaks of epidemic strains of C. difficile for the first time in the near future. PMID:22116982

  2. Need of righteous attitudes towards eradication of hepatitis C virus infection in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Panduro, Arturo; Roman, Sonia

    2016-06-14

    Over the last few years, we have expanded our knowledge on numerous facets of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Beginning with its discovery and viral life cycle, its impact on health, the development of liver disease and currently, effective antiviral treatments. The latter point has become of great interest throughout the developed world, where the possible eradication of HCV through specific strategies to reach all HCV-infected people has been announced. However, this scenario is very different in the countries of Latin America (LA), in which < 2% of infected patients requiring treatment have access to HCV medications. It has been estimated that at least ten million Latin Americans may be infected with HCV. Despite the numbers, viral hepatitis does not seem to be considered a health problem in this region of the world. This reality poses a challenge for politicians and governments of these countries, as well as to the pharmaceutical industry, the medical practitioners, and academics in LA. In this editorial, we state the need for alterations in the attitudes of the integral players involved in this situation. A recognition shift could help to create preventive strategies of viral hepatitis and to advocate for accessibility to new HCV treatments. PMID:27298556

  3. Need of righteous attitudes towards eradication of hepatitis C virus infection in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Panduro, Arturo; Roman, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, we have expanded our knowledge on numerous facets of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Beginning with its discovery and viral life cycle, its impact on health, the development of liver disease and currently, effective antiviral treatments. The latter point has become of great interest throughout the developed world, where the possible eradication of HCV through specific strategies to reach all HCV-infected people has been announced. However, this scenario is very different in the countries of Latin America (LA), in which < 2% of infected patients requiring treatment have access to HCV medications. It has been estimated that at least ten million Latin Americans may be infected with HCV. Despite the numbers, viral hepatitis does not seem to be considered a health problem in this region of the world. This reality poses a challenge for politicians and governments of these countries, as well as to the pharmaceutical industry, the medical practitioners, and academics in LA. In this editorial, we state the need for alterations in the attitudes of the integral players involved in this situation. A recognition shift could help to create preventive strategies of viral hepatitis and to advocate for accessibility to new HCV treatments. PMID:27298556

  4. [Social capital and health promotion in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Sapag, Jaime C; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2007-02-01

    Latin America faces common development and health problems and equity and overcoming poverty are crucial in the search for comprehensive and high impact solutions. The article analyzes the definition of social capital, its relationship with health, its limitations and potentialities from a perspective of community development and health promotion in Latin America. High-priority challenges are also identified as well as possible ways to better measure and to strengthen social capital. Particularly, it is discussed how and why social capital may be critical in a global health promotion strategy, where empowerment and community participation, interdisciplinary and intersectorial work would help to achieve Public Health aims and a sustainable positive change for the global development. Also, some potential limitations of the social capital concept in the context of health promotion in Latin America are identified. PMID:17273645

  5. Outlook for hydropower in Latin America and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Sierra, G. )

    1993-02-01

    In the last two decades, the Latin America/Carribean region has become increasingly dependent on electricity to meet growing demands for energy. Hydropower is the prevailing source for meeting this need. Hydroelectric generation increased at an annual average rate of nearly 9% between 1971 and 1989. HYdro now provides more than two-thirds of total electric power generated in Latin America and the Caribbean. The only other predominant source used for electric generation is fossil fuels. In this region there are several trends developing. They include: developing more small hydro facilities, opportunities for sharing water resources, an interest in changing the approach to water use regulation, and possibilities for more participation by the private sector. Overall, hydro appears to have a favorable competitive position in the power industry in the Latin America/Caribbean region.

  6. The first cataract surgeons in Latin America: 1611–1830

    PubMed Central

    Leffler, Christopher T; Wainsztein, Ricardo D

    2016-01-01

    We strove to identify the earliest cataract surgeons in Latin America. Probably by 1611, the Genovese oculist Francisco Drago was couching cataracts in Mexico City. The surgeon Melchor Vásquez de Valenzuela probably performed cataract couching in Lima by 1697. Juan Peré of France demonstrated cataract couching in Veracruz and Mexico City between 1779 and 1784. Juan Ablanedo of Spain performed couching in Veracruz in 1791. Cataract extraction might have been performed in Havana and Caracas by 1793 and in Mexico by 1797. The earliest contemporaneously documented cataract extractions in Latin America were performed in Guatemala City by Narciso Esparragosa in 1797. In addition to Esparragosa, surgeons born in the New World who established the academic teaching of cataract surgery included José Miguel Muñoz in Mexico and José María Vargas in Caracas. Although cataract surgery came quite early to Latin America, its availability was initially inconsistent and limited. PMID:27143845

  7. Preface: Space and geophysical research related to Latin America - Part 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Blanca

    2016-03-01

    For the last 25 years, every two to three years the Conferencia Latinoamericana de Geofísica Espacial (COLAGE) is held in one of the Latin American countries for the purpose of promoting scientific exchange among scientists of the region and to encourage continued research that is unique to this area of the world. At the more recent conference, the community realized that many individuals both within and outside Latin America have contributed greatly to the understanding of the space sciences in this area of the world. It was therefore decided to assemble a Special Issue Space and Geophysical Physics related to Latin America, presenting recent results and where submissions would be accepted from the world wide community of scientists involved in research appropriate to Latin America. Because of the large number of submissions, these papers will be printed in two separate issues; this is Part 1. These papers show the wide variety of research, both theoretical and applied, that is currently being developed in the Sub-Continent.

  8. Planning cancer control in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Goss, Paul E; Lee, Brittany L; Badovinac-Crnjevic, Tanja; Strasser-Weippl, Kathrin; Chavarri-Guerra, Yanin; St Louis, Jessica; Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; Unger-Saldaña, Karla; Ferreyra, Mayra; Debiasi, Márcio; Liedke, Pedro E R; Touya, Diego; Werutsky, Gustavo; Higgins, Michaela; Fan, Lei; Vasconcelos, Claudia; Cazap, Eduardo; Vallejos, Carlos; Mohar, Alejandro; Knaul, Felicia; Arreola, Hector; Batura, Rekha; Luciani, Silvana; Sullivan, Richard; Finkelstein, Dianne; Simon, Sergio; Barrios, Carlos; Kightlinger, Rebecca; Gelrud, Andres; Bychkovsky, Vladimir; Lopes, Gilberto; Stefani, Stephen; Blaya, Marcelo; Souza, Fabiano Hahn; Santos, Franklin Santana; Kaemmerer, Alberto; de Azambuja, Evandro; Zorilla, Andres Felipe Cardona; Murillo, Raul; Jeronimo, Jose; Tsu, Vivien; Carvalho, Andre; Gil, Carlos Ferreira; Sternberg, Cinthya; Dueñas-Gonzalez, Alfonso; Sgroi, Dennis; Cuello, Mauricio; Fresco, Rodrigo; Reis, Rui Manuel; Masera, Guiseppe; Gabús, Raúl; Ribeiro, Raul; Knust, Renata; Ismael, Gustavo; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Roth, Berta; Villa, Luisa; Solares, Argelia Lara; Leon, Marta Ximena; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Covarrubias-Gomez, Alfredo; Hernández, Andrés; Bertolino, Mariela; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Santillana, Sergio; Esteva, Francisco; Fein, Luis; Mano, Max; Gomez, Henry; Hurlbert, Marc; Durstine, Alessandra; Azenha, Gustavo

    2013-04-01

    Non-communicable diseases, including cancer, are overtaking infectious disease as the leading health-care threat in middle-income and low-income countries. Latin American and Caribbean countries are struggling to respond to increasing morbidity and death from advanced disease. Health ministries and health-care systems in these countries face many challenges caring for patients with advanced cancer: inadequate funding; inequitable distribution of resources and services; inadequate numbers, training, and distribution of health-care personnel and equipment; lack of adequate care for many populations based on socioeconomic, geographic, ethnic, and other factors; and current systems geared toward the needs of wealthy, urban minorities at a cost to the entire population. This burgeoning cancer problem threatens to cause widespread suffering and economic peril to the countries of Latin America. Prompt and deliberate actions must be taken to avoid this scenario. Increasing efforts towards prevention of cancer and avoidance of advanced, stage IV disease will reduce suffering and mortality and will make overall cancer care more affordable. We hope the findings of our Commission and our recommendations will inspire Latin American stakeholders to redouble their efforts to address this increasing cancer burden and to prevent it from worsening and threatening their societies. PMID:23628188

  9. [Scientific journals of medical students in Latin-America].

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Samith, Ignacio; Oróstegui-Pinilla, Diana; Angulo-Bazán, Yolanda; Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2010-11-01

    This article deals with the history and evolution of student's scientific journals in Latin-America, their beginnings, how many still exist and which is their future projection. Relevant events show the growth of student's scientific journals in Latin-America and how are they working together to improve their quality. This article is addressed not only for Latin American readers but also to worldwide readers. Latin American medical students are consistently working together to publish scientific research, whose quality is constantly improving. PMID:21279260

  10. Reading Comprehension in Latin America: Difficulties and Possible Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lions, Séverin; Peña, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Reading comprehension (RC) is below the international standard in many countries of Latin America (LA). Here we review factors that might be associated with failure in RC of the first language in LA. Then we present interventions reporting beneficial impact on RC in typically developing students from English-speaking countries and discuss their…

  11. Algunos Animales de Latino America = Some Animals of Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Kathryn F. B.

    Developed by the Latin American Culture Studies Project for educators of elementary level children, these materials are designed to teach students the Spanish and English names of animals found in Latin America. The lesson includes coloring sheets, duplicating masters, fact sheets, the card game Maymayguashi, and directions for preparation. (DB)

  12. ESD: Power, Politics, and Policy: "Tragic Optimism" from Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González-Gaudiano, Edgar J.

    2016-01-01

    In light of the challenging developmental issues confronting the countries of Latin America, this response article analyzes the power and resistance of education for sustainable development from both theoretical and policy perspectives. Of particular concern are the neo-productivist strategies driving the latest stage of capitalist development.…

  13. Latin America Today: An Atlas of Reproducible Pages. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    This document contains reproducible maps, charts and graphs of Latin America for use by teachers and students. The maps are divided into five categories (1) the land; (2) peoples, countries, cities, and governments; (3) the national economies, product, trade, agriculture, and resources; (4) energy, education, employment, illicit drugs, consumer…

  14. A.I.D. Economic Data Book: Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    This data book, updating a December 1968 publication, is designed to serve the internal program and operational needs of the Agency for International Development. More than 19 Latin American republics are referred to in major sections on: (1) Latin America in the Free World: population and production, (2) summary of basic data, (3) population…

  15. The Development of Marine Science in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacio, Francisco J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the maritime history of Latin America and its development of marine science. The need for the Latin American nations to incorporate the oceans into their development process is emphasized in order for them to continue and expand exploitation of living resources. (Author/SA)

  16. The Catholic Church, Moral Education and Citizenship in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaiber, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The Catholic Church, with deep roots in the history of Latin America, exercises considerable influence on all levels of society. Especially after the Second Vatican Council and the bishops' conference at Medellin (1968) the Church took up the banner of human rights and the cause of the poor. During the dictatorships and in the midst of the…

  17. Internationalizing Business Education in Latin America: Issues and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elahee, Mohammad; Norbis, Mario

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the extent of internationalization of business education in Latin America and identifies the key challenges facing the Latin American business schools. Based on a survey of the business schools that are members of CLADEA (Consejo Latinoamericano de Escuelas de Administracion--Latin American Council of Management Schools), and…

  18. Mapping Latin America for Grades Six to Ten. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit, to be used with students in grades 6-10, has been designed to serve three purposes. First, the unit acts as an introduction to, or review of, fundamental geographic concepts and vocabulary. Second, it teaches students about the basic physical and political geography of Latin America. Third, students learn to examine maps with a critical…

  19. Adolescent Literacies in Latin America and the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Lesley; Lopez, Dina; Mein, Erika; Valdiviezo, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2000, approximately 36 million youth and adults living in Latin America and the Caribbean were reported to be unable to read or write basic texts. Of these, 20 million were women. According to official statistics, some countries in Central America (Guatemala, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Honduras) have a youth and adult literacy rate of 80% or…

  20. How Effective Are Private Schools in Latin America?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Marie-Andree; McEwan, Patrick J.; Willms, J. Douglas

    2004-01-01

    In 1997, the Santiago office of UNESCO implemented an assessment of student achievement in Latin America, working in collaboration with 13 Latin American ministries of education. Using a common sampling methodology and survey instruments, researchers in each country collected representative samples of data on third- and fourth-grade achievement in…

  1. Adult Education, Community Enterprises and Rural Development in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Jose Emilio G.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the need for and the difficulties in providing rural development and education programs for rural workers in Latin America and suggests linking adult education with community associative enterprises. Low income rural workers maintain membership by contributing their work to the enterprise and receive goods according to their…

  2. School Readiness Research in Latin America: Findings and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasser, Katherine; Rolla, Andrea; Romero-Contreras, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Educational results in Latin America (LA) are well below those of developed countries. One factor that influences how well children do at school is school readiness. In this article, we review studies conducted in LA on the readiness skills of preschool children. We begin by discussing contextual factors that affect what is expected of children…

  3. Education in Latin America: A Selected Bibliography (1986-1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aedo-Richmond, Ruth

    1996-01-01

    Presents a selected bibliography of books, theses, articles, and dissertations concerning education in Latin America. Includes separate sections on Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. All selections are in…

  4. The Foundations of Telegraphy and Telephony in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baur, Cynthia

    1994-01-01

    Synthesizes empirical evidence on the participation of state and capital in the establishment of domestic telegraphic and telephonic communication in Latin America. Suggests that, in many ways, the contemporary period of telecommunication system organization in the region parallels the early years of telegraphy and telephony. Discusses these…

  5. Directory of Engineering Education Institutions: Africa, Asia, Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This directory presents data on 458 degree-awarding engineering education institutions in countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Data include the general educational pattern of the country and specific institutional information such as: structure, staff, enrollment, research, specializations offered, address, academic period, admissions…

  6. Latin America: Curriculum Materials for the Middle Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Virginia G., Ed.

    Self-contained activities that will help social studies or Spanish foreign language students in grades 6-8 learn about the history and culture of Latin America are provided. Following an introductory unit, the activities, ranging from easy to complex, are organized by the following countries and areas: Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean,…

  7. Latin America Today: An Atlas of Reproducible Pages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    A profile of Latin America (defined as consisting of the countries of Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela) emerges from this collection of black and white illustrative maps, tables, and…

  8. Education, Policy, and Social Change: Experiences from Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales-Gomez, Daniel A., Ed.; Torres, Carlos Alberto, Ed.

    Using both a retrospective and a prospective view, this book examines the links joining research, policy, and change in education in Latin America. It inquires about the relationships among the economy, politics, and the state. It reviews the praxis of education in Latin American countries and in the context of the development trends of the 1980s.…

  9. Journalism Education's Roots in Latin America Are Traced.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Jerry W.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses a document recently discovered in Bolivia that has cast new light on the background of journalism education in Latin America. Indicates that the movement toward the licensing of journalists was present from the beginning. Describes early journalism education in Argentina, Mexico, Ecuador, Peru, and Central America. (JD)

  10. Strategies and Tactics for Community Mobilization. 1981 Latin America Seminars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, John R. A.

    Three seminars examined strategies and tactics for community mobilization in Latin America. The sessions--which were held in Bogota, Columbia; Quito, Ecuador; and Recife, Brazil--involved a total of 75 participants from 27 organizations. Addressed during the seminars were development, leadership, mobilization, and learning in the context of…

  11. Poverty in Latin America: A Critical Analysis of Three Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boltvinik, Julio

    1996-01-01

    Critically evaluates the methodologies used in three recent studies on poverty in Latin America. Maintains that some studies measure the relative nature of nutritional poverty while others record the absolute nature of nutritional poverty (physical survival). Includes a comparative analysis of the studies' results. (MJP)

  12. Spanish Bilateral Initiatives for Education in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortina, Regina; Sanchez, Maria Teresa

    2007-01-01

    The research presented in this article concerns la Agencia Espanola de Cooperacion Internacional (Spanish Agency for International Cooperation--AECI) and its growing presence in Latin America since the late 1990s. The aim is to evaluate the transformative potential that bilateral funding can have on educational reform in the region. The article…

  13. Emergent Evaluation and Educational Reforms in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinic, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to characterize educational reforms in Latin America over the last 25 years, and the way they reflect the role, method, and use of evaluation processes. The main theoretical and methodological tensions that are created by the development of evaluations will be reviewed, concluding with the identification of some of the…

  14. The Reality and Future of Latin America: An Educational Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias, Oscar

    1993-01-01

    Third World countries have lacked the resources to invest in economic and academic development. The source lies in gross inequities between industrialized and developing countries. Globalization of markets has not benefited Latin America. Militarism, corruption, poverty, and social injustice can only be eradicated by incorporating strong…

  15. Bringing Latin America to Life with Films in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanden, Harry E.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author points out that in this increasingly visual world, outstanding films can engage classes and lift the curtain on the cultures and modern history of Latin America. He recommends some of the most gripping and perceptive films on this topic, and offers advice on how teachers can provide the background to these dramas and…

  16. Ethnography and Critical Knowledge of Education in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Elsie

    1991-01-01

    Describes changes in the education systems of Latin America and the work of ethnographic researchers in the area. Examines thematic trends such as cultural reproduction, school failure, schools and the disadvantaged, teachers' protest movements, and what knowledge is really being acquired. Argues that critical attitudes have enhanced the status of…

  17. An overview on the Space Weather in Latin America: from Space Research to Space Weather and its Forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Nardin, C. M.; Gonzalez-Esparza, A.; Dasso, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present an overview on the Space Weather in Latin America, highlighting the main findings from our review the recent advances in the space science investigations in Latin America focusing in the solar-terrestrial interactions, modernly named space weather, which leaded to the creation of forecast centers. Despite recognizing advances in the space research over the whole Latin America, this review is restricted to the evolution observed in three countries (Argentina, Brazil and Mexico) only, due to the fact that these countries have recently developed operational center for monitoring the space weather. The work starts with briefly mentioning the first groups that started the space science in Latin America. The current status and research interest of such groups are then described together with the most referenced works and the challenges for the next decade to solve space weather puzzles. A small inventory of the networks and collaborations being built is also described. Finally, the decision process for spinning off the space weather prediction centers from the space science groups is reported with an interpretation of the reason/opportunities that lead to it. Lastly, the constraints for the progress in the space weather monitoring, research, and forecast are listed with recommendations to overcome them.

  18. The cost of diabetes in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed Central

    Barceló, Alberto; Aedo, Cristian; Rajpathak, Swapnil; Robles, Sylvia

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure the economic burden associated with diabetes mellitus in Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS: Prevalence estimates of diabetes for the year 2000 were used to calculated direct and indirect costs of diabetes mellitus. Direct costs included costs due to drugs, hospitalizations, consultations and management of complications. The human capital approach was used to calculate indirect costs and included calculations of forgone earnings due to premature mortality and disability attributed to diabetes mellitus. Mortality and disability attributed to causes other than diabetes were subtracted from estimates to consider only the excess burden due to diabetes. A 3% discount rate was used to convert future earnings to current value. FINDINGS: The annual number of deaths in 2000 caused by diabetes mellitus was estimated at 339,035. This represented a loss of 757,096 discounted years of productive life among persons younger than 65 years (> billion US dollars). Permanent disability caused a loss of 12,699,087 years and over 50 billion US dollars, and temporary disability caused a loss of 136,701 years in the working population and over 763 million US dollars. Costs associated with insulin and oral medications were 4720 million US dollars, hospitalizations 1012 million US dollars, consultations 2508 million US dollars and care for complications 2,480 million US dollars. The total annual cost associated with diabetes was estimated as 65,216 million US dollars (direct 10,721 US dollars; indirect 54,496 US dollars). CONCLUSION: Despite limitations of the data, diabetes imposes a high economic burden to individuals and society in all countries and to Latin American and the Caribbean as whole. PMID:12640472

  19. Curriculum changes in dental education in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Camara, V L

    1988-12-01

    In Latin America great emphasis has been placed upon relating dental education directly to community needs. Curricula are no longer defined solely by professionals, for society too is playing a greater part in curriculum design. Educational objectives are being met through the solution of community problems. Emphasis upon the tooth as the focus of dental education has been abandoned. The old approach of finding the right patient to satisfy the student's training in technique is being replaced by a philosophy of total dental care. In this way there is better integration of knowledge, skills and attitudes in dental education. An emphasis on primary care is now very much to the fore in Latin America. New categories of personnel have been brought into the teaching programmes and their contributions monitored. The physical facilities for dental care have been greatly modified in recent years. The importance of staff development programmes to the acceptance and implementation of new curriculum ideas is stressed. PMID:3215697

  20. An overview of raptor conservation in Latin America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Smith, D.G.

    1986-01-01

    Prior to the last decade, biological studies of raptorial birds in Latin America were almost nonexistent. For many species little more was known than their general range and habitat type. The last few years have seen the opening of a door to what will surely be a flood of scientific investigations. Ultimately, the survival of raptor communities in Latin America depends not only on research but also on several other equally significant conservation efforts. These typically appear in the following order: first, appropriate legislation must be enacted and enforced to provide legal protection; second, the public must be educated concerning the value of wildlife; third, substantial blocks of favourable habitat must be identified and preserved; fourth, economic incentives must be generated so that the local human populations actually benefit from the preservation of vulnerable wildlife and natural habitats; and finally, the long-term success of all of these efforts in each nation depends on the attainment of political, economic and social stability.

  1. An overview of raptor biology and conservation in Latin America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    Prior to the last decade, biological studies of raptorial birds in Latin America were, with a few exceptions, nonexistent. For many species all that was known was the general range and habitat type. While the logistical and political challenges are still present, the last few years has seen the opening of a door to what will almost surely be a flood of scientific investigations. From over 40,000 ground miles traveled in 16 countries, field contact with over two thirds of the raptor species, and interviews with conservation officers in 10 nations, I will report on some raptor concentration areas, identify topics for future research, and generalize on raptor conservation issues. I will also briefly mention some recent biological studies and touch briefly on the challenges awaiting the biologist who tries his or her hand at reaping the rewards that are present in abundance for those who engage in raptor studies in Latin America.

  2. Latin America`s emerging non-proliferation consensus

    SciTech Connect

    Redick, J.R.

    1994-03-01

    Latin America`s incorporation into the international nuclear non-proliferation regime is well advanced. The 1967 Tlatelolco Treaty, which established a regional nuclear-weapon-free zone (NWFZ), is nearing completion. A signal event occurred January 18, when Argentina and Chile deposited instruments of ratification to the treaty, leaving Brazil and Cuba the only major countries in Latin America that are not yet contracting parties. And after more than two decades of concern about the nuclear programs and policies in Argentina and Brazil, there is room for great optimism that Brazil may now be moving quickly on important non-proliferation issues. Even Cuba, the {open_quotes}bad boy of the neighborhood{close_quotes} in the eyes of many, which held aloof from the Tlatelolco process for three decades, has stated its willingness to join the zone in the future.

  3. Snakebite-induced acute kidney injury in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Fábia M Oliveira; Yu, Luis; Burdmann, Emmanuel A

    2008-07-01

    There are 4 genera of venomous snakes in Latin America: Bothrops, Crotalus, Lachesis, and Micrurus. Acute kidney injury (AKI) has been reported consistently after Bothrops and Crotalus envenomations. In fact, these 2 genera of snakes are responsible, along with the Russell's viper, for the majority of cases of snakebite-induced AKI reported worldwide. Although the Bothrops snakes are the leading cause of venomous snakebites in Latin America, the absolute number of AKI cases seen after Bothrops and Crotalus snakebites is similar. In this article the main characteristics of Bothrops and Crotalus snakes and their venoms, the clinical picture, and the pattern of accidents, risk factors, and mechanisms of renal injury are reviewed. PMID:18620958

  4. Impact of Malaria in Pregnancy as Latin America Approaches Elimination.

    PubMed

    Yanow, Stephanie K; Gavina, Kenneth; Gnidehou, Sedami; Maestre, Amanda

    2016-05-01

    In Latin America, four million pregnancies are at risk of malaria annually, but malaria in pregnancy is largely overlooked. As countries progress toward malaria elimination, targeting reservoirs of transmission is a priority. Pregnant women are an important risk group because they harbor asymptomatic infections and dormant liver stages of Plasmodium vivax that cause relapses. Of significant concern is the discovery that most infections in pregnant women fail to be detected by routine diagnostics. We review here recent findings on malaria in pregnancy within Latin America. We focus on the Amazon basin and Northwest Colombia, areas that harbor the greatest burden of malaria, and propose that more sensitive diagnostics and active surveillance at antenatal clinics will be necessary to eliminate malaria from these final frontiers. PMID:26875608

  5. Medical ethics in Latin America: a new interest and commitment.

    PubMed

    Drane, James F; Fuenzalida, Hernán L

    1991-12-01

    Recent visits to five Latin American nations indicate that some medical professionals are eager to increase the role of bioethics in their countries. Conversations with key figures there point up similarities and differences among Latin nations, and between Latin countries and the United States, in their approaches to ethics. Opportunities exist for U.S. bioethicists to help get bioethics teaching and research off the ground in Latin America. PMID:11645713

  6. Aquatic risk assessment of pesticides in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Carriquiriborde, Pedro; Mirabella, Paula; Waichman, Andrea; Solomon, Keith; Van den Brink, Paul J; Maund, Steve

    2014-10-01

    Latin America is anticipated to be a major growth market for agriculture and production is increasing with use of technologies such as pesticides. Reports of contamination of aquatic ecosystems by pesticides in Latin America have raised concerns about potential for adverse ecological effects. In the registration process of pesticides, all countries require significant data packages on aquatic toxicology and environmental fate. However, there are usually no specific requirements to conduct an aquatic risk assessment. To address this issue, the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry organized a workshop that brought together scientists from academia, government, and industry to review and elaborate on aquatic risk assessment frameworks that can be implemented into regulation of pesticides in Latin America. The workshop concluded that the international framework for risk assessments (protection goals, effects, and exposure assessments, risk characterization, and risk mitigation) is broadly applicable in Latin America but needs further refinement for the use in the region. Some of the challenges associated with these refinements are discussed in the article. It was recognized that there is potential for data sharing both within and outside of the region where conditions are similar. However, there is a need for research to compare local species and environmental conditions to those in other jurisdictions to be able to evaluate the applicability of data used in other countries. Development should also focus on human resources as there is a need to build local capacity and capability, and scientific collaboration and exchange between stakeholders in industry, government, and academia is also important. The meeting also emphasized that, although establishing a regionally relevant risk assessment framework is important, this also needs to be accompanied by enforcement of developed regulations and good management practices to help protect aquatic habitats

  7. Program for the elimination of urban rabies in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Escobar Cifuentes, E

    1988-01-01

    The status of rabies in Latin America and the Caribbean is described. The probable evolution of rabies is described. The probable evolution of rabies is analyzed, especially with respect to the effect of urbanization in the large cities of the hemisphere and its possible impact on the epidemiology of urban rabies. Several alternatives for the control of rabies are discussed, as are the strategies for their implementation at the continental, subregional, and country levels. PMID:3206081

  8. The challenges of organizing an international course in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Vairo, Filippo; López, Mónica Luján; Cruz, Carolina Uribe; Corrêa, Priscila Gomes; Baldo, Guilherme

    2014-03-01

    The Latin American School of Human and Medical Genetics (ELAG) is the main course of its kind in the genetics field in Latin America. Here we describe the main challenges regarding the organization of such event, including how we obtain funding and how we proceed with student selection. Thus, we aim to share our experience with other groups that intend to follow this format to create similar events in other areas in this region of the world. PMID:24764750

  9. The challenges of organizing an international course in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Vairo, Filippo; López, Mónica Luján; Cruz, Carolina Uribe; Corrêa, Priscila Gomes; Baldo, Guilherme

    2014-01-01

    The Latin American School of Human and Medical Genetics (ELAG) is the main course of its kind in the genetics field in Latin America. Here we describe the main challenges regarding the organization of such event, including how we obtain funding and how we proceed with student selection. Thus, we aim to share our experience with other groups that intend to follow this format to create similar events in other areas in this region of the world. PMID:24764750

  10. Advances(?) in mitigating volcano hazards in Latin America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    The 1980's were incredible years for volcanology. As a consequence of the Mount St. Helens and other eruptions, major advances in our understanding of volcanic processes and eruption dynamics were made. the decade also witnessed the greatest death toll caused by volcanism since 1902. Following Mount St. Helens, awareness of volcano hazards increased throughout the world; however, in Latin America, subsequent events showed that much was still to be learned. 

  11. Musculoskeletal evaluation in severe haemophilia A patients from Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Ozelo, M C; Villaça, P R; Pérez-Bianco, R; Candela, M; Garcia-Chavez, J; Moreno-Rodriguez, B; Rodrigues, M B; Rodriguez-Grecco, I; Solano, M H; Chumpitaz, G; Morales-Gana, M M; Ruiz-Sáez, A

    2013-01-01

    Summary There is a paucity of literature on haemophilia treatment in Latin American countries, a region characterized by rapidly improving systems of care, but with substantial disparities in treatment between countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the musculoskeletal status of haemophilia patients from Latin America and to examine the relationship between musculoskeletal status and treatment practices across countries. The Committee of Latin America on the Therapeutics of Inhibitor Groups conducted a survey of its member country representatives on key aspects of haemophilia treatment in 10 countries. Musculoskeletal status of patients was obtained during routine comprehensive evaluations between March 2009 and March 2011. Eligible patients had severe haemophilia A (factor VIII <1%) without inhibitors (<0.6 BU mL−1) and were ≥5 years of age. Musculoskeletal status was compared between three groups of countries, based primarily on differences in the availability of long-term prophylaxis. Overall, 143 patients (5–66 years of age) were enrolled from nine countries. In countries where long-term prophylaxis had been available for at least 10 years (Group A), patients aged 5–10 years had significantly better mean World Federation of Hemophilia clinical scores, fewer target joints and fewer affected joints than patients from countries where long-term prophylaxis has been available for about 5 years (Group B) or was not available (Group C). In Latin America, the musculoskeletal status of patients with severe haemophilia without inhibitors has improved significantly in association with the provision of long-term prophylaxis. As more countries in Latin America institute this practice, further improvements are anticipated. PMID:24354487

  12. Periodontal disease in children and adolescents of Latin America.

    PubMed

    Botero, Javier E; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Duque, Andres; Jaramillo, Adriana; Contreras, Adolfo

    2015-02-01

    Periodontal diseases are a group of infectious diseases that mainly include gingivitis and periodontitis. Gingivitis is the most prevalent form of periodontal disease in subjects of all ages, including children and adolescents. Less frequent types of periodontal disease include aggressive periodontitis, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and various diseases of herpesviral and fungal origin. This review aimed to retrieve relevant information from Latin America on the prevalence of periodontal diseases among children and adolescents of the region. Gingivitis was detected in 35% of young Latin American subjects and showed the highest frequencies in Colombia (77%) and Bolivia (73%) and the lowest frequency in Mexico (23%). The frequency of gingivitis in subjects from other Latin American countries was between 31% and 56%. Periodontitis may affect <10% of the young population in Latin America, but the data are based on only a few studies. A more precise assessment of the distribution and severity of periodontal disease in children and adolescents of Latin America may help policy makers and dentists to institute more effective public health measures to prevent and treat the disease at an early age to avoid major damage to the permanent dentition. PMID:25494597

  13. An epidemiological view of adolescent health in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Maddaleno, M; Silber, T J

    1993-12-01

    Only recently has attention been given to the condition and needs of adolescents in Latin America. Many assume that the low mortality rate among adolescents is an indication of their more than adequate health status. In reality, however, data on the health status of Latin American teens in lacking and those data which are available have been poorly synthesized and employed. In an effort to redress this oversight, the authors review and synthesize existing data on the subject from UNESCO, the World Bank, PAHO, the ILO, and other international organizations. From sections on the demography of adolescents, education, employment, economic and social conditions, mortality, morbidity, risk behaviors, and reproductive health, the authors find that adolescents in Latin America suffer traditional infectious illnesses and nutritional deficiencies; are increasingly exposed to alcohol, tobacco and drugs; and are experiencing new morbidities from violence, self-destructive behaviors, injuries, and addictions. While the level of educational attainment had increased for these youths and illiteracy has decreased across the board, poverty pervades much of the region and constrains the ability of adolescents to secure and maintain a decent quality of life. Health professionals and the general public need to dismiss the myth that adolescents in Latin America are overwhelmingly healthy and move proactively to provide them with the attention and services they so desperately need. PMID:8130230

  14. The HIV care continuum in Latin America: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Piñeirúa, Alicia; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Cahn, Pedro; Guevara Palmero, Rafael Napoleón; Martínez Buitrago, Ernesto; Young, Benjamin; Del Rio, Carlos

    2015-07-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), also known as highly active antiretroviral therapy, provides clinical and immunological benefits for people living with HIV and is an effective strategy to prevent HIV transmission at the individual level. Early initiation of ART as part of a test and treat approach might decrease HIV transmission at the population level, but to do so the HIV continuum of care, from diagnosis to viral suppression, should be optimised. Access to ART has improved greatly in Latin America, and about 600,000 people are on treatment. However, health-care systems are deficient in different stages of the HIV continuum of care, and in some cases only a small proportion of individuals achieve the desired outcome of virological suppression. At present, data for most Latin American countries are not sufficient to build reliable metrics. Available data and estimates show that many people living with HIV in Latin America are unaware of their status, are diagnosed late, and enter into care late. Stigma, administrative barriers, and economic limitations seem to be important determinants of late diagnosis and failure to be linked to and retained in care. Policy makers need reliable data to optimise the HIV care continuum and improve individual-based and population-based outcomes of ART in Latin America. PMID:26122456

  15. Urban air pollution in Latin America and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Romieu, I.; Weitzenfeld, H.; Finkelman, J. )

    1991-09-01

    Urban air pollution has become an increasing problem in Latin America and the Caribbean. One reason is the rapid expansion in the size of the urban population. This phenomenon is associated with an increase in the number of vehicles and in energy utilization which, in addition to industrial processes often concentrated in the cities, are the primary sources of air pollution i n Latin American cities. The air quality standards established in such countries are frequently exceeded although control programs have been implemented. The urban areas more affected by anthropogenic pollutant emissions are Sao Paulo, Brazil; Santiago, Chile; and Mexico City. In Latin America, the population of cities with high priority air pollution problems include approximately 81 million people or 26.5 percent of the total urban population of Latin America, corresponding to 30 million children (<15 years), 47 million adults (15-59 years) and 4 million elderly people ({ge}60 years) who are exposed to air pollutant levels that exceed World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for adequate health protection.

  16. [Governance and political economy of PHC policies in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Báscolo, Ernesto

    2011-06-01

    The development of implementation processes of PHC policies in Latin America, is a challenge yet to be tackled. It is necessary to acknowledge the political economy related to the implementation processes of PHC policies in Latin America from a governance perspective, characterized by the regulatory strategies used and the political processes. The promotion of social values, organizational policies or the introduction of new financial incentives are components of different forms of governance used in health system reforms. The institutional factors of social protection systems in Latin America are considered. Their potential, redistribution limitations and the political economy disputes of the reform strategies are explained by the conflict between the economic and related interests and values of the actors involved. This dynamic of the political process influences regulatory modes inherent in the processes of implementation of PHC policies. The State's governing capacity and levels of health system segmentation impinge on the effectiveness of reform strategies for resolving the conflicts in the policies implemented. PMID:21709974

  17. Analysis of the Library Situation in Latin America 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organization of American States, Washington, DC. Library Development Program.

    The modern library is an institution that supplies many information services by efficiently organizing universal knowledge that has been reduced to the printed word. Unfortunately, the Latin American countries have not developed centralized services and programs with respect to bibliography, cataloging, exchange, reprography, production of library…

  18. Policy for Research and Innovation in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre-Bastos, Carlos

    2010-02-01

    Latin America (LAC) is renewing efforts to build-up research and innovation (R&I) capacities, guided by policies that consider the need to transform the traditional science system into a more dynamic entity. Policies permitted the generation of new spaces to develop science, strengthen scientific communities, improve university-enterprise linkages, establish common agendas between public and private sectors, earmark special budgets, build new infrastructure, and improve the number and quality of scientific publications. In spite of much progress, LAC lags much behind developed countries, their universities rank lower than their international counterparts, the number of researchers is small and funding is below an appropriate threshold. Some countries have innovated in few economic sectors, while others remain technologically underdeveloped and much of the countries' innovative capacities remain untapped. It is believed that policies still have little influence on social and economic development and there exists dissatisfaction in the academic and entrepreneurial sectors with their quality and relevance or with the political will of governments to execute them. On the other hand, in the past decades, the complexity of innovation systems has increased considerably, and has yet to be taken fully into account in LAC policy definitions. The situation calls for decision makers to shape new framework conditions for R&I in a way that both processes co-evolve and are stimulated and guided on solutions to the major problems of society. Considering the main features of complex systems, self- organization, emergence and non-linearity, R&I policy measures need to be seen as interventions in such a system, as the use of traditional leverage effects used in the past for policy decisions are more and more obsolete. Policies must now use ``weak coordination mechanisms,'' foresight, mission statements, and visions. It is obvious that due to nonlinearities in the system, adaptive

  19. Education, Democracy, and Development in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes, Candido

    1993-01-01

    Examines the historical context of the current Latin American educational crisis from the colonial era to the 1980s, comparing it to the educational investment undertaken by the Republic of Korea in a similar crisis. Calls for reform in state institutions, including a commitment to education, change in the economic model, and recognition of global…

  20. School Facility Projects in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Jeffrey; de Cassia Alves Vaz, Rita; Honorio, Joao; Baza, Jadille; Origel, Ricardo; Gomez, Fredys

    2004-01-01

    Many Latin American countries are undertaking projects, in line with practices disseminated by PEB, to share school facilities with the local community, to adapt traditional schools for students with disabilities, and to collaborate with private companies to finance educational buildings. The articles below describe current initiatives in five…

  1. Migratory peregrine falcons, Falco peregrinus, accumulate pesticides in Latin America during winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Ward, F.P.; Riddle, K.E.; Prouty, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    Blood samples from 433 Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) during fall and spring migrations, 1976-80, indicated that most of their pesticide burden, primarily DDE, was accumulated on wintering grounds in Latin America. DDE in spring migrants returning from Latin America for the first time declined significantly from 1979 to 1980. Only about 10% of breeding-age females contained organochlorine residues likely to adversely affect reproduction. The organochlorine pesticide threat in Latin America may be diminishing.

  2. [Key points for the management of dermatitis in Latin America. The SLAAI Consensus].

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Jorge; Páez, Bruno; Macías-Weinmann, Alejandra; De Falco, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of atopic dermatitis in Latin America, as in other regions, has been increasing in recent years. The SLAAI consensus is based on a systematic search for articles related to dermatitis, with focus in the pathophysiology and treatment and its impact on Latin America, and reviewed using the Delphi methodology (Revista Alergia Mexico 2014;61:178-211). In this article we highlight the key points of consensus and particular considerations in Latin America. PMID:26239333

  3. Rabies transmitted by vampire bats to humans: an emerging zoonotic disease in Latin America?

    PubMed

    Schneider, Maria Cristina; Romijn, Phyllis Catharina; Uieda, Wilson; Tamayo, Hugo; da Silva, Daniela Fernandes; Belotto, Albino; da Silva, Jarbas Barbosa; Leanes, Luis Fernando

    2009-03-01

    Human rabies transmitted by vampire bats reached new heights in Latin America in 2005. A total of 55 human cases were reported in several outbreaks, 41 of them in the Amazon region of Brazil. Peru and Brazil had the highest number of reported cases from 1975 to 2006. In Peru, outbreaks involving more than 20 cases of bat-transmitted human rabies were reported during the 1980s and 1990s. During this period, a smaller number of cases were reported from outbreaks in Brazil. A comparison of data from field studies conducted in Brazil in 2005 with those from the previous decade suggests similar bat-bite situations at the local level. The objective of this study was to review the epidemiological situation and, on the basis of this information, discuss possible factors associated with the outbreaks. Prevention and control measures already recommended for dealing with this problem are also reviewed, and some further suggestions are provided. PMID:19454154

  4. Twelve years of Fogarty-funded bioethics training in Latin America and the Caribbean: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Saenz, Carla; Heitman, Elizabeth; Luna, Florencia; Litewka, Sergio; Goodman, Kenneth W; Macklin, Ruth

    2014-04-01

    The landscape in research ethics has changed significantly in Latin America and the Caribbean over the past two decades. Research ethics has gone from being a largely foreign concept and unfamiliar practice to an integral and growing feature of regional health research systems. Four bioethics training programs have been funded by the Fogarty International Center (FIC) in this region in the past 12 years. Overall, they have contributed significantly to changing the face of research ethics through the creation of locally relevant training materials and courses (including distance learning), academic publications, workshops, and conferences in Spanish, and strengthening ethics review committees and national systems of governance. This paper outlines their achievements and challenges, and reflects on current regional needs and what the future may hold for research ethics and bioethics training in Latin America and the Caribbean. PMID:24782074

  5. Assessment and monitoring of onchocerciasis in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A; Unnasch, Thomas R; Real-Najarro, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Onchocerciasis has historically been one of the leading causes of infectious blindness worldwide. It is endemic to tropical regions both in Africa and Latin America and in the Yemen. In Latin America, it is found in 13 foci located in 6 different countries. The epidemiologically most important focus of onchocerciasis in the Americas is located in a region spanning the border between Guatemala and Mexico. However, the Amazonian focus straddling the border of Venezuela and Brazil is larger in overall area because the Yanomami populations are scattered over a very large geographical region. Onchocerciasis is caused by infection with the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus. The infection is spread through the bites of an insect vector, black flies of the genus Simulium. In Africa, the major vectors are members of the S. damnosum complex, while numerous species serve as vectors of the parasite in Latin America. Latin America has had a long history of attempts to control onchocerciasis, stretching back almost 100 years. The earliest programmes used a strategy of surgical removal of the adult parasites from affected individuals. However, because many of the adult parasites lodge in undetectable and inaccessible areas of the body, the overall effect of this strategy on the prevalence of infection was relatively minor. In 1988, a new drug, ivermectin, was introduced that effectively killed the larval stage (microfilaria) of the parasite in infected humans. As the microfilaria is both the stage that is transmitted by the vector fly and the cause of most of the pathologies associated with the infection, ivermectin opened up a new strategy for the control of onchocerciasis. Concurrent with the use of ivermectin for the treatment of onchocerciasis, a number of sensitive new diagnostic tools were developed (both serological and nucleic acid based) that provided the efficiency, sensitivity and specificity necessary to monitor the decline and eventual elimination of

  6. Ethical challenges in transplant practice in Latin America: the Aguascalientes Document.

    PubMed

    Baquero, A; Alberú, J

    2011-01-01

    Organ transplants are currently an alternative treatment for a growing number of diseases, which were previously considered terminal. Bioethics has played an important role since the advent of this surgical technique, mainly in defining death criteria and the optimum transplantation conditions. This issue continues being a universal focal point, mainly concerning the equity of access to transplantation, criteria for assigning deceased-donor organs, living-donor safety, risk of commercial trade, fair access to high-quality immunosuppressive drugs and organ transplant legislation. These problems are characteristic of Latin America and the Caribbean, and were the driving force behind the First Latin American Bioethics and Transplant Forum, sponsored by the Latin American and Caribbean Transplant Society (STALYC), and all the transplant societies from subsidiary countries. The "Document of Aguascalientes" is a collection of all the ideas and opinions that were proposed during round tables and analyses. The document is divided into four sections: 1) living donor; 2) organ trading and transplant tourism; 3) the state role in legislation, transplant distribution and coverage; and 4) access to and quality of immunosuppression. The Bioethics and Transplant Forum was created to analyse and find solutions for this complex issue. The "Document of Aguascalientes" aims to serve as an instrument of expression and a vehicle for the ideas put forward during the Forum, so that they can act as transplant practice guidelines in Latin America. PMID:21464832

  7. Existing Instrumentation and Scientific Drivers for a Subduction Zone Observatory in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassetto, A.; Woodward, R.; Detrick, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    The subduction zones along the western shore of the Americas provide numerous societally relevant scientific questions that have yet to be fully explored and would make an excellent target for a comprehensive, integrated Subduction Zone Observatory (SZO). Further, recent discussions in Latin America indicate that there are a large number of existing stations that could serve as a backbone for an SZO. Such preexisting geophysical infrastructure commonly plays a vital role in new science initiatives, from small PI-led experiments to the establishment of the USArray Transportable Array, Reference Network, Cascadia Amphibious Array, and the redeployment of EarthScope Transportable Array stations to Alaska. Creating an SZO along the western coast of the Americas could strongly leverage the portfolio of existing seismic and geodetic stations across regions of interest. In this presentation, we will discuss the concept and experience of leveraging existing infrastructure in major new observational programs, outline the state of geophysical networks in the Americas (emphasizing current seismic networks but also looking back on historical temporary deployments), and provide an overview of potential scientific targets in the Americas that encompass a sampling of recently produced research results and datasets. Additionally, we will reflect on strategies for establishing meaningful collaborations across Latin America, an aspect that will be critical to the international partnerships, and associated capacity building, needed for a successful SZO initiative.

  8. Cholera in Africa: lessons on transmission and control for Latin America.

    PubMed

    Glass, R I; Claeson, M; Blake, P A; Waldman, R J; Pierce, N F

    1991-09-28

    In January, 1991, epidemic cholera emerged in Peru and spread to 7 other countries of Latin America. Cholera was introduced 20 years ago to Africa, where it spread rapidly to 30 of the 46 countries of the region and by 1990 accounted for 90% of all cases reported to the World Health Organisation. Many lessons from the cholera epidemic in Africa are relevant to efforts to control the disease in Latin America. Public health practices from the past--quarantine and cordon sanitaire to halt introduction of cholera by travellers, and vaccination and mass chemoprophylaxis to control epidemics--are ineffective in preventing spread of the disease. Cholera can be transmitted not only by contaminated water but also by food. Social phenomena such as mass migrations and burial practices may play a greater role than previously understood. While efforts to prevent the spread of cholera have been ineffective, cholera-associated mortality can be decreased with rehydration therapy. Since the current pandemic is unlikely to retreat soon, new strategies are urgently needed to control the spread of cholera through sanitary and behavioural interventions or improved vaccines. PMID:1681168

  9. Arsenic in volcanic geothermal fluids of Latin America.

    PubMed

    López, Dina L; Bundschuh, Jochen; Birkle, Peter; Armienta, Maria Aurora; Cumbal, Luis; Sracek, Ondra; Cornejo, Lorena; Ormachea, Mauricio

    2012-07-01

    Numerous volcanoes, hot springs, fumaroles, and geothermal wells occur in the Pacific region of Latin America. These systems are characterized by high As concentrations and other typical geothermal elements such as Li and B. This paper presents a review of the available data on As concentrations in geothermal systems and their surficial discharges and As data on volcanic gases of Latin America. Data for geothermal systems in Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Chile are presented. Two sources of As can be recognized in the investigated sites: Arsenic partitioned into volcanic gases and emitted in plumes and fumaroles, and arsenic in rocks of volcanic edifices that are leached by groundwaters enriched in volcanic gases. Water containing the most elevated concentrations of As are mature Na-Cl fluids with relatively low sulfate content and As concentrations reaching up to 73.6 mg L⁻¹ (Los Humeros geothermal field in Mexico), but more commonly ranging from a few mg L⁻¹ to tens of mg L⁻¹. Fluids derived from Na-Cl enriched waters formed through evaporation and condensation at shallower depths have As levels of only a few μg L⁻¹. Mixing of Na-Cl waters with shallower meteoric waters results in low to intermediate As concentrations (up to a few mg L⁻¹). After the waters are discharged at the ground surface, As(III) oxidizes to As(V) and attenuation of As concentration can occur due to sorption and co-precipitation processes with iron minerals and organic matter present in sediments. Understanding the mechanisms of As enrichment in geothermal waters and their fate upon mixing with shallower groundwater and surface waters is important for the protection of water resources in Latin America. PMID:22285066

  10. CSM in Latin America: new developments.

    PubMed

    1986-01-01

    SOMARC is currently providing support to contraceptive social marketing efforts in Bolivia, Brazil, and Paraguay. The distinctly different family planning climates in these 3 countries have provided SOMARC with an opportunity to practice programmatic flexibility in project strategy and design. In Bolivia, the SOMARC strategy for implementing contraceptive social marketing is primarily a private sector venture in which donated products will be imported by local distributors and sold through the traditional channels. Distribution services through a network of local private family planning groups will provide SOMARC with direct access to Bolivian trade unions and work organizations. These family planning groups will in turn be strengthened by their association with the social marketing program as a potential source of revenue. In Brazil, where many low-priced contraceptives are already on the market, SOMARC's role will be in the areas of communication and promotion to increase contraceptive prevalence. The first task will be to identify target areas where there is a combination of low prevalence and an existing market infrastructure. A Brazil Contraceptive Social Marketing Program Advisory Council has been formed to provide a consolidated approach to family planning activities. Efforts toward developing a contraceptive social marketing program in Paraguay remain at an exploratory level. The introduction of social marketing in Paraguay is complicated by the existence of a pervasive contraband system. Although consumer awareness of contraception is high, the contraceptive prevalence rate is low. Efforts in all 3 countries reflect SOMAR's strategy of broadening the scope of project alternatives to meet the special needs of each nation. PMID:12341669

  11. Latin America: native populations affected by early onset periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Nowzari, Hessam; Botero, Javier Enrique

    2011-06-01

    Millions of individuals are affected by early onset periodontal disease in Latin America, a continent that includes more than 20 countries. The decision-makers claim that the disease is not commonly encountered. In 2009, 280,919 authorized immigrants were registered in the United States versus 5,460,000 unauthorized (2,600,000 in California). The objective of the present article is to raise awareness about the high prevalence of the disease among Latin Americans and the good prognosis of preventive measures associated with minimal financial cost. PMID:21823496

  12. The future of urban water services in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Wade, Jeffry S

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, problems with the provision of drinking water and sanitation services around the world have increasingly been addressed by attempts at privatisation, recasting clean water as an essentially economic, rather than public, good. This approach gained particular acceptance in Latin America, but with limited success. In order to address the full range of social, economic and environmental values necessary to sustain water resources over time, public and governmental involvement in establishing integrated water management, pursuing ‘soft path’ approaches, assuring stakeholder input and setting policy will be essential to the process. PMID:22530259

  13. The meanings of universal health care in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Clark, Mary A

    2015-02-01

    In Latin America, competing definitions of universal health care are found. Variants include traditional universalism, basic universalism, and minimal or residual universalism. These definitions are informed by European traditions, a renewed emphasis on equity among Latin American social policy experts, and World Bank strategy. This essay explores these definitions as well as areas of overlap and points of difference between and among them using examples from several Latin American countries. The most important difference concerns the preventive and curative services not covered by the benefits packages of minimal universal programs, a gap expected to grow increasingly costly for patients. PMID:25480852

  14. [Healthcare rights and conditional cash transfers in Latin America].

    PubMed

    da Fonseca, Ana Maria Medeiros; Viana, Ana Luiza d'Avila

    2007-01-01

    Conditional cash transfer programs in Latin America impose specific requirements and responsibilities on beneficiary households, in order to upgrade education levels, improve drop-out rates and eliminate child labor, while enhancing health and nutrition indicators. Although counterpart healthcare conditions are common to all these programs, government strategies differ in terms of reaching their goals, at times even undermining improvements in the living conditions of more vulnerable segments of the population. Instead of upholding rights to healthcare, such initiatives may well trigger a new cycle of tightly-focused basic care through provisional programs. PMID:18813487

  15. [Demographic dynamics in the food-nutrition problem: the search for effective strategies in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Teller, C H; Culagovski, M; del Canto, J; Sáenz, L; Aranda-Pastor, J

    1982-09-01

    This paper addresses the interrelationship between the food and nutrition problem and population problems in Latin America within a global focus. A basic framework is presented which defines four demographic problems highly related with the food and nutrition situation: The underutilization of the labor force; the accelerated growth of the marginal population; the poor geographic distribution and rapid urbanization; and the high rates of infant and child mortality. Findings from the recent experience of demography in food and nutrition planning in the last four years in Central America and Panama are outlined, and strategies are recommended for the development of different types of programs and projects in population-nutrition. Finally, a list of applied research, basic information and direct action projects in population-nutrition that have been detected as needed by most of the Central American countries, is presented. PMID:6820623

  16. Building capacity for dementia care in Latin America and the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Francisco J.; Gaona, Ciro; Quintero, Marialcira; Chavez, Carlos A.; Selga, Joyce; Maestre, Gladys E.

    2015-01-01

    Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have limited facilities and professionals trained to diagnose, treat, and support people with dementia and other forms of cognitive impairment. The situation for people with dementia is poor, and worsening as the proportion of elderly in the general population is rapidly expanding. We reviewed existing initiatives and provided examples of actions taken to build capacity and improve the effectiveness of individuals, organizations, and national systems that provide treatment and support for people with dementia and their caregivers. Regional barriers to capacity building and the importance of public engagement are highlighted. Existing programs need to disseminate their objectives, accomplishments, limitations, and overall lessons learned in order to gain greater recognition of the need for capacity-building programs. PMID:25932285

  17. Hepatitis E virus: An ancient hidden enemy in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Fierro, Nora A; Realpe, Mauricio; Meraz-Medina, Tzintli; Roman, Sonia; Panduro, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a common cause of acute clinical hepatitis worldwide. HEV is an RNA-containing virus and the only member of the genus Hepevirus in the family Hepeviridae. Human HEV is classified into four genotypes widely distributed across the world. The virus is mainly transmitted via the fecal-oral route, and water-borne epidemics have become characteristic of hepatitis E in developing countries, including those in Latin America. The zoonotic potential of HEV is broadly recognized. Thus, there is an urgent need to re-evaluate virus transmission scenarios and to enforce epidemiological surveillance systems. Additionally, it is known that HEV infections, initially defined as self-limiting, can also take chronic courses in immunocompromised patients. Moreover, we recently reported a high seroprevalence of HEV in samples from cirrhotic patients with no other etiological agents present, suggesting the potential role of HEV in the development of chronic liver illness. In this review, HEV genomic variability, transmission, chronic infectious course, zoonotic potential and treatment are discussed. Focus is placed on the impact of HEV infection in Latin America, to support the development of specific control strategies and the handling of this important and typically imperceptible viral infection. PMID:26900289

  18. Energy and sustainable development in Latin America and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Suding, P.H.

    1995-12-31

    There is a marked difference between the perception of the sustainable development problem in the industrialized countries and that prevailing in the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (LA&C). Whereas the industrialized countries seem concerned about the sustainability of their development in view of global climate change, developing countries in LA&C are looking for a sustainable development course that will lead them out of poverty and away from the destruction of the local environment. The industrialized countries perspective is apparent in the titles of the papers being presented at the IAEE Conference under the topic: Harmonizing Energy Policy, Environment, and Sustainable Economic Growth. A great number of titles and sessions focus on the apparent antagonism between economic growth and the environment. By environment one seems to primarily mean emissions into the air, especially greenhouse gas emissions. Probably the majority of the energy community of the industrial countries regards Latin America, on the one hand, as a holder of a large CO{sub 2} sink in danger of extinction and, on the other hand, as a potential new large contributor to greenhouse gas emissions.

  19. Overcoming social segregation in health care in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Cotlear, Daniel; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Knaul, Felicia; Atun, Rifat; Barreto, Ivana C H C; Cetrángolo, Oscar; Cueto, Marcos; Francke, Pedro; Frenz, Patricia; Guerrero, Ramiro; Lozano, Rafael; Marten, Robert; Sáenz, Rocío

    2015-03-28

    Latin America continues to segregate different social groups into separate health-system segments, including two separate public sector blocks: a well resourced social security for salaried workers and their families and a Ministry of Health serving poor and vulnerable people with low standards of quality and needing a frequently impoverishing payment at point of service. This segregation shows Latin America's longstanding economic and social inequality, cemented by an economic framework that predicted that economic growth would lead to rapid formalisation of the economy. Today, the institutional setup that organises the social segregation in health care is perceived, despite improved life expectancy and other advances, as a barrier to fulfilling the right to health, embodied in the legislation of many Latin American countries. This Series paper outlines four phases in the history of Latin American countries that explain the roots of segmentation in health care and describe three paths taken by countries seeking to overcome it: unification of the funds used to finance both social security and Ministry of Health services (one public payer); free choice of provider or insurer; and expansion of services to poor people and the non-salaried population by making explicit the health-care benefits to which all citizens are entitled. PMID:25458715

  20. Educacion de Adultos en America Latina. Estudio Bibliografico. Serie Bibliografica # 3 (Adult Education in Latin America: Bibliographical Study. Bibliographical Series # 3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlaen, Norah

    This analytical bibliography describes a group of selected documents that examine the current status and extent of development of adult education in Latin America. Documents were selected for inclusion based upon their focus on and concern for international and national goals and needs of adult education programs and for distribution to countries…

  1. Latin America in a Contemporary Context. Grade Level: 9-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Forum for Global Education, New York, NY.

    Latin America's rapid change in recent years has prompted the American Forum for Global Education to take a closer look at this important and dynamic region. This booklet summarizes how Latin America should be viewed in today's global world and highlights strategies for teaching these ideas. The booklet consists of the following four sections. The…

  2. Research on Child and Adolescent Development and Public Policy in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narea, Marigen

    2016-01-01

    This commentary discusses the implication of child and adolescent development research for public policy in Latin America. As illustrated by the articles in this special issue, even though the research of child and adolescent development in Latin America is making significant progress, still more research is needed. Developmental research in the…

  3. Stories from Afar: Using Children's and Young Adult Literature to Teach about Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Barbara C.

    2007-01-01

    In teaching about Latin America and the Caribbean, bringing a human dimension to the study of the region is essential. Texts on the region can be dull and lifeless or even biased and skewed. Introducing students to the region by exploring prose, poetry, and picture books helps to illustrate the rich diversity found throughout Latin America and the…

  4. Competing Visions, Shifting Boundaries: The Construction of Latin America as a World Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Marie D.; Cooper, Catherine W.

    2007-01-01

    Latin America is a popularly accepted world region. A systematic review of geographic interpretations of Latin America reveals that the origin of the term goes back to the mid-nineteenth century and that the region's boundaries have shifted over time. This article argues that four basic principles operate in the formation of world regions such as…

  5. A Texas Company Sees Online Learning as Growth Industry in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Monica

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the growth of demand in online learning in Latin America and the expansion efforts made by Texas-based Whitney International to fill such niche. Whitney is a newcomer to a growing group of for-profit players that spot unmet demand for higher education in Latin America. Founded in 2005, it began its distance-learning courses…

  6. Perceptions of Sexual Discrimination among College Women in Latin America and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espin, Oliva M.

    1980-01-01

    In a comparative analysis of 400 college women's perceptions of incidents of sexual discrimination in Latin America and the U.S., significant differences were noted. Most incidents from Latin America regarded social conventions, those from the U.S. involved personal advancement in such matters as jobs or educational opportunities. (DS)

  7. Latin America: A Filmic Approach. Latin American Studies Program, Film Series No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Leon G.; And Others

    This document describes a university course designed to provide an historical understanding of Latin America through feature films. The booklet contains an introductory essay on the teaching of a film course on Latin America, a general discussion of strengths and weaknesses of student analyses of films, and nine analyses written by students during…

  8. Regional Plan of Action for Latin America and the Caribbean for the International Youth Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Economic and Social Council, New York, NY.

    The document outlines and defines the Regional Plan of Action for Latin America and the Caribbean for the International Youth Year: Participation, Development, Peace. The report is divided into two major parts and several subtopics. The first major part, "Towards a Regional Strategy for Latin America and the Caribbean for the International Youth…

  9. What Poverty Does to Girls' Education: The Intersection of Class, Gender, and Ethnicity in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromquist, Nelly P.

    This essay examines poverty in Latin America and its effect on education. It focuses on sexual bias and emphasizes that poverty is inherent in the social and economic structure of the region. The text examines how states in Latin America view the role of education, and it describes the growing chasm between the poor and the gentrified in various…

  10. Poverty and Malnutrition in Latin America. Early Childhood Intervention Programs: A Report to the Ford Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollitt, Ernesto; And Others

    This book presents a comprehensive review of empirical research on early childhood education and human development in Latin America. Commissioned in 1976 by the Office of Latin America and the Caribbean, part of the International Division of the Ford Foundation, New York, the study was two-faceted. First, researchers were instructed to review…

  11. Human Rights and Curricular Policy in Latin America and the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, David F.

    2007-01-01

    Human rights have become increasingly salient for nations, organizations, and individuals since the end of World War II (Lauren 2003). Discussions of human rights now are common in formal education, including in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). A variety of indicators suggest that countries in Latin America have integrated human rights into…

  12. Development and enhancement of agricultural biotechnology in some countries in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Glick, B R; Pasternak, J J; Downer, R G; Dumbroff, E B; Winter, K A

    1991-03-01

    A number of research institutions and both local and international agencles in Latin America are using biotechnology as part of an effort to enhance agricultural productivity. However, it is very much an open question as to whether all of these various organizations can provide the best means of realizing this goal. Latin American countries vary dramatically in their knowledge base and current use of modern biotechnology. Thus, while some countries lack the ability to develop, or possibly even implement, many aspects of modern biotechnology, others are quite advanced in this regard. This review provides a somewhat selective overview of current research in the area of agricultural biotechnology in Mexico, Costa Rica and Ecuador, with emphasis on how the existing agencies and institutions have responded to the challenge of biotechnology. In addition, general strategies for the development of agricultural biotechnology in these countries are presented and discussed. PMID:24424928

  13. [Quality of care in family planning clinical services in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Diaz, J; Halbe, H

    1990-12-01

    Quality of care in family planning is a difficult concept to measure because of the multitude of factors contributing to it and the subjective nature of many of them. Because family planning programs were developed largely in response to rapid demographic growth, their evaluation has concentrated on fulfillment of quantified goals such as numbers of new users, coverage, or prevalence. Such measures give no indication of the relative satisfaction or dissatisfaction of users. Family planning programs seeking high volume tend to have many new acceptors with low continuation rates, and a choice of methods limited to those considered highly effective and easy to distribute. In most Latin American programs, only oral contraceptives and surgical sterilization have high prevalence rates. In recent years, however, community pressure for greater attention to users needs and disappointment with results of programs oriented to obtaining high rates of new users have prompted greater attention top satisfaction of family planning clients and to quality of services. A recent review identified 6 crucial elements in determining the quality of family planning care: 1) free and informed selection of methods 2) information provided to clients 3) technical competence of service providers 4) interpersonal relations between clients and workers 5) mechanisms to promote continuation of use and 6) adequate provision of additional services. This work surveys the quality of family planning services in Latin America, using these 6 factors as a point of departure. The current situation, the ideal and minimal acceptable levels, and the most promising strategies for achieving improvements are assessed for each factor. Free selection of contraceptive method is restricted in most Latin American family planning programs because access is limited to a few methods, because inadequate information is provided to users, because high prices of some methods limit accessibility, or because some methods are

  14. [An overview of economic adjustments and demographic responses in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Bajraj, R F; Bravo, J H

    1994-06-01

    The structural adjustment programs and other economic problems in Latin America in the 1980s are described and possible repercussions in demographic indicators are sought through a review of the literature. The region entered the 1980s with internal and external imbalances. An external crisis made the current accounts deficit unsustainable, and unfavorable changes occurred in commercial and interest rates. A recessive adjustment of enormous magnitude ensued. The adjustment closed the external gap and permitted a huge transfer of resources abroad, but much of the internal imbalance persisted. A decline in per capita income and a clear deterioration in social spending took place over the decade, and it is primarily through social costs that demographic effects would be expected. A wide variety of economic changes and reforms in social, fiscal, and international trade policy are lumped together in the term adjustment. It is difficult to measure demographic consequences because of the heterogeneous experiences of individual countries and because there is no single definition of "adjustments" that would allow comparisons to situations without adjustments. But comparisons of two points in time, one before and one after the adjustments, and analysis of short-term responses in the form of deviations from medium and long-term trends may shed light on the effects of adjustment programs. Studies indicate that nuptiality responded most systematically, intensely, and immediately to short-term economic fluctuations, although there is as yet no evidence of long-term trends in the number of persons marrying at some time in their lives. Fertility also reacted strongly but slightly less systematically and with one or more years of delay, as would be expected considering the nature of gestation. Infant mortality in general continued to decline, but the decline decelerated in many cases. Short-term fluctuations in infant mortality and deaths from selected causes were much more

  15. Treatment and prevention of malnutrition in Latin America: focus on Chile and Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Weisstaub, Gerardo; Aguilar, Ana Maria; Uauy, Ricardo

    2014-06-01

    Seven million children under 5 years of age died worldwide in 2011, and one-third had malnutrition. Latin America and Caribbean countries stand out for the notable improvement of their health and nutrition situation, particularly in pregnant women and young children. Nutrition-sensitive interventions such as promoting food security, women's empowerment, social safety nets, clean water, and sanitation, among others, are critical for success. In Bolivia, the program Desnutrición Cero (Malnutrition Zero) was able to reduce mortality from severe malnutrition after 5 years from 25% to less than 5%, based on widespread implementation of the World Health Organization 10-steps protocol for hospitalized care and the application of community management. The Economic Commission for Latin America estimated the cost of malnutrition for Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, and the Dominican Republic as US $6,658 million. Approximately 1 million children have dropped out of school because of malnutrition, and as a result, malnourished children have 2 years less schooling, which brings social and economic losses not only to those affected but to society at large. National and international nutrition and food programs developed over the past 50 years have been implemented as integral components of broader strategies of primary healthcare and education, oriented toward preventing deaths and improving the quality of life of low-socioeconomic-status groups. Treating hundreds or thousands of affected children will not solve the global public health problem of malnutrition. Access to adequate amounts of quality foods represents a basic human right and is a necessary precondition for health. In turn, good nutrition and health are prerequisites for human, social, and economic development. PMID:25069292

  16. [Innovative initiative in nursing teaching in Latin America].

    PubMed

    de Sena, R R; Brant, M J

    1999-01-01

    The study describes a set of nine projects which are initiatives in the innovation of the teaching twelve country of Nursing in Latin America. It discusses the purpose of these projects so as to incorporate pedagogical concepts which are critical and provoke reflection, and active methods of teaching and analysis of conceptual aspects, the management, strategies and models which are adopted. It describes the common features of the courses in the semi-present and distance forms and analyzes the teaching methods which focus on the teacher-student relation, as strengthening group and independent learning, as well as the use of adequate teaching materials. It also analyzes the communication system established by the projects, which seeks to strengthen horizontal relations, incorporating technology and distance education. It concludes by suggesting that this initiative is a suitable strategy to contribute to build new models for training nursing personnel. PMID:12138467

  17. [Control of diarrheal diseases in Mexico and Latin America].

    PubMed

    Mota, F; Pérez-Ricárdez, M L

    1989-05-01

    Oral rehydration therapy (ORT), has been considered the major advance in the treatment of the diarrheal diseases, and has been the single most important factor in the decrease of mortality and decreased morbidity in childhood diarrheal. ORT, is not limited to the administration of oral rehydration solution; it also includes feeding techniques and community education and participation. In order to promote ORT, national programs have been developed and promoted in educational centers in strategic areas of the Latin America countries, where medical and paramedical staff attend. In México there have been two national surveys to evaluate the ORT program. This policy has allowed for participating countries to reduce the cost of treatment of diarrheal disease. PMID:2757780

  18. The distribution of leptospirosis in Latin America*†

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, A. D.

    1960-01-01

    Although many factors combine to make Latin America an apparently suitable region for the spread of the leptospiroses, the prevalence of these infections has been studied in relatively few areas of this part of the American continent. Of the 60 Leptospira serotypes described in the world, only seven have so far been definitively demonstrated in Middle America and five in South America. However, there is evidence to suggest that other and perhaps new serotypes may be found, and recent serological surveys indicate that there are loci of multiple leptospirosis affecting a large percentage of human or animal populations in at least five Latin American territories. The true prevalence of leptospirosis can only be ascertained by the proper application of reliable laboratory diagnostic methods. The limited value of certain techniques used heretofore makes a number of reports on the presence of this disease subject to question. PMID:13792576

  19. Cardiovascular disease in Latin America: the growing epidemic.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Lanas; Pamela, Serón; Alejandra, Lanas

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) produce almost a million deaths a year in Latin America (LA), becoming the main cause of death in the last years, and it is estimated that the number of deaths in the region attributable to CVD will increase in the near future. This new epidemic is a consequence of the demographic, economic and social changes observed in LA in recent years. Coronary heart disease and stroke causes 42.5% and 28.8%, respectively of the CVD mortality in the region. Chagas heart involvement and rheumatic heart disease, once a major health problem, are responsible of only 1% of the mortality each. Improving in socioeconomic status, increased life expectancy and high prevalence of risk factors for atherosclerosis have been the major determinants of this marked epidemiologic change. PMID:25443823

  20. The legal status of emergency contraception in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Hevia, Martín

    2012-01-01

    Timely access to emergency contraception (EC) can contribute to reducing the number of unwanted pregnancies, and ultimately, the number of unsafe abortions and maternal fatalities. In Latin America, where all countries are parties to international human rights treaties that recognize the rights to autonomy, privacy, and health, and recognize sexual and reproductive rights including the right to family planning, the legal status of EC has been discussed in the courts. This article focuses on the analysis of the principal arguments voiced in the courts: the difference between contraceptives and abortifacients, the scientific status of available research on EC, and the age at which people develop a legal right to make decisions about their personal health. The conclusion is that Latin American countries whose laws or regulations ban access to EC in the public and/or the private sector fail to fulfill their obligations under international human rights law. PMID:22088410

  1. Use of Third Line Antiretroviral Therapy in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Cesar, Carina; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Jenkins, Cathy A.; Ghidinelli, Massimo; Castro, Jose Luis; Veloso, Valdiléa Gonçalves; Cortes, Claudia P.; Padgett, Denis; Crabtree-Ramirez, Brenda; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Fink, Valeria; Duran, Adriana; Sued, Omar; McGowan, Catherine C.; Cahn, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Background Access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is expanding in Latin America. Many patients require second and third line therapy due to toxicity, tolerability, failure, or a combination of factors. The need for third line HAART, essential for program planning, is not known. Methods Antiretroviral-naïve patients ≥18 years who started first HAART after January 1, 2000 in Caribbean, Central and South America Network (CCASAnet) sites in Argentina, Brazil, Honduras, Mexico, and Peru were included. Clinical trials participants were excluded. Third line HAART was defined as use of darunavir, tipranavir, etravirine, enfuvirtide, maraviroc or raltegravir. Need for third line HAART was defined as virologic failure while on second line HAART. Results Of 5853 HAART initiators followed for a median of 3.5 years, 310 (5.3%) failed a second line regimen and 44 (0.8%) received a third line regimen. Cumulative incidence of failing a 2nd or starting a 3rd line regimen was 2.7% and 6.0% three and five years after HAART initiation, respectively. Predictors at HAART initiation for failing a second or starting a third line included female sex (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18–2.00, p = 0.001), younger age (HR = 2.76 for 20 vs. 40 years, 95% CI 1.86–4.10, p<0.001), and prior AIDS (HR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.62–2.90, p<0.001). Conclusions Third line regimens may be needed for at least 6% of patients in Latin America within 5 years of starting HAART, a substantial proportion given the large numbers of patients on HAART in the region. Improved accessibility to third line regimens is warranted. PMID:25221931

  2. Socioeconomic and environmental determinants of adolescent asthma in urban Latin America: an ecological analysis.

    PubMed

    Fattore, Gisel Lorena; Santos, Carlos Antonio de Souza Teles; Barreto, Mauricio Lima

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of asthma is high in urban areas of many Latin-American countries where societies show high levels of inequality and different levels of development. This study aimed to examine the relationship between asthma symptoms prevalence in adolescents living in Latin American urban centers and socioeconomic and environmental determinants measured at the ecological level. Asthma prevalence symptoms were obtained from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) phase III. A hierarchical conceptual framework was defined and the explanatory variables were organized in three levels: distal, intermediate, proximal. Linear regression models weighed by sample size were undertaken between asthma prevalence and the selected variables. Asthma prevalence was positively associated with Gini index, water supply and homicide rate, and inversely associated with the Human Development Index, crowding and adequate sanitation. This study provides evidence of the potential influence of poverty and social inequalities on current wheezing in adolescents in a complex social context like Latin America. PMID:26840816

  3. Genomic research, publics and experts in Latin America: Nation, race and body

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Peter; López-Beltrán, Carlos; Restrepo, Eduardo; Santos, Ricardo Ventura

    2015-01-01

    The articles in this issue highlight contributions that studies of Latin America can make to wider debates about the effects of genomic science on public ideas about race and nation. We argue that current ideas about the power of genomics to transfigure and transform existing ways of thinking about human diversity are often overstated. If a range of social contexts are examined, the effects are uneven. Our data show that genomic knowledge can unsettle and reinforce ideas of nation and race; it can be both banal and highly politicized. In this introduction, we outline concepts of genetic knowledge in society; theories of genetics, nation and race; approaches to public understandings of science; and the Latin American contexts of transnational ideas of nation and race. PMID:27479996

  4. Implementation of a Web-Based Spatial Carbon Calculator for Latin America and the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degagne, R. S.; Bachelet, D. M.; Grossman, D.; Lundin, M.; Ward, B. C.

    2013-12-01

    A multi-disciplinary team from the Conservation Biology Institute is creating a web-based tool for the InterAmerican Development Bank (IDB) to assess the impact of potential development projects on carbon stocks in Latin America and the Caribbean. Funded by the German Society for International Cooperation (GIZ), this interactive carbon calculator is an integrated component of the IDB Decision Support toolkit which is currently utilized by the IDB's Environmental Safeguards Group. It is deployed on the Data Basin (www.databasin.org) platform and provides a risk screening function to indicate the potential carbon impact of various types of projects, based on a user-delineated development footprint. The tool framework employs the best available geospatial carbon data to quantify above-ground carbon stocks and highlights potential below-ground and soil carbon hotspots in the proposed project area. Results are displayed in the web mapping interface, as well as summarized in PDF documents generated by the tool.

  5. Genomic research, publics and experts in Latin America: Nation, race and body.

    PubMed

    Wade, Peter; López-Beltrán, Carlos; Restrepo, Eduardo; Santos, Ricardo Ventura

    2015-12-01

    The articles in this issue highlight contributions that studies of Latin America can make to wider debates about the effects of genomic science on public ideas about race and nation. We argue that current ideas about the power of genomics to transfigure and transform existing ways of thinking about human diversity are often overstated. If a range of social contexts are examined, the effects are uneven. Our data show that genomic knowledge can unsettle and reinforce ideas of nation and race; it can be both banal and highly politicized. In this introduction, we outline concepts of genetic knowledge in society; theories of genetics, nation and race; approaches to public understandings of science; and the Latin American contexts of transnational ideas of nation and race. PMID:27479996

  6. Sport in Latin America from past to present: a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Chappell, R

    2001-01-01

    This chapter examines sport in Latin America in its social, cultural, and political contexts. An analysis of the development of sport in Latin America suggests that there have been a number of distinct phases influenced by the cultures of the Spanish, British and French. More recently, the games and pastimes of the United States have made a significant impact. It is suggested that the further development of sport in Latin America is hindered by a number of significant problems. It concludes that the problems faced by some countries are immense and that governments and international organizations in the developed world should offer help where appropriate. PMID:18592683

  7. Diffusion of innovation: enhancing the dissemination of the Ponseti method in Latin America through virtual forums.

    PubMed

    Jayawardena, Asitha; Boardman, Allison; Cook, Thomas; Oprescu, Florin; Morcuende, Jose A

    2011-01-01

    This ethnographic study evaluated the use of low-bandwidth web-conferencing to enhance diffusion of a specific best practice, the Ponseti method to treat clubfoot, in three economically diverse countries in Latin America. A "Ponseti Virtual Forum" (PVF) was organized in Guatemala, Peru and Chile to examine the influences of economic level and telecommunication infrastructure on the effectiveness of tins approach. Across the three countries, a total of 14 different sites participated in the PVFs. Thirty-three Ponseti-trained practitioners were interviewed before and after each PVF, which included interactions with a Spanish-speaking Ponseti method expert. Semi-structured interviews, observations, and IP address data were triangulated and analyzed. The results demonstrated that 100% of the practitioners rated the sessions as very useful and that they would use this approach again. The largest obstacles to using PVFs were financial (7 out of 9 practitioners) in Guatemala; a lack of equipment and network access (6 out of 11) in Peru; and the organization and implementation of the conferences themselves (7 out of 9) in Chile. This study illustrates the usefulness of Ponseti Virtual Forums in Latin America. Health officials in Peru are currently developing a large-scale information session for traumatologists about the Ponseti method, while practitioners in Guatemala and Chile are organizing monthly scholarly meetings for physicians in remote areas. This initial feedback suggests that low-bandwidth web-conferencing can be an important vehicle for the dissemination of best practices, such as the Ponseti method, in developing countries. PMID:22096417

  8. The Potential Economic Value of a Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas Disease) Vaccine in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bruce Y.; Bacon, Kristina M.; Connor, Diana L.; Willig, Alyssa M.; Bailey, Rachel R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Chagas disease, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), is the leading etiology of non-ischemic heart disease worldwide, with Latin America bearing the majority of the burden. This substantial burden and the limitations of current interventions have motivated efforts to develop a vaccine against T. cruzi. Methodology/Principal Findings We constructed a decision analytic Markov computer simulation model to assess the potential economic value of a T. cruzi vaccine in Latin America from the societal perspective. Each simulation run calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), or the cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) avoided, of vaccination. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the impact of varying key model parameters such as vaccine cost (range: $0.50–$200), vaccine efficacy (range: 25%–75%), the cost of acute-phase drug treatment (range: $10–$150 to account for variations in acute-phase treatment regimens), and risk of infection (range: 1%–20%). Additional analyses determined the incremental cost of vaccinating an individual and the cost per averted congestive heart failure case. Vaccination was considered highly cost-effective when the ICER was ≤1 times the GDP/capita, still cost-effective when the ICER was between 1 and 3 times the GDP/capita, and not cost-effective when the ICER was >3 times the GDP/capita. Our results showed vaccination to be very cost-effective and often economically dominant (i.e., saving costs as well providing health benefits) for a wide range of scenarios, e.g., even when risk of infection was as low as 1% and vaccine efficacy was as low as 25%. Vaccinating an individual could likely provide net cost savings that rise substantially as risk of infection or vaccine efficacy increase. Conclusions/Significance Results indicate that a T. cruzi vaccine could provide substantial economic benefit, depending on the cost of the vaccine, and support continued efforts to develop a human vaccine

  9. Newborn screening in Latin America at the beginning of the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Borrajo, G J C

    2007-08-01

    Newborn screening (NBS) in Latin America took its first steps in the mid-1970s. Nevertheless, many years elapsed before it achieved its integration within the public health care system and its systematic and continuous implementation under a programme structure. Latin American countries can be characterized not only by their great geographic, demographic, ethnic, economic and health system diversity, but also by their heterogeneity in NBS activities, which gives rise to variation in degree of organization: countries with optimal fulfilment (Cuba, Costa Rica, Chile, Uruguay); others rapidly expanding their coverage (Brazil, Mexico, Argentina); some others in a recent implementation phase (Colombia, Paraguay, Venezuela, Nicaragua, Peru); others with minimal, isolated and non-organized activities (Guatemala, Dominican Republic, Bolivia, Panama, Ecuador); and finally others without any NBS activities at all (El Salvador, Honduras, Haiti). Despite this disparity, a sustained and significant growth in NBS activities has become evident during the last decade, highlighted by implementation of new programmes, increase in coverage, expansion of NBS panels, increasing involvement of governmental and public health authorities, and integration of NBS teams through scientific societies and External Quality Assurance Schemes. Currently, congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most widely screened disease, followed by phenylketonuria, with organized NBS programmes for CH in 14 countries. Other diseases usually included in NBS programmes are screened in a lower rate. Every year, around 11.2 million infants are born in Latin America. During 2005, 49.3% of newborns were screened for CH, indicating that around 5.7 million newborns still did not have access to the benefits of NBS. PMID:17701285

  10. SCOOL: A NASA Geoscience Education Success in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, L. H.; Fischer, J. D.; Moore, S. W.; Rogerson, T. M.

    2006-12-01

    are now registered S'COOL observers, including two thirds of Latin American countries. The spread of the project in Latin America has principally been through word of mouth, assisted by the efforts of several individuals who have developed in-country networks based on their own interests. Latin American participants have submitted nearly 9000 observations (constituting 40% of observations received from outside the US), and provide one of few sources of cloud observations during the summer months when northern hemisphere schools are mostly on vacation. Contributions from Latin American participants are also regularly featured in the S'COOL Cloud Photo of the Month. Over the course of eight years, S'COOL has amassed a wealth of knowledge pertaining to the implementation of collaborative projects in Latin America. This paper will report several key lessons learned.